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Sample records for control cell sensitivity

  1. Organic photovoltaic cells with controlled polarization sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Awartani, Omar; O'Connor, Brendan T.; Kudenov, Michael W.

    2014-03-03

    In this study, we demonstrate linearly polarized organic photovoltaic cells with a well-controlled level of polarization sensitivity. The polarized devices were created through the application of a large uniaxial strain to the bulk heterojunction poly(3-hexylthiophene):Phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) film and printing the plastically deformed active layer onto a PEDOT:PSS and indium tin oxide coated glass substrate. The P3HT:PCBM layer is processed such that it is able to accommodate high strains (over 100%) without fracture. After printing the strained films, thermal annealing is used to optimize solar cell performance while maintaining polarization sensitivity. A dichroic ratio and short circuit current ratio of ≈6.1 and ≈1.6 were achieved, respectively.

  2. Prestress and Adhesion Site Dynamics Control Cell Sensitivity to Extracellular Stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Féréol, S.; Fodil, R.; Laurent, V.M.; Balland, M.; Louis, B.; Pelle, G.; Hénon, S.; Planus, E.; Isabey, D.

    2009-01-01

    This study aims at improving the understanding of mechanisms responsible for cell sensitivity to extracellular environment. We explain how substrate mechanical properties can modulate the force regulation of cell sensitive elements primarily adhesion sites. We present a theoretical and experimental comparison between two radically different approaches of the force regulation of adhesion sites that depends on their either stationary or dynamic behavior. The most classical stationary model fails to predict cell sensitivity to substrate stiffness whereas the dynamic model predicts extracellular stiffness dependence. This is due to a time dependent reaction force in response to actomyosin traction force exerted on cell sensitive elements. We purposely used two cellular models, i.e., alveolar epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages exhibiting respectively stationary and dynamic adhesion sites, and compared their sensitivity to theoretical predictions. Mechanical and structural results show that alveolar epithelial cells exhibit significant prestress supported by evident stress fibers and lacks sensitivity to substrate stiffness. On the other hand, alveolar macrophages exhibit low prestress and exhibit sensitivity to substrate stiffness. Altogether, theory and experiments consistently show that adhesion site dynamics and cytoskeleton prestress control cell sensitivity to extracellular environment with an optimal sensitivity expected in the intermediate range. PMID:19254561

  3. Magnetic field effects in dye-sensitized solar cells controlled by different cell architecture

    PubMed Central

    Klein, M.; Pankiewicz, R.; Zalas, M.; Stampor, W.

    2016-01-01

    The charge recombination and exciton dissociation are generally recognized as the basic electronic processes limiting the efficiency of photovoltaic devices. In this work, we propose a detailed mechanism of photocurrent generation in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) examined by magnetic field effect (MFE) technique. Here we demonstrate that the magnitude of the MFE on photocurrent in DSSCs can be controlled by the radius and spin coherence time of electron-hole (e-h) pairs which are experimentally modified by the photoanode morphology (TiO2 nanoparticles or nanotubes) and the electronic orbital structure of various dye molecules (ruthenium N719, dinuclear ruthenium B1 and fully organic squaraine SQ2 dyes). The observed MFE is attributed to magnetic-field-induced spin-mixing of (e-h) pairs according to the Δg mechanism. PMID:27440452

  4. Magnetic field effects in dye-sensitized solar cells controlled by different cell architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, M.; Pankiewicz, R.; Zalas, M.; Stampor, W.

    2016-07-01

    The charge recombination and exciton dissociation are generally recognized as the basic electronic processes limiting the efficiency of photovoltaic devices. In this work, we propose a detailed mechanism of photocurrent generation in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) examined by magnetic field effect (MFE) technique. Here we demonstrate that the magnitude of the MFE on photocurrent in DSSCs can be controlled by the radius and spin coherence time of electron-hole (e-h) pairs which are experimentally modified by the photoanode morphology (TiO2 nanoparticles or nanotubes) and the electronic orbital structure of various dye molecules (ruthenium N719, dinuclear ruthenium B1 and fully organic squaraine SQ2 dyes). The observed MFE is attributed to magnetic-field-induced spin-mixing of (e-h) pairs according to the Δg mechanism.

  5. Magnetic field effects in dye-sensitized solar cells controlled by different cell architecture.

    PubMed

    Klein, M; Pankiewicz, R; Zalas, M; Stampor, W

    2016-01-01

    The charge recombination and exciton dissociation are generally recognized as the basic electronic processes limiting the efficiency of photovoltaic devices. In this work, we propose a detailed mechanism of photocurrent generation in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) examined by magnetic field effect (MFE) technique. Here we demonstrate that the magnitude of the MFE on photocurrent in DSSCs can be controlled by the radius and spin coherence time of electron-hole (e-h) pairs which are experimentally modified by the photoanode morphology (TiO2 nanoparticles or nanotubes) and the electronic orbital structure of various dye molecules (ruthenium N719, dinuclear ruthenium B1 and fully organic squaraine SQ2 dyes). The observed MFE is attributed to magnetic-field-induced spin-mixing of (e-h) pairs according to the Δg mechanism. PMID:27440452

  6. Autocrine and exogenous transforming growth factor beta control cell cycle inhibition through pathways with different sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Sergina, Natalia; Ko, Tien C; Gong, Jiangeng; Brattain, Michael G

    2004-09-17

    Human colon carcinoma cells HCT116 that lack transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) type II receptor (RII) demonstrated restoration of autocrine TGF-beta activity upon reexpression of RII without restoring inhibitory responses to exogenous TGF-beta treatment. RII transfectants (designated RII Cl 37) had a longer lag phase relative to NEO-transfected control cells (designated NEO pool) before entering exponential growth in tissue culture. The prolonged growth arrest of RII Cl 37 cells was associated with markedly reduced cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)2 activity. Our results demonstrate that p21 induction by autocrine TGF-beta is responsible for reduced CDK2 activity, which at least partially contributes to prolonged growth arrest and reduced cell proliferation in RII Cl 37 cells. In contrast to RII transfectants, HCT116 cells transfected with chromosome 3 (designated HCT116Ch3), which bears the RII gene, restored the response to exogenous TGF-beta as well as autocrine TGF-beta activity. Autocrine TGF-beta activity in HCT116Ch3 cells induced p21 expression as seen in RII Cl 37 cells; however, in addition to autocrine activity, HCT116Ch3 cells responded to exogenous TGF-beta as decreased CDK4 expression and reduced pRb phosphorylation mediated a TGF-beta inhibitory response in these cells. These results indicate that autocrine TGF-beta regulates the cell cycle through a pathway different from exogenous TGF-beta in the sense that p21 is a more sensitive effector of the TGF-beta signaling pathway, which can be induced and saturated by autocrine TGF-beta, whereas CDK4 inhibition is a less sensitive effector, which can only be activated by high levels of exogenous TGF-beta PMID:15271980

  7. Chlamydia pneumoniae infection induced allergic airway sensitization is controlled by regulatory T-cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Crother, Timothy R; Schröder, Nicolas W J; Karlin, Justin; Chen, Shuang; Shimada, Kenichi; Slepenkin, Anatoly; Alsabeh, Randa; Peterson, Ellena; Arditi, Moshe

    2011-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP) is associated with induction and exacerbation of asthma. CP infection can induce allergic airway sensitization in mice in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Allergen exposure 5 days after a low dose (mild-moderate), but not a high dose (severe) CP infection induces antigen sensitization in mice. Innate immune signals play a critical role in controlling CP infection induced allergic airway sensitization, however these mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Wild-type, TLR2-/-, and TLR4-/- mice were infected intranasally (i.n.) with a low dose of CP, followed by i.n. exposure to human serum albumin (HSA) and challenged with HSA 2 weeks later. Airway inflammation, immunoglobulins, eosinophils, and goblet cells were measured. Low dose CP infection induced allergic sensitization in TLR2-/- mice, but not in TLR4-/- mice, due to differential Treg responses in these genotypes. TLR2-/- mice had reduced numbers of Tregs in the lung during CP infection while TLR4-/- mice had increased numbers. High dose CP infection resulted in an increase in Tregs and pDCs in lungs, which prevented antigen sensitization in WT mice. Depletion of Tregs or pDCs resulted in allergic airway sensitization. We conclude that Tregs and pDCs are critical determinants regulating CP infection-induced allergic sensitization. Furthermore, TLR2 and TLR4 signaling during CP infection may play a regulatory role through the modulation of Tregs. PMID:21695198

  8. Decoy receptors block TRAIL sensitivity at a supracellular level: the role of stromal cells in controlling tumour TRAIL sensitivity.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, L; van der Sloot, A M; Reis, C R; Deegan, S; Ryan, A E; Dhami, S P S; Murillo, L S; Cool, R H; Correa de Sampaio, P; Thompson, K; Murphy, G; Quax, W J; Serrano, L; Samali, A; Szegezdi, E

    2016-03-10

    Tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a death ligand cytokine known for its cytotoxic activity against malignantly transformed cells. TRAIL induces cell death through binding to death receptors DR4 and DR5. The inhibitory decoy receptors (DcR1 and DcR2) co-expressed with death receptor 4 (DR4)/DR5 on the same cell can block the transmission of the apoptotic signal. Here, we show that DcRs also regulate TRAIL sensitivity at a supracellular level and thus represent a mechanism by which the microenvironment can diminish tumour TRAIL sensitivity. Mathematical modelling and layered or spheroid stroma-extracellular matrix-tumour cultures were used to model the tumour microenvironment. By engineering TRAIL to escape binding by DcRs, we found that DcRs do not only act in a cell-autonomous or cis-regulatory manner, but also exert trans-cellular regulation originating from stromal cells and affect tumour cells, highlighting the potent inhibitory effect of DcRs in the tumour tissue and the necessity of selective targeting of the two death-inducing TRAIL receptors to maximise efficacy. PMID:26050621

  9. Control of Nanostructures and Interfaces of Metal Oxide Semiconductors for Quantum-Dots-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jianjun; Cao, Guozhong

    2015-05-21

    Nanostructured metal oxide semiconductors (MOS), such as TiO2 and ZnO, have been regarded as an attractive material for the quantum dots sensitized solar cells (QDSCs), owing to their large specific surface area for loading a large amount of quantum dots (QDs) and strong scattering effect for capturing a sufficient fraction of photons. However, the large surface area of such nanostructures also provides easy pathways for charge recombination, and surface defects and connections between adjacent nanoparticles may retard effective charge injection and charge transport, leading to a loss of power conversion efficiency. Introduction of the surface modification for MOS or QDs has been thought an effective approach to improve the performance of QDSC. In this paper, the recent advances in the control of nanostructures and interfaces in QDSCs and prospects for the further development with higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) have been discussed. PMID:26263261

  10. Efficiency enhancement in solid state dye sensitized solar cells by including inverse opals with controlled layer thicknesses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Hanbin; Shah, Said Karim; Abbas, Mamatimin; Ly, Isabelle; Rivera, Thomas; Almeida, Rui M.; Hirsch, Lionel; Toupance, Thierry; Ravaine, Serge

    2016-09-01

    The photoconversion efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells can be enhanced by the incorporation of light management nanostructures such as photonic crystals. Here, we present a facile route to incorporate titania inverse opals into solid state dye sensitized solar cells and report photoconversion efficiency enhancements of up to 56% compared with a model system without the inverse opal. Our approach is based on the precise design of titania inverse opals with a predetermined thickness that can be controlled at the individual layer level. By choosing an inverse opal exhibiting a photonic bandgap which overlaps the absorption bands of the dye, our results show that there is an optimal thickness of the inverse opal structure for maximum efficiency enhancement of the cell. This is the first experimental proof that the thickness of a titania inverse opal plays a pivotal role in cell efficiency enhancement in solid state dye sensitized solar cells.

  11. Depolarization Controls TRAIL-Sensitization and Tumor-Selective Killing of Cancer Cells: Crosstalk with ROS

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki-Karasaki, Yoshihiro; Suzuki-Karasaki, Miki; Uchida, Mayumi; Ochiai, Toyoko

    2014-01-01

    Conventional genotoxic anti-cancer drugs target the proliferative advantage of tumor cells over normal cells. This kind of approach lacks the selectivity of treatment to cancer cells, because most of the targeted pathways are essential for the survival of normal cells. As a result, traditional cancer treatments are often limited by undesirable damage to normal cells (side-effects). Ideal anti-cancer drugs are expected to be highly effective against malignant tumor cells with minimal cytotoxicity toward normal cells. Such selective killing can be achieved by targeting pathways essential for the survival of cancer cells, but not normal cells. As cancer cells are characterized by their resistance to apoptosis, selective apoptosis induction is a promising approach for selective killing of cancer cells. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising tumor-selective anti-cancer drug. However, the congenital and acquired resistance of some cancer cell types, including malignant melanoma cells, currently impedes effective TRAIL therapy, and an innovative approach that can override TRAIL resistance is urgently required. Apoptosis is characterized by cell shrinkage caused by disruption of the maintenance of the normal physiological concentrations of K+ and Na+ and intracellular ion homeostasis. The disrupted ion homeostasis leads to depolarization and apoptosis. Recent evidence suggests that depolarization is an early and prerequisite event during TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Moreover, diverse natural products and synthetic chemicals capable of depolarizing the cell membrane exhibit tumor-selective killing and TRAIL-sensitizing effects. Here, we discuss the role of depolarization in selective killing of cancer cells in connection with the emerging concept that oxidative stress is a critical mediator of mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum dysfunctions and serves as a tumor-selective target in cancer treatment. PMID:24910845

  12. Control of Electron Transfer Pathways in a Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    SciTech Connect

    Brueggemann, Ben; Organero, Juan Angel; Pascher, Torbjoern; Pullerits, Tonu; Yartsev, Arkady

    2006-11-17

    Using shaped laser pulses, we increase the yield of ultrafast electron injection from the sensitizer to TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals in the core part of a dye-sensitized solar cell. The temporal structure of the optimized excitation pulse is in clear correlation with nuclear oscillations in the impulsively excited dye molecule. From DFT structure optimization and normal mode analyses we identified the modes which are responsible for the oscillations. The best pulse shape suggests Impulsive Stimulated (anti-Stokes) Raman scattering as a key process of optimization.

  13. Transcriptional control of insulin-sensitive glucose carrier Glut4 expression in adipose tissue cells.

    PubMed

    Penkov, D N; Akopyan, Zh A; Kochegura, T N; Egorov, A D

    2016-03-01

    In search for new targets for obesity treatment, we have studied the effect of several transcription factors on the conversion of murine preadipocytes from the 3T3-L1 cell line into adipocytes. We have found that knockdown of Prep1 gene expression affects adipogenic differentiation and results in significant increase in the insulin-sensitive glucose carrier Glut4 gene expression. PMID:27193720

  14. Cells change their sensitivity to an EGF morphogen gradient to control EGF-induced gene expression

    PubMed Central

    van Zon, Jeroen Sebastiaan; Kienle, Simone; Huelsz-Prince, Guizela; Barkoulas, Michalis; van Oudenaarden, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    How cells in developing organisms interpret the quantitative information contained in morphogen gradients is an open question. Here we address this question using a novel integrative approach that combines quantitative measurements of morphogen-induced gene expression at single-mRNA resolution with mathematical modelling of the induction process. We focus on the induction of Notch ligands by the LIN-3/EGF morphogen gradient during vulva induction in Caenorhabditis elegans. We show that LIN-3/EGF-induced Notch ligand expression is highly dynamic, exhibiting an abrupt transition from low to high expression. Similar transitions in Notch ligand expression are observed in two highly divergent wild C. elegans isolates. Mathematical modelling and experiments show that this transition is driven by a dynamic increase in the sensitivity of the induced cells to external LIN-3/EGF. Furthermore, this increase in sensitivity is independent of the presence of LIN-3/EGF. Our integrative approach might be useful to study induction by morphogen gradients in other systems. PMID:25958991

  15. Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Di

    2010-01-01

    Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is the only solar cell that can offer both the flexibility and transparency. Its efficiency is comparable to amorphous silicon solar cells but with a much lower cost. This review not only covers the fundamentals of DSSC but also the related cutting-edge research and its development for industrial applications. Most recent research topics on DSSC, for example, applications of nanostructured TiO2, ZnO electrodes, ionic liquid electrolytes, carbon nanotubes, graphene and solid state DSSC have all been included and discussed. PMID:20480003

  16. Dye sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Wei, Di

    2010-01-01

    Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is the only solar cell that can offer both the flexibility and transparency. Its efficiency is comparable to amorphous silicon solar cells but with a much lower cost. This review not only covers the fundamentals of DSSC but also the related cutting-edge research and its development for industrial applications. Most recent research topics on DSSC, for example, applications of nanostructured TiO(2), ZnO electrodes, ionic liquid electrolytes, carbon nanotubes, graphene and solid state DSSC have all been included and discussed. PMID:20480003

  17. Enhanced performance of PbS-sensitized solar cells via controlled successive ionic-layer adsorption and reaction.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Muhammad A; Basit, Muhammad A; Park, Tae Joo; Bang, Jin Ho

    2015-04-21

    Despite the potential of PbS quantum dots (QDs) as sensitizers for quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs), achieving a high photocurrent density over 30 mA cm(-2) remains a challenging task in PbS-sensitized solar cells. In contrast to previous attempts, where Hg(2+)-doping or multi-step post-treatment is necessary, we are capable of achieving a high photocurrent exceeding 30 mA cm(-2) simply by manipulating the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. We show that controlling temperature at which SILAR is performed is critical to obtain a higher and more uniform coverage of PbS QDs over a mesoporous TiO2 film. The deposition of a CdS inter-layer between TiO2 and PbS is found to be an effective means of ensuring high photocurrent and stability. Not only does this modification improve the light absorption capability of the photoanode, but it also has a significant effect on charge recombination and electron injection efficiency at the PbS/TiO2 interface according to our in-depth study using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The implication of subtle changes in the interfacial events via modified SILAR conditions for PbS-sensitized solar cells is discussed. PMID:25773573

  18. Single Cell Transcriptomics of Hypothalamic Warm Sensitive Neurons that Control Core Body Temperature and Fever Response

    PubMed Central

    Eberwine, James; Bartfai, Tamas

    2011-01-01

    We report on an ‘unbiased’ molecular characterization of individual, adult neurons, active in a central, anterior hypothalamic neuronal circuit, by establishing cDNA libraries from each individual, electrophysiologically identified warm sensitive neuron (WSN). The cDNA libraries were analyzed by Affymetrix microarray. The presence and frequency of cDNAs was confirmed and enhanced with Illumina sequencing of each single cell cDNA library. cDNAs encoding the GABA biosynthetic enzyme. GAD1 and of adrenomedullin, galanin, prodynorphin, somatostatin, and tachykinin were found in the WSNs. The functional cellular and in vivo studies on dozens of the more than 500 neurotransmitter -, hormone- receptors and ion channels, whose cDNA was identified and sequence confirmed, suggest little or no discrepancy between the transcriptional and functional data in WSNs; whenever agonists were available for a receptor whose cDNA was identified, a functional response was found.. Sequencing single neuron libraries permitted identification of rarely expressed receptors like the insulin receptor, adiponectin receptor2 and of receptor heterodimers; information that is lost when pooling cells leads to dilution of signals and mixing signals. Despite the common electrophysiological phenotype and uniform GAD1 expression, WSN- transcriptomes show heterogenity, suggesting strong epigenetic influence on the transcriptome. Our study suggests that it is well-worth interrogating the cDNA libraries of single neurons by sequencing and chipping. PMID:20970451

  19. MARCH1 regulates insulin sensitivity by controlling cell surface insulin receptor levels.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Arvindhan; Petersen, Max C; Nasiri, Ali R; Butrico, Gina; Fung, Annie; Ruan, Hai-Bin; Kursawe, Romy; Caprio, Sonia; Thibodeau, Jacques; Bourgeois-Daigneault, Marie-Claude; Sun, Lisha; Gao, Guangping; Bhanot, Sanjay; Jurczak, Michael J; Green, Michael R; Shulman, Gerald I; Wajapeyee, Narendra

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance is a key driver of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and is characterized by defective insulin receptor (INSR) signalling. Although surface INSR downregulation is a well-established contributor to insulin resistance, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain obscure. Here we show that the E3 ubiquitin ligase MARCH1 impairs cellular insulin action by degrading cell surface INSR. Using a large-scale RNA interference screen, we identify MARCH1 as a negative regulator of INSR signalling. March1 loss-of-function enhances, and March1 overexpression impairs, hepatic insulin sensitivity in mice. MARCH1 ubiquitinates INSR to decrease cell surface INSR levels, but unlike other INSR ubiquitin ligases, MARCH1 acts in the basal state rather than after insulin stimulation. Thus, MARCH1 may help set the basal gain of insulin signalling. MARCH1 expression is increased in white adipose tissue of obese humans, suggesting that MARCH1 contributes to the pathophysiology of T2D and could be a new therapeutic target. PMID:27577745

  20. Cation control of energetics on dye-sensitized nanocrystalline TiO2 for solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stux, Arnold M.

    Regenerative solar cells based on nanocrystalline TiO2 (anatase) and the dye Ru(deeb)(bpy)2(PF6)2, where deeb is 4,4'-(CO2CH2CH3)2-2,2 '-bipyridine and bpy is 2,2'-bipyridine, have increased efficiency when in the presence of a high concentration of cations with a large charge-to-radius ratio. Concentration-dependent photoluminescence (PL) quenching and increased quantum yield for interfacial charge separation have been explored for mono- and divalent cations by absorbance, time-resolved and steady-state PL. Cation adsorption stabilizes TiO2 acceptor states resulting in energetically favorable electron transfer from the dye into the semiconductor conduction band. Quenching of the PL of excited states is reversible. A new luminescence approach for sensing alkali and alkaline earth metal cations utilizes the surface-adsorption/desorption induced energetic shifts of a semiconductor conduction band to alter the electron transfer quenching efficiency of a photoluminescent dye such as Ru(deeb)(bpy)2(PF 6)2 anchored to TiO2 nanoparticles. This approach yields intensity, lifetime, and wavelength-ratiometric calcium ion sensors that are sensitive to 5 x 10-4 M concentrations. In situ photoluminescence of a regenerative solar cell has been demonstrated as a probe of injection and efficiencies. The smaller the alkali cation, the higher the photocurrent and the more quenched the photoluminescence. The extent of quenching in 0.1 M iodide/0.01 M iodine electrolytes was 10-fold with LiI and 3-fold with NaI. A millimolar threshold concentration is observed for Li+ at which point a red shift in absorbance and photoluminescence spectra concomitant with significant static and dynamic quenching occurs. For Na+, the threshold concentration for observable red shift is more than an order of magnitude higher than for Li+. Cation adsorption was also observed on planar TiO2 surfaces in the absence of dye. The flat band potentials of single crystal TiO 2 (rutile) with cations in propylene

  1. A method to control phosphoinositides and to analyze PTEN function in living cells using voltage sensitive phosphatases

    PubMed Central

    Mavrantoni, Angeliki; Thallmair, Veronika; Leitner, Michael G.; Schreiber, Daniela N.; Oliver, Dominik; Halaszovich, Christian R.

    2015-01-01

    Voltage sensitive phosphatases (VSPs), including engineered voltage sensitive PTEN, are excellent tools to rapidly and reversibly alter the phosphoinositide (PI) content of the plasma membrane in vivo and study the tumor suppressor PTEN. However, widespread adoption of these tools is hampered by the requirement for electrophysiological instrumentation to control the activity of VSPs. Additionally, monitoring and quantifying the PI changes in living cells requires sophisticated microscopy equipment and image analysis. Here we present methods that bypass these obstacles. First, we explore technically simple means for activation of VSPs via extracellularly applied agents or light. Secondly, we characterize methods to monitor PI(4,5)P2 and PI(3,4,5)P3 levels using fluorescence microscopy or photometry in conjunction with translocation or FRET based PI probes, respectively. We then demonstrate the application of these techniques by characterizing the effect of known PTEN mutations on its enzymatic activity, analyzing the effect of PTEN inhibitors, and detecting in real time rapid inhibition of protein kinase B following depletion of PI(3,4,5)P3. Thus, we established an approach that does not only allow for rapidly manipulating and monitoring PI(4,5)P2 and PI(3,4,5)P3 levels in a population of cells, but also facilitates the study of PTEN mutants and pharmacological targeting in mammalian cells. PMID:25873899

  2. Peanut shaped ZnO microstructures: controlled synthesis and nucleation growth toward low-cost dye sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhu, M.; Mayandi, J.; Mariammal, R. N.; Vishnukanthan, V.; Pearce, J. M.; Soundararajan, N.; Ramachandran, K.

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes a simple, low-temperature and cost effective chemical precipitation method in aqueous media to synthesis uniformly distributed zinc oxide (ZnO) microstructures for the fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The size and morphology of the ZnO microstructures are systematically controlled by adjusting the concentration of the precursors, zinc acetate dihydrate and ammonium hydroxide. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy are used for the structural characterizations and photoluminescence and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy are used to characterize the optical properties of the ZnO, respectively. The results reveal that ZnO crystallites exhibit hexagonal wurtzite structure with preferential orientation along c-axis. The effect of ammonia concentration on the crystallinity, morphology and optical properties of ZnO microstructures and the concomitant effect on the efficiency of DSSCs is also quantified. The peanut-shaped ZnO microstructure, which was found to increase DSSCs performance over other microstructure, is studied in detail in order to develop a formation mechanism. A sandwich type eosin yellow sensitized solar cell is prepared using peanut-shaped ZnO microstructures, which showed an efficiency of 0.37%. Ammonia was found to play a crucial role in the evolution of ZnO morphologies. These results are promising and provide a path towards low-cost high-performance DSSCs based on peanut-shaped ZnO microstructures and produced with only relatively simple wet chemistry synthesis.

  3. Sensitive cells: enabling tools for static and dynamic control of microbial metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Cress, Brady F; Trantas, Emmanouil A; Ververidis, Filippos; Linhardt, Robert J; Koffas, Mattheos Ag

    2015-12-01

    Natural metabolic pathways are dynamically regulated at the transcriptional, translational, and protein levels. Despite this, traditional pathway engineering has relied on static control strategies to engender changes in metabolism, most likely due to ease of implementation and perceived predictability of design outcome. Increasingly in recent years, however, metabolic engineers have drawn inspiration from natural systems and have begun to harness dynamically controlled regulatory machinery to improve design of engineered microorganisms for production of specialty and commodity chemicals. Here, we review recent enabling technologies for engineering static control over pathway expression levels, and we discuss state-of-the-art dynamic control strategies that have yielded improved outcomes in the field of microbial metabolic engineering. Furthermore, we emphasize design of a novel class of genetically encoded controllers that will facilitate automatic, transient tuning of synthetic and endogenous pathways. PMID:26453934

  4. Sensitivity Analysis of Intracellular Signaling Pathway Kinetics Predicts Targets for Stem Cell Fate Control

    PubMed Central

    Mahdavi, Alborz; Davey, Ryan E; Bhola, Patrick; Yin, Ting; Zandstra, Peter W

    2007-01-01

    Directing stem cell fate requires knowledge of how signaling networks integrate temporally and spatially segregated stimuli. We developed and validated a computational model of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (Stat3) pathway kinetics, a signaling network involved in embryonic stem cell (ESC) self-renewal. Our analysis identified novel pathway responses; for example, overexpression of the receptor glycoprotein-130 results in reduced pathway activation and increased ESC differentiation. We used a systematic in silico screen to identify novel targets and protein interactions involved in Stat3 activation. Our analysis demonstrates that signaling activation and desensitization (the inability to respond to ligand restimulation) is regulated by balancing the activation state of a distributed set of parameters including nuclear export of Stat3, nuclear phosphatase activity, inhibition by suppressor of cytokine signaling, and receptor trafficking. This knowledge was used to devise a temporally modulated ligand delivery strategy that maximizes signaling activation and leads to enhanced ESC self-renewal. PMID:17616983

  5. Inflammation Controls Sensitivity of Human and Mouse Intestinal Epithelial Cells to Galectin-1.

    PubMed

    Muglia, Cecilia I; Gobbi, Rodrigo Papa; Smaldini, Paola; Delgado, María Lucía Orsini; Candia, Martín; Zanuzzi, Carolina; Sambuelli, Alicia; Rocca, Andrés; Toscano, Marta A; Rabinovich, Gabriel A; Docena, Guillermo H

    2016-07-01

    Galectins play key roles in the inflammatory cascade. In this study, we aimed to analyze the effect of galectin-1 (Gal-1) in the function of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) isolated from healthy and inflamed mucosa. IECs isolated from mice or patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) were incubated with different pro-inflammatory cytokines, and Gal-1 binding, secretion of homeostatic factors and viability were assessed. Experimental models of food allergy and colitis were used to evaluate the in vivo influence of inflammation on Gal-1 binding and modulation of IECs. We found an enhanced binding of Gal-1 to: (a) murine IECs exposed to IL-1β, TNF, and IL-13; (b) IECs from inflamed areas in intestinal tissue from IBD patients; (c) small bowel of allergic mice; and (d) colon from mice with experimental colitis. Our results showed that low concentrations of Gal-1 favored a tolerogenic micro-environment, whereas high concentrations of this lectin modulated viability of IECs through mechanisms involving activation of caspase-9 and modulation of Bcl-2 protein family members. Our results showed that, when added in the presence of diverse pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF), IL-13 and IL-5, Gal-1 differentially promoted the secretion of growth factors including thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), epidermal growth factor (EGF), IL-10, IL-25, and transforming growth factor (TGF-β1 ). In conclusion, we found an augmented binding of Gal-1 to IECs when exposed in vitro or in vivo to inflammatory stimuli, showing different effects depending on Gal-1 concentration. These findings highlight the importance of the inflammatory micro-environment of mucosal tissues in modulating IECs susceptibility to the immunoregulatory lectin Gal-1 and its role in epithelial cell homeostasis. PMID:26566180

  6. Density-controlled ZnO/TiO2 nanocomposite photoanode for improving dye-sensitized solar cells performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jimmy; Lin, Chih-Min; Yin, Stuart (.

    2015-03-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) via ZnO/TiO2 nanocomposite photoanode with density-controlled abilities are presented in this paper. This nanocomposite photoanode is composed of TiO2 nanoparticles dispersed into densitycontrolled vertically aligned ZnO-TiO2 core-shell nanorod arrays. The density-controlled ZnO-TiO2 core-shell nanorod arrays were synthesized directly onto fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates using an innovative two-step wet chemical route. First, the density-controlled ZnO nanorod arrays were formed by applying a ZnO hydrothermal process from a TiO2 nanocrystals template. Second, the ZnO-TiO2 core-shell nanorod arrays were formed by depositing a TiO2 shell layer from a sol-gel process. The major advantages of a density-controlled ZnO/TiO2 nanocomposite photoanode include (1) providing a better diffusion path from ZnO nanorod arrays and (2) reducing the recombination loss by introducing an energy barrier layer TiO2 conformal shell coating. To validate the advantages of a density-controlled ZnO/TiO2 nanocomposite photoanode, DSSCs based on a ZnO/TiO2 nanocomposite photoanode were fabricated, in which N719 dye was used. The average dimensions of the ZnO nanorod arrays were 20 μm and 650 nm for the length and the diameter, respectively, while the designated spacing between each nanorod was around 5 μm. The performance of the solar cell was tested by using a standard AM 1.5 solar simulator from Newport Corporation. The experimental results confirmed that an open-circuit voltage, 0.93 V, was achieved, which was much higher than the conventional TiO2 nanoparticles thin film structure for the same thickness. Thus, density-controlled ZnO/TiO2 nanocomposite photoanodes could improve the performance of DSSCs by offering a better electron diffusion path.

  7. An"ON-OFF" switchable power output of enzymatic biofuel cell controlled by thermal-sensitive polymer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun; Gai, Panpan; Xue, Jingjing; Zhang, Jian-Rong; Zhu, Jun-Jie

    2015-12-15

    A novel "ON-OFF" switchable enzymatic biofuel cell (EBFC), controlled by in situ thermal-stimuli signal, has been consciously designed. Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAm) chains were used to act as "ON" and "OFF" channels. Consecutively switching of temperature below and above the lower critical solution temperature (LCST), the reversible conformation changing of the PNIPAm chains between superhydrophilicity and superhydrophobicity was achieved, which constructed the "ON" and "OFF" channel for the transfer of the electrochemical probe to the underlying electrode correspondingly. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) protected glucose oxidase and laccase were successfully entrapped into the intelligent thermal-sensitive PNIPAm chains, and performed as the catalysts for the oxidation of glucose and the reduction of O2, respectively. Below the LCST, the fuels and the mediator could access to the catalytic centers of enzymes (set as "ON" state); while above the LCST, the reaction was impeded because the process of reactant transmission was blocked (set as "OFF" state). By switching the "valve" of mass transfer, the fabricated EBFC displayed the obvious "ON-OFF" controllable behavior. At the "ON" state, the open circuit voltage (Ecell(ocv)) and maximal power output density (Pmax) could reach to 0.70 V and 20.52 μW cm(-2), respectively; while at the "OFF" state, the Ecell(ocv) and Pmax were only 0.30 V and 3.28 μW cm(-2) correspondingly. The switchable process was repeatable, and the response time was only several minutes. PMID:26141100

  8. Size-controlled anatase titania single crystals with octahedron-like morphology for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Shiu, Jia-Wei; Lan, Chi-Ming; Chang, Yu-Cheng; Wu, Hui-Ping; Huang, Wei-Kai; Diau, Eric Wei-Guang

    2012-12-21

    A simple hydrothermal method with titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) as a precursor and triethanolamine (TEOA) as a chelating agent enabled growth in the presence of a base (diethylamine, DEA) of anatase titania nanocrystals (HD1-HD5) of controlled size. DEA played a key role to expedite this growth, for which a biphasic crystal growth mechanism is proposed. The produced single crystals of titania show octahedron-like morphology with sizes in a broad range of 30-400 nm; a typical, extra large, octahedral single crystal (HD5) of length 410 nm and width 260 nm was obtained after repeating a sequential hydrothermal treatment using HD3 and then HD4 as a seed crystal. The nanocrystals of size ~30 nm (HD1) and ~300 nm (HD5) served as active layer and scattering layer, respectively, to fabricate N719-sensitized solar cells. These HD devices showed greater V(OC) than devices of conventional nanoparticle (NP) type; the overall device performance of HD attained an efficiency of 10.2% power conversion at a total film thickness of 28 μm, which is superior to that of a NP-based reference device (η = 9.6%) optimized at a total film thickness of 18-20 μm. According to results obtained from transient photoelectric and charge extraction measurements, this superior performance of HD devices relative to their NP counterparts is due to the more rapid electron transport and greater TiO(2) potential. PMID:23116194

  9. Cell Cycle Control and Adhesion Molecule Expression in Cells of the Immune System are Sensitive to Altered Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullrich, O.; Paulsen, K.; Thiel, C.; Herrmann, K.; Sang, C.; Han, G.; Hemmersbach, R.; von der Wiesche, M.; Kroll, H.; Zhuang, F.; Grote, K. H.; Cogoli, A.; Zipp, F.; Engelmann, F.

    2008-06-01

    Life on earth developed in the presence and under the constant influence of gravity. Thus, it is a fundamental biological question, whether gravity is required for cellular functions and signal transduction in mammalian cells. Since the first Spacelab-Mission 20 years ago, it is known that activation and function of T lymphocytes is severely suppressed in microgravity, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not elucidated. Experiments have been performed using ground-based facilities such as fast-rotating clinostat and hyper-g-centrifuges, and real microgravity provided by parabolic flights. We found that 1.) cells of the immune system responded cell type specifically to altered gravity, 2.) microgravity induced a multitude of initial alterations in signal transduction, whereas 3.) hypergravity of 1.8g did not induce any changes of the pathways tested, and that 4.) most of the initially altered pathways in microgravity adapted to "normal" levels within 15min. However, some pathways remained altered and could explain cell cycle arrest of T lymphocytes as observed in several long-term space experiments.

  10. Dye Sensitized Tandem Photovoltaic Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, Greg D.

    2009-12-21

    This work provided a new way to look at photoelectrochemical cells and their performance. Although thought of as low efficiency, a the internal efficiency of a 9% global efficiency dye sensitized solar cell is approximately equal to an 18% efficient silicon cell when each is compared to their useful spectral range. Other work undertaken with this contract also reported the first growth oriented titania and perovskite columns on a transparent conducting oxide. Other work has shown than significant performance enhancement in the performance of dye sensitized solar cells can be obtained through the use of coupling inverse opal photonic crystals to the nanocrystalline dye sensitized solar cell. Lastly, a quick efficient method was developed to bond titanium foils to transparent conducting oxide substrates for anodization.

  11. Controllable synthesis of ZnO nanograss with different morphologies and enhanced performance in dye-sensitized solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Shibu; Chen Xiangnan; Zuo Feibiao; Jiang Man; Zhou Zuowan; Hui, David

    2013-01-15

    A series of ZnO nanograss films grown on fluorine-doped tin oxide coated glass substrates were synthesized via hydrothermal method by using polyethyleneimine (PEI) as adjusting agent. The films were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It was found that the PEI not only affected the aspect ratios of ZnO nanograss but also changed the geometrical shape of ZnO nanograss. A possible mechanism based on PEI adsorbed on the non-polar facets of ZnO that governed the growth rate of different directions were proposed to elucidate the effect of PEI on morphology of ZnO. The ZnO nanograss films were applied to dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The results showed that the photocurrent density significantly enhanced, and the power conversion efficiency increased by 55% based on ZnO nanograss synthesized in a growth solution containing 7 mmol/L PEI, resulting from the dye loading properties related to the different morphologies. - Graphical abstract: Effect of PEI on ZnO nanograss: controlling the aspect ratio and morphology of ZnO and enhancing their photovoltaic performance. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZnO nanograss with different aspect ratios were synthesized by adjusting PEI content. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PEI affects both on the aspect ratios and geometrical shapes of ZnO nanograss. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZnO nanograss with high aspect ratio and needle-like tip was advantageous for improved photovoltaic conversion performance.

  12. MKP1/CL100 controls tumor growth and sensitivity to cisplatin in non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, S; Machado-Pinilla, R; Manguan-García, C; Belda-Iniesta, C; Moratilla, C; Cejas, P; Fresno-Vara, J A; de Castro-Carpeño, J; Casado, E; Nistal, M; Gonzalez-Barón, M; Perona, R

    2006-06-01

    Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) represents the most frequent and therapy-refractive sub-class of lung cancer. Improving apoptosis induction in NSCLC represents a logical way forward in treating this tumor. Cisplatin, a commonly used therapeutic agent in NSCLC, induces activation of N-terminal-c-Jun kinase (JNK) that, in turn, mediates induction of apoptosis. In analysing surgical tissue samples of NSCLC, we found that expression of MKP1/CL100, a negative regulator of JNK, showed a strong nuclear staining for tumor cells, whereas, in normal bronchial epithelia, MKP1 was localized in the cytoplasm as well as in nuclei. In the NSCLC-derived cell lines H-460 and H-23, we found that MKP1 was constitutively expressed. Expressing a small-interfering RNA (siRNA) vector for MKP1 in H-460 cells resulted in a more efficient activation by cisplatin of JNK and p38 than in the parental cells, and this correlated with a 10-fold increase in sensitivity to cisplatin. A similar response was also observed in H-460 and H-23 cells when treated with the MKP1 expression inhibitor RO-31-8220. Moreover, expression of a siRNA-MKP2, an MKP1-related phosphatase, had no effect on H-460 cell viability response to cisplatin. Tumors induced by H-460 cells expressing MKP1 siRNA grew slower in nu(-)/nu(-) mice and showed more susceptibility to cisplatin than parental cells, and resulted in an impaired growth of the tumor in mice. On the other hand, overexpression of MKP1 in the H-1299 NSCLC-derived cell line resulted in further resistance to cisplatin. Overall, the results showed that inhibition of MKP1 expression contributes to a slow down in cell growth in mice and an increase of cisplatin-induced cell death in NSCLC. As such, MKP1 can be an attractive target in sensitizing cells to cisplatin to increase the effectiveness of the drug in treating NSCLC. PMID:16462770

  13. Death-receptor O-glycosylation controls tumor-cell sensitivity to the proapoptotic ligand Apo2L/TRAIL.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Klaus W; Punnoose, Elizabeth A; Januario, Thomas; Lawrence, David A; Pitti, Robert M; Lancaster, Kate; Lee, Dori; von Goetz, Melissa; Yee, Sharon Fong; Totpal, Klara; Huw, Ling; Katta, Viswanatham; Cavet, Guy; Hymowitz, Sarah G; Amler, Lukas; Ashkenazi, Avi

    2007-09-01

    Apo2L/TRAIL stimulates cancer cell death through the proapoptotic receptors DR4 and DR5, but the determinants of tumor susceptibility to this ligand are not fully defined. mRNA expression of the peptidyl O-glycosyltransferase GALNT14 correlated with Apo2L/TRAIL sensitivity in pancreatic carcinoma, non-small-cell lung carcinoma and melanoma cell lines, and up to 30% of samples from various human malignancies showed GALNT14 overexpression. RNA interference of GALNT14 reduced cellular Apo2L/TRAIL sensitivity, whereas overexpression increased responsiveness. Biochemical analysis of DR5 identified several ectodomain O-(N-acetyl galactosamine-galactose-sialic acid) structures. Sequence comparison predicted conserved extracellular DR4 and DR5 O-glycosylation sites; progressive mutation of the DR5 sites attenuated apoptotic signaling. O-glycosylation promoted ligand-stimulated clustering of DR4 and DR5, which mediated recruitment and activation of the apoptosis-initiating protease caspase-8. These results uncover a new link between death-receptor O-glycosylation and apoptotic signaling, providing potential predictive biomarkers for Apo2L/TRAIL-based cancer therapy. PMID:17767167

  14. Preferential enlargement of leukemia cells using cytoskeletal-directed agents and cell cycle growth control parameters to induce sensitivity to low frequency ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Trendowski, Matthew; Wong, Victoria; Zoino, Joseph N; Christen, Timothy D; Gadeberg, Lauren; Sansky, Michelle; Fondy, Thomas P

    2015-05-01

    Sonodynamic therapy (SDT) is a form of ultrasound therapy that has been shown to preferentially damage malignant cells based on the relatively enlarged size and altered cytology of neoplastic cells in comparison to normal cells. This study sought to determine whether cytoskeletal-directed agents that either disrupt (cytochalasin B and vincristine) or rigidify (jasplakinolide and paclitaxel) microfilaments and microtubules, respectively, affect ultrasonic sensitivity. U937 human monocytic leukemia cell populations were treated with each cytoskeletal-directed agent alone, and then sonicated at 23.5 kHz under relatively low power and intensity (20-40 W; 10-20 W/cm(2)), or at 20 kHz using moderate power and intensity (60 W; 80 W/cm(2)). In addition, human leukemia lines U937, THP1, K562, and Molt-4, and the murine leukemia line L1210 were sonicated using pulsed 20 kHz ultrasound (80.6 W; 107.5 W/cm(2)) both with and without the addition of cytoskeletal-directed agents to assess whether cytoskeletal-directed agents can potentiate ultrasonic sensitivity in different leukemia lines. Human hematopoietic stem cells (hHSCs) and leukocytes were sonicated with continuous 23.5 kHz ultrasound (20 W; 10 W/cm(2)) to determine whether this approach elicited the preferential damage of neoplastic cells over normal blood components. To determine whether ultrasonic sensitivity is exclusively dependent on cell size, leukemia cells were also enlarged via alteration of cell growth parameters including serum deprivation and re-addition, and plateau-phase subculturing. Results indicated that cytochalasin B/ultrasound treatments had the highest rates of initial U937 cell damage. The cells enlarged and partially synchronized, either by serum deprivation and re-addition or by plateau-phase subculturing and synchronous release, were not comparably sensitive to ultrasonic destruction based solely on their cell size. In addition, cytochalasin B significantly potentiated

  15. A programmable synthetic lineage-control network that differentiates human IPSCs into glucose-sensitive insulin-secreting beta-like cells.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Pratik; Heng, Boon Chin; Bai, Peng; Folcher, Marc; Zulewski, Henryk; Fussenegger, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic biology has advanced the design of standardized transcription control devices that programme cellular behaviour. By coupling synthetic signalling cascade- and transcription factor-based gene switches with reverse and differential sensitivity to the licensed food additive vanillic acid, we designed a synthetic lineage-control network combining vanillic acid-triggered mutually exclusive expression switches for the transcription factors Ngn3 (neurogenin 3; OFF-ON-OFF) and Pdx1 (pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1; ON-OFF-ON) with the concomitant induction of MafA (V-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homologue A; OFF-ON). This designer network consisting of different network topologies orchestrating the timely control of transgenic and genomic Ngn3, Pdx1 and MafA variants is able to programme human induced pluripotent stem cells (hIPSCs)-derived pancreatic progenitor cells into glucose-sensitive insulin-secreting beta-like cells, whose glucose-stimulated insulin-release dynamics are comparable to human pancreatic islets. Synthetic lineage-control networks may provide the missing link to genetically programme somatic cells into autologous cell phenotypes for regenerative medicine. PMID:27063289

  16. A programmable synthetic lineage-control network that differentiates human IPSCs into glucose-sensitive insulin-secreting beta-like cells

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Pratik; Heng, Boon Chin; Bai, Peng; Folcher, Marc; Zulewski, Henryk; Fussenegger, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic biology has advanced the design of standardized transcription control devices that programme cellular behaviour. By coupling synthetic signalling cascade- and transcription factor-based gene switches with reverse and differential sensitivity to the licensed food additive vanillic acid, we designed a synthetic lineage-control network combining vanillic acid-triggered mutually exclusive expression switches for the transcription factors Ngn3 (neurogenin 3; OFF-ON-OFF) and Pdx1 (pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1; ON-OFF-ON) with the concomitant induction of MafA (V-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homologue A; OFF-ON). This designer network consisting of different network topologies orchestrating the timely control of transgenic and genomic Ngn3, Pdx1 and MafA variants is able to programme human induced pluripotent stem cells (hIPSCs)-derived pancreatic progenitor cells into glucose-sensitive insulin-secreting beta-like cells, whose glucose-stimulated insulin-release dynamics are comparable to human pancreatic islets. Synthetic lineage-control networks may provide the missing link to genetically programme somatic cells into autologous cell phenotypes for regenerative medicine. PMID:27063289

  17. Porphyrin-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Lu-Lin; Diau, Eric Wei-Guang

    2013-01-01

    Nature has chosen chlorophylls in plants as antennae to harvest light for the conversion of solar energy in complicated photosynthetic processes. Inspired by natural photosynthesis, scientists utilized artificial chlorophylls - the porphyrins - as efficient centres to harvest light for solar cells sensitized with a porphyrin (PSSC). After the first example appeared in 1993 of a porphyrin of type copper chlorophyll as a photosensitizer for PSSC that achieved a power conversion efficiency of 2.6%, no significant advance of PSSC was reported until 2005; beta-linked zinc porphyrins were then reported to show promising device performances with a benchmark efficiency of 7.1% reported in 2007. Meso-linked zinc porphyrin sensitizers in the first series with a push-pull framework appeared in 2009; the best cell performed comparably to that of a N3-based device, and a benchmark 11% was reported for a porphyrin sensitizer of this type in 2010. With a structural design involving long alkoxyl chains to envelop the porphyrin core to suppress the dye aggregation for a push-pull zinc porphyrin, the PSSC achieved a record 12.3% in 2011 with co-sensitization of an organic dye and a cobalt-based electrolyte. The best PSSC system exhibited a panchromatic feature for light harvesting covering the visible spectral region to 700 nm, giving opportunities to many other porphyrins, such as fused and dimeric porphyrins, with near-infrared absorption spectral features, together with the approach of molecular co-sensitization, to enhance the device performance of PSSC. According to this historical trend for the development of prospective porphyrin sensitizers used in PSSC, we review systematically the progress of porphyrins of varied kinds, and their derivatives, applied in PSSC with a focus on reports during 2007-2012 from the point of view of molecular design correlated with photovoltaic performance. PMID:23023240

  18. A synthetic cGMP-sensitive gene switch providing Viagra(®)-controlled gene expression in mammalian cells and mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taeuk; Folcher, Marc; Charpin-El Hamri, Ghislaine; Fussenegger, Martin

    2015-05-01

    Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is a universal second messenger that is synthesized from guanosine triphosphate (GTP) by guanylyl cyclases (GCs) and hydrolyzed into guanosine monophosphate (GMP) by phosphodiesterases (PDEs). Small-molecule drugs that induce high cGMP levels in specialized tissues by boosting GC activity or inhibiting PDE activity have become the predominant treatment strategy for a wide range of medical conditions, including congestive heart failure, pulmonary hypertension, atherosclerosis-based claudication and erectile dysfunction. By fusing the cGMP receptor protein (CRP) of Rhodospirillum centenum to the Herpes simplex-derived transactivation domain VP16, we created a novel synthetic mammalian cGMP-sensing transcription factor (GTA) that activates synthetic promoters (PGTA) containing newly identified GTA-specific operator sites in a concentration-dependent manner. In cell lines expressing endogenous natriuretic peptide receptor A (NPR-A) (HeLa), GTA/PGTA-driven transgene expression was induced by B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP; Nesiritide(®)) in a concentration-dependent manner, which activated NPR-A׳s intracellular GC domain and triggered a corresponding cGMP surge. Ectopic expression of NPR-A in NPR-A-negative cell lines (HEK-293T) produced high cGMP levels and mediated maximum GTA/PGTA-driven transgene expression, which was suppressed by co-expression of PDEs (PDE-3A, PDE-5A and PDE-9A) and was re-triggered by the corresponding PDE inhibitor drugs (Pletal(®), Perfan(®), Primacor(®) (PDE-3A), Viagra(®), Levitra(®), Cialis(®) (PDE-5A) and BAY73-6691 (PDE-9A)). Mice implanted with microencapsulated designer cells co-expressing the GTA/PGTA device with NPR-A and PDE-5A showed control of blood SEAP levels through administration of sildenafil (Viagra(®)). Designer cells engineered for PDE inhibitor-modulated transgene expression may provide a cell-based PDE-targeting drug discovery platform and enable drug-adjusted gene- and cell

  19. Increased Quantum Dot Loading by pH Control Reduces Interfacial Recombination in Quantum-Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Roelofs, Katherine E; Herron, Steven M; Bent, Stacey F

    2015-08-25

    The power conversion efficiency of quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) hinges on interfacial charge transfer. Increasing quantum dot (QD) loading on the TiO2 anode has been proposed as a means to block recombination of electrons in the TiO2 to the hole transport material; however, it is not known whether a corresponding increase in QD-mediated recombination processes might lead to an overall higher rate of recombination. In this work, a 3-fold increase in PbS QD loading was achieved by the addition of an aqueous base to negatively charge the TiO2 surface during Pb cation deposition. Increased QD loading improved QDSSC device efficiencies through both increased light absorption and an overall reduction in recombination. Unexpectedly, we also found increased QD size had the detrimental effect of increasing recombination. Kinetic modeling of the effect of QD size on interfacial charge transfer processes provided qualitative agreement with the observed variation in recombination lifetimes. These results demonstrate a robust method of improving QD loading, identify the specific mechanisms by which increased QD deposition impacts device performance, and provide a framework for future efforts optimizing the device architecture of QDSSCs. PMID:26244426

  20. Controlled interfacial electron dynamics in highly efficient Zn2 SnO4 -based dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Shin, Seong Sik; Kim, Dong Wook; Hwang, Daesub; Suk, Jae Ho; Oh, Lee Seul; Han, Byung Suh; Kim, Dong Hoe; Kim, Ju Seong; Kim, Dongho; Kim, Jin Young; Hong, Kug Sun

    2014-02-01

    Among ternary oxides, Zn2 SnO4 (ZSO) is considered for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) because of its wide bandgap, high optical transmittance, and high electrical conductivity. However, ZSO-based DSSCs have a poor performance record owing largely to the absence of systematic efforts to enhance their performance. Herein, general strategies are proposed to improve the performance of ZSO-based DSSCs involving interfacial engineering/modification of the photoanode. A conformal ZSO thin film (blocking layer) deposited at the fluorine-doped tin oxide-electrolyte interface by pulsed laser deposition suppressed the back-electron transfer effectively while maintaining a high optical transmittance, which resulted in a 22 % improvement in the short-circuit photocurrent density. Surface modification of ZSO nanoparticles (NPs) resulted in an ultrathin ZnO shell layer, a 9 % improvement in the open-circuit voltage, and a 4 % improvement in the fill factor because of the reduced electron recombination at the ZSO NPs-electrolyte interface. The ZSO-based DSSCs exhibited a faster charge injection and electron transport than their TiO2 -based counterparts, and their superior properties were not inhibited by the ZnO shell layer, which indicates their feasibility for highly efficient DSSCs. Each interfacial engineering strategy could be applied to the ZSO-based DSSC independently to lead to an improved conversion efficiency of 6 %, a very high conversion efficiency for a non-TiO2 based DSSC. PMID:24347268

  1. Mitochondrial E3 ubiquitin ligase MARCH5 controls mitochondrial fission and cell sensitivity to stress-induced apoptosis through regulation of MiD49 protein

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shan; Cherok, Edward; Das, Shweta; Li, Sunan; Roelofs, Brian A.; Ge, Shealinna X.; Polster, Brian M.; Boyman, Liron; Lederer, W. Jonathan; Wang, Chunxin; Karbowski, Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    Ubiquitin- and proteasome-dependent outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM)-associated degradation (OMMAD) is critical for mitochondrial and cellular homeostasis. However, the scope and molecular mechanisms of the OMMAD pathways are still not well understood. We report that the OMM-associated E3 ubiquitin ligase MARCH5 controls dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1)-dependent mitochondrial fission and cell sensitivity to stress-induced apoptosis. MARCH5 knockout selectively inhibited ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of MiD49, a mitochondrial receptor of Drp1, and consequently led to mitochondrial fragmentation. Mitochondrial fragmentation in MARCH5−/− cells was not associated with inhibition of mitochondrial fusion or bioenergetic defects, supporting the possibility that MARCH5 is a negative regulator of mitochondrial fission. Both MARCH5 re-expression and MiD49 knockout in MARCH5−/− cells reversed mitochondrial fragmentation and reduced sensitivity to stress-induced apoptosis. These findings and data showing MARCH5-dependent degradation of MiD49 upon stress support the possibility that MARCH5 regulation of MiD49 is a novel mechanism controlling mitochondrial fission and, consequently, the cellular response to stress. PMID:26564796

  2. Nanostructure control of graphene-composited TiO2 by a one-step solvothermal approach for high performance dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    He, Ziming; Guai, Guanhong; Liu, Jing; Guo, Chunxian; Loo, Joachim Say Chye; Li, Chang Ming; Tan, Timothy Thatt Yang

    2011-11-01

    We present a one-step solvothermal approach to prepare uniform graphene-TiO(2) nanocomposites with delicately controlled TiO(2) nanostructures, including ultra-small 2 nm nanoparticles, 12 nm nanoparticles and nanorods. Using three composites as photoanode materials, the effect of nanostructure of graphene-composited TiO(2) on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells was investigated, and results showed that the ultra-small 2 nm TiO(2)-graphene composite based photoanode exhibited the highest power conversion efficiency of 7.25%. PMID:22006266

  3. Control of the recombination rate by changing the polarity of the electrolyte in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Idigoras, Jesús; Tena-Zaera, Ramón; Anta, Juan A

    2014-10-21

    Recombination in Dye-sensitized Solar Cells (DSCs) is an electron transfer process critical for high efficiency. The chemical nature of the electron acceptor is known to have an important impact on recombination and, hence, limits the choice of hole conductors in DSCs and related solar cells. In this respect, Room Temperature Ionic liquids (RTILs) have been recognized as an alternative to volatile organic solvents due to their negligible vapor pressure, which offers the chance for long-term stability. However, RTIL-based electrolytes lead to lower performance, a feature that has been attributed to the high viscosity of ionic liquids and the mass-transport limitation associated with it. In this work we show that the origin of the lower performance is also related to an increase in the recombination loss due to the polar nature of the RTIL and the influence of the reorganization energy of the electron acceptor in a polar environment. To investigate this chemical effect, different mixing ratios of RTILs and an organic solvent (acetonitrile) have been considered. The fabricated devices have been characterized by small-perturbation techniques (Impedance Electrochemical Spectroscopy and Intensity-Modulated Photovoltage and Photocurrent Spectroscopies) and Open-Circuit Voltage Decay measurements, which have been used to extract electron lifetimes at different applied voltages. Two different ruthenium dyes (hydrophilic N719 and hydrophobic Z907) and two different cations in the RTIL (imidazolium- and pyrrolidinium-based) have been considered. The results obtained show that for pure ionic liquids the lifetime-voltage curve is exponential, which is a signature of large reorganization energies for electron transfer. In contrast, pure acetonitrile exhibits a non-exponential behavior, which is consistent with relatively low reorganization energy. Interestingly, and as a general rule, we find that recombination is faster in systems with higher reorganization energies. This is

  4. Dye-sensitized solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Skotheim, T.A.

    1980-03-04

    A low-cost dye-sensitized Schottky barrier solar cell is comprised of a substrate of semiconductor with an ohmic contact on one face, a sensitizing dye adsorbed onto the opposite face of the semiconductor, a transparent thin-film layer of a reducing agent over the dye, and a thin-film layer of metal over the reducing agent. The ohmic contact and metal layer constitute electrodes for connection to an external circuit and one or the other or both are made transparent to permit light to penetrate to the dye and be absorbed therein for generating electric current. The semiconductor material chosen to be the substrate is one having a wide bandgap and which therefore is transparent; the dye selected is one having a ground state within the bandgap of the semiconductor to generate carriers in the semiconductor, and a first excited state above the conduction band edge of the semiconductor to readily conduct electrons from the dye to the semiconductor; the reducing agent selected is one having a ground state above the ground state of the sensitizer to provide a plentiful source of electrons to the dye during current generation and thereby enhance the generation; and the metal for the thin-film layer of metal is selected to have a Fermi level in the vicinity of or above the ground state of the reducing agent to thereby amply supply electrons to the reducing agent. 3 figs.

  5. Dye-sensitized solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Skotheim, Terje A. [Berkeley, CA

    1980-03-04

    A low-cost dye-sensitized Schottky barrier solar cell comprised of a substrate of semiconductor with an ohmic contact on one face, a sensitizing dye adsorbed onto the opposite face of the semiconductor, a transparent thin-film layer of a reducing agent over the dye, and a thin-film layer of metal over the reducing agent. The ohmic contact and metal layer constitute electrodes for connection to an external circuit and one or the other or both are made transparent to permit light to penetrate to the dye and be absorbed therein for generating electric current. The semiconductor material chosen to be the substrate is one having a wide bandgap and which therefore is transparent; the dye selected is one having a ground state within the bandgap of the semiconductor to generate carriers in the semiconductor, and a first excited state above the conduction band edge of the semiconductor to readily conduct electrons from the dye to the semiconductor; the reducing agent selected is one having a ground state above the ground state of the sensitizer to provide a plentiful source of electrons to the dye during current generation and thereby enhance the generation; and the metal for the thin-film layer of metal is selected to have a Fermi level in the vicinity of or above the ground state of the reducing agent to thereby amply supply electrons to the reducing agent.

  6. Nanostructure control of graphene-composited TiO2 by a one-step solvothermal approach for high performance dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Ziming; Guai, Guanhong; Liu, Jing; Guo, Chunxian; Chye Loo, Joachim Say; Li, Chang Ming; Tan, Timothy Thatt Yang

    2011-11-01

    We present a one-step solvothermal approach to prepare uniform graphene-TiO2 nanocomposites with delicately controlled TiO2 nanostructures, including ultra-small 2 nm nanoparticles, 12 nm nanoparticles and nanorods. Using three composites as photoanode materials, the effect of nanostructure of graphene-composited TiO2 on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells was investigated, and results showed that the ultra-small 2 nm TiO2-graphene composite based photoanode exhibited the highest power conversion efficiency of 7.25%.We present a one-step solvothermal approach to prepare uniform graphene-TiO2 nanocomposites with delicately controlled TiO2 nanostructures, including ultra-small 2 nm nanoparticles, 12 nm nanoparticles and nanorods. Using three composites as photoanode materials, the effect of nanostructure of graphene-composited TiO2 on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells was investigated, and results showed that the ultra-small 2 nm TiO2-graphene composite based photoanode exhibited the highest power conversion efficiency of 7.25%. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Detailed experimental procedures, AFM images, SEM images, J-V curves for optimization, and tables containing EDX results, BET results and calculation data. See DOI: 10.1039/c1nr11300c

  7. A cyclophosphamide-sensitive cell compartment is essential for homologous protection conferred by licensed vaccines for the control of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli in chickens.

    PubMed

    Sadeyen, Jean-Rémy; Kaiser, Pete; Stevens, Mark P; Dziva, Francis

    2015-07-17

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) exert substantial economic costs on poultry producers worldwide. Vaccination is an attractive method of control, but the immunological basis of protection is poorly understood. Here, we examine the effect of intramuscular injection of cyclophosphamide or saline on homologous protection induced by licensed inactivated or live-attenuated APEC O78 vaccines in chickens. In saline-treated birds, both vaccines induced significant APEC-specific IgY and protection against homologous challenge, as evidenced by enumeration of tissue-associated bacteria and analysis of pathology. In cyclophosphamide-treated birds, B cells were severely depleted whereas percentages of circulating CD4- and CD8-positive T cells were normal as detected by flow cytometry. Further, such birds did not produce APEC-specific IgY and were as susceptible to challenge as age-matched unvaccinated controls. The data indicate that homologous protection conferred by licensed APEC vaccines strictly requires a cyclophosphamide-sensitive cell population that includes B cells. PMID:26087298

  8. Spectral sensitization of nanocrystalline solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Spitler, Mark T.; Ehret, Anne; Stuhl, Louis S.

    2002-01-01

    This invention relates to dye sensitized polycrystalline photoelectrochemical solar cells for use in energy transduction from light to electricity. It concerns the utility of highly absorbing organic chromophores as sensitizers in such cells and the degree to which they may be utilized alone and in combination to produce an efficient photoelectrochemical cell, e.g., a regenerative solar cell.

  9. Novel Mad2-targeting miR-493-3p controls mitotic fidelity and cancer cells' sensitivity to paclitaxel.

    PubMed

    Tambe, Mahesh; Pruikkonen, Sofia; Mäki-Jouppila, Jenni; Chen, Ping; Elgaaen, Bente Vilming; Straume, Anne Hege; Huhtinen, Kaisa; Cárpen, Olli; Lønning, Per Eystein; Davidson, Ben; Hautaniemi, Sampsa; Kallio, Marko J

    2016-03-15

    The molecular pathways that contribute to the proliferation and drug response of cancer cells are highly complex and currently insufficiently characterized. We have identified a previously unknown microRNA-based mechanism that provides cancer cells means to stimulate tumorigenesis via increased genomic instability and, at the same time, evade the action of clinically utilized microtubule drugs. We demonstrate miR-493-3p to be a novel negative regulator of mitotic arrest deficient-2 (MAD2), an essential component of the spindle assembly checkpoint that monitors the fidelity of chromosome segregation. The microRNA targets the 3' UTR of Mad2 mRNA thereby preventing translation of the Mad2 protein. In cancer cells, overexpression of miR-493-3p induced a premature mitotic exit that led to increased frequency of aneuploidy and cellular senescence in the progeny cells. Importantly, excess of the miR-493-3p conferred resistance of cancer cells to microtubule drugs. In human neoplasms, miR-493-3p and Mad2 expression alterations correlated with advanced ovarian cancer forms and high miR-493-3p levels were associated with reduced survival of ovarian and breast cancer patients with aggressive tumors, especially in the paclitaxel therapy arm. Our results suggest that intratumoral profiling of miR-493-3p and Mad2 levels can have diagnostic value in predicting the efficacy of taxane chemotherapy. PMID:26943585

  10. In-situ microfluidic controlled, low temperature hydrothermal growth of nanoflakes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chao; Zhang, Jia; Hu, Yue; Robertson, Neil; Hu, Ping An; Child, David; Gibson, Desmond; Fu, Yong Qing

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, an in-situ microfluidic control unit (MCU) was designed and applied in a hydrothermal synthesis process, which provides an easy way to localize liquid-phase reaction and realize selective synthesis and direct growth of nanostructures as well as their morphology, all in a low-temperature and atmospheric environment. The morphology was controlled through controlling the amount of additivities using the MCU. This achieved a facile fabrication of Al doped ZnO (AZO) nanoflakes vertically grown on flexible polymer substrates with enhanced light scattering and dye loading capabilities. Flexible DSSCs with a significant enhancement (410% compare to ZnO NRs based devices) in power conversion efficiency were obtained using AZO nanoflake photoanodes of 6 μm thick, due to the enhancement in electron mobility and reduction in recombination. This hydrothermal synthesis using the in-situ MCU provides an efficient and scalable technique to synthesize controllable nanostructures with characteristics of easy set-up, low energy consumption and low cost. PMID:26631685

  11. In-situ microfluidic controlled, low temperature hydrothermal growth of nanoflakes for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chao; Zhang, Jia; Hu, Yue; Robertson, Neil; Hu, Ping An; Child, David; Gibson, Desmond; Fu, Yong Qing

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, an in-situ microfluidic control unit (MCU) was designed and applied in a hydrothermal synthesis process, which provides an easy way to localize liquid-phase reaction and realize selective synthesis and direct growth of nanostructures as well as their morphology, all in a low-temperature and atmospheric environment. The morphology was controlled through controlling the amount of additivities using the MCU. This achieved a facile fabrication of Al doped ZnO (AZO) nanoflakes vertically grown on flexible polymer substrates with enhanced light scattering and dye loading capabilities. Flexible DSSCs with a significant enhancement (410% compare to ZnO NRs based devices) in power conversion efficiency were obtained using AZO nanoflake photoanodes of 6 μm thick, due to the enhancement in electron mobility and reduction in recombination. This hydrothermal synthesis using the in-situ MCU provides an efficient and scalable technique to synthesize controllable nanostructures with characteristics of easy set-up, low energy consumption and low cost. PMID:26631685

  12. In-situ microfluidic controlled, low temperature hydrothermal growth of nanoflakes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chao; Zhang, Jia; Hu, Yue; Robertson, Neil; Hu, Ping An; Child, David; Gibson, Desmond; Fu, Yong Qing

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, an in-situ microfluidic control unit (MCU) was designed and applied in a hydrothermal synthesis process, which provides an easy way to localize liquid-phase reaction and realize selective synthesis and direct growth of nanostructures as well as their morphology, all in a low-temperature and atmospheric environment. The morphology was controlled through controlling the amount of additivities using the MCU. This achieved a facile fabrication of Al doped ZnO (AZO) nanoflakes vertically grown on flexible polymer substrates with enhanced light scattering and dye loading capabilities. Flexible DSSCs with a significant enhancement (410% compare to ZnO NRs based devices) in power conversion efficiency were obtained using AZO nanoflake photoanodes of 6 μm thick, due to the enhancement in electron mobility and reduction in recombination. This hydrothermal synthesis using the in-situ MCU provides an efficient and scalable technique to synthesize controllable nanostructures with characteristics of easy set-up, low energy consumption and low cost.

  13. Controlling available active sites of Pt-loaded TiO2 nanotube-imprinted Ti plates for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lu-Yin; Yeh, Min-Hsin; Chen, Wei-Chieh; Ramamurthy, Vittal; Ho, Kuo-Chuan

    2015-02-25

    The counter electrode (CE) of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) plays an important role for transferring electrons and catalyzing the I-/I3- reduction. Active surface area of the substrate determines the reduction sites of the deposited catalyst as well as the catalytic ability of the CE. An effective method for enhancing and controlling the active surface area of metal plates is provided in this study. The Ti plates are imprinted by TiO2 nanotubes (TNT) via the technique of anodization along with the ultrasonic vibration process. The available active area of imprinted Ti plates is controlled by varying the anodization voltage to produce TNT imprints with different diameters and depths. A solar-to-electricity conversion efficiency (η) of 9.35% was obtained for the DSSC with a TNT-imprinted Ti plate as the CE substrate, while the cell with an imprint-free Ti plate shows an η of 7.81%. The enhanced η is due to the improved electrocatalytic ability of the CE by using the TNT-imprinted Ti plate as the substrate with higher active surface area. PMID:25642665

  14. Role of AKT and ERK pathways in controlling sensitivity to ionizing radiation and adaptive response induced by low-dose radiation in human immune cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyung Sun; You, Ga Eun; Yang, Kwang Hee; Kim, Ji Young; An, Sungkwan; Song, Jie-Young; Lee, Su-Jae; Lim, Young-Khi; Nam, Seon Young

    2015-12-01

    Despite many studies of the effect of ionizing radiation, biological mechanisms of action might differ greatly depend on dose, dose rate, and cell type. This study was performed to explore the effects of low- and high-dose radiation in human immune cell lines. We examined cell sensitivity after irradiation with 0.05, 0.1, or 2Gy in two normal cell lines and three tumor cell lines. Low-dose radiation of 0.05 and 0.1Gy had no effect on cell survival in any tested cell line, with the exception of IM-9 cells, whose viability was transiently increased. However, IM-9 and C1R-sB7 cells were very sensitive to high-dose radiation-induced cell death, whereas Jurkat and JM1 cells showed moderate sensitivity, and THP-1 cells were completely resistant. This radiosensitivity was correlated with basal AKT activation, which is induced by phosphorylation. In radiosensitive IM-9 cells, priming with chronic low-dose irradiation blocked cell death induced by high-dose radiation challenge via inhibition of caspase activation and PARP cleavage. AKT phosphorylation was not altered in IM-9 cells, but ERK phosphorylation was greatly elevated immediately after chronic low-dose irradiation. Taken together, our results suggest that the different responses of normal and tumor cells to low-dose and high-dose radiation depend on AKT activation, which is regulated by protein phosphatase 2 (PP2A). In radiosensitive normal cells lacking basal AKT activity, chronic low-dose radiation increases activation of the ERK pathway, which plays an important role in the adaptive response to radiation, providing a very important insight into understanding the effects of ionizing radiation on health. PMID:26362471

  15. Recombination control in high-performance quantum dot-sensitized solar cells with a novel TiO2/ZnS/CdS/ZnS heterostructure.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Seok; Gopi, Chandu V V M; Venkata-Haritha, Mallineni; Kim, Hee-Je

    2016-08-01

    Charge recombination occurring at the TiO2/QDs/electrolyte interface is a crucial factor that limits the power conversion efficiency (η) of quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). This paper presents a new approach by inserting a ZnS layer between the TiO2 and CdS/ZnS to prepare a TiO2/ZnS/CdS/ZnS sensitized photoelectrode for QDSSC applications. The CdS QDs and ZnS passivation layers were deposited using a reproducible and controlled successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method. The TiO2/ZnS/CdS/ZnS based QDSSCs exhibited a power conversion efficiency (η) value of 3.69%, which is significantly higher than the 3.02% and 2.09% observed for solar cells with a TiO2/CdS/ZnS device and without a passivation layer (TiO2/CdS), respectively. The elevated performance of the TiO2/ZnS/CdS/ZnS-based QDSSCs was attributed to the pre-assembled ZnS layer enhancing the light harvesting and acting as a blocking layer to shield the TiO2 core from the outer QDs and the electrolyte, thereby retarding the interfacial recombination of electrons from the TiO2 with the electrolyte or with the QDs. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and open circuit voltage decay measurements showed that the TiO2/ZnS/CdS/ZnS-based QDSSCs inhibit charge recombination remarkably at the photoanode/electrolyte interface and prolong the electron lifetime. PMID:27477125

  16. Active Polymer Microfiber with Controlled Polarization Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Hongyan; Wang, Ruxue; Liu, Yingying; Cheng, Junjie; Zou, Gang; Zhang, Qijin; Zhang, Douguo; Wang, Pei; Ming, Hai; Badugu, Ramachandram; Lakowicz, Joseph R.

    2016-01-01

    Controlled Polarization Sensitivity of an active polymer microfiber has been proposed and realized with the electrospun method. The fluorescence intensity guiding through this active polymer microfiber shows high sensitivity to the polarization state of the excitation light. What is more, the fluorescence out-coupled from tip of the microfiber can be of designed polarization state. Principle of these phenomena lies on the ordered and controlled orientation of the polydiacetylene (PDA) main chains inside polymer microfiber. PMID:27099828

  17. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on purple corn sensitizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phinjaturus, Kawin; Maiaugree, Wasan; Suriharn, Bhalang; Pimanpaeng, Samuk; Amornkitbamrung, Vittaya; Swatsitang, Ekaphan

    2016-09-01

    Natural dye extracted from husk, cob and silk of purple corn, were used for the first time as photosensitizers in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The dye sensitized solar cells fabrication process has been optimized in terms of solvent extraction. The resulting maximal efficiency of 1.06% was obtained from purple corn husk extracted by acetone. The ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and incident photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE) were employed to characterize the natural dye and the DSSCs.

  18. Cisplatin sensitivity and thermochemosensitisation in thermotolerant cDDP-sensitive and -resistant cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Hettinga, J. V.; Lemstra, W.; Konings, A. W.; Kampinga, H. H.

    1995-01-01

    Development of thermotolerance is an important phenomenon that must be considered when thermochemotherapy with multiple heat treatments is used clinically. To study the effect of thermotolerance on cellular cisplatin (cDDP) sensitivity at 37 degrees C and 43 degrees C in cell lines with different cDDP sensitivities, two Ehrlich ascites tumour cell lines (one with high cDDP sensitivity and one with in vitro acquired cDDP resistance) were used. The results indicate that in both cell lines the state of thermotolerance per se did not affect the cDDP sensitivity at 37 degrees C. Thus, general elevations in 'all' heat shock protein levels as found in thermotolerant cells apparently do not influence cDDP sensitivity to a considerable extent. The sensitising effect of a (second) heat treatment given simultaneously with a cDDP treatment was less in thermotolerant cells. Thermal enhancement ratios (TERs) at the 10% survival level for heat doses of 43 degrees C for 30 min or 43 degrees C for 60 min were reduced by a factor of 1.6 and 2.1 in cDDP-resistant and -sensitive thermotolerant cells respectively, as compared with control cells. Thus, protection against heat damage in thermotolerant cells seems to be paralleled by diminished thermal chemosensitisation. Although the effect of thermotolerance on the cDDP-sensitising effect was less pronounced in the resistant cells, a modifying effect on the resistance factor was not achieved. Images Figure 2 PMID:7880730

  19. Metal-Free Sensitizers for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Chaurasia, Sumit; Lin, Jiann T

    2016-06-01

    This review focuses on our work on metal-free sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Sensitizers based on D-A'-π-A architecture (D is a donor, A is an acceptor, A' is an electron-deficient entity) exhibit better light harvesting than D-π-A-type sensitizers. However, appropriate molecular design is needed to avoid excessive aggregation of negative charge at the electron-deficient entity upon photoexcitation. Rigidified aromatics, including aromatic segments comprising fused electron-excessive and -deficient units in the spacer, allow effective electronic communication, and good photoinduced charge transfer leads to excellent cell performance. Sensitizers with two anchors/acceptors, D(-π-A)2 , can more efficiently harvest light, inject electrons, and suppress dark current compared with congeners with a single anchor. Appropriate incorporation of heteroaromatic units in the spacer is beneficial to DSSC performance. High-performance, aqueous-based DSSCs can be achieved with a dual redox couple comprising imidazolium iodide and 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-N-oxyl, and/or using dyes of improved wettability through the incorporation of a triethylene oxide methyl ether chain. PMID:27114164

  20. Gene sensitizes cancer cells to chemotherapy drugs

    Cancer.gov

    NCI scientists have found that a gene, Schlafen-11 (SLFN11), sensitizes cells to substances known to cause irreparable damage to DNA.  As part of their study, the researchers used a repository of 60 cell types to identify predictors of cancer cell respons

  1. Morphology-controlled cactus-like branched anatase TiO2 arrays with high light-harvesting efficiency for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wu-Qiang; Rao, Hua-Shang; Feng, Hao-Lin; Guo, Xin-Dong; Su, Cheng-Yong; Kuang, Dai-Bin

    2014-08-01

    The present work establishes a facile process for one-step hydrothermal growth of vertically aligned anatase cactus-like branched TiO2 (CBT) arrays on a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) substrate. Various CBT morphologies are obtained by adjusting the potassium titanium oxide oxalate (PTO) reactant concentration (from 0.05 M to 0.15 M) and this yields a morphologically-controllable branched TiO2 arrays geometry. The CBT arrays consist of a vertically oriented nanowire (NW) or nanosheet (NS) stem and a host of short nanorod (NR) branches. The hierarchical CBT arrays demonstrate their excellent candidatures as photoanodes, which are capable of exhibiting high light-harvesting efficiency in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Consequently, DSSCs based on 7 μm long optimized CBT arrays (0.05 M PTO), which are assembled with high density and high aspect-ratio NR branches, exhibit an impressive power conversion efficiency of 6.43% under AM 1.5G one sun illumination. The high performance can be attributed to the prominent light-harvesting efficiency, resulting from larger surface area and superior light-scattering capability.

  2. Effects of size-controlled TiO2 nanopowders synthesized by chemical vapor condensation process on conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Woo-Byoung; Lee, Jai-Sung

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the microstructural effects of the synthesized TiO2 nanopowders such as particle size, specific surface area, pore size and pore distributions for the application of an anode material of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC), size-controlled and well-dispersed TiO2 nanopowders were synthesized by chemical vapor condensation (CVC) process in the range of 800-1000 degreesC under a pressure of 50 mbar. The average particle size of synthesized TiO2 nanopowders was increased with increasing temperature from 13 nm for 800 degreesC, 15 nm for 900 degreesC and 26 nm. The specific surface area of synthesized nanoparticles were measured as 119.1 m2/g for 800 degreesC, 104.7 m2/g for 900 degreesC and 59.5 m2/g for 1000 degreesC, respectively. The conversion efficiency values (eta%) of DSSC with the synthesized TiO2 nanopowders at 800 degreesC, 900 degreesC, and 1000 degreesC were 2.59%, 5.96% and 3.66%, respectively. The highest conversion efficiency obtained in the 900 degreesC (5.96%) sample is thought to be attributable to homogeneous particle size and pore distributions, large specific surface area, and high transmittance in regions of dye absorption wavelength. PMID:23901483

  3. D-sorbitol-induced phase control of TiO2 nanoparticles and its application for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Shoyebmohamad F; Mane, Rajaram S; Min, Byoung Koun; Hwang, Yun Jeong; Joo, Oh-Shim

    2016-01-01

    Using a simple hydrothermal synthesis, the crystal structure of TiO2 nanoparticles was controlled from rutile to anatase using a sugar alcohol, D-sorbitol. Adding small amounts of D-sorbitol to an aqueous TiCl4 solution resulted in changes in the crystal phase, particle size, and surface area by affecting the hydrolysis rate of TiCl4. These changes led to improvements of the solar-to-electrical power conversion efficiency (η) of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) fabricated using these nanoparticles. A postulated reaction mechanism concerning the role of D-sorbitol in the formation of rutile and anatase was proposed. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, (13)C NMR spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering analyses were used to better understand the interaction between the Ti precursor and D-sorbitol. The crystal phase and size of the synthesized TiO2 nanocrystallites as well as photovoltaic performance of the DSSC were examined using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and photocurrent density-applied voltage spectroscopy measurement techniques. The DSSC fabricated using the anatase TiO2 nanoparticles synthesized in the presence of D-sorbitol, exhibited an enhanced η (6%, 1.5-fold improvement) compared with the device fabricated using the rutile TiO2 synthesized without D-sorbitol. PMID:26857963

  4. D-sorbitol-induced phase control of TiO2 nanoparticles and its application for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaikh, Shoyebmohamad F.; Mane, Rajaram S.; Min, Byoung Koun; Hwang, Yun Jeong; Joo, Oh-Shim

    2016-02-01

    Using a simple hydrothermal synthesis, the crystal structure of TiO2 nanoparticles was controlled from rutile to anatase using a sugar alcohol, D-sorbitol. Adding small amounts of D-sorbitol to an aqueous TiCl4 solution resulted in changes in the crystal phase, particle size, and surface area by affecting the hydrolysis rate of TiCl4. These changes led to improvements of the solar-to-electrical power conversion efficiency (η) of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) fabricated using these nanoparticles. A postulated reaction mechanism concerning the role of D-sorbitol in the formation of rutile and anatase was proposed. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, 13C NMR spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering analyses were used to better understand the interaction between the Ti precursor and D-sorbitol. The crystal phase and size of the synthesized TiO2 nanocrystallites as well as photovoltaic performance of the DSSC were examined using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and photocurrent density-applied voltage spectroscopy measurement techniques. The DSSC fabricated using the anatase TiO2 nanoparticles synthesized in the presence of D-sorbitol, exhibited an enhanced η (6%, 1.5-fold improvement) compared with the device fabricated using the rutile TiO2 synthesized without D-sorbitol.

  5. D-sorbitol-induced phase control of TiO2 nanoparticles and its application for dye-sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Shoyebmohamad F.; Mane, Rajaram S.; Min, Byoung Koun; Hwang, Yun Jeong; Joo, Oh-shim

    2016-01-01

    Using a simple hydrothermal synthesis, the crystal structure of TiO2 nanoparticles was controlled from rutile to anatase using a sugar alcohol, D-sorbitol. Adding small amounts of D-sorbitol to an aqueous TiCl4 solution resulted in changes in the crystal phase, particle size, and surface area by affecting the hydrolysis rate of TiCl4. These changes led to improvements of the solar-to-electrical power conversion efficiency (η) of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) fabricated using these nanoparticles. A postulated reaction mechanism concerning the role of D-sorbitol in the formation of rutile and anatase was proposed. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, 13C NMR spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering analyses were used to better understand the interaction between the Ti precursor and D-sorbitol. The crystal phase and size of the synthesized TiO2 nanocrystallites as well as photovoltaic performance of the DSSC were examined using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and photocurrent density-applied voltage spectroscopy measurement techniques. The DSSC fabricated using the anatase TiO2 nanoparticles synthesized in the presence of D-sorbitol, exhibited an enhanced η (6%, 1.5-fold improvement) compared with the device fabricated using the rutile TiO2 synthesized without D-sorbitol. PMID:26857963

  6. Sensitive-cell-based fish chromatophore biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plant, Thomas K.; Chaplen, Frank W.; Jovanovic, Goran; Kolodziej, Wojtek; Trempy, Janine E.; Willard, Corwin; Liburdy, James A.; Pence, Deborah V.; Paul, Brian K.

    2004-07-01

    A sensitive biosensor (cytosensor) has been developed based on color changes in the toxin-sensitive colored living cells of fish. These chromatophores are highly sensitive to the presence of many known and unknown toxins produced by microbial pathogens and undergo visible color changes in a dose-dependent manner. The chromatophores are immobilized and maintained in a viable state while potential pathogens multiply and fish cell-microbe interactions are monitored. Low power LED lighting is used to illuminate the chromatophores which are magnified using standard optical lenses and imaged onto a CCD array. Reaction to toxins is detected by observing changes is the total area of color in the cells. These fish chromatophores are quite sensitive to cholera toxin, Staphococcus alpha toxin, and Bordatella pertussis toxin. Numerous other toxic chemical and biological agents besides bacterial toxins also cause readily detectable color effects in chromatophores. The ability of the chromatophore cell-based biosensor to distinguish between different bacterial pathogens was examined. Toxin producing strains of Salmonella enteritis, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Bacillus cereus induced movement of pigmented organelles in the chromatophore cells and this movement was measured by changes in the optical density over time. Each bacterial pathogen elicited this measurable response in a distinctive and signature fashion. These results suggest a chromatophore cell-based biosensor assay may be applicable for the detection and identification of virulence activities associated with certain air-, food-, and water-borne bacterial pathogens.

  7. Exo1 phosphorylation status controls the hydroxyurea sensitivity of cells lacking the Pol32 subunit of DNA polymerases delta and zeta

    PubMed Central

    Doerfler, Lillian; Schmidt, Kristina H.

    2015-01-01

    Exo1 belongs to the Rad2 family of structure-specific nucleases and possesses 5′-3′ exonuclease activity on double-stranded DNA substrates. Exo1 interacts physically with the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) proteins Msh2 and Mlh1 and is involved in the excision of the mispaired nucleotide. Independent of its role in MMR, Exo1 contributes to long-range resection of DNA double-strand break (DSB) ends to facilitate their repair by homologous recombination (HR), and was recently identified as a component of error-free DNA damage tolerance pathways. Here we show that Exo1 activity increases the hydroxyurea sensitivity of cells lacking Pol32, a subunit of DNA polymerases δ and ζ Both, phospho-mimicking and dephospho-mimicking exo1 mutants act as hypermorphs, as evidenced by an increase in HU sensitivity of pol32Δ cells, suggesting that they are trapped in an active form and that phosphorylation of Exo1 at residues S372, S567, S587, S692 is necessary, but insufficient, for the accurate regulation of Exo1 activity at stalled replication forks. In contrast, neither phosphorylation status is important for Exo1's role in MMR or in the suppression of genome instability in cells lacking Sgs1 helicase. This ability of an EXO1 deletion to suppress the HU hypersensitivity of pol32Δ cells is in contrast to the negative genetic interaction between deletions of EXO1 and POL32 in MMS-treated cells as well as the role of EXO1 in DNA-damage treated rad53 and mec1 mutants. PMID:25457771

  8. Morphology control studies of TiO2 microstructures via surfactant-assisted hydrothermal process for dye-sensitized solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekphet, Woranan; Ke, Tsai-Chyuan; Su, Chaochin; Kathirvel, Sasipriya; Sireesha, Pedaballi; Akula, Suri Babu; Li, Wen-Ren

    2016-09-01

    The controlled morphological TiO2 particles have gained great importance in a wide variety of applications due to their promising physico-chemical properties. In this study, TiO2 microstructures with various shapes to utilize as scattering layer in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) applications were successfully synthesized via different hydrothermal conditions. The effects of the versatile preparation parameters including the amount of titania precursor and surfactant, the addition of ethanol/water, and the hydrothermal process temperature and time on the TiO2 morphology were investigated. The structural and morphological analysis clearly shown that the preparation conditions played crucial roles in the morphology, particle size, and crystalline phase of the TiO2 microparticles. Different kinds of shapes such as rice- (∼1.10 μm (l) and ∼0.41 μm (w)), star- (∼3.60 μm) and flower-like (3.75 μm) TiO2 morphological structures were obtained. The morphology and size of the TiO2 particles were mainly governed by the concentrations of titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) precursor, amounts of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) surfactant and hydrothermal temperatures and durations. The as-prepared rice-shaped TiO2 was composed of mixed anatase and brookite binary phases, whereas the star- and flower-shaped TiO2 microstructures were consisted of ternary anatase, rutile, and brookite crystalline TiO2 phases. The three different rice-, star-, and flower-shaped TiO2 microstructures were employed as scattering layers for photoanodes in DSSCs. Among them, the star-like TiO2 photoanode based DSSC exhibited the highest power conversion efficiency of 9.56%, which was also better than those of the devices fabricated without scattering layer (a-TiO2, 8.38%) and with commercial P25 as scattering layer (a-TiO2/P25-TiO2, 8.52%) at the same film thickness of ∼14 μm.

  9. Stretchable, wearable dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhibin; Deng, Jue; Sun, Xuemei; Li, Houpu; Peng, Huisheng

    2014-05-01

    A stretchable, wearable dye-sensitized solar-cell textile is developed from elastic, electrically conducting fiber as a counter electrode and spring-like titanium wire as the working electrode. Dyesensitized solar cells are demonstrated with energy-conversion efficiencies up to 7.13%. The high energy-conversion efficiencies can be well maintained under stretch by 30% and after stretch for 20 cycles. PMID:24648169

  10. Sensitized solar cells based on nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Liyou

    Sensitized solar cells (SSCs) based on nanostructures including dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) have attracted great research interest due to their potential in converting sunlight into electricity and solving the energy problem. Metal oxide nanowires, as an important type of nanostructures were grown and applied in the SSCs. In this dissertation, two types of nanowires, ZnO and Zn2GeO4 nanowires were successfully grown onto fluorine-doped-tin-oxide (FTO) coated substrates using a chemical vapor deposition method. This method provides an important way to grow ZnO nanowires directly on FTO substrates without using any catalyst. ZnO nanowires with length of more than 30 mum were used as the photoanode for DSSCs. The dependence of solar cell performance on nanowire length and annealing temperature was studied. Zn2GeO4 nanowires were also directly synthesized on FTO substrates and were utilized as the photoanode in DSSCs and QDSSCs. Transient photocurrent and photovoltage decay measurements were conducted in the SSCs, which showed that the dye sensitization pH was important for DSSCs and that both the QDs coverage and band alignment between QDs and nanowires were key parameters for QDSSCs in order to have a good energy conversion efficiency.

  11. Sensitivity of optimal control systems with bang-bang control.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rootenberg, J.; Courtin, P.

    1973-01-01

    The effects of small parameter variations on the performance index of optimal control systems with initial and final target manifolds, free end time, and bang-bang control are analyzed in this paper. A new approach to the sensitivity equation is presented. This approach takes into account the pulse-shaped variation produced by the parameter change on the bang-bang control. An expression, that relates the variations of the performance index, the trajectory, the final time, and the parameter, is derived. This expression extends to the class of optimal systems with bang-bang control, a result previously obtained by Courtin and Rootenberg (1971).

  12. Improved photovoltaic performance and stability of quantum dot sensitized solar cells using Mn-ZnSe shell structure with enhanced light absorption and recombination control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopi, Chandu V. V. M.; Venkata-Haritha, M.; Kim, Soo-Kyoung; Kim, Hee-Je

    2015-07-01

    To make quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) competitive, photovoltaic parameters comparable to those of other emerging solar cell technologies are necessary. In the present study, ZnSe was used as an alternative to ZnS, one of the most widely used passivation materials in QDSSCs. ZnSe was deposited on a TiO2-CdS-CdSe photoanode to form a core-shell structure, which was more efficient in terms of reducing the electron recombination in QDSSCs. The development of an efficient passivation layer is a requirement for preventing recombination processes in order to attain high-performance and stable QDSSCs. A layer of inorganic Mn-ZnSe was applied to a QD-sensitized photoanode to enhance the adsorption and strongly inhibit interfacial recombination processes in QDSSCs, which greatly improved the power conversion efficiency. Impedance spectroscopy revealed that the combined Mn doping with ZnSe treatment reduces interfacial recombination and increases charge collection efficiency compared with Mn-ZnS, ZnS, and ZnSe. A solar cell based on the CdS-CdSe-Mn-ZnSe photoanode yielded excellent performance with a solar power conversion efficiency of 5.67%, Voc of 0.584 V, and Jsc of 17.59 mA cm-2. Enhanced electron transport and reduced electron recombination are responsible for the improved Jsc and Voc of the QDSSCs. The effective electron lifetime of the device with Mn-ZnSe was higher than those with Mn-ZnS, ZnSe, and ZnS, leading to more efficient electron-hole separation and slower electron recombination.To make quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) competitive, photovoltaic parameters comparable to those of other emerging solar cell technologies are necessary. In the present study, ZnSe was used as an alternative to ZnS, one of the most widely used passivation materials in QDSSCs. ZnSe was deposited on a TiO2-CdS-CdSe photoanode to form a core-shell structure, which was more efficient in terms of reducing the electron recombination in QDSSCs. The development of an

  13. Semiconductor quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Jianjun; Cao, Guozhong

    2013-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have been drawing great attention recently as a material for solar energy conversion due to their versatile optical and electrical properties. The QD-sensitized solar cell (QDSC) is one of the burgeoning semiconductor QD solar cells that shows promising developments for the next generation of solar cells. This article focuses on recent developments in QDSCs, including 1) the effect of quantum confinement on QDSCs, 2) the multiple exciton generation (MEG) of QDs, 3) fabrication methods of QDs, and 4) nanocrystalline photoelectrodes for solar cells. We also make suggestions for future research on QDSCs. Although the efficiency of QDSCs is still low, we think there will be major breakthroughs in developing QDSCs in the future. PMID:24191178

  14. Orientation-Controllable ZnO Nanorod Array Using Imprinting Method for Maximum Light Utilization in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Huisu; Song, Hui; Lee, Ryeri; Pak, Yusin; Kumaresan, Yogeenth; Lee, Heon; Jung, Gun Young

    2015-12-01

    We present a holey titanium dioxide (TiO2) film combined with a periodically aligned ZnO nanorod layer (ZNL) for maximum light utilization in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Both the holey TiO2 film and the ZNL were simultaneously fabricated by imprint technique with a mold having vertically aligned ZnO nanorod (NR) array, which was transferred to the TiO2 film after imprinting. The orientation of the transferred ZNL such as laid, tilted, and standing ZnO NRs was dependent on the pitch and height of the ZnO NRs of the mold. The photoanode composed of the holey TiO2 film with the ZNL synergistically utilized the sunlight due to enhanced light scattering and absorption. The best power conversion efficiency of 8.5 % was achieved from the DSC with the standing ZNL, which represented a 33 % improvement compared to the reference cell with a planar TiO2. PMID:26068077

  15. Elf5-centered transcription factor hub controls trophoblast stem cell self-renewal and differentiation through stoichiometry-sensitive shifts in target gene networks.

    PubMed

    Latos, Paulina A; Sienerth, Arnold R; Murray, Alexander; Senner, Claire E; Muto, Masanaga; Ikawa, Masahito; Oxley, David; Burge, Sarah; Cox, Brian J; Hemberger, Myriam

    2015-12-01

    Elf5 is a transcription factor with pivotal roles in the trophoblast compartment, where it reinforces a trophoblast stem cell (TSC)-specific transcriptional circuit. However, Elf5 is also present in differentiating trophoblast cells that have ceased to express other TSC genes such as Cdx2 and Eomes. In the present study, we aimed to elucidate the context-dependent role of Elf5 at the interface between TSC self-renewal and the onset of differentiation. We demonstrate that precise levels of Elf5 are critical for normal expansion of the TSC compartment and embryonic survival, as Elf5 overexpression triggers precocious trophoblast differentiation. Through integration of protein interactome, transcriptome, and genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation data, we reveal that this abundance-dependent function is mediated through a shift in preferred Elf5-binding partners; in TSCs, Elf5 interaction with Eomes recruits Tfap2c to triply occupied sites at TSC-specific genes, driving their expression. In contrast, the Elf5 and Tfap2c interaction becomes predominant as their protein levels increase. This triggers binding to double- and single-occupancy sites that harbor the cognate Tfap2c motif, causing activation of the associated differentiation-promoting genes. These data place Elf5 at the center of a stoichiometry-sensitive transcriptional network, where it acts as a molecular switch governing the balance between TSC proliferation and differentiation. PMID:26584622

  16. Elf5-centered transcription factor hub controls trophoblast stem cell self-renewal and differentiation through stoichiometry-sensitive shifts in target gene networks

    PubMed Central

    Latos, Paulina A.; Sienerth, Arnold R.; Murray, Alexander; Senner, Claire E.; Muto, Masanaga; Ikawa, Masahito; Oxley, David; Burge, Sarah; Cox, Brian J.; Hemberger, Myriam

    2015-01-01

    Elf5 is a transcription factor with pivotal roles in the trophoblast compartment, where it reinforces a trophoblast stem cell (TSC)-specific transcriptional circuit. However, Elf5 is also present in differentiating trophoblast cells that have ceased to express other TSC genes such as Cdx2 and Eomes. In the present study, we aimed to elucidate the context-dependent role of Elf5 at the interface between TSC self-renewal and the onset of differentiation. We demonstrate that precise levels of Elf5 are critical for normal expansion of the TSC compartment and embryonic survival, as Elf5 overexpression triggers precocious trophoblast differentiation. Through integration of protein interactome, transcriptome, and genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation data, we reveal that this abundance-dependent function is mediated through a shift in preferred Elf5-binding partners; in TSCs, Elf5 interaction with Eomes recruits Tfap2c to triply occupied sites at TSC-specific genes, driving their expression. In contrast, the Elf5 and Tfap2c interaction becomes predominant as their protein levels increase. This triggers binding to double- and single-occupancy sites that harbor the cognate Tfap2c motif, causing activation of the associated differentiation-promoting genes. These data place Elf5 at the center of a stoichiometry-sensitive transcriptional network, where it acts as a molecular switch governing the balance between TSC proliferation and differentiation. PMID:26584622

  17. Nanowire dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Law, Matt; Greene, Lori E; Johnson, Justin C; Saykally, Richard; Yang, Peidong

    2005-06-01

    Excitonic solar cells-including organic, hybrid organic-inorganic and dye-sensitized cells (DSCs)-are promising devices for inexpensive, large-scale solar energy conversion. The DSC is currently the most efficient and stable excitonic photocell. Central to this device is a thick nanoparticle film that provides a large surface area for the adsorption of light-harvesting molecules. However, nanoparticle DSCs rely on trap-limited diffusion for electron transport, a slow mechanism that can limit device efficiency, especially at longer wavelengths. Here we introduce a version of the dye-sensitized cell in which the traditional nanoparticle film is replaced by a dense array of oriented, crystalline ZnO nanowires. The nanowire anode is synthesized by mild aqueous chemistry and features a surface area up to one-fifth as large as a nanoparticle cell. The direct electrical pathways provided by the nanowires ensure the rapid collection of carriers generated throughout the device, and a full Sun efficiency of 1.5% is demonstrated, limited primarily by the surface area of the nanowire array. PMID:15895100

  18. AG490 and PF431396 Sensitive Tyrosine Kinase Control the Population Heterogeneity of Basal STAT1 Activity in Ube1l Deficient Cells

    PubMed Central

    Now, Hesung; Yoo, Joo-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    A population often contains distinct sub-populations, thereby increasing the complexity of the overall heterogeneity. However, the cellular origin and biological relevance of sub-populations in cell population have not been clearly identified. Here we demonstrated the novel roles of ISGylation, which is an IFN-induced post-translational modification, controlling heterogeneity at the population level in cultured adherent cells. Without UBE1L, an E1 enzyme of ISGylation, mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) exhibited low viral resistance despite high STAT1 and ISG expression compared with the wild-type MEF. We observe that Ube1l−/− MEF populations consist of two behaviorally distinguishable sub-populations with distinct basal STAT1 activity, while wild-type MEF populations are unimodal. This population heterogeneity in Ube1l knock-out cells was perturbed by tyrosine kinase inhibitors, AG490 and PF431396. In contrast, the neutralization of type I IFN did not affect population heterogeneity. Based on these results, we concluded that UBE1L functions to adjust basal immunological states with the regulation of population heterogeneity. PMID:27427993

  19. High-Performance Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on Morphology-Controllable Synthesis of ZnO–ZnS Heterostructure Nanocone Photoanodes

    PubMed Central

    Rouhi, Jalal; Mamat, Mohamad Hafiz; Ooi, C. H. Raymond; Mahmud, Shahrom; Mahmood, Mohamad Rusop

    2015-01-01

    High-density and well-aligned ZnO–ZnS core–shell nanocone arrays were synthesized on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrate using a facile and cost-effective two-step approach. In this synthetic process, the ZnO nanocones act as the template and provide Zn2+ ions for the ZnS shell formation. The photoluminescence spectrum indicates remarkably enhanced luminescence intensity and a small redshift in the UV region, which can be associated with the strain caused by the lattice mismatch between ZnO and ZnS. The obtained diffuse reflectance spectra show that the nanocone-based heterostructure reduces the light reflection in a broad spectral range and is much more effective than the bare ZnO nanocone and nanorod structures. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on the heterostructure ZnO–ZnS nanocones are assembled, and high conversion efficiency (η) of approximately 4.07% is obtained. The η improvement can be attributed primarily to the morphology effect of ZnO nanocones on light-trapping and effectively passivating the interface surface recombination sites of ZnO nanocones by coating with a ZnS shell layer. PMID:25875377

  20. High-performance dye-sensitized solar cells based on morphology-controllable synthesis of ZnO-ZnS heterostructure nanocone photoanodes.

    PubMed

    Rouhi, Jalal; Mamat, Mohamad Hafiz; Ooi, C H Raymond; Mahmud, Shahrom; Mahmood, Mohamad Rusop

    2015-01-01

    High-density and well-aligned ZnO-ZnS core-shell nanocone arrays were synthesized on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrate using a facile and cost-effective two-step approach. In this synthetic process, the ZnO nanocones act as the template and provide Zn2+ ions for the ZnS shell formation. The photoluminescence spectrum indicates remarkably enhanced luminescence intensity and a small redshift in the UV region, which can be associated with the strain caused by the lattice mismatch between ZnO and ZnS. The obtained diffuse reflectance spectra show that the nanocone-based heterostructure reduces the light reflection in a broad spectral range and is much more effective than the bare ZnO nanocone and nanorod structures. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on the heterostructure ZnO-ZnS nanocones are assembled, and high conversion efficiency (η) of approximately 4.07% is obtained. The η improvement can be attributed primarily to the morphology effect of ZnO nanocones on light-trapping and effectively passivating the interface surface recombination sites of ZnO nanocones by coating with a ZnS shell layer. PMID:25875377

  1. Facile synthesis of ZnO micro-nanostructures with controllable morphology and their applications in dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yi; Li, Dang; Zhang, Xiangchao; Chen, Jianlin; Zhang, Shiying

    2012-11-01

    Different morphologies of ZnO micro-nanostructures were successfully prepared by hydrothermal method at relatively mild conditions using ammonia to adjust the pH of the reaction system. The samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, optical reflectance spectra, and photocurrent-voltage curve. The results demonstrated that the morphologies of ZnO changed from "wire" to "flower", "urchin" and "wire" with increase in the pH of the reaction system due to the increased concentration of ammonia. The diffused reflectance spectra illustrated that the reflectance of denser urchin-like ZnO was low at 18% in the visible region. When the as-synthesized ZnO micro-nanostructures were used as the anode of the dye sensitization solar cell, the denser urchin-like ZnO exhibited the best photoelectric properties. The short circuit current (Jsc), open circuit voltage (Voc), and conversion efficiency (η) were 6.50 mA/cm2, 0.682 V, and 1.92%, respectively.

  2. Cell death sensitization of leukemia cells by opioid receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    Friesen, Claudia; Roscher, Mareike; Hormann, Inis; Fichtner, Iduna; Alt, Andreas; Hilger, Ralf A.; Debatin, Klaus-Michael; Miltner, Erich

    2013-01-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP) regulates a number of cellular processes and modulates cell death induction. cAMP levels are altered upon stimulation of specific G-protein-coupled receptors inhibiting or activating adenylyl cyclases. Opioid receptor stimulation can activate inhibitory Gi-proteins which in turn block adenylyl cyclase activity reducing cAMP. Opioids such as D,L-methadone induce cell death in leukemia cells. However, the mechanism how opioids trigger apoptosis and activate caspases in leukemia cells is not understood. In this study, we demonstrate that downregulation of cAMP induced by opioid receptor activation using the opioid D,L-methadone kills and sensitizes leukemia cells for doxorubicin treatment. Enhancing cAMP levels by blocking opioid-receptor signaling strongly reduced D,L-methadone-induced apoptosis, caspase activation and doxorubicin-sensitivity. Induction of cell death in leukemia cells by activation of opioid receptors using the opioid D,L-methadone depends on critical levels of opioid receptor expression on the cell surface. Doxorubicin increased opioid receptor expression in leukemia cells. In addition, the opioid D,L-methadone increased doxorubicin uptake and decreased doxorubicin efflux in leukemia cells, suggesting that the opioid D,L-methadone as well as doxorubicin mutually increase their cytotoxic potential. Furthermore, we found that opioid receptor activation using D,L-methadone alone or in addition to doxorubicin inhibits tumor growth significantly in vivo. These results demonstrate that opioid receptor activation via triggering the downregulation of cAMP induces apoptosis, activates caspases and sensitizes leukemia cells for doxorubicin treatment. Hence, opioid receptor activation seems to be a promising strategy to improve anticancer therapies. PMID:23633472

  3. Recent advances in sensitized mesoscopic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Grätzel, Michael

    2009-11-17

    -intensive high vacuum and materials purification steps that are currently employed in the fabrication of all other thin-film solar cells. Organic materials are abundantly available, so that the technology can be scaled up to the terawatt scale without running into feedstock supply problems. This gives organic-based solar cells an advantage over the two major competing thin-film photovoltaic devices, i.e., CdTe and CuIn(As)Se, which use highly toxic materials of low natural abundance. However, a drawback of the current embodiment of OPV cells is that their efficiency is significantly lower than that for single and multicrystalline silicon as well as CdTe and CuIn(As)Se cells. Also, polymer-based OPV cells are very sensitive to water and oxygen and, hence, need to be carefully sealed to avoid rapid degradation. The research discussed within the framework of this Account aims at identifying and providing solutions to the efficiency problems that the OPV field is still facing. The discussion focuses on mesoscopic solar cells, in particular, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs), which have been developed in our laboratory and remain the focus of our investigations. The efficiency problem is being tackled using molecular science and nanotechnology. The sensitizer constitutes the heart of the DSC, using sunlight to pump electrons from a lower to a higher energy level, generating in this fashion an electric potential difference, which can exploited to produce electric work. Currently, there is a quest for sensitizers that achieve effective harnessing of the red and near-IR part of sunlight, converting these photons to electricity better than the currently used generation of dyes. Progress in this area has been significant over the past few years, resulting in a boost in the conversion efficiency of the DSC that will be reviewed. PMID:19715294

  4. Effects of Combined Calcium and Vitamin D Supplementation on Insulin Secretion, Insulin Sensitivity and β-Cell Function in Multi-Ethnic Vitamin D-Deficient Adults at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes: A Pilot Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, Claudia; Daly, Robin M.; Carpentier, André; Lu, Zhong X.; Shore-Lorenti, Catherine; Sikaris, Ken; Jean, Sonia; Ebeling, Peter R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether combined vitamin D and calcium supplementation improves insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, β-cell function, inflammation and metabolic markers. Design 6-month randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Participants Ninety-five adults with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] ≤55 nmol/L at risk of type 2 diabetes (with prediabetes or an AUSDRISK score ≥15) were randomized. Analyses included participants who completed the baseline and final visits (treatment n = 35; placebo n = 45). Intervention Daily calcium carbonate (1,200 mg) and cholecalciferol [2,000–6,000 IU to target 25(OH)D >75 nmol/L] or matching placebos for 6 months. Measurements Insulin sensitivity (HOMA2%S, Matsuda index), insulin secretion (insulinogenic index, area under the curve (AUC) for C-peptide) and β-cell function (Matsuda index x AUC for C-peptide) derived from a 75 g 2-h OGTT; anthropometry; blood pressure; lipid profile; hs-CRP; TNF-α; IL-6; adiponectin; total and undercarboxylated osteocalcin. Results Participants were middle-aged adults (mean age 54 years; 69% Europid) at risk of type 2 diabetes (48% with prediabetes). Compliance was >80% for calcium and vitamin D. Mean serum 25(OH)D concentration increased from 48 to 95 nmol/L in the treatment group (91% achieved >75 nmol/L), but remained unchanged in controls. There were no significant changes in insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion and β-cell function, or in inflammatory and metabolic markers between or within the groups, before or after adjustment for potential confounders including waist circumference and season of recruitment. In a post hoc analysis restricted to participants with prediabetes, a significant beneficial effect of vitamin D and calcium supplementation on insulin sensitivity (HOMA%S and Matsuda) was observed. Conclusions Daily vitamin D and calcium supplementation for 6 months may not change OGTT-derived measures of insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion and β-cell

  5. Knockdown of cathepsin L sensitizes ovarian cancer cells to chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, HONGMEI; ZHANG, LUOSHENG; WEI, LIXIA; GAO, XINGWANG; TANG, LI; GONG, WEI; MIN, NA; ZHANG, LI; YUAN, YAWEI

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is a leading gynecological malignancy associated with high mortality. The development of acquired drug resistance is the primary cause of chemotherapy failure in the treatment of ovarian cancer. To examine the mechanism underlying paclitaxel resistance in ovarian cancer and attempt to reverse it, the present study induced a TAX-resistant ovarian cancer cell line, SKOV3/TAX. Cathepsin L (CTSL) has been found to be overexpressed in ovarian cancer. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible involvement of CTSL in the development of TAX resistance in ovarian cancer. CTSL expression was knocked down in SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells and their phenotypic changes were analyzed. The effects of silenced CTSL on the resistant cell line were investigated by proliferation and apoptosis analysis compared with control SKOV3 cells. CTSL was more highly expressed in SKOV3/TAX cells compared with SKOV3 cells. Paclitaxel treatment downregulated the expression of CTSL in SKOV-3 but not in the paclitaxel-resistant SKOV3/TAX cells. CTSL small hairpin RNA (shRNA) knockdown significantly potentiated apoptosis induced by paclitaxel compared with SKOV3/TAX cells transfected with control shRNA, suggesting that CTSL contributes to paclitaxel resistance in ovarian cancer cells and that CTSL silencing can enhance paclitaxel-mediated cell apoptosis. Thus, CTSL should be explored as a candidate of therapeutic target for modulating paclitaxel sensitivity in ovarian cancer. PMID:27313771

  6. Improving the dye-sensitized solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willig, Frank

    2007-09-01

    Two dye sensitized solar cells (DSC) can be joined to form a tandem cell with two separate absorption ranges for the two different absorber materials. This can enhance the solar conversion efficiency and in particular the photovoltage of the DSC. Water splitting appears as a realistic long term target. The DSC tandem can be realized as n-n junction employing known dye molecules with optimal absorption spectra. Dye molecules with elongated shapes can be realized by covalently attaching a conducting bridge group terminated by an anchor group to a desired chromophore. Due to the long conducting bridge group separating the hole state of the dye from the surface of the semiconductor recombination is slowed down. The ordered molecular structure can be self-assembled on the recently introduced rod or cylinder shaped oxide electrodes but will not slow down recombination in the nm-cavities of the conventional TiO II Graetzel electrode.

  7. Dye-sensitized Schottky barrier solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Skotheim, Terje A.

    1978-01-01

    A low-cost dye-sensitized Schottky barrier solar cell comprised of a substrate of semiconductor with an ohmic contact on one face, a sensitizing dye adsorbed onto the opposite face of the semiconductor, a transparent thin-film layer of a reducing agent over the dye, and a thin-film layer of metal over the reducing agent. The ohmic contact and metal layer constitute electrodes for connection to an external circuit and one or the other or both are made transparent to permit light to penetrate to the dye and be absorbed therein for generating electric current. The semiconductor material chosen to be the substrate is one having a wide bandgap and which therefore is transparent; the dye selected is one having a ground state within the bandgap of the semiconductor to generate carriers in the semiconductor, and a first excited state above the conduction band edge of the semiconductor to readily conduct electrons from the dye to the semiconductor; the reducing agent selected is one having a ground state above the ground state of the sensitizer to provide a plentiful source of electrons to the dye during current generation and thereby enhance the generation; and the metal for the thin-film layer of metal is selected to have a Fermi level in the vicinity of or above the ground state of the reducing agent to thereby amply supply electrons to the reducing agent.

  8. Optimization of processing parameters on the controlled growth of ZnO nanorod arrays for the performance improvement of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Yi-Mu; Yang, Hsi-Wen

    2011-03-15

    High-transparency and high quality ZnO nanorod arrays were grown on the ITO substrates by a two-step chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. The effects of processing parameters including reaction temperature (25-95 {sup o}C) and solution concentration (0.01-0.1 M) on the crystal growth, alignment, optical and electrical properties were systematically investigated. It has been found that these process parameters are critical for the growth, orientation and aspect ratio of the nanorod arrays, showing different structural and optical properties. Experimental results reveal that the hexagonal ZnO nanorod arrays prepared under reaction temperature of 95 {sup o}C and solution concentration of 0.03 M possess highest aspect ratio of {approx}21, and show the well-aligned orientation and optimum optical properties. Moreover the ZnO nanorod arrays based heterojunction electrodes and the solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (SS-DSSCs) were fabricated with an improved optoelectrical performance. -- Graphical abstract: The ZnO nanorod arrays demonstrate well-alignment, high aspect ratio (L/D{approx}21) and excellent optical transmittance by low-temperature chemical bath deposition (CBD). Display Omitted Research highlights: > Investigate the processing parameters of CBD on the growth of ZnO nanorod arrays. > Optimization of CBD process parameters: 0.03 M solution concentration and reaction temperature of 95 {sup o}C. > The prepared ZnO samples possess well-alignment and high aspect ratio (L/D{approx}21). > An n-ZnO/p-NiO heterojunction: great rectifying behavior and low leakage current. > SS-DSSC has J{sub SC} of 0.31 mA/cm{sup 2} and V{sub OC} of 590 mV, and an improved {eta} of 0.059%.

  9. 48 CFR 952.204-71 - Sensitive foreign nations controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sensitive foreign nations... Sensitive foreign nations controls. In accordance with 904.404(d)(3), the contracting officer shall include the following clause: Sensitive Foreign Nations Controls (APR 1994) (a) In connection with...

  10. 48 CFR 952.204-71 - Sensitive foreign nations controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sensitive foreign nations... Sensitive foreign nations controls. In accordance with 904.404(d)(3), the contracting officer shall include the following clause: Sensitive Foreign Nations Controls (MAR 2011) (a) In connection with...

  11. Optimizing the Performance of a Plastic Dye Sensitized Solar Cell

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, B.; Buchholz, D.; Guo, P.; Hwang, D.; Chang, R.P.H.

    2011-05-19

    This article describes that a fluorine plasma treatment can increase the nanopore filling of a plastic electrolyte in a dye-sensitized solar cell to improve its performance. The one-step fluorine treatment can be used in a controlled way to increase the size of nanopores and nanochannels in the TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle electrode and, at the same time, passivate the TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle surfaces. In combination with the fluorine treatment, a sequential electrolyte filling process has been developed that allows the overall cell conversion efficiency to be increased by as much as 25%. The plastic-based electrolyte cells are found to be much more stable compared with their counterpart, the liquid electrolyte cells. Using this new process, and in combination with a photon confinement scheme, the overall cell efficiency can reach to about 9% using a masked frame measurement technique.

  12. nanostructures for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashad, M. M.; Shalan, A. E.

    2014-08-01

    Hierarchical architectures consisting of one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures are of great interest for potential use in energy and environmental applications in recent years. In this work, hierarchical tungsten oxide (WO3) has been synthesized via a facile hydrothermal route from ammonium metatungstate hydrate and implemented as photoelectrode for dye-sensitized solar cells. The urchin-like WO3 micro-patterns are constructed by self-organized nanoscale length 1D building blocks, which are single crystalline in nature, grown along (001) direction and confirm an orthorhombic crystal phase. The obtained powders were investigated by XRD, SEM, TEM and UV-Vis Spectroscopy. The photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells based on WO3 photoanodes was investigated. With increasing the calcination temperature of the prepared nanopowders, the light-electricity conversion efficiency ( η) was increased. The results were attributed to increase the crystallinity of the particles and ease of electron movement. The DSSC based on hierarchical WO3 showed a short-circuit current, an open-circuit voltage, a fill factor, and a conversion efficiency of 4.241 mA/cm2, 0.656 V, 66.74, and 1.85 %, respectively.

  13. Protons Sensitize Epithelial Cells to Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Minli; Hada, Megumi; Saha, Janapriya; Sridharan, Deepa M.; Pluth, Janice M.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2012-01-01

    Proton radiotherapy has gained more favor among oncologists as a treatment option for localized and deep-seated tumors. In addition, protons are a major constituent of the space radiation astronauts receive during space flights. The potential for these exposures to lead to, or enhance cancer risk has not been well studied. Our objective is to study the biological effects of low energy protons on epithelial cells and its propensity to enhance transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1)-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process occurring during tumor progression and critical for invasion and metastasis. Non-transformed mink lung epithelial cells (Mv1Lu) and hTERT- immortalized human esophageal epithelial cells (EPC) were used in this study. EMT was identified by alterations in cell morphology, EMT-related gene expression changes determined using real-time PCR, and EMT changes in specific cellular markers detected by immunostaining and western blotting. Although TGFβ1 treatment alone is able to induce EMT in both Mv1Lu and EPC cells, low energy protons (5 MeV) at doses as low as 0.1 Gy can enhance TGFβ1 induced EMT. Protons alone can also induce a mild induction of EMT. SD208, a potent TGFβ Receptor 1 (TGFβR1) kinase inhibitor, can efficiently block TGFβ1/Smad signaling and attenuate EMT induction. We suggest a model for EMT after proton irradiation in normal and cancerous tissue based on our results that showed that low and high doses of protons can sensitize normal human epithelial cells to mesenchymal transition, more prominently in the presence of TGFβ1, but also in the absence of TGFβ1. PMID:22844446

  14. Highly efficient photocathodes for dye-sensitized tandem solar cells.

    PubMed

    Nattestad, A; Mozer, A J; Fischer, M K R; Cheng, Y-B; Mishra, A; Bäuerle, P; Bach, U

    2010-01-01

    Thin-film dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) based on mesoporous semiconductor electrodes are low-cost alternatives to conventional silicon devices. High-efficiency DSCs typically operate as photoanodes (n-DSCs), where photocurrents result from dye-sensitized electron injection into n-type semiconductors. Dye-sensitized photocathodes (p-DSCs) operate in an inverse mode, where dye-excitation is followed by rapid electron transfer from a p-type semiconductor to the dye (dye-sensitized hole injection). Such p-DSCs and n-DSCs can be combined to construct tandem solar cells (pn-DSCs) with a theoretical efficiency limitation well beyond that of single-junction DSCs (ref. 4). Nevertheless, the efficiencies of such tandem pn-DSCs have so far been hampered by the poor performance of the available p-DSCs (refs 3, 5-15). Here we show for the first time that p-DSCs can convert absorbed photons to electrons with yields of up to 96%, resulting in a sevenfold increase in energy conversion efficiency compared with previously reported photocathodes. The donor-acceptor dyes, studied as photocathodic sensitizers, comprise a variable-length oligothiophene bridge, which provides control over the spatial separation of the photogenerated charge carriers. As a result, charge recombination is decelerated by several orders of magnitude and tandem pn-DSCs can be constructed that exceed the efficiency of their individual components. PMID:19946281

  15. Highly efficient photocathodes for dye-sensitized tandem solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nattestad, A.; Mozer, A. J.; Fischer, M. K. R.; Cheng, Y.-B.; Mishra, A.; Bäuerle, P.; Bach, U.

    2010-01-01

    Thin-film dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) based on mesoporous semiconductor electrodes are low-cost alternatives to conventional silicon devices. High-efficiency DSCs typically operate as photoanodes (n-DSCs), where photocurrents result from dye-sensitized electron injection into n-type semiconductors. Dye-sensitized photocathodes (p-DSCs) operate in an inverse mode, where dye-excitation is followed by rapid electron transfer from a p-type semiconductor to the dye (dye-sensitized hole injection). Such p-DSCs and n-DSCs can be combined to construct tandem solar cells (pn-DSCs) with a theoretical efficiency limitation well beyond that of single-junction DSCs (ref. 4). Nevertheless, the efficiencies of such tandem pn-DSCs have so far been hampered by the poor performance of the available p-DSCs (refs 3, 5-15). Here we show for the first time that p-DSCs can convert absorbed photons to electrons with yields of up to 96%, resulting in a sevenfold increase in energy conversion efficiency compared with previously reported photocathodes. The donor-acceptor dyes, studied as photocathodic sensitizers, comprise a variable-length oligothiophene bridge, which provides control over the spatial separation of the photogenerated charge carriers. As a result, charge recombination is decelerated by several orders of magnitude and tandem pn-DSCs can be constructed that exceed the efficiency of their individual components.

  16. Silencing of Taxol-Sensitizer Genes in Cancer Cells: Lack of Sensitization Effects

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shang-Lang; Chao, Chuck C.-K.

    2015-01-01

    A previous genome-wide screening analysis identified a panel of genes that sensitize the human non-small-cell lung carcinoma cell line NCI-H1155 to taxol. However, whether the identified genes sensitize other cancer cells to taxol has not been examined. Here, we silenced the taxol-sensitizer genes identified (acrbp, atp6v0d2, fgd4, hs6st2, psma6, and tubgcp2) in nine other cancer cell types (including lung, cervical, ovarian, and hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines) that showed reduced cell viability in the presence of a sub-lethal concentration of taxol. Surprisingly, none of the genes studied increased sensitivity to taxol in the tested panel of cell lines. As observed in H1155 cells, SKOV3 cells displayed induction of five of the six genes studied in response to a cell killing dose of taxol. The other cell types were much less responsive to taxol. Notably, four of the five inducible taxol-sensitizer genes tested (acrbp, atp6v0d2, psma6, and tubgcp2) were upregulated in a taxol-resistant ovarian cancer cell line. These results indicate that the previously identified taxol-sensitizer loci are not conserved genetic targets involved in inhibiting cell proliferation in response to taxol. Our findings also suggest that regulation of taxol-sensitizer genes by taxol may be critical for acquired cell resistance to the drug. PMID:26086592

  17. Eugenic metal-free sensitizers with double anchors for high performance dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Hung, Wei-I; Liao, You-Ya; Lee, Ting-Hui; Ting, Yu-Chien; Ni, Jen-Shyang; Kao, Wei-Siang; Lin, Jiann T; Wei, Tzu-Chien; Yen, Yung-Sheng

    2015-02-01

    A series of new phenothiazine-based dyes (HL5-HL7) with double acceptors/anchors have been synthesized and used as the sensitizers for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Among them, the HL7-based cell exhibits the best efficiency of 8.32% exceeding the N719-based cell (7.35%) by ∼13%. PMID:25555237

  18. Risk-Sensitive Control with Near Monotone Cost

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Anup; Borkar, V. S.; Suresh Kumar, K.

    2010-10-15

    The infinite horizon risk-sensitive control problem for non-degenerate controlled diffusions is analyzed under a 'near monotonicity' condition on the running cost that penalizes large excursions of the process.

  19. DNA repair and radiation sensitivity in mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, D.J.C.; Stackhouse, M. ); Chen, D.S. . Dept. of Radiation Oncology)

    1993-01-01

    Ionizing radiation induces various types of damage in mammalian cells including DNA single-strand breaks, DNA double-strand breaks (DSB), DNA-protein cross links, and altered DNA bases. Although human cells can repair many of these lesions there is little detailed knowledge of the nature of the genes and the encoded enzymes that control these repair processes. We report here on the cellular and genetic analyses of DNA double-strand break repair deficient mammalian cells. It has been well established that the DNA double-strand break is one of the major lesions induced by ionizing radiation. Utilizing rodent repair-deficient mutant, we have shown that the genes responsible for DNA double-strand break repair are also responsible for the cellular expression of radiation sensitivity. The molecular genetic analysis of DSB repair in rodent/human hybrid cells indicate that at least 6 different genes in mammalian cells are responsible for the repair of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks. Mapping and the prospect of cloning of human radiation repair genes are reviewed. Understanding the molecular and genetic basis of radiation sensitivity and DNA repair in man will provide a rational foundation to predict the individual risk associated with radiation exposure and to prevent radiation-induced genetic damage in the human population.

  20. DNA repair and radiation sensitivity in mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, D.J.C.; Stackhouse, M.; Chen, D.S.

    1993-02-01

    Ionizing radiation induces various types of damage in mammalian cells including DNA single-strand breaks, DNA double-strand breaks (DSB), DNA-protein cross links, and altered DNA bases. Although human cells can repair many of these lesions there is little detailed knowledge of the nature of the genes and the encoded enzymes that control these repair processes. We report here on the cellular and genetic analyses of DNA double-strand break repair deficient mammalian cells. It has been well established that the DNA double-strand break is one of the major lesions induced by ionizing radiation. Utilizing rodent repair-deficient mutant, we have shown that the genes responsible for DNA double-strand break repair are also responsible for the cellular expression of radiation sensitivity. The molecular genetic analysis of DSB repair in rodent/human hybrid cells indicate that at least 6 different genes in mammalian cells are responsible for the repair of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks. Mapping and the prospect of cloning of human radiation repair genes are reviewed. Understanding the molecular and genetic basis of radiation sensitivity and DNA repair in man will provide a rational foundation to predict the individual risk associated with radiation exposure and to prevent radiation-induced genetic damage in the human population.

  1. 41 CFR 109-1.5109 - Control of sensitive items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Control of sensitive...-INTRODUCTION 1.51-Personal Property Management Standards and Practices § 109-1.5109 Control of sensitive items... by each DOE activity/site, taking into consideration value, costs of administration, need for...

  2. 41 CFR 109-1.5109 - Control of sensitive items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control of sensitive...-INTRODUCTION 1.51-Personal Property Management Standards and Practices § 109-1.5109 Control of sensitive items... by each DOE activity/site, taking into consideration value, costs of administration, need for...

  3. A strategy to design novel structure photochromic sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wenjun; Wang, Jiaxing; Zheng, Zhiwei; Hu, Yue; Jin, Jiayu; Zhang, Qiong; Hua, Jianli

    2015-02-01

    Two sensitizers with novel structure were designed and synthetized by introducing photochromic bisthienylethene (BTE) group into the conjugated system. Thanks to the photochromic effect the sensitizers have under ultraviolet and visible light, the conjugated bridge can be restructured and the resulting two photoisomers showed different behaviors in photovoltaic devices. This opens up a new research way for the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs).

  4. A low recombination rate indolizine sensitizer for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Huckaba, Aron J; Yella, Aswani; Brogdon, Phillip; Scott Murphy, J; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja; Grätzel, Michael; Delcamp, Jared H

    2016-06-28

    A sensitizer incorporating a heavily alkylated surface blocking indolizine donor exhibits excellent light absorption and diminished recombination rates in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). DSC device efficiencies (up to 8%) using either I(-)/I3(-) or Co(bpy)3(2+/3+) redox shuttles were obtained, which compare favourably to the known excellent surface coverage co-sensitization dye, . PMID:27301449

  5. Decentralized control of uncertain systems via sensitivity models

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenwald, D.A.; Oezguener, U.

    1993-06-01

    In this paper, we present a decentralized strategy for optimal control of interconnected systems exhibiting parametric uncertainty. First, we demonstrate that sensitivity models for linear interconnected systems can be generated at each subsystem using only locally available information. Second, we present an optimal control law that incorporates sensitivity functions in the feedback path. The control scheme is completely decentralized and is proposed as a means of making the closed loop system less sensitive to parameter deviations. Finally, we give an example of an interconnected system and show how this control strategy is implemented.

  6. Performance of Caesalpinia sappan heartwood extract as photo sensitizer for dye sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananth, S.; Vivek, P.; Saravana Kumar, G.; Murugakoothan, P.

    2015-02-01

    A natural dye extracted from Caesalpinia sappan heartwood was used as photo sensitizer for the first time to fabricate titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles based dye sensitized solar cells. Brazilin and brazilein are the major pigments present in the natural dye and their optimized molecular structure were calculated using Density functional theory (DFT) at 6-31G (d) level. The HOMO-LUMO were performed to reveal the energy gap using optimized structure. Pure TiO2 nanoparticles in anatase phase were synthesized by sol-gel technique. The pure and natural dye sensitized TiO2 nanoparticles were subjected to structural, optical, spectral and morphological studies. Low cost and environment friendly dye sensitized solar cells were fabricated using natural dye sensitized TiO2 based photo anode. The solar light to electron conversion efficiency of Caesalpinia sappan heartwood extract sensitized dye sensitized solar cell is 1.1%.

  7. Space Station Freedom Beta Gimbal Control via Sensitivity Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenwald, David A.; Ozguner, Umit; Graham, Ronald E.

    1993-01-01

    Tracking control of the Space Station Freedom solar array beta gimbals is investigated. Of particular interest is the issue of control in the presence of uncertainty in gimbal friction parameters. Sensitivity functions are incorporated into the feedback loop to desensitize the gimbal control law to parameter variations. Simulation results indicated that one such sensitivity function improves the closed-loop performance of the gimbals in the presence of unexpected friction parameter dispersions.

  8. Punishment Sensitivity Predicts the Impact of Punishment on Cognitive Control

    PubMed Central

    Braem, Senne; Duthoo, Wout; Notebaert, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive control theories predict enhanced conflict adaptation after punishment. However, no such effect was found in previous work. In the present study, we demonstrate in a flanker task how behavioural adjustments following punishment signals are highly dependent on punishment sensitivity (as measured by the Behavioural Inhibition System (BIS) scale): Whereas low punishment-sensitive participants do show increased conflict adaptation after punishment, high punishment-sensitive participants show no such modulation. Interestingly, participants with a high punishment-sensitivity showed an overall reaction time increase after punishments. Our results stress the role of individual differences in explaining motivational modulations of cognitive control. PMID:24058520

  9. UMTRA project disposal cell cover biointrusion sensitivity assessment, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This study provides an analysis of potential changes that may take place in a Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal cell cover system as a result of plant biointrusion. Potential changes are evaluated by performing a sensitivity analysis of the relative impact of root penetrations on radon flux out of the cell cover and/or water infiltration into the cell cover. Data used in this analysis consist of existing information on vegetation growth on selected cell cover systems and information available from published studies and/or other available project research. Consistent with the scope of this paper, no new site-specific data were collected from UMTRA Project sites. Further, this paper does not focus on the issue of plant transport of radon gas or other contaminants out of the disposal cell cover though it is acknowledged that such transport has the potential to be a significant pathway for contaminants to reach the environment during portions of the design life of a disposal cell where plant growth occurs. Rather, this study was performed to evaluate the effects of physical penetration and soil drying caused by plant roots that have and are expected to continue to grow in UMTRA Project disposal cell covers. An understanding of the biological and related physical processes that take place within the cover systems of the UMTRA Project disposal cells helps the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) determine if the presence of a plant community on these cells is detrimental, beneficial, or of mixed value in terms of the cover system`s designed function. Results of this investigation provide information relevant to the formulation of a vegetation control policy.

  10. Gold nanoparticle sensitize radiotherapy of prostate cancer cells by regulation of the cell cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roa, Wilson; Zhang, Xiaojing; Guo, Linghong; Shaw, Andrew; Hu, Xiuying; Xiong, Yeping; Gulavita, Sunil; Patel, Samir; Sun, Xuejun; Chen, Jie; Moore, Ronald; Xing, James Z.

    2009-09-01

    Glucose-capped gold nanoparticles (Glu-GNPs) have been used to improve cellular targeting and radio-sensitization. In this study, we explored the mechanism of Glu-GNP enhanced radiation sensitivity in radiation-resistant human prostate cancer cells. Cell survival and proliferation were measured using MTT and clonogenic assay. Flow cytometry with staining by propidium iodide (PI) was performed to study the cell cycle changes induced by Glu-GNPs, and western blotting was used to determine the expression of p53 and cyclin proteins that correlated to cell cycle regulation. With 2 Gy of ortho-voltage irradiation, Glu-GNP showed a 1.5-2.0 fold enhancement in growth inhibition when compared to x-rays alone. Comparing the cell cycle change, Glu-GNPs induced acceleration in the G0/G1 phase and accumulation of cells in the G2/M phase at 29.8% versus 18.4% for controls at 24 h. G2/M arrest was accompanied by decreased expression of p53 and cyclin A, and increased expression of cyclin B1 and cyclin E. In conclusion, Glu-GNPs trigger activation of the CDK kinases leading to cell cycle acceleration in the G0/G1 phase and accumulation in the G2/M phase. This activation is accompanied by a striking sensitization to ionizing radiation, which may have clinical implications.

  11. A9C sensitive Cl− - accumulation in A. thaliana root cells during salt stress is controlled by internal and external calcium

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Livia; Plieth, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    The involvement of chloride in salt stress symptoms and salt tolerance mechanisms in plants has been less investigated in the past. Therefore, we studied the salt-induced chloride influx in Arabidopsis expressing the GFP-based anion indicator Clomeleon. High salt concentrations induce two phases of chloride influx. The fast kinetic phase is likely caused by membrane depolarization, and is assumed to be mediated by channels. This is followed by a slower "saturation" phase, where chloride is accumulated in the cytoplasm. Both phases of chloride uptake are dependent on the presence of external calcium. In general: with high [Ca2+] less chloride is accumulated in the cytoplasm. Surprisingly, also the internal calcium availability has an impact on chloride transport. A complete block of the second phase of chloride influx is achieved by the anion channel blocker A9C and trivalent cations (La3+, Gd3+, and Al3+). Other channel blockers and diuretics were found to inhibit the process partially. The results suggest that several transporter species are involved here, including electroneutral cation-chloride-cotransporters, and a part of chloride possibly enters the cells through cation channels after salt application. PMID:23603974

  12. Cardiac R-wave detector with automatic sensitivity control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gebben, V. D.; Webb, J. A., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    An electronic circuit that automatically changes its sensitivity was developed for detecting the bioelectric signal resulting from activation of the heart's ventricles. Regulation of sensitivity was accomplished with two feedback channels that maintain the sensitivity level between an upper and a lower limit. These limits are proportional to the R-wave amplitude. Tests on an experimental circuit demonstrated a capability to reject unwanted signal noise, illustrated difficulties encountered without sensitivity control, and presented closed loop transients which occurred for step changes in R-wave amplitude.

  13. A strategy to design novel structure photochromic sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wenjun; Wang, Jiaxing; Zheng, Zhiwei; Hu, Yue; Jin, Jiayu; Zhang, Qiong; Hua, Jianli

    2015-01-01

    Two sensitizers with novel structure were designed and synthetized by introducing photochromic bisthienylethene (BTE) group into the conjugated system. Thanks to the photochromic effect the sensitizers have under ultraviolet and visible light, the conjugated bridge can be restructured and the resulting two photoisomers showed different behaviors in photovoltaic devices. This opens up a new research way for the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). PMID:25716204

  14. A strategy to design novel structure photochromic sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenjun; Wang, Jiaxing; Zheng, Zhiwei; Hu, Yue; Jin, Jiayu; Zhang, Qiong; Hua, Jianli

    2015-01-01

    Two sensitizers with novel structure were designed and synthetized by introducing photochromic bisthienylethene (BTE) group into the conjugated system. Thanks to the photochromic effect the sensitizers have under ultraviolet and visible light, the conjugated bridge can be restructured and the resulting two photoisomers showed different behaviors in photovoltaic devices. This opens up a new research way for the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). PMID:25716204

  15. Cell size control in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Jonathan J.; Ewald, Jennifer C.; Skotheim, Jan M.

    2012-01-01

    Cell size is an important adaptive trait that influences nearly all aspects of cellular physiology. Despite extensive characterization of the cell cycle regulatory network, the molecular mechanismscoupling growth to division, and thereby controlling cell size, have remained elusive. Recent workin yeast has reinvigorated the size control field and suggested provocative mechanisms forthe distinct functions of setting and sensing cell size. Further examination of size sensing models based on spatial gradients and molecular titration, coupled with elucidation of the pathways responsible for nutrient-modulated target size, may reveal the fundamental principles of eukaryotic cell size control. PMID:22575477

  16. Improved Sensitivity Relations in State Constrained Optimal Control

    SciTech Connect

    Bettiol, Piernicola; Frankowska, Hélène; Vinter, Richard B.

    2015-04-15

    Sensitivity relations in optimal control provide an interpretation of the costate trajectory and the Hamiltonian, evaluated along an optimal trajectory, in terms of gradients of the value function. While sensitivity relations are a straightforward consequence of standard transversality conditions for state constraint free optimal control problems formulated in terms of control-dependent differential equations with smooth data, their verification for problems with either pathwise state constraints, nonsmooth data, or for problems where the dynamic constraint takes the form of a differential inclusion, requires careful analysis. In this paper we establish validity of both ‘full’ and ‘partial’ sensitivity relations for an adjoint state of the maximum principle, for optimal control problems with pathwise state constraints, where the underlying control system is described by a differential inclusion. The partial sensitivity relation interprets the costate in terms of partial Clarke subgradients of the value function with respect to the state variable, while the full sensitivity relation interprets the couple, comprising the costate and Hamiltonian, as the Clarke subgradient of the value function with respect to both time and state variables. These relations are distinct because, for nonsmooth data, the partial Clarke subdifferential does not coincide with the projection of the (full) Clarke subdifferential on the relevant coordinate space. We show for the first time (even for problems without state constraints) that a costate trajectory can be chosen to satisfy the partial and full sensitivity relations simultaneously. The partial sensitivity relation in this paper is new for state constraint problems, while the full sensitivity relation improves on earlier results in the literature (for optimal control problems formulated in terms of Lipschitz continuous multifunctions), because a less restrictive inward pointing hypothesis is invoked in the proof, and because

  17. NK sensitivity of neuroblastoma cells determined by a highly sensitive coupled luminescent method

    SciTech Connect

    Ogbomo, Henry; Hahn, Anke; Geiler, Janina; Michaelis, Martin; Doerr, Hans Wilhelm; Cinatl, Jindrich . E-mail: Cinatl@em.uni-frankfurt.de

    2006-01-06

    The measurement of natural killer (NK) cells toxicity against tumor or virus-infected cells especially in cases with small blood samples requires highly sensitive methods. Here, a coupled luminescent method (CLM) based on glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase release from injured target cells was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of interleukin-2 activated NK cells against neuroblastoma cell lines. In contrast to most other methods, CLM does not require the pretreatment of target cells with labeling substances which could be toxic or radioactive. The effective killing of tumor cells was achieved by low effector/target ratios ranging from 0.5:1 to 4:1. CLM provides highly sensitive, safe, and fast procedure for measurement of NK cell activity with small blood samples such as those obtained from pediatric patients.

  18. Myt3 suppression sensitizes islet cells to high glucose-induced cell death via Bim induction

    PubMed Central

    Tennant, B R; Vanderkruk, B; Dhillon, J; Dai, D; Verchere, C B; Hoffman, B G

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is a chronic disease that results from the body's inability to properly control circulating blood glucose levels. The loss of glucose homoeostasis can arise from a loss of β-cell mass because of immune-cell-mediated attack, as in type 1 diabetes, and/or from dysfunction of individual β-cells (in conjunction with target organ insulin resistance), as in type 2 diabetes. A better understanding of the transcriptional pathways regulating islet-cell survival is of great importance for the development of therapeutic strategies that target β-cells for diabetes. To this end, we previously identified the transcription factor Myt3 as a pro-survival factor in islets following acute suppression of Myt3 in vitro. To determine the effects of Myt3 suppression on islet-cell survival in vivo, we used an adenovirus to express an shRNA targeting Myt3 in syngeneic optimal and marginal mass islet transplants, and demonstrate that suppression of Myt3 impairs the function of marginal mass grafts. Analysis of grafts 5 weeks post-transplant revealed that grafts transduced with the shMyt3 adenovirus contained ~20% the number of transduced cells as grafts transduced with a control adenovirus. In fact, increased apoptosis and significant cell loss in the shMyt3-transduced grafts was evident after only 5 days, suggesting that Myt3 suppression sensitizes islet cells to stresses present in the early post-transplant period. Specifically, we find that Myt3 suppression sensitizes islet cells to high glucose-induced cell death via upregulation of the pro-apoptotic Bcl2 family member Bim. Taken together these data suggest that Myt3 may be an important link between glucotoxic and immune signalling pathways. PMID:27195679

  19. Myt3 suppression sensitizes islet cells to high glucose-induced cell death via Bim induction.

    PubMed

    Tennant, B R; Vanderkruk, B; Dhillon, J; Dai, D; Verchere, C B; Hoffman, B G

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is a chronic disease that results from the body's inability to properly control circulating blood glucose levels. The loss of glucose homoeostasis can arise from a loss of β-cell mass because of immune-cell-mediated attack, as in type 1 diabetes, and/or from dysfunction of individual β-cells (in conjunction with target organ insulin resistance), as in type 2 diabetes. A better understanding of the transcriptional pathways regulating islet-cell survival is of great importance for the development of therapeutic strategies that target β-cells for diabetes. To this end, we previously identified the transcription factor Myt3 as a pro-survival factor in islets following acute suppression of Myt3 in vitro. To determine the effects of Myt3 suppression on islet-cell survival in vivo, we used an adenovirus to express an shRNA targeting Myt3 in syngeneic optimal and marginal mass islet transplants, and demonstrate that suppression of Myt3 impairs the function of marginal mass grafts. Analysis of grafts 5 weeks post-transplant revealed that grafts transduced with the shMyt3 adenovirus contained ~20% the number of transduced cells as grafts transduced with a control adenovirus. In fact, increased apoptosis and significant cell loss in the shMyt3-transduced grafts was evident after only 5 days, suggesting that Myt3 suppression sensitizes islet cells to stresses present in the early post-transplant period. Specifically, we find that Myt3 suppression sensitizes islet cells to high glucose-induced cell death via upregulation of the pro-apoptotic Bcl2 family member Bim. Taken together these data suggest that Myt3 may be an important link between glucotoxic and immune signalling pathways. PMID:27195679

  20. Adenosine influences myeloid cells to inhibit aeroallergen sensitization.

    PubMed

    Pei, Hong; Linden, Joel

    2016-05-15

    Agonists of adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) suppress the activation of most immune cells and reduce acute inflammatory responses. Asthma is characterized by sensitization in response to initial allergen exposure and by airway hyperreactivity in response to allergen rechallenge. We sought to determine if A2AR activation with CGS-21680 (CGS) is more effective when CGS is administered during sensitization or rechallenge. C57BL/6 wild-type mice and Adora2a(f/f)LysMCre(+/-) mice, which lack A2ARs on myeloid cells, were sensitized with intranasal ovalbumin (OVA) and LPS. Airway sensitization was characterized by a rapid increase in numbers of IL-6(+) and IL-12(+) macrophages and dendritic cells in lungs. A2AR activation with CGS (0.1 μg·kg(-1)·min(-1) sc) only during sensitization reduced numbers of IL-6(+) and IL-12(+) myeloid cells in the lungs and reversed the effects of OVA rechallenge to increase airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. CGS treatment during sensitization also reduced the expansion of lung T helper (Th1 and Th17) cells and increased expansion of regulatory T cells in response to OVA rechallenge. Most of the effects of CGS administered during sensitization were eliminated by myeloid-selective A2AR deletion. Administration of CGS only during OVA rechallenge failed to reduce airway hyperresponsiveness. We conclude that myeloid cells are key targets of adenosine during sensitization and indirectly modify T cell polarization. The results suggest that a clinically useful strategy might be to use A2AR agonists to inhibit sensitization to new aeroallergens. We speculate that adenosine production by macrophages engulfing bacteria contributes to the curious suppression of sensitization in response to early-life infections. PMID:27016586

  1. Sensitivity Analysis and Optimal Control of Anthroponotic Cutaneous Leishmania

    PubMed Central

    Zamir, Muhammad; Zaman, Gul; Alshomrani, Ali Saleh

    2016-01-01

    This paper is focused on the transmission dynamics and optimal control of Anthroponotic Cutaneous Leishmania. The threshold condition R0 for initial transmission of infection is obtained by next generation method. Biological sense of the threshold condition is investigated and discussed in detail. The sensitivity analysis of the reproduction number is presented and the most sensitive parameters are high lighted. On the basis of sensitivity analysis, some control strategies are introduced in the model. These strategies positively reduce the effect of the parameters with high sensitivity indices, on the initial transmission. Finally, an optimal control strategy is presented by taking into account the cost associated with control strategies. It is also shown that an optimal control exists for the proposed control problem. The goal of optimal control problem is to minimize, the cost associated with control strategies and the chances of infectious humans, exposed humans and vector population to become infected. Numerical simulations are carried out with the help of Runge-Kutta fourth order procedure. PMID:27505634

  2. Sensitivity of Dendritic Cells to Microenvironment Signals

    PubMed Central

    Motta, Juliana Maria; Rumjanek, Vivian Mary

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells are antigen-presenting cells capable of either activating the immune response or inducing and maintaining immune tolerance. They do this by integrating stimuli from the environment and changing their functional status as a result of plasticity. The modifications suffered by these cells have consequences in the way the organism may respond. In the present work two opposing situations known to affect dendritic cells are analyzed: tumor growth, leading to a microenvironment that favors the induction of a tolerogenic profile, and organ transplantation, which leads to a proinflammatory profile. Lessons learned from these situations may help to understand the mechanisms of modulation resulting not only from the above circumstances, but also from other pathologies. PMID:27088097

  3. PCTAIRE1-knockdown sensitizes cancer cells to TNF family cytokines.

    PubMed

    Yanagi, Teruki; Shi, Ranxin; Aza-Blanc, Pedro; Reed, John C; Matsuzawa, Shu-ichi

    2015-01-01

    While PCTAIRE1/PCTK1/Cdk16 is overexpressed in malignant cells and is crucial in tumorigenesis, its function in apoptosis remains unclear. Here we investigated the role of PCTAIRE1 in apoptosis, especially in the extrinsic cell death pathway. Gene-knockdown of PCTAIRE1 sensitized prostate cancer PPC1 and Du145 cells, and breast cancer MDA-MB-468 cells to TNF-family cytokines, including TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). Meanwhile, PCTAIRE1-knockdown did not sensitize non-malignant cells, including diploid fibroblasts IMR-90 and the immortalized prostate epithelial cell line 267B1. PCTAIRE1-knockdown did not up-regulate death receptor expression on the cell surface or affect caspase-8, FADD and FLIP expression levels. PCTAIRE1-knockdown did promote caspase-8 cleavage and RIPK1 degradation, while RIPK1 mRNA knockdown sensitized PPC1 cells to TNF-family cytokines. Furthermore, the kinase inhibitor SNS-032, which inhibits PCTAIRE1 kinase activity, sensitized PPC1 cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Together these results suggest that PCTAIRE1 contributes to the resistance of cancer cell lines to apoptosis induced by TNF-family cytokines, which implies that PCTAIRE1 inhibitors could have synergistic effects with TNF-family cytokines for cytodestruction of cancer cells. PMID:25790448

  4. PCTAIRE1-Knockdown Sensitizes Cancer Cells to TNF Family Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Yanagi, Teruki; Shi, Ranxin; Aza-Blanc, Pedro; Reed, John C.; Matsuzawa, Shu-ichi

    2015-01-01

    While PCTAIRE1/PCTK1/Cdk16 is overexpressed in malignant cells and is crucial in tumorigenesis, its function in apoptosis remains unclear. Here we investigated the role of PCTAIRE1 in apoptosis, especially in the extrinsic cell death pathway. Gene-knockdown of PCTAIRE1 sensitized prostate cancer PPC1 and Du145 cells, and breast cancer MDA-MB-468 cells to TNF-family cytokines, including TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). Meanwhile, PCTAIRE1-knockdown did not sensitize non-malignant cells, including diploid fibroblasts IMR-90 and the immortalized prostate epithelial cell line 267B1. PCTAIRE1-knockdown did not up-regulate death receptor expression on the cell surface or affect caspase-8, FADD and FLIP expression levels. PCTAIRE1-knockdown did promote caspase-8 cleavage and RIPK1 degradation, while RIPK1 mRNA knockdown sensitized PPC1 cells to TNF-family cytokines. Furthermore, the kinase inhibitor SNS-032, which inhibits PCTAIRE1 kinase activity, sensitized PPC1 cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Together these results suggest that PCTAIRE1 contributes to the resistance of cancer cell lines to apoptosis induced by TNF-family cytokines, which implies that PCTAIRE1 inhibitors could have synergistic effects with TNF-family cytokines for cytodestruction of cancer cells. PMID:25790448

  5. The Radiative controls of the Earth's Hydrological Sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, G. L.

    2015-12-01

    It is commonly stated that the hydrological cycle 'intensifies' under global warming. It has also been posited that this intensification is realized as an increase in global precipitation that is a slave to the availability of water determined by thermodynamically constrained increases of water vapor. This increase in global precipitation is referred to as the hydrological sensitivity of the climate system and it is only indirectly controlled by water vapor but through the latters influence on radiative fluxes. These radiative controls of the hydrological sensitivity are illustrated by analysis of CMIP5 data and the factors that determine the magnitude of the sensitivity are emphasized. The role of hemispheric differences in radiation balance on the hydrological sensitivity is also described.

  6. NMR exposure sensitizes tumor cells to apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Ghibelli, L; Cerella, C; Cordisco, S; Clavarino, G; Marazzi, S; De Nicola, M; Nuccitelli, S; D'Alessio, M; Magrini, A; Bergamaschi, A; Guerrisi, V; Porfiri, L M

    2006-03-01

    NMR technology has dramatically contributed to the revolution of image diagnostic. NMR apparatuses use combinations of microwaves over a homogeneous strong (1 Tesla) static magnetic field. We had previously shown that low intensity (0.3-66 mT) static magnetic fields deeply affect apoptosis in a Ca2+ dependent fashion (Fanelli et al., 1999 FASEBJ., 13;95-102). The rationale of the present study is to examine whether exposure to the static magnetic fields of NMR can affect apoptosis induced on reporter tumor cells of haematopoietic origin. The impressive result was the strong increase (1.8-2.5 fold) of damage-induced apoptosis by NMR. This potentiation is due to cytosolic Ca2+ overload consequent to NMR-promoted Ca2+ influx, since it is prevented by intracellular (BAPTA-AM) and extracellular (EGTA) Ca2+ chelation or by inhibition of plasma membrane L-type Ca2+ channels. Three-days follow up of treated cultures shows that NMR decrease long term cell survival, thus increasing the efficiency of cytocidal treatments. Importantly, mononuclear white blood cells are not sensitised to apoptosis by NMR, showing that NMR may increase the differential cytotoxicity of antitumor drugs on tumor vs normal cells. This strong, differential potentiating effect of NMR on tumor cell apoptosis may have important implications, being in fact a possible adjuvant for antitumor therapies. PMID:16528477

  7. Stem cells: Balancing resistance and sensitivity to DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Julia C.; Lerou, Paul H.; Lahav, Galit

    2015-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells are known to be very sensitive to DNA damage and undergo rapid apoptosis even after low damage doses. In contrast, adult stem cells show variable sensitivity to damage. Here we describe the multiple pathways that have been proposed to affect the sensitivity of stem cells to damage, including proximity to the apoptotic threshold (mitochondrial priming) and the p53 signaling pathway, through activation of transcription or direct interaction with pro apoptotic proteins in the cytoplasm. We also discuss which cellular factors might connect mitochondrial priming with pluripotency and the potential therapeutic advances that can be achieved by better understanding the molecular mechanisms leading to sensitivity or resistance of embryonic or adult stem cells from different tissues. PMID:24721782

  8. On the sensitivity of intact cells to perturbation by ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Hitzemann, R.; Whitaker-Azmitia, P. ); Dains, K.; Lin, J. )

    1989-01-01

    A comparison was made of ethanol's effects on the order of plasma membranes in intact cells and some isolated membrane preparations. Order was assessed by steady-state fluorescence polarization techniques using the non-permeant probe, TMA-DPH. The data show that two cultured cells, rat neonatal astroglial and N2A neuroblastoma, were sensitive to significant ethanol-induced disordering within the anesthetically relevant range. Human erythrocytes, cultured fibroblasts and homogenized astroglial cells required higher ethanol concentrations to produce a similar effect. Intact erythrocytes were approximately twice as sensitive as erythrocyte ghost membranes to ethanol induced perturbation. The neonatal glial and N2A cells were approximately five times more sensitive than synaptic membranes to ethanol effects. DMPC and DMPC + cholesterol liposomes and myelin membranes were insensitive to ethanol's effects. The incorporation of 10 mole % ganglioside GM{sub 1} sensitized the liposomes to ethanol-induced perturbation.

  9. Cell-Size Control

    PubMed Central

    Amodeo, Amanda A.; Skotheim, Jan M.

    2015-01-01

    Cells of a given type maintain a characteristic cell size to function efficiently in their ecological or organismal context. They achieve this through the regulation of growth rates or by actively sensing size and coupling this signal to cell division. We focus this review on potential size-sensing mechanisms, including geometric, external cue, and titration mechanisms. Mechanisms that titrate proteins against DNA are of particular interest because they are consistent with the robust correlation of DNA content and cell size. We review the literature, which suggests that titration mechanisms may underlie cell-size sensing in Xenopus embryos, budding yeast, and Escherichia coli, whereas alternative mechanisms may function in fission yeast. PMID:26254313

  10. Pharmacological telomerase inhibition can sensitize drug-resistant and drug-sensitive cells to chemotherapeutic treatment.

    PubMed

    Ward, Ryan J; Autexier, Chantal

    2005-09-01

    Effective strategies to reverse or prevent chemotherapeutic resistance are required before cancer therapies can be curative. Telomerase is the ribonucleoprotein responsible for de novo synthesis and maintenance of telomeres, and its activity is predominantly observed in cancer cells. The telomerase enzyme has been successfully inhibited or inactivated to sensitize cells to cellular stresses; however, no studies have determined yet the effect of combining a pharmacological inhibitor of telomerase catalysis and traditional chemotherapeutics for the treatment of drug-sensitive or drug-resistant cancers. Here, we describe the effect of 2-[(E)-3-naphtalen-2-yl-but-2-enoylamino]-benzoic acid (BIBR1532), a small-molecule inhibitor of telomerase catalytic activity, on drug-resistant leukemia and breast cancer cells and their parental counterparts when treated in combination with chemotherapeutics. We observed that BIBR1532-treated cells show progressive telomere shortening, decreased proliferative capacity, and sensitization to chemotherapeutic treatment. These effects are telomere length-dependent, because cells insensitive to BIBR1532 or cells released from telomerase inhibition did not demonstrate changes in growth ability or drug sensitivity. Our novel observations suggest that pharmacological telomerase inhibition in combination therapy may be a valid strategy for the treatment of both drug-sensitive and drug-resistant cancers. PMID:15939802

  11. Global sensitivity analysis in control-augmented structural synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloebaum, Christina L.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, an integrated approach to structural/control design is proposed in which variables in both the passive (structural) and active (control) disciplines of an optimization process are changed simultaneously. The global sensitivity equation (GSE) method of Sobieszczanski-Sobieski (1988) is used to obtain the behavior sensitivity derivatives necessary for the linear approximations used in the parallel multidisciplinary synthesis problem. The GSE allows for the decoupling of large systems into smaller subsystems and thus makes it possible to determine the local sensitivities of each subsystem's outputs to its inputs and parameters. The advantages in using the GSE method are demonstrated using a finite-element representation of a truss structure equipped with active lateral displacement controllers, which is undergoing forced vibration.

  12. Controlling Cell Function with Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrksich, Milan

    2012-02-01

    This presentation will describe the use of patterned substrates to control cell shape with examples that illustrate the ways in which cell shape can regulate cell function. Most cells are adherent and must attach to and spread on a surface in order to survive, proliferate and function. In tissue, this surface is the extracellular matrix (ECM), an insoluble scaffold formed by the assembly of several large proteins---including fibronectin, the laminins and collagens and others---but in the laboratory, the surface is prepared by adsorbing protein to glass slides. To pattern cells, gold-coated slides are patterned with microcontact printing to create geometric features that promote cell attachment and that are surrounded by inert regions. Cells attach to these substrates and spread to adopt the shape defined by the underlying pattern and remain stable in culture for several days. Examples will be described that used a series of shapes to reveal the relationship between the shape of the cell and the structure of its cytoskeleton. These geometric cues were used to control cell polarity and the tension, or contractility, present in the cytoskeleton. These rules were further used to control the shapes of mesenchymal stem cells and in turn to control the differentiation of these cells into specialized cell types. For example, stem cells that were patterned into a ``star'' shape preferentially differentiated into bone cells whereas those that were patterned into a ``flower'' shape preferred a fat cell fate. These influences of shape on differentiation depend on the mechanical properties of the cytoskeleton. These examples, and others, reveal that shape is an important cue that informs cell function and that can be combined with the more common soluble cues to direct and study cell function.

  13. Humans are sensitive to attention control when predicting others' actions.

    PubMed

    Pesquita, Ana; Chapman, Craig S; Enns, James T

    2016-08-01

    Studies of social perception report acute human sensitivity to where another's attention is aimed. Here we ask whether humans are also sensitive to how the other's attention is deployed. Observers viewed videos of actors reaching to targets without knowing that those actors were sometimes choosing to reach to one of the targets (endogenous control) and sometimes being directed to reach to one of the targets (exogenous control). Experiments 1 and 2 showed that observers could respond more rapidly when actors chose where to reach, yet were at chance when guessing whether the reach was chosen or directed. This implicit sensitivity to attention control held when either actor's faces or limbs were masked (experiment 3) and when only the earliest actor's movements were visible (experiment 4). Individual differences in sensitivity to choice correlated with an independent measure of social aptitude. We conclude that humans are sensitive to attention control through an implicit kinematic process linked to empathy. The findings support the hypothesis that social cognition involves the predictive modeling of others' attentional states. PMID:27436897

  14. Transcriptional Control of NK Cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Joseph C

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphocytes that survey the environment and protect the host from infected and cancerous cells. As their name implies, NK cells represent an early line of defense during pathogen invasion by directly killing infected cells and secreting inflammatory cytokines. Although the function of NK cells was first described more than four decades ago, the development of this cytotoxic lineage is not well understood. In recent years, we have begun to identify specific transcription factors that control each stage of development and maturation, from ontogeny of the NK cell progenitor to the effector functions of activated NK cells in peripheral organs. This chapter highlights the transcription factors that are unique to NK cells, or shared between NK cells and other hematopoietic cell lineages, but govern the biology of this cytolytic lymphocyte. PMID:26177585

  15. Selective Calcium Sensitivity in Immature Glioma Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Marinescu, Voichita Dana; Segerman, Anna; Schmidt, Linnéa; Hermansson, Annika; Dirks, Peter; Forsberg-Nilsson, Karin; Westermark, Bengt; Uhrbom, Lene; Linnarsson, Sten; Nelander, Sven; Andäng, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Tumor-initiating cells are a subpopulation in aggressive cancers that exhibit traits shared with stem cells, including the ability to self-renew and differentiate, commonly referred to as stemness. In addition, such cells are resistant to chemo- and radiation therapy posing a therapeutic challenge. To uncover stemness-associated functions in glioma-initiating cells (GICs), transcriptome profiles were compared to neural stem cells (NSCs) and gene ontology analysis identified an enrichment of Ca2+ signaling genes in NSCs and the more stem-like (NSC-proximal) GICs. Functional analysis in a set of different GIC lines regarding sensitivity to disturbed homeostasis using A23187 and Thapsigargin, revealed that NSC-proximal GICs were more sensitive, corroborating the transcriptome data. Furthermore, Ca2+ drug sensitivity was reduced in GICs after differentiation, with most potent effect in the NSC-proximal GIC, supporting a stemness-associated Ca2+ sensitivity. NSCs and the NSC-proximal GIC line expressed a larger number of ion channels permeable to potassium, sodium and Ca2+. Conversely, a higher number of and higher expression levels of Ca2+ binding genes that may buffer Ca2+, were expressed in NSC-distal GICs. In particular, expression of the AMPA glutamate receptor subunit GRIA1, was found to associate with Ca2+ sensitive NSC-proximal GICs, and decreased as GICs differentiated along with reduced Ca2+ drug sensitivity. The correlation between high expression of Ca2+ channels (such as GRIA1) and sensitivity to Ca2+ drugs was confirmed in an additional nine novel GIC lines. Calcium drug sensitivity also correlated with expression of the NSC markers nestin (NES) and FABP7 (BLBP, brain lipid-binding protein) in this extended analysis. In summary, NSC-associated NES+/FABP7+/GRIA1+ GICs were selectively sensitive to disturbances in Ca2+ homeostasis, providing a potential target mechanism for eradication of an immature population of malignant cells. PMID:25531110

  16. Exploiting nanocarbons in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Kavan, Ladislav

    2014-01-01

    Fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, nanodiamond, and graphene find various applications in the development of solar cells, including dye sensitized solar cells. Nanocarbons can be used as (1) active light-absorbing component, (2) current collector, (3) photoanode additive, or (4) counter electrode. Graphene-based materials have attracted considerable interest for catalytic counter electrodes, particularly in state-of-the-art dye sensitized solar cells with Co-mediators. The understanding of electrochemical charge-transfer at carbon surfaces is key to optimization of these solar cells, but the electrocatalysis on carbon surfaces is still a subject of conflicting debate. Due to the rich palette of problems at the interface of nanocarbons and photovoltaics, this review is selective rather than comprehensive. Its motivation was to highlight selected prospective inputs from nanocarbon science towards the development of novel dye sensitized solar cells with improved efficiency, durability, and cost. PMID:23729170

  17. Phase sensitivity of complex cells in primary visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Hietanen, M A; Cloherty, S L; van Kleef, J P; Wang, C; Dreher, B; Ibbotson, M R

    2013-05-01

    Neurons in the primary visual cortex are often classified as either simple or complex based on the linearity (or otherwise) of their response to spatial luminance contrast. In practice, classification is typically based on Fourier analysis of a cell's response to an optimal drifting sine-wave grating. Simple cells are generally considered to be linear and produce responses modulated at the fundamental frequency of the stimulus grating. In contrast, complex cells exhibit significant nonlinearities that reduce the response at the fundamental frequency. Cells can therefore be easily and objectively classified based on the relative modulation of their responses - the ratio of the phase-sensitive response at the fundamental frequency of the stimulus (F₁) to the phase-invariant sustained response (F₀). Cells are classified as simple if F₁/F₀>1 and complex if F₁/F₀<1. This classification is broadly consistent with criteria based on the spatial organisation of cells' receptive fields and is accordingly presumed to reflect disparate functional roles of simple and complex cells in coding visual information. However, Fourier analysis of spiking responses is sensitive to the number of spikes available - F₁/F₀ increases as the number of spikes is reduced, even for phase-invariant complex cells. Moreover, many complex cells encountered in the laboratory exhibit some phase sensitivity, evident as modulation of their responses at the fundamental frequency. There currently exists no objective quantitative means of assessing the significance or otherwise of these modulations. Here we derive a statistical basis for objectively assessing whether the modulation of neuronal responses is reliable, thereby adding a level of statistical certainty to measures of phase sensitivity. We apply our statistical analysis to neuronal responses to moving sine-wave gratings recorded from 367 cells in cat primary visual cortex. We find that approximately 60% of complex cells exhibit

  18. Sensitivity of rat pancreatic A and B cells to somatostatin.

    PubMed

    Schuit, F C; Derde, M P; Pipeleers, D G

    1989-03-01

    Islet A and B cells were purified from the rat pancreas and examined for their respective sensitivity to somatostatin. Both somatostatin-14 (S14) and -28 (S28) inhibited glucagon and insulin release through direct interactions with the corresponding cell types. A dose-dependent suppression of the secretory activities was paralleled by a reduction in cellular cyclic AMP formation with similar ED50 values for both actions. The somatostatin effects on pancreatic hormone release may thus be mediated via an inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity. In pancreatic A cells, S14 and S28 were equally potent inhibitors with ED50 values ranging from 2 x 10(-12) to 2 x 10(-11) mol/l. Pancreatic B cells exhibited a similar sensitivity to S28 as the A cells (ED50 of 2 to 5 x 10(-11) mol/l), but not to S14 (ED50 of 2 x 10(-9) mol/l). Extrapolation of these in vitro sensitivities of islet A and B cells to the in vivo situation suggests that both cell types can respond to circulating S28 levels and that A cells are sensitive to both locally and distally released S14. Islet B cells appear insensitive to the normal peripheral S14 levels but could respond to locally released somatostatin. The marked difference in the sensitivities of islet A and B cells to S14 suggest that these cell types are equipped with different somatostatin receptors. This notion was further supported by the cell-selective actions of the synthetic S14 analogues [D-Trp8, D-Cys14]S14 and desAsn5[D-Trp8, D-Ser13]S14. PMID:2568961

  19. Fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer with controllable temperature sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinpu; Peng, Wei; Zhang, Yang

    2015-12-01

    We proposed a fiber taper based on the Fabry-Perot (FP) interferometer structure with controllable temperature sensitivity. The FP interferometer is formed by inserting a segment of tapered fiber tip into the capillary and subsequently splicing the other end of the capillary to a single-mode fiber (SMF), the tapered fiber endface, and the spliced face form the FP cavity. Through controlling the inserted tapered fiber length, a series of FP interferometers were made. Because the inserted taper tip has the degree of freedom along the fiber axial, when the FP interferometer is subjected to temperature variation, the thermal expansion of the fiber taper tip will resist the FP cavity length change caused by the evolution of capillary length, and we can control the temperature sensitivity by adjusting the inserted taper length. In this structure, the equivalent thermal expansion coefficient of the FP interferometer can be defined; it was used to evaluate the temperature sensitivity of the FP interferometer, which provides an effective method to eliminate the temperature effect and to enhance other measurement accuracy. We fabricated the FP interferometers and calibrated their temperature characters by measuring the wavelength shift of the resonance dips in the reflection spectrum. In a temperature range of 50°C to 150°C, the corresponding temperature sensitivities can be controlled between 0 and 1.97 pm/°C when the inserted taper is between 75 and 160 μm. Because of its controllable temperature sensitivity, ease of fabrication, and low cost, this FP interferometer can meet different temperature sensitivity requirements in various application areas, especially in the fields which need temperature insensitivity. PMID:26625075

  20. Development of Flexible Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xiaojuan

    2010-03-01

    We are developing a low cost and easy process to fabricate porous metal oxide thin films on flexible substrate for high performance dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The research addresses on the formulation of TiO2 precursor to create smooth and continuous porous thin films on large size plastic or metal foil substrates enabling excellent adhesion, robust mechanics, and chemical stability. The porous nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films are used as anode electrodes for attaching light sensitizers. The first trial is to blend a polymer to Ti alkoxide precursors at various concentrations. After depositing the mixture on the substrates, the substrates are baked, exposed to UV light, taken place wet or dry etch to remove polymers leading to a porous structure. An appropriate annealing process will be applied to TiO2 to turn it into crystalline. Alternative low temperature annealing method including steaming hydrothermal, plasma etches, and UV-ozone treatment will be tested with the annealing process controlled at low temperature.

  1. Labeling of mesenchymal stem cells for MRI with single-cell sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Ariza de Schellenberger, Angela; Kratz, Harald; Farr, Tracy D; Löwa, Norbert; Hauptmann, Ralf; Wagner, Susanne; Taupitz, Matthias; Schnorr, Jörg; Schellenberger, Eyk A

    2016-01-01

    Sensitive cell detection by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an important tool for the development of cell therapies. However, clinically approved contrast agents that allow single-cell detection are currently not available. Therefore, we compared very small iron oxide nanoparticles (VSOP) and new multicore carboxymethyl dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles (multicore particles, MCP) designed by our department for magnetic particle imaging (MPI) with discontinued Resovist(®) regarding their suitability for detection of single mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) by MRI. We achieved an average intracellular nanoparticle (NP) load of >10 pg Fe per cell without the use of transfection agents. NP loading did not lead to significantly different results in proliferation, colony formation, and multilineage in vitro differentiation assays in comparison to controls. MRI allowed single-cell detection using VSOP, MCP, and Resovist(®) in conjunction with high-resolution T2*-weighted imaging at 7 T with postprocessing of phase images in agarose cell phantoms and in vivo after delivery of 2,000 NP-labeled MSC into mouse brains via the left carotid artery. With optimized labeling conditions, a detection rate of ~45% was achieved; however, the experiments were limited by nonhomogeneous NP loading of the MSC population. Attempts should be made to achieve better cell separation for homogeneous NP loading and to thus improve NP-uptake-dependent biocompatibility studies and cell detection by MRI and future MPI. Additionally, using a 7 T MR imager equipped with a cryocoil resulted in approximately two times higher detection. In conclusion, we established labeling conditions for new high-relaxivity MCP, VSOP, and Resovist(®) for improved MRI of MSC with single-cell sensitivity. PMID:27110112

  2. Labeling of mesenchymal stem cells for MRI with single-cell sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Ariza de Schellenberger, Angela; Kratz, Harald; Farr, Tracy D; Löwa, Norbert; Hauptmann, Ralf; Wagner, Susanne; Taupitz, Matthias; Schnorr, Jörg; Schellenberger, Eyk A

    2016-01-01

    Sensitive cell detection by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an important tool for the development of cell therapies. However, clinically approved contrast agents that allow single-cell detection are currently not available. Therefore, we compared very small iron oxide nanoparticles (VSOP) and new multicore carboxymethyl dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles (multicore particles, MCP) designed by our department for magnetic particle imaging (MPI) with discontinued Resovist® regarding their suitability for detection of single mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) by MRI. We achieved an average intracellular nanoparticle (NP) load of >10 pg Fe per cell without the use of transfection agents. NP loading did not lead to significantly different results in proliferation, colony formation, and multilineage in vitro differentiation assays in comparison to controls. MRI allowed single-cell detection using VSOP, MCP, and Resovist® in conjunction with high-resolution T2*-weighted imaging at 7 T with postprocessing of phase images in agarose cell phantoms and in vivo after delivery of 2,000 NP-labeled MSC into mouse brains via the left carotid artery. With optimized labeling conditions, a detection rate of ~45% was achieved; however, the experiments were limited by nonhomogeneous NP loading of the MSC population. Attempts should be made to achieve better cell separation for homogeneous NP loading and to thus improve NP-uptake-dependent biocompatibility studies and cell detection by MRI and future MPI. Additionally, using a 7 T MR imager equipped with a cryocoil resulted in approximately two times higher detection. In conclusion, we established labeling conditions for new high-relaxivity MCP, VSOP, and Resovist® for improved MRI of MSC with single-cell sensitivity. PMID:27110112

  3. Large pi-aromatic molecules as potential sensitizers for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Imahori, Hiroshi; Umeyama, Tomokazu; Ito, Seigo

    2009-11-17

    Recently, dye-sensitized solar cells have attracted much attention relevant to global environmental issues. Thus far, ruthenium(II) bipyridyl complexes have proven to be the most efficient TiO(2) sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells. However, a gradual increment in the highest power conversion efficiency has been recognized in the past decade. More importantly, considering that ruthenium is a rare metal, novel dyes without metal or using inexpensive metal are desirable for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells. Large pi-aromatic molecules, such as porphyrins, phthalocyanines, and perylenes, are important classes of potential sensitizers for highly efficient dye-sensitized solar cells, owing to their photostability and high light-harvesting capabilities that can allow applications in thinner, low-cost dye-sensitized solar cells. Porphyrins possess an intense Soret band at 400 nm and moderate Q bands at 600 nm. Nevertheless, the poor light-harvesting properties relative to the ruthenium complexes have limited the cell performance of porphyrin-sensitized TiO(2) cells. Elongation of the pi conjugation and loss of symmetry in porphyrins cause broadening and a red shift of the absorption bands together with an increasing intensity of the Q bands relative to that of the Soret band. On the basis of the strategy, the cell performance of porphyrin-sensitized solar cells has been improved intensively by the enhanced light absorption. Actually, some push-pull-type porphyrins have disclosed a remarkably high power conversion efficiency (6-7%) that was close to that of the ruthenium complexes. Phthalocyanines exhibit strong absorption around 300 and 700 nm and redox features that are similar to porphyrins. Moreover, phthalocyanines are transparent over a large region of the visible spectrum, thereby enabling the possibility of using them as "photovoltaic windows". However, the cell performance was poor, owing to strong aggregation and lack of directionality in the

  4. Sensitizing cancer cells: Is it really all about U?

    PubMed Central

    Stover, Patrick J.; Weiss, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    In this issue of Cancer Cell, Hu et al. report that TMPK and RNR, two key enzymes in deoxyribonucleotide biosynthesis, co-localize to damaged DNA and produce nucleotides necessary for DNA repair while suppressing uracil incorporation. TMPK inhibition disrupts this balance and selectively sensitizes cancer cells to low-dose chemotherapy. PMID:22789532

  5. Risk Sensitive Control of Diffusions with Small Running Cost

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Anup

    2011-08-15

    Infinite horizon risk-sensitive control of diffusions is analyzed under a stability condition coupled with a bound on the running cost. It is shown that the corresponding Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation has a solution (w( Dot-Operator ),{lambda}{sup Asterisk-Operator }) where the scalar {lambda}{sup Asterisk-Operator} is in fact the optimal cost. This also leads to an existence result for optimal controls.

  6. 41 CFR 109-1.5109 - Control of sensitive items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... items. 109-1.5109 Section 109-1.5109 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property...-INTRODUCTION 1.51-Personal Property Management Standards and Practices § 109-1.5109 Control of sensitive items..., and other factors that management determines should apply. (b) Items of equipment which are...

  7. 41 CFR 109-1.5109 - Control of sensitive items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... items. 109-1.5109 Section 109-1.5109 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property...-INTRODUCTION 1.51-Personal Property Management Standards and Practices § 109-1.5109 Control of sensitive items..., and other factors that management determines should apply. (b) Items of equipment which are...

  8. Sensitivity method for integrated structure/active control law design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Michael G.

    1987-01-01

    The development is described of an integrated structure/active control law design methodology for aeroelastic aircraft applications. A short motivating introduction to aeroservoelasticity is given along with the need for integrated structures/controls design algorithms. Three alternative approaches to development of an integrated design method are briefly discussed with regards to complexity, coordination and tradeoff strategies, and the nature of the resulting solutions. This leads to the formulation of the proposed approach which is based on the concepts of sensitivity of optimum solutions and multi-level decompositions. The concept of sensitivity of optimum is explained in more detail and compared with traditional sensitivity concepts of classical control theory. The analytical sensitivity expressions for the solution of the linear, quadratic cost, Gaussian (LQG) control problem are summarized in terms of the linear regulator solution and the Kalman Filter solution. Numerical results for a state space aeroelastic model of the DAST ARW-II vehicle are given, showing the changes in aircraft responses to variations of a structural parameter, in this case first wing bending natural frequency.

  9. 41 CFR 109-1.5109 - Control of sensitive items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control of sensitive items. 109-1.5109 Section 109-1.5109 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS GENERAL...

  10. DNA repair and mutagen sensitivity of epithelial cells and lymphocytes in oropharyngeal cancer

    PubMed Central

    REITER, MAXIMILIAN; BAUMEISTER, PHILIPP; JAISER, SONJA; REISS, ANDREAS; SCHWENK-ZIEGER, SABINA; KLEINSASSER, NORBERT; HARRÉUS, ULRICH

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco-associated nitrosamines are known carcinogens causing DNA damage in epithelial cells of the head and neck. A matched case-control study was performed to evaluate the sensitivity of patients with squamous cell cancer (SCC) of the oropharynx, and controls to tobacco-associated nitrosamines. Quantitative DNA repair was evaluated following a period of 15 and 30 min. Fresh biopsies from 100 male donors of macroscopically healthy oropharyngeal cells and lymphocytes (50 SCC patients and 50 controls) were incubated with N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) or N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN). DNA damage in epithelial cells and lymphocytes was assessed using the comet assay. Following incubation with NDEA, cells underwent a period of DNA repair. All of the nitrosamines caused equivalent genotoxic damage in mucosal cells and lymphocytes of the two groups. Lymphocyte DNA repair capacity in the control group (26.8 and 37.1% after 15 and 30 min) was comparable to the tumor group (23.6 and 40.6%). However, epithelial cell DNA repair capacity of carcinoma patients was significantly reduced to 17.1% (15 min) and 23% (30 min) compared to the DNA repair of the control group (36.2%, 15 min and 46.0%, 30 min). Mutagen sensitivity was comparable in patients and controls. Thus, reduced epithelial cell DNA repair capacity of tumor patients is a possible endogenous risk factor for the development of head and neck squamous cell cancer. PMID:22740863

  11. Monobenzoporphyrins as Sensitizers for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: Observation of Significant Spacer-Group Effect.

    PubMed

    Jinadasa, R G Waruna; Li, Bihong; Schmitz, Benjamin; Kumar, Siddhartha; Hu, Yi; Kerr, Lei; Wang, Hong

    2016-08-23

    A series of monobenzoporphyrins (WH1-WH4) bearing different conjugated spacer groups were designed and synthesized as sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells. Although a phenyl spacer only has a minimal impact on the absorption bands of the monobenzoporphyrin, an ethynylphenyl (WH3) or a vinyl (WH4) spacer redshifts and broadens the absorption bands of the dyes to result in much enhanced light-harvesting ability. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on these monobenzoporphyrin dyes displayed remarkable differences in power conversion efficiencies (PCEs). The monobenzoporphyrin bearing no spacer (WH1) resulted in a PCE of only 0.5 %; in contrast, the monobenzoporphyrin bearing vinyl spacers (WH4) achieved a PCE of 5.2 %. The high efficiency of the WH4 cell is attributed to the higher light-harvesting ability, the lesser extent of aggregation on the TiO2 surface, and the more favorable electron-density distributions of the HOMO and LUMO for electron injection and collection. This work demonstrates the exceptional tunability of benzoporphyrins as sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells. PMID:27469616

  12. Interferon-gamma sensitizes colonic epithelial cell lines to physiological and therapeutic inducers of colonocyte apoptosis.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, J; Bennett, M W; Nally, K; O'Sullivan, G C; Collins, J K; Shanahan, F

    2000-12-01

    Homeostasis in the colonic epithelium is achieved by a continuous cycle of proliferation and apoptosis, in which imbalances are associated with disease. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and colon cancer are associated with either excessive or insufficient apoptosis of colonic epithelial cells, respectively. By using two colonic epithelial cell lines, HT29 and SW620, we investigated how the epithelial cell's sensitivity to apoptosis was regulated by the proinflammatory cytokine interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). We found that IFN-gamma sensitized HT29 cells, and to a lesser extent SW620, to diverse inducers of apoptosis of physiologic or therapeutic relevance to the colon. These apoptosis inducers included Fas (CD95/APO-1) ligand (FasL), short-chain fatty acids, and chemotherapeutic drugs. The extent of IFN-gamma-mediated apoptosis sensitization in these two cell lines correlated well with the degree of IFN-gamma-mediated upregulation of the proapoptotic protease caspase-1. Although IFN-gamma alone effectively sensitized HT29 cells to apoptosis, inclusion of the protein synthesis inhibitor cyclohexamide (CHX) during apoptotic challenge was necessary for maximal sensitization of SW620. The requirement of CHX to sensitize SW620 cells to apoptosis implies a need to inhibit translation of antiapoptotic proteins absent from HT29. In particular, the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 was strongly expressed in SW620 cells but absent from HT29. Our results indicate that IFN-gamma increases the sensitivity of colonic epithelial cells to diverse apoptotic stimuli in concert, via upregulation of caspase-1. Our findings implicate caspase-1 and Bcl-2 as important central points of control determining the general sensitivity of colonic epithelial cells to apoptosis. PMID:11056003

  13. Probenecid Sensitizes Neuroblastoma Cancer Stem Cells to Cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Campos-Arroyo, Denise; Maldonado, Vilma; Bahena, Ivan; Quintanar, Valeria; Patiño, Nelly; Carlos Martinez-Lazcano, Juan; Melendez-Zajgla, Jorge

    2016-03-15

    We used both in vitro cultures of neuroblastoma cell lines and nude-mice xenotransplants to explore the effects of co-administration of cisplatin and probenecid. Probenecid sensitized neuroblastoma cells, including tumor cells with stem features, to the effects of cisplatin, both in vitro and in vivo. This effect was mediated by an increase in the apoptotic cell death and a concomitant decrease in cell proliferation. This effect is accompanied by modulation of the mRNA and protein of the drug efflux transporters MDR1, MRP2, and BCRP. The co-administration of probenecid with cisplatin should be explored as a possible therapeutic strategy. PMID:26963048

  14. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells for Space Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Jerry D.; Hehemann, David G.; Duraj, Stan A.

    2003-01-01

    During the course of this grant, dye-sensitized solar cells were prepared and characterized. The solar cells were prepared using materials (dyes, electrolytes, transparent conductive oxide coated glass, nanocrystalline TiO2) entirely prepared in-house, as well as prepared using materials available commercially. Complete cells were characterized under simulated AM0 illumination. The best cell prepared at NASA had an AM0 efficiency of 1.22% for a 1.1 sq cm cell. Short circuit current (Isc), open circuit voltage (Voc) and fill factor (FF) for the cell were 6.95 mA, 618 mV and 42.8%, respectively. For comparison purposes, two commercially prepared dye-sensitized solar cells were obtained from Solaronix SA, Aubonne, Switzerland. The Solaronix cells were also characterized under simulated AM0 illumination. The best cell from Solaronix had an active area of 3.71 sq cm and measured an AM0 efficiency of 3.16%. with Isc, Voc and FF of 45.80 mA, 669.6 mV and 52.3%, respectively. Both cells from Solaronix were rapid thermal cycled between -80 C and 80 C. Thermal cycling led to a 4.6% loss of efficiency in one of the cells and led to nearly a complete failure in the second cell.

  15. Insulin receptor substrate 1 expression enhances the sensitivity of 32D cells to chemotherapy-induced cell death

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Holly A.; Carey, Gregory B.; Keegan, Achsah D.

    2012-01-01

    The adaptors IRS1 and IRS2 link growth factor receptors to downstream signaling pathways that regulate proliferation and survival. Both suppress factor-withdrawal-induced apoptosis and have been implicated in cancer progression. However, recent studies suggest IRS1 and IRS2 mediate differential functions in cancer pathogenesis. IRS1 promoted breast cancer proliferation, while IRS2 promoted metastasis. The role of IRS1 and IRS2 in controlling cell responses to chemotherapy is unknown. To determine the role of IRS1 and IRS2 in the sensitivity of cells to chemotherapy, we treated 32D cells lacking or expressing IRS proteins with various concentrations of chemotherapeutic agents. We found that expression of IRS1, in contrast to IRS2, enhanced the sensitivity of 32D cells to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. When IRS2 was expressed with IRS1, the cells no longer showed enhanced sensitivity. Expression of IRS1 did not alter the expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins; however, 32D-IRS1 cells expressed higher levels of Annexin A2. In 32D-IRS1 cells, IRS1 and Annexin A2 were both located in cytoplasmic and membrane fractions. We also found that IRS1 coprecipitated with Annexin A2, while IRS2 did not. Decreasing Annexin A2 levels reduced 32D-IRS1 cell sensitivity to chemotherapy. These results suggest IRS1 enhances sensitivity to chemotherapy in part through Annexin A2. PMID:22652453

  16. Near-infrared squaraine co-sensitizer for high-efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Rao, G Hanumantha; Venkateswararao, A; Giribabu, L; Han, Liyuan; Bedja, Idriss; Gupta, Ravindra Kumar; Islam, Ashraful; Singh, Surya Prakash

    2016-06-01

    A combination of squaraine-based dyes (SPSQ1 and SPSQ2) and a ruthenium-based dye (N3) were chosen as co-sensitizers to construct efficient dye-sensitized solar cells. The co-sensitization of squaraine dyes with N3 enhanced their light-harvesting properties as a result of the broad spectral coverage in the region 350-800 nm. The co-sensitized solar cells based on SPSQ2 + N3 showed the highest short circuit current density of 17.10 mA cm(-2), an open circuit voltage of 0.66 V and a fill factor of 0.73, resulting in the highest power conversion efficiency of 8.2%, which is higher than that of the dye-sensitized solar cells based on the individual SPSQ1 and SPSQ2 dyes. The high power conversion efficiency of SPSQ2 + N3 was ascribed to its good light-harvesting properties, which resulted from its broader incident photon current conversion spectrum than that of the individual dyes. The high electron life time and electron recombination, which were the main causes of the higher efficiency of the device, were successfully analysed and correlated using transient absorption spectrometry and intensity-modulated photovoltage spectrometry. PMID:27167491

  17. Indomethacin sensitizes resistant transformed cells to macrophage cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Totary-Jain, Hana; Sionov, Ronit Vogt; Gallily, Ruth

    2016-08-01

    Activated macrophages are well known to exhibit anti-tumor properties. However, certain cell types show intrinsic resistance. Searching for a mechanism that could explain this phenomenon, we observed that the supernatant of resistant cells could confer resistance to otherwise sensitive tumor cells, suggesting the presence of a secreted suppressor factor. The effect was abolished upon dialysis, indicating that the suppressor factor has a low molecular weight. Further studies showed that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is secreted by the resistant tumor cells and that inhibition of PGE2 production by indomethacin, a cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor, eliminated the macrophage suppression factor from the supernatant, and sensitized the resistant tumor cells to macrophage cytotoxicity. This study emphasizes the important role of tumor-secreted PGE2 in escaping macrophage surveillance and justifies the use of COX inhibitors as an adjuvant for improving tumor immunotherapy. PMID:27210423

  18. Controlled reflectance solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Dill, H.G.; Lillington, D.R.

    1989-06-13

    A solar cell is described comprising: A semiconductor body having a front layer of a first conductivity type and an adjacent back layer of a second conductivity type opposite of the first conductivity type. The front and back layers form front and back major surfaces, respectively the semiconductor body further having openings through the back major surface and back layer which form recesses extending to the front layer. The recesses having walls which are doped to the first conductivity type; a first electrical contact disposed in the recesses making electrical contact the first conductivity type layer; and a second electrical contact disposed on the back major surface making electrical contact to the second conductivity type layer.

  19. Integrative "omic" analysis for tamoxifen sensitivity through cell based models.

    PubMed

    Weng, Liming; Ziliak, Dana; Lacroix, Bonnie; Geeleher, Paul; Huang, R Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    It has long been observed that tamoxifen sensitivity varies among breast cancer patients. Further, ethnic differences of tamoxifen therapy between Caucasian and African American have also been reported. Since most studies have been focused on Caucasian people, we sought to comprehensively evaluate genetic variants related to tamoxifen therapy in African-derived samples. An integrative "omic" approach developed by our group was used to investigate relationships among endoxifen (an active metabolite of tamoxifen) sensitivity, SNP genotype, mRNA and microRNA expressions in 58 HapMap YRI lymphoblastoid cell lines. We identified 50 SNPs that associate with cellular sensitivity to endoxifen through their effects on 34 genes and 30 microRNA expression. Some of these findings are shared in both Caucasian and African samples, while others are unique in the African samples. Among gene/microRNA that were identified in both ethnic groups, the expression of TRAF1 is also correlated with tamoxifen sensitivity in a collection of 44 breast cancer cell lines. Further, knock-down TRAF1 and over-expression of hsa-let-7i confirmed the roles of hsa-let-7i and TRAF1 in increasing tamoxifen sensitivity in the ZR-75-1 breast cancer cell line. Our integrative omic analysis facilitated the discovery of pharmacogenomic biomarkers that potentially affect tamoxifen sensitivity. PMID:24699530

  20. Cell cycle control in Alphaproteobacteria.

    PubMed

    Collier, Justine

    2016-04-01

    Alphaproteobacteria include many medically and environmentally important organisms. Despite the diversity of their niches and lifestyles, from free-living to host-associated, they usually rely on very similar mechanisms to control their cell cycles. Studies on Caulobacter crescentus still lay the foundation for understanding the molecular details of pathways regulating DNA replication and cell division and coordinating these two processes with other events of the cell cycle. This review highlights recent discoveries on the regulation and the mode of action of conserved global regulators and small molecules like c-di-GMP and (p)ppGpp, which play key roles in cell cycle control. It also describes several newly identified mechanisms that modulate cell cycle progression in response to stresses or environmental conditions. PMID:26871482

  1. Calcium influences sensitivity to growth inhibition induced by a cell surface sialoglycopeptide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betz, N. A.; Fattaey, H. K.; Johnson, T. C.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    While studies concerning mitogenic factors have been an important area of research for many years, much less is understood about the mechanisms of action of cell surface growth inhibitors. We have purified an 18 kDa cell surface sialoglycopeptide growth inhibitor (CeReS-18) which can reversibly inhibit the proliferation of diverse cell types. The studies discussed in this article show that three mouse keratinocyte cell lines exhibit sixty-fold greater sensitivity than other fibroblasts and epithelial-like cells to CeReS-18-induced growth inhibition. Growth inhibition induced by CeReS-18 treatment is a reversible process, and the three mouse keratinocyte cell lines exhibited either single or multiple cell cycle arrest points, although a predominantly G0/G1 cell cycle arrest point was exhibited in Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts. The sensitivity of the mouse keratinocyte cell lines to CeReS-18-induced growth inhibition was not affected by the degree of tumorigenic progression in the cell lines and was not due to differences in CeReS-18 binding affinity or number of cell surface receptors per cell. However, the sensitivity of both murine fibroblasts and keratinocytes could be altered by changing the extracellular calcium concentration, such that increased extracellular calcium concentrations resulted in decreased sensitivity to CeReS-18-induced proliferation inhibition. Thus the increased sensitivity of the murine keratinocyte cell lines to CeReS-18 could be ascribed to the low calcium concentration used in their propagation. Studies are currently under way investigating the role of calcium in CeReS-18-induced growth arrest. The CeReS-18 may serve as a very useful tool to study negative growth control and the signal transduction events associated with cell cycling.

  2. Multidisciplinary optimization of controlled space structures with global sensitivity equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padula, Sharon L.; James, Benjamin B.; Graves, Philip C.; Woodard, Stanley E.

    1991-01-01

    A new method for the preliminary design of controlled space structures is presented. The method coordinates standard finite element structural analysis, multivariable controls, and nonlinear programming codes and allows simultaneous optimization of the structures and control systems of a spacecraft. Global sensitivity equations are a key feature of this method. The preliminary design of a generic geostationary platform is used to demonstrate the multidisciplinary optimization method. Fifteen design variables are used to optimize truss member sizes and feedback gain values. The goal is to reduce the total mass of the structure and the vibration control system while satisfying constraints on vibration decay rate. Incorporating the nonnegligible mass of actuators causes an essential coupling between structural design variables and control design variables. The solution of the demonstration problem is an important step toward a comprehensive preliminary design capability for structures and control systems. Use of global sensitivity equations helps solve optimization problems that have a large number of design variables and a high degree of coupling between disciplines.

  3. Adoptive cell transfer of contact sensitivity-initiation mediated by nonimmune cells sensitized with monoclonal IgE antibodies. Dependence on host skin mast cells.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, H; Ushio, H; Paliwal, V; Ptak, W; Askenase, P W

    1995-05-15

    A role for mast cell release of serotonin (5-HT), via Ag-specific factors derived from Thy-1+ B220+ lymphoid cells in the initiation of murine contact sensitivity (CS) has been suggested. However, because CS in mast cell-deficient mice was intact, a role for mast cells in CS initiation was unclear. Therefore, we examined whether CS could be initiated by i.v. injection of nonimmune mixed lymphoid cells that were sensitized in vitro with IgE. When naive mice received IgE-sensitized nonimmune spleen or lymph node cells, or IgE-sensitized purified mast cells, together with immune CS-effector B220- T cells, which therefore were depleted of CS-initiating, Thy-1+, B220+ cells, which could not transfer CS, then reconstitution of CS occurred. Mast cell-deficient W/Wv mice could not elicit this IgE-dependent CS ear swelling, but when mast cell deficiency was reversed by ear injection of normal bone marrow-derived cultured mast cells, then CS was restored. In vitro pretreatment with irrelevant monoclonal anti-OVA IgE prevented CS initiation mediated by Ag-specific, IgE mAb-sensitized cells, presumably by blocking sensitization with IgE. Thus Fc epsilon R on the normal lymphoid cells were involved. When ketanserin, a 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, was injected i.v. before cell transfer, CS initiation via IgE-sensitized cells and CS were no longer elicited. Thus, in this system, IgE Abs bound to circulating IgE Fc epsilon R bearing lymphoid cells sensitized in vitro (most likely basophils), probably mediated early activation of these circulating basophils to release mediators, causing 5-HT release from cutaneous mast cells, to mediate CS initiation. PMID:7730614

  4. Space Environmental Testing of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Jerry D.; Anglin, Emily J.; Hepp, Aloysius F.; Bailey, Sheila G.; Scheiman, David A.; Castro, Stephenie L.; Lyons, Valerie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Recent advances in nanocrystalline dye-sensitized solar cells has lead NASA to investigate the potential of these devices for space power generation, Reported here is the first space environment characterization of these type of photovoltaic devices. Cells containing liquid electrolytes were exposed to simulated low-earth orbit conditions and their performance evaluated. All cells were characterized under simulated air mass zero (AMO) illumination. Complete cells were exposed to pressures less than 1 x 10(exp -7) torr for over a month, with no sign of sealant failure or electrolyte leakage. Cells from Solaronix SA were rapid thermal cycled under simulated low-earth orbit conditions. The cells were cycled 100 times from -80 C to 80 C, which is equivalent to 6 days in orbit. The best cell had a 4.6% loss in efficiency as a result of the thermal cycling,

  5. Etoposide sensitizes neuroblastoma cells expressing caspase 8 to TRAIL.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Ryung; Lee, Myoung Woo; Kim, Dae Seong; Jo, Ha Yeong; Lee, Soo Hyun; Chueh, Hee Won; Jung, Hye Lim; Yoo, Keon Hee; Sung, Ki Woong; Koo, Hong Hoe

    2012-01-01

    TRAIL [TNF (tumour necrosis factor)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand] is a promising agent for clinical use since it kills a wide range of tumour cells without affecting normal cells. We provide evidence that pretreatment with etoposide significantly enhanced TRAIL-mediated apoptosis via up-regulation of DR5 (death receptor 5 or TRAIL-R2) expression in the caspase 8 expressing neuroblastoma cell line, SK-N-MC. In addition, sequential treatment with etoposide and TRAIL increased caspases 8, 9 and 3 activation, Mcl-1 cleavage and Bid truncation, which suggests that the ability of etoposide and TRAIL to induce apoptosis is mediated through activation of an intrinsic signalling pathway. Although TRAIL-R2 expression increased in IMR-32 cells in response to etoposide treatment, cell death was not increased by concurrent treatment with TRAIL compared with etoposide alone, because the cells lacked caspase 8 expression. Restoration of caspase 8 expression by exposure to IFNγ (interferon γ) sensitizes IMR-32 cells to TRAIL. Moreover, pretreatment with etoposide increased TRAIL-induced apoptosis in caspase 8 restored IMR-32 cells through activation of a caspase cascade that included caspases 8, 9 and 3. These results indicate that the etoposide-mediated sensitization of neuroblastoma cells to TRAIL is associated with an increase in TRAIL-R2 expression and requires caspase 8 expression. These observations support the potential use of a combination of etoposide and TRAIL in future clinical trials. PMID:23124518

  6. Quinacrine sensitizes hepatocellular carcinoma cells to TRAIL and chemotherapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenge; Gallant, Jean-Nicolas; Katz, Sharyn I; Dolloff, Nathan G; Smith, Charles D; Abdulghani, Junaid; Allen, Joshua E; Dicker, David T; Hong, Bo; Navaraj, Arunasalam; El-Deiry, Wafik S

    2011-08-01

    Quinacrine has been widely explored in treatment of malaria, giardiasis, and rheumatic diseases. We find that quinacrine stabilizes p53 and induces p53-dependent and independent cell death. Treatment by quinacrine alone at concentrations of 10-20 mM for 1-2 d cannot kill hepatocellular carcinoma cells, such as HepG2, Hep3B, Huh7, which are also resistant to TRAIL. However, quinacrine renders these cells sensitive to treatment by TRAIL. Co-treatment of these cells with quinacrine and TRAIL induces overwhelming cell death within 3-4 h. Levels of DR5, a pro-apoptotic death receptor of TRAIL, are increased upon treatment with quinacrine, while levels of Mcl-1, an anti-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family, are decreased. While the synergistic effect of quinacrine with TRAIL appears to be in part independent of p53, knockdown of p53 in HepG2 cells by siRNA results in more cell death after treatment by quinacrine and TRAIL. The mechanism by which quinacrine sensitizes hepatocellular carcinoma cells to TRAIL and chemotherapies, and the potential for clinical application currently are being further explored. Lastly, quinacrine synergizes with chemotherapeutics, such as adriamycin, 5-FU, etoposide, CPT11, sorafenib, and gemcitabine, in killing hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro and the drug enhances the activity of sorafenib to delay tumor growth in vivo. PMID:21725212

  7. Benzoporphyrins: Selective Co-sensitization in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Lodermeyer, Fabian; Costa, Rubén D; Malig, Jenny; Jux, Norbert; Guldi, Dirk M

    2016-06-01

    A novel class of dyes, namely benzoporphyrins, was synthesized and implemented into dye-sensitized solar cells. They feature complementary absorptions compared to N719, which renders them promising candidates for co-sensitization in DSSCs. Notably, metallated benzoporphyrins reveal a TiO2 -nanoparticle attachment that is size and aggregation dependent. Therefore, unproductive energy-transfer events between the selectively attached dyes can be prevented. In light of the latter, an efficiency improvement of 39 % has been achieved upon selective adsorption of benzoporphyrins and N719 onto different layers of TiO2 photoelectrode. PMID:27105771

  8. Mesenchymal stem cells are sensitive to bleomycin treatment

    PubMed Central

    Nicolay, Nils H.; Rühle, Alexander; Perez, Ramon Lopez; Trinh, Thuy; Sisombath, Sonevisay; Weber, Klaus-Josef; Ho, Anthony D.; Debus, Jürgen; Saffrich, Rainer; Huber, Peter E.

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown to attenuate pulmonary damage induced by bleomycin-based anticancer treatments, but the influence of bleomycin on the stem cells themselves remains largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that human bone marrow-derived MSCs are relatively sensitive to bleomycin exposure compared to adult fibroblasts. MSCs revealed increased levels of apoptosis after bleomycin treatment, while cellular morphology, stem cell surface marker expression and the ability for adhesion and migration remained unchanged. Bleomycin treatment also resulted in a reduced adipogenic differentiation potential of these stem cells. MSCs were found to efficiently repair DNA double strand breaks induced by bleomycin, mostly through non-homologous end joining repair. Low mRNA and protein expression levels of the inactivating enzyme bleomycin hydrolase were detected in MSCs that may contribute to the observed bleomycin-sensitive phenotype of these cells. The sensitivity of MSCs against bleomycin needs to be taken into consideration for ongoing and future treatment protocols investigating these stem cells as a potential treatment option for bleomycin-induced pulmonary damage in the clinic. PMID:27215195

  9. Peptide-templating dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Tae Hee; Moon, Hyoung-Seok; Hwang, Jin Ok; Seok, Sang Il; Im, Sang Hyuk; Kim, Sang Ouk

    2010-05-01

    A hollow TiO(2) nanoribbon network electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) was fabricated by a biotemplating process combining peptide self-assembly and atomic layer deposition (ALD). An aromatic peptide of diphenylalanine was assembled into a three-dimensional network consisting of highly entangled nanoribbons. A thin TiO(2) layer was deposited at the surface of the peptide template via the ALD process. After the pyrolysis of the peptide template, a highly entangled nanotubular TiO(2) framework was successfully prepared. Evolution of the crystal phase and crystallite size of the TiO(2) nanostructure was exploited by controlling the calcination temperature. Finally, the hollow TiO(2) nanoribbon network electrode was integrated into DSSC devices and their photochemical performances were investigated. Hollow TiO(2) nanoribbon-based DSSCs exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 3.8%, which is comparable to the conventional TiO(2) nanoparticle-based DSSCs (3.5%). Our approach offers a novel pathway for DSSCs consisting of TiO(2) electrodes via biotemplating. PMID:20378945

  10. Peptide-templating dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Tae Hee; Moon, Hyoung-Seok; Hwang, Jin Ok; Seok, Sang Il; Im, Sang Hyuk; Ouk Kim, Sang

    2010-05-01

    A hollow TiO2 nanoribbon network electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) was fabricated by a biotemplating process combining peptide self-assembly and atomic layer deposition (ALD). An aromatic peptide of diphenylalanine was assembled into a three-dimensional network consisting of highly entangled nanoribbons. A thin TiO2 layer was deposited at the surface of the peptide template via the ALD process. After the pyrolysis of the peptide template, a highly entangled nanotubular TiO2 framework was successfully prepared. Evolution of the crystal phase and crystallite size of the TiO2 nanostructure was exploited by controlling the calcination temperature. Finally, the hollow TiO2 nanoribbon network electrode was integrated into DSSC devices and their photochemical performances were investigated. Hollow TiO2 nanoribbon-based DSSCs exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 3.8%, which is comparable to the conventional TiO2 nanoparticle-based DSSCs (3.5%). Our approach offers a novel pathway for DSSCs consisting of TiO2 electrodes via biotemplating.

  11. Interfacial Engineering for Quantum-Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chao; Fichou, Denis; Wang, Qing

    2016-04-20

    Quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs) are promising solar-energy-conversion devices, as low-cost alternatives to the prevailing photovoltaic technologies. Compared with molecular dyes, nanocrystalline quantum dot (QD) light absorbers exhibit higher molar extinction coefficients and a tunable photoresponse. However, the power-conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of QDSCs are generally below 9.5 %, far behind their molecular sensitizer counterparts (up to 13 %). These low PCEs have been attributed to a large free-energy loss during sensitizer regeneration, energy loss during the charge-carrier transport and transfer processes, and inefficient charge separation at the QD/electrolyte interfaces, and various interfacial engineering strategies for enhancing the PCE and cell stability have been reported. Herein, we review recent progress in the interfacial engineering of QDSCs and discuss future prospects for the development of highly efficient and stable QDSCs. PMID:26879244

  12. Isolation of Temperature-Sensitive Mutants of L-Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, L. H.; Mankovitz, R.; Baker, R. M.; Till, J. E.; Siminovitch, L.; Whitmore, G. F.

    1970-01-01

    Procedures are described for the isolation of conditional lethal mutants of mouse L-60T cells. The mutant lines were temperature sensitive by the following criteria: (a) colony-forming ability, (b) growth in suspension culture, and (c) rate of uptake of tritiated-thymidine. Images PMID:5271170

  13. Aerogel tempelated ZnO dye-sensitized solar cells.

    SciTech Connect

    Hamann, T. W.; Martinson , A. B. E.; Elam, J. W.; Pellin, M. J.; Hupp, J. T.; Materials Science Division; Northwestern Univ.

    2008-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition is employed to conformally coat low density, high surface area aerogel films with ZnO. The ZnO/aerogel membranes are incorporated as photoanodes in dye-sensitized solar cells, which exhibit excellent power efficiencies of up to 2.4% under 100 mW cm{sup -2} light intensity.

  14. Sensitivity of breast cancer cells to erlotinib depends on cyclin-dependent kinase 2 activity

    PubMed Central

    Yamasaki, Fumiyuki; Zhang, Dongwei; Bartholomeusz, Chandra; Sudo, Tamotsu; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N.; Kurisu, Kaoru; Ueno, Naoto T.

    2008-01-01

    Inhibitors of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinases,such as erlotinib and gefitinib, have not been very effective in the treatment of breast cancer although many breast cancer cells express EGFR. To address this apparent paradox, we examined possible predictors of the sensitivity of 10 breast cancer cell lines to erlotinib in light of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), considered the farthest downstream kinase that controls cell cycling in the EGFR signaling pathway. Expression of EGFR and HER2 were not associated with sensitivity to erlotinib. Expression of phosphorylated (p-)tyrosine, p-Akt, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) 1/ERK2 (p42/p44), and p27 after treatment of erlotinib was not associated with erlotinib sensitivity. However, suppression of CDK2 activity after erlotinib treatment correlated with erlotinib sensitivity (P < 0.0001). Restoration of CDK2 activity partially restored proliferation and induced erlotinib resistance in erlotinib-sensitive cell lines, indicating that sensitivity to erlotinib in these breast cancer cells depends, at least in part, on CDK2 activity. p27, an inhibitor of CDK2, was not translocated into the nucleus in erlotinib-resistant cell lines. Knocking down p27 protein partially blocked erlotinib-induced cell death and cell cycle arrest. These findings indicate that the ability of erlotinib to suppress CDK2 activity is critical for cellular sensitivity to erlotinib, regardless of EGFR expression level, and that the presence of p27 in the cytoplasm also participates in erlotinib resistance. PMID:17671085

  15. Metal-free organic sensitizers for use in water-splitting dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cells

    PubMed Central

    Swierk, John R.; Méndez-Hernández, Dalvin D.; McCool, Nicholas S.; Liddell, Paul; Terazono, Yuichi; Pahk, Ian; Tomlin, John J.; Oster, Nolan V.; Moore, Thomas A.; Moore, Ana L.; Gust, Devens; Mallouk, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    Solar fuel generation requires the efficient capture and conversion of visible light. In both natural and artificial systems, molecular sensitizers can be tuned to capture, convert, and transfer visible light energy. We demonstrate that a series of metal-free porphyrins can drive photoelectrochemical water splitting under broadband and red light (λ > 590 nm) illumination in a dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cell. We report the synthesis, spectral, and electrochemical properties of the sensitizers. Despite slow recombination of photoinjected electrons with oxidized porphyrins, photocurrents are low because of low injection yields and slow electron self-exchange between oxidized porphyrins. The free-base porphyrins are stable under conditions of water photoelectrolysis and in some cases photovoltages in excess of 1 V are observed. PMID:25583488

  16. Myc and cell cycle control.

    PubMed

    Bretones, Gabriel; Delgado, M Dolores; León, Javier

    2015-05-01

    Soon after the discovery of the Myc gene (c-Myc), it became clear that Myc expression levels tightly correlate to cell proliferation. The entry in cell cycle of quiescent cells upon Myc enforced expression has been described in many models. Also, the downregulation or inactivation of Myc results in the impairment of cell cycle progression. Given the frequent deregulation of Myc oncogene in human cancer it is important to dissect out the mechanisms underlying the role of Myc on cell cycle control. Several parallel mechanisms account for Myc-mediated stimulation of the cell cycle. First, most of the critical positive cell cycle regulators are encoded by genes induced by Myc. These Myc target genes include Cdks, cyclins and E2F transcription factors. Apart from its direct effects on the transcription, Myc is able to hyperactivate cyclin/Cdk complexes through the induction of Cdk activating kinase (CAK) and Cdc25 phosphatases. Moreover, Myc antagonizes the activity of cell cycle inhibitors as p21 and p27 through different mechanisms. Thus, Myc is able to block p21 transcription or to induce Skp2, a protein involved in p27 degradation. Finally, Myc induces DNA replication by binding to replication origins and by upregulating genes encoding proteins required for replication initiation. Myc also regulates genes involved in the mitotic control. A promising approach to treat tumors with deregulated Myc is the synthetic lethality based on the inhibition of Cdks. Thus, the knowledge of the Myc-dependent cell cycle regulatory mechanisms will help to discover new therapeutic approaches directed against malignancies with deregulated Myc. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Myc proteins in cell biology and pathology. PMID:24704206

  17. Max-Plus Stochastic Control and Risk-Sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, Wendell H.; Kaise, Hidehiro; Sheu, Shuenn-Jyi

    2010-08-15

    In the Maslov idempotent probability calculus, expectations of random variables are defined so as to be linear with respect to max-plus addition and scalar multiplication. This paper considers control problems in which the objective is to minimize the max-plus expectation of some max-plus additive running cost. Such problems arise naturally as limits of some types of risk sensitive stochastic control problems. The value function is a viscosity solution to a quasivariational inequality (QVI) of dynamic programming. Equivalence of this QVI to a nonlinear parabolic PDE with discontinuous Hamiltonian is used to prove a comparison theorem for viscosity sub- and super-solutions. An example from mathematical finance is given, and an application in nonlinear H-infinity control is sketched.

  18. Control of a mechanical aeration process via topological sensitivity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelwahed, M.; Hassine, M.; Masmoudi, M.

    2009-06-01

    The topological sensitivity analysis method gives the variation of a criterion with respect to the creation of a small hole in the domain. In this paper, we use this method to control the mechanical aeration process in eutrophic lakes. A simplified model based on incompressible Navier-Stokes equations is used, only considering the liquid phase, which is the dominant one. The injected air is taken into account through local boundary conditions for the velocity, on the injector holes. A 3D numerical simulation of the aeration effects is proposed using a mixed finite element method. In order to generate the best motion in the fluid for aeration purposes, the optimization of the injector location is considered. The main idea is to carry out topological sensitivity analysis with respect to the insertion of an injector. Finally, a topological optimization algorithm is proposed and some numerical results, showing the efficiency of our approach, are presented.

  19. Design and characterisation of bodipy sensitizers for dye-sensitized NiO solar cells.

    PubMed

    Summers, Gareth H; Lefebvre, Jean-François; Black, Fiona A; Davies, E Stephen; Gibson, Elizabeth A; Pullerits, Tönu; Wood, Christopher J; Zidek, Karel

    2016-01-14

    A series of photosensitizers for NiO-based dye-sensitized solar cells is presented. Three model compounds containing a triphenylamine donor appended to a boron dipyrromethene (bodipy) chromophore have been successfully prepared and characterised using emission spectroscopy, electrochemistry and spectroelectrochemistry, to ultimately direct the design of dyes with more complex structures. Carboxylic acid anchoring groups and thiophene spacers were appended to the model compounds to provide five dyes which were adsorbed onto NiO and integrated into dye-sensitized solar cells. Solar cells incorporating the simple Bodipy-CO₂H dye were surprisingly promising relative to the more complex dye 4. Cell performances were improved with dyes which had increased electronic communication between the donor and acceptor, achieved by incorporating a less hindered bodipy moiety. Further increases in performances were obtained from dyes which contained a thiophene spacer. Thus, the best performance was obtained for 7 which generated a very promising photocurrent density of 5.87 mA cm(-2) and an IPCE of 53%. Spectroelectrochemistry combined with time-resolved transient absorption spectroscopy were used to determine the identity and lifetime of excited state species. Short-lived (ps) transients were recorded for 4, 5 and 7 which are consistent with previous studies. Despite a longer lived (25 ns) charge-separated state for 6/NiO, there was no increase in the photocurrent generated by the corresponding solar cell. PMID:26660278

  20. Vegetable-based dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Calogero, Giuseppe; Bartolotta, Antonino; Di Marco, Gaetano; Di Carlo, Aldo; Bonaccorso, Francesco

    2015-05-21

    There is currently a large effort to improve the performance of low cost renewable energy devices. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are emerging as one of the most promising low cost photovoltaic technologies, addressing "secure, clean and efficient solar energy conversion". Vegetable dyes, extracted from algae, flowers, fruit and leaves, can be used as sensitizers in DSSCs. Thus far, anthocyanin and betalain extracts together with selected chlorophyll derivatives are the most successful vegetable sensitizers. This review analyses recent progress in the exploitation of vegetable dyes for solar energy conversion and compares them to the properties of synthetic dyes. We provide an in-depth discussion on the main limitation of cell performance e.g. dye degradation, effective electron injection from the dye into the conduction band of semiconducting nanoparticles, such as titanium dioxide and zinc oxide, outlining future developments for the use of vegetable sensitizers in DSSCs. We also discuss the cost of vegetable dyes and how their versatility can boost the advancement of new power management solutions, especially for their integration in living environments, making the practical application of such systems economically viable. Finally, we present our view on future prospects in the development of synthetic analogues of vegetable dyes as sensitizers in DSSCs. PMID:25855097

  1. Asymmetric Zinc Phthalocyanines as Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunc, Gulenay; Yavuz, Yunus; Gurek, Aysegul; Canimkurbey, Betul; Kosemen, Arif; San, Sait Eren; Ahsen, Vefa

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have received increasing attention due to their high incident to photon efficiency, easy fabrication and low production cost . Tremendous research efforts have been devoted to the development of new and efficient sensitizers suitable for practical use. In TiO2-based DSSCs, efficiencies of up to 11.4% under simulated sunlight have been obtained with rutheniumepolypyridyl complexes. However, the main drawback of ruthenium complexes is the lack of absorption in the red region of the visible light and the high cost. For this reason, dyes with large and stable p-conjugated systems such as porphyrins and phthalocyanines are important classes of potential sensitizers for highly efficient DSSCs. Phthalocyanines (Pcs) have been widely used as sensitizers because of their improved light-harvesting properties in the far red- and near-IR spectral regions and their extraordinary robustness [1]. In this work, a series of asymmetric Zn(II) Pcs bearing a carboxylic acid group and six hexylthia groups either at the peripheral or non-peripheral positions have been designed and synthesized to investigate the influence of the COOH group and the positions of hexylthia groups on the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) performance.

  2. Modulating cell-to-cell variability and sensitivity to death ligands by co-drugging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flusberg, Deborah A.; Sorger, Peter K.

    2013-06-01

    TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) holds promise as an anti-cancer therapeutic but efficiently induces apoptosis in only a subset of tumor cell lines. Moreover, even in clonal populations of responsive lines, only a fraction of cells dies in response to TRAIL and individual cells exhibit cell-to-cell variability in the timing of cell death. Fractional killing in these cell populations appears to arise not from genetic differences among cells but rather from differences in gene expression states, fluctuations in protein levels and the extent to which TRAIL-induced death or survival pathways become activated. In this study, we ask how cell-to-cell variability manifests in cell types with different sensitivities to TRAIL, as well as how it changes when cells are exposed to combinations of drugs. We show that individual cells that survive treatment with TRAIL can regenerate the sensitivity and death-time distribution of the parental population, demonstrating that fractional killing is a stable property of cell populations. We also show that cell-to-cell variability in the timing and probability of apoptosis in response to treatment can be tuned using combinations of drugs that together increase apoptotic sensitivity compared to treatment with one drug alone. In the case of TRAIL, modulation of cell-to-cell variability by co-drugging appears to involve a reduction in the threshold for mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization.

  3. In situ generation of cell-laden porous MMP-sensitive PEGDA hydrogels by gelatin leaching.

    PubMed

    Sokic, Sonja; Christenson, Megan; Larson, Jeffery; Papavasiliou, Georgia

    2014-05-01

    Proteolytically degradable poly(ethylene) glycol (PEG) hydrogels have been investigated as tissue engineering scaffolds; however, cell invasion and tissue regeneration are limited by the rate of cell-mediated degradation due to the small mesh size of the resultant crosslinked network. Gelatin leaching is combined with photopolymerization to form porous matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP)-sensitive PEG scaffolds under cytocompatible conditions in the presence of cells. Gelatin leaching allows control over pore size and porosity through selectivity of gelatin bead particle size and porogen loading, respectively. Increases in porogen loading lead to increased porosity, decreased compressive modulus and degradation time, and enhanced proliferation of encapsulated vascular smooth muscle cells. PMID:24443002

  4. Dye-sensitized solar cells using laser processing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Heungsoo; Pique, Alberto; Kushto, Gary P.; Auyeung, Raymond C. Y.; Lee, S. H.; Arnold, Craig B.; Kafafi, Zakia H.

    2004-07-01

    Laser processing techniques, such as laser direct-write (LDW) and laser sintering, have been used to deposit mesoporous nanocrystalline TiO2 (nc-TiO2) films for use in dye-sensitized solar cells. LDW enables the fabrication of conformal structures containing metals, ceramics, polymers and composites on rigid and flexible substrates without the use of masks or additional patterning techniques. The transferred material maintains a porous, high surface area structure that is ideally suited for dye-sensitized solar cells. In this experiment, a pulsed UV laser (355nm) is used to forward transfer a paste of commercial TiO2 nanopowder (P25) onto transparent conducting electrodes on flexible polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) and rigid glass substrates. For the cells based on flexible PET substrates, the transferred TiO2 layers were sintered using an in-situ laser to improve electron paths without damaging PET substrates. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of laser processing techniques to produce nc-TiO2 films (~10 μm thickness) on glass for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (Voc = 690 mV, Jsc = 8.7 mA/cm2, ff = 0.67, η = 4.0 % at 100 mW/cm2). This work was supported by the Office of Naval Research.

  5. Ikaros expression sensitizes leukemic cells to the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin

    PubMed Central

    He, Licai; Gao, Shenmeng; Zhu, Zhenfeng; Chen, Shang; Gu, Haihua

    2016-01-01

    Ikaros is an important transcription factor involved in the development and differentiation of hematopoietic cells. However, its role in the treatment of hematopoietic malignancies such as leukemia is less well understood. In the present study, it was observed by data mining of the Oncomine database that high expression levels of full-length Ikaros (IK1) is correlated with increased sensitivity of cancer cells to treatments with chemotherapeutic drugs, including doxorubicin (DOX). To examine the functional significance of this observation, the expression of IK1 in a leukemia cell line was altered, and the response of leukemic cells to DOX treatment was analyzed. It was observed that overexpression of IK1 could enhance DOX-induced apoptosis, while knockdown of IK1 attenuated DOX-induced apoptosis in leukemic cells. Further experiments demonstrated that IK1 sensitized leukemic cells to DOX-induced apoptosis, probably through upregulation of caspase-9. These data suggest that high expression levels of IK1 may be a potential biomarker to predict responses of leukemia patients to treatment with chemotherapy.

  6. Identification of a novel EGF-sensitive cell cycle checkpoint

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Francesca . E-mail: francesca.walker@ludwig.edu.au; Zhang Huihua; Burgess, Antony W.

    2007-02-01

    The site of action of growth factors on mammalian cell cycle has been assigned to the boundary between the G1 and S phases. We show here that Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) is also required for mitosis. BaF/3 cells expressing the EGFR (BaF/wtEGFR) synthesize DNA in response to EGF, but arrest in S-phase. We have generated a cell line (BaF/ERX) with defective downregulation of the EGFR and sustained activation of EGFR signalling pathways: these cells undergo mitosis in an EGF-dependent manner. The transit of BaF/ERX cells through G2/M strictly requires activation of EGFR and is abolished by AG1478. This phenotype is mimicked by co-expression of ErbB2 in BaF/wtEGFR cells, and abolished by inhibition of the EGFR kinase, suggesting that sustained signalling of the EGFR, through impaired downregulation of the EGFR or heterodimerization, is required for completion of the cycle. We have confirmed the role of EGFR signalling in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle using a human tumor cell line which overexpresses the EGFR and is dependent on EGFR signalling for growth. These findings unmask an EGF-sensitive checkpoint, helping to understand the link between sustained EGFR signalling, proliferation and the acquisition of a radioresistant phenotype in cancer cells.

  7. ISway: a sensitive, valid and reliable measure of postural control

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Clinicians need a practical, objective test of postural control that is sensitive to mild neurological disease, shows experimental and clinical validity, and has good test-retest reliability. We developed an instrumented test of postural sway (ISway) using a body-worn accelerometer to offer an objective and practical measure of postural control. Methods We conducted two separate studies with two groups of subjects. Study I: sensitivity and experimental concurrent validity. Thirteen subjects with early, untreated Parkinson’s disease (PD) and 12 age-matched control subjects (CTR) were tested in the laboratory, to compare sway from force-plate COP and inertial sensors. Study II: test-retest reliability and clinical concurrent validity. A different set of 17 early-to-moderate, treated PD (tested ON medication), and 17 age-matched CTR subjects were tested in the clinic to compare clinical balance tests with sway from inertial sensors. For reliability, the sensor was removed, subjects rested for 30 min, and the protocol was repeated. Thirteen sway measures (7 time-domain, 5 frequency-domain measures, and JERK) were computed from the 2D time series acceleration (ACC) data to determine the best metrics for a clinical balance test. Results Both center of pressure (COP) and ACC measures differentiated sway between CTR and untreated PD. JERK and time-domain measures showed the best test-retest reliability (JERK ICC was 0.86 in PD and 0.87 in CTR; time-domain measures ICC ranged from 0.55 to 0.84 in PD and from 0.60 to 0.89 in CTR). JERK, all but one time-domain measure, and one frequency measure were significantly correlated with the clinical postural stability score (r ranged from 0.50 to 0.63, 0.01 < p < 0.05). Conclusions Based on these results, we recommend a subset of the most sensitive, reliable, and valid ISway measures to characterize posture control in PD: 1) JERK, 2) RMS amplitude and mean velocity from the time-domain measures, and 3) centroidal

  8. Natural dyes as sensitizers to increase the efficiency in sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerda, Bayron; Sivakumar, R.; Paulraj, M.

    2016-05-01

    A dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is a sandwich type solar cell consisting of a photoelectrode, a counter electrode and a liquid electrolyte. The photo electrode comprises of a titanium dioxide semiconducting thin film grown over a glass substrate which in-turn has a transparent thin conducting layer of tin oxide film doped with fluorine (FTO) coated over it. The aim of this work is to develop photoelectrodes with different dyes to increase the efficiency of this type of solar cells. Dyes obtained from fresh sources of maqui, black myrtle, spinach and a dye mixture of spinach and spinach-maqui-myrtle were used. The technique used for the extraction of the dyes was maceration for one day, in methanol. Colourants and photoelectrodes were studied using, UV-vis spectrophotometer for their spectral properties. Their photovoltaic properties such as efficiency, fill factor, open circuit voltage and short circuit current were studied using a solar simulator and source meter unit.

  9. Simple Sensitivity Analysis for Orion Guidance Navigation and Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pressburger, Tom; Hoelscher, Brian; Martin, Rodney; Sricharan, Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The performance of Orion flight software, especially its GNC software, is being analyzed by running Monte Carlo simulations of Orion spacecraft flights. The simulated performance is analyzed for conformance with flight requirements, expressed as performance constraints. Flight requirements include guidance (e.g. touchdown distance from target) and control (e.g., control saturation) as well as performance (e.g., heat load constraints). The Monte Carlo simulations disperse hundreds of simulation input variables, for everything from mass properties to date of launch. We describe in this paper a sensitivity analysis tool ("Critical Factors Tool" or CFT) developed to find the input variables or pairs of variables which by themselves significantly influence satisfaction of requirements or significantly affect key performance metrics (e.g., touchdown distance from target). Knowing these factors can inform robustness analysis, can inform where engineering resources are most needed, and could even affect operations. The contributions of this paper include the introduction of novel sensitivity measures, such as estimating success probability, and a technique for determining whether pairs of factors are interacting dependently or independently. The tool found that input variables such as moments, mass, thrust dispersions, and date of launch were found to be significant factors for success of various requirements. Examples are shown in this paper as well as a summary and physics discussion of EFT-1 driving factors that the tool found.

  10. Cognitive control reduces sensitivity to relational aggression among adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Baird, Abigail A; Silver, Shari H; Veague, Heather B

    2010-01-01

    Relational aggression is a type of aggression that aims to hurt others through relationships and includes behaviors such as gossip and ostracism. This type of aggression is very common among adolescent girls, and in its more intense forms has been linked with poor psychosocial outcomes, including depression and suicide. In the present study we investigated whether individual differences in sensitivity to relational aggression among adolescent girls predicted recruitment of neural networks associated with executive function and cognitive control. Neural response was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging during an affect recognition task that included unfamiliar peer faces. A finding of relatively fewer reports of being victimized by relational aggression was associated with increased recruitment of bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortices as well as anterior and posterior cingulate cortices in response to the affect recognition task, as well as with greater competence on behavioral measures of executive function. Our results suggest that girls who are able to recruit specific frontal networks to improve cognitive and executive control are less sensitive to relational aggression. PMID:20614370

  11. Solar energy conversion by dye-sensitized photovoltaic cells.

    PubMed

    Grätzel, Michael

    2005-10-01

    The quality of human life depends to a large degree on the availability of energy. This is threatened unless renewable energy resources can be developed in the near future. Chemistry is expected to make important contributions to identify environmentally friendly solutions of the energy problem. One attractive strategy discussed in this Forum Article is the development of solar cells that are based on the sensitization of mesoscopic oxide films by dyes or quantum dots. These systems have already reached conversion efficiencies exceeding 11%. The underlying fundamental processes of light harvesting by the sensitizer, heterogeneous electron transfer from the electronically excited chromophore into the conduction band of the semiconductor oxide, and percolative migration of the injected electrons through the mesoporous film to the collector electrode will be described below in detail. A number of research topics will also be discussed, and the examples for the first outdoor application of such solar cells will be provided. PMID:16180840

  12. Quantum-Dot-Sensitized Solar Cell with Unprecedentedly High Photocurrent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jin-Wook; Son, Dae-Yong; Ahn, Tae Kyu; Shin, Hee-Won; Kim, In Young; Hwang, Seong-Ju; Ko, Min Jae; Sul, Soohwan; Han, Hyouksoo; Park, Nam-Gyu

    2013-01-01

    The reported photocurrent density (JSC) of PbS quantum dot (QD)-sensitized solar cell was less than 19 mA/cm2 despite the capability to generate 38 mA/cm2, which results from inefficient electron injection and fast charge recombination. Here, we report on a PbS:Hg QD-sensitized solar cell with an unprecedentedly high JSC of 30 mA/cm2. By Hg2+ doping into PbS, JSC is almost doubled with improved stability. Femtosecond transient study confirms that the improved JSC is due to enhanced electron injection and suppressed charge recombination. EXAFS reveals that Pb-S bond is reinforced and structural disorder is reduced by interstitially incorporated Hg2+, which is responsible for the enhanced electron injection, suppressed recombination and stability. Thanks to the extremely high JSC, power conversion efficiency of 5.6% is demonstrated at one sun illumination.

  13. Quantum-Dot-Sensitized Solar Cell with Unprecedentedly High Photocurrent

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin-Wook; Son, Dae-Yong; Ahn, Tae Kyu; Shin, Hee-Won; Kim, In Young; Hwang, Seong-Ju; Ko, Min Jae; Sul, Soohwan; Han, Hyouksoo; Park, Nam-Gyu

    2013-01-01

    The reported photocurrent density (JSC) of PbS quantum dot (QD)-sensitized solar cell was less than 19 mA/cm2 despite the capability to generate 38 mA/cm2, which results from inefficient electron injection and fast charge recombination. Here, we report on a PbS:Hg QD-sensitized solar cell with an unprecedentedly high JSC of 30 mA/cm2. By Hg2+ doping into PbS, JSC is almost doubled with improved stability. Femtosecond transient study confirms that the improved JSC is due to enhanced electron injection and suppressed charge recombination. EXAFS reveals that Pb-S bond is reinforced and structural disorder is reduced by interstitially incorporated Hg2+, which is responsible for the enhanced electron injection, suppressed recombination and stability. Thanks to the extremely high JSC, power conversion efficiency of 5.6% is demonstrated at one sun illumination. PMID:23308343

  14. Nuclear PTEN controls DNA repair and sensitivity to genotoxic stress.

    PubMed

    Bassi, C; Ho, J; Srikumar, T; Dowling, R J O; Gorrini, C; Miller, S J; Mak, T W; Neel, B G; Raught, B; Stambolic, V

    2013-07-26

    Loss of function of the phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) tumor suppressor gene is associated with many human cancers. In the cytoplasm, PTEN antagonizes the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway. PTEN also accumulates in the nucleus, where its function remains poorly understood. We demonstrate that SUMOylation (SUMO, small ubiquitin-like modifier) of PTEN controls its nuclear localization. In cells exposed to genotoxic stress, SUMO-PTEN was rapidly excluded from the nucleus dependent on the protein kinase ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM). Cells lacking nuclear PTEN were hypersensitive to DNA damage, whereas PTEN-deficient cells were susceptible to killing by a combination of genotoxic stress and a small-molecule PI3K inhibitor both in vitro and in vivo. Our findings may have implications for individualized therapy for patients with PTEN-deficient tumors. PMID:23888040

  15. Insulin receptor substrate 1 expression enhances the sensitivity of 32D cells to chemotherapy-induced cell death

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, Holly A.; Carey, Gregory B.; Keegan, Achsah D.

    2012-08-15

    The adapters IRS1 and IRS2 link growth factor receptors to downstream signaling pathways that regulate proliferation and survival. Both suppress factor-withdrawal-induced apoptosis and have been implicated in cancer progression. However, recent studies suggest IRS1 and IRS2 mediate differential functions in cancer pathogenesis. IRS1 promoted breast cancer proliferation, while IRS2 promoted metastasis. The role of IRS1 and IRS2 in controlling cell responses to chemotherapy is unknown. To determine the role of IRS1 and IRS2 in the sensitivity of cells to chemotherapy, we treated 32D cells lacking or expressing IRS proteins with various concentrations of chemotherapeutic agents. We found that expression of IRS1, in contrast to IRS2, enhanced the sensitivity of 32D cells to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. When IRS2 was expressed with IRS1, the cells no longer showed enhanced sensitivity. Expression of IRS1 did not alter the expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins; however, 32D-IRS1 cells expressed higher levels of Annexin A2. In 32D-IRS1 cells, IRS1 and Annexin A2 were both located in cytoplasmic and membrane fractions. We also found that IRS1 coprecipitated with Annexin A2, while IRS2 did not. Decreasing Annexin A2 levels reduced 32D-IRS1 cell sensitivity to chemotherapy. These results suggest IRS1 enhances sensitivity to chemotherapy in part through Annexin A2. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IRS1 enhanced the sensitivity of 32D cells to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This sensitivity is abrogated by the expression of IRS2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expressing IRS1 in 32D cells increased levels of Annexin A2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both IRS1 and Annexin A2 were located in cytoplasmic and membrane fractions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decreasing Annexin A2 in 32D-IRS1 cells abated their sensitivity to chemotherapy.

  16. Pressure sensitive multifunctional solar cells using carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somani, Prakash R.

    2010-04-01

    A unique multifunctional device combining the photovoltaic action and pressure sensitivity is demonstrated which is based on the heterojunction of n-Si and carbon nanotubes (double walled carbon nanotubes or multiwalled carbon nanotubes) and using copper phthalocyanine surface modified indium-tin-oxide electrode and shows pressure dependent photovoltaic action. The device can work as a solar cell, pressure sensor, or photovoltaic pressure sensor. Such multifunctional organic/organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells are expected to find many applications in the near future.

  17. Ligand Engineering for the Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Ruthenium Sensitizers and Cobalt Electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Aghazada, Sadig; Gao, Peng; Yella, Aswani; Marotta, Gabriele; Moehl, Thomas; Teuscher, Joël; Moser, Jacques-E; De Angelis, Filippo; Grätzel, Michael; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja

    2016-07-01

    Over the past 20 years, ruthenium(II)-based dyes have played a pivotal role in turning dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) into a mature technology for the third generation of photovoltaics. However, the classic I3(-)/I(-) redox couple limits the performance and application of this technique. Simply replacing the iodine-based redox couple by new types like cobalt(3+/2+) complexes was not successful because of the poor compatibility between the ruthenium(II) sensitizer and the cobalt redox species. To address this problem and achieve higher power conversion efficiencies (PCEs), we introduce here six new cyclometalated ruthenium(II)-based dyes developed through ligand engineering. We tested DSCs employing these ruthenium(II) complexes and achieved PCEs of up to 9.4% using cobalt(3+/2+)-based electrolytes, which is the record efficiency to date featuring a ruthenium-based dye. In view of the complicated liquid DSC system, the disagreement found between different characterizations enlightens us about the importance of the sensitizer loading on TiO2, which is a subtle but equally important factor in the electronic properties of the sensitizers. PMID:27322854

  18. Oxidation of cell surface thiol groups by contact sensitizers triggers the maturation of dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Kagatani, Saori; Sasaki, Yoshinori; Hirota, Morihiko; Mizuashi, Masato; Suzuki, Mie; Ohtani, Tomoyuki; Itagaki, Hiroshi; Aiba, Setsuya

    2010-01-01

    p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) has a crucial role in the maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) by sensitizers. Recently, it has been reported that the oxidation of cell surface thiols by an exogenous impermeant thiol oxidizer can phosphorylate p38 MAPK. In this study, we examined whether sensitizers oxidize cell surface thiols of monocyte-derived DCs (MoDCs). When cell surface thiols were quantified by flow cytometry using Alexa fluor maleimide, all the sensitizers that we examined decreased cell surface thiols on MoDCs. To examine the effects of decreased cell surface thiols by sensitizers on DC maturation, we analyzed the effects of an impermeant thiol oxidizer, o-phenanthroline copper complex (CuPhen). The treatment of MoDCs with CuPhen decreased cell surface thiols, phosphorylated p38 MAPK, and induced MoDC maturation, that is, the augmentation of CD83, CD86, HLA-DR, and IL-8 mRNA, as well as the downregulation of aquaporin-3 mRNA. The augmentation of CD86 was significantly suppressed when MoDCs were pretreated with N-acetyl-L-cystein or treated with SB203580. Finally, we showed that epicutaneous application of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene on mouse skin significantly decreased cell surface thiols of Langerhans cells in vivo. These data suggest that the oxidation of cell surface thiols has some role in triggering DC maturation by sensitizers. PMID:19641517

  19. Digital Printing of Titanium Dioxide for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cherrington, Ruth; Wood, Benjamin Michael; Salaoru, Iulia; Goodship, Vannessa

    2016-01-01

    Silicon solar cell manufacturing is an expensive and high energy consuming process. In contrast, dye sensitized solar cell production is less environmentally damaging with lower processing temperatures presenting a viable and low cost alternative to conventional production. This paper further enhances these environmental credentials by evaluating the digital printing and therefore additive production route for these cells. This is achieved here by investigating the formation and performance of a metal oxide photoelectrode using nanoparticle sized titanium dioxide. An ink-jettable material was formulated, characterized and printed with a piezoelectric inkjet head to produce a 2.6 µm thick layer. The resultant printed layer was fabricated into a functioning cell with an active area of 0.25 cm2 and a power conversion efficiency of 3.5%. The binder-free formulation resulted in a reduced processing temperature of 250 °C, compatible with flexible polyamide substrates which are stable up to temperatures of 350 ˚C. The authors are continuing to develop this process route by investigating inkjet printing of other layers within dye sensitized solar cells. PMID:27166761

  20. Connexin 43 Inhibition Sensitizes Chemoresistant Glioblastoma Cells to Temozolomide.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Susan F; Varghese, Robin T; Lamouille, Samy; Guo, Sujuan; Pridham, Kevin J; Kanabur, Pratik; Osimani, Alyssa M; Sharma, Shaan; Jourdan, Jane; Rodgers, Cara M; Simonds, Gary R; Gourdie, Robert G; Sheng, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Resistance of glioblastoma (GBM) to the front-line chemotherapeutic agent temozolomide (TMZ) continues to challenge GBM treatment efforts. The repair of TMZ-induced DNA damage by O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) confers one mechanism of TMZ resistance. Paradoxically, MGMT-deficient GBM patients survive longer despite still developing resistance to TMZ. Recent studies indicate that the gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43) renders GBM cells resistant to TMZ through its carboxyl terminus (CT). In this study, we report insights into how Cx43 promotes TMZ resistance. Cx43 levels were inversely correlated with TMZ sensitivity of GBM cells, including GBM stem cells. Moreover, Cx43 levels inversely correlated with patient survival, including as observed in MGMT-deficient GBM patients. Addition of the C-terminal peptide mimetic αCT1, a selective inhibitor of Cx43 channels, sensitized human MGMT-deficient and TMZ-resistant GBM cells to TMZ treatment. Moreover, combining αCT1 with TMZ-blocked AKT/mTOR signaling, induced autophagy and apoptosis in TMZ-resistant GBM cells. Our findings suggest that Cx43 may offer a biomarker to predict the survival of patients with MGMT-independent TMZ resistance and that combining a Cx43 inhibitor with TMZ could enhance therapeutic responses in GBM, and perhaps other TMZ-resistant cancers. PMID:26542214

  1. Digital Printing of Titanium Dioxide for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Cherrington, Ruth; Wood, Benjamin Michael; Salaoru, Iulia; Goodship, Vannessa

    2016-01-01

    Silicon solar cell manufacturing is an expensive and high energy consuming process. In contrast, dye sensitized solar cell production is less environmentally damaging with lower processing temperatures presenting a viable and low cost alternative to conventional production. This paper further enhances these environmental credentials by evaluating the digital printing and therefore additive production route for these cells. This is achieved here by investigating the formation and performance of a metal oxide photoelectrode using nanoparticle sized titanium dioxide. An ink-jettable material was formulated, characterized and printed with a piezoelectric inkjet head to produce a 2.6 µm thick layer. The resultant printed layer was fabricated into a functioning cell with an active area of 0.25 cm(2) and a power conversion efficiency of 3.5%. The binder-free formulation resulted in a reduced processing temperature of 250 °C, compatible with flexible polyamide substrates which are stable up to temperatures of 350 ˚C. The authors are continuing to develop this process route by investigating inkjet printing of other layers within dye sensitized solar cells. PMID:27166761

  2. A Role for Regulatory T Cells in a Murine Model of Epicutaneous Toluene Diisocyanate Sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Long, Carrie Mae; Marshall, Nikki B.; Lukomska, Ewa; Kashon, Michael L.; Meade, B. Jean; Shane, Hillary; Anderson, Stacey E.

    2016-01-01

    Toluene diisocyanate (TDI) is a leading cause of chemical-induced occupational asthma which impacts workers in a variety of industries worldwide. Recently, the robust regulatory potential of regulatory T cells (Tregs) has become apparent, including their functional role in the regulation of allergic disease; however, their function in TDI-induced sensitization has not been explored. To elucidate the kinetics, phenotype, and function of Tregs during TDI sensitization, BALB/c mice were dermally exposed (on each ear) to a single application of TDI (0.5–4% v/v) or acetone vehicle and endpoints were evaluated via RT-PCR and flow cytometry. The draining lymph node (dLN) Treg population expanded significantly 4, 7, and 9 days after single 4% TDI exposure. This population was identified using a variety of surface and intracellular markers and was found to be phenotypically heterogeneous based on increased expression of markers including CD103, CCR6, CTLA4, ICOS, and Neuropilin-1 during TDI sensitization. Tregs isolated from TDI-sensitized mice were significantly more suppressive compared with their control counterparts, further supporting a functional role for Tregs during TDI sensitization. Last, Tregs were depleted prior to TDI sensitization and an intensified sensitization response was observed. Collectively, these data indicate that Tregs exhibit a functional role during TDI sensitization. Because the role of Tregs in TDI sensitization has not been previously elucidated, these data contribute to the understanding of the immunologic mechanisms of chemical induced allergic disease. PMID:27103660

  3. A Role for Regulatory T Cells in a Murine Model of Epicutaneous Toluene Diisocyanate Sensitization.

    PubMed

    Long, Carrie Mae; Marshall, Nikki B; Lukomska, Ewa; Kashon, Michael L; Meade, B Jean; Shane, Hillary; Anderson, Stacey E

    2016-07-01

    Toluene diisocyanate (TDI) is a leading cause of chemical-induced occupational asthma which impacts workers in a variety of industries worldwide. Recently, the robust regulatory potential of regulatory T cells (Tregs) has become apparent, including their functional role in the regulation of allergic disease; however, their function in TDI-induced sensitization has not been explored. To elucidate the kinetics, phenotype, and function of Tregs during TDI sensitization, BALB/c mice were dermally exposed (on each ear) to a single application of TDI (0.5-4% v/v) or acetone vehicle and endpoints were evaluated via RT-PCR and flow cytometry. The draining lymph node (dLN) Treg population expanded significantly 4, 7, and 9 days after single 4% TDI exposure. This population was identified using a variety of surface and intracellular markers and was found to be phenotypically heterogeneous based on increased expression of markers including CD103, CCR6, CTLA4, ICOS, and Neuropilin-1 during TDI sensitization. Tregs isolated from TDI-sensitized mice were significantly more suppressive compared with their control counterparts, further supporting a functional role for Tregs during TDI sensitization. Last, Tregs were depleted prior to TDI sensitization and an intensified sensitization response was observed. Collectively, these data indicate that Tregs exhibit a functional role during TDI sensitization. Because the role of Tregs in TDI sensitization has not been previously elucidated, these data contribute to the understanding of the immunologic mechanisms of chemical induced allergic disease. PMID:27103660

  4. Metabolic control of cell death

    PubMed Central

    Green, Douglas R.; Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Kroemer, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Summary Beyond their contribution to basic metabolism, the major cellular organelles, in particular mitochondria, can determine whether cells respond to stress in an adaptive or suicidal manner. Thus, mitochondria can continuously adapt their shape to changing bioenergetic demands as they are subjected to quality control by autophagy, or they can undergo a lethal permeabilization process that initiates apoptosis. Along similar lines, multiple proteins involved in metabolic circuitries including oxidative phosphorylation and transport of metabolites across membranes may participate in the regulated or catastrophic dismantling of organelles. Many factors that were initially characterized as cell death regulators are now known to physically or functionally interact with metabolic enzymes. Thus, several metabolic cues regulate the propensity of cells to activate self-destructive programs, in part by acting on nutrient sensors. This suggests the existence of “metabolic checkpoints” that dictate cell fate in response to metabolic fluctuations. Here, we discuss recent insights into the intersection between metabolism and cell death regulation that have major implications for the comprehension and manipulation of unwarranted cell loss. PMID:25237106

  5. Influence of Ancillary Ligands in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Pashaei, Babak; Shahroosvand, Hashem; Graetzel, Michael; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja

    2016-08-24

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have motivated many researchers to develop various sensitizers with tailored properties involving anchoring and ancillary ligands. Ancillary ligands carry favorable light-harvesting abilities and are therefore crucial in determining the overall power conversion efficiencies. The use of ancillary ligands having aliphatic chains and/or π-extended aromatic units decreases charge recombination and permits the collection of a large fraction of sunlight. This review aims to provide insight into the relationship between ancillary ligand structure and DSSC properties, which can further guide the function-oriented design and synthesis of different sensitizers for DSSCs. This review outlines how the new and rapidly expanding class of chelating ancillary ligands bearing 2,2'-bipyridyl, 1,10-phenanthroline, carbene, dipyridylamine, pyridyl-benzimidazole, pyridyl-azolate, and other aromatic ligands provides a conduit for potentially enhancing the performance and stability of DSSCs. Finally, these classes of Ru polypyridyl complexes have gained increasing interest for feasible large-scale commercialization of DSSCs due to their more favorable light-harvesting abilities and long-term thermal and chemical stabilities compared with other conventional sensitizers. Therefore, the main idea is to inspire readers to explore new avenues in the design of new sensitizers for DSSCs based on different ancillary ligands. PMID:27479482

  6. Curcumin Sensitizes Silymarin to Exert Synergistic Anticancer Activity in Colon Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Amanda; Adeyeni, Temitope; San, KayKay; Heuertz, Rita M.; Ezekiel, Uthayashanker R.

    2016-01-01

    We studied combinatorial interactions of two phytochemicals, curcumin and silymarin, in their action against cancer cell proliferation. Curcumin is the major component of the spice turmeric. Silymarin is a bioactive component of milk thistle used as a protective supplement against liver disease. We studied antiproliferative effects of curcumin alone, silymarin alone and combinations of curcumin and silymarin using colon cancer cell lines (DLD-1, HCT116, LoVo). Curcumin inhibited colon cancer cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas silymarin showed significant inhibition only at the highest concentrations assessed. We found synergistic effects when colon cancer cells were treated with curcumin and silymarin together. The combination treatment led to inhibition of colon cancer cell proliferation and increased apoptosis compared to single compound treated cells. Combination treated cells exhibited marked cell rounding and membrane blebbing of apoptotic cells. Curcumin treated cells showed 3-fold more caspase3/7 activity whereas combination treated cells showed 5-fold more activity compared to control and silymarin treated cells. When DLD-1 cells were pre-exposed to curcumin, followed by treatment with silymarin, the cells underwent a high amount of cell death. The pre-exposure studies indicated curcumin sensitization of silymarin effect. Our results indicate that combinatorial treatments using phytochemicals are effective against colorectal cancer. PMID:27390600

  7. Curcumin Sensitizes Silymarin to Exert Synergistic Anticancer Activity in Colon Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Amanda; Adeyeni, Temitope; San, KayKay; Heuertz, Rita M; Ezekiel, Uthayashanker R

    2016-01-01

    We studied combinatorial interactions of two phytochemicals, curcumin and silymarin, in their action against cancer cell proliferation. Curcumin is the major component of the spice turmeric. Silymarin is a bioactive component of milk thistle used as a protective supplement against liver disease. We studied antiproliferative effects of curcumin alone, silymarin alone and combinations of curcumin and silymarin using colon cancer cell lines (DLD-1, HCT116, LoVo). Curcumin inhibited colon cancer cell proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas silymarin showed significant inhibition only at the highest concentrations assessed. We found synergistic effects when colon cancer cells were treated with curcumin and silymarin together. The combination treatment led to inhibition of colon cancer cell proliferation and increased apoptosis compared to single compound treated cells. Combination treated cells exhibited marked cell rounding and membrane blebbing of apoptotic cells. Curcumin treated cells showed 3-fold more caspase3/7 activity whereas combination treated cells showed 5-fold more activity compared to control and silymarin treated cells. When DLD-1 cells were pre-exposed to curcumin, followed by treatment with silymarin, the cells underwent a high amount of cell death. The pre-exposure studies indicated curcumin sensitization of silymarin effect. Our results indicate that combinatorial treatments using phytochemicals are effective against colorectal cancer. PMID:27390600

  8. Guinea Pig Lung Lavage Cells After Intranasal BCG Sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Terai, T.; Ganguly, Rama; Waldman, Robert H.

    1979-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that intranasal administration of antigen can induce local cell-mediated immunity in lung lavage cells. The present study was designed to examine the changes in composition of lung lavage cells and their capacity to produce the lymphokine migration inhibitory factor after intranasal immunization with BCG in guinea pigs. Results indicate that guinea pigs responded to respiratory tract BCG infection with an increase in immunocompetent cells in the bronchoalveolar tract and with production of migration inhibitory factor. After local pulmonary BCG administration, the total number of cells increased as compared with that of the uninfected animals, the increase being statistically significant within 2 weeks. This marked increase in the total cell population is due to a more than doubling of the number of macrophages in the lavage fluid. Animals also developed at this time positive delayed hypersensitivity to intradermally administered purified protein derivative. A significant increase in the total lymphoid cells and macrophage population was observed again at 6 weeks after sensitization, suggesting that the response is biphasic in nature. At 6 weeks, however, there was also a significant rise in total lymphocytes and T cell population in addition to macrophage numbers. This increase in T cells correlated with an increase in production of migration inhibitory factor in the presence of purified protein derivative. These data suggest that the immune response of the respiratory tract after BCG challenge involves increased recruitment of immunocompetent cells locally at the site of infection and that these cells are capable of producing effector molecules in terms of the elaboration of migration inhibitory factor. PMID:387595

  9. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutant R132H sensitizes glioma cells to BCNU-induced oxidative stress and cell death.

    PubMed

    Mohrenz, Isabelle Vanessa; Antonietti, Patrick; Pusch, Stefan; Capper, David; Balss, Jörg; Voigt, Sophia; Weissert, Susanne; Mukrowsky, Alicia; Frank, Jan; Senft, Christian; Seifert, Volker; von Deimling, Andreas; Kögel, Donat

    2013-11-01

    Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) decarboxylates isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) leading to generation of NADPH, which is required to regenerate reduced glutathione (GSH), the major cellular ROS scavenger. Mutation of R132 of IDH1 abrogates generation of α-KG and leads to conversion of α-KG to 2-hydroxyglutarate. We hypothesized that glioma cells expressing mutant IDH1 have a diminished antioxidative capacity and therefore may encounter an ensuing loss of cytoprotection under conditions of oxidative stress. Our study was performed with LN229 cells stably overexpressing IDH1 R132H and wild type IDH1 or with a lentiviral IDH1 knockdown. Quantification of GSH under basal conditions and following treatment with the glutathione reductase inhibitor BCNU revealed significantly lower GSH levels in IDH1 R132H expressing cells and IDH1 KD cells compared to their respective controls. FACS analysis of cell death and ROS production also demonstrated an increased sensitivity of IDH1-R132H-expressing cells and IDH1 KD cells to BCNU, but not to temozolomide. The sensitivity of IDH1-R132H-expressing cells and IDH1 KD cells to ROS induction and cell death was further enhanced with the transaminase inhibitor aminooxyacetic acid and under glutamine free conditions, indicating that these cells were more addicted to glutaminolysis. Increased sensitivity to BCNU-induced ROS production and cell death was confirmed in HEK293 cells inducibly expressing the IDH1 mutants R132H, R132C and R132L. Based on these findings we propose that in addition to its established pro-tumorigenic effects, mutant IDH1 may also limit the resistance of gliomas to specific death stimuli, therefore opening new perspectives for therapy. PMID:23801081

  10. [CELLS FORM AND THEIR SENSITIVITY TO LYTIC ACTIVITY OF NATURAL KILLER CELLS UNDER THE ANTIOXIDANT ACTION].

    PubMed

    Kirpichnikova, K M; Petrov, Yu P; Filatova, N A; Gamaley, I A

    2015-01-01

    The present paper is an attempt to estimate the influence of cell surface morphology changes to functional activity under the effect of antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), and alpha-lipoic asid (ALA). Two experimental parameters were used to characterize transformed fibroblasts 3T3-SV40 status. The functional one was the cell sensitivity to lysis by natural killer (NK) mouse splenocytes, and morphology index (cell form index) was a cell area. We showed that addition of NAC or ALA to the cell medium caused fast decrease of cell area and changes of cell form. On the other hand, their sensitivity to lysis NK cells gradually and significantly decreased. Then we compared NAC or ALA effect with the effects of other substances, which were non-antioxidants but caused cell responses which concurred with of antioxidants, at least partly. They were: latrunculin B, desorganizing actin filaments (as both antioxidants), OTZ reducing ROS level in the cell (as NAC), BSO (inhibitor of glutathione synthesis), increasing ROS level in the cell (as ALA), antibodies to gelatinases, MMP-2 and MMP-9 inactivating their activities (as both antioxidants). The results obtained showed a correlation between changes of morphology index and functional activity, sensitivity to lysis by NK cells. We suppose that geometry of cell surface might be a functional indicator of cell reaction to the antioxidant. PMID:26591569

  11. Enhancement of Spectral Response of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Shuai

    Dye-Sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is a class of third-generation solar devices. A notable feature of DSSC is that it can be manufactured by solution-based approach; this non-vacuum processing renders significant reduction in manufacturing costs. Different from conventional solar cells, in a DSSC, mesoporous semiconductor film with large surface areas is utilized for anchoring dye molecules, serving as light absorbing layer. Dye sensitizers play an important role in determining the final performance in DSSCs. Since the first highly-efficient DSSC was reported in 1991 sensitized by a ruthenium-based dye, numerous researchers have been focused on the development and characterization of various kinds of dyes for the applications in DSSCs. These include mainly metal complexes dyes, organic dyes, porphyrins and phthalocyanines dyes. The first part of my thesis work is to develop and test new dyes for DSSCs and a series of phenothiazine-based organic dyes and new porphyrin dyes are reported during the process. It has been realized that extending the response of dye sensitizers to a wider range of the solar spectrum is a key step in further improving the device efficiency. Typically, there are two ways for expanding the strong spectral response of DSSCs from visible to far red/NIR region. One approach is called co-sensitization. Herein, we demonstrate a new co-sensitization concept where small molecules is used to insert the interstitial site of between the pre-adsorbed large molecules. In this case, the co-adsorbed small ones is found to improve the light response and impede the back recombination, finally leading to the power conversion efficiency over 10% in conventional DSSC devices and a record-equaling efficiency of 9.2% in quasi-solid-state devices. I also implemented graphene sheets in the anode films for better charge transfer efficiency and break the energy conversion limit of co-sensitization in DSSCs. The optimal configuration between porphyrin dyes and

  12. miR-25 modulates NSCLC cell radio-sensitivity through directly inhibiting BTG2 expression

    SciTech Connect

    He, Zhiwei Liu, Yi Xiao, Bing Qian, Xiaosen

    2015-02-13

    A large proportion of the NSCLC patients were insensitive to radiotherapy, but the exact mechanism is still unclear. This study explored the role of miR-25 in regulating sensitivity of NSCLC cells to ionizing radiation (IR) and its downstream targets. Based on measurement in tumor samples from NSCLC patients, this study found that miR-25 expression is upregulated in both NSCLC and radio-resistant NSCLC patients compared the healthy and radio-sensitive controls. In addition, BTG expression was found negatively correlated with miR-25a expression in the both tissues and cells. By applying luciferase reporter assay, we verified two putative binding sites between miR-25 and BTG2. Therefore, BTG2 is a directly target of miR-25 in NSCLC cancer. By applying loss-and-gain function analysis in NSCLC cell lines, we demonstrated that miR-25-BTG2 axis could directly regulated BTG2 expression and affect radiotherapy sensitivity of NSCLC cells. - Highlights: • miR-25 is upregulated, while BTG2 is downregulated in radioresistant NSCLC patients. • miR-25 modulates sensitivity to radiation induced apoptosis. • miR-25 directly targets BTG2 and suppresses its expression. • miR-25 modulates sensitivity to radiotherapy through inhibiting BTG2 expression.

  13. Benzyl isothiocyanate sensitizes human pancreatic cancer cells to radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Ravi Prakash; Epperly, Michael Wayne; Srivastava, Sanjay Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Increase in systemic toxicity and resistance are the major drawbacks of radiation therapy in the treatment of pancreatic cancer. We have shown previously that BITC inhibits the growth of human pancreatic cancer cells and induces apoptosis. Here we determined whether BITC could sensitize BxPC-3 cells and increase the therapeutic potential of gamma-irradiation. Cells were pretreated with 2.5 microM BITC for 24h followed by exposure to 5 Gy of gamma-irradiation and were allowed to grow for another 24 or 48 h before being analyzed. Combination of BITC and gamma-irradiation significantly reduced survival of cells and caused significantly enhanced arrest of cells in G2/M phase as compared to cells exposed to gamma-irradiation alone. G2/M arrest was associated with DNA damage leading to the phosphorylation of ATR (Ser-428), Chk2 (Thr-68), Cdc25C (Ser-216), Cdk-1 (Tyr-15) and induction of p21Waf1/Cip1. However, combination treatment after 48 h caused 2.8-fold increase in apoptosis in BxPC-3 cells. Apoptosis at 48 h was associated with NF-kappa B inhibition and p38 activation. Taken together, results of the present study suggest that the apoptosis-inducing effect of gamma-irradiation can be increased by BITC. PMID:19482673

  14. All-solid-state, semiconductor-sensitized nanoporous solar cells.

    PubMed

    Hodes, Gary; Cahen, David

    2012-05-15

    Despite the rapid increase in solar cell manufacturing capacity (~50 GW(p) in 2011), maintaining this continued expansion will require resolving some major fabrication issues. Crystalline Si, the most common type of cell, requires a large energy input in the manufacturing process, which results in an energy payback time of years. CdTe/CdS thin film cells, which have captured around 10% of the global market, may not be sustainable for very large-scale use because of limited Te availability. Thus, research in this field is emphasizing cells that are energy efficient and inexpensive and use readily available materials. The extremely thin absorber (ETA) cell, the subject of this Account, is one of these new generation cells. Since the active light absorber in an ETA cell is no more than tens of nanometers thick, the direct recombination of photogenerated electrons and holes in the absorber should not compete as much with charge removal in the form of photocurrent as in thicker absorber materials. As a result, researchers expect that poorer quality semiconductors can be used in an ETA cell, which would expand the choice of semiconductors over those currently in use. We first describe the ETA cell, comparing and contrasting it to the dye-sensitized cell (DSC) from which it developed and describing its potential advantages and disadvantages. We then explain the mechanism(s) of operation of the ETA cell, which remain controversial: different ETA cells most likely operate by different mechanisms, particularly in their photovoltage generation. We then present a general description of how we prepare ETA cells in our laboratory, emphasizing solution methods to form the various layers and solution treatments of these layers to minimize manufacturing costs. This is followed by a more specific discussion of the various layers and treatments used to make and complete a cell with emphasis on solution treatments that are important in optimizing cell performance and explaining the

  15. Tunable pH-Sensitive Linker for Controlled Release.

    PubMed

    Choy, Cindy J; Geruntho, Jonathan J; Davis, Austen L; Berkman, Clifford E

    2016-03-16

    We have developed a novel pH-sensitive linker based on a phosphoramidate scaffold that can be tuned to release amine-containing drug molecules at various pH values. The pH-triggered phosphoramidate-based linkers are responsive to pH alone and do not require intracellular enzymatic action to initiate drug release. Key to the pH-triggered amine release from these linkers is a proximal acidic group (e.g., pyridinium or carboxylic acid) to promote the hydrolysis of the phosphoramidate P-N bond, presumably through an intramolecular general-acid type mechanism. Phosphoramidate hydrolysis is largely governed by the pKa of the leaving amine (e.g., primary, secondary, aniline). However, the proximity of the neighboring pyridine group attenuates the stability of the P-N bond to hydrolysis, thus allowing for control over the release of an amine from the phosphoramidate center. Based on the model scaffolds examined, phosphoramidate-based linkers could be selected for particular properties for controlled-release applications such as amine type, stability under physiological conditions, or release rates at various pH values such as intracellular endosomal conditions. The tunability of the phosphoramidate scaffold is expected to find broad applicability in various controlled drug-release applications such as antibody or small-molecule drug conjugates, drug-eluting stents, prodrug activation, as well as intracellular trafficking studies in which pH changes can trigger the release of turn-on dyes. PMID:26886721

  16. Highly stable tandem solar cell monolithically integrating dye-sensitized and CIGS solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Chae, Sang Youn; Park, Se Jin; Joo, Oh-Shim; Jun, Yongseok; Min, Byoung Koun; Hwang, Yun Jeong

    2016-01-01

    A highly stable monolithic tandem solar cell was developed by combining the heterogeneous photovoltaic technologies of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) and solution-processed CuInxGa1-xSeyS1-y (CIGS) thin film solar cells. The durability of the tandem cell was dramatically enhanced by replacing the redox couple from to [Co(bpy)3]2+ /[Co(bpy)3]3+), accompanied by a well-matched counter electrode (PEDOT:PSS) and sensitizer (Y123). A 1000 h durability test of the DSSC/CIGS tandem solar cell in ambient conditions resulted in only a 5% decrease in solar cell efficiency. Based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and photoelectrochemical cell measurement, the enhanced stability of the tandem cell is attributed to minimal corrosion by the cobalt-based polypyridine complex redox couple. PMID:27489138

  17. Highly stable tandem solar cell monolithically integrating dye-sensitized and CIGS solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, Sang Youn; Park, Se Jin; Joo, Oh-Shim; Jun, Yongseok; Min, Byoung Koun; Hwang, Yun Jeong

    2016-08-01

    A highly stable monolithic tandem solar cell was developed by combining the heterogeneous photovoltaic technologies of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) and solution-processed CuInxGa1-xSeyS1-y (CIGS) thin film solar cells. The durability of the tandem cell was dramatically enhanced by replacing the redox couple from to [Co(bpy)3]2+ /[Co(bpy)3]3+), accompanied by a well-matched counter electrode (PEDOT:PSS) and sensitizer (Y123). A 1000 h durability test of the DSSC/CIGS tandem solar cell in ambient conditions resulted in only a 5% decrease in solar cell efficiency. Based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and photoelectrochemical cell measurement, the enhanced stability of the tandem cell is attributed to minimal corrosion by the cobalt-based polypyridine complex redox couple.

  18. Review on Metallic and Plastic Flexible Dye Sensitized Solar Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yugis, A. R.; Mansa, R. F.; Sipaut, C. S.

    2015-04-01

    Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are a promising alternative for the development of a new generation of photovoltaic devices. DSSCs have promoted intense research due to their low cost and eco-friendly advantage over conventional silicon-based crystalline solar cells. In recent years, lightweight flexible types of DSSCs have attracted much intention because of drastic reduction in production cost and more extensive application. The substrate that used as electrode of the DSSCs has a dominant impact on the methods and materials that can be applied to the cell and consequently on the resulting performance of DSSCs. Furthermore, the substrates influence significantly the stability of the device. Although the power conversion efficiency still low compared to traditional glass based DSSCs, flexible DSSCs still have potential to be the most efficient and easily implemented technology.

  19. Low-hazard metallography of moisture-sensitive electrochemical cells.

    PubMed

    Wesolowski, D E; Rodriguez, M A; McKenzie, B B; Papenguth, H W

    2011-08-01

    A low-hazard approach is presented to prepare metallographic cross-sections of moisture-sensitive battery components. The approach is tailored for evaluation of thermal (molten salt) batteries composed of thin pressed-powder pellets, but has general applicability to other battery electrochemistries. Solution-cast polystyrene is used to encapsulate cells before embedding in epoxy. Nonaqueous grinding and polishing are performed in an industrial dry room to increase throughput. Lapping oil is used as a lubricant throughout grinding. Hexane is used as the solvent throughout processing; occupational exposure levels are well below the limits. Light optical and scanning electron microscopy on cross-sections are used to analyse a thermal battery cell. Spatially resolved X-ray diffraction on oblique angle cut cells complement the metallographic analysis. PMID:21477264

  20. Sensitivity of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells to small targeted therapeutic molecules: An in vitro comparative study.

    PubMed

    Sylvan, Sandra Eketorp; Skribek, Henriette; Norin, Stefan; Muhari, Orsolya; Österborg, Anders; Szekely, Laszlo

    2016-01-01

    New drugs targeting important cellular signaling pathways are currently being developed for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). It is therefore of interest to analyze their in vitro killing capacity in manufacturer-independent, comparative experiments. We here report on the sensitivity of CLL cells to a panel of emerging targeted therapeutics using high-throughput screening based on an automated fluorescence digital scanning system. Fresh CLL cells from 42 patients with indolent or progressive CLL were cultured for 72 hours on microtiter plates in a unique primary cell culture medium. Antitumor effects of 31 small therapeutic molecules (and, as controls, 29 cytostatic agents) at equimolar concentration were compared in a fluorescence survival assay. In vitro sensitivity to each drug exhibited considerable interpatient variability. The highest mean direct killing was observed for one survivin inhibitor (YM-155), two bcl-2 inhibitors (ABT-199, ABT-737), and one selective CDK inhibitor (dinaciclib). Their killing capacity was, in contrast to most cytostatic agents, similarly high in refractory versus untreated CLL patients and was significantly higher on cells with the 17p deletion/TP53 mutation than on cells with other cytogenetic abnormalities (p = 0.02). Sensitivity of bone marrow and lymph node cells was highly correlated with that of blood cells. Even though direct killing may not be the only therapeutic effector function in vivo, results from this head-to-head comparison may help to identify drugs of particular interest for intensified clinical development. PMID:26325331

  1. The sensitivity and specificity of control surface injuries in aircraft accident fatalities.

    PubMed

    Campman, Steven C; Luzi, Scott A

    2007-06-01

    Among the important determinations that aircraft crash investigators try to make is which occupant of an aircraft was attempting to control the aircraft at the time of the crash. The presence or absence of certain injuries of the extremities is used to help make this determination. These "control surface injuries" reportedly occur when crash forces are applied to a pilot's hands and feet through the aircraft's controls. We sought to clarify the significance of these injuries and the frequency with which their presence indicates that the decedent was the person that might have been trying to control the aircraft, questions that are frequently asked of the examining pathologist. We studied sequential fatalities of airplane and helicopter crashes in which autopsies were performed by the Office of the Armed Forces Medical Examiner, excluding those that were known to have been incapacitated before the crash and those that were known to have attempted to escape from the aircraft, collecting 100 "qualified" crash decedents. The incidence of control surface injuries was determined for both pilots and passengers. The sensitivity and specificity of control surface injuries were calculated by classifying the decedents into a 4-cell diagnostic matrix. The positive and negative predictive values for control surface injuries were also calculated. Injuries that met the published definitions of control surface injuries had high incidences in passengers, as well as pilots, giving the term control surface injury a diagnostically unacceptable sensitivity and specificity for indicating "a pilot attempting to control an aircraft." We offer caveats and refinements to the definition of these injuries that help to increase the sensitivity and specificity of this term. PMID:17525559

  2. High-sensitivity dilatometer for quality-control use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomer, G. S.; Schlegel, G. L.; Gaal, P. S.

    1988-03-01

    A simple-to-operate dilatometer, intended for rapid quality-control testing of low-expansion materials in a single temperature interval, is described. The instrument employs a thermoelectric heat/cool element to supply the thermal environment for the sample and a high-sensitivity linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) for displacement measurement. The mechanical configuration is made so as to eliminate the need for quartz correction and to provide a 4∶1 mechanical advantage to the displacement signal for improved accuracy. Operating between 0 and 100°C, the machine proved to give consistently good results with materials having expansion coefficients as low as 0.5×10-6 °C-1. Representative data on some carbonaceous materials and fused silica (quartz) are given.

  3. Pulmonary dendritic cell distribution and prevalence in guinea pig airways: effect of ovalbumin sensitization and challenge.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, T E; Millecchia, L L; Frazer, D G; Fedan, J S

    1997-08-01

    We characterized the localization and prevalence of dendritic cells (DC) in guinea pig airways before and after s.c. sensitization and aerosol challenge with ovalbumin (OVA). DC, eosinophils, macrophages, T cells and B cells in lung and trachea were identified and quantified in frozen sections using monoclonal antibodies and computer-assisted image analysis. Airway reactivity of conscious animals to inhaled methacholine was examined. In unsensitized animals, DC were localized primarily within the lamina propria of the trachea and bronchi, in the submucosa of the trachea and in the adventitia of the bronchi. In contrast to reported studies on rats, few DC were noted in the epithelium. After OVA challenge, sensitized animals demonstrated an early obstructive response and a late-phase response that was well developed by 18 hr. Challenge with OVA increased DC prevalence in the lamina propria and submucosa of the trachea and in the lamina propria and adventitia of the bronchi. There was widespread eosinophilia throughout the airways, but no changes in B cells or T cells were evident. Macrophages were increased in the epithelium of both OVA-treated and saline-treated animals. At 18 hr after challenge, sensitized guinea pigs but not saline-treated controls were hyperreactive to inhaled methacholine. Except for macrophages, none of these effects were observed after saline treatment. Our findings indicate that inflammation in the airways of OVA-sensitized guinea pigs involves infiltration of DC, which is seen at the time animals are hyperreactive to inhaled methacholine. PMID:9262368

  4. Effects of delayed gastric emptying on postprandial glucose kinetics, insulin sensitivity, and β-cell function

    PubMed Central

    Hinshaw, Ling; Schiavon, Michele; Mallad, Ashwini; Man, Chiara Dalla; Basu, Rita; Bharucha, Adil. E.; Cobelli, Claudio; Carter, Rickey E.; Basu, Ananda

    2014-01-01

    Controlling meal-related glucose excursions continues to be a therapeutic challenge in diabetes mellitus. Mechanistic reasons for this need to be understood better to develop appropriate therapies. To investigate delayed gastric emptying effects on postprandial glucose turnover, insulin sensitivity, and β-cell responsivity and function, as a feasibility study prior to studying patients with type 1 diabetes, we used the triple tracer technique C-peptide and oral minimal model approach in healthy subjects. A single dose of 30 μg of pramlintide administered at the start of a mixed meal was used to delay gastric emptying rates. With delayed gastric emptying rates, peak rate of meal glucose appearance was delayed, and rate of endogenous glucose production (EGP) was lower. C-peptide and oral minimal models enabled the assessments of β-cell function, insulin sensitivity, and β-cell responsivity simultaneously. Delayed gastric emptying induced by pramlintide improved total insulin sensitivity and decreased total β-cell responsivity. However, β-cell function as measured by total disposition index did not change. The improved whole body insulin sensitivity coupled with lower rate of appearance of EGP with delayed gastric emptying provides experimental proof of the importance of evaluating pramlintide in artificial endocrine pancreas approaches to reduce postprandial blood glucose variability in patients with type 1 diabetes. PMID:25074985

  5. Central Administration of Galanin Receptor 1 Agonist Boosted Insulin Sensitivity in Adipose Cells of Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhenwen; Fang, Penghua; He, Biao; Guo, Lili; Runesson, Johan; Langel, Ülo; Shi, Mingyi; Zhu, Yan; Bo, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Our previous studies testified the beneficial effect of central galanin on insulin sensitivity of type 2 diabetic rats. The aim of the study was further to investigate whether central M617, a galanin receptor 1 agonist, can benefit insulin sensitivity. The effects of intracerebroventricular administration of M617 on insulin sensitivity and insulin signaling were evaluated in adipose tissues of type 2 diabetic rats. The results showed that central injection of M617 significantly increased plasma adiponectin contents, glucose infusion rates in hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp tests, GLUT4 mRNA expression levels, GLUT4 contents in plasma membranes, and total cell membranes of the adipose cells but reduced the plasma C-reactive protein concentration in nondiabetic and diabetic rats. The ratios of GLUT4 contents were higher in plasma membranes to total cell membranes in both nondiabetic and diabetic M617 groups than each control. In addition, the central administration of M617 enhanced the ratios of pAkt/Akt and pAS160/AS160, but not phosphorylative cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB)/CREB in the adipose cells of nondiabetic and diabetic rats. These results suggest that excitation of central galanin receptor 1 facilitates insulin sensitivity via activation of the Akt/AS160 signaling pathway in the fat cells of type 2 diabetic rats. PMID:27127795

  6. Suppression of BRCA1 sensitizes cells to proteasome inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Y; Bouwman, P; Greco, D; Saarela, J; Yadav, B; Jonkers, J; Kuznetsov, S G

    2014-01-01

    BRCA1 is a multifunctional protein best known for its role in DNA repair and association with breast and ovarian cancers. To uncover novel biologically significant molecular functions of BRCA1, we tested a panel of 198 approved and experimental drugs to inhibit growth of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells depleted for BRCA1 by siRNA. 26S proteasome inhibitors bortezomib and carfilzomib emerged as a new class of selective BRCA1-targeting agents. The effect was confirmed in HeLa and U2OS cancer cell lines using two independent siRNAs, and in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells with inducible deletion of Brca1. Bortezomib treatment did not cause any increase in nuclear foci containing phosphorylated histone H2AX, and knockdown of BRCA2 did not entail sensitivity to bortezomib, suggesting that the DNA repair function of BRCA1 may not be directly involved. We found that a toxic effect of bortezomib on BRCA1-depleted cells is mostly due to deregulated cell cycle checkpoints mediated by RB1-E2F pathway and 53BP1. Similar to BRCA1, depletion of RB1 also conferred sensitivity to bortezomib, whereas suppression of E2F1 or 53BP1 together with BRCA1 reduced induction of apoptosis after bortezomib treatment. A gene expression microarray study identified additional genes activated by bortezomib treatment only in the context of inactivation of BRCA1 including a critical involvement of the ERN1-mediated unfolded protein response. Our data indicate that BRCA1 has a novel molecular function affecting cell cycle checkpoints in a manner dependent on the 26S proteasome activity. PMID:25522274

  7. Suppression of BRCA1 sensitizes cells to proteasome inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Gu, Y; Bouwman, P; Greco, D; Saarela, J; Yadav, B; Jonkers, J; Kuznetsov, S G

    2014-01-01

    BRCA1 is a multifunctional protein best known for its role in DNA repair and association with breast and ovarian cancers. To uncover novel biologically significant molecular functions of BRCA1, we tested a panel of 198 approved and experimental drugs to inhibit growth of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells depleted for BRCA1 by siRNA. 26S proteasome inhibitors bortezomib and carfilzomib emerged as a new class of selective BRCA1-targeting agents. The effect was confirmed in HeLa and U2OS cancer cell lines using two independent siRNAs, and in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells with inducible deletion of Brca1. Bortezomib treatment did not cause any increase in nuclear foci containing phosphorylated histone H2AX, and knockdown of BRCA2 did not entail sensitivity to bortezomib, suggesting that the DNA repair function of BRCA1 may not be directly involved. We found that a toxic effect of bortezomib on BRCA1-depleted cells is mostly due to deregulated cell cycle checkpoints mediated by RB1-E2F pathway and 53BP1. Similar to BRCA1, depletion of RB1 also conferred sensitivity to bortezomib, whereas suppression of E2F1 or 53BP1 together with BRCA1 reduced induction of apoptosis after bortezomib treatment. A gene expression microarray study identified additional genes activated by bortezomib treatment only in the context of inactivation of BRCA1 including a critical involvement of the ERN1-mediated unfolded protein response. Our data indicate that BRCA1 has a novel molecular function affecting cell cycle checkpoints in a manner dependent on the 26S proteasome activity. PMID:25522274

  8. Sensitization of pancreatic cancer stem cells to gemcitabine by Chk1 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Venkatesha, Venkatasubbaiah A; Parsels, Leslie A; Parsels, Joshua D; Zhao, Lili; Zabludoff, Sonya D; Simeone, Diane M; Maybaum, Jonathan; Lawrence, Theodore S; Morgan, Meredith A

    2012-06-01

    Checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) inhibition sensitizes pancreatic cancer cells and tumors to gemcitabine. We hypothesized that Chk1 inhibition would sensitize pancreatic cancer stem cells to gemcitabine. We tested this hypothesis by using two patient-derived xenograft models (designated J and F) and the pancreatic cancer stem cell markers CD24, CD44, and ESA. We determined the percentage of marker-positive cells and their tumor-initiating capacity (by limiting dilution assays) after treatment with gemcitabine and the Chk1 inhibitor, AZD7762. We found that marker-positive cells were significantly reduced by the combination of gemcitabine and AZD7762. In addition, secondary tumor initiation was significantly delayed in response to primary tumor treatment with gemcitabine + AZD7762 compared with control, gemcitabine, or AZD7762 alone. Furthermore, for the same number of stem cells implanted from gemcitabine- versus gemcitabine + AZD7762-treated primary tumors, secondary tumor initiation at 10 weeks was 83% versus 43%, respectively. We also found that pS345 Chk1, which is a measure of DNA damage, was induced in marker-positive cells but not in the marker-negative cells. These data demonstrate that Chk1 inhibition in combination with gemcitabine reduces both the percentage and the tumor-initiating capacity of pancreatic cancer stem cells. Furthermore, the finding that the Chk1-mediated DNA damage response was greater in stem cells than in non-stem cells suggests that Chk1 inhibition may selectively sensitize pancreatic cancer stem cells to gemcitabine, thus making Chk1 a potential therapeutic target for improving pancreatic cancer therapy. PMID:22787433

  9. Dynamics of sensitivity regulation in primate outer retina: the horizontal cell network.

    PubMed

    Lee, Barry B; Dacey, Dennis M; Smith, Vivianne C; Pokorny, Joel

    2003-01-01

    The goal of these experiments was to define the time course and degree of cone adaptation in primate outer retina by use of probe stimuli upon temporally modulated backgrounds. Recordings were obtained from primate horizontal cells. Test probes were either a low-amplitude, high-frequency sinusoid superimposed on a slowly modulated background or small test pulses superimposed on backgrounds of various frequencies. The amplitude of the test response was modulated by the background, indicating sensitivity regulation. Results were consistent with gain controls which, at 1000 td, required approximately 10-20 ms to completion. These mechanisms could also account for some of the distortions of horizontal cell responses to sinusoids and pulses. Modulation of test responsivity occurred at low background contrasts, suggesting no threshold change in light level must be exceeded to evoke sensitivity regulation. As retinal illuminance increased from darkness, sensitivity regulation was evident at 10-20 td. PMID:14507256

  10. Chronic Opioid Therapy and Central Sensitization in Sickle Cell Disease.

    PubMed

    Carroll, C Patrick; Lanzkron, Sophie; Haywood, Carlton; Kiley, Kasey; Pejsa, Megan; Moscou-Jackson, Gyasi; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A; Campbell, Claudia M

    2016-07-01

    Chronic opioid therapy (COT) for chronic non-cancer pain is frequently debated, and its effectiveness is unproven in sickle cell disease (SCD). The authors conducted a descriptive study among 83 adult SCD patients and compared the severity of disease and pain symptoms among those who were prescribed COT (n=29) with those who were not using COT. All patients completed baseline laboratory pain assessment and questionnaires between January 2010 and June 2014. Thereafter, participants recorded daily pain, crises, function, and healthcare utilization for 90 days using electronic diaries. Analyses were conducted shortly after the final diary data collection period. Patients on COT did not differ on age, sex, or measures of disease severity. However, patients on COT exhibited greater levels of clinical pain (particularly non-crisis); central sensitization; and depression and increased diary measures of pain severity, function, and healthcare utilization on crisis and non-crisis diary days, as well as a greater proportion of days in crisis. Including depressive symptoms in multivariate models did not change the associations between COT and pain, interference, central sensitization, or utilization. Additionally, participants not on COT displayed the expected positive relationship between central sensitization and clinical pain, whereas those on COT demonstrated no such relationship, despite having both higher central sensitization and higher clinical pain. Overall, the results point out a high symptom burden in SCD patients on COT, including those on high-dose COT, and suggest that nociceptive processing in SCD patients on COT differs from those who are not. PMID:27320469

  11. Diluent sensitivity in thermally stressed cells of pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed

    Gray, R J; Ordal, Z J; Witter, L D

    1977-05-01

    Thermally injured cells of Pseudomonas fluorescens were unable to produce colonies on Trypticase soy agar (TSA) after dilution with 0.1% peptone. Nutritional exigency could not be used as the criterion for this injury, since varying the composition of the plating medium had little effect on the number of colonies that developed. The injured cells had no requirement for compounds known to leak out during the heat treatment in order to recover. The cells did not exhibit injury if dilution preceded heat treatment on the plating medium, demonstrating that the heat treatment sensitized the cells to the trauma of dilution. Substitution of 0.1% peptone with growth medium as the diluent largely offset the previously observed drop in TSA count. Little difference in survival was observed when monosodium glutamate or the balance of the defined medium was used as the diluent. The diluent effect was ionic rather than osmotic. The presence of cations was important in maintaining the integrity of the injured cell, and divalent cations enhanced this protective effect. The role of these cations at the level of the cell envelope is discussed. PMID:406839

  12. Absorption spectra and photovoltaic characterization of chlorophyllins as sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Calogero, Giuseppe; Citro, Ilaria; Crupi, Cristina; Di Marco, Gaetano

    2014-11-11

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on Chlorine-e6 (Chl-e6), a Chlorophyll a derivative, and Chl-e6 containing Cu, have been investigated by carrying out incident photon to current efficiency (IPCE) and current-voltage (I-V) measurements. The effect of the metallic ion and the influence of the solvent polarity on the dye aggregation and their absorption bands have been analysed by performing electronic absorption measurements. The dependence of the photoelectrochemical parameters of these DSSCs on the electrolyte by the addition of pyrimidine and/or pyrrole has been discussed in details. For the first time I-V curves for a DSSC based on copper Chl-e6 dye have been shown and compared with Zn based chlorophyllin. Furthermore, the performance of a Cu-Chl-e6 based DSSC has been deeply improved by a progressive optimization of the TiO2 multilayer photoanode overcoming the best data reported in literature so far for this dye. It's worth to emphasize that, the analysis reported in this paper supplies very useful information which paves the way to further detailed studies turned to the employment of natural pigments as sensitizers for solar cells. PMID:24892526

  13. Cultured stem cells are sensitive to gravity changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buravkova, L. B.; Romanov, Yu. A.; Konstantinova, N. A.; Buravkov, S. V.; Gershovich, Yu. G.; Grivennikov, I. A.

    2008-09-01

    Stem and precursor cells play an important role in development and regeneration. The state of these cells is regulated by biochemical substances, mechanical stimuli and cellular interactions. To estimate gravity effects we used two types of cultured stem cells: human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) from bone marrow and mice embryonic stem (mESC) line R1. Gravity changes were simulated by long-term (4-7 days) slow clinorotation and leaded to decreased hMSC proliferation, changes of cell morphology and modified F-actin cytoskeleton. We did not find the shifts in cell phenotype except for decreased expression of HLA 1 and CD105 but excretion of IL-6 into medium increased significantly. Remodeling of cytoskeleton started after first 4 h and was similar to preapoptotic changes. This data suggested the modification in cell adhesion and possible commitment of hMSC. It was observed that expression of alkaline phosphatase by MSC in osteogenic medium was more intensive in control. On the contrary, clinorotation did not change formation of mESC colonies and increased proliferation activity in LIF+-medium. However, the number of embryonic bodies after clinorotation was less than in static control. It is suggested that ESCs kept the viability and proliferative potential but decreased the differentiation ability after changes in gravity stimulation.

  14. Halogen Bonding Promotes Higher Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Photovoltages.

    PubMed

    Simon, Sarah J C; Parlane, Fraser G L; Swords, Wesley B; Kellett, Cameron W; Du, Chuan; Lam, Brian; Dean, Rebecca K; Hu, Ke; Meyer, Gerald J; Berlinguette, Curtis P

    2016-08-24

    We report here an enhancement in photovoltage for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) where halogen-bonding interactions exist between a nucleophilic electrolyte species (I(-)) and a photo-oxidized dye immobilized on a TiO2 surface. The triarylamine-based dyes under investigation showed larger rate constants for dye regeneration (kreg) by the nucleophilic electrolyte species when heavier halogen substituents were positioned on the dye. The open-circuit voltages (VOC) tracked these kreg values. This analysis of a homologous series of dyes that differ only in the identity of two halogen substituents provides compelling evidence that the DSSC photovoltage is sensitive to kreg. This study also provides the first direct evidence that halogen-bonding interactions between the dye and the electrolyte can bolster DSSC performance. PMID:27518595

  15. Natural dye -sensitized mesoporous ZnO solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qishuang; Shen, Yue; Wu, Guizhi; Li, Linyu; Cao, Meng; Gu, Feng

    2010-10-01

    Natural dye-sensitized solar cells (N-DSSCs) were assembled using chlorophyll sensitized mesoporous ZnO (based on FTO) as the photoanode and platinum plate as the cathode. The natural dyes (chlorophyll) were extracted from spinach by simple procedure. The absorption spectrum and fluorescence spectrum of chlorophyll were studied. Mesoporous ZnO (m-ZnO) applied to the N-DSSCs was synthesized through hydrothermal method. The structures and morphologies were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and diffuse reflection. The results indicated that the samples had an average pore size of 17 nm and the m-ZnO was hexagonal wurtzite structure. The performances of the N-DSSCs were investigated under AM 1.5G illumination. The Voc of the N-DSSCs was about 480mv, and the Isc was about 470μA. The performance of the N-DSSCs could be further improved by adjusting its structure.

  16. Natural dye -sensitized mesoporous ZnO solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qishuang; Shen, Yue; Wu, Guizhi; Li, Linyu; Cao, Meng; Gu, Feng

    2011-02-01

    Natural dye-sensitized solar cells (N-DSSCs) were assembled using chlorophyll sensitized mesoporous ZnO (based on FTO) as the photoanode and platinum plate as the cathode. The natural dyes (chlorophyll) were extracted from spinach by simple procedure. The absorption spectrum and fluorescence spectrum of chlorophyll were studied. Mesoporous ZnO (m-ZnO) applied to the N-DSSCs was synthesized through hydrothermal method. The structures and morphologies were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and diffuse reflection. The results indicated that the samples had an average pore size of 17 nm and the m-ZnO was hexagonal wurtzite structure. The performances of the N-DSSCs were investigated under AM 1.5G illumination. The Voc of the N-DSSCs was about 480mv, and the Isc was about 470μA. The performance of the N-DSSCs could be further improved by adjusting its structure.

  17. Green grasses as light harvesters in dye sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanmugam, Vinoth; Manoharan, Subbaiah; Sharafali, A.; Anandan, Sambandam; Murugan, Ramaswamy

    2015-01-01

    Chlorophylls, the major pigments presented in plants are responsible for the process of photosynthesis. The working principle of dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is analogous to natural photosynthesis in light-harvesting and charge separation. In a similar way, natural dyes extracted from three types of grasses viz. Hierochloe Odorata (HO), Torulinium Odoratum (TO) and Dactyloctenium Aegyptium (DA) were used as light harvesters in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) were used to characterize the dyes. The electron transport mechanism and internal resistance of the DSSCs were investigated by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The performance of the cells fabricated with the grass extract shows comparable efficiencies with the reported natural dyes. Among the three types of grasses, the DSSC fabricated with the dye extracted from Hierochloe Odorata (HO) exhibited the maximum efficiency. LC-MS investigations indicated that the dominant pigment present in HO dye was pheophytin a (Pheo a).

  18. SIRT2 regulates insulin sensitivity in insulin resistant neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Arora, Amita; Dey, Chinmoy Sankar

    2016-06-10

    Insulin resistance in brain is well-associated with pathophysiology of deficits in whole-body energy metabolism, neurodegenerative diseases etc. Among the seven sirtuins, SIRT2 is the major deacetylase expressed in brain. Inhibition of SIRT2 confers neuroprotection in case of Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD). However, the role of this sirtuin in neuronal insulin resistance is not known. In this study, we report the role of SIRT2 in regulating insulin-sensitivity in neuronal cells in vitro. Using approaches like pharmacological inhibition of SIRT2, siRNA mediated SIRT2 knockdown and over-expression of wild-type and catalytically-mutated SIRT2, we observed that downregulation of SIRT2 ameliorated the reduced activity of AKT and increased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in insulin resistant neuro-2a cells. The data was supported by over expression of catalytically-inactive SIRT2 in insulin-resistant human SH-SY5Y neuronal cells. Data highlights a crucial role of SIRT2 in regulation of neuronal insulin sensitivity under insulin resistant condition. PMID:27163642

  19. Highly Sensitive Assay for Measurement of Arenavirus-cell Attachment.

    PubMed

    Klaus, Joseph P; Botten, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Arenaviruses are a family of enveloped RNA viruses that cause severe human disease. The first step in the arenavirus life cycle is attachment of viral particles to host cells. While virus-cell attachment can be measured through the use of virions labeled with biotin, radioactive isotopes, or fluorescent dyes, these approaches typically require high multiplicities of infection (MOI) to enable detection of bound virus. We describe a quantitative (q)RT-PCR-based assay that measures Junin virus strain Candid 1 attachment via quantitation of virion-packaged viral genomic RNA. This assay has several advantages including its extreme sensitivity and ability to measure attachment over a large dynamic range of MOIs without the need to purify or label input virus. Importantly, this approach can be easily tailored for use with other viruses through the use of virus-specific qRT-PCR reagents. Further, this assay can be modified to permit measurement of particle endocytosis and genome uncoating. In conclusion, we describe a simple, yet robust assay for highly sensitive measurement of arenavirus-cell attachment. PMID:26966937

  20. Chloroquine sensitizes breast cancer cells to chemotherapy independent of autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Maycotte, Paola; Aryal, Suraj; Cummings, Christopher T; Thorburn, Jacqueline; Morgan, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Chloroquine (CQ) is a 4-aminoquinoline drug used for the treatment of diverse diseases. It inhibits lysosomal acidification and therefore prevents autophagy by blocking autophagosome fusion and degradation. In cancer treatment, CQ is often used in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs and radiation because it has been shown to enhance the efficacy of tumor cell killing. Since CQ and its derivatives are the only inhibitors of autophagy that are available for use in the clinic, multiple ongoing clinical trials are currently using CQ or hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) for this purpose, either alone, or in combination with other anticancer drugs. Here we show that in the mouse breast cancer cell lines, 67NR and 4T1, autophagy is induced by the DNA damaging agent cisplatin or by drugs that selectively target autophagy regulation, the PtdIns3K inhibitor LY294002, and the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin. In combination with these drugs, CQ sensitized to these treatments, though this effect was more evident with LY294002 and rapamycin treatment. Surprisingly, however, in these experiments CQ sensitization occurred independent of autophagy inhibition, since sensitization was not mimicked by Atg12, Beclin 1 knockdown or bafilomycin treatment, and occurred even in the absence of Atg12. We therefore propose that although CQ might be helpful in combination with cancer therapeutic drugs, its sensitizing effects can occur independently of autophagy inhibition. Consequently, this possibility should be considered in the ongoing clinical trials where CQ or HCQ are used in the treatment of cancer, and caution is warranted when CQ treatment is used in cytotoxic assays in autophagy research. PMID:22252008

  1. Chloroquine sensitizes breast cancer cells to chemotherapy independent of autophagy.

    PubMed

    Maycotte, Paola; Aryal, Suraj; Cummings, Christopher T; Thorburn, Jacqueline; Morgan, Michael J; Thorburn, Andrew

    2012-02-01

    Chloroquine (CQ) is a 4-aminoquinoline drug used for the treatment of diverse diseases. It inhibits lysosomal acidification and therefore prevents autophagy by blocking autophagosome fusion and degradation. In cancer treatment, CQ is often used in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs and radiation because it has been shown to enhance the efficacy of tumor cell killing. Since CQ and its derivatives are the only inhibitors of autophagy that are available for use in the clinic, multiple ongoing clinical trials are currently using CQ or hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) for this purpose, either alone, or in combination with other anticancer drugs. Here we show that in the mouse breast cancer cell lines, 67NR and 4T1, autophagy is induced by the DNA damaging agent cisplatin or by drugs that selectively target autophagy regulation, the PtdIns3K inhibitor LY294002, and the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin. In combination with these drugs, CQ sensitized to these treatments, though this effect was more evident with LY294002 and rapamycin treatment. Surprisingly, however, in these experiments CQ sensitization occurred independent of autophagy inhibition, since sensitization was not mimicked by Atg12, Beclin 1 knockdown or bafilomycin treatment, and occurred even in the absence of Atg12. We therefore propose that although CQ might be helpful in combination with cancer therapeutic drugs, its sensitizing effects can occur independently of autophagy inhibition. Consequently, this possibility should be considered in the ongoing clinical trials where CQ or HCQ are used in the treatment of cancer, and caution is warranted when CQ treatment is used in cytotoxic assays in autophagy research. PMID:22252008

  2. Control of local immunity by airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Weitnauer, M; Mijošek, V; Dalpke, A H

    2016-03-01

    The lung is ventilated by thousand liters of air per day. Inevitably, the respiratory system comes into contact with airborne microbial compounds, most of them harmless contaminants. Airway epithelial cells are known to have innate sensor functions, thus being able to detect microbial danger. To avoid chronic inflammation, the pulmonary system has developed specific means to control local immune responses. Even though airway epithelial cells can act as proinflammatory promoters, we propose that under homeostatic conditions airway epithelial cells are important modulators of immune responses in the lung. In this review, we discuss epithelial cell regulatory functions that control reactivity of professional immune cells within the microenvironment of the airways and how these mechanisms are altered in pulmonary diseases. Regulation by epithelial cells can be divided into two mechanisms: (1) mediators regulate epithelial cells' innate sensitivity in cis and (2) factors are produced that limit reactivity of immune cells in trans. PMID:26627458

  3. Effects of cell area on the performance of dye sensitized solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Khatani, Mehboob E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my E-mail: azclement@yahoo.com Mohamed, Norani Muti E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my E-mail: azclement@yahoo.com Hamid, Nor Hisham E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my E-mail: azclement@yahoo.com Sahmer, Ahmad Zahrin E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my E-mail: azclement@yahoo.com Samsudin, Adel E-mail: noranimuti-mohamed@petronas.com.my E-mail: azclement@yahoo.com

    2014-10-24

    Dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs) have significant advantage over the current silicon cells by having low manufacturing cost and potentially high conversion efficiency. Therefore, DSCs are expected to be used as the next generation solar cell device that covers wide range of new applications. In order to achieve highly efficient DSCs for practical application, study on the effect of increasing the cell’s area on the performance of dye sensitized solar need to be carried out. Three different DSC cell areas namely, 1, 12.96 and 93.5 cm{sup 2} respectively were fabricated and analyzed through solar simulator and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). From the analysis of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), it was observed that the cell’s electron lifetime was influenced significantly by the cell’s area. Although the collection efficiency of all cells recorded to be approximately 100% but higher recombination rate with increased cell area reduced the performance of the cell.

  4. Space Telescope Sensitivity and Controls for Exoplanet Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyon, Richard G.; Clampin, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Herein we address design considerations and outline requirements for space telescopes with capabilities for high contrast imaging of exoplanets. The approach taken is to identify the span of potentially detectable Earth-sized terrestrial planets in the habitable zone of the nearest stars within 30 parsecs and estimate their inner working angles, flux ratios, SNR, sensitivities, wavefront error requirements and sensing and control times parametrically versus aperture size. We consider 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16-meter diameter telescope apertures. The achievable science, range of telescope architectures, and the coronagraphic approach are all active areas of research and are all subject to change in a rapidly evolving field. Thus, presented is a snapshot of our current understanding with the goal of limiting the choices to those that appear currently technically feasible. We describe the top-level metrics of inner working angle, contrast and photometric throughput and explore how they are related to the range of target stars. A critical point is that for each telescope architecture and coronagraphic choice the telescope stability requirements have differing impacts on the design for open versus closed-loop sensing and control.

  5. Quasi Solid Polymer Electrolytes for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dissanayake, M. A. K. Lakshman

    2013-07-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) has been considered as an alternative to the conventional silicon solar cell because of low cost, easy fabrication and relatively high conversion efficiency. A DSSC consists of a dye-sensitized nanoparticulated TiO2 electrode, an electrolyte containing redox couple and a Pt coated counter electrode. Such solar cells based on an I-/I3- redox couple in an organic solvent usually have conversion efficiencies reaching around 11%. However, a major drawback of these solution based solar cells, originally developed by Gratzel and coworkers is the lack of long-term stability due to liquid leakage, usage of volatile liquids such as acetonitrile, electrode corrosion, and photodecomposition of the dye in the solvent medium. Therefore considerable research efforts have been made in recent years to replace the liquid electrolytes with solid polymer or quasi-solid polymer (gel) electrolytes. Among these approaches, the use of gel polymer electrolytes appears to give rise to successful results in terms of conversion efficiency. Conventional poly (ethylene oxide)(PEO)-based solid polymer electrolytes exhibit poor ionic conductivities at room temperature, which is not sufficient for practical applications. Therefore, most of the recent studies have been directed to the preparation and characterization of gel polymer electrolytes which exhibit higher ionic conductivity at ambient temperature while maintain quai-solid structure. These gel polymer electrolytes prepared by incorporating a liquid electrolyte into a matrix polymer such as polyacrylonitrile(PAN), poly(vinylidene fluoride)(PVdF), poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and PEO have been employed in quasi-solid-state DSSCs to achieve power conversion efficiencies of more than 5%. Significant improvements have been achieved in recent years by modifications of the electrolytes by optimizing the ionic salt, introducing additives such as inorganic nanofillers, organic molecules and ionic liquids in

  6. Autophagy Gene Activity May Act As a Key Factor for Sensitivity of Tumor Cells to Oncolytic Vesicular Stomatitis Virus

    PubMed Central

    Nabizadeh, Arezoo; Bamdad, Taravat; Arefian, Ehsan; Razavi Nikoo, Seyed Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Beclin1 is an important, primary molecule for autophagy. Objectives: It is suggested that the control of the autophagy path increases the sensitivity of tumor cells to VSV. Materials and Methods: In this study, the degree of Beclin1 gene expression in two cell lines, HeLa and A549, has been examined and the percentage of living cells subsequent infection with virus has been evaluated by MTT assay method. Results: The results showed that the degree of Beclin1 gene expression in HeLa cells in comparison with A549 cells has reduced, and the sensitivity of these cells to vesicular stomatits virus (VSV) oncolysis is more than A549. Conclusions: It seems that by using some methods for reducing autophagy, it is possible to make tumor cells more sensitive to virotherapy and even other treatments. PMID:27366311

  7. Clinical perspectives for the use of new hypoxic cell sensitizers

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.M.

    1982-09-01

    Experience with high pressure oxygen in combination with radiotherapy has shown that, for some tumors at least, the presence of hypoxic cells is a limiting factor in the ability to cure these tumors even with conventional daily fractionation. This suggests that hypoxic cell radiosensitizers, of which misonidazole (MISO) is the prototype drug, may play a role in improving the cure-rate of some tumors when combined with daily fractionation. Even for those tumors for which no improvement is seen when combined with daily fractionation, it is likely that there will be an important role for these sensitizers by using them in combination with regimens of only a few dose fractions. Because of the limiting side effects of neuropathy, a less toxic radiosensitizer than MISO is required to gain the full clinical benefit of these drugs. A possible way of achieving this is to reduce the lipid solubility (lipophilicity) of the compounds while still retaining their electron-affinity. This reduces the concentration of drug in the neural tissues (brain, peripheral nerves) without affecting the tumor concentration. However, if the lipophilicity is too low, the drugs are unable to enter the hypoxic cells and hence lose their radiosensitivity efficiency. It would appear that a lipophilicity given by an octanol:water partition coefficient of approximately 0.04 is optimum (cf. MISO = 0.43) with the 2-nitroimidazole amide SR-2508 the best in this series. Tumor levels of this drug of at least 7-8 times those obtained with MISO should be attainable clinically for no increase in neurotoxicity. Another property of electron-affinic sensitizers shows clinical promise. This is their ability to preferentially sensitize tumors compared to normal tissues to the cytotoxic action of several chemotherapeutic agents.

  8. Computational studies of quantum dot sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesov, Grigory

    This thesis presents a computational study of quantum dot (QD) sensitized solar cells. First part deals with the non-equilibrium many-body theory or non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) theory. In this approach I study electron dynamics in the quantum-dot sensitized solar cell subjected to time-dependent fields. NEGF theory, because it does not impose any conditions on a perturbation, is the fundamental one to describe ultrafast processes in small, strongly correlated systems and/or in strong fields. In this research I do not only perform analytical derivation, but also design and implement spectral numerical solution for the resulting complex system of partial integrodifferential equations. This numerical solution yielded an order of magnitude speedup over the methods used previously in the field. The forth chapter of this thesis deals with calculation of optical properties and the ground state configuration of Zn2SnO4 (ZTO). ZTO is used by experimentalists in UW to grow nanorods which are then sensitized by QDs. ZTO is a challenging material for computational analysis because of its inverse spinel structure; thus it has an immense number of configurations matching the X-ray diffraction experiments. I've applied a cluster expansion method and have found the ground state configuration and phase diagram for ZTO. Calculations of optical properties of ground state bulk ZTO were done with a recently developed DFT functional. The optical band gap obtained in these calculations matched the experimental value. The last chapter describes development of the general simulator for interdigitated array electrodes. The application of this simulation together with the experiments may lead to understanding of reaction parameters and mechanisms important for development of electrochemical solar cells.

  9. Parallel Tandems of Dye Sensitized Solar Cells with CNT Collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velten, Josef; Yuan, Chao-Chen; Zakhidov, Anvar

    2009-03-01

    In this presentation, we demonstrate the fabrication of monolithic parallel tandem dye sensitized solar cells using a semitransparent layer of carbon nanotubes. Each DSC sub-cell has titania photoelectrode with two different dyes: N 719 and N 749, which absorb light in different parts of solar spectrum. This layer of carbon nanotubes laminated on highly porous polymeric Millipore filter acts as both the collector of charge carrier and as the catalyst of the I/I3^- redox reaction that completes the function of the cell, overall allowing easier fabrication for tandem solar cell devices, with a potential for creating flexible devices in the future. The parallel tandem shows the total photocurrent which is nearly the sum of two Isc currents of constituent cells, and total Voc, which is average of two Voc, while conventional in-series DSC tandems show the lowest Voc and slightly increased Isc[1]. Thus the higher efficiency can be achieved in parallel DSC tandems, and we discuss the physical reasons for this effect. [1] Yanagida, et.al. J. of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry Volume 164, Issues 1-3, 1 June 2004, Pages 33-39

  10. Progress in nanostructured photoanodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xueyang; Fang, Jian; Liu, Yong; Lin, Tong

    2016-09-01

    Solar cells represent a principal energy technology to convert light into electricity. Commercial solar cells are at present predominately produced by single- or multi-crystalline silicon wafers. The main drawback to silicon-based solar cells, however, is high material and manufacturing costs. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have attracted much attention during recent years because of the low production cost and other advantages. The photoanode (working electrode) plays a key role in determining the performance of DSSCs. In particular, nanostructured photoanodes with a large surface area, high electron transfer efficiency, and low electron recombination facilitate to prepare DSSCs with high energy conversion efficiency. In this review article, we summarize recent progress in the development of novel photoanodes for DSSCs. Effect of semiconductor material (e.g. TiO2, ZnO, SnO2, N2O5, and nano carbon), preparation, morphology and structure (e.g. nanoparticles, nanorods, nanofibers, nanotubes, fiber/particle composites, and hierarchical structure) on photovoltaic performance of DSSCs is described. The possibility of replacing silicon-based solar cells with DSSCs is discussed.

  11. Decitabine Nano-conjugate Sensitizing Human Glioblastoma Cells to Temozolomide

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yi; Naz, Asia; Thompson, David H.; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    In this study we developed and characterized a delivery system for the epigenetic demethylating drug, decitabine, to sensitize temozolomide-resistant human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells to alkylating chemotherapy. A poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) based nano-conjugate was fabricated to encapsulate decitabine and achieved a better therapeutic response in GBM cells. After synthesis, the highly efficient uptake process and intracellular dynamics of this nano-conjugate was monitored by single-molecule fluorescence tools. Our experiments demonstrated that, under an acidic pH due to active glycolysis in cancer cells, the PLGA-PEG nano-vector could release the conjugated decitabine at a faster rate, after which the hydrolyzed lactic acid and glycolic acid would further acidify the intracellular microenvironment, thus providing a “positive feedback” to increase the effective drug concentration and realize growth inhibition. In temozolomide-resistant GBM cells, decitabine can potentiate the cytotoxic DNA alkylation by counteracting cytosine methylation and reactivating tumor suppressor genes, such as p53 and p21. Owing to excellent internalization and endo-lysosomal escape enabled by the PLGA-PEG backbone, the encapsulated decitabine exhibited a better anti-GBM potential than free drug molecules. Hence, the synthesized nano-conjugate and temozolomide could act in synergy to deliver a more potent and long-term anti-proliferation effect against malignant GBM cells. PMID:25751281

  12. Progress in nanostructured photoanodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xueyang; Fang, Jian; Liu, Yong; Lin, Tong

    2016-05-01

    Solar cells represent a principal energy technology to convert light into electricity. Commercial solar cells are at present predominately produced by single- or multi-crystalline silicon wafers. The main drawback to silicon-based solar cells, however, is high material and manufacturing costs. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have attracted much attention during recent years because of the low production cost and other advantages. The photoanode (working electrode) plays a key role in determining the performance of DSSCs. In particular, nanostructured photoanodes with a large surface area, high electron transfer efficiency, and low electron recombination facilitate to prepare DSSCs with high energy conversion efficiency. In this review article, we summarize recent progress in the development of novel photoanodes for DSSCs. Effect of semiconductor material (e.g. TiO2, ZnO, SnO2, N2O5, and nano carbon), preparation, morphology and structure (e.g. nanoparticles, nanorods, nanofibers, nanotubes, fiber/particle composites, and hierarchical structure) on photovoltaic performance of DSSCs is described. The possibility of replacing silicon-based solar cells with DSSCs is discussed.

  13. Nrf2 sensitizes prostate cancer cells to radiation via decreasing basal ROS levels.

    PubMed

    Liu, Min; Yao, Xu-Dong; Li, Wei; Geng, Jiang; Yan, Yang; Che, Jian-Ping; Xu, Yun-Fei; Zheng, Jun-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) was reported to lower basal ROS level in prostate cancer (PCa) and to sensitize PCa to radiation. We aimed to seek for the underlying molecular mechanism and to develop novel additive treatments to ADT in this regard. We simulated human androgen milieu in vitro and tested the ROS level in PCa cells undergoing ADT. We also tested the Nrf2 level in PCa cells with or without ADT. Genetic and pharmaceutical upregulation of Nrf2 was applied in vitro and in vivo in transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice with or without castration to investigate whether Nrf2 overexpression supplemented the effect of ADT in PCa. We first discovered that androgen deprivation increased basal ROS level in PCa cells with AR expression. We then found that genetic Nrf2 upregulation lowered basal ROS similar to ADT. Also, SFN sensitized PCa cell to radiation via upregulation of Nrf2. We then found that Nrf2 level in control TRAMP groups was lower than castration or SFN groups. The SFN treated TRAMP mice showed similar level of Nrf2 to castration. Genetic and pharmaceutical upregulation of Nrf2 lowered the ROS in PCa cells and sensitized PCa cells to radiation similar to ADT, implicating possible administration of SFN in place of ADT for PCa patients requiring radiotherapy. PMID:25728635

  14. Towards low temperature sintering methods for dye sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murali, Sukanya

    Access to economically viable renewable energy sources is essential for the development of a globally sustainable society. Solar energy has a large potential to satisfy the future need for renewable energy sources. Dye sensitized solar cells are a third generation of photovoltaic technologies with the potential for low cost environmentally safe energy production. Commercialization of this technology requires that dye sensitized solar cells with higher efficiencies can be fabricated on flexible substrates. The commonly used material for the anode in a Dye Sensitized Solar Cell consists of titanium dioxide nanoparticles covered with a layer of light sensitizing dye. For efficient electron transport throughout the nanoparticle network, good particle interconnections are necessary. For low temperature processing these interconnections can be achieved through a hydrothermal process. The focus of this research is to understand at a fundamental level this reaction-based sintering process. A titanium alkoxide precursor was mixed with commercial titania nanoparticles and coated on a transparent conductive oxide substrate. The product of the hydrolysis and condensation of the alkoxide served to connect the nanoparticles thus improving the electrical conduction of the titania electrode; this was confirmed by solar cell testing and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. To further understand the formation of interconnections during reactive sintering, a model system based on inert silica particles was investigated. Titanium alkoxide precursor was mixed with commercial silica particles and reacted. Three different types of silica particles were used: each with a different morphology. The silica-titania multilayers/powders were characterized using SEM, XRD and BET. The efficiency of DSSCs is higher when larger non-porous silica particles are used and thin nanocrystalline titania is coated on this superstructure. This gave insight into the locations where the reactive liquid

  15. Weavable dye sensitized solar cells exploiting carbon nanotube yarns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velten, Josef; Kuanyshbekova, Zharkynay; Göktepe, Özer; Göktepe, Fatma; Zakhidov, Anvar

    2013-05-01

    Weavable Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC) made with flexible yarns of conductive multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) were produced having a power conversion efficiency above 3%. This was achieved with a specific design and careful consideration of the yarn function in the DSSC. Fermat yarns of MWNTs individually coated with mesoporous TiO2 layer were twisted together and coated with more mesoporous TiO2 to create a 3 dimensional photo electrode to overcome electron diffusion length issues. Archimedian yarns of MWNTs coated with a thin layer of platinum worked as a counter electrode to complete the architecture used in this DSSC.

  16. Microbeam PIXE analysis of platinum resistant and sensitive ovarian cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeynes, J. C. G.; Bailey, M. J.; Coley, H.; Kirkby, K. J.; Jeynes, C.

    2010-06-01

    Microbeam PIXE was used to analyse platinum in single ovarian cancer cells. Carboplatin sensitive and resistant cells were grown as a monolayer on polypropylene and treated with either carboplatin or cisplatin. Pt from the carboplatin could not be detected. The Pt from cisplatin in the cells could be detected, and significantly more Zn was found in the resistant cells compared to the sensitive cells. The sensitive cells probably accumulated more cisplatin than the resistant ones.

  17. Integration of biological photonic crystals in dye-sensitized solar cells for enhanced photocurrent generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Jeremy; Rorrer, Greg

    2013-10-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) rely on a network of titanium dioxide nanoparticles for electron transport and must balance carrier generation and collection. Adding photonic structures may increase light capture without affecting carrier collection. Diatoms are single-celled algae that biologically fabricate silicon dioxide cell walls which resemble photonic crystal slabs. We present a simple fabrication strategy that allows for uniform and controlled placement of biosilica within DSSCs. Integration of biosilica reduces photoanode transmittance to less than 5% prior to dye sensitization at loading levels as low as 6 wt% biosilica. Increased biosilica loading (17 wt%) provides additional enhancements in photocurrent generation. Reflectance measurements suggest that the enhancement results from the combined effects of photonic resonance and Mie scattering. Overall efficiency of these devices is improved by 8% and 14%, respectively.

  18. Effect of STK17A on the sensitivity of ovarian cancer cells to paclitaxel and carboplatin

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jianhua; Liu, Dan; Li, Jie; Song, Qianlin; Wang, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the main cause of cancer mortality in gynecological tumors around the world. Drug resistance to a variety of chemotherapeutics continue to be one of the main causes of treatment failure. In a previous study, it was demonstrated that STK17A, a proapoptotic gene, was significantly downregulated in acquired resistance phenotypes of colon cancer cells that are resistant to oxaliplatin and 5-fluorouracil. Therefore in the present study, the association between STK17A expression and ovarian cancer with initial drug resistance was investigated and the influence of STK17 on ovarian cancer cell proliferation and doubling time. In the present study, ovarian cancer cell lines that express low levels of STK17A were established by targeting STK17A with specific siRNA. In addition, up-regulation of STK17A was established in ovarian cells by pCDNA3flu/STK17A. The sensitivity of the transfected cells and controls to paclitaxel, carboplatin was examined by MTT assay, and the levels of proliferation and apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. In the cells that were transfected with siRNA resulting in reduced expression of STK17A, the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of the chemotherapy drugs paclitaxel and carboplatin was increased compared with control cells (P<0.05). By contrast, in the cells that overexpressed STK17A following treatment with pCDNA3flu/STK17A, the IC50 of the chemotherapy drugs reduced in each case, and was significantly lower compared with the control (P<0.05). There was a variable susceptibility to carboplatin and paclitaxel resulting from altering the levels of STK17A expression in ovarian cancer cell lines. The growth of STK17A/siRNA transfected cells was promoted compared with that of the control cells and accordingly their cell doubling time was shortened. PMID:27446402

  19. Microbeam studies of the sensitivity of structures within living cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braby, L. A.

    1992-01-01

    Determining the biological effects of low doses of radiation with high linear energy transfer (LET) is complicated by the stochastic nature of charged-particle interactions. Populations of cells exposed to very low radiation doses contain a few cells which have been hit by a charged particle, while the majority of the cells receive no radiation damage. At somewhat higher doses, a few cells receive two or more events. Because the effects of damage produced by separate events can interact in the cell, we have had to make assumptions about the nature of these interactions in order to interpret the results of the experiments. Many of those assumptions can be tested if we can be sure of the number of charged-particle events which occur in individual cells, and correlate this number with the biological effect. We have developed a special irradiation facility at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to control the actual number of charged particle tracks that pass through cell nuclei. The beam from a 2 MeV tandem accelerator is collimated to approximately 5 microns. Cells, grown in special dishes with 1.5 microns thick plastic bottoms, are positioned so that the desired portion of the cell aligns with the collimator. A shutter in the beam line is opened and closed after the desired number of particle tracks has been counted. This approach can be used to investigate the effects of the interaction between irradiated and unirradiated cells in an organized system, as well as to study the effects of spatial and temporal distribution of radiation damage within single cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  20. 3-Bromopyruvate induces necrotic cell death in sensitive melanoma cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, J.-Z.; Xin, H.; Nickoloff, B.J.

    2010-05-28

    Clinicians successfully utilize high uptake of radiolabeled glucose via PET scanning to localize metastases in melanoma patients. To take advantage of this altered metabolome, 3-bromopyruvate (BrPA) was used to overcome the notorious resistance of melanoma to cell death. Using four melanoma cell lines, BrPA triggered caspase independent necrosis in two lines, whilst the other two lines were resistant to killing. Mechanistically, sensitive cells differed from resistant cells by; constitutively lower levels of glutathione, reduction of glutathione by BrPA only in sensitive cells; increased superoxide anion reactive oxygen species, loss of outer mitochondrial membrane permeability, and rapid ATP depletion. Sensitive cell killing was blocked by N-acetylcysteine or glutathione. When glutathione levels were reduced in resistant cell lines, they became sensitive to killing by BrPA. Taken together, these results identify a metabolic-based Achilles' heel in melanoma cells to be exploited by use of BrPA. Future pre-clinical and clinical trials are warranted to translate these results into improved patient care for individuals suffering from metastatic melanoma.

  1. 11. ENGINE TEST CELL BUILDING INTERIOR. CONTROL ROOM FOR CELLS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. ENGINE TEST CELL BUILDING INTERIOR. CONTROL ROOM FOR CELLS 2 AND 4. LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Fairchild Air Force Base, Engine Test Cell Building, Near intersection of Arnold Street & George Avenue, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  2. Device modeling of dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Bisquert, Juan; Marcus, Rudolph A

    2014-01-01

    We review the concepts and methods of modeling of the dye-sensitized solar cell, starting from fundamental electron transfer theory, and using phenomenological transport-conservation equations. The models revised here are aimed at describing the components of the current-voltage curve of the solar cell, based on small perturbation experimental methods, and to such an end, a range of phenomena occurring in the nanoparticulate electron transport materials, and at interfaces, are covered. Disorder plays a major role in the definition of kinetic parameters, and we introduce single particle as well as collective function definitions of diffusion coefficient and electron lifetime. Based on these fundamental considerations, applied tools of analysis of impedance spectroscopy are described, and we outline in detail the theory of recombination via surface states that is successful to describe the measured recombination resistance and lifetime. PMID:24085559

  3. Carbon Nanotubes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Batmunkh, Munkhbayar; Biggs, Mark J; Shapter, Joseph G

    2015-07-01

    As one type of emerging photovoltaic cell, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are an attractive potential source of renewable energy due to their eco-friendliness, ease of fabrication, and cost effectiveness. However, in DSSCs, the rarity and high cost of some electrode materials (transparent conducting oxide and platinum) and the inefficient performance caused by slow electron transport, poor light-harvesting efficiency, and significant charge recombination are critical issues. Recent research has shown that carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are promising candidates to overcome these issues due to their unique electrical, optical, chemical, physical, as well as catalytic properties. This article provides a comprehensive review of the research that has focused on the application of CNTs and their hybrids in transparent conducting electrodes (TCEs), in semiconducting layers, and in counter electrodes of DSSCs. At the end of this review, some important research directions for the future use of CNTs in DSSCs are also provided. PMID:25864907

  4. Highly efficient monolithic dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jeong; Park, Nam-Gyu; Lee, Jun Young; Ko, Min Jae; Park, Jong Hyeok

    2013-03-01

    Monolithic dye-sensitized solar cells (M-DSSCs) provide an effective way to reduce the fabrication cost of general DSSCs since they do not require transparent conducting oxide substrates for the counter electrode. However, conventional monolithic devices have low efficiency because of the impediments resulting from counter electrode materials and spacer layers. Here, we demonstrate highly efficient M-DSSCs featuring a highly conductive polymer combined with macroporous polymer spacer layers. With M-DSSCs based on a PEDOT/polymer spacer layer, a power conversion efficiency of 7.73% was achieved, which is, to the best of our knowledge, the highest efficiency for M-DSSCs to date. Further, PEDOT/polymer spacer layers were applied to flexible DSSCs and their cell performance was investigated. PMID:23432389

  5. B-1 B cell IgM antibody initiates T cell elicitation of contact sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Askenase, P W; Tsuji, R F

    2000-01-01

    Although B-1 B cells have received considerable attention, their actual role in the normal functioning of the immune system is unclear. The hypothesized role of B-1 cell IgM in natural protective immunity is just being established. We have uncovered a separate and novel role for B-1 cell IgM in initiating the elicitation of acquired T cell-dependent contact sensitivity (CS), the prototype of in vivo T cell immunity, early after immunization (within 4 days). The recent recognition of a similarly unanticipated role of B cells in a variety of T cell responses, may indicate that B-1 cell IgM has a broader role in immunity than thought previously. We showed that 24 hr CS responses, and rises in local IFN-gamma levels at 24 hrs later after antigen (Ag) challenge the ears, were absent in pan B cell and antibody deficient mice. The mechanism of B cell involvement in CS-initiation is via local C5a generation early (1-2 hrs) after antigen (Ag) challenge of the ears, in 4 day contact sensitized mice. C5a activates local mast cells to release serotonin (5-HT) and TNF alpha to induce endothelial ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, leading to T cell recruitment. We hypothesized that C5a was generated via complement activation due to antibodies forming local AgAb complexes, and that B-1 cell IgM was involved because isotype switching of B-2 cells to produce C-activating IgG isotypes, could not occur as early as day 4. Indeed, B-1 cell deficient CBA/N-xid mice lacked C5a in 2 hr ear extracts, and had impaired CS ear swelling and elaboration of IFN-gamma at 24 hrs. Importantly, adoptive transfer of purified normal peritoneal B-1 cells, or just i.v. injection of Ag-specific IgM monoclonal antibodies in sensitized xid, restored deficient early C5a and late 24 hr ear swelling. These results suggest that early after Ag challenge, specific B-1 cell IgM, produced at distant sites by prior sensitization, forms AgAb complexes that trigger elaboration of C5a, to activate mast cell release of vasoactive TNF

  6. Preselection Thymocytes Are More Sensitive to T Cell Receptor Stimulation Than Mature T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Davey, Gayle M.; Schober, Sonya L.; Endrizzi, Bart T.; Dutcher, Angela K.; Jameson, Stephen C.; Hogquist, Kristin A.

    1998-01-01

    During T cell development, thymocytes which are tolerant to self-peptides but reactive to foreign peptides are selected. The current model for thymocyte selection proposes that self-peptide–major histocompatibility complex (MHC) complexes that bind the T cell receptor with low affinity will promote positive selection while those with high affinity will result in negative selection. Upon thymocyte maturation, such low affinity self-peptide–MHC ligands no longer provoke a response, but foreign peptides can incidentally be high affinity ligands and can therefore stimulate T cells. For this model to work, thymocytes must be more sensitive to ligand than mature T cells. Contrary to this expectation, several groups have shown that thymocytes are less responsive than mature T cells to anti-T cell receptor for antigen (TCR)/CD3 mAb stimulation. Additionally, the lower TCR levels on thymocytes, compared with T cells, would potentially correlate with decreased thymocyte sensitivity. Here we compared preselection thymocytes and mature T cells for early activation events in response to peptide–MHC ligands. Remarkably, the preselection thymocytes were more responsive than mature T cells when stimulated with low affinity peptide variants, while both populations responded equally well to the antigenic peptide. This directly demonstrates the increased sensitivity of thymocytes compared with T cells for TCR engagement by peptide–MHC complexes. PMID:9815264

  7. Prolonged insulin treatment sensitizes apoptosis pathways in pancreatic β cells.

    PubMed

    Bucris, E; Beck, A; Boura-Halfon, S; Isaac, R; Vinik, Y; Rosenzweig, T; Sampson, S R; Zick, Y

    2016-09-01

    Insulin resistance results from impaired insulin signaling in target tissues that leads to increased levels of insulin required to control plasma glucose levels. The cycle of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia eventually leads to pancreatic cell deterioration and death by a mechanism that is yet unclear. Insulin induces ROS formation in several cell types. Furthermore, death of pancreatic cells induced by oxidative stress could be potentiated by insulin. Here, we investigated the mechanism underlying this phenomenon. Experiments were done on pancreatic cell lines (Min-6, RINm, INS-1), isolated mouse and human islets, and on cell lines derived from nonpancreatic sources. Insulin (100nM) for 24h selectively increased the production of ROS in pancreatic cells and isolated pancreatic islets, but only slightly affected the expression of antioxidant enzymes. This was accompanied by a time- and dose-dependent decrease in cellular reducing power of pancreatic cells induced by insulin and altered expression of several ER stress response elements including a significant increase in Trb3 and a slight increase in iNos The effect on iNos did not increase NO levels. Insulin also potentiated the decrease in cellular reducing power induced by H2O2 but not cytokines. Insulin decreased the expression of MCL-1, an antiapoptotic protein of the BCL family, and induced a modest yet significant increase in caspase 3/7 activity. In accord with these findings, inhibition of caspase activity eliminated the ability of insulin to increase cell death. We conclude that prolonged elevated levels of insulin may prime apoptosis and cell death-inducing mechanisms as a result of oxidative stress in pancreatic cells. PMID:27411561

  8. Genetic Control of Lithium Sensitivity and Regulation of Inositol Biosynthetic Genes

    PubMed Central

    King, Jason; Keim, Melanie; Teo, Regina; Weening, Karin E.; Kapur, Mridu; McQuillan, Karina; Ryves, Jonathan; Rogers, Ben; Dalton, Emma; Williams, Robin S. B.; Harwood, Adrian J.

    2010-01-01

    Lithium (Li+) is a common treatment for bipolar mood disorder, a major psychiatric illness with a lifetime prevalence of more than 1%. Risk of bipolar disorder is heavily influenced by genetic predisposition, but is a complex genetic trait and, to date, genetic studies have provided little insight into its molecular origins. An alternative approach is to investigate the genetics of Li+ sensitivity. Using the social amoeba Dictyostelium, we previously identified prolyl oligopeptidase (PO) as a modulator of Li+ sensitivity. In a link to the clinic, PO enzyme activity is altered in bipolar disorder patients. Further studies demonstrated that PO is a negative regulator of inositol(1,4,5)trisphosphate (IP3) synthesis, a Li+ sensitive intracellular signal. However, it was unclear how PO could influence either Li+ sensitivity or risk of bipolar disorder. Here we show that in both Dictyostelium and cultured human cells PO acts via Multiple Inositol Polyphosphate Phosphatase (Mipp1) to control gene expression. This reveals a novel, gene regulatory network that modulates inositol metabolism and Li+ sensitivity. Among its targets is the inositol monophosphatase gene IMPA2, which has also been associated with risk of bipolar disorder in some family studies, and our observations offer a cellular signalling pathway in which PO activity and IMPA2 gene expression converge. PMID:20567601

  9. PKC 412 sensitizes U1810 non-small cell lung cancer cells to DNA damage

    SciTech Connect

    Hemstroem, Therese H.; Joseph, Bertrand; Schulte, Gunnar; Lewensohn, Rolf; Zhivotovsky, Boris . E-mail: Boris.Zhivotovsky@imm.ki.se

    2005-04-15

    Non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) is characterized by resistance to drug-induced apoptosis, which might explain the survival of lung cancer cells following treatment. Recently we have shown that the broad-range kinase inhibitor staurosporine (STS) reactivates the apoptotic machinery in U1810 NSCLC cells [Joseph et al., Oncogene 21 (2002) 65]. Lately, several STS analogs that are more specific in kinase inhibition have been suggested for tumor treatment. In this study the apoptosis-inducing ability of the STS analogs PKC 412 and Ro 31-8220 used alone or in combination with DNA-damaging agents in U1810 cells was investigated. In these cells Ro 31-8220 neither induced apoptosis when used alone, nor sensitized cells to etoposide treatment. PKC 412 as a single agent induced death of a small number of U1810 cells, whereas it efficiently triggered a dose- and time-dependent apoptosis in U1285 small cell lung carcinoma cells. In both cell types PKC 412 triggered release of mitochondrial proteins followed by caspase activation. However, concomitant activation of a caspase-independent pathway was essential to kill NSCLC cells. Importantly, PKC 412 was able to sensitize etoposide- and radiation-induced death of U1810 cells. The best sensitization was achieved when PKC 412 was administered 24 h after treatments. In U1810 cells, Ro 31-8220 decreased PMA-induced ERK phosphorylation as efficiently as PKC 412, indicating that the failure of Ro 31-8220 to induce apoptosis was not due to weaker inhibition of conventional and novel PKC isoforms. However, Ro 31-8220 increased the basal level of ERK and Akt phosphorylation in both cell lines, whereas Akt phosphorylation was suppressed in the U1810 cells, which might influence apoptosis. These results suggest that PKC 412 could be a useful tool in increasing the efficiency of therapy of NSCLC.

  10. Radiolabeled cypoxic cell sensitizers: tracer for assessment of ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Mathias, C.J.; Welch, M.J.; Kilbourn, M.R.; Jerabek, P.A.; Patrick, T.B.; Raichle, M.E.; Krohn, K.A.; Rasey, J.S.; Shaw, D.W.

    1987-07-13

    Hypoxic, non-functional, but viable, tissue may exist in heart and brain following an arterial occlusion. Identification of such tissue in vivo is crucial to the development of effective treatment strategies. It has been suggested that certain compounds capable of sensitizing hypoxic tumor cells to killing by x-rays (i.e., misonidazole) might serve as in vivo markers of hypoxic tissue in ischemic myocardium or brain if properly radiolabeled. To this end the authors have radiolabeled two fluorinated analogs of nitroimidazole based hypoxic cell sensitizers with the 110 minute half-lived positron-emitting fluorine-18. The ability of these tracers to quantitate the presence of hypoxic tissue has been studied in a gerbil stroke model. The in vivo uptake of one of these tracers (F-18)-fluoronormethyoxymisonidazole is dependent on the extent of tissue hypoxia, and thus, appears to have potential as a diagnostic indicator of non-functional but viable tissue when the tracer is used in conjunction with positron emission tomography. 80 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  11. Artificial evolution of coumarin dyes for dye sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Venkatraman, Vishwesh; Abburu, Sailesh; Alsberg, Bjørn Kåre

    2015-11-01

    The design and discovery of novel molecular structures with optimal properties has been an ongoing effort for materials scientists. This field has in general been dominated by experiment driven trial-and-error approaches that are often expensive and time-consuming. Here, we investigate if a de novo computational design methodology can be applied to the design of coumarin-based dye sensitizers with improved properties for use in Grätzel solar cells. To address the issue of synthetic accessibility of the designed compounds, a fragment-based assembly is employed, wherein the combination of chemical motifs (derived from the existing databases of structures) is carried out with respect to user-adaptable set of rules. Rather than using computationally intensive density functional theory (DFT)/ab initio methods to screen candidate dyes, we employ quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) models (calibrated from empirical data) for rapid estimation of the property of interest, which in this case is the product of short circuit current (Jsc) and open circuit voltage (Voc). Since QSPR models have limited validity, pre-determined applicability domain criteria are used to prevent unacceptable extrapolation. DFT analysis of the top-ranked structures provides supporting evidence of their potential for dye sensitized solar cell applications. PMID:26428071

  12. Rapid and sensitive quantitation of heme in hemoglobinized cells.

    PubMed

    Marcero, Jason R; Piel Iii, Robert B; Burch, Joseph S; Dailey, Harry A

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and accurate heme quantitation in the research lab has become more desirable as the crucial role that intracellular hemoproteins play in metabolism continues to emerge. Here, the time-honored approaches of pyridine hemochromogen and fluorescence heme assays are compared with direct absorbance-based technologies using the CLARiTY spectrophotometer. All samples tested with these methods were rich in hemoglobin-associated heme, including buffered hemoglobin standards, whole blood from mice, and murine erythroleukemia (MEL) and K562 cells. While the pyridine hemochromogen assay demonstrated the greatest linear range of heme detection, all 3 methods demonstrated similar analytical sensitivities and normalized limits of quantitation of ∼1 µM. Surprisingly, the fluorescence assay was only shown to be distinct in its ability to quantitate extremely small samples. Using the CLARiTY system in combination with pyridine hemochromogen and cell count data, a common hemoglobin extinction coefficient for blood and differentiating MEL and K562 cells of 0.46 µM-1 cm-1 was derived. This value was applied to supplemental experiments designed to measure MEL cell hemoglobinization in response to the addition or removal of factors previously shown to affect heme biosynthesis (e.g., L-glutamine, iron). PMID:27528073

  13. Dye-sensitized solar cells using natural dyes as sensitizers from Malaysia local fruit `Buah Mertajam'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambali, N. A. M. Ahmad; Roshidah, N.; Hashim, M. Norhafiz; Mohamad, I. S.; Saad, N. Hidayah; Norizan, M. N.

    2015-05-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the high conversion efficiency, low cost, green technology and easy to fabricate dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) using natural anthocyanin dyes as sensitizers. The DSSCs was fabricated by using natural anthocyanin dyes which were extracted from different parts of the plants inclusive `Buah Mertajam', `Buah Keriang Dot', `Bunga Geti', Hibiscus, Red Spinach and Henna. The natural anthocyanin dyes that found in flower, leaves and fruits were extracted by the simple procedures. This anthocyanin dye is used to replace the expensive chemical synthetic dyes due to its ability to effectively attach into the surface of Titanium dioxide (TiO2). A natural anthocyanin dyes molecule adsorbs to each particle of the TiO2 and acts as the absorber of the visible light. A natural anthocyanin dye from Buah Mertajam shows the best performance with the conversion efficiency of 5.948% and fill factor of 0.708 followed by natural anthocyanin dyes from `Buah Keriang Dot', `Bunga Geti', Hibiscus, Red Spinach and Henna. Buah Mertajam or scientifically known as eriglossum rubiginosum is a local Malaysia fruit.

  14. Reactive oxygen species induce a Ca(2+)-spark increase in sensitized murine airway smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Tuo, Qing-Rong; Ma, Yun-Fei; Chen, Weiwei; Luo, Xiao-Jing; Shen, Jinhua; Guo, Donglin; Zheng, Yun-Min; Wang, Yong-Xiao; Ji, Guangju; Liu, Qing-Hua

    2013-05-10

    The level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the activity of spontaneous, transient, localized Ca(2+) increases (known as Ca(2+) sparks) in tracheal smooth muscle cells (TSMCs) in an experimental allergic asthma mouse model has not yet been investigated. We used laser confocal microscopy and fluorescent dyes to measure ROS levels and Ca(2+) sparks, and we found that both events were significantly increased in TSMCs obtained from ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized/-challenged mice compared with control mice. ROS levels began to increase in TSMCs after the first OVA challenge, and this increase was sustained. However, this elevation and Ca(2+)-spark increase was abolished after the administration of the ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine amide (NACA) for 5days. Furthermore, a similar inhibition was also observed following the direct perfusion of NACA into cells isolated from the (OVA)-sensitized mice that were not treated with NACA. Moreover, we used 0.1-mM caffeine treatment to increase the Ca(2+) sparks in single TSMCs and observed cell shortening. In addition, we did not find increases in the mRNA levels of ryanodine (RyRs) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3Rs) receptors in the tracheal smooth muscle cells of (OVA)-sensitized mice compared with controls. We concluded that ROS and Ca(2+) sparks increased in (OVA)-sensitized TSMCs. We found that ROS induces Ca(2+) sparks, and increased Ca(2+) sparks resulted in the contraction of (OVA)-sensitized TSMCs, resulting in the generation of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). This effect may represent a novel mechanism for AHR pathogenesis and might provide insight into new methods for the clinical prevention and treatment of asthma and asthmatic AHR. PMID:23583396

  15. Infrasound sensitizes human glioblastoma cells to cisplatin-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Rachlin, Kenneth; Moore, Dan H; Yount, Garret

    2013-11-01

    The development of nontoxic agents that can selectively enhance the cytotoxicity of chemotherapy is an important aim in oncology. This study evaluates the ability of infrasound exposure to sensitize glioblastoma cells to cisplatin-induced apoptosis. The infrasound was delivered using a device designed to replicate the unique infrasound emissions measured during external Qigong treatments. Human glioblastoma cell lines harboring wild-type p53 (U87) or mutant p53 (U251, SF210, and SF188) were treated in culture with cisplatin, infrasound emissions, or the combination of the 2 agents. Induction of apoptosis was quantified after 24 hours by flow cytometry following annexin V/propidium iodide staining. Infrasound emissions alone, delivered at moderate levels (~10 mPa) with dynamic frequency content (7-13 Hz), did not induce apoptosis, yet combining infrasound with cisplatin augmented the induction of apoptosis by cisplatin in all the 4 cell lines (P < .05). Increased cellular uptake of the fluorophore calcein associated with infrasound exposure was quantified by fluorescence microscopy as well as flow cytometry, demonstrating increased cell membrane permeability. The 4 cell lines differed in the degree to which infrasound exposure increased calcein uptake, and these differences were predictive of the extent to which infrasound enhanced cisplatin-induced apoptosis. When exposed to specific frequencies, membrane permeabilization also appeared to be differentially responsive for each cell line, suggesting the potential for selective targeting of tissue types using isolated infrasonic frequencies. Additionally, the pressure amplitudes used in this study were several orders of magnitude less than those used in similar studies involving ultrasound and shock waves. The results of this study provide support for using infrasound to enhance the chemotherapeutic effects of cisplatin in a clinical setting. PMID:23165942

  16. Cost-sensitive Bayesian control policy in human active sensing

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Sheeraz; Huang, He; Yu, Angela J.

    2014-01-01

    An important but poorly understood aspect of sensory processing is the role of active sensing, the use of self-motion such as eye or head movements to focus sensing resources on the most rewarding or informative aspects of the sensory environment. Here, we present behavioral data from a visual search experiment, as well as a Bayesian model of within-trial dynamics of sensory processing and eye movements. Within this Bayes-optimal inference and control framework, which we call C-DAC (Context-Dependent Active Controller), various types of behavioral costs, such as temporal delay, response error, and sensor repositioning cost, are explicitly minimized. This contrasts with previously proposed algorithms that optimize abstract statistical objectives such as anticipated information gain (Infomax) (Butko and Movellan, 2010) and expected posterior maximum (greedy MAP) (Najemnik and Geisler, 2005). We find that C-DAC captures human visual search dynamics better than previous models, in particular a certain form of “confirmation bias” apparent in the way human subjects utilize prior knowledge about the spatial distribution of the search target to improve search speed and accuracy. We also examine several computationally efficient approximations to C-DAC that may present biologically more plausible accounts of the neural computations underlying active sensing, as well as practical tools for solving active sensing problems in engineering applications. To summarize, this paper makes the following key contributions: human visual search behavioral data, a context-sensitive Bayesian active sensing model, a comparative study between different models of human active sensing, and a family of efficient approximations to the optimal model. PMID:25520640

  17. Cost-sensitive Bayesian control policy in human active sensing.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Sheeraz; Huang, He; Yu, Angela J

    2014-01-01

    An important but poorly understood aspect of sensory processing is the role of active sensing, the use of self-motion such as eye or head movements to focus sensing resources on the most rewarding or informative aspects of the sensory environment. Here, we present behavioral data from a visual search experiment, as well as a Bayesian model of within-trial dynamics of sensory processing and eye movements. Within this Bayes-optimal inference and control framework, which we call C-DAC (Context-Dependent Active Controller), various types of behavioral costs, such as temporal delay, response error, and sensor repositioning cost, are explicitly minimized. This contrasts with previously proposed algorithms that optimize abstract statistical objectives such as anticipated information gain (Infomax) (Butko and Movellan, 2010) and expected posterior maximum (greedy MAP) (Najemnik and Geisler, 2005). We find that C-DAC captures human visual search dynamics better than previous models, in particular a certain form of "confirmation bias" apparent in the way human subjects utilize prior knowledge about the spatial distribution of the search target to improve search speed and accuracy. We also examine several computationally efficient approximations to C-DAC that may present biologically more plausible accounts of the neural computations underlying active sensing, as well as practical tools for solving active sensing problems in engineering applications. To summarize, this paper makes the following key contributions: human visual search behavioral data, a context-sensitive Bayesian active sensing model, a comparative study between different models of human active sensing, and a family of efficient approximations to the optimal model. PMID:25520640

  18. Characterization of endocrine cell lines immortalized by a temperature-sensitive mutant SV40.

    PubMed

    Chen, C L; Simmen, R C; Chou, J Y

    1991-01-01

    An ideal in vitro model for the study of endocrine functions would be one in which cells could propagate in culture and express their specialized functions. Most endocrine studies to date have relied on primary cell culture or on the use of tumor cell lines. This report describes the characterization of three endocrine cell lines immortalized by transfecting endocrine cells with a temperature-sensitive mutant SV40 virus. Rabbit endometrium (HRE-H9), human placenta (SPA209-10) and rat pituitary (RP) cells were immortalized by SV40 virus, a temperature-sensitive (ts) mutant in the A gene, which encodes the large tumor antigen that is required for the maintenance of transformation. The transformed phenotype of the SV40 tsA mutant-immortalized cell line can be reversed simply by a shift in temperature. At the permissive temperature (34 degrees C), all three types of cells exhibited a transformed phenotype, which is characterized by high cell density growth and by the overgrowth of nontransformed cell layers. However, at the non-permissive temperature (40 degrees C) these cells reverted to a non-transformed phenotype as demonstrated by a marked decrease in the overgrowth of nontransformed layers and by the expression of differentiated functions. At the non-permissive temperature (40 degrees C), the endometrial cell line was capable of synthesizing beta-endorphin, and it exhibited hormonally regulated expression of the transfected hybrid uteroferrin gene construct. The human placenta cell line was capable of secreting GnRH upon stimulation by cAMP, forskolin, theophyllin, PGE, catecholamine and Ca++ channel stimulators. Moreover, the rat pituitary cell line was capable of synthesizing and secreting growth hormone (GH) which was stimulated by GHRH and cAMP. The advantage of the temperature-sensitive cell lines is that a single cell line is the source of both the normal and transformed states; thus, studies are internally controlled. These results demonstrate that ts

  19. Exocytosis of endothelial cells is regulated by N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor.

    PubMed

    Yamakuchi, Munekazu; Ferlito, Marcella; Morrell, Craig N; Matsushita, Kenji; Fletcher, Craig A; Cao, Wangsen; Lowenstein, Charles J

    2008-01-01

    Endothelial exocytosis of granules is a rapid response to vascular injury. However, the molecular machinery that regulates exocytosis in endothelial cells is not well understood. Recently developed techniques have defined the endothelial proteins that control vesicle and granule trafficking in endothelial cells. These techniques have revealed that syntaxin 4, synaptobrevin 3, and N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) play a critical role in endothelial granule exocytosis. Additional studies have shown that nitric oxide regulates exocytosis by chemically modifying NSF. Further characterization of the factors that regulate exocytosis will lead to novel treatments for vascular diseases such as myocardial infarction and stroke. PMID:18369947

  20. A quantitative proteomics-based signature of platinum sensitivity in ovarian cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Gaofeng; Wrzeszczynski, Kazimierz O.; Fu, Cexiong; Pappin, Darryl J.; Lucito, Robert; Tonks, Nicholas K.; Su, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Although DNA encodes the molecular instructions that underlie control of cell function, it is the proteins that are primarily responsible for implementing those instructions. Therefore, quantitative analyses of the proteome would be expected to yield insights into important candidates for the detection and treatment of disease. We present an iTRAQ (Isobaric Tagging for Relative and Absolute Quantification)-based proteomic analysis of 10 ovarian cancer cell lines and 2 normal ovarian surface epithelial cell lines. We profiled the abundance of 2659 cellular proteins, of which 1273 were common to all 12 cell lines. Of the 1273, 75 proteins exhibited elevated expression, and 164 proteins had diminished expression in the cancerous cells compared to the normal cell lines. The iTRAQ expression profiles allowed us to segregate cell lines based upon sensitivity and resistance to carboplatin. Importantly, we observed no substantial correlation between protein abundance and RNA expression or epigenetic, DNA methylation data. Furthermore, we could not discriminate between sensitivity and resistance to carboplatin on the basis of RNA expression and DNA methylation data alone. This study illustrates the importance of proteomics-based discovery for defining the basis for the carboplatin response in ovarian cancer and highlights candidate proteins, particularly involved in cellular redox regulation, homologous recombination and DNA damage repair, that otherwise could not have been predicted from whole genome and expression data sources alone. PMID:25406946

  1. A microscale neuron and Schwann cell coculture model for increasing detection sensitivity of botulinum neurotoxin type A.

    PubMed

    Hong, Won S; Young, Edmond W K; Tepp, William H; Johnson, Eric A; Beebe, David J

    2013-07-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is a potent and specific biomolecule that is both implicated as a potential threat in bioterrorism and used in therapeutics. Highly sensitive and robust assays that measure BoNT activity are needed to manage outbreak or controlled distribution of BoNT. Current in vivo and in vitro assays have limitations, including high costs and variability for mouse bioassays, extensive preparations for primary and stem cell-derived neurons, and inherent low sensitivity for cell lines. Sensitivity of cell lines can be increased by direct differentiation and with their physiological relevance (compared with cell-free strategies) and robustness (compared with primary cell strategies); adopting cell lines is an attractive alternative to in vivo assays. Here, we present two distinct strategies that improved sensitivity of a cell line to BoNT serotype A (BoNT/A) without direct differentiation. We developed a cell-based BoNT assay using microscale culture and coculture of neuronal and Schwann cell lines, NG108-15 and S16, respectively, to improve both sensitivity and physiological relevance. Results showed that NG108-15 and S16 coculture decreased EC50 from 12.5 to 0.8ng/µl (p < 0.001) in macroscale and from 2.6 to 1.1ng/µl (p = 0.006) in microscale. In addition, NG108-15 monoculture at microscale decreased EC50 from 12.5 to 2.6ng/µl (p < 0.001) compared with macroscale. Finally, controlling the spatial arrangement of microscale coculture revealed that S16-derived soluble factors can increase sensitivity. Thus, our study demonstrates two distinct strategies for increasing the sensitivity of a cell line to BoNT using coculture and microscale culture, thereby advancing assay technology for BoNT detection. PMID:23564642

  2. Toxic variability and radiation sensitization by Pt(II) analogs in Salmonella typhimurium cells

    SciTech Connect

    Richmond, R.C.; Khokhar, A.R.; Teicher, B.A.; Douple, E.B.

    1984-09-01

    A rationale is presented for the development of toxic, i.e., cytocidal, antitumor drugs as clinical hypoxic cell radiation sensitizers. Pt(II) complex-induced hypoxic cell radiation sensitization may occur from Pt(II) complex in free solution and Pt(II) bound to DNA. Although both the free solution and the bound compartments may operate, the free solution compartment is more likely amenable to experimental and clinical control in the case of systemically active Pt drugs. Assuming equivalent cell uptake of different Pt(II) complexes, the free solution compartment of Pt(II) sensitization can be increased by utilizing less toxic analogs of the antitumor drug cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum(II). One such less toxic Pt(II) sensitizer currently in clinical use is found to be cis-(1,1-cyclobutanedicarboxylato)diammineplatinum(II). A new finding of both clinical and mechanistic usefulness is described: irradiation of hypoxic solutions of four cis-Pt(II) complexes, but not two trans-Pt(II) complexes, creates products that cause toxicity in excees of the unirradiated solutions.

  3. Molecular mechanisms of alkylation sensitivity in Indian muntjac cell lines.

    PubMed

    Musk, S R; Hatton, D H; Bouffler, S D; Margison, G P; Johnson, R T

    1989-07-01

    The responses of two Indian muntjac cell lines to two monofunctional alkylating agents were investigated. An SV40-transformed line (SVM) had an increased sensitivity to cell killing when compared to the other, euploid line (DM) after exposure both to methyl nitrosourea (MNU) and to dimethylsulphate (DMS) and also exhibited higher frequencies of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) following alkylation. The hypersensitivity of SVM to DMS correlates with the defective repair of single-strand breaks that results in the generation of long-lived breaks in the DNA following exposure, leading eventually to the formation of chromosome aberrations. In contrast no difference is seen in the formation of long-lived breaks in the DNA of SVM and DM after treatment with biologically relevant doses of MNU; in this case hypersensitivity may be due to the loss of O6-alkylguanine-DNA-alkyltransferase activity. The conclusion that the hypersensitivites of SVM to MNU and to DMS have different molecular bases is supported by transfection of SVM with plasmids containing the protein coding region of the Escherichia coli ada+ gene; subsequent expression within the cell corrects its hypersensitivity to the cytotoxic and SCE-inducing effects of MNU but has very little influence upon the lethality, SCE induction or the repair of long-lived DNA strand breaks after exposure to DMS. PMID:2544312

  4. The Interplay of Maternal Sensitivity and Gentle Control When Predicting Children's Subsequent Academic Functioning: Evidence of Mediation by Effortful Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopystynska, Olena; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Seay, Danielle M.; Eisenberg, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this work was to examine the complex interrelation of mothers' early gentle control and sensitivity in predicting children's effortful control (EC) and academic functioning. Maternal gentle control, maternal sensitivity, and children's EC were measured when children were 18, 30, and 42 months of age (T1, T2, and T3, respectively), and…

  5. IL12-mediated sensitizing of T-cell receptor-dependent and -independent tumor cell killing.

    PubMed

    Braun, Matthias; Ress, Marie L; Yoo, Young-Eun; Scholz, Claus J; Eyrich, Matthias; Schlegel, Paul G; Wölfl, Matthias

    2016-07-01

    Interleukin 12 (IL12) is a key inflammatory cytokine critically influencing Th1/Tc1-T-cell responses at the time of initial antigen encounter. Therefore, it may be exploited for cancer immunotherapy. Here, we investigated how IL12, and other inflammatory cytokines, shape effector functions of human T-cells. Using a defined culture system, we followed the gradual differentiation and function of antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells from their initial activation as naïve T cells through their expansion phase as early memory cells to full differentiation as clonally expanded effector T cells. The addition of IL12 8 days after the initial priming event initiated two mechanistically separate events: First, IL12 sensitized the T-cell receptor (TCR) for antigen-specific activation, leading to an approximately 10-fold increase in peptide sensitivity and, in consequence, enhanced tumor cell killing. Secondly, IL12 enabled TCR/HLA-independent activation and cytotoxicity: this "non-specific" effect was mediated by the NK cell receptor DNAM1 (CD226) and dependent on ligand expression of the target cells. This IL12 regulated, DNAM1-mediated killing is dependent on src-kinases as well as on PTPRC (CD45) activity. Thus, besides enhancing TCR-mediated activation, we here identified for the first time a second IL12 mediated mechanism leading to activation of a receptor-dependent killing pathway via DNAM1. PMID:27622043

  6. Comparison of Dye-Sensitized Rutile- and Anatase-Based TiO2 Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Park, N. G.; van de Lagemaat, J.; Frank, A. J.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop and optimize the new dye-sensitized solar cell technology. In view of the infancy of rutile material development for solar cells, the PV response of the dye-sensitized rutile-based solar cell is remarkably close to that of the anatase-based cell.

  7. Simple and sensitive method for monitoring drug-induced cell injury in cultured cells

    SciTech Connect

    Shirhatti, V.; Krishna, G.

    1985-06-01

    A simple, sensitive method has been developed for evaluating cell injury noninvasively in monolayer cells in culture. The cell ATP pool was radiolabeled by incubating the cells with (/sup 14/C)adenine. The uptake and incorporation of (/sup 14/C)adenine was shown to proportional to the number of cells. As determined by HPLC, about 65-70% of the incorporated /sup 14/C label was in the ATP pool, 15-20% was in the ADP pool, and the rest was in the 5'-AMP pool. When prelabeled cells were exposed to toxic drugs (acetaminophen, calcium ionophore A-23187, or daunomycin) there was a marked decrease in cell ATP with a concomitant increase in leakage of labeled nucleotides, mainly 5'-AMP and 5'IMP. The authors have shown that leakage of /sup 14/C label into the medium from the prelabeled cells may be employed for quantitation of cell injury. This new measure of toxicity was shown to correlate very well with LDH leakage from the cells, which is a well accepted measure of cell injury. The leakage of 5'-(/sup 14/C)AMP also correlated very well with the reduction of cell ATP in cardiac myocytes. This method has been used for monitoring drug-induced toxicity in liver cells, cardiac myocytes, and LB cells.

  8. Dye Sensitized Solar Cells for Economically Viable Photovoltaic Systems.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyun Suk; Lee, Jung-Kun

    2013-05-16

    TiO2 nanoparticle-based dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have attracted a significant level of scientific and technological interest for their potential as economically viable photovoltaic devices. While DSSCs have multiple benefits such as material abundance, a short energy payback period, constant power output, and compatibility with flexible applications, there are still several challenges that hold back large scale commercialization. Critical factors determining the future of DSSCs involve energy conversion efficiency, long-term stability, and production cost. Continuous advancement of their long-term stability suggests that state-of-the-art DSSCs will operate for over 20 years without a significant decrease in performance. Nevertheless, key questions remain in regards to energy conversion efficiency improvements and material cost reduction. In this Perspective, the present state of the field and the ongoing efforts to address the requirements of DSSCs are summarized with views on the future of DSSCs. PMID:26282979

  9. Dye sensitized solar cells with carbon black as counter electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chi-Feng; Chou, Yu-Chen; Haung, Jhang-Fu; Chen, Pin-Hung; Han, Hsieh-Cheng; Chiu, Kuo-Yuan; Su, Yuhlong Oliver

    2016-03-01

    In this experiment, we use carbon black as counter electrodes to replace the conventional platinum electrodes in dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The electrical properties and device efficiency with carbon black counter electrodes with various concentrations, and under the annealing temperature from 100 to 500 °C are discussed. After the proper annealing process, the conductivity and redoxing ability of the carbon black is improved, resulted in the enhancement of the electrical characteristics, especially fill factor, of the device. The highest device efficiency was 7.28% with the JSC of 14.70 mA/cm2, VOC of 0.75 V, and fill factor of 0.67 under 1-sun AM 1.5G solar illumination.

  10. Efficiency Records in Mesoscopic Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Albero, Josep; Atienzar, Pedro; Corma, Avelino; Garcia, Hermenegildo

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present review article is to show the progress achieved in the efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) by evolution in the structure and composition of the dye. After an initial brief description of DSSCs and the operating mechanism the major part of the present article is organized according to the type of dye, trying to show the logic in the variation of the dye structure in order to achieve strong binding on the surface of the layer of nanoparticulate TiO2 , efficient interfacial electron injection between the excited dye and the semiconductor, and minimization of the unwanted dark current processes. Besides metal complexes, including polypyridyls and nitrogenated macro rings, organic dyes and inorganic light harvesters such as quantum dots and perovskites have also been included in the review. The last section summarizes the current state of the art and provides an overview on future developments in the field. PMID:26183911

  11. Plasmonic nanoparticles enhanced dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qi; Liu, Fang; Meng, Weisi; Huang, Yidong

    2013-12-01

    Here we present investigations on utilizing two kinds of plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs) to enhance the efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The Au@PVP NPs is proposed and present the specialty of adhesiveness to dye molecules, which could help to localize additional dye molecules near the plasmonic NPs, hence increasing the optical absorption consequently the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the DSCs by 30% from 3.3% to 4.3%. Meanwhile, an irregular Au-Ag alloy popcorn-shaped NPs (popcorn NPs) with plenty of fine structures is also proposed and realized to enhance the light absorption of DSC. A pronounced absorption enhancement in a broadband wavelength range is observed due to the excitation of localized surface plasmon at different wavelengths. The PCE is enhanced by 32% from 5.94% to 7.85%.

  12. Propranolol sensitizes thyroid cancer cells to cytotoxic effect of vemurafenib.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei-Jun; Shen, Chen-Tian; Song, Hong-Jun; Qiu, Zhong-Ling; Luo, Quan-Yong

    2016-09-01

    Treatment options for advanced metastatic or progressive thyroid cancers are limited. Although targeted therapy specifically inhibiting intracellular kinase signaling pathways has markedly changed the therapeutic landscape, side-effects and resistance of single agent targeted therapy often leads to termination of the treatment. The objective of the present study was to identify the antitumor property of the non-selective β-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol for thyroid cancers. Human thyroid cancer cell lines 8505C, K1, BCPAP and BHP27 were used in the present study. Broad β-blocker propranolol and β2-specific antagonist ICI118551, but not β1-specific antagonist atenolol, inhibited the growth of 8505C and K1 cells. Propranolol treatment inhibited growth and induced apoptosis of 8505C cells in vitro and in vivo, which are closely associated with decreased expressions of cyclin D1 and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. Expression of hexokinase 2 (HK2) and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) also decreased following propranolol intervention. 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging of the 8505C xenografts validated shrinkage of the tumors in the propranolol-treated group when compared to the phosphate‑buffered saline treated group. Finally, we found that propranolol can amplify the cytotoxicity of vemurafenib and sensitize thyroid cancer cells to cytotoxic effect of vemurafenib. Our present results suggest that propranolol has potential activity against thyroid cancers and investigation of the combination with targeted molecular therapy for progressive thyroid cancers could be beneficial. PMID:27432558

  13. Differential effects of blueberry proanthocyanidins on androgen sensitive and insensitive human prostate cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Barbara M; Erdman, John W; Lila, Mary Ann

    2006-01-18

    Blueberries are rich in health-promoting polyphenolic compounds including proanthocyanidins. The purpose of this study was to determine if proanthocyanidin-rich fractions from both wild and cultivated blueberry fruit have the same inhibitory effects on the proliferation of LNCaP, an androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cell line, and DU145, a more aggressive androgen insensitive prostate cancer cell line. When 20 microg/ml of a wild blueberry proanthocyanidin fraction (fraction 5) was added to LNCaP media, growth was inhibited to 11% of control with an IC50 of 13.3 microg/ml. Two similar proanthocyanidin-rich fractions from cultivated blueberries (fractions 4 and 5) at the same concentration inhibited LNCaP growth to 57 and 26% of control with an IC50 of 22.7 and 5.8 microg/ml, respectively. In DU145 cells, the only fraction that significantly reduced growth compared to control was fraction 4 from cultivated blueberries with an IC50 value of 74.4 microg/ml, indicating only minor inhibitory activity. Differences in cell growth inhibition of LNCaP and DU145 cell lines by blueberry fractions rich in proanthocyanidins indicate that blueberry proanthocyanidins have an effect primarily on androgen-dependant growth of prostate cancer cells. Possible molecular mechanisms for growth inhibition are reviewed. PMID:16399225

  14. Clusters of specialized detector cells provide sensitive and high fidelity receptor signaling in the intact endothelium

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Calum; Saunter, Christopher D.; Girkin, John M.; McCarron, John G.

    2016-01-01

    Agonist-mediated signaling by the endothelium controls virtually all vascular functions. Because of the large diversity of agonists, each with varying concentrations, background noise often obscures individual cellular signals. How the endothelium distinguishes low-level fluctuations from noise and decodes and integrates physiologically relevant information remains unclear. Here, we recorded changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentrations in response to acetylcholine in areas encompassing hundreds of endothelial cells from inside intact pressurized arteries. Individual cells responded to acetylcholine with a concentration-dependent increase in Ca2+ signals spanning a single order of magnitude. Interestingly, however, intercellular response variation extended over 3 orders of magnitude of agonist concentration, thus crucially enhancing the collective bandwidth of endothelial responses to agonists. We also show the accuracy of this collective mode of detection is facilitated by spatially restricted clusters of comparably sensitive cells arising from heterogeneous receptor expression. Simultaneous stimulation of clusters triggered Ca2+ signals that were transmitted to neighboring cells in a manner that scaled with agonist concentration. Thus, the endothelium detects agonists by acting as a distributed sensing system. Specialized clusters of detector cells, analogous to relay nodes in modern communication networks, integrate populationwide inputs, and enable robust noise filtering for efficient high-fidelity signaling.—Wilson, C., Saunter, C. D., Girkin, J. M., McCarron, J. G. Clusters of specialized detector cells provide sensitive and high fidelity receptor signaling in the intact endothelium. PMID:26873937

  15. Clusters of specialized detector cells provide sensitive and high fidelity receptor signaling in the intact endothelium.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Calum; Saunter, Christopher D; Girkin, John M; McCarron, John G

    2016-05-01

    Agonist-mediated signaling by the endothelium controls virtually all vascular functions. Because of the large diversity of agonists, each with varying concentrations, background noise often obscures individual cellular signals. How the endothelium distinguishes low-level fluctuations from noise and decodes and integrates physiologically relevant information remains unclear. Here, we recorded changes in intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations in response to acetylcholine in areas encompassing hundreds of endothelial cells from inside intact pressurized arteries. Individual cells responded to acetylcholine with a concentration-dependent increase in Ca(2+) signals spanning a single order of magnitude. Interestingly, however, intercellular response variation extended over 3 orders of magnitude of agonist concentration, thus crucially enhancing the collective bandwidth of endothelial responses to agonists. We also show the accuracy of this collective mode of detection is facilitated by spatially restricted clusters of comparably sensitive cells arising from heterogeneous receptor expression. Simultaneous stimulation of clusters triggered Ca(2+) signals that were transmitted to neighboring cells in a manner that scaled with agonist concentration. Thus, the endothelium detects agonists by acting as a distributed sensing system. Specialized clusters of detector cells, analogous to relay nodes in modern communication networks, integrate populationwide inputs, and enable robust noise filtering for efficient high-fidelity signaling.-Wilson, C., Saunter, C. D., Girkin, J. M., McCarron, J. G. Clusters of specialized detector cells provide sensitive and high fidelity receptor signaling in the intact endothelium. PMID:26873937

  16. Allergic skin inflammation induced by chemical sensitizers is controlled by the transcription factor Nrf2.

    PubMed

    El Ali, Zeina; Gerbeix, Cédric; Hemon, Patrice; Esser, Philipp R; Martin, Stefan F; Pallardy, Marc; Kerdine-Römer, Saadia

    2013-07-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is induced by low-molecular weight electrophilic chemicals and metal ions. Chemical contact sensitizers trigger reactive oxygen species production and provoke electrophilic stress, leading to the accumulation of the transcription factor nuclear-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in innate immune cell types. The objective of this work was to identify the role of Nrf2 in the regulation of ACD. We used the local lymph node assay (LLNA) and the mouse ear swelling test (MEST) to study the role of Nrf2 in both the sensitization and elicitation phase in nrf2 knockout (nrf2(-/-)) and wild-type (nrf2(+/+)) mice. Five chemicals were used: two compounds known to react with cysteine residues, 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and cinnamaldehyde (CinA); one sensitizer known to exhibit mixed reactivity to cysteine and lysine residues, isophorone diisocyanate; and one reacting specifically with lysine residues, trimellitic anhydride and croton oil, a well-known irritant. In the MEST assay, DNCB (1 and 2%) induced a significant increase in ear thickness in nrf2(-/-) compared with nrf2(+/+) mice, suggesting a role for Nrf2 in the control of the inflammatory process. When DNCB was used at 0.25 and 0.5% or when mice were treated with CinA, inflammation was found only in nrf2(-/-) mice. In the LLNA, all chemical sensitizers induced an increase of lymphocyte proliferation in nrf2(-/-) compared with nrf2(+/+) mice for the same chemical concentration. These results reveal an important role for Nrf2 in controlling ACD and lymphocyte proliferation in response to sensitizers. PMID:23564646

  17. Novel Ruthenium Sensitizers with a Phenothiazine Conjugated Bipyridyl Ligand for High-Efficiency Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    She, Zhijie; Cheng, Yangyang; Zhang, Luoqiang; Li, Xiaoyu; Wu, Di; Guo, Qiang; Lan, Jingbo; Wang, Ruilin; You, Jingsong

    2015-12-23

    Two efficient ruthenium sensitizers with a phenothiazine-modified bipyridine as an ancillary ligand, coded SCZ-1 and SCZ-2, have been developed as dyes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Both sensitizers exhibit low-energy metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) bands centered at 539 nm with high molar extinction coefficients of 1.77 × 10(4) M(-1) cm(-1) for SCZ-1 and 1.66 × 10(4) M(-1) cm(-1) for SCZ-2, which are significantly higher than the corresponding value for the reference N719 (1.27 × 10(4) M(-1) cm(-1)), indicating that the light-harvesting capacity of ruthenium sensitizers can be reinforced by introducing phenothiazine moieties into the bipyridine ligand. Under AM 1.5G irradiation (100 mW cm(-2)), SCZ-1 and SCZ-2 sensitized DSSC devices show impressive power conversion efficiencies (PCE) up to 10.4% by using of iodide-based electrolytes, which exceeds that of N719 (9.9%) under the same conditions. Both of the open circuit voltage (VOC) and fill factor (FF) of SCZ-sensitized solar cells approximate to those of N719-sensitized cell. The relatively higher efficiencies of the SCZ-sensitized cells than that of N719-sensitized cell come from their higher short-circuit photocurrent density (JSC), which may be mainly attributed to the high absorption coefficient. The absorption spectrum and device efficiency of SCZ-1 are both quite close to those of SCZ-2, suggesting that the difference in alkyl chains on the N atom of phenothiazine is not a decisive factor in affecting the photovoltaic performance of dyes. PMID:26624527

  18. Checkpoint kinase 1 modulates sensitivity to cisplatin after spindle checkpoint activation in SW620 cells.

    PubMed

    Peralta-Sastre, A; Manguan-Garcia, C; de Luis, A; Belda-Iniesta, C; Moreno, S; Perona, R; Sanchez-Perez, I

    2010-02-01

    Aneuploidy is a common feature of tumours that arise by errors in chromosome segregation during mitosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible signaling pathways involved in sensitization to chemotherapy in cells with chromosomal instability. We designed a screen using the fission yeast Squizossaccharomyces pombe, to isolate strains showing a phenotype of chromosome mis-segregation and higher sensitivity to the antitumoral drug Bleomycin. We examined differences in gene expression using a comparative analysis of genome-wide expression of the wild type strain and one of the mutants. The results revealed a set of genes involved in cell cycle control, including Mad3/BubR1 and Chk1. We then studied the levels of these two proteins in colorectal cancer human cell lines with different genomic content. Among these, SW620 cells showed higher BubR1 and Chk1 mRNA levels than control cells under normal conditions. Since Chk1 is required for both S and G2/M checkpoints, and the microtubule-destabilizing agent, nocodazole induces mitotic arrest, we attempted to investigate the potential anticancer effects of nocodazole in combination with cisplatin. These studies showed that SW620 cells undergo synergistic cell death after spindle checkpoint activation followed by cisplatin treatment, suggesting a role of Chk1 in this checkpoint, very likely dependent on BubR1 protein. Importantly, Chk1-depleted SW620 cells lost this synergistic effect. In summary, we propose that Chk1 could be a biomarker predictive of the efficacy of chemotherapy across different types of tumors with aneuploidy. These findings may be potentially very useful for the stratification of patients for treatment. PMID:19931410

  19. Host cell reactivation studies with epidermal cells of mice sensitive and resistant to carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Strickland, J.E.; Strickland, A.G.

    1984-03-01

    Primary epidermal cells from AKR, BALB/c, CD-1, and SENCAR mice, listed in order of least to most sensitive to epidermal carcinogenesis by initiation and promotion protocols, were found to be equally competent to ''reactivate'' herpes simplex virus type 1 irradiated by germicidal ultraviolet radiation. Nontumorigenic BALB/c epidermal cell lines selected in vitro for resistance to terminal differentiation after in vivo or in vitro treatment with initiating doses of carcinogens showed virus survival curves similar to those of primary cells. Similarly, primary cultures which were allowed to grow to confluency following a single treatment with the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (100 ng/ml) retained normal host cell reactivation. Host cell reactivation studies with mouse dermal fibroblasts could not be done because of the failure of the herpes simplex virus to infect these cells and produce plaques. These results demonstrate that survival of ultraviolet light-damaged virus in primary epidermal cells in culture is unrelated to whether the cells are derived from mice sensitive or resistant to epidermal carcinogenesis. Furthermore, virus survival is not changed by tumor promoter treatment or by treatment with initiating doses of carcinogens which results in differentiation-resistant cells.

  20. ATM deficiency sensitizes mantle cell lymphoma cells to poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Chris T; Muzik, Huong; Turhan, Ali G; Zamò, Alberto; O'Connor, Mark J; Bebb, D Gwyn; Lees-Miller, Susan P

    2010-02-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) inhibition is toxic to cells with mutations in the breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility genes BRCA1 or BRCA2, a concept termed synthetic lethality. However, whether this approach is applicable to other human cancers with defects in other DNA repair genes has yet to be determined. The ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene is altered in several human cancers including mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). Here, we characterize a panel of MCL cell lines for ATM status and function and investigate the potential for synthetic lethality in MCL in the presence of small-molecule inhibitors of PARP-1. We show that Granta-519 and UPN2 cells have low levels of ATM protein, are defective in DNA damage-induced ATM-dependent signaling, are radiation sensitive, and have cell cycle checkpoint defects: all characteristics of defective ATM function. Significantly, Granta-519 and UPN2 cells were more sensitive to PARP-1 inhibition than were the ATM-proficient MCL cell lines examined. Furthermore, the PARP-1 inhibitor olaparib (known previously as AZD2281/KU-0059436) significantly decreased tumor growth and increased overall survival in mice bearing s.c. xenografts of ATM-deficient Granta-519 cells while producing only a modest effect on overall survival of mice bearing xenografts of the ATM-proficient cell line, Z138. Thus, PARP inhibitors have therapeutic potential in the treatment of MCL, and the concept of synthetic lethality extends to human cancers with ATM alterations. PMID:20124459

  1. Double-exposure variable shear holographic interferometry with controlled sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyavshuk, I. A.; Lyalikov, A. M.

    2006-12-01

    A method of simultaneous recording of double-exposure holograms with different lateral shears is proposed. This method makes it possible to reconstruct a series of interference patterns representing the phase shift caused by the object under study with different sensitivities. Aberration-free interference patterns in fringes of infinite and finite width with different visualization sensitivities for melting zones of a flat polyme-thylmethacrylate sample are presented.

  2. Fuel cell with internal flow control

    DOEpatents

    Haltiner, Jr., Karl J.; Venkiteswaran, Arun

    2012-06-12

    A fuel cell stack is provided with a plurality of fuel cell cassettes where each fuel cell cassette has a fuel cell with an anode and cathode. The fuel cell stack includes an anode supply chimney for supplying fuel to the anode of each fuel cell cassette, an anode return chimney for removing anode exhaust from the anode of each fuel cell cassette, a cathode supply chimney for supplying oxidant to the cathode of each fuel cell cassette, and a cathode return chimney for removing cathode exhaust from the cathode of each fuel cell cassette. A first fuel cell cassette includes a flow control member disposed between the anode supply chimney and the anode return chimney or between the cathode supply chimney and the cathode return chimney such that the flow control member provides a flow restriction different from at least one other fuel cell cassettes.

  3. Guadecitabine (SGI-110) priming sensitizes hepatocellular carcinoma cells to oxaliplatin.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Yuting; El-Khoueiry, Anthony; Taverna, Pietro; Ljungman, Mats; Neamati, Nouri

    2015-11-01

    Promoter DNA hypermethylation is an important biomarker of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), supporting the potential utility of demethylating agents in this disease. Guadecitabine (SGI-110) is a second-generation hypomethylating agent formulated as a dinucleotide of decitabine and deoxyguanosine that yields longer half-life and more extended decitabine exposure than decitabine IV infusion. Here we performed preclinical evaluation of SGI-110 in HCC models to guide the design of a phase I/II clinical trial. HCC cell lines and xenograft models were used to determine the antitumor activity of SGI-110 as a single agent and in combination with oxaliplatin. Pretreatment with low doses of SGI-110 significantly synergized with oxaliplatin yielding enhanced cytotoxicity. The combination of SGI-110 and oxaliplatin was well tolerated and significantly delayed tumor growth in mice compared to oxaliplatin alone. Bromouridine-labeled RNA sequencing (Bru-seq) was employed to elucidate the effects of SGI-110 and/or oxaliplatin on genome-wide transcription. SGI-110 and the combination treatment inhibited the expression of genes involved in WNT/EGF/IGF signaling. DNMT1 and survivin were identified as novel PD markers to monitor the efficacy of the combination treatment. In conclusion, SGI-110 priming sensitizes HCC cells to oxaliplatin by inhibiting distinct signaling pathways. We expect that this combination treatment will show low toxicity and high efficacy in patients. Our study supports the use of the combination of low doses of SGI-110 and oxaliplatin in HCC patients. PMID:26160429

  4. Nature of photovoltaic action in dye-sensitized solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cahen, D.; Hodes, G.; Graetzel, M.; Guillemoles, J.F.; Riess, I.

    2000-03-09

    The authors explain the cause for the photocurrent and photovoltage in nanocrystalline, mesoporous dye-sensitized solar cells, in terms of the separation, recombination, and transport of electronic charge as well as in terms of electron energetics. On the basis of available experimental data, the basic cause for the photovoltage was confirmed as the change in the electron concentration in the nanocrystalline electron conductor that results from photoinduced charge injection from the dye. The maximum photovoltage is given by the difference in electron energies between the redox level and the bottom of the electron conductor's conduction band, rather than by any difference in electrical potential in the cell, in the dark. Charge separation occurs because of the energetic and entropic driving forces that exist at the dye/electron conductor interface, with charge transport aided by such driving forces at the electron conductor-contact interface. The mesoporosity and nanocrystallinity of the semiconductor are important not only because of the large amount of dye that can be adsorbed on the system's very large surface, but also for two additional reasons: (1) it allows the semiconductor small particles to become almost totally depleted upon immersion in the electrolyte (allowing for large photovoltages), and (2) the proximity of the electrolyte to all particles modes screening of injected electrons, and thus their transport, possible.

  5. Oncogene-mediated tumor transformation sensitizes cells to autophagy induction.

    PubMed

    Gargini, Ricardo; García-Escudero, Vega; Izquierdo, Marta; Wandosell, Francisco

    2016-06-01

    The process of tumorigenesis induces alterations in numerous cellular pathways including the main eukaryotic metabolic routes. It has been recently demonstrated that autophagy is part of the oncogene-induced senescence phenotype although its role in tumor establishment has not been completely clarified. In the present study, we showed that non‑transformed cells are sensitized to mitochondrial stress and autophagy induction when they are transformed by oncogenes such as c-Myc or Ras. We observed that overexpression of c-Myc or Ras increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and the expression of p62, a known partner for degradation by autophagy. The activation of AMPK was found to favor the activation of FoxO3 which was prevented by the inhibition of AMPK. The transcriptional activation mediated by FoxO3 upregulated genes such as BNIP3 and LC3. Finally, the transformation by oncogenes such as c-Myc and Ras predisposes tumor cells to autophagy induction as a consequence of mitochondrial stress and impairs tumor growth in vitro and in vivo, which may have therapeutic implications. PMID:27035659

  6. Marsdenia tenacissima extract restored gefitinib sensitivity in resistant non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Shu-Yan; Zhao, Ming-Bo; Zhuang, Gui-Bao; Li, Ping-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Most non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients responding to gefitinib harbor activating mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). However, the responsive cases eventually develop the resistance to gefitinib. Besides, K-ras mutations were identified as the primary resistance to gefitinib. We investigated whether Marsdenia tenacissima extract (MTE, trade name: Xiao-Ai-Ping injection) combined with gefitinib could overcome the resistance of NSCLC cells to gefitinib. NSCLC cell lines with different sensitivities to gefitinib were studied. Cell growth and apoptosis were evaluated by MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively. The EGFR-related signaling molecule phosphorylation was assessed by Western blotting. We found that MTE inhibited cell growth in gefitinib-sensitive and -resistant cells. In gefitinib-resistant cells, the MTE→MTE+gefitinib (M→M+G) treatment was most potent over the concurrent administration of MTE and gefitinib (M+G) or gefitinib→gefitinib+MTE (G→G+M) treatment in cell growth inhibition and apoptosis induction. The M→M+G treatment significantly reduced the phosphorylation of EGFR downstream signaling molecules PI3K/Akt/mTOR and ERK, on which MTE and gefitinib alone had no obvious effects on the resistant cells. The M→M+G treatment attenuated c-Met phosphorylation in H460 and H1975 as well. Thus, we found that the M→M+G treatment improved the sensitivity of resistant NSCLC cells carrying T790M or K-ras mutations to gefitinib, suggesting that the M→M+G treatment may be a promising therapeutic strategy to overcome gefitinib resistance in NSCLC. PMID:21757251

  7. Constitutive Lck Activity Drives Sensitivity Differences between CD8+ Memory T Cell Subsets.

    PubMed

    Moogk, Duane; Zhong, Shi; Yu, Zhiya; Liadi, Ivan; Rittase, William; Fang, Victoria; Dougherty, Janna; Perez-Garcia, Arianne; Osman, Iman; Zhu, Cheng; Varadarajan, Navin; Restifo, Nicholas P; Frey, Alan B; Krogsgaard, Michelle

    2016-07-15

    CD8(+) T cells develop increased sensitivity following Ag experience, and differences in sensitivity exist between T cell memory subsets. How differential TCR signaling between memory subsets contributes to sensitivity differences is unclear. We show in mouse effector memory T cells (TEM) that >50% of lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase (Lck) exists in a constitutively active conformation, compared with <20% in central memory T cells (TCM). Immediately proximal to Lck signaling, we observed enhanced Zap-70 phosphorylation in TEM following TCR ligation compared with TCM Furthermore, we observed superior cytotoxic effector function in TEM compared with TCM, and we provide evidence that this results from a lower probability of TCM reaching threshold signaling owing to the decreased magnitude of TCR-proximal signaling. We provide evidence that the differences in Lck constitutive activity between CD8(+) TCM and TEM are due to differential regulation by SH2 domain-containing phosphatase-1 (Shp-1) and C-terminal Src kinase, and we use modeling of early TCR signaling to reveal the significance of these differences. We show that inhibition of Shp-1 results in increased constitutive Lck activity in TCM to levels similar to TEM, as well as increased cytotoxic effector function in TCM Collectively, this work demonstrates a role for constitutive Lck activity in controlling Ag sensitivity, and it suggests that differential activities of TCR-proximal signaling components may contribute to establishing the divergent effector properties of TCM and TEM. This work also identifies Shp-1 as a potential target to improve the cytotoxic effector functions of TCM for adoptive cell therapy applications. PMID:27271569

  8. Electron transfer kinetics in water-splitting dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swierk, John R.

    Water-splitting dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical (WS-DSPECs) cells utilize molecular sensitizers absorbed on mesoporous TiO2 electrodes to harvest visible light, inject photoexcited electrons into the conduction band of TiO2, and finally transfer holes across the TiO2 surface to water oxidation catalysts, which in turn oxidize water to give molecular oxygen and four protons. Within the TiO2 layer photoinjected electrons are transported to a transparent conductor back contact and from there to a dark cathode to reduce protons to molecular hydrogen. WS-DSPECs offer several advantages for alternative solar fuels systems: the use of low-cost materials, tunable molecular sensitizers, and relaxed catalytic turnover requirements to name a few. Despite these advantageous features, power conversion efficiencies in WS-DSPECs are generally low. Broadly, this thesis explores the fundamental electron transfer processes that control the efficiency of these cells. Chapter 1 presents a survey of the previous literature and individually considers each component of a WS-DSPEC (water oxidation catalyst, sensitizers, electrode materials, redox mediators, and overall system design). Chapter 2 presents a novel method of preparing a WS-DSPEC that utilizes crystalline IrO2 nanoparticles directly sintered to TiO2 as a water oxidation catalyst and describes a previously unknown electron-scavenging pathway by IrO2. Chapter 3 explores how electron trapping by and proton intercalation into TiO2 controls the photoelectrochemical performance of WS-DSPECs. Chapter 4 characterizes how electron recombination with the oxidized sensitizer and electron scavenging by the IrO 2 catalyst combine to limit the concentration of conduction band electrons and by extension photocurrent in WS-DSPECs. Chapter 5 demonstrates the use of the first totally organic sensitizers for light driven water-splitting and explores how the molecular and electronic structure of a sensitizer affects the electron transfer

  9. IDO Downregulation Induces Sensitivity to Pemetrexed, Gemcitabine, FK866, and Methoxyamine in Human Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Maleki Vareki, Saman; Chen, Di; Di Cresce, Christine; Ferguson, Peter J.; Figueredo, Rene; Pampillo, Macarena; Rytelewski, Mateusz; Vincent, Mark; Min, Weiping; Zheng, Xiufen; Koropatnick, James

    2015-01-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO) is an immune regulatory enzyme expressed by most human tumors. IDO levels in tumor cells correlate with increased metastasis and poor patient outcome and IDO is linked to tumor cell resistance to immunotherapy, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Knowledge of tumor cell-autonomous effects of IDO, independent of its well-known role in regulating and suppressing anti-tumor immune responses, is limited. Clonal populations of A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells stably transfected with anti-IDO shRNA or scrambled control shRNA were used to study IDO effects on drug sensitivity and resistance. IFNγ was used to induce IDO in those cells. We show, for the first time, that IDO mediates human tumor cell resistance to the candidate anticancer drugs FK866 (an NAD+ inhibitor), methoxyamine (MX, a base excision repair [BER] inhibitor) and approved anticancer drugs pemetrexed (a folate anti-metabolite) and gemcitabine (a nucleoside analogue), and combined treatment with pemetrexed and MX, in the absence of immune cells. Concurrent knockdown of IDO and thymidylate synthase (TS, a key rate-limiting enzyme in DNA synthesis and repair) sensitizes human lung cancer cells to pemetrexed and 5FUdR to a greater degree than knockdown of either target alone. We conclude that BER in IDO-expressing A549 cells plays a major role in mediating resistance to a range of approved and candidate anticancer drugs. IDO inhibitors are undergoing clinical trials primarily to improve antitumor immune responses. We show that targeting IDO alone or in combination with TS is a potentially valuable therapeutic strategy for cancer treatment, independent of immune activity and in combination with conventional chemotherapy. PMID:26579709

  10. PES1 regulates sensitivity of colorectal cancer cells to anticancer drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Wei; Qu, Like; Meng, Lin; Liu, Caiyun; Wu, Jian; Shou, Chengchao

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ► PES1 was overexpressed in diverse cancer cell lines. ► PES1-ablation enhances DNA damage response by decreasing DNA repair. ► PES1-ablation increases the sensitivity of HCT116 cells to chemotherapeutic agents. ► PES1-ablation is associated with diminished nuclear entry of RAD51. -- Abstract: PES1 (also known as Pescadillo), a nucleolar protein, was involved in biogenesis of ribosomal RNA. Up-regulation of PES1 has been documented in some human cancers, indicating that PES1 may play some crucial roles in tumorigenesis. In our previous study, it was found that silencing of PES1 resulted in decreased proliferation of colorectal cancer cells. We also noticed that depletion of PES1 altered expression profiles of diverse genes. In the present study, we validated the expression changes of a subset of genotoxic stress-related genes in PES1-silenced HCT116 cells by quantitative RT-PCR. The steady and etoposide-induced phosphorylated H2AX (γ-H2AX) were higher in PES1-silenced cells than in control cells. Besides, etoposide-induced γ-H2AX persisted longer in PES1-silenced cells after removing the etoposide. Next, results of comet assay revealed decreased DNA repair after PES1-ablation. PES1-ablated cells were more sensitive to chemotherapeutic agents, which could be reversed by reconstitution with exogenous PES1. Furthermore, deletion of PES1 diminished steady and DNA damage-induced levels of nuclear RAD51. Our results uncover a potential role of PES1 in chemoresistance by regulating DNA damage response in colorectal cancer cells.

  11. FTIR Biospectroscopy Investigation on Cisplatin Cytotoxicity in Three Pairs of Sensitive and Resistant Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Farhadi, Ensieh; Kobarfard, Farzad; H Shirazi, Farshad

    2016-01-01

    Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) has extensively been used for biological applications. Cisplatin is one the most useful antineoplastic chemotherapy drugs for a variety of different human cancers. One of the clinical problems in its application, which would consequently affect the therapeutic outcome of its application, is the occurrence of resistance to this agent. In this project three different pairs of sensitive and resistant cell lines of human ovarian A2780 and its resistant pair of A2780-CP, human ovarian OV2008 and its resistant pair of C13, and finally human lung carcinoma of HTB56 and its resistant pair of HTB56-CP were grown in the laboratory under the standard procedure. Saline was exposed to control cells, whereas 1, 5 and 10 µg/mL of cisplatin was exposed to experimental cells, for 1 h. Cells were then collected and lyophilized from which spectra were taken. According to our results, we could not trigger a well-recognized cells biomolecular band at 1015 cm(-1), being modified after exposure to cisplatin in all cell lines. On the other hand, there was a clear dose-dependent increase in protein β-sheet structure related peaks shift in resistant cell lines after exposure to cisplatin. This would probably indicate an easier protein interaction site for cisplatin in the resistant cell lines, which would probably inhibit cisplatin from binding to DNA, as the cytotoxic target. As a conclusion, FTIR biospectroscopy has proven its potency to identify the interactions, as well as the false engagement cellular sites for cisplatin in sensitive and resistant cell lines. PMID:27610161

  12. FTIR Biospectroscopy Investigation on Cisplatin Cytotoxicity in Three Pairs of Sensitive and Resistant Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Farhadi, Ensieh; Kobarfard, Farzad; H. Shirazi, Farshad

    2016-01-01

    Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) has extensively been used for biological applications. Cisplatin is one the most useful antineoplastic chemotherapy drugs for a variety of different human cancers. One of the clinical problems in its application, which would consequently affect the therapeutic outcome of its application, is the occurrence of resistance to this agent. In this project three different pairs of sensitive and resistant cell lines of human ovarian A2780 and its resistant pair of A2780-CP, human ovarian OV2008 and its resistant pair of C13, and finally human lung carcinoma of HTB56 and its resistant pair of HTB56-CP were grown in the laboratory under the standard procedure. Saline was exposed to control cells, whereas 1, 5 and 10 µg/mL of cisplatin was exposed to experimental cells, for 1 h. Cells were then collected and lyophilized from which spectra were taken. According to our results, we could not trigger a well-recognized cells biomolecular band at 1015 cm-1, being modified after exposure to cisplatin in all cell lines. On the other hand, there was a clear dose-dependent increase in protein β-sheet structure related peaks shift in resistant cell lines after exposure to cisplatin. This would probably indicate an easier protein interaction site for cisplatin in the resistant cell lines, which would probably inhibit cisplatin from binding to DNA, as the cytotoxic target. As a conclusion, FTIR biospectroscopy has proven its potency to identify the interactions, as well as the false engagement cellular sites for cisplatin in sensitive and resistant cell lines. PMID:27610161

  13. Quality Assurance in the Polio Laboratory. Cell Sensitivity and Cell Authentication Assays.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Glynis

    2016-01-01

    The accuracy of poliovirus surveillance is largely dependent on the quality of the cell lines used for virus isolation, which is the foundation of poliovirus diagnostic work. Many cell lines are available for the isolation of enteroviruses, whilst genetically modified L20B cells can be used as a diagnostic tool for the identification of polioviruses. To be confident that cells can consistently isolate the virus of interest, it is necessary to have a quality assurance system in place, which will ensure that the cells in use are not contaminated with other cell lines or microorganisms and that they remain sensitive to the viruses being studied.The sensitivity of cell lines can be assessed by the regular testing of a virus standard of known titer in the cell lines used for virus isolation. The titers obtained are compared to previously obtained titers in the same assay, so that any loss of sensitivity can be detected.However, the detection of cell line cross contamination is more difficult. DNA bar coding is a technique that uses a short DNA sequence from a standardized position in the genome as a molecular diagnostic assay for species-level identification. For almost all groups of higher animals, the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 of mitochondrial DNA (CO1) is emerging as the standard barcode region. This region is 648 nucleotide base pairs long in most phylogenetic groups and is flanked by regions of conserved sequences, making it relatively easy to isolate and analyze. DNA barcodes vary among individuals of the same species to a very minor degree (generally less than 1-2 %), and a growing number of studies have shown that the COI sequences of even closely related species differ by several per cent, making it possible to identify different species with high confidence. PMID:26983732

  14. Titania nanobundle networks as dye-sensitized solar cell photoanodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Cunku; Xiang, Wanchun; Huang, Fuzhi; Fu, Dongchuan; Huang, Wenchao; Bach, Udo; Cheng, Yi-Bing; Li, Xin; Spiccia, Leone

    2014-03-01

    Quasi-one-dimensional (1D) titania nanobundles were synthesized via a hydrothermal method and used to print random network nanostructured films. These films are shown to be ideally suited for application as photoanodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) as they have a higher porosity compared to the traditional 1D nanostructured TiO2 materials. Devices constructed using the N719 dye and iodide/triiodide as the redox mediator in the electrolyte yielded energy conversion efficiencies (η = 6.1 +/- 0.2%), which were marginally lower than for devices made with the commonly used P25 titania films (η = 6.3 +/- 0.1%) under one sun simulated solar radiation. Application of an electrolyte based on the [Co(bpy)3]2+/3+ redox couple and the MK2 organic sensitizer resulted in higher efficiencies (η = 7.70 +/- 0.1%) than for the P25 devices (η = 6.3 +/- 0.3%). Each performance parameter (short circuit current density, open circuit voltage and fill factor) was higher for the TiO2 nanobundle devices than those for the P25-based devices. The results of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), intensity-modulated photovoltage spectroscopy (IMVS), and dye-loading measurements indicated that the better performance of TiO2 nanobundle devices with cobalt electrolytes correlates with higher porosity, relatively fast electron transport and more efficient suppression of electron recombination. A faster rate of diffusion of the cobalt complexes through the highly porous TiO2 nanobundle network is proposed to contribute to the enhanced device efficiency.Quasi-one-dimensional (1D) titania nanobundles were synthesized via a hydrothermal method and used to print random network nanostructured films. These films are shown to be ideally suited for application as photoanodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) as they have a higher porosity compared to the traditional 1D nanostructured TiO2 materials. Devices constructed using the N719 dye and iodide/triiodide as the redox mediator in

  15. Imaging structure sensitive catalysis on different shape-controlled platinum nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Sánchez, Carlos M; Solla-Gullón, José; Vidal-Iglesias, Francisco J; Aldaz, Antonio; Montiel, Vicente; Herrero, Enrique

    2010-04-28

    The structure sensitive catalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on shape-controlled Pt nanoparticles (NPs) is directly imaged using scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM). We synthesize and compare four types of Pt NPs: spherical, cubic, hexagonal, and tetrahedral-octahedral. Our SECM images show the hexagonal Pt NPs displaying the highest activity for ORR in two acid electrolytes. Meanwhile, cubic and tetrahedral-octahedral NPs drastically change their activity depending on specific adsorption of the different anions in solution. The NPs morphology produces predominant crystallographic planes at the surface of these shape-controlled Pt NPs, which are responsible for their different catalytic activity. Our results translate the studies on Pt single crystal electrodes present in the literature into Pt NPs that are useful as a catalyst in real fuel cells. PMID:20359217

  16. Discovery of a Small-Molecule BMP Sensitizer for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lingling; Cook, Brandoch; Tsai, Su-Yi; Zhou, Ting; LaFlamme, Brooke; Evans, Todd; Chen, Shuibing

    2016-05-31

    Sorely missing from the "toolkit" for directed differentiation of stem/progenitor cells are agonists of the BMP-signaling pathway. Using a high-throughput chemical screen, we discovered that PD407824, a checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK1) inhibitor, increases the sensitivity of cells to sub-threshold amounts of BMP4. We show utility of the compound in the directed differentiation of human embryonic stem cells toward mesoderm or cytotrophoblast stem cells. Blocking CHK1 activity using pharmacological compounds or CHK1 knockout using single guide RNA (sgRNA) confirmed that CHK1 inhibition increases the sensitivity to BMP4 treatment. Additional mechanistic studies indicate that CHK1 inhibition depletes p21 levels, thereby activating CDK8/9, which then phosphorylates the SMAD2/3 linker region, leading to decreased levels of SMAD2/3 protein and enhanced levels of nuclear SMAD1. This study provides insight into mechanisms controlling the BMP/transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling pathways and a useful pharmacological reagent for directed differentiation of stem cells. PMID:27210748

  17. Sensitivity of locally recurrent rat mammary tumour cell lines to syngeneic polymorphonuclear cell, macrophage and natural killer cell cytolysis.

    PubMed

    Aeed, P A; Welch, D R

    1988-12-01

    Using a recently developed model for studying the biology of locally recurrent (LR) mammary tumours in the 13762NF rat mammary adenocarcinoma system, we examined the sensitivity to polymorphonuclear cell, macrophage and natural killer cell cytolysis. The parental MTF7(T20) cell line; the 'primary' tumours which arose following subcutaneous inoculation into the mammary fat pad, sc1 and sc3; and the local recurrences (following surgical excision) LR1 and LR1a from sc1, and LR3 from sc3 were all cells generally resistant to specific PMN cytolysis. LPS-activated macrophages caused 25.1%, 38.7% and 58.8% specific cytolysis in MTF7, sc1 and LR1 cells, respectively at E:T of 20:1 and 72 h co-incubation. LR1a, sc3 and LR3 lysis ranged from 0-4.4% under the same conditions. Non-activated macrophages did not lyse any of the cell lines. Locally recurrent and 'primary' tumour cell lines were also not lysed by naive NK cells (range 0.5-4.0% cytolysis). NK cells activated with bropirimine, a potent immunomodulator currently being studied in clinical trials, and/or interleukin-2 were mildly more effective at killing LR cells. Our results show that locally recurrent tumours exhibit heterogeneous sensitivities and are different from 'primary' tumour cells in sensitivities to immune cell killing, but they are not necessarily more or less sensitive. Results with bropirimine-activated or IL-2-activated NK cells emphasize that nonspecific activation is insufficient to eliminate all tumour subpopulations. PMID:3224080

  18. Sensitization of acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells for LCL161-induced cell death by targeting redox homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Haß, Christina; Belz, Katharina; Schoeneberger, Hannah; Fulda, Simone

    2016-04-01

    Disturbed redox homeostasis with both elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and antioxidant defense mechanisms has been reported in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We therefore hypothesized that inhibition of pathways responsible for ROS detoxification renders ALL cells more susceptible for cell death. Here, we report that pharmacological inhibitors of key pathways for the elimination of ROS, i.e. Erastin, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) and Auranofin, sensitize ALL cells for cell death upon treatment with the Smac mimetic LCL161 that antagonizes Inhibitor of Apoptosis (IAP) proteins. Erastin, BSO or Auranofin significantly increase LCL161-induced cell death and also act in concert with LCL161 to profoundly suppress long-term clonogenic survival in several ALL cell lines. Erastin or BSO cooperates with LCL161 to stimulate ROS production and lipid peroxidation prior to cell death. ROS production and lipid peroxidation are required for this cotreatment-induced cell death, since ROS scavengers or pharmacological inhibition of lipid peroxidation provides significant protection against cell death. These results emphasize that inhibition of antioxidant defense mechanisms can serve as a potent approach to prime ALL cells for LCL161-induced cell death. PMID:26774450

  19. The supercoiling sensitivity of a bacterial tRNA promoter parallels its responsiveness to stringent control.

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa-Bossi, N; Guérin, M; Rahmouni, R; Leng, M; Bossi, L

    1998-01-01

    In Salmonella typhimurium, expression of the hisR locus, a tRNA operon, decreases upon inhibiting DNA gyrase. Here, the hisR promoter dependence on negative DNA supercoiling was examined in vivo and in vitro. Mutant analysis showed the sequence determinants of this dependence to lie in the region between the -10 box and the transcription start site. As with most promoters subject to stringent control, this portion of the hisR promoter is C-G-rich. Replacing a C/G bp with T/A at position -7 partially relieves the supercoiling response while changing the sequence between -5 and + 1 (-CCCCCG-) for -GTTAA- abolishes the response in vitro and in vivo. The relief of the supercoiling dependence closely correlates with increased promoter susceptibility to melting in vivo and a lesser requirement for initiating nucleotides in the formation of stable initiation complexes in vitro. Studies in isoleucine-starved cells showed that such sequence changes mitigate and abolish the hisR promoter response to stringent control, respectively. The data presented suggest that the hisR promoter's sensitivity to stringent regulation arises from the same physical property that confers supercoiling sensitivity, i.e. resistance to melting. We propose that the stringent control mechanism acts by hampering the ability of RNA polymerase to melt the DNA helix. PMID:9550733

  20. The supercoiling sensitivity of a bacterial tRNA promoter parallels its responsiveness to stringent control.

    PubMed

    Figueroa-Bossi, N; Guérin, M; Rahmouni, R; Leng, M; Bossi, L

    1998-04-15

    In Salmonella typhimurium, expression of the hisR locus, a tRNA operon, decreases upon inhibiting DNA gyrase. Here, the hisR promoter dependence on negative DNA supercoiling was examined in vivo and in vitro. Mutant analysis showed the sequence determinants of this dependence to lie in the region between the -10 box and the transcription start site. As with most promoters subject to stringent control, this portion of the hisR promoter is C-G-rich. Replacing a C/G bp with T/A at position -7 partially relieves the supercoiling response while changing the sequence between -5 and + 1 (-CCCCCG-) for -GTTAA- abolishes the response in vitro and in vivo. The relief of the supercoiling dependence closely correlates with increased promoter susceptibility to melting in vivo and a lesser requirement for initiating nucleotides in the formation of stable initiation complexes in vitro. Studies in isoleucine-starved cells showed that such sequence changes mitigate and abolish the hisR promoter response to stringent control, respectively. The data presented suggest that the hisR promoter's sensitivity to stringent regulation arises from the same physical property that confers supercoiling sensitivity, i.e. resistance to melting. We propose that the stringent control mechanism acts by hampering the ability of RNA polymerase to melt the DNA helix. PMID:9550733

  1. Sensitivity to Lysosome-Dependent Cell Death Is Directly Regulated by Lysosomal Cholesterol Content

    PubMed Central

    Appelqvist, Hanna; Sandin, Linnea; Björnström, Karin; Saftig, Paul; Garner, Brett; Öllinger, Karin; Kågedal, Katarina

    2012-01-01

    Alterations in lipid homeostasis are implicated in several neurodegenerative diseases, although the mechanisms responsible are poorly understood. We evaluated the impact of cholesterol accumulation, induced by U18666A, quinacrine or mutations in the cholesterol transporting Niemann-Pick disease type C1 (NPC1) protein, on lysosomal stability and sensitivity to lysosome-mediated cell death. We found that neurons with lysosomal cholesterol accumulation were protected from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. In addition, human fibroblasts with cholesterol-loaded lysosomes showed higher lysosomal membrane stability than controls. Previous studies have shown that cholesterol accumulation is accompanied by the storage of lipids such as sphingomyelin, glycosphingolipids and sphingosine and an up regulation of lysosomal associated membrane protein-2 (LAMP-2), which may also influence lysosomal stability. However, in this study the use of myriocin and LAMP deficient fibroblasts excluded these factors as responsible for the rescuing effect and instead suggested that primarily lysosomal cholesterol content determineD the cellular sensitivity to toxic insults. Further strengthening this concept, depletion of cholesterol using methyl-β-cyclodextrin or 25-hydroxycholesterol decreased the stability of lysosomes and cells became more prone to undergo apoptosis. In conclusion, cholesterol content regulated lysosomal membrane permeabilization and thereby influenced cell death sensitivity. Our data suggests that lysosomal cholesterol modulation might be used as a therapeutic strategy for conditions associated with accelerated or repressed apoptosis. PMID:23166840

  2. Results of an integrated structure-control law design sensitivity analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Michael G.

    1988-01-01

    Next generation air and space vehicle designs are driven by increased performance requirements, demanding a high level of design integration between traditionally separate design disciplines. Interdisciplinary analysis capabilities have been developed, for aeroservoelastic aircraft and large flexible spacecraft control for instance, but the requisite integrated design methods are only beginning to be developed. One integrated design method which has received attention is based on hierarchal problem decompositions, optimization, and design sensitivity analyses. This paper highlights a design sensitivity analysis method for Linear Quadratic Cost, Gaussian (LQG) optimal control laws, which predicts change in the optimal control law due to changes in fixed problem parameters using analytical sensitivity equations. Numerical results of a design sensitivity analysis for a realistic aeroservoelastic aircraft example are presented. In this example, the sensitivity of the optimally controlled aircraft's response to various problem formulation and physical aircraft parameters is determined. These results are used to predict the aircraft's new optimally controlled response if the parameter was to have some other nominal value during the control law design process. The sensitivity results are validated by recomputing the optimal control law for discrete variations in parameters, computing the new actual aircraft response, and comparing with the predicted response. These results show an improvement in sensitivity accuracy for integrated design purposes over methods which do not include changess in the optimal control law. Use of the analytical LQG sensitivity expressions is also shown to be more efficient that finite difference methods for the computation of the equivalent sensitivity information.

  3. The pesticides endosulfan, toxaphene, and dieldrin have estrogenic effects on human estrogen-sensitive cells.

    PubMed Central

    Soto, A M; Chung, K L; Sonnenschein, C

    1994-01-01

    Estrogenic pesticides such as DDT and chlordecone generate deleterious reproductive effects. An "in culture" bioassay was used to assess the estrogenicity of several pesticides. The E-screen test uses human breast estrogen-sensitive MCF7 cells and compares the cell yield achieved after 6 days of culture in medium supplemented with 5% charcoal-dextran stripped human serum in the presence (positive control) or absence (negative control) of estradiol and with diverse concentrations of xenobiotics suspected of being estrogenic. Among the organochlorine pesticides tested, toxaphene, dieldrin, and endosulfan had estrogenic properties comparable to those of DDT and chlordecone; the latter are known to be estrogenic in rodent models. The E-screen test also revealed that estrogenic chemicals may act cumulatively; when mixed together they induce estrogenic responses at concentrations lower than those required when each compound is administered alone. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:7925178

  4. Gingerol sensitizes TRAIL-induced apoptotic cell death of glioblastoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Dae-Hee; Kim, Dong-Wook; Jung, Chang-Hwa; Lee, Yong J.; Park, Daeho

    2014-09-15

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most lethal and aggressive astrocytoma of primary brain tumors in adults. Although there are many clinical trials to induce the cell death of glioblastoma cells, most glioblastoma cells have been reported to be resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Here, we showed that gingerol as a major component of ginger can induce TRAIL-mediated apoptosis of glioblastoma. Gingerol increased death receptor (DR) 5 levels in a p53-dependent manner. Furthermore, gingerol decreased the expression level of anti-apoptotic proteins (survivin, c-FLIP, Bcl-2, and XIAP) and increased pro-apoptotic protein, Bax and truncate Bid, by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS). We also found that the sensitizing effects of gingerol in TRAIL-induced cell death were blocked by scavenging ROS or overexpressing anti-apoptotic protein (Bcl-2). Therefore, we showed the functions of gingerol as a sensitizing agent to induce cell death of TRAIL-resistant glioblastoma cells. This study gives rise to the possibility of applying gingerol as an anti-tumor agent that can be used for the purpose of combination treatment with TRAIL in TRAIL-resistant glioblastoma tumor therapy. - Highlights: • Most GBM cells have been reported to be resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. • Gingerol enhances the expression level of anti-apoptotic proteins by ROS. • Gingerol enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis through actions on the ROS–Bcl2 pathway.

  5. Bcl-2high mantle cell lymphoma cells are sensitized to acadesine with ABT-199

    PubMed Central

    Montraveta, Arnau; Xargay-Torrent, Sílvia; Rosich, Laia; López-Guerra, Mònica; Roldán, Jocabed; Rodríguez, Vanina; Lee-Vergés, Eriong; de Frías, Mercè; Campàs, Clara; Campo, Elias; Roué, Gaël; Colomer, Dolors

    2015-01-01

    Acadesine is a nucleoside analogue with known activity against B-cell malignancies. Herein, we showed that in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) cells acadesine induced caspase-dependent apoptosis through turning on the mitochondrial apoptotic machinery. At the molecular level, the compound triggered the activation of the AMPK pathway, consequently modulating known downstream targets, such as mTOR and the cell motility-related vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP). VASP phosphorylation by acadesine was concomitant with a blockade of CXCL12-induced migration. The inhibition of the mTOR cascade by acadesine, committed MCL cells to enter in apoptosis by a translational downregulation of the antiapoptotic Mcl-1 protein. In contrast, Bcl-2 protein levels were unaffected by acadesine and MCL samples expressing high levels of Bcl-2 tended to have a reduced response to the drug. Targeting Bcl-2 with the selective BH3-mimetic agent ABT-199 sensitized Bcl-2 high MCL cells to acadesine. This effect was validated in vivo, where the combination of both agents displayed a more marked inhibition of tumor outgrowth than each drug alone. These findings support the notions that antiapoptotic proteins of the Bcl-2 family regulate MCL cell sensitivity to acadesine and that the combination of this agent with Bcl-2 inhibitors might be an interesting therapeutic option to treat MCL patients. PMID:26110568

  6. Pressure-Sensitive System for Gas-Temperature Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cesaro, Richard S; Matz, Norman

    1948-01-01

    A thermodynamic relation is derived and simplified for use as a temperature-limiting control equation involving measurement of gas temperature before combustion and gas pressures before and after combustion. For critical flow in the turbine nozzles of gas-turbine engines, the control equation is further simplified to require only measurements upstream of the burner. Hypothetical control systems are discussed to illustrate application of the control equations.

  7. Pomegranate leaves and mulberry fruit as natural sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Ho; Lo, Yu-Jen

    2010-10-15

    This study employs chlorophyll extract from pomegranate leaf and anthocyanin extract from mulberry fruit as the natural dyes for a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). A self-developed nanofluid synthesis system is employed to prepare TiO{sub 2} nanofluid with an average particle size of 25 nm. Electrophoresis deposition was performed to deposit TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles on the indium tin oxide (ITO) conductive glass, forming a TiO{sub 2} thin film with the thickness of 11 {mu}m. Furthermore, this TiO{sub 2} thin film was sintered at 450 C to enhance the thin film compactness. Sputtering was used to prepare counter electrode by depositing Pt thin film on FTO glass at a thickness of 20 nm. The electrodes, electrolyte (I{sub 3}{sup -}), and dyes were assembled into a cell module and illuminated by a light source simulating AM 1.5 with a light strength of 100 mW/cm{sup 2} to measure the photoelectric conversion efficiency of the prepared DSSCs. According to experimental results, the conversion efficiency of the DSSCs prepared by chlorophyll dyes from pomegranate leaf extract is 0.597%, with open-circuit voltage (V{sub OC}) of 0.56 V, short-circuit current density (J{sub SC}) of 2.05 mA/cm{sup 2}, and fill factor (FF) of 0.52. The conversion efficiency of the DSSCs prepared by anthocyanin dyes from mulberry extract is 0.548%, with V{sub OC} of 0.555 V and J{sub SC} of 1.89 mA/cm{sup 2} and FF of 0.53. The conversion efficiency is 0.722% for chlorophyll and anthocyanin as the dye mixture, with V{sub OC} of 0.53 V, J{sub SC} of 2.8 mA/cm{sup 2}, and FF of 0.49. (author)

  8. Clic4, a novel protein that sensitizes β-cells to apoptosisa

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Dhaval; Ythier, Damien; Brozzi, Flora; Eizirik, Decio L.; Thorens, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Chloride intracellular channel protein 4 (Clic4) is a ubiquitously expressed protein involved in multiple cellular processes including cell-cycle control, cell differentiation, and apoptosis. Here, we investigated the role of Clic4 in pancreatic β-cell apoptosis. Methods We used βTC-tet cells and islets from β-cell specific Clic4 knockout mice (βClic4KO) and assessed cytokine-induced apoptosis, Bcl2 family protein expression and stability, and identified Clic4-interacting proteins by co-immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry analysis. Results We show that cytokines increased Clic4 expression in βTC-tet cells and in mouse islets and siRNA-mediated silencing of Clic4 expression in βTC-tet cells or its genetic inactivation in islets β-cells, reduced cytokine-induced apoptosis. This was associated with increased expression of Bcl-2 and increased expression and phosphorylation of Bad. Measurement of Bcl-2 and Bad half-lives in βTC-tet cells showed that Clic4 silencing increased the stability of these proteins. In primary islets β-cells, absence of Clic4 expression increased Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL expression as well as expression and phosphorylation of Bad. Mass-spectrometry analysis of proteins co-immunoprecipitated with Clic4 from βTC-tet cells showed no association of Clic4 with Bcl-2 family proteins. However, Clic4 co-purified with proteins from the proteasome suggesting a possible role for Clic4 in regulating protein degradation. Conclusions Collectively, our data show that Clic4 is a cytokine-induced gene that sensitizes β-cells to apoptosis by reducing the steady state levels of Bcl-2, Bad and phosphorylated Bad. PMID:25830089

  9. Nano-TiO2 for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Baraton, Marie-Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Photovoltaics are amongst the most popular renewable energy sources and low-cost solar cell technologies are making progress to the market. Research on dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) usually based on nanocrystalline TiO2 has been extensively pursued, and the number of papers and patents published in this area has grown exponentially over the last ten years. Research efforts have largely focused on the optimization of the dye, but recently the TiO2 nanocrystalline electrode itself has attracted more attention. It has been shown that particle size and shape, crystallinity, surface morphology and chemistry of the TiO2 material are key parameters to be controlled for optimized performance of the solar cell. This article will review the most recent research activities on nanostructured TiO2 for improvement of the DSSC performance. PMID:22023080

  10. The proteasomal and apoptotic phenotype determine bortezomib sensitivity of non-small cell lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Voortman, Jens; Chęcińska, Agnieszka; Giaccone, Giuseppe

    2007-01-01

    Bortezomib is a novel anti-cancer agent which has shown promising activity in non-small lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. However, only a subset of patients respond to this treatment. We show that NSCLC cell lines are differentially sensitive to bortezomib, IC50 values ranging from 5 to 83 nM. The apoptosis-inducing potential of bortezomib in NSCLC cells was found to be dependent not only on the apoptotic phenotype but also on the proteasomal phenotype of individual cell lines. Upon effective proteasome inhibition, H460 cells were more susceptible to apoptosis induction by bortezomib than SW1573 cells, indicating a different apoptotic phenotype. However, exposure to a low dose of bortezomib did only result in SW1573 cells, and not in H460 cells, in inhibition of proteasome activity and subsequent apoptosis. This suggests a different proteasomal phenotype as well. Additionally, overexpression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 in H460 cells did not affect the proteasomal phenotype of H460 cells but did result in decreased bortezomib-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, successful proteasome-inhibitor based treatment strategies in NSCLC face the challenge of having to overcome apoptosis resistance as well as proteasomal resistance of individual lung cancer cells. Further studies in NSCLC are warranted to elucidate underlying mechanisms. PMID:18021420

  11. A rapid and sensitive fluorometric microassay for determining cell mediated cytotoxicity to adherent growing cell lines.

    PubMed

    Krüger-Krasagakes, S; Garbe, C; Kossman, P; Orfanos, C E

    1992-11-25

    In order to measure cell mediated cytotoxicity to adherent growing cell lines in vitro more rapidly and conveniently, a fluorometric microassay was developed and results were compared with those obtained by the 51Cr release assay. The fluorometric method is based on the hydrolysis of the fluorochrome 4-methylumbelliferyl heptanoate (MUH) by intracellular esterases of viable cells. Melanoma cell monolayers were incubated with lymphokine activated killer (LAK) cells for 4 h at various effector: target (E:T) cell ratios (E:T = 16, 8, 4, 2:1). Thereafter surviving adherent melanoma cells were stained with MUH for 30 min and fluorescence was measured directly in a 96 well plate reader. For the calculation of LAK cell cytotoxicity fluorescence values were corrected for the number of nonspecifically detached tumor cells during the washes and the number of nonspecifically adherent LAK cells. Using identical target and effector cell preparations both assays showed a nearly proportional increase of percentage cytotoxicity with rising numbers of lymphocytes. Compared with the 51Cr release assay, however, higher cytotoxicity values were obtained with the fluorometric MUH microassay: 57% with MUH versus 26% with 51Cr and 39% versus 14% for cell lines StML-11 and SKMel-28, respectively (E:T ratio = 16:1). The higher cytotoxicity rates obtained with the fluorometric MUH microassay were not due to the additional 30 min staining with MUH or due to nonspecific hydrolysis of MUH by extracellular esterases released from damaged cells, as could be shown by a series of experiments. In conclusion, a simple and rapid fluorometric microassay has been developed showing reliable reproducibility and a higher sensitivity compared with the 51Cr release assay for the determination of cellular cytotoxicity to adherent growing cell lines, avoiding hazardous radioactive labels. PMID:1431156

  12. Process for control of cell division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cone, C. D., Jr. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A method of controlling mitosis of biological cells was developed, which involved inducing a change in the intracellular ionic hierarchy accompanying the cellular electrical transmembrane potential difference (Esubm) of the cells. The ionic hierarchy may be varied by imposing changes on the relative concentrations of Na(+), K(+) and Cl(-), or by directly imposing changes in the physical Esubm level across the cell surface.

  13. Theoretical evidence of multiple dye regeneration mechanisms in dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tao; Troisi, Alessandro

    2013-05-01

    The multiple regeneration mechanisms in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC), with N3 (Ru(dcbpy)2(NCS)2) as dye and I-/I3- as redox shuttle, have been studied by DFT methods. Our results show that different reaction pathways are possible within the same dye and the actual mechanism is controlled by the initial geometry of the dyeI complex. By considering the rapid interconversion between different N3I geometries, the reaction mechanism where N3I dissociates into neutral dye and Irad radical is preferred to the mechanism where N3I reacts with a second iodide.

  14. Single Cell Proteomics with Ultra-High Sensitivity Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, M

    2005-02-16

    This project was a joint LDRD project between PAT, CMS and NAI with the objective to develop an instrument that analyzes the biochemical composition of single cells in real-time using bioaerosol mass spectrometry (BAMS) combined with advanced laser desorption and ionization techniques. Applications include both biological defense, fundamental cell biology and biomedical research. BAMS analyzes the biochemical composition of single, micrometer-sized particles (such as bacterial cells or spores) that can be directly sampled from air or a suspension. BAMS is based on an earlier development of aerosol time of flight mass spectrometry (ATOFMS) by members of our collaboration [1,2]. Briefly, in ATOFMS and BAMS aerosol particles are sucked directly from the atmosphere into vacuum through a series of small orifices. As the particles approach the ion source region of the mass spectrometer, they cross and scatter light from two CW laser beams separated by a known distance. The timing of the two bursts of scattered light created by each ''tracked'' particle reveals the speed, location and size of the particle. This information then enables the firing of a high-intensity laser such that the resulting laser pulse desorbs and ionizes molecules from the tracked particle just as it reaches the center of the ion source region. The full spectrum of ions is then measured using a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The ability to rapidly analyze individual particles is clearly applicable to the rapid detection of aerosolized biological warfare agents so long as agent particles can be made to produce mass spectra that are distinct from the spectra of harmless background particles. The pattern of ions formed is determined by the properties of the laser pulse, the particle, and, in aerosol matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI), also the MALDI matrix used. As a result, it is critical that the properties of the laser pulses used for desorption and ionization be carefully chosen

  15. Downregulation of the autophagy protein ATG-7 correlates with distinct sphingolipid profile in MCF-7 cells sensitized to photodamage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Separovic, Duska; Kelekar, Ameeta; Tarca, Adi L.; Bielawski, Jacek; Kessel, David

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the sphingolipid (SL) profile in autophagy-defective cells and overall cell death after PDT with Pc 4 (PDT). Human breast cancer MCF-7 cells with downregulated autophagy protein ATG-7 and their scrambled controls (Scr) were used. Exposure of ATG-7 knockdown cells to PDT led to defective processing of the autophagy marker LC3, and increased overall cell killing. In both cell types PDT evoked an early (2 h) increase in ceramides and dihydroceramides (DHceramides). When the two cell types were compared regarding time (2 and 24 h) and treatment conditions (with and without PDT), the levels of several ceramides and DHceramides were reduced, whereas the concentrations of C14-ceramide, C16-ceramide and C12-DHceramide were higher in ATG-7 knockdown cells. The data imply that the SL profile might be a marker of autophagy-deficiency in cells sensitized to PDT.

  16. Gingerol sensitizes TRAIL-induced apoptotic cell death of glioblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dae-Hee; Kim, Dong-Wook; Jung, Chang-Hwa; Lee, Yong J.; Park, Daeho

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most lethal and aggressive astrocytoma of primary brain tumors in adults. Although there are many clinical trials to induce the cell death of glioblastoma cells, most glioblastoma cells have been reported to be resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Here, we showed that gingerol as a major component of ginger can induce TRAIL-mediated apoptosis of glioblastoma. Gingerol increased death receptor (DR) 5 levels in a p53-dependent manner. Furthermore, gingerol decreased the expression level of anti-apoptotic proteins (survivin, c-FLIP, Bcl-2, and XIAP) and increased pro-apoptotic protein, Bax and truncate Bid, by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS).We also found that the sensitizing effects of gingerol in TRAIL-induced cell death were blocked by scavenging ROS or overexpressing anti-apoptotic protein (Bcl-2). Therefore, we showed the functions of gingerol as a sensitizing agent to induce cell death of TRAIL-resistant glioblastoma cells. This study gives rise to the possibility of applying gingerol as an anti-tumor agent that can be used for the purpose of combination treatment with TRAIL in TRAIL-resistant glioblastoma tumor therapy. PMID:25034532

  17. Gingerol sensitizes TRAIL-induced apoptotic cell death of glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dae-Hee; Kim, Dong-Wook; Jung, Chang-Hwa; Lee, Yong J; Park, Daeho

    2014-09-15

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most lethal and aggressive astrocytoma of primary brain tumors in adults. Although there are many clinical trials to induce the cell death of glioblastoma cells, most glioblastoma cells have been reported to be resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Here, we showed that gingerol as a major component of ginger can induce TRAIL-mediated apoptosis of glioblastoma. Gingerol increased death receptor (DR) 5 levels in a p53-dependent manner. Furthermore, gingerol decreased the expression level of anti-apoptotic proteins (survivin, c-FLIP, Bcl-2, and XIAP) and increased pro-apoptotic protein, Bax and truncate Bid, by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS). We also found that the sensitizing effects of gingerol in TRAIL-induced cell death were blocked by scavenging ROS or overexpressing anti-apoptotic protein (Bcl-2). Therefore, we showed the functions of gingerol as a sensitizing agent to induce cell death of TRAIL-resistant glioblastoma cells. This study gives rise to the possibility of applying gingerol as an anti-tumor agent that can be used for the purpose of combination treatment with TRAIL in TRAIL-resistant glioblastoma tumor therapy. PMID:25034532

  18. Escherichia coli gene that controls sensitivity to alkylating agents.

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Y; Katsuki, M; Sekiguchi, M; Otsuji, N

    1978-01-01

    A new type of Escherichia coli mutant which shows increased sensitivity to methyl methane sulfonate but not to UV light or to gamma rays was isolated after mutagenesis with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. The mutant is unable to reactivate phage lambdavir or double-stranded phiX174 DNA (replicative form) that had been treated with methyl methane sulfonate. The mutant is sensitive to other alkylating agents, such as ethyl methane sulfonate, mitomycin C, and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, as well. It grows normally and exhibits almost normal recombination proficiency. The mutant possesses normal levels of DNA polymerase I, exonuclease I, exonuclease V, endonuclease specific for methyl methane sulfonate-treated DNA, and 3-methyladenine-DNA glycosidase activities. The genetic locus responsible has been named alk and is located near his on the chromosome. PMID:353028

  19. Temperature sensitive stability of feedback controllers for MR dampers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batterbee, D. C.; Sims, N. D.

    2008-03-01

    Smart fluid dampers can undergo large temperature changes due to the heating associated with energy dissipation. Such heating will alter the fluid's properties and could degrade control system performance. For example, previous work by the authors has shown that the stability of an MR damper under feedback control is dependent on the fluid's compressibility and viscosity. In the present study, a temperature dependent model of a magnetorheological damper is developed from experimental data, and it is shown that the fluid's yield stress, viscosity and compressibility parameters vary significantly. An experimental and numerical control study is then performed to investigate the resulting effects of temperature on the stability of two feedback controllers - a PID controller, and a proportional controller. Experimental results indicate that both controllers can exhibit a reduction in stability with increasing temperature, particularly if the controller gains are not suitably chosen. The temperature dependent MR damper model predicts this behaviour well, and it is shown that the change in viscosity has the most significant effect on stability. Future work could focus on the resulting effect on a complete vibration system, devices with different modes of operation, and alternative controllers.

  20. Aptamer-Functionalized Fluorescent Silica Nanoparticles for Highly Sensitive Detection of Leukemia Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Juntao; Yang, Nuo; Hu, Zixi; Su, Jing; Zhong, Jianhong; Yang, Yang; Yu, Yating; Zhu, Jianmeng; Xue, Dabin; Huang, Yingying; Lai, Zongqiang; Huang, Yong; Lu, Xiaoling; Zhao, Yongxiang

    2016-06-01

    A simple, highly sensitive method to detect leukemia cells has been developed based on aptamer-modified fluorescent silica nanoparticles (FSNPs). In this strategy, the amine-labeled Sgc8 aptamer was conjugated to carboxyl-modified FSNPs via amide coupling between amino and carboxyl groups. Sensitivity and specificity of Sgc8-FSNPs were assessed using flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. These results showed that Sgc8-FSNPs detected leukemia cells with high sensitivity and specificity. Aptamer-modified FSNPs hold promise for sensitive and specific detection of leukemia cells. Changing the aptamer may allow the FSNPs to detect other types of cancer cells.

  1. Aptamer-Functionalized Fluorescent Silica Nanoparticles for Highly Sensitive Detection of Leukemia Cells.

    PubMed

    Tan, Juntao; Yang, Nuo; Hu, Zixi; Su, Jing; Zhong, Jianhong; Yang, Yang; Yu, Yating; Zhu, Jianmeng; Xue, Dabin; Huang, Yingying; Lai, Zongqiang; Huang, Yong; Lu, Xiaoling; Zhao, Yongxiang

    2016-12-01

    A simple, highly sensitive method to detect leukemia cells has been developed based on aptamer-modified fluorescent silica nanoparticles (FSNPs). In this strategy, the amine-labeled Sgc8 aptamer was conjugated to carboxyl-modified FSNPs via amide coupling between amino and carboxyl groups. Sensitivity and specificity of Sgc8-FSNPs were assessed using flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. These results showed that Sgc8-FSNPs detected leukemia cells with high sensitivity and specificity. Aptamer-modified FSNPs hold promise for sensitive and specific detection of leukemia cells. Changing the aptamer may allow the FSNPs to detect other types of cancer cells. PMID:27299653

  2. Reward and punishment sensitivity and alcohol use: the moderating role of executive control.

    PubMed

    Jonker, Nienke C; Ostafin, Brian D; Glashouwer, Klaske A; van Hemel-Ruiter, Madelon E; de Jong, Peter J

    2014-05-01

    Reward sensitivity and to a lesser extent punishment sensitivity have been found to explain individual differences in alcohol use. Furthermore, many studies showed that addictive behaviors are characterized by impaired self-regulatory processes, and that individual differences related to alcohol use are moderated by executive control. This is the first study that explores the potential moderating role of executive control in the relation between reward and punishment sensitivity and alcohol use. Participants were 76 university students, selected on earlier given information about their alcohol use. Half of the participants indicated to drink little alcohol and half indicated to drink substantial amounts of alcohol. As expected, correlational analyses showed a positive relationship between reward sensitivity and alcohol use and a negative relation between punishment sensitivity and alcohol use. Regression analysis confirmed that reward sensitivity was a significant independent predictor of alcohol use. Executive control moderated the relation between punishment sensitivity and alcohol use, but not the relation between reward sensitivity and alcohol use. Only in individuals with weak executive control punishment sensitivity and alcohol use were negatively related. The results suggest that for individuals with weak executive control, punishment sensitivity might be a protective factor working against substantial alcohol use. PMID:24389069

  3. The Molecular Control of Blood Cell Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachs, Leo

    1987-12-01

    The establishment of a cell culture system for the clonal development of blood cells has made it possible to identify the proteins that regulate the growth and differentiation of different blood cell lineages and to discover the molecular basis of normal and abnormal cell development in blood forming tissues. A model system with myeloid blood cells has shown that (i) normal blood cells require different proteins to induce cell multiplication (growth inducers) and cell differentiation (differentiation inducers), (ii) there is a hierarchy of growth inducers as cells become more restricted in their developmental program, and (iii) a cascade of interactions between proteins determines the correct balance between immature and mature cells in normal blood cell development. Gene cloning has shown that there is a family of different genes for these proteins. Normal protein regulators of blood cell development can control the abnormal growth of certain types of leukemic cells and suppress malignancy by incuding differentiation to mature nondividing cells. Chromosome abnormalities that give rise to malignancy in these leukemic cells can be bypassed and their effects nullified by inducing differentiation, which stops cells from multiplying. These blood cell regulatory proteins are active in culture and in the body, and they can be used clinically to correct defects in blood cell development.

  4. Light-harvesting complexes in photosystem II regulate glutathione-induced sensitivity of Arabidopsis guard cells to abscisic acid.

    PubMed

    Jahan, Md Sarwar; Nozulaidi, Mohd; Khairi, Mohd; Mat, Nashriyah

    2016-05-20

    Light-harvesting complexes (LHCs) in photosystem II (PSII) regulate glutathione (GSH) functions in plants. To investigate whether LHCs control GSH biosynthesis that modifies guard cell abscisic acid (ABA) sensitivity, we evaluated GSH content, stomatal aperture, reactive oxygen species (ROS), weight loss and plant growth using a ch1-1 mutant that was defective of LHCs and compared this with wild-type (WT) Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Glutathione monoethyl ester (GSHmee) increased but 1-chloro-2,4 dinitrobenzene (CDNB) decreased the GSH content in the guard cells. The guard cells of the ch1-1 mutants accumulated significantly less GSH than the WT plants. The guard cells of the ch1-1 mutants also showed higher sensitivity to ABA than the WT plants. The CDNB treatment increased but the GSHmee treatment decreased the ABA sensitivity of the guard cells without affecting ABA-induced ROS production. Dark and light treatments altered the GSH content and stomatal aperture of the guard cells of ch1-1 and WT plants, irrespective of CDNB and GSHmee. The ch1-1 mutant contained fewer guard cells and displayed poor growth, late flowering and stumpy weight loss compared with the WT plants. This study suggests that defective LHCs reduced the GSH content in the guard cells and increased sensitivity to ABA, resulting in stomatal closure. PMID:26970687

  5. Survivin blockade sensitizes rhabdomyosarcoma cells for lysis by fetal acetylcholine receptor-redirected T cells.

    PubMed

    Simon-Keller, Katja; Paschen, Annette; Hombach, Andreas A; Ströbel, Philipp; Coindre, Jean-Michel; Eichmüller, Stefan B; Vincent, Angela; Gattenlöhner, Stefan; Hoppe, Florian; Leuschner, Ivo; Stegmaier, Sabine; Koscielniak, Ewa; Leverkus, Martin; Altieri, Dario C; Abken, Hinrich; Marx, Alexander

    2013-06-01

    Cellular immunotherapy may provide a strategy to overcome the poor prognosis of metastatic and recurrent rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) under the current regimen of polychemotherapy. Because little is known about resistance mechanisms of RMS to cytotoxic T cells, we investigated RMS cell lines and biopsy specimens for expression and function of immune costimulatory receptors and anti-apoptotic molecules by RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, IHC, and cytotoxicity assays using siRNA or transfection-modified RMS cell lines, together with engineered RMS-directed cytotoxic T cells specific for the fetal acetylcholine receptor. We found that costimulatory CD80 and CD86 were consistently absent from all RMSs tested, whereas inducible T-cell co-stimulator ligand (ICOS-L; alias B7H2) was expressed by a subset of RMSs and was inducible by tumor necrosis factor α in two of five RMS cell lines. Anti-apoptotic survivin, along with other inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) family members (cIAP1, cIAP2, and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein), was overexpressed by RMS cell lines and biopsy specimens. Down-regulation of survivin by siRNA or pharmacologically in RMS cells increased their susceptibility toward a T-cell attack, whereas induction of ICOS-L did not. Treatment of RMS-bearing Rag(-/-) mice with fetal acetylcholine receptor-specific chimeric T cells delayed xenograft growth; however, this happened without definitive tumor eradication. Combined blockade of survivin and application of chimeric T cells in vivo suppressed tumor proliferation during survivin inhibition. In conclusion, survivin blockade provides a strategy to sensitize RMS cells for T-cell-based therapy. PMID:23562272

  6. REV3L modulates cisplatin sensitivity of non-small cell lung cancer H1299 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenjie; Sheng, Wenjiong; Yu, Chenxiao; Cao, Jianping; Zhou, Jundong; Wu, Jinchang; Zhang, Huojun; Zhang, Shuyu

    2015-09-01

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for approximately 80-85% of all cases of lung cancer. Cisplatin plays a significant role in the management of human lung cancer. Translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) is involved in DNA damage repair. DNA polymerase ζ (Pol ζ) is able to mediate the DNA replication bypass of DNA damage, which is suggested to be involved in chemoresistance. REV3L is the catalytic subunit of Pol ζ. Due to its critical role in translesion DNA synthesis, whether REV3L modulates cisplatin response in NSCLC cells remains unknown. In this study, REV3L overexpression and silencing H1299 cell lines were established. The reports showed that cisplatin induced the expression of REV3L by recruiting Sp1 to its promoter. Similar results were obtained when the ability of the cells to express luciferase from a platinated plasmid was measured. Co-transfection of the reporter with the REV3L overexpression vector or REV3L plus REV7L significantly enhanced the reporter activity. Nuclear condensation and fragmentation of shRNA-REV3L H1299 cells were more pronounced than shRNA-NC H1299 cells after cisplatin exposure, indicating that REV3L overexpression abolished cisplatin-induced DNA damage. Moreover, a forced expression of REV3L conferred the resistance of H1299 cells to cisplatin, whereas the knockdown of REV3L sensitized cisplatin efficacy in H1299 cells. Taken together, we demonstrated that inhibition of REV3L sensitized lung cancer H1299 cells to cisplatin treatment. Thus, REV3L may be a novel target for the chemotherapy of NSCLC. PMID:26165320

  7. Spatial constraints control cell proliferation in tissues

    PubMed Central

    Streichan, Sebastian J.; Hoerner, Christian R.; Schneidt, Tatjana; Holzer, Daniela; Hufnagel, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Control of cell proliferation is a fundamental aspect of tissue formation in development and regeneration. Cells experience various spatial and mechanical constraints depending on their environmental context in the body, but we do not fully understand if and how such constraints influence cell cycle progression and thereby proliferation patterns in tissues. Here, we study the impact of mechanical manipulations on the cell cycle of individual cells within a mammalian model epithelium. By monitoring the response to experimentally applied forces, we find a checkpoint at the G1–S boundary that, in response to spatial constraints, controls cell cycle progression. This checkpoint prevents cells from entering S phase if the available space remains below a characteristic threshold because of crowding. Stretching the tissue results in fast cell cycle reactivation, whereas compression rapidly leads to cell cycle arrest. Our kinetic analysis of this response shows that cells have no memory of past constraints and allows us to formulate a biophysical model that predicts tissue growth in response to changes in spatial constraints in the environment. This characteristic biomechanical cell cycle response likely serves as a fundamental control mechanism to maintain tissue integrity and to ensure control of tissue growth during development and regeneration. PMID:24706777

  8. Novel energy relay dyes for high efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Md. Mahbubur; Ko, Min Jae; Lee, Jae-Joon

    2015-02-01

    4',6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and Hoechst 33342 (H33342) were used as novel energy relay dyes (ERDs) for an efficient energy transfer to the N719 dye in I-/I3- based liquid-junction dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The introduction of the ERDs, either as an additive in the electrolyte or as a co-adsorbent, greatly enhanced the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs), mainly because of an increase in short-circuit current density (Jsc). This was attributed to the effects of non-radiative Förster-type excitation energy transfer as well as the radiative (emission)-type fluorescent energy transfer to the sensitizers. The net PCEs for the N719-sensitized DSSCs with DAPI and H33342 were 10.65% and 10.57%, and showed an improvement of 12.2% and 11.4% over control devices, respectively.4',6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and Hoechst 33342 (H33342) were used as novel energy relay dyes (ERDs) for an efficient energy transfer to the N719 dye in I-/I3- based liquid-junction dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The introduction of the ERDs, either as an additive in the electrolyte or as a co-adsorbent, greatly enhanced the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs), mainly because of an increase in short-circuit current density (Jsc). This was attributed to the effects of non-radiative Förster-type excitation energy transfer as well as the radiative (emission)-type fluorescent energy transfer to the sensitizers. The net PCEs for the N719-sensitized DSSCs with DAPI and H33342 were 10.65% and 10.57%, and showed an improvement of 12.2% and 11.4% over control devices, respectively. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of the materials and instrumentation, device fabrication, measurement and calculations of the quantum yield (Qd), calculations of the Förster radius (R0), optimization of the ERDs mixed with electrolyte according to Type-A strategy; normalized absorption profiles of the N3, Ru505, and Z907 dyes and the emission profiles of DAPI and H33342

  9. A genomic biomarker signature can predict skin sensitizers using a cell-based in vitro alternative to animal tests

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Allergic contact dermatitis is an inflammatory skin disease that affects a significant proportion of the population. This disease is caused by an adverse immune response towards chemical haptens, and leads to a substantial economic burden for society. Current test of sensitizing chemicals rely on animal experimentation. New legislations on the registration and use of chemicals within pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries have stimulated significant research efforts to develop alternative, human cell-based assays for the prediction of sensitization. The aim is to replace animal experiments with in vitro tests displaying a higher predictive power. Results We have developed a novel cell-based assay for the prediction of sensitizing chemicals. By analyzing the transcriptome of the human cell line MUTZ-3 after 24 h stimulation, using 20 different sensitizing chemicals, 20 non-sensitizing chemicals and vehicle controls, we have identified a biomarker signature of 200 genes with potent discriminatory ability. Using a Support Vector Machine for supervised classification, the prediction performance of the assay revealed an area under the ROC curve of 0.98. In addition, categorizing the chemicals according to the LLNA assay, this gene signature could also predict sensitizing potency. The identified markers are involved in biological pathways with immunological relevant functions, which can shed light on the process of human sensitization. Conclusions A gene signature predicting sensitization, using a human cell line in vitro, has been identified. This simple and robust cell-based assay has the potential to completely replace or drastically reduce the utilization of test systems based on experimental animals. Being based on human biology, the assay is proposed to be more accurate for predicting sensitization in humans, than the traditional animal-based tests. PMID:21824406

  10. Results of an integrated structure/control law design sensitivity analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Michael G.

    1989-01-01

    A design sensitivity analysis method for Linear Quadratic Cost, Gaussian (LQG) optimal control laws, which predicts change in the optimal control law due to changes in fixed problem parameters using analytical sensitivity equations is discussed. Numerical results of a design sensitivity analysis for a realistic aeroservoelastic aircraft example are presented. In this example, the sensitivity of the optimally controlled aircraft's response to various problem formulation and physical aircraft parameters is determined. These results are used to predict the aircraft's new optimally controlled response if the parameter was to have some other nominal value during the control law design process. The sensitivity results are validated by recomputing the optimal control law for discrete variations in parameters, computing the new actual aircraft response, and comparing with the predicted response. These results show an improvement in sensitivity accuracy for integrated design purposes over methods which do not include changes in the optimal control law. Use of the analytical LQG sensitivity expressions is also shown to be more efficient than finite difference methods for the computation of the equivalent sensitivity information.

  11. Interaction of Sensitizing Dyes with Nanostructured TiO2 Film in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using Terahertz Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ghann, William; Rahman, Aunik; Rahman, Anis; Uddin, Jamal

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to shed light on the nature of interaction of different organic dyes and an inorganic dye, Ruthenium (II) polypyridine complex, with TiO2 nanoparticles. TiO2 is commonly deployed as an efficient energy transfer electrode in dye sensitized solar cells. The efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells is a function of the interaction of a dye with the electrode material such as TiO2. To the best of our knowledge the present study is the first effort in the determination of terahertz absorbance signals, investigation of real-time dye permeation kinetics, and the surface profiling and 3D imaging of dye sensitized TiO2 films. Herein, we report that the terahertz spectra of the natural dye sensitized TiO2 films were distinctively different from that of the inorganic dye with prominent absorption of natural dyes occurring at approximately the same wavelength. It was observed that the permeation of the natural dyes were more uniform through the layers of the mesoporous TiO2 compared to the inorganic dye. Finally, defects and flaws on TiO2 film were easily recognized via surface profiling and 3D imaging of the films. The findings thus offer a new approach in characterization of dye sensitized solar cells. PMID:27443236

  12. Interaction of Sensitizing Dyes with Nanostructured TiO2 Film in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using Terahertz Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghann, William; Rahman, Aunik; Rahman, Anis; Uddin, Jamal

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this investigation was to shed light on the nature of interaction of different organic dyes and an inorganic dye, Ruthenium (II) polypyridine complex, with TiO2 nanoparticles. TiO2 is commonly deployed as an efficient energy transfer electrode in dye sensitized solar cells. The efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells is a function of the interaction of a dye with the electrode material such as TiO2. To the best of our knowledge the present study is the first effort in the determination of terahertz absorbance signals, investigation of real-time dye permeation kinetics, and the surface profiling and 3D imaging of dye sensitized TiO2 films. Herein, we report that the terahertz spectra of the natural dye sensitized TiO2 films were distinctively different from that of the inorganic dye with prominent absorption of natural dyes occurring at approximately the same wavelength. It was observed that the permeation of the natural dyes were more uniform through the layers of the mesoporous TiO2 compared to the inorganic dye. Finally, defects and flaws on TiO2 film were easily recognized via surface profiling and 3D imaging of the films. The findings thus offer a new approach in characterization of dye sensitized solar cells.

  13. Interaction of Sensitizing Dyes with Nanostructured TiO2 Film in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using Terahertz Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ghann, William; Rahman, Aunik; Rahman, Anis; Uddin, Jamal

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to shed light on the nature of interaction of different organic dyes and an inorganic dye, Ruthenium (II) polypyridine complex, with TiO2 nanoparticles. TiO2 is commonly deployed as an efficient energy transfer electrode in dye sensitized solar cells. The efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells is a function of the interaction of a dye with the electrode material such as TiO2. To the best of our knowledge the present study is the first effort in the determination of terahertz absorbance signals, investigation of real-time dye permeation kinetics, and the surface profiling and 3D imaging of dye sensitized TiO2 films. Herein, we report that the terahertz spectra of the natural dye sensitized TiO2 films were distinctively different from that of the inorganic dye with prominent absorption of natural dyes occurring at approximately the same wavelength. It was observed that the permeation of the natural dyes were more uniform through the layers of the mesoporous TiO2 compared to the inorganic dye. Finally, defects and flaws on TiO2 film were easily recognized via surface profiling and 3D imaging of the films. The findings thus offer a new approach in characterization of dye sensitized solar cells. PMID:27443236

  14. Synthesizing aluminum particles towards controlling electrostatic discharge ignition sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Eric S. Collins; Jeffery P. Gesner; Michelle L. Pantoya; Michael A. Daniels

    2014-02-01

    Aluminum particles were synthesized with shell thicknesses ranging from 2.7 to 8.3 nm and a constant diameter of 95 nm. These fuel particles were combined with molybdenum trioxide particles and the electrostatic discharge (ESD) sensitivity of the mixture was measured. Results show ignition delay increased as the alumina shell thickness increased. These results correlated with electrical resistivity measurements of the mixture which increased with alumina concentration. A model was developed using COMSOL for ignition of a single Al particle. The ignition delay in the model was consistent with the experimental results suggesting that the primary ESD ignition mechanism is joule heating.

  15. Fuel cell stack monitoring and system control

    DOEpatents

    Keskula, Donald H.; Doan, Tien M.; Clingerman, Bruce J.

    2004-02-17

    A control method for monitoring a fuel cell stack in a fuel cell system in which the actual voltage and actual current from the fuel cell stack are monitored. A preestablished relationship between voltage and current over the operating range of the fuel cell is established. A variance value between the actual measured voltage and the expected voltage magnitude for a given actual measured current is calculated and compared with a predetermined allowable variance. An output is generated if the calculated variance value exceeds the predetermined variance. The predetermined voltage-current for the fuel cell is symbolized as a polarization curve at given operating conditions of the fuel cell.

  16. Theoretical design and screening of alkyne bridged triphenyl zinc porphyrins as sensitizer candidates for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xianxi; Chen, Qianqian; Sun, Huafei; Pan, Tingting; Hu, Guiqi; Ma, Ruimin; Dou, Jianmin; Li, Dacheng; Pan, Xu

    2014-01-01

    Alkyne bridged porphyrins have been proved very promising sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with the highest photo-to-electric conversion efficiencies of 11.9% solely and 12.3% co-sensitized with other sensitizers achieved. Developing better porphyrin sensitizers with wider electronic absorption spectra to further improve the efficiencies of corresponding solar cells is still of great significance for the application of DSSCs. A series of triphenyl zinc porphyrins (ZnTriPP) differing in the nature of a pendant acceptor group and the conjugated bridge between the porphyrin nucleus and the acceptor unit were modeled and their electronic and spectral properties calculated using density functional theory. As compared with each other and the experimental results of the compounds used in DSSCs previously, the molecules with a relatively longer conjugative linker and a strong electron-withdrawing group such as cyanide adjacent to the carboxyl acid group seem to provide wider electronic absorption spectra and higher photo-to-electric conversion efficiencies. The dye candidates ZnTriPPE, ZnTriPPM, ZnTriPPQ, ZnTriPPR and ZnTriPPS designed in the current work were found promising to provide comparable photo-to-electric conversion efficiencies to the record 11.9% of the alkyne bridged porphyrin sensitizer YD2-o-C8 reported previously.

  17. Mechanisms of daughter cell-size control during cell division.

    PubMed

    Kiyomitsu, Tomomi

    2015-05-01

    Daughter cell size is tightly regulated during cell division. In animal cells, the position of the anaphase spindle specifies the cell cleavage site to dictate the relative size of the daughter cells. Although spindle orientation is regulated by dynein-dependent cortical pulling forces exerted on astral microtubules in many cell types, it was unclear how these forces are precisely regulated to center or displace the spindle. Recently, intrinsic signals derived from chromosomes or spindle poles have been demonstrated to regulate dynein-dependent pulling forces in symmetrically dividing cells. Unexpectedly, myosin-dependent contractile forces have also been shown to control spindle position by altering the cellular boundaries during anaphase. In this review, I discuss how dynein- and myosin-dependent forces are coordinately regulated to control daughter cell size. PMID:25548067

  18. Fundamental studies of nanoarchitectured dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhenzhen

    2011-12-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are a promising candidate for next-generation photovoltaic panels due to their low cost, easy fabrication processes and relatively high efficiency. Despite the considerable effort on the advancement of DSSCs, the efficiency of DSSCs has been stalled for nearly two decades due to the complex interplay among various DSSC parameters. Particularly, in a conventional DSSC, a thicker semiconductor photovoltaic (PV) layer, i.e., a dye-sensitized TiO2 nanoparticle layer, is required to accommodate more light-induced charge separation centers to enhance light harvesting efficiency. However, a thicker PV layer concurrently increases the charge transport distance in the PV layer; so the system suffers from more charge recombination, leading to significant deterioration in charge collection efficiency. The conflicting demands on the thickness of PV layer by these two critical elementary photoelectrochemical processes becomes a fundamental limitation for further advancement in DSSCs and limits the choice of redox mediators and electrode materials in DSSCs. Hence, the focus of this dissertation research work is to systematically explore a transformative way to fundamentally resolve the conflicting interplay between light harvesting and charge transport. First, our strategy is to allocate part of the roughness factor to the collecting anode instead of imparting all the roughness factors onto the semiconductor PV layer attached to the anode. As a proof of concept, we first synthesized and characterized a microscopically rough Zn collecting anode, on which ZnO nanotips are grown. For the same surface roughness factor, the length of the ZnO nanotips supported on such a rough Zn anode can be much shorter than that of the ZnO nanowires supported on a planar anode. Our Zn-microtip|ZnO-nanotip DSSCs exhibit enhanced fill factor, Voc and Jsc. The investigation of kinetics indicates that the electron collection time is much faster than the electron

  19. The α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor mediates the sensitivity of gastric cancer cells to taxanes.

    PubMed

    Tu, Chao-Chiang; Huang, Chien-Yu; Cheng, Wan-Li; Hung, Chin-Sheng; Uyanga, Batzorig; Wei, Po-Li; Chang, Yu-Jia

    2016-04-01

    Gastric cancer is difficult to cure because most patients are diagnosed at an advanced disease stage. Systemic chemotherapy remains an important therapy for gastric cancer, but both progression-free survival and disease-free survival associated with various combination regimens are limited because of refractoriness and chemoresistance. Accumulating evidence has revealed that the homomeric α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (A7-nAChR) promotes human gastric cancer by driving cancer cell proliferation, migration, and metastasis. Therefore, A7-nAChR may serve as a potential therapeutic target for gastric cancer. However, the role of A7-nAChR in taxane therapy for gastric cancer was unclear. Cells were subjected to A7-nAChR knockdown (A7-nAChR KD) using short interfering RNA (siRNA). The anti-proliferative effects of taxane were assessed via 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick-end labeling (TUNEL), and cell cycle distribution assays. A7-nAChR-KD cells exhibited low resistance to docetaxel and paclitaxel treatment, as measured by the MTT assay. Following paclitaxel treatment, the proportion of apoptotic cells was higher among A7-nAChR-KD cells than among scrambled control cells, as measured by cell cycle distribution and TUNEL assays. Further molecular analyses showed a reduction in the pAKT levels and a dramatic increase in the Bad levels in paclitaxel-treated A7-nAChR-KD cells but not in scrambled control cells. Following paclitaxel treatment, the level of Bax was slightly increased in both cell populations, whereas Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage was increased only in A7-nAChR-KD cells. These findings indicate that A7-nAChR-KD cells are more sensitive to paclitaxel treatment. We conclude that A7-nAChR may be a key biomarker for assessing the chemosensitivity of gastric cancer cells to taxane. PMID:26499946

  20. Fallopian tube secretory cell expansion: a sensitive biomarker for ovarian serous carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yiying; Li, Li; Wang, Yue; Tang, Sarah Ngocvi; Zheng, Wenxin

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances suggest that precancerous lesions of pelvic serous carcinoma originate from tubal secretory cells. The purpose of our study was to determine if an increased number of secretory cells vary with age or location in the fallopian tube and to examine its association with serous neoplasia. Three groups (benign control, high-risk, and pelvic serous carcinoma) of age-matched patients were studied. The age data were stratified into 10-year intervals ranging from 20-29 to older than 80. The number of secretory and ciliated cells from both tubal fimbria and ampulla segments was counted by microscopy and immunohistochemical staining methods. The data were analyzed by standard contingency table and Poisson distribution methods after age justification. We found that the absolute number of tubal secretory cells increased significantly with age in all three groups. But a more dramatic increase of secretory cells was observed in high-risk and pelvic serous carcinoma patients. Secretory cell expansion is more prevalent than secretory cell outgrowth in both fimbria and ampulla tubal segments and is significantly associated with serous neoplasia (p < 0.001). Furthermore, age remained a significant risk factor for serous neoplasia after age adjustment. These findings suggest that secretory cell expansion could serve as a potential sensitive biomarker for early serous carcinogenesis within the fallopian tube. The study also supports a relationship between serous neoplasia and increased secretory to ciliated cell ratios, and the relationship between frequency of secretory cell expansion within the fallopian tube and increasing age and-more significantly-presence of high-risk factors or co-existing serous cancers. PMID:27069556

  1. Fallopian tube secretory cell expansion: a sensitive biomarker for ovarian serous carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yiying; Li, Li; Wang, Yue; Tang, Sarah Ngocvi; Zheng, Wenxin

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances suggest that precancerous lesions of pelvic serous carcinoma originate from tubal secretory cells. The purpose of our study was to determine if an increased number of secretory cells varies with age or location in the fallopian tube and to examine its association with serous neoplasia. Three groups (benign control, high-risk, and pelvic serous carcinoma) of age-matched patients were studied. The age data were stratified into 10-year intervals ranging from 20-29 to older than 80. The number of secretory and ciliated cells from both tubal fimbria and ampulla segments was counted by microscopy and immunohistochemical staining methods. The data were analyzed by standard contingency table and Poisson distribution methods after age justification. We found that the absolute number of tubal secretory cells increased significantly with age in all three groups. But a more dramatic increase of secretory cells was observed in high-risk and pelvic serous carcinoma patients. Secretory cell expansion is more prevalent than secretory cell outgrowth in both fimbria and ampulla tubal segments and is significantly associated with serous neoplasia (P < 0.001). Furthermore, age remained a significant risk factor for serous neoplasia after age adjustment. These findings suggest that secretory cell expansion could serve as a potential sensitive biomarker for early serous carcinogenesis within the fallopian tube. The study also supports a relationship between serous neoplasia and increased secretory to ciliated cell ratios, and the relationship between frequency of secretory cell expansion within the fallopian tube and increasing age and-more significantly-presence of high-risk factors or co-existing serous cancers. PMID:26692952

  2. Sensitive Immunofluorescent Staining of Cells via Generation of Fluorescent Nanoscale Polymer Films in Response to Biorecognition

    PubMed Central

    Avens, Heather J.; Berron, Brad J.; May, Allison M.; Voigt, Katerina R.; Seedorf, Gregory J.; Balasubramaniam, Vivek; Bowman, Christopher N.

    2011-01-01

    Immunofluorescent staining is central to nearly all cell-based research, yet only a few fluorescent signal amplification approaches for cell staining exist, each with distinct limitations. Here, the authors present a novel, fluorescent polymerization-based amplification (FPBA) method that is shown to enable similar signal intensities as the highly sensitive, enzyme-based tyramide signal amplification (TSA) approach. Being non-enzymatic, FPBA is not expected to suffer from nonspecific staining of endogenous enzymes, as occurs with enzyme-based approaches. FPBA employs probes labeled with photopolymerization initiators, which lead to the controlled formation of fluorescent polymer films only at targeted biorecognition sites. Nuclear pore complex proteins (NPCs; in membranes), vimentin (in filaments), and von Willebrand factor (in granules) were all successfully immunostained by FPBA. Also, FPBA was demonstrated to be capable of multicolor immunostaining of multiple antigens. To assess relative sensitivity, decreasing concentrations of anti-NPC antibody were used, indicating that both FPBA and TSA stained NPC down to a 1:100,000 dilution. Nonspecific, cytoplasmic signal resulting from NPC staining was found to be reduced up to 5.5-fold in FPBA as compared to TSA, demonstrating better signal localization with FPBA. FPBA’s unique approach affords a combination of preferred attributes, including high sensitivity and specificity not otherwise available with current techniques. PMID:21339175

  3. Novel near-infrared carboxylated 1,3-indandione sensitizers for highly efficient flexible dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Shibayama, Naoyuki; Inoue, Yukiko; Abe, Masahiro; Kajiyama, Shingo; Ozawa, Hironobu; Miura, Hidetoshi; Arakawa, Hironori

    2015-08-18

    Three novel metal-free organic dyes (DN458, DN475 and DN484) were designed for use in plastic-substrate dye-sensitized solar cells (PDSCs). The photoelectric conversion region of DN475 was successfully expanded into the near-infrared region. As a result, an energy conversion efficiency of 5.76% was achieved. PMID:26166712

  4. Comparisons of Robustness and Sensitivity between Cancer and Normal Cells by Microarray Data

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Liang-Hui; Chen, Bor-Sen

    2008-01-01

    Robustness is defined as the ability to uphold performance in face of perturbations and uncertainties, and sensitivity is a measure of the system deviations generated by perturbations to the system. While cancer appears as a robust but fragile system, few computational and quantitative evidences demonstrate robustness tradeoffs in cancer. Microarrays have been widely applied to decipher gene expression signatures in human cancer research, and quantification of global gene expression profiles facilitates precise prediction and modeling of cancer in systems biology. We provide several efficient computational methods based on system and control theory to compare robustness and sensitivity between cancer and normal cells by microarray data. Measurement of robustness and sensitivity by linear stochastic model is introduced in this study, which shows oscillations in feedback loops of p53 and demonstrates robustness tradeoffs that cancer is a robust system with some extreme fragilities. In addition, we measure sensitivity of gene expression to perturbations in other gene expression and kinetic parameters, discuss nonlinear effects in feedback loops of p53 and extend our method to robustness-based cancer drug design. PMID:19259409

  5. Functionalized graphene sheets in dye-sensitized solar cell counter electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy-Mayhew, Joseph Dominic

    was achieved through better control of electrode morphology. By using ethyl cellulose as a sacrificial binder, and partially thermolyzing it, electrodes were created which exhibited lower effective charge transfer resistance (< 1 Ω·cm 2) than the traditional platinum electrodes for the iodide/triiodide, the cobalt bipyridine, and a sulfur-based redox couple. Dye-sensitized solar cells using these FGS electrodes had power conversion efficiencies equal to or greater than those using platinum nanoparticles with each of the three major redox mediators.

  6. Sensitive detection of cancer cells using light-mediated apta-PCR.

    PubMed

    Civit, Laia; Pinto, Alessandro; Rodrigues-Correia, Alexandre; Heckel, Alexander; O'Sullivan, Ciara K; Mayer, Günter

    2016-03-15

    Apta-PCR is an ultrasensitive assay in which aptamers are exploited not only as biomolecular recognition elements, but also as reporter labels for amplification via real-time PCR. This methodology has been successfully applied to the detection of proteins, achieving limits of detection in the picomolar range. The introduction of caged aptamers that bear photo-labile groups, so called cages, at strategic positions so that their tertiary structure and thus their binding properties can be controlled by light, facilitates a more robust and attractive assay in terms of sample conservation and reusability. In this work, we report for the first time the use of caged aptamers for cell detection in an apta-PCR assay. Specifically, a sandwich format is used combining the capture of B-cells by an antibody with the specific detection of Burkitt's lymphoma cancer cells by a caged aptamer, acting as a reporter probe. Elution of the aptamer bound to the cancer cells is performed by light and the number of cells is then correlated with the amount of eluted caged aptamer using real-time PCR analysis. The reported technique shows an excellent sensitivity, achieving detection of as few as 77 cells, and due to the inherent robustness of the assay, this detection platform can be reused for further analyses, demonstrating potential applicability in proteomics and clinical diagnostics. PMID:26615953

  7. Ruthenium phthalocyanine-bipyridyl dyads as sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells: dye coverage versus molecular efficiency.

    PubMed

    Rawling, Tristan; Austin, Christine; Buchholz, Florian; Colbran, Stephen B; McDonagh, Andrew M

    2009-04-01

    The application of ruthenium phthalocyanine complexes as sensitizing dyes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) is explored. Four monomeric complexes are reported which vary in peripheral substitution and axial ligand anchoring groups. Sensitizing dyes containing two ruthenium centers are also presented. These dyads, which contain ruthenium phthalocyanine and bipyridyl chromophores, were prepared using a protection/deprotection strategy that allows for convenient purification. DSCs fabricated using the phthalocyanine complexes and dyads were less efficient than those incorporating a standard DSC dye. However, on the basis of the number of molecules bound to the TiO(2) electrode surfaces, several of the new complexes were more efficient at photocurrent generation. The results highlight the importance of molecular size, and thus the dye coverage of the electrode surface in the design of new sensitizing dyes. PMID:19278209

  8. Protan-like spectral sensitivity of foveal Y ganglion cells of the retina of macaque monkeys.

    PubMed Central

    de Monasterio, F M; Schein, S J

    1980-01-01

    1. The spectral sensitivity of two varieties of macaque Y ganglion cells with a centre-surround organization, type III (non-colour opponent) and type IV (broad-band colour opponent), was examined with test stimuli of different size, shape and wave-length. 2. The spectral sensitivity of type III cells to large stimuli decreased at the long wave-lengths with decreasing retinal eccentricity; this change was due to a lower sensitivity of green-sensitive than of red-sensitive cone input to the surround of foveal cells, which resulted in stronger surround antagonism at the long than at the short wave-lengths leading to a rudimentary form of colour opponency. 3. The spectral properties of foveal type III cells were intermediate between those of perifoveal type III cells, whose surrounds receive a rather similar input from both cone types, and of the predominantly foveal type IV cells, whose surrounds appeared to lack input from green-sensitive cones. 4. The results indicate that both cell types represent varieties within a continuum of a single macaque Y-cell system which has a reduced long-wave-length sensitivity in the foveal region. The fact that a similar reduction of long-wave-length sensitivity can be observed in (foveal) macaque photopic luminosity functions measured with different techniques by different authors suggest that both types of Y cell have an important role in the processing of luminance information. PMID:6770078

  9. Anthocyanin-sensitized solar cells using carbon nanotube films as counter electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Hongwei; Zeng, Haifeng; Subramanian, Venkatachalam; Masarapu, Charan; Hung, Kai-Hsuan; Wei, Bingqing

    2008-11-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) films have been used as counter electrodes in natural dye-sensitized (anthocyanin-sensitized) solar cells to improve the cell performance. Compared with conventional cells using natural dye electrolytes and platinum as the counter electrodes, cells with a single-walled nanotube (SWNT) film counter electrode show comparable conversion efficiency, which is attributed to the increase in short circuit current density due to the high conductivity of the SWNT film.

  10. Single Cell Adhesion Assay Using Computer Controlled Micropipette

    PubMed Central

    Salánki, Rita; Hős, Csaba; Orgovan, Norbert; Péter, Beatrix; Sándor, Noémi; Bajtay, Zsuzsa; Erdei, Anna; Horvath, Robert; Szabó, Bálint

    2014-01-01

    Cell adhesion is a fundamental phenomenon vital for all multicellular organisms. Recognition of and adhesion to specific macromolecules is a crucial task of leukocytes to initiate the immune response. To gain statistically reliable information of cell adhesion, large numbers of cells should be measured. However, direct measurement of the adhesion force of single cells is still challenging and today’s techniques typically have an extremely low throughput (5–10 cells per day). Here, we introduce a computer controlled micropipette mounted onto a normal inverted microscope for probing single cell interactions with specific macromolecules. We calculated the estimated hydrodynamic lifting force acting on target cells by the numerical simulation of the flow at the micropipette tip. The adhesion force of surface attached cells could be accurately probed by repeating the pick-up process with increasing vacuum applied in the pipette positioned above the cell under investigation. Using the introduced methodology hundreds of cells adhered to specific macromolecules were measured one by one in a relatively short period of time (∼30 min). We blocked nonspecific cell adhesion by the protein non-adhesive PLL-g-PEG polymer. We found that human primary monocytes are less adherent to fibrinogen than their in vitro differentiated descendants: macrophages and dendritic cells, the latter producing the highest average adhesion force. Validation of the here introduced method was achieved by the hydrostatic step-pressure micropipette manipulation technique. Additionally the result was reinforced in standard microfluidic shear stress channels. Nevertheless, automated micropipette gave higher sensitivity and less side-effect than the shear stress channel. Using our technique, the probed single cells can be easily picked up and further investigated by other techniques; a definite advantage of the computer controlled micropipette. Our experiments revealed the existence of a sub

  11. G Protein-coupled Receptor Kinase 5 Phosphorylates Nucleophosmin and Regulates Cell Sensitivity to Polo-like Kinase 1 Inhibition*

    PubMed Central

    So, Christopher H.; Michal, Allison M.; Mashayekhi, Rouzbeh; Benovic, Jeffrey L.

    2012-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) phosphorylate activated G protein-coupled receptors, leading to their desensitization and endocytosis. GRKs have also been implicated in phosphorylating other classes of proteins and can localize in a variety of cellular compartments, including the nucleus. Here, we attempted to identify potential nuclear substrates for GRK5. Our studies reveal that GRK5 is able to interact with and phosphorylate nucleophosmin (NPM1) both in vitro and in intact cells. NPM1 is a nuclear protein that regulates a variety of cell functions including centrosomal duplication, cell cycle control, and apoptosis. GRK5 interaction with NPM1 is mediated by the N-terminal domain of each protein, and GRK5 primarily phosphorylates NPM1 at Ser-4, a site shared with polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1). NPM1 phosphorylation by GRK5 and PLK1 correlates with the sensitivity of cells to undergo apoptosis with cells having higher GRK5 levels being less sensitive and cells with lower GRK5 being more sensitive to PLK1 inhibitor-induced apoptosis. Taken together, our results demonstrate that GRK5 phosphorylates Ser-4 in nucleophosmin and regulates the sensitivity of cells to PLK1 inhibition. PMID:22467873

  12. Lithium-Ion Cell Charge Control Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha; Button, Robert; Manzo, Michelle; McKissock, Barbara; Miller, Thomas; Gemeiner, Russel; Bennett, William; Hand, Evan

    2006-01-01

    Life-test data of Lithium-Ion battery cells is critical in order to establish their performance capabilities for NASA missions and Exploration goals. Lithium-ion cells have the potential to replace rechargeable alkaline cells in aerospace applications, but they require a more complex charging scheme than is typically required for alkaline cells. To address these requirements in our Lithium-Ion Cell Test Verification Program, a Lithium-Ion Cell Charge Control Unit was developed by NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). This unit gives researchers the ability to test cells together as a pack, while allowing each cell to charge individually. This allows the inherent cell-to-cell variations to be addressed on a series string of cells and results in a substantial reduction in test costs as compared to individual cell testing. The Naval Surface Warfare Center at Crane, Indiana developed a power reduction scheme that works in conjunction with the Lithium-Ion Cell Charge Control Unit. This scheme minimizes the power dissipation required by the circuitry to prolong circuit life and improve its reliability.

  13. Control points within the cell cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Van't Hof, J.

    1984-01-01

    Evidence of the temporal order of chromosomal DNA replication argues favorably for the view that the cell cycle is controlled by genes acting in sequence whose time of expression is determined by mitosis and the amount of nuclear DNA (2C vs 4C) in the cell. Gl and G2 appear to be carbohydrate dependent in that cells starved of either carbohydrate of phosphate fail to make these transitions. Cells deprived of nitrate, however, fail only at Gl to S transition indicating that the controls that operate in G1 differ from those that operate in G2. 46 references, 5 figures.

  14. Co-sensitization of natural dyes for improved efficiency in dye-sensitized solar cell application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, K. Ashok; Subalakshmi, K.; Senthilselvan, J.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a new approach of co-sensitized DSSC based on natural dyes is investigated to explore the possible way to improve the power conversion efficiency. To realize this purpose 10 DSSC devices were fabricated using mono-sensitization and co-sensitization of ethanolic extracts of natural dye sensitizers obtained from Cactus fruit, Jambolana fruit, Curcumin and Bermuda grass. The optical absorption spectrum of the mono and hybrid dye extracts were studied by UV-Visible absorption spectrum. It shows the characteristic absorption peaks in visible region corresponds to the presence of natural pigments of anthocyanin, betacyanin and chlorophylls. Absorption spectrum of hybrid dyes reveals a wide absorption band in visible region with improved extinction co-efficient and it is favorable for increased light harvesting nature. The power conversion efficiency of DSSC devices were calculated using J-V curve and the maximum efficiency achieved in the present work is noted to be ~0.61% for Cactus-Bermuda co-sensitized DSSC.

  15. Sensitivity and mechanisms of taxol-resistant prostate adenocarcinoma cells to Vernonia amygdalina extract

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Keyuna S.; Howard, Carolyn B.; Izevbigie, Ernest B.; Hill, Brandon J.; Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) patients once Paclitaxel (TAX) treatment responsive later develop hormone refractory PC, thus becoming TAX-insensitive. This underscores the urgent need to develop novel anti-PC therapies. Vernonia amygdalina (VA) could be one such candidate agent. We have shown that androgen-independent PC-3 cells are sensitive to VA treatment in-vitro. VA extract (0.01, 0.1 and 1mg/ml) inhibited DNA synthesis by 12%, 45%, (P<0.05), and 73% (P<0.01) respectively. In contrast, TAX (0.01, 0.1, and 1μM) failed to significantly affect cell growth, suggesting TAX resistance. We tested molecular mechanisms which may lend to the observed PC-3 cell VA sensitivity/TAX resistance. Though both VA and TAX stimulated MAPK activity, VA’s induction was more intense, but transient, compared to TAX’s sustained action. NF-κB activation was inhibited on average by 50% by either 1mg/ml VA or 1 μM TAX. VA extract caused 35% and 45% increases in c-Myc activity at 10 and 60 min intervals respectively, with the highest stimulation attained 1 hr after treatment. In contrast, similar levels were attained by TAX rapidly (within 5 min) and were sustained compared to the slow/multiphasic action of VA. VA extract treatments had no effect on AKT gene expression, while TAX treatments yielded a four-fold (P<0.01) increase; and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity was inhibited by VA and stimulated by TAX, compared to control (basal ATPase activity). This study shows that TAX-resistant PC-3 cells are sensitive to VA, perhaps explained by differential regulatory patterns of MAPK, c-Myc, AKT, and Pgp activities/expressions. PMID:23238229

  16. Risk-Sensitive Control of Pure Jump Process on Countable Space with Near Monotone Cost

    SciTech Connect

    Suresh Kumar, K. Pal, Chandan

    2013-12-15

    In this article, we study risk-sensitive control problem with controlled continuous time pure jump process on a countable space as state dynamics. We prove multiplicative dynamic programming principle, elliptic and parabolic Harnack’s inequalities. Using the multiplicative dynamic programing principle and the Harnack’s inequalities, we prove the existence and a characterization of optimal risk-sensitive control under the near monotone condition.

  17. Inhibition of geranylgeranylation mediates sensitivity to CHOP-induced cell death of DLBCL cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Ageberg, Malin; Rydstroem, Karin; Linden, Ola; Linderoth, Johan; Jerkeman, Mats; Drott, Kristina

    2011-05-01

    Prenylation is a post-translational hydrophobic modification of proteins, important for their membrane localization and biological function. The use of inhibitors of prenylation has proven to be a useful tool in the activation of apoptotic pathways in tumor cell lines. Rab geranylgeranyl transferase (Rab GGT) is responsible for the prenylation of the Rab family. Overexpression of Rab GGTbeta has been identified in CHOP refractory diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Using a cell line-based model for CHOP resistant DLBCL, we show that treatment with simvastatin, which inhibits protein farnesylation and geranylgeranylation, sensitizes DLBCL cells to cytotoxic treatment. Treatment with the farnesyl transferase inhibitor FTI-277 or the geranylgeranyl transferase I inhibitor GGTI-298 indicates that the reduction in cell viability was restricted to inhibition of geranylgeranylation. In addition, treatment with BMS1, a combined inhibitor of farnesyl transferase and Rab GGT, resulted in a high cytostatic effect in WSU-NHL cells, demonstrated by reduced cell viability and decreased proliferation. Co-treatment of BMS1 or GGTI-298 with CHOP showed synergistic effects with regard to markers of apoptosis. We propose that inhibition of protein geranylgeranylation together with conventional cytostatic therapy is a potential novel strategy for treating patients with CHOP refractory DLBCL.

  18. The Effect of Iron Deficiency on Osmotic Sensitivity of Red Blood Cells from Neonatal Rats and Their Mothers.

    PubMed

    Al-Hashimi, L Mossa; Gambling, Lorraine; McArdle, H J

    2015-12-01

    Iron deficiency during pregnancy has many effects on both the mother and her developing foetus. These can be both short and long term. One effect is an alteration in fatty acid metabolism and we hypothesised that these changes may result in alterations in membrane function and structure. In order to test this hypothesis, we measured osmotic sensitivity in red blood cells isolated from neonates and their mothers at different times following birth. We fed female rats control or iron-deficient diets for 4 weeks prior to mating and kept them on the same diet until term. At that time, we returned one group of deficient dams to the control diet. The others were kept on the same diet. We showed that iron deficiency results in a decrease in osmotic sensitivity in the mothers but not in their neonates. Returning the dams to the control diet resulted in a return of their red cell osmotic sensitivity to control levels. In the neonates, there was no recovery in haematocrit or in any other parameter, though they did not get any worse, in contrast to the pups being suckled by deficient mothers. The data show two things. The first is that following birth, the mother restores her own iron stores at the expense of the pups, and secondly, there are differences in properties and sensitivities between red cells from mothers and their neonates. This latter observation cannot be explained by differences in the membrane fatty acid profiles, which were not significantly different. PMID:26439821

  19. Metal oxide-encapsulated dye-sensitized photoanodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Hupp, Joseph T.; Son, Ho-Jin

    2016-01-12

    Dye-sensitized semiconducting metal oxide films for photoanodes, photoanodes incorporating the films and DSCs incorporating the photoanodes are provided. Also provided are methods for making the dye sensitized semiconducting metal oxide films. The methods of making the films are based on the deposition of an encapsulating layer of a semiconducting metal oxide around the molecular anchoring groups of photosensitizing dye molecules adsorbed to a porous film of the semiconducting metal oxide. The encapsulating layer of semiconducting metal oxide is formed in such a way that it is not coated over the chromophores of the adsorbed dye molecules and, therefore, allows the dye molecules to remain electrochemically addressable.

  20. Laser annealed composite titanium dioxide electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells on glass and plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Heng; Ko, Seung Hwan; Misra, Nipun; Grigoropoulos, Costas P.

    2009-02-01

    We report a rapid and low temperature process for fabricating composite TiO2 electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells on glass and plastics by in tandem spray deposition and laser annealing. A homogenized KrF excimer laser beam (248 nm) was used to layer-by-layer anneal spray deposited TiO2 nanoparticles. The produced TiO2 film is crack free and contains small particles (30 nm) mixed with different fractions of larger particles (100-200 nm) controlled by the applied laser fluence. Laser annealed double-layered structure is demonstrated for both doctor-blade deposited and spray-deposited electrodes and performance enhancement can be observed. The highest demonstrated all-laser-annealed cells utilizing ruthenium dye and liquid electrolyte showed power conversion efficiency of ˜3.8% under simulated illumination of 100 mW/cm2.

  1. High-efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells using ferrocene-based electrolytes and natural photosensitizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sönmezoğlu, Savaş; Akyürek, Cafer; Akin, Seçkin

    2012-10-01

    A new and promising dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) bilayer design was developed using an Fe2+/Fe3+ (ferrocene) liquid electrolyte and natural dyes extracted from Hypericum perforatum, Rubia tinctorum L. and Reseda luteola. The photovoltaic parameters controlling the device performance were then investigated. A DSSC based on quercetin dye displayed the most efficient solar to electricity conversion efficiency compared with other dyes with a maximum η value of 2.17%. Maximum overall conversion efficiencies under simulated sunlight that was comparable to natural photosynthesis were increased by 15%. The identification of appropriate additives for improving VOC without causing dye degradation may result in further enhancement of cell performance, making the practical application of such systems more suitable for achieving economically viable solar energy devices.

  2. Salirasib sensitizes hepatocarcinoma cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis through DR5 and survivin-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Charette, N; De Saeger, C; Horsmans, Y; Leclercq, I; Stärkel, P

    2013-01-01

    Ras activation is a frequent event in human hepatocarcinoma that may contribute to resistance towards apoptosis. Salirasib is a ras and mTOR inhibitor that induces a pro-apoptotic phenotype in human hepatocarcinoma cell lines. In this work, we evaluate whether salirasib sensitizes those cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Cell viability, cell death and apoptosis were evaluated in vitro in HepG2, Hep3B and Huh7 cells treated with DMSO, salirasib and YM155 (a survivin inhibitor), alone or in combination with recombinant TRAIL. Our results show that pretreatment with salirasib sensitized human hepatocarcinoma cell lines, but not normal human hepatocytes, to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Indeed, FACS analysis showed that 25 (Huh7) to 50 (HepG2 and Hep3B) percent of the cells treated with both drugs were apoptotic. This occurred through activation of the extrinsic and the intrinsic pathways, as evidenced by a marked increase in caspase 3/7 (five to ninefold), caspase 8 (four to sevenfold) and caspase 9 (eight to 12-fold) activities in cells treated with salirasib and TRAIL compared with control. Survivin inhibition had an important role in this process and was sufficient to sensitize hepatocarcinoma cells to apoptosis. Furthermore, TRAIL-induced apoptosis in HCC cells pretreated with salirasib was dependent on activation of death receptor (DR) 5. In conclusion, salirasib sensitizes hepatocarcinoma cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis by a mechanism involving the DR5 receptor and survivin inhibition. These results in human hepatocarcinoma cell lines and primary hepatocytes provide a rationale for testing the combination of salirasib and TRAIL agonists in human hepatocarcinoma. PMID:23348585

  3. Tumor-associated fibroblasts promote the proliferation and decrease the doxorubicin sensitivity of liposarcoma cells

    PubMed Central

    HARATI, KAMRAN; DAIGELER, ADRIEN; HIRSCH, TOBIAS; JACOBSEN, FRANK; BEHR, BJÖRN; WALLNER, CHRISTOPH; LEHNHARDT, MARCUS; BECERIKLI, MUSTAFA

    2016-01-01

    The reasons for the distinct chemoresistance of liposarcomas and their high risk of local recurrence still remain unclear. Depending on the histological subtype of liposarcoma, first-line therapy with the cytostatic agent, doxorubicin, only achieves response rates of approximately 36%. Approximatley 70% of all local recurrences develop in spite of complete surgical resection of the primary tumor with microscopically negative margins. In this study, we aimed to assess the influence of tumor-associated fibroblasts (TAFs) obtained from surgically removed liposarcomas on the well-established human liposarcoma SW872 cell line. Intratumoral TAFs were isolated from intermediate- and high-grade liposarcoma samples. The human liposarcoma cell line, SW872, was co-cultured with the corresponding TAFs or with dermal fibroblasts as a control. The proliferation (by BrdU assay), cell viability (by MTT assay) and sensitivity to doxorubicin (using the iCELLigence system) of the co-cultured SW872 cells were examined. The SW872 cells exhibited a significant increase in proliferation and viability when co-cultured with the TAFs. As detected by real-time cell analysis, the SW872 cells co-cultured with the TAFs exhibited a diminished response towards doxorubicin. Notably, co-culture with TAFs obtained from high-grade liposarcoma samples resulted in higher proliferation and increased chemoresistance than co-culture with TAFs obtained from intermediate-grade liposarcoma samples. The findings of the present study thus indicate that TAFs from liposarcomas enhance the proliferation and decrease the chemosensitivity of SW872 liposarcoma cells significantly compared with normal fibroblasts from the dermis. TAFs from more malignant liposarcomas promoted tumor cell proliferation and chemoresistance more strikingly than TAFs from less malignant liposarcomas. These data provide evidence for the influence of the tumor microenvironment on liposarcoma and support for further investigations in

  4. Transforming potential and matrix stiffness co-regulate confinement sensitivity of tumor cell migration.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Amit; Kumar, Sanjay

    2013-08-01

    It is now well established that tumor cell invasion through tissue is strongly regulated by the microstructural and mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix (ECM). However, it remains unclear how these physical microenvironmental inputs are jointly processed with oncogenic lesions to drive invasion. In this study, we address this open question by combining a microfabricated polyacrylamide channel (μPAC) platform that enables independent control of ECM stiffness and confinement with an isogenically-matched breast tumor progression series in which the oncogenes ErbB2 and 14-3-3ζ are overexpressed independently or in tandem. We find that increasing channel confinement and overexpressing ErbB2 both promote cell migration to a similar degree when other parameters are kept constant. In contrast, 14-3-3ζ overexpression slows migration speed, and does so in a fashion that dwarfs effects of ECM confinement and stiffness. We also find that ECM stiffness dramatically enhances cell motility when combined with ErbB2 overexpression, demonstrating that biophysical cues and cell-intrinsic parameters promote cell invasion in an integrative manner. Morphometric analysis of cells inside the μPAC platform reveals that the rapid cell migration induced by narrow channels and ErbB2 overexpression are both accompanied by increased cell polarization. Disruption of this polarization occurs by pharmacological inhibition of Rac GTPase phenocopies 14-3-3ζ overexpression by reducing cell polarization and slowing migration. By systematically measuring migration speed as a function of matrix stiffness and confinement, we also quantify for the first time the sensitivity of migration speed to microchannel properties and transforming potential. These results demonstrate that oncogenic lesions and ECM biophysical properties can synergistically interact to drive invasive migration, and that both inputs may act through common molecular mechanisms to enhance migration speed. PMID:23832051

  5. Conformal growth of anodic nanotubes for dye-sensitized solar cells: part II. Nonplanar electrode.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lidong; Zhang, Sam; Wang, Qing

    2014-02-01

    Anodic titania nanotube array features highly ordered alignment as well as porous nature, and exhibits intriguing properties when employed in a variety of applications. All these profit from the continuous efforts on controlling the nanotube configurations. Recently, nonplanar electrodes have also been used to grow the nanotubes besides the conventional planar counterparts. As such, it is of great interest and significance to complete a picture to link the nanotubes grown on planar and various nonplanar electrodes for a comprehensive understanding of nanotube growing manners, in an attempt to boost their future applications. In the first part of this review, planar electrodes are focused with regard to nanotube growth and application in dye-sensitized solar cells. In this part, the nanotubes grown on patterned or curved surfaces are discussed first with reference to a similar structure of alumina nanopores, which are subsequently used to mirror the growth of nanotubes on cylindrical electrodes (i.e., titanium wires or meshes). The last section focuses on titanium tubular electrodes which are attractive for thermal fluids in view of the drastically reduced thermal conductivity in the presence of anodic nanotubes. As a recent hot topic, wire-shaped dye-sensitized solar cells are deliberated in terms of cell structure, efficiency calculation, merits, challenges and outlook. PMID:24749473

  6. [Culture and control of cells producing bovine leukemia virus].

    PubMed

    Granátová, M

    1987-10-01

    In the field surveys of the occurrence of enzootic bovine leucosis caused by the bovine leucosis virus (BLV), the identification of positive animals is based on the detection of specific antiviral antibodies by serological methods. The reliability of these tests (particularly their sensitivity and specificity) depends on the quality of the virus antigen. The preparation of the antigen is based on the cultivation of BLV virus in cultures of the FLS cell line. A modified procedure of preparing the BLV antigen in the FLS cell culture is described, along with the control of its production by the immunoperoxidase test. PMID:2827363

  7. Cell cytoskeletal conformation under reversible thermal control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ting-Ya; Yang, Chung-Yao; Liao, Kai-Wei; Andrew Yeh, J.; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2013-12-01

    In order to assess the role of cytoskeletal structure in modulating cell surface topography during cell transformation, we investigated cytoskeletal organization of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cells at different thermal gradients. Specifically, we examined actin polymerization as a function of temperature in a controlled thermal environment. After applying an increase in temperature of 5 °C, we observed fewer actin filaments in the network, as these molecular polymers depolymerized. Partial stress fibers of MDCK cells could be rearranged, but some of them were disrupted irreversibly after a second thermal treatment, and MDCK cells underwent apoptosis at higher temperatures as well.

  8. Epigenetic Control of B Cell Development and B-Cell-Related Immune Disorders.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yan; Cao, Xuetao

    2016-06-01

    B lymphocytes are generally recognized as the essential component of humoral immunity and also a regulator of innate immunity. The development of B cells is precisely regulated by a variety of factors via different mechanisms, including cytokine/cytokine receptors, signal transduction molecules, and transcription factors. Recent findings suggest that epigenetic factors, such as DNA methylation, histone modification, and non-coding RNA, play critical roles in establishing B cell lineage-specific gene expression profiles to define and sustain B cell identity and function. Epigenetic modifications are also sensitive to external stimuli and might bridge genetic and environmental factors in the pathogenesis or control of B-cell-related immune disorders, such as autoimmune diseases, lymphoma, and leukemia. Better understanding of the epigenetic mechanisms for regulating B cell development and involving B cell abnormal differentiation and function will shed light on the design of new therapeutic approaches to B-cell-related diseases, and potential candidates of epigenetic modulators may be identified to target epigenetic pathways to prevent or treat B cell disorders. We summarize the relevance of epigenetic marks and landscapes in the stages of B cell development, discuss the interaction of the transcriptional networks and epigenetic changes, and review the involvement of epigenetic risk in the pathogenesis of B-cell-related diseases. Understanding how specific epigenetic alterations contribute to the development of B-cell-related autoimmunity and malignancies is instrumental to control B cell disorders. PMID:26066671

  9. Synthesis of CdSe quantum dots for quantum dot sensitized solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Neetu Kapoor, Avinashi; Kumar, Vinod; Mehra, R. M.

    2014-04-24

    CdSe Quantum Dots (QDs) of size 0.85 nm were synthesized using chemical route. ZnO based Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cell (QDSSC) was fabricated using CdSe QDs as sensitizer. The Pre-synthesized QDs were found to be successfully adsorbed on front ZnO electrode and had potential to replace organic dyes in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs). The efficiency of QDSSC was obtained to be 2.06 % at AM 1.5.

  10. Thermoresponsive copolymer nanofilms for controlling cell adhesion, growth, and detachment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Pan, Fang; Zhao, Xiubo; Yaseen, Mohammed; Padia, Faheem; Coffey, Paul; Freund, Amy; Yang, Luyuan; Liu, Tianqing; Ma, Xuehu; Lu, Jian R

    2010-11-16

    This study reports the development and use of a novel thermoresponsive polymeric nanofilm for controlling cell adhesion and growth at 37 °C, and then cell detachment for cell recovery by subsequent temperature drop to the ambient temperature, without enzymatic cleavage or mechanical scraping. A copolymer, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-hydroxypropyl methacrylate-co-3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate) (abbreviated PNIPAAm copolymer), was synthesized by free radical polymerization. The thermoresponses of the copolymer in aqueous solution were demonstrated by dynamic light scattering (DLS) through detecting the sensitive changes of copolymer aggregation against temperature. The DLS measurements revealed the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) at approximately 30 °C. The PNIPAAm film stability and robustness was provided through silyl cross-linking within the film and with the hydroxyl groups on the substrate surface. Film thickness, stability, and reversibility with respect to temperature switches were examined by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and contact angle measurements. The results confirmed the high extent of thermosensitivity and structural restoration based on the alterations of film thickness and surface wettability. The effective control of adhesion, growth, and detachment of HeLa and HEK293 cells demonstrated the physical controllability and cellular compatibility of the copolymer nanofilms. These PNIPAAm copolymer nanofilms could open up a convenient interfacial mediation for cell film production and cell expansion by nonenzymatic and nonmechanical cell recovery. PMID:20964301

  11. Sensitivity of the ultrasonic interferometry method (Echo-Cell) to changes of red cell aggregation: application to diabetes.

    PubMed

    Khodabandehlou, T; Boynard, M; Guillet, R; Devehat, C Le

    2002-01-01

    The sensitivity of the ultrasonic interferometry method (Echo-Cell) to changes in red blood cell (RBC) aggregation was investigated in comparison to the Regulest erythroaggregometry known as a reference method. In experiments where different concentrations of dextrans of 40 or 70 kD molecular weights were added to normal RBCs, the Echo-Cell was proved as sensitive as erythroaggregometry. A comparative study using RBC samples from normal and diabetic subjects showed that the Echo-Cell was much more sensitive when aggregation was measured in diluted than undiluted plasma. The sensitivity of Echo-Cell measurements in diluted plasma was similar to that of erythroaggregometry. Further analysis revealed that RBC aggregation was underestimated by Echo-Cell when measurements were made in undiluted plasma containing high fibrinogen levels, implying that in that case an elevated plasma viscosity might indirectly affect the sensitivity of the Echo-Cell. The low sensitivity of the Echo-Cell to detect an abnormal RBC aggregation when suspensions were prepared in undiluted plasma, is likely related to a relatively high shear stress exerted on RBC aggregates by the suspending medium. In conclusion, the sensitivity of the Echo-Cell to detect abnormal changes in RBC aggregation can be optimized by diluting the plasma. PMID:12454379

  12. Distinct sulfonation activities in resveratrol-sensitive and resveratrol-insensitive human glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zheng; Li, Hong; Shu, Xiao-Hong; Shi, Hui; Chen, Xiao-Yan; Kong, Qing-You; Wu, Mo-Li; Liu, Jia

    2012-07-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells show different responses to resveratrol, for unknown reasons. Our data from human medulloblastoma cells and primary cultures of rat brain cells revealed an inverse correlation of sulfonation activity with resveratrol sensitivities, providing a clue to the underlying mechanisms of the variable sensitivities of GBM cells to resveratrol. In this study, we found that U251 cells were sensitive and LN229 cells were insensitive to resveratrol. Thus, these two cell lines were taken as comparable models for elucidating the influence of sulfonation activities on resveratrol sensitivity. HPLC showed identical resveratrol metabolic patterns in both cell lines. LC/MS and high-resolution mass MS analyses further demonstrated that resveratrol monosulfate generated by sulfotransferases (SULTs) was the major metabolite of human GBM cells. The levels of brain-associated SULT (SULT1A1, SULT1C2, and SULT4A1) expression in U251 cells were lower than those in LN229 cells, suggesting the inverse relationship of SULT-mediated sulfonation activity with high intracellular resveratrol bioavailability and resveratrol sensitivity of human GBM cells. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining revealed reductions in expression of the three brain-associated SULTs in 72.8%, 47.5% and 66.3% of astrocytomas, respectively. Therefore, the levels of brain-associated SULTs and sulfonation activity mediated by them could be important parameters for evaluating the potential response of human GBM cells to resveratrol, and may have value in the personalized treatment of GBMs with resveratrol. PMID:22540632

  13. Progressive sharing of multiple images with sensitivity-controlled decoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Sheng-Yu; Lee, Suiang-Shyan; Yeh, Tzu-Min; Chen, Lee Shu-Teng; Lin, Ja-Chen

    2015-12-01

    Secure sharing of digital images is becoming an important issue. Consequently, many schemes for ensuring image sharing security have been proposed. However, existing approaches focus on the sharing of a single image, rather than multiple images. We propose three kinds of sharing methods that progressively reveal n given secret images according to the sensitivity level of each image. Method 1 divides each secret image into n parts and then combines and hides the parts of the images to get n steganographic (stego) JPEG codes of equal importance. Method 2 is similar; however, it allocates different stego JPEG codes of different `weights' to indicate their strength. Method 3 first applies traditional threshold-sharing to the n secret images, then progressively shares k keys, and finally combines the two sharing results to get n stego JPEG codes. In the recovery phase, various parameters are compared to a pre-specified low/middle/high (L/M/H) threshold and, according to the respective method, determine whether or not secret images are reconstructed and the quality of the images reconstructed. The results of experiments conducted verify the efficacy of our methods.

  14. Sensitivity of human granulosa cell tumor cells to epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Noora; Anttonen, Mikko; Färkkilä, Anniina; Pihlajoki, Marjut; Bützow, Ralf; Unkila-Kallio, Leila; Heikinheimo, Markku

    2014-04-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is implicated in the progression of many human cancers, but its significance in ovarian granulosa cell tumor (GCT) pathobiology remains poorly understood. We assessed the EGFR gene copy number, surveyed the mRNA and protein expression patterns of EGFR in 90 adult GCTs, and assessed the in vitro sensitivity of GCT cells to EGFR inhibition. Low-level amplification of EGFR gene was observed in five GCTs and high-level amplification in one sample. EGFR mRNA was robustly expressed in GCTs. Most tumors expressed both unphosphorylated and phosphorylated EGFR protein, but the protein expression did not correlate with clinical parameters, including the risk of recurrence. Small-molecule EGFR inhibitors reduced the EGF-induced activation of EGFR and its downstream signaling molecules at nanomolar doses, but cell viability was reduced, and caspase-3/7 was activated in GCT cells only at micromolar doses. Based on the present results, EGFR is active and abundantly expressed in the majority of GCTs, but probably has only minor contribution to GCT cell growth. Given the high doses of EGFR inhibitors required to reduce GCT cell viability in vitro, they are not likely to be effective for GCT treatment as single agents; they should rather be tested as part of combination therapies for these malignancies. PMID:24463098

  15. Realizing omnidirectional light harvesting by employing hierarchical architecture for dye sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Ming-Yang; Lai, Fang-I.; Chen, Wei-Chun; Hsieh, Min-Chi; Hu, Hsiang-Yi; Yu, Peichen; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Kuo, Shou-Yi

    2016-03-01

    To improve the omnidirectional light-harvesting in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), here we present a dandelion-like structure composed of ZnO hemispherical shells and nanorods. Uniformly distributed hemispherical shells effectively suppress the reflection over the broadband region at incident angles up to 60°, greatly improving the optical absorption of the DSSCs. In addition, modulating the length of the ZnO nanorods controls the omnidirectional characteristics of DSSCs. This phenomenon is attributed to the degree of periodicity of the ZnO dandelion-like structures. Cells with shorter rods exhibit a high degree of periodicity, thus the conversion efficiencies of the cells show specific angle-independent features. On the other hand, the cells with longer lengths reveal angle-dependent photovoltaic performance. Along with the simulation, the cells with dandelion-like ZnO structures can couple incident photons efficiently to achieve excellent broadband and omnidirectional light-harvesting performances experimentally, and the DSSCs enhanced the conversion efficiency by 48% at large incident angles. All these findings not only provide further insight into the light-trapping mechanism in these complex three-dimensional nanostructures but also offer efficient omnidirectional and broadband nanostructured photovoltaics for advanced applications.

  16. Realizing omnidirectional light harvesting by employing hierarchical architecture for dye sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ming-Yang; Lai, Fang-I; Chen, Wei-Chun; Hsieh, Min-Chi; Hu, Hsiang-Yi; Yu, Peichen; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Kuo, Shou-Yi

    2016-03-14

    To improve the omnidirectional light-harvesting in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), here we present a dandelion-like structure composed of ZnO hemispherical shells and nanorods. Uniformly distributed hemispherical shells effectively suppress the reflection over the broadband region at incident angles up to 60°, greatly improving the optical absorption of the DSSCs. In addition, modulating the length of the ZnO nanorods controls the omnidirectional characteristics of DSSCs. This phenomenon is attributed to the degree of periodicity of the ZnO dandelion-like structures. Cells with shorter rods exhibit a high degree of periodicity, thus the conversion efficiencies of the cells show specific angle-independent features. On the other hand, the cells with longer lengths reveal angle-dependent photovoltaic performance. Along with the simulation, the cells with dandelion-like ZnO structures can couple incident photons efficiently to achieve excellent broadband and omnidirectional light-harvesting performances experimentally, and the DSSCs enhanced the conversion efficiency by 48% at large incident angles. All these findings not only provide further insight into the light-trapping mechanism in these complex three-dimensional nanostructures but also offer efficient omnidirectional and broadband nanostructured photovoltaics for advanced applications. PMID:26899775

  17. New triarylamine sensitizers for high efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells: Recombination kinetics of cobalt(III) complexes at titania/dye interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Weixue; Liang, Mao; Tan, Yulin; Wang, Min; Sun, Zhe; Xue, Song

    2015-06-01

    A new generation of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) is based on a combination of D-π-A organic dyes in conjunction with cobalt-based redox mediators. Here, two new triarylamine organic dyes (M36 and M37) toward cobalt electrolytes are constructed and employed as photosensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells. The photoelectrochemical properties and photovoltaic performance of dyes are sensitive to the slightly structural modification of the terminal donor in triarylamine. Recombination kinetics of cobalt(III) complexes at titania/dye interface are also studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and controlled intensity modulated photovoltage spectroscopy measurements. Our results show that, for M36 sensitized DSCs, a Marcus inverted region can be reached for the charge recombination kinetics behavior of cobalt(III) species. While that for DSCs based on M37 just lies in the Marcus normal region. The results can be attributed to differences in the retarding charge recombination ability of the dye layer. Benefiting from a Marcus inverted region behavior, the M36 dye exhibits a good compatibility with the [Co(phen)3]2+/3+ redox couples, achieving a high overall power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 9.58% under full sun illumination.

  18. Performance of a novel keratinocyte-based reporter cell line to screen skin sensitizers in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Emter, Roger; Ellis, Graham; Natsch, Andreas

    2010-06-15

    In vitro tests are needed to replace animal tests to screen for the skin sensitization potential of chemicals. Skin sensitizers are electrophilic molecules and the Nrf2-electrophile-sensing pathway comprising the repressor protein Keap1, the transcription factor Nrf2 and the antioxidant response element (ARE) is emerging as a toxicity pathway induced by skin sensitizers. Previously, we screened a large set of chemicals in the reporter cell line AREc32, which contains an eight-fold repeat of the rat GSTA2 ARE-sequence upstream of a luciferase reporter gene in the human breast cancer cell line MCF7. This approach was now further developed to bring it closer to the conditions in the human skin and to propose a fully standardized assay. To this end, a luciferase reporter gene under control of a single copy of the ARE-element of the human AKR1C2 gene was stably inserted into HaCaT keratinocytes. A standard operating procedure was developed whereby chemicals are routinely tested at 12 concentrations in triplicate for significant induction of gene activity. We report results from this novel assay on (i) a list of reference chemicals published by ECVAM, (ii) the ICCVAM list of chemicals for validation of alternative endpoints in the LLNA and (iii) on a more general list of 67 chemicals derived from the ICCVAM database. For comparison, peptide reactivity data are presented for the same chemicals. The results indicate a good predictive value of this approach for hazard identification. Its technical simplicity, the high-throughput format and the good predictivity may make this assay a candidate for rapid validation to meet the tight deadline to replace animal tests for skin sensitization by 2013 set by the European authorities.

  19. To probe the equivalence and opulence of nanocrystal and nanotube based dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jyoti, Divya; Mohan, Devendra

    2016-05-01

    Dye-Sensitized solar cells based on TiO2 nanocrystal and TiO2 nanotubes have been fabricated by a simple sol-gel hydrothermal process and their performances have been compared. Current density and voltage (JV) characteristics and incident photon to current conversion efficiency (IPCE) plots have been set as criterion to check which one is better as a photoanode candidate in dye-sensitized solar cell. It has been observed that although open circuit voltage values for both type of cells do not differ much still, nanotube based dye-sensitized solar cells are more successful having an efficiency value of 7.28%.

  20. Variation of solar cell sensitivity and solar radiation on tilted surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klucher, T. M.

    1978-01-01

    The validity is studied that one of various insolation models used to compute solar radiation incident on tilted surfaces from global data measured on horizontal surfaces. The variation of solar cell sensitivity to solar radiation is determined over a wide range of atmospheric condition. A new model was formulated that reduced the deviations between measured and predicted insolation to less than 3 percent. Evaluation of solar cell sensitivity data indicates small change (2-3 percent) in sensitivity from winter to summer for tilted cells. The feasibility of using such global data as a means for calibrating terrestrial solar cells is discussed.

  1. [Enhanced control of proliferation in telomerized cells].

    PubMed

    Egorov, E E; Moldaver, M V; Vishniakova, Kh S; Terekhov, S M; Dashinimaev, E B; Cheglakov, I B; Toropygin, I Iu; Iarygin, K N; Chumakov, P M; Korochkin, L I; Antonova, G A; Rybalkina, E Iu; Saburina, I N; Burnaevskiĭ, N S; Zelenin, A V

    2007-01-01

    Clones of telomerized fibroblasts of adult human skin have earlier been obtained. It was shown that despite their fast growth in mass cultures, these cells poorly form colonies. Conditioned medium, antioxidants, and reduced partial oxygen pressure enhanced their colony formation, but not to the level characteristic of the initial cells. The conditioned medium of telomerized cells enhanced colony formation to a much greater extent than that of the initial cells. A study of proteome of the telomerized fibroblasts has revealed changes in the activities of tens of genes. A general trend consists in weakening and increased lability of the cytoskeleton and in activation of the mechanisms controlling protein degradation. However, these changes are not very pronounced. During the formation of immortal telomerized cells, selection takes place, which appears to determine changes in the expression of some genes. It was proposed that a decrease in the capacity of telomerized cells for colony formation is due to increased requirements of these cells to cell-cell contacts. The rate of cell growth reached that characteristic of mass cultures only in the largest colonies. In this respect, the telomerized fibroblasts resembled stem cells: they are capable of self-maintenance, but "escape" to differentiation in the absence of the corresponding microenvironment (niche), which is represented by other fibroblasts. Non-dividing cells in the test of colony formation should be regarded as differentiated cells, since they have no features of degradation, preserve their viability, actively move, grow, phagocytized debris, etc. It was also shown that telomerization did not prevent differentiation of myoblasts and human neural stem cells. Thus, the results obtained suggest the existence of normal mechanisms underlying the regulation of proliferation in the telomerized cells, which opens possibilities of their use in cell therapy, especially in the case of autotransplantation to senior people

  2. Methylation of the ATM promoter in glioma cells alters ionizing radiation sensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Kanaklata; Wang, Lilin; Makrigiorgos, G. Mike; Price, Brendan D. . E-mail: brendan_price@dfci.harvard.edu

    2006-06-09

    Glioblastomas are among the malignancies most resistant to radiation therapy. In contrast, cells lacking the ATM protein are highly sensitive to ionizing radiation. The relationship between ATM protein expression and radiosensitivity in 3 glioma cell lines was examined. T98G cells exhibited normal levels of ATM protein, whereas U118 and U87 cells had significantly lower levels of ATM and increased (>2-fold) sensitivity to ionizing radiation compared to T98G cells. The ATM promoter was methylated in U87 cells. Demethylation by azacytidine treatment increased ATM protein levels in the U87 cells and decreased their radiosensitivity. In contrast, the ATM promoter in U118 cells was not methylated. Further, expression of exogenous ATM did not significantly alter the radiosensitivity of U118 cells. ATM expression is therefore heterogeneous in the glioma cells examined. In conclusion, methylation of the ATM promoter may account for the variable radiosensitivity and heterogeneous ATM expression in a fraction of glioma cells.

  3. In vitro sensitization of human lymphocytes to a myeloma cell-related antigen

    SciTech Connect

    Whitson, M.E.; Griffin, G.D.; Novelli, G.D.; Solomon, A.

    1981-01-01

    Peripheral blood lymphocytes from normal human donors were cocultivated with cells from two established human multiple myeloma cell lines, RPMI 8226 and K-737, and with lymphoblastoid cells from a third B cell line, RAMM. After a comparison of three methods of lymphocyte sensitization, a 6-day incubation protocol with equal numbers of normal lymphocytes and mitomycin C-treated tumor cells was selected. Cells fom the RPMI 8226 myeloma line stimulated the differentiation of lymphocytes into cytotoxic effector cells as measured by /sup 51/Cr release from labeled target cells. The RPMI 8226-sensitized lymphocytes were cytotoxic for myeloma cells (RPMI 8226 and K-737) and for lymphoblastoid cells (RAMM) but not for cells from human lung tumor lines (A549, A427, MB9812), a breast carcinoma line (ALAB), a normal diploid fibroblast line (HSBP), or normal lymphocytes.

  4. Immune cells control skin lymphatic electrolyte homeostasis and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Wiig, Helge; Schröder, Agnes; Neuhofer, Wolfgang; Jantsch, Jonathan; Kopp, Christoph; Karlsen, Tine V; Boschmann, Michael; Goss, Jennifer; Bry, Maija; Rakova, Natalia; Dahlmann, Anke; Brenner, Sven; Tenstad, Olav; Nurmi, Harri; Mervaala, Eero; Wagner, Hubertus; Beck, Franz-Xaver; Müller, Dominik N; Kerjaschki, Dontscho; Luft, Friedrich C; Harrison, David G; Alitalo, Kari; Titze, Jens

    2013-07-01

    The skin interstitium sequesters excess Na+ and Cl- in salt-sensitive hypertension. Mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) cells are recruited to the skin, sense the hypertonic electrolyte accumulation in skin, and activate the tonicity-responsive enhancer-binding protein (TONEBP, also known as NFAT5) to initiate expression and secretion of VEGFC, which enhances electrolyte clearance via cutaneous lymph vessels and increases eNOS expression in blood vessels. It is unclear whether this local MPS response to osmotic stress is important to systemic blood pressure control. Herein, we show that deletion of TonEBP in mouse MPS cells prevents the VEGFC response to a high-salt diet (HSD) and increases blood pressure. Additionally, an antibody that blocks the lymph-endothelial VEGFC receptor, VEGFR3, selectively inhibited MPS-driven increases in cutaneous lymphatic capillary density, led to skin Cl- accumulation, and induced salt-sensitive hypertension. Mice overexpressing soluble VEGFR3 in epidermal keratinocytes exhibited hypoplastic cutaneous lymph capillaries and increased Na+, Cl-, and water retention in skin and salt-sensitive hypertension. Further, we found that HSD elevated skin osmolality above plasma levels. These results suggest that the skin contains a hypertonic interstitial fluid compartment in which MPS cells exert homeostatic and blood pressure-regulatory control by local organization of interstitial electrolyte clearance via TONEBP and VEGFC/VEGFR3-mediated modification of cutaneous lymphatic capillary function. PMID:23722907

  5. Enhanced antitumor reactivity of tumor-sensitized T cells by interferon alfa

    SciTech Connect

    Vander Woude, D.L.; Wagner, P.D.; Shu, S.; Chang, A.E. )

    1991-03-01

    Tumor-draining lymph node cells from mice bearing the methylcholanthrene-induced MCA 106 tumors can be sensitized in vitro to acquire antitumor reactivity. We examined the effect of interferon alfa on the function of cells that underwent in vitro sensitization in adoptive immunotherapy. Interferon alfa increased the antitumor reactivity of in vitro sensitized cells in the treatment of MCA 106 pulmonary metastases. This effect was evident in irradiated mice, indicating that a host response to the interferon alfa was not required. Interferon alfa treatment increased class I major histocompatibility complex antigen expression on tumor cells and increased their susceptibility to lysis by in vitro sensitized cells. These results suggest that interferon alfa enhancement of adoptive immunotherapy was mediated by its effect on tumor cells. Interferon alfa may be a useful adjunct to the adoptive immunotherapy of human cancer.

  6. Size sensors in bacteria, cell cycle control, and size control

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Lydia

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria proliferate by repetitive cycles of cellular growth and division. The progression into the cell cycle is admitted to be under the control of cell size. However, the molecular basis of this regulation is still unclear. Here I will discuss which mechanisms could allow coupling growth and division by sensing size and transmitting this information to the division machinery. Size sensors could act at different stages of the cell cycle. During septum formation, mechanisms controlling the formation of the Z ring, such as MinCD inhibition or Nucleoid Occlusion (NO) could participate in the size-dependence of the division process. In addition or alternatively, the coupling of growth and division may occur indirectly through the control of DNA replication initiation. The relative importance of these different size-sensing mechanisms could depend on the environmental and genetic context. The recent demonstration of an incremental strategy of size control in bacteria, suggests that DnaA-dependent control of replication initiation could be the major size control mechanism limiting cell size variation. PMID:26074903

  7. Modulation by cyclic GMP of the odour sensitivity of vertebrate olfactory receptor cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leinders-Zufall, T.; Shepherd, G. M.; Zufall, F.

    1996-01-01

    Recent evidence has indicated a significant role for the cGMP second messenger system in vertebrate olfactory transduction but no clear functions have been identified for cGMP so far. Here, we have examined the effects of 8-Br-cGMP and carbon monoxide (CO) on odour responses of salamander olfactory receptor neurons using perforated patch recordings. We report that 8-Br-cGMP strongly down-regulates the odour sensitivity of the cells, with a K1/2 of 460 nM. This adaptation-like effect can be mimicked by CO, an activator of soluble guanylyl cyclase, with a K1/2 of 1 microM. Sensitivity modulation is achieved through a regulatory chain of events in which cGMP stimulates a persistent background current due to the activation of cyclic nucleotide-gated channels. This in turn leads to sustained Ca2+ entry providing a negative feedback signal. One consequence of the Ca2+ entry is a shift to the right of the stimulus-response curve and a reduction in saturating odour currents. Together, these two effects can reduce the sensory generator current by up to twenty-fold. Thus, cGMP functions to control the gain of the G-protein coupled cAMP pathway. Another consequence of the action of cGMP is a marked prolongation of the odour response kinetics. The effects of CO/cGMP are long-lasting and can continue for minutes. Hence, we propose that cGMP helps to prevent saturation of the cell's response by adjusting the operational range of the cAMP cascade and contributes to olfactory adaptation by decreasing the sensitivity of olfactory receptor cells to repeated odour stimuli.

  8. Fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) using annato seeds (Bixa orellana Linn)

    SciTech Connect

    Haryanto, Ditia Allindira; Landuma, Suarni; Purwanto, Agus

    2014-02-24

    The Fabrication of dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) using Annato seeds has been conducted in this study. Annato seeds (Bixa orellana Linn) used as a sensitizer for dye sensitized solar cell. The experimental parameter was concentration of natural dye. Annato seeds was extracted using etanol solution and the concentration was controlled by varying mass of Annato seeds. A semiconductor TiO{sub 2} was prepared by a screen printing method for coating glass use paste of TiO{sub 2}. Construction DSSC used layered systems (sandwich) consists of working electrode (TiO{sub 2} semiconductor-dye) and counter electrode (platina). Both are placed on conductive glass and electrolytes that occur electrons cycle. The characterization of thin layer of TiO{sub 2} was conducted using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscpy) analysis showed the surface morphology of TiO{sub 2} thin layer and the cross section of a thin layer of TiO{sub 2} with a thickness of 15–19 μm. Characterization of natural dye extract was determined using UV-Vis spectrometry analysis shows the wavelength range annato seeds is 328–515 nm, and the voltage (V{sub oc}) and electric current (I{sub sc}) resulted in keithley test for 30 gram, 40 gram, and 50 gram were 0,4000 V; 0,4251 V; 0,4502 V and 0,000074 A; 0,000458 A; 0,000857 A, respectively. The efficiencies of the fabricated solar cells using annato seeds as senstizer for each varying mass are 0,00799%, 0,01237%, and 0,05696%.

  9. Girls' Rumination and Anxiety Sensitivity: Are They Related after Controlling for Girl, Maternal, and Parenting Factors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Christie; Epkins, Catherine C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Rumination and anxiety sensitivity are posited cognitive vulnerabilities in the development and/or maintenance of depression and anxiety and have only been examined separately in youth. Objective: We examined the relation between rumination and anxiety sensitivity in girls, after controlling for other girl, maternal, and parenting…

  10. Dentine sensitivity risk factors: A case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Mafla, Ana Cristina; Lopez-Moncayo, Luis Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To identify the clinical and psychological risk factors associated with dentine hypersensitivity (DH) in order to provide an early diagnosis and preventive therapy. Materials and Methods: A nested case–control study was design between 2011 and 2012. A total of 61 DH cases and 122 controls participated in this investigation. Cases and controls were matched for sex, group of age and socioeconomic status in a ratio of 1:2. DH to different stimuli such as cold, heat, acid, and sweet was asked in patient interviews, and dental examinations were used to detect DH. Clinical and psychological risk factors such as dental hygiene, periodontal disease, acid diet, alcohol consumption, psychological stress, and psychopathological symptoms were inquired. Psychological stress was measured through the PSS-10 and psychopathological symptoms were evaluated by SCL-90-R in Spanish. Descriptive and univariate binary logistic regression analysis were performed to estimate the association between clinical and psychological risk factors and the presence of DH. Results: Toothpaste abrasivity (odds ratio [OR] 1.881, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.010–3.502, P = 0.045), gingival recession (OR 2.196, 95% CI 1.020–4.728, P = 0.041), and periodontal therapy (OR 5.357, 95% CI 2.051–13.993, P < 0.001) were associated with DH. Subjects with perceived stress (OR 1.211, 95%, CI 0.518–2.833, P = 0.658), obsessive-compulsive (OR 1.266, 95%, CI 0.494–3.240, P = 0.623) and hostility (OR 1.235, 95%, CI 0.507–3.007, P = 0.642) symptoms had a clinical greater odd of DH. Conclusion: Oral hygiene products and periodontal conditions are important risk factors for DH. Individuals with perceived stress, obsessive-compulsive, and hostility symptoms may increase a clinical risk for this entity. Targeting to dental counseling focused on oral hygiene products, periodontal therapy and a psychological evaluation may be promising in DH prevention. PMID:27011732

  11. Repressive translational control in germ cells.

    PubMed

    Lai, Fangfang; King, Mary Lou

    2013-08-01

    The earliest stages of embryonic development in many animals proceed without zygotic transcription. Genetic control is executed by maternally inherited mRNAs that are under translational control. To set aside the future germ cell lineage, it is pivotal to both exert translational regulation of maternal germline mRNAs and to repress maternal signals in those same cells that drive somatic cell-fate determination. Here we review repressive translational regulation in the germline from the perspective of the conserved RNA binding proteins Pumilio and Nanos, and discuss common themes that have emerged. PMID:23408501

  12. Lycopene control of benzophenone-sensitized lipid peroxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetković, Dragan; Marković, Dejan

    2012-05-01

    Lycopene antioxidant activity in the presence of two different mixtures of phospholipids in hexane solution, under continuous regime of UV-irradiation from three different ranges (UV-A, UV-B, and UV-C) has been evaluated in this work. Lycopene expected role was to control lipid peroxidation, by scavenging free radicals generated by UV-irradiation, in the presence and in the absence of selected photosensitizer, benzophenone. This work shows that lycopene undergoes to UV-induced destruction (bleaching), highly dependent on the incident photons energy input, more expressed in the presence than in the absence of benzophenone. The further increase ("excess") of its bleaching is undoubtedly related to the further increase of its antioxidant activity in the presence of benzophenone, having the same cause: increase of (phospholipids peroxidation) chain-breaking activities.

  13. Fuel cell stack monitoring and system control

    DOEpatents

    Keskula, Donald H.; Doan, Tien M.; Clingerman, Bruce J.

    2005-01-25

    A control method for monitoring a fuel cell stack in a fuel cell system in which the actual voltage and actual current from the fuel cell stack are monitored. A preestablished relationship between voltage and current over the operating range of the fuel cell is established. A variance value between the actual measured voltage and the expected voltage magnitude for a given actual measured current is calculated and compared with a predetermined allowable variance. An output is generated if the calculated variance value exceeds the predetermined variance. The predetermined voltage-current for the fuel cell is symbolized as a polarization curve at given operating conditions of the fuel cell. Other polarization curves may be generated and used for fuel cell stack monitoring based on different operating pressures, temperatures, hydrogen quantities.

  14. Method of controlled reduction of nitroaromatics by enzymatic reaction with oxygen sensitive nitroreductase enzymes

    DOEpatents

    Shah, M.M.; Campbell, J.A.

    1998-07-07

    A method is described for the controlled reduction of nitroaromatic compounds such as nitrobenzene and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by enzymatic reaction with oxygen sensitive nitroreductase enzymes, such as ferredoxin NADP oxidoreductase. 6 figs.

  15. Method of controlled reduction of nitroaromatics by enzymatic reaction with oxygen sensitive nitroreductase enzymes

    DOEpatents

    Shah, Manish M.; Campbell, James A.

    1998-01-01

    A method for the controlled reduction of nitroaromatic compounds such as nitrobenzene and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by enzymatic reaction with oxygen sensitive nitroreductase enzymes, such as ferredoxin NADP oxidoreductase.

  16. The interplay of maternal sensitivity and gentle control when predicting children's subsequent academic functioning: Evidence of mediation by effortful control.

    PubMed

    Kopystynska, Olena; Spinrad, Tracy L; Seay, Danielle M; Eisenberg, Nancy

    2016-06-01

    The goal of this work was to examine the complex interrelation of mothers' early gentle control and sensitivity in predicting children's effortful control (EC) and academic functioning. Maternal gentle control, maternal sensitivity, and children's EC were measured when children were 18, 30, and 42 months of age (T1, T2, and T3, respectively), and measures of children's academic functioning were combined across 72 and 84 months (T5/T6; Ns = 255, 222, 200, 162, and 143). Using structural equation modeling, results demonstrated that T1 maternal sensitivity moderated the relation between T1 maternal gentle control and T2 EC, and T3 EC predicted children's later academic functioning. There was evidence for moderated mediation, such that when maternal sensitivity was high, children's EC mediated the relation between T1 maternal gentle control and children's academic functioning, even after controlling for stability of the constructs. The relation between maternal gentle control and children's EC was not significant under conditions of low maternal sensitivity. Implications for parenting programs are offered and future research directions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27228451

  17. Risk-sensitive optimal feedback control accounts for sensorimotor behavior under uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Nagengast, Arne J; Braun, Daniel A; Wolpert, Daniel M

    2010-01-01

    Many aspects of human motor behavior can be understood using optimality principles such as optimal feedback control. However, these proposed optimal control models are risk-neutral; that is, they are indifferent to the variability of the movement cost. Here, we propose the use of a risk-sensitive optimal controller that incorporates movement cost variance either as an added cost (risk-averse controller) or as an added value (risk-seeking controller) to model human motor behavior in the face of uncertainty. We use a sensorimotor task to test the hypothesis that subjects are risk-sensitive. Subjects controlled a virtual ball undergoing Brownian motion towards a target. Subjects were required to minimize an explicit cost, in points, that was a combination of the final positional error of the ball and the integrated control cost. By testing subjects on different levels of Brownian motion noise and relative weighting of the position and control cost, we could distinguish between risk-sensitive and risk-neutral control. We show that subjects change their movement strategy pessimistically in the face of increased uncertainty in accord with the predictions of a risk-averse optimal controller. Our results suggest that risk-sensitivity is a fundamental attribute that needs to be incorporated into optimal feedback control models. PMID:20657657

  18. Risk-Sensitive Optimal Feedback Control Accounts for Sensorimotor Behavior under Uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    Nagengast, Arne J.; Braun, Daniel A.; Wolpert, Daniel M.

    2010-01-01

    Many aspects of human motor behavior can be understood using optimality principles such as optimal feedback control. However, these proposed optimal control models are risk-neutral; that is, they are indifferent to the variability of the movement cost. Here, we propose the use of a risk-sensitive optimal controller that incorporates movement cost variance either as an added cost (risk-averse controller) or as an added value (risk-seeking controller) to model human motor behavior in the face of uncertainty. We use a sensorimotor task to test the hypothesis that subjects are risk-sensitive. Subjects controlled a virtual ball undergoing Brownian motion towards a target. Subjects were required to minimize an explicit cost, in points, that was a combination of the final positional error of the ball and the integrated control cost. By testing subjects on different levels of Brownian motion noise and relative weighting of the position and control cost, we could distinguish between risk-sensitive and risk-neutral control. We show that subjects change their movement strategy pessimistically in the face of increased uncertainty in accord with the predictions of a risk-averse optimal controller. Our results suggest that risk-sensitivity is a fundamental attribute that needs to be incorporated into optimal feedback control models. PMID:20657657

  19. RIG-I-like helicases induce immunogenic cell death of pancreatic cancer cells and sensitize tumors toward killing by CD8+ T cells

    PubMed Central

    Duewell, P; Steger, A; Lohr, H; Bourhis, H; Hoelz, H; Kirchleitner, S V; Stieg, M R; Grassmann, S; Kobold, S; Siveke, J T; Endres, S; Schnurr, M

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is characterized by a microenvironment suppressing immune responses. RIG-I-like helicases (RLH) are immunoreceptors for viral RNA that induce an antiviral response program via the production of type I interferons (IFN) and apoptosis in susceptible cells. We recently identified RLH as therapeutic targets of pancreatic cancer for counteracting immunosuppressive mechanisms and apoptosis induction. Here, we investigated immunogenic consequences of RLH-induced tumor cell death. Treatment of murine pancreatic cancer cell lines with RLH ligands induced production of type I IFN and proinflammatory cytokines. In addition, tumor cells died via intrinsic apoptosis and displayed features of immunogenic cell death, such as release of HMGB1 and translocation of calreticulin to the outer cell membrane. RLH-activated tumor cells led to activation of dendritic cells (DCs), which was mediated by tumor-derived type I IFN, whereas TLR, RAGE or inflammasome signaling was dispensable. Importantly, CD8α+ DCs effectively engulfed apoptotic tumor material and cross-presented tumor-associated antigen to naive CD8+ T cells. In comparison, tumor cell death mediated by oxaliplatin, staurosporine or mechanical disruption failed to induce DC activation and antigen presentation. Tumor cells treated with sublethal doses of RLH ligands upregulated Fas and MHC-I expression and were effectively sensitized towards Fas-mediated apoptosis and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated lysis. Vaccination of mice with RLH-activated tumor cells induced protective antitumor immunity in vivo. In addition, MDA5-based immunotherapy led to effective tumor control of established pancreatic tumors. In summary, RLH ligands induce a highly immunogenic form of tumor cell death linking innate and adaptive immunity. PMID:25012502

  20. Natural dye extract of lawsonia inermis seed as photo sensitizer for titanium dioxide based dye sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananth, S.; Vivek, P.; Arumanayagam, T.; Murugakoothan, P.

    2014-07-01

    Natural dye extract of lawsonia inermis seed were used as photo sensitizer to fabricate titanium dioxide nanoparticles based dye sensitized solar cells. Pure titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles in anatase phase were synthesized by sol-gel technique and pre dye treated TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized using modified sol-gel technique by mixing lawsone pigment rich natural dye during the synthesis itself. This pre dye treatment with natural dye has yielded colored TiO2 nanoparticles with uniform adsorption of natural dye, reduced agglomeration, less dye aggregation and improved morphology. The pure and pre dye treated TiO2 nanoparticles were subjected to structural, optical, spectral and morphological studies. Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) fabricated using the pre dye treated and pure TiO2 nanoparticles sensitized by natural dye extract of lawsonia inermis seed showed a promising solar light to electron conversion efficiency of 1.47% and 1% respectively. The pre dye treated TiO2 based DSSC showed an improved efficiency of 47% when compared to that of conventional DSSC.

  1. Fluorine doped tin oxide film with high haze and transmittance prepared for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsuka, Rena; Endo, Takeshi; Takano, Takafumi; Takemura, Shuichiro; Murakami, Ryo; Muramoto, Ryosuke; Madarász, János; Okuya, Masayuki

    2015-08-01

    Fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) transparent conductive oxide (TCO) film for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) was investigated. Haze of the incident light through TCO film was easily tuned by controlling the surface morphology of FTO deposited on tin doped indium oxide (ITO) nano-particle seed layer pre-coated on a glass substrate, and the light harvest within the cell was effectively enhanced with high haze TCO film. The conversion efficiency of DSSC fabricated with TCO film with the haze of 30.1% reached as high as 7.7%, attributing to the consequence of the effective light harvest with the scattering within the cell.

  2. Towards a controlled sensitivity analysis of model development decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Martyn; Nijssen, Bart

    2016-04-01

    The current generation of hydrologic models have followed a myriad of different development paths, making it difficult for the community to test underlying hypotheses and identify a clear path to model improvement. Model comparison studies have been undertaken to explore model differences, but these studies have not been able to meaningfully attribute inter-model differences in predictive ability to individual model components because there are often too many structural and implementation differences among the models considered. As a consequence, model comparison studies to date have provided limited insight into the causes of differences in model behavior, and model development has often relied on the inspiration and experience of individual modelers rather than a systematic analysis of model shortcomings. This presentation will discuss a unified approach to process-based hydrologic modeling to enable controlled and systematic analysis of multiple model representations (hypotheses) of hydrologic processes and scaling behavior. Our approach, which we term the Structure for Unifying Multiple Modeling Alternatives (SUMMA), formulates a general set of conservation equations, providing the flexibility to experiment with different spatial representations, different flux parameterizations, different model parameter values, and different time stepping schemes. We will discuss the use of SUMMA to systematically analyze different model development decisions, focusing on both analysis of simulations for intensively instrumented research watersheds as well as simulations across a global dataset of FLUXNET sites. The intent of the presentation is to demonstrate how the systematic analysis of model shortcomings can help identify model weaknesses and inform future model development priorities.

  3. Bacterial cell curvature through mechanical control of cell growth

    PubMed Central

    Cabeen, Matthew T; Charbon, Godefroid; Vollmer, Waldemar; Born, Petra; Ausmees, Nora; Weibel, Douglas B; Jacobs-Wagner, Christine

    2009-01-01

    The cytoskeleton is a key regulator of cell morphogenesis. Crescentin, a bacterial intermediate filament-like protein, is required for the curved shape of Caulobacter crescentus and localizes to the inner cell curvature. Here, we show that crescentin forms a single filamentous structure that collapses into a helix when detached from the cell membrane, suggesting that it is normally maintained in a stretched configuration. Crescentin causes an elongation rate gradient around the circumference of the sidewall, creating a longitudinal cell length differential and hence curvature. Such curvature can be produced by physical force alone when cells are grown in circular microchambers. Production of crescentin in Escherichia coli is sufficient to generate cell curvature. Our data argue for a model in which physical strain borne by the crescentin structure anisotropically alters the kinetics of cell wall insertion to produce curved growth. Our study suggests that bacteria may use the cytoskeleton for mechanical control of growth to alter morphology. PMID:19279668

  4. Photoelectrochemical cell/dye-sensitized solar cell tandem water splitting systems with transparent and vertically aligned quantum dot sensitized TiO2 nanorod arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Kahee; Yoo, Ji-Beom; Park, Jong Hyeok

    2013-03-01

    The present work reports fabrication of vertically aligned CdS sensitized TiO2 nanorod arrays grown on transparent conducting oxide substrate with high transparency as a photoanode in photoelectrochemical cell for water splitting. To realize an unassisted water splitting system, the photoanode and dye-sensitized solar cell tandem structures are tried and their electrochemical behaviors are also investigated. The hydrothermally grown TiO2 nanorod arrays followed by CdS nanoparticle decoration can improve the light absorption of long wavelength light resulting in increased photocurrent density. Two different techniques (electrodeposition and spray pyrolysis deposition) of CdS nanoparticle sensitization are carried out and their water splitting behaviors in the tandem cell are compared.

  5. Efficient Cosensitization Strategy for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colonna, Daniele; Capogna, Vincenzo; Lembo, Angelo; Brown, Thomas M.; Reale, Andrea; Di Carlo, Aldo

    2012-02-01

    The challenge of increasing the photocurrent of a dye solar cell device by acting on the spectral response is approached herein. Cosensitization of nanocrystalline titania photoanodes by using two complementary dyes is investigated considering the dyeing time as an additional parameter for the optimization of the cosensitization process. We find that the characteristics of the cosensitized cell can outperform those of the cells made with each single dye. This effect is related to the reduction of the molecular stacking of one of the dyes, which quenches electron transfer to TiO2. Cosensitization results are also related to the cell transparency.

  6. X-ray sensitivity of human tumor cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Weichselbaum, R.R.; Nove, J.; Little, J.B.

    1980-04-01

    Clonally-derived cells from ten human malignant tumors considered radiocurable (breast, neuroblastoma, medulloblastoma) or non-radiocurable (osteosarcoma, hypernephroma, glioblastoma, melanoma) were studied in cell culture and their in vitro x-ray survival curve parameters determined (anti n, D/sub 0/). There were no significant differences among the tumor cell lines suggesting that survival parameters in vitro do not explain differences in clinical radiocurability. Preliminary investigation with density inhibited human tumor cells indicate that such an approach may yield information regarding inherent cellular differences in radiocurability.

  7. Robot control with biological cells.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Soichiro; Zauner, Klaus-Peter; Gunji, Yukio-Pegio

    2007-02-01

    At present there exists a large gap in size, performance, adaptability and robustness between natural and artificial information processors for performing coherent perception-action tasks under real-time constraints. Even the simplest organisms have an enviable capability of coping with an unknown dynamic environment. Robots, in contrast, are still clumsy if confronted with such complexity. This paper presents a bio-hybrid architecture developed for exploring an alternate approach to the control of autonomous robots. Circuits prepared from amoeboid plasmodia of the slime mold Physarum polycephalum are interfaced with an omnidirectional hexapod robot. Sensory signals from the macro-physical environment of the robot are transduced to cellular scale and processed using the unique micro-physical features of intracellular information processing. Conversely, the response form the cellular computation is amplified to yield a macroscopic output action in the environment mediated through the robot's actuators. PMID:17188804

  8. Shape-controlled ceria-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites toward high-sensitive in situ detection of nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Hu, Fang Xin; Xie, Jia Le; Bao, Shu Juan; Yu, Ling; Li, Chang Ming

    2015-08-15

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signal molecule released by most cancer cells under drug stimulation or/and disease development but it is extremely challenging to in situ while real-time sensitively detect NO due to its large diffusivity, low concentration and fast decay. Herein, shape-controlled reduced graphene oxide nanocomposing with ceria (rGO-CeO2) was synthesized via hydrothermal reaction to construct a highly sensitive real-time sensing platform for NO detection. The crystal shape of CeO2 nanoparticles in rGO-CeO2 composites significantly affects the sensing performance of rGO-CeO2, of which the regular hexagonal nanocrystal CeO2 achieves the highest sensitivity (1676.06 mA cm(-2) M(-1)), a wide dynamic range (18.0 nM to 5.6 µM) and a low detection limit (9.6 nM). This attributes to a synergical effect from high catalytic activity of the specifically shaped CeO2 nanocrystal and good conductivity/high surface area of rGO. This work demonstrates a way by rationally compose individual merit components while well control the nanostructure for a superior synergistic effect to build a smart sensing platform, while offering a great application potential to sensitively real-time detect NO released from living cells for diagnosis or/and studies of complicated biological processes. PMID:25840016

  9. Inhaled lead affects lung pathology and inflammation in sensitized and control guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Tabatabai, Sayed Abas; Farkhondeh, Tahereh

    2016-04-01

    The association between lead exposure and respiratory diseases including asthma is controversial. Some studies indicate that exposure to environmental lead pollution may cause asthma; however, there is not sufficient data in this regard. The effect of lead on lung pathological findings and serum inflammatory mediators in sensitized and non-sensitized guinea pigs exposed to inhaled lead was examined. Eleven animal groups including control, sensitized, three groups of non sensitized animals, three groups during sensitization, and three groups after sensitization exposed to aerosol of three lead concentrations (n = 6 for each group) were studied. Serum inflammatory mediators levels and lung pathological changes were evaluated. All pathological changes and serum ET-1, EPO, NO levels were significantly higher in the sensitized and non sensitized animals exposed to lead than control group (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001). There was no significant difference between non sensitized groups exposed to high lead concentration and sensitized group. Serum inflammatory mediators levels and pathological findings in sensitized groups exposed to lead both during and after sensitization were significantly higher than sensitized non exposed group (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001). The data of exposed animals to high lead concentration were significantly higher than those of medium and low concentrations; those of medium concentration were also higher than low concentration (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001). In summary, the present study indicates that exposure to inhaled lead is able to induce respiratory changes similar to asthma. In addition, the results indicated that exposure to environmental lead is able to aggravate asthma severity both during development of asthma or after its manifestation. PMID:25346352

  10. SIRT1 controls cell proliferation by regulating contact inhibition.

    PubMed

    Cho, Elizabeth H; Dai, Yan

    2016-09-16

    Contact inhibition keeps cell proliferation in check and serves as a built-in protection against cancer development by arresting cell division upon cell-cell contact. Yet the complete mechanism behind this anti-cancer process remains largely unclear. Here we present SIRT1 as a novel regulator of contact inhibition. SIRT1 performs a wide variety of functions in biological processes, but its involvement in contact inhibition has not been explored to date. We used NIH3T3 cells, which are sensitive to contact inhibition, and H460 and DU145 cancer cells, which lack contact inhibition, to investigate the relationship between SIRT1 and contact inhibition. We show that SIRT1 overexpression in NIH3T3 cells overcomes contact inhibition while SIRT1 knockdown in cancer cells restores their lost contact inhibition. Moreover, we demonstrate that p27 protein expression is controlled by SIRT1 in contact inhibition. Overall, our findings underline the critical role of SIRT1 in contact inhibition and suggest SIRT1 inhibition as a potential strategy to suppress cancer cell growth by restoring contact inhibition. PMID:27514448

  11. Varroa-Sensitive Hygiene and Recapped Brood Cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Honey bees bred for “suppression of mite reproduction” resist the growth of Varroa destructor through the removal of mite-infested pupae from capped brood. This is varroa-sensitive hygiene (VSH), and the bees are called VSH bees. VSH is a multi-step process that involves detection, uncapping of th...

  12. Rainbow trout cell bioassay-derived relative potencies for halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons: Comparison and sensitivity analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Villeneuve, D.L.; Blankenship, A.L.; Giesy, J.P.; Richter, C.A.

    1999-05-01

    Rainbow trout hepatoma cells, stably transfected with a luciferase reporter gene under control of dioxin-responsive elements (RLT 2.0 cells) were used to derive relative potencies (RPs) for a variety of halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (HAHs) that are structurally similar to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). This in vitro bioassay utilizes 96-well microplates, which provide high sample throughput and assay efficiency without affecting sensitivity. The RLT 2.0-derived potencies for dioxin and furan congeners, relative to 2,3,7,8-TCDD, ranged from 0.917 for 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorodibenzofuran to 0.208 or 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran. All mono- and di-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) tested had RPs that were orders of magnitude less than TCDD, but point estimates could not be determined. The RLT 2.0-derived RPs were found to be comparable to both other rainbow trout-specific RPs and RPs based on mammalian bioassays. Sensitivity analysis suggested that the range of uncertainty associated with TCDD equivalent (TEQ) estimates based on RLT 2.0-derived RPs is approximately 10-fold. Within this degree of uncertainty and the context of this study, the RLT 2.0 bioassay showed no definitive biases or inaccuracies relative to similar mammalian- or fish-specific in vitro bioassays. Thus, the RLT 2.0 bioassay appears to be a useful tool for evaluating dioxin-like potency of HAHs to fish.

  13. ROS-dependent phosphorylation of Bax by wortmannin sensitizes melanoma cells for TRAIL-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Quast, S-A; Berger, A; Eberle, J

    2013-01-01

    The pathways of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated apoptosis induction, of Bax activation and the sensitization of tumor cells for TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand)-induced apoptosis are still largely elusive. Here, sensitization of melanoma cells for TRAIL by the PI3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin correlated to the activation of mitochondrial apoptosis pathways. Apoptosis was dependent on Bax and abrogated by Bcl-2 overexpression. The synergistic enhancement was explained by Bax activation through wortmannin, which tightly correlated to the characteristic Bax phosphorylation patterns. Thus, wortmannin resulted in early reduction of the Bax-inactivating phosphorylation at serine-184, whereas the Bax-activating phosphorylation at threonine-167 was enhanced. Proving the responsibility of the pathway, comparable effects were obtained with an Akt inhibitor (MK-2206); while suppressed phosphorylation of serine-184 may be attributed to reduced Akt activity itself, the causes of enhanced threonine-167 phosphorylation were addressed here. Characteristically, production of ROS was seen early in response to wortmannin and MK-2206. Providing the link between ROS and Bax, we show that abrogated ROS production by α-tocopherol or by NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) siRNA suppressed apoptosis and Bax activation. This correlated with reduced Bax phosphorylation at threonine-167. The data unraveled a mechanism by which NOX4-dependent ROS production controls apoptosis via Bax phosphorylation. The pathway may be considered for proapoptotic, anticancer strategies. PMID:24113173

  14. Semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase activation promotes adipose conversion of 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Mercier, N; Moldes, M; El Hadri, K; Fève, B

    2001-01-01

    Semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) is an amine oxidase related to the copper-containing amine oxidase family. The tissular form of SSAO is located at the plasma membrane, and is mainly expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells and adipocytes. Recent studies have suggested that SSAO could activate glucose transport in fat cells. In the present work, we investigated the potential role of a chronic SSAO activation on adipocyte maturation of the 3T3-L1 pre-adipose cell line. Exposure of post-confluent 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes to methylamine, a physiological substrate of SSAO, promoted adipocyte differentiation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. This effect could be related to SSAO activation, since it was antagonized in the presence of the SSAO inhibitor semicarbazide, but not in the presence of the monoamine oxidase inhibitor pargyline. In addition, methylamine-induced adipocyte maturation was mimicked by 3T3-L1 cell treatment with other SSAO substrates. Finally, the large reversion of methylamine action by catalase indicated that hydrogen peroxide generated by SSAO was involved, at least in part, in the modulation of adipocyte maturation. Taken together, our results suggest that SSAO may contribute to the control of adipose tissue development. PMID:11513731

  15. A peptide nucleic acid targeting nuclear RAD51 sensitizes multiple myeloma cells to melphalan treatment.

    PubMed

    Alagpulinsa, David Abasiwani; Yaccoby, Shmuel; Ayyadevara, Srinivas; Shmookler Reis, Robert Joseph

    2015-01-01

    RAD51-mediated recombinational repair is elevated in multiple myeloma (MM) and predicts poor prognosis. RAD51 has been targeted to selectively sensitize and/or kill tumor cells. Here, we employed a peptide nucleic acid (PNA) to inhibit RAD51 expression in MM cells. We constructed a PNA complementary to a unique segment of the RAD51 gene promoter, spanning the transcription start site, and conjugated it to a nuclear localization signal (PKKKRKV) to enhance cellular uptake and nuclear delivery without transfection reagents. This synthetic construct, (PNArad51_nls), significantly reduced RAD51 transcripts in MM cells, and markedly reduced the number and intensity of de novo and melphalan-induced nuclear RAD51 foci, while increasing the level of melphalan-induced γH2AX foci. Melphalan alone markedly induced the expression of 5 other genes involved in homologous-recombination repair, yet suppression of RAD51 by PNArad51_nls was sufficient to synergize with melphalan, producing significant synthetic lethality of MM cells in vitro. In a SCID-rab mouse model mimicking the MM bone marrow microenvironment, treatment with PNArad51_nls ± melphalan significantly suppressed tumor growth after 2 weeks, whereas melphalan plus control PNArad4µ_nls was ineffectual. This study highlights the importance of RAD51 in myeloma growth and is the first to demonstrate that anti-RAD51 PNA can potentiate conventional MM chemotherapy. PMID:25996477

  16. pH-sensitive strontium carbonate nanoparticles as new anticancer vehicles for controlled etoposide release

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Wen-Yu; Sun, Dong-Mei; Zhu, Rong-Rong; Du, Xi-Ling; Liu, Hui; Wang, Shi-Long

    2012-01-01

    Strontium carbonate nanoparticles (SCNs), a novel biodegradable nanosystem for the pH-sensitive release of anticancer drugs, were developed via a facile mixed solvent method aimed at creating smart drug delivery in acidic conditions, particularly in tumor environments. Structural characterization of SCNs revealed that the engineered nanocarriers were uniform in size and presented a dumbbell-shaped morphology with a dense mass of a scale-like spine coating, which could serve as the storage structure for hydrophobic drugs. Chosen as a model anticancer agent, etoposide was effectively loaded into SCNs based on a simultaneous process that allowed for the formation of the nanocarriers and for drug storage to be accomplished in a single step. The etoposide-loaded SCNs (ESCNs) possess both a high loading capacity and efficient encapsulation. It was found that the cumulative release of etoposide from ESCNs is acid-dependent, and that the release rate is slow at a pH of 7.4; this rate increases significantly at low pH levels (5.8, 3.0). Meanwhile, it was also found that the blank SCNs were almost nontoxic to normal cells, and ESCN systems were evidently more potent in antitumor activity compared with free etoposide, as confirmed by a cytotoxicity test using an MTT assay and an apoptosis test with fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis. These findings suggest that SCNs hold tremendous promise in the areas of controlled drug delivery and targeted cancer therapy. PMID:23185118

  17. Cell sorting analysis of cell cycle-dependent X-ray sensitivity in end joining-deficient human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Iwabuchi, Kuniyoshi Hashimoto, Mitsumasa; Matsui, Tadashi; Kurosawa, Aya; Adachi, Noritaka; Date, Takayasu

    2008-08-08

    Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) plays a major role in the repair of ionizing radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), especially during the G1-phase of the cell cycle. Using a flow cytometric cell sorter, we fractionated G1- and S/G2-phase cells based on size to assess the DSB-repair activity in NHEJ factor-deficient DT40 and Nalm-6 cell lines. Colony formation assays revealed that the X-ray sensitivities of the G1-enriched populations correctly reflected the DSB-repair activities of both the DT40 and Nalm-6 cell lines. Furthermore, as assessed by {gamma}-H2AX foci formation, the sorted cells exhibited less DNA damage than chemically synchronized cells. Given that it does not use fluorescent labeling or chemical agents, this method of cell sorting is simpler and less toxic than other methods, making it applicable to a variety of cell lines, including those that cannot be synchronized by standard chemical treatments.

  18. Flavonoid-induced autophagy in hormone sensitive breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Brunelli, Elisa; Pinton, Giulia; Bellini, Paolo; Minassi, Alberto; Appendino, Giovanni; Moro, Laura

    2009-09-01

    The activity of 8-prenylapigenin (8-PA) and its 3'-methoxylated analogue isocannflavin B (IsoB) was investigated in estrogen-dependent T47-D and estrogen-independent MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell lines. 8-PA showed a biphasic effect on T47-D cell proliferation, while no significant effect was observed on MDA-MB-231 cells. Conversely, IsoB exhibited only an inhibitory effect on T47-D cell proliferation, accompanied by the appearance of an intense intracytoplasmic vacuolization of autophagic origin. Moreover, biochemical analysis showed that IsoB reduced Akt phosphorylation and p21(Cip1) expression in T47-D cells. These data show that the prenylflavone moiety is a versatile platform for the induction and modulation of bioactivity. PMID:19371773

  19. Extracellular Calcium Has Multiple Targets to Control Cell Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Capiod, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Calcium channels and the two G-protein coupled receptors sensing extracellular calcium, calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) and GPRC6a, are the two main means by which extracellular calcium can signal to cells and regulate many cellular processes including cell proliferation, migration and invasion of tumoral cells. Many intracellular signaling pathways are sensitive to cytosolic calcium rises and conversely intracellular signaling pathways can modulate calcium channel expression and activity. Calcium channels are undoubtedly involved in the former while the CaSR and GPRC6a are most likely to interfere with the latter. As for neurotransmitters, calcium ions use plasma membrane channels and GPCR to trigger cytosolic free calcium concentration rises and intracellular signaling and regulatory pathways activation. Calcium sensing GPCR, CaSR and GPRC6a, allow a supplemental degree of control and as for metabotropic receptors, they not only modulate calcium channel expression but they may also control calcium-dependent K+ channels. The multiplicity of intracellular signaling pathways involved, their sensitivity to local and global intracellular calcium increase and to CaSR and GPRC6a stimulation, the presence of membrane signalplex, all this confers the cells the plasticity they need to convert the effects of extracellular calcium into complex physiological responses and therefore determine their fate. PMID:27161228

  20. Motion and vibration control of a slewing flexible structure by SMA actuators and parameter sensitivity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janzen, F. C.; Tusset, A. M.; Piccirillo, V.; Balthazar, J. M.; Brasil, R. M. L. R. F.

    2015-11-01

    This work presents two approaches to the problem of vibration and positioning control of a flexible structural beam driven by a DC motor. The position is controlled by the current applied to the DC motor armature. A Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) actuator controls vibrations of the flexible structural beam. The State Dependent Riccati Equation (SDRE) technique is used to provide a control action which uses sub-optimal control and system local stability search. The robustness of these two controllers is tested by sensitivity analysis to parametric uncertainties. Numerical simulations results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  1. Sensitivity of NCI-H292 human lung mucoepidermoid cells for respiratory and other human viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Hierholzer, J C; Castells, E; Banks, G G; Bryan, J A; McEwen, C T

    1993-01-01

    NCI-H292 mucoepidermoid carcinoma cells from human lungs were shown in an earlier report to be a fully adequate substitute for primary rhesus monkey kidney (MK) cells for the isolation and propagation of the human paramyxoviruses. Although sensitivity for ortho- and paramyxoviruses was the principal reason for using MK cells, the cells were also sensitive to many other viruses, which constituted another important value of MK cells. That MK cells supported the initial isolation and growth of so many respiratory viruses made it a mandatory cell type for any clinical laboratory. We therefore felt it was imperative to evaluate the virus spectrum of NCI-H292 cells, which are being used as a substitute for MK cells in many laboratories. In the present report, we show that NCI-H292 cells are sensitive for vaccinia virus, herpes simplex virus, adenoviruses, BK polyomavirus, reoviruses, measles virus, respiratory syncytial virus, some strains of influenza virus type A, most enteroviruses, and rhinoviruses, in addition to the parainfluenza and mumps viruses originally reported. Furthermore, these viruses replicate in NCI-H292 cells to the same virus and antigen titers and at the same speed of replication as they do in their usually preferred cells. The NCI-H292 cells are therefore an excellent substitute for MK cells in terms of laboratory safety, ease of availability, paramyxovirus isolation, and broad virus spectrum but cannot substitute for MK cells for the isolation of influenza viruses. Images PMID:8314992

  2. Oxygen radical detoxification enzymes in doxorubicin-sensitive and -resistant P388 murine leukemia cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ramu, A.; Cohen, L.; Glaubiger, D.

    1984-05-01

    One of the proposed mechanisms for the cytotoxic effects of anthracycline compounds suggests that the effect is mediated through the formation of intracellular superoxide radicals. It is therefore possible that doxorubicin resistance is associated with increased intracellular enzyme capacity to convert these superoxide radicals to inactive metabolites. We have measured the relative activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase in P388 mouse leukemia cells and in a doxorubicin-resistant subline. Since oxygen-reactive metabolites also play a role in mediating the cytotoxicity of ionizing radiation, the radiosensitivity of both cell lines was also studied. No significant differences in superoxide dismutase activity between these cell lines was observed, indicating that they have a similar capacity to convert superoxide anion radicals to hydrogen peroxide. P388 cells that are resistant to doxorubicin have 1.5 times the glutathione content and 1.5 times the activity of glutathione peroxidase measured in drug-sensitive P388 cells. However, incubation with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, which covalently binds glutathione, had no effect on the sensitivity of either cell line to doxorubicin. Measured catalase activity in drug-resistant P388 cells was one-third of the activity measured in doxorubicin-sensitive P388 cells. The activity of this enzyme was much higher than that of glutathione peroxidase in terms of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ deactivation in both cell lines. It is therefore unlikely that doxorubicin-resistant P388 cells have an increased ability to detoxify reactive oxygen metabolites when compared to drug-sensitive cells. Doxorubicin-resistant P388 cells were significantly more sensitive to X-irradiation than were drug-sensitive P388 cells. These observations suggest that the difference in catalase activity in these cell lines may be associated with the observed differences in radiosensitivity.

  3. Inhibition of glutamine metabolism counteracts pancreatic cancer stem cell features and sensitizes cells to radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiaohui; Zhou, Yu; Zeng, Bing; Yu, Min; Zhou, Quanbo; Lin, Qing; Gao, Wenchao; Ye, Huilin; Zhou, Jiajia; Li, Zhihua; Liu, Yimin; Chen, Rufu

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells utilize a novel non-canonical pathway of glutamine metabolism that is essential for tumor growth and redox balance. Inhibition of this metabolic pathway in PDAC can potentially synergize with therapies that increase intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as radiation. Here, we evaluated the dependence of pancreatic cancer stem cells (PCSCs) on this non-canonical glutamine metabolism pathway and researched whether inhibiting this pathway can enhance radiosensitivity of PCSCs. We showed that glutamine deprivation significantly inhibited self-renewal, decreased expression of stemness-related genes, increased intracellular ROS, and induced apoptosis in PCSCs. These effects were countered by oxaloacetate, but not α-ketoglutarate. Knockdown of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase dramatically impaired PCSCs properties, while glutamate dehydrogenase knockdown had a limited effect, suggesting a dependence of PCSCs on non-canonical glutamine metabolism. Additionally, glutamine deprivation significantly increased radiation-induced ROS and sensitized PCSCs to fractionated radiation. Moreover, transaminase inhibitors effectively enhanced ROS generation, promoted radiation sensitivity, and attenuated tumor growth in nude mice following radiation exposure. Our findings reveal that inhibiting the non-canonical pathway of glutamine metabolism enhances the PCSC radiosensitivity and may be an effective adjunct in cancer radiotherapy. PMID:26439804

  4. Inhibition of glutamine metabolism counteracts pancreatic cancer stem cell features and sensitizes cells to radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Li, Doudou; Fu, Zhiqiang; Chen, Ruiwan; Zhao, Xiaohui; Zhou, Yu; Zeng, Bing; Yu, Min; Zhou, Quanbo; Lin, Qing; Gao, Wenchao; Ye, Huilin; Zhou, Jiajia; Li, Zhihua; Liu, Yimin; Chen, Rufu

    2015-10-13

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells utilize a novel non-canonical pathway of glutamine metabolism that is essential for tumor growth and redox balance. Inhibition of this metabolic pathway in PDAC can potentially synergize with therapies that increase intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as radiation. Here, we evaluated the dependence of pancreatic cancer stem cells (PCSCs) on this non-canonical glutamine metabolism pathway and researched whether inhibiting this pathway can enhance radiosensitivity of PCSCs. We showed that glutamine deprivation significantly inhibited self-renewal, decreased expression of stemness-related genes, increased intracellular ROS, and induced apoptosis in PCSCs. These effects were countered by oxaloacetate, but not α-ketoglutarate. Knockdown of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase dramatically impaired PCSCs properties, while glutamate dehydrogenase knockdown had a limited effect, suggesting a dependence of PCSCs on non-canonical glutamine metabolism. Additionally, glutamine deprivation significantly increased radiation-induced ROS and sensitized PCSCs to fractionated radiation. Moreover, transaminase inhibitors effectively enhanced ROS generation, promoted radiation sensitivity, and attenuated tumor growth in nude mice following radiation exposure. Our findings reveal that inhibiting the non-canonical pathway of glutamine metabolism enhances the PCSC radiosensitivity and may be an effective adjunct in cancer radiotherapy. PMID:26439804

  5. Effects of cucurbitacins on cell morphology are associated with sensitization of renal carcinoma cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Henrich, Curtis J; Thomas, Cheryl L; Brooks, Alan D; Booth, Nancy Lynn; Lowery, Evan M; Pompei, Richard J; McMahon, James B; Sayers, Thomas J

    2012-01-01

    Cucurbitacins B and D were among the compounds identified as sensitizers of cancer cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in a high-throughput screen. Therefore a series of cucurbitacins was further investigated for TRAIL sensitization and possible mechanisms of action. A total of six cucurbitacins promoted TRAIL-induced apoptosis (B, I, E, C, D, and K) and one (P) was inactive. Sensitization of renal adenocarcinoma cells to TRAIL was apparent after as little as 1-4 h pretreatment and did not require continued presence of cucurbitacin. Active cucurbitacins induced caspase-8 activation only after subsequent TRAIL addition and caspase activation was required for apoptosis suggesting amplified proximal signaling from TRAIL death receptors. Cucurbitacin-sensitized TRAIL-induced cytotoxicity was inhibited by N-acetyl cysteine. Structure-activity relationship analysis in comparison to published studies suggests that TRAIL-sensitizing and general cytotoxic activities of cucurbitacins may be decoupled. Cucurbitacins are reported to be inhibitors of STAT3 activation. However, their TRAIL-sensitizing activity is STAT3-independent. Treatment of renal carcinoma cells with active cucurbitacins produced rapid and dramatic changes in cell morphology and cytoskeletal organization (also prevented by NAC). Therefore, cucurbitacins may be useful as tools for investigating the molecular mechanism(s) of action of TRAIL sensitizers, particularly with regard to temporal aspects of sensitization and modulation of TRAIL signaling by cell morphology, and could form the basis for future therapeutic development in combination with TRAIL death receptor agonists. PMID:21928090

  6. Effects of cucurbitacins on cell morphology are associated with sensitization of renal carcinoma cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Cheryl L.; Brooks, Alan D.; Booth, Nancy Lynn; Lowery, Evan M.; Pompei, Richard J.; McMahon, James B.; Sayers, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Cucurbitacins B and D were among the compounds identified as sensitizers of cancer cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in a high-throughput screen. Therefore a series of cucurbitacins was further investigated for TRAIL sensitization and possible mechanisms of action. A total of six cucurbitacins promoted TRAIL-induced apoptosis (B, I, E, C, D, and K) and one (P) was inactive. Sensitization of renal adenocarcinoma cells to TRAIL was apparent after as little as 1–4 h pretreatment and did not require continued presence of cucurbitacin. Active cucurbitacins induced caspase-8 activation only after subsequent TRAIL addition and caspase activation was required for apoptosis suggesting amplified proximal signaling from TRAIL death receptors. Cucurbitacin-sensitized TRAIL-induced cytotoxicity was inhibited by N-acetyl cysteine. Structure–activity relationship analysis in comparison to published studies suggests that TRAIL-sensitizing and general cytotoxic activities of cucurbitacins may be decoupled. Cucurbitacins are reported to be inhibitors of STAT3 activation. However, their TRAIL-sensitizing activity is STAT3-independent. Treatment of renal carcinoma cells with active cucurbitacins produced rapid and dramatic changes in cell morphology and cytoskeletal organization (also prevented by NAC). Therefore, cucurbitacins may be useful as tools for investigating the molecular mechanism(s) of action of TRAIL sensitizers, particularly with regard to temporal aspects of sensitization and modulation of TRAIL signaling by cell morphology, and could form the basis for future therapeutic development in combination with TRAIL death receptor agonists. PMID:21928090

  7. Controlled regular locomotion of algae cell microrobots.

    PubMed

    Xie, Shuangxi; Jiao, Niandong; Tung, Steve; Liu, Lianqing

    2016-06-01

    Algae cells can be considered as microrobots from the perspective of engineering. These organisms not only have a strong reproductive ability but can also sense the environment, harvest energy from the surroundings, and swim very efficiently, accommodating all these functions in a body of size on the order of dozens of micrometers. An interesting topic with respect to random swimming motions of algae cells in a liquid is how to precisely control them as microrobots such that they swim according to manually set routes. This study developed an ingenious method to steer swimming cells based on the phototaxis. The method used a varying light signal to direct the motion of the cells. The swimming trajectory, speed, and force of algae cells were analyzed in detail. Then the algae cell could be controlled to swim back and forth, and traverse a crossroad as a microrobot obeying specific traffic rules. Furthermore, their motions along arbitrarily set trajectories such as zigzag, and triangle were realized successfully under optical control. Robotize algae cells can be used to precisely transport and deliver cargo such as drug particles in microfluidic chip for biomedical treatment and pharmacodynamic analysis. The study findings are expected to bring significant breakthrough in biological drives and new biomedical applications. PMID:27206511

  8. EH AND S ANALYSIS OF DYE-SENSITIZED PHOTOVOLTAIC SOLAR CELL PRODUCTION.

    SciTech Connect

    BOWERMAN,B.; FTHENAKIS,V.

    2001-10-01

    Photovoltaic solar cells based on a dye-sensitized nanocrystalline titanium dioxide photoelectrode have been researched and reported since the early 1990's. Commercial production of dye-sensitized photovoltaic solar cells has recently been reported in Australia. In this report, current manufacturing methods are described, and estimates are made of annual chemical use and emissions during production. Environmental, health and safety considerations for handling these materials are discussed. This preliminary EH and S evaluation of dye-sensitized titanium dioxide solar cells indicates that some precautions will be necessary to mitigate hazards that could result in worker exposure. Additional information required for a more complete assessment is identified.

  9. Carbon coated stainless steel as counter electrode for dye sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Shejale Kiran; Sharma, Rakesh K.; Roy, Mahesh S.; Kumar, Mahesh

    2014-10-01

    A new type of counter electrode for dye sensitized solar cells has been fabricated using a stainless steel sheet as substrate and graphite, graphene and multiwall carbon nanotubes as the catalytic material which applied by screen printing technique. The sheet resistances of the substrates and there influence on the dye sensitized solar cells has been studied. The fabricated counter electrodes i.e. SS-graphite, SS-graphene SS-MWCNT and SS-platinum were tested for their photovoltaic response in the form of dye sensitized solar cells.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of Allium cepa L. as photosensitizer of dye-sensitized solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutikno, Afrian, Noverdi; Supriadi, Putra, Ngurah Made Dharma

    2016-04-01

    The synthesis and characterization of Allium cepa L. used as natural pigment for natural dye sensitizer of solar cell has successfully done and anthocyanin is extracted. Anthocynin is color pigment of plant which has characteristic absorption spectrum of photon and excites electrons up to pigment molecules. As the anthocyanin absorbed light increases the excited electrons increase as well. The generated current also increases and it leads to the efficiency increase. The energy conversion efficiency of the cells sensitized with dye of Allium cepa L. was 3,045 x 10-4%. A simple technique was taken to fabricate dye sensitizer solar cell is spincoating.

  11. Evaluation of an α synuclein sensitized dendritic cell based vaccine in a transgenic mouse model of Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Ugen, Kenneth E; Lin, Xiaoyang; Bai, Ge; Liang, Zhanhua; Cai, Jianfeng; Li, Kunyun; Song, Shijie; Cao, Chuanhai; Sanchez-Ramos, Juan

    2015-01-01

    In order to develop a cell-based vaccine against the Parkinson disease (PD) associated protein α-synuclein (α-Syn) 3 peptides were synthesized based upon predicted B cell epitopes within the full length α-Syn protein sequence. These peptide fragments as well as the full length recombinant human α-Syn (rh- α-Syn) protein were used to sensitize mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DC) ex vivo, followed by intravenous delivery of these sensitized DCs into transgenic (Tg) mice expressing the human A53T variant of α-Syn. ELISA analysis and testing of behavioral locomotor function by rotometry were performed on all mice after the 5th vaccination as well as just prior to euthanasia. The results indicated that vaccination with peptide sensitized DCs (PSDC) as well as DCs sensitized by rh-α-Syn induced specific anti-α-Syn antibodies in all immunized mice. In terms of rotometry performance, a measure of locomotor activity correlated to brain dopamine levels, mice vaccinated with PSDC or rh- α-Syn sensitized DCs performed significantly better than non-vaccinated Tg control mice during the final assessment (i.e. at 17 months of age) before euthanasia. As well, measurement of levels of brain IL-1α, a cytokine hypothesized to be associated with neuroinflammation, demonstrated that this proinflammatory molecule was significantly reduced in the PSDC and rh- α-Syn sensitized DC vaccinated mice compared to the non-vaccinated Tg control group. Overall, α-Syn antigen-sensitized DC vaccination was effective in generating specific anti- α-Syn antibodies and improved locomotor function without eliciting an apparent general inflammatory response, indicating that this strategy may be a safe and effective treatment for PD. PMID:25714663

  12. Role of calreticulin in the sensitivity of myocardiac H9c2 cells to oxidative stress caused by hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Ihara, Yoshito; Urata, Yoshishige; Goto, Shinji; Kondo, Takahito

    2006-01-01

    Calreticulin (CRT), a Ca2+-binding molecular chaperone in the endoplasmic reticulum, plays a vital role in cardiac physiology and pathology. Oxidative stress is a main cause of myocardiac apoptosis in the ischemic heart, but the function of CRT under oxidative stress is not fully understood. In the present study, the effect of overexpression of CRT on susceptibility to apoptosis under oxidative stress was examined using myocardiac H9c2 cells transfected with the CRT gene. Under oxidative stress due to H2O2, the CRT-overexpressing cells were highly susceptible to apoptosis compared with controls. In the overexpressing cells, the levels of cytoplasmic free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) were significantly increased by H2O2, whereas in controls, only a slight increase was observed. The H2O2-induced apoptosis was enhanced by the increase in [Ca2+]i caused by thapsigargin in control cells but was suppressed by BAPTA-AM, a cell-permeable Ca2+ chelator in the CRT-overexpressing cells, indicating the importance of the level of [Ca2+]i in the sensitivity to H2O2-induced apoptosis. Suppression of CRT by the introduction of the antisense cDNA of CRT enhanced cytoprotection against oxidative stress compared with controls. Furthermore, we found that the levels of activity of calpain and caspase-12 were elevated through the regulation of [Ca2+]i in the CRT-overexpressing cells treated with H2O2 compared with controls. Thus we conclude that the level of CRT regulates the sensitivity to apoptosis under oxidative stress due to H2O2 through a change in Ca2+ homeostasis and the regulation of the Ca2+-calpain-caspase-12 pathway in myocardiac cells. PMID:16135540

  13. Cell shape, cytoskeletal mechanics, and cell cycle control in angiogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingber, D. E.; Prusty, D.; Sun, Z.; Betensky, H.; Wang, N.

    1995-01-01

    Capillary endothelial cells can be switched between growth and differentiation by altering cell-extracellular matrix interactions and thereby, modulating cell shape. Studies were carried out to determine when cell shape exerts its growth-regulatory influence during cell cycle progression and to explore the role of cytoskeletal structure and mechanics in this control mechanism. When G0-synchronized cells were cultured in basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-containing defined medium on dishes coated with increasing densities of fibronectin or a synthetic integrin ligand (RGD-containing peptide), cell spreading, nuclear extension, and DNA synthesis all increased in parallel. To determine the minimum time cells must be adherent and spread on extracellular matrix (ECM) to gain entry into S phase, cells were removed with trypsin or induced to retract using cytochalasin D at different times after plating. Both approaches revealed that cells must remain extended for approximately 12-15 h and hence, most of G1, in order to enter S phase. After this restriction point was passed, normally 'anchorage-dependent' endothelial cells turned on DNA synthesis even when round and in suspension. The importance of actin-containing microfilaments in shape-dependent growth control was confirmed by culturing cells in the presence of cytochalasin D (25-1000 ng ml-1): dose-dependent inhibition of cell spreading, nuclear extension, and DNA synthesis resulted. In contrast, induction of microtubule disassembly using nocodazole had little effect on cell or nuclear spreading and only partially inhibited DNA synthesis. Interestingly, combination of nocodazole with a suboptimal dose of cytochalasin D (100 ng ml-1) resulted in potent inhibition of both spreading and growth, suggesting that microtubules are redundant structural elements which can provide critical load-bearing functions when microfilaments are partially compromised. Similar synergism between nocodazole and cytochalasin D was observed

  14. Sensitivity Correction Control of the Ultrasonic Sensor due to Doppler Shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, Yoshikazu; Aizawa, Shin-ichi

    2008-05-01

    Authors propose the use of an ultrasonic transducer to achieve a passive safety system for a collision using a corner sensor. However, the sensitivity of the transducer decreases owing to Doppler shift in the case of a travelling car. On the contrary, authors also propose a resonance control method for the transducer using a generalized impedance converter (GIC) circuit. In this study, the resonance control frequency method is used to correct the sensitivity of the transducer. In the sensitivity control, the input impedance control of the GIC circuit is tried using a voltage-controlled resistance. The automatic sensitivity correction control is expected to be realized by a combination of the GIC circuit and frequency-voltage (F/V) converter. As a result, the sensitivity of a Langevin transducer with a GIC circuit as a receiver is slightly improved, compared with that of a retailed transducer. Moreover, the resonance frequency of the transducer can be controlled in the range of about 3 kHz using the GIC circuit and F/V converter.

  15. Fabrication and evaluation of the novel reduction-sensitive starch nanoparticles for controlled drug release.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jinlong; Huang, Yinjuan; Gao, Chunmei; Liu, Mingzhu; Zhang, Xinjie

    2014-03-01

    A novel type of reduction-sensitive starch nanoparticles was prepared via the reversed-phase microemulsion method by using crosslinker, N,N-bisacryloylcystamine (BAC) with the disulfide linkages, which was specifically cleaved by dithiothreitol (DTT). Starch nanoparticles had a spherical morphology with a small size of 40 nm in the optimal condition. The influences of process parameters (starch amount, surfactant amount and oil/water (O/W) ratio) on the size of starch nanoparticles were studied by dynamic light scattering (DLS). BAC crosslinked starch nanoparticles were degraded into oligomers with the reducing agent of DTT due to the cleavage of the disulfide linkages. A model drug 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) could be loaded efficiently into starch nanoparticles and the in vitro drug release behaviors were also studied. The results suggested that the disulfide crosslinked starch nanoparticles exhibited an accelerated drug release behavior in the presence of DTT. In vitro methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assays indicated that BAC crosslinked starch nanoparticles had a good biocompatibility when cocultured with human HeLa cancer cells. Hence, with excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability, and rapid drug release in response to DTT, BAC crosslinked starch nanoparticles showed a great potential as a biomaterial carrier for the application of drug controlled release. In contrast to BAC crosslinked starch nanoparticles, N,N-methylenebisacrylamine (MBA) crosslinked starch nanoparticles were prepared as the control without the disulfide linkages. PMID:24463097

  16. Coumarin-bearing triarylamine sensitizers with high molar extinction coefficient for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Changjian; Gao, Jianrong; Cui, Yanhong; Li, Ting; Han, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Coumarin unit is introduced into triarylamine and three organic sensitizers are designed and synthesized with triarylamine bearing coumarin moiety as the electron donor, conjugated system containing thiophene unit as the π-bridge, and cyanoacetic acid moiety as the electron acceptor. The light-harvesting capabilities and photovoltaic performance of these dyes are investigated systematically with the comparison of different π-bridges. High molar extinction coefficients are observed in these triarylamine dyes and the photocurrent and photovoltage are increased with the introduction of another thiophene or benzene. Optimal photovoltaic performance (η = 6.24%, Voc = 690 mV, Jsc = 14.33 mA cm-2, and ff = 0.63) is observed in the DSSC based on dye with thiophene-phenyl unit as the π-conjugated bridge under 100 mW cm-2 simulated AM 1.5 G solar irradiation.

  17. Sensitivity of proliferating human breast epithelial cells to hypotonic treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstone, S.E.; Stanyon, R.; Lan, S.

    1982-12-01

    An assay for colony-forming cells of breast epithelia derived from normal and malignant surgical specimens is described using an IMR 90 fibroblast feeder layer. Their radiosensitivity (DO: 120-172) is consistent with the proliferative origin of the colonies. Distilled water inhibits proliferation of a proportion of the colony-forming cells after a 1-minute exposure. Continued detection of colonies after 10 minutes of exposure indicates that it is an inefficient way of completely eradicating proliferating epithelial cells of normal and malignant origin.

  18. miR-133a enhances the sensitivity of Hep-2 cells and vincristine-resistant Hep-2v cells to cisplatin by downregulating ATP7B expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xurui; Zhu, Wei; Zhao, Xiaodong; Wang, Ping

    2016-06-01

    The expression levels of the copper transporter P-type adenosine triphosphatase (ATP7B) are known correlate with tumor cell sensitivity to cisplatin. However, the mechanisms underlying cisplatin resistance remained poorly understood. Therefore, in the present study, we treated Hep-2 cells and in-house-developed vincristine-resistant Hep-2v cells with 50, 100, or 200 µM cisplatin and assessed cell viability after 24 or 48 h. Hep-2v cells were shown to be resistant to 50-200 µM cisplatin. Furthermore, using immunofluorescence staining and western blot analysis, we noted that ATP7B, but not copper-transporting ATPase 1 (ATP7A), expression was significantly increased in Hep-2v cells, and this increase was maintained at a higher level compared with Hep-2 cells. As ATP7B is a target of microRNA 133a (miR‑133a), the ability of miR‑133a to influence cisplatin sensitivity in Hep-2v cells was then assessed by CCK-8 assay. We noted that miR‑133a expression was lower in both Hep-2 and Hep-2v cells compared with epithelial NP69 cells. Following treatment with 50 µM cisplatin, in Hep-2v cells expressing exogenous miR‑133a we noted reduced ATP7B expression, and these cells had a significantly lower survival rate compared with the control. The present study demonstrates that miR‑133a enhances the sensitivity of multidrug-resistant Hep-2v cells to cisplatin by downregulating ATP7B expression. PMID:27121102

  19. Control of cell volume in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Usher-Smith, Juliet A; Huang, Christopher L-H; Fraser, James A

    2009-02-01

    Regulation of cell volume is a fundamental property of all animal cells and is of particular importance in skeletal muscle where exercise is associated with a wide range of cellular changes that would be expected to influence cell volume. These complex electrical, metabolic and osmotic changes, however, make rigorous study of the consequences of individual factors on muscle volume difficult despite their likely importance during exercise. Recent charge-difference modelling of cell volume distinguishes three major aspects to processes underlying cell volume control: (i) determination by intracellular impermeant solute; (ii) maintenance by metabolically dependent processes directly balancing passive solute and water fluxes that would otherwise cause cell swelling under the influence of intracellular membrane-impermeant solutes; and (iii) volume regulation often involving reversible short-term transmembrane solute transport processes correcting cell volumes towards their normal baselines in response to imposed discrete perturbations. This review covers, in turn, the main predictions from such quantitative analysis and the experimental consequences of comparable alterations in extracellular pH, lactate concentration, membrane potential and extracellular tonicity. The effects of such alterations in the extracellular environment in resting amphibian muscles are then used to reproduce the intracellular changes that occur in each case in exercising muscle. The relative contributions of these various factors to the control of cell volume in resting and exercising skeletal muscle are thus described. PMID:19133959

  20. "Spider"-shaped porphyrins with conjugated pyridyl anchoring groups as efficient sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Stangel, Christina; Bagaki, Anthi; Angaridis, Panagiotis A; Charalambidis, Georgios; Sharma, Ganesh D; Coutsolelos, Athanasios G

    2014-11-17

    Two novel "spider-shaped" porphyrins, meso-tetraaryl-substituted 1PV-Por and zinc-metalated 1PV-Zn-Por, bearing four oligo(p-phenylenevinylene) (oPPV) pyridyl groups with long dodecyloxy chains on the phenyl groups, have been synthesized. The presence of four pyridyl groups in both porphyrins, which allow them to act as anchoring groups upon coordination to various Lewis acid sites, the conjugated oPPV bridges, which offer the possibility of electronic communication between the porphyrin core and the pyridyl groups, and the dodecyloxy groups, which offer the advantage of high solubility in a variety of organic solvents of different polarities and could prevent porphyrin aggregation, renders porphyrins 1PV-Por and 1PV-Zn-Por very promising sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Photophysical measurements, together with electrochemistry experiments and density functional theory calculations, suggest that both porphyrins have frontier molecular orbital energy levels that favor electron injection and dye regeneration in DSSCs. Solar cells sensitized by 1PV-Por and 1PV-Zn-Por were fabricated, and it was found that they show power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of 3.28 and 5.12%, respectively. Photovoltaic measurements (J-V curves) together with incident photon-to-electron conversion efficiency spectra of the two cells reveal that the higher PCE value of the DSSC based on 1PV-Zn-Por is ascribed to higher short-circuit current (Jsc), open-circuit voltage (Voc), and dye loading values. Emission spectra and electrochemistry experiments suggest a greater driving force for injection of the photogenerated electrons into the TiO2 conduction band for 1PV-Zn-Por rather than its free-base analogue. Furthermore, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements prove that the utilization of 1PV-Zn-Por as a sensitizer offers a high charge recombination resistance and, therefore, leads to a longer electron lifetime. PMID:25365138

  1. Assessment of dye distribution in sensitized solar cells by microprobe techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreiros, M. A.; Corregidor, V.; Alves, L. C.; Guimarães, F.; Mascarenhas, J.; Torres, E.; Brites, M. J.

    2015-04-01

    Dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs) have received considerable attention once this technology offers economic and environmental advantages over conventional photovoltaic (PV) devices. The PV performance of a DSC relies on the characteristics of its photoanode, which typically consists of a nanocrystalline porous TiO2 film, enabled with a large adsorptive surface area. Dye molecules that capture photons from light during device operation are attached to the film nanoparticles. The effective loading of the dye in the TiO2 electrode is of paramount relevance for controlling and optimizing solar cell parameters. Relatively few methods are known today for quantitative evaluation of the total dye adsorbed on the film. In this context, microprobe techniques come out as suitable tools to evaluate the dye surface distribution and depth profile in sensitized films. Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA) and Ion Beam Analytical (IBA) techniques using a micro-ion beam were used to quantify and to study the distribution of the Ru organometallic dye in TiO2 films, making use of the different penetration depth and beam sizes of each technique. Different 1D nanostructured TiO2 films were prepared, morphologically characterized by SEM, sensitized and analyzed by the referred techniques. Dye load evaluation in different TiO2 films by three different techniques (PIXE, RBS and EPMA/WDS) provided similar results of Ru/Ti mass fraction ratio. Moreover, it was possible to assess dye surface distribution and its depth profile, by means of Ru signal, and to visualize the dye distribution in sample cross-section through X-ray mapping by EPMA/EDS. PIXE maps of Ru and Ti indicated an homogeneous surface distribution. The assessment of Ru depth profile by RBS showed that some films have homogeneous Ru depth distribution while others present different Ru concentration in the top layer (2 μm thickness). These results are consistent with the EPMA/EDS maps obtained.

  2. Latexin sensitizes leukemogenic cells to gamma-irradiation-induced cell-cycle arrest and cell death through Rps3 pathway.

    PubMed

    You, Y; Wen, R; Pathak, R; Li, A; Li, W; St Clair, D; Hauer-Jensen, M; Zhou, D; Liang, Y

    2014-01-01

    Leukemia is a leading cause of cancer death. Recently, the latexin (Lxn) gene was identified as a potential tumor suppressor in several types of solid tumors and lymphoma, and Lxn expression was found to be absent or downregulated in leukemic cells. Whether Lxn functions as a tumor suppressor in leukemia and what molecular and cellular mechanisms are involved are unknown. In this study, the myeloid leukemogenic FDC-P1 cell line was used as a model system and Lxn was ectopically expressed in these cells. Using the protein pull-down assay and mass spectrometry, ribosomal protein subunit 3 (Rps3) was identified as a novel Lxn binding protein. Ectopic expression of Lxn inhibited FDC-P1 growth in vitro. More surprisingly, Lxn enhanced gamma irradiation-induced DNA damages and induced cell-cycle arrest and massive necrosis, leading to depletion of FDC-P1 cells. Mechanistically, Lxn inhibited the nuclear translocation of Rps3 upon radiation, resulting in abnormal mitotic spindle formation and chromosome instability. Rps3 knockdown increased the radiation sensitivity of FDC-P1, confirming that the mechanism of action of Lxn is mediated by Rps3 pathway. Moreover, Lxn enhanced the cytotoxicity of chemotherapeutic agent, VP-16, on FDC-P1 cells. Our study suggests that Lxn itself not only suppresses leukemic cell growth but also potentiates the cytotoxic effect of radio- and chemotherapy on cancer cells. Lxn could be a novel molecular target that improves the efficacy of anti-cancer therapy. PMID:25341047

  3. Cell size control and homeostasis in bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradde, Serena; Taheri, Sattar; Sauls, John; Hill, Nobert; Levine, Petra; Paulsson, Johan; Vergassola, Massimo; Jun, Suckjoon

    2015-03-01

    How cells control their size is a fundamental question in biology. The mechanisms for sensing size, time, or a combination of the two are not supported by experimental evidence. By analysing distributions of size at division at birth and generation time of hundreds of thousands of Gram-negative E. coli and Gram-positive B. subtilis cells under a wide range of tightly controlled steady-state growth conditions, we are now in the position to validate different theoretical models. In this talk I will present all possible models in details and present a general mechanism that quantitatively explains all measurable aspects of growth and cell division at both population and single-cell levels.

  4. The isolated anatase for dye sensitized solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilmi, Irfan; Kartin, Indriana; Ohtani, Bunsho; Suyanta, Wang, Kunlei

    2015-09-01

    The isolation of crystallite anatase from commercial TiO2 P25 Degussa was investigated. The aim of this research was to study of isolated anatase based DSSC as an effort to develop industrial DSSC. The crystal phase, crystallite size and crystal shape both of original P25 and isolated anatase were characterized by XRD and TEM. By observing DSSC parameters such as FF, Jsc and Voc resulted in cell test, the efficiency of samples based DSSC was known. The isolation of anatase crystal was done by dissolving P25 in ammonia catalyzed hydrogen peroxide solution for 15 hours followed by washing and drying. DSSC cell performance was evaluated by applying the isolated anantase and original P25 as photoanode in the Gratzel cell system. The observation of cell efficiency was measured under 100 mW /cm2 with active area 1.5 cm2. X-ray diffraction pattern showed obviously that no rutile contaminant in produced isolated anatase. TEM image shows typical anatase crystal with the particle size 21 nm. Surface area measurement exhibits that surface area of isolated anatase was 64.7m2/g. I-V measurement showed that the efficiency of anatase based cell and P25 based cell is 0.79% and 0.51% respectively.

  5. The isolated anatase for dye sensitized solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Ilmi, Irfan; Kartin, Indriana; Suyanta; Ohtani, Bunsho; Wang, Kunlei

    2015-09-30

    The isolation of crystallite anatase from commercial TiO{sub 2} P25 Degussa was investigated. The aim of this research was to study of isolated anatase based DSSC as an effort to develop industrial DSSC. The crystal phase, crystallite size and crystal shape both of original P25 and isolated anatase were characterized by XRD and TEM. By observing DSSC parameters such as FF, Jsc and Voc resulted in cell test, the efficiency of samples based DSSC was known. The isolation of anatase crystal was done by dissolving P25 in ammonia catalyzed hydrogen peroxide solution for 15 hours followed by washing and drying. DSSC cell performance was evaluated by applying the isolated anantase and original P25 as photoanode in the Gratzel cell system. The observation of cell efficiency was measured under 100 mW /cm{sup 2} with active area 1.5 cm{sup 2}. X-ray diffraction pattern showed obviously that no rutile contaminant in produced isolated anatase. TEM image shows typical anatase crystal with the particle size 21 nm. Surface area measurement exhibits that surface area of isolated anatase was 64.7m{sup 2}/g. I-V measurement showed that the efficiency of anatase based cell and P25 based cell is 0.79% and 0.51% respectively.

  6. Peptides whose uptake by cells is controllable

    DOEpatents

    Jiang, Tao; Tsien, Roger Y.

    2008-10-07

    A generic structure for the peptides of the present invention includes A-X-B-C, where C is a cargo moiety, the B portion includes basic amino acids, X is a cleavable linker sequence, and the A portion includes acidic amino acids. The intact structure is not significantly taken up by cells; however, upon extracellular cleavage of X, the B-C portion is taken up, delivering the cargo to targeted cells. Cargo may be, for example, a contrast agent for diagnostic imaging, a chemotherapeutic drug, or a radiation-sensitizer for therapy. Cleavage of X allows separation of A from B, unmasking the normal ability of the basic amino acids in B to drag cargo C into cells near the cleavage event. X is cleaved extracellularly, preferably under physiological conditions. D-amino acids are preferred for the A and B portions, to minimize immunogenicity and nonspecific cleavage by background peptidases or proteases.

  7. Peptides whose uptake by cells is controllable

    DOEpatents

    Jiang, Tao; Tsien, Roger Y

    2014-02-04

    A generic structure for the peptides of the present invention includes A-X-B-C, where C is a cargo moiety, the B portion includes basic amino acids, X is a cleavable linker sequence, and the A portion includes acidic amino acids. The intact structure is not significantly taken up by cells; however, upon extracellular cleavage of X, the B-C portion is taken up, delivering the cargo to targeted cells. Cargo may be, for example, a contrast agent for diagnostic imaging, a chemotherapeutic drug, or a radiation-sensitizer for therapy. Cleavage of X allows separation of A from B, unmasking the normal ability of the basic amino acids in B to drag cargo C into cells near the cleavage event. X is cleaved extracellularly, preferably under physiological conditions. D-amino acids are preferred for the A and B portions, to minimize immunogenicity and nonspecific cleavage by background peptidases or proteases.

  8. Peptides whose uptake by cells is controllable

    DOEpatents

    Jiang, Tao; Tsien, Roger Y.

    2012-02-07

    A generic structure for the peptides of the present invention includes A-X-B-C, where C is a cargo moiety, the B portion includes basic amino acids, X is a cleavable linker sequence, and the A portion includes acidic amino acids. The intact structure is not significantly taken up by cells; however, upon extracellular cleavage of X, the B-C portion is taken up, delivering the cargo to targeted cells. Cargo may be, for example, a contrast agent for diagnostic imaging, a chemotherapeutic drug, or a radiation-sensitizer for therapy. Cleavage of X allows separation of A from B, unmasking the normal ability of the basic amino acids in B to drag cargo C into cells near the cleavage event. X is cleaved extracellularly, preferably under physiological conditions. D-amino acids are preferred for the A and B portions, to minimize immunogenicity and nonspecific cleavage by background peptidases or proteases.

  9. Ubiquitous points of control over regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Pan, Fan; Barbi, Joseph

    2014-06-01

    Posttranslational modification by ubiquitin tagging is crucial for regulating the stability, activity and cellular localization of many target proteins involved in processes including DNA repair, cell cycle progression, protein quality control, and signal transduction. It has long been appreciated that ubiquitin-mediated events are important for certain signaling pathways leading to leukocyte activation and the stimulation of effector function. Now it is clear that the activities of molecules and pathways central to immune regulation are also modified and controlled by ubiquitin tagging. Among the mechanisms of immune control, regulatory T cells (or Tregs) are themselves particularly sensitive to such regulation. E3 ligases and deubiquitinases both influence Tregs through their effects on the signaling pathways pertinent to these cells or through the direct, posttranslational regulation of Foxp3. In this review, we will summarize and discuss several examples of ubiquitin-mediated control over multiple aspects of Treg biology including the generation, function and phenotypic fidelity of these cells. Fully explored and exploited, these potential opportunities for Treg modulation may lead to novel immunotherapies for both positive and negative fine-tuning of immune restraint. PMID:24777637

  10. Ex vivo generation of glucose sensitive insulin secreting mesenchymal stem cells derived from human adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Shruti D.; Vanikar, Aruna V.; Trivedi, Hargovind L

    2012-01-01

    Background: Diabetics are incapable of producing insulin/have autoimmune mechanisms making it ineffective to control glucose secretion. We present a prospective study of glucose-sensitive insulin-secreting mesenchymal stem cells (IS-MSC) generated from human adipose tissue (h-AD) sans xenogenic material. Materials and Methods: Ten grams h-AD from donor anterior abdominal wall was collected in proliferation medium composed of α-Minimum Essential Media (α-MEM), albumin, fibroblast-growth factor and antibiotics, minced, incubated in collagenase-I at 37°C with shaker and centrifuged. Supernatant and pellets were separately cultured in proliferation medium on cell+ plates at 37°C with 5% CO2 for 10 days. Cells were harvested by trypsinization, checked for viability, sterility, counts, flow-cytometry (CD45-/90+/73+), and differentiated into insulin-expressing cells using medium composed of DMEM, gene expressing up-regulators and antibiotics for 3 days. They were studied for transcriptional factors Pax-6, Isl-1, pdx-1 (immunofluorescence). C-peptide and insulin were measured by chemiluminescence. In vitro glucose sensitivity assay was carried out by measuring levels of insulin and C-peptide secretion in absence of glucose followed by 2 hours incubation after glucose addition. Results: Mean IS-AD-MSC quantum was 3.21 ml, cell count, 1.5 ×103 cells/μl), CD45-/90+/73+ cells were 44.37% /25.52%. All of them showed presence of pax-6, pdx-1, and Isl-1. Mean C-Peptide and insulin levels were 0.36 ng/ml and 234 μU/ml, respectively, pre-glucose and 0.87 ng/ml and 618.3 μU/ml post-glucose additions. The mean rise in secretion levels was 2.42 and 2.65 fold, respectively. Conclusion: Insulin-secreting h-AD-MSC can be generated safely and effectively showing in vitro glucose responsive alteration in insulin and C-peptide secretion levels. PMID:22701849

  11. Pro-active optimal control for semi-active vehicle suspension based on sensitivity updates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michael, Johannes; Gerdts, Matthias

    2015-12-01

    This article suggests a strategy to control semi-active suspensions of vehicles in a pro-active way to adapt to future road profiles. The control strategy aims to maximise comfort while maintaining good handling properties. It employs suitably defined optimal control problems in combination with a parametric sensitivity analysis. The optimal control techniques are used to optimise the time-dependent damper coefficients in an electro-rheological damper for given nominal road profiles. The parametric sensitivity analysis is used to adapt the computed nominal optimal controls to perturbed road profiles in real time. The method is particularly useful for events with a low excitation frequency such as ramps, bumps, or potholes. For high-frequency excitations standard controllers are preferable; so we propose a switched open-closed-loop controller design. Various examples demonstrate the performance of the approach.

  12. Charge Control Investigation of Rechargeable Lithium Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otzinger, B.; Somoano, R.

    1984-01-01

    An ambient temperature rechargeable Li-TiS2 cell was cycled under conditions which simulate aerospace applications. A novel charge/discharge state-of-charge control scheme was used, together with tapered current charging, to overcome deleterious effects associated with end-of-charge and end-of-discharge voltages. The study indicates that Li-TiS2 cells hold promise for eventual synchronous satellite-type applications. Problem areas associated with performance degradation and reconditioning effects are identified.

  13. Controlled shutdown of a fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Clingerman, Bruce J.; Keskula, Donald H.

    2002-01-01

    A method is provided for the shutdown of a fuel cell system to relieve system overpressure while maintaining air compressor operation, and corresponding vent valving and control arrangement. The method and venting arrangement are employed in a fuel cell system, for instance a vehicle propulsion system, comprising, in fluid communication, an air compressor having an outlet for providing air to the system, a combustor operative to provide combustor exhaust to the fuel processor.

  14. Ultralong Rutile TiO2 Nanowire Arrays for Highly Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Hailiang; Yu, Qingjiang; Huang, Yuewu; Yu, Cuiling; Li, Renzhi; Wang, Jinzhong; Guo, Fengyun; Jiao, Shujie; Gao, Shiyong; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Xitian; Wang, Peng; Zhao, Liancheng

    2016-06-01

    Vertically aligned rutile TiO2 nanowire arrays (NWAs) with lengths of ∼44 μm have been successfully synthesized on transparent, conductive fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass by a facile one-step solvothermal method. The length and wire-to-wire distance of NWAs can be controlled by adjusting the ethanol content in the reaction solution. By employing optimized rutile TiO2 NWAs for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs), a remarkable power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 8.9% is achieved. Moreover, in combination with a light-scattering layer, the performance of a rutile TiO2 NWAs based DSC can be further enhanced, reaching an impressive PCE of 9.6%, which is the highest efficiency for rutile TiO2 NWA based DSCs so far. PMID:27097727

  15. Aggregated TiO2 Based Nanotubes for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nie, Zimin; Zhou, Xiaoyuan; Zhang, Qifeng; Cao, Guozhong; Liu, Jun

    2013-11-01

    One-dimensional (1D) semiconducting oxides have attracted great attention for dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs), but the overall performance is still quite limited as compared to TiO2 nanocrystalline DSCs. Here, we report the synthesis of aggregated TiO2 based nanotubes with controlled morphologies and crystalline structures to obtain an overall power conversion efficiency of 9.9% using conventional dye without any additional chemical treatment steps. The high efficiency is attributed to the unique aggregate structure for light harvesting, optimized high surface area, and good crystallinity of the nanotube aggregates obtained through proper thermal annealing. This study demonstrates that high efficiency DSCs can be obtained with 1D nanomaterials, and provides lessons on the importance of optimizing both the nanocrystalline structure and the overall microscale morphology.

  16. Temporal Airy pulses control cell poration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courvoisier, S.; Götte, N.; Zielinski, B.; Winkler, T.; Sarpe, C.; Senftleben, A.; Bonacina, L.; Wolf, J. P.; Baumert, T.

    2016-07-01

    We show that spectral phase shaping of fs-laser pulses can be used to optimize laser-cell membrane interactions in water environment. The energy and peak intensity thresholds required for cell poration with single pulse in the nJ range can be significantly reduced (25% reduction in energy and 88% reduction in peak intensity) by using temporal Airy pulses, controlled by positive third order dispersion, as compared to bandwidth limited pulses. Temporal Airy pulses are also effective to control the morphology of the induced pores, with prospective applications from cellular to tissue opto-surgery and transfection.

  17. Ride quality sensitivity to SAS control law and to handling quality variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, P. A.; Schmidt, D. K.; Swaim, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    The RQ trends which large flexible aircraft exhibit under various parameterizations of control laws and handling qualities are discussed. A summary of the assumptions and solution technique, a control law parameterization review, a discussion of ride sensitivity to handling qualities, and the RQ effects generated by implementing relaxed static stability configurations are included.

  18. Indium-111 white blood cell scans: Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and normal patterns of distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Guze, B.H.; Webber, M.M.; Hawkins, R.A.; Sinha, K.

    1990-01-01

    The UCLA Hospital experience with indium-111 labeled white blood cells was reviewed. There were a total of 345 consecutive cases covering a broad range of clinical indications. The overall sensitivity of the method was 79%, specificity was 62%, and accuracy was 73%. The sensitivity for suspected osteomyelitis cases was 84%, with a specificity of 65% and an accuracy of 75%. For other cases sensitivity was 77%, specificity was 60%, and accuracy was 72%. Furthermore, patterns of normal distribution were reviewed.

  19. Light sensitive memristor with bi-directional and wavelength-dependent conductance control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, P.; Hartmann, F.; Rebello Sousa Dias, M.; Emmerling, M.; Schneider, C.; Castelano, L. K.; Kamp, M.; Marques, G. E.; Lopez-Richard, V.; Worschech, L.; Höfling, S.

    2016-07-01

    We report the optical control of localized charge on positioned quantum dots in an electro-photo-sensitive memristor. Interband absorption processes in the quantum dot barrier matrix lead to photo-generated electron-hole-pairs that, depending on the applied bias voltage, charge or discharge the quantum dots and hence decrease or increase the conductance. Wavelength-dependent conductance control is observed by illumination with red and infrared light, which leads to charging via interband and discharging via intraband absorption. The presented memristor enables optical conductance control and may thus be considered for sensory applications in artificial neural networks as light-sensitive synapses or optically tunable memories.

  20. Quinazolinedione SIRT6 inhibitors sensitize cancer cells to chemotherapeutics.

    PubMed

    Sociali, Giovanna; Galeno, Lauretta; Parenti, Marco Daniele; Grozio, Alessia; Bauer, Inga; Passalacqua, Mario; Boero, Silvia; Donadini, Alessandra; Millo, Enrico; Bellotti, Marta; Sturla, Laura; Damonte, Patrizia; Puddu, Alessandra; Ferroni, Claudia; Varchi, Greta; Franceschi, Claudio; Ballestrero, Alberto; Poggi, Alessandro; Bruzzone, Santina; Nencioni, Alessio; Del Rio, Alberto

    2015-09-18

    The NAD(+)-dependent sirtuin SIRT6 is highly expressed in human breast, prostate, and skin cancer where it mediates resistance to cytotoxic agents and prevents differentiation. Thus, SIRT6 is an attractive target for the development of new anticancer agents to be used alone or in combination with chemo- or radiotherapy. Here we report on the identification of novel quinazolinedione compounds with inhibitory activity on SIRT6. As predicted based on SIRT6's biological functions, the identified new SIRT6 inhibitors increase histone H3 lysine 9 acetylation, reduce TNF-α production and increase glucose uptake in cultured cells. In addition, these compounds exacerbate DNA damage and cell death in response to the PARP inhibitor olaparib in BRCA2-deficient Capan-1 cells and cooperate with gemcitabine to the killing of pancreatic cancer cells. In conclusion, new SIRT6 inhibitors with a quinazolinedione-based structure have been identified which are active in cells and could potentially find applications in cancer treatment. PMID:26310895

  1. Enhanced Electron Lifetimes in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using a Dichromophoric Porphyrin: The Utility of Intermolecular Forces.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Long; Wagner, Pawel; van der Salm, Holly; Gordon, Keith C; Mori, Shogo; Mozer, Attila J

    2015-10-01

    Electron lifetimes in dye-sensitized solar cells employing a porphyrin dye, an organic dye, a 1:1 mixture of the two dyes, and a dichromophoric dye design consisting of the two dyes using a nonconjugated linker were measured, suggesting that the dispersion force of the organic dyes has a significant detrimental effect on the electron lifetime and that the dichromophoric design can be utilized to control the effect of the dispersion force. PMID:26375165

  2. Theoretica Study of Asymmetric Double D-π-A Organic Sensitizers for Efficient Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Dong Yuel; Lee, Gun Hyung; Kim, Young Sik

    2015-03-01

    Three novel dye sensitizers that were based on asymmetric double D-π-A chains with phenoxazine (POZ) and diphenylamine (DPA) as electron donors and cyanoacetic acid (CA) and 2-(1,1- dicyanomethylene) rhodanine (RD) as electron acceptors (DCPR, DRPC, DRPR) were designed, theoretically investigated, and compared with the reference dye based on asymmetric double D-π-A chains (DCPC). Using density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations, we gained insight into the factors responsible for the photovoltaic properties of the dye sensitizers. Due to the different HOMO levels of each donor and the different LUMO levels of each acceptor, the absorption spectrum of each dye showed different shapes. Among the dyes, DRPR showed a broader and more bathochromically shifted absorption band than the other dies. It also showed a higher molar extinction coefficient than that of the reference dye (DCPC). This work suggests optimizing the chain of electron donors and acceptors in dye sensitizers based on asymmetric double D-π-A chains would produce good photovoltaic properties for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). PMID:26413690

  3. Molecularly Engineered Ru(II) Sensitizers Compatible with Cobalt(II/III) Redox Mediators for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kuan-Lin; Huckaba, Aron J; Clifford, John N; Yang, Ya-Wen; Yella, Aswani; Palomares, Emilio; Grätzel, Michael; Chi, Yun; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja

    2016-08-01

    Thiocyanate-free isoquinazolylpyrazolate Ru(II) complexes were synthesized and applied as sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). Unlike most other successful Ru sensitizers, Co-based electrolytes were used, and resulting record efficiency of 9.53% was obtained under simulated sunlight with an intensity of 100 mW cm(-2). Specifically, dye 51-57dht.1 and an electrolyte based on Co(phen)3 led to measurement of a JSC of 13.89 mA cm(-2), VOC of 900 mV, and FF of 0.762 to yield 9.53% efficiency. The improved device performances were achieved by the inclusion of 2-hexylthiophene units onto the isoquinoline subunits, in addition to lengthening the perfluoroalkyl chain on the pyrazolate chelating group, which worked to increase light absorption and decrease recombination effects when using the Co-based electrolyte. As this study shows, Ru(II) sensitizers bearing sterically demanding ligands can allow successful utilization of important Co electrolytes and high performance. PMID:27420188

  4. Dendritic cells and skin sensitization: Biological roles and uses in hazard identification

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, Cindy A.; Kimber, Ian; Basketter, David A.; Pallardy, Marc; Gildea, Lucy A.; Gerberick, G. Frank . E-mail: gerberick.gf@pg.com

    2007-06-15

    Recent advances have been made in our understanding of the roles played by cutaneous dendritic cells (DCs) in the induction of contact allergy. A number of associated changes in epidermal Langerhans cell phenotype and function required for effective skin sensitization are providing the foundations for the development of cellular assays (using DC and DC-like cells) for skin sensitization hazard identification. These alternative approaches to the identification and characterization of skin sensitizing chemicals were the focus of a Workshop entitled 'Dendritic Cells and Skin Sensitization: Biological Roles and Uses in Hazard Identification' that was given at the annual Society of Toxicology meeting held March 6-9, 2006 in San Diego, California. This pa