These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Informational Aspects of Isotopic Diversity in Biology and Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Use of stable and radioactive isotopes in biology and medicine is intensive, yet informational aspects of isotopes as such are largely neglected (A.A.Berezin, J.Theor.Biol.,1992). Classical distinguishability (``labelability'') of isotopes allows for pattern generation dynamics. Quantum mechanically advantages of isotopicity (diversity of stable isotopes) arise from (almost perfect) degeneracy of various isotopic configurations; this in turn allows for isotopic sweeps (hoppings) by resonance neutron tunneling (Eccles mechanism). Isotopic variations of de Broglie wavelength affect quantum tunneling, diffusivity, magnetic interactions (e.g. by Lorentz force), etc. Ergodicity principle (all isoenergetic states are eventually accessed) implies possibility of fast scanning of library of morphogenetic patterns (cf metaphors of universal ``Platonic'' Library of Patterns: e.g. J.L.Borges, R.Sheldrake) with subsequent Darwinian reinforcement (e.g. by targeted mutations) of evolutionary advantageous patterns and structures. Isotopic shifts in organisms, from viruses and protozoa to mammalians, (e.g. DNA with enriched or depleted C-13) are tools to elucidate possible informational (e.g. Shannon entropy) role of isotopicity in genetic (e.g. evolutionary and morphological), dynamical (e.g. physiological and neurological) as well as medical (e.g. carcinogenesis, aging) aspects of biology and medicine.

Berezin, Alexander A.

2004-10-01

2

Circulation control STOL aircraft design aspects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since Davidson patented Circulation Control Airfoils in 1960, there have been only 2 aircraft designed and flown with circulation control (CC). Designing with CC is complex for the following reasons: the relation between lift increase and blowing momentum is nonlinear; for good cruise performance one must change the wing geometry in flight from a round to a sharp trailing edge. The bleed air from the propulsion engines or an auxiliary compressor, must be used efficiently. In designing with CC, the propulsion and control aspects are just as important as aerodynamics. These design aspects were examined and linearized equations are presented in order to facilitate a preliminary analysis of the performance potential of CC. The thrust and lift requirements for takeoff make the calculated runway length very sensitive to the bleed air ratio. Thrust vectoring improves performance and can offset nose down pitching moments. The choice of blowing jet to free stream velocity ratio determines the efficiency of applying bleed air power.

Loth, John L.

1987-01-01

3

Plant parasite control and soil fauna diversity.  

PubMed

The use of pesticides to control plant parasites and diseases has generated serious problems of public health and environmental quality, leading to the promotion of alternative Integrated Pest Management strategies that tend to rely more on natural processes and the active participation of farmers as observers and experimenters in their own fields. We present three case studies that point at different options provided by locally available populations of soil organisms, the maintenance of diverse populations of pests or increased resistance of plants to pest attacks by their interactions with earthworms and other useful soil organisms. These examples demonstrate the diversity of options offered by the non-planned agro-ecosystem diversity in pest control and the need to identify management options that maintain this biodiversity. PMID:15344813

Lavelle, Patrick; Blouin, Manuel; Boyer, Johnny; Cadet, Patrice; Laffray, Daniel; Pham-Thi, Anh-Thu; Reversat, Georges; Settle, William; Zuily, Yasmine

2004-07-01

4

Resource availability controls fungal diversity across a plant diversity gradient  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Despite decades of research, the ecological determinants of microbial diversity remain poorly understood. Here, we test two alternative hypotheses concerning the factors regulating fungal diversity in soil. The first states that higher levels of plant detritus production increase the supply of limiting resources (i.e. organic substrates) thereby increasing fungal diversity. Alternatively, greater plant diversity increases the range of organic substrates entering soil, thereby increasing the number of niches to be filled by a greater array of heterotrophic fungi. These two hypotheses were simultaneously examined in experimental plant communities consisting of one to 16 species that have been maintained for a decade. We used ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA), in combination with cloning and sequencing, to quantify fungal community composition and diversity within the experimental plant communities. We used soil microbial biomass as a temporally integrated measure of resource supply. Plant diversity was unrelated to fungal diversity, but fungal diversity was a unimodal function of resource supply. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) indicated that plant diversity showed a relationship to fungal community composition, although the occurrence of RISA bands and operational taxonomic units (OTUs) did not differ among the treatments. The relationship between fungal diversity and resource availability parallels similar relationships reported for grasslands, tropical forests, coral reefs, and other biotic communities, strongly suggesting that the same underlying mechanisms determine the diversity of organisms at multiple scales. ?? 2006 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

Waldrop, M. P.; Zak, D. R.; Blackwood, C. B.; Curtis, C. D.; Tilman, D.

2006-01-01

5

High aspect ratio, remote controlled pumping assembly  

DOEpatents

A miniature dual syringe-type pump assembly is described which has a high aspect ratio and which is remotely controlled, for use such as in a small diameter penetrometer cone or well packer used in water contamination applications. The pump assembly may be used to supply and remove a reagent to a water contamination sensor, for example, and includes a motor, gearhead and motor encoder assembly for turning a drive screw for an actuator which provides pushing on one syringe and pulling on the other syringe for injecting new reagent and withdrawing used reagent from an associated sensor. 4 figs.

Brown, S.B.; Milanovich, F.P.

1995-11-14

6

Ethical aspects of genome diversity research: genome research into cultural diversity or cultural diversity in genome research?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the Human Genome Diversity Project (HGDP) was to reconstruct the history of human evolution and the historical\\u000a and geographical distribution of populations with the help of scientific research. Through this kind of research, the entire\\u000a spectrum of genetic diversity to be found in the human species was to be explored with the hope of generating a better

Ilhan Ilkilic; Norbert W. Paul

2009-01-01

7

[Methodological aspects of controlled psychotherapy trials].  

PubMed

The present paper deals with selected aspects of psychotherapy research. Psychotherapy is an effective treatment approach for mental disorders. Since research in psychotherapy is entirely dependent on public funding, several research questions remain open. Psychotherapy efficacy studies can be conducted in a randomised, but not in a placebo-controlled or double-blind manner. Apart from the effect of psychotherapy on the main outcome variables, one has to differentiate between specific and common factors of psychotherapy. Research in psychotherapy will gain societal relevance only after effective approaches have been successfully implemented in general practice. Transfer studies thus represent a new challenge in psychotherapy research. The funding activity of the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) "Networks in Research on Psychotherapy" made it possible that for the first time large multi-centre psychotherapy studies meeting GCP criteria can be conducted in Germany. These studies will generate highly innovative and in part unique findings. (As supplied by publisher). PMID:23790703

de Zwaan, Martina

2013-01-01

8

Consumer versus resource control of species diversity and ecosystem functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key question in ecology is which factors control species diversity in a community. Two largely separate groups of ecologists have emphasized the importance of productivity or resource supply, and consumers or physical disturbance, respectively. These variables show unimodal relationships with diversity when manipulated in isolation. Recent multivariate models, however, predict that these factors interact, such that the disturbance-diversity relationship

Boris Worm; Heike K. Lotze; Helmut Hillebrand; Ulrich Sommer

2002-01-01

9

Human Factors Aspects of Advanced Process Control  

E-print Network

control and other methods. In this discussion, MIMO algorithms do not include complex control loops which are a combination of SISO (usually PID) loops. Optimization: Optimization control is the use of various methods to adjust the process to obtain... heater. Operator Interface Often the outputs of the MIMO and optimization algorithms are used to manipulate setpoints of individual PID control loops. For e~ample, a column control algorithm may manipulate the setpoints of the reflux flow and heat...

Shaw, J. A.

10

Guidelines on ergonomic aspects of control rooms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The anthropometry, workstation design, and environmental design of control rooms are outlined. The automated interface and VDTs and displays and various modes of communication between the system and the human operator using VDTs are discussed. The man in the loop is examined, the single controller single task framework and multiple controller multiple tasks issues are considered.

Mitchell, C. M.; Bocast, A. K.; Stewart, L. J.

1983-01-01

11

Fundamental aspects of controlled release in foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fundamental equations governing the controlled release of active ingredients and the application of controlled-release technology in food systems are reviewed in this article. The method of microencapsulation, among others, can be applied to achieve controlled release in foods. Some of the release mechanisms employed in the food industry involve one or a combination of the following stimuli: a change

Usha R. Pothakamury; Gustavo V. Barbosa-Cánovas

1995-01-01

12

Some Chemical Aspects Of Kraft Odor Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principal sources of odor in the kraft pulping process are the digester, the direct evaporator, and the recovery furnace. Control of odor from the digester requires the confinement of the noncondensable gases and their destruction by chlorination, burning, or by some other means. Control of odor from the direc’ evaporator depends on efficient black liquor oxidation. The recovery furnace,

Irwin B. Douglass

1968-01-01

13

Selected aspects of tobacco control in Croatia.  

PubMed

This paper seeks to outline the challenges of tobacco consumption control in the transitional economy of Croatia. It focuses on issues of taxation, high unemployment, and smuggling while attempting to meet European Union (EU) accession requirements for tobacco control legislation that reduces smoking consumption. The issue of tobacco control is not a simple one and requires a multi-pronged approach. While Croatia has made good progress in adopting legislation, it needs to strengthen its efforts both in terms of enforcement and increased taxation of cigarettes. PMID:19418720

Loubeau, Patricia R

2009-03-01

14

Human factors aspects of control room design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A plan for the design and analysis of a multistation control room is reviewed. It is found that acceptance of the computer based information system by the uses in the control room is mandatory for mission and system success. Criteria to improve computer/user interface include: match of system input/output with user; reliability, compatibility and maintainability; easy to learn and little training needed; self descriptive system; system under user control; transparent language, format and organization; corresponds to user expectations; adaptable to user experience level; fault tolerant; dialog capability user communications needs reflected in flexibility, complexity, power and information load; integrated system; and documentation.

Jenkins, J. P.

1983-01-01

15

Aspects of modelling and control of bioprocesses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The modelling and control of bioprocesses are the main subjects in this thesis. Different modelling approaches are proposed for different purposes in various bioprocesses. A conventional global model was constructed for a very complex mammalian cell cultu...

X. Zhang

1995-01-01

16

Religion as an aspect of workplace diversity: an examination of the US context and a call for international research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although religion is a significant factor in human behavior and is a protected area under the US Title VII prohibiting employment discrimination, religion is sorely understudied relative to research on other aspects of diversity. As evidenced by increasing legal action, the dynamics of religious diversity are poorly understood and managed in the workplace. In this paper, we compare and contrast

James E. King Jr; Myrtle P. Bell; Ericka Lawrence

2009-01-01

17

An analytical method for comparing natural diversity to DSM controlled diversity  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to report an analytical method of comparing natural diversity with controlled diversity, and to show the results of comparing the peak load resulting from natural diversity in a set of air conditioning units to the peak load that can be achieved with DSM control of the same set of air conditioners. In this study it is assumed that the energy use by the air conditioners is the same in both cases, and under this assumption, an analytical model for finding the probabilities of all the possible peak loads is developed and illustrated in case studies.

Yu, Z.; Breipohl, A.M. Lee, F.N. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States). School of Electrical Engineering; Adapa, R.

1996-08-01

18

Design aspects of MOS controlled thyristor elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors have fabricated 2.5-kV thyristor devices with integrated MOS controlled n+ emitter shorts and a bipolar turn-on gate using a p-channel MOS technology. Square-cell geometries with pitch variations ranging from 15 to 30 ?m were implemented in one- and two-dimensional arrays with up to 20000 units. The impact of the cell pitch on the turn-off performance and the on-state

F. Bauer; P. Roggwiler; A. Aemmer; W. Fichtner; R. Vuilleumier; J. Moret

1989-01-01

19

Caspar Controls Resistance to Plasmodium falciparum in Diverse Anopheline Species  

PubMed Central

Immune responses mounted by the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae are largely regulated by the Toll and Imd (immune deficiency) pathways via the NF-kappaB transcription factors Rel1 and Rel2, which are controlled by the negative regulators Cactus and Caspar, respectively. Rel1- and Rel2-dependent transcription in A. gambiae has been shown to be particularly critical to the mosquito's ability to manage infection with the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei. Using RNA interference to deplete the negative regulators of these pathways, we found that Rel2 controls resistance of A. gambiae to the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, whereas Rel 1 activation reduced infection levels. The universal relevance of this defense system across Anopheles species was established by showing that caspar silencing also prevents the development of P. falciparum in the major malaria vectors of Asia and South America, A. stephensi and A. albimanus, respectively. Parallel studies suggest that while Imd pathway activation is most effective against P. falciparum, the Toll pathway is most efficient against P. berghei, highlighting a significant discrepancy between the human pathogen and its rodent model. High throughput gene expression analyses identified a plethora of genes regulated by the activation of the two Rel factors and revealed that the Toll pathway played a more diverse role in mosquito biology than the Imd pathway, which was more immunity-specific. Further analyses of key anti-Plasmodium factors suggest they may be responsible for the Imd pathway–mediated resistance phenotype. Additionally, we found that the fitness cost caused by Rel2 activation through caspar gene silencing was undetectable in sugar-fed, blood-fed, and P. falciparum-infected female A. gambiae, while activation of the Toll pathway's Rel1 had a major impact. This study describes for the first time a single gene that influences an immune mechanism that is able to abort development of P. falciparum in Anopheline species. Further, this study addresses aspects of the molecular, evolutionary, and physiological consequences of the observed phenotype. These findings have implications for malaria control since broad-spectrum immune activation in diverse anopheline species offers a viable and strategic approach to develop novel malaria control methods worldwide. PMID:19282971

Garver, Lindsey S.; Dong, Yuemei; Dimopoulos, George

2009-01-01

20

Incorporating cultural diversity in randomised controlled trials in midwifery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The randomised controlled trial is currently the ‘gold standard’ that guides health-care practices. The implementation of new models of midwifery care often relies on results from randomised controlled trials. However, many randomised controlled trials exclude women who do not speak English or are designed in such a way that cultural diversity is not facilitated. This can mean that the sample

Caroline Homer

2000-01-01

21

The extension of an analytical method for comparing natural diversity to DSM controlled diversity  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to report the extension of an analytical method of comparing natural diversity with controlled diversity, and to show the results of comparing the peak load resulting from natural diversity in a set of non-identical air conditioning units to the peak load of the same set of air conditioners under DSM control. The Central Limit Theorem for non-identical distributions is used as the theoretical background for the extension. Several case studies are illustrated and the results show that the peak load reduction by direct load control is almost linearly proportional to the increases of the on-time ratios of the air conditioners under control.

Yu, Z.; Breipohl, A.M.; Lee, F.N.1; Adapa, R.

1996-11-01

22

The Leap-Frog Algorithm and Optimal Control: Theoretical Aspects  

E-print Network

The Leap-Frog Algorithm and Optimal Control: Theoretical Aspects C. Yal#24;c#16;n Kaya School@maths.uwa.edu.au Abstract The Leap-Frog Algorithm was originally devised to #12;nd geodesics in connected complete with generalizing the mathematical rigour of the leap-frog algorithm to a class of optimal control problems

Noakes, Lyle

23

Chosen aspects of modeling and control of quadrotor platform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article is presenting the extended model of quadrotor platform together with a bespoken control system based on optimal approach. It highlights particular aspects of the derived model, such as inclusion of rotor gyroscopic effects and thrust generation based on momentum theory. The controller's behavior is tested by simulations. Comparisons with literature-available solutions to the problem of full quadrotor optimal control are made and important differences exposed. Conclusions are drawn and future work proposed.

Zawiski, Rados?aw; B?achuta, Marian

2012-11-01

24

Generation of diversity in a reaction-diffusion-based controller.  

PubMed

A controller of biological or artificial organism (e.g., in bio-inspired cellular robots) consists of a number of processes that drive its dynamics. For a system of processes to perform as a successful controller, different properties can be mentioned. One of the desirable properties of such a system is the capability of generating sufficiently diverse patterns of outputs and behaviors. A system with such a capability is potentially adaptable to perform complicated tasks with proper parameterizations and may successfully reach the solution space of behaviors from the point of view of search and evolutionary algorithms. This article aims to take an early step toward exploring this capability at the levels of individuals and populations by introducing measures of diversity generation and by evaluating the influence of different types of processes on diversity generation. A reaction-diffusion-based controller called the artificial homeostatic hormone system (AHHS) is studied as a system consisting of different processes with various domains of functioning (e.g., internal or external to the control unit). Various combinations of these processes are investigated in terms of diversity generation at levels of both individuals and populations, and the effects of the processes are discussed representing different influences for the processes. A case study of evolving a multimodular AHHS controller with all the various process combinations is also investigated, representing the relevance of the diversity generation measures and practical scenarios. PMID:24730765

Zahadat, Payam; Schmickl, Thomas

2014-01-01

25

Notional Examples and Benchmark Aspects Of a Resilient Control System  

SciTech Connect

Digital control system technology has pervaded most industries, leading to improvements in the efficiency and reliability of the associated operations. However, the ease of distributing and connecting related control systems for the purposes of increasing performance has resulted in interdependencies that can lead to unexpected conditions. Even with less complex designs, operators and engineers alike are often left with competing goals that are difficult to resolve. A fundamental reason for this dichotomy is that responsibilities lie with different disciplines, and operations are hosted on separate control systems. In addition, with the rising awareness of cyber security and diverse human interactions with control systems, an understanding of human actions from a malicious and benevolent standpoint is necessary. Resilience considers the multiple facets of requirements that drive the performance of control systems in a holistic fashion, whether they are security or stability, stability or efficiency, human interactions or complex interdependencies. As will be shown by example, current research philosophies lack the depth or the focus on the control system application to satisfy these requirements, such as graceful degradation of hierarchical control while under cyber attack. A resilient control system promises to purposefully consider these diverse requirements, developing an adaptive capacity to complex events that can lead to failure of traditional control system designs.

Craig. G. Rieger

2010-08-01

26

Slope control on the aspect ratio of river basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

River networks and their drainage basins have attracted a large attention due to their remarkable statistical properties (1-5). For example, although fluvial networks patterns seem to be influenced by diverse geological and climatic processes, the river basins that enclose them appear to mirror each other faithfully. Basin area A and length L of rivers from around the world consistently scale following L=cAexp(h) (2) with h often close to 0.5 (and c a constant) suggesting that river basins are self-similar (1, 6). Likewise, the main river basins that drain linear mountain ranges consistently manifest similar length-width aspect ratios between 1 and 5 (7). These observations question how the interplay between climate and tectonics is reflected in landscapes, and they highlight the challenge of inverting modern landscape records to reveal previous climates and tectonics. The invariance of river basins aspect-ratio is puzzling when compared against observations at smaller spatial scales (<10 km). In analogue experiments, numerical simulations and outcrops, the form of stream networks is influenced by surface slope (8-11). Steep surfaces develop narrow elongate basins with near-parallel rills, whereas flatter surfaces produce wider basins. Initial surface geometry is also important in setting rivers paths and certain landscape properties such as the slope-area relationship (12). Here we thus investigate the form of river basins developed on surfaces longer than 10 kilometres showing limited dissection such that the initial surface slopes can be measured. We find that, as for small scale basins, the form of large scale river basins is controlled by surface slope, with steep slopes developing narrower basins. This observation is interpreted to originate from the nature of water flow over rough surfaces, with steeper slopes causing less flow convergence and longer-narrower basins. We derive an empirical relationship that can be used to infer the slope of a surface on which a river basin acquired its geometry based solely on a measure of its basin form. This relation provides a unique means of inferring the relative chronology of river basin development with respect to surface tilting and therefore provides a direct link between river basin morphology and tectonics. Instead of viewing river basins as largely invariant, this work highlights the differences between basins that bear important information about tectonics and climate. 1.P. S. Dodds, D. H. Rothman, Ann. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 28, 571 (2000). 2.J. T. Hack, US Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap. 294-B, (1957). 3.R. E. Horton, Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 56, 275 (1945). 4.J. W. Kirchner, Geology 21, 591 (1993). 5.I. Rodriguez-Iturbe, A. Rinaldo, Fractal river basins: chance and self-organization. (1997). 6.D. R. Montgomery, W. E. Dietrich, Science 255, 826 (1992). 7.N. Hovius, Basin Res. 8, 29 (1996). 8.R. S. Parker, Hydrology Papers, Colorado State University 90, 58 (1977). 9.J. D. Pelletier, Geomorphology 53, 183 (2003). 10.Schumm, The Fluvial System. (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1977), pp. 338. 11.G. D. H. Simpson, F. Schlunegger, J. Geophys. Res 108, 2300 (2003). 12.N. Schorghofer, D. H. Rothman, Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1633 (2002).

Castelltort, S.; Simpson, G.; Darrioulat, A.

2009-04-01

27

Consumer versus resource control of species diversity and ecosystem functioning.  

PubMed

A key question in ecology is which factors control species diversity in a community. Two largely separate groups of ecologists have emphasized the importance of productivity or resource supply, and consumers or physical disturbance, respectively. These variables show unimodal relationships with diversity when manipulated in isolation. Recent multivariate models, however, predict that these factors interact, such that the disturbance diversity relationship depends on productivity, and vice versa. We tested these models in marine food webs, using field manipulations of nutrient resources and consumer pressure on rocky shores of contrasting productivity. Here we show that the effects of consumers and nutrients on diversity consistently depend on each other, and that the direction of their effects and peak diversity shift between sites of low and high productivity. Factorial meta-analysis of published experiments confirms these results across widely varying aquatic communities. Furthermore, our experiments demonstrate that these patterns extend to important ecosystem functions such as carbon storage and nitrogen retention. This suggests that human impacts on nutrient supply and food-web structure have strong and interdependent effects on species diversity and ecosystem functioning, and must therefore be managed together. PMID:12075351

Worm, Boris; Lotze, Heike K; Hillebrand, Helmut; Sommer, Ulrich

2002-06-20

28

Herbivores and nutrients control grassland plant diversity via light limitation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Human alterations to nutrient cycles and herbivore communities are affecting global biodiversity dramatically. Ecological theory predicts these changes should be strongly counteractive: nutrient addition drives plant species loss through intensified competition for light, whereas herbivores prevent competitive exclusion by increasing ground-level light, particularly in productive systems. Here we use experimental data spanning a globally relevant range of conditions to test the hypothesis that herbaceous plant species losses caused by eutrophication may be offset by increased light availability due to herbivory. This experiment, replicated in 40 grasslands on 6 continents, demonstrates that nutrients and herbivores can serve as counteracting forces to control local plant diversity through light limitation, independent of site productivity, soil nitrogen, herbivore type and climate. Nutrient addition consistently reduced local diversity through light limitation, and herbivory rescued diversity at sites where it alleviated light limitation. Thus, species loss from anthropogenic eutrophication can be ameliorated in grasslands where herbivory increases ground-level light.

Borer, Elizabeth T.; Seabloom, Eric W.; Gruner, Daniel S.; Harpole, W. Stanley; Hillebrand, Helmut; Lind, Eric M.; Alder, Peter B.; Alberti, Juan; Anderson, T. Michael; Bakker, Jonathan D.; Biederman, Lori; Blumenthal, Dana; Brown, Cynthia S.; Brudvig, Lars A.; Buckley, Yvonne M.; Cadotte, Marc; Chu, Cheng-Jin; Cleland, Elsa E.; Crawley, Michael J.; Daleo, Pedro; Damschen, Ellen I.; Davies, Kendi F.; DeCrappeo, Nicole M.; Du, Guozhen; Firn, Jennifer; Hautier, Yann; Heckman, Robert W.; Hector, Andy; HilleRisLambers, Janneke; Iribarne, Oscar; Klein, Julia A.; Knops, Johannes M.H.; La Pierre, Kimberly J.; Leakey, Andrew D.B.; Li, Wei; MacDougall, Andrew S.; McCulley, Rebecca L.; Melbourne, Brett A.; Mitchell, Charles E.; Moore, Joslin L.; Mortensen, Brent; O'Halloran, Lydia R.; Orrock, John L.; Pascual, Jesús; Prober, Suzanne M.; Pyke, David A.; Risch, Anita C.; Schuetz, Martin; Smith, Melinda D.; Stevens, Carly J.; Sullivan, Lauren L.; Williams, Ryan J.; Wragg, Peter D.; Wright, Justin P.; Yang, Louie H.

2014-01-01

29

Ethical and legal aspects of global tobacco control  

PubMed Central

On 28 February 2005, the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control came into force as a result of at least 40 countries becoming State Parties through ratification of this first ever health treaty sponsored by the World Health Organization. This article discusses the bioethical, trade, and legal aspects of global tobacco control. Special emphasis is given to globalisation of tobacco use and the challenges it poses to sovereign nations. It also advocates a bioethical basis in the pursuit of global solutions to expanding tobacco use. PMID:16046698

Novotny, T; Carlin, D

2005-01-01

30

Characteristics associated with the diversion of controlled medications among adolescents  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this study was to estimate the lifetime prevalence of diversion (i.e., trading, selling, giving away or loaning) of four classes of controlled medications (pain, stimulant, anti-anxiety, and sleeping) among adolescents, and to identify demographic and behavioral characteristics of adolescents who divert their own controlled medications. Methods A web-based survey was self-administered by 2744 secondary school students from two southeastern Michigan school districts in 2009–2010. The sample consisted of 51% females, 65% Whites, 29% African-Americans, 4% Asians, 1% Hispanics and 1% from other racial categories. Results Thirty-three percent of the students had ever been prescribed at least one controlled pain, stimulant, anti-anxiety, or sleeping medication. Approximately 13.8% (n = 117) of lifetime prescribed users of controlled medications (n = 848) had ever traded, sold, given away or loaned their medications. Multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that being approached to divert medications, nonmedical use of prescription medications, externalizing behaviors, and being non-White were significantly associated with the diversion of controlled medications. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that the odds of substance use and abuse for lifetime prescribed users who diverted their controlled medications were significantly greater than prescribed users who never diverted. Conclusions The findings indicate that approximately one in seven prescribed users had diverted their controlled medications in their lifetimes. Being approached to divert medications and substance use are more prevalent among adolescents who diverted their controlled medications. Careful assessments, diligent prescribing and monitoring of controlled medications, and continual patient education could be useful in reducing medication diversion. PMID:21665384

McCabe, Sean Esteban; West, Brady T.; Teter, Christian J.; Ross-Durow, Paula; Young, Amy; Boyd, Carol J.

2011-01-01

31

Control aspects of the brushless doubly-fed machine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report covers the investigations into the control aspects of a variable-speed generation (VSG) system using a brushless double-fed generator excited by a series-resonant converter. The brushless double-fed machine comprises two sets of stator 3-phase systems which are designed with common windings. The rotor is a cage rotor resembling the low-cost and robust squirrel cage of a conventional induction machine. The system was actually designed and set up in the Energy Laboratory of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Oregon State University. The series-resonant converter designed to achieve effective control for variable-speed generation with the brushless doubly-fed generator was adequate in terms of required time response and regulation as well as in providing for adequate power quality. The three elements of the VSG controller, i.e., voltage or reactive power controller, the efficiency maximizer and the stabilizer, could be designed using conventional microprocessor elements with a processing time well within the time period required for sampling the variables involved with executing the control tasks. The report treats in detail the stability problem encountered in running the machine at certain speed regions, even if requirements for steady-state stability are satisfied. In this unstable region, shut down of the VSG system is necessary unless proper stabilization controls are provided for. The associated measures to be taken are presented.

Lauw, H. K.; Krishnan, S.

1990-09-01

32

Active Flow Control on a Low Aspect Ratio Finite Cylinder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oftentimes, flow control about bluff bodies is investigated using quasi-2D shapes that ignore end effects, whereas real world objects are finite and thus exhibit significant three-dimensional flow fields. Therefore, synthetic-jets-based active flow control was studied on a finite cylinder of low aspect ratio (AR = 3), which incorporates large-scale end effects that must be taken into consideration. Surface pressure measurements indicated that the flow field was significantly modified by the activation of the synthetic jet actuators, when compared to the unforced case. Even with a small momentum input, the synthetic jets induce a large spanwise effect (i.e., along the cylinder span). This large scale alteration of the flow field was confirmed visually using time-averaged stereoscopic PIV measurements in the near wake, showing significant wake narrowing and vectoring, along with changes to vorticity concentrations and turbulent quantities.

Demauro, Edward; Leong, Chia Min; Amitay, Michael

2011-11-01

33

Cross-CZO Contrasts: Aspect Controls and Critical Zone Architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate aspect controls on Critical Zone (CZ) architecture, mobile regolith transport, and landscape morphology, based on a cross-CZO comparison of 1) Niwot Ridge, Boulder Creek CZO (BcCZO), a high alpine site with minimal soil/veg cover, characterized by steep S-facing and shallow N-facing hillslopes and 2) Shale Hills CZO (SSHCZO), a temperate, densely-forested, soil-mantled site with steep N-facing slopes and shallow S-facing slopes. We use high-resolution 2D seismic tomography of P- and S-wave velocities (Vp, Vs) to characterize CZ architecture and constrain depths of weathering fronts, as well as the thickness, character, and transport efficiency of mobile regolith layers. The 2D imagery allows assessment of changes in material properties both lateral and vertical (depth), thus mapping variability in CZ structures along the survey profile. The combination of Vp and Vs are used to better quantify material properties, (i.e., elastics moduli, density, fractures porosity), rock-mass strength, and weathering intensity - and when applied to the very shallow subsurface can help constrain the transport efficiency (strength or erodibility) of mobile regolith layers On Niwot Ridge, the depth of the weathering front and thickness of mobile regolith are substantially greater on shallower N-facing slopes, consistent with frost/freeze driven processes. However, the depth of the weathering front far exceeds modeled extents of frost-cracking depth (for past or present climates), suggesting additional processes also influence deep weathering. Mobile regolith is considerably thicker on shallow N-facing aspects and composed of large, disintegrated cobbles, however, velocity-based estimates of transport efficiency are higher on S-facing slopes composed of small talus blocks and thin soil/veg cover. Although, thin mobile regolith on S-facing slopes may be weak (slow V), the lower gradient of N-facing slopes and southward asymmetry of the ridge divide, suggests that transport efficiency is greatest on N-facing slopes. This may be explained by the dominance of frost/freeze process, which can readily lift or break, and provide a remarkably efficient process to transport the thick mobile regolith layer of large cobbles. At SSHCZO, depths of weathering fronts are invariant with slope aspect, suggesting that aspect control is not a predominant mechanism driving regolith production. Mobile regolith thickness, however, is more than 2-fold greater on N-facing slopes. Additionally, the mobile regolith on both slope aspects is primarily composed of well-developed soils. N-facing soils are thicker with greater cohesion, moisture, and inclusion of rock fragments. This is consistent with velocity-based estimates of lower transport efficiency on N-facing slopes relative to the thin, dry, fine grained soils on S-facing slopes. These results suggest fundamental differences in CZ architecture, weathering processes, and the influence of slope aspect between BcCZO and SSHCZO

Clarke, B. A.; Kirby, E.; Burbank, D. W.; West, N.

2013-12-01

34

Herbivores and nutrients control grassland plant diversity via light limitation.  

SciTech Connect

Human alterations to nutrient cycles1,2 and herbivore communities3–7 are affecting global biodiversity dramatically2. Ecological theory predicts these changes should be strongly counteractive: nutrient addition drives plant species loss through intensified competition for light, whereas herbivores prevent competitive exclusion by increasing ground-level light, particularly in productive systems8,9. Here we use experimental data spanning a globally relevant range of conditions to test the hypothesis that herbaceous plant species losses caused by eutrophication may be offset by increased light availability due to herbivory. This experiment, replicated in 40 grasslands on 6 continents, demonstrates that nutrients and herbivores can serve as counteracting forces to control local plant diversity through light limitation, independent of site productivity, soil nitrogen, herbivore type and climate. Nutrient addition consistently reduced local diversity through light limitation, and herbivory rescued diversity at sites where it alleviated light limitation. Thus, species loss from anthropogenic eutrophication can be ameliorated in grasslands where herbivory increases ground-level light.

Borer, Elizabeth T. [Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior, University of Minnesota; et al, et al

2014-01-01

35

Controls on development and diversity of Early Archean stromatolites.  

PubMed

The approximately 3,450-million-year-old Strelley Pool Formation in Western Australia contains a reef-like assembly of laminated sedimentary accretion structures (stromatolites) that have macroscale characteristics suggestive of biological influence. However, direct microscale evidence of biology--namely, organic microbial remains or biosedimentary fabrics--has to date eluded discovery in the extensively-recrystallized rocks. Recently-identified outcrops with relatively good textural preservation record microscale evidence of primary sedimentary processes, including some that indicate probable microbial mat formation. Furthermore, we find relict fabrics and organic layers that covary with stromatolite morphology, linking morphologic diversity to changes in sedimentation, seafloor mineral precipitation, and inferred microbial mat development. Thus, the most direct and compelling signatures of life in the Strelley Pool Formation are those observed at the microscopic scale. By examining spatiotemporal changes in microscale characteristics it is possible not only to recognize the presence of probable microbial mats during stromatolite development, but also to infer aspects of the biological inputs to stromatolite morphogenesis. The persistence of an inferred biological signal through changing environmental circumstances and stromatolite types indicates that benthic microbial populations adapted to shifting environmental conditions in early oceans. PMID:19515817

Allwood, Abigail C; Grotzinger, John P; Knoll, Andrew H; Burch, Ian W; Anderson, Mark S; Coleman, Max L; Kanik, Isik

2009-06-16

36

Controls on development and diversity of Early Archean stromatolites  

PubMed Central

The ?3,450-million-year-old Strelley Pool Formation in Western Australia contains a reef-like assembly of laminated sedimentary accretion structures (stromatolites) that have macroscale characteristics suggestive of biological influence. However, direct microscale evidence of biology—namely, organic microbial remains or biosedimentary fabrics—has to date eluded discovery in the extensively-recrystallized rocks. Recently-identified outcrops with relatively good textural preservation record microscale evidence of primary sedimentary processes, including some that indicate probable microbial mat formation. Furthermore, we find relict fabrics and organic layers that covary with stromatolite morphology, linking morphologic diversity to changes in sedimentation, seafloor mineral precipitation, and inferred microbial mat development. Thus, the most direct and compelling signatures of life in the Strelley Pool Formation are those observed at the microscopic scale. By examining spatiotemporal changes in microscale characteristics it is possible not only to recognize the presence of probable microbial mats during stromatolite development, but also to infer aspects of the biological inputs to stromatolite morphogenesis. The persistence of an inferred biological signal through changing environmental circumstances and stromatolite types indicates that benthic microbial populations adapted to shifting environmental conditions in early oceans. PMID:19515817

Allwood, Abigail C.; Grotzinger, John P.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Burch, Ian W.; Anderson, Mark S.; Coleman, Max L.; Kanik, Isik

2009-01-01

37

The Great Diversion: Danube Delta under Human Control (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many deltas around the world are suffering from sediment deficits that render them unstable to current and predicted rates of sea level rise. One solution proposed to alleviate the complete or partial drowning of such deltas is the use of river diversions to increase the quantity of sediment supplied to the delta plain to support marsh accretion. We examine the results of a half century old program of diversion in the Danube delta that led to the creation of an extensive diversion channel network akin in scope and size to a natural deltaic network. Danube’s importance as a shipping route increased after the Crimean War in the 1850s; the European Danube Commission was charged with maintaining the Sulina distributary as a shipping channel until 1940s. In the same period, several canals were dug to aid fishing in lakes and bring freshwater to brackish lagoons. After World War II, Communist authorities dramatically increased the number of canals for fishing, fish-farming and reed harvesting. New data on sedimentation rates and estimates of sediment fluxes suggest that the intensive canalization in the second half of the 20th Century led to increased sediment deposition that compensated the decreasing sediment discharge linked to damming within the internal fluvial part of the delta; however, the external marine delta has become increasingly sediment starved during the same interval. We emphasize the similarities and contrasts between the “human-controlled” and natural deltaic channel networks of the Danube delta and discuss the sustainability of the delta as a sediment budget problem within a sea level rise context.

Giosan, L.

2009-12-01

38

Investigating the Genome Diversity of B. cereus and Evolutionary Aspects of B. anthracis Emergence  

PubMed Central

Here we report the use of a multi-genome DNA microarray to investigate the genome diversity of Bacillus cereus group members and elucidate the events associated with the emergence of B. anthracis the causative agent of anthrax–a lethal zoonotic disease. We initially performed directed genome sequencing of seven diverse B. cereus strains to identify novel sequences encoded in those genomes. The novel genes identified, combined with those publicly available, allowed the design of a “species” DNA microarray. Comparative genomic hybridization analyses of 41 strains indicates that substantial heterogeneity exists with respect to the genes comprising functional role categories. While the acquisition of the plasmid-encoded pathogenicity island (pXO1) and capsule genes (pXO2) represent a crucial landmark dictating the emergence of B. anthracis, the evolution of this species and its close relatives was associated with an overall a shift in the fraction of genes devoted to energy metabolism, cellular processes, transport, as well as virulence. PMID:21447378

Papazisi, Leka; Rasko, David A.; Ratnayake, Shashikala; Bock, Geoff R.; Remortel, Brian G.; Appalla, Lakshmi; Liu, Jia; Dracheva, Tatiana; Braisted, John C.; Shallom, Shamira; Jarrahi, Benham; Snesrud, Erik; Ahn, Susie; Sun, Qiang; Rilstone, Jenifer; ?kstad, Ole Andreas; Kolst?, Anne-Brit; Fleischmann, Robert D.; Peterson, Scott N.

2011-01-01

39

Physical, Consumer, and Social Aspects of Measuring the Food Environment Among Diverse Low-Income Populations  

PubMed Central

Obesity and other diet-related chronic diseases are directly related to the food environment. We describe how to better assess the food environment in specific ethnic minority settings for designing and implementing interventions, based on a review of our previous work on the food environment in American Indian reservations, Canadian First Nations reserves, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and inner-city Baltimore. The types of food stores available within each setting and the range of healthy foods available varied greatly across these geographic regions. In all settings, proximity to food stores/supermarkets, cost, and limited availability of healthful foods were common features, which limited access to health-promoting food options. Features specific to each population should be considered in an assessment of the food environment, including physical (e.g., openness of stores, mix of types of food sources); consumer (e.g., adequacy of the food supply, seasonal factors); and social (e.g., inter-household food sharing, perceptions of food quality, language differences) aspects. The food environments common in low-income ethnic subpopulations require special focus and consideration due to the vulnerability of the populations and to specific and unique aspects of each setting. PMID:19285208

Gittelsohn, Joel; Sharma, Sangita

2011-01-01

40

Diversity Strategies for Nuclear Power Plant Instrumentation and Control Systems  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the technical basis for establishing acceptable mitigating strategies that resolve diversity and defense-in-depth (D3) assessment findings and conform to U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements. The research approach employed to establish appropriate diversity strategies involves investigation of available documentation on D3 methods and experience from nuclear power and nonnuclear industries, capture of expert knowledge and lessons learned, determination of best practices, and assessment of the nature of common-cause failures (CCFs) and compensating diversity attributes. The research described in this report does not provide guidance on how to determine the need for diversity in a safety system to mitigate the consequences of potential CCFs. Rather, the scope of this report provides guidance to the staff and nuclear industry after a licensee or applicant has performed a D3 assessment per NUREG/CR-6303 and determined that diversity in a safety system is needed for mitigating the consequences of potential CCFs identified in the evaluation of the safety system design features. Succinctly, the purpose of the research described in this report was to answer the question, 'If diversity is required in a safety system to mitigate the consequences of potential CCFs, how much diversity is enough?' The principal results of this research effort have identified and developed diversity strategies, which consist of combinations of diversity attributes and their associated criteria. Technology, which corresponds to design diversity, is chosen as the principal system characteristic by which diversity criteria are grouped to form strategies. The rationale for this classification framework involves consideration of the profound impact that technology-focused design diversity provides. Consequently, the diversity usage classification scheme involves three families of strategies: (1) different technologies, (2) different approaches within the same technology, and (3) different architectures within the same technology. Using this convention, the first diversity usage family, designated Strategy A, is characterized by fundamentally diverse technologies. Strategy A at the system or platform level is illustrated by the example of analog and digital implementations. The second diversity usage family, designated Strategy B, is achieved through the use of distinctly different technologies. Strategy B can be described in terms of different digital technologies, such as the distinct approaches represented by general-purpose microprocessors and field-programmable gate arrays. The third diversity usage family, designated Strategy C, involves the use of variations within a technology. An example of Strategy C involves different digital architectures within the same technology, such as that provided by different microprocessors (e.g., Pentium and Power PC). The grouping of diversity criteria combinations according to Strategies A, B, and C establishes baseline diversity usage and facilitates a systematic organization of strategic approaches for coping with CCF vulnerabilities. Effectively, these baseline sets of diversity criteria constitute appropriate CCF mitigating strategies for digital safety systems. The strategies represent guidance on acceptable diversity usage and can be applied directly to ensure that CCF vulnerabilities identified through a D3 assessment have been adequately resolved. Additionally, a framework has been generated for capturing practices regarding diversity usage and a tool has been developed for the systematic assessment of the comparative effect of proposed diversity strategies (see Appendix A).

Wood, Richard Thomas [ORNL; Belles, Randy [ORNL; Cetiner, Mustafa Sacit [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Korsah, Kofi [ORNL; Loebl, Andy [ORNL; Mays, Gary T [ORNL; Muhlheim, Michael David [ORNL; Mullens, James Allen [ORNL; Poore III, Willis P [ORNL; Qualls, A L [ORNL; Wilson, Thomas L [ORNL; Waterman, Michael E. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

2010-02-01

41

Personal and Ideological Aspects of Internal and External Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Factor analysis of Rotter's Internal-External Locus of Control Scale using a national sample replicated the distinction between personal control and control ideology. Personal control, but not control ideology, was related to higher socioeconomic status and mastery efforts over personal environment. External control ideology was related to greater…

Gurin, Patricia; And Others

1978-01-01

42

Analysis of Anoxybacillus Genomes from the Aspects of Lifestyle Adaptations, Prophage Diversity, and Carbohydrate Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Species of Anoxybacillus are widespread in geothermal springs, manure, and milk-processing plants. The genus is composed of 22 species and two subspecies, but the relationship between its lifestyle and genome is little understood. In this study, two high-quality draft genomes were generated from Anoxybacillus spp. SK3-4 and DT3-1, isolated from Malaysian hot springs. De novo assembly and annotation were performed, followed by comparative genome analysis with the complete genome of Anoxybacillus flavithermus WK1 and two additional draft genomes, of A. flavithermus TNO-09.006 and A. kamchatkensis G10. The genomes of Anoxybacillus spp. are among the smaller of the family Bacillaceae. Despite having smaller genomes, their essential genes related to lifestyle adaptations at elevated temperature, extreme pH, and protection against ultraviolet are complete. Due to the presence of various competence proteins, Anoxybacillus spp. SK3-4 and DT3-1 are able to take up foreign DNA fragments, and some of these transferred genes are important for the survival of the cells. The analysis of intact putative prophage genomes shows that they are highly diversified. Based on the genome analysis using SEED, many of the annotated sequences are involved in carbohydrate metabolism. The presence of glycosyl hydrolases among the Anoxybacillus spp. was compared, and the potential applications of these unexplored enzymes are suggested here. This is the first study that compares Anoxybacillus genomes from the aspect of lifestyle adaptations, the capacity for horizontal gene transfer, and carbohydrate metabolism. PMID:24603481

Goh, Kian Mau; Gan, Han Ming; Chan, Kok-Gan; Chan, Giek Far; Shahar, Saleha; Chong, Chun Shiong; Kahar, Ummirul Mukminin; Chai, Kian Piaw

2014-01-01

43

Global environmental controls of diversity in large herbivores.  

PubMed

Large mammalian herbivores occupy half of the earth's land surface and are important both ecologically and economically, but their diversity is threatened by human activities. We investigated how the diversity of large herbivores changes across gradients of global precipitation and soil fertility. Here we show that more plant-available moisture reduces the nutrient content of plants but increases productivity, whereas more plant-available nutrients increase both of these factors. Because larger herbivore species tolerate lower plant nutrient content but require greater plant abundance, the highest potential herbivore diversity should occur in locations with intermediate moisture and high nutrients. These areas are dry enough to yield high quality plants and support smaller herbivores, but productive enough to support larger herbivores. These predictions fit with observed patterns of body size and diversity for large mammalian herbivores in North America, Africa and Australia, and yield a global map of regions with potentially high herbivore diversity. Thus, gradients of precipitation, temperature and soil fertility might explain the global distribution of large herbivore diversity and help to identify crucial areas for conservation and restoration. PMID:11859367

Olff, Han; Ritchie, Mark E; Prins, Herbert H T

2002-02-21

44

Adaptive Fuzzy Control of a Direct Drive Motor: Experimental Aspects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a state feedback adaptive control method for position and velocity control of a direct drive motor. The proposed control scheme allows for integrating heuristic knowledge with mathematical knowledge of a system. It performs well even when mathematical model of the system is poorly understood. The controller consists of an adaptive fuzzy controller and a supervisory controller. The supervisory controller requires only knowledge of the upper bound and lower bound of the system parameters. The fuzzy controller is based on fuzzy basis functions and states of the system. The adaptation law is derived based on the Lyapunov function which ensures that the state of the system asymptotically approaches zero. The proposed controller is applied to a direct drive motor with payload and parameter uncertainty, and the effectiveness is experimentally verified. The real-time performance is compared with simulation results.

Medina, E.; Akbarzadeh-T, M.-R.; Kim, Y. T.

1998-01-01

45

Diversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Look at the following resources to find information about diversity. Use your information to complete the assignment for your class. CIVIL RIGHTS Civil Rights Era Civil Rights Timeline JIM CROW LAWS AND SEGREGATION The Rise and Fall of Jim Crow Jim Crow and Segregation MARTIN LUTHER KING Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Biography Dr. Martin Luther King: I Have a Dream ROSA PARKS Rosa Parks: The Woman Who Changed a Nation Rosa Parks Biography EMMETT TILL The Murder of Emmett Till About African American History: The Biography of Emmett Till THE LITTLE ROCK 9 Little Rock 9 The 1957-1958 School Year School Integration in Little Rock, Arkansas MONTGOMERY BUS BOYCOTT Montgomery Bus Boycott They Changed the World: The Story of the Montgomery Bus Boycott Montgomery Bus Boycott FREEDOM RIDES Freedom Rides SNCC: Freedom Rides WOMEN'S RIGHTS Women s Rights Movement in the US--Timeline Women s Rights: National Historic Park History of the Equal Rights Amendment JAPANESE INTERNMENT Topaz Museum Japanese Relocation Photographs TRAIL OF TEARS Trail of Tears Trail of Tears Era HOLOCAUST Holocaust Encyclopedia The History Place: Holocaust Timeline Holocaust History Project ...

Bates, Albion M.

2007-01-25

46

Preventing Large-Scale Controlled Substance Diversion From Within the Pharmacy  

PubMed Central

Large-scale diversion of controlled substances (CS) from within a hospital or heath system pharmacy is a rare but growing problem. It is the responsibility of pharmacy leadership to scrutinize control processes to expose weaknesses. This article reviews examples of large-scale diversion incidents and diversion techniques and provides practical strategies to stimulate enhanced CS security within the pharmacy staff. Large-scale diversion from within a pharmacy department can be averted by a pharmacist-in-charge who is informed and proactive in taking effective countermeasures. PMID:24421497

Martin, Emory S.; Dzierba, Steven H.; Jones, David M.

2013-01-01

47

Preventing large-scale controlled substance diversion from within the pharmacy.  

PubMed

Large-scale diversion of controlled substances (CS) from within a hospital or heath system pharmacy is a rare but growing problem. It is the responsibility of pharmacy leadership to scrutinize control processes to expose weaknesses. This article reviews examples of large-scale diversion incidents and diversion techniques and provides practical strategies to stimulate enhanced CS security within the pharmacy staff. Large-scale diversion from within a pharmacy department can be averted by a pharmacist-in-charge who is informed and proactive in taking effective countermeasures. PMID:24421497

Martin, Emory S; Dzierba, Steven H; Jones, David M

2013-05-01

48

Path Control In Automated Vehicle Guidance Under Consideration Of Comfort Aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new and efficient control method is presented, which stabilizes an automatically guided vehicle on a nominal trajectory. Besides the task to improve safety in traffic, aspects of road behaviour and consequently of traveling comfort are especially considered. To realize the control system the method of nonlinear decoupling and control is applied. In this context the controlled condition is to

E. Freund; R. Mayr

1992-01-01

49

Spared and impaired aspects of motivated cognitive control in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

The ability to upregulate cognitive control in motivationally salient situations was examined in individuals with schizophrenia (patients) and healthy controls. Fifty-four patients and 39 healthy controls were recruited. A computerized monetary response conflict task required participants to identity a picture, over which was printed a matching (congruent), neutral, or incongruent word. This baseline condition was followed by an incentive condition, in which participants were given the opportunity to win money on reward-cued trials. These reward-cued trials were interleaved with nonreward cued trials. Reaction times (RT) were examined for both incentive context effects (difference in RT between baseline and nonreward cue trials in the incentive condition) and incentive cue effects (difference in RT between nonreward and reward cue trials in the incentive condition). Compared with baseline, controls showed a speeding of responses during both the nonreward (incentive context effect) and reward cued (incentive cue effect) trials during the incentive condition, but with a larger incentive context than incentive cue effect, suggesting a reliance on proactive control strategies. Although patients also showed a speeding of responses to both nonreward and reward cued trials, they showed a significantly smaller incentive context effect than controls, suggesting a reduction in the use of proactive control and a greater reliance on the use of "just-in-time," reactive control strategies. These results are discussed in light of the relationship between motivation and cognitive impairments in schizophrenia, and the potential role of impairments in prefrontally mediated active maintenance mechanisms. PMID:23834064

Mann, Claire L; Footer, Owen; Chung, Yu Sun; Driscoll, Lori L; Barch, Deanna M

2013-08-01

50

Control aspects of photovoltaic/thermal energy systems  

SciTech Connect

Cogeneration of electric and thermal energy through use of combined solar photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collectors is a method for improving the overall efficiency of solar electric energy systems. The control of a PV/T system in general and optimization of performance in particular through use of state space control methods, is addressed in this study. Significant improvement in system performance is noted using optimal control when compared to conventional controllers for deterministic weather forcing functions. Optimal system control, analyzed first through use of Pontryagin's Minimum Principle and then implemented by specification of a performance index and solution of matrix Riccati equations, is shown to be a viable and useful strategy for these hybrid systems.

Bazques, E.O.; Anand, D.K.

1984-08-01

51

Diversity in recognition of glycans by F-type lectins and galectins: molecular, structural, and biophysical aspects.  

PubMed

Although lectins are "hard-wired" in the germline, the presence of tandemly arrayed carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs), of chimeric structures displaying distinct CRDs, of polymorphic genes resulting in multiple isoforms, and in some cases, of a considerable recognition plasticity of their carbohydrate binding sites, significantly expand the lectin ligand-recognition spectrum and lectin functional diversification. Analysis of structural/functional aspects of galectins and F-lectins-the most recently identified lectin family characterized by a unique CRD sequence motif (a distinctive structural fold) and nominal specificity for l-Fuc-has led to a greater understanding of self/nonself recognition by proteins with tandemly arrayed CRDs. For lectins with a single CRD, however, recognition of self and nonself glycans can only be rationalized in terms of protein oligomerization and ligand clustering and presentation. Spatial and temporal changes in lectin expression, secretion, and local concentrations in extracellular microenvironments, as well as structural diversity and spatial display of their carbohydrate ligands on the host or microbial cell surface, are suggestive of a dynamic interplay of their recognition and effector functions in development and immunity. PMID:22973821

Vasta, Gerardo R; Ahmed, Hafiz; Bianchet, Mario A; Fernández-Robledo, José A; Amzel, L Mario

2012-04-01

52

Self-Esteem, Locus of Control and Various Aspects of Psychopathology of Adults with Visual Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The exploratory study presented in this article looks into the possible differences in psychosocial aspects (self-esteem and locus of control) and aspects of psychopathology (depression, anxiety, melancholia, asthenia, and mania) amongst sighted adults and adults with visual impairments. Moreover, the study aims to examine the possible…

Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Paralikas, Theodosis; Barouti, Marialena; Chronopoulou, Elena

2014-01-01

53

Spared and Impaired Aspects of Motivated Cognitive Control in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

The ability to upregulate cognitive control in motivationally salient situations was examined in individuals with schizophrenia (patients) and healthy controls. Fifty-four patients and thirty-nine healthy controls were recruited. A computerized monetary response conflict task required participants to identity a picture, over which was printed a matching (congruent), neutral, or incongruent word. This baseline condition was followed by an incentive condition, in which participants were given the opportunity to win money on reward-cued trials. These reward-cued trials were interleaved with non-reward cued trials. Reaction times (RT) were examined for both incentive context effects (difference in RT between baseline and non-reward cue trials in the incentive condition) and incentive cue effects (difference in RT between non-reward and reward cue trials in the incentive condition). Compared to baseline, controls showed a speeding of responses during both the non-reward (incentive context effect) and reward cued (incentive cue effect) trials during the incentive condition, but with a larger incentive context than incentive cue effect, suggesting a reliance on proactive control strategies. Although patients also showed a speeding of responses to both non-reward and reward cued trials, they showed a significantly smaller incentive context effect than controls, suggesting a reduction in the use of proactive control and a greater reliance on the use of “just-in-time,” reactive control strategies. These results are discussed in light of the relationship between motivation and cognitive impairments in schizophrenia, and the potential role of impairments in prefrontally mediated active maintenance mechanisms. PMID:23834064

Mann, Claire L.; Footer, Owen; Chung, Yu Sun; Driscoll, Lori L.; Barch, Deanna M.

2013-01-01

54

Some Aspects of the Probability Sampling Technique of Controlled Selection  

PubMed Central

Data for the 1961 universe of nonfederal, short-term general medical hospitals in the United States are used to illustrate application of estimation and variance formulas for controlled selection, the probability sampling technique developed by Goodman and Kish. Some advantages of this sampling technique are discussed, and a controlled selection model is described. Comparisons are made between the variances of multiple stratification and those of controlled selection; the variances of the latter are seen to have two components, a between pattern and a within pattern component, where a pattern may be regarded as a first stage sample specifying the number of units to be drawn from each control cell. Three strategies for approximating the sampling variance are investigated. Each is seen to overestimate the per hospital estimate of bed capacity, admissions, and inpatient days, but to underestimate slightly the variance of average length of stay. The report that follows is believed to describe the first experience in programming controlled selection for an electronic computer. Steps in the preparatory work, whether for the manual or for the computer operation, are outlined. Some suggestions for continued program development are made. PMID:5915336

Hess, Irene; Srikantan, K. S.

1966-01-01

55

Control aspects of motor neural prosthesis: sensory interface.  

PubMed

A neural prosthesis (NP) has two applications: permanent assistance of function, and temporary assistance that contributes to long-term recovery of function. Here, we address control issues for a therapeutic NP which uses surface electrodes. We suggest that the effective NP for therapy needs to implement rule-based control. Rule-based control relies on the triggering of preprogrammed sequences of electrical stimulation by the sensory signals. The sensory system in the therapeutic NP needs to be simple for installation, allow self-calibration, it must be robust, and sufficiently redundant in order to guarantee safe operation. The sensory signals need to generate control signals; hence, sensory fusion is needed. MEMS technology today provides sensors that fulfill the technical requirements (accelerometers, gyroscopes, force sensing resistors). Therefore, the task was to design a sensory signal processing method from the mentioned solid state sensors that would recognize phases during the gait cycle. This is necessary for the control of multi channel electrical stimulation. The sensory fusion consists of the following two phases: 1) estimation of vertical and horizontal components of the ground reaction force, center of pressure, and joint angles from the solid-state sensors, and 2) fusion of the estimated signals into a sequence of command signals. The first phase was realized by the use of artificial neural networks and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems, while the second by the use of inductive learning described in our earlier work [1]. PMID:18002969

Popovi?, Dejan B; Dosen, Strahinja; Popovi?, Mirjana B; Stefanovi?, Filip; Kojovi?, Jovana

2007-01-01

56

Some aspects of doping and medication control in equine sports.  

PubMed

This chapter reviews drug and medication control in equestrian sports and addresses the rules of racing, the technological advances that have been made in drug detection and the importance of metabolism studies in the development of effective drug surveillance programmes. Typical approaches to screening and confirmatory analysis are discussed, as are the quality processes that underpin these procedures. The chapter also addresses four specific topics relevant to equestrian sports: substances controlled by threshold values, the approach adopted recently by European racing authorities to control some therapeutic substances, anabolic steroids in the horse and LC-MS analysis in drug testing in animal sports and metabolism studies. The purpose of discussing these specific topics is to emphasise the importance of research and development and collaboration to further global harmonisation and the development and support of international rules. PMID:20020374

Houghton, Ed; Maynard, Steve

2010-01-01

57

Aspects of Numerical Simulation of Circulation Control Airfoils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mass-averaged compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved for circulation control airfoils. Numerical solutions are computed with a multigrid method that uses an implicit approximate factorization smoother. The effects of flow conditions (e.g., free-stream Mach number, angle of attack, momentum coefficient) and mesh on the prediction of circulation control airfoil flows are considered. In addition, the impact of turbulence modeling, including curvature effects and modifications to reduce eddy viscosity levels in the wall jet (i.e., Coanda flow), is discussed. Computed pressure distributions are compared with available experimental data.

Swanson, R. C.; Rumsey, C. L.; Anders, S. G.

2005-01-01

58

Algorithmic aspects of topology control problems for ad hoc networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Topology control problems are concerned with the assignment of power values to the nodes of an ad hoc network so that the power assignment leads to a graph topology satisfying some specified properties. This paper considers such problems under several optimization objectives, including minimizing the maximum power and minimizing the total power. A general approach leading to a polynomial algorithm

Errol L. Lloyd; Rui Liu; Madhav V. Marathe; Ram Ramanathan; S. S. Ravi

2002-01-01

59

Aspects of Genetic Algorithm-Designed Fuzzy Logic Controllers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research described in the report is twofold. First, the basic approach to developing a fuzzy logic controller (FLC) using genetic algorithms (GA's) is presented. The GA-designed FLC is developed for a specific physical system, a pH titration system. S...

C. L. Karr, J. W. Fleming, P. A. Vann

1994-01-01

60

Molecular Aspects of Transport in Thin Films of Controlled Architecture  

SciTech Connect

Our laboratory focuses on developing spatially localized chemistries which can produce structures of controlled architecture on the supermolecular length scale -- structures which allow us to control the motion of molecular species with high spatial resolution, ultimately on nanometer length scales. Specifically, nanocapillary array membranes (NCAMs) contain an array of nanometer diameter pores connecting vertically separated microfluidic channels. NCAMs can manipulate samples with sub-femtoliter characteristic volumes and attomole sample amounts and are opening the field of chemical analysis of mass-limited samples, because they are capable of digital control of fluid switching down to sub-attoliter volumes; extension of analytical “unit operations” down to sub-femtomole sample sizes; and exerting spatiotemporal control over fluid mixing to enable studies of reaction dynamics. Digital flow switching mediated by nanocapillary array membranes can be controlled by bias, ionic strength, or pore diameter and is being studied by observing the temporal characteristics of transport across a single nanopore in thin PMMA membranes. The control of flow via nanopore surface characteristics, charge density and functional group presentation, is being studied by coupled conductivity and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) measurements. Reactive mixing experiments previously established low millisecond mixing times for NCAM-mediated fluid transfer, and this has been exploited to demonstrate capture of mass-limited target species by Au colloids. Voltage and thermally-activated polymer switches have been developed for active control of transport in NCAMs. Thermally-switchable and size-selective transport was achieved by grafting poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) brushes onto the exterior surface of a Au-coated polycarbonate track-etched membrane, while the voltage-gated properties of poly(hydroxyethylmethacrylate) were characterized dynamically. Electrophoretic separations have been coupled to analyte sampling both by LIF and mass spectrometry. Detection of electrophoresis separation products by electrospray mass spectrometry was achieved through direct interfacing to an electrospray mass spectrometer. Pb(II) interactions with the DNAzyme have been realized in an NCAM-coupled integrated microfluidic structure allowing cation separations to be coupled to molecular beacon detection motifs for the determination of Pb(II) in an electroplating sludge reference material. By changing the DNAzyme to select for other compounds of interest, it is possible to incorporate multiple sensing systems within a single device, thereby achieving great flexibility.

Paul W. Bohn

2009-04-16

61

Control aspects of quantum computing using pure and mixed states  

PubMed Central

Steering quantum dynamics such that the target states solve classically hard problems is paramount to quantum simulation and computation. And beyond, quantum control is also essential to pave the way to quantum technologies. Here, important control techniques are reviewed and presented in a unified frame covering quantum computational gate synthesis and spectroscopic state transfer alike. We emphasize that it does not matter whether the quantum states of interest are pure or not. While pure states underly the design of quantum circuits, ensemble mixtures of quantum states can be exploited in a more recent class of algorithms: it is illustrated by characterizing the Jones polynomial in order to distinguish between different (classes of) knots. Further applications include Josephson elements, cavity grids, ion traps and nitrogen vacancy centres in scenarios of closed as well as open quantum systems. PMID:22946034

Schulte-Herbruggen, Thomas; Marx, Raimund; Fahmy, Amr; Kauffman, Louis; Lomonaco, Samuel; Khaneja, Navin; Glaser, Steffen J.

2012-01-01

62

Control aspects of quantum computing using pure and mixed states.  

PubMed

Steering quantum dynamics such that the target states solve classically hard problems is paramount to quantum simulation and computation. And beyond, quantum control is also essential to pave the way to quantum technologies. Here, important control techniques are reviewed and presented in a unified frame covering quantum computational gate synthesis and spectroscopic state transfer alike. We emphasize that it does not matter whether the quantum states of interest are pure or not. While pure states underly the design of quantum circuits, ensemble mixtures of quantum states can be exploited in a more recent class of algorithms: it is illustrated by characterizing the Jones polynomial in order to distinguish between different (classes of) knots. Further applications include Josephson elements, cavity grids, ion traps and nitrogen vacancy centres in scenarios of closed as well as open quantum systems. PMID:22946034

Schulte-Herbrüggen, Thomas; Marx, Raimund; Fahmy, Amr; Kauffman, Louis; Lomonaco, Samuel; Khaneja, Navin; Glaser, Steffen J

2012-10-13

63

Some Aspects of Doping and Medication Control in Equine Sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter reviews drug and medication control in equestrian sports and addresses the rules of racing, the technological\\u000a advances that have been made in drug detection and the importance of metabolism studies in the development of effective drug\\u000a surveillance programmes. Typical approaches to screening and confirmatory analysis are discussed, as are the quality processes\\u000a that underpin these procedures. The chapter

Ed Houghton; Steve Maynard

64

Aspects of droplet and particle size control in miniemulsions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Miniemulsion polymerization has become increasingly popular among researchers since it can provide significant advantages over conventional emulsion polymerization in certain cases, such as production of high-solids, low-viscosity latexes with better stability and polymerization of highly water-insoluble monomers. Miniemulsions are relatively stable oil (e.g., monomer) droplets, which can range in size from 50 to 500 nm, and are normally dispersed in an aqueous phase with the aid of a surfactant and a costabilizer. These droplets are the primary locus of the initiation of the polymerization reaction. Since particle formation takes place in the monomer droplets, theoretically, in miniemulsion systems the final particle size can be controlled by the initial droplet size. The miniemulsion preparation process typically generates broad droplet size distributions and there is no complete treatment in the literature regarding the control of the mean droplet size or size distribution. This research aims to control the miniemulsion droplet size and its distribution. In situ emulsification, where the surfactant is synthesized spontaneously at the oil/water interface, has been put forth as a simpler method for the preparation of miniemulsions-like systems. Using the in situ method of preparation, emulsion stability and droplet and particle sizes were monitored and compared with conventional emulsions and miniemulsions. Styrene emulsions prepared by the in situ method do not demonstrate the stability of a comparable miniemulsion. Upon polymerization, the final particle size generated from the in situ emulsion did not differ significantly from the comparable conventional emulsion polymerization; the reaction mechanism for in situ emulsions is more like conventional emulsion polymerization rather than miniemulsion polymerization. Similar results were found when the in situ method was applied to controlled free radical polymerizations (CFRP), which have been advanced as a potential application of the method. Molecular weight control was found to be achieved via diffusion of the CFRP agents through the aqueous phase owing to limited water solubilities. The effects of adsorption rate and energy on the droplet size and size distribution of miniemulsions using different surfactants (sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS), Dowfax 2A1, Aerosol OT-75PG, sodium n-octyl sulfate (SOS), and sodium n-hexadecyl sulfate (SHS)) were analyzed. For this purpose, first, the dynamics of surfactant adsorption at an oil/water interface were examined over a range of surfactant concentrations by the drop volume method and then adsorption rates of the different surfactants were determined for the early stages of adsorption. The results do not show a direct relationship between adsorption rate and miniemulsion droplet size and size distribution. Adsorption energies of these surfactants were also calculated by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm equation and no correlation between adsorption energy and miniemulsion droplet size was found. In order to understand the mechanism of miniemulsification process, the effects of breakage and coalescence processes on droplet size distributions were observed at different surfactant concentrations, monomer ratios, and homogenization conditions. A coalescence and breakup mechanism for miniemulsification is proposed to explain the size distribution of droplets. The multimodal droplet size distribution of ODMA miniemulsions was controlled by the breakage mechanism. The results also showed that, at a surfactant concentration when 100% surface coverage was obtained, the droplet size distribution became unimodal.

Saygi-Arslan, Oznur

65

Mineralogical Control on Microbial Diversity in a Weathered Granite?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mineral transformation reactions and the behaviour of metals in rock and soils are affected not only by physicochemical parameters but also by biological factors, particularly by microbial activity. Microbes inhabit a wide range of niches in surface and subsurface environments, with mineral-microbe interactions being generally poorly understood. The focus of this study is to elucidate the role of microbial activity in the weathering of common silicate minerals in granitic rocks. A site in the Wicklow Mountains (Ireland) has been identified that consists of an outcrop surface of Caledonian (ca. 400 million years old) pegmatitic granite from which large intact crystals of variably weathered muscovite, plagioclase, K-feldspar and quartz were sampled, together with whole-rock granite. Culture-based microbial approaches have been widely used to profile microbial communities, particularly from copiotrophic environments, but it is now well established that for oligotrophic environments such as those that would be expected on weathering faces, perhaps less than 1% of microbial diversity can be profiled by cultural means. A number of culture-independent molecular based approaches have been developed to profile microbial diversity and community structure. These rely on successfully isolating environmental DNA from a given environment, followed by the use of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify the typically small quantities of extracted DNA. Amplified DNA can then be analysed using cloning based approaches as well as community fingerprinting systems such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) and ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA). Community DNA was extracted and the intergenic spacer region (ITS) between small (16S) and large (23S) bacterial subunit rRNA genes was amplified. RISA fragments were then electrophoresed on a non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel. Banding patterns suggest that the bacterial population in whole rock, which contained approximately 30 separated bands (indicative of the number of bacterial ribotypes), is greater than muscovite (20), K-feldspar (15), and plagioclase feldspar (12) with quartz exhibiting the lowest number (6). These bands were excised from the gel for sequencing, allowing identification of the major populations. An automated approach was also used to assess similarity of bacterial communities present on each sample type, and this allowed for a statistical evaluation of bacterial diversity. Petrographic studies were carried out to assess mineral alteration effects. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to visualise in-situ bacterial cells.

Gleeson, D.; Clipson, N.; McDermott, F.

2003-12-01

66

Behavioral aspects of Angelman syndrome: a case control study.  

PubMed

Angelman syndrome (AS) is a rare congenital disorder characterized by impairments in intellectual, neurological and motor functioning and a postulated behavioral profile. This study compared behavioral characteristics of 62 individuals with genetically confirmed AS and 29 individuals with presumed AS from clinical features, with a control group of young persons with intellectual disability (ID) derived from an Australian epidemiological register. Twelve behavioral items from the developmental behavior checklist (DBC) were used for this comparison. The groups were matched for chronological age, gender, and level of ID. In the AS group, significant differences were found for 10 behaviors, with poor attention span and impulsivity being less common, and overactivity/restlessness, chewing or mouthing objects, eating non-food items, gorging food, food fads, fascination for water, hand flapping and sleep disturbance being more common. Interestingly, there was no difference in prevalence of unprovoked laughter. Comparison of the results of the genetically confirmed with the genetically unconfirmed AS cases showed no significant differences between individual behavior prevalence. These findings show that a "behavioral phenotype" of AS can be distinguished from others of similar level of ID, but it is different from that hitherto published. Abnormal food related behaviors, hyperactivity, fascination for water, hand flapping, and sleep disturbance should be included in a "behavioral phenotype" for AS. Apart from hyperactivity, "ADHD-type" behaviors are not more characteristic of AS than in ID generally. Therefore, the Consensus Criteria for the diagnosis of AS need to be reviewed. PMID:15578589

Barry, Raymond J; Berry, Raymond J; Leitner, Robert P; Clarke, Adam R; Einfeld, Stuart L

2005-01-01

67

APPETITE CONTROL: METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE EVALUATION OF FOODS  

PubMed Central

This report describes a set of scientific procedures used to assess the impact of foods and food ingredients on the expression of appetite (psychological and behavioural). An overarching priority has been to enable potential evaluators of health claims about foods to identify justified claims, and to exclude claims that are not supported by scientific evidence for the effect cited. This priority follows precisely from the principles set down in the PASSCLAIM report. (4) The report allows the evaluation of the strength of health claims, about the effects of foods on appetite, which can be sustained on the basis of the commonly used scientific designs and experimental procedures. The report includes different designs for assessing effects on satiation as opposed to satiety,detailed coverage of the extent to which a change in hunger can stand-alone as a measure of appetite control, and an extensive discussion of the statistical procedures appropriate for handling data in this field of research. Since research in this area is continually evolving, new improved methodologies may emerge over time and will need to be incorporated into the framework. One main objective of the report has been to produce guidance on good practice in carrying out appetite research, and not to set down a series of commandments that must be followed. PMID:20122136

Blundell, John; de Graaf, Cees; Hulshof, Toine; Jebb, Susan; Livingstone, Barbara; Lluch, Anne; Mela, David; Salah, Samir; Schuring, Ewoud; van der Knaap, Henk; Westerterp, Margriet

2013-01-01

68

The influence of positive mood on different aspects of cognitive control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some evidence suggests that positive mood influences cognitive control. The current research investigated whether positive mood has differential effects on two aspects of cognitive control, working memory and prepotent response inhibition. In Study 1, following either a positive or neutral mood induction, participants completed the Running Memory Span (RMS), a measure primarily of working memory storage capacity, and the Stroop

Elizabeth A. Martin; John G. Kerns

2011-01-01

69

Technological aspects of corrosion control in metallic systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three corrosion control technologies were investigated, including the effect of nitrogen on the passivity of chromium in sulfate solutions, possible issues associated with the use of amines in steam turbine environments and the microstructure of naval advanced amorphous coatings. Nitrogen (N) is a minor alloying element commonly used to increase the strength of steels by stabilizing the austenite phase. Physical vapor deposited chromium + nitrogen (0, 6.8 and 8.9 at.%N) coatings were investigated as a model system, to test the model. Because Cr passive films have been observed to be generally n-type semiconductors, an impedance function containing a n-type Faradaic impedance was constructed and optimized to electrochemical impedance spectra for the model system at pH 4,7 and 10 1M sulfate solution at 30°C. An apparent deviation from theory was observed, however. The n-type model predicted steady state currents which were independent of potential, while the observed current densities had a positive correlation with potential. Mott-Schottky analysis revealed that the test potentials were within the n-p transition and p-type potential range, which resolves the apparent deviation. Despite this difficulty, however, the impedance model produced reasonably accurate results, calculating current densities to within one order of magnitude of the measured steady state currents where anodic currents were available and passive film thicknesses on the order of 1-2 nm. Various amines are commonly used to inhibit corrosion in thermal power generation systems, including steam turbines, by increasing the pH. However, during the shutdown phase of the power plant, it is possible for these inhibitors to concentrate and cause corrosion of the turbine rotor. The effect of two ammine inhibitors (monoethanolamine and dimethylamine) on the passivity of ASTM A470/471 steel is investigated in a simulated turbine environment at pH 7, and temperatures of 95°C and at 175°C. Potentiodynamic scans and potentiostatic measurements revealed that the steel depassivated with high (0.1M) concentrations of monoethanolamine, in combination with acetate. Because the steel depassivated at low potentials and at neutral pH, it is unlikely to be acid or transpassive depassivation. The proposed mechanism for this depassivation is resistive depassivation, whereby the potential drop incurred by the precipitated outer-layer robs the barrier layer of the passive film of the potential required to maintain a finite film thickness. High velocity oxy-fuel (HFOV) coatings are employed in maritime environments to protect against corrosion and wear. The performance of such coatings is dominated by flaws in the microstructure, such as porosity, delamination and secondary phases. A nondestructive evaluation technique that is capable of determining the quality of a HVOF coating was developed, based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The EIS measurement was correlated to the microstructure observed via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Because a transmission line model was unable to provide discriminatory information, a convenient mathematical impedance function was constructed, with two separated time constants defined by constant phase elements, with time constants for a "fast" and a "slow" process. Enabling the impedance studies above is a new software package for fitting complicated impedance functions of up to 50 parameters to complex impedance data, developed specifically for this work. The curve-fitting software utilizes differential evolution, an evolutionary algorithm which is relatively new to the field of impedance modeling, enabling the operator to obtain high quality fits without the need for excellent starting guesses, taking trial and error out of the curve-fitting process and vastly improving the man-hour efficiency involved in optimizing complicated impedance functions such as the Faradaic impedance of the Point Defect Model. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Taylor, Matthew Logan

70

Oceanographic controls on the diversity and extinction of planktonic foraminifera.  

PubMed

Understanding the links between long-term biological evolution, the ocean-atmosphere system and plate tectonics is a central goal of Earth science. Although environmental perturbations of many different kinds are known to have affected long-term biological evolution, particularly during major mass extinction events, the relative importance of physical environmental factors versus biological interactions in governing rates of extinction and origination through geological time remains unknown. Here we use macrostratigraphic data from the Atlantic Ocean basin to show that changes in global species diversity and rates of extinction among planktonic foraminifera have been linked to tectonically and climatically forced changes in ocean circulation and chemistry from the Jurassic period to the present. Transient environmental perturbations, such as those that occurred after the asteroid impact at the end of the Cretaceous period approximately 66 million years ago, and the Eocene/Oligocene greenhouse-icehouse transition approximately 34 million years ago, are superimposed on this general long-term relationship. Rates of species origination, by contrast, are not correlated with corresponding macrostratigraphic quantities, indicating that physiochemical changes in the ocean-atmosphere system affect evolution principally by driving the synchronous extinction of lineages that originated owing to more protracted and complex interactions between biological and environmental factors. PMID:23302802

Peters, Shanan E; Kelly, Daniel C; Fraass, Andrew J

2013-01-17

71

Post-Doc en contr^ole applique `a la biologie : aspects theorique et numerique  

E-print Network

Post-Doc en contr^ole appliqu´e `a la biologie : aspects th´eorique et num´erique L'objet de ce cancer. La th´erapie tient lieu alors de contr^ole sur ces syst`emes d'´equations aux d contr^ole et probl`emes inverses des universit´es de Marseille et de l'universit´e de Franche-Comt´e. La

d'Orléans, Université

72

The shifting nature of vegetation controls on peak snowpack with varying slope and aspect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The controls on peak seasonal snowpack are known to shift between forested and open environments as well as with slope and aspect. Peak snowpack is predicted well by interception models under uniformly dense canopy, while topography, wind and radiation are strong predictors in open areas. However, many basins have complex mosaics of forest canopy and small gaps, where snowpack controls involve complex interactions among climate, topography and forest structure. In this presentation we use a new fully distributed tree-scale model to investigate vegetation controls on snowpack for a range of slope and aspect, and we evaluate the energy balance in forest canopy and gap environments. The model is informed by airborne LiDAR and ground-based observations of climate, vegetation and snowpack. It represents interception, snow distribution by wind, latent and sensible heat fluxes, and radiative fluxes above and below the canopy at a grid scale of 1 m square on an hourly time step. First, the model is minimally calibrated using continuous records of snow depth and snow water equivalent (SWE). Next, the model is evaluated using distributed observations at peak accumulation. Finally, the domain is synthetically altered to introduce ranges of slope and aspect. Northerly aspects accumulate greater peak SWE than southerly aspects (e.g. 275 mm vs. 250 mm at a slope of 28 %) but show lower spatial variability (e. g. CV = 0.14 vs. CV = 0.17 at slope of 28 %). On northerly aspects, most of the snowpack remains shaded by vegetation, whereas on southerly aspects the northern portions of gaps and southern forest edges receive direct insolation during late winter. This difference in net radiation makes peak SWE in forest gaps and adjacent forest edges more sensitive to topography than SWE in areas under dense canopy. Tree-scale modeling of snow dynamics over synthetic terrain offers extensive possibilities to test interactions among vegetation and topographic controls.

Biederman, J. A.; Harpold, A. A.; Broxton, P. D.; Brooks, P. D.

2012-12-01

73

Diversity Aspects of Linear and Decision-Feedback Equalizers for Frequency-Selective Multi-Antenna Channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diversity-rate tradeoff was introduced by Zheng and Tse for ML reception in frequency-flat MIMO channels. Since then, some results have been obtained also for the diversity behavior of suboptimal receivers such as linear and decision-feedback equalizers for frequency-selective SIMO channels. However, these results are limited to infinite length equalizers or cyclic prefix systems. In this paper we analyze the

Dirk Slock

2006-01-01

74

Genetic analysis of rice varietal diversity for rice blast control.  

PubMed

Two Indica hybrid rice of Shanyou63 (A) and Shanyou22 (B), two glutinous landraces of Huanghenuo (C) and Zinuo (D) and three improved Japonica rice of Hexi41 (E), Chujing12 (F) and 8126 (G) were selected and their genetic resistance relationship was estimated using resistance gene analogue (RGA). The results showed that there were similar genetic relationships between hybrid varieties at the genetic similarity (GS) of 0.86,and among improved Japonica varieties at the GS of 0.84, while highly genetic diversifications between traditional varieties, Indica and Japonica varieties, traditional and modern variety ( GS:0.45). The results also showed that clustering analysis based on RGA data were generally corresponded to known pedigrees and blast field resistances of the varieties. Based on varietal differences in RGA data and agronomic traits, plot experiments of five mixed-planting combinations of A/C, A/D, B/C, B/D and A/B and two combinations of E/C and E/F/G were conducted in Jianshui and Shiping counties ( Indica rice growing region) and Luxi County (warm Japonica region) in Yunnan Province in past two years, respectively. The results demonstrated that rice blast management was more effective in five mixed-planting combinations of varieties with different genetic backgrounds (GS: 0.45-0.77) than in two combinations with similar genetic relationships (GS: 0.84-0.90), compared with their monocultures. It is evident for the highly susceptible landraces in mixed-planting to achieve disease control, with significant decreases both in incidence and severity. The blast control efficiencies of landraces in different mixture combinations reached to 54.47%-92.18%. The control efficiencies of improved varieties varied from 15.12% to 25.54% in mixture combinations with closed genetic relationship. In addition,the total yield of 5 varietal combinations with distant genetic relationship increased 539.0-904.0 kg/ha in the mixed-planting plots, at increase rates of 5.6%-10.2%. Mixed rice varieties with similar genetic background did not achieve significant yield increase. Otherwise, the yield of E/F/G decreased 2.7%-4.0% compared with pure stand. The results can provide scientific basis of varietal combinations in diversification experiments for blast control. PMID:15473323

Zhu, You-Yong; Sun, Yan; Wang, Yun-Yue; Li, Yan; He, Yue-Qiu; He, Xia-Hong; Mundt, Christopher C; Mew, Tom W; Hei, Leung

2004-07-01

75

BASIC AND CLINICAL ASPECTS OF VERTIGO AND DIZZINESS Posture Control in Vestibular-Loss Patients  

E-print Network

BASIC AND CLINICAL ASPECTS OF VERTIGO AND DIZZINESS Posture Control in Vestibular-Loss Patients of vestibular functions normally replace these by visual or haptic referencing to stationary surroundings not allow patients to fully substitute loss of the vestibular cues. In recent years, four sets

Sergio, Lauren E.

76

Hot and Cool Aspects of Cognitive Control in Children with ADHD: Decision-Making and Inhibition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated hot and cool aspects of cognitive control in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The study aimed to: (1) replicate the postulated response inhibition deficit of children with ADHD; (2) explore whether children with ADHD choose disadvantageously in a decision-making task and to explore the mechanisms underlying the expected response pattern; and (3) study whether performance

Hilde M. Geurts; Saskia van der Oord; Eveline A. Crone

2006-01-01

77

Composite molecular assemblies: nanoscale structural control and spectroelectrochemical diversity.  

PubMed

The controlled deposition of metal complexes from solution on inorganic surfaces offers access to functional materials that otherwise would be elusive. For such surface-confined interfaces to form, specific assembly sequences are often used. We show here that varying the assembly sequence of two well-defined and iso-structural osmium and ruthenium polypyridyl complexes results in interfaces with strikingly different spectroelectrochemical properties. Successive deposition of redox-active layers of osmium and ruthenium polypyridyl complexes, leads to self-propagating molecular assemblies (SPMAs) with distinct internal interfaces and individually addressable components. In contrast, the clear separation of these interfaces upon sequential deposition of these two complexes, results in charge trapping or electrochemical communication between the metal centers, as a function of layer thickness and applied assembly sequence. The SPMAs were characterized using a variety of techniques, including: UV–vis spectroscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry, electrochemistry, synchrotron X-ray reflectivity, angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and spectroelectrochemistry. The combined data demonstrate that the sequence-dependent assembly is a decisive factor that influences and provides the material properties that are difficult to obtain otherwise. PMID:24159900

de Ruiter, Graham; Lahav, Michal; Evmenenko, Guennadi; Dutta, Pulak; Cristaldi, Domenico A; Gulino, Antonino; van der Boom, Milko E

2013-11-01

78

Contr^ole des equations aux derivees partielles aspects theorique et  

E-print Network

Contr^ole des ´equations aux d´eriv´ees partielles ­ aspects th´eorique et num´erique J´er^ome LE ROUSSEAU F´ed´eration Denis-Poisson, MAPMO, Universit´e d'Orl´eans Journ´ee contr^ole du Pole 3 ­ Universit´e d'Orl´eans 1/ 24 J. Le Rousseau Contr^ole des EDP #12;Contr^ole en dimension finie Syst`eme contr

d'Orléans, Université

79

Evolution and diversity of subduction zones controlled by slab width.  

PubMed

Subducting slabs provide the main driving force for plate motion and flow in the Earth's mantle, and geodynamic, seismic and geochemical studies offer insight into slab dynamics and subduction-induced flow. Most previous geodynamic studies treat subduction zones as either infinite in trench-parallel extent (that is, two-dimensional) or finite in width but fixed in space. Subduction zones and their associated slabs are, however, limited in lateral extent (250-7,400 km) and their three-dimensional geometry evolves over time. Here we show that slab width controls two first-order features of plate tectonics-the curvature of subduction zones and their tendency to retreat backwards with time. Using three-dimensional numerical simulations of free subduction, we show that trench migration rate is inversely related to slab width and depends on proximity to a lateral slab edge. These results are consistent with retreat velocities observed globally, with maximum velocities (6-16 cm yr(-1)) only observed close to slab edges (<1,200 km), whereas far from edges (>2,000 km) retreat velocities are always slow (<2.0 cm yr(-1)). Models with narrow slabs (< or =1,500 km) retreat fast and develop a curved geometry, concave towards the mantle wedge side. Models with slabs intermediate in width ( approximately 2,000-3,000 km) are sublinear and retreat more slowly. Models with wide slabs (> or =4,000 km) are nearly stationary in the centre and develop a convex geometry, whereas trench retreat increases towards concave-shaped edges. Additionally, we identify periods (5-10 Myr) of slow trench advance at the centre of wide slabs. Such wide-slab behaviour may explain mountain building in the central Andes, as being a consequence of its tectonic setting, far from slab edges. PMID:17361181

Schellart, W P; Freeman, J; Stegman, D R; Moresi, L; May, D

2007-03-15

80

Initial Performance of the Attitude Control and Aspect Determination Subsystems on the Chandra Observatory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aspect determination system of the Chandra X-ray Observatory plays a key role in realizing the full potential of Chandra's X-ray optics and detectors. We review the performance of the spacecraft hardware components and sub-systems, which provide information for both real time control of the attitude and attitude stability of the Chandra Observatory and also for more accurate post-facto attitude reconstruction. These flight components are comprised of the aspect camera (star tracker) and inertial reference units (gyros), plus the fiducial lights and fiducial transfer optics which provide an alignment null reference system for the science instruments and X-ray optics, together with associated thermal and structural components. Key performance measures will be presented for aspect camera focal plane data, gyro performance both during stable pointing and during maneuvers, alignment stability and mechanism repeatability.

Cameron, R.; Aldcroft, T.; Podgorski, W. A.; Freeman, M. D.

2000-01-01

81

Snail Coordinately Regulates Downstream Pathways to Control Multiple Aspects of Mammalian Neural Precursor Development  

PubMed Central

The Snail transcription factor plays a key role in regulating diverse developmental processes but is not thought to play a role in mammalian neural precursors. Here, we have examined radial glial precursor cells of the embryonic murine cortex and demonstrate that Snail regulates their survival, self-renewal, and differentiation into intermediate progenitors and neurons via two distinct and separable target pathways. First, Snail promotes cell survival by antagonizing a p53-dependent death pathway because coincident p53 knockdown rescues survival deficits caused by Snail knockdown. Second, we show that the cell cycle phosphatase Cdc25b is regulated by Snail in radial precursors and that Cdc25b coexpression is sufficient to rescue the decreased radial precursor proliferation and differentiation observed upon Snail knockdown. Thus, Snail acts via p53 and Cdc25b to coordinately regulate multiple aspects of mammalian embryonic neural precursor biology. PMID:24719096

Zander, Mark A.; Burns, Sarah E.; Yang, Guang; Kaplan, David R.

2014-01-01

82

Nutritional and cultural aspects of plant species selection for a controlled ecological life support system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of using higher plants in a controlled ecological life support system is discussed. Aspects of this system considered important in the use of higher plants include: limited energy, space, and mass, and problems relating to cultivation and management of plants, food processing, the psychological impact of vegetarian diets, and plant propagation. A total of 115 higher plant species are compared based on 21 selection criteria.

Hoff, J. E.; Howe, J. M.; Mitchell, C. A.

1982-01-01

83

Maneuvering Aspects and 3D Effects of Active Airfoil Flow Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

An active flow control experiment was conducted on a cropped NACA 0018 airfoil to study 3D effects and maneuverability aspects\\u000a made possible by a segmented actuation system installed in the airfoil. The 14 piezo-fluidic actuators were installed at the\\u000a corner of the cropped region, inclined at 30° to the local surface, facing downstream. Operating all actuators at unison significantly\\u000a increased

Itay Timor; Eli Ben-Hamou; Yair Guy; Avi Seifert

2007-01-01

84

Operational and research aspects of a radio-controlled model flight test program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The operational and research aspects of a subscale, radio-controlled model flight test program are presented. By using low-cost free-flying models, an approach was developed for obtaining research-quality vehicle performance and aerodynamic information. The advantages and limitations learned by applying this approach to a specific flight test program are described. The research quality of the data acquired shows that model flight testing is practical for obtaining consistent and repeatable flight data.

Budd, Gerald D.; Gilman, Ronald L.; Eichstedt, David

1993-01-01

85

Effect of Aspect Ratio on the Low-Speed Lateral Control Characteristics of Untapered Low-Aspect-Ratio Wings Equipped with Flap and with Retractable Ailerons  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A low-speed wind-tunnel investigation was made to determine the lateral control characteristics of a series of untapered low-aspect-ratio wings. Sealed flap ailerons of various spans and spanwise locations were investigated on unswept wings of aspect ratios 1.13, 1.13, 4.13, and 6.13; and various projections of 0.60-semispan retractable ailerons were investigated on the unsweptback wings of aspect ratios 1.13, 2.13, and 4.13 and on a 45 degree sweptback wing. The retractable ailerons investigated on the unswept wings spanned the outboard stations of each wing; whereas the plain and stepped retractable ailerons investigated on the sweptback wing were located at various spanwise stations. Design charts based on experimental results are presented for estimating the flap aileron effectiveness for low-aspect-ratio, untapered, unswept.

Fischel, Jack; Naeseth, Rodger L; Hagerman, John R; O'Hare, William M

1952-01-01

86

Predator diversity stabilizes and strengthens trophic control of a keystone grazer.  

PubMed

Despite the global vulnerability of predators to extinction, and the critical functional role they play in many ecosystems, there have been few realistic tests of the consequences of predator species deletion (conversely, predator diversity) in natural ecosystems. We performed a four-month field experiment in a southeastern United States salt marsh to test the role of predatory crab diversity in regulating populations of a keystone grazer that can decimate marsh vegetation at high densities. Our results revealed that a combination of this system's two resident predator species, in comparison to individual species, both stabilize and strengthen predation rates on the potent grazer. Monthly monitoring of predation rates from intense, hot summer months into the cooler autumn indicate this diversity benefit arises from predators responding differentially to changing environmental conditions across seasons. This study provides some of the first experimental field support for the insurance hypothesis from marine ecosystems, suggests that predator temporal complementarity may be more common than currently perceived, and argues for conservation of predator diversity to ensure reliable and effective control of potentially habitat-destroying grazers. PMID:20739314

Griffin, John N; Silliman, Brian R

2011-02-23

87

Legal aspects of public health: difficulties in controlling vector-borne and zoonotic diseases in Brazil.  

PubMed

In recent years, vector-borne and zoonotic diseases have become a major challenge for public health. Dengue fever and leptospirosis are the most important communicable diseases in Brazil based on their prevalence and the healthy life years lost from disability. The primary strategy for preventing human exposure to these diseases is effective insect and rodent control in and around the home. However, health authorities have difficulties in controlling vector-borne and zoonotic diseases because residents often refuse access to their homes. This study discusses aspects related to the activities performed by Brazilian health authorities to combat vector-borne and zoonotic diseases, particularly difficulties in relation to the legal aspect, which often impede the quick and effective actions of these professionals. How might it be possible to reconcile the need to preserve public health and the rule on the inviolability of the home, especially in the case of abandoned properties or illegal residents and the refusal of residents to allow the health authority access? Do residents have the right to hinder the performance of health workers even in the face of a significant and visible focus of disease transmission? This paper argues that a comprehensive legal plan aimed at the control of invasive vector-borne and zoonotic diseases including synanthropic animals of public health importance should be considered. In addition, this paper aims to bridge the gap between lawyers and public health professionals and to facilitate communication between them. PMID:25051187

Mendes, Marcílio S; de Moraes, Josué

2014-11-01

88

Radiation control aspects of the civil construction for a high power free electron laser (FEL) facility  

SciTech Connect

The paper discusses some of the assumptions and methods employed for the control of ionizing radiation in the specifications for the civil construction of a planned free electron laser facility based on a 200 MeV, 5 mA superconducting recirculation electron accelerator. Consideration is given firstly to the way in which the underlying building configuration and siting aspects were optimized on the basis of the early assumptions of beam loss and radiation goals. The various design requirements for radiation protection are then considered, and how they were folded into an aesthetically pleasing and functional building.

Dunn, T.; Neil, G.; Stapleton, G.

1996-12-31

89

Tree community diversity of lowland swamp forest in Northeast Costa Rica, and changes associated with controlled selective logging  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Atlantic lowlands of Northeast Costa Rica, logging occurs in tracts of poorly drained wet forest ('swamp forest'), yet little is known about factors affecting swamp forest diversity or the potential for biodiversity retention during harvest. This paper quantitatively describes the species composition and diversity of the swamp forest habitat, and reports the immediate impact of controlled, selective logging

Edward L. Webb; Rodolfo Peralta

1998-01-01

90

Biodiversity in riverbank techniques for erosion control: assessment of animal and plant species diversity along a natural gradient.  

E-print Network

and ecological succession processes. We compared plant species diversity and animal taxonomic diversity aboveBiodiversity in riverbank techniques for erosion control: assessment of animal and plant species * Corresponding author: paul.cavaille@cemagref.fr Keywords: beetles, biodiversity, ecological restoration, plant

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

91

Overview of environmental control aspects for the gas-cooled fast reactor  

SciTech Connect

Environmental control aspects relating to release of radionuclides have been analyzed for the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR). Information on environmental control systems was obtained for the most recent GCFR designs, and was used to evaluate the adequacy of these systems. The GCFR has been designed by the General Atomic Company as an alternative to other fast breeder reactor designs, such as the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR). The GCFR design includes mixed oxide fuel and helium coolant. The environmental impact of expected radionuclide releases from normal operation of the GCFR was evaluated using estimated collective dose equivalent commitments resulting from 1 year of plant operation. The results were compared to equivalent estimates for the Light Water Reactor (LWR) and High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR). A discussion of uncertainties in system performances, tritium production rates, and radiation quality factors for tritium is included.

Nolan, A.M.

1981-05-01

92

Performance Analysis of Fully Joint Diversity Combining, Adaptive Modulation, and Power Control Schemes  

E-print Network

), Helsinki, Finland, June 2001, pp. 570?574. [13] N. Belhaj, N. Hamdi, M.-S. Alouini, and A. Bouallegue, ?Low-power minimum estimation and combining with adaptive modulation,? in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. on Signal Processing and Its Applications (ISSPA?05..., ?Diversity combining with up-link power control,? in Proc. IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, Helsinki, Finland, September 2006, pp. 1?5. [17] A. Gjendemsj?, H. C. Yang, G. E. ?ien, and M.-S. Alouini, ?Minimum...

Bouida, Zied

2010-01-14

93

Evaluating controls on the aspect dependence of earthflows in the central California Coast Ranges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthflows are an important mass-wasting process in many mountainous landscapes. In addition to radically changing the fabric of the landscape and damaging man-made infrastructure, earthflows deliver, for their area, a disproportionately large sediment load to rivers. In California, earthflows are typically restricted to clay-rich and mechanically-weak lithologies, such as the Franciscan mélange. In addition, several studies have observed that earthflows in California favor south-facing slopes, even in settings with spatially-uniform lithology. This fundamental observation remains largely unexplained under the current understanding of earthflow behavior. Here, we evaluate the controls on the aspect dependence of earthflows in the Alameda Creek watershed near Fremont, California, where many large, but relatively inactive earthflows are observed in the Franciscan mélange. We first apply spectral analysis to LiDAR-derived digital elevation models to objectively map the topographic signature of landslides and determine the degree of aspect dependence. We then explore several hypotheses that can explain our observation that earthflows tend to form on south-facing slopes, including: (1) lack of dense vegetation and trees with slope-stabilizing root systems on south-facing slopes; (2) higher pore fluid pressures due to relatively lower rates of evapotranspiration on sparsely vegetated south-facing slopes; (3) increased dessication and/or deformation cracking on south-facing earthflow surfaces, creating fast-flow pathways into the interior of landslides.

Nereson, A. L.; Finnegan, N. J.; Booth, A. M.

2013-12-01

94

Controlled Substances Office of Diversion Control U.S. Dept of Justice  

E-print Network

accepted medical use in treatment in the United States, and there is a lack of accepted safety for use of the drug or other substance under medical supervision. Some examples of substances listed in schedule I are: heroin, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), marijuana (cannabis), peyote, ecstasy. Schedule II Controlled

Barrash, Warren

95

Increasing Ethnic Diversity in Cancer Control Research: Description and Impact of a Model Training Program  

PubMed Central

Background There is little ethnic diversity at the doctoral level among researchers in cancer control. The Minority Training Program in Cancer Control Research is designed to encourage underrepresented master's level health science students to pursue doctoral training and careers in research. Methods Program components include an annual 5-day summer institute, internships, and doctoral incentive awards. Intention to pursue doctoral training is measured before and after participation. Doctoral applications and enrollment are tracked through annual surveys. Results Seventy students participated during the first three years, 1999-2001. Intention to apply increased significantly for each class (year one, p < 0.001; year two, p = 0.042; year three, p = 0.006). Thirty-one percent of participants have either enrolled in doctoral programs (n = 10) or report plans to apply in the next one to two years (n = 9). Over half of these students indicated that the MTPCCR had a positive influence on their plans. Conclusions A targeted training program encourages under-represented students to pursue doctoral degrees and thus has the potential to increase ethnic diversity in public health research. PMID:12888379

Pasick, Rena J.; Otero-Sabogal, Regina; Nacionales, Mary Cheryl B.; Banks, Priscilla J.

2013-01-01

96

On diversity in the terminology concerning inhibitory stimulus control: Implications for practitioners of applied behavior analysis  

PubMed Central

The multiplicity of terms employed in the literature of behavior analysis to tact stimuli associated with inhibition effects is considered. It is submitted that whereas there is diversity in the conditioning histories associated with inhibitory stimulus control, there is commonality in the controlling properties invested in contiguous stimuli by those various histories. The author contends that there is heuristic value in organizing the scientific language of behavior analysts on this topic around inhibition as a process. It is further suggested that the many tacts for inhibition-related stimuli, divided as they are along what might be called procedural lines, distract from what is argued here to be the core operation, viz., stimulus mediated inhibition. PMID:22477536

Woods, Thomas S.

1987-01-01

97

Impaired and preserved aspects of independent finger control in patients with cerebellar damage.  

PubMed

The influence of the cerebellum on independent finger control has rarely been investigated. We examined multidigit control in 22 patients with cerebellar degeneration, 20 patients with cerebellar stroke, and 21 patients with surgical lesions after cerebellar tumor removal. In the first task, either the index finger or the middle finger was actively lifted from an object during static holding. Both controls and cerebellar patients increased the forces of the nearby digits in synchrony with lift-off to maintain the total finger force. Patients used increased finger forces but showed no significant deficits in the pattern and timing of rearrangement of finger forces. In the second task, subjects had to press and release one finger against a force-sensitive keypad with the other fingers being inactive. All patient groups showed increased force production of the noninstructed (enslaved) fingers compared with controls. Lesion-symptom mapping in the focal patients revealed that lesions of the superior hand area were related to abnormal levels of enslaving. Increased finger forces in the finger-lifting task likely reflect an unspecific safety strategy. Increased effects of enslaving in the individuated key-press task, however, may be explained by a deterioration of cerebellar contribution to feedforward commands necessary to suppress activity in noninstructed fingers or by increased spread of the motor command intended for the instructed finger. Despite the large and diverse patient sample, surprisingly few abnormalities were observed. Both holding an object and finger typing are overlearned, automatized motor tasks, which may not or little depend on the integrity of the cerebellum. PMID:22114161

Brandauer, B; Hermsdörfer, J; Geissendörfer, T; Schoch, B; Gizewski, E R; Timmann, D

2012-02-01

98

A review of the book "Computational aspects of linear control" by Claude Brezinski, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 2002.  

E-print Network

A review of the book "Computational aspects of linear control" by Claude Brezinski, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 2002. Computer-aided control system design packages make extensive use of modern computational techniques studied and developed by numerical analysts. The main reason why state-space methods

Henrion, Didier

99

Adaptive AFM scan speed control for high aspect ratio fast structure tracking.  

PubMed

Improved imaging rates in Atomic Force Microscopes (AFM) are of high interest for disciplines such as life sciences and failure analysis of semiconductor wafers, where the sample topology shows high aspect ratios. Also, fast imaging is necessary to cover a large surface under investigation in reasonable times. Since AFMs are composed of mechanical components, they are associated with comparably low resonance frequencies that undermine the effort to increase the acquisition rates. In particular, high and steep structures are difficult to follow, which causes the cantilever to temporarily loose contact to or crash into the sample. Here, we report on a novel approach that does not affect the scanner dynamics, but adapts the lateral scanning speed of the scanner. The controller monitors the control error signal and, only when necessary, decreases the scan speed to allow the z-piezo more time to react to changes in the sample's topography. In this case, the overall imaging rate can be significantly increased, because a general scan speed trade-off decision is not needed and smooth areas are scanned fast. In contrast to methods trying to increase the z-piezo bandwidth, our method is a comparably simple approach that can be easily adapted to standard systems. PMID:25362402

Ahmad, Ahmad; Schuh, Andreas; Rangelow, Ivo W

2014-10-01

100

Adaptive AFM scan speed control for high aspect ratio fast structure tracking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improved imaging rates in Atomic Force Microscopes (AFM) are of high interest for disciplines such as life sciences and failure analysis of semiconductor wafers, where the sample topology shows high aspect ratios. Also, fast imaging is necessary to cover a large surface under investigation in reasonable times. Since AFMs are composed of mechanical components, they are associated with comparably low resonance frequencies that undermine the effort to increase the acquisition rates. In particular, high and steep structures are difficult to follow, which causes the cantilever to temporarily loose contact to or crash into the sample. Here, we report on a novel approach that does not affect the scanner dynamics, but adapts the lateral scanning speed of the scanner. The controller monitors the control error signal and, only when necessary, decreases the scan speed to allow the z-piezo more time to react to changes in the sample's topography. In this case, the overall imaging rate can be significantly increased, because a general scan speed trade-off decision is not needed and smooth areas are scanned fast. In contrast to methods trying to increase the z-piezo bandwidth, our method is a comparably simple approach that can be easily adapted to standard systems.

Ahmad, Ahmad; Schuh, Andreas; Rangelow, Ivo W.

2014-10-01

101

A layman's guide to constitutional aspects of international arms control agreements involving the United States  

SciTech Connect

An initial assessment has been conducted to examine the legal implications and complexities that must be understood and evaluated should the facilities and contractors of the US Department of Energy (DOE) not be exempted from on-site inspections (OSIs) conducted by the Soviet Union under the pending Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START) Treaty or under future arms control treaties. The assessment looks at the Fourth Amendment rights (right to be secure from unreasonable searches and seizures) of parties at government-owned; government-owned, contractor-operated (GOCO); and private sector facilities that are candidates for Soviet suspect site inspections (SSIs). In particular, the assessment examines the legal consequences of putting at risk classified information designated as either National Security Information (NSI), as cited in relevant executive orders, and/or Restricted Data (RD), which is defined in the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 as amended. Given the potential risk of inadvertent losses of RD and other classified information at DOE sites during OSIs, the Division of Policy and Technical Analysis of DOE's Office of Arms Control (OAC) commissioned this study to aid in understanding some of the legal aspects that must be considered to prepare DOE facilities for possible future OSIs.

Scheinman, L.

1988-12-01

102

Environmental controls on dominance and diversity of woody plant species in a Madrean, Sky Island ecosystem, Arizona, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sky Island archipelagos of the Sierra Madre Occidental contain diverse, highly endemic, and topographically complex ecosystems,\\u000a yet the local and landscape-scale controls on woody plant dominance and diversity patterns are poorly understood. This study\\u000a examines variation in woody plant species composition in relation to a suite of environmental variables (i.e., elevation,\\u000a potential soil moisture, soil type, geologic substrate, and

Helen M. Poulos; Alan H. Taylor; R. Matthew Beaty

2007-01-01

103

Diverse neuronal lineages make stereotyped contributions to the Drosophila locomotor control center, the central complex  

PubMed Central

Summary The Drosophila central brain develops from a fixed number of neuroblasts. Each neuroblast makes a clone of neurons that exhibit common trajectories. Here we identified 15 distinct clones that carry larval-born neurons innervating the Drosophila central complex (CX), which consists of four midline structures including the protocerebral bridge (PB), fan-shape body (FB), ellipsoid body (EB), and noduli (NO). Clonal analysis revealed that the small-field CX neurons, which establish intricate projections across different CX substructures, exist in four isomorphic groups that respectively derive from four complex posterior asense-negative lineages. About the region-characteristic large-field CX neurons, we found that two lineages make PB neurons, ten lineages produce FB neurons, three lineages generate EB neurons, and two lineages yield NO neurons. The diverse FB developmental origins reflect the discrete input pathways for different FB subcompartments. Clonal analysis enlightens both development and anatomy of the insect locomotor control center. PMID:23696496

He, Yisheng; Ding, Peng; Kao, Jui-Chun; Lee, Tzumin

2013-01-01

104

Antibody Diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three important aspects of immunoglobulin gene organization and structure have emerged from studies of cloned immunoglobulin kappa chain genes. (i) Multiple variable genes are encoded separately in the genome of both immunoglobulin-producing and uncommitted (embryonic) cells, thereby establishing the evolutionary base for generating immunoglobulin diversity. (ii) These genes exist as many small, closely related families (subgroups) that share close sequence

J. G. Seidman; Aya Leder; Marion Nau; Barbara Norman; Philip Leder

1978-01-01

105

Behavioral and technological interventions targeting glycemic control in a racially/ethnically diverse population: a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetes self-care by patients has been shown to assist in the reduction of disease severity and associated medical costs. We compared the effectiveness of two different diabetes self-care interventions on glycemic control in a racially/ethnically diverse population. We also explored whether reductions in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) will be more marked in minority persons. Methods We conducted an open-label randomized controlled trial of 376 patients with type 2 diabetes aged ?18 years and whose last measured HbA1c was ?7.5% (?58 mmol/mol). Participants were randomized to: 1) a Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP; n = 101); 2) a diabetes self-care software on a personal digital assistant (PDA; n = 81); 3) a combination of interventions (CDSMP + PDA; n = 99); or 4) usual care (control; n = 95). Enrollment occurred January 2009-June 2011 at seven regional clinics of a university-affiliated multi-specialty group practice. The primary outcome was change in HbA1c from randomization to 12 months. Data were analyzed using a multilevel statistical model. Results Average baseline HbA1c in the CDSMP, PDA, CDSMP + PDA, and control arms were 9.4%, 9.3%, 9.2%, and 9.2%, respectively. HbA1c reductions at 12 months for the groups averaged 1.1%, 0.7%, 1.1%, and 0.7%, respectively and did not differ significantly from baseline based on the model (P = .771). Besides the participants in the PDA group reporting eating more high-fat foods compared to their counterparts (P < .004), no other significant differences were observed in participants’ diabetes self-care activities. Exploratory sub-analysis did not reveal any marked reductions in HbA1c for minority persons but rather modest reductions for all racial/ethnic groups. Conclusions Although behavioral and technological interventions can result in some modest improvements in glycemic control, these interventions did not fare significantly better than usual care in achieving glycemic control. More research is needed to understand how these interventions can be most effective in clinical practice. The reduction in HbA1c levels found in our control group that received usual care also suggests that good routine care in an integrated healthcare system can lead to better glycemic control. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01221090. PMID:24450992

2014-01-01

106

Rates and environmental controls of sediment N and S cycles in diverse aquatic ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chuanhui Gu and Celine Pallud Recent studies of coupled NO3- driven SO42- production found chemolithoautotrophic bacterial metabolism may remove NO3- by coupling its reduction with the oxidation of reduced S to SO42-. The objectives of this study were to investigate the magnitude and interaction of NO3- and SO42- metabolic rates (e.g. nitrate reduction rate, ammonium production rate, sulfate production rate, and sulfate reduction rate, etc) across diverse freshwater, saline, and hypersaline water systems. Metabolic rates of major N and S cycles were measured on intact sediment cores using flow through reactors. Single TEA (i.e.NO3- or SO42-) addition and simultaneous TEAs addition caused a variety of responses in the N and S metabolic rates. We used a multivariate statistics tool, redundancy analysis, to access how environmental factors might control the variability of these metabolic rates. Our analysis showed pH, overlying water SO42- concentration, and salinity were three dominant environmental factors that control the N and S metabolic rates. The three factors combined explained 62% of variance of the metabolic rates. When NO3- and SO42- were both present, however, sediment As content, grain size, and N content determined the variability of the metabolic rates. These three factors together accounted for 58% of total variance of the metabolic rates. The different sets of environmental controls over the N and S metabolic rates under single TEA vs. two TEA conditions indicate the interior coupling between N and S cycles. These results showed there is no single set of environmental variables that can be used to predict the spatial variability of N and S metabolic rates, and controls on N processing in landscape subject to S and N pollution are more complex than previously appreciated.

Gu, C.; Pallud, C. E.

2010-12-01

107

Bacterial Community Structure of Acid-Impacted Lakes: What Controls Diversity?? †  

PubMed Central

Although it is recognized that acidification of freshwater systems results in decreased overall species richness of plants and animals, little is known about the response of aquatic microbial communities to acidification. In this study we examined bacterioplankton community diversity and structure in 18 lakes located in the Adirondack Park (in the state of New York in the United States) that were affected to various degrees by acidic deposition and assessed correlations with 31 physical and chemical parameters. The pH of these lakes ranged from 4.9 to 7.8. These studies were conducted as a component of the Adirondack Effects Assessment Program supported by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Thirty-one independent 16S rRNA gene libraries consisting of 2,135 clones were constructed from epilimnion and hypolimnion water samples. Bacterioplankton community composition was determined by sequencing and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis of the clone libraries. Nineteen bacterial classes representing 95 subclasses were observed, but clone libraries were dominated by representatives of the Actinobacteria and Betaproteobacteria classes. Although the diversity and richness of bacterioplankton communities were positively correlated with pH, the overall community composition assessed by principal component analysis was not. The strongest correlations were observed between bacterioplankton communities and lake depth, hydraulic retention time, dissolved inorganic carbon, and nonlabile monomeric aluminum concentrations. While there was not an overall correlation between bacterioplankton community structure and pH, several bacterial classes, including the Alphaproteobacteria, were directly correlated with acidity. These results indicate that unlike more identifiable correlations between acidity and species richness for higher trophic levels, controls on bacterioplankton community structure are likely more complex, involving both direct and indirect processes. PMID:18245245

Percent, Sascha F.; Frischer, Marc E.; Vescio, Paul A.; Duffy, Ellen B.; Milano, Vincenzo; McLellan, Maggie; Stevens, Brett M.; Boylen, Charles W.; Nierzwicki-Bauer, Sandra A.

2008-01-01

108

Increasing zooplankton size diversity enhances the strength of top-down control on phytoplankton in the East China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Body size is one of the fundamental characteristics of organisms linking many ecosystem properties and functions. Recent studies suggest that environmental changes alter the size structure of pelagic food webs; however, ecosystem consequences of such changes remain unclear. Here we tested our main hypothesis that increasing zooplankton size diversity enhances top-down control on phytoplankton in the East China Sea (H1), as well as five conventional hypotheses explaining the top-down control: shallower zooplankton size spectrum enhances the strength of top-down control (H2); nutrient enrichment lessens the strength of top-down control (H3); increasing zooplankton taxonomic diversity enhances the strength of top-down control (H4); increasing fish predation is linked to decreasing the strength of top-down control of zooplankton on phytoplankton (H5); increasing temperature intensifies the strength of top-down control (H6). While the results of our univariate analyses support H1, H2, H3, and H4, more in depth analyses indicate that zooplankton size diversity is the most important factor in determining the strength of top-down control on phytoplankton in East China Sea. Our results suggest a new potential mechanism that increasing predator size diversity enhances the strength of top-down control on prey through diet niche partitioning. This mechanism can be explained by the concept of optimal predator-prey body-mass ratio concept. Suppose each size group of zooplankton predators has its own optimal phytoplankton prey size, increasing size diversity of zooplankton would promote diet niche partitioning of predators and thus elevates the top-down control.Fig. 1 Scatter plots the relationship between zooplankton/phytoplankton biomass ratio versus (A) zooplankton size diversity, (B) slope of zooplankton size spectrum, (C) Zoolankton Shannon diversity, (D) NO3, (E) PO4, (F) SiO3, (G) water temperature, and (H) fish larvae density in the East China Sea. Table 1. Results of the generalized linear mixed-effect model in investigating the effect of each factor on the spatiotemporal dynamics of zooplankton/phytoplankton biomass ratio in the East China Sea, with sampling cruises as a random effect. A lower value of AIC represents better goodness of fit of the model. The p-value was estimated based on MCMC sampling.

Ye, L.; Chang, C.; García-Comas, C.; Gong, G.; Hsieh, C.

2012-12-01

109

Controlling parental feeding practices and child body composition in ethnically and economically diverse preschool children.  

PubMed

Controlling parental feeding practices may be associated with childhood overweight, because coercive or intrusive feeding practices may negatively impact children's development of self-regulation of eating. This study examined pressuring or forcing a child (healthy or unhealthy foods) and restricting child from unhealthy or snack foods as two types of controlling feeding practices that explain unique variances in measures of child body composition (BMI, percent body fat, and parental perception of child weight). In an ethnically and economically diverse sample of 243 children aged 4-6years old and their biological parents (89% biological mothers, 8% biological fathers, and 3% step or grand-parent), descriptive statistics indicate ethnic and family income differences in measures of feeding practices and child body composition. Additionally, the two "objective" indices of body composition (BMI and percent body fat) were related to low pressure to eat, whereas the "subjective" index (perceived child weight) was related to restriction. Regression analyses accounting for ethnic and family income influences indicate that pressure to eat and restriction both explained unique variances in the two "objective" indices of body composition, whereas only restriction explained variance in perceived child weight. Findings have implications for helping parents learn about feeding practices that promote children's self-regulation of eating that simultaneously serves as an obesity prevention strategy. PMID:24269508

Wehrly, Sarah E; Bonilla, Chantal; Perez, Marisol; Liew, Jeffrey

2014-02-01

110

Mechanisms Controlling Carbon Turnover from Diverse Microbial Groups in Temperate and Tropical Forest Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microorganisms represent an important intermediate along the pathway of plant litter decomposition to the formation of soil organic matter (SOM); yet little is known of the fate and stability of microbial C in soils and the importance of microbial biochemistry as a factor influencing SOM dynamics. This research investigates mechanisms controlling microbial C stabilization in a temperate forest in the Sierra Nevada of California (CA) and a tropical forest in Puerto Rico (PR). Biochemically diverse microbial groups (fungi, actinomycetes, bacteria gram (+), and bacteria gram (-)) were isolated from both sites, grown in the laboratory with C13 media, killed, and nonliving residues were added back to soils as a reciprocal transplant of microbial groups. The native microbial community in CA is dominated by fungi and in PR is dominated by bacteria, which provides an opportunity to asses the metabolic response of distinct microbial communities to the diverse microbial additions. CA and PR soils were sampled five times over a 3 and 2 year period, respectively. In CA there was no significant difference in the mean residence time (MRT) of diverse C13 microbial treatments; whereas in PR there were significant differences, whereby temperate fungi, temperate Gram (+) bacteria, and tropical actinomycetes exhibited a significantly longer MRT as compared with tropical fungi and temperate Gram (-). These results suggest that a bacterial dominated microbial community discriminates more amongst diverse substrates than a fungal-dominated community. MRT for labeled-C in CA was 5.21 ± 1.11 years, and in PR was 2.22 ± 0.45. Despite substantial differences in MRT between sites, physical fractionation of soils into light (LF), aggregated-occluded (OF), and mineral-associated (MF) fractions provided evidence that accelerated decomposition in PR (presumably due to climate) operated primarily on labeled-C unassociated with the mineral matrix (LF); labeled-C occluded within aggregates (OF) or bound to the mineral matrix (MF) exhibited similar turnover dynamics for the two sites. Py-GC-MS-IRMS examined the fate of labeled temperate fungal residues at the molecular level in CA (30 days) and in PR (17 days) in whole soils and soil fractions. Results showed notably high enrichment of two polysaccharide biomarkers at both sites (2-furancarboxaldehyde, 5-methyl; and levoglucosanone); as well as an enol compound. These compounds did not occur in high abundance in the original fungal residues, suggesting selective preservation or secondary formation of these compounds in both CA and PR soils. Two additional lipid biomarkers exhibited notably high enrichment in CA but not PR soils, suggesting some distinct pathways of humification may be occurring at each site. Physical fractionation combined with molecular analysis suggests that protection by aggregate-occlusion (OF) and chemical complexation with soil mineral surfaces (MF) represent distinct protection mechanisms that operate on different microbial compounds.

Throckmorton, H.; Dane, L.; Bird, J. A.; Firestone, M. K.; Horwath, W. R.

2010-12-01

111

Maternal and perinatal aspects of birth defects: a case-control study  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess the prevalence of congenital defects and to investigate their maternal and perinatal associated aspects by reviewing Birth Certificates. Methods: Among all born alive infants from January 2003 to December 2007 in Maternidade da Santa Casa de Misericórdia of São Carlos, Southeast Brazil (12,199 infants), cases were identified as the newborns whose Birth Certificates registered any congenital defect. The same sex neonate born immediately after the case was chosen as a control. In total, 13 variables were analyzed: six were maternal related, three represented labor and delivery conditions and four were linked to fetal status. The chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used to compare the variables, being significant p<0.05. Results: The prevalence of congenital defects was 0.38% and the association of two or more defects represented 32% of all cases. The number of mothers whose education level was equal or less than eight years was significantly higher among the group with birth defects (p=0.047). A higher frequency of prematurity (p<0.001) and cesarean delivery (p=0.004) was observed among children with birth defects. This group also showed lower birth weight and Apgar scores in the 1st and the 5th minute (p<0.001). Conclusions: The prevalence of congenital defect of 0.38% is possibly due to underreporting. The defects notified in the Birth Certificates were only the most visible ones, regardless of their severity. There is a need of adequate epidemiological monitoring of birth defects in order to create and expand prevention and treatment programs. PMID:24676186

Nhoncanse, Geiza Cesar; Germano, Carla Maria R.; de Avo, Lucimar Retto da S.; Melo, Debora Gusmao

2014-01-01

112

Relationship between bacterial diversity and function under biotic control: the soil pesticide degraders as a case study  

PubMed Central

In soil, the way biotic parameters impact the relationship between bacterial diversity and function is still unknown. To understand these interactions better, we used RNA-based stable-isotope probing to study the diversity of active atrazine-degrading bacteria in relation to atrazine degradation and to explore the impact of earthworm-soil engineering with respect to this relationship. Bulk soil, burrow linings and earthworm casts were incubated with 13C-atrazine. The pollutant degradation was quantified by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry for 8 days, whereas active atrazine degraders were identified at 2 and 8 days by sequencing the 16S ribosomal RNA in the 13C-RNA fractions from the three soil microsites. An original diversity of atrazine degraders was found. Earthworm soil engineering greatly modified the taxonomic composition of atrazine degraders with dominance of ?-, ?- and ?-proteobacteria in burrow linings and of Actinobacteria in casts. Earthworm soil bioturbation increased the ?-diversity of atrazine degraders over the soil microsites generated. Atrazine degradation was enhanced in burrow linings in which primary atrazine degraders, closely related to Pelomonas aquatica, were detected only 2 days after atrazine addition. Atrazine degradation efficiency was not linearly related to the species richness of degraders but likely relied on keystone species. By enhancing soil heterogeneity, earthworms sustained high phylogenetic bacterial diversity and exerted a biotic control on the bacterial diversity–function relationships. Our findings call for future investigations to assess the ecological significance of biotic controls on the relationships between diversity and function on ecosystem properties and services (for example, soil detoxification) at larger scales. PMID:21160539

Monard, Cecile; Vandenkoornhuyse, Philippe; Le Bot, Barbara; Binet, Francoise

2011-01-01

113

Stimulo-deterrent diversion: A concept and its possible application to onion maggot control.  

PubMed

Considerable basic information has been gathered on the interaction between the onion fly (Delia antiqua) and its host plant, the onion (Allium cepa). An attempt is underway to manipulate ovipositional behavior of this pest by treating onion seedlings with chemical deterrents while simultaneously providing deeply planted onion culls on which onion flies prefer to lay. This bipolar strategy of behavioral manipulation, termed "stimulo-deterrent diversion" (SDD), has the advantages of: (1) avoiding severe pest deprival and concomitant overriding of deterrents, (2) combining the effects of "push" and "pull" multiplicatively, and (3) providing opportunities for enhanced biological control in sites where the pest becomes concentrated. The suggestion is made that using SDD along with soil insecticide might relax or even reverse selection for physiological resistance ofD. antiqua to insecticides. As tools of molecular biology open new possibilities for manipulating plants and their allelochemicals, applied chemical ecologists should consider arranging situations where the allelochemicals have clear and adaptive messages for the pest. By combining toxins and deterrents at sites where feeding should be prevented, while simultaneously expediting use of alternative plants or plant parts, it might be possible to guide pest evolution toward paths of less conflict with human interest. PMID:24263303

Miller, J R; Cowles, R S

1990-11-01

114

Transcription Control Pathways Decode Patterned Synaptic Inputs into Diverse mRNA Expression Profiles  

PubMed Central

Synaptic plasticity requires transcription and translation to establish long-term changes that form the basis for long term memory. Diverse stimuli, such as synaptic activity and growth factors, trigger synthesis of mRNA to regulate changes at the synapse. The palette of possible mRNAs is vast, and a key question is how the cell selects which mRNAs to synthesize. To address this molecular decision-making, we have developed a biochemically detailed model of synaptic-activity triggered mRNA synthesis. We find that there are distinct time-courses and amplitudes of different branches of the mRNA regulatory signaling pathways, which carry out pattern-selective combinatorial decoding of stimulus patterns into distinct mRNA subtypes. Distinct, simultaneously arriving input patterns that impinge on the transcriptional control network interact nonlinearly to generate novel mRNA combinations. Our model combines major regulatory pathways and their interactions connecting synaptic input to mRNA synthesis. We parameterized and validated the model by incorporating data from multiple published experiments. The model replicates outcomes of knockout experiments. We suggest that the pattern-selectivity mechanisms analyzed in this model may act in many cell types to confer the capability to decode temporal patterns into combinatorial mRNA expression. PMID:24787753

Jain, Pragati; Bhalla, Upinder S.

2014-01-01

115

Mitochondrial DNA control region diversity in a population from Espirito Santo state, Brazil.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis has proved to be useful for forensic identification, especially in cases which nuclear DNA markers fail, as in degraded samples or in cases where the biological material has few traces or no nuclear DNA. Moreover, it can be applied in population genetics, inferring the origin of a population. In this work, the entire mtDNA control region of 97 individuals from the state of Espirito Santo, Brazil, was analyzed. We have found 94 different haplotypes yielding a high haplotype diversity of 0.9994 ± 0.0016. The probability of a random match calculated was 1.09. Haplogroup distribution analysis confirmed a highly admixed Latin American population: African lineages (43.3 %), European lineages (32.0 %), Native American lineages (23.7 %) and Asian lineages (1.0 %). We have concluded that this type of tool can be used both in forensic genetics to the study of different human populations, such as highly admixed populations, and in the study of migration's history and colonization of different states and countries of the world. PMID:24996288

Sanches, Naiara M; Paneto, Greiciane G; Figueiredo, Raquel F; de Mello, Aline O; Cicarelli, Regina M B

2014-10-01

116

Landscape-level controls on dissolved carbon flux from diverse catchments of the circumboreal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While much of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) within rivers is destined for mineralization to CO2, a substantial fraction of riverine bicarbonate (HCO3-) flux represents a CO2 sink, as a result of weathering processes that sequester CO2 as HCO3-. We explored landscape-level controls on DOC and HCO3- flux in subcatchments of the boreal, with a specific focus on the effect of permafrost on riverine dissolved C flux. To do this, we undertook a multivariate analysis that partitioned the variance attributable to known, key regulators of dissolved C flux (runoff, lithology, and vegetation) prior to examining the effect of permafrost, using riverine biogeochemistry data from a suite of subcatchments drawn from the Mackenzie, Yukon, East, and West Siberian regions of the circumboreal. Across the diverse catchments that we study, controls on HCO3-flux were near-universal: runoff and an increased carbonate rock contribution to weathering (assessed as riverwater Ca:Na) increased HCO3- yields, while increasing permafrost extent was associated with decreases in HCO3-. In contrast, permafrost had contrasting and region-specific effects on DOC yield, even after the variation caused by other key drivers of its flux had been accounted for. We used ionic ratios and SO4 yields to calculate the potential range of CO2sequestered via weathering across these boreal subcatchments, and show that decreasing permafrost extent is associated with increases in weathering-mediated CO2 fixation across broad spatial scales, an effect that could counterbalance some of the organic C mineralization that is predicted with declining permafrost.

Tank, Suzanne E.; Frey, Karen E.; Striegl, Robert G.; Raymond, Peter A.; Holmes, Robert M.; McClelland, James W.; Peterson, Bruce J.

2012-09-01

117

Landscape-level controls on dissolved carbon flux from diverse catchments of the circumboreal  

USGS Publications Warehouse

While much of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) within rivers is destined for mineralization to CO2, a substantial fraction of riverine bicarbonate (HCO3-) flux represents a CO2 sink, as a result of weathering processes that sequester CO2 as HCO3-. We explored landscape-level controls on DOC and HCO3- flux in subcatchments of the boreal, with a specific focus on the effect of permafrost on riverine dissolved C flux. To do this, we undertook a multivariate analysis that partitioned the variance attributable to known, key regulators of dissolved C flux (runoff, lithology, and vegetation) prior to examining the effect of permafrost, using riverine biogeochemistry data from a suite of subcatchments drawn from the Mackenzie, Yukon, East, and West Siberian regions of the circumboreal. Across the diverse catchments that we study, controls on HCO3- flux were near-universal: runoff and an increased carbonate rock contribution to weathering (assessed as riverwater Ca:Na) increased HCO3- yields, while increasing permafrost extent was associated with decreases in HCO3-. In contrast, permafrost had contrasting and region-specific effects on DOC yield, even after the variation caused by other key drivers of its flux had been accounted for. We used ionic ratios and SO4 yields to calculate the potential range of CO2 sequestered via weathering across these boreal subcatchments, and show that decreasing permafrost extent is associated with increases in weathering-mediated CO2 fixation across broad spatial scales, an effect that could counterbalance some of the organic C mineralization that is predicted with declining permafrost.

Tank, Suzanne; Frey, Karen E.; Striegl, Robert G.; Raymond, Peter A.; Holmes, R. Max; McClelland, James W.; Peterson, Bruce J.

2012-01-01

118

A Conserved Supergene Locus Controls Colour Pattern Diversity in Heliconius Butterflies  

PubMed Central

We studied whether similar developmental genetic mechanisms are involved in both convergent and divergent evolution. Mimetic insects are known for their diversity of patterns as well as their remarkable evolutionary convergence, and they have played an important role in controversies over the respective roles of selection and constraints in adaptive evolution. Here we contrast three butterfly species, all classic examples of Müllerian mimicry. We used a genetic linkage map to show that a locus, Yb, which controls the presence of a yellow band in geographic races of Heliconius melpomene, maps precisely to the same location as the locus Cr, which has very similar phenotypic effects in its co-mimic H. erato. Furthermore, the same genomic location acts as a “supergene”, determining multiple sympatric morphs in a third species, H. numata. H. numata is a species with a very different phenotypic appearance, whose many forms mimic different unrelated ithomiine butterflies in the genus Melinaea. Other unlinked colour pattern loci map to a homologous linkage group in the co-mimics H. melpomene and H. erato, but they are not involved in mimetic polymorphism in H. numata. Hence, a single region from the multilocus colour pattern architecture of H. melpomene and H. erato appears to have gained control of the entire wing-pattern variability in H. numata, presumably as a result of selection for mimetic “supergene” polymorphism without intermediates. Although we cannot at this stage confirm the homology of the loci segregating in the three species, our results imply that a conserved yet relatively unconstrained mechanism underlying pattern switching can affect mimicry in radically different ways. We also show that adaptive evolution, both convergent and diversifying, can occur by the repeated involvement of the same genomic regions. PMID:17002517

Joron, Mathieu; Papa, Riccardo; Beltran, Margarita; Chamberlain, Nicola; Mavarez, Jesus; Baxter, Simon; Abanto, Moises; Bermingham, Eldredge; Humphray, Sean J; Rogers, Jane; Beasley, Helen; Barlow, Karen; H. ffrench-Constant, Richard; Mallet, James; McMillan, W. Owen; Jiggins, Chris D

2006-01-01

119

Proceedings of the Workshop on Computational Aspects in the Control of Flexible Systems, part 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Control/Structures Integration Program, a survey of available software for control of flexible structures, computational efficiency and capability, modeling and parameter estimation, and control synthesis and optimization software are discussed.

Taylor, Lawrence W., Jr. (compiler)

1989-01-01

120

Electrical Engineering is a diverse discipline encompassing computer and information systems, controls, lasers,  

E-print Network

70 ELECTRICAL Electrical Engineering is a diverse discipline encompassing computer and information environmental engineering and manufacturing to semiconductors and telecommunications. The Electrical Engineering Technology and the Signal and Image Processing institute. PROGRAMS AVAILABLE · Electrical Engineering

Rohs, Remo

121

Electrical Engineering (EE) is a diverse discipline encompassing computer and information systems, controls,  

E-print Network

70 ELECTRICAL Electrical Engineering (EE) is a diverse discipline encompassing computer, photonics, and quantum information processing. MAJORS & AREAS OF EMPHASIS · ElectricalEngineering · Computer)Algorithmsandcomputationalmeth- odsforefficientsolutionofengineeringproblems. Introductiontoengineeringsoftwaretools. EE 200L Foundations of Electrical Engineer- ing Systems

Rohs, Remo

122

Control aspects of the Schuchuli Village stand-alone photovoltaic power system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A photovoltaic power system in an Arizona Indian village was installed. The control subsystem of this photovoltaic power system was analyzed. The four major functions of the control subsystem are: (1) voltage regulation; (2) load management; (3) water pump control; and (4) system protection. The control subsystem functions flowcharts for the control subsystem operation, and a computer program that models the control subsystem are presented.

Groumpos, P. P.; Culler, J. E.; Delombard, R.

1984-01-01

123

Microbial Diversity in Sediments of Saline Qinghai Lake, China: Linking Geochemical Controls to Microbial Ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saline lakes at high altitudes represent an important and extreme microbial ecosystem, yet little is known about microbial\\u000a diversity in such environments. The objective of this study was to examine the change of microbial diversity from the bottom\\u000a of the lake to sediments of 40 cm in depth in a core from Qinghai Lake. The lake is saline (12.5 g\\/L salinity) and

Hailiang Dong; Gengxin Zhang; Hongchen Jiang; Bingsong Yu; Leah R. Chapman; Courtney R. Lucas; Matthew W. Fields

2006-01-01

124

Low human immunodeficiency virus envelope diversity correlates with low in vitro replication capacity and predicts spontaneous control of plasma viremia after treatment interruptions.  

PubMed

Genetic diversity of viral isolates in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals varies substantially. However, it remains unclear whether HIV-related disease progresses more rapidly in patients harboring virus swarms with low or high diversity and, in the same context, whether high or low diversity is required to induce potent humoral and cellular immune responses. To explore whether viral diversity predicts virologic control, we studied HIV-infected patients who received antiretroviral therapy (ART) for years before undergoing structured treatment interruptions (STI). Viral diversity before initiation of ART and the ability of the patients to contain viremia after STI and final cessation of treatment was evaluated. Seven out of 21 patients contained plasma viremia at low levels after the final treatment cessation. Clonal sequences encompassing the envelope C2V3C3 domain derived from plasma prior to treatment, exhibited significantly lower diversity in these patients compared to those derived from patients with poor control of viremia. Viral diversity pre-ART correlated with the viral replication capacity of rebounding virus isolates during STI. Neutralizing antibody activity against autologous virus was significantly higher in patients who controlled viremia and was associated with lower pretreatment diversity. No such association was found with binding antibodies directed to gp120. In summary, lower pretreatment viral diversity was associated with spontaneous control of viremia, reduced viral replication capacity and higher neutralizing antibody titers, suggesting a link between viral diversity, replication capacity, and neutralizing antibody activity. PMID:15994796

Joos, Beda; Trkola, Alexandra; Fischer, Marek; Kuster, Herbert; Rusert, Peter; Leemann, Christine; Böni, Jürg; Oxenius, Annette; Price, David A; Phillips, Rodney E; Wong, Joseph K; Hirschel, Bernard; Weber, Rainer; Günthard, Huldrych F

2005-07-01

125

Host and parasite diversity jointly control disease risk in complex communities.  

PubMed

Host-parasite interactions are embedded within complex communities composed of multiple host species and a cryptic assemblage of other parasites. To date, however, surprisingly few studies have explored the joint effects of host and parasite richness on disease risk, despite growing interest in the diversity-disease relationship. Here, we combined field surveys and mechanistic experiments to test how transmission of the virulent trematode Ribeiroia ondatrae was affected by the diversity of both amphibian hosts and coinfecting parasites. Within natural wetlands, host and parasite species richness correlated positively, consistent with theoretical predictions. Among sites that supported Ribeiroia, however, host and parasite richness interacted to negatively affect Ribeiroia transmission between its snail and amphibian hosts, particularly in species-poor assemblages. In laboratory and outdoor experiments designed to decouple the relative contributions of host and parasite diversity, increases in host richness decreased Ribeiroia infection by 11-65%. Host richness also tended to decrease total infections by other parasite species (four of six instances), such that more diverse host assemblages exhibited ?40% fewer infections overall. Importantly, parasite richness further reduced both per capita and total Ribeiroia infection by 15-20%, possibly owing to intrahost competition among coinfecting species. These findings provide evidence that parasitic and free-living diversity jointly regulate disease risk, help to resolve apparent contradictions in the diversity-disease relationship, and emphasize the challenges of integrating research on coinfection and host heterogeneity to develop a community ecology-based approach to infectious diseases. PMID:24082092

Johnson, Pieter T J; Preston, Daniel L; Hoverman, Jason T; LaFonte, Bryan E

2013-10-15

126

Host and parasite diversity jointly control disease risk in complex communities  

PubMed Central

Host–parasite interactions are embedded within complex communities composed of multiple host species and a cryptic assemblage of other parasites. To date, however, surprisingly few studies have explored the joint effects of host and parasite richness on disease risk, despite growing interest in the diversity–disease relationship. Here, we combined field surveys and mechanistic experiments to test how transmission of the virulent trematode Ribeiroia ondatrae was affected by the diversity of both amphibian hosts and coinfecting parasites. Within natural wetlands, host and parasite species richness correlated positively, consistent with theoretical predictions. Among sites that supported Ribeiroia, however, host and parasite richness interacted to negatively affect Ribeiroia transmission between its snail and amphibian hosts, particularly in species-poor assemblages. In laboratory and outdoor experiments designed to decouple the relative contributions of host and parasite diversity, increases in host richness decreased Ribeiroia infection by 11–65%. Host richness also tended to decrease total infections by other parasite species (four of six instances), such that more diverse host assemblages exhibited ?40% fewer infections overall. Importantly, parasite richness further reduced both per capita and total Ribeiroia infection by 15–20%, possibly owing to intrahost competition among coinfecting species. These findings provide evidence that parasitic and free-living diversity jointly regulate disease risk, help to resolve apparent contradictions in the diversity–disease relationship, and emphasize the challenges of integrating research on coinfection and host heterogeneity to develop a community ecology-based approach to infectious diseases. PMID:24082092

Johnson, Pieter T. J.; Preston, Daniel L.; Hoverman, Jason T.; LaFonte, Bryan E.

2013-01-01

127

Genetic diversity and population history of two related seabird species based on mitochondrial DNA control region sequences.  

PubMed

Geographical variation in two related seabird species, the razorbill (Alca torda) and common guillemot (Uria aalge), was investigated using sequence analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control regions. We determined the nucleotide sequence of the variable 5' segment of the control region in razorbills and common guillemots from breeding colonies across the Atlantic Ocean. The ecology and life history characteristics of razorbill and common guillemot are in many respects similar. They are both considered highly philopatric and have largely overlapping distributions in temperate and subarctic regions of the North Atlantic, yet the species were found to differ widely in the extent and spatial distribution of mtDNA variation. Moreover, the differences in genetic differentiation and diversity were in the opposite direction to that expected from a consideration of traditional classifications and current population sizes. Indices of genetic diversity were highest in razorbill and varied among colonies, as did genotype frequencies, suggestive of restrictions to gene flow. The distribution of genetic variation suggests that razorbills originated from a refugial population in the south-western Atlantic Ocean through sequential founder events and subsequent expansion in the east and north. In common guillemots, genetic diversity was low and there was a lack of geographical structure, consistent with a recent population bottleneck, expansion and gene flow. We suggest that the reduced level of genetic diversity and differentiation in the common guillemot is caused by an inherent propensity for repeated population bottlenecks and concomitantly unstable population structure related to their specialized feeding ecology. PMID:11703652

Moum, T; Arnason, E

2001-10-01

128

Subsonic and transonic pressure measurements on a high-aspect-ratio supercritical-wing model with oscillating control surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high aspect ratio supercritical wing with oscillating control surfaces is described. The semispan wing model was instrumented with 252 static orifices and 164 in situ dynamic pressure gases for studying the effects of control surface position and sinusoidal motion on steady and unsteady pressures. Data from the present test (this is the second in a series of tests on this model) were obtained in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at Mach numbers of 0.60 and 0.78 and are presented in tabular form.

Sandford, M. C.; Ricketts, R. H.; Watson, J. J.

1981-01-01

129

Relationships Between Alcohol-related Informal Social Control, Parental Monitoring and Adolescent Problem Behaviors Among Racially Diverse Urban Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study is to investigate the relationships between alcohol-related informal social control and parental\\u000a monitoring on alcohol use, behavior and intentions; violent behavior; and delinquent behavior in a racially diverse population\\u000a of young urban adolescents. Baseline surveys were administered to 6th grade male and female students in 61 urban Chicago schools\\u000a as part of Project Northland

Jayne A. Fulkerson; Keryn E. Pasch; Cheryl L. Perry; Kelli Komro

2008-01-01

130

Proceedings of the Workshop on Computational Aspects in the Control of Flexible Systems, part 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Control/Structures Integration program software needs, computer aided control engineering for flexible spacecraft, computer aided design, computational efficiency and capability, modeling and parameter estimation, and control synthesis and optimization software for flexible structures and robots are among the topics discussed.

Taylor, Lawrence W., Jr. (compiler)

1989-01-01

131

Biological control aspects of biological control—with special reference to arthropods, protozoans and helminths of domesticated animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological control describes situations in which a living antagonist (a predator, parasite, parasitoid or a pathogen) is distributed by man to lower pest (parasite) populations to acceptable sub-clinical densities or to keep the population at a non-harmful level. Ideally, biological control has no negative effects on the environment, whereas chemical control is not always so harmless. Laboratory and field observations

J. Grønvold; S. Aa. Henriksen; M. Larsen; P. Nansen; J. Wolstrup

1996-01-01

132

Genetic diversity and population structure of largehead hairtail, Trichiurus japonicus, based on mtDNA control region.  

PubMed

Abstract Largehead hairtail, Trichiurus japonicus, is a valuable commercially exploited demersal species. We gathered mtDNA control region sequences (3' mtDNA CR) of T. japonicus to investigate its genetic diversity and population genetic structure. Fifty-four specimens were collected from the nearshore localities along the coastline of China. A total of 42 polymorphic sites were found, which defined 40 haplotypes. A pattern with high level of haplotype diversity (h?=?0.98?±?0.01) and very low level of nucleotide diversity (??=?0.008?±?0.005) were detected in the examined range. Comparing ? with other fish species shows that T. japonicus has remarkable low genetic diversity values compared with other Pacific Ocean marine fishes. AMOVA and conventional Fst values revealed no significant genetic structure throughout the examined range, which is inconsistent with the previous findings based on the morphological and ecological studies. Using a variety of phylogenetic methods, coalescent reasoning, and molecular dating interpreted in conjunction with paleoclimateic and physiographic evidence, we infer that the genetic make-up of extant populations of T. japonicus was shaped by Pleistocene environmental impacts on the historical demography of this species. Coalescent analyses (Neutrality tests, Mismatch distribution analysis, Bayesian skyline analyses) showed that the species along the coastline of China has experienced population expansions originated in its most recent history at about 153-216?kyr. PMID:23859051

Xiao, Yongshuang; Ren, Guijing; Song, Na; Li, Jun; Gao, Tianxiang

2014-12-01

133

Which Aspects of Postural Control Differentiate between Patients with Parkinson's Disease with and without Freezing of Gait?  

PubMed Central

This exploratory study aimed to identify which aspects of postural control are able to distinguish between subgroups of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and controls. Balance was tested using static and dynamic posturography. Freezers (n = 9), nonfreezers (n = 10), and controls (n = 10) stood on a movable force platform and performed 3 randomly assigned tests: (1) sensory organization test (SOT) to evaluate the effective use of sensory information, (2) motor control test (MCT) to assess automatic postural reactions in response to platform perturbations, and (3) rhythmic weight shift test (RWS) to evaluate the ability to voluntarily move the center of gravity (COG) mediolaterally and anterior-posteriorly (AP). The respective outcome measures were equilibrium and postural strategy scores, response strength and amplitude of weight shift. Patients were in the “on” phase of the medication cycle. In general, freezers performed similarly on SOT and MCT compared to nonfreezers. Freezers showed an intact postural strategy during sensory manipulations and an appropriate response to external perturbations. However, during voluntary weight shifting, freezers showed poorer directional control compared to nonfreezers and controls. This suggests that freezers have adequate automatic postural control and sensory integration abilities in quiet stance, but show specific directional control deficits when weight shifting is voluntary. PMID:23936729

Heremans, Elke; Vercruysse, Sarah

2013-01-01

134

Chemical Control of Fish and Fish Eggs in the Garrison Diversion Unit, North Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Garrison Diversion Unit involves the proposed transfer of Missouri River water to a large part of eastern North Dakota for agricultural and industrial uses. Some of the water would flow into Canada through the Red River of the North. Canadian officials are concerned that some nonindigenous species might be introduced to their waters; namely, gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum), rainbow

L. L. Marking; T. D. Bills; J. J. Rach; S. J. Grabowski

1983-01-01

135

Electrical Engineering (EE) is a diverse discipline encompassing computer and information systems, controls,  

E-print Network

70 electrical Electrical Engineering (EE) is a diverse discipline encompassing computer information processing. ProgrAmS AVAilAble · ElectricalEngineering Bachelor of Science 131 units · ComputerEngineeringand Computer Science Bachelor of Science (see page 69) 132 units · ElectricalEngineering(Computers) degree

Rohs, Remo

136

Electrical Engineering (EE) is a diverse discipline encompassing computer and information systems, controls,  

E-print Network

70 electrical Electrical Engineering (EE) is a diverse discipline encompassing computer information processing. mAjorS & AreAS of emPhASiS · ElectricalEngineering · ComputerEngineering& Computer Science (see page 69) · ElectricalEngineering Emphasis in Computers See pages 76-77 for the curriculum

Rohs, Remo

137

Bacterial Community Structure of Acid-Impacted Lakes: What Controls Diversity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although it is recognized that acidification of freshwater systems results in decreased overall species richness of plants and animals, little is known about the response of aquatic microbial communities to acidification. In this study we examined bacterioplankton community diversity and structure in 18 lakes located in the Adirondack Park (in the state of New York in the United States) that

Sascha F. Percent; Marc E. Frischer; Paul A. Vescio; Ellen B. Duffy; Vincenzo Milano; Maggie McLellan; Brett M. Stevens; Charles W. Boylen; Sandra A. Nierzwicki-Bauer

2008-01-01

138

Materials for Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms: Molecular Pharmaceutics and Controlled Release Drug Delivery Aspects  

PubMed Central

Controlled release delivery is available for many routes of administration and offers many advantages (as microparticles and nanoparticles) over immediate release delivery. These advantages include reduced dosing frequency, better therapeutic control, fewer side effects, and, consequently, these dosage forms are well accepted by patients. Advances in polymer material science, particle engineering design, manufacture, and nanotechnology have led the way to the introduction of several marketed controlled release products and several more are in pre-clinical and clinical development. PMID:20957095

Mansour, Heidi M.; Sohn, MinJi; Al-Ghananeem, Abeer; DeLuca, Patrick P.

2010-01-01

139

Modelling Real-time Constraints Regarding Reconfiguration Aspects for IEC 61499 Control Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complexity of automation and control systems is fast increasing in order to satisfy the arising needs of the manufacturing industry. The central exigencies for new production facilities are flexibility, adaptability and reconfigurability in combination with guarantees for downtime less operation. Additionally modern automation systems are supposed to execute control applications distributed across heterogeneous networks The standard IEC 61499 introduces

G. Grabmair; A. Zoitl; T. Strasser; R. Froschauer

2007-01-01

140

Aspects of model-based rocket engine condition monitoring and control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rigorous propulsion system modelling method suitable for control and condition monitoring purposes is developed. Previously developed control oriented methods yielding nominal models for gaseous medium propulsion systems are extended to include both nominal and anomalous models for liquid mediums in the following two ways. First, thermodynamic and fluid dynamic properties for liquids such as liquid hydrogen are incorporated into

Gerald R. Karr; Arthur J. Helmicki

1994-01-01

141

Control of an indoor autonomous mobile communications relay via antenna diversity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Presented here is a motion planning scheme for enabling a quadrotor to serve as an autonomous communications relay in indoor/GPS-denied environments. Using antenna selection diversity, the quadrotor is able to optimize its location in the communication chain so as to maximize the link throughput. Measurements of the communications field drive a gradient descent algorithm that moves the quadrotor to an optimal location while avoiding obstacles, all without the use of positioning data.

Griffin, Brian; Fierro, Rafael; Palunko, Ivana

2010-04-01

142

Social and cultural aspects of 'malaria' and its control in central Côte d'Ivoire  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A sound local understanding of preventive measures and health-seeking behaviour is important for the effective control of malaria. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes, practices and beliefs of 'malaria' and its control in two rural communities of central Côte d'Ivoire, and to examine associations between 'malaria' and the households' socioeconomic status. METHODS: A cross-sectional

Clémence Essé; Jürg Utzinger; Andres B Tschannen; Giovanna Raso; Constanze Pfeiffer; Stefanie Granado; Benjamin G Koudou; Eliézer K N'Goran; Guéladio Cissé; Olivier Girardin; Marcel Tanner; Brigit Obrist

2008-01-01

143

Consistent Control Procedures in the Monotone Structural Evolution. Part 2: Examples and Computational Aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The consistent control procedures for state-constrained and interior arcs are implemented in the MSE, and their performance\\u000a demonstrated on numerical examples. For state constrained problems with index 1, a two-phase technique is proposed which ensures\\u000a the exact fulfillment of the state constraint. To enhance efficiency of the method of prototype adjoints applied to consistent\\u000a representation of interior control arcs, a

Maciej Szymkat; Adam Korytowski

144

Some stability and control aspects of airframe/propulsion system interactions on the YF-12 airplane  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Airframe/propulsion system interactions can strongly affect the stability and control of supersonic cruise aircraft. These interactions generate forces and moments similar in magnitude to those produced by the aerodynamic controls, and can cause significant changes in vehicle damping and static stability. This in turn can lead to large aircraft excursions or high pilot workload, or both. For optimum integration of an airframe and its jet propulsion system, these phenomena may have to be taken into account.

Berry, D. T.; Gilyard, G. B.

1973-01-01

145

Temperature control of CMS Barrel ECAL (EB) : computational thermo-hydraulic model for dynamic behaviour, control aspects  

E-print Network

The current design foresees a central heat exchanger followed by a controlled post heater, for all ECAL. We discuss the scheme and try to assess its performance, from a Barrel viewpoint. This is based on computational work. The coolant transfer pipes play an essential role in building a dynamical model. After some studies on the behaviour of the cooling circuit itself, a strong yet simple controller is proposed. Then, the system with feedback control is scrutinized, with emphasis on disturbance rejection. The most relevant disturbances are cooling ripple, pipe heat attack, and electronics’ switching.

Wertelaers, P

2010-01-01

146

Further aspects on the control of photodissociation in light-induced potentials.  

PubMed

In this work we show how to control the photodissociation of a diatomic molecule in the frame of light-induced potentials for different shapes of the transition dipole moments. A sequence of a half-cycle or control pulse and a delayed pump pulse is used for achieving state-selective photodissociation with high yields. The effect of the control is to shift the photodissociation bands to higher frequencies. It is also possible to dissociate the molecule in a superposition of electronic states of the fragments, even when the photodissociation bands corresponding to the different electronic states of the products are largely separated. In this case one needs to engineer the sequence delaying the half-cycle pulse after the pump pulse and additionally turning off rapidly the control pulse. Depending on the shape of the dipole functions the duration of the pulses in the sequence must be constrained to shorter times as well. Finally we show that the control scheme affects the velocity of the fragments. Although broad kinetic energy distributions are always obtained when the half-cycle pulse is short, if the Stark effect implies a blueshifting in the energy of the electronic states, the distribution of the relative speed of the fragments will be redshifted. PMID:19947687

Chang, Bo Y; Shin, Seokmin; Sola, Ignacio R

2009-11-28

147

Aspects of model-based rocket engine condition monitoring and control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A rigorous propulsion system modelling method suitable for control and condition monitoring purposes is developed. Previously developed control oriented methods yielding nominal models for gaseous medium propulsion systems are extended to include both nominal and anomalous models for liquid mediums in the following two ways. First, thermodynamic and fluid dynamic properties for liquids such as liquid hydrogen are incorporated into the governing equations. Second, anomalous conditions are captured in ways compatible with existing system theoretic design tools so that anomalous models can be constructed. Control and condition monitoring based methods are seen as an improvement over some existing modelling methods because such methods typically do not rigorously lead to low order models nor do they provide a means for capturing anomalous conditions. Applications to the nominal SSME HPFP and degraded HPFP serve to illustrate the approach.

Karr, Gerald R.; Helmicki, Arthur J.

1994-01-01

148

Comparing temporal aspects of visual, tactile, and microstimulation feedback for motor control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objectives. Current brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) rely on visual feedback, requiring sustained visual attention to use the device. Improvements to BCIs may stem from the development of an effective way to provide quick feedback independent of vision. Tactile stimuli, either delivered on the skin surface, or directly to the brain via microstimulation in somatosensory cortex, could serve that purpose. We examined the effectiveness of vibrotactile stimuli and microstimulation as a means of non-visual feedback by using a fundamental element of feedback: the ability to react to a stimulus while already in motion. Approach. Human and monkey subjects performed a center-out reach task which was, on occasion, interrupted with a stimulus cue that instructed a change in reach target. Main results. Subjects generally responded faster to tactile cues than to visual cues. However, when we delivered cues via microstimuation in a monkey, its response was slower on average than for both tactile and visual cues. Significance. Tactile and microstimulation feedback can be used to rapidly adjust movements mid-flight. The relatively slow speed of microstimulation is surprising and warrants further investigation. Overall, these results highlight the importance of considering temporal aspects of feedback when designing alternative forms of feedback for BCIs.

Godlove, Jason M.; Whaite, Erin O.; Batista, Aaron P.

2014-08-01

149

Legal aspects of public health: how law frames communicable disease control in Greece.  

PubMed

We reviewed Greek law (legislation, historic Royal Decrees, and modern Presidential ones, 1833-2010) pertinent to control of communicable diseases and compared this body of Greek law with the revised International Health Regulations. Greece authorizes and regulates communicable disease control commensurate with public health risks, and integrates the principles of equality, objectivity, and respect for human rights. Despite strength at the level of principles, Greek law lacks coherence, clarity, and systematization. An inadequate body of regulations means legislation falls short of adequate implementing authority and guidelines; public health authorities often cannot find or understand the laws, nor are they certain about allocation of jurisdictional authority. We identified areas for improvement. PMID:21866179

Hatzianastasiou, Sophia; Pavli, Androula; Maltezou, Helena C

2011-11-01

150

River Diversions and Shoaling  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: This Coastal and Hydraulics Engineering Technical Note describes the current knowledge of the potential impacts of river diversions on channel morphology, especially induced sedimentation in the river channel. Processes considered in this note are those most pertinent to riverine, as opposed to estuarine, aspects of diversions. In particular, this note provides general guidance on the physical process issues, outlines

Joseph V. Letter; Nolan K. Raphelt

2008-01-01

151

Diversity in the Workplace.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains three papers presented at a symposium on diversity in the workplace moderated by Sandra Johnson at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD). "Diversity and Development: An Assessment of Equal Opportunities and the Role of HRD in the Police Service" (Rashmi Biswas, Penny Dick) examines aspects

1996

152

Interspecific variation in Rx1 expression controls opsin expression and causes visual system diversity in African cichlid fishes.  

PubMed

The mechanisms underlying natural phenotypic diversity are key to understanding evolution and speciation. Cichlid fishes are among the most speciose vertebrates and an ideal model for identifying genes controlling species differences. Cichlids have diverse visual sensitivities that result from species expressing subsets of seven cichlid cone opsin genes. We previously identified a quantitative trait locus (QTL) that tunes visual sensitivity by varying SWS2A (short wavelength sensitive 2A) opsin expression in a genetic cross between two Lake Malawi cichlid species. Here, we identify Rx1 (retinal and anterior neural fold homeobox) as the causative gene for the QTL using fine mapping and RNAseq in retinal transcriptomes. Rx1 is differentially expressed between the parental species and correlated with SWS2A expression in the F2 progeny. Expression of Rx1 and SWS2A is also correlated in a panel of 16 Lake Malawi cichlid species. Association mapping in this panel identified a 413-bp deletion located 2.5-kb upstream of the Rx1 translation start site that is correlated with decreased Rx1 expression. This deletion explains 62% of the variance in SWS2A expression across 53 cichlid species in 29 genera. The deletion occurs in both the sand and rock-dwelling cichlid clades, suggesting that it is an ancestral polymorphism. Our finding supports the hypothesis that mixing and matching of ancestral polymorphisms can explain the diversity of present day cichlid phenotypes. PMID:24859246

Schulte, Jane E; O'Brien, Conor S; Conte, Matthew A; O'Quin, Kelly E; Carleton, Karen L

2014-09-01

153

Abuse, Intimidation and Violence as Aspects of Managerial Control in Professional Soccer in Britain and Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using semi-structured tape-recorded interviews, this study focuses on the ways in which managers maintain control over players in professional soccer clubs. More specifically, the article focuses on the ways in which disciplinary codes are established by managers and the sanctions that are imposed on players for breaches of club discipline. The findings highlight the arbitrary character of these codes and

Seamus Kelly; Ivan Waddington

2006-01-01

154

Afferent and Efferent Aspects of Mandibular Sensorimotor Control in Adults Who Stutter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Individuals who stutter show sensorimotor deficiencies in speech and nonspeech movements. For the mandibular system, the authors dissociated the sense of kinesthesia from the efferent control component to examine whether kinesthetic integrity itself is compromised in stuttering or whether deficiencies occur only when generating motor…

Daliri, Ayoub; Prokopenko, Roman A.; Max, Ludo

2013-01-01

155

Measurement uncertainty and doping control in sport. Part 2: Metrological traceability aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The assessment of (non-)compliance in doping control and in particular the appreciation of uncertainty of measurement in such an assessment has become a subject of debate. In a previous paper, the requirements for evaluating measurement uncertainty have been addressed. The debate now focuses on the estimation of the standard uncertainty. The completeness of an uncertainty budget is discussed in view

Adriaan M. H. van der Veen

2004-01-01

156

Legal Aspects of Control of Student Activities by Public School Officials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph reviews and analyzes relevant decisions dealing with the control of student activities by public school authorities. The report focuses on recent court cases that reaffirm, amplify, or extend entrenched constitutional and common law principles undergirding the public educational system in the United States. After setting the legal…

Reutter, E. Edmund, Jr.

157

A safety awareness program for women with diverse disabilities: a randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

Women with diverse disabilities (N = 213), recruited through 10 centers for independent living (CILs), were randomly assigned to either a personal safety awareness program or usual care. The 8-week program, led by CIL staff, was designed to increase safety awareness, abuse and safety knowledge, safety skills, safety self-efficacy, social support, and safety promoting behaviors. All participants completed pre-, post-, and 6-month follow-up questionnaires. Results revealed that participation in a brief safety awareness program may improve safety protective factors among women with disabilities who vary widely in their experience with abuse. The program holds promise for enhancing safety among women with disabilities. PMID:25031362

Robinson-Whelen, Susan; Hughes, Rosemary B; Gabrielli, Joy; Lund, Emily M; Abramson, Wendie; Swank, Paul R

2014-07-01

158

AbstractDifferent control aspects related to the use of TCSC for stability improvement of power systems are addressed in this  

E-print Network

of using Flexible AC Transmission system (FACTS) controllers for enhancing power system stability are well1 AbstractDifferent control aspects related to the use of TCSC for stability improvement of power systems are addressed in this paper. A novel hierarchical control designed for both dynamic and steady

Cañizares, Claudio A.

159

Controlling 2D aspect ratio of elliptical contact level interconnects utilizing spin-on and reactive ion etch critical dimension shrink for the 22-nm node  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Litho-Etch-Litho-Etch double patterning requires aggressive shrink of each sub-pattern's critical dimensions to enable inter-digitation and pitch doubling. Application of this double patterning technique to elliptical contacts introduces a new constraint to the CD shrink processes as controlling the 2-D aspect ratio of elliptical contacts is critical for both device performance and yield. The impact of a track-applied chemical shrink and reactive ion etch [RIE] shrink processes to pre/post RIE 2-D aspect ratios [2-D AR] have been evaluated. A methodology for controlling 2-D aspect ratios with an aggressive CD shrink target is described using a 2:1 aspect ratio test pattern resulting in the successful fabrication of 2:1 aspect ratio bottom CD contacts with 65% bias from the lithographic CD.

Metz, Andrew; Dunn, Shannon; Hetzer, Dave; Cantone, Jason; Kawakami, Shinichiro; Winter, Tom; Petrillo, Karen; Horak, Dave; Fan, Susan; Colburn, Matthew

2010-04-01

160

Development and diversity and defense-in-depth application of ABWR feedwater pump and controller model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work developed an advanced boiling water reactor (ABWR) feedwater pump and controller model, which was incorporated into Personal Computer Transient Analyzer (PCTran)-ABWR, a nuclear power plant simulation code. The feedwater pump model includes three turbine-driven feedwater pumps and one motor-driven feedwater pump. The feedwater controller includes a one-element\\/three-element water level controller and a specific feedwater speed controller for each

Hui-Wen Huang; Chunkuan Shih; Hung-Chih Hung; Ming-Huei Chen

2009-01-01

161

Benthic control freaks: Effects of the tubiculous amphipod Haploops nirae on the specific diversity and functional structure of benthic communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Haploops nirae is a gregarious tubiculous amphipod which extended its habitat over thousands of hectares in shallow waters of South Brittany bays (Bay of Biscay, Atlantic) over the last decades and created uniquely large and dense tube mats. In the bay of Concarneau, we investigated the specific diversity (i.e. species richness and species composition) and the functional structure (using biological traits) of the macrofauna associated with this Haploops community as a comparison with several surrounding soft-sediment communities to determine the effect of this engineer species on ecosystem functions. We showed that the occurrence of Haploops tubes and individuals significantly modifies sediment features (e.g. change in sediment grain size, increase in C and N organic content) but also largely affect species diversity and benthic composition. The species richness was significantly higher in Haploops community but the species assemblage associated with Haploops habitat was very homogeneous compared to the neighboring habitats and unique with 33% of all species exclusively found in this community. Multivariate analysis (dbRDA) revealed that Haploops density was by far the factor explaining the variation in species composition of benthic communities. No differences in species diversity and assemblage were detected in relationship to Haploops density. A biological trait analysis performed on the whole ecosystem (Haploops included) revealed that Haploops largely dominates the functional structure of the Haploops community by its own functional traits. When performed on selected traits of the associated fauna only (Haploops excluded) the functional structure of the Haploops community was characterized by a greatly reduced proportion of small to medium long lived, sensitive to disturbance, free living or burrowing/tube-building filter-feeding species. H. nirae appears to be a bioengineer and a foundation species that largely modifies its hydro-sedimentary features, controlling diversity and abundances of associated species, and creating a complex set of positive and negative interactions so that a unique benthic assemblage is found in sediments they colonized.

Rigolet, Carinne; Dubois, Stanislas F.; Thiébaut, Eric

2014-01-01

162

The MCAO systems within LINC-NIRVANA: control aspects beyond wavefront correction  

Microsoft Academic Search

LINC-NIRVANA is the near-infrared homothetic imaging camera for the Large Binocular Telescope. Once operational, it will provide an unprecedented combination of angular resolution, sensitivity and field of view. Its layer-oriented MCAO systems (one for each arm of the interferometer) are conjugated to the ground layer and an additional layer in the upper atmosphere. In this contribution MCAO wavefront control is

T. Bertram; C. Arcidiacono; J. Berwein; P. Bizenberger; F. Briegel; E. Diolaiti; J. Farinato; W. Gässler; T. M. Herbst; R. Hofferbert; F. Kittmann; M. Kürster; R. Ragazzoni; L. Schreiber; J. Trowitzsch; V. Viotto

2010-01-01

163

Aspects of the genetic control of development of the autonomous nervous system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides a review of current views about the role of cell genetic machinery in the control of development of\\u000a neurons of the autonomous nervous system. Some of the genes defining migration and specification of these neurons are described.\\u000a We give a schematic presentation of the genetically determined organization of the neuronal networks, which are a basis of\\u000a the

L. I. Korochkin

2000-01-01

164

Design aspects of MOS-controlled thyristor elements: technology, simulation, and experimental results  

Microsoft Academic Search

2.5-kV thyristor devices have been fabricated with integrated MOS controlled n+-emitter shorts and a bipolar turn-on gate using a p-channel DMOS technology. Square-cell geometries with pitch variations ranging from 15 to 30 ?m were implemented in one- and two-dimensional arrays with up to 20000 units. The impact of the cell pitch on the turn-off performance and the on-state voltage was

F. Bauer; E. Halder; K. Hofmann; H. Haddon; P. Roggwiller; T. Stockmeier; J. Burgler; Wolfgang Fichtner; S. Muller; M. Westermann; Jean-Marc Moret; R. Vuilleumier

1991-01-01

165

The transcription factor Apontic-like controls diverse colouration pattern in caterpillars.  

PubMed

Genetic polymorphisms underlie the convergent and divergent evolution of various phenotypes. Diverse colour patterns on caterpillars, which are ecologically important, are good models for understanding the molecular backgrounds of phenotypic diversity. Here we show that a single evolutionarily conserved gene apontic-like (apt-like) encoding for a putative transcription factor accounts for the silkworm p locus, which causes at least 15 different larval markings involved in branch-like markings and eye-spot formation. The expression of apt-like and melanin synthesis genes are upregulated in association with pigmented areas of marking mutants Striped (p(S)) and normal (+(p)) but not in the non-marking allele plain (p). Functional analyses, ectopic expression, RNAi and TALEN, demonstrate that apt-like causes melanin pigmentation in a cell-autonomous manner. These results suggest that variation in p alleles is caused by the differential expression of the gene apt-like which induces targeted elevation of gene expressions in the melanin synthesis pathway. PMID:25233442

Yoda, Shinichi; Yamaguchi, Junichi; Mita, Kazuei; Yamamoto, Kimiko; Banno, Yutaka; Ando, Toshiya; Daimon, Takaaki; Fujiwara, Haruhiko

2014-01-01

166

Plant traits mediate consumer and nutrient control on plant community productivity and diversity.  

PubMed

The interactive effects of consumers and nutrients on terrestrial plant communities, and the role of plant functional traits in mediating these responses, are poorly known. We carried out a six-year full-factorial field experiment using mammalian herbivore exclusion and fertilization in two habitat types (fertile and infertile alpine tundra heaths) that differed in plant functional traits related to resource acquisition and palatability. Infertile habitats were dominated by species with traits indicative of a slow-growing strategy: high C:N ratio, low specific leaf area, and high condensed tannins. We found that herbivory counteracted the effect of fertilization on biomass, and that this response differed between the two habitats and was correlated with plant functional traits. Live biomass dominated the treatment responses in infertile habitats, whereas litter accumulation dominated the treatment responses in fertile habitats and was strongly negatively associated with resident community tannin concentration. Species richness declined under herbivore exclusion and fertilization in fertile habitats, where litter accumulation was greatest. Community means of plant C:N ratio predicted treatment effects on diversity: fertilization decreased and herbivory increased dominance in communities originally dominated by plants with high C:N, while fertilization increased and herbivory diminished dominance in communities where low C:N species were abundant. Our results highlight the close interdependence between consumer effects, soil nutrients, and plant functional traits and suggest that plant traits may provide an improved understanding of how consumers and nutrients influence plant community productivity and diversity. PMID:23431600

Eskelinen, Anu; Harrison, Susan; Tuomi, Maria

2012-12-01

167

Practical aspects of equine parasite control: a review based upon a workshop discussion consensus.  

PubMed

Development of resistance of several important equine parasites to most of the available anthelmintic drug classes has led to a reconsideration of parasite control strategies in many equine establishments. Routine prophylactic treatments based on simple calendar-based schemes are no longer reliable and veterinary equine clinicians are increasingly seeking advice and guidance on more sustainable approaches to equine parasite control. Most techniques for the detection of equine helminth parasites are based on faecal analysis and very few tests have been developed as diagnostic tests for resistance. Recently, some molecular and in vitro based diagnostic assays have been developed and have shown promise, but none of these are currently available for veterinary practice. Presently, the only reliable method for the detection of anthelmintic resistance is a simple faecal egg count reduction test, and clinicians are urged to perform such tests on a regular basis. The key to managing anthelmintic resistance is maintaining parasite refugia and this concept is discussed in relation to treatment strategies, drug rotations and pasture management. It is concluded that treatment strategies need to change and more reliance should now be placed on surveillance of parasite burdens and regular drug efficacy tests are also recommended to ensure continuing drug efficacy. The present review is based upon discussions held at an equine parasite workshop arranged by the French Equine Veterinary Association (Association Vétérinaire Equine Française, AVEF) in Reims, France, in October 2008. PMID:20636785

Nielsen, M K; Fritzen, B; Duncan, J L; Guillot, J; Eysker, M; Dorchies, P; Laugier, C; Beugnet, F; Meana, A; Lussot-Kervern, I; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, G

2010-07-01

168

In-line filtration minimizes organ dysfunction: New aspects from a prospective, randomized, controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Infused particles induce thrombogenesis, impair microcirculation and modulate immune response. We have previously shown in critically ill children, that particle-retentive in-line filtration reduced the overall complication rate of severe events, length of stay and duration of mechanical ventilation. We now evaluated the influence of in-line filtration on different organ function and thereby elucidated the potential underlying pathophysiological effects of particle infusion. Methods In this single-centre, prospective, randomized controlled trial 807 critically ill children were assigned to either control (n?=?406) or filter group (n?=?401), the latter receiving in-line filtration for complete infusion therapy. Both groups were compared regarding the differences of incidence rates and its 95% confidence interval (CI) of different organ dysfunction as defined by the International Pediatric Sepsis Consensus Conference 2005. Results The incidence rates of respiratory (?5.06%; 95% CI, ?9.52 to ?0.59%), renal (?3.87%; 95% CI, ?7.58 to ?0.15%) and hematologic (?3.89%; 95% CI, ?7.26 to ?0.51%) dysfunction were decreased in the filter group. No difference was demonstrated for the occurrence rates of cardiovascular, hepatic, or neurologic dysfunction between both groups. Conclusions In-line filtration has beneficial effects on the preservation of hematologic, renal and respiratory function in critically ill patients. The presented clinical data further support our hypothesis regarding potential harmful effects of particles. In critically ill patients infused particles may lead to further deterioration of the microcirculation, induce a systemic hypercoagulability and inflammation with consecutive negative effects on organ function. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov number; NCT00209768 PMID:23384207

2013-01-01

169

Sexually transmitted diseases in the tropics. Epidemiological, diagnostic, therapeutic, and control aspects.  

PubMed

Sexually transmitted diseases, especially syphilis, gonorrhea, granuloma inguinale, and lymphogranuloma, are on the increase in the tropics. Several environmental factors contribute to disease transmission, including polygamy, high bride price, prostitution, civil war, urbanization, and economic development. Diagnosis is generally made on clinical grounds due to inadequate laboratoary facilities, and it is not possible to differentiate syphilis from yaws. This diagnostic inaccuracy has meant that there are no reliable data with which to assess epidemiologic trends, institute control measures, and evaluate their effects. Inadequate treatment, caused by a lack of drugs and poorly trained medical attendants, is also a major problem. Inappropriate treatment has caused over 80% of gonococcal strains in some areas to be penicillin-resistant. Late complications of gonorrhea, epididymitis, and salpingitis are frequently seen and lead to sterility in many cases. These complications are as prevalent in some areas today as they were in pre-sulfonamide days. A determined effort is needed to control the spread of these diseases. A central unit with modern facilities for diagnosis and treatment should be established. Diagnostic tests, such as culture and serology, should be introduced at the district and provincial levels. Rural health centers should employ a polyvalent microscopist who is trained to recognize gonococcus in stained smears. Given the high default rates, treatment should be simplified, using a single dose schedule where possible. The impracticality of follow-up requires epidemiologic treatment of contacts in many cases. If mass screening of pregnant women is not possible, Crede's silver nitrate eyedrops are recommended to prevent ophthalmia neonatorum. High risk populations, including bar girls, migrant workers, soldiers, and sailors, should be targeted for health education campaigns. Such education should focus on regulation of sexual behavior, condom use, and, when infection is present, the importance of avoiding self-medication, early treatment, and cooperation in contact tracing. PMID:577059

Arya, O P; Lawson, J B

1977-04-01

170

Visceral leishmaniasis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: eco-epidemiological aspects and control.  

PubMed

From 1977 (index case) to 2006, 87 cases of visceral leishmaniasis were confirmed in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in periurban areas on the continental and coastal slopes of the Pedra Branca massif and the continental slopes of the Gericinó massif. The majority (65.5%) of the patients were more than five years old, predominantly males (61.5%), but without any difference between the sexes below the age of 14 years. The overall fatality rate was 10.4%. Two cases of visceral leishmaniasis/human immunodeficiency virus coinfection were detected. Leishmania chagasi was isolated from human and canine cases. The associations between the presence of phlebotomines and human and canine migrations, disorderly occupation involving degradation of environmental preservation areas and poor socioeconomic conditions may have created a favorable setting for the establishment and propagation of the disease. Close epidemiological surveillance associated with traditional control measures and others (active case researches, land clearing and health education), reduced the incidence of human cases from 2.8 per 100,000 inhabitants in 1981 to less than 0.01 per 100,000 since 1997. The canine infection rates decreased from 4.6% in 1984 to 1.6% in 2008. Lutzomyia longipalpis was not detected in some locations where human and canine cases occurred. In the years 2007 and 2008, no new human cases were reported, but there is a persistent and worrisome residual canine seroprevalence. PMID:19967242

Marzochi, Mauro Celio de Almeida; Fagundes, Aline; Andrade, Moacir Vieira de; Souza, Marcos Barbosa de; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Mouta-Confort, Eliame; Schubach, Armando de Oliveira; Marzochi, Keyla Belizia Feldman

2009-01-01

171

Afferent and Efferent Aspects of Mandibular Sensorimotor Control in Adults who Stutter  

PubMed Central

Purpose Individuals who stutter show sensorimotor deficiencies in speech and nonspeech movements. For the mandibular system, we dissociated the sense of kinesthesia from the efferent control component to examine whether kinesthetic integrity itself is compromised in stuttering or whether deficiencies occur only when generating motor commands. Method We investigated 11 stuttering and 11 nonstuttering adults’ kinesthetic sensitivity threshold and kinesthetic accuracy for passive jaw movements as well as their minimal displacement threshold and positioning accuracy for active jaw movements. We also investigated the correlation with an anatomical index of jaw size. Results The groups showed no statistically significant differences on sensory measures for passive jaw movements. Although some stuttering individuals performed more poorly than any nonstuttering participants on the active movement tasks, between-group differences for active movements were also not statistically significant. Unlike fluent speakers, however, the stuttering group showed a statistically significant correlation between mandibular size and performance in the active and passive near-threshold tasks. Conclusions Previously reported minimal movement differences were not replicated. Instead, stuttering individuals’ performance varied with anatomical properties. These correlational results are consistent with the hypothesis that stuttering participants generate and perceive movements based on less accurate internal models of the involved neuromechanical systems. PMID:23816664

Daliri, Ayoub; Prokopenko, Roman A.; Max, Ludo

2013-01-01

172

Socio-Economic-Political-Cultural Aspects in Malaria Control Programme Implementation in Southern India  

PubMed Central

Objective. A Socio-economic-political-cultural (SEPC) study was undertaken under the Roll Back Malaria (RBM) initiative to understand the process of programme implementation and how far in the changing malaria context, the broader environment has been understood and programme components have undergone changes. Material and Methods. Two studies were carried out; first in four villages under the primary health unit (PHU) Banavaralu in Tiptur Taluka in September 2002 and the second one in April 2003 in four villages in Chitradurga district, namely, Kappagere, Kellodu in Hosadurga Taluka, and Vani Vilas Puram and Kathrikenhally in Hiriyur Taluka. Focus group discussion and key interviews were adopted to collect the qualitative data. Results. Gender discrimination and lack of empowerment of women came out strongly in social analysis. In the rural elected bodies called Panchayats, the concept of health committees was not known. Health committees as one of the important statutory committees under every Panchayat were nonexistent in reality in these villages. Financial difficulties at Grama Panchayat level and also meager budget allocation for health have led to indifferent attitude of Panchayat members towards health. It was observed that there were generally no specific cultural practices in relation to malaria cure. Cultural and traditional practices in malaria-related issues were not predominant in the community except for some sporadic instances. Conclusion and Recommendation. SEPC study is an important indicator in malaria control programme. It is ultimately the community that takes the major decision directly or indirectly and the health authority must guide them in right direction. PMID:22701778

Ghosh, S. K.; Patil, Rajan R.; Tiwari, S. N.

2012-01-01

173

In vitro assessments of diverse plant pathogenic fungi treated with a novel growth control agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of an agent with an iodine-based active ingredient (a.i.) was evaluated for controlling the growth of fungi pathogenic to many different food crops. Even though iodine is a necessary mineral for mammals and is an approved food additive, interest in using iodine-based agrochemicals for fungal control is recent. Fusarium verticillioides (synonym=F. moniliforme J. Sheld) sensitivity to the iodine-base

Ida E. Yates; Judy W. Arnold; Charles W. Bacon; Dorothy M. Hinton

2004-01-01

174

Performance of sanitary sewer collection system odour control devices operating in diverse conditions.  

PubMed

Controlling odours from sanitary sewer systems is challenging as a result of the expansive nature of these systems. Addition of oxidizing chemicals is often practiced as a mitigation strategy. One alternative is to remove odorous compounds in the gases vented from manholes using adsorptive media. In this study, odour control devices located at manholes were observed to determine the ability of these systems to reduce hydrogen sulphide from vented gases. The odour control devices incorporated pressure regulation to control gas flow out of manhole covers and adsorptive media to remove hydrogen sulphide in the vented gases prior to release. Pressure regulation was accomplished using a variable volume bladder and two pressure relief valves that permitted gas flow when pressures exceeded 1.3 to 2.5 cm water column. The reduction in gas flow vented from manholes was intended to extend the service life of the adsorptive media, as compared with odour control devices that do not incorporate pressure modulation. Devices were deployed at four locations and three adsorptive media were tested. Although measured collection system hydrogen sulphide concentrations varied from zero to over 1,000 ppm, the removal rates observed using odour control devices were typically above 90%. The lower removal rates observed at one of the sites (50.5 ± 36.1%) appeared related to high gas flow rates being emitted at this location. Activated carbon was used in most of the tests, although use of iron media resulted in the highest removal observed: 97.8 ± 3.6%. The expected service life of the adsorptive media contained within the odour control devices is a function of site-specific hydrogen sulphide concentrations and gas flow rates. The units used in this study were in service for more than 8 to 12 months prior to requiring media replacement. PMID:24355837

Camarillo, Mary Kay; Stringfellow, William T; Hanlon, Jeremy S; Basha, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

175

Expanding the forensic German mitochondrial DNA control region database: genetic diversity as a function of sample size and microgeography.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial DNA control region sequences were determined in 109 unrelated German Caucasoid individuals from north west Germany for both hypervariable regions 1 (HV1) and 2 (HV2) and 100 polymorphic nucleotide positions (nps) were found, 63 in HV1 and 37 in HV2. A total of 100 different mtDNA lineages was revealed, of which 7 were shared by 2 individuals and 1 by 3 individuals. The probability of drawing a HV1 sequence match within the north west Germans or within published sets of south Germans and west Austrians is similar (within a factor of 2) to drawing a sequence match between any two of these three population samples. Furthermore, HV1 sequences of 700 male inhabitants of one village in Lower Saxony were generated and these showed a nearly linear increase of the number of different haplotypes with increasing number of individuals, demonstrating that the commonly used haplotype diversity measure (Nei 1987) for population samples tends to underestimate mtDNA diversity in the actual population. PMID:10460419

Pfeiffer, H; Brinkmann, B; Hühne, J; Rolf, B; Morris, A A; Steighner, R; Holland, M M; Forster, P

1999-01-01

176

Functional diversity of CYCLOIDEA-like TCP genes in the control of zygomorphic flower development in Lotus japonicus.  

PubMed

CYCLOIDEA (CYC)-like TCP genes play key roles in dorsoventral differentiation of zygomorphic flowers in Papilionoideae legumes. In this study, we analyzed the kew mutants whose flowers lost lateral identity, and investigated the diverse functions of three LjCYC genes during zygomorphic flower development in the model legume Lotus japonicus. We showed that kew1 and kew3 are allelic mutants of LjCYC3, a CYC-like TCP gene. Through transgenic experiments, it was shown that LjCYC1 possesses dorsal activity similar to LjCYC2, and that LjCYC3 alone is sufficient to confer lateral activity, and an epistatic effect between dorsal and lateral activities was identified. Sequence analysis revealed a striking alteration at the 3' end of the LjCYC3 open reading frame (ORF) in comparison with those of LjCYC1 and LjCYC2 ORFs. Furthermore, it was found that LjCYC proteins could interact with each other and possess different activities by means of a transcriptional activity assay. Our data demonstrate that the sequence variation and the subsequent alteration of protein property play important roles in the functional diversity of different LjCYC genes in controlling zygomorphic flower development in Lotus japonicus. PMID:23009172

Xu, Shilei; Luo, Yonghai; Cai, Zhigang; Cao, Xiangling; Hu, Xiaohe; Yang, Jun; Luo, Da

2013-03-01

177

Tobacco Control Policy Advocacy Attitudes and Self-Efficacy among Ethnically Diverse High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study applied self-efficacy theory to assess empowerment to advocate on behalf of tobacco control policies. The Youth Tobacco Survey with added policy advocacy self-efficacy, attitudes, and outcome expectations scales was given to 9,177 high school students in Texas. Asians showed the lowest prevalence of experimentation and current smoking,…

Ramirez, Amelie G.; Velez, Luis F.; Chalela, Patricia; Grussendorf, Jeannie; McAlister, Alfred L.

2006-01-01

178

Decreased Functional Diversity and Biological Pest Control in Conventional Compared to Organic Crop Fields  

PubMed Central

Organic farming is one of the most successful agri-environmental schemes, as humans benefit from high quality food, farmers from higher prices for their products and it often successfully protects biodiversity. However there is little knowledge if organic farming also increases ecosystem services like pest control. We assessed 30 triticale fields (15 organic vs. 15 conventional) and recorded vascular plants, pollinators, aphids and their predators. Further, five conventional fields which were treated with insecticides were compared with 10 non-treated conventional fields. Organic fields had five times higher plant species richness and about twenty times higher pollinator species richness compared to conventional fields. Abundance of pollinators was even more than one-hundred times higher on organic fields. In contrast, the abundance of cereal aphids was five times lower in organic fields, while predator abundances were three times higher and predator-prey ratios twenty times higher in organic fields, indicating a significantly higher potential for biological pest control in organic fields. Insecticide treatment in conventional fields had only a short-term effect on aphid densities while later in the season aphid abundances were even higher and predator abundances lower in treated compared to untreated conventional fields. Our data indicate that insecticide treatment kept aphid predators at low abundances throughout the season, thereby significantly reducing top-down control of aphid populations. Plant and pollinator species richness as well as predator abundances and predator-prey ratios were higher at field edges compared to field centres, highlighting the importance of field edges for ecosystem services. In conclusion organic farming increases biodiversity, including important functional groups like plants, pollinators and predators which enhance natural pest control. Preventative insecticide application in conventional fields has only short-term effects on aphid densities but long-term negative effects on biological pest control. Therefore conventional farmers should restrict insecticide applications to situations where thresholds for pest densities are reached. PMID:21611171

Krauss, Jochen; Gallenberger, Iris; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

2011-01-01

179

Important helminth infections in Southeast Asia diversity, potential for control and prospects for elimination.  

PubMed

Besides the 'big three'-HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis-there are a host of diseases that, by comparison, are truly neglected. These so-called neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), many of which caused by helminths, are intimately linked with poverty and are rampant where housing is poor; access to clean water and adequate sanitation is lacking; hygiene and nutrition is substandard and populations are marginalized and vulnerable. More than a billion people are affected by NTDs, mainly in remote rural and deprived urban settings of the developing world. An overview of papers published in two special thematic volumes of the Advances in Parasitology is provided here under the umbrella of current status of research and control of important helminth infections. A total of 25 comprehensive reviews are presented, which summarise the latest available data pertaining to the diagnosis, epidemiology, pathogenesis, prevention, treatment, control and eventual elimination of NTDs in Southeast Asia and neighbourhood countries. The focus of the first volume provides the current regional status of schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis, food-borne trematodiases, echinococcosis and cysticercosis/taeniasis, less common parasitic diseases that can cause epidemic outbreaks and helminth infections affecting the central nervous system. The second volume deals with the tools and strategies for control, including diagnostics, drugs, vaccines and cutting-edge basic research (e.g. the '-omics' sciences). Moreover, cross-cutting themes such as multiparasitism, social sciences, capacity strengthening, geospatial health technologies, health metrics and modelling the potential impact of climate change on helminthic diseases are discussed. Hopefully, these two volumes will become useful for researchers and, most importantly, disease control managers for integrated and sustainable control, rigorous monitoring and eventual elimination of NTDs in Southeast Asia and elsewhere. PMID:20624526

Utzinger, Jürg; Bergquist, Robert; Olveda, Remigio; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

2010-01-01

180

Arabidopsis Ovate Family Proteins, a Novel Transcriptional Repressor Family, Control Multiple Aspects of Plant Growth and Development  

SciTech Connect

BACKGROUND: The Arabidopsis genome contains 18 genes that are predicted to encode Ovate Family Proteins (AtOFPs), a protein family characterized by a conserved OVATE domain, an approximately 70-amino acid domain that was originally found in tomato OVATE protein. Among AtOFP family members, AtOFP1 has been shown to suppress cell elongation, in part, by suppressing the expression of AtGA20ox1, AtOFP4 has been shown to regulate secondary cell wall formation by interact with KNOTTED1-LIKE HOMEODOMAIN PROTEIN 7 (KNAT7), and AtOFP5 has been shown to regulate the activity of a BEL1-LIKEHOMEODOMAIN 1(BLH1)-KNAT3 complex during early embryo sac development, but little is known about the function of other AtOFPs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We demonstrated here that AtOFP proteins could function as effective transcriptional repressors in the Arabidopsis protoplast transient expression system. The analysis of loss-of-function alleles of AtOFPs suggested AtOFP genes may have overlapping function in regulating plant growth and development, because none of the single mutants identified, including T-DNA insertion mutants in AtOFP1, AtOFP4, AtOFP8, AtOFP10, AtOFP15 and AtOFP16, displayed any apparent morphological defects. Further, Atofp1 Atofp4 and Atofp15 Atofp16 double mutants still did not differ significantly from wild-type. On the other hand, plants overexpressing AtOFP genes displayed a number of abnormal phenotypes, which could be categorized into three distinct classes, suggesting that AtOFP genes may also have diverse functions in regulating plant growth and development. Further analysis suggested that AtOFP1 regulates cotyledon development in a postembryonic manner, and global transcript profiling revealed that it suppress the expression of many other genes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results showed that AtOFPs function as transcriptional repressors and they regulate multiple aspects of plant growth and development. These results provided the first overview of a previously unknown transcriptional repressor family, and revealed their possible roles in plant growth and development.

Wang, Shucai [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Chang, Ying [Northeast Agricultural University; Guo, Jianjun [Harvard University; Zeng, Qingning [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Ellis, Brian [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Chen, Jay [ORNL

2011-01-01

181

Relationships Between Alcohol-Related informal Social Control, Parental Monitoring and Adolescent Problem Behaviors Among Racially Diverse Urban Youth  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the present study is to investigate the relationships between alcohol-related informal social control and parental monitoring on alcohol use, behavior and intentions; violent behavior; and delinquent behavior in a racially diverse population of young urban adolescents. Baseline surveys were administered to 6th grade male and female students in 61 urban Chicago schools as part of Project Northland Chicago, a group randomized trial for the prevention/reduction of substance use. A subset of their parents (n=3034) was also surveyed regarding alcohol use, violence, and delinquency and related issues. Structural equation modeling was used to assess relationships between alcohol-related informal social control (as measured by parental perceptions of neighborhood action regarding youth drinking) and parental monitoring (as reported by parents), and three adolescent outcomes (alcohol use, behaviors and intentions; violent behavior; and delinquent behavior; as reported by teens). Associations between alcohol-related informal social control and parental monitoring were positive and significant (p<.001). Direct paths from parental monitoring to all three adolescent outcomes were negative and statistically significant (alcohol use, behaviors and intentions, p<.001; violent behavior, p<.001; and delinquent behavior, p<.001). Alcohol-related informal social control was not significantly associated with adolescent outcomes. Efforts to engage parents to be more active in monitoring adolescents’ activities may be related to lower levels of underage drinking, violence and delinquency among both female and male urban youth. Neighborhood norms and action against teenage drinking may be too distal to adolescent outcomes to be directly associated. PMID:18607698

Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Pasch, Keryn E.; Perry, Cheryl L.; Komro, Kelli

2008-01-01

182

Engaging adolescent girls from linguistically diverse and low income backgrounds in school sport: a pilot randomised controlled trial.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility, acceptability, and potential efficacy of a school-based physical activity program delivered during school sport time among adolescent girls from low income predominately linguistically diverse backgrounds in New South Wales, Australia. Using a 3-month, 2-arm, parallel-group pilot RCT design, 38 adolescent girls (Year 11) were recruited to participate in the program and randomised into intervention (n=17) or control groups (n=21). The intervention program aimed to increase physical activity by improving enjoyment, physical self-perception and perceived competence. Baseline and follow-up (12 weeks) assessments included enjoyment of physical activity, physical self-perception, and objectively measured physical activity during school sport sessions. Process data were collected through observations of lessons, attendance records, and interviews with participants and staff. Recruitment (63%) and retention (68%) goals were less than anticipated but similar to other studies. Participation was higher for the intervention (72%) than the control (60%) group and the intervention group reported high levels of satisfaction with the program. At follow-up, girls in the intervention group, compared with the control group, showed greater improvement in their enjoyment of physical activity during school sport (adjusted mean difference=3.8, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] -2.4, 10.1; Cohen's d=0.42 standard deviation units) and body image (adjusted difference mean=1.0, 95% CI -0.4, 2.3; d=0.50). There was a smaller decline in participation in physical activity during school sport (adjusted mean=13.6, 95% CI -21.8, 48.9; d=0.24). This study highlights major barriers confronting adolescent girls' participation in school sport. Some of these include teacher attitudes and support, activities and programming, purpose and distinction, and student input. Negotiating these barriers and overcoming them in a school setting appears feasible with support from the entire school community. PMID:19574099

Dudley, Dean A; Okely, Anthony D; Pearson, Philip; Peat, Jennifer

2010-03-01

183

What Makes Group MET Work? A Randomized Controlled Trial of College Student Drinkers in Mandated Alcohol Diversion  

PubMed Central

Nationally, college drinkers exhibit the highest rates of alcohol consumption and represent the largest percentage of problem drinkers. Group motivational enhancement therapy (GMET) has been found to catalyze problem drinking reductions among college student samples. While research supporting the use of single-session GMET in college samples (general and mandated) is emergent, no studies have evaluated a comprehensive model of the potential active ingredients of this group intervention. College students (N = 206; 88% Caucasian; 63% male; M age = 18.6) mandated to a university alcohol diversion program were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: the standard-of-care two-session ‘Focus on Alcohol Concerns’ education group (FAC), a single group motivational enhancement therapy (GMET), or a single Alcohol Information-only control group (AI) to evaluate the role of five putative mediators: readiness to change, self-efficacy, perceived risk, norm estimates, and positive drinking expectancies. At three and six month follow-ups, GMET students demonstrated greater reductions in problem drinking outcomes (drinks per drinking day, hazardous drinking symptoms, and alcohol-related problems). Of the five mediators proposed, only self-efficacy emerged as a significant mediator. PMID:20025366

LaChance, Heather; Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W.; Bryan, Angela D.; Hutchison, Kent E.

2009-01-01

184

Exploiting Natural Variation of Secondary Metabolism Identifies a Gene Controlling the Glycosylation Diversity of Dihydroxybenzoic Acids in Arabidopsis thaliana.  

PubMed

Plant secondary metabolism is an active research area because of the unique and important roles the specialized metabolites have in the interaction of plants with their biotic and abiotic environment, the diversity and complexity of the compounds and their importance to human medicine. Thousands of natural accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana characterized with increasing genomic precision are available, providing new opportunities to explore the biochemical and genetic mechanisms affecting variation in secondary metabolism within this model species. In this study, we focused on four aromatic metabolites that were differentially accumulated among 96 Arabidopsis natural accessions as revealed by leaf metabolic profiling. Using UV, mass spectrometry, and NMR data, we identified these four compounds as different dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) glycosides, namely 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (gentisic acid) 5-O-?-D-glucoside, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid 3-O-?-D-glucoside, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid 5-O-?-D-xyloside, and 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid 3-O-?-D-xyloside. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping using recombinant inbred lines generated from C24 and Col-0 revealed a major-effect QTL controlling the relative proportion of xylosides vs. glucosides. Association mapping identified markers linked to a gene encoding a UDP glycosyltransferase gene. Analysis of Transfer DNA (T-DNA) knockout lines verified that this gene is required for DHBA xylosylation in planta and recombinant protein was able to xylosylate DHBA in vitro. This study demonstrates that exploiting natural variation of secondary metabolism is a powerful approach for gene function discovery. PMID:25173843

Li, Xu; Svedin, Elisabeth; Mo, Huaping; Atwell, Susanna; Dilkes, Brian P; Chapple, Clint

2014-11-01

185

Stratgies for Diversity Usage to Mitigate Postulated Common Cause Failure Vulnerabilities  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes an approach to establish effective mitigating strategies that can resolve potential common-cause failure (CCF) vulnerabilities in instrumentation and control systems at nuclear power plants. A particular objective in the development of these strategies, which consist of combinations of diversity attributes and their associated criteria, is to address the unique characteristics of digital technology that can contribute to CCF concerns. The research approach employed to establish diversity strategies involves investigation of available documentation on diversity usage and experience from nuclear power and non-nuclear industries, capture of expert knowledge and lessons learned, determination of common practices, and assessment of the nature of CCFs and compensating diversity attributes. The resulting diversity strategies address considerations such as the effect of technology choices, the nature of CCF vulnerabilities, and the prospective impact of each diversity type. In particular, the impact of each attribute and criterion on the purpose, process, product, and performance aspects of diverse systems are considered.

Wood, Richard Thomas [ORNL; Waterman, Michael E. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

2011-01-01

186

Diversity in smartphone usage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using detailed traces from 255 users, we con- duct a comprehensive study of smartphone use. We char- acterize intentional user activities - interactions with the device and the applications used - and the impact of those activities on network and energy usage. We find immense diversity among users. Along all aspects that we study, users differ by one or more

Hossein Falaki; Ratul Mahajan; Srikanth Kandula; Dimitrios Lymberopoulos; Ramesh Govindan; Deborah Estrin

2010-01-01

187

Endemic predators, invasive prey and native diversity  

PubMed Central

Interactions between native diversity and invasive species can be more complex than is currently understood. Invasive ant species often substantially reduce diversity in the native ants diversity that act as natural control agents for pest insects. In Indonesia (on the island of Sulawesi), the third largest cacao producer worldwide, we show that a predatory endemic toad (Ingerophrynus celebensis) controls invasive ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes) abundance, and positively affects native ant diversity. We call this the invasive-naivety effect (an opposite of enemy release), whereby alien species may not harbour anti-predatory defences against a novel native predator. A positive effect of the toads on native ants may facilitate their predation on insect vectors of cacao diseases. Hence, toads may increase crop yield, but further research is needed on this aspect. Ironically, amphibians are globally the most threatened vertebrate class and are strongly impacted by the conversion of rainforest to cacao plantations in Sulawesi. It is, therefore, crucial to manage cacao plantations to maintain these endemic toads, as they may provide critical ecosystem services, such as invasion resistance and preservation of native insect diversity. PMID:20826488

Wanger, Thomas C.; Wielgoss, Arno C.; Motzke, Iris; Clough, Yann; Brook, Barry W.; Sodhi, Navjot S.; Tscharntke, Teja

2011-01-01

188

Endemic predators, invasive prey and native diversity.  

PubMed

Interactions between native diversity and invasive species can be more complex than is currently understood. Invasive ant species often substantially reduce diversity in the native ants diversity that act as natural control agents for pest insects. In Indonesia (on the island of Sulawesi), the third largest cacao producer worldwide, we show that a predatory endemic toad (Ingerophrynus celebensis) controls invasive ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes) abundance, and positively affects native ant diversity. We call this the invasive-naivety effect (an opposite of enemy release), whereby alien species may not harbour anti-predatory defences against a novel native predator. A positive effect of the toads on native ants may facilitate their predation on insect vectors of cacao diseases. Hence, toads may increase crop yield, but further research is needed on this aspect. Ironically, amphibians are globally the most threatened vertebrate class and are strongly impacted by the conversion of rainforest to cacao plantations in Sulawesi. It is, therefore, crucial to manage cacao plantations to maintain these endemic toads, as they may provide critical ecosystem services, such as invasion resistance and preservation of native insect diversity. PMID:20826488

Wanger, Thomas C; Wielgoss, Arno C; Motzke, Iris; Clough, Yann; Brook, Barry W; Sodhi, Navjot S; Tscharntke, Teja

2011-03-01

189

Multidimensional display controller for displaying to a user an aspect of a multidimensional space visible from a base viewing location along a desired viewing orientation  

DOEpatents

A display controller allows a user to control a base viewing location, a base viewing orientation, and a relative viewing orientation. The base viewing orientation and relative viewing orientation are combined to determine a desired viewing orientation. An aspect of a multidimensional space visible from the base viewing location along the desired viewing orientation is displayed to the user. The user can change the base viewing location, base viewing orientation, and relative viewing orientation by changing the location or other properties of input objects.

Davidson, George S. (Albuquerque, NM); Anderson, Thomas G. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01

190

Regulatory aspects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At this time, there is no US legislation that is specifically aimed at regulating the environmental release of genetically engineered organisms or their modified components, either during the research and development stage or during application. There are some statutes, administered by several federal agencies, whose language is broad enough to allow the extension of intended coverage to include certain aspects of biotechnology. The one possible exception is FIFRA, which has already brought about the registration of several natural microbial pesticides but which also has provision for requiring the registration of “strain improved” microbial pesticides. Nevertheless, there may be gaps in coverage even if all pertinent statutes were to be actively applied to the control of environmental release of genetically modified substances. The decision to regulate biotechnology under TSCA was justified, in part, on the basis of its intended role as a gap-filling piece of environmental legislation. The advantage of regulating biotechnology under TSCA is that this statute, unlike others, is concerned with all media of exposure (air, water, soil, sediment, biota) that may pose health and environmental hazards. Experience may show that extending existing legislation to regulate biotechnology is a poor compromise compared to the promulgation of new legislation specifically designed for this purpose. It appears that many other countries are ultimately going to take the latter course to regulate biotechnology.

Stern, Arthur M.

1986-07-01

191

Rethinking Diversity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These three papers were presented at a symposium on rethinking diversity in human resource development (HRD) moderated by Neal Chalofsky at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development. "Diversity: A Double-Edged Sword" (Sally F. Angus) presents the notion of work force diversity through two differing perspectives in order to…

1996

192

Expression of genes controlling fat deposition in two genetically diverse beef cattle breeds fed high or low silage diets  

PubMed Central

Background Both genetic background and finishing system can alter fat deposition, thus indicating their influence on adipogenic and lipogenic factors. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying fat deposition and fatty acid composition in beef cattle are not fully understood. This study aimed to assess the effect of breed and dietary silage level on the expression patterns of key genes controlling lipid metabolism in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle of cattle. To that purpose, forty bulls from two genetically diverse Portuguese bovine breeds with distinct maturity rates, Alentejana and Barrosã, were selected and fed either low (30% maize silage/70% concentrate) or high silage (70% maize silage/30% concentrate) diets. Results The results suggested that enhanced deposition of fatty acids in the SAT from Barrosã bulls, when compared to Alentejana, could be due to higher expression levels of lipogenesis (SCD and LPL) and ?-oxidation (CRAT) related genes. Our results also indicated that SREBF1 expression in the SAT is increased by feeding the low silage diet. Together, these results point out to a higher lipid turnover in the SAT of Barrosã bulls when compared to Alentejana. In turn, lipid deposition in the LL muscle is related to the expression of adipogenic (PPARG and FABP4) and lipogenic (ACACA and SCD) genes. The positive correlation between ACACA expression levels and total lipids, as well trans fatty acids, points to ACACA as a major player in intramuscular deposition in ruminants. Moreover, results reinforce the role of FABP4 in intramuscular fat development and the SAT as the major site for lipid metabolism in ruminants. Conclusions Overall, the results showed that SAT and LL muscle fatty acid composition are mostly dependent on the genetic background. In addition, dietary silage level impacted on muscle lipid metabolism to a greater extent than on that of SAT, as evaluated by gene expression levels of adipogenic and lipogenic factors. Moreover, the response to diet composition evaluated through mRNA levels and fatty acid composition showed interesting differences between Alentejana and Barrosã bulls. These findings provide evidence that the genetic background should be taken into account while devising diet-based strategies to manipulate fatty acid composition of beef cattle tissues. PMID:23767408

2013-01-01

193

Mutuality as an Aspect of Family Functioning in Predicting Eating Disorder Symptoms in College Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined mutuality, an aspect of Relational Cultural Theory, in an ethnically diverse sample of 397 college women from Midwestern and Western universities. We hypothesized that mutuality would predict scores on an eating disorder scale after controlling for traditional family variables, such as expressed emotion. As predicted, mutuality, as…

Sanftner, Jennifer L.; Cameron, Rebecca P.; Tantillo, Mary; Heigel, Caron P.; Martin, David Myron; Sippel-Silowash, Julie Ann; Taggart, Jane M.

2006-01-01

194

Controllable synthesis of high aspect ratio Mg2B2O5 nanowires and their applications in reinforced polyhydroxyalkanoate composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highly pure magnesium borate (Mg2B2O5) nanowires with an average diameter of ~ 30 nm, an average length of ~ 15 ?m, and a high aspect ratio of ~ 500 have been synthesized on a large scale via a two-step method. MgBO2(OH) nanowires with high aspect ratios were first prepared via a PVP-assisted hydrothermal technique. Using these nanowires as precursors, single crystalline Mg2B2O5 nanowires were synthesized by post-annealing treatment at a relatively low temperature of 700 °C. The important effect of the MgBO2(OH)—Mg2B2O5 conversion process on the morphology of the Mg2B2O5 nanowires was investigated and it was indicated that the recrystallization process plays an important role in the protection of the one-dimensional (1D) nanostructure. Moreover, the rigidity and the toughness of the Mg2B2O5 nanowire-reinforced PHA composites were tremendously improved compared to those of the pure PHA. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of Mg2B2O5 nanowires for reinforcement applications in polymer composites.

Mo, Zhao-Jun; Chen, Jin-Peng; Lin, Jing; Fan, Ying; Liang, Chun-Yong; Wang, Hong-Shui; Xu, Xue-Wen; Hu, Long; Tang, Cheng-Chun

2014-05-01

195

Aspects of control of the cardiovascular-respiratory system during orthostatic stress induced by lower body negative pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers a model developed to study the cardiovascular control system response to orthostatic stress as induced by two variations of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) experiments. This modeling approach has been previously applied to study control responses to transition from rest to aerobic exercise, to transition to non-REM sleep and to orthostatic stress as produced by the head

Franz Kappel; Martin Fink; Jerry J. Batzel

2007-01-01

196

Foundry quality control aspects and prospects to reduce scrap rework and rejection in metal casting manufacturing industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metal casting industries are actively involved to reduce the scrap rejection and rework during the manufacturing process of the components. To achieve this, the production concerns must follow the quality control procedures correctly and perfectly without any negligence. Timely implementation of the modified techniques based on the quality control research is a must to avoid defects in the products. In

T. R. Vijayaram; S. Sulaiman; A. M. S. Hamouda; M. H. M. Ahmad

2006-01-01

197

Control via Budgets. Supervising: Economic and Financial Aspects. The Choice Series #71. A Self-Learning Opportunity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This learning unit on control via budgets is one in the Choice Series, a self-learning development program for supervisors. The purpose of the approximately eight-hour-long unit is to enable the supervisor to describe what a budget is, provide the information required to prepare budgets, understand how budgets are used, and use budgetary control

Clelland, Alastair

198

Geographical and environmental controls of palm beta diversity in paleo-riverine terrace forests in Amazonian Peru  

Microsoft Academic Search

The palm (Arecaceae) community on low paleo-riverine terraces (terrace forest) in the north-western Amazon, is described, and we assessed the importance of environmental differences and geographic distance as drivers of its local (252 grain and 0–500 extent) and regional scale (5002 grain and 0.3–143 km extent) beta diversity using ordination, multiple regressions on distance matrices and Indicator Species Analysis. A

Signe Normand; Jaana Vormisto; Jens-Christian Svenning; César Grández; Henrik Balslev

2006-01-01

199

Biological aspects and control of johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.) in grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench)  

E-print Network

distribution of rhizome, and rhizome depth in the soil increased. Field research was conducted in College Station and Temple, Texas, during 1986 and 1987, to evaluate the influence of cultivation and herbicides on johnsongrass control in grain sorghum... Page 20 Seasonal rainfall for 1986 and 1987, and the 50-yr average at College Station, Texas. 55 21 Effect of different herbicide and cultivation inputs on percent seedling johnsongrass control at 60 days after planting. College Station, Texas...

Lopez, Juan Alberto

2012-06-07

200

Dynamic aspects and controllability of the MELiSSA project: a bioregenerative system to provide life support in space.  

PubMed

Manmade ecosystems differ from their prototype biosphere by the principle of control. The Earth Biosphere is sustainable by stochastic control and very large time constants. By contrast, in a closed ecosystem such as the micro-ecological life support system alternative (MELiSSA system) developed by the European Space Agency for space exploration, a deterministic control is a prerequisite of sustainable existence. MELiSSA is an integrated sum of interconnected biological subsystems. On one hand, all unit operations in charge of the elementary functions constitutive of the entire life support system are studied until a thorough understanding and mathematical modelling. On the other hand, the systemic approach of complex, highly branched systems with feedback loops is performed. This leads to study in the same perspective, with the same degree of accuracy and with the same language, waste degradation, water recycling, atmosphere revitalisation and food production systems prior to the integration of knowledge-based control models. This paper presents the mathematical modelling of the MELiSSA system and the interface between the control strategy of the entire system and the control of the bioreactors. PMID:18592407

Farges, Bérangère; Poughon, Laurent; Creuly, Catherine; Cornet, Jean-François; Dussap, Claude-Gilles; Lasseur, Christophe

2008-12-01

201

Embracing Diversity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The high school art unit "Embracing Diversity" was the author's principal work towards the completion of a Masters thesis. The objective was to learn whether or not teaching an art unit that focused on sexual diversity could have a positive impact on the current culture one finds in high schools. The unit was found to have a positive impact on…

Roeck, Kathryn T.

2009-01-01

202

Redefining Diversity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shows how the need for diversity programs is escalating. Describes corporate practices such as affinity groups, redefinition of corporate values, forms of bias, steps for effective programs, and ways in which the events of September 11, 2001 affect diversity training. (SK)

Koonce, Richard

2001-01-01

203

The Emerging Role of Telemedicine in Managing Glycemic Control and Psychobehavioral Aspects of Pregnancy Complicated by Diabetes  

PubMed Central

There is a gradual decline in concern of specialists who follow up the care of pregnant women with diabetes. In addition, due to the dwindling economic resources allocated to health services, access to specialized healthcare facilities is becoming more difficult. Telemedicine, or medicine practiced at a distance, is inserted in this context with applications differing for type of interaction (real-time or deferred, i.e., videoconferencing versus store-and-forward data transmission), type of monitoring (automatic versus requesting cooperation from the patient), and type of devices used (web connections and use of mobile phones or smartphones). Telemedicine can cope with the current lack of ability to ensure these patients frequent direct contact with their caregivers. This approach may have an impact not only on the classical maternal-fetal outcome, but also on some underestimated aspects of patients with diabetes in pregnancy, in this case their quality of life, the perception of “diabetes self-efficacy,” and the glycemic variability. In this paper, we will analyze the current evidence regarding the use of telemedicine in pregnancies complicated by diabetes, trying to highlight the main limitations of these studies and possible strategies to overcome them in order to improve the effectiveness of future clinical interventions with these medical applications.

Chilelli, Nino Cristiano; Dalfra, Maria Grazia; Lapolla, Annunziata

2014-01-01

204

The emerging role of telemedicine in managing glycemic control and psychobehavioral aspects of pregnancy complicated by diabetes.  

PubMed

There is a gradual decline in concern of specialists who follow up the care of pregnant women with diabetes. In addition, due to the dwindling economic resources allocated to health services, access to specialized healthcare facilities is becoming more difficult. Telemedicine, or medicine practiced at a distance, is inserted in this context with applications differing for type of interaction (real-time or deferred, i.e., videoconferencing versus store-and-forward data transmission), type of monitoring (automatic versus requesting cooperation from the patient), and type of devices used (web connections and use of mobile phones or smartphones). Telemedicine can cope with the current lack of ability to ensure these patients frequent direct contact with their caregivers. This approach may have an impact not only on the classical maternal-fetal outcome, but also on some underestimated aspects of patients with diabetes in pregnancy, in this case their quality of life, the perception of "diabetes self-efficacy," and the glycemic variability. In this paper, we will analyze the current evidence regarding the use of telemedicine in pregnancies complicated by diabetes, trying to highlight the main limitations of these studies and possible strategies to overcome them in order to improve the effectiveness of future clinical interventions with these medical applications. PMID:25295059

Chilelli, Nino Cristiano; Dalfrà, Maria Grazia; Lapolla, Annunziata

2014-01-01

205

Research on energy-saving optimal control of trains in a following operation under a fixed four-aspect autoblock system based on multi-dimension parallel GA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After analyzing the working principle of the four-aspect fixed autoblock system, an energy-saving control model was created based on the dynamics equations of the trains in order to study the energy-saving optimal control strategy of trains in a following operation. Besides the safety and punctuality, the main aims of the model were the energy consumption and the time error. Based on this model, the static and dynamic speed restraints under a four-aspect fixed autoblock system were put forward. The multi-dimension parallel genetic algorithm (GA) and the external punishment function were adopted to solve this problem. By using the real number coding and the strategy of ramps divided into three parts, the convergence of GA was speeded up and the length of chromosomes was shortened. A vector of Gaussian random disturbance with zero mean was superposed to the mutation operator. The simulation result showed that the method could reduce the energy consumption effectively based on safety and punctuality.

Lu, Qiheng; Feng, Xiaoyun

2013-03-01

206

Experimental Tests of Effects of Plant Productivity and Diversity on Grassland Arthropod Diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because the quantity, quality, and heterogeneity of resources should affect the diversity of consumers, plant productivity, plant composition, and plant diversity may influence the diversity of trophic levels higher up the food chain (''bottom-up'' control of diversity). Increasing plant productivity may increase herbivore diversity by: increasing the abundance of rare resources (''resource rarity hypothesis''), increasing herbivore abun- dance and local

Evan Siemann

1998-01-01

207

Aspects of the use of honeybees and bumblebees as vector of antagonistic micro-organisms in plant disease control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) and bumblebees (Bombus terrestris L.) are used for pollination in agriculture and horticulture. The morphological and behavioural characteristics of bees make them good pollinators. Thanks to this, bees may also be used as vector of antagonistic micro-organisms for plant disease control, both preventive and curative. To determine the practical consequences of this way of plant disease

J. J. M. van der Steen; C. J. Langerak; C. A. M. van Tongeren; A. J. Dik

208

Aspects of the use of honeybees and bumblebees as vector of antagonistic micro-organisms in plant diseas control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) and bumblebees (Bombus terrestris L.) are used for pollination in agriculture and horticulture. The morphological and behavioural characteristics of bees make them good pollinators. Thanks to this, bees may also be used as vector of antagonistic micro-organisms for plant disease control, both preventive and curative. To determine the practical consequences of this way of plant disease

Steen van der J. J. M; C. J. Langerak; Tongeren van C. A. M; A. J. Dik

2003-01-01

209

Epidemiology and Operational Aspects of Trachoma Surveillance and Control in a School in the Municipality of São Paulo, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Trachoma is a keratoconjunctivitis affecting mainly children. This study describes epidemiological surveillance of trachoma in a municipal school in São Paulo, Brazil, during 1993-1997. Epidemiological investigation forms were analyzed, and 7,751 students and school employees were examined. Active surveillance or active searches , complemented by educational activities, notification of cases, treatment, and control activities were done each year. The

Nilton Harunori Chinen; Rosa Kazuye; Koda D'Amaral; Suzana de Jesus Rosa; Wilma T. Miyake Morimoto; Norma Helen Medina; São Paulo-SP

2006-01-01

210

Brain training with non-action video games enhances aspects of cognition in older adults: a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Age-related cognitive and brain declines can result in functional deterioration in many cognitive domains, dependency, and dementia. A major goal of aging research is to investigate methods that help to maintain brain health, cognition, independent living and wellbeing in older adults. This randomized controlled study investigated the effects of 20 1-h non-action video game training sessions with games selected from a commercially available package (Lumosity) on a series of age-declined cognitive functions and subjective wellbeing. Two groups of healthy older adults participated in the study, the experimental group who received the training and the control group who attended three meetings with the research team along the study. Groups were similar at baseline on demographics, vocabulary, global cognition, and depression status. All participants were assessed individually before and after the intervention, or a similar period of time, using neuropsychological tests and laboratory tasks to investigate possible transfer effects. The results showed significant improvements in the trained group, and no variation in the control group, in processing speed (choice reaction time), attention (reduction of distraction and increase of alertness), immediate and delayed visual recognition memory, as well as a trend to improve in Affection and Assertivity, two dimensions of the Wellbeing Scale. Visuospatial working memory (WM) and executive control (shifting strategy) did not improve. Overall, the current results support the idea that training healthy older adults with non-action video games will enhance some cognitive abilities but not others.

Ballesteros, Soledad; Prieto, Antonio; Mayas, Julia; Toril, Pilar; Pita, Carmen; Ponce de Leon, Laura; Reales, Jose M.; Waterworth, John

2014-01-01

211

High-order myopic coronagraphic phase diversity (COFFEE) for wave-front control in high-contrast imaging systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The estimation and compensation of quasi-static aberrations is mandatory to reach the ultimate performance of high-contrast imaging systems. COFFEE is a focal plane wave-front sensing method that consists in the extension of phase diversity to high-contrast imaging systems. Based on a Bayesian approach, it estimates the quasi-static aberrations from two focal plane images recorded from the scientific camera itself. In this paper, we present COFFEE's extension which allows an estimation of low and high order aberrations with nanometric precision for any coronagraphic device. The performance is evaluated by realistic simulations, performed in the SPHERE instrument framework. We develop a myopic estimation that allows us to take into account an imperfect knowledge on the used diversity phase. Lastly, we evaluate COFFEE's performance in a compensation process, to optimize the contrast on the detector, and show it allows one to reach the 10^-6 contrast required by SPHERE at a few resolution elements from the star. Notably, we present a non-linear energy minimization method which can be used to reach very high contrast levels (better than 10^-7 in a SPHERE-like context)

Paul, B.; Mugnier, L. M.; Sauvage, J.-F.; Ferrari, M.; Dohlen, K.

2013-12-01

212

Aspects of the water resources management practice with emphasis on nutrients control in the Chivero Basin, Zimbabwe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper summarises the results of a study on qualitative, quantitative and environmental aspects of water resources management in the Lake Chivero basin, which is the main source of water supply of the City of Harare, Zimbabwe and is in advanced stage of eutrophication. In terms of water quality, an integrated database has been developed, combining existing monitoring data about natural water quality, effluent discharges and urban storm drainage, and data from research investigations during the period 1995-2000. Background pollution in the basin varied from 0.1 to 0.3 mg/l and from 0.1 to 0.4 mg/l for nitrates and phosphates (as total P), respectively. Spatial variations along the major rivers showed a steady trend of increase in nutrient levels with a peak in 1998. At Marimba River confluence the annual median values recorded were 3.5 and 4.4 mg/l for ammonia and phosphates, respectively, thus exceeding the effluent discharge regulations 7-9 times. The major nutrient sources contributing to this status are associated with operational problems of the treatment facilities and diffuse sources of pollution from pastures irrigated with effluent, as well as from urban storm water. In environmental terms a first step was undertaken towards the development of a biological water quality monitoring system, by evaluating the habitat and a-biotic characteristics of the pristine regions of the basin. As to water quantity, it was found that the existing infrastructure is capable to satisfy present water demand, but the abstraction amounts to 77% of the water generated in the basin, which could be considered as an upper limit. It is not yet clear how some provisions of the new Water Act, such as the recognition of the environment as a legitimate water user, will be implemented. With regard to urban water management, the research focused on the development of a rainfall runoff model for the composite catchment area of the Marimba river basin, a sub-urban micro catchment of the Lake Chivero basin. The paper discusses the above findings, and suggests integrated solutions, considering the provisions of the new Water Act. The extensive amount of data accumulated and analysed during this study could form a sound basis for the development of a Management Information System of the basin, based on a GIS. Such a system could be useful for the catchment councils involved.

Hranova, R.; Gumbo, B.; Klein, J.; van der Zaag, P.

213

[Advanced approaches to studying the population diversity of marine fishes: new opportunities for fisheries control and management].  

PubMed

Recent conceptual and technological advances now enable fisheries geneticists to detect and monitor the dynamics and distribution of marine fish populations more effectively than ever before. Information on the extent of genetically-based divergence among populations, so-called "population diversity", is crucial in the quest to manage exploited living resources sustainably since it endows evolutionary potential in the face of environmental change. The generally limited dialogue between scientists, fisheries managers and policy makers, however, continues to constrain integration of population genetic data into tangible policy applications. Largely drawing on the approach and outputs from a European research project, FishPopTrace, we provide an example how the uncovering of marine fish population diversity enables players from genetics, forensics, management and the policy realm to generate a framework tackling key policy-led questions relating to illegal fishing and traceability. We focus on the use of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in European populations of cod, herring, hake and common sole, and explore how forensics together with a range of analytical approaches, and combined with improved communication of research results to stakeholders, can be used to secure sufficiently robust, tractable and targeted data for effective engagement between science and policy. The essentially binary nature of SNPs, together with generally elevated signals of population discrimination by SNPs under selection, allowed assignment of fish to populations from more areas and with higher certainty than previously possible, reaching standards suitable for use in a court of law. We argue that the use of such tools in enforcement and deterrence, together with the greater integration of population genetic principles and methods into fisheries management, provide tractable elements in the arsenal of tools to achieve sustainable exploitation and conservation of depleted marine fish stocks. PMID:22384692

Zelenina, D A; Martinson, Ia T; Ogden, R; Volkov, A A; Zelenina, I A; Carvalho, G R

2011-12-01

214

Diversity Outlook  

E-print Network

-Boza has conducted ethnographic research in Peru that focused on racial identity, collective memory and social whitening among Peruvians of African descent. She has also conducted research on the Latino/a community in the US and has published...) Professional development and awareness of LGBTQ; 7) Accountability needed to ensure diversity is being addressed across campus; 8) Increase the exchanges between KU and Haskell; 9) Gender/sexual orientation training is needed; 10) Diversity is becoming a...

2012-01-01

215

Practical aspects of a maximum likelihood estimation method to extract stability and control derivatives from flight data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A maximum likelihood estimation method was applied to flight data and procedures to facilitate the routine analysis of a large amount of flight data were described. Techniques that can be used to obtain stability and control derivatives from aircraft maneuvers that are less than ideal for this purpose are described. The techniques involve detecting and correcting the effects of dependent or nearly dependent variables, structural vibration, data drift, inadequate instrumentation, and difficulties with the data acquisition system and the mathematical model. The use of uncertainty levels and multiple maneuver analysis also proved to be useful in improving the quality of the estimated coefficients. The procedures used for editing the data and for overall analysis are also discussed.

Iliff, K. W.; Maine, R. E.

1976-01-01

216

Some aspects of the biology and control using botanicals of the rice moth, Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton), on some pulses.  

PubMed

The life cycle of Corcyra cephalonica was studied under ambient laboratory conditions (temperature range 27.5-30 degrees C and 60-73% r.h.) on groundnut, bambara groundnut and cowpea. The mean developmental period ranged from 33.2+/-0.2 to 45.3+/-1.8 days on whole, broken and powdered forms of the food media. Egg hatchability was found to be 83%, while adult longevity ranged from 1.5+/-0.5 to 11.9+/-1.3 days for males and 1.5+/-0.5 to 16.5+/-1.2 days for females. Sex ratio (male symbol:female symbol) of emerged adults ranged from 1:1 to 1:2.1. Mean fecundities ranged from 128+/-5 to 157+/-8 on the food media. In experiments to assess the insecticidal potential of three plant materials against C. cephalonica, Eichhornia crassipes powder showed a higher efficacy than both Citrus sinensis peel powder and the leaf powder of Chromolaena odorata at dosages of 0.5-2.0 g per 40 g of legume seed. At the higher dosage of 2.5 g, C. sinensis was more effective and reduced the population of C. cephalonica by half when compared to the population in control jars over a period of 1.5 months. PMID:10758262

Allotey; Azalekor

2000-07-01

217

Driver choice compared to controlled diversion for a freeway double on-ramp in the framework of three-phase traffic theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two diversion schemes that apportion demand between two on-ramps to reduce congestion and improve throughput on a freeway are analyzed. In the first scheme, drivers choose to merge or to divert to a downstream on-ramp based on information about average travel times for the two routes: (1) merge and travel on the freeway or (2) divert and travel on a surface street with merging downstream. The flow, rate of merging at the ramps, and the travel times oscillate strongly, but irregularly, due to delayed feedback. In the second scheme, diversion is controlled by the average mainline velocities just upstream of the on-ramps. Driver choice is not involved. If the average upstream velocity on the mainline drops below a predetermined value (20 m/s) vehicles are diverted to the downstream ramp. When the average mainline velocity downstream becomes too low, diversion is no longer permitted. The resultant oscillations in this scheme are nearly periodic. The period is dominated by the response time of the mainline to interruption of merging rather than delayed feedback, which contributes only a minor component linear in the distance separating the on-ramps. In general the second scheme produces more effective congestion reduction and greater throughput. Also the travel times for on-ramp drivers are less than that obtained by drivers who attempt to minimize their own travel times (first scheme). The simulations are done using the Kerner-Klenov stochastic three-phase theory of traffic [B.S. Kerner, S.L. Klenov, Phys. Rev. E 68 (2003) 036130].

Davis, L. C.

2008-11-01

218

Hybridization effects and genetic diversity of the common and black-tufted marmoset (Callithrix jacchus and Callithrix penicillata) mitochondrial control region.  

PubMed

Hybridization is continually documented in primates, but effects of natural and anthropogenic hybridization on biodiversity are still unclear and differentiating between these contexts remains challenging in regards to primate evolution and conservation. Here, we examine hybridization effects on the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region of Callithrix marmosets, which provide a unique glimpse into interspecific mating under distinct anthropogenic and natural conditions. DNA was sampled from 40 marmosets along a 50-km transect from a previously uncharacterized hybrid zone in NE Brazil between the ranges of Callithrix jacchus and Callithrix penicillata. DNA was also collected from 46 marmosets along a 30-km transect in a hybrid zone in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, where exotic marmosets appeared in the 1980s. Combining Callithrix DNA sampled inside and outside of these hybrid zones, phylogenetic and network analyses show C. jacchus and C. penicillata being parental species to sampled hybrids. We expand limited Callithrix population genetics work by describing mtDNA diversity and demographic history of these parental species. We show ancient population expansion in C. jacchus and historically constant population size in C. penicillata, with the latter being more genetically diverse than the former. The natural hybrid zone contained higher genetic diversity relative to the anthropogenic zone. While our data suggest hybrid swarm formation within the anthropogenic zone due to removed physical reproductive barriers, this pattern is not seen in the natural hybrid zone. These results suggest different genetic dynamics within natural and anthropogenic hybridization contexts that carry important implications for primate evolution and conservation. Am J Phys Anthropol 155:522-536, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25186076

Malukiewicz, Joanna; Boere, Vanner; Fuzessy, Lisieux F; Grativol, Adriana D; French, Jeffrey A; Silva, Ita de Oliveira E; Pereira, Luiz C M; Ruiz-Miranda, Carlos R; Valença, Yuri M; Stone, Anne C

2014-12-01

219

Predator diet breadth influences the relative importance of bottom-up and top-down control of prey biomass and diversity.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of predator diet breadth on the relative importance of bottom-up and top-down control of prey assemblages, using microbial food webs containing bacteria, bacterivorous protists and rotifers, and two different top predators. The experiment used a factorial design that independently manipulated productivity and the presence or absence of two top predators with different diet breadths. Predators included a "specialist" predatory ciliate Euplotes aediculatus, which was restricted to feeding on small prey, and a "generalist" predatory ciliate Stentor coeruleus, which could feed on the entire range of prey sizes. Both total prey biomass and prey diversity increased with productivity in the predator-free control and specialist predator treatments, a pattern consistent with bottom-up control, but both remained unchanged by productivity in the generalist predator treatment, a pattern consistent with top-down control. Linear food chain models adequately described responses in the generalist predator treatment, whereas food web models incorporating edible and inedible prey (which can coexist in the absence of predators) adequately described responses in the specialist predator treatment. These results suggest that predator diet breadth can play an important role in modulating the relative strength of bottom-up and top-down forces in ecological communities. PMID:15729665

Jiang, Lin; Morin, Peter J

2005-03-01

220

Industrial noise control: architectural and environmental aspects. January, 1975-August, 1981 (citations from the International Information Service for the Physics and Engineering Communities Data Base). Report for Jan 75-Aug 81  

SciTech Connect

The architectural and environmental aspects of noise control are discussed in terms of the effect of building standards as well as the proper installation of equipment to reduce vibration of air control equipment. (Contains 114 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

Not Available

1981-08-01

221

The Academy for Future Science Faculty: randomized controlled trial of theory-driven coaching to shape development and diversity of early-career scientists  

PubMed Central

Background Approaches to training biomedical scientists have created a talented research community. However, they have failed to create a professional workforce that includes many racial and ethnic minorities and women in proportion to their representation in the population or in PhD training. This is particularly true at the faculty level. Explanations for the absence of diversity in faculty ranks can be found in social science theories that reveal processes by which individuals develop identities, experiences, and skills required to be seen as legitimate within the profession. Methods/Design Using the social science theories of Communities of Practice, Social Cognitive Career Theory, identity formation, and cultural capital, we have developed and are testing a novel coaching-based model to address some of the limitations of previous diversity approaches. This coaching intervention (The Academy for Future Science Faculty) includes annual in-person meetings of students and trained faculty Career Coaches, along with ongoing virtual coaching, group meetings and communication. The model is being tested as a randomized controlled trial with two cohorts of biomedical PhD students from across the U.S., one recruited at the start of their PhDs and one nearing completion. Stratification into the experimental and control groups, and to coaching groups within the experimental arms, achieved equal numbers of students by race, ethnicity and gender to the extent possible. A fundamental design element of the Academy is to teach and make visible the social science principles which highly influence scientific advancement, as well as acknowledging the extra challenges faced by underrepresented groups working to be seen as legitimate within the scientific communities. Discussion The strategy being tested is based upon a novel application of the well-established principles of deploying highly skilled coaches, selected and trained for their ability to develop talents of others. This coaching model is intended to be a complement, rather than a substitute, for traditional mentoring in biomedical research training, and is being tested as such. PMID:25084625

2014-01-01

222

Leadership and Diversity: Theory and Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Diversity has become a ubiquitous term within education, often harnessed with a second concept, that of inclusion. Despite heightened interest, theorists in education leadership have remained relatively uninterested in multiple aspects of identity and diversity. This article explores the epistemological and methodological implications of moving…

Lumby, Jacky; Morrison, Marlene

2010-01-01

223

Diversity Trailblazer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When Dr. Kumea Shorter-Gooden took on her newly created job this month at the University of Maryland's flagship College Park campus, she assumed a challenge at the school with a lot riding on her shoulders--helping the University of Maryland strengthen its diversity efforts and, thus, its relevance to the state in the future and standing among the…

Stuart, Reginald

2012-01-01

224

Diversity-based model reference for genetic algorithms in dynamic environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preservation of diversity in the evolutionary process is crucial to solve problems considering dynamic environments. This work proposes an adaptive evolutionary algorithm to control the population diversity based on a diversity function. The evolutionary process searches for the optimum while the diversity is controlled to track the diversity function. To control the population diversity, the proposed method creates a selection

Maury M. Gouvea Jr.; Aluizio F. R. Araújo

2007-01-01

225

Controls on the entrainment of juvenile Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) into large water diversions and estimates of population-level loss.  

PubMed

Diversion of freshwater can cause significant changes in hydrologic dynamics and this can have negative consequences for fish populations. Additionally, fishes can be directly entrained into diversion infrastructure (e.g. canals, reservoirs, pumps) where they may become lost to the population. However, the effect of diversion losses on fish population dynamics remains unclear. We used 15 years of release and recovery data from coded-wire-tagged juvenile Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) to model the physical, hydrological and biological predictors of salvage at two large water diversions in the San Francisco Estuary. Additionally, entrainment rates were combined with estimates of mortality during migration to quantify the proportion of total mortality that could be attributed to diversions. Statistical modeling revealed a strong positive relationship between diversion rate and fish entrainment at both diversions and all release locations. Other significant relationships were specific to the rivers where the fish were released, and the specific diversion facility. Although significant relationships were identified in statistical models, entrainment loss and the mean contribution of entrainment to total migration mortality were low. The greatest entrainment mortality occurred for fish released along routes that passed closest to the diversions and certain runs of Chinook Salmon released in the Sacramento River suffered greater mortality but only at the highest diversion rates observed during the study. These results suggest losses at diversions should be put into a population context in order to best inform effective management of Chinook Salmon populations. PMID:25019205

Zeug, Steven C; Cavallo, Bradley J

2014-01-01

226

A personalized and control systems engineering conceptual approach to target childhood anxiety in the contexts of cultural diversity.  

PubMed

In the child and adolescent anxiety area, some progress has been made to develop evidence-based prevention protocols, but less is known about how to best target these problems in children and families of color. In general, data show differential program effects with some minority children benefiting significantly less. Our preliminary data, however, show promise and suggest cultural parameters to consider in the tailoring process beyond language and cultural symbols. It appears that a more focused approach to culture might help activate intervention components and its intended effects by focusing, for example, on the various facets of familismo when working with some Mexican parents. However, testing the effects and nuances of cultural adaption vis-à-vis a focused personalized approach is methodologically challenging. For this reason, we identify control systems engineering design methods and provide example scenarios relevant to our data and recent intervention work. PMID:24702279

Pina, Armando A; Holly, Lindsay E; Zerr, Argero A; Rivera, Daniel E

2014-01-01

227

Treatment of binge eating disorder in racially and ethnically diverse obese patients in primary care: randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial of self-help and medication.  

PubMed

The objective was to determine whether treatments with demonstrated efficacy for binge eating disorder (BED) in specialist treatment centers can be delivered effectively in primary care settings to racially/ethnically diverse obese patients with BED. This study compared the effectiveness of self-help cognitive-behavioral therapy (shCBT) and an anti-obesity medication (sibutramine), alone and in combination, and it is only the second placebo-controlled trial of any medication for BED to evaluate longer-term effects after treatment discontinuation. 104 obese patients with BED (73% female, 55% non-white) were randomly assigned to one of four 16-week treatments (balanced 2-by-2 factorial design): sibutramine (N = 26), placebo (N = 27), shCBT + sibutramine (N = 26), or shCBT + placebo (N = 25). Medications were administered in double-blind fashion. Independent assessments were performed monthly throughout treatment, post-treatment, and at 6- and 12-month follow-ups (16 months after randomization). Mixed-models analyses revealed significant time and medication-by-time interaction effects for percent weight loss, with sibutramine but not placebo associated with significant change over time. Percent weight loss differed significantly between sibutramine and placebo by the third month of treatment and at post-treatment. After the medication was discontinued at post-treatment, weight re-gain occurred in sibutramine groups and percent weight loss no longer differed among the four treatments at 6- and 12-month follow-ups. For binge-eating, mixed-models revealed significant time and shCBT-by-time interaction effects: shCBT had significantly lower binge-eating frequency at 6-month follow-up but the treatments did not differ significantly at any other time point. Demographic factors did not significantly predict or moderate clinical outcomes. Our findings suggest that pure self-help CBT and sibutramine did not show long-term effectiveness relative to placebo for treating BED in racially/ethnically diverse obese patients in primary care. Overall, the treatments differed little with respect to binge-eating and associated outcomes. Sibutramine was associated with significantly greater acute weight loss than placebo and the observed weight-regain following discontinuation of medication suggests that anti-obesity medications need to be continued for weight loss maintenance. Demographic factors did not predict/moderate clinical outcomes in this diverse patient group. PMID:24857821

Grilo, Carlos M; Masheb, Robin M; White, Marney A; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Barnes, Rachel D; Walsh, B Timothy; McKenzie, Katherine C; Genao, Inginia; Garcia, Rina

2014-07-01

228

Mitochondrial control region I and microsatellite analyses of endangered Philippine hornbill species (Aves; Bucerotidae) detect gene flow between island populations and genetic diversity loss  

PubMed Central

Background The Visayan Tarictic Hornbill (Penelopides panini) and the Walden’s Hornbill (Aceros waldeni) are two threatened hornbill species endemic to the western islands of the Visayas that constitute - between Luzon and Mindanao - the central island group of the Philippine archipelago. In order to evaluate their genetic diversity and to support efforts towards their conservation, we analyzed genetic variation in ~ 600 base pairs (bp) of the mitochondrial control region I and at 12–19 nuclear microsatellite loci. The sampling covered extant populations, still occurring only on two islands (P. panini: Panay and Negros, A. waldeni: only Panay), and it was augmented with museum specimens of extinct populations from neighboring islands. For comparison, their less endangered (= more abundant) sister taxa, the Luzon Tarictic Hornbill (P. manillae) from the Luzon and Polillo Islands and the Writhed Hornbill (A. leucocephalus) from Mindanao Island, were also included in the study. We reconstructed the population history of the two Penelopides species and assessed the genetic population structure of the remaining wild populations in all four species. Results Mitochondrial and nuclear data concordantly show a clear genetic separation according to the island of origin in both Penelopides species, but also unravel sporadic over-water movements between islands. We found evidence that deforestation in the last century influenced these migratory events. Both classes of markers and the comparison to museum specimens reveal a genetic diversity loss in both Visayan hornbill species, P. panini and A. waldeni, as compared to their more abundant relatives. This might have been caused by local extinction of genetically differentiated populations together with the dramatic decline in the abundance of the extant populations. Conclusions We demonstrated a loss in genetic diversity of P. panini and A. waldeni as compared to their sister taxa P. manillae and A. leucocephalus. Because of the low potential for gene flow and population exchange across islands, saving of the remaining birds of almost extinct local populations - be it in the wild or in captivity - is particularly important to preserve the species’ genetic potential. PMID:23057730

2012-01-01

229

Lack of association of the HMGA1 IVS5-13insC variant with type 2 diabetes in an ethnically diverse hypertensive case control cohort  

PubMed Central

Background Recently, the high-mobility group A1 gene (HMGA1) variant IVS5-13insC has been associated with type 2 diabetes, but reported associations are inconsistent and data are lacking in Hispanic and African American populations. We sought to investigate the HMGA1-diabetes association and to characterize IVS5-13insC allele frequencies and linkage disequilibrium (LD) in 3,070 Caucasian, Hispanic, and African American patients from the INternational VErapamil SR-Trandolapril STudy (INVEST). Methods INVEST was a randomized, multicenter trial comparing two antihypertensive treatment strategies in an ethnically diverse cohort of hypertensive, coronary artery disease patients. Controls, who were diabetes-free throughout the study, and type 2 diabetes cases, either prevalent or incident, were genotyped for IVS5-13insC using Taqman®, confirmed with Pyrosequencing and Sanger sequencing. For LD analysis, genotyping for eight additional HMGA1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was performed using the Illumina® HumanCVD BeadChip. We used logistic regression to test association of the HMGA1 IVS5-13insC and diabetes, adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, and percentage European, African, and Native American ancestry. Results We observed IVS5-13insC minor allele frequencies consistent with previous literature in Caucasians and African Americans (0.03 in cases and 0.04 in controls for both race/ethnic groups), and higher frequencies in Hispanics (0.07 in cases and 0.07 in controls). The IVS5-13insC was not associated with type 2 diabetes overall (odds ratio 0.98 [0.76-1.26], p=0.88) or in any race/ethnic group. Pairwise LD (r2) of IVS5-13insC and rs9394200, a SNP previously used as a tag SNP for IVS5-13insC, was low (r2=0.47 in Caucasians, r2=0.25 in Hispanics, and r2=0.06 in African Americans). Furthermore, in silico analysis suggested a lack of functional consequences for the IVS5-13insC variant. Conclusions Our results suggest that IVS5-13insC is not a functional variant and not associated with type 2 diabetes in an ethnically diverse, hypertensive, coronary artery disease population. Larger, more adequately powered studies need to be performed to confirm our findings. Trial registration clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00133692) PMID:23302499

2013-01-01

230

Diversity of bacteriophages infecting Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae in paddy fields and its potential to control bacterial leaf blight of rice.  

PubMed

Bacterial leaf blight (BLB) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is a very serious disease in rice-growing regions of the world. In spite of their economic importance, there are no effective ways of protecting rice plants from this disease. Bacteriophages infecting Xoo affect the population dynamics of the pathogen and consequently the occurrence of the disease. In this study, we investigated the diversity, host range, and infectivity of Xoo phages, and their use as a bicontrol agent on BLB was tested. Among the 34 phages that were isolated from floodwater in paddy fields, 29 belonged to the Myoviridae family, which suggests that the dominant phage in the ecosystem was Myoviridae. The isolated phages were classified into two groups based on plaque size produced on the lawn of Xoo. In general, there was a negative relationship between plaque size and host range, and interestingly the phages having a narrow host range had low efficiency of infectivity. The deduced protein sequence analysis of htf genes indicated that the gene was not a determinant of host specificity. Although the difference in host range and infectivity depending on morphotype needs to be addressed, the results revealed deeper understanding of the interaction between the phages and Xoo strains in floodwater and damp soil environments. The phage mixtures reduced the occurrence of BLB when they were treated with skim milk. The results indicate that the Xoo phages could be used as an alternative control method to increase the control efficacy and reduce the use of agrochemicals. PMID:24651644

Chae, Jong-Chan; Hung, Nguyen Bao; Yu, Sang-Mi; Lee, Ha Kyung; Lee, Yong Hoon

2014-06-28

231

Subsoil heterogeneities controlling porewater contaminant mass and microbial diversity at a site with a complex pollution history  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study seeks to improve our understanding of the conceptual model of pollutant transport and fate in cases of DNAPL contamination at sites with a complex contamination history. The study was carried out in an unconfined aquifer of alluvial fans in the Tarragona Petrochemical Complex (Spain). Two boreholes were drilled and continuous cores were recovered in order to carry out a detailed core description at centimeter scale and a comprehensive sampling of borehole cores. The biogeochemical heterogeneity at these sites is controlled by the conjunction of lithological, hydrochemical and microbiological heterogeneities. Biodegradation processes of contaminant compounds take place not only at the level of the dissolved fraction in the aquifer but also at the level of the fraction retained in the fine, less conductive materials as shown by the biodegradation haloes of parent and metabolite compounds. Sampling the low-conductivity levels also allowed us to identify compounds, e.g. BTEX, that are the remaining traces of the passage of old contaminant plumes whose sources no longer exist. This enabled us to describe past biogeochemical processes and to partially account for the processes occurring today. Transition zones, characterized by numerous textural changes, constitute ecotones whose biostimulation could be effective in promoting the acceleration of the remediation of the multiple pollution at these sites.

Puigserver, Diana; Carmona, José M.; Cortés, Amparo; Viladevall, Manuel; Nieto, José M.; Grifoll, Magdalena; Vila, Joaquim; Parker, Beth L.

2013-01-01

232

What Makes Racial Diversity Work in Higher Education: Academic Leaders Present Successful Policies and Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The essays in this collection establish the case for racial diversity , outline the challenges diversity offers the academic community, presents examples of how some institutions have developed successful models of diversity, and discusses how the history of racial diversity has influenced aspects of diversity today. Following a foreword,…

Hale, Frank W., Jr., Ed.

233

Bioengineering applied to erosion and stability control in the North Apennines (Emilia-Romagna Region, Italy): a check about critical aspects of the works.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because of its geological structure, in the Emilia-Romagna Region over 32,000 landslides have been identified. Several works have been made in order to control mass movement's dynamics and to secure of Reno and Lamone Mountain Basin Rivers, the road network and near by villages and towns. Most of the control works dealt with bioengineering practices: palisades piles, geotextiles, seedings, surface flow control works, dikes within main drainage ditches. In order to check about critical aspects related to the use of these techniques in the Apennines, a survey in this basins was designed with specific interest in the several kinds of works realised, in which plant species were mostly used and in the factors that affected the success or failure of the works. Territory encompasses steep slopes covered with woods to low reliefs covered with grasslands. It is characterized by prevailing clays, inducing instability, and arenaceous lithology with impermeable soils; drainage density is quite high and hillsides suffer extensive and severe erosion and slope stability problems. Chestnut woods mainly represent land use at higher altitudes, while coppice, pastures and crops are present on milder hillsides. The remaining part of the basin is covered by vineyards, orchards, ponds and urban areas, which are basically located in the valley floor. Precipitation events mainly consist of rainfall ranging between 950-1015 mm per year; few snowfalls occur during winter and a long dry season lasts from June until September. We have analyzed 187 works designed mainly for the consolidation of slope instabilities through a widespread enhancement of the vegetation cover. The surveyed works are classified as a function of their building features: it can be seen that cribwalls and palisades are by far the most common types, being the 24% and the 34% respectively of the works. As far as the most adopted plant species, they were silver willow (Salix alba), Spanish Broom (Spartium Junceum) and purple willow (Salix purpurea). Only the 25% of the interventions was accomplished by the use of secondary plant species, as tamarisk (Tamarix spp.,) blackthorn (Prunus spinosa) , whitethorn (Crataegus spp.), sea-buckthorn (Hipphopae rhamnoides), wild pear (Pyrus pyraster), cottonwood (Populus nigra), eglantine (Rosa spp.), goat-willow (Salix caprea) and cornel (Cornus sanguinea). Better results were achieved with Spanish Broom, a very rural plant that can effectively colonise even poor soils like badlands; as a matter of fact, more than the 75% of the interventions had positive outcomes The efficacy of the consolidation work by the presence of living structures point out an increase of the stability of those interventions older than 4 years, with taking root species present from 54% to 78%. So far, the construction and the reliability of the works have been monitored, in order to capture critical aspects for the success of works and to build a geo-referenced data base of the existing works and their status.

Selli, Lavinia; Cavazza, Claudio; Pavanelli, Donatella

2013-04-01

234

Wind-tunnel Investigation of High-lift and Stall-control Devices on a 37 Degree Sweptback Wing of Aspect Ratio 6 at High Reynolds Numbers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented of an investigation in the Langley 19-foot pressure tunnel of the longitudinal characteristics of a semispan model wing having 37 degrees sweepback of the leading edge, an aspect ratio of 6, and NACA 641-212 airfoil section perpendicular to the 27-percent-chord line. Several types of stall-control devices including extensible round-nose leading-edge flaps, a leading-edge slat, and a drooped leading edge were investigated; partial- and full-span trailing-edge split and double slotted flaps were also tested. In addition, various combinations of the aforementioned leading- and trailing-edge flaps were investigated. The tests covered a range of Reynolds numbers between 2.00 x 10(6) and 9.35 x 10(6). The wing with or without trailing-edge splity of double slotted flap was longitudinally unstable near maximum lift due to tip stalling. The addition of an outboard half-span leading-edge flap or a leading-edge slat to the plain wing or wing with inboard half-span split flaps eliminated tip stalling and resulted in stable moment variations at the stall. The drooped leading edge, on the other hand, was only effective when used in conjunction with an upper-surface fence. The combination of an outboard leading-edge device and inboard half-span double slotted flap resulted in an undesirable loop in the pitching-moment curve near maximum lift in spite of an inboard stall. The loop is attributed to the section characteristics of the double slotted flap. Air-flow surveys behind the wing indicated that a suitably placed horizontal tail would eliminate the loop in the moment curve.

Koven, William; Graham, Robert R

1948-01-01

235

Job aspects in the School Psychology Service: Empirically distinct associations with positive challenge at work, perceived control at work, and job attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activities within the Norwegian School Psychology Service traditionally concentrate on assessment of individuals in need and report writing (individual-level treatment). In recent years, a more “systemic” job aspect, providing preschool\\/school staff with tools to prevent the emergence of problems (systemic-level prevention) has been in demand. This study investigates the predictive value of these distinct aspects of work behaviour in the

Thormod Idsoe

2006-01-01

236

Capacity of the diversion channel below the flood-control dam on the Big Lost River at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho  

SciTech Connect

Stage-discharge relations were computed for two selected cross sections of a diversion channel at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for discharges between 2000 and 7200 cubic feet per second. The channel diverts water from the Big Lost River into four spreading areas where the water infiltrates into the ground or evaporates. Computed water-surface profiles, based on channel conditions in the summer of 1985, indicate that the diversion channel will carry a maximum discharge of 7200 cubic feet per second from the Big Lost River into the first spreading area. Backwater from the spreading areas is not expected to decrease the carrying capacity of the diversion channel. An additional 2100 cubic feet per second will pass through two low swales west of the main channel for a combined maximum diversion capacity of 9300 cubic feet per second.

Bennett, C.M.

1986-10-01

237

The Chief Diversity Officer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Numerous institutions are moving toward the chief diversity officer model of leading and managing diversity in higher education. These officers carry formal administrative titles and ranks that range from vice president for institutional diversity to associate vice chancellor for diversity and climate and dean of diversity and academic engagement.…

Williams, Damon; Wade-Golden, Katrina

2007-01-01

238

Aspects of the Biology, Distribution, and Host Range of Crioceris sp. (Col.: Chrysomelidae: Criocerinae), a Potential Biological Control Agent for Asparagus asparagoides in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspects of the biology, distribution, and host range of Crioceris sp. (Chrysomelidae: Criocerinae), a potential biocontrol agent for Asparagus asparagoides (L.) W. Wight (bridal creeper) in Australia, were ascertained from studies in its native range in South Africa. In the laboratory, adults oviposited on new growth of A. asparagoides within 10 days of emergence and laid an average of 148

A. B. R Witt; P. B Edwards

2002-01-01

239

Detecting diversity: emerging methods to estimate species diversity.  

PubMed

Estimates of species richness and diversity are central to community and macroecology and are frequently used in conservation planning. Commonly used diversity metrics account for undetected species primarily by controlling for sampling effort. Yet the probability of detecting an individual can vary among species, observers, survey methods, and sites. We review emerging methods to estimate alpha, beta, gamma, and metacommunity diversity through hierarchical multispecies occupancy models (MSOMs) and multispecies abundance models (MSAMs) that explicitly incorporate observation error in the detection process for species or individuals. We examine advantages, limitations, and assumptions of these detection-based hierarchical models for estimating species diversity. Accounting for imperfect detection using these approaches has influenced conclusions of comparative community studies and creates new opportunities for testing theory. PMID:24315534

Iknayan, Kelly J; Tingley, Morgan W; Furnas, Brett J; Beissinger, Steven R

2014-02-01

240

Comparison of analytical and experimental steadyand unsteady-pressure distributions at Mach number 0.78 for a high-aspect-ratio supercritical wing model with oscillating control surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The unsteady aerodynamic lifting surface theory, the Doublet Lattice method, with experimental steady and unsteady pressure measurements of a high aspect ratio supercritical wing model at a Mach number of 0.78 were compared. The steady pressure data comparisons were made for incremental changes in angle of attack and control surface deflection. The unsteady pressure data comparisons were made at set angle of attack positions with oscillating control surface deflections. Significant viscous and transonic effects in the experimental aerodynamics which cannot be predicted by the Doublet Lattice method are shown. This study should assist development of empirical correction methods that may be applied to improve Doublet Lattice calculations of lifting surface aerodynamics.

Mccain, W. E.

1984-01-01

241

A Brief Overview of Population Diversity Measures in Genetic Programming  

E-print Network

A Brief Overview of Population Diversity Measures in Genetic Programming Nguyen Thi Hien1, Nguyen a diversity measurement and controls this quantitative metric to maintain genetically diverse populations in a population. In Genetic Programming (GP), population diversity has been long considered as an important

Fernandez, Thomas

242

[Religious diversity in hospitals: an aspect to be considered?].  

PubMed

A study was undertaken among 132 nurses in two religions and two public hospitals on religious needs among patients from oriental countries. Aim of the research was to investigate the religious needs, among patients generally and particularly, among oriental religions and how nurses and hospital administrations are considering those needs. From the results it was evidenced that nurses in religious hospital paid more attention, to patients needs, than those in public hospital. Both groups of nurses seemed to pay little attention concerning liturgy, during hospitalization and especially when caring for a patient that is dying. A recommendation is therefore to adapt nursing care plan including "religion" and besides to prepare information supports with details on practices and living conditions regarding major oriental religions existing in Italy. PMID:11228874

Marano, L

2000-01-01

243

Understanding macrophage diversity at the ontogenic and transcriptomic levels.  

PubMed

Macrophages are phagocytes characterized by high lysosomal activity and are involved in a wide range of biological processes. Consequently, macrophages have long been recognized for their critical roles in development as well as in healthy and pathological states. Our knowledge about macrophage biology has evolved greatly over the past several years. Significantly, it has now been demonstrated that monocytes are not direct precursors for most tissue-resident macrophages at the steady state. Only few tissue macrophage populations derive from monocytes during homeostasis; rather, monocytes give rise to inflammatory macrophages that infiltrate tissues during inflammation. Tissue-resident macrophages have recently been characterized at the transcriptional level, which provided the basis to uncover the molecular pathways controlling their functional diversity as well as to identify a core signature. Transcription factors controlling specific tissue-resident macrophage populations have been described, suggesting that diversity is under the control of specific regulatory programs. In this review, we discuss and summarize several of the new paradigms emerging in the field of macrophage biology. In particular, we emphasize new findings relevant to macrophage ontogeny, similarities and differences observed across macrophage populations, and gene regulatory programs controlling specialized aspects of tissue macrophage functions. PMID:25319329

Gautier, Emmanuel L; Yvan-Charvet, Laurent

2014-11-01

244

Major histocompatibility complex class?I diversity in a West African chimpanzee population: implications for HIV research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human immunodefiency virus (HIV) poses a major threat to humankind. And though, like humans, chimpanzees are susceptible\\u000a to HIV infection, they are considered to be resistant to the development of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).\\u000a Little is known about major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class?I diversity in chimpanzee populations and, moreover, whether\\u000a qualitative aspects of Patr class?I molecules may control

Natasja G. de Groot; Nel Otting; Rafael Argüello; David I. Watkins; Gaby G. M. Doxiadis; J. Alejandro Madrigal; R. E. Bontrop

2000-01-01

245

Diversity, & Urban Studies  

E-print Network

Learning, Diversity, & Urban Studies (M.Ed.) Learning, Diversity,& Urban Studies: Understanding" and the Vanderbilt logo are registered trademarks and service marks of Vanderbilt University 2010. "Urban and diverse. These courses include: Learning, Diversity, and Urban Studies Seminars 1 and 2 (6 hours), Learning, Design

Palmeri, Thomas

246

Teaching for Diversity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book focuses on how to teach students from diverse cultures and how to teach students to live in a diverse society. Chapter 1, "Democracy, Diversity, and Universal Education," discusses "The Nature of a Free Society,""The Role of Universal Education," and "Schools as Communities." Chapter 2, "Identifying and Understanding Diversity Issues,"…

Garcia, Ricardo L.

247

Angiosperm ovules: diversity, development, evolution  

PubMed Central

Background Ovules as developmental precursors of seeds are organs of central importance in angiosperm flowers and can be traced back in evolution to the earliest seed plants. Angiosperm ovules are diverse in their position in the ovary, nucellus thickness, number and thickness of integuments, degree and direction of curvature, and histological differentiations. There is a large body of literature on this diversity, and various views on its evolution have been proposed over the course of time. Most recently evo–devo studies have been concentrated on molecular developmental genetics in ovules of model plants. Scope The present review provides a synthetic treatment of several aspects of the sporophytic part of ovule diversity, development and evolution, based on extensive research on the vast original literature and on experience from my own comparative studies in a broad range of angiosperm clades. Conclusions In angiosperms the presence of an outer integument appears to be instrumental for ovule curvature, as indicated from studies on ovule diversity through the major clades of angiosperms, molecular developmental genetics in model species, abnormal ovules in a broad range of angiosperms, and comparison with gymnosperms with curved ovules. Lobation of integuments is not an atavism indicating evolution from telomes, but simply a morphogenetic constraint from the necessity of closure of the micropyle. Ovule shape is partly dependent on locule architecture, which is especially indicated by the occurrence of orthotropous ovules. Some ovule features are even more conservative than earlier assumed and thus of special interest in angiosperm macrosystematics. PMID:21606056

Endress, Peter K.

2011-01-01

248

Between Balkanization and Banalization: Dilemmas of Ethno-cultural Diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper seeks to highlight the inescapable nature of the dilemmas that confront any attempt to reconcile the desire for political cohesion with respect for ethno-cultural diversity within any actually existing nation state. Methods of accommodating such diversity while maintaining the state's territorial integrity range from granting minorities regional autonomy to selectively incorporating aspects and symbols of their heritage and

Aviel Roshwald

2007-01-01

249

Fungal diversity in ectomycorrhizal communities: sampling effort and species detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of recent review articles on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal community diversity have highlighted the unprecedented increase in the number of publications on this ecologically important but neglected area. The general features of these species-rich, highly dynamic and complex communities have been comprehensively covered but one aspect crucial to our assessment of diversity, namely the sampling of ECM communities has

Andy F. S. Taylor

2002-01-01

250

An Experimental Investigation of the Effect of a Canard Control on the Lift, Drag, and Pitching Moment of an Aspect-Ratio 2.0 Triangular Wing Incorporating a Form of Conical Camber  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of an experimental investigation to determine the effect of a canard control on the lift, drag, and pitching-moment characteristics of an aspect-ratio-2.0 triangular wing incorporating a form of conical camber are presented. The canard had a triangular plan form of aspect ratio 2.0 and was mounted in the extended chord plane of the wing. The ratio of the area of the exposed canard panels to the total wing area was 6.9 percent, and the ratio of the total areas was 12.9 percent. Data were obtained at Mach numbers from 0.70 to 2.22 through an angle-of-attack range from -6 deg to +18 deg with the canard on, and with the canard off. To provide a basis for comparison, the canard was also tested with a symmetrical wing having the same plan form, aspect ratio, and thickness distribution as the cambered wing. The results of the investigation showed that at the high subsonic speeds the gain in maximum lift-drag ratio achieved by camber was considerably reduced by the addition of a canard. At the supersonic speeds, the addition of the canard did not change the effect of camber on the maximum lift-drag ratios.

Menees, Gene P.; Boyd, John W.

1959-01-01

251

Capturing the Diversity in Lexical Diversity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The range, variety, or diversity of words found in learners' language use is believed to reflect the complexity of their vocabulary knowledge as well as the level of their language proficiency. Many indices of lexical diversity have been proposed, most of which involve statistical relationships between types and tokens, and which ultimately…

Jarvis, Scott

2013-01-01

252

Binding of dietary polyphenols to cellulose: Structural and nutritional aspects.  

PubMed

The interactions between polyphenols and plant fibres play an important role in controlling the release of phenolic compounds from food matrices for absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. This study probed the molecular interactions of diverse polyphenols with cellulose fibres by using a pure cellulose-producing bacterial model. Alkali treatment of bacterial cellulose was an effective method for obtaining a high purity cellulose model for study of polyphenol binding. Representatives of different polyphenol classes all bound to cellulose spontaneously, rapidly, and to comparable extents (up to 60% w/w of cellulose). Langmuir binding isotherms were applied to determine quantitative aspects of the adsorption at equilibrium. The study indicated that binding was similar on a molar basis for ferulic acid, gallic acid, catechin and cyanidin-3-glucoside (but lower for chlorogenic acid), with the native charge of polyphenols a secondary factor in the interactions between polyphenols and cellulose. PMID:25308685

Phan, Anh Dao T; Netzel, Gabriele; Wang, Dongjie; Flanagan, Bernadine M; D'Arcy, Bruce R; Gidley, Michael J

2015-03-15

253

How does pedogenesis drive plant diversity?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Some of the most species-rich plant communities occur on ancient, strongly weathered soils, whereas those on recently developed soils tend to be less diverse. Mechanisms underlying this well-known pattern, however, remain unresolved. Here, we present a conceptual model describing alternative mechanisms by which pedogenesis (the process of soil formation) might drive plant diversity. We suggest that long-term soil chronosequences offer great, yet largely untapped, potential as 'natural experiments' to determine edaphic controls over plant diversity. Finally, we discuss how our conceptual model can be evaluated quantitatively using structural equation modeling to advance multivariate theories about the determinants of local plant diversity. This should help us to understand broader-scale diversity patterns, such as the latitudinal gradient of plant diversity.

Laliberté, Etienne; Grace, James B.; Huston, Michael A.; Lambers, Hans; Teste, François P.; Turner, Benjamin L.; Wardle, David A.

2013-01-01

254

Wind-tunnel investigation of longitudinal and lateral-directional stability and control characteristics of a 0.237-scale model of a remotely piloted research vehicle with a thick, high-aspect-ratio supercritical wing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 0.237-scale model of a remotely piloted research vehicle equipped with a thick, high-aspect-ratio supercritical wing was tested in the Langley 8-foot transonic tunnel to provide experimental data for a prediction of the static stability and control characteristics of the research vehicle as well as to provide an estimate of vehicle flight characteristics for a computer simulation program used in the planning and execution of specific flight-research mission. Data were obtained at a Reynolds number of 16.5 x 10 to the 6th power per meter for Mach numbers up to 0.92. The results indicate regions of longitudinal instability; however, an adequate margin of longitudinal stability exists at a selected cruise condition. Satisfactory effectiveness of pitch, roll, and yaw control was also demonstrated.

Byrdsong, T. A.; Brooks, C. W., Jr.

1980-01-01

255

Manipulation with diverse actions  

E-print Network

We define the Diverse Action Manipulation (DAMA) problem in which we are given a mobile robot, a set of movable objects, and a set of diverse, possibly non-prehensile manipulation actions, and the objective is to find a ...

Barry, Jennifer L. (Jennifer Lynn)

2013-01-01

256

75 FR 56516 - Federal Advisory Committee; Military Leadership Diversity Commission (MLDC)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Secretary Federal Advisory Committee; Military Leadership Diversity Commission (MLDC...Department of Defense announces that the Military Leadership Diversity Commission (MLDC...difficulties, beyond the control of the Military Leadership Diversity Commission or...

2010-09-16

257

Deployment of Innovative Genetic Vector Control Strategies: Progress on Regulatory and Biosafety Aspects, Capacity Building and Development of Best-Practice Guidance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the ongoing fight against vectors of human diseases, disease endemic countries (DECs) may soon benefit from innova- tive control strategies involving modified insect vectors. For instance, three promising methods (viz. RIDL® (Release of Insects with a Dominant Lethal), Wolbachia infection, and refractory mosquito technology) are being developed by researchers around the world to combat Aedes aegypti, the primary mosquito

Camilla J. Beech; S. S. Vasan; M. Megan Quinlan; Margareth Lara Capurro; Luke Alphey; Vicente Bayard; Madama Bouaré; Maria Corena McLeod; Pattamaporn Kittayapong; James V. Lavery; Lee Han Lim; Mauro Toledo Marrelli; J. Nagaraju; Kenneth Ombongi; Rofina Yasmin Othman; Vilasini Pillai; Janine Ramsey; Rachel Reuben; Robert I. Rose; Brij Kishore Tyagi; John Mumford

2009-01-01

258

Subjective Aspects of Cognitive Control at Different Stages of Ezequiel Morsella*,1, Lilian E. Wilson2, Christopher C. Berger3, Mikaela Honhongva2,  

E-print Network

-PAAuthorManuscriptNIH-PAAuthorManuscriptNIH-PAAuthorManuscript #12;(Stroop, 1935) continue to be a scientific terra incognita.3 Are these subjective effects Abstract While research on cognitive control has addressed the effects that different forms of cognitive have been silent regarding the effects of interference on subjective experience. We demonstrate that

Bargh, John A.

259

Topographic Controls on Spatial Patterns of Soil Texture and Moisture in a Semi-arid Montane Catchment with Aspect-Dependent Vegetation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil moisture exerts significant control over the partitioning of latent and sensible energy fluxes, the magnitude of both vertical and lateral water fluxes, the physiological and water-use characteristics of vegetation, and nutrient cycling. Considerable progress has been made in determining how soil characteristics, topography, and vegetation influence spatial patterns of soil moisture in humid environments at the catchment, hillslope, and

B. M. Lehman; J. D. Niemann

2008-01-01

260

Spatiotemporal Variations in Soil Moisture With Elevation and Aspect in a Semi-arid Watershed; A Potential Control on the Soil Carbon Pool  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soils comprise the second largest terrestrial reservoir of carbon, yet the controls on this reservoir are not sufficiently understood to predict its response to global climate change. Investigations in the Dry Creek Experimental Watershed (DCEW) near Boise, ID seek to explain why the concentration of soil carbon increases by a factor of up to 7 over a 600m increase in

T. J. Smith; M. L. Kunkel; K. E. Ladd; M. D. Weaver; J. P. McNamara; S. G. Benner

2008-01-01

261

Multilevel and Diverse Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The benefits and advantages of classroom practices incorporating unity-in-diversity and diversity-in-unity are what "Multilevel and Diverse Classrooms" is all about. Multilevel classrooms--also known as mixed-ability or heterogeneous classrooms--are a fact of life in ESOL programs around the world. These classrooms are often not only multilevel…

Baurain, Bradley, Ed.; Ha, Phan Le, Ed.

2010-01-01

262

Equality and Diversity Strategy  

E-print Network

equality and diversity policies allow all people irrespective of race, disability, gender, age, sexualForestry Commission Equality and Diversity Strategy C o m m i t t e d t o y o u a n d o u r f u t u of this strategy is to articulate the Commission's approach to equality and diversity, and to demonstrate our

263

Simulation of forage management strategies considering farm-level land diversity: Example of dairy farms in the Auvergne  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land diversity is a characteristic of low-input farming systems. Land diversity can refer to between-field diversity of grassland vegetation types that are a result of management practices (fertilisation, grazing, cutting), and environmental factors (altitude, aspect, soil water capacity) that have an influence on herbage production. Land diversity can also concern other characteristics of the field, like its distance to the

Nadine Andrieu; Christophe Poix; Etienne Josien; Michel Duru

2007-01-01

264

Local ensemble transform Kalman filter, a fast non-stationary control law for adaptive optics on ELTs: theoretical aspects and first simulation results.  

PubMed

We propose a new algorithm for an adaptive optics system control law, based on the Linear Quadratic Gaussian approach and a Kalman Filter adaptation with localizations. It allows to handle non-stationary behaviors, to obtain performance close to the optimality defined with the residual phase variance minimization criterion, and to reduce the computational burden with an intrinsically parallel implementation on the Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs). PMID:25321291

Gray, Morgan; Petit, Cyril; Rodionov, Sergey; Bocquet, Marc; Bertino, Laurent; Ferrari, Marc; Fusco, Thierry

2014-08-25

265

Local ensemble transform Kalman filter, a fast non-stationary control law for adaptive optics on ELTs: theoretical aspects and first simulation results  

E-print Network

We propose a new algorithm for an adaptive optics system control law, based on the Linear Quadratic Gaussian approach and a Kalman Filter adaptation with localizations. It allows to handle non-stationary behaviors, to obtain performance close to the optimality defined with the residual phase variance minimization criterion, and to reduce the computational burden with an intrinsically parallel implementation on the Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs).

Gray, Morgan; Rodionov, Sergey; Bocquet, Marc; Bertino, Laurent; Ferrari, Marc; Fusco, Thierry

2014-01-01

266

Diversity Outlook, October 2012  

E-print Network

THE NEWSLET TER OF CAMPUS DIVERSITY Fred Rodriguez, Vice Provost for Diversity & Equity • Diversity Talks invitation • Colleague Spotlight • Women’s suffrage centennial • Upcoming events & more OCTOBER 2012VOL. 4 • ISSUE 3 A WORD FROM...! Ph ot o: © KU M ar ke tin g Co m m un ic at io ns DIVERSITY OUTLOOK • THE NEWSLETTER OF CAMPUS DIVERSITY OCTOBER 2012VOL. 4 • ISSUE 3 on the centennial of women’s suffrage in Kansas Only a century ago women fought vigorously for rights we now take...

2012-10-01

267

The nuclear hormone receptor family member NR5A2 controls aspects of multipotent progenitor cell formation and acinar differentiation during pancreatic organogenesis.  

PubMed

The orphan nuclear receptor NR5A2 is necessary for the stem-like properties of the epiblast of the pre-gastrulation embryo and for cellular and physiological homeostasis of endoderm-derived organs postnatally. Using conditional gene inactivation, we show that Nr5a2 also plays crucial regulatory roles during organogenesis. During the formation of the pancreas, Nr5a2 is necessary for the expansion of the nascent pancreatic epithelium, for the subsequent formation of the multipotent progenitor cell (MPC) population that gives rise to pre-acinar cells and bipotent cells with ductal and islet endocrine potential, and for the formation and differentiation of acinar cells. At birth, the NR5A2-deficient pancreas has defects in all three epithelial tissues: a partial loss of endocrine cells, a disrupted ductal tree and a >90% deficit of acini. The acinar defects are due to a combination of fewer MPCs, deficient allocation of those MPCs to pre-acinar fate, disruption of acinar morphogenesis and incomplete acinar cell differentiation. NR5A2 controls these developmental processes directly as well as through regulatory interactions with other pancreatic transcriptional regulators, including PTF1A, MYC, GATA4, FOXA2, RBPJL and MIST1 (BHLHA15). In particular, Nr5a2 and Ptf1a establish mutually reinforcing regulatory interactions and collaborate to control developmentally regulated pancreatic genes by binding to shared transcriptional regulatory regions. At the final stage of acinar cell development, the absence of NR5A2 affects the expression of Ptf1a and its acinar specific partner Rbpjl, so that the few acinar cells that form do not complete differentiation. Nr5a2 controls several temporally distinct stages of pancreatic development that involve regulatory mechanisms relevant to pancreatic oncogenesis and the maintenance of the exocrine phenotype. PMID:25063451

Hale, Michael A; Swift, Galvin H; Hoang, Chinh Q; Deering, Tye G; Masui, Toshi; Lee, Youn-Kyoung; Xue, Jumin; MacDonald, Raymond J

2014-08-01

268

Phenomenological aspects of quasi-stationary controlled and uncontrolled three-dimensional flow separations. [in relation to aircraft design considerations and swept wings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Quasi-steady three dimensional separated flows about bodies of large fineness ratio operating at large angles of incidence or yaw are discussed. The general character of the three dimensional attached boundary layer, the concept of limiting streamlines, and the physics of three dimensional separation and reattachment are among the factors considered. Specific examples are given. The advantages of swept, sharp edges that generate controlled (or fixed) three dimensional flow separations on a vehicle, due to the qualitatively unchanging flow field developed throughout the range of flight conditions, are emphasized.

Peake, D. J.

1978-01-01

269

Open bisimulation for aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

We define and study bisimulation for proving contextual equiva- lence in an aspect extension of the untyped lambda-calculus. To our knowledge, this is the first study of coinductive reasoning prin- ciples aimed at proving equality of aspect programs. The language we study is very small, yet powerful enough to encode mutable references and a range of temporal pointcuts (including cflow

Radha Jagadeesan; Corin Pitcher; James Riely

2007-01-01

270

[Secondary malignancies in urinary diversions].  

PubMed

In contrast to ureterosigmoidostomy no reliable clinical data exist for tumor risk in different forms of urinary diversion using isolated intestinal segments.In 44 German urological departments, operation frequencies, indications, patient age, and operation dates of the different forms of urinary diversion, operated between 1970 and 2007, could be registered. The secondary tumors up to 2009 were registered as well and related to the numbers of the different forms of urinary diversions resulting in tumor prevalences.In 17,758 urinary diversions 32 secondary tumors occurred. The tumor risk in ureterosigmoidostomy (22-fold) and cystoplasty (13-fold) is significantly higher than in other continent forms of urinary diversion such as neobladders or pouches (p<0.0001). The difference between ureterosigmoidostomy and cystoplasty is not significant, nor is the difference between ileocecal pouches (0.14%) and ileal neobladders (0.05%) (p=0.46). The tumor risk in ileocecal (1.26%) and colonic neobladders (1.43%) is significantly higher (p=0.0001) than in ileal neobladders (0.5%). Of the 16 tumors that occurred following ureterosigmoidostomy, 16 (94%) developed directly at the ureterocolonic borderline in contrast to only 50% following urinary diversions via isolated intestinal segments.From postoperative year 5 regular endoscopic controls of ureterosigmoidostomies, cystoplasties, and orthotopic (ileo-)colonic neobladders are necessary. In ileocecal pouches, regular endoscopy is necessary at least in the presence of symptoms or should be performed routinely at greater intervals. Following neobladders or conduits, only urethroscopies for urethral recurrence are necessary. PMID:22476801

Kälble, T; Hofmann, I; Thüroff, J W; Stein, R; Hautmann, R; Riedmiller, H; Vergho, D; Hertle, L; Wülfing, C; Truß, M; Roth, S; von Rundstedt, F C; Albers, P; Gschwend, J; Herkommer, K; Humke, U; Spahn, M; Bader, P; Steffens, J; Harzmann, R; Stief, C G; Karl, A; Müller, S C; Waldner, M; Noldus, J; Kleinschmidt, K; Alken, P; Kopper, B; Fisch, M; Lampel, A; Stenzel, A; Fichtner, J; Flath, B; Rübben, H; Juenemann, K P; Hautmann, S; Knipper, A; Leusmann, D; Strohmaier, W; Thon, W F; Miller, S; Weingärtner, K; Schilling, A; Piechota, H; Becht, J E; Schwaibold, H; Bub, P; Conrad, S; Wenderoth, U; Merkle, W; Rösch, W; Otto, T; Ulshöfer, B; Westenfelder, M

2012-04-01

271

SCAMP: standardised, concentrated, additional macronutrients, parenteral nutrition in very preterm infants: a phase IV randomised, controlled exploratory study of macronutrient intake, growth and other aspects of neonatal care  

PubMed Central

Background Infants born <29 weeks gestation are at high risk of neurocognitive disability. Early postnatal growth failure, particularly head growth, is an important and potentially reversible risk factor for impaired neurodevelopmental outcome. Inadequate nutrition is a major factor in this postnatal growth failure, optimal protein and calorie (macronutrient) intakes are rarely achieved, especially in the first week. Infants <29 weeks are dependent on parenteral nutrition for the bulk of their nutrient needs for the first 2-3 weeks of life to allow gut adaptation to milk digestion. The prescription, formulation and administration of neonatal parenteral nutrition is critical to achieving optimal protein and calorie intake but has received little scientific evaluation. Current neonatal parenteral nutrition regimens often rely on individualised prescription to manage the labile, unpredictable biochemical and metabolic control characteristic of the early neonatal period. Individualised prescription frequently fails to translate into optimal macronutrient delivery. We have previously shown that a standardised, concentrated neonatal parenteral nutrition regimen can optimise macronutrient intake. Methods We propose a single centre, randomised controlled exploratory trial of two standardised, concentrated neonatal parenteral nutrition regimens comparing a standard macronutrient content (maximum protein 2.8 g/kg/day; lipid 2.8 g/kg/day, dextrose 10%) with a higher macronutrient content (maximum protein 3.8 g/kg/day; lipid 3.8 g/kg/day, dextrose 12%) over the first 28 days of life. 150 infants 24-28 completed weeks gestation and birthweight <1200 g will be recruited. The primary outcome will be head growth velocity in the first 28 days of life. Secondary outcomes will include a) auxological data between birth and 36 weeks corrected gestational age b) actual macronutrient intake in first 28 days c) biomarkers of biochemical and metabolic tolerance d) infection biomarkers and other intravascular line complications e) incidence of major complications of prematurity including mortality f) neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years corrected gestational age Trial registration Current controlled trials: ISRCTN76597892; EudraCT Number: 2008-008899-14 PMID:21663622

2011-01-01

272

Current status of management, control, complications and psychosocial aspects of patients with diabetes in India: Results from the DiabCare India 2011 Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives: DiabCare India 2011 was a cross-sectional study in patients with diabetes mellitus, undertaken to investigate the relationship between diabetes control, management and complications in a subset of urban Indian diabetes patients treated at referral diabetes care centres in India. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional, multicentre (330 centres) survey in 6168 diabetes patients treated at general hospitals, diabetes clinics and referral clinics across India. Patient data, including medical and clinical examination reports during the past year were collected during their routine visit. The patients’ and physicians’ perceptions about diabetes management were recorded using a questionnaire. Results: A total of 6168 subjects with diabetes (95.8% type 2), mean age 51.9 ± 12.4 years and mean duration of diabetes, 6.9 ± 6.4 years were included. Mean HbA1c was 8.9 ± 2.1% and the mean fasting (FPG), post prandial (PPG) and random (RBG) plasma glucose levels were 148 ± 50 mg/dl 205 ± 66 mg/dl and 193 ± 68mg/dl respectively. Neuropathy was the most common complication (41.4%); other complications were: Foot (32.7%), eye (19.7%), cardiovascular (6.8%) and nephropathy (6.2%). The number of diabetic complications increased with mean duration of diabetes. Most (93.2%) of the patients were on oral anti-diabetic drugs (OADs) and 35.2% were on insulin (±OADs). More than 15% physicians felt that the greatest barrier to insulin therapy from patient's perspective were pain and fear of using injectable modality; 5.2% felt that the greatest barrier to insulin therapy from physician's perspective was the treatment cost; 4.8% felt that the major barriers to achieve optimum diabetic care in practice was loss to follow-up followed by lack of counselling (3.9%) and treatment compliance (3.6%). Conclusion: DiabCare India 2011 has shown that type 2 diabetes sets in early in Indians and glycaemic control is often sub-optimal in these patients. These results indicate a need for more structured intervention at an early stage of the disease and need for increased awareness on benefits of good glycaemic control. It cannot be overemphasized that the status of diabetes care in India needs to be further improved. (ClinTrials.gov identifier: NCT01351922) PMID:24944934

Mohan, Viswanathan; Shah, Siddharth N.; Joshi, Shashank R.; Seshiah, V.; Sahay, Binode Kumar; Banerjee, Samar; Wangnoo, Subhash Kumar; Kumar, Ajay; Kalra, Sanjay; Unnikrishnan, A. G.; Sharma, Surendra Kumar; Rao, P. V.; Akhtar, Shahid; Shetty, Raman V.; Das, Ashok Kumar

2014-01-01

273

Human factors aspects of the transfer of control from the automated highway system to the driver. Working paper, October 1993-September 1994  

SciTech Connect

The first two experiments in a series exploring human factors issues related to the Automated Highway System (AHS) used a generic AHS configuration--the left lane reserved for automated vehicles, the center and right lanes containing unautomated vehicles, no transition lane, and no barriers between the automated and unautomated lanes--that was simulated in the Iowa Driving Simulator (IDS). The IDS has a moving base hexapod platform containing a mid-sized sedan. Imagery was projected onto a 3.35-rad (180 deg) screen in front of the driver, and onto a 1.13-rad (60 deg) screen to the rear. Thirty-six drivers between the ages of 25 and 34 years participated in the first experiment; 24 drivers who were age 65 or older took part in the second. Both experiments explored the transfer of control from the AHS to the driver when the driver`s task was to leave the automated lane.

Bloomfield, J.R.; Buck, J.R.; Carroll, S.A.; Booth, M.S.; Romano, R.A.

1995-07-01

274

Aspects of the epidemiology, research, and control of lentiviral infections of small ruminants and their relevance to Dutch sheep and goat farming.  

PubMed

In 1862, the veterinarian Loman reported the first sheep in The Netherlands with symptoms associated with lentiviral infection, although at the time the symptoms were ascribed to ovine progressive pneumonia. In the following century, similar cases were reported by South African, French, American, and Icelandic researchers. Extensive research into the pathology, aetiology, and epidemiology of this slowly progressive and ultimately fatal disease was initiated in several countries, including the Netherlands. Studies of the causative agents--maedi visna virus (MVV) in sheep and caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) in goats, comprising the heterogeneous group of the small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV)--prompted the development of diagnostic methods and the initiation of disease control programmes in many European countries including the Netherlands, as a pioneer in 1982, and in the U.S.A. and Canada. PMID:20822040

van Maanen, C; Brinkhof, J M A; Moll, L; Colenbrander, B; Houwers, D J

2010-08-15

275

Cultural aspects of cancer genetics: setting a research agenda  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—Anecdotal evidence suggests that people from non-Anglo-Celtic backgrounds are under-represented at familial cancer clinics in the UK, the USA, and Australia. This article discusses cultural beliefs as a potential key barrier to access, reviews previous empirical research on cultural aspects of cancer genetics, draws implications from findings, and sets a research agenda on the inter-relationships between culture, cancer genetics, and kinship.?METHODS—The CD-ROM databases MEDLINE, PsychLIT, CINAHL, and Sociological Abstracts were searched from 1980 onwards.?RESULTS—Cultural aspects of cancer genetics is the focus of an emerging body of publications. Almost all studies assessed African-American women with a family history of breast cancer and few studies included more diverse samples, such as Americans of Ashkenazi Jewish background or Hawaiian- and Japanese-Americans. Our analysis of published reports suggests several directions for future research. First, an increased focus on various Asian societies appears warranted. Research outside North America could explore the extent to which findings can be replicated in other multicultural settings. In addition, control group designs are likely to benefit from systematically assessing culture based beliefs and cultural identity in the "majority culture" group used for comparative purposes.?CONCLUSION—More data on which to base the provision of culturally appropriate familial cancer clinic services to ethnically diverse societies are needed. Empirical data will assist with culturally appropriate categorisation of people from other cultures into risk groups based on their family histories and provide the basis for the development of culturally appropriate patient education strategies and materials.???Keywords: hereditary cancer; kinship; culture; family history; cultural competence PMID:11432959

Meiser, B.; Eisenbruch, M.; Barlow-Stewart, K.; Tucker, K.; Steel, Z.; Goldstein, D.

2001-01-01

276

Exposing malaria in-host diversity and estimating population diversity by capture-recapture using  

E-print Network

Exposing malaria in-host diversity and estimating population diversity by capture-recapture using, Blantyre 3, Malawi; d The National Center for Parasitology, Entomology and Malaria Control, Phnom Penh, MD, and approved October 12, 2010 (received for review May 20, 2010) Malaria infections commonly

Read, Andrew

277

Muscle morphometric effect of anterior cruciate ligament injury measured by computed tomography: aspects on using non-injured leg as control  

PubMed Central

Background Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears are common, functionally disabling, and predispose to subsequent injuries and early onset of osteoarthritis in the knee. Injuries result in muscular atrophy and impaired muscular activation. To optimize surgical methods and rehabilitation strategies, knowledge of the effects of ACL injuries on muscles size and function is needed. Asymmetry due to limb dominance implies that the effect of ACL-injury might be different in right-sided and left-sided injuries which, should be taken in account when evaluating the effect of an injury. Evaluation of the effects of injuries is usually made with the contralateral leg as control. The aim of this study is to describe the effect of ACL-injuries on thigh muscle size and also to analyze feasibility of using contralateral limb as control. Methods Sixty-two patients scheduled to undergo ACL reconstruction were examined with computed tomography (CT). Muscle cross sectional area (CSA) was recorded for quadriceps, hamstrings, gracilis and sartorius 15 cm above the knee joint. Comparisons were made between the injured and non-injured side and between individuals separated by gender and side of injury. Comparisons were also made for patients with or without concomitant meniscal tear, for patients differing in time between injury and examinations and for patients with different level of physical activity after the injury. Results Quadriceps CSA was 5% smaller on the injured side. There was an indication that the muscles of the right thigh were generally bigger than those of the left thigh. The difference between the injured and the non-injured side was larger for right-sided injuries than for left-sided. There was also a greater difference in semimembranosus for women than for men. There were no differences related to meniscal injury, time since injury or physical activity. Conclusion The use of contralateral leg for evaluating the effect of ACL-injury is often the only available alternative but our study indicates that the difference in CSA between injured and non-injured side does not necessarily reflect the true degree of atrophy, as there are side differences both in muscle size in general and in the effect of an ACL-injury on muscle size. PMID:23628130

2013-01-01

278

Diversity Outlook, August 2012  

E-print Network

THE NEWSLET TER OF CAMPUS DIVERSITY Fred Rodriguez, Vice Provost for Diversity & Equity • Meet the IOA staff • Scholarship of diversity • Calendar of events & more AUGUST 2012VOL. 4 • ISSUE 1 Welcome back, for the 2012-13 academic year! A... multicultural programs and activities. ATTEND THE WELCOME RECEPTION Everyone is invited to a reception, Sept. 6, 3:30, in the Jayhawk Room, Kansas Union. Enjoy food and refreshments while helping us welcome Blane Harding, Jane McQueeny, Victor...

2012-08-01

279

Design Aspects of a Case-Control Clinical Investigation of the Effect of HIV on Oral and Gastrointestinal Soluble Innate Factors and Microbes  

PubMed Central

Introduction The impaired host defense system in HIV infection impacts the oral and gastrointestinal microbiota and associated opportunistic infections. Antiretroviral treatment is predicted to partially restore host defenses and decrease the oral manifestation of HIV/AIDS. Well-designed longitudinal studies are needed to better understand the interactions of soluble host defense proteins with bacteria and virus in HIV/AIDS. “Crosstalk” was designed as a longitudinal study of host responses along the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and interactions between defense molecules and bacteria in HIV infection and subsequent therapy. Purpose The clinical core formed the infrastructure for the study of the interactions between the proteome, microbiome and innate immune system. The core recruited and retained study subjects, scheduled visits, obtained demographic and medical data, assessed oral health status, collected samples, and guided analysis of the hypotheses. This manuscript presents a well-designed clinical core that may serve as a model for studies that combine clinical and laboratory data. Methods Crosstalk was a case-control longitudinal clinical study an initial planned enrollment of 170 subjects. HIV+ antiretroviral naïve subjects were followed for 9 visits over 96 weeks and HIV uninfected subjects for 3 visits over 24 weeks. Clinical prevalence of oral mucosal lesions, dental caries and periodontal disease were assessed. Results During the study, 116 subjects (47 HIV+, 69 HIV-) were enrolled. Cohorts of HIV+ and HIV- were demographically similar except for a larger proportion of women in the HIV- group. The most prevalent oral mucosal lesions were oral candidiasis and hairy leukoplakia in the HIV+ group. Discussion The clinical core was essential to enable the links between clinical and laboratory data. The study aims to determine specific differences between oral and GI tissues that account for unique patterns of opportunistic infections and to delineate the differences in their susceptibility to infection by HIV and their responses post-HAART. PMID:25409430

Phelan, Joan A.; Abrams, William R.; Norman, Robert G.; Li, Yihong; Laverty, Maura; Corby, Patricia M.; Nembhard, Jason; Neri, Dinah; Barber, Cheryl A.; Aberg, Judith A.; Fisch, Gene S.; Poles, Michael A.; Malamud, Daniel

2014-01-01

280

Aspects of Three Dimensional Transport for ELM Control Experiments in ITER-Similar Shape Plasmas at Low Collisionality in DIII-D  

SciTech Connect

A study of three-dimensional (3D) perturbed magnetic field structures and transport for edge localized mode control experiments with resonant magnetic perturbations at DIII-D is presented. We focus on ITER-Similar Shape plasmas at ITER relevant electron pedestal collisionalities. nu(e)* similar to 0.2. This study is performed in comparison with results from TEXTOR-Dynamic Ergodic Divertor circular limiter plasmas. For both experiments the magnetic field structure is analyzed in the vacuum paradigm-superimposing the external RMP field on the unperturbed equilibrium. For TEXTOR L-mode plasmas this description holds for normalized poloidal flux Psi(N) > 0.7 without tearing modes driven by the RMP field. For DIII-D H-mode plasmas the validity of this approach still needs to be established. In this paper a method is discussed to diagnose the degree of edge stochastization based on a comparison between modeled magnetic footprints on the divertor targets and experimental data. Clear evidence is presented for the existence of a generic separatrix perturbation causing striation of target particle fluxes. However, heat fluxes into these striations are small. This observation can be explained by accounting for the different heat and particle source locations and the 3D trajectories of the open, perturbed field lines toward the divertor target. Analysis of the transport characteristics filling the perturbed separatrix lobes based on initial EMC3/EIRENE modeling suggests the existence of open field lines connecting the stochastic edge to the target pattern. However, the width and inward most extent of the actual stochastic layer cannot yet be quantified.

Schmitz, O. [Forschungszentrum Julich, Julich, Germany; Evans, T. E. [General Atomics, San Diego; Fenstermacher, M. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Frerichs, H. [Forschungszentrum Julich, Julich, Germany; Jakubowski, M. W. [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany; Schaffer, M. J. [General Atomics, San Diego; Wingen, A. [University of Dusseldorf, Germany; West, W. P. [General Atomics, San Diego; Brooks, N. H. [General Atomics, San Diego; Burrell, K. H. [General Atomics; DeGrassie, J. S. [General Atomics, San Diego; Feng, Y. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Garching, Germany; Finken, K. H. [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany; Gohil, P. [General Atomics; Groth, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Joseph, I. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Lasnier, C. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Lehnen, M. [Forschungszentrum Julich, Julich, Germany; Leonard, A. W. [General Atomics; Mordijck, S. [University of California, San Diego; Moyer, R.A. [University of California, San Diego; Nicolai, A. [Forschungszentrum Julich, Julich, Germany; Osborne, T. H. [General Atomics; Reiter, D. [Forschungszentrum Julich, Julich, Germany; Samm, U. [Forschungszentrum Julich, Julich, Germany; Spatschek, K. H. [University of Dusseldorf, Germany; Stoschus, H. [EURATOM / FZ-Juelich, Germany; Unterberg, B. [Forschungszentrum Julich, Julich, Germany; Unterberg, Ezekial A [ORNL; Watkins, J. G. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Wolf, R. C. [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany

2008-01-01

281

Control of strongylosis in horses by alternate grazing of horses and sheep and some other aspects of the epidemiology of Strongylidae infections.  

PubMed

Alternate grazing of horses and sheep as a control measure for gastrointestinal helminthiasis was studied in three grazing experiments in 1981, 1982 and 1983. Each year a group of three mare yearling Shetland ponies, which were kept on a small pasture from spring to autumn, were compared with a similar group which grazed a similar or the same pasture until July and were subsequently removed to a similar pasture which had been grazed by sheep from April to July. In addition both groups were treated with an anthelmintic when the latter group was removed to the sheep pasture. Pasture larval counts and worm counts and, in 1982 and 1983, faecal egg counts, clinical condition, total protein, albumin and beta-globulin levels demonstrated that the groups removed to sheep pasture acquired considerably lower burdens of nematodes of the subfamilies Cyathostominae and Strongylinae, but considerably higher burdens of Trichostrongylus axei than the groups which were not moved. These T. axei infections resulted in higher serum pepsinogen levels in the former groups compared to the latter in 1981 and 1982. At necropsy an important part of the T. axei burdens and, in 1982 and 1983, the Cyathostominae burdens consisted of inhibited early third stage larvae. A total of 20 species of the subfamily Cyathostominae and 7 species of the Strongylinae were found. Generally the composition of species was in agreement with other observations in western Europe, the most common species being: Cylicostephanus longibursatus, Cylicostephanus minutus, Cylicostephanus calicatus, Cylicostephanus goldi, Cylicostephanus poculatus, Cyathostomum labratum, Cyathostomum coronatum, Cyathostomum catinatum, Cylicocyclus leptostomus, Cylicocyclus nassatus, Cylicocyclus insigne, Strongylus edentatus and Strongylus vulgaris. PMID:3962151

Eysker, M; Jansen, J; Mirck, M H

1986-01-01

282

Myelomeningocele: neglected aspects  

PubMed Central

The commonest cause of neurogenic bladder in children is myelomeningocele. Survival of children is much improved in the Western world, but by 35 years old, about 50% will have died. In adults, the commonest causes of death are lung and heart diseases. All physical aspects deteriorate with age, especially in those with thoracic lesions. Those who walk in childhood have a 20–50% chance of becoming wheelchair dependent as adults. Immobility, poor respiratory reserve, obesity, latex allergy and worsening kyphoscoliosis contribute to the increased risks of surgery. It is essential that safe and manageable urine drainage is established in childhood: the bladder never improves with time, and surgical reconstruction becomes progressively more difficult. Independence in adult life will only be possible with intense preparation in childhood. Children must be allowed to join in with family chores and events. Education, both academic and practical, must be encouraged. Skills such as driving, shopping and birth control must be taught. However, even with the best support, less than 40% will have gainful employment. Children who are continent and have lesions below L2 are likely to have normal sexual function. Sexual activity in adolescents, especially in those with hydrocephalus, is limited (but not absent). However, by adult life, about two thirds will have established a regular partnership. All females and those males who are naturally potent are likely to be fertile. There is a high risk of neural tube defects in their offspring unless the female partner takes prophylactic folic acid for 3 months before pregnancy and for first trimester. PMID:18200450

2008-01-01

283

A Randomized Controlled Trial of the First Step to Success Early Intervention: Demonstration of Program Efficacy Outcomes in a Diverse, Urban School District  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on a randomized controlled trial of the First Step to Success early intervention that was conducted over a 4-year period in Albuquerque Public Schools. First Step is a selected intervention for students in Grades 1 through 3 with externalizing behavior problems, and it addresses secondary prevention goals and objectives. It…

Walker, Hill M.; Seeley, John R.; Small, Jason; Severson, Herbert H.; Graham, Bethany A.; Feil, Edward G.; Serna, Loretta; Golly, Annemieke M.; Forness, Steven R.

2009-01-01

284

Aspects and Buddhism  

E-print Network

ASPECTS OF BUDDHISM On 29 July 1983, on the occasion of the inuguration of the Silver Jubilee Celebrations of the Sikkim Research Institute of Tibetology, Hon'ble Smt. Indira Gandhi, Prime Minister was pleased to release the publication Aspects... . K. Devaraja, Trevor Ling. Parasmani Pradhan, H. E. Richardson and Ringu Tulku. The book has an Introduction titled 'Gandhi and Buddha' by Shri Homi J. H. Taleyarkhan, Governor of Sikkim and President, Institute of Tibetology. It is to be noted...

Sinha, Nirmal C.; Rechung, Jampal Kunzang

1983-01-01

285

Diversity within a unified model for Archaean gold mineralization in the Yilgarn Craton of Western Australia: An overview of the late-orogenic, structurally-controlled gold deposits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Archaean Yilgarn Craton has produced >3000 tonnes of gold, mainly from structurally-controlled deposits that formed during the latest stages of an orogenic event that affected the entire craton and culminated in the period 2.66–2.63 Ga. As a group, these late-orogenic deposits encompass a wide range of host rocks, structural settings and structural styles and alteration types. However, several consistent

W. K Witt; F Vanderhor

1998-01-01

286

Rotation and polarization diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we propose and study the performance of a new transmit diversity technique called rotation and polarization diversity. In this technique, in-phase and quadrature components of the rotated symbols are transmitted over two different polarizations of polarized transmitted antenna. By this way, in-phase and quadrature components are affected by different fading coefficients. Error performance of the proposed technique

Ahmet Yilmaz; Oguz Kucur

2011-01-01

287

Brooklyn College Diversity and  

E-print Network

, both in the classroom and in the workplace. The result is the Brooklyn College Diversity and Inclusion/ethnicities, experiences, genders, religions, and talents each of us brings to Brooklyn College and our supporting policies, such as affirmative action and equal opportunity, which are the cornerstones of any diversity plan. Brooklyn College

Dexter, Scott

288

Advancing Diversity in STEM  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although progress has been made, greater efforts are needed to promote faculty diversity at the college and university levels, especially in STEM fields. Thus, it is important to elucidate best practices both for increasing awareness of diversity issues pertaining to higher education and for implementing change. This article focuses on the…

Hill, Paul L.; Shaw, Rose A.; Taylor, Jan R.; Hallar, Brittan L.

2011-01-01

289

Diversity and the Academy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay comes from pondering the relationship, queried in the Call for this Special Issue, between the "language of diversity" and the "embracing of different forms of knowledge and ways of knowing" in the university. The issue of diversity is usually a sociological rather than an epistemological one--the access to and inclusion in higher…

Parker, Jan

2007-01-01

290

The Art of Diversity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An interview with Arthur Levine, the president of Teachers College, Columbia University (New York), discusses diversity, school vouchers, recruiting new teachers, affirmative action, student attitudes about race, the need for advocacy groups to counter the conservative National Association of Scholars, and his latest book, "Diversity on Campus."…

Matthews, Frank L.

2000-01-01

291

Genetic diversity among sapoviruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Norovirus and Sapovirus are two genera of the family Caliciviridae that contain viruses that can cause acute gastroenteritis in humans. Noroviruses (NOR) are genetically highly diverse but limited studies of the genetic diversity of sapoviruses (SAP) have been reported. In this study we characterized twenty-five SAP detected in our laboratory from outbreaks or sporadic cases of acute gastroenteritis in

T. Farkas; W. M. Zhong; Y. Jing; P. W. Huang; S. M. Espinosa; N. Martinez; A. L. Morrow; G. M. Ruiz-Palacios; L. K. Pickering; X. Jiang

2004-01-01

292

Beyond the Diversity Crisis Model: Decentralized Diversity Planning and Implementation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article critiques the diversity crises model of diversity planning in higher education and presents a decentralized diversity planning model. The model is based on interviews with the nation's leading diversity officers, a review of the literature and the authors own experiences leading diversity change initiatives in higher education. The…

Williams, Damon A.

2008-01-01

293

Motor control of Drosophila courtship song  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Many animals utilize acoustic signals – or songs – to attract mates. During courtship, Drosophila melanogaster males vibrate a wing to produce trains of pulses and extended tone called pulse and sine song, respectively. Courtship songs in the genus Drosophila are exceedingly diverse and different song features appear to have evolved independently of each other. How the nervous system allows such diversity to evolve is not understood. Here, we identify a wing muscle in D. melanogaster (hg1) that is uniquely male-enlarged. The hg1 motoneuron and the sexually dimorphic development of the hg1 muscle are required specifically for the sine component of the male song. In contrast, the motoneuron innervating a sexually monomorphic wing muscle, ps1, is required specifically for a feature of pulse song. Thus, individual wing motor pathways can control separate aspects of courtship song and may provide a “modular” anatomical substrate for the evolution of diverse songs. PMID:24183665

Shirangi, Troy R.; Stern, David L.; Truman, James W.

2014-01-01

294

[Medical aspects of fasting].  

PubMed

Fasting (arabic-savm) was proclaimed through islam, and thus it is an obligation for Holly Prophet Muhammad s.a.v.s.-Peace be to Him-in the second year after Hijra (in 624 after Milad-born of Isa a.s.). There is a month of fasting-Ramadan-each lunar (hijra) year. So, it was 1415th fasting this year. Former Prophets have brought obligative messages on fasting to their people; so there are also certain forms of fasting with other religions i.e. with Catholics, Jews, Orthodox. These kinds of fasting above differ from muslim fasting, but they also appear obligative. All revelations have brought fasting as obligative. From medical point of view, fasting has two basical components: psychical and physical. Psychical sphere correlate closely with its fundamental ideological message. Allah dz.s. says in Quran: "... Fasting is obligative for you, as it was obligative to your precedents, as to avoid sins; during very few days (II, II, 183 & 184)." Will strength, control of passions, effort and self-discipline makes a pure faithfull person, who purify its mind and body through fasting. Thinking about The Creator is more intensive, character is more solid; and spirit and will get stronger. We will mention the hadith saying: "Essaihune humus saimun!" That means: "Travellers at the Earth are fasters (of my ummet)." The commentary of this hadith, in the Collection of 1001 hadiths (Bin bir hadis), number 485, says: "There are no travelling dervishs or monks in islam; thus there is no such a kind of relligousity in islam. In stead, it is changed by fasting and constant attending of mosque. That was proclaimed as obligation, although there were few cases of travelling in the name of relligousity, like travelling dervishs and sheichs." In this paper, the author discusses medical aspects of fasting and its positive characteristics in the respect of healthy life style and prevention of many sicks. The author mentions positive influence of fasting to certain system and organs of human body. According the author, o basic messages of fasting could be a Roman poet's saying:" Mens sana in corpora sanum." PMID:9324567

Gavrankapetanovi?, F

1997-01-01

295

"No. 190. Grand Valley Diversion Dam. Diversion gates, water flowing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

"No. 190. Grand Valley Diversion Dam. Diversion gates, water flowing into high line. June, 1917. R.B.D." - Grand Valley Diversion Dam, Half a mile north of intersection of I-70 & Colorado State Route 65, Cameo, Mesa County, CO

296

1. DIVERSION GATE AT SPILLWAY, NORTH CANAL DAM (DIVERSION GATE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. DIVERSION GATE AT SPILLWAY, NORTH CANAL DAM (DIVERSION GATE FEEDING PIPE AT LOWER RIGHT), VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - North Canal Dam & Diversion Canals, Deschutes Reclamation & Irrigation Company Canal, Empire Boulevard vicinity, Bend, Deschutes County, OR

297

2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, headworks overflow weir to center left, view to east - Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, Salmon Creek, Okanogan, Okanogan County, WA

298

Climate, energy and diversity  

PubMed Central

In recent years, a number of species–energy hypotheses have been developed to explain global patterns in plant and animal diversity. These hypotheses frequently fail to distinguish between fundamentally different forms of energy which influence diversity in dissimilar ways. Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) can be utilized only by plants, though their abundance and growth rate is also greatly influenced by water. The Gibbs free energy (chemical energy) retained in the reduced organic compounds of tissue can be utilized by all heterotrophic organisms. Neither PAR nor chemical energy influences diversity directly. Both, however, influence biomass and/or abundance; diversity may then increase as a result of secondary population dynamic or evolutionary processes. Temperature is not a form of energy, though it is often used loosely by ecologists as a proxy for energy; it does, however, influence the rate of utilization of chemical energy by organisms. It may also influence diversity by allowing a greater range of energetic lifestyles at warmer temperatures (the metabolic niche hypothesis). We conclude that there is no single species/energy mechanism; fundamentally different processes link energy to abundance in plants and animals, and diversity is affected secondarily. If we are to make progress in elucidating these mechanisms, it is important to distinguish climatic effects on species' distribution and abundance from processes linking energy supply to plant and animal diversity. PMID:16928626

Clarke, Andrew; Gaston, Kevin J

2006-01-01

299

Aspects of bamboo agronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various aspects of the growth and development of bamboo are reviewed,includ- ing growth cycles of plant parts,effects of aging on important plant tissues,uptake of water and nutrients,photosynthesis,storage and translocation of photosynthates and nutrients,and accumulation and partitioning of biomass and nutrients.Also discussed are how these aspects can be manipulated with agronomic techniques, such as management of standing-culm density,culm-age structure,leaf area,and leaf-age

Volker Kleinhenz; David J. Midmore

2001-01-01

300

Everyday Spirituality: An Aspect of the Holistic Curriculum in Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early childhood education in Aotearoa New Zealand includes different philosophical perspectives, may be part of the public or private sector and aims to be inclusive and holistic. The early childhood curriculum, Te Whariki, supports these aims. Aspects of the curriculum that are holistic may be conceptualized in diverse ways and this qualitative…

Bone, Jane; Cullen, Joy; Loveridge, Judith

2007-01-01

301

Why psychology? Every aspect of human experience, as well as  

E-print Network

in, for example, the health service, education, or business. Essentials What psychology coursesPsychology Why psychology? Every aspect of human experience, as well as behaviours in non-human species, falls within the scope of psychology. Psychologists explore topics as diverse as individual

Sussex, University of

302

Multilingual Aspects of Fluency Disorders. Communication Disorders across Languages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains contributions by scholars working on diverse aspects of speech who bring their findings to bear on the practical issue of how to treat stuttering in different language groups and in multilingual speakers. The book considers classic issues in speech production research, as well as whether regions of the brain that are affected in…

Howell, Peter; Van Borsel, John

2011-01-01

303

Selenium. Nutritional, toxicologic, and clinical aspects  

SciTech Connect

Despite the recent findings of environmental contamination, selenium toxicosis in humans is exceedingly rare in the United States, with the few known cases resulting from industrial accidents and an episode involving the ingestion of superpotent selenium supplements. Chronic selenosis is essentially unheard of in this country because of the typical diversity of the American diet. Nonetheless, because of the growing public interest in selenium as a dietary supplement and the occurrence of environmental selenium contamination, medical practitioners should be familiar with the nutritional, toxicologic, and clinical aspects of this trace element. 53 references.

Fan, A.M.; Kizer, K.W. (California Department of Health Services, Berkeley (USA))

1990-08-01

304

[Animal experiment aspects of bladder cancer].  

PubMed

Many aspects of bladder cancer remain obscure under clinical conditions. The natural course of the illness is seldom known in human patients, in whom only the treated natural history is subject to investigation. Cancer research in animals can complement clinical investigations. The following experimental set-ups are of importance; chemically induced bladder cancer; transplantation of human urothelial carcinoma in immunodeficient nude mice (xenograft model); transplantation of clinically induced bladder cancer in syngenetic animals (syngenetic model). These models are used for tumour induction and the development of immunotherapy, chemotherapy and new techniques. The extrapolation of these experimental results to clinical situations is being discussed. Some experimental results are of interest for practising urologists, e.g. increased incidence of tumour development in dilated upper urinary tract or in the bowel segment after urinary diversion; new therapeutic approaches such as breakdown of multidrug resistance to chemotherapy or administration of photodynamic therapy; planning of intravesical therapy relating to aspects of cell proliferation. PMID:1871936

Recker, F; Otto, T

1991-05-01

305

ASPECTS in patients with wake up Stroke  

PubMed Central

Background One quarter of ischemic strokes occur during sleep and they are excluded from thrombolytic therapy due to an unknown time of stroke onset. It has been suggested that early ischemic changes in CT are similar between acute stroke patients and patients who recently awoke with stroke. We compared head CT scans using the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) in patients who were likely to suffer their stroke during sleep (AWOKE) to a control group of patients with stroke of known onset time. Methods Patients were recruited from a prospectively collected acute stroke database. The “AWOKE” group was defined as all ischemic stroke patients who were “last seen normal” more than 4 hours ago, arrived between 4AM and 10AM and had a head CT within 15 hours from last seen normal. The control group was randomly selected using patients who had a head CT within 4 hours from stroke onset. The ASPECTS evaluations were performed blinded to patient group and time of onset. In 15 AWOKE and 46 control patients a mRS at 90 days after stroke was available. Results Twenty-eight AWOKE and 68 control patients had suitable imaging for the ASPECTS. Baseline demographics and risk factors were similar in both groups. The dichotomized ASPECTS analysis (?7 versus 8–10) showed no significant differences between groups. In the AWOKE group 89.3% had an ASPECTS of 8–10, while for controls 95.6% scored 8–10 (p= 0.353). There was a trend toward better 90 day mRS (0–1) in the AWOKE group (73%) versus control (45%) p=0.079. Conclusion Initial ASPECTS were similar between patients with wake-up strokes and those with documented onset within 4 hours of symptoms. PMID:20719536

Huisa, Branko N; Raman, Rema; Ernstrom, Karin; Tafreshi, Gilda; Stemer, Andrew; Meyer, Brett C.; Hemmen, Thomas

2010-01-01

306

The Uniformity and Diversity of Language: Evidence from Sign Language  

PubMed Central

Evidence from sign language strongly supports three positions: (1) language is a coherent system with universal properties; (2) sign languages diverge from spoken languages in some aspects of their structure; and (3) domain-external factors can be identified that account for some crucial aspects of language structure -- uniform and diverse -- in both modalities. Assuming that any of these positions excludes the others defeats the purpose of the enterprise. PMID:21076645

Sandler, Wendy

2010-01-01

307

Convergence of mitogenic signalling cascades from diverse classes of receptors at the cyclin D-cyclin-dependent kinase-pRb-controlled G1 checkpoint.  

PubMed Central

The commitment of mammalian cells in late G1 to replicate the genome and divide in response to mitogenic growth factors operating via tyrosine kinase receptors depends on phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (pRb), a process controlled by cyclin D-associated cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks) and their inhibitors. This study addressed the issue of whether also other mitogenic signalling cascades require activation of cyclin D-associated kinases or whether any mitogenic pathway can bypass the cyclin D-pRb checkpoint. We show that mitogenic signal transduction pathways from three classes of receptors, the membrane tyrosine kinase receptors activated by serum mitogens or epidermal growth factor, estrogen receptors triggered by estradiol, and the cyclic AMP-dependent signalling from G-protein-coupled thyrotropin receptors, all converge and strictly require the cyclin D-cdk activity to induce S phase in human MCF-7 cells and/or primary dog thyrocytes. Combined microinjection and biochemical approaches showed that whereas these three mitogenic cascades are sensitive to the p16 inhibitor of cdk4/6 and/or cyclin D1-neutralizing antibody and able to induce pRb kinase activity, their upstream biochemical routes are distinct as demonstrated by their differential sensitivity to lovastatin and requirements for mitogen-activated protein kinases whose sustained activation is seen only in the growth factor-dependent pathway. Taken together, these results support the candidacy of the cyclin D-cdk-pRb interplay for the convergence step of multiple signalling cascades and a mechanism contributing to the restriction point switch. PMID:8943347

Lukas, J; Bartkova, J; Bartek, J

1996-01-01

308

Managing biological diversity  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Biological diversity is the variety of life and accompanying ecological processes (Off. Technol. Assess. 1987, Wilcove and Samson 1987, Keystone 1991). Conservation of biological diversity is a major environmental issue (Wilson 1988, Counc. Environ. Quality 1991). The health and future of the earth's ecological systems (Lubchenco et al. 1991), global climate change (Botkin 1990), and an ever-increasing rate in loss of species, communities, and ecological systems (Myers 1990) are among issues drawing biological diversity to the mainstream of conservation worldwide (Int. Union Conserv. Nat. and Nat. Resour. [IUCN] et al. 1991). The legal mandate for conserving biological diversity is now in place (Carlson 1988, Doremus 1991). More than 19 federal laws govern the use of biological resources in the United States (Rein 1991). The proposed National Biological Diversity Conservation and Environmental Research Act (H.R. 585 and S.58) notes the need for a national biological diversity policy, would create a national center for biological diversity research, and recommends a federal interagency strategy for ecosystem conservation. There are, however, hard choices ahead for the conservation of biological diversity, and biologists are grappling with how to set priorities in research and management (Roberts 1988). We sense disillusion among field biologists and managers relative to how to operationally approach the seemingly overwhelming charge of conserving biological diversity. Biologists also need to respond to critics like Hunt (1991) who suggest a tree farm has more biological diversity than an equal area of old-growth forest. At present, science has played only a minor role in the conservation of biological diversity (Weston 1992) with no unified approach available to evaluate strategies and programs that address the quality and quantity of biological diversity (Murphy 1990, Erwin 1992). Although actions to conserve biological diversity need to be clearly defined by viewing issues across biological, spatial, and temporal scales (Knopf and Smith 1992), natural resource managers find much conflicting information in the literature on strategies and programs for the conservation of biological diversity (Ehrlich 1992). Moreover, recommendations provided in much of the published information available for planning or decisions not only can be debated but may prove counterproductive if implemented. Current operational efforts beg for clearer focus on fundamental concepts central to daily decisions that impact native biological diversity. Recognizing that many biologists would provide different council and at the risk of oversimplification, we offer the following 4 topical issues as fundamental guidance to wise conservation action. These recommendations are based on our collective experiences working within conservation agencies since our original, collaborative essay (Samson and Knopf 1982). They are offered as initial, rather than authoritative, steps to better align research and management decisions with what we perceive as the critical issues in conserving biological diversity at the landscape and ecosystem levels of resolution.

Samson, Fred B.; Knopf, Fritz L.

1993-01-01

309

Diversity in vascular surgery.  

PubMed

A growing body of literature in vascular surgery demonstrates disparities in the type of health care that racial/ethnic minorities receive in the United States. Numerous recommendations, including those of the Institute of Medicine, have been set forth, which identify increasing the number of minority health professionals as a key strategy to eliminating health disparities. The purpose of this study is to compare the racial/ethnic distribution of the Society for Vascular Surgery (SVS) membership, the SVS leadership, vascular surgery trainees, and medical students. The results demonstrate that the racial/ethnic distribution of the SVS membership reflects a considerable lack of diversity with a paucity of diversity among the SVS leadership. An increasing rate of racial/ethnic diversity among vascular surgery trainees may indicate that the SVS will see an improvement in diversity in the future. PMID:23182481

Woo, Karen; Kalata, Emily A; Hingorani, Anil P

2012-12-01

310

Sociological Aspects of Rhinoplasty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the psychological aspect of the rhino- plasty operation has been a subject of interest for a long time, with the exception of a few studies, sociological factors have been almost totally ignored. In this prospective study the personality characteristics and socioeconomic back- grounds of 216 rhinoplasty patients were evaluated. Be- tween 1994 and 2000, a questionnaire and the Minnesota

Orhan Babuccu; Osman Latifoglu; Kenan Atabay; Nursen Oral; Behcet Cosan

2003-01-01

311

Architectural aspect of Prague  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prague is one of the most beautiful European cities, well known for its Gothic and Baroque cathedrals, churches, monasteries, Romanesque castles. Nevertheless, in fact an architectural aspect of the Czech capital is more complex and various: all the artistic and architectural styles are presented there: from Romanesque style to Art Nouveou.

E. V. Smirnova

2008-01-01

312

Nutritional aspects in hemodialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutritional aspects in hemodialysis. The results of cross sectional studies throughout the world indicate that maintenance hemodialysis patients are at risk of malnutrition. Longitudinal studies show that malnutrition is associated with a reduced life expectancy mainly because of cardiovascular and infectious complications. Several factors are responsible for malnutrition of hemodialysis patients. Protein-energy intake is often reduced because of inappropriate dietary

Maurice Laville; Denis Fouque

2000-01-01

313

Medical Aspects of Surfing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The medical aspects of surfing include ear and eye injuries and sprains and strains of the lower back and neck, as well as skin cancer from exposure to the sun. Treatment, rehabilitation, and prevention of these problems are discussed. Surfing is recommended as part of an exercise program for reasonably healthy people. (Author/MT)

Renneker, Mark

1987-01-01

314

Wind-Tunnel Investigation at Subsonic and Supersonic Speeds of a Fighter Model Employing a Low-Aspect-Ratio Unswept Wing and a Horizontal Tail Mounted Well Above the Wing Plane - Longitudinal Stability and Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental results showing the static longitudinal-stability and control characteristics of a model of a fighter airplane employing a low-aspect-ratio unswept wing and an all-movable horizontal tail are presented. The investigation was made over a Mach number range from 0.60 to 0.90 and from 1.35 to 1.90 at a constant Reynolds number of 2.40 million, based on the wing mean aerodynamic chord. Because of the location of the horizontal tail at the tip of the vertical tail, interference was noted between the vertical tail and the horizontal tail and between the wing and the horizontal tail. This interference produced a positive pitching-moment coefficient at zero lift throughout the Mach number range of the tests, reduced the change in stability with increasing lift coefficient of the wing at moderate lift coefficients in the subsonic speed range, and reduced the stability at low lift coefficients at high supersonic speeds. The lift and pitching-moment effectiveness of the all movable tail was unaffected by the interference effects and was constant throughout the lift-coefficient range of the tests at each Mach number except 1.90.

Smith, Williard G.

1954-01-01

315

How frequency and intensity shape diversity–disturbance relationships  

PubMed Central

Understanding the relationship between disturbance regimes and species diversity has been of central interest to ecologists for decades. For example, the intermediate disturbance hypothesis proposes that diversity will be highest at intermediate levels of disturbance. Although peaked (hump-shaped) diversity–disturbance relationships (DDRs) have been documented in nature, many other DDRs have been reported as well. Here, we begin to theoretically unify these diverse empirical findings by showing how a single simple model can generate several different DDRs, depending on the aspect of disturbance that is considered. Additionally, we elucidate the competition-mediated mechanism underlying our results. Our findings have the potential to reconcile apparently conflicting empirical results on the effects of disturbance on diversity. PMID:21422284

Miller, Adam D.; Roxburgh, Stephen H.; Shea, Katriona

2011-01-01

316

The measurement of marine species diversity, with an application to the benthic fauna of the Norwegian continental shelf  

Microsoft Academic Search

Species diversity includes two aspects, the number of species (species richness) and the proportional abundances of the species (heterogeneity diversity). Species richness and heterogeneity diversity can be measured over different scales; a single point, samples, large scales, biogeographical provinces and in assemblages and habitats. In the literature, the terminology of these scales is confused. Here, scales are given a uniform

John S. Gray

2000-01-01

317

Documenting and comparing plant species diversity by using numerical and parametric methods in Khaje Kalat, NE Iran.  

PubMed

The aim was to examine and document several aspects of numerical diversity such as species richness, species diversity and evenness and to compare diversity in different slope aspects of the area by using numerical and parametric methods. About 193 quadrats of 4 m2 were located according to the nature of vegetation. Species composition and their abundance were recorded in a two-year period (2005 to 2006). The result of field investigation was collecting and identifying of the total 225 plant species belonging to 154 genera and 37 families. The abundance data were subjected to analyses by specific diversity packages to characterize and obtain numerical indices (Shannon, Simpson, Brillouin, McIntosh, etc.,) and parametric families of species diversity. Numerical indices were calculated and documented for monitoring purposes. The results of diversity in main slope aspects (N, S, E, W) showed higher species richness and species diversity indices in the north aspect than in the others but it was not true with evenness indices. About 30 species such as Acanthophyllum glandulosum, Acroptilon repens, Alcea tiliacea, Bromus sericeous, Astragalus turbinatus, Centaurea balsamita etc., were detected exclusively in the north aspect. This can be important in reducing the evenness. Diversity comparing by using rank-abundance plot as well as diversity ordering of Hill, Renyi and Patil and Taillie confirmed high species diversity in the north yet the result of ANOVA showed no significant differences in the four aspects. The result of diversity based on the models revealed that the whole area, the south and the west aspects follow lognormal distribution, north aspect follows logarithmic whereas the east follows both lognormal and logarithmic distribution. In other word, a shift from being lognormal to logarithmic model was observed in the east aspect. PMID:19093482

Ejtehadi, H; Soltani, R; Zahedi Pour, H

2007-10-15

318

Diversity Facts 2012 2 Michigan Technological University Diversity Facts 2012  

E-print Network

, and knowledge--supporting the recruitment, retention, and success of a diverse faculty, staff, and student body diversity efforts. We regularly measure retention and graduation rates of students and recruitment outcomes for Institutional Diversity Cultural Climate Study Dual Career Program Higher Education Excellence in Diversity

319

A hierarchical perspective of plant diversity  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Predictive models of plant diversity have typically focused on either a landscapea??s capacity for richness (equilibrium models), or on the processes that regulate competitive exclusion, and thus allow species to coexist (nonequilibrium models). Here, we review the concepts and purposes of a hierarchical, multiscale model of the controls of plant diversity that incorporates the equilibrium model of climatic favorability at macroscales, nonequilibrium models of competition at microscales, and a mixed model emphasizing environmental heterogeneity at mesoscales. We evaluate the conceptual model using published data from three spatially nested datasets: (1) a macroscale analysis of ecoregions in the continental and western U.S.; (2) a mesoscale study in California; and (3) a microscale study in the Siskiyou Mountains of Oregon and California. At the macroscale (areas from 3889 km2 to 638,300 km2), climate (actual evaporation) was a strong predictor of tree diversity (R2 = 0.80), as predicted by the conceptual model, but area was a better predictor for vascular plant diversity overall (R2 = 0.38), which suggests different types of plants differ in their sensitivity to climatic controls. At mesoscales (areas from 1111 km2 to 15,833 km2 ), climate was still an important predictor of richness (R2 = 0.52), but, as expected, topographic heterogeneity explained an important share of the variance (R2 = 0.19), showed positive correlations with diversity of trees, shrubs, and annual and perennial herbs, and was the primary predictor of shrub and annual plant species richness. At microscales (0.1 ha plots), spatial patterns of diversity showed a clear unimodal pattern along a climatea??driven productivity gradient and a negative relationship with soil fertility. The strong decline in understory and total diversity at the most productive sites suggests that competitive controls, as predicted, can override climatic controls at this scale. We conclude that this hierarchical, multiscale model provides a sound basis to understand and analyze plant species diversity. Specifically, future research should employ the principles in this paper to explore climatic controls on species richness of different life forms, better quantify environmental heterogeneity in landscapes, and analyze how these largea??scale factors interact with local nonequilibrium dynamics to maintain plant diversity.

Sarr, Daniel; Hibbs, D.E.; Huston, M.

2005-01-01

320

Behavioural aspects of terrorism.  

PubMed

Behavioural and social sciences are useful in collecting and analysing intelligence data, understanding terrorism, and developing strategies to combat terrorism. This article aims to examine the psychopathological concepts of terrorism and discusses the developing roles for behavioural scientists. A systematic review was conducted of studies investigating behavioural aspects of terrorism. These studies were identified by a systematic search of databases, textbooks, and a supplementary manual search of references. Several fundamental concepts were identified that continue to influence the motives and the majority of the behaviours of those who support or engage in this kind of specific violence. Regardless of the psychological aspects and new roles for psychiatrists, the behavioural sciences will continue to be called upon to assist in developing better methods to gather and analyse intelligence, to understand terrorism, and perhaps to stem the radicalisation process. PMID:23597734

Leistedt, Samuel J

2013-05-10

321

Myelomeningocele: neglected aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The commonest cause of neurogenic bladder in children is myelomeningocele. Survival of children is much improved in the Western\\u000a world, but by 35 years old, about 50% will have died. In adults, the commonest causes of death are lung and heart diseases.\\u000a All physical aspects deteriorate with age, especially in those with thoracic lesions. Those who walk in childhood have a

Christopher R. J. Woodhouse

2008-01-01

322

Functional cell surface display and controlled secretion of diverse Agarolytic enzymes by Escherichia coli with a novel ligation-independent cloning vector based on the autotransporter YfaL.  

PubMed

Autotransporters have been employed as the anchoring scaffold for cell surface display by replacing their passenger domains with heterologous proteins to be displayed. We adopted an autotransporter (YfaL) of Escherichia coli for the cell surface display system. The critical regions in YfaL for surface display were identified for the construction of a ligation-independent cloning (LIC)-based display system. The designed system showed no detrimental effect on either the growth of the host cell or overexpressing heterologous proteins on the cell surface. We functionally displayed monomeric red fluorescent protein (mRFP1) as a reporter protein and diverse agarolytic enzymes from Saccharophagus degradans 2-40, including Aga86C and Aga86E, which previously had failed to be functional expressed. The system could display different sizes of proteins ranging from 25.3 to 143 kDa. We also attempted controlled release of the displayed proteins by incorporating a tobacco etch virus protease cleavage site into the C termini of the displayed proteins. The maximum level of the displayed protein was 6.1 × 10(4) molecules per a single cell, which corresponds to 5.6% of the entire cell surface of actively growing E. coli. PMID:22344647

Ko, Hyeok-Jin; Park, Eunhye; Song, Joseph; Yang, Taek Ho; Lee, Hee Jong; Kim, Kyoung Heon; Choi, In-Geol

2012-05-01

323

Functional Cell Surface Display and Controlled Secretion of Diverse Agarolytic Enzymes by Escherichia coli with a Novel Ligation-Independent Cloning Vector Based on the Autotransporter YfaL  

PubMed Central

Autotransporters have been employed as the anchoring scaffold for cell surface display by replacing their passenger domains with heterologous proteins to be displayed. We adopted an autotransporter (YfaL) of Escherichia coli for the cell surface display system. The critical regions in YfaL for surface display were identified for the construction of a ligation-independent cloning (LIC)-based display system. The designed system showed no detrimental effect on either the growth of the host cell or overexpressing heterologous proteins on the cell surface. We functionally displayed monomeric red fluorescent protein (mRFP1) as a reporter protein and diverse agarolytic enzymes from Saccharophagus degradans 2-40, including Aga86C and Aga86E, which previously had failed to be functional expressed. The system could display different sizes of proteins ranging from 25.3 to 143 kDa. We also attempted controlled release of the displayed proteins by incorporating a tobacco etch virus protease cleavage site into the C termini of the displayed proteins. The maximum level of the displayed protein was 6.1 × 104 molecules per a single cell, which corresponds to 5.6% of the entire cell surface of actively growing E. coli. PMID:22344647

Ko, Hyeok-Jin; Park, Eunhye; Song, Joseph; Yang, Taek Ho; Lee, Hee Jong; Kim, Kyoung Heon

2012-01-01

324

The Unhappy Difference Diversity Makes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In examining the publications of a project run by the American Association of Colleges and Universities titled "Understanding the Difference Diversity Makes: Assessing Campus Diversity Initiatives," Carol Iannone finds that the "campus diversity movement" is unwilling and unable to achieve genuine diversity. It succeeds masterfully, however, in…

Iannone, Carol

2003-01-01

325

Transverse colon conduit diversion  

SciTech Connect

The versatility and other advantages of the transverse colon conduit for urinary diversion have been described and implemented in 50 patients. Because most patients considered for this procedure will be at high risk because of a history of significant pelvic irradiation, underlying malignancy, poor renal function, fistula, and so forth, the technical details of surgery and patient selection cannot be minimized. The transverse colon segment is indicated for primary supravesical diversion as well as for salvage of problems related to ileal conduits. Adenocarcinoma of the colon is an unlikely long-term complication of this form of diversion because the fecal stream is absent. Now that the transverse colon conduit has been used for more than 10 years, meaningful comparisons with ileal segments should soon be available.

Schmidt, J.D.; Buchsbaum, H.J.

1986-05-01

326

Preservice Teachers' Beliefs and Practices: Religion and Religious Diversity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussions about religious aspects of diversity are often absent from research. Similarly, topics such as religious forms of prejudice and religious dimensions of identities have not been fully explored in the context of teacher education. Too often, in the schooling context, what religion is and what constitutes an authentic religious identity…

Subedi, Binaya

2006-01-01

327

Addressing Issues of Cultural Diversity in Business Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses several terms used to denote cultural diversity and their implications. Emphasizes the importance of intracultural variations to an understanding of multiculturalism. Describes two assignments that give students in a graduate business communication course experience in researching various aspects of culture, exploring issues cultural…

Tovey, Janice

1997-01-01

328

Cattle waste reduces plant diversity in vernal pool mesocosms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In California, much of the remaining vernal pool habitat is used for cattle grazing. Some studies suggest that grazing helps promote native plant diversity on grasslands, but the impact of grazing on plants that reside in pool basins is largely unknown. We investigated how one aspect of cattle grazing, the deposition of waste, affects these plant species by adding dung

Russell C. Croel; Jamie M. Kneitel

2011-01-01

329

Immigration and the New Racial Diversity in Rural America  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article highlights the new racial and ethnic diversity in rural America, which may be the most important but least anticipated population shift in recent demographic history. Ethnoracial change is central to virtually every aspect of rural America over the foreseeable future: agro-food systems, community life, labor force change, economic…

Lichter, Daniel T.

2012-01-01

330

Several aspects of this unit will incorporate several standards recommended by the NCTM (National Council of Teachers of Mathematics). Several of the standards that will be incorporated in this unit are: The vision of a reform curriculum is toward a balanced variety of rich problem situations that encourage students to make connections among the various mathematical topics and that reflect cultural diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

One aspect of this unit is to provide students the opportunity to utilize the world around them to make connections to Math. The downtown skyline of the City of Houston offers numerous opportunities to explore and discover mathematical concepts and procedures. One area of this unit entails a field trip to the downtown area. The field trip will provide students

Celeste A. Chizer

331

Intraspecific Diversity Regulates Fungal Productivity and Respiration  

PubMed Central

Individuals and not just species are key components of biodiversity, yet the relationship between intraspecific diversity and ecosystem functioning in microbial systems remains largely untested. This limits our ability to understand and predict the effects of altered genetic diversity in regulating key ecosystem processes and functions. Here, we use a model fungal system to test the hypothesis that intraspecific genotypic richness of Paxillus obscurosporus stimulates biomass and CO2 efflux, but that this is dependent on nitrogen supply. Using controlled experimental microcosms, we show that populations containing several genotypes (maximum 8) of the fungus had greater productivity and produced significantly more CO2 than those with fewer genotypes. Moreover, intraspecific diversity had a much stronger effect than a four-fold manipulation of the carbon:nitrogen ratio of the growth medium. The effects of intraspecific diversity were underpinned by strong roles of individuals, but overall intraspecific diversity increased the propensity of populations to over-yield, indicating that both complementarity and selection effects can operate within species. Our data demonstrate the importance of intraspecific diversity over a range of nitrogen concentrations, and the need to consider fine scale phylogenetic information of microbial communities in understanding their contribution to ecosystem processes. PMID:20830299

Wilkinson, Anna; Solan, Martin; Taylor, Andrew F. S.; Alexander, Ian J.; Johnson, David

2010-01-01

332

Buprenorphine diversion and misuse in outpatient practice.  

PubMed

: This case is an amalgamation of several real patients in office-based treatment for prescription opioid dependence synthesized into a single theoretical case. The case illustrates the various ways in which medication diversion and misuse may be encountered in clinical practice and therapeutic responses designed to maximize positive treatment outcomes. It is followed by discussions from several expert addiction medicine providers from 3 different countries, giving their perspectives on the salient aspects of this case. This case conference should be of particular interest to clinicians working with opioid-dependent patients in an outpatient setting. PMID:25221985

Lofwall, Michelle R; Martin, Judith; Tierney, Matt; Fatséas, Mélina; Auriacombe, Marc; Lintzeris, Nicholas

2014-01-01

333

Effects of herbivores on grassland plant diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of herbivores in controlling plant species richness is a critical issue in the conservation and management of grassland biodiversity. Numerous field experiments in grassland plant communities show that herbivores often, but not always, increase plant diversity. Recent work suggests that the mechanisms of these effects involve alteration of local colonization of species from regional species pools or local

Han Olff; Mark E. Ritchie

1998-01-01

334

Running head: Biopsychological Aspects of Motivation Biopsychological Aspects of Motivation  

E-print Network

Running head: Biopsychological Aspects of Motivation Biopsychological Aspects of Motivation Oliver, O. C., & Wirth, M. M. (2008). Biopsychological aspects of motivation. In J. Heckhausen & H. Heckhausen (Eds.), Motivation and action (2 ed., pp. 247-271). New York: Cambridge University Press. #12

Schultheiss, Oliver C.

335

Aspects of seasonality.  

PubMed

The seasons are astronomical, astrological, meteorological, biological, and agricultural. From a perspective outside the biological sciences, the questions of interest about plant seasonality are linked to this wider context. In this review I try to see flowering time, as one important aspect of seasonality, from an outsider's point of view, and describe what is known about it in different types of plants. What is known about it is conditioned by what particular scientists have asked about it, so the variety of approaches to seasonality is another point of emphasis. Detailed consideration is given to flowering seasonality in perennials compared with annuals, and both molecular and whole plant perspectives are presented. PMID:11113156

Battey, N H

2000-11-01

336

Algorithms for high aspect ratio oriented triangulations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Grid generation plays an integral part in the solution of computational fluid dynamics problems for aerodynamics applications. A major difficulty with standard structured grid generation, which produces quadrilateral (or hexahedral) elements with implicit connectivity, has been the requirement for a great deal of human intervention in developing grids around complex configurations. This has led to investigations into unstructured grids with explicit connectivities, which are primarily composed of triangular (or tetrahedral) elements, although other subdivisions of convex cells may be used. The existence of large gradients in the solution of aerodynamic problems may be exploited to reduce the computational effort by using high aspect ratio elements in high gradient regions. However, the heuristic approaches currently in use do not adequately address this need for high aspect ratio unstructured grids. High aspect ratio triangulations very often produce the large angles that are to be avoided. Point generation techniques based on contour or front generation are judged to be the most promising in terms of being able to handle complicated multiple body objects, with this technique lending itself well to adaptivity. The eventual goal encompasses several phases: first, a partitioning phase, in which the Voronoi diagram of a set of points and line segments (the input set) will be generated to partition the input domain; second, a contour generation phase in which body-conforming contours are used to subdivide the partition further as well as introduce the foundation for aspect ratio control, and; third, a Steiner triangulation phase in which points are added to the partition to enable triangulation while controlling angle bounds and aspect ratio. This provides a combination of the advancing front/contour techniques and refinement. By using a front, aspect ratio can be better controlled. By using refinement, bounds on angles can be maintained, while attempting to minimize the number of Steiner points.

Posenau, Mary-Anne K.

1995-01-01

337

Social Dating Goals in Female College Students: Failure to Replicate in a Diverse Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports a failure to replicate aspects of the Social Dating Goals Scale (SDGS; Sanderson & Cantor, 1995) with an ethnically diverse group of female college students. The SDGS was developed and validated with predominantly White samples. In the present study, a diverse sample of 82 Asian, Black, Hispanic and White female college…

Killeya-Jones, Ley A.

2004-01-01

338

The impact of transformational leadership on improving diversity in higher educational institutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined whether a significant relationship exists between the five aspects of transformational leadership practices, as identified by Kouzes and Posner (2001), and the organizational diversity strategies as measured by the Diversity Orientation scale (DO) as developed by Buttner, Lowe and Harris (2006). This study also investigated whether there was a significant difference between the Leadership Practices of academic

Ugur Barut

2012-01-01

339

Marine Protistan Diversity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Protists have fascinated microbiologists since their discovery nearly 350 years ago. These single-celled, eukaryotic species span an incredible range of sizes, forms, and functions and, despite their generally diminutive size, constitute much of the genetic diversity within the domain Eukarya. Protists in marine ecosystems play fundamental ecological roles as primary producers, consumers, decomposers, and trophic links in aquatic food webs. Much of our knowledge regarding the diversity and ecological activities of these species has been obtained during the past half century, and only within the past few decades have hypotheses depicting the evolutionary relationships among the major clades of protists attained some degree of consensus. This recent progress is attributable to the development of genetic approaches, which have revealed an unexpectedly large diversity of protists, including cryptic species and previously undescribed clades of protists. New genetic tools now exist for identifying protistan species of interest and for reexamining long-standing debates regarding the biogeography of protists. Studies of protistan diversity provide insight regarding how species richness and community composition contribute to ecosystem function. These activities support the development of predictive models that describe how microbial communities will respond to natural or anthropogenically mediated changes in environmental conditions.

Caron, David A.; Countway, Peter D.; Jones, Adriane C.; Kim, Diane Y.; Schnetzer, Astrid

2012-01-01

340

Marine protistan diversity.  

PubMed

Protists have fascinated microbiologists since their discovery nearly 350 years ago. These single-celled, eukaryotic species span an incredible range of sizes, forms, and functions and, despite their generally diminutive size, constitute much of the genetic diversity within the domain Eukarya. Protists in marine ecosystems play fundamental ecological roles as primary producers, consumers, decomposers, and trophic links in aquatic food webs. Much of our knowledge regarding the diversity and ecological activities of these species has been obtained during the past half century, and only within the past few decades have hypotheses depicting the evolutionary relationships among the major clades of protists attained some degree of consensus. This recent progress is attributable to the development of genetic approaches, which have revealed an unexpectedly large diversity of protists, including cryptic species and previously undescribed clades of protists. New genetic tools now exist for identifying protistan species of interest and for reexamining long-standing debates regarding the biogeography of protists. Studies of protistan diversity provide insight regarding how species richness and community composition contribute to ecosystem function. These activities support the development of predictive models that describe how microbial communities will respond to natural or anthropogenically mediated changes in environmental conditions. PMID:22457984

Caron, David A; Countway, Peter D; Jones, Adriane C; Kim, Diane Y; Schnetzer, Astrid

2012-01-01

341

Diversity in Ocean Sciences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

COSEE-SE provides resources and links to help improve diversity in ocean sciences. Included resources are coastal legacy resources for elementary and middle school teachers, Coastal Legacy traveling curriculum kit, documents from the Multicultural Pathways for Ocean Science Education workshop, and university and marine laboratory programs.

342

Re: Soviet river diversions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper on `Soviet River Diversions' by Phil Micklin (Eos, 62(19), May 12, 1981) has just come to hand.Referring to the map on page 489, I was interested to see the estimates of river flows for the Amu and Syr Darya, which clearly show the effect of irrigation on inflows to the Aral Sea. Recently, I was passing over the

Jas O. Robertson

1982-01-01

343

Why Diversity Matters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Those involved in higher education understand that the admissions process has less to do with rewarding each student's past performance--although high performance is clearly essential--than it does with building a community of diverse learners who will thrive together and teach one another. Reports have noted that many leading public universities…

Bollinger, Lee

2007-01-01

344

Tapping into microbial diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even though significant advances have been made in understanding microbial diversity, most microorganisms are still only characterized by 'molecular fingerprints' and have resisted cultivation. Many different approaches have been developed to overcome the problems associated with cultivation of microorganisms because one obvious benefit would be the opportunity to investigate the previously inaccessible resources that these microorganisms potentially harbour.

Martin Keller; Karsten Zengler

2004-01-01

345

Diversity and International.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains the following papers on diversity and international issues in technology and teacher education: (1) "'At-Risk' Learners and the 'Digital Divide': Exploring the Equity in Access Issue" (Jeanne M. Foster and Sharla L. Snider); (2) "Integrating Standards-Based Instructional Technology" (Nicole M. Snow); (3) "Technology and the…

Justice, Madeline, Ed.

346

Polarization diversity lens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many airborne radar systems cannot take advantage of the target signature enhancements that can be achieved by receiving two orthogonal senses of polarization from the target on a pulse to pulse basis. Planar array polarization diversity can be achieved either mechanically or electrically. The mechanical devices are bulky, heavy, and extremely slow generally taking several seconds to change state. An

L. Goldstone

1994-01-01

347

Supply and Demand Diversity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Public universities in Virginia, as in many states, have generally not paid much attention to diversity among their suppliers. For years, state expenditures for outside contracts went to the usual suspects--White contractors from well-established companies. Four years ago, former Governor Mark Warner, a progressive Democrat from the high…

Galuszka, Peter

2007-01-01

348

Partnering To Promote Diversity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

University of North Iowa cooperates with two predominately black colleges, Ft. Valley State University (Georgia) and Florida A&M, to recruit diverse staff for day camp and other youth services for the children of the U.S. military and embassy personnel. As a result, over 100 college students trained as camp staff have combated stereotypes and…

Edginton, Christopher R.; Martin, Curtis E.

1998-01-01

349

Diversity as Fraternity Lite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diversity,” our conference theme, is a watered down, misguided ideal. Its most immediate ancestor, the more robust “affirmative action,” embraced certain specific goals and for a while even flirted with quotas to mark real progress (businesses, after all, get ahead by setting quotas). For political and practical reasons (outright opposition to positive discrimination, difficulty in successful implementation), affirmative action morphed

Katherine Lee Bates; Ray Charles

2005-01-01

350

The Quest for Diversity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current promotion of diversity encourages people from assorted backgrounds and mutual goals to find compatible but not necessarily identical ways to work together. Each literacy program will have a different need to expand its circle. It must consider all the characteristics that might widen its constituency, analyze all participants, and be…

Ellis, Susan J.

1996-01-01

351

Diversity & Community: Maintaining Allegiances.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The quest for diversity must overcome the resistance of traditional White, male faculty to redefining the mission and curriculum of the liberal arts college. Change will be difficult, but it must occur if liberal arts colleges are to survive and maintain a central and relevant place in multicultural America. (MSE)

Pena, Devon G.

1990-01-01

352

Animal Diversity Web  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Animal Diversity Web (ADW) is an online database of animal natural history, distribution, classification, and conservation biology, from the University of Michigan. It is a searchable encyclopedia, science learning tool and virtual museum. It has pages suggesting uses for the site in both undergraduate and K12 education.

Roger Espinosa (University of Michigan Museum of Zoology); PhD Cyndy Parr (University of Maryland Human Computer Interaction Lab); PhD Tricia Jones (University of Michigan Museum of Zoology); George Hammond (University of Michigan Museum of Zoology); PhD Tanya A Dewey (University of Michigan Museum of Zoology); PhD Phil Myers (University of Michigan Museum of Zoology)

2006-04-20

353

Campus Diversity Climate Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to be responsive to the changing demographics of the emerging community college student population, and in an attempt to answer the Chancellor's Office's call to discover how community colleges serve the diverse needs of students, Shasta College, California, collaborated with Feather River College, California, to conduct a study that…

Hindes, Victoria

354

An appreciation of diversity.  

PubMed

Nursing students are in contact with patients, families and colleagues from cultural backgrounds that can be quite different from their own. Cultural competence is a strategy for addressing the needs of patients from diverse backgrounds and improving their care. PMID:24617411

Dhadda, Sukdeep

355

Diversity and Adolescent Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper expresses the opinion that reading about different minority groups is a must in a quality literature program. Each student should learn as much as possible about diverse minority groups, and literature on minority groups needs adequate curriculum emphasis. Some books which can be a real value for African-American students are…

Ediger, Marlow

356

Modeling Antibody Diversity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding antibody structure and function is difficult for many students. The rearrangement of constant and variable regions during antibody differentiation can be effectively simulated using a paper model. Describes a hands-on laboratory exercise which allows students to model antibody diversity using readily available resources. (PVD)

Baker, William P.; Moore, Cathy Ronstadt

1998-01-01

357

Diversity: A Corporate Campaign  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author calls for a "campaign" because she believes there is a need to build upon the successes of diversity initiatives with renewed commitment, in much the same way as capital campaigns build upon past successes and refocus campuses on their work. Just as a capital campaign invests in financial stability by stimulating…

Akiyama, Diana D.

2008-01-01

358

Teaching for Diversity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The summer 1993 Southwest Educational Development Laboratory (SEDL) "Networkshop" focused on the need for teacher education programs to prepare future teachers to work with and teach effectively increasingly diverse student populations, and the need to increase the number of minority teachers. A major focus was on how policy and decisionmakers can…

Jones, Nancy Baker

1994-01-01

359

Diversity & Inclusion Executive Summary  

E-print Network

to celebrate our successes while identifying challenges and opportunities moving forward. When we issue to celebrate that will build on our past accomplishments. Because this is the first report of this kind of the diversity and inclusion highlights from the 2011-2012 academic year: As a result of the endorsement

Napier, Terrence

360

Longitudinal patterns in species richness and genetic diversity in European oaks and oak gallwasps  

Microsoft Academic Search

While latitudinal patterns of genetic diversity are well known for many taxa in Europe, there has been little analysis of\\u000a longitudinal patterns across Pleistocene glacial refugia. Here we analyze longitudinal patterns in two aspects of diversity\\u000a (species richness and intraspecific genetic diversity) for two trophically related groups of organisms – oaks (Fagaceae, genus\\u000a Quercus) and their associated gallwasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae)

Rachel J. Atkinson; Antonis Rokas; Graham N. Stone

361

Aspects of two corrosion processes relevant to military hardware  

SciTech Connect

Corrosion is a leading material degradation mode observed in many military systems. This report contains a description of a small project that was performed to allow some of the important electrochemical aspects of two distinct and potentially relevant degradation modes to be better understood: environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) of aluminum alloys and corrosion in moist salt. Two specific and respective tasks were completed: (A) the characterization of the effect of aluminum microstructural variability on its susceptibility to EAC, and (B) the development of experimental and analytical techniques that can be used to identify the factors and processes that influence the corrosivity of moist salt mixtures. The resultant information constitutes part of the basis needed to ultimately predict component reliability and/or possibly to identify techniques that could be used to control corrosion in critical components. In Task A, a physical model and related understanding for the relevant degradation processes were formulated. The primary result from Task B included the identification and qualitative validation of a methodology for determining the corrosivity of salt mixtures. A detailed compilation of the results obtained from each of these two diverse tasks is presented separately in the body of this report.

Braithwaite, J.W.; Buchheit, R.G.

1997-11-01

362

[Psychological aspects of drugs].  

PubMed

The "how" of prescribing is an important as what we prescribe. Drugs are part of everyday life for many people. The era of "social chemistry", the "inflation of drug use", or the "social use of drugs" create special difficulties for the "how" of prescribing. It is important that the expectation and fears of the patient are being taken seriously. The manner of prescribing has to depend on whether the patient interprets them negatively, as punishment and violent intrusion. But applications of drugs can also have a passive character, such as is the case with teas and baths. The physician should be aware of the contents of the package inserts, and keep them in mind so as to avoid mistaken interpretations by the patient. The psychological aspects of drug side effects are very important. A further concern is consideration of aspects of human interaction in diagnosis and therapy, also when applying medical drugs. Simplification of medication, written instruction concerning drug therapy addressed to the patient, intensified conversations with the patients on effects and side-effects of drugs are only a few practical examples of how patients can be influenced to the prescribed drugs more regularly. PMID:7424182

Luban-Plozza, B

1980-03-01

363

Diversity of locust gut bacteria protects against pathogen invasion  

E-print Network

controlled for the predicted negative invasability­diversity relationships have been observed in a wide rangeLETTER Diversity of locust gut bacteria protects against pathogen invasion R. J. Dillon, C. T­invasibility relationships were explored in the novel context of the colonization resistance provided by gut bacteria

Buckling, Angus

364

GCS plan for software aspects of certification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of the Guidance and Control Software (GCS) research project being sponsored by NASA to evaluate the failure processes of software, standard industry software development procedures are being employed. To ensure that these procedures are authentic, the guidelines outlined in the Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA/DO-178A document entitled, software considerations in airborne systems and equipment certification, were adopted. A major aspect of these guidelines is proper documentation. As such, this report, the plan for software aspects of certification, was produced in accordance with DO-178A. An overview is given of the GCS research project, including the goals of the project, project organization, and project schedules. It also specifies the plans for all aspects of the project which relate to the certification of the GCS implementations developed under a NASA contract. These plans include decisions made regarding the software specification, accuracy requirements, configuration management, implementation development and verification, and the development of the GCS simulator.

Shagnea, Anita M.; Lowman, Douglas S.; Withers, B. Edward

1990-01-01

365

Aspects of Plant Intelligence  

PubMed Central

Intelligence is not a term commonly used when plants are discussed. However, I believe that this is an omission based not on a true assessment of the ability of plants to compute complex aspects of their environment, but solely a reflection of a sessile lifestyle. This article, which is admittedly controversial, attempts to raise many issues that surround this area. To commence use of the term intelligence with regard to plant behaviour will lead to a better understanding of the complexity of plant signal transduction and the discrimination and sensitivity with which plants construct images of their environment, and raises critical questions concerning how plants compute responses at the whole?plant level. Approaches to investigating learning and memory in plants will also be considered. PMID:12740212

TREWAVAS, ANTHONY

2003-01-01

366

Technological Aspects: High Voltage  

E-print Network

This paper covers the theory and technological aspects of high-voltage design for ion sources. Electric field strengths are critical to understanding high-voltage breakdown. The equations governing electric fields and the techniques to solve them are discussed. The fundamental physics of high-voltage breakdown and electrical discharges are outlined. Different types of electrical discharges are catalogued and their behaviour in environments ranging from air to vacuum are detailed. The importance of surfaces is discussed. The principles of designing electrodes and insulators are introduced. The use of high-voltage platforms and their relation to system design are discussed. The use of commercially available high-voltage technology such as connectors, feedthroughs and cables are considered. Different power supply technologies and their procurement are briefly outlined. High-voltage safety, electric shocks and system design rules are covered.

Faircloth, D C

2013-01-01

367

Dark aspects of cosmology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis investigates aspects of dark matter and dark energy and constraints that can be imposed on them from current and future observations. Specifically, we first study the idea that the observed acceleration of the Universe could be due to the gravitational backreaction of perturbations on superhorizon scales. We show that this does not work for the case of a cosmological model containing baryonic matter, cold dark matter and a scalar field. Next, assuming the presence of dark energy and dark matter, we study the gravitational lensing effects of large scale structures on luminosity distances of sources. Standard candle sources such as supernovae have been used to measure the dark energy content of the Universe, and gravitational lensing is a source of systematic error in these measurements. We investigate the effects of large scale structures like voids and smaller halos using Monte Carlo simulations.

Kumar, Naresh

368

TUM.Diversity Die hochschulweite Diversity-Strategie verfolgt  

E-print Network

.Diversity unterstützt den/ die Senior Vice President für Diversity & Talent Management darin, alle strukturellen und per und weiterer wissenschaftli- cher Einrichtungen der TUM in Fragen des Diversity & Talent Managements & Talent Management in the sustainable and forward- looking implementation of all structural and staff

Cengarle, María Victoria

369

Revised Charter of the Diversity Committee UNIVERSITY DIVERSITY COMMITTEE CHARTER  

E-print Network

APPENDIX A Revised Charter of the Diversity Committee UNIVERSITY DIVERSITY COMMITTEE CHARTER for Diversity ­ Graduate School, Director of the Office of Student Recruitment and High School Services-7234 hkim@dfpm.utah.edu Staff: Suzanne Espinoza (2008) High School Services 80 Union 1-8761 sespinoza

Capecchi, Mario R.

370

Diverse Galaxies Lithograph  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Hubble Space Telescope image shows the diversity of galaxies in the universe. A huge elliptical galaxy, designated ESO 325-G004, dominates the image. In addition to many elliptical and spiral galaxies, the image contains a few small irregular galaxies, and red, yellow, and blue foreground stars. The accompanying classroom activity is a current support tool designed for use as an introductory inquiry activity. It can be incorporated into a unit that has a scientific inquiry and/or a galaxy classification theme. During the classroom activity, In Search of ...Galaxy Types, students use the lithograph images and text to generate questions about the diverse collection of galaxies on the front of the lithograph. They conduct research to answer their questions, identify patterns, and/or compare and contrast galaxy characteristics, depending on the teacherâs objectives. Students will organize their material and present a report, providing supporting evidence from their research.

2007-09-01

371

DEVELOPMENTAL DIVERSITY OF AMPHIBIANS  

PubMed Central

The current model amphibian, Xenopus laevis, develops rapidly in water to a tadpole which metamorphoses into a frog. Many amphibians deviate from the X. laevis developmental pattern. Among other adaptations, their embryos develop in foam nests on land or in pouches on their mother’s back or on a leaf guarded by a parent. The diversity of developmental patterns includes multinucleated oogenesis, lack of RNA localization, huge non-pigmented eggs, and asynchronous, irregular early cleavages. Variations in patterns of gastrulation highlight the modularity of this critical developmental period. Many species have eliminated the larva or tadpole and directly develop to the adult. The wealth of developmental diversity among amphibians coupled with the wealth of mechanistic information from X. laevis permit comparisons that provide deeper insights into developmental processes. PMID:22662314

Elinson, Richard P.; del Pino, Eugenia M.

2011-01-01

372

The influence of contextual diversity on eye movements in reading.  

PubMed

Recent research has shown contextual diversity (i.e., the number of passages in which a given word appears) to be a reliable predictor of word processing difficulty. It has also been demonstrated that word-frequency has little or no effect on word recognition speed when accounting for contextual diversity in isolated word processing tasks. An eye-movement experiment was conducted wherein the effects of word-frequency and contextual diversity were directly contrasted in a normal sentence reading scenario. Subjects read sentences with embedded target words that varied in word-frequency and contextual diversity. All 1st-pass and later reading times were significantly longer for words with lower contextual diversity compared to words with higher contextual diversity when controlling for word-frequency and other important lexical properties. Furthermore, there was no difference in reading times for higher frequency and lower frequency words when controlling for contextual diversity. The results confirm prior findings regarding contextual diversity and word-frequency effects and demonstrate that contextual diversity is a more accurate predictor of word processing speed than word-frequency within a normal reading task. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23937235

Plummer, Patrick; Perea, Manuel; Rayner, Keith

2014-01-01

373

Diversity Team | Poster  

Cancer.gov

The Employee Diversity Team (EDT) is out and about this fall, making the NCI at Frederick community aware of various cultural traditions and events around Frederick County that employees can participate in. The team is working with staff members of Native American descent to feature a display case and movie selection celebrating Native American Heritage Month in November. The team will keep you informed about Frederick events taking place in November and December. Keep a look out for EDT e-mails.

374

Adaptive optics and phase diversity imaging for responsive space applications.  

SciTech Connect

The combination of phase diversity and adaptive optics offers great flexibility. Phase diverse images can be used to diagnose aberrations and then provide feedback control to the optics to correct the aberrations. Alternatively, phase diversity can be used to partially compensate for aberrations during post-detection image processing. The adaptive optic can produce simple defocus or more complex types of phase diversity. This report presents an analysis, based on numerical simulations, of the efficiency of different modes of phase diversity with respect to compensating for specific aberrations during post-processing. It also comments on the efficiency of post-processing versus direct aberration correction. The construction of a bench top optical system that uses a membrane mirror as an active optic is described. The results of characterization tests performed on the bench top optical system are presented. The work described in this report was conducted to explore the use of adaptive optics and phase diversity imaging for responsive space applications.

Smith, Mark William; Wick, David Victor

2004-11-01

375

Understanding plant reproductive diversity  

PubMed Central

Flowering plants display spectacular floral diversity and a bewildering array of reproductive adaptations that promote mating, particularly outbreeding. A striking feature of this diversity is that related species often differ in pollination and mating systems, and intraspecific variation in sexual traits is not unusual, especially among herbaceous plants. This variation provides opportunities for evolutionary biologists to link micro-evolutionary processes to the macro-evolutionary patterns that are evident within lineages. Here, I provide some personal reflections on recent progress in our understanding of the ecology and evolution of plant reproductive diversity. I begin with a brief historical sketch of the major developments in this field and then focus on three of the most significant evolutionary transitions in the reproductive biology of flowering plants: the pathway from outcrossing to predominant self-fertilization, the origin of separate sexes (females and males) from hermaphroditism and the shift from animal pollination to wind pollination. For each evolutionary transition, I consider what we have discovered and some of the problems that still remain unsolved. I conclude by discussing how new approaches might influence future research in plant reproductive biology. PMID:20008389

Barrett, Spencer C. H.

2010-01-01

376

Human Skin Fungal Diversity  

PubMed Central

Traditional culture-based methods have incompletely defined the etiology of common recalcitrant human fungal skin diseases including athlete’s foot and toenail infections. Skin protects humans from invasion by pathogenic microorganisms, while providing a home for diverse commensal microbiota1. Bacterial genomic sequence data have generated novel hypotheses about species and community structures underlying human disorders2,3,4. However, microbial diversity is not limited to bacteria; microorganisms such as fungi also play major roles in microbial community stability, human health and disease5. Genomic methodologies to identify fungal species and communities have been limited compared with tools available for bacteria6. Fungal evolution can be reconstructed with phylogenetic markers, including ribosomal RNA gene regions and other highly conserved genes7. Here, we sequenced and analyzed fungal communities of 14 skin sites in 10 healthy adults. Eleven core body and arm sites were dominated by Malassezia fungi, with species-level classifications revealing greater topographical resolution between sites. By contrast, three foot sites, plantar heel, toenail, and toeweb, exhibited tremendous fungal diversity. Concurrent analysis of bacterial and fungal communities demonstrated that skin physiologic attributes and topography differentially shape these two microbial communities. These results provide a framework for future investigation of interactions between pathogenic and commensal fungal and bacterial communities in maintaining human health and contributing to disease pathogenesis. PMID:23698366

Findley, Keisha; Oh, Julia; Yang, Joy; Conlan, Sean; Deming, Clayton; Meyer, Jennifer A.; Schoenfeld, Deborah; Nomicos, Effie; Park, Morgan; Kong, Heidi H.; Segre, Julia A.

2013-01-01

377

Compromising Baltic salmon genetic diversity -  

E-print Network

Compromising Baltic salmon genetic diversity - conservation genetic risks associated with compensatory releases of salmon in the Baltic Sea Havs- och vattenmyndighetens rapport 2012:18 #12;Compromising Baltic salmon genetic diversity - conservation genetic risks associated with compensatory releases

378

Bioenergetic Aspects of Halophilism  

PubMed Central

Examinination of microbial diversity in environments of increasing salt concentrations indicates that certain types of dissimilatory metabolism do not occur at the highest salinities. Examples are methanogenesis for H2 + CO2 or from acetate, dissimilatory sulfate reduction with oxidation of acetate, and autotrophic nitrification. Occurrence of the different metabolic types is correlated with the free-energy change associated with the dissimilatory reactions. Life at high salt concentrations is energetically expensive. Most bacteria and also the methanogenic archaea produce high intracellular concentrations of organic osmotic solutes at a high energetic cost. All halophilic microorganisms expend large amounts of energy to maintain steep gradients of NA+ and K+ concentrations across their cytoplasmic membrane. The energetic cost of salt adaptation probably dictates what types of metabolism can support life at the highest salt concentrations. Use of KCl as an intracellular solute, while requiring far-reaching adaptations of the intracellular machinery, is energetically more favorable than production of organic-compatible solutes. This may explain why the anaerobic halophilic fermentative bacteria (order Haloanaerobiales) use this strategy and also why halophilic homoacetogenic bacteria that produce acetate from H2 + CO2 exist whereas methanogens that use the same substrates in a reaction with a similar free-energy yield do not. PMID:10357854

Oren, Aharon

1999-01-01

379

Redundancy and Diversity in Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Redundancy and diversity are commonly applied principles for fault toler- ance against accidental faults. Their use in security, which is attracting increasing inter- est, is less general and less of an accepted principle. In particular, redundancy without diversity is often argued to be useless against systematic attack, and diversity to be of dubious value. This paper discusses their roles and

Bev Littlewood; Lorenzo Strigini

2004-01-01

380

Diversity in the Workplace. Symposium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three papers comprise this symposium on diversity in the workplace. "Factors That Assist and Barriers That Hinder the Success of Diversity Initiatives in Multinational Corporations" (Rose Mary Wentling) reports that factors that assisted in the success were classified under diversity department, human, and work environment; barriers were those of…

2002

381

Assessing culturally diverse exceptional children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major issues that are confronting professionals in the assessment of culturally diverse exceptional children are discussed. The difference between testing and assessment is examined, along with the purpose of assessment and the factors that should be considered in the assessment of culturally diverse children. A definition of cultural diversity is examined along with somediscussion of the importance of cultural awareness

LaDelle Olion

1984-01-01

382

Partnering for Diversity. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To increase the diversity and retention levels of underrepresented faculty and staff, Cerritos College implemented the Partnering for Diversity program. Specifically, the program sought to: increase participation of underrepresented employees in positions of leadership; increase the diverse applicant pool for tenure track position by mentoring…

Lynn, Morgan

383

Juvenile Sex Offenders in Diversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to address the treatment of juvenile sex offenders within diversion programs. Using data from 32 diversion programs in Colorado during the 1998–1999 fiscal year, the study observed the demographic and legal characteristics of 112 juvenile (Mean age = 14.64) sex offenders referred to diversion programs for seven types of sex assault, incest, and indecent exposure charges.

Justin S. Campbell; Cherise Lerew

2002-01-01

384

Religious Diversity in the Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains four papers that address constitutional issues of religious diversity in the schools. The first paper, "Religious Diversity in the Schools--The Overview" (George J. Michel), provides an overview of religious diversity in American public schools, with a focus on the long history of cooperation with Christian churches. It…

Michel, George J.; Smith, William Gause; Vickers, Dianne Koenig; Brown, Elsie

385

July 21, 2011 Recruitment & Diversity  

E-print Network

· Connect lunches · Dean Diversity Assistantships http://graduateschool.vt.edu/graduate_schoolJuly 21, 2011 Recruitment & Diversity Summit II Hosted by the Graduate School Office of Recruitment by the Graduate School Office of Recruitment and Diversity Initiatives Dannette Gomez Beane, Director #12;2 Agenda

Buehrer, R. Michael

386

School ethnic diversity and White students' civic attitudes in England.  

PubMed

The current paper focuses on White British students in lower secondary education and investigates the effect of school ethnic diversity on their levels of trust and inclusive attitudes towards immigrants. Use is made of panel data of the Citizenship Education Longitudinal Study (CELS) to explore these relationships. Ethnic diversity is measured with the proportion of students in a grade identifying with a minority. In agreement with contact theory, the paper initially finds a positive relation between diversity and inclusive attitudes on immigrants. However, this link disappears once controls for social background, gender and prior levels of the outcome are included in the model. This indicates that students with particular pre-enrolment characteristics have self-selected in diverse schools and that inclusive attitudes have stabilized before secondary education. Diversity further appears to have a negative impact on trust, irrespective of the number of controls added to the model. PMID:25432606

Janmaat, Jan Germen

2015-01-01

387

[New aspects in age related macular degeneration].  

PubMed

Being the leading cause of blindness in modern world Age Related Macular Degeneration has beneficiated in the last decade of important progress in diagnosis, classification and the discovery of diverse factors who contribute to the etiology of this disease. Treatments have arised who can postpone the irreversible evolution of the disease and thus preserve vision. Recent findings have identified predisposing genetic factors and also inflamatory and imunological parameters that can be modified trough a good and adequate prevention and therapy This articole reviews new aspects of patology of Age Related Macular Degeneration like the role of complement in maintaining inflamation and the role of oxidative stress on different structures of the retina. PMID:22888685

Turlea, C

2012-01-01

388

Electrical aspects of rainout  

SciTech Connect

Rainout commonly denotes the aggregate of phenomena associated with precipitation scavenging of radioactivity from a cloud of nuclear debris that is within a natural rain cloud. (In contrast, the term, washout, is applicable when the nuclear cloud is below the rain cloud and the term, fallout, commonly denotes the direct gravitational settling of contaminated solid material from a nuclear cloud.) Nuclear debris aerosols may be scavenged within natural clouds by a variety of different physical processes which may involve diffusion, convection, impaction, nucleation, phoresis, turbulence, and/or electricity among others. Processes which involve electrical aspects are scrutinized for their susceptibility to the intimate presence of the radioactive-cloud environment. This particular choice of electrical processes is not accidental. Nearly all of the listed processes were examined earlier by Williams. His rough estimates suggested that electrical effects, and to a lesser extent turbulence, could enhance the scavenging of those submicron aerosols which reside in the size-range that bridges the minimum in the scavenging rate coefficient which is commonly called the Greenfield gap. This minimum in the scavenging-rate coefficient is created by the simultaneous reduction of scavenging via diffusion and the reduction of scavenging via inertial impaction. However, Williams omitted the specific influence of a radioactive environment. This report aims to remedy this omission.

Rosenkilde, C.E.

1981-11-23

389

Strategic Aspects of Communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rarely do human behavioral scientists and scholars study language, music, and other forms of communication as strategies—a means to some end. Some even deny that communication is the primary function of these phenomena. Here we draw upon selections of our earlier work to briefly define the strategy concept and sketch how decision theory, developed to explain the behavior of rational actors, is applied to evolved agents. Communication can then be interpreted as a strategy that advances the "fitness interests" of such agents. When this perspective is applied to agents with conflicts of interest, deception emerges as an important aspect of communication. We briefly review costly signaling, one solution to the problem of honest communication among agents with conflicts of interest. We also explore the subversion of cooperative signals by parasites and by plants defending themselves against herbivores, and we touch on biases in human gossip. Experiments with artificial embodied and communicating agents confirm that when there are conflicts of interest among agents, deception readily evolves. Finally, we consider signaling among super-organisms and the possible implications for understanding human music and language.

Hagen, Edward; Hammerstein, Peter; Hess, Nicole

390

[Recovery Room. Organization and clinical aspects].  

PubMed

Correct administration in the early postoperative phase is decisive in the final outcome of surgery and the presence of the Recovery Room (RR) contributes significantly to a reduction in the post-operative risk rate. The objectives of the RR are: removal of the pharmacological effect of general anaesthesia; stabilization of vital parameters (circulation and ventilation); stabilization of body temperature; control of the hydro-electrolytic balance; intensive intervention in the case of an acute complication; prescribing a suitable postoperative analgesia; recovering movement in the case of loco-regional anesthesia. Organization of RR must take into consideration: 1) aspect of environment and location; 2) transport of the patient from the operating room to the RR; 3) definition of the equipment necessary for the RR; 4) definition of the role and qualification of the medical and nursing staff; 5) definition of regulations of assistance and the clinical file; 6) definition of criteria for discharge and transfer; 7) definition of means of adjournment, improvement and comparison with other similar structures. RR is administered by an Anesthetist with clinical, therapeutic and decision-making responsibility for the discharge of patients, while the supervision and assistance patients is entrusted to specialised professional nurses. From a clinical point of view the following data are monitored and recorded: the vital signs (passage of air-ways, cardiac and respiratory frequency, arterial pressure, saturation of O2, EtCO2 (in patient with air-way support), body temperature and the state of consciousness, instrumental monitoring of the patient (at pre-established time intervals), control of the skin, the peripheral circulation, surgical wounds, drainage and catheters. The percentage of incidence of complications in RR varies from 6-7 to 30% depending on various studies, probably in relation to the diversity of criteria in defining the complication. The principal complications which can be found in RR, reported in several studies are: respiratory (obstruction of the air-way, hypoxemia, hypoventilation, inhalation), cardio-circulatory (hypotension, hypertension, arrhythmia, myocardial ischemia), postoperative nausea and vomiting, hypothermia and hyperthermia, delayed re-awakening, disorientation and hyper-excitability, postoperative shivering. As long as the patient can be discharged from the RR the following requisites must be satisfied: return of a state of consciousness, stable cardio-circulatory parameters, absence of respiratory depression, absence of bleeding, absence of nausea and vomiting, good analgesia and recovery of movement in the case of loco-regional anesthesia (on this last point not all authors agree). What has been said until now shows the function, usefulness and importance of RRs which must not replace the Intensive Therapy Units. In fact, they are places where the cure must be concluded, in which the Anesthetist is responsible for the whole process. This cure must begin in the preoperative period, continue in the intraoperative period and it is compulsory to proceed in the immediate postoperative period until such a time that, because of the anesthesia administered, the clinical situation of the patient ceases to be considered a potential medical-surgical urgency-emergency . PMID:11602873

Leykin, Y; Costa, N; Gullo, A

2001-01-01

391

Data integration: Quality aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is now possible to observe that the advances in technology have led to increased capacity to generate and store huge amounts of data in all areas of knowledge, characterizing a generalized explosion of data. In the area of electric power, the vast amount of data collected by different systems of supervision and control and stored in historical bases, has

M. R. Bastos; J. S. C. Martini; J. R. de Almeida; S. Viana

2010-01-01

392

Recrystallization Theoretical & Practical Aspects  

E-print Network

to control in order to optimize properties. · Other processes include recovery, grain growth, carburization boundaries. · Carburization is an example of a change of chemical composition near the surface brought about annealing. This is important in steels for producing high hardnesses at the surface of a material. #12

Rollett, Anthony D.

393

Institutionalising Campus Diversity in South African Higher Education: Review of Diversity Scholarship and Diversity Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasingly the social, educational, cultural, linguistic, religious and racial diversity of South African society is finding expression within South African institutions of higher education. Consequently, "diversity'', "diversity issues'' and "diversification'', have become part of the education debate and policy,and pose new challenges to South…

Cross, Michael

2004-01-01

394

Noncircular, finite aspect ratio, local equilibrium model  

SciTech Connect

A tokamak equilibrium model, local to a flux surface, is introduced which is completely described in terms of nine parameters including aspect ratio, elongation, triangularity, and safety factor. By allowing controlled variation of each of these nine parameters, the model is particularly suitable for localized stability studies such as those carried out using the ballooning mode representation of the gyrokinetic equations. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

Miller, R.L.; Chu, M.S.; Greene, J.M.; Lin-Liu, Y.R.; Waltz, R.E. [General Atomics, San Diego, California92186-5608 (United States)] [General Atomics, San Diego, California92186-5608 (United States)

1998-04-01

395

Diversity Outlook, September, 2012  

E-print Network

VOL. 4 • ISSUE 2 THE SCHOLARSHIP OF DIVERSITY: A SYNOPSIS The Cycle of Hate College-age men seem to be turning a blind eye to misogyny, according to a recent study led by Texas A&M University. The study observed the reactions of more than 200 young...-8407 fgipp@haskell.edu Matt Gillispie is a clinical assistant professor in KU’s Schiefelbusch Speech-Language-Hearing Clinic. His clinical and research interests are in assessment and intervention of preschool and school-age children with speech...

2012-09-01

396

Animal Diversity Web - Insects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of the University of Michigan Museum of Zoology's Animal Diversity Web, this site gives a general overview of the class Insecta targeted at college students. The site is organized into five tabs: Information, Pictures, Specimens, Sounds and Classification. Resources include images of live insects and pinned specimens, and sound recordings. Some pictures are only labeled with scientific genus and species names, making it difficult for novice users to understand what Order they are looking at, but many also have common names. Photos and sound bytes are good quality and easy to view and download. A very good resource for teachers needing lecture materials.

0002-11-30

397

Computational Aspects of Equilibria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Equilibria play a central role in game theory and economics. They characterize the possible outcomes in the interaction of rational, optimizing agents: In a game between rational players that want to optimize their payoffs, the only solutions in which no player has any incentive to switch his strategy are the Nash equilibria. Price equilibria in markets give the prices that allow the market to clear (demand matches supply) while the traders optimize their preferences (utilities). Fundamental theorems of Nash [34] and Arrow-Debreu [2] established the existence of the respective equilibria (under suitable conditions in the market case). The proofs in both cases use a fixed point theorem (relying ultimately on a compactness argument), and are non-constructive, i.e., do not yield an algorithm for constructing an equilibrium. We would clearly like to compute these predicted outcomes. This has led to extensive research since the 60’s in the game theory and mathematical economics literature, with the development of several methods for computation of equilibria, and more generally fixed points. More recently, equilibria problems have been studied intensively in the computer science community, from the point of view of modern computation theory. While we still do not know definitely whether equilibria can be computed in general efficiently or not, these investigations have led to a better understanding of the computational complexity of equilibria, the various issues involved, and the relationship with other open problems in computation. In this talk we will discuss some of these aspects and our current understanding of the relevant problems. We outline below the main points and explain some of the related issues.

Yannakakis, Mihalis

398

When Does Diversity Erode Trust? Neighborhood Diversity, Interpersonal Trust and the Mediating Effect of Social Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article contributes to the debate about the effects of ethnic diversity on social cohesion, particularly generalized trust. The analysis relies on data from both the 'Citizenship, Involvement, Democracy' (CID) survey in the US and the 'Equality, Security and Community Survey' (ESCS) in Canada. Our analysis, one of the first controlled cross-national comparisons of small-unit contextual variation, confirms recent findings

Dietlind Stolle; Stuart Soroka; Richard Johnston

2008-01-01

399

Emerging therapeutic aspects in oncology  

PubMed Central

Cancer remains a peculiarly stubborn disease to treat. Some forms of cancer have seen tremendous advances in the effectiveness of their treatments, whereas other forms have remained resistant to pharmacological control. This lack of hope for success is in part due to the types of drugs that are used in the clinic, and the targeted biological system being based purely on cellular growth rates. However, recent drugs designed to affect specific signalling pathways or proteins have been showing much success. Thanks to the ingenuity of pharmacologists in understanding and targeting these processes, there have been real improvements in treatment. Here we are presented with some of the research into such critical systems that have to be understood, so that they can be conquered. We will also look at the challenges facing cancer pharmacologists and what the field may present to us all in the future. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Emerging Therapeutic Aspects in Oncology. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2013.169.issue-8 PMID:23889318

MacEwan, David J

2013-01-01

400

Psychosomatic aspects of galactorrhea.  

PubMed

We interviewed 33 women with non-puerperal galactorrhea, 5 (15%) of whom had HPRL levels greater than 18 ng/ml and 24 controls, namely women with benign breast lesions. We used a semi-structured interview covering the duration of symptoms, preceding life events and the effect on the relationship of the couple. We also used the Beck depression inventory, the Strauss and Appelt body image questionnaire and an 8 item Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Galactorrheic women were more depressive (P less than 0.1), had more prior life events (P less than 0.001), longer duration of symptoms (P less than 0.01), and less fear of their disease (P less than 0.05) than did controls. Both groups had similar results with the body image questionnaire. Within the study group, results were independent of prolactin (HPRL) levels or amenorrhea. PMID:1898123

Langer, M; Fiegl, J; Riegel, V; Prohaska, R; Kubista, E; Ringler, M

1991-01-01

401

High beta diversity of bacteria in the shallow terrestrial subsurface.  

PubMed

While there have been a vast number of studies on bacterial alpha diversity in the shallow terrestrial subsurface, beta diversity - how the bacterial community composition changes with spatial distance - has received surprisingly limited attention. Here, bacterial beta diversity and its controlling factors are investigated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and cloning of samples from a 700-cm-long sediment core, the lower half of which consisted of marine-originated sediments. According to canonical correspondence analysis with variation partitioning, contemporary environmental variables explain beta diversity in a greater proportion than depth. However, we also found that community similarity decayed significantly with spatial distance and the slopes of the distance-decay relationships are relatively high. The high beta diversity indicates that the bacterial distribution patterns are not only controlled by contemporary environments, but also related to historical events, that is, dispersal or depositional history. This is highlighted by the different beta diversity patterns among studied sediment layers. We thus conclude that the high beta diversity in the shallow terrestrial subsurface is a trade-off between historical events and environmental heterogeneity. Furthermore, we suggest that the high beta diversity of bacteria is likely to be recapitulated in other terrestrial sites because of the great frequency of high geochemical and/or historical variations along depth. PMID:18833648

Wang, Jianjun; Wu, Yucheng; Jiang, Hongchen; Li, Chunhai; Dong, Hailiang; Wu, Qinglong; Soininen, Janne; Shen, Ji

2008-10-01

402

Managing Diversity in U.S. Federal Agencies: Effects of Diversity and Diversity Management on Employee Perceptions of Organizational Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diversity in the workplace is a central issue for contemporary organizational management. Concomitantly, managing increased diversity deserves greater concern in public, private, and nonprofit organizations. The authors address the effects of diversity and diversity management on employee perceptions of organizational performance in U.S. federal agencies by developing measures of three variables: diversity, diversity management, and perceived organizational performance. Drawing from

Sungjoo Choi; Hal G. Rainey

2010-01-01

403

Current aspects of occupational chemical carcinogenesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The history of measures to control occupational exposure to carcinogenic substances is reviewed. Health hazards associated with exposure to a certain chemical substance must be considered not only from the aspects of its acute or chronic toxicity, but also from its potential to produce tumors (latent effect). There can be no clear distinction between classic toxicity and oncogenesis until the mechanisms of both are completely understood for a given chemical substance. The assessment of carcinogenic potential for a specific substance must include the consideration of published information, monitoring and control data from the affected industry, and the in-depth epidemiologic experience of affected employees.

Lassiter, D.

1975-01-01

404

Effects of management intensity and season on arboreal ant diversity and abundance in coffee agroecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural intensification decreases arthropod predator diversity, abundance and population stability, and may affect interactions between top predators and their arthropod prey ? ultimately affecting ecosystem services. Coffee management intensification (reduction or removal of shade trees) reduces diversity of arthropod predators (ground-foraging ants). Because ants provide ecosystem services by controlling pests, influences of intensification on arboreal, coffee-foraging ant diversity and abundance

STACY M. PHILPOTT; Ivette Perfecto; John Vandermeer

405

Effects of Seasonality and Species Diversity on Nitrogen Uptake in Grassland Johanna Jensen  

E-print Network

1 Effects of Seasonality and Species Diversity on Nitrogen Uptake in Grassland Ecosystems Johanna controls on nitrogen cycling in grassland ecosystems than species diversity in fall months. Three grassland growing season and affinity for nitrate, while a senescing, diverse grassland had the least. In addition

Vallino, Joseph J.

406

Aspects of Voyager photogrammetry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In January 1986, Voyager 2 took a series of pictures of Uranus and its satellites with the Imaging Science System (ISS) on board the spacecraft. Based on six stereo images from the ISS narrow-angle camera, a topographic map was compiled of the Southern Hemisphere of Miranda, one of Uranus' moons. Assuming a spherical figure, a 20-km surface relief is shown on the map. With three additional images from the ISS wide-angle camera, a control network of Miranda's Southern Hemisphere was established by analytical photogrammetry, producing 88 ground points for the control of multiple-model compilation on the AS-11AM analytical stereoplotter. Digital terrain data from the topographic map of Miranda have also been produced. By combining these data and the image data from the Voyager 2 mission, perspective views or even a movie of the mapped area can be made. The application of these newly developed techniques to Voyager 1 imagery, which includes a few overlapping pictures of Io and Ganymede, permits the compilation of contour maps or topographic profiles of these bodies on the analytical stereoplotters.

Wu, Sherman S. C.; Schafer, Francis J.; Jordan, Raymond; Howington, Annie-Elpis

1987-01-01

407

Nutritional aspects of selenium  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project was to investigate the effect of protein and/or dietary fiber supplementation on selenium absorption and metabolism. These relationships might be of importance in determining either minimum selenium nutritional requirements or levels of intake at which this mineral becomes toxic. Three studies compose the project. The first study involved the controlled feeding of fifteen young adults mice. Subjects were fed a laboratory-controlled diet with and without supplements of selenium or selenium plus guar gum. Selenium supplementation resulted in increased selenium excretion in urine and feces. Supplementation of guar gum, as a dietary fiber, tended to increase fecal selenium excretion and to decrease selenium balance and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity regardless of dietary selenium levels. In study II, seventy two weanling mice were fed varied levels of dietary selenium and protein. Numerically, urinary selenium excretion increased and fecal selenium excretion and selenium balance decreased with increased dietary protein level within the same level of dietary selenium; however, selenium absorption rate tended to decrease with increased dietary protein level. Whole blood and brain tissue glutathione peroxidase activities were higher in animals fed moderate protein level than those fed the other two protein levels. In study III, a survey was conducted to investigate the correlation between dietary fiber or protein intake and urinary selenium excretion. There was a negative correlation between dietary fiber and urinary selenium excretion levels while dietary protein and urinary selenium excretion were positively correlated.

Choe, M.

1987-01-01

408

Re: Soviet river diversions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper on ‘Soviet River Diversions’ by Phil Micklin (Eos, 62(19), May 12, 1981) has just come to hand.Referring to the map on page 489, I was interested to see the estimates of river flows for the Amu and Syr Darya, which clearly show the effect of irrigation on inflows to the Aral Sea. Recently, I was passing over the northeast corner of the sea on a flight from Tashkent to Moscow when I got the impression that increasing irrigation development on the Syr Darya is likely to decrease the annual inflow even more than in the recent past. The same state of affairs has been going on in the Caspian Sea for years, as a result of irrigation development on the Volga. My impression was that the Aral Sea had shrunk considerably from the 26,000 odd square miles (67,304 km2) area quoted (from memory) in Encyclopaedia Britannica (edition circa 1970).

Robertson, Jas O.

409

Animal Diversity Web  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Animal Diversity Web (ADW) is an online database of animal natural history, distribution, classification, and conservation biology hosted by the University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. It provides descriptions of levels of organization above the species level, especially phyla, classes, and in some cases orders and families. Hundreds of hyperlinked pages and images illustrate the traits and general biology of these groups. This component of ADW is prepared by professional biologists. It also offers thousands of species accounts that may include text, pictures, photographs, and movies of specimens and/or sound recordings. Student authorship of species accounts is an essential feature of ADW. A web-based template ensures a consistent format for species accounts, and instructors and ADW staff review and edit them before they are added to the site.

2004-02-16

410

African trypanosomes: celebrating diversity.  

PubMed

Recent advances in molecular identification techniques and phylogenetic analysis have revealed the presence of previously unidentified tsetse-transmitted trypanosomes in Africa. This is surprising in a comparatively well-known group of pathogens that includes the causative agents of human and animal trypanosomiasis. Despite levels of genetic divergence that warrant taxonomic recognition, only one of these new trypanosomes has been named as a new species; the increased diversity is largely ignored or regarded as an inconvenient complication. Yet, some of these trypanosomes have demonstrated pathogenicity, whereas others are closely related to known pathogens, and might share this trait. We should first acknowledge that these novel trypanosomes exist and then take steps to investigate their host range, pathogenicity to livestock and response to chemotherapy. PMID:20382076

Adams, Emily R; Hamilton, Patrick B; Gibson, Wendy C

2010-07-01

411

Urinary diversion after radical cystectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  At most centers with experience in urinary diversion, an orthotopic urinary reservoir is the diversion of choice after radical\\u000a cystectomy for bladder cancer. The paradigm has shifted in the past 10 years from actively looking for reasons to do an orthotopic\\u000a diversion to carefully considering why a patient cannot undergo reconstruction to their native urethra. In our institution,\\u000a any

Peter E. Clark

2002-01-01

412

ROADLESS HABITATS AS REFUGES FOR NATIVE GRASSLANDS: INTERACTIONS WITH SOIL, ASPECT, AND GRAZING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The idea that roadless habitats act as refuges for native-plant diversity against exotic-plant invasion has seldom been tested. We examined the effect of distance from roads and its interactions with soil type, aspect, and livestock grazing on native- and exotic- plant diversity in a 130 000-ha inland California (USA) foothill grassland landscape. During spring 2000 and 2001, we measured the

Jonathan L. Gelbard; Susan Harrison

2003-01-01

413

1. Incorporating Diversity 1 Running head: INCORPORATING DIVERSITY  

E-print Network

,. We describe how these approaches may enliven classroom discussion, help students to re-examine traditional notions about science, and give diversity a more central role in the teaching and learning of quantitative disciplines. The Current Dialog When diversity issues do arise in discussions of the teaching

Levy, Simon D.

414

1 OHSU Diversity Digest | March 2013 OHSU State of Diversity  

E-print Network

A student-led, interactive and patient-centered cultural health workshop. March 16: Free Health Screenings Health Screenings OHSU students will provide first aid, medical, dental & eye care consults: 9am to 4pm1 OHSU Diversity Digest | March 2013 OHSU State of Diversity Join us from 12-2pm on Thursday, March

Chapman, Michael S.

415

Endless forms: human behavioural diversity and evolved universals.  

PubMed

Human populations have extraordinary capabilities for generating behavioural diversity without corresponding genetic diversity or change. These capabilities and their consequences can be grouped into three categories: strategic (or cognitive), ecological and cultural-evolutionary. Strategic aspects include: (i) a propensity to employ complex conditional strategies, some certainly genetically evolved but others owing to directed invention or to cultural evolution; (ii) situations in which fitness payoffs (or utilities) are frequency-dependent, so that there is no one best strategy; and (iii) the prevalence of multiple equilibria, with history or minor variations in starting conditions (path dependence) playing a crucial role. Ecological aspects refer to the fact that social behaviour and cultural institutions evolve in diverse niches, producing various adaptive radiations and local adaptations. Although environmental change can drive behavioural change, in humans, it is common for behavioural change (especially technological innovation) to drive environmental change (i.e. niche construction). Evolutionary aspects refer to the fact that human capacities for innovation and cultural transmission lead to diversification and cumulative cultural evolution; critical here is institutional design, in which relatively small shifts in incentive structure can produce very different aggregate outcomes. In effect, institutional design can reshape strategic games, bringing us full circle. PMID:21199837

Smith, Eric Alden

2011-02-12

416

Endless forms: human behavioural diversity and evolved universals  

PubMed Central

Human populations have extraordinary capabilities for generating behavioural diversity without corresponding genetic diversity or change. These capabilities and their consequences can be grouped into three categories: strategic (or cognitive), ecological and cultural-evolutionary. Strategic aspects include: (i) a propensity to employ complex conditional strategies, some certainly genetically evolved but others owing to directed invention or to cultural evolution; (ii) situations in which fitness payoffs (or utilities) are frequency-dependent, so that there is no one best strategy; and (iii) the prevalence of multiple equilibria, with history or minor variations in starting conditions (path dependence) playing a crucial role. Ecological aspects refer to the fact that social behaviour and cultural institutions evolve in diverse niches, producing various adaptive radiations and local adaptations. Although environmental change can drive behavioural change, in humans, it is common for behavioural change (especially technological innovation) to drive environmental change (i.e. niche construction). Evolutionary aspects refer to the fact that human capacities for innovation and cultural transmission lead to diversification and cumulative cultural evolution; critical here is institutional design, in which relatively small shifts in incentive structure can produce very different aggregate outcomes. In effect, institutional design can reshape strategic games, bringing us full circle. PMID:21199837

Smith, Eric Alden

2011-01-01

417

Caring for women from culturally diverse backgrounds: midwives' experiences.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to show how midwives cared for women from culturally diverse backgrounds. In-depth interviews were used to collect data from 12 experienced midwives who volunteered to participate in the study from a midwifery unit with a culturally diverse population. Study findings revealed that midwives preserved and accommodated the cultural preferences of women from a Chinese background by incorporating the forces of yin-yang into care, heeding the maternal hierarchy and women's stoicism; and for women from an Islamic background by heeding modesty and gender preferences (Hejab), the place of prayer in daily life (Salat), and the imperative of visiting by others (Hadith). Hence, midwives negotiated care that was culturally comfortable for women and their families. Furthermore, triangulated studies addressing the partnership between the midwife and the diverse client are needed, as well as the development of aspects of the health service that are more culturally sensitive. PMID:15351334

Cioffi, Jane

2004-01-01

418

Genetic diversity, parasite prevalence and immunity in wild bumblebees.  

PubMed

Inbreeding and a consequent loss of genetic diversity threaten small, isolated populations. One mechanism by which genetically impoverished populations may become extinct is through decreased immunocompetence and higher susceptibility to parasites. Here, we investigate the relationship between immunity and inbreeding in bumblebees, using Hebridean island populations of Bombus muscorum. We sampled nine populations and recorded parasite prevalence and measured two aspects of immunity: the encapsulation response and levels of phenoloxidase (PO). We found that prevalence of the gut parasite Crithidia bombi was higher in populations with lower genetic diversity. Neither measure of immune activity was correlated with genetic diversity. However, levels of PO declined with age and were also negatively correlated with parasite abundance. Our results suggest that as insect populations lose heterozygosity, the impact of parasitism will increase, pushing threatened populations closer to extinction. PMID:20926436

Whitehorn, Penelope R; Tinsley, Matthew C; Brown, Mark J F; Darvill, Ben; Goulson, Dave

2011-04-22

419

BacDive--the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase  

PubMed Central

BacDive—the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase (http://bacdive.dsmz.de) merges detailed strain-linked information on the different aspects of bacterial and archaeal biodiversity. Currently (release 9/2013), BacDive contains entries for 23 458 strains and provides information on their taxonomy, morphology, physiology, sampling and concomitant environmental conditions as well as molecular biology. Where available, links to access the respective biological resources are given. The majority of the BacDive data is manually annotated and curated. The BacDive portal offers an easy-to-use simple search and in addition powerful advanced search functionalities allowing to combine more than 30 search fields for text and numerical data. The user can compile individual sets of strains to a download selection that can easily be imported into nearly all spreadsheet applications. PMID:24214959

Sohngen, Carola; Bunk, Boyke; Podstawka, Adam; Gleim, Dorothea; Overmann, Jorg

2014-01-01

420

Human nature, cultural diversity and evolutionary theory  

PubMed Central

Incorporating culture into an expanded theory of evolution will provide the foundation for a universal account of human diversity. Two requirements must be met. The first is to see learning as an extension of the processes of evolution. The second is to understand that there are specific components of human culture, viz. higher order knowledge structures and social constructions, which give rise to culture as invented knowledge. These components, which are products of psychological processes and mechanisms, make human culture different from the forms of shared knowledge observed in other species. One serious difficulty for such an expanded theory is that social constructions may not add to the fitness of all humans exposed to them. This may be because human culture has existed for only a relatively short time in evolutionary terms. Or it may be that, as some maintain, adaptation is a limited, even a flawed, aspect of evolutionary theory. PMID:21199849

Plotkin, Henry

2011-01-01

421

The diversity and biogeography of soil bacterial communities.  

PubMed

For centuries, biologists have studied patterns of plant and animal diversity at continental scales. Until recently, similar studies were impossible for microorganisms, arguably the most diverse and abundant group of organisms on Earth. Here, we present a continental-scale description of soil bacterial communities and the environmental factors influencing their biodiversity. We collected 98 soil samples from across North and South America and used a ribosomal DNA-fingerprinting method to compare bacterial community composition and diversity quantitatively across sites. Bacterial diversity was unrelated to site temperature, latitude, and other variables that typically predict plant and animal diversity, and community composition was largely independent of geographic distance. The diversity and richness of soil bacterial communities differed by ecosystem type, and these differences could largely be explained by soil pH (r(2) = 0.70 and r(2) = 0.58, respectively; P < 0.0001 in both cases). Bacterial diversity was highest in neutral soils and lower in acidic soils, with soils from the Peruvian Amazon the most acidic and least diverse in our study. Our results suggest that microbial biogeography is controlled primarily by edaphic variables and differs fundamentally from the biogeography of "macro" organisms. PMID:16407148

Fierer, Noah; Jackson, Robert B

2006-01-17

422

Vascular smooth muscle phenotypic diversity and function  

PubMed Central

The control of force production in vascular smooth muscle is critical to the normal regulation of blood flow and pressure, and altered regulation is common to diseases such as hypertension, heart failure, and ischemia. A great deal has been learned about imbalances in vasoconstrictor and vasodilator signals, e.g., angiotensin, endothelin, norepinephrine, and nitric oxide, that regulate vascular tone in normal and disease contexts. In contrast there has been limited study of how the phenotypic state of the vascular smooth muscle cell may influence the contractile response to these signaling pathways dependent upon the developmental, tissue-specific (vascular bed) or disease context. Smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle lineages are traditionally classified into fast or slow sublineages based on rates of contraction and relaxation, recognizing that this simple dichotomy vastly underrepresents muscle phenotypic diversity. A great deal has been learned about developmental specification of the striated muscle sublineages and their phenotypic interconversions in the mature animal under the control of mechanical load, neural input, and hormones. In contrast there has been relatively limited study of smooth muscle contractile phenotypic diversity. This is surprising given the number of diseases in which smooth muscle contractile dysfunction plays a key role. This review focuses on smooth muscle contractile phenotypic diversity in the vascular system, how it is generated, and how it may determine vascular function in developmental and disease contexts. PMID:20736412

2010-01-01

423

Visual Aspects of Courseware Engineering.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the possibilities for improving courseware and the courseware engineering process using visualization. Advantages and disadvantages of visualization are considered, including psychological, instructional, motivational, cross-cultural, and technical aspects; visual programming systems are described; adaptation and rapid prototyping are…

Lanzing, J. W. A.; Stanchev, I.

1994-01-01

424

Psychological Aspects of Career Counseling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because career decision making affects all aspects of a person's life, career counseling must take into account client expectations, psychological characteristics and personality traits, nonverbal cues, and psychological variables affecting the counselor-client relationship. (SK)

Corbishley, M. Anne; Yost, Elizabeth B.

1989-01-01

425

Pathways to Tolerance: Student Diversity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ideas for schools to support tolerance and celebrate student diversity are presented in this volume of reprinted articles. Titles include: (1) "One of Us, One of Them: Lessons in Diversity for a School Psychologist" (M. M. Chittooran); (2) "The Tolerance-in-Action Campaign" (H. M. Knoff); (3) "Immigrant Parents and the School" (R. Rhodes, D.…

Daugherty, Dorothy, Ed.; Stanhope, Victoria, Ed.

426

Why School Psychology for Diversity?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the dilemma faced by psychologists in responding to diversity. It is based on a qualitative review of relevant literature over the past decade. It first describes psychologists as frontrunners in recognizing the uniqueness and autonomy of each of their diverse clients but within the biomedical model that locates problems…

Bartolo, Paul A.

2010-01-01

427

Genetic Diversity and Human Equality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The idea of equality often, if not frequently, bogs down in confusion and apparent contradictions; equality is confused with identity, and diversity with inequality. It would seem that the easiest way to discredit the idea of equality is to show that people are innately, genetically, and, therefore, irremediably diverse and unlike. The snare is,…

Dobzhansky, Theodosius

428

Diversity, Disunity, and Campus Community.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph offers a collection of nine papers demonstrating how the student affairs subculture in institutions of higher education can provide academic as well as managerial leadership in promoting cultural diversity</