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1

Diversity Aspects of Radar-Embedded Communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses aspects of intra-pulse radar-embedded communications whereby a tag\\/transponder illuminated by a radar converts the illumination waveform into one of a set of K communication waveforms with which to convey information to a spatially separated receiver. Initial work based upon an expansion of the radar spectrum has demonstrated the potential for significant data-rate improvement relative to previous inter-pulse

Shannon D. Blunt; James Stiles; Christopher Allen; Daniel Deavours; Erik Perrins

2007-01-01

2

Prescription drug diversion control and medical practice.  

PubMed

Concern about the role of prescription drug diversion in drug abuse has led to demands for more stringent regulation and for better ways to detect prescription drug diversion. Advances in technology now allow point-of-sale computer systems to report prescriptions filled by pharmacies to state agencies rapidly and possibly more economically. However, the advantages of more comprehensive control systems must be balanced against their possible effects on medical practice and patient care. Our limited knowledge about prescription drug diversion and the impact of diversion control systems on medical practice is summarized. Needed research is outlined together with the components of a diversion control program that balances reducing drug diversion with minimizing adverse effects on medical practice and patient care. We stress the need for broadly defined practice parameters and peer review by medical experts thoroughly familiar with the complexities of medical practice. PMID:1507377

Cooper, J R; Czechowicz, D J; Petersen, R C; Molinari, S P

1992-09-01

3

Human Factors Aspects of Advanced Process Control  

E-print Network

HUMAN FACTORS ASPECTS OF ADVANCED PRO?CESS CONTROL John A. Shaw Combustion Engineering Taylor Instrument Division Rochester, New York ABSTRACT Energy conservation practices, such as heat recovery and integration, require that many... chemical and related processes use advanced control systems. Many of the more advanced process control strategies and algorithms can cause operator confusion, leading to incorrect operator actions and negating the advantages of the advanced control...

Shaw, J. A.

4

Public health aspects of tobacco control revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tobacco epidemic presents a major public health challenge, globally, and within Europe. The aim of the Public Health Work Stream at the 2nd European Workshop on Tobacco Use Prevention and Cessation for Oral Health Professionals was to review the public health aspects of tobacco control and make recommendations for action. The paper reports on the size of the tobacco

Jennifer E. Gallagher; Ivan Alajbeg; S. Buchler; Antonio Carrassi; Marjolijn Hovius; Annelies Jacobs; Maryan Jenner; Taru Kinnunen; Sabina Ulbricht; Liana Zoitopoulos

2010-01-01

5

Resource availability controls fungal diversity across a plant diversity gradient  

E-print Network

determinants of microbial diversity remain poorly understood. Here, we test two alternative hypotheses and diversity within the experimental plant communities. We used soil microbial biomass as a temporally mechanisms determine the diversity of organisms at multiple scales. Keywords microbial diversity, fungal

Weiblen, George D

6

High aspect ratio, remote controlled pumping assembly  

DOEpatents

A miniature dual syringe-type pump assembly which has a high aspect ratio and which is remotely controlled, for use such as in a small diameter penetrometer cone or well packer used in water contamination applications. The pump assembly may be used to supply and remove a reagent to a water contamination sensor, for example, and includes a motor, gearhead and motor encoder assembly for turning a drive screw for an actuator which provides pushing on one syringe and pulling on the other syringe for injecting new reagent and withdrawing used reagent from an associated sensor.

Brown, Steve B. (Livermore, CA); Milanovich, Fred P. (Lafayette, CA)

1995-01-01

7

High aspect ratio, remote controlled pumping assembly  

DOEpatents

A miniature dual syringe-type pump assembly is described which has a high aspect ratio and which is remotely controlled, for use such as in a small diameter penetrometer cone or well packer used in water contamination applications. The pump assembly may be used to supply and remove a reagent to a water contamination sensor, for example, and includes a motor, gearhead and motor encoder assembly for turning a drive screw for an actuator which provides pushing on one syringe and pulling on the other syringe for injecting new reagent and withdrawing used reagent from an associated sensor. 4 figs.

Brown, S.B.; Milanovich, F.P.

1995-11-14

8

LETTER Plant diversity controls arthropod biomass and temporal stability  

E-print Network

relationships between plant and consumer diversity occur primarily via changes in plant production leading to changed consumer production rather than via plant diversity directly controlling con- sumer diversity. Our flux to control diversity, production and stability of both plant and consumer communities. Keywords

Minnesota, University of

9

Consumer versus resource control of species diversity and ecosystem functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key question in ecology is which factors control species diversity in a community. Two largely separate groups of ecologists have emphasized the importance of productivity or resource supply, and consumers or physical disturbance, respectively. These variables show unimodal relationships with diversity when manipulated in isolation. Recent multivariate models, however, predict that these factors interact, such that the disturbance-diversity relationship

Boris Worm; Heike K. Lotze; Helmut Hillebrand; Ulrich Sommer

2002-01-01

10

Some Aspects of Closed Control Loop Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes a training course on the application of controllers in the closed control loops, where PID (Proportional-Integral- Derivative) instruction is most often used for control of continuous processes. An introduction to closed loop control technology is also provided. The basic structure of a closed control loop is explained. It enables to understand the interaction between the controlled system

Olga Ruban; Juhan Laugis

11

On aspects of burn/profile control  

SciTech Connect

Distributed parameter system can be flexibly turned into lumped parameter system. Multiple control objectives such as profile and power control requirements can be simultaneously modeled. Profile control is essential to control the sawteeth inversion radius and optimum power production. In this paper, a simple self-tuning control scheme is used to analyze the tokamak control behavior. The model uncertainties can be accommodated in self-tuning systems.

Miley, G.H.; Varadarajan, V.

1991-01-01

12

On aspects of burn/profile control  

SciTech Connect

Distributed parameter system can be flexibly turned into lumped parameter system. Multiple control objectives such as profile and power control requirements can be simultaneously modeled. Profile control is essential to control the sawteeth inversion radius and optimum power production. In this paper, a simple self-tuning control scheme is used to analyze the tokamak control behavior. The model uncertainties can be accommodated in self-tuning systems.

Miley, G.H.; Varadarajan, V.

1991-12-31

13

Guidelines on ergonomic aspects of control rooms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The anthropometry, workstation design, and environmental design of control rooms are outlined. The automated interface and VDTs and displays and various modes of communication between the system and the human operator using VDTs are discussed. The man in the loop is examined, the single controller single task framework and multiple controller multiple tasks issues are considered.

Mitchell, C. M.; Bocast, A. K.; Stewart, L. J.

1983-01-01

14

Computational aspects of structural shape control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of shape control is nullification of the structural deformations caused by certain external disturbances, mainly body forces and surface traction. Dynamic structural shape control is concerned with vibration suppression. Determination of a proper distributed actuation is understood through the interaction of structural mechanics (of smart materials) and control engineering. Imposed strains (eigenstrains) are of quasistatic thermal nature in

Franz Ziegler

2005-01-01

15

Engineering aspects of water pollution control systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of proper engineering when providing pollution control systems is emphasized. Organization of engineering projects is described in detail. Included are discussions of: (1) collection and evaluation of available data; (2) establishment of survey and test program; (3) integration and evaluation of findings; (4) establishment of pollution control and water utilization systems; and (5) specification and detailed design preparation.

R. G. Dalbke; A. J. Turk

1967-01-01

16

Manual Control Aspects of Orbital Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief description of several laboratories' current research in the general area of manual control of orbital flight is presented. With an operational-space-station era (and its increased traffic levels) approaching, now is an opportune time to investigate issues such as docking and rendezvous profiles and course-planning aids. The tremendous increase in the capabilities of computers and computer graphics has made extensive study possible and economical. It is time to study these areas, from a human factors and manual control perspective in order to preclude the occurrence of problems analogous to those that occurred in the airline and other related industries.

Brody, Adam R. (editor); Ellis, Stephen R. (editor)

1990-01-01

17

[Ethical aspects of tuberculosis control under fascism].  

PubMed

At the instance of the development of the tuberculosis control in the period from 1933 to 1945 is tried to elaborate the ethical principles which are the basis of the medical care of the German population in fascist Germany. The utilitaristic and biologistic opinions of the value dominating at this time proved as altogether characterized by the social aims of fascism and at the same time serve for their realization in the field of health politics. Also in the tuberculosis control--like in other social fields--transitory progress in organisation and prophylaxis and finally to be paid with deranging setbacks which reveal the inhumanity of fascism also in this field. PMID:6880311

Hahn, S

1983-05-01

18

Placebo controls: historical, methodological and general aspects  

PubMed Central

Control conditions were introduced through the trial of Mesmerism in Paris. Placebo controls became codified standard in 1946. Although seemingly unchallenged, there are various problems with this received view. The notion of a placebo is only defined from the negative. A positive notion proposed that placebo effects are effects owing to the meaning an intervention has for an individual. Thus, placebo effects are individualized, whereas standard research paradigms reveal only grossly averaged behaviour. Also, placebo effects are context sensitive, dependent on psychological factors such as expectancy, relief of stress and anxiety, and hence can generate strong and long-lasting treatment effects. These, however, are not predictable. Such a situation can lead to the efficacy paradox: sometimes, sham interventions can be more powerful than proved, evidence-based treatments. This situation has methodological consequences. Placebo-controlled randomized trials reveal only part of the answer, whether an intervention is effective. This is valuable information for regulators, but not necessarily also for patients and of limited value for providers. Hence, I have argued that we need to complement the hierarchical model of evidence by a circular one, in which various methods are employed on equal footing to answer different questions. PMID:21576144

Walach, Harald

2011-01-01

19

The Leap-Frog Algorithm and Optimal Control: Theoretical Aspects  

E-print Network

The Leap-Frog Algorithm and Optimal Control: Theoretical Aspects C. Yal#24;c#16;n Kaya School@maths.uwa.edu.au Abstract The Leap-Frog Algorithm was originally devised to #12;nd geodesics in connected complete with generalizing the mathematical rigour of the leap-frog algorithm to a class of optimal control problems

Noakes, Lyle

20

3. DOWNSTREAM AERIAL VIEW OF THE DIVERSION CHANNEL AND CONTROL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. DOWNSTREAM AERIAL VIEW OF THE DIVERSION CHANNEL AND CONTROL WORKS. THE OUTLET CONTROL TOWER AND THE PIER FOR THE SERVICE BRIDGE ARE SHOWN COMPLETED.... Volume XVIII, No. 11, January 18, 1940. - Prado Dam, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

21

Notional Examples and Benchmark Aspects Of a Resilient Control System  

SciTech Connect

Digital control system technology has pervaded most industries, leading to improvements in the efficiency and reliability of the associated operations. However, the ease of distributing and connecting related control systems for the purposes of increasing performance has resulted in interdependencies that can lead to unexpected conditions. Even with less complex designs, operators and engineers alike are often left with competing goals that are difficult to resolve. A fundamental reason for this dichotomy is that responsibilities lie with different disciplines, and operations are hosted on separate control systems. In addition, with the rising awareness of cyber security and diverse human interactions with control systems, an understanding of human actions from a malicious and benevolent standpoint is necessary. Resilience considers the multiple facets of requirements that drive the performance of control systems in a holistic fashion, whether they are security or stability, stability or efficiency, human interactions or complex interdependencies. As will be shown by example, current research philosophies lack the depth or the focus on the control system application to satisfy these requirements, such as graceful degradation of hierarchical control while under cyber attack. A resilient control system promises to purposefully consider these diverse requirements, developing an adaptive capacity to complex events that can lead to failure of traditional control system designs.

Craig. G. Rieger

2010-08-01

22

Generation of diversity in a reaction-diffusion-based controller.  

PubMed

A controller of biological or artificial organism (e.g., in bio-inspired cellular robots) consists of a number of processes that drive its dynamics. For a system of processes to perform as a successful controller, different properties can be mentioned. One of the desirable properties of such a system is the capability of generating sufficiently diverse patterns of outputs and behaviors. A system with such a capability is potentially adaptable to perform complicated tasks with proper parameterizations and may successfully reach the solution space of behaviors from the point of view of search and evolutionary algorithms. This article aims to take an early step toward exploring this capability at the levels of individuals and populations by introducing measures of diversity generation and by evaluating the influence of different types of processes on diversity generation. A reaction-diffusion-based controller called the artificial homeostatic hormone system (AHHS) is studied as a system consisting of different processes with various domains of functioning (e.g., internal or external to the control unit). Various combinations of these processes are investigated in terms of diversity generation at levels of both individuals and populations, and the effects of the processes are discussed representing different influences for the processes. A case study of evolving a multimodular AHHS controller with all the various process combinations is also investigated, representing the relevance of the diversity generation measures and practical scenarios. PMID:24730765

Zahadat, Payam; Schmickl, Thomas

2014-01-01

23

Subjective Aspects of Cognitive Control at Different Stages of Processing  

PubMed Central

While research on cognitive control has addressed the effects that different forms of cognitive interference have on behavior and the activities of certain brain regions, until recently scientific approaches have been silent regarding the effects of interference on subjective experience. We demonstrate that, at the level of the individual trial, participants can reliably introspect the subjective aspects (e.g., perceptions of difficulty, competition, and control) of responding in interference paradigms. Similar subjective effects were obtained for both expressed and unexpressed (subvocalized) actions. Few participants discerned the source of these effects. These basic findings illuminate aspects of cognitive control and cognitive effort. In addition, these data have implications for the study of response interference in affect and self-control, and they begin to address theories regarding the function of consciousness. PMID:19933564

Morsella, Ezequiel; Wilson, Lilian E.; Berger, Christopher C.; Honhongva, Mikaela; Gazzaley, Adam; Bargh, John A.

2009-01-01

24

Backpressure-based Control Protocols: Design and Computational Aspects  

E-print Network

Backpressure-based Control Protocols: Design and Computational Aspects D.I. Miretskiy University-based networks is often realized by feedback protocols. In this paper we assess their performance under a back-pressure mechanism that has been proposed and standardized for Ethernet metropolitan networks. In such a mechanism

Boucherie, Richard J.

25

Herbivores and nutrients control grassland plant diversity via light limitation.  

PubMed

Human alterations to nutrient cycles and herbivore communities are affecting global biodiversity dramatically. Ecological theory predicts these changes should be strongly counteractive: nutrient addition drives plant species loss through intensified competition for light, whereas herbivores prevent competitive exclusion by increasing ground-level light, particularly in productive systems. Here we use experimental data spanning a globally relevant range of conditions to test the hypothesis that herbaceous plant species losses caused by eutrophication may be offset by increased light availability due to herbivory. This experiment, replicated in 40 grasslands on 6 continents, demonstrates that nutrients and herbivores can serve as counteracting forces to control local plant diversity through light limitation, independent of site productivity, soil nitrogen, herbivore type and climate. Nutrient addition consistently reduced local diversity through light limitation, and herbivory rescued diversity at sites where it alleviated light limitation. Thus, species loss from anthropogenic eutrophication can be ameliorated in grasslands where herbivory increases ground-level light. PMID:24670649

Borer, Elizabeth T; Seabloom, Eric W; Gruner, Daniel S; Harpole, W Stanley; Hillebrand, Helmut; Lind, Eric M; Adler, Peter B; Alberti, Juan; Anderson, T Michael; Bakker, Jonathan D; Biederman, Lori; Blumenthal, Dana; Brown, Cynthia S; Brudvig, Lars A; Buckley, Yvonne M; Cadotte, Marc; Chu, Chengjin; Cleland, Elsa E; Crawley, Michael J; Daleo, Pedro; Damschen, Ellen I; Davies, Kendi F; DeCrappeo, Nicole M; Du, Guozhen; Firn, Jennifer; Hautier, Yann; Heckman, Robert W; Hector, Andy; HilleRisLambers, Janneke; Iribarne, Oscar; Klein, Julia A; Knops, Johannes M H; La Pierre, Kimberly J; Leakey, Andrew D B; Li, Wei; MacDougall, Andrew S; McCulley, Rebecca L; Melbourne, Brett A; Mitchell, Charles E; Moore, Joslin L; Mortensen, Brent; O'Halloran, Lydia R; Orrock, John L; Pascual, Jesús; Prober, Suzanne M; Pyke, David A; Risch, Anita C; Schuetz, Martin; Smith, Melinda D; Stevens, Carly J; Sullivan, Lauren L; Williams, Ryan J; Wragg, Peter D; Wright, Justin P; Yang, Louie H

2014-04-24

26

Herbivores and nutrients control grassland plant diversity via light limitation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Human alterations to nutrient cycles and herbivore communities are affecting global biodiversity dramatically. Ecological theory predicts these changes should be strongly counteractive: nutrient addition drives plant species loss through intensified competition for light, whereas herbivores prevent competitive exclusion by increasing ground-level light, particularly in productive systems. Here we use experimental data spanning a globally relevant range of conditions to test the hypothesis that herbaceous plant species losses caused by eutrophication may be offset by increased light availability due to herbivory. This experiment, replicated in 40 grasslands on 6 continents, demonstrates that nutrients and herbivores can serve as counteracting forces to control local plant diversity through light limitation, independent of site productivity, soil nitrogen, herbivore type and climate. Nutrient addition consistently reduced local diversity through light limitation, and herbivory rescued diversity at sites where it alleviated light limitation. Thus, species loss from anthropogenic eutrophication can be ameliorated in grasslands where herbivory increases ground-level light.

Borer, Elizabeth T.; Seabloom, Eric W.; Gruner, Daniel S.; Harpole, W. Stanley; Hillebrand, Helmut; Lind, Eric M.; Alder, Peter B.; Alberti, Juan; Anderson, T. Michael; Bakker, Jonathan D.; Biederman, Lori; Blumenthal, Dana; Brown, Cynthia S.; Brudvig, Lars A.; Buckley, Yvonne M.; Cadotte, Marc; Chu, Cheng-Jin; Cleland, Elsa E.; Crawley, Michael J.; Daleo, Pedro; Damschen, Ellen I.; Davies, Kendi F.; DeCrappeo, Nicole M.; Du, Guozhen; Firn, Jennifer; Hautier, Yann; Heckman, Robert W.; Hector, Andy; HilleRisLambers, Janneke; Iribarne, Oscar; Klein, Julia A.; Knops, Johannes M.H.; La Pierre, Kimberly J.; Leakey, Andrew D.B.; Li, Wei; MacDougall, Andrew S.; McCulley, Rebecca L.; Melbourne, Brett A.; Mitchell, Charles E.; Moore, Joslin L.; Mortensen, Brent; O'Halloran, Lydia R.; Orrock, John L.; Pascual, Jesús; Prober, Suzanne M.; Pyke, David A.; Risch, Anita C.; Schuetz, Martin; Smith, Melinda D.; Stevens, Carly J.; Sullivan, Lauren L.; Williams, Ryan J.; Wragg, Peter D.; Wright, Justin P.; Yang, Louie H.

2014-01-01

27

Characteristics associated with the diversion of controlled medications among adolescents  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this study was to estimate the lifetime prevalence of diversion (i.e., trading, selling, giving away or loaning) of four classes of controlled medications (pain, stimulant, anti-anxiety, and sleeping) among adolescents, and to identify demographic and behavioral characteristics of adolescents who divert their own controlled medications. Methods A web-based survey was self-administered by 2744 secondary school students from two southeastern Michigan school districts in 2009–2010. The sample consisted of 51% females, 65% Whites, 29% African-Americans, 4% Asians, 1% Hispanics and 1% from other racial categories. Results Thirty-three percent of the students had ever been prescribed at least one controlled pain, stimulant, anti-anxiety, or sleeping medication. Approximately 13.8% (n = 117) of lifetime prescribed users of controlled medications (n = 848) had ever traded, sold, given away or loaned their medications. Multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that being approached to divert medications, nonmedical use of prescription medications, externalizing behaviors, and being non-White were significantly associated with the diversion of controlled medications. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that the odds of substance use and abuse for lifetime prescribed users who diverted their controlled medications were significantly greater than prescribed users who never diverted. Conclusions The findings indicate that approximately one in seven prescribed users had diverted their controlled medications in their lifetimes. Being approached to divert medications and substance use are more prevalent among adolescents who diverted their controlled medications. Careful assessments, diligent prescribing and monitoring of controlled medications, and continual patient education could be useful in reducing medication diversion. PMID:21665384

McCabe, Sean Esteban; West, Brady T.; Teter, Christian J.; Ross-Durow, Paula; Young, Amy; Boyd, Carol J.

2011-01-01

28

Liquid Crystals of Disks of Controlled Aspect Ratios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoparticles with quasi two-dimensional shapes serve as building blocks for discotic colloidal liquid crystals. However, due to difficulty of synthesis and especially shape-tuning of disk-shaped nanoparticles, good model systems for the study of discotic colloidal liquid crystals are hard to found. ?-zirconium phosphate (ZrP) crystals synthesized through hydrothermal treatment has regular disk shapes and controllable size, thickness, as well as size polydispersity. We experimentally illustrate that aqueous suspensions of these ZrP disks form stable liquid crystal phase easily. By choosing the thickness of the disks, an iridescent liquid crystal phase has been achieved. The critical concentration of the phase transition was found to be dependent on aspect ratios. We will also discuss our recent results on the phase diagram of discotic liquid crystals as a function of aspect ratio and particle concentration using ZrP monolayers and wax disks.

Cheng, Zhengdong; Shuai, Min; Mejia, Andres F.

2013-03-01

29

Review on design and control aspects of ankle rehabilitation robots.  

PubMed

Abstract Ankle rehabilitation robots can play an important role in improving outcomes of the rehabilitation treatment by assisting therapists and patients in number of ways. Consequently, few robot designs have been proposed by researchers which fall under either of the two categories, namely, wearable robots or platform-based robots. This paper presents a review of both kinds of ankle robots along with a brief analysis of their design, actuation and control approaches. While reviewing these designs it was observed that most of them are undesirably inspired by industrial robot designs. Taking note of the design concerns of current ankle robots, few improvements in the ankle robot designs have also been suggested. Conventional position control or force control approaches, being used in the existing ankle robots, have been reviewed. Apparently, opportunities of improvement also exist in the actuation as well as control of ankle robots. Subsequently, a discussion on most recent research in the development of novel actuators and advanced controllers based on appropriate physical and cognitive human-robot interaction has also been included in this review. Implications for Rehabilitation Ankle joint functions are restricted/impaired as a consequence of stroke or injury during sports or otherwise. Robots can help in reinstating functions faster and can also work as tool for recording rehabilitation data useful for further analysis. Evolution of ankle robots with respect to their design and control aspects has been discussed in the present paper and a novel design with futuristic control approach has been proposed. PMID:24320195

Jamwal, Prashant K; Hussain, Shahid; Xie, Sheng Q

2015-03-01

30

Science aspects of a remotely controlled Mars surface roving vehicle.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Particular attention is given to aspects pertinent to teleoperation, remote control, onboard control, and man-machine relationships in carrying out scientific operations with such a vehicle. It is assumed that landed operations would comprise one Martian year and that the traverse would extend across an area approximately 500 km wide. The mission is assumed to be planned for the early 1980s. Its objective is to obtain data which will aid in answering a number of questions regarding the history of the solar system, the formation of Mars, and the evolution of life on Mars. A series of candidate rover payloads is proposed to meet the requirements. The smallest payload includes a TV camera, a general-purpose manipulator arm, a crusher and siever, an X-ray diffractometer-spectrometer, a gravimeter, a magnetometer, meteorological instruments, and a radio transponder.

Choate, R.; Jaffe, L. D.

1973-01-01

31

A Diversity-controlling Adaptive Genetic Algorithm for the Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows  

E-print Network

to the changing population dynamics. The adap- tive control maintains population diversity at user-defined levels parameter GA clearly demonstrates the advan- tage of population diversity control. Our experiments in the population environment. We propose a novel function to control this diversity at a desirable level

Zhu, Kenny Q.

32

The Great Diversion: Danube Delta under Human Control (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many deltas around the world are suffering from sediment deficits that render them unstable to current and predicted rates of sea level rise. One solution proposed to alleviate the complete or partial drowning of such deltas is the use of river diversions to increase the quantity of sediment supplied to the delta plain to support marsh accretion. We examine the results of a half century old program of diversion in the Danube delta that led to the creation of an extensive diversion channel network akin in scope and size to a natural deltaic network. Danube’s importance as a shipping route increased after the Crimean War in the 1850s; the European Danube Commission was charged with maintaining the Sulina distributary as a shipping channel until 1940s. In the same period, several canals were dug to aid fishing in lakes and bring freshwater to brackish lagoons. After World War II, Communist authorities dramatically increased the number of canals for fishing, fish-farming and reed harvesting. New data on sedimentation rates and estimates of sediment fluxes suggest that the intensive canalization in the second half of the 20th Century led to increased sediment deposition that compensated the decreasing sediment discharge linked to damming within the internal fluvial part of the delta; however, the external marine delta has become increasingly sediment starved during the same interval. We emphasize the similarities and contrasts between the “human-controlled” and natural deltaic channel networks of the Danube delta and discuss the sustainability of the delta as a sediment budget problem within a sea level rise context.

Giosan, L.

2009-12-01

33

Compensatory Aspects of Allele Diversity at Immunoglobulin Loci: Gene Correlations in Rabbit Populations Devoid of Light Chain Diversity (Oryctolagus Cuniculus L.; Kerguelen Islands)  

PubMed Central

Is there a selective advantage of increased diversity at one immunoglobulin locus when diversity at another locus is low? A previous paper demonstrated excess heterozygosity at the rabbit light chain b locus when heterozygosity was low at the heavy chain constant region e locus. Here we consider the reverse situation by analyzing allele distributions at heavy chain loci in populations fixed for the light chain b locus. We analyzed the a locus that encodes the predominantly expressed heavy chain variable region, and the d and e loci that control different parts of the Ig gamma class constant region. While there was excess heterozygosity, genetic differentiation between localities was extensive and was most pronounced for females. This was in marked contrast with observations in areas where b-locus diversity was important and confirms a negative correlation between e- and b-locus heterozygosity. Trigenic disequilibria corresponded to a significant negative correlation between e- and a-locus heterozygosity due mainly to strong variation among localities within the context of pronounced (digenic) linkage disequilibria. Although substantial, the average increase in a/e-locus single heterozygosity implemented by higher order disequilibria within localities was not significant. PMID:8913759

van-der-Loo, W.; Bousses, P.; Arthur, C. P.; Chapuis, J. L.

1996-01-01

34

Investigating the Genome Diversity of B. cereus and Evolutionary Aspects of B. anthracis Emergence  

PubMed Central

Here we report the use of a multi-genome DNA microarray to investigate the genome diversity of Bacillus cereus group members and elucidate the events associated with the emergence of B. anthracis the causative agent of anthrax–a lethal zoonotic disease. We initially performed directed genome sequencing of seven diverse B. cereus strains to identify novel sequences encoded in those genomes. The novel genes identified, combined with those publicly available, allowed the design of a “species” DNA microarray. Comparative genomic hybridization analyses of 41 strains indicates that substantial heterogeneity exists with respect to the genes comprising functional role categories. While the acquisition of the plasmid-encoded pathogenicity island (pXO1) and capsule genes (pXO2) represent a crucial landmark dictating the emergence of B. anthracis, the evolution of this species and its close relatives was associated with an overall a shift in the fraction of genes devoted to energy metabolism, cellular processes, transport, as well as virulence. PMID:21447378

Papazisi, Leka; Rasko, David A.; Ratnayake, Shashikala; Bock, Geoff R.; Remortel, Brian G.; Appalla, Lakshmi; Liu, Jia; Dracheva, Tatiana; Braisted, John C.; Shallom, Shamira; Jarrahi, Benham; Snesrud, Erik; Ahn, Susie; Sun, Qiang; Rilstone, Jenifer; Økstad, Ole Andreas; Kolstø, Anne-Brit; Fleischmann, Robert D.; Peterson, Scott N.

2011-01-01

35

Three-Dimensional Combined Diversity Coding and Error Control Coding: Code Design and  

E-print Network

-output communications, a general term for complex coding is signal space diversity [?]; 2) for two- dimensional channelsThree-Dimensional Combined Diversity Coding and Error Control Coding: Code Design and Diversity Lab of Information Coding and Transmission Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031, China E

Blostein, Steven D.

36

Molecular aspects of transport in thin films of controlled architecture  

SciTech Connect

Work was done in two principal areas: characterization of diffusion in swollen polymer films both with and without a barrier layer, and initial investigations of molecular aspects of swelling using enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

Not Available

1992-01-01

37

Diversity Strategies for Nuclear Power Plant Instrumentation and Control Systems  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the technical basis for establishing acceptable mitigating strategies that resolve diversity and defense-in-depth (D3) assessment findings and conform to U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements. The research approach employed to establish appropriate diversity strategies involves investigation of available documentation on D3 methods and experience from nuclear power and nonnuclear industries, capture of expert knowledge and lessons learned, determination of best practices, and assessment of the nature of common-cause failures (CCFs) and compensating diversity attributes. The research described in this report does not provide guidance on how to determine the need for diversity in a safety system to mitigate the consequences of potential CCFs. Rather, the scope of this report provides guidance to the staff and nuclear industry after a licensee or applicant has performed a D3 assessment per NUREG/CR-6303 and determined that diversity in a safety system is needed for mitigating the consequences of potential CCFs identified in the evaluation of the safety system design features. Succinctly, the purpose of the research described in this report was to answer the question, 'If diversity is required in a safety system to mitigate the consequences of potential CCFs, how much diversity is enough?' The principal results of this research effort have identified and developed diversity strategies, which consist of combinations of diversity attributes and their associated criteria. Technology, which corresponds to design diversity, is chosen as the principal system characteristic by which diversity criteria are grouped to form strategies. The rationale for this classification framework involves consideration of the profound impact that technology-focused design diversity provides. Consequently, the diversity usage classification scheme involves three families of strategies: (1) different technologies, (2) different approaches within the same technology, and (3) different architectures within the same technology. Using this convention, the first diversity usage family, designated Strategy A, is characterized by fundamentally diverse technologies. Strategy A at the system or platform level is illustrated by the example of analog and digital implementations. The second diversity usage family, designated Strategy B, is achieved through the use of distinctly different technologies. Strategy B can be described in terms of different digital technologies, such as the distinct approaches represented by general-purpose microprocessors and field-programmable gate arrays. The third diversity usage family, designated Strategy C, involves the use of variations within a technology. An example of Strategy C involves different digital architectures within the same technology, such as that provided by different microprocessors (e.g., Pentium and Power PC). The grouping of diversity criteria combinations according to Strategies A, B, and C establishes baseline diversity usage and facilitates a systematic organization of strategic approaches for coping with CCF vulnerabilities. Effectively, these baseline sets of diversity criteria constitute appropriate CCF mitigating strategies for digital safety systems. The strategies represent guidance on acceptable diversity usage and can be applied directly to ensure that CCF vulnerabilities identified through a D3 assessment have been adequately resolved. Additionally, a framework has been generated for capturing practices regarding diversity usage and a tool has been developed for the systematic assessment of the comparative effect of proposed diversity strategies (see Appendix A).

Wood, Richard Thomas [ORNL; Belles, Randy [ORNL; Cetiner, Mustafa Sacit [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Korsah, Kofi [ORNL; Loebl, Andy [ORNL; Mays, Gary T [ORNL; Muhlheim, Michael David [ORNL; Mullens, James Allen [ORNL; Poore III, Willis P [ORNL; Qualls, A L [ORNL; Wilson, Thomas L [ORNL; Waterman, Michael E. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

2010-02-01

38

Analysis of anoxybacillus genomes from the aspects of lifestyle adaptations, prophage diversity, and carbohydrate metabolism.  

PubMed

Species of Anoxybacillus are widespread in geothermal springs, manure, and milk-processing plants. The genus is composed of 22 species and two subspecies, but the relationship between its lifestyle and genome is little understood. In this study, two high-quality draft genomes were generated from Anoxybacillus spp. SK3-4 and DT3-1, isolated from Malaysian hot springs. De novo assembly and annotation were performed, followed by comparative genome analysis with the complete genome of Anoxybacillus flavithermus WK1 and two additional draft genomes, of A. flavithermus TNO-09.006 and A. kamchatkensis G10. The genomes of Anoxybacillus spp. are among the smaller of the family Bacillaceae. Despite having smaller genomes, their essential genes related to lifestyle adaptations at elevated temperature, extreme pH, and protection against ultraviolet are complete. Due to the presence of various competence proteins, Anoxybacillus spp. SK3-4 and DT3-1 are able to take up foreign DNA fragments, and some of these transferred genes are important for the survival of the cells. The analysis of intact putative prophage genomes shows that they are highly diversified. Based on the genome analysis using SEED, many of the annotated sequences are involved in carbohydrate metabolism. The presence of glycosyl hydrolases among the Anoxybacillus spp. was compared, and the potential applications of these unexplored enzymes are suggested here. This is the first study that compares Anoxybacillus genomes from the aspect of lifestyle adaptations, the capacity for horizontal gene transfer, and carbohydrate metabolism. PMID:24603481

Goh, Kian Mau; Gan, Han Ming; Chan, Kok-Gan; Chan, Giek Far; Shahar, Saleha; Chong, Chun Shiong; Kahar, Ummirul Mukminin; Chai, Kian Piaw

2014-01-01

39

Adaptive Fuzzy Control of a Direct Drive Motor: Experimental Aspects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a state feedback adaptive control method for position and velocity control of a direct drive motor. The proposed control scheme allows for integrating heuristic knowledge with mathematical knowledge of a system. It performs well even when mathematical model of the system is poorly understood. The controller consists of an adaptive fuzzy controller and a supervisory controller. The supervisory controller requires only knowledge of the upper bound and lower bound of the system parameters. The fuzzy controller is based on fuzzy basis functions and states of the system. The adaptation law is derived based on the Lyapunov function which ensures that the state of the system asymptotically approaches zero. The proposed controller is applied to a direct drive motor with payload and parameter uncertainty, and the effectiveness is experimentally verified. The real-time performance is compared with simulation results.

Medina, E.; Akbarzadeh-T, M.-R.; Kim, Y. T.

1998-01-01

40

Semiotic aspects of control and modeling relations in complex systems  

SciTech Connect

A conceptual analysis of the semiotic nature of control is provided with the goal of elucidating its nature in complex systems. Control is identified as a canonical form of semiotic relation of a system to its environment. As a form of constraint between a system and its environment, its necessary and sufficient conditions are established, and the stabilities resulting from control are distinguished from other forms of stability. These result from the presence of semantic coding relations, and thus the class of control systems is hypothesized to be equivalent to that of semiotic systems. Control systems are contrasted with models, which, while they have the same measurement functions as control systems, do not necessarily require semantic relations because of the lack of the requirement of an interpreter. A hybrid construction of models in control systems is detailed. Towards the goal of considering the nature of control in complex systems, the possible relations among collections of control systems are considered. Powers arguments on conflict among control systems and the possible nature of control in social systems are reviewed, and reconsidered based on our observations about hierarchical control. Finally, we discuss the necessary semantic functions which must be present in complex systems for control in this sense to be present at all.

Joslyn, C.

1996-08-01

41

Preventing Large-Scale Controlled Substance Diversion From Within the Pharmacy  

PubMed Central

Large-scale diversion of controlled substances (CS) from within a hospital or heath system pharmacy is a rare but growing problem. It is the responsibility of pharmacy leadership to scrutinize control processes to expose weaknesses. This article reviews examples of large-scale diversion incidents and diversion techniques and provides practical strategies to stimulate enhanced CS security within the pharmacy staff. Large-scale diversion from within a pharmacy department can be averted by a pharmacist-in-charge who is informed and proactive in taking effective countermeasures. PMID:24421497

Martin, Emory S.; Dzierba, Steven H.; Jones, David M.

2013-01-01

42

Self-Esteem, Locus of Control and Various Aspects of Psychopathology of Adults with Visual Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The exploratory study presented in this article looks into the possible differences in psychosocial aspects (self-esteem and locus of control) and aspects of psychopathology (depression, anxiety, melancholia, asthenia, and mania) amongst sighted adults and adults with visual impairments. Moreover, the study aims to examine the possible…

Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Paralikas, Theodosis; Barouti, Marialena; Chronopoulou, Elena

2014-01-01

43

Digital Instruments and Players: Part II-Diversity, Freedom and Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores some music instruments generic properties such as the diversity, the variability or the reproducibility of their musical output, the linearity or non -linearity of their behavior, and tries to figure out how these aspects can bias the relation between the instrument and its player, and how they may relate to more commonly studied and (ab)used concepts such

Sergi Jordà

44

Diversity in recognition of glycans by F-type lectins and galectins: molecular, structural, and biophysical aspects  

PubMed Central

Although lectins are “hard-wired” in the germline, the presence of tandemly arrayed carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs), of chimeric structures displaying distinct CRDs, of polymorphic genes resulting in multiple isoforms, and in some cases, of a considerable recognition plasticity of their carbohydrate binding sites, significantly expand the lectin ligand-recognition spectrum and lectin functional diversification. Analysis of structural/functional aspects of galectins and F-lectins—the most recently identified lectin family characterized by a unique CRD sequence motif (a distinctive structural fold) and nominal specificity for l-Fuc—has led to a greater understanding of self/nonself recognition by proteins with tandemly arrayed CRDs. For lectins with a single CRD, however, recognition of self and nonself glycans can only be rationalized in terms of protein oligomerization and ligand clustering and presentation. Spatial and temporal changes in lectin expression, secretion, and local concentrations in extracellular microenvironments, as well as structural diversity and spatial display of their carbohydrate ligands on the host or microbial cell surface, are suggestive of a dynamic interplay of their recognition and effector functions in development and immunity. PMID:22973821

Vasta, Gerardo R.; Ahmed, Hafiz; Bianchet, Mario A.; Fernández-Robledo, José A.; Amzel, L. Mario

2013-01-01

45

FlowR: Aspect Oriented Programming for Information Flow Control in Ruby  

E-print Network

FlowR: Aspect Oriented Programming for Information Flow Control in Ruby Thomas F. J.-M. Pasquier Jean Bacon University of Cambridge {thomas.pasquier, jean.bacon}@cl.cam.ac.uk Brian Shand Public Health

Cambridge, University of

46

Diversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Look at the following resources to find information about diversity. Use your information to complete the assignment for your class. CIVIL RIGHTS Civil Rights Era Civil Rights Timeline JIM CROW LAWS AND SEGREGATION The Rise and Fall of Jim Crow Jim Crow and Segregation MARTIN LUTHER KING Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Biography Dr. Martin Luther King: I Have a Dream ROSA PARKS Rosa Parks: The Woman Who Changed a Nation Rosa Parks Biography EMMETT TILL The Murder of Emmett Till About African American History: The Biography of Emmett Till THE LITTLE ROCK 9 Little Rock 9 The 1957-1958 School Year School Integration in Little Rock, Arkansas MONTGOMERY BUS BOYCOTT Montgomery Bus Boycott They Changed the World: The Story of the Montgomery Bus Boycott Montgomery Bus Boycott FREEDOM RIDES Freedom Rides SNCC: Freedom Rides WOMEN'S RIGHTS Women s Rights Movement in the US--Timeline Women s Rights: National Historic Park History of the Equal Rights Amendment JAPANESE INTERNMENT Topaz Museum Japanese Relocation Photographs TRAIL OF TEARS Trail of Tears Trail of Tears Era HOLOCAUST Holocaust Encyclopedia The History Place: Holocaust Timeline Holocaust History Project ...

Albion Middle School Library--Mrs. Bates

2007-01-25

47

Spared and Impaired Aspects of Motivated Cognitive Control in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

The ability to upregulate cognitive control in motivationally salient situations was examined in individuals with schizophrenia (patients) and healthy controls. Fifty-four patients and thirty-nine healthy controls were recruited. A computerized monetary response conflict task required participants to identity a picture, over which was printed a matching (congruent), neutral, or incongruent word. This baseline condition was followed by an incentive condition, in which participants were given the opportunity to win money on reward-cued trials. These reward-cued trials were interleaved with non-reward cued trials. Reaction times (RT) were examined for both incentive context effects (difference in RT between baseline and non-reward cue trials in the incentive condition) and incentive cue effects (difference in RT between non-reward and reward cue trials in the incentive condition). Compared to baseline, controls showed a speeding of responses during both the non-reward (incentive context effect) and reward cued (incentive cue effect) trials during the incentive condition, but with a larger incentive context than incentive cue effect, suggesting a reliance on proactive control strategies. Although patients also showed a speeding of responses to both non-reward and reward cued trials, they showed a significantly smaller incentive context effect than controls, suggesting a reduction in the use of proactive control and a greater reliance on the use of “just-in-time,” reactive control strategies. These results are discussed in light of the relationship between motivation and cognitive impairments in schizophrenia, and the potential role of impairments in prefrontally mediated active maintenance mechanisms. PMID:23834064

Mann, Claire L.; Footer, Owen; Chung, Yu Sun; Driscoll, Lori L.; Barch, Deanna M.

2013-01-01

48

Prokaryotic Diversity-Magnitude, Dynamics, and Controlling Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are probably millions of species in the microorganismal domains Bacteria and Archaea (the prokaryotes), and we are only just beginning to work out the basic principles governing their distribution and abundance in natural environments. One characteristic that has become clear is that prokaryote diversity in aquatic environments is orders of magnitude less than in sediments and soils. Hypotheses and

Vigdis Torsvik; Lise Øvreås; Tron Frede Thingstad

2002-01-01

49

Control aspects of motor neural prosthesis: sensory interface.  

PubMed

A neural prosthesis (NP) has two applications: permanent assistance of function, and temporary assistance that contributes to long-term recovery of function. Here, we address control issues for a therapeutic NP which uses surface electrodes. We suggest that the effective NP for therapy needs to implement rule-based control. Rule-based control relies on the triggering of preprogrammed sequences of electrical stimulation by the sensory signals. The sensory system in the therapeutic NP needs to be simple for installation, allow self-calibration, it must be robust, and sufficiently redundant in order to guarantee safe operation. The sensory signals need to generate control signals; hence, sensory fusion is needed. MEMS technology today provides sensors that fulfill the technical requirements (accelerometers, gyroscopes, force sensing resistors). Therefore, the task was to design a sensory signal processing method from the mentioned solid state sensors that would recognize phases during the gait cycle. This is necessary for the control of multi channel electrical stimulation. The sensory fusion consists of the following two phases: 1) estimation of vertical and horizontal components of the ground reaction force, center of pressure, and joint angles from the solid-state sensors, and 2) fusion of the estimated signals into a sequence of command signals. The first phase was realized by the use of artificial neural networks and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems, while the second by the use of inductive learning described in our earlier work [1]. PMID:18002969

Popovi?, Dejan B; Dosen, Strahinja; Popovi?, Mirjana B; Stefanovi?, Filip; Kojovi?, Jovana

2007-01-01

50

Acoustic Aspects of Active-Twist Rotor Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of an Active Twist Rotor system to provide both vibration reduction and performance enhancement has been explored in recent analytical and experimental studies. Effects of active-twist control on rotor noise, however, had not been determined. During a recent wind tunnel test of an active-twist rotor system, a set of acoustic measurements were obtained to assess the effects of active-twist control on noise produced by the rotor, especially blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise. It was found that for rotor operating conditions where BVI noise is dominant, active-twist control provided a reduction in BVI noise level. This BVI noise reduction was almost, but not quite, as large as that obtained in a similar test using HHC. However, vibration levels were usually adversely affected at operating conditions favoring minimum BVI noise. Conversely, operating conditions favoring minimum vibration levels affected BVI noise levels, but not always adversely.

Booth, Earl R., Jr.; Wilbur, Matthew L.

2002-01-01

51

Some aspects of robotics calibration, design and control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The main objective is to introduce techniques in the areas of testing and calibration, design, and control of robotic systems. A statistical technique is described that analyzes a robot's performance and provides quantitative three-dimensional evaluation of its repeatability, accuracy, and linearity. Based on this analysis, a corrective action should be taken to compensate for any existing errors and enhance the robot's overall accuracy and performance. A comparison between robotics simulation software packages that were commercially available (SILMA, IGRIP) and that of Kennedy Space Center (ROBSIM) is also included. These computer codes simulate the kinematics and dynamics patterns of various robot arm geometries to help the design engineer in sizing and building the robot manipulator and control system. A brief discussion on an adaptive control algorithm is provided.

Tawfik, Hazem

1990-01-01

52

Aspects of Numerical Simulation of Circulation Control Airfoils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mass-averaged compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved for circulation control airfoils. Numerical solutions are computed with a multigrid method that uses an implicit approximate factorization smoother. The effects of flow conditions (e.g., free-stream Mach number, angle of attack, momentum coefficient) and mesh on the prediction of circulation control airfoil flows are considered. In addition, the impact of turbulence modeling, including curvature effects and modifications to reduce eddy viscosity levels in the wall jet (i.e., Coanda flow), is discussed. Computed pressure distributions are compared with available experimental data.

Swanson, R. C.; Rumsey, C. L.; Anders, S. G.

2005-01-01

53

Genetic diversity analysis of mitochondrial DNA control region in artificially propagated Chinese sucker Myxocyprinus asiaticus.  

PubMed

Abstract The genetic diversity of the three major artificially propagated populations of Chinese sucker, an endangered freshwater fish species, was investigated using the sequences of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control regions. Among the 89 individuals tested, 66 variable sites (7.26%) and 10 haplotypes were detected (Haplotype diversity Hd?=?0.805, Nucleotide diversity ??=?0.0287). In general, genetic diversity was lower in artificially propagated populations than in wild populations. This reduction in genetic diversity may be due to population bottlenecks, genetic drift and human selection. A stepping-stone pattern of gene flow was detected in the populations studied, showing much higher gene flow between neighbouring populations. To increase the genetic diversity, wild lineages should be introduced, and more lineages should be shared among artificially propagated populations. PMID:24409897

Wan, Yuan; Zhou, Chun-Hua; Ouyang, Shan; Huang, Xiao-Chen; Zhan, Yang; Zhou, Ping; Rong, Jun; Wu, Xiao-Ping

2014-01-10

54

Backpressure-based control protocols: Design and computational aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congestion control in packet-based networks is often realized by feedback protocols. In this paper we assess their performance under a back-pressure mechanism that has been proposed and standardized for Ethernet metropolitan networks. In such a mechanism the service rate of an upstream queue is reduced when the downstream queue is congested, in order to protect the downstream queue. We study

D. I. Miretskiy; W. R. W. Scheinhardt; M. R. H. Mandjes

2009-01-01

55

Prospective Control: A Basic Aspect of Action Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that the developmental origins of actions are actions themselves and that a future-oriented mode of control is basic to movement at all ages. Suggests that, through active movement, children learn about changing and invariant properties of movement and about coordination with the external world. This learning constitutes the foundation of…

von Hofsten, Claes

1993-01-01

56

Algorithmic aspects of topology control problems for ad hoc networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Topology control problems are concerned with the assignment of power values to the nodes of an ad hoc network so that the power assignment leads to a graph topology satisfying some specified properties. This paper considers such problems under several optimization objectives, including minimizing the maximum power and minimizing the total power. A general approach leading to a polynomial algorithm

Errol L. Lloyd; Rui Liu; Madhav V. Marathe; Ram Ramanathan; S. S. Ravi

2002-01-01

57

Molecular Aspects of Transport in Thin Films of Controlled Architecture  

SciTech Connect

Our laboratory focuses on developing spatially localized chemistries which can produce structures of controlled architecture on the supermolecular length scale -- structures which allow us to control the motion of molecular species with high spatial resolution, ultimately on nanometer length scales. Specifically, nanocapillary array membranes (NCAMs) contain an array of nanometer diameter pores connecting vertically separated microfluidic channels. NCAMs can manipulate samples with sub-femtoliter characteristic volumes and attomole sample amounts and are opening the field of chemical analysis of mass-limited samples, because they are capable of digital control of fluid switching down to sub-attoliter volumes; extension of analytical “unit operations” down to sub-femtomole sample sizes; and exerting spatiotemporal control over fluid mixing to enable studies of reaction dynamics. Digital flow switching mediated by nanocapillary array membranes can be controlled by bias, ionic strength, or pore diameter and is being studied by observing the temporal characteristics of transport across a single nanopore in thin PMMA membranes. The control of flow via nanopore surface characteristics, charge density and functional group presentation, is being studied by coupled conductivity and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) measurements. Reactive mixing experiments previously established low millisecond mixing times for NCAM-mediated fluid transfer, and this has been exploited to demonstrate capture of mass-limited target species by Au colloids. Voltage and thermally-activated polymer switches have been developed for active control of transport in NCAMs. Thermally-switchable and size-selective transport was achieved by grafting poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) brushes onto the exterior surface of a Au-coated polycarbonate track-etched membrane, while the voltage-gated properties of poly(hydroxyethylmethacrylate) were characterized dynamically. Electrophoretic separations have been coupled to analyte sampling both by LIF and mass spectrometry. Detection of electrophoresis separation products by electrospray mass spectrometry was achieved through direct interfacing to an electrospray mass spectrometer. Pb(II) interactions with the DNAzyme have been realized in an NCAM-coupled integrated microfluidic structure allowing cation separations to be coupled to molecular beacon detection motifs for the determination of Pb(II) in an electroplating sludge reference material. By changing the DNAzyme to select for other compounds of interest, it is possible to incorporate multiple sensing systems within a single device, thereby achieving great flexibility.

Paul W. Bohn

2009-04-16

58

Control aspects of quantum computing using pure and mixed states  

PubMed Central

Steering quantum dynamics such that the target states solve classically hard problems is paramount to quantum simulation and computation. And beyond, quantum control is also essential to pave the way to quantum technologies. Here, important control techniques are reviewed and presented in a unified frame covering quantum computational gate synthesis and spectroscopic state transfer alike. We emphasize that it does not matter whether the quantum states of interest are pure or not. While pure states underly the design of quantum circuits, ensemble mixtures of quantum states can be exploited in a more recent class of algorithms: it is illustrated by characterizing the Jones polynomial in order to distinguish between different (classes of) knots. Further applications include Josephson elements, cavity grids, ion traps and nitrogen vacancy centres in scenarios of closed as well as open quantum systems. PMID:22946034

Schulte-Herbrüggen, Thomas; Marx, Raimund; Fahmy, Amr; Kauffman, Louis; Lomonaco, Samuel; Khaneja, Navin; Glaser, Steffen J.

2012-01-01

59

Relations among Aspects of Parental Control, Children's Work-Related Social Skills and Academic Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research sought to separate aspects of parental control from parental warmth and to investigate the impact of parents' control to child outcomes related to literacy and work-related social skills at the start of kindergarten. Family rules, limits, and disciplinary practices were explored as predictors of cognitive and social school…

Cooney, Ramie Robeson

60

Integrated Luminal and Cytosolic Aspects of the Calcium Release Control  

PubMed Central

We propose here a unitary approach to the luminal and cytosolic control of calcium release. A minimal number of model elements that realistically describe different data sets are combined and adapted to correctly respond to various physiological constraints. We couple the kinetic properties of the inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate receptor/calcium channel with the dynamics of Ca2+ and K+ in both the lumen and cytosol, and by using a detailed simulation approach, we propose that local (on a radial distance ?2 ?m) calcium oscillations in permeabilized cells are driven by the slow inactivation of channels organized in discrete clusters composed of between six and 15 channels. Moreover, the character of these oscillations is found to be extremely sensitive to K+, so that the cytosolic and luminal calcium variations are in or out of phase if the store at equilibrium has tens or hundreds ?M Ca2+, respectively, depending on the K+ gradient across the reticulum membrane. Different patterns of calcium signals can be reproduced through variation of only a few parameters. PMID:12609854

Baran, Irina

2003-01-01

61

APPETITE CONTROL: METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE EVALUATION OF FOODS  

PubMed Central

This report describes a set of scientific procedures used to assess the impact of foods and food ingredients on the expression of appetite (psychological and behavioural). An overarching priority has been to enable potential evaluators of health claims about foods to identify justified claims, and to exclude claims that are not supported by scientific evidence for the effect cited. This priority follows precisely from the principles set down in the PASSCLAIM report. (4) The report allows the evaluation of the strength of health claims, about the effects of foods on appetite, which can be sustained on the basis of the commonly used scientific designs and experimental procedures. The report includes different designs for assessing effects on satiation as opposed to satiety,detailed coverage of the extent to which a change in hunger can stand-alone as a measure of appetite control, and an extensive discussion of the statistical procedures appropriate for handling data in this field of research. Since research in this area is continually evolving, new improved methodologies may emerge over time and will need to be incorporated into the framework. One main objective of the report has been to produce guidance on good practice in carrying out appetite research, and not to set down a series of commandments that must be followed. PMID:20122136

Blundell, John; de Graaf, Cees; Hulshof, Toine; Jebb, Susan; Livingstone, Barbara; Lluch, Anne; Mela, David; Salah, Samir; Schuring, Ewoud; van der Knaap, Henk; Westerterp, Margriet

2013-01-01

62

Post-Doc en contr^ole applique `a la biologie : aspects theorique et numerique  

E-print Network

Post-Doc en contr^ole appliqu´e `a la biologie : aspects th´eorique et num´erique L'objet de ce cancer. La th´erapie tient lieu alors de contr^ole sur ces syst`emes d'´equations aux d contr^ole et probl`emes inverses des universit´es de Marseille et de l'universit´e de Franche-Comt´e. La

d'Orléans, Université

63

Humboldt's spa: microbial diversity is controlled by temperature in geothermal environments.  

PubMed

Over 200 years ago Alexander von Humboldt (1808) observed that plant and animal diversity peaks at tropical latitudes and decreases toward the poles, a trend he attributed to more favorable temperatures in the tropics. Studies to date suggest that this temperature-diversity gradient is weak or nonexistent for Bacteria and Archaea. To test the impacts of temperature as well as pH on bacterial and archaeal diversity, we performed pyrotag sequencing of 16S rRNA genes retrieved from 165 soil, sediment and biomat samples of 36 geothermal areas in Canada and New Zealand, covering a temperature range of 7.5-99?°C and a pH range of 1.8-9.0. This represents the widest ranges of temperature and pH yet examined in a single microbial diversity study. Species richness and diversity indices were strongly correlated to temperature, with R(2) values up to 0.62 for neutral-alkaline springs. The distributions were unimodal, with peak diversity at 24?°C and decreasing diversity at higher and lower temperature extremes. There was also a significant pH effect on diversity; however, in contrast to previous studies of soil microbial diversity, pH explained less of the variability (13-20%) than temperature in the geothermal samples. No correlation was observed between diversity values and latitude from the equator, and we therefore infer a direct temperature effect in our data set. These results demonstrate that temperature exerts a strong control on microbial diversity when considered over most of the temperature range within which life is possible. PMID:24430481

Sharp, Christine E; Brady, Allyson L; Sharp, Glen H; Grasby, Stephen E; Stott, Matthew B; Dunfield, Peter F

2014-06-01

64

Oceanographic controls on the diversity and extinction of planktonic foraminifera.  

PubMed

Understanding the links between long-term biological evolution, the ocean-atmosphere system and plate tectonics is a central goal of Earth science. Although environmental perturbations of many different kinds are known to have affected long-term biological evolution, particularly during major mass extinction events, the relative importance of physical environmental factors versus biological interactions in governing rates of extinction and origination through geological time remains unknown. Here we use macrostratigraphic data from the Atlantic Ocean basin to show that changes in global species diversity and rates of extinction among planktonic foraminifera have been linked to tectonically and climatically forced changes in ocean circulation and chemistry from the Jurassic period to the present. Transient environmental perturbations, such as those that occurred after the asteroid impact at the end of the Cretaceous period approximately 66 million years ago, and the Eocene/Oligocene greenhouse-icehouse transition approximately 34 million years ago, are superimposed on this general long-term relationship. Rates of species origination, by contrast, are not correlated with corresponding macrostratigraphic quantities, indicating that physiochemical changes in the ocean-atmosphere system affect evolution principally by driving the synchronous extinction of lineages that originated owing to more protracted and complex interactions between biological and environmental factors. PMID:23302802

Peters, Shanan E; Kelly, Daniel C; Fraass, Andrew J

2013-01-17

65

Contr^ole des equations aux derivees partielles aspects theorique et  

E-print Network

Contr^ole des ´equations aux d´eriv´ees partielles ­ aspects th´eorique et num´erique J´er^ome LE ROUSSEAU F´ed´eration Denis-Poisson, MAPMO, Universit´e d'Orl´eans Journ´ee contr^ole du Pole 3 ­ Universit´e d'Orl´eans 1/ 24 J. Le Rousseau Contr^ole des EDP #12;Contr^ole en dimension finie Syst`eme contr

d'Orléans, Université

66

Lumpy skin disease in southern Africa: a review of the disease and aspects of control.  

PubMed

This article reviews some of the important aspects of lumpy skin disease (LSD) that may impact on its successful control. A resurgence of the disease in the last decade has highlighted some constraints of the Neethling strain vaccine, but there is no evidence of vaccine breakdowns owing to the presence of heterologous field strains. More research is needed on epidemiology and transmission of LSD in South Africa to formulate control measures. PMID:11513262

Hunter, P; Wallace, D

2001-06-01

67

Top-down control of marine phytoplankton diversity in a global ecosystem model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential of marine ecosystems to adapt to ongoing environmental change is largely unknown, making prediction of consequences for nutrient and carbon cycles particularly challenging. Realizing that biodiversity might influence the adaptation potential, recent model approaches have identified bottom-up controls on patterns of phytoplankton diversity regulated by nutrient availability and seasonality. Top-down control of biodiversity, however, has not been considered in depth in such models. Here we demonstrate how zooplankton predation with prey-ratio based food preferences can enhance phytoplankton diversity in a ecosystem-circulation model with self-assembling community structure. Simulated diversity increases more than threefold under preferential grazing relative to standard density-dependent predation, and yields better agreement with observed distributions of phytoplankton diversity. The variable grazing pressure creates refuges for less competitive phytoplankton types, which reduces exclusion and improves the representation of seasonal phytoplankton succession during blooms. The type of grazing parameterization also has a significant impact on primary and net community production. Our results demonstrate how a simple parameterization of a zooplankton community response affects simulated phytoplankton community structure, diversity and dynamics, and motivates development of more detailed representations of top-down processes essential for investigating the role of diversity in marine ecosystems.

Prowe, A. E. Friederike; Pahlow, Markus; Dutkiewicz, Stephanie; Follows, Michael; Oschlies, Andreas

2012-08-01

68

Explicit Control of Diversity and Effective Variation Distance in Linear Genetic  

E-print Network

is the probability of a large fitness change. The edit distance, sometimes referred to as Levenshtein distance, [6Explicit Control of Diversity and Effective Variation Distance in Linear Genetic Programming Markus distance metrics for linear genetic programs. Causal connections between changes of the genotype

Fernandez, Thomas

69

Explicit Control of Diversity and Effective Variation Distance in Linear Genetic Programming  

E-print Network

lead to smaller variations in fitness. The edit distance, sometimes referred to as Levenshtein distanceExplicit Control of Diversity and Effective Variation Distance in Linear Genetic Programming Markus distance metrics for linear genetic pro- grams. Causal connections between changes of the genotype

Fernandez, Thomas

70

Controllable antenna with a radiation-pattern diversity reflector for DTV applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents a controllable antenna with a radiation-pattern diversity reflector for applications of Digital TV (DTV) terrestrial broadcasting systems. The design of the monopole antenna using a CPW-fed mechanism is adopted for achieving wideband characteristics. By properly choosing the feed line and the gap, the monopole antenna can have impedance matching in the whole UHF band. Furthermore, in order

Chih-Yu Tsai; Oscal T.-C. Chen

2011-01-01

71

Host and parasite diversity jointly control disease risk in complex communities  

E-print Network

Host and parasite diversity jointly control disease risk in complex communities Pieter T. J, Berkeley, CA, and approved September 10, 2013 (received for review June 3, 2013) Host­parasite interactions parasites. To date, however, surprisingly few studies have explored the joint effects of host and parasite

Johnson, Pieter

72

biologists is to separate the normative aspect of their work (preventing extinction and conserving diversity) from the  

E-print Network

), ISBN: 978-0-19- 928588-4 (acid-free paper). Key words: biodiversity; conservation biology; rain forest­1547 � 2011 by the Ecological Society of America Tropical rain forest ecology Ghazoul, Jaboury, and Douglas Sheil. 2010. Tropical rain forest ecology, diversity, and conservation. Oxford University Press

Harms, Kyle E.

73

Evolution and diversity of subduction zones controlled by slab width.  

PubMed

Subducting slabs provide the main driving force for plate motion and flow in the Earth's mantle, and geodynamic, seismic and geochemical studies offer insight into slab dynamics and subduction-induced flow. Most previous geodynamic studies treat subduction zones as either infinite in trench-parallel extent (that is, two-dimensional) or finite in width but fixed in space. Subduction zones and their associated slabs are, however, limited in lateral extent (250-7,400 km) and their three-dimensional geometry evolves over time. Here we show that slab width controls two first-order features of plate tectonics-the curvature of subduction zones and their tendency to retreat backwards with time. Using three-dimensional numerical simulations of free subduction, we show that trench migration rate is inversely related to slab width and depends on proximity to a lateral slab edge. These results are consistent with retreat velocities observed globally, with maximum velocities (6-16 cm yr(-1)) only observed close to slab edges (<1,200 km), whereas far from edges (>2,000 km) retreat velocities are always slow (<2.0 cm yr(-1)). Models with narrow slabs (< or =1,500 km) retreat fast and develop a curved geometry, concave towards the mantle wedge side. Models with slabs intermediate in width ( approximately 2,000-3,000 km) are sublinear and retreat more slowly. Models with wide slabs (> or =4,000 km) are nearly stationary in the centre and develop a convex geometry, whereas trench retreat increases towards concave-shaped edges. Additionally, we identify periods (5-10 Myr) of slow trench advance at the centre of wide slabs. Such wide-slab behaviour may explain mountain building in the central Andes, as being a consequence of its tectonic setting, far from slab edges. PMID:17361181

Schellart, W P; Freeman, J; Stegman, D R; Moresi, L; May, D

2007-03-15

74

Operational and research aspects of a radio-controlled model flight test program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The operational and research aspects of a subscale, radio-controlled model flight test program are presented. By using low-cost free-flying models, an approach was developed for obtaining research-quality vehicle performance and aerodynamic information. The advantages and limitations learned by applying this approach to a specific flight test program are described. The research quality of the data acquired shows that model flight testing is practical for obtaining consistent repeatable flight data.

Budd, Gerald D.; Gilman, Ronald L.; Eichstedt, David

1993-01-01

75

Operational and research aspects of a radio-controlled model flight test program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The operational and research aspects of a subscale, radio-controlled model flight test program are presented. By using low-cost free-flying models, an approach was developed for obtaining research-quality vehicle performance and aerodynamic information. The advantages and limitations learned by applying this approach to a specific flight test program are described. The research quality of the data acquired shows that model flight testing is practical for obtaining consistent and repeatable flight data.

Budd, Gerald D.; Gilman, Ronald L.; Eichstedt, David

1993-01-01

76

FlowR: aspect oriented programming for information flow control in ruby  

E-print Network

FlowR: Aspect Oriented Programming for Information Flow Control in Ruby Thomas F. J.-M. Pasquier Jean Bacon University of Cambridge {thomas.pasquier, jean.bacon}@cl.cam.ac.uk Brian Shand Public Health England brian.shand@phe.gov.uk Abstract... -dynamic information flow analysis. In Programming Languages and Analysis for Security (PLAS), Dublin, Ireland, 2009. ACM. [3] J. Bacon, D. Eyers, T. F. Pasquier, J. Singh, I. Papagiannis, and P. Pietzuch. Information Flow Control for secure cloud computing. submitted...

Pasquier, Thomas F. J.-M.; Bacon, Jean; Shand, Brian

2014-04-22

77

Optical communication through the turbulent atmosphere with transmitter and receiver diversity, wavefront control, and coherent detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Net-centric warfare in todays dynamically changing military environments and the need for low-cost gigabit intra-city communication present severe challenges for current free-space optical systems. Enabled by high-speed electronics and advances in wavefront control, we develop an architecture that provides free-space coherent optical links with information capacity, security, network robustness and power management performance that exceed the current state-of-the-art, including commercially deployed systems, R&D test-beds, and alternative theoretical architectures proposed. The deleterious effects of the turbulent atmosphere are mitigated with several diversity transmitters and receivers. We allow the phase and the amplitude of each transmitter to be controlled independently and assume, through coherent detection, that the phase and amplitude of the received wave is measured. Thus we can optimally allocate transmit power into the diffraction modes with the smallest propagation losses to increase channel capacity and mitigate turbulence-induced outages. Additionally, spatial mode modulation and rejection provides robust communication in the presence of denial of service via interference by adversaries with a priori knowledge of the system architecture. Some possible implementations of this system are described. New results, including asymptotic singular value distribution, expected bit error rate, interference performance, and performance in the presence of inhomogeneous turbulence, are given. Finally, performance of this system is compared with the performance of optical diversity systems without wavefront control and optical systems without diversity, both current state-of-the-art systems.

Puryear, Andrew L.; Chan, Vincent W. S.

2009-08-01

78

Geometrical aspects of laser-drilled high precision holes for flow control applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser drilling has become a valuable tool for the manufacture of high precision micro holes in a variety of materials. Laser drilled precision holes have applications in the automotive, aerospace, medical and sensor industry for flow control applications. The technology is competing with conventional machining micro electro-discharge machining in the field of fuel injection nozzle for combustion engines. Depending on the application, laser and optics have to be chosen which suits the requirements. In this paper, the results achieved with different lasers and drilling techniques will be compared to the hole specifications in flow control applications. The issue of geometry control of high aspect ratio laser drilled holes in metals will be investigated. The comparison of flow measurement results to microscopic hole dimension measurement show that flow characteristics strongly depend on cavitation number during flow.

Giedl, Roswitha; Helml, H.-J.; Wagner, F. X.; Wild, Michael J.

2003-11-01

79

Legal aspects of public health: difficulties in controlling vector-borne and zoonotic diseases in Brazil.  

PubMed

In recent years, vector-borne and zoonotic diseases have become a major challenge for public health. Dengue fever and leptospirosis are the most important communicable diseases in Brazil based on their prevalence and the healthy life years lost from disability. The primary strategy for preventing human exposure to these diseases is effective insect and rodent control in and around the home. However, health authorities have difficulties in controlling vector-borne and zoonotic diseases because residents often refuse access to their homes. This study discusses aspects related to the activities performed by Brazilian health authorities to combat vector-borne and zoonotic diseases, particularly difficulties in relation to the legal aspect, which often impede the quick and effective actions of these professionals. How might it be possible to reconcile the need to preserve public health and the rule on the inviolability of the home, especially in the case of abandoned properties or illegal residents and the refusal of residents to allow the health authority access? Do residents have the right to hinder the performance of health workers even in the face of a significant and visible focus of disease transmission? This paper argues that a comprehensive legal plan aimed at the control of invasive vector-borne and zoonotic diseases including synanthropic animals of public health importance should be considered. In addition, this paper aims to bridge the gap between lawyers and public health professionals and to facilitate communication between them. PMID:25051187

Mendes, Marcílio S; de Moraes, Josué

2014-11-01

80

Cyber-physical geographical information service-enabled control of diverse in-situ sensors.  

PubMed

Realization of open online control of diverse in-situ sensors is a challenge. This paper proposes a Cyber-Physical Geographical Information Service-enabled method for control of diverse in-situ sensors, based on location-based instant sensing of sensors, which provides closed-loop feedbacks. The method adopts the concepts and technologies of newly developed cyber-physical systems (CPSs) to combine control with sensing, communication, and computation, takes advantage of geographical information service such as services provided by the Tianditu which is a basic geographic information service platform in China and Sensor Web services to establish geo-sensor applications, and builds well-designed human-machine interfaces (HMIs) to support online and open interactions between human beings and physical sensors through cyberspace. The method was tested with experiments carried out in two geographically distributed scientific experimental fields, Baoxie Sensor Web Experimental Field in Wuhan city and Yemaomian Landslide Monitoring Station in Three Gorges, with three typical sensors chosen as representatives using the prototype system Geospatial Sensor Web Common Service Platform. The results show that the proposed method is an open, online, closed-loop means of control. PMID:25625906

Chen, Nengcheng; Xiao, Changjiang; Pu, Fangling; Wang, Xiaolei; Wang, Chao; Wang, Zhili; Gong, Jianya

2015-01-01

81

The supply chain of medicinal controlled substances: addressing the Achilles heel of drug diversion.  

PubMed

The escalation of prescription drug abuse in the U.S. has attracted the attention of public health and safety officials as well as others puzzled by how such a tightly regulated enterprise could so easily be breached by those seeking controlled substances for nonmedical use. Prescribers and patients who use, misuse, or, in some cases, redistribute or divert these drugs have figured prominently in government strategies aimed at addressing this issue. This review departs from this paradigm and focuses on wholesale drug distributors, a highly efficient and largely behinds-the-scene link in the supply chain of controlled substances. By law, distributors are required to identify and report to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) orders for controlled substances that are suspicious and may indicate drug diversion. Ten cases are examined in which distributors were each charged with failing to prevent the diversion of millions of doses of controlled substances. Special attention is given to a payment system employed by the industry that may encourage this unlawful commerce. Court records, agency and industry reports, and other published sources are used to document referenced cases and their disposition, and recommendations are offered for improving distributors' compliance with the law. PMID:22973912

Coleman, John J

2012-09-01

82

Clonally Diverse T Cell Homeostasis Is Maintained by a Common Program of Cell-Cycle Control  

PubMed Central

Lymphopenia induces T cells to undergo cell divisions as part of a homeostatic response mechanism. The clonal response to lymphopenia is extremely diverse, and it is unknown whether this heterogeneity represents distinct mechanisms of cell-cycle control or whether a common mechanism can account for the diversity. We addressed this question by combining in vivo and mathematical modeling of lymphopenia-induced proliferation (LIP) of two distinct T cell clonotypes. OT-I T cells undergo rapid LIP accompanied by differentiation that superficially resembles Ag-induced proliferation, whereas F5 T cells divide slowly and remain naive. Both F5 and OT-I LIP responses were most accurately described by a single stochastic division model where the rate of cell division was exponentially decreased with increasing cell numbers. The model successfully identified key biological parameters of the response and accurately predicted the homeostatic set point of each clone. Significantly, the model was successful in predicting interclonal competition between OT-I and F5 T cells, consistent with competition for the same resource(s) required for homeostatic proliferation. Our results show that diverse and heterogenous clonal T cell responses can be accounted for by a single common model of homeostasis. PMID:23475214

Hogan, Thea; Shuvaev, Andrey; Commenges, Daniel; Yates, Andrew; Callard, Robin

2013-01-01

83

Evaluating controls on the aspect dependence of earthflows in the central California Coast Ranges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthflows are an important mass-wasting process in many mountainous landscapes. In addition to radically changing the fabric of the landscape and damaging man-made infrastructure, earthflows deliver, for their area, a disproportionately large sediment load to rivers. In California, earthflows are typically restricted to clay-rich and mechanically-weak lithologies, such as the Franciscan mélange. In addition, several studies have observed that earthflows in California favor south-facing slopes, even in settings with spatially-uniform lithology. This fundamental observation remains largely unexplained under the current understanding of earthflow behavior. Here, we evaluate the controls on the aspect dependence of earthflows in the Alameda Creek watershed near Fremont, California, where many large, but relatively inactive earthflows are observed in the Franciscan mélange. We first apply spectral analysis to LiDAR-derived digital elevation models to objectively map the topographic signature of landslides and determine the degree of aspect dependence. We then explore several hypotheses that can explain our observation that earthflows tend to form on south-facing slopes, including: (1) lack of dense vegetation and trees with slope-stabilizing root systems on south-facing slopes; (2) higher pore fluid pressures due to relatively lower rates of evapotranspiration on sparsely vegetated south-facing slopes; (3) increased dessication and/or deformation cracking on south-facing earthflow surfaces, creating fast-flow pathways into the interior of landslides.

Nereson, A. L.; Finnegan, N. J.; Booth, A. M.

2013-12-01

84

Adaptive AFM scan speed control for high aspect ratio fast structure tracking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improved imaging rates in Atomic Force Microscopes (AFM) are of high interest for disciplines such as life sciences and failure analysis of semiconductor wafers, where the sample topology shows high aspect ratios. Also, fast imaging is necessary to cover a large surface under investigation in reasonable times. Since AFMs are composed of mechanical components, they are associated with comparably low resonance frequencies that undermine the effort to increase the acquisition rates. In particular, high and steep structures are difficult to follow, which causes the cantilever to temporarily loose contact to or crash into the sample. Here, we report on a novel approach that does not affect the scanner dynamics, but adapts the lateral scanning speed of the scanner. The controller monitors the control error signal and, only when necessary, decreases the scan speed to allow the z-piezo more time to react to changes in the sample's topography. In this case, the overall imaging rate can be significantly increased, because a general scan speed trade-off decision is not needed and smooth areas are scanned fast. In contrast to methods trying to increase the z-piezo bandwidth, our method is a comparably simple approach that can be easily adapted to standard systems.

Ahmad, Ahmad; Schuh, Andreas; Rangelow, Ivo W.

2014-10-01

85

Adaptive AFM scan speed control for high aspect ratio fast structure tracking.  

PubMed

Improved imaging rates in Atomic Force Microscopes (AFM) are of high interest for disciplines such as life sciences and failure analysis of semiconductor wafers, where the sample topology shows high aspect ratios. Also, fast imaging is necessary to cover a large surface under investigation in reasonable times. Since AFMs are composed of mechanical components, they are associated with comparably low resonance frequencies that undermine the effort to increase the acquisition rates. In particular, high and steep structures are difficult to follow, which causes the cantilever to temporarily loose contact to or crash into the sample. Here, we report on a novel approach that does not affect the scanner dynamics, but adapts the lateral scanning speed of the scanner. The controller monitors the control error signal and, only when necessary, decreases the scan speed to allow the z-piezo more time to react to changes in the sample's topography. In this case, the overall imaging rate can be significantly increased, because a general scan speed trade-off decision is not needed and smooth areas are scanned fast. In contrast to methods trying to increase the z-piezo bandwidth, our method is a comparably simple approach that can be easily adapted to standard systems. PMID:25362402

Ahmad, Ahmad; Schuh, Andreas; Rangelow, Ivo W

2014-10-01

86

Biological aspects and control of johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.) in grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench)  

E-print Network

BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS AND CONTROL OF JDH((SON(il(ASS (~S( ~ll (L. ( P . ] IN GRAIN SORGHUM [SorcOhum bicolor (L. ) Moench] A Thesis JUAN ALBERTO LOPEZ Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ALM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1988 Major Subject: Agronomy BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS AND CONTROL OF JDNNSDNGNSSS [~SD t~t t L. t P . ] IN GRAIN SORGHUM [~Sor hum bicolor (L. ) Moench] A Thesis JUAN ALBERTO LOPEZ Approved as to style...

Lopez, Juan Alberto

2012-06-07

87

Yangtze River Water Diversion into Lake Taihu for Algal Bloom Control: Is it Helping or Hurting?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Harmful algae blooms in Lake Taihu are getting worse every year due to excess nutrients flowing into the water, especially from the northern watershed areas. Impact of blooms on lake's ecosystem, fisheries and drinking water supply to local towns has been severe. Many efforts have been undertaken by both government entities and researchers since 1990 for restoring the lake such as dredging, wetland construction, control of watershed runoff but none has garnered more attention than the water-diversion project. In the water-diversion project, freshwater from the Yangtze River is transferred into the lake via the Wangyuhe River (in the north) and is eventually discharged from the lake via the Taipuhe River (in the south) in an attempt to dilute the polluted water and flush pollutants out of the lake. The effects of water transfer on lake water quality and ecology have drawn great attention because the effectiveness of this project is conflicting. Recent studies suggest that water transfer could only decrease the concentration of phytoplankton but may actually increase concentrations of phosphorus and nitrogen in some areas of the lake where nutrient concentrations are lower than the influent water. In this study, a three dimensional Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) model was used to investigate mass balance and spatial distribution of nutrients (mainly nitrogen and phosphorus) in Lake Taihu before and after transfer.

Acharya, K.; Li, Y.; Tang, C.; Qiu, L.; Yu, Z.

2012-12-01

88

Genetic diversity of Odontobutis potamophila from different geographic populations inferred from mtDNA control region.  

PubMed

Odontobutis potamophila is a Chinese endemic species and an economically important fishery resource in the Yangtze River. The genetic variability of O. potamophila was studied based on the sequence analysis of mitochondrial DNA control region from 150 individuals of five geographical populations including from Dangtu (n=30), Sheyang (n=30), Yuyao (n=30), Tai Lake nearby Dongxishan (n=30) and Minjiang (n=30). Among five populations, the genetic distance between Minjiang population and other populations (0.1186-0.1223) was larger than that among four populations except for Minjiang (0.0015-0.0198). In addition, 23 haplotypes were obtained and each population had special haplotypes. The samples from five sites had high haplotype diversity (0.80510) and low nucleotide diversity (0.04028). Through Tajima's D and Fu's F neutral testing and mismatch distribution test among all geographical populations, O. potamophila did not undergo recent population expansion. During the population evolution, O. potamophila experienced a balanced selection function and maintained a stable state and population size. Moreover, the haplotype Neighbor-Joining (NJ) tree was separated two haplotype groups. The NJ tree, TCS network and median-joining network could clearly separate the haplotypes of the specimens from different areas. Analysis of molecular variance and pairwise FST revealed an obvious genetic differentiation among different geographical populations, suggesting that O. potamophila in different geographical populations should be managed and conserved separately. PMID:23841610

Hou, Xinyuan; Zhu, Fei; Yin, Shaowu; Zhang, Lijuan; Hu, Yali; Wang, Yayuan; Jia, Yihe; Zhang, Guosong; Li, Li

2014-10-01

89

Mitigating land loss in coastal Louisiana by controlled diversion of Mississippi River sand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After the 1927 flood of record on the Mississippi River, the Bonnet Carré Spillway in Louisiana was constructed as a flood control operation. When it is opened, the spillway diverts floodwaters from the Mississippi River to Lake Pontchartrain, to reduce the water discharge flowing past New Orleans. During the 2011 Mississippi River flood, which had the highest peak discharge since 1927, the Bonnet Carré Spillway was opened for 42 days, from 9May to 20 June. During this period, the average spillway discharge of 6,010m3s-1 amounted to 10-20% of the total river flood discharge. Here we present measurements of the areal extent and thickness of new sediments in the floodway, following the 2011 Mississippi flood. Only the upper 10-15% of the river water column was skimmed into the floodway. Yet, we conservatively estimate that 31-46% of the total sand load carried by the Mississippi River during the period of spillway opening was diverted. We find that local river conditions led to increased concentrations of suspended sand in the upper water column and thus led to diversion of sand from the river into the spillway. We conclude that an appropriate design of engineered river diversions in Louisiana can help mitigate coastal wetland loss.

Nittrouer, Jeffrey A.; Best, James L.; Brantley, Christopher; Cash, Ronald W.; Czapiga, Matthew; Kumar, Praveen; Parker, Gary

2012-08-01

90

Diverse neuronal lineages make stereotyped contributions to the Drosophila locomotor control center, the central complex  

PubMed Central

Summary The Drosophila central brain develops from a fixed number of neuroblasts. Each neuroblast makes a clone of neurons that exhibit common trajectories. Here we identified 15 distinct clones that carry larval-born neurons innervating the Drosophila central complex (CX), which consists of four midline structures including the protocerebral bridge (PB), fan-shape body (FB), ellipsoid body (EB), and noduli (NO). Clonal analysis revealed that the small-field CX neurons, which establish intricate projections across different CX substructures, exist in four isomorphic groups that respectively derive from four complex posterior asense-negative lineages. About the region-characteristic large-field CX neurons, we found that two lineages make PB neurons, ten lineages produce FB neurons, three lineages generate EB neurons, and two lineages yield NO neurons. The diverse FB developmental origins reflect the discrete input pathways for different FB subcompartments. Clonal analysis enlightens both development and anatomy of the insect locomotor control center. PMID:23696496

He, Yisheng; Ding, Peng; Kao, Jui-Chun; Lee, Tzumin

2013-01-01

91

BUDGETARY CONTROL AND SERVICE CHARGE MANAGEMENT PERFORMANCE IN REAL ESTATE SECTOR: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF THE MOTIVATIONAL ASPECT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most Real Estate Property Management Companies (PMC) in most cases struggles with service charge funds (SCF) to provide amenities for tenants living in their serviced apartments after budget has been carefully prepared and approved and payments made by occupants. This paper investigated the effect of motivational aspect of budgetary control on the service charge management performance in PMCs in Nigeria.

Kenneth Enoch Okpala

2013-01-01

92

Aspects of black-fly control and entomology in the New World in relation to the Simulium problem in Nigeria*  

PubMed Central

A general account is given of insecticidal control of black-flies in North and Central America, and the problems are contrasted with those arising in the control of Simulium damnosum Theo. in Nigeria. Some recent biological observations on Canadian black-flies are described, and it is emphasized that these have materially contributed to successful control. It is pointed out that S. damnosum control is being practised in the absence of much fundamental biological knowledge of this pest. Entomological aspects of onchocerciasis in Mexico and Guatemala are discussed, and compared with S. damnosum and its relationship to onchocerciasis in Nigeria. PMID:13813021

Crosskey, R. W.

1959-01-01

93

Single-shot high aspect ratio bulk nanostructuring of fused silica using chirp-controlled ultrafast laser Bessel beams  

SciTech Connect

We report single-shot, high aspect ratio nanovoid fabrication in bulk fused silica using zeroth order chirp-controlled ultrafast laser Bessel beams. We identify a unique laser pulse length and energy dependence of the physical characteristics of machined structures over which nanovoids of diameter in the range 200–400?nm and aspect ratios exceeding 1000 can be fabricated. A mechanism based on the axial energy deposition of nonlinear ultrashort Bessel beams and subsequent material densification or rarefaction in fused silica is proposed, intricating the non-diffractive nature with the diffusing character of laser-generated free carriers. Fluid flow through nanochannel is also demonstrated.

Bhuyan, M. K.; Velpula, P. K.; Colombier, J. P.; Olivier, T.; Faure, N.; Stoian, R., E-mail: razvan.stoian@univ-st-etienne.fr [Laboratoire Hubert Curien, UMR 5516 CNRS, Université de Lyon, Université Jean Monnet, 42000 Saint Etienne (France)

2014-01-13

94

Earthworms and legumes control litter decomposition in a plant diversity gradient.  

PubMed

The role of species and functional group diversity of primary producers for decomposers and decomposition processes is little understood. We made use of the "Jena Biodiversity Experiment" and tested the hypothesis that increasing plant species (1, 4, and 16 species) and functional group diversity (1, 2, 3, and 4 groups) beneficially affects decomposer density and activity and therefore the decomposition of plant litter material. Furthermore, by manipulating the densities of decomposers (earthworms and springtails) within the plant diversity gradient we investigated how the interactions between plant diversity and decomposer densities affect the decomposition of litter belonging to different plant functional groups (grasses, herbs, and legumes). Positive effects of increasing plant species or functional group diversity on earthworms (biomass and density) and microbial biomass were mainly due to the increased incidence of legumes with increasing diversity. Neither plant species diversity nor functional group diversity affected litter decomposition, However, litter decomposition varied with decomposer and plant functional group identity (of both living plants and plant litter). While springtail removal generally had little effect on decomposition, increased earthworm density accelerated the decomposition of nitrogen-rich legume litter, and this was more pronounced at higher plant diversity. The results suggest that earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris L.) and legumes function as keystone organisms for grassland decomposition processes and presumably contribute to the recorded increase in primary productivity with increasing plant diversity. PMID:18705374

Milcu, Alexandru; Partsch, Stephan; Scherber, Christoph; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Scheu, Stefan

2008-07-01

95

Deep Reactive Ion Etch (DRIE) Control for High-Aspect Ratio Silicon Structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) of Si, also referred to as the Bosch process, has opened new areas of application in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and mixed technology integration. A fully integrated microsystem could include biological or chemical sensors, mechanical gears and actuators, control electronics, micro-fluidics, and optics in a variety of material systems on a single chip or in a single package. As the device designs become more complicated or monolithic integration becomes necessary, the requirements for DRIE of Si become more difficult. For example, anisotropic etch profiles, smooth etch morphology, high etch selectivity to form freestanding membrane structures, and the fabrication of multi-level etched features becomes critical to device performance. The DRIE process relies on the formation of a sidewall etch inhibitor to prevent lateral etching of the Si thus resulting in highly anisotropic etch profiles at reasonably high etch rates. In this presentation we will report on the use of the DRIE platform to fabricate deep, high-aspect ratio Si features 100 microns wide, 400 microns deep with 25 microns walls. Optimization of the DRIE process by varying process parameters including reactive gas flow, pressure, and ion energy will be discussed. The use of parameter ramping as well as multi-level masking processes to meet the challenges of advanced micro-sensor designs will also be discussed. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

Shul, Randy

2003-10-01

96

Hydrographic controls on marine organic matter fate and microbial diversity in the western Irish Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cycling of organic matter (OM) is the key biological process in the marine environment1 and knowledge of the sources and the reactivity of OM, in addition to factors controlling its distribution in estuarine, coastal and shelf sediments are of key importance for understanding global biogeochemical cycles2. With recent advances in cultivation-independent molecular approaches to microbial ecology, the key role of prokaryotes in global biogeochemical cycling in marine ecosystems has been emphasised3,4. However, spatial studies combining the distribution and fate of OM with microbial community abundance and diversity remain rare. Here, a combined spatial lipid biomarker and 16S rRNA tagged pyrosequencing study was conducted in surface sediments and particulate matter across hydrographically distinct zones associated with the seasonal western Irish Sea gyre. The aim was to assess the spatial variation of, and factors controlling, marine organic cycling and sedimentary microbial communities across these distinct zones. The distribution of phospholipid fatty acids, source-specific sterols, wax esters and C25 highly branched isoprenoids indicate that diatoms, dinoflagellates and green algae were the major contributors of marine organic matter, while the distribution of cholesterol, wax esters and C20 and C22 polyunsaturated fatty acids have highlighted the importance of copepod grazing for mineralizing organic matter in the water column5. This marine OM production and mineralisation was greatest in well-mixed waters compared to offshore stratified waters. Lipid analysis and 16S rRNA PCR-DGGE profiling also suggests that sedimentary bacterial abundance increases while community diversity decreases in offshore stratified waters. The major bacterial classes are the Deltaproteobacteria, Clostridia, Flavobacteriia, Gammaproteobactera and Bacteroiidia. At the family/genus level most groups appear to be associated with organoheterotrophic processing of sedimentary OM, ranging from degradation of complex organic matter (e.g. Tepidibacter sp.) to sulfur-dependent utilisation of simple organic molecules (e.g. Desulfobulbaceae and Desulfuromonadaceae. 1. Hedges and Keil (1995) Mar Chem 49, 81-115. 2. Baldock et al., (2004) Mar Chem 92, 39-64. 3. Deming and Baross, (1993) Plenum Press, NY. 4. 4. Gooday, (2002) J Oceanogr 58, 305-332. 5. O'Reilly et al., (2013) Estuar, Coast & Shelf Sci. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2013.11.002

O'Reilly, Shane; Szpak, Michal; Monteys, Xavier; Flanagan, Paul; Allen, Christopher; Kelleher, Brian

2014-05-01

97

Mechanisms Controlling Carbon Turnover from Diverse Microbial Groups in Temperate and Tropical Forest Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microorganisms represent an important intermediate along the pathway of plant litter decomposition to the formation of soil organic matter (SOM); yet little is known of the fate and stability of microbial C in soils and the importance of microbial biochemistry as a factor influencing SOM dynamics. This research investigates mechanisms controlling microbial C stabilization in a temperate forest in the Sierra Nevada of California (CA) and a tropical forest in Puerto Rico (PR). Biochemically diverse microbial groups (fungi, actinomycetes, bacteria gram (+), and bacteria gram (-)) were isolated from both sites, grown in the laboratory with C13 media, killed, and nonliving residues were added back to soils as a reciprocal transplant of microbial groups. The native microbial community in CA is dominated by fungi and in PR is dominated by bacteria, which provides an opportunity to asses the metabolic response of distinct microbial communities to the diverse microbial additions. CA and PR soils were sampled five times over a 3 and 2 year period, respectively. In CA there was no significant difference in the mean residence time (MRT) of diverse C13 microbial treatments; whereas in PR there were significant differences, whereby temperate fungi, temperate Gram (+) bacteria, and tropical actinomycetes exhibited a significantly longer MRT as compared with tropical fungi and temperate Gram (-). These results suggest that a bacterial dominated microbial community discriminates more amongst diverse substrates than a fungal-dominated community. MRT for labeled-C in CA was 5.21 ± 1.11 years, and in PR was 2.22 ± 0.45. Despite substantial differences in MRT between sites, physical fractionation of soils into light (LF), aggregated-occluded (OF), and mineral-associated (MF) fractions provided evidence that accelerated decomposition in PR (presumably due to climate) operated primarily on labeled-C unassociated with the mineral matrix (LF); labeled-C occluded within aggregates (OF) or bound to the mineral matrix (MF) exhibited similar turnover dynamics for the two sites. Py-GC-MS-IRMS examined the fate of labeled temperate fungal residues at the molecular level in CA (30 days) and in PR (17 days) in whole soils and soil fractions. Results showed notably high enrichment of two polysaccharide biomarkers at both sites (2-furancarboxaldehyde, 5-methyl; and levoglucosanone); as well as an enol compound. These compounds did not occur in high abundance in the original fungal residues, suggesting selective preservation or secondary formation of these compounds in both CA and PR soils. Two additional lipid biomarkers exhibited notably high enrichment in CA but not PR soils, suggesting some distinct pathways of humification may be occurring at each site. Physical fractionation combined with molecular analysis suggests that protection by aggregate-occlusion (OF) and chemical complexation with soil mineral surfaces (MF) represent distinct protection mechanisms that operate on different microbial compounds.

Throckmorton, H.; Dane, L.; Bird, J. A.; Firestone, M. K.; Horwath, W. R.

2010-12-01

98

Microbial diversity in sediments of saline Qinghai Lake, China: linking geochemical controls to microbial ecology.  

PubMed

Saline lakes at high altitudes represent an important and extreme microbial ecosystem, yet little is known about microbial diversity in such environments. The objective of this study was to examine the change of microbial diversity from the bottom of the lake to sediments of 40 cm in depth in a core from Qinghai Lake. The lake is saline (12.5 g/L salinity) and alkaline (pH 9.4) and is located on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau at an altitude of 3196 m above sea level. Pore water chemistry of the core revealed low concentrations of sulfate and iron (<1 mM), but high concentrations of acetate (40-70 mM) and dissolved organic carbon (1596-5443 mg/L). Total organic carbon and total nitrogen contents in the sediments were approximately 2 and <0.5%, respectively. Acridine orange direct count data indicated that cell numbers decreased from 4 x 10(9) cells/g at the water-sediment interface to 6 x 10(7) cells/g wet sediment at the 40-cm depth. This change in biomass was positively correlated with acetate concentration in pore water. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) community structure analyses determined decrease in the proportion of the Proteobacteria and increase in the Firmicutes with increased depth. Characterization of small subunit (SSU) rRNA genes amplified from the sediments indicated a shift in the bacterial community with depth. Whereas the alpha-, beta-, and gamma-Proteobacteria and the Cytophaga/Flavobacterium/Bacteroides (CFB) were dominant at the water-sediment interface, low G + C gram-positive bacteria (a subgroup of Firmicutes) became the predominant group in the anoxic sediments. Both PLFA and the sequence data showed similar trend. The Proteobacteria, CFB, and gram-positive bacteria are present in other saline lakes, but the presence of Actinobacteria and Acidobacteria/Holophaga in significant proportions in the Qinghai Lake sediments appears to be unique. The archaeal diversity was much lower, and clone sequences could be grouped in the Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeota domains. The archaeal clones were not related to any known cultures but to sequences previously found in methane-rich sediments. Acetate-utilizing methanogens were isolated from sediment incubations, and alpha- and gamma-proteobacterial isolates were obtained from a water sample from the lake-bottom (23 m). Our data collectively showed that the observed diversity and shift in the community structure with depth was correlated with geochemical parameters (the redox state and availability of electron acceptor and donor). Heterotrophic methanogenesis is possibly adominant metabolic process in the Qinghai Lake sediments. These results reinforce the importance of geochemical controls on microbial ecology in saline and alkaline lake environments. PMID:16400537

Dong, Hailiang; Zhang, Gengxin; Jiang, Hongchen; Yu, Bingsong; Chapman, Leah R; Lucas, Courtney R; Fields, Matthew W

2006-01-01

99

Transcription Control Pathways Decode Patterned Synaptic Inputs into Diverse mRNA Expression Profiles  

PubMed Central

Synaptic plasticity requires transcription and translation to establish long-term changes that form the basis for long term memory. Diverse stimuli, such as synaptic activity and growth factors, trigger synthesis of mRNA to regulate changes at the synapse. The palette of possible mRNAs is vast, and a key question is how the cell selects which mRNAs to synthesize. To address this molecular decision-making, we have developed a biochemically detailed model of synaptic-activity triggered mRNA synthesis. We find that there are distinct time-courses and amplitudes of different branches of the mRNA regulatory signaling pathways, which carry out pattern-selective combinatorial decoding of stimulus patterns into distinct mRNA subtypes. Distinct, simultaneously arriving input patterns that impinge on the transcriptional control network interact nonlinearly to generate novel mRNA combinations. Our model combines major regulatory pathways and their interactions connecting synaptic input to mRNA synthesis. We parameterized and validated the model by incorporating data from multiple published experiments. The model replicates outcomes of knockout experiments. We suggest that the pattern-selectivity mechanisms analyzed in this model may act in many cell types to confer the capability to decode temporal patterns into combinatorial mRNA expression. PMID:24787753

Jain, Pragati; Bhalla, Upinder S.

2014-01-01

100

Landscape-level controls on dissolved carbon flux from diverse catchments of the circumboreal  

USGS Publications Warehouse

While much of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) within rivers is destined for mineralization to CO2, a substantial fraction of riverine bicarbonate (HCO3-) flux represents a CO2 sink, as a result of weathering processes that sequester CO2 as HCO3-. We explored landscape-level controls on DOC and HCO3- flux in subcatchments of the boreal, with a specific focus on the effect of permafrost on riverine dissolved C flux. To do this, we undertook a multivariate analysis that partitioned the variance attributable to known, key regulators of dissolved C flux (runoff, lithology, and vegetation) prior to examining the effect of permafrost, using riverine biogeochemistry data from a suite of subcatchments drawn from the Mackenzie, Yukon, East, and West Siberian regions of the circumboreal. Across the diverse catchments that we study, controls on HCO3- flux were near-universal: runoff and an increased carbonate rock contribution to weathering (assessed as riverwater Ca:Na) increased HCO3- yields, while increasing permafrost extent was associated with decreases in HCO3-. In contrast, permafrost had contrasting and region-specific effects on DOC yield, even after the variation caused by other key drivers of its flux had been accounted for. We used ionic ratios and SO4 yields to calculate the potential range of CO2 sequestered via weathering across these boreal subcatchments, and show that decreasing permafrost extent is associated with increases in weathering-mediated CO2 fixation across broad spatial scales, an effect that could counterbalance some of the organic C mineralization that is predicted with declining permafrost.

Tank, Suzanne; Frey, Karen E.; Striegl, Robert G.; Raymond, Peter A.; Holmes, R. Max; McClelland, James W.; Peterson, Bruce J.

2012-01-01

101

Environmental and developmental controls of morphological diversity in a thermal spring gastropod from Coahuila, Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isolated thermal springs and associated aquatic environments near Cuatro Ciénegas, in north-central Mexico provide an opportunity to study patterns of evolutionary diversification under extreme conditions. Significant differences in temperature, seasonality, pH, and salinities among other variables may allow for high levels of differentiation and endemism. Biological studies of the unique faunas in this type of environment may serve as analogues for extreme and/or evaporitic environments as targeted by astrobiological research. The endemic hydrobiid gastropod \\textit{Mexipyrgus} is widely distributed in a variety of aquatic environments within the Cuatro Cienégas basin. Original description of this genus by Taylor listed six distinct species reflecting shell and anatomical features. Later revision by Hershler suggests that this diversity be reduced to one single, highly-variable species, based mainly on the morphology of reproductive structures. The systematic conflict emphasizes the need to understand the bases of morphological variation at small scales and in environmentally unusual settings. Shells of \\textit{Mexipyrgus} were collected from six localities and the following species were identified based on Taylor's classification: \\textit{M. carranzae}, \\textit{M. escobedae}, \\textit{M. multilineatus}, and specimens intermediate in character between \\textit{M. carranzae}, \\textit{M. lugoi} and \\textit{M. mojarralis}. All specimens consisted of 4-6 whorls. Shell shape was archived by the digitization of geometrically homologous landmarks on the spire (apex, whorl sutures in apertural view) and aperture. Shell size was calculated as Centroid Size. Data were analyzed using uniform and principal warp analysis of raw landmark coordinates, followed by relative warp analysis of uniform and partial warp scores. Three separate analyses were performed for 4, 5 and 6 whorled specimens. Results indicate two different levels of variation based on individual age. Variation among 4 whorled specimens is dominated by locality: each locality is distinct from all others, regardless of individual species composition. Analysis of 5-whorled specimens reveals some locality-based differentiation, but also taxonomic (and possibly gender) differentiation. Finally, by the 6-whorled stage, the pattern of differentiation is based solely on taxonomy, with Taylor's morphospecies forming distinct and discrete groups. Another analysis conducted on the first four whorls of all specimens supports the hypothesis that location and local environmental factors are the largest influence on morphology earlier in development. In summary, environment seems to exert a significant influence on morphology during shell development, but terminal adult morphology is largely under intrinsic (genetic) control. Resolution of the systematics and true diversity of \\textit{Mexipyrgus} will ultimately rely upon further quantitative morphological studies in addition to future population genetic studies of this genus in a variety of microhabitats.

Roopnarine, P. D.; Tang, C. M.

2001-12-01

102

Proceedings of the Workshop on Computational Aspects in the Control of Flexible Systems, part 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Control/Structures Integration Program, a survey of available software for control of flexible structures, computational efficiency and capability, modeling and parameter estimation, and control synthesis and optimization software are discussed.

Taylor, Lawrence W., Jr. (compiler)

1989-01-01

103

Control aspects of the Schuchuli Village stand-alone photovoltaic power system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A photovoltaic power system in an Arizona Indian village was installed. The control subsystem of this photovoltaic power system was analyzed. The four major functions of the control subsystem are: (1) voltage regulation; (2) load management; (3) water pump control; and (4) system protection. The control subsystem functions flowcharts for the control subsystem operation, and a computer program that models the control subsystem are presented.

Groumpos, P. P.; Culler, J. E.; Delombard, R.

1984-01-01

104

Some Aspects of Speech Production under Controlled Conditions of Oral Anaesthesia and Auditory Masking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on the effects of oral anaesthesia and auditory masking on various aspects of speech articulation as objectively quantified by electropalatography and sound spectrography. The results show changes in speech production caused by altered tactile and auditory feedback. (Author/TL)

Hardcastle, W. J.

1975-01-01

105

Frequency diversity in multistatic radars  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the model and analysis of a frequency-diverse radar system. Multistatic radar systems provide an inherent spatial diversity by processing signals from different platforms which view a potential target from different aspect angles. By using different frequencies at each platform, an additional diversity gain can be obtained on top of the advantages of spatial diversity. Here, since platforms

Byung Wook Jung; R aviraj S. Adve; Joohwan Chun

2008-01-01

106

Quality Control. Supervising. Technical Aspects of Supervision. The Choice Series #35. A Self Learning Opportunity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This student guide is intended to assist persons employed as supervisors in improving their knowledge and skills in the area of quality control. Discussed in the first three sections are the following topics: quality and control (quality, measuring and achieving quality, controlling resources, and quality consciousness); quality control and…

Lawson, Fred

107

Electrical Engineering is a diverse discipline encompassing computer and information systems, controls, lasers,  

E-print Network

70 ELECTRICAL Electrical Engineering is a diverse discipline encompassing computer and information environmental engineering and manufacturing to semiconductors and telecommunications. The Electrical Engineering Technology and the Signal and Image Processing institute. PROGRAMS AVAILABLE · Electrical Engineering

Rohs, Remo

108

Performance Analysis of Fully Joint Diversity Combining, Adaptive Modulation, and Power Control Schemes  

E-print Network

have been used jointly in new schemes named joint adaptive modulation and diversity combining (JAMDC) schemes. Considering the problem of finding lowcomplexity, bandwidth-efficient, and processing-power efficient transmission schemes for a downlink...

Bouida, Zied

2010-01-14

109

Community Diversity: Controls and Patterns What is biodiversity and why is it important?  

E-print Network

of different items and their relative frequency. For biological diversity, these items are organized at many · Elevation Earthworms across EuropeBirds on islands Birds globally Bats in Manu NP, Peru Gaston 2000 #12

Hansen, Andrew J.

110

Microbial Diversity in Sediments of Saline Qinghai Lake, China: Linking Geochemical Controls to Microbial Ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saline lakes at high altitudes represent an important and extreme microbial ecosystem, yet little is known about microbial\\u000a diversity in such environments. The objective of this study was to examine the change of microbial diversity from the bottom\\u000a of the lake to sediments of 40 cm in depth in a core from Qinghai Lake. The lake is saline (12.5 g\\/L salinity) and

Hailiang Dong; Gengxin Zhang; Hongchen Jiang; Bingsong Yu; Leah R. Chapman; Courtney R. Lucas; Matthew W. Fields

2006-01-01

111

Host and parasite diversity jointly control disease risk in complex communities  

PubMed Central

Host–parasite interactions are embedded within complex communities composed of multiple host species and a cryptic assemblage of other parasites. To date, however, surprisingly few studies have explored the joint effects of host and parasite richness on disease risk, despite growing interest in the diversity–disease relationship. Here, we combined field surveys and mechanistic experiments to test how transmission of the virulent trematode Ribeiroia ondatrae was affected by the diversity of both amphibian hosts and coinfecting parasites. Within natural wetlands, host and parasite species richness correlated positively, consistent with theoretical predictions. Among sites that supported Ribeiroia, however, host and parasite richness interacted to negatively affect Ribeiroia transmission between its snail and amphibian hosts, particularly in species-poor assemblages. In laboratory and outdoor experiments designed to decouple the relative contributions of host and parasite diversity, increases in host richness decreased Ribeiroia infection by 11–65%. Host richness also tended to decrease total infections by other parasite species (four of six instances), such that more diverse host assemblages exhibited ?40% fewer infections overall. Importantly, parasite richness further reduced both per capita and total Ribeiroia infection by 15–20%, possibly owing to intrahost competition among coinfecting species. These findings provide evidence that parasitic and free-living diversity jointly regulate disease risk, help to resolve apparent contradictions in the diversity–disease relationship, and emphasize the challenges of integrating research on coinfection and host heterogeneity to develop a community ecology-based approach to infectious diseases. PMID:24082092

Johnson, Pieter T. J.; Preston, Daniel L.; Hoverman, Jason T.; LaFonte, Bryan E.

2013-01-01

112

Loss of genetic diversity in Culex quinquefasciatus targeted by a lymphatic filariasis vector control program in Recife, Brazil.  

PubMed

Recife is one of the largest cities in north-eastern Brazil and is endemic for lymphatic filariasis transmitted by Culex quinquefasciatus. Since 2003 a control program has targeted mosquito larvae by elimination of breeding sites and bimonthly application of Bacillus sphaericus. To assess the impact of this program on the local vector population we monitored the genetic diversity and differentiation of Cx. quinquefasciatus using microsatellites and a B. sphaericus-resistance associated mutation (cqm1(REC)) over a 3-year period. We detected a significant but gradual decline in allelic diversity, which, coupled with subtle temporal genetic structure, suggests a major impact of the control program on the vector population. Selection on cqm1(REC) does not appear to be involved with loss of neutral diversity from the population, with no temporal trend in resistant allele frequency and no correlation with microsatellite differentiation. The evidence for short-term genetic drift we detected suggests a low ratio of effective population size: census population size for Cx. quinquefasciatus, perhaps coupled with strong geographically-restricted population structure. Spatial definition of populations will be an important step for success of an expanded vector control program. PMID:21737112

Cartaxo, Marina F S; Ayres, Constância F J; Weetman, David

2011-09-01

113

Proceedings of the Workshop on Computational Aspects in the Control of Flexible Systems, part 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Control/Structures Integration program software needs, computer aided control engineering for flexible spacecraft, computer aided design, computational efficiency and capability, modeling and parameter estimation, and control synthesis and optimization software for flexible structures and robots are among the topics discussed.

Taylor, Lawrence W., Jr. (compiler)

1989-01-01

114

Genetic diversity and population structure of largehead hairtail, Trichiurus japonicus, based on mtDNA control region.  

PubMed

Largehead hairtail, Trichiurus japonicus, is a valuable commercially exploited demersal species. We gathered mtDNA control region sequences (3' mtDNA CR) of T. japonicus to investigate its genetic diversity and population genetic structure. Fifty-four specimens were collected from the nearshore localities along the coastline of China. A total of 42 polymorphic sites were found, which defined 40 haplotypes. A pattern with high level of haplotype diversity (h?=?0.98?±?0.01) and very low level of nucleotide diversity (??=?0.008?±?0.005) were detected in the examined range. Comparing ? with other fish species shows that T. japonicus has remarkable low genetic diversity values compared with other Pacific Ocean marine fishes. AMOVA and conventional Fst values revealed no significant genetic structure throughout the examined range, which is inconsistent with the previous findings based on the morphological and ecological studies. Using a variety of phylogenetic methods, coalescent reasoning, and molecular dating interpreted in conjunction with paleoclimateic and physiographic evidence, we infer that the genetic make-up of extant populations of T. japonicus was shaped by Pleistocene environmental impacts on the historical demography of this species. Coalescent analyses (Neutrality tests, Mismatch distribution analysis, Bayesian skyline analyses) showed that the species along the coastline of China has experienced population expansions originated in its most recent history at about 153-216?kyr. PMID:23859051

Xiao, Yongshuang; Ren, Guijing; Song, Na; Li, Jun; Gao, Tianxiang

2014-12-01

115

Materials for Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms: Molecular Pharmaceutics and Controlled Release Drug Delivery Aspects  

PubMed Central

Controlled release delivery is available for many routes of administration and offers many advantages (as microparticles and nanoparticles) over immediate release delivery. These advantages include reduced dosing frequency, better therapeutic control, fewer side effects, and, consequently, these dosage forms are well accepted by patients. Advances in polymer material science, particle engineering design, manufacture, and nanotechnology have led the way to the introduction of several marketed controlled release products and several more are in pre-clinical and clinical development. PMID:20957095

Mansour, Heidi M.; Sohn, MinJi; Al-Ghananeem, Abeer; DeLuca, Patrick P.

2010-01-01

116

Materials for pharmaceutical dosage forms: molecular pharmaceutics and controlled release drug delivery aspects.  

PubMed

Controlled release delivery is available for many routes of administration and offers many advantages (as microparticles and nanoparticles) over immediate release delivery. These advantages include reduced dosing frequency, better therapeutic control, fewer side effects, and, consequently, these dosage forms are well accepted by patients. Advances in polymer material science, particle engineering design, manufacture, and nanotechnology have led the way to the introduction of several marketed controlled release products and several more are in pre-clinical and clinical development. PMID:20957095

Mansour, Heidi M; Sohn, Minji; Al-Ghananeem, Abeer; Deluca, Patrick P

2010-01-01

117

Wavefront sensing and control aspects in a high energy laser optical train  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we review the major elements of a HEL (high energy laser) wavefront sensing and control system with particular emphasis on experimental demonstrations and hardware components developed at Lockheed Missiles & Space Company, Inc. The review concentrates on three important elements of wavefront control: wavefront sampling, wavefront sensing and active mirrors. Methods of wavefront sampling by diffraction gratings

M. Bartosewcz; N. Bareket

1981-01-01

118

Bacterial Community Structure of Acid-Impacted Lakes: What Controls Diversity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although it is recognized that acidification of freshwater systems results in decreased overall species richness of plants and animals, little is known about the response of aquatic microbial communities to acidification. In this study we examined bacterioplankton community diversity and structure in 18 lakes located in the Adirondack Park (in the state of New York in the United States) that

Sascha F. Percent; Marc E. Frischer; Paul A. Vescio; Ellen B. Duffy; Vincenzo Milano; Maggie McLellan; Brett M. Stevens; Charles W. Boylen; Sandra A. Nierzwicki-Bauer

2008-01-01

119

Evaluating Sand Transport Through Two Spillway Diversions on the Lower Mississippi River During the Flood of 2011: Implications for Land Management Via Controlled Diversions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mississippi River flood of 2011 necessitated operation of both the Bonnet Carré and Morganza spillways, so that up to 25% of the lower river-water discharge plus associated sediment was diverted into Lake Pontchartrain and Atchafalaya River basin, respectively. The design of each spillway is quite different, and here we present data used to analyze the sand transport capacity of both structures. The Morganza Floodway is set several kilometers from a Mississippi River bend reach, is buffered by a wooded floodplain and has a long, contained forebay. This site location and design inhibits movement of sand from the river through the spillway. In contrast, the Bonnet Carré Spillway is positioned adjacent to the river channel and just downstream of two bend reaches; enhanced secondary flow and turbulence associated with this planform contributes to sand suspension, promoting extensive sediment transport through the spillway. Interestingly, despite the depth of the weir separating the Mississippi River channel and the Bonnet Carré Spillway (approximately the upper 10% of the thalweg depth), the spillway captured a significant proportion of channel-bed sand, based on our data for grain-size distribution of sand on the river-channel bed compared to deposits in the spillway. These results indicate that planform controls and sediment transport dynamics can be used to predict the optimal placement of diversion structures intended to distribute water and sediment from the lower Mississippi River to surrounding wetlands, thereby helping prevent coastal erosion and degradation of infrastructure.

Czapiga, M. J.; Nittrouer, J. A.; Brantley, C.; Cash, R. W.; Parker, G.; Best, J. L.

2011-12-01

120

Control, monitoring and safety aspects of power distribution in the ATLAS experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this document will be presented examples of different approaches to implement electrical distribution. Ways to achieve the expected level of control will be demonstrated, statistics presenting usage of the control system will be given. Applications developed to enrich monitoring of the electrical infrastructure including also quality of the powering network will be shown. Characteristics of applications focused on safety of the Atlas rack's supply will be demonstrated.

Iwanski, W.

2012-02-01

121

Social and cultural aspects of 'malaria' and its control in central Côte d'Ivoire  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A sound local understanding of preventive measures and health-seeking behaviour is important for the effective control of malaria. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes, practices and beliefs of 'malaria' and its control in two rural communities of central Côte d'Ivoire, and to examine associations between 'malaria' and the households' socioeconomic status. METHODS: A cross-sectional

Clémence Essé; Jürg Utzinger; Andres B Tschannen; Giovanna Raso; Constanze Pfeiffer; Stefanie Granado; Benjamin G Koudou; Eliézer K N'Goran; Guéladio Cissé; Olivier Girardin; Marcel Tanner; Brigit Obrist

2008-01-01

122

Discussion and Practical Aspects on Control Allocation for a Multi-Rotor Helicopter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents practical methods to improve the ?ight performance of an unmanned multi-rotor helicopter by using an ef?cient control allocation strategy. The ?ying vehicle considered is an hexacopter. It is indeed particularly suited for long missions and for carrying a signi?cant payload such as all the sensors needed in the context of cartography, photogrammetry, inspection, surveillance and transportation. Moreover, a stable ?ight is often required for precise data recording during the mission. Therefore, a high performance ?ight control system is required to operate the UAV. However, the ?ight performance of a multi-rotor vehicle is tightly dependent on the control allocation strategy that is used to map the virtual control vector v = [T, L, M, N ]T composed of the thrust and the torques in roll, pitch and yaw, respectively, to the propellers' speed. This paper shows that a control allocation strategy based on the classical approach of pseudo-inverse matrix only exploits a limited range of the vehicle capabilities to generate thrust and moments. Thus, in this paper, a novel approach is presented, which is based on a weighted pseudo-inverse matrix method capable of exploiting a much larger domain in v. The proposed control allocation algorithm is designed with explicit laws for fast operation and low computational load, suitable for a small microcontroller with limited ?oating-point operation capability.

Ducard, G. J. J.; Hua, M.-D.

2011-09-01

123

Temporal patterns of diversity: Assessing the biotic and abiotic controls on ant assemblages  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In this study, we use 12 months of data from 11 ant assemblages to test whether seasonal variation in ant diversity is governed by either the structuring influences of interspecific competition or environmental conditions. Because the importance of competition might vary along environmental gradients, we also test whether the signature of competition depends on elevation. We find little evidence that competition structures the seasonal patterns of activity in the ant assemblages considered, but find support for the effects of temperature on seasonal patterns of diversity, especially at low-elevation sites. Although, in general, both competition and the environment interact to structure ant assemblages, our results suggest that environmental conditions are the primary force structuring the seasonal activity of the ant assemblages studied here. ?? 2007 The Linnean Society of London.

Dunn, R.R.; Parker, C.R.; Sanders, N.J.

2007-01-01

124

Ethical aspects and dilemmas of fertility control of unwanted wildlife: an animal welfarist's perspective.  

PubMed

Proposals to manipulate the fertility of wild, free-living animals extend the domination humans already exercise over domesticated animals. Current lethal methods for population control include poisoning, trapping, hunting, dogging, shooting, explosives, fumigants, and deliberately introduced disease. Animal welfare interests are based on individual animal suffering, but those interests are often overshadowed by labelling of groups of animals as pests, resource species, national emblem or endangered species. Public concern for animal welfare and acceptance of new population control methods will be influenced by such labels. The animal welfare implications of new population control technology must be balanced against the existing inhumane lethal methods used. It will be difficult to resolve the dilemma of a mechanism for disseminating a fertility control agent that will cause some animal suffering (e.g. a genetically-manipulated myxoma virus for European rabbits), yet may reduce future rabbit populations and therefore the number suffering from lethal methods. An Animal Impact Statement is proposed as a tool to assist debate during development of fertility control methods and for decision making prior to their use. A comprehensive and objective Animal Impact Statement may introduce an ethic that moves the pendulum from attitudes that allow sentient animals to be destroyed by any and all available means, towards a more objective selection of the most effective and humane methods. PMID:9109207

Oogjes, G

1997-01-01

125

Aspects of model-based rocket engine condition monitoring and control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A rigorous propulsion system modelling method suitable for control and condition monitoring purposes is developed. Previously developed control oriented methods yielding nominal models for gaseous medium propulsion systems are extended to include both nominal and anomalous models for liquid mediums in the following two ways. First, thermodynamic and fluid dynamic properties for liquids such as liquid hydrogen are incorporated into the governing equations. Second, anomalous conditions are captured in ways compatible with existing system theoretic design tools so that anomalous models can be constructed. Control and condition monitoring based methods are seen as an improvement over some existing modelling methods because such methods typically do not rigorously lead to low order models nor do they provide a means for capturing anomalous conditions. Applications to the nominal SSME HPFP and degraded HPFP serve to illustrate the approach.

Karr, Gerald R.; Helmicki, Arthur J.

1994-01-01

126

Theoretical and experimental aspects of chaos control by time-delayed feedback.  

PubMed

We review recent developments for the control of chaos by time-delayed feedback methods. While such methods are easily applied even in quite complex experimental context the theoretical analysis yields infinite-dimensional differential-difference systems which are hard to tackle. The essential ideas for a general theoretical approach are sketched and the results are compared to electronic circuits and to high power ferromagnetic resonance experiments. Our results show that the control performance can be understood on the basis of experimentally accessible quantities without resort to any model for the internal dynamics. PMID:12675432

Just, Wolfram; Benner, Hartmut; Reibold, Ekkehard

2003-03-01

127

Measurement uncertainty and doping control in sport. Part 2: Metrological traceability aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The assessment of (non-)compliance in doping control and in particular the appreciation of uncertainty of measurement in such an assessment has become a subject of debate. In a previous paper, the requirements for evaluating measurement uncertainty have been addressed. The debate now focuses on the estimation of the standard uncertainty. The completeness of an uncertainty budget is discussed in view

Adriaan M. H. van der Veen

2004-01-01

128

Afferent and Efferent Aspects of Mandibular Sensorimotor Control in Adults Who Stutter  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Individuals who stutter show sensorimotor deficiencies in speech and nonspeech movements. For the mandibular system, the authors dissociated the sense of kinesthesia from the efferent control component to examine whether kinesthetic integrity itself is compromised in stuttering or whether deficiencies occur only when generating motor…

Daliri, Ayoub; Prokopenko, Roman A.; Max, Ludo

2013-01-01

129

Stores Control. Supervising: Technical Aspects of Supervision. The Choice Series #41. A Self-Learning Opportunity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This learning unit on stores control is one in the Choice Series, a self-learning development program for supervisors. The purpose of the approximately eight-hour-long unit is to enable the supervisor to design and organize the layout of a store for maximum efficiency, understand the types of documentation associated with the movement of goods…

Austin, David

130

Benthic control freaks: Effects of the tubiculous amphipod Haploops nirae on the specific diversity and functional structure of benthic communities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Haploops nirae is a gregarious tubiculous amphipod which extended its habitat over thousands of hectares in shallow waters of South Brittany bays (Bay of Biscay, Atlantic) over the last decades and created uniquely large and dense tube mats. In the bay of Concarneau, we investigated the specific diversity (i.e. species richness and species composition) and the functional structure (using biological traits) of the macrofauna associated with this Haploops community as a comparison with several surrounding soft-sediment communities to determine the effect of this engineer species on ecosystem functions. We showed that the occurrence of Haploops tubes and individuals significantly modifies sediment features (e.g. change in sediment grain size, increase in C and N organic content) but also largely affect species diversity and benthic composition. The species richness was significantly higher in Haploops community but the species assemblage associated with Haploops habitat was very homogeneous compared to the neighboring habitats and unique with 33% of all species exclusively found in this community. Multivariate analysis (dbRDA) revealed that Haploops density was by far the factor explaining the variation in species composition of benthic communities. No differences in species diversity and assemblage were detected in relationship to Haploops density. A biological trait analysis performed on the whole ecosystem (Haploops included) revealed that Haploops largely dominates the functional structure of the Haploops community by its own functional traits. When performed on selected traits of the associated fauna only (Haploops excluded) the functional structure of the Haploops community was characterized by a greatly reduced proportion of small to medium long lived, sensitive to disturbance, free living or burrowing/tube-building filter-feeding species. H. nirae appears to be a bioengineer and a foundation species that largely modifies its hydro-sedimentary features, controlling diversity and abundances of associated species, and creating a complex set of positive and negative interactions so that a unique benthic assemblage is found in sediments they colonized.

Rigolet, Carinne; Dubois, Stanislas F.; Thiébaut, Eric

2014-01-01

131

Theoretic aspects of the identification of the parameters in the optimal control model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The identification of the parameters of the optimal control model from input-output data of the human operator is considered. Accepting the basic structure of the model as a cascade of a full-order observer and a feedback law, and suppressing the inherent optimality of the human controller, the parameters to be identified are the feedback matrix, the observer gain matrix, and the intensity matrices of the observation noise and the motor noise. The identification of the parameters is a statistical problem, because the system and output are corrupted by noise, and therefore the solution must be based on the statistics (probability density function) of the input and output data of the human operator. However, based on the statistics of the input-output data of the human operator, no distinction can be made between the observation and the motor noise, which shows that the model suffers from overparameterization.

Vanwijk, R. A.; Kok, J. J.

1977-01-01

132

Regulatory Aspects in Chemical Control of Fungal Diseases: Impact on Efficient Plant Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Chemical control measures against plant diseases have a long history. Already in the nineteenth century and even earlier chemicals\\u000a containing copper, sulphur, or phenolic compounds were used. In the middle of the twentieth century new efficient fungicides\\u000a against plant pathogens were invented. Since the 1960s an official approval for Plant Protection Products (PPPs) by special\\u000a authorities was demanded. In Germany,

Georg F. Backhaus

133

Mitochondrial DNA diversity of Cleruchoides noackae (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae): a potential biological control  

E-print Network

Biological control programmes can benefit sub- stantially from an understanding of the population Handling population, thereby guiding one to the region in which matching natural biological control agents can biological control agent for Thaumastocoris peregrinus (Hemiptera: Thaumastocoridae) R. L. Nadel · M. J

134

A safety awareness program for women with diverse disabilities: a randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

Women with diverse disabilities (N = 213), recruited through 10 centers for independent living (CILs), were randomly assigned to either a personal safety awareness program or usual care. The 8-week program, led by CIL staff, was designed to increase safety awareness, abuse and safety knowledge, safety skills, safety self-efficacy, social support, and safety promoting behaviors. All participants completed pre-, post-, and 6-month follow-up questionnaires. Results revealed that participation in a brief safety awareness program may improve safety protective factors among women with disabilities who vary widely in their experience with abuse. The program holds promise for enhancing safety among women with disabilities. PMID:25031362

Robinson-Whelen, Susan; Hughes, Rosemary B; Gabrielli, Joy; Lund, Emily M; Abramson, Wendie; Swank, Paul R

2014-07-01

135

Controllable fabrication of periodic arrays of high-aspect-ratio micro-nano hierarchical structures and their superhydrophobicity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper demonstrates a flexible and controllable fabrication of vertically aligned and high-aspect-ratio (HAR) micro-nano hierarchical structures using conventional micro-technologies. We first masked the nanopatterns on a photoresist mold by shifting the same photomask, which could be performed using conventional contact microlithography. Thereby replicating nanopatterns onto an aluminium mold and successfully fabricating silicon nanopillar arrays about 300 nm in diameter and 5 µm in height via the deep reactive etching (DRIE) process. We also fabricated micro-nano hierarchical structures with variable aspect ratios using the proposed nanopattern technology and DRIE process without using any special nanopatterning equipment or techniques. The proposed method not only simplified the fabrication process but also produced HAR (higher than 15) structures. We also investigate the replica molding steps from the fabricated silicon stamp to a UV-curable polymer replica using a PDMS mold and conventional nano-imprinting, where each nanopillar diameter was 320 nm with 95% fidelity. As a result, the hierarchical structure arrays show stable superhydrophobic surface properties with a contact angle of approximately 160°. Owing to the cost efficiency of mass production and the fidelity of the strategy, the methodology could provide a general approach for fabricating complex three-dimensional periodic hierarchical structures onto a single chip and can be applied to various fields of multifunctional applications.

Ma, Zhibo; Jiang, Chengyu; Li, Xiangming; Ye, Fang; Yuan, Weizheng

2013-09-01

136

Understanding the traditional aspect of Chinese medicine in order to achieve meaningful quality control of Chinese materia medica.  

PubMed

Although sophisticated and technologically advanced, current quality control methods for Chinese medicines (syn. Chinese materia medica or CMM) lack comprehensiveness and practicability. They are more suited for analyzing single-chemical drugs or specific, known chemical components that have already been isolated. While these methods can fully satisfy the modern scientific requirements for identity, purity and quality in the assessment of chemical drugs, they are not suitable for handling the complex chemical nature of traditional CMM whose multifunctional components along with their inherent holistic activities are frequently unknown and thus are not adequately analyzed by these methods. In order to assess properly and meaningfully the identity and quality of complex CMM (also known as Chinese herbs and Chinese herbal medicines), additional measures that can retain the traditional aspect of CMM need to be included. This requires a basic understanding of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). PMID:18757061

Xie, Pei-Shan; Leung, Albert Y

2009-03-13

137

The transcription factor Apontic-like controls diverse colouration pattern in caterpillars.  

PubMed

Genetic polymorphisms underlie the convergent and divergent evolution of various phenotypes. Diverse colour patterns on caterpillars, which are ecologically important, are good models for understanding the molecular backgrounds of phenotypic diversity. Here we show that a single evolutionarily conserved gene apontic-like (apt-like) encoding for a putative transcription factor accounts for the silkworm p locus, which causes at least 15 different larval markings involved in branch-like markings and eye-spot formation. The expression of apt-like and melanin synthesis genes are upregulated in association with pigmented areas of marking mutants Striped (p(S)) and normal (+(p)) but not in the non-marking allele plain (p). Functional analyses, ectopic expression, RNAi and TALEN, demonstrate that apt-like causes melanin pigmentation in a cell-autonomous manner. These results suggest that variation in p alleles is caused by the differential expression of the gene apt-like which induces targeted elevation of gene expressions in the melanin synthesis pathway. PMID:25233442

Yoda, Shinichi; Yamaguchi, Junichi; Mita, Kazuei; Yamamoto, Kimiko; Banno, Yutaka; Ando, Toshiya; Daimon, Takaaki; Fujiwara, Haruhiko

2014-01-01

138

The Mechanical Diversity of Stomata and Its Significance in Gas-Exchange Control[OA  

PubMed Central

Given that stomatal movement is ultimately a mechanical process and that stomata are morphologically and mechanically diverse, we explored the influence of stomatal mechanical diversity on leaf gas exchange and considered some of the constraints. Mechanical measurements were conducted on the guard cells of four different species exhibiting different stomatal morphologies, including three variants on the classical “kidney” form and one “dumb-bell” type; this information, together with gas-exchange measurements, was used to model and compare their respective operational characteristics. Based on evidence from scanning electron microscope images of cryo-sectioned leaves that were sampled under full sun and high humidity and from pressure probe measurements of the stomatal aperture versus guard cell turgor relationship at maximum and zero epidermal turgor, it was concluded that maximum stomatal apertures (and maximum leaf diffusive conductance) could not be obtained in at least one of the species (the grass Triticum aestivum) without a substantial reduction in subsidiary cell osmotic (and hence turgor) pressure during stomatal opening to overcome the large mechanical advantage of subsidiary cells. A mechanism for this is proposed, with a corollary being greatly accelerated stomatal opening and closure. Gas-exchange measurements on T. aestivum revealed the capability of very rapid stomatal movements, which may be explained by the unique morphology and mechanics of its dumb-bell-shaped stomata coupled with “see-sawing” of osmotic and turgor pressure between guard and subsidiary cells during stomatal opening or closure. Such properties might underlie the success of grasses. PMID:17114276

Franks, Peter J.; Farquhar, Graham D.

2007-01-01

139

The mechanical diversity of stomata and its significance in gas-exchange control.  

PubMed

Given that stomatal movement is ultimately a mechanical process and that stomata are morphologically and mechanically diverse, we explored the influence of stomatal mechanical diversity on leaf gas exchange and considered some of the constraints. Mechanical measurements were conducted on the guard cells of four different species exhibiting different stomatal morphologies, including three variants on the classical "kidney" form and one "dumb-bell" type; this information, together with gas-exchange measurements, was used to model and compare their respective operational characteristics. Based on evidence from scanning electron microscope images of cryo-sectioned leaves that were sampled under full sun and high humidity and from pressure probe measurements of the stomatal aperture versus guard cell turgor relationship at maximum and zero epidermal turgor, it was concluded that maximum stomatal apertures (and maximum leaf diffusive conductance) could not be obtained in at least one of the species (the grass Triticum aestivum) without a substantial reduction in subsidiary cell osmotic (and hence turgor) pressure during stomatal opening to overcome the large mechanical advantage of subsidiary cells. A mechanism for this is proposed, with a corollary being greatly accelerated stomatal opening and closure. Gas-exchange measurements on T. aestivum revealed the capability of very rapid stomatal movements, which may be explained by the unique morphology and mechanics of its dumb-bell-shaped stomata coupled with "see-sawing" of osmotic and turgor pressure between guard and subsidiary cells during stomatal opening or closure. Such properties might underlie the success of grasses. PMID:17114276

Franks, Peter J; Farquhar, Graham D

2007-01-01

140

A keystone predator controls bacterial diversity in the pitcher-plant (Sarracenia purpurea) microecosystem.  

PubMed

The community of organisms inhabiting the water-filled leaves of the carnivorous pitcher-plant Sarracenia purpurea includes arthropods, protozoa and bacteria, and serves as a model system for studies of food web dynamics. Despite the wealth of data collected by ecologists and zoologists on this food web, very little is known about the bacterial assemblage in this microecosystem. We used terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis to quantify bacterial diversity within the pitchers as a function of pitcher size, pH of the pitcher fluid and the presence of the keystone predator in this food web, larvae of the pitcher-plant mosquito Wyeomyia smithii. Results were analysed at two spatial scales: within a single bog and across three isolated bogs. Pitchers were sterile before they opened and composition of the bacterial assemblage was more variable between different bogs than within bogs. Measures of bacterial richness and diversity were greater in the presence of W. smithii and increased with increasing pitcher size. Our results suggest that fundamental ecological concepts derived from macroscopic food webs can also be used to predict the bacterial assemblages in pitcher plants. PMID:18479443

Peterson, Celeste N; Day, Stephanie; Wolfe, Benjamin E; Ellison, Aaron M; Kolter, Roberto; Pringle, Anne

2008-09-01

141

Modeling urban storm rainfall runoff from diverse underlying surfaces and application for control design in Beijing.  

PubMed

Managing storm rainfall runoff is paramount in semi-arid regions with urban development. In Beijing, pollution prevention in urban storm runoff and storm water utilization has been identified as the primary strategy for urban water management. In this paper, we sampled runoff during storm rainfall events and analyzed the concentration of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS) and total phosphorus (TP) in the runoff. Furthermore, the first flush effect of storm rainfall from diverse underlying surfaces was also analyzed. With the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM), the different impervious rates of underlying surfaces during the storm runoff process were expressed. The removal rates of three typical pollutants and their interactions with precipitation and underlying surfaces were identified. From these rates, the scenarios regarding the urban storm runoff pollution loading from different designs of underlying previous rates were assessed with the SWMM. First flush effect analysis showed that the first 20% of the storm runoff should be discarded, which can help in utilizing the storm water resource. The results of this study suggest that the SWMM can express in detail the storm water pollution patterns from diverse underlying surfaces in Beijing, which significantly affected water quality. The scenario analysis demonstrated that impervious rate adjustment has the potential to reduce runoff peak and decrease pollution loading. PMID:23122620

Ouyang, Wei; Guo, Bobo; Hao, Fanghua; Huang, Haobo; Li, Junqi; Gong, Yongwei

2012-12-30

142

Combinatorial control of diverse metabolic and physiological functions by transcriptional regulators of the yeast sulfur assimilation pathway  

PubMed Central

Methionine abundance affects diverse cellular functions, including cell division, redox homeostasis, survival under starvation, and oxidative stress response. Regulation of the methionine biosynthetic pathway involves three DNA-binding proteins—Met31p, Met32p, and Cbf1p. We hypothesized that there exists a “division of labor” among these proteins that facilitates coordination of methionine biosynthesis with diverse biological processes. To explore combinatorial control in this regulatory circuit, we deleted CBF1, MET31, and MET32 individually and in combination in a strain lacking methionine synthase. We followed genome-wide gene expression as these strains were starved for methionine. Using a combination of bioinformatic methods, we found that these regulators control genes involved in biological processes downstream of sulfur assimilation; many of these processes had not previously been documented as methionine dependent. We also found that the different factors have overlapping but distinct functions. In particular, Met31p and Met32p are important in regulating methionine metabolism, whereas p functions as a “generalist” transcription factor that is not specific to methionine metabolism. In addition, Met31p and Met32p appear to regulate iron–sulfur cluster biogenesis through direct and indirect mechanisms and have distinguishable target specificities. Finally, CBF1 deletion sometimes has the opposite effect on gene expression from MET31 and MET32 deletion. PMID:22696679

Petti, Allegra A.; McIsaac, R. Scott; Ho-Shing, Olivia; Bussemaker, Harmen J.; Botstein, David

2012-01-01

143

[Assessing various aspects of the motivation to eat that can affect food intake and body weight control].  

PubMed

Over the last 30 years, several questionnaires have been developed and validated in order to assess many aspects of the motivation to eat that might be susceptible to impair adequate food intake and body weight control. A few of such questionnaires are described here, in particular, the "Three Factor Eating Questionnaire" also called the "Eating Inventory", and the "Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire". Critical aspects of the motivation to eat assessed by these tools are presented, such as dietary restraint, disinhibition, hunger, vulnerability to eat in response to external cues or emotional states, etc. These questionnaires were developed for use in the general population with the aim to identify critical aspects of the motivation to eat that might predispose to weight gain. They have been widely used in many countries and have allowed an improved understanding of the individual characteristics that predispose to body weight gain or resistance to weight loss. Originally, poor body weight control was attributed to a high level of dietary "restraint", or in other words, the tendency to deliberately restrict one's food intake for body weight control purposes. Such dietary restraint was suspected to lead to a number of physical and psychological difficulties, among which poor self-esteem and a paradoxical tendency to gain weight, resulting from the incapacity to maintain strict restraint over time. More recent studies have established that a motivational trait called "Disinhibition" is a strong predictor of body weight gain over time and of poor outcome of dieting. "Disinhibition" corresponds to a tendency to lose control over one's eating behavior and ingest excessively large quantities of food substances, in response to a variety of cues and circumstances. In addition to its untoward effect on weight, disinhibition also predicts various risk factors and pathologies, such as hypertension and diabetes. Other potentially critical dimensions for adequate body weight control are "emotional eating" and "externality", which represent an individual's vulnerability to eat in response to emotional states or external cues, respectively. These questionnaires have been translated into French and validated for the French population. Average data are available for normal weight and obese French men and women. A gender difference is often reported: women, and even young girls, tend to have higher scores than males for most dimensions. These questionnaires have been extensively used in populations without psychiatric disorders, with the only exception of diagnosed eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia nervosa. The questionnaires have not been used until now in populations with other types of psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia or bipolar disease. Their relevance for such populations is now an important question, since last generation pharmaceutical treatments of such psychiatric disorders seem to adversely affect body weight control. It then becomes critical to know whether the psychological dimensions assessed by such questionnaires reflect the action of pharmacological agents that induce weight gain. A research project is now in progress at Sainte-Anne Hospital to investigate many dimensions of the motivation to eat, as assessed by the questionnaires, in psychiatric patients receiving various types of antipsychotic agents. The results of this original study might provide hints about the mechanisms that lead to body weight gain in patients receiving certain types of antipsychotic pharmacological agents and potentially help in preventing or reversing the weight gain associated with such treatments. PMID:19393389

Bellisle, F

2009-04-01

144

Source, significance, and control of indoor microbial aerosols: human health aspects.  

PubMed Central

The usual profile of indoor microbial aerosols probably has little meaning to healthy people. However, hazardous microbial aerosols can penetrate buildings or be generated within them; in either case, they can have significant adverse effects on human health. These aerosols can be controlled to some extent by eliminating or reducing their sources. In this regard, careful consideration should be given in building construction to the design of ventilation and air-conditioning systems and to the flooring material, so that these systems and the flooring material will not act as microbial reservoirs. It is evident that in spite of the considerable body of data available on indoor microbial aerosols, little is known of their true significance to human health except in terms of overt epidemic disease. Continued research is needed in this area, particularly in respect to situations of high risk in such locations as hospitals and schools for young children. PMID:6867255

Spendlove, J C; Fannin, K F

1983-01-01

145

Classical swine fever (hog cholera): review of aspects relevant to control.  

PubMed

Classical swine fever (CSF) has the ability to spread over large distances when human intervention such as illegal swill feeding facilitates its movement. This was apparent during 2005 when CSF appeared in South Africa (SA) after an absence of 87 years. In this review, various newly published developments in terms of the diagnosis of the disease and vaccination are described and applied to situations similar to SA. The role of wildlife such as feral pigs and European wild boar in the dissemination and maintenance of CSF virus are discussed, and the dearth of knowledge on the potential of other wild pig species prevalent on southern Africa noted. The modes of spread and control measures to prevent introduction as well as during outbreaks are discussed. PMID:21303492

Penrith, M-L; Vosloo, W; Mather, C

2011-06-01

146

Two aspects of feedforward postural control: anticipatory postural adjustments and anticipatory synergy adjustments  

PubMed Central

We used the framework of the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis to explore the relations between anticipatory synergy adjustments (ASAs) and anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) during feedforward control of vertical posture. ASAs represent a drop in the index of a multimuscle-mode synergy stabilizing the coordinate of the center of pressure in preparation to an action. ASAs reflect early changes of an index of covariation among variables reflecting muscle activation, whereas APAs reflect early changes in muscle activation levels averaged across trials. The assumed purpose of ASAs is to modify stability of performance variables, whereas the purpose of APAs is to change magnitudes of those variables. We hypothesized that ASAs would be seen before APAs and that this finding would be consistent with regard to the muscle-mode composition defined on the basis of different tasks and phases of action. Subjects performed a voluntary body sway task and a quick, bilateral shoulder flexion task under self-paced and reaction time conditions. Surface muscle activity of 12 leg and trunk muscles was analyzed to identify sets of 4 muscle modes for each task and for different phases within the shoulder flexion task. Variance components in the muscle-mode space and indexes of multimuscle-mode synergy stabilizing shift of the center of pressure were computed. ASAs were seen ?100–150 ms prior to the task initiation, before APAs. The results were consistent with respect to different sets of muscle modes defined over the two tasks and different shoulder flexion phases. We conclude that the preparation for a self-triggered postural perturbation is associated with two types of anticipatory adjustments, ASAs and APAs. They reflect different feedforward processes within the hypothetical hierarchical control scheme, resulting in changes in patterns of covariation of elemental variables and in their patterns averaged across trials, respectively. The results show that synergies quantified using dissimilar sets of muscle modes show similar feedforward changes in preparation to action. PMID:21389305

Klous, Miriam; Mikulic, Pavle

2011-01-01

147

Clinical Aspects of the Control of Plasma Volume at Microgravity and During Return to One Gravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plasma volume is reduced by 10%-20% within 24 to 48 h of exposure to simulated or actual microgravity. The clinical importance of microgravity-induced hypovolemia is manifested by its relationship with orthostatic intolerance and reduced VO2max after return to one gravity (1G). Since there is no evidence to suggest plasma volume reduction during microgravity is associated with thirst or renal dysfunctions, a diuresis induced by an immediate blood volume shift to the central circulation appears responsible for microgravity-induced hypovolemia. Since most astronauts choose to restrict their fluid intake before a space mission, absence of increased urine output during actual spaceflight may be explained by low central venous pressure (CVP) which accompanies dehydration. Compelling evidence suggests that prolonged reduction in CVP during exposure to microgravity reflects a 'resetting' to a lower operating point which acts to limit plasma volume expansion during attempts to increase fluid intake. In groudbase and spaceflight experiments, successful restoration and maintenance of plasma volume prior to returning to an upright posture may depend upon development of treatments that can return CVP to its baseline 10 operating point. Fluid-loading and LBNP have not proved completely effective in restoring plasma volume, suggesting that they may not provide the stimulus to elevate the CVP operating point. On the other, exercise, which can chronically increase CVP, has been effective in expanding plasma volume when combined with adequate dietary intake of fluid and electrolytes. The success of designing experiments to understand the physiological mechanisms of and development of effective countermeasures for the control of plasma volume in microgravity and during return to one gravity will depend upon testing that can be conducted under standardized controlled baseline condi

Convertino, Victor A.

1995-01-01

148

Calibration of high-aspect ratio quality control optical scanning system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas electron multiplier (GEM) detectors are widely used in contemporary high-energy physics experiments. The GEM is a detector containing a densely pierced polymer foil, coated with a thin metal layer on one or both sides. They are able to achieve high amplification gains and performance at low cost, even under harsh radiation conditions. The holes in the foils have a nominal diameter of 70 +/- 5 ?m and 140 ?m pitch distance between the centers of the holes. High-quality assurance is needed to guarantee a long lifespan for the detectors in the severe radiation environment. Mapping of the defects connecting two or more holes is important phase when determining the usability of a foil for detector application. The commercial optical scanning system (OSS) with a scanning area of 950 × 950 mm was further developed in the Detector Laboratory at Helsinki Institute of Physics for controlling the quality of GEM foils. Microfabricated transfer standard containing sets of 10 × 10 numbered etched cavities with a nominal diameter of 70 +/- 5 ?m was produced for system calibration. The cavity dimensions and the expanded uncertainty were calculated with the 95% confidence level, as is required by the ISO Guide for Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement. The transfer standard was examined with the OSS in nine different positions of the scanning area. The results were analyzed, the uncertainties were calculated and the corrections were made according to the ISO requirement.

Karadzhinova, Aneliya; Hildén, Timo; Heino, Jouni; Berdova, Maria; Lauhakangas, Rauno; Garcia, Francisco; Tuominen, Eija; Kassamakov, Ivan

2013-09-01

149

Physico-chemical aspects of sol-gel thin film deposition: Control of film porosity  

SciTech Connect

During sol-gel thin film deposition, polymeric or particulate sols are deposited on a substrate by dip or spin-coating. Sols are rapidly concentrated by evaporation, leading to aggregation and physical or chemical gelation. At the final stage of drying the gel is further compacted by the capillary pressure arising from the creation of liquid-vapor menisci at the terminus of liquid-filled pore channels. This paper examines the role of the molecular- and intermediate-range structure of inorganic sols (e.g. size, fractal dimension, degree of cyclization), surface chemistry, and deposition conditions on the microstructure (pore volume, pore size, and surface area) of the corresponding dried films. We establish synthesis and processing protocols to create quite dense films useful for protective, electronic, and optical applications as well as films with controlled pore sizes and pore volume fractions useful for sensors and membranes. Under certain conditions where condensation reactions accompanying film deposition are largely avoided, we find drying shrinkage to be reversible resulting in highly porous aerogel films.

Brinker, C.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Samuel, J.; Assink, R.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

1995-12-01

150

Afferent and Efferent Aspects of Mandibular Sensorimotor Control in Adults who Stutter  

PubMed Central

Purpose Individuals who stutter show sensorimotor deficiencies in speech and nonspeech movements. For the mandibular system, we dissociated the sense of kinesthesia from the efferent control component to examine whether kinesthetic integrity itself is compromised in stuttering or whether deficiencies occur only when generating motor commands. Method We investigated 11 stuttering and 11 nonstuttering adults’ kinesthetic sensitivity threshold and kinesthetic accuracy for passive jaw movements as well as their minimal displacement threshold and positioning accuracy for active jaw movements. We also investigated the correlation with an anatomical index of jaw size. Results The groups showed no statistically significant differences on sensory measures for passive jaw movements. Although some stuttering individuals performed more poorly than any nonstuttering participants on the active movement tasks, between-group differences for active movements were also not statistically significant. Unlike fluent speakers, however, the stuttering group showed a statistically significant correlation between mandibular size and performance in the active and passive near-threshold tasks. Conclusions Previously reported minimal movement differences were not replicated. Instead, stuttering individuals’ performance varied with anatomical properties. These correlational results are consistent with the hypothesis that stuttering participants generate and perceive movements based on less accurate internal models of the involved neuromechanical systems. PMID:23816664

Daliri, Ayoub; Prokopenko, Roman A.; Max, Ludo

2013-01-01

151

Diverse Thinking about Diversity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on the concept of diversity in educational decision making. It is noted that the differences that distinguish the needs, interests and abilities are identified by educators. It lists misconceptions resulting from not attending to within-group diversity, and states that a "loss of self" for individual members of…

Kaplan, Sandra N.

2013-01-01

152

Species diversity of grasses promotes genotypic diversity of clover populations in simulated communities  

E-print Network

diversity within communities are two fundamental aspects of biodiver- sity typically studied in isolation diversity of communities (case 2), or when species diversity in communities structures genetic diversity, and environmental heterogene- ity, can have similar, positive effects on the species diversity of communities

Vellend, Mark

153

Aerodynamic and heat transfer aspects of tip and casing treatments used for turbine tip leakage control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Axial flow turbine stages are usually designed with a gap between the tips of the rotating blades and a stationary outer casing. The presence of a strong pressure gradient across this gap drives flow from the pressure side of the blade to the suction side. This leakage flow creates a significant amount of energy loss of working fluid in the turbine stage. In a modern gas turbine engine the outer casing of the high-pressure turbine is also exposed to a combination of high flow temperatures and heat transfer coefficients. The casing is consequently subjected to high levels of convective heat transfer, a situation that is aggravated by flow unsteadiness caused by periodic blade-passing events. An experimental investigation of the aerodynamic and heat transfer effect of tip and casing treatments used in turbine tip leakage control was conducted in a large scale, low speed, rotating research turbine facility. The effects of casing treatments were investigated by measuring the total pressure field at the exit of the rotor using a high frequency response total pressure probe. A smooth wall as a baseline case was also investigated. The test cases presented include results of casing treatments with varying dimensions for tip gap height of t/h=2.5%. The results of the rotor exit total pressure indicate that the casing treatment significantly reduced the leakage mass flow rate and the momentum deficit in the core of the tip vortex. The reductions obtained in the tip vortex size and strength influenced the tip-side passage vortex and other typical core flow characteristics in the passage. Casing treatments with the highest ridge height was the most effective in reducing the total pressure loss in the leakage flow of the test blades. This was observed at a radius near the core of the tip vortex. It appears that casing treatments with the highest ridge height is also the most effective from a global point of view, as shown by the passage averaged pressure coefficient obtained in the last 20% of the blade height. The effect of the new blade tip concept, inclined squealer tip, on tip leakage flow with and without casing treatments is also investigated. The results of the rotor exit total pressure indicate that the inclined squealer tip arrangement has significant effects on both passage core flow and the interaction between the leakage vortex and the tip side passage vortex. A steady-state method of measuring convective heat transfer coefficient on the casing of an axial flow turbine is also developed for the comparison of various casing surface and tip designs used for turbine performance improvements. The free-stream reference temperature, especially in the tip gap region of the casing varies monotonically from the rotor inlet to rotor exit due to work extraction in the stage. In a heat transfer problem of this nature, the definition of the free-stream temperature is not as straight forward as constant free-stream temperature type problems. The accurate determination of the convective heat transfer coefficient depends on the magnitude of the local freestream reference temperature varying in axial direction, from the rotor inlet to exit. The current investigation explains a strategy for the simultaneous determination of the steadystate heat transfer coefficient and free-stream reference temperature on the smooth casing of a single stage rotating turbine facility. The heat transfer approach is also applicable to casing surfaces that have surface treatments for tip leakage control. The overall uncertainty of the method developed is between 5% and 8% of the convective heat transfer coefficient. The test cases presented show that the casing heat transfer is affected by the tip gap height. The heat transfer coefficient increases as the tip gap increases for both with and without casing treatments. It is also shown that the effect of ridge height on heat transfer coefficient is negligible for tip gap height of t/h=0.9%.

Gumusel, Baris

154

Performance of sanitary sewer collection system odour control devices operating in diverse conditions.  

PubMed

Controlling odours from sanitary sewer systems is challenging as a result of the expansive nature of these systems. Addition of oxidizing chemicals is often practiced as a mitigation strategy. One alternative is to remove odorous compounds in the gases vented from manholes using adsorptive media. In this study, odour control devices located at manholes were observed to determine the ability of these systems to reduce hydrogen sulphide from vented gases. The odour control devices incorporated pressure regulation to control gas flow out of manhole covers and adsorptive media to remove hydrogen sulphide in the vented gases prior to release. Pressure regulation was accomplished using a variable volume bladder and two pressure relief valves that permitted gas flow when pressures exceeded 1.3 to 2.5 cm water column. The reduction in gas flow vented from manholes was intended to extend the service life of the adsorptive media, as compared with odour control devices that do not incorporate pressure modulation. Devices were deployed at four locations and three adsorptive media were tested. Although measured collection system hydrogen sulphide concentrations varied from zero to over 1,000 ppm, the removal rates observed using odour control devices were typically above 90%. The lower removal rates observed at one of the sites (50.5 ± 36.1%) appeared related to high gas flow rates being emitted at this location. Activated carbon was used in most of the tests, although use of iron media resulted in the highest removal observed: 97.8 ± 3.6%. The expected service life of the adsorptive media contained within the odour control devices is a function of site-specific hydrogen sulphide concentrations and gas flow rates. The units used in this study were in service for more than 8 to 12 months prior to requiring media replacement. PMID:24355837

Camarillo, Mary Kay; Stringfellow, William T; Hanlon, Jeremy S; Basha, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

155

Arabidopsis Ovate Family Proteins, a Novel Transcriptional Repressor Family, Control Multiple Aspects of Plant Growth and Development  

SciTech Connect

BACKGROUND: The Arabidopsis genome contains 18 genes that are predicted to encode Ovate Family Proteins (AtOFPs), a protein family characterized by a conserved OVATE domain, an approximately 70-amino acid domain that was originally found in tomato OVATE protein. Among AtOFP family members, AtOFP1 has been shown to suppress cell elongation, in part, by suppressing the expression of AtGA20ox1, AtOFP4 has been shown to regulate secondary cell wall formation by interact with KNOTTED1-LIKE HOMEODOMAIN PROTEIN 7 (KNAT7), and AtOFP5 has been shown to regulate the activity of a BEL1-LIKEHOMEODOMAIN 1(BLH1)-KNAT3 complex during early embryo sac development, but little is known about the function of other AtOFPs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We demonstrated here that AtOFP proteins could function as effective transcriptional repressors in the Arabidopsis protoplast transient expression system. The analysis of loss-of-function alleles of AtOFPs suggested AtOFP genes may have overlapping function in regulating plant growth and development, because none of the single mutants identified, including T-DNA insertion mutants in AtOFP1, AtOFP4, AtOFP8, AtOFP10, AtOFP15 and AtOFP16, displayed any apparent morphological defects. Further, Atofp1 Atofp4 and Atofp15 Atofp16 double mutants still did not differ significantly from wild-type. On the other hand, plants overexpressing AtOFP genes displayed a number of abnormal phenotypes, which could be categorized into three distinct classes, suggesting that AtOFP genes may also have diverse functions in regulating plant growth and development. Further analysis suggested that AtOFP1 regulates cotyledon development in a postembryonic manner, and global transcript profiling revealed that it suppress the expression of many other genes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results showed that AtOFPs function as transcriptional repressors and they regulate multiple aspects of plant growth and development. These results provided the first overview of a previously unknown transcriptional repressor family, and revealed their possible roles in plant growth and development.

Wang, Shucai [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Chang, Ying [Northeast Agricultural University; Guo, Jianjun [Harvard University; Zeng, Qingning [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Ellis, Brian [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Chen, Jay [ORNL

2011-01-01

156

Integration of Signals along Orthogonal Axes of the Vertebrate Neural Tube Controls Progenitor Competence and Increases Cell Diversity  

PubMed Central

A relatively small number of signals are responsible for the variety and pattern of cell types generated in developing embryos. In part this is achieved by exploiting differences in the concentration or duration of signaling to increase cellular diversity. In addition, however, changes in cellular competence—temporal shifts in the response of cells to a signal—contribute to the array of cell types generated. Here we investigate how these two mechanisms are combined in the vertebrate neural tube to increase the range of cell types and deliver spatial control over their location. We provide evidence that FGF signaling emanating from the posterior of the embryo controls a change in competence of neural progenitors to Shh and BMP, the two morphogens that are responsible for patterning the ventral and dorsal regions of the neural tube, respectively. Newly generated neural progenitors are exposed to FGF signaling, and this maintains the expression of the Nk1-class transcription factor Nkx1.2. Ventrally, this acts in combination with the Shh-induced transcription factor FoxA2 to specify floor plate cells and dorsally in combination with BMP signaling to induce neural crest cells. As development progresses, the intersection of FGF with BMP and Shh signals is interrupted by axis elongation, resulting in the loss of Nkx1.2 expression and allowing the induction of ventral and dorsal interneuron progenitors by Shh and BMP signaling to supervene. Hence a similar mechanism increases cell type diversity at both dorsal and ventral poles of the neural tube. Together these data reveal that tissue morphogenesis produces changes in the coincidence of signals acting along orthogonal axes of the neural tube and this is used to define spatial and temporal transitions in the competence of cells to interpret morphogen signaling. PMID:25026549

Sasai, Noriaki; Kutejova, Eva; Briscoe, James

2014-01-01

157

Genetic diversity studies of Brazilian garlic cultivars and quality control of garlic-clover production.  

PubMed

The garlic cultivars grown in Brazil evolved from somatic mutations and clone selection by breeding programs and by the introduction of germplasm from other countries. Morphological characters have been used to differentiate these cultivars. Two hundred and six random amplified polymorphic DNA markers were utilized for a diversity analysis of the 17 most planted garlic cultivars in Brazil. Bootstrap analysis showed that the number of markers was efficient and sufficient to obtain a coefficient of variation of 10%. Similarity varied between 16 and 98% and cluster analysis showed that, in general, genetic similarities correlate with morphological characters of the cultivars and production cycle variation. High bootstrap values at most of the nodes supported the dendrogram stability. The grouping of most varieties agreed well with previous reports based on morphological characters. As a vegetative-propagated species, viral diseases are a key problem regarding production and quality of the bulbs, causing gradual loss of yield and decrease in storage capacity. To improve the health quality of garlic seed, a virus-free stock of garlic cloves of the Amarante cultivar was obtained. The ability to distinguish garlic cultivars to detect varietal mixing after in vitro multiplication is extremely important, since correct identification is not possible until bulbs are produced. Random amplified polymorphic DNA markers were also used to differentiate cultivars while they are in vitro and not amenable to morphological discrimination. No difference was identified between the fingerprints of the virus-free or of the infected bulks of Amarante, showing that there was no clove mixing in the handling of material in the clonal multiplication phase. PMID:18752178

Buso, G S C; Paiva, M R; Torres, A C; Resende, F V; Ferreira, M A; Buso, J A; Dusi, A N

2008-01-01

158

Tobacco Control Policy Advocacy Attitudes and Self-Efficacy among Ethnically Diverse High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study applied self-efficacy theory to assess empowerment to advocate on behalf of tobacco control policies. The Youth Tobacco Survey with added policy advocacy self-efficacy, attitudes, and outcome expectations scales was given to 9,177 high school students in Texas. Asians showed the lowest prevalence of experimentation and current smoking,…

Ramirez, Amelie G.; Velez, Luis F.; Chalela, Patricia; Grussendorf, Jeannie; McAlister, Alfred L.

2006-01-01

159

Meta-analytic evidence for a superordinate cognitive control network subserving diverse executive functions  

PubMed Central

Classic cognitive theory conceptualizes executive functions as involving multiple specific domains, including initiation, inhibition, working memory, flexibility, planning, and vigilance. Lesion and neuroimaging experiments over the past two decades have suggested that both common and unique processes contribute to executive functions during higher cognition. It has been suggested that a superordinate fronto–cingulo–parietal network supporting cognitive control may also underlie a range of distinct executive functions. To test this hypothesis in the largest sample to date, we used quantitative meta-analytic methods to analyze 193 functional neuroimaging studies of 2,832 healthy individuals, ages 18–60, in which performance on executive function measures was contrasted with an active control condition. A common pattern of activation was observed in the prefrontal, dorsal anterior cingulate, and parietal cortices across executive function domains, supporting the idea that executive functions are supported by a superordinate cognitive control network. However, domain-specific analyses showed some variation in the recruitment of anterior prefrontal cortex, anterior and midcingulate regions, and unique subcortical regions such as the basal ganglia and cerebellum. These results are consistent with the existence of a superordinate cognitive control network in the brain, involving dorsolateral prefrontal, anterior cingulate, and parietal cortices, that supports a broad range of executive functions. PMID:22282036

Laird, Angela R.; Ray, Kimberly L.; Dean, Y. Monica; Glahn, David C.; Carter, Cameron S.

2013-01-01

160

Decreased functional diversity and biological pest control in conventional compared to organic crop fields.  

PubMed

Organic farming is one of the most successful agri-environmental schemes, as humans benefit from high quality food, farmers from higher prices for their products and it often successfully protects biodiversity. However there is little knowledge if organic farming also increases ecosystem services like pest control. We assessed 30 triticale fields (15 organic vs. 15 conventional) and recorded vascular plants, pollinators, aphids and their predators. Further, five conventional fields which were treated with insecticides were compared with 10 non-treated conventional fields. Organic fields had five times higher plant species richness and about twenty times higher pollinator species richness compared to conventional fields. Abundance of pollinators was even more than one-hundred times higher on organic fields. In contrast, the abundance of cereal aphids was five times lower in organic fields, while predator abundances were three times higher and predator-prey ratios twenty times higher in organic fields, indicating a significantly higher potential for biological pest control in organic fields. Insecticide treatment in conventional fields had only a short-term effect on aphid densities while later in the season aphid abundances were even higher and predator abundances lower in treated compared to untreated conventional fields. Our data indicate that insecticide treatment kept aphid predators at low abundances throughout the season, thereby significantly reducing top-down control of aphid populations. Plant and pollinator species richness as well as predator abundances and predator-prey ratios were higher at field edges compared to field centres, highlighting the importance of field edges for ecosystem services. In conclusion organic farming increases biodiversity, including important functional groups like plants, pollinators and predators which enhance natural pest control. Preventative insecticide application in conventional fields has only short-term effects on aphid densities but long-term negative effects on biological pest control. Therefore conventional farmers should restrict insecticide applications to situations where thresholds for pest densities are reached. PMID:21611171

Krauss, Jochen; Gallenberger, Iris; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

2011-01-01

161

Decreased Functional Diversity and Biological Pest Control in Conventional Compared to Organic Crop Fields  

PubMed Central

Organic farming is one of the most successful agri-environmental schemes, as humans benefit from high quality food, farmers from higher prices for their products and it often successfully protects biodiversity. However there is little knowledge if organic farming also increases ecosystem services like pest control. We assessed 30 triticale fields (15 organic vs. 15 conventional) and recorded vascular plants, pollinators, aphids and their predators. Further, five conventional fields which were treated with insecticides were compared with 10 non-treated conventional fields. Organic fields had five times higher plant species richness and about twenty times higher pollinator species richness compared to conventional fields. Abundance of pollinators was even more than one-hundred times higher on organic fields. In contrast, the abundance of cereal aphids was five times lower in organic fields, while predator abundances were three times higher and predator-prey ratios twenty times higher in organic fields, indicating a significantly higher potential for biological pest control in organic fields. Insecticide treatment in conventional fields had only a short-term effect on aphid densities while later in the season aphid abundances were even higher and predator abundances lower in treated compared to untreated conventional fields. Our data indicate that insecticide treatment kept aphid predators at low abundances throughout the season, thereby significantly reducing top-down control of aphid populations. Plant and pollinator species richness as well as predator abundances and predator-prey ratios were higher at field edges compared to field centres, highlighting the importance of field edges for ecosystem services. In conclusion organic farming increases biodiversity, including important functional groups like plants, pollinators and predators which enhance natural pest control. Preventative insecticide application in conventional fields has only short-term effects on aphid densities but long-term negative effects on biological pest control. Therefore conventional farmers should restrict insecticide applications to situations where thresholds for pest densities are reached. PMID:21611171

Krauss, Jochen; Gallenberger, Iris; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

2011-01-01

162

Enhancer diversity and the control of a simple pattern of Drosophila CNS midline cell expression.  

PubMed

Transcriptional enhancers integrate information derived from transcription factor binding to control gene expression. One key question concerns the extent of trans- and cis-regulatory variation in how co-expressed genes are controlled. The Drosophila CNS midline cells constitute a group of neurons and glia in which expression changes can be readily characterized during specification and differentiation. Using a transgenic approach, we compare the cis-regulation of multiple genes expressed in the Drosophila CNS midline primordium cells, and show that while the expression patterns may appear alike, the target genes are not equivalent in how these common expression patterns are achieved. Some genes utilize a single enhancer that promotes expression in all midline cells, while others utilize multiple enhancers with distinct spatial, temporal, and quantitative contributions. Two regulators, Single-minded and Notch, play key roles in controlling early midline gene expression. While Single-minded is expected to control expression of most, if not all, midline primordium-expressed genes, the role of Notch in directly controlling midline transcription is unknown. Midline primordium expression of the rhomboid gene is dependent on cell signaling by the Notch signaling pathway. Mutational analysis of a rhomboid enhancer reveals at least 5 distinct types of functional cis-control elements, including a binding site for the Notch effector, Suppressor of Hairless. The results suggest a model in which Notch/Suppressor of Hairless levels are insufficient to activate rhomboid expression by itself, but does so in conjunction with additional factors, some of which, including Single-minded, provide midline specificity to Notch activation. Similarly, a midline glial enhancer from the argos gene, which is dependent on EGF/Spitz signaling, is directly regulated by contributions from both Pointed, the EGF transcriptional effector, and Single-minded. In contrast, midline primordium expression of other genes shows a strong dependence on Single-minded and varying combinations of additional transcription factors. Thus, Single-minded directly regulates midline primordium-expressed genes, but in some cases plays a primary role in directing target gene midline expression, and in others provides midline specificity to cell signaling inputs. PMID:24854999

Pearson, Joseph C; Crews, Stephen T

2014-08-15

163

Impact of MHC class I diversity on immune control of immunodeficiency virus replication  

PubMed Central

The recent failure of the T-cell-based HIV vaccine trial led by Merck & Co., Inc. prompts the urgent need to refocus on the question of which T-cell responses are required to control HIV replication. The well-described association between the expression of particular MHC class I molecules and successful containment of HIV or, in the macaque model, SIV replication provide a valuable starting point from which to evaluate more precisely what might constitute effective CD8+ T-cell responses. Here, we review recent studies of T-cell-mediated control of HIV and SIV infection, and offer insight for the design of a successful T-cell-based HIV vaccine in the future. PMID:18617886

Goulder, Philip J. R.; Watkins, David I.

2010-01-01

164

Merging metagenomics and geochemistry reveals environmental controls on biological diversity and evolution  

PubMed Central

Background The metabolic strategies employed by microbes inhabiting natural systems are, in large part, dictated by the physical and geochemical properties of the environment. This study sheds light onto the complex relationship between biology and environmental geochemistry using forty-three metagenomes collected from geochemically diverse and globally distributed natural systems. It is widely hypothesized that many uncommonly measured geochemical parameters affect community dynamics and this study leverages the development and application of multidimensional biogeochemical metrics to study correlations between geochemistry and microbial ecology. Analysis techniques such as a Markov cluster-based measure of the evolutionary distance between whole communities and a principal component analysis (PCA) of the geochemical gradients between environments allows for the determination of correlations between microbial community dynamics and environmental geochemistry and provides insight into which geochemical parameters most strongly influence microbial biodiversity. Results By progressively building from samples taken along well defined geochemical gradients to samples widely dispersed in geochemical space this study reveals strong links between the extent of taxonomic and functional diversification of resident communities and environmental geochemistry and reveals temperature and pH as the primary factors that have shaped the evolution of these communities. Moreover, the inclusion of extensive geochemical data into analyses reveals new links between geochemical parameters (e.g. oxygen and trace element availability) and the distribution and taxonomic diversification of communities at the functional level. Further, an overall geochemical gradient (from multivariate analyses) between natural systems provides one of the most complete predictions of microbial taxonomic and functional composition. Conclusions Clustering based on the frequency in which orthologous proteins occur among metagenomes facilitated accurate prediction of the ordering of community functional composition along geochemical gradients, despite a lack of geochemical input. The consistency in the results obtained from the application of Markov clustering and multivariate methods to distinct natural systems underscore their utility in predicting the functional potential of microbial communities within a natural system based on system geochemistry alone, allowing geochemical measurements to be used to predict purely biological metrics such as microbial community composition and metabolism. PMID:24886397

2014-01-01

165

Modeling aspects and gain scheduled H?controller design for an electrostatic micro-actuator with squeezed gas film damping effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article the modeling and control design aspects of an electrostatic microactuator (EmA) with squeezed thin film damping effects are presented. The modeling analysis of the squeezed film damping effect is investigated in the case of an EmA composed by a set of two plates. The bottom plate is clamped to the ground, while the moving plate is driven

Marialena Vagia; Anthony Tzes

2009-01-01

166

Transonic steady- and unsteady-pressure measurements on a high-aspect-ratio supercritical-wing model with oscillating control surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A supercritical wing with an aspect ratio of 10.76 and with two trailing-edge oscillating control surfaces is described. The semispan wing is instrumented with 252 static orifices and 164 in situ dynamic-pressure gages for studying the effects of control-surface position and motion on steady- and unsteady-pressures at transonic speeds. Results from initial tests conducted in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at two Reynolds numbers are presented in tabular form.

Sandford, M. C.; Ricketts, R. H.; Cazier, F. W., Jr.

1980-01-01

167

Beauveria bassiana for the control of Sunn Pest (Eurygaster integriceps) (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae) and aspects of the insect's daily activity relevant to a mycoinsecticide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of investigations was carried out at ICARDA during April–June 2004 and May–June 2005 to investigate the use of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana to control Eurygaster integriceps and to determine aspects of the insect's biology that could be relevant to control with the fungus. Application in 2004 of an oil-based formulation of B. bassiana showed distribution of the

Steve Edgington; Dave Moore; Mustapha El Bouhssini; Ziad Sayyadi

2007-01-01

168

Functional diversity of phytochrome family in the control of light and gibberellin-mediated germination in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

In several species, seed germination is regulated by light in a way that restricts seedling emergence to the environmental conditions that are likely to be favourable for the success of the new individual, and therefore, this behaviour is recognized to have adaptive value. The phytochromes are one of the most relevant photoreceptors involved in light perception by plants. We explored the redundancy and diversity functions of the phytochrome family in the control of seed responsiveness to light and gibberellins (GA) by using a set of phytochrome mutants of Arabidopsis. Our data show that, in addition to the well-known role of phyB in the promotion of germination in response to high red to far-red ratios (R/FR), phyE and phyD stimulate germination at very low R/FR ratios, probably by promoting the action of phyA. Further, we show that phyC regulates negatively the seed responsiveness to light, unravelling unexpected functions for phyC in seed germination. Finally, we find that seed responsiveness to GA is mainly controlled by phyB, with phyC, phyD and phyE having relevant roles when acting in a phyB-deficient background. Our results indicate that phytochromes have multiple and complex roles during germination depending on the active photoreceptor background. PMID:24471455

Arana, M V; Sánchez-Lamas, M; Strasser, B; Ibarra, S E; Cerdán, P D; Botto, J F; Sánchez, R A

2014-09-01

169

Somatic deletions implicated in functional diversity of brain cells of individuals with schizophrenia and unaffected controls  

PubMed Central

While somatic DNA copy number variations (CNVs) have been identified in multiple tissues from normal people, they have not been well studied in brain tissues from individuals with psychiatric disorders. With ultrahigh depth sequencing data, we developed an integrated pipeline for calling somatic deletions using data from multiple tissues of the same individual or a single tissue type taken from multiple individuals. Using the pipelines, we identified 106 somatic deletions in DNA from prefrontal cortex (PFC) and/or cerebellum of two normal controls subjects and/or three individuals with schizophrenia. We then validated somatic deletions in 18 genic and in 1 intergenic region. Somatic deletions in BOD1 and CBX3 were reconfirmed using DNA isolated from non-pyramidal neurons and from cells in white matter using laser capture microdissection (LCM). Our results suggest that somatic deletions may affect metabolic processes and brain development in a region specific manner. PMID:24448323

Kim, Junho; Shin, Jong-Yeon; Kim, Jong-Il; Seo, Jeong-Sun; Webster, Maree J.; Lee, Doheon; Kim, Sanghyeon

2014-01-01

170

Local Versus Landscape Control of Leaf Litter Chemistry on a Diverse Tropical Island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in remote sensing technologies offer the opportunity to map terrestrial landscapes to broad physiognomic classes. A question that arises is whether additional local or landscape-scale information is needed to describe and model ecosystem properties at large, regional scales. Soils exhibit biogeochemical heterogeneity at multiple scales. Many soil nutrients are likely under more regional scale control due to gradients in climate and lithology, while others under more local control due to effects of species composition and topographic position. To examine some of these processes, we analyzed 11 elements in O horizon leaf litter from 147 Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plots systematically located across the island of Puerto Rico. We then asked whether there were differences according to 1: Holdridge life zone, 2: forest cover type (primarily evergreen vs. drought deciduous broadleaf), derived from remotely sensed vegetation data in 2000 combined with coarse-scale geology (karst vs. non-karst), and 3: forest assemblages, based on tree survey data from the FIA plots. Three elements (C, Ca, and Mn) differed by Holdridge life zone, 2 elements (C, Ca) by 2000 forest cover type, 6 by geology (C, P, Ca, Mn, Al, and Fe), and 10 (including N) by groups of forest assemblages. As well, across and within several forest assemblages, leaf litter N and P were positively related to the basal area of putatively N-fixing tree legumes. These findings confirm the role of species in contributing to the spatial heterogeneity of N and P and suggest that without detailed data on vegetation composition, scaling up to landscapes may be problematic for some elements.

Erickson, H. E.; Helmer, E. H.; Brandeis, T. J.; Lugo, A. E.

2008-12-01

171

Mechanistic controls on diverse fates of terrestrial organic components in the East China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial carbon transferred from the land to sea is a critical component of the global carbon cycle. A range of geochemical proxies has been developed to fingerprint the fate of terrestrial organic matter (TOM) in marine sediments. However, discrepancies among different proxies limit our ability to quantify and interpret the terrestrial signals in marine sediments, with consequences for the investigation of both the modern carbon cycle and past environmental change. To mechanistically understand these discrepancies, we examined the distributions of a range of terrestrial proxies and their aquatic counterparts (i.e. marine proxies) in the Yangtze river-East China Sea (YR-ECS) shelf system, where TOM experiences extensive modification during transport and burial. TOM proxies in the YR-ECS system collectively fit a power-law model but with distinct attenuation rates (the a? values) for individual molecular proxy groups. Among a range of TOM proxies, the modeled a? values decrease in the order: soil-marker BHPs > triterpenols > lignin > HMW n-alkanols > branched GDGTs > HMW n-alkanes for biomarkers; and Rsoil > BIT > %TOMiso for proxies tracing %TOM. Rapid loss of TOM components through dissociation in the narrow estuary, followed by oxidation over the wide open shelf, are best described by power curves. Inherent chemical reactivity (i.e. the number of functional groups), responses to hydraulic sorting, and in situ production regulate the individual attenuation rates. Of them, chemical reactivity plays the most important role on proxy behavior, supported by a strong correlation between a? values and standard molal Gibbs energies. Both, physical protection and chemical reactivity fundamentally control the overall behavior of TOM components, with the relative importance being setting-dependant: The former is relatively important in the estuary, whereas the later is the primary control over the open shelf. Moreover, regional variation of different marine-counterparts is also significant over the river-ECS shelf system, seemingly regulated by regional nutrient distributions. Therefore, for %TOM estimates using molecular ratio approaches, the specific behavior of individual terrestrial components and marine-counterparts and the physical, biological and chemical characteristics of depositional settings all need to be considered.

Zhu, Chun; Wagner, Thomas; Talbot, Helen M.; Weijers, Johan W. H.; Pan, Jian-Ming; Pancost, Richard D.

2013-09-01

172

Diversity of bacterial communities that colonize the filter units used for controlling plant pathogens in soilless cultures.  

PubMed

In recent years, increasing the level of suppressiveness by the addition of antagonistic bacteria in slow filters has become a promising strategy to control plant pathogens in the recycled solutions used in soilless cultures. However, knowledge about the microflora that colonize the filtering columns is still limited. In order to get information on this issue, the present study was carried out over a 4-year period and includes filters inoculated or not with suppressive bacteria at the start of the filtering process (two or three filters were used each year). After 9 months of filtration, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-single strand conformation polymorphism analyses point out that, for the same year of experiment, the bacterial communities from control filters were relatively similar but that they were significantly different between the bacteria-amended and control filters. To characterize the changes in bacterial communities within the filters, this microflora was studied by quantitative PCR, community-level physiological profiles, and sequencing 16SrRNA clone libraries (filters used in year 1). Quantitative PCR evidenced a denser bacterial colonization of the P-filter (amended with Pseudomonas putida strains) than control and B-filter (amended with Bacillus cereus strains). Functional analysis focused on the cultivable bacterial communities pointed out that bacteria from the control filter metabolized more carbohydrates than those from the amended filters whose trophic behaviors were more targeted towards carboxylic acids and amino acids. The bacterial communities in P- and B-filters both exhibited significantly more phylotype diversity and markedly distinct phylogenetic compositions than those in the C-filter. Although there were far fewer Proteobacteria in B- and P-filters than in the C-filter (22% and 22% rather than 69% of sequences, respectively), the percentages of Firmicutes was much higher (44% and 55% against 9%, respectively). Many Pseudomonas species were also found in the bacterial communities of the control filter. The persistence of the amended suppressive-bacteria in the filters is discussed with regards to the management of suppressive microflora in soilless culture. PMID:22015683

Renault, David; Vallance, Jessica; Déniel, Franck; Wery, Nathalie; Godon, Jean Jacques; Barbier, Georges; Rey, Patrice

2012-01-01

173

Urinary Diversion  

MedlinePLUS

... diversion surgery? After urinary diversion surgery, a wound, ostomy, and continence (WOC) nurse or an enterostomal therapist ... diversions. WOC nurses and enterostomal therapists specialize in ostomy care and rehabilitation. Patients should ask how to ...

174

ON DIVERSITY i ON DIVERSITY  

E-print Network

to consider two broad sets of questions: (1) In what ways does a richly diverse community enhance learning to be a truly diverse community in which individuals of every gender, race, ethnicity, religion, sexualON DIVERSITY i ON DIVERSITY REPORT OF THE TRUSTEE AD HOC COMMITTEE September 2013 #12;ON DIVERSITY

175

Molecular aspects of transport in thin films of controlled architecture. Technical summary, July 1, 1991--June 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect

Work was done in two principal areas: characterization of diffusion in swollen polymer films both with and without a barrier layer, and initial investigations of molecular aspects of swelling using enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

Not Available

1992-12-01

176

Intensive diabetes management and goal setting are key aspects of improving metabolic control in children and young people with type 1 diabetes mellitus  

PubMed Central

Diabetes control in children remains poor in spite of advances in treatment for last 10 years. The aim of this review was to look at various aspects of intensive therapy in the management of type 1 diabetes such as insulin regimes, role of target setting, psycho-educational approaches and self-management. To achieve good metabolic control, clear goal setting with adequate support for self-management are essential. Psycho-educational and behavioural interventions aimed at specific areas of management have shown significant improvement in quality of life and diabetes control. PMID:25512790

Soni, Astha; Ng, Sze May

2014-01-01

177

Comparison of analytical and experimental subsonic steady and unsteady pressure distributions for a high-aspect-ratio-supercritical wing model with oscillating control surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a comparative study using the unsteady aerodynamic lifting surface theory, known as the Doublet Lattice method, and experimental subsonic steady- and unsteady-pressure measurements, are presented for a high-aspect-ratio supercritical wing model. Comparisons of pressure distributions due to wing angle of attack and control-surface deflections were made. In general, good correlation existed between experimental and theoretical data over most of the wing planform. The more significant deviations found between experimental and theoretical data were in the vicinity of control surfaces for both static and oscillatory control-surface deflections.

Mccain, W. E.

1982-01-01

178

The COPE healthy lifestyles TEEN randomized controlled trial with culturally diverse high school adolescents: Baseline characteristics and methods  

PubMed Central

Obesity and mental health disorders remain significant public health problems in adolescents. Substantial health disparities exist with minority youth experiencing higher rates of these problems. Schools are an outstanding venue to provide teens with skills needed to improve their physical and mental health, and academic performance. In this paper, the authors describe the design, intervention, methods and baseline data for a randomized controlled trial with 779 culturally diverse high-school adolescents in the southwest United States. Aims for this prevention study include testing the efficacy of the COPE TEEN program versus an attention control program on the adolescents’ healthy lifestyle behaviors, Body Mass Index (BMI) and BMI%, mental health, social skills and academic performance immediately following the intervention programs, and at six and 12 months post interventions. Baseline findings indicate that greater than 40% of the sample is either overweight (n = 148, 19.00%) or obese (n = 182, 23.36%). The predominant ethnicity represented is Hispanic (n = 526, 67.52%). At baseline, 15.79%(n = 123) of the students had above average scores on the Beck Youth Inventory Depression subscale indicating mildly (n = 52, 6.68%), moderately (n = 47, 6.03%), or extremely (n = 24, 3.08%) elevated scores (see 1). Anxiety scores were slightly higher with 21.56% (n = 168) reporting responses suggesting mildly (n = 81, 10.40%), moderately (n = 58, 7.45%) or extremely (n = 29, 3.72%) elevated scores. If the efficacy of the COPE TEEN program is supported, it will offer schools a curriculum that can be easily incorporated into high school health courses to improve adolescent healthy lifestyle behaviors, psychosocial outcomes and academic performance. PMID:23748156

Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek; Kelly, Stephanie; Jacobson, Diana; Belyea, Michael; Shaibi, Gabriel; Small, Leigh; O’Haver, Judith; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco

2014-01-01

179

The Mosaic Project supports the University's ongoing commitment to strengthen diversity, foster inclusion, and promote social justice in all aspects of the student experience. Our students and our community represent the  

E-print Network

of existing campus diversity efforts, and develop new initiatives to cultivate a community that furthers our for Diversity and Inclusion that would serve the Washington University community. During the summer of 2013The Mosaic Project supports the University's ongoing commitment to strengthen diversity, foster

Larson-Prior, Linda

180

The Mosaic Project supports the University's ongoing commitment to strengthen diversity, foster inclusion, and promote social justice in all aspects of the student experience. Our students and our community represent the intersection of  

E-print Network

of existing campus diversity efforts, and develop new initiatives to cultivate a community that furthers our participated in Redefining Community Experience, which promotes dialogue about leadership and diversityThe Mosaic Project supports the University's ongoing commitment to strengthen diversity, foster

Larson-Prior, Linda

181

Comparative genomic analysis reveals new aspects of the biology and secondary metabolism of biological control strains of Pseudomonas spp.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To explore the genomic diversity of biocontrol strains of Pseudomonas spp., we derived high quality draft sequences of seven strains that suppress plant disease. The strains were isolated from the phyllosphere of pear (P. fluorescens A506), the rhizosphere of wheat (three strains of P. fluorescens ...

182

Multidimensional display controller for displaying to a user an aspect of a multidimensional space visible from a base viewing location along a desired viewing orientation  

DOEpatents

A display controller allows a user to control a base viewing location, a base viewing orientation, and a relative viewing orientation. The base viewing orientation and relative viewing orientation are combined to determine a desired viewing orientation. An aspect of a multidimensional space visible from the base viewing location along the desired viewing orientation is displayed to the user. The user can change the base viewing location, base viewing orientation, and relative viewing orientation by changing the location or other properties of input objects.

Davidson, George S. (Albuquerque, NM); Anderson, Thomas G. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01

183

Controlled Evaluation of the IDI-MRSA Assay for Detection of Colonization by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Diverse Mucocutaneous Specimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid and reliable detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriers is crucial for the effective control of MRSA transmission in healthcare facilities. The aim of this study was to verify the performance of the IDI-MRSA real-time PCR assay for direct MRSA detection in diverse mucocutaneous swabs from hospitalized patients. Swabs from nares (n 522) and skin or other superficial sites

Nour de San; Olivier Denis; Marie-Fabrice Gasasira; Ricardo De Mendonca; Claire Nonhoff; Marc J. Struelens

2007-01-01

184

Rethinking Diversity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These three papers were presented at a symposium on rethinking diversity in human resource development (HRD) moderated by Neal Chalofsky at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development. "Diversity: A Double-Edged Sword" (Sally F. Angus) presents the notion of work force diversity through two differing perspectives in order to…

1996

185

Expression of genes controlling fat deposition in two genetically diverse beef cattle breeds fed high or low silage diets  

PubMed Central

Background Both genetic background and finishing system can alter fat deposition, thus indicating their influence on adipogenic and lipogenic factors. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying fat deposition and fatty acid composition in beef cattle are not fully understood. This study aimed to assess the effect of breed and dietary silage level on the expression patterns of key genes controlling lipid metabolism in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle of cattle. To that purpose, forty bulls from two genetically diverse Portuguese bovine breeds with distinct maturity rates, Alentejana and Barrosã, were selected and fed either low (30% maize silage/70% concentrate) or high silage (70% maize silage/30% concentrate) diets. Results The results suggested that enhanced deposition of fatty acids in the SAT from Barrosã bulls, when compared to Alentejana, could be due to higher expression levels of lipogenesis (SCD and LPL) and ?-oxidation (CRAT) related genes. Our results also indicated that SREBF1 expression in the SAT is increased by feeding the low silage diet. Together, these results point out to a higher lipid turnover in the SAT of Barrosã bulls when compared to Alentejana. In turn, lipid deposition in the LL muscle is related to the expression of adipogenic (PPARG and FABP4) and lipogenic (ACACA and SCD) genes. The positive correlation between ACACA expression levels and total lipids, as well trans fatty acids, points to ACACA as a major player in intramuscular deposition in ruminants. Moreover, results reinforce the role of FABP4 in intramuscular fat development and the SAT as the major site for lipid metabolism in ruminants. Conclusions Overall, the results showed that SAT and LL muscle fatty acid composition are mostly dependent on the genetic background. In addition, dietary silage level impacted on muscle lipid metabolism to a greater extent than on that of SAT, as evaluated by gene expression levels of adipogenic and lipogenic factors. Moreover, the response to diet composition evaluated through mRNA levels and fatty acid composition showed interesting differences between Alentejana and Barrosã bulls. These findings provide evidence that the genetic background should be taken into account while devising diet-based strategies to manipulate fatty acid composition of beef cattle tissues. PMID:23767408

2013-01-01

186

Control aspects of the launch phase of a vertically-launched short-range surface-to-air missile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A two dimensional mathematical model of a thrust vector controlled, vertically-launched missile suitable for use in a computer simulation is described. The program is written in FORTRAN 4 to run on the DEC-20 digital computer. The results obtained from this model are used to discover the design features necessary in a control system to make such a missile assume a horizontal trajectory. An autopilot is designed using classical methods to control the pitch attitude of the missile. The use of bang-bang rather than proportional control in the pitch autopilot loop is also investigated. A means of estimating the flight path angle from the pitch attitude is derived to allow control of flight path angle. The velocity control autopilot incorporating this estimator is examined as to the accuracy of the estimator and the retardation experienced during turning. Improvements on the original design are made. Slew rate limitation, gain scheduling, and incidence limitation are introduced.

West, S. P.

187

nAture methods | VOL.9 NO.2 | FEBRUARY2012 | 159 diverse optogenetic tools have allowed versatile control over  

E-print Network

AnAlysis nAture methods | VOL.9 NO.2 | FEBRUARY2012 | 159 diverse optogenetic tools have allowed for the conduct, design and interpretation of experiments involving optogenetic techniques. Optogenetics1 of optogenetics has been facilitated by the emergence of single-component (that is, with no exogenous cofactor

Cai, Long

188

Control via Budgets. Supervising: Economic and Financial Aspects. The Choice Series #71. A Self-Learning Opportunity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This learning unit on control via budgets is one in the Choice Series, a self-learning development program for supervisors. The purpose of the approximately eight-hour-long unit is to enable the supervisor to describe what a budget is, provide the information required to prepare budgets, understand how budgets are used, and use budgetary control…

Clelland, Alastair

189

Experimental Tests of Effects of Plant Productivity and Diversity on Grassland Arthropod Diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because the quantity, quality, and heterogeneity of resources should affect the diversity of consumers, plant productivity, plant composition, and plant diversity may influence the diversity of trophic levels higher up the food chain (''bottom-up'' control of diversity). Increasing plant productivity may increase herbivore diversity by: increasing the abundance of rare resources (''resource rarity hypothesis''), increasing herbivore abun- dance and local

Evan Siemann

1998-01-01

190

Environment-independent 14-helix formation in short beta-peptides: striking a balance between shape control and functional diversity.  

PubMed

We report a significant and unanticipated advance in the study of beta-amino acid-based foldamers: a small proportion of highly preorganized residues can impart high stability to a specific helical secondary structure in water. Most of the residues in these beta-peptides (2 and 3) are intrinsically flexible. Flexible beta-amino acids can be readily and enantiospecifically prepared in functionally diverse forms, but preorganized residues with side chains are rare and challenging to synthesize. Our findings demonstrate that interspersing a few copies of an unfunctionalized but rigid residue among a larger number of flexible residues with diverse side chains is a viable strategy for creating beta-peptides that adopt the 14-helix conformation and therefore display side chains in a predictable spatial arrangement. These results are significant because they enhance the prospects of developing beta-peptides with useful activities. PMID:12733872

Raguse, Tami L; Lai, Jonathan R; Gellman, Samuel H

2003-05-14

191

Trypanosoma evansi and Surra: A Review and Perspectives on Transmission, Epidemiology and Control, Impact, and Zoonotic Aspects  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews the transmission modes of Trypanosoma evansi. Its worldwide distribution is attributed to mechanical transmission. While the role of tabanids is clear, we raise questions on the relative role of Haematobia sp. and the possible role of Stomoxys sp. in delayed transmission. A review of the available trypanocidal drugs and their efficacy in various host species is useful for understanding how they interact in disease epidemiology, which is complex. Although there are similarities with other mechanically transmitted trypanosomes, T. evansi has a more complex epidemiology due to the diversity of its hosts and vectors. The impact of clinical and subclinical disease is difficult to establish. A model was developed for buffaloes in the Philippines, which could be transferred to other places and livestock systems. Since Trypanosoma evansi was reported in humans, further research is required to investigate its zoonotic potential. Surra remains a potentially emerging disease that is a threat to Australia, Spain, and France. A number of questions about the disease have yet to be resolved. This brief review of the basic knowledge of T. evansi suggests that there is renewed interest in the parasite, which is spreading and has a major economic impact. PMID:24151595

Desquesnes, Marc; Dargantes, Alan; Lai, De-Hua; Lun, Zhao-Rong; Holzmuller, Philippe; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn

2013-01-01

192

Structural Aspects of Phenylalanylation and Quality Control in Three Major Forms of Phenylalanyl-tRNA Synthetase.  

PubMed

Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) are a canonical set of enzymes that specifically attach corresponding amino acids to their cognate transfer RNAs in the cytoplasm, mitochondria, and nucleus. The aaRSs display great differences in primary sequence, subunit size, and quaternary structure. Existence of three types of phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase (PheRS)-bacterial (??)(2), eukaryotic/archaeal cytosolic (??)(2), and mitochondrial ?-is a prominent example of structural diversity within the aaRSs family. Although archaeal/eukaryotic and bacterial PheRSs share common topology of the core domains and the B3/B4 interface, where editing activity of heterotetrameric PheRSs is localized, the detailed investigation of the three-dimensional structures from three kingdoms revealed significant variations in the local design of their synthetic and editing sites. Moreover, as might be expected from structural data eubacterial, Thermus thermophilus and human cytoplasmic PheRSs acquire different patterns of tRNA(Phe) anticodon recognition. PMID:22331999

Klipcan, Liron; Finarov, Igal; Moor, Nina; Safro, Mark G

2010-01-01

193

Structural Aspects of Phenylalanylation and Quality Control in Three Major Forms of Phenylalanyl-tRNA Synthetase  

PubMed Central

Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) are a canonical set of enzymes that specifically attach corresponding amino acids to their cognate transfer RNAs in the cytoplasm, mitochondria, and nucleus. The aaRSs display great differences in primary sequence, subunit size, and quaternary structure. Existence of three types of phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase (PheRS)—bacterial (??)2, eukaryotic/archaeal cytosolic (??)2, and mitochondrial ?—is a prominent example of structural diversity within the aaRSs family. Although archaeal/eukaryotic and bacterial PheRSs share common topology of the core domains and the B3/B4 interface, where editing activity of heterotetrameric PheRSs is localized, the detailed investigation of the three-dimensional structures from three kingdoms revealed significant variations in the local design of their synthetic and editing sites. Moreover, as might be expected from structural data eubacterial, Thermus thermophilus and human cytoplasmic PheRSs acquire different patterns of tRNAPhe anticodon recognition. PMID:22331999

Klipcan, Liron; Finarov, Igal; Moor, Nina; Safro, Mark G.

2010-01-01

194

Genetic diversity in captive and wild Matschie's tree kangaroo (Dendrolagus matschiei) from Huon Peninsula, Papua New Guinea, based on mtDNA control region sequences.  

PubMed

The Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) Matschie's tree kangaroo (Dendrolagus matschiei) population is at a critical point for assessing long-term viability. This population, established from 19 genetically uncharacterized D. matschiei, has endured a founder effect because only four individuals contributed the majority of offspring. The highly variable mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region was sequenced for five of the female-founders by examining extant representatives of their maternal lineage and compared with wild (n = 13) and captive (n = 18) D. matschiei from Papua New Guinea (PNG). AZA female-founder D. matschiei control region haplotype diversity was low, compared with captive D. matschiei held in PNG. AZA D. matschiei have only two control region haplotypes because four out of five AZA female-founder D. matschiei had an identical sequence. Both AZA haplotypes were identified among the 17 wild and captive D. matschiei haplotypes from PNG. Genomic DNA extracted from wild D. matschiei fecal samples was a reliable source of mtDNA that could be used for a larger scale study. We recommend a nuclear DNA genetic analysis to more fully characterize AZA D. matschiei genetic diversity and to assist their Species Survival Plan((R)). An improved understanding of D. matschiei genetics will contribute substantially to the conservation of these unique animals both in captivity and the wild. PMID:19504594

McGreevy, Thomas J; Dabek, Lisa; Gomez-Chiarri, Marta; Husband, Thomas P

2009-05-01

195

Catalyst-controlled regio- and stereoselective synthesis of diverse 12H-6,12-methanodibenzo[d,g][1,3]dioxocines.  

PubMed

We describe an efficient one-pot regio- and stereoselective method for synthesizing diverse 1-hydroxy-12H-6,12-methanodibenzo[d,g][1,3]dioxocines and 3-hydroxy-12H-6,12-methanodibenzo[d,g][1,3]dioxocines using ethylenediammonium diacetate (EDDA) or p-toluenesulfonic acid (PTSA) catalyzed reactions between various resorcinols and a number of 2-hydroxychalcones. These reactions involve a catalyst-controlled cascade Michael-type reaction/double cyclization process. Importantly, these reactions provide a rapid synthetic route to the production of biologically interesting complex molecules that are generally prepared using multi-step reactions. PMID:24841280

Xia, Likai; Cai, Hongyun; Lee, Yong Rok

2014-07-01

196

Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter, a nonstationary control law for complex AO systems on ELTs: theoretical aspects and first simulations results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optimal control laws for new Adaptive Optics (AO) concepts in astronomy require the implementation of techniques intended for real time identification of the atmospheric turbulence. Contrary to the Optimized Modal Gain Integrator (OMGI), it has been proved that the Kalman Filter (KF) based optimal control law enables estimation and prediction of the turbulent phase from the measurements and corrects efficiently the different modes of this phase in the case of a wide field tomographic AO system. But using such kind of processes, for any Extremely Large Telescope (ELT), will be extremely difficult because of the numerical complexity of the computations involved in the matrices calculations as well as the recording of large covariance matrices. A new control law is proposed, based on the Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter (ETKF) and its efficient variation, Local ETKF (recently developed for geophysics applications), allowing to dramatically reduce the computation burden for an ELT implementation and also to deal with non stationary behaviors of the turbulence.

Gray, M.; Le Roux, B.

2012-07-01

197

Modifications of a conserved regulatory network involving INDEHISCENT controls multiple aspects of reproductive tissue development in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Disrupting pollen tube growth and fertilization in Arabidopsis plants leads to reduced seed set and silique size, providing a powerful genetic system with which to identify genes with important roles in plant fertility. A transgenic Arabidopsis line with reduced pollen tube growth, seed set and silique growth was used as the progenitor in a genetic screen to isolate suppressors with increased seed set and silique size. This screen generated a new allele of INDEHISCENT (IND), a gene originally identified by its role in valve margin development and silique dehiscence (pod shatter). IND forms part of a regulatory network that involves several other transcriptional regulators and involves the plant hormones GA and auxin. Using GA and auxin mutants that alter various aspects of reproductive development, we have identified novel roles for IND, its paralogue HECATE3, and the MADS box proteins SHATTERPROOF1/2 in flower and fruit development. These results suggest that modified forms of the regulatory network originally described for the Arabidopsis valve margin, which include these genes and/or their recently evolved paralogs, function in multiple components of GA/auxin-regulated reproductive development. PMID:23126654

Kay, P; Groszmann, M; Ross, J J; Parish, R W; Swain, S M

2013-01-01

198

The Emerging Role of Telemedicine in Managing Glycemic Control and Psychobehavioral Aspects of Pregnancy Complicated by Diabetes  

PubMed Central

There is a gradual decline in concern of specialists who follow up the care of pregnant women with diabetes. In addition, due to the dwindling economic resources allocated to health services, access to specialized healthcare facilities is becoming more difficult. Telemedicine, or medicine practiced at a distance, is inserted in this context with applications differing for type of interaction (real-time or deferred, i.e., videoconferencing versus store-and-forward data transmission), type of monitoring (automatic versus requesting cooperation from the patient), and type of devices used (web connections and use of mobile phones or smartphones). Telemedicine can cope with the current lack of ability to ensure these patients frequent direct contact with their caregivers. This approach may have an impact not only on the classical maternal-fetal outcome, but also on some underestimated aspects of patients with diabetes in pregnancy, in this case their quality of life, the perception of “diabetes self-efficacy,” and the glycemic variability. In this paper, we will analyze the current evidence regarding the use of telemedicine in pregnancies complicated by diabetes, trying to highlight the main limitations of these studies and possible strategies to overcome them in order to improve the effectiveness of future clinical interventions with these medical applications. PMID:25295059

Chilelli, Nino Cristiano; Dalfrà, Maria Grazia; Lapolla, Annunziata

2014-01-01

199

Controlled growth mode of high-aspect-ratio GaN nanorods by Ni/In/Ga catalyst  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gallium nitride nanorods (GaN NRs) were grown by employing a low melting point Ni/In/Ga alloy via metalorganic chemical vapour deposition. A small growth temperature window was observed in the range of 720-765 °C, which is lower than typical temperatures used for the growth of GaN NRs assisted by metal catalyst. Tapered GaN NRs with triangular cross-section were produced at 750 °C by vapour-solid (VS) growth mechanism. A slight increase of temperature to 765 °C was able to change the growth mode to vapour-liquid-solid (VLS) and quasi-aligned GaN NRs with high aspect ratio were produced. Photoluminescence of both GaN NR morphologies measured at 10 K revealed only near band edge emission centred at 3.48 eV, which was blue-shifted from that of the bulk GaN estimated at 3.46 eV. Micro-Raman spectroscopy performed at 300 K exhibited that GaN NRs grown either by VS or VLS growth mechanisms are relatively free of strain.

Ebaid, Mohamed; Kang, Jin-Ho; Key Lee, June; Ryu, Sang-Wan

2013-09-01

200

Design aspects related to the reliability of the control architecture of the LHC beam dump kicker systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The LHC beam dump extraction kicker system consists per ring of 15 magnets and their pulse generators. Their task is to extract the beams on request, over the whole operational beam energy range and synchronously with the beam abort gap. This operation must be fail-safe to avoid damage to accelerator equipment by undesired beam losses. The control system of the

E. Carlier; A. Antoine; P. Bobbio; G. Gräwer; A. Marchand; J. Uythoven; H. Verhagen

2003-01-01

201

Brain training with non-action video games enhances aspects of cognition in older adults: a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Age-related cognitive and brain declines can result in functional deterioration in many cognitive domains, dependency, and dementia. A major goal of aging research is to investigate methods that help to maintain brain health, cognition, independent living and wellbeing in older adults. This randomized controlled study investigated the effects of 20 1-h non-action video game training sessions with games selected from a commercially available package (Lumosity) on a series of age-declined cognitive functions and subjective wellbeing. Two groups of healthy older adults participated in the study, the experimental group who received the training and the control group who attended three meetings with the research team along the study. Groups were similar at baseline on demographics, vocabulary, global cognition, and depression status. All participants were assessed individually before and after the intervention, or a similar period of time, using neuropsychological tests and laboratory tasks to investigate possible transfer effects. The results showed significant improvements in the trained group, and no variation in the control group, in processing speed (choice reaction time), attention (reduction of distraction and increase of alertness), immediate and delayed visual recognition memory, as well as a trend to improve in Affection and Assertivity, two dimensions of the Wellbeing Scale. Visuospatial working memory (WM) and executive control (shifting strategy) did not improve. Overall, the current results support the idea that training healthy older adults with non-action video games will enhance some cognitive abilities but not others. PMID:25352805

Ballesteros, Soledad; Prieto, Antonio; Mayas, Julia; Toril, Pilar; Pita, Carmen; Ponce de León, Laura; Reales, José M.; Waterworth, John

2014-01-01

202

Operational aspects of bednet impregnation for community-based malaria control in Nicaragua, Ecuador, Peru and Colombia.  

PubMed

Community intervention projects with pyrethroid (permethrin and lambdacyhalothrin) impregnated bednets and an accompanying community education programme were carried out in 6 malaria endemic areas on the Pacific coast of Nicaragua, Ecuador, Peru and Colombia as well as in the Peruvian Amazon basin. In this paper the operational aspects are analysed: bednet coverage, results of promotional activities for increased bednet use, the sale of low-cost bednets, techniques and difficulties with impregnation, acceptance of the programme (including washing of impregnated nets), side-effects, residual concentrations of the chemical in the nets, costs of the impregnation programme and insecticide resistance of the malaria vectors. We found that the local manufacture of bednets and their sale through village health workers, even in communities with low cash income, is a viable way of increasing bednet coverage; the impregnation of bednets is well accepted if villagers perceive a direct benefit; pretesting of the soaking capacity of different net materials should be done at central level; the instructions for the impregnation procedures of different net materials (cotton and synthetic) should be simple and unambiguous; very cheap thin net materials should be avoided, particularly in the case of lambdacyhalothrin impregnation; educational methods and/or promotion of dark-colour nets should be further tested in order to decrease the washing frequency of bednets at household level; in areas with early-biting mosquitoes further studies on the protective efficacy of bednets are necessary; careful monitoring of side-effects, particularly those of last-generation pyrethroids, is necessary; and the community-based impregnation programme is a powerful tool for strengthening community involvement in health actions. PMID:9236827

Kroeger, A; Meyer, R; Mancheno, M; Gonzalez, M; Pesse, K

1997-06-01

203

High-order myopic coronagraphic phase diversity (COFFEE) for wave-front control in high-contrast imaging systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The estimation and compensation of quasi-static aberrations is mandatory to reach the ultimate performance of high-contrast imaging systems. COFFEE is a focal plane wave-front sensing method that consists in the extension of phase diversity to high-contrast imaging systems. Based on a Bayesian approach, it estimates the quasi-static aberrations from two focal plane images recorded from the scientific camera itself. In this paper, we present COFFEE's extension which allows an estimation of low and high order aberrations with nanometric precision for any coronagraphic device. The performance is evaluated by realistic simulations, performed in the SPHERE instrument framework. We develop a myopic estimation that allows us to take into account an imperfect knowledge on the used diversity phase. Lastly, we evaluate COFFEE's performance in a compensation process, to optimize the contrast on the detector, and show it allows one to reach the 10^-6 contrast required by SPHERE at a few resolution elements from the star. Notably, we present a non-linear energy minimization method which can be used to reach very high contrast levels (better than 10^-7 in a SPHERE-like context)

Paul, B.; Mugnier, L. M.; Sauvage, J.-F.; Ferrari, M.; Dohlen, K.

2013-12-01

204

Aspects of the water resources management practice with emphasis on nutrients control in the Chivero Basin, Zimbabwe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper summarises the results of a study on qualitative, quantitative and environmental aspects of water resources management in the Lake Chivero basin, which is the main source of water supply of the City of Harare, Zimbabwe and is in advanced stage of eutrophication. In terms of water quality, an integrated database has been developed, combining existing monitoring data about natural water quality, effluent discharges and urban storm drainage, and data from research investigations during the period 1995-2000. Background pollution in the basin varied from 0.1 to 0.3 mg/l and from 0.1 to 0.4 mg/l for nitrates and phosphates (as total P), respectively. Spatial variations along the major rivers showed a steady trend of increase in nutrient levels with a peak in 1998. At Marimba River confluence the annual median values recorded were 3.5 and 4.4 mg/l for ammonia and phosphates, respectively, thus exceeding the effluent discharge regulations 7-9 times. The major nutrient sources contributing to this status are associated with operational problems of the treatment facilities and diffuse sources of pollution from pastures irrigated with effluent, as well as from urban storm water. In environmental terms a first step was undertaken towards the development of a biological water quality monitoring system, by evaluating the habitat and a-biotic characteristics of the pristine regions of the basin. As to water quantity, it was found that the existing infrastructure is capable to satisfy present water demand, but the abstraction amounts to 77% of the water generated in the basin, which could be considered as an upper limit. It is not yet clear how some provisions of the new Water Act, such as the recognition of the environment as a legitimate water user, will be implemented. With regard to urban water management, the research focused on the development of a rainfall runoff model for the composite catchment area of the Marimba river basin, a sub-urban micro catchment of the Lake Chivero basin. The paper discusses the above findings, and suggests integrated solutions, considering the provisions of the new Water Act. The extensive amount of data accumulated and analysed during this study could form a sound basis for the development of a Management Information System of the basin, based on a GIS. Such a system could be useful for the catchment councils involved.

Hranova, R.; Gumbo, B.; Klein, J.; van der Zaag, P.

205

Metacontrast masking and the cortical representation of surface color: dynamical aspects of edge integration and contrast gain control  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews recent theoretical and experimental work supporting the idea that brightness is computed in a series of neural stages involving edge integration and contrast gain control. It is proposed here that metacontrast and paracontrast masking occur as byproducts of the dynamical properties of these neural mechanisms. The brightness computation model assumes, more specifically, that early visual neurons in the retina, and cortical areas V1 and V2, encode local edge signals whose magnitudes are proportional to the logarithms of the luminance ratios at luminance edges within the retinal image. These local edge signals give rise to secondary neural lightness and darkness spatial induction signals, which are summed at a later stage of cortical processing to produce a neural representation of surface color, or achromatic color, in the case of the chromatically neutral stimuli considered here. Prior to the spatial summation of these edge-based induction signals, the weights assigned to local edge contrast are adjusted by cortical gain mechanisms involving both lateral interactions between neural edge detectors and top-down attentional control. We have previously constructed and computer-simulated a neural model of achromatic color perception based on these principles and have shown that our model gives a good quantitative account of the results of several brightness matching experiments. Adding to this model the realistic dynamical assumptions that 1) the neurons that encode local contrast exhibit transient firing rate enhancement at the onset of an edge, and 2) that the effects of contrast gain control take time to spread between edges, results in a dynamic model of brightness computation that predicts the existence Broca-Sulzer transient brightness enhancement of the target, Type B metacontrast masking, and a form of paracontrast masking in which the target brightness is enhanced when the mask precedes the target in time. PMID:20517518

Rudd, Michael E.

2008-01-01

206

New aspects of oxytocin receptor function revealed by knockout mice: sociosexual behaviour and control of energy balance.  

PubMed

To further define the function of the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) in vivo, we generated mice deficient in the Oxtr gene (Oxtr-/-). Oxtr-/- mice had no obvious deficits in fertility or sexual behaviour, but displayed several aberrations in social behaviours, including male aggression, and mother-offspring interaction. In addition, they showed novel physiological defects including obesity, and dysfunction in body temperature control when exposed to cold. We review here our new findings with Oxtr-/- mice, and introduce newly generated Oxtr-Venus knockin mice as a potential tool for examining molecular physiology of Oxtr-neurons. PMID:18655874

Nishimori, Katsuhiko; Takayanagi, Yuki; Yoshida, Masahide; Kasahara, Yoshiyuki; Young, Larry J; Kawamata, Masaki

2008-01-01

207

Practical and quality-control aspects of multi-element analysis with quadrupole ICP-MS with special attention to urine and whole blood.  

PubMed

Two screening methods were developed for rapid analysis of a great number of urine and blood samples within the framework of an exposure check of the population after a firework explosion. A total of 56 elements was measured including major elements. Sample preparation consisted of simple dilution. Extensive quality controls were applied including element addition and the use of certified reference materials. Relevant results at levels similar to those found in the literature were obtained for Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba, Tl, and Pb in urine and for the same elements except Ni, Sn, Sb, and Ba in blood. However, quadrupole ICP-MS has limitations, mainly related to spectral interferences, for the analysis of urine and blood, and these cause higher detection limits. The general aspects discussed in the paper give it wider applicability than just for analysis of blood and urine-it can for example be used in environmental analysis. PMID:15221184

De Boer, Jan L M; Ritsema, Rob; Piso, Sjoerd; Van Staden, Hans; Van Den Beld, Wilbert

2004-07-01

208

[Molecular aspects of a hypothalamic glucose sensor system and their implications in the control of food intake].  

PubMed

Glucose is used mainly as an energy substrate but also as a signalling molecule implied in processes of primary functional concern, such as glucose sensing. Glucose transporter isoform GLUT-2 and especially glucokinase (GK) have been considered as components of a glucose sensor system controlling several key processes such as, glucose-dependent insulin secretion, and stimulation of glucose uptake by liver and skeletal muscle. In the same way this system might modulate feeding behavior and the release of counteregulatory hormones that defend against hypoglycemia. Our findings indicate that GLUT-2 and GK mRNAs and proteins are coexpressed mainly in the hypothalamus of human and experimental animals, in areas implied in the control of food intake. Also, a high Km glucose phosphorylating activity with kinetic properties similar to that reported previously in liver was observed, with a high apparent Km for glucose that displays no product inhibition by glucose-6-phosphate. GK activity may also be regulated by the presence of glucokinase regulatory protein (GKRP), which we have found in the brain of human and experimental animals, in the same areas than GK. Coexpression of GLUT-2, GK and GKRP in areas implied in feeding behavior might play a role in glucose sensing, in which GLUT-2 has a permissive role and the interactions of GK with GKRP made possible a real sensor activity. Furthermore the effects of anorexigenic peptides through its receptors in this system, should facilitate the transduction of signals required to produce a state of satiety. PMID:15027703

Blázquez Fernández, Enrique

2003-01-01

209

Sapogenin content variation in Medicago inter-specific hybrid derivatives highlights some aspects of saponin synthesis and control.  

PubMed

In the Medicago genus, saponins are a complex mixture of triterpene glycosides showing a broad spectrum of biological properties. Here we analyzed the variation in the sapogenin content and composition of inter-specific hybrid Medicago sativa × Medicago arborea derivatives to highlight the pattern of this variation in plant organs (leaves/roots) and the possible mechanisms underlying it. In Sativa Arborea Cross (SAC) leaves and roots, saponins and sapogenins were evaluated using chromatographic methods. Phenotypic correlations between sapogenin content and bio-agronomic traits were examined. Expression studies on ?-amyrin synthase and four cytochromes P450 (CYPs) involved in sapogenin biosynthesis and sequence analysis of the key gene of the hemolytic sapogenin pathway (CYP716A12) were performed. Chromatographic analyses revealed a different pattern of among-family variation for hemolytic and nonhemolytic sapogenins and saponins and for the two organs/tissues. Different correlation patterns of gene expression in roots and leaves were found. Diachronic analysis revealed a relationship between sapogenin content and gene transcriptional levels in the early stages of the productive cycle. The results suggest that there are different control mechanisms acting on sapogenin biosynthesis for leaves and roots, which are discussed. A key role for medicagenic acid in the control of sapogenin content in both the tissues is proposed and discussed. PMID:25406544

Carelli, Maria; Biazzi, Elisa; Tava, Aldo; Losini, Ilaria; Abbruscato, Pamela; Depedro, Claudia; Scotti, Carla

2014-11-18

210

Towards a better understanding of the relationship between executive control and theory of mind: an intra-cultural comparison of three diverse samples.  

PubMed

Previous research has consistently indicated that theory of mind (ToM) is associated with executive control in the preschool years. However, interpretation of this literature is limited by the fact that most studies have focused exclusively on urbanized Western cultural samples. Consequently, it is not clear whether the association between ToM and executive control reflects the specific features of this particular cohort or instead reflects a universal pattern. The present study provides the first empirical assessment of these two constructs in three diverse groups of Iranian children. Participants were 142 preschoolers (4-5 years old) from high-socioeconomic status (SES) urban (n = 33), low-SES urban (n = 37) and rural villages (n = 77). The results show that there is a robust association between ToM and executive control in all three groups, and that executive control contributes significant unique variance to ToM understanding, even after controlling for a range of variables that have been proposed as potential confounders of this relationship. However, although the three groups were equated in ToM, significant differences in executive control were evident. Moreover, cluster analysis identified three distinct clusters that were relatively homogeneous with respect to executive control and SES. One of these clusters was characterized by both low SES and low executive functioning, and showed little evidence of ToM understanding. Taken together, these findings provide possibly the clearest evidence to date that the association between ToM and executive control is not dependent on children's previous experiences on the tasks, or their family and cultural background. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dxh_-3gCB8o. PMID:25443564

Shahaeian, Ameneh; Henry, Julie D; Razmjoee, Maryam; Teymoori, Ali; Wang, Cen

2014-11-28

211

Instructional Diversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teachers who successfully use diverse learning modes in their instructional approaches accomplish several remarkable things. First, they create a climate where the ways of knowing central to the different modalities are all seen as legitimate, acceptable,

Samples, Bob

2000-01-01

212

Urinary Diversion  

MedlinePLUS

... the abdomen. The patient then wears an ostomy bag into which the urine continuously drains, but they ... continent urinary diversion is that no permanent ostomy bag needs to be worn. What can be expected ...

213

Topographic Controls on Spatial Patterns of Soil Texture and Moisture in a Semi-arid Montane Catchment with Aspect-Dependent Vegetation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil moisture exerts significant control over the partitioning of latent and sensible energy fluxes, the magnitude of both vertical and lateral water fluxes, the physiological and water-use characteristics of vegetation, and nutrient cycling. Considerable progress has been made in determining how soil characteristics, topography, and vegetation influence spatial patterns of soil moisture in humid environments at the catchment, hillslope, and plant scales. However, understanding of the controls on soil moisture patterns beyond the plant scale in semi-arid environments remains more limited. This study examines the relationships between the spatial patterns of near surface soil moisture (upper 5 cm), terrain indices, and soil properties in a small, semi-arid, montane catchment. The 8 ha catchment, located in the Cache La Poudre River Canyon in north-central Colorado, has a total relief of 115 m and an average elevation of 2193 m. It is characterized by steep slopes and shallow, gravelly/sandy soils with scattered granite outcroppings. Depth to bedrock ranges from 0 m to greater than 1 m. Vegetation in the catchment is highly correlated with topographic aspect. In particular, north-facing hillslopes are predominately vegetated by ponderosa pines, while south-facing slopes are mostly vegetated by several shrub species. Soil samples were collected at a 30 m resolution to characterize soil texture and bulk density, and several datasets consisting of more than 300 point measurements of soil moisture were collected using time domain reflectometry (TDR) between Fall 2007 and Summer 2008 at a 15 m resolution. Results from soil textural analysis performed with sieving and the ASTM standard hydrometer method show that soil texture is finer on the north-facing hillslope than on the south-facing hillslope. Cos(aspect) is the best univariate predictor of silts, while slope is the best predictor of coarser fractions up to fine gravel. Bulk density increases with depth but shows no significant relationship with topographic indices. When the catchment average soil moisture is low, the variance of soil moisture increases with the average. When the average is high, the variance remains relatively constant. Little of the variation in soil moisture is explained by topographic indices when the catchment is either very wet or dry; however, when the average soil moisture takes on intermediate values, cos(aspect) is consistently the best predictor among the terrain indices considered.

Lehman, B. M.; Niemann, J. D.

2008-12-01

214

Some aspects of the biology and control using botanicals of the rice moth, Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton), on some pulses.  

PubMed

The life cycle of Corcyra cephalonica was studied under ambient laboratory conditions (temperature range 27.5-30 degrees C and 60-73% r.h.) on groundnut, bambara groundnut and cowpea. The mean developmental period ranged from 33.2+/-0.2 to 45.3+/-1.8 days on whole, broken and powdered forms of the food media. Egg hatchability was found to be 83%, while adult longevity ranged from 1.5+/-0.5 to 11.9+/-1.3 days for males and 1.5+/-0.5 to 16.5+/-1.2 days for females. Sex ratio (male symbol:female symbol) of emerged adults ranged from 1:1 to 1:2.1. Mean fecundities ranged from 128+/-5 to 157+/-8 on the food media. In experiments to assess the insecticidal potential of three plant materials against C. cephalonica, Eichhornia crassipes powder showed a higher efficacy than both Citrus sinensis peel powder and the leaf powder of Chromolaena odorata at dosages of 0.5-2.0 g per 40 g of legume seed. At the higher dosage of 2.5 g, C. sinensis was more effective and reduced the population of C. cephalonica by half when compared to the population in control jars over a period of 1.5 months. PMID:10758262

Allotey; Azalekor

2000-07-01

215

Biodiversity in riverbank techniques for erosion control: assessment of animal and plant species diversity along a natural gradient.  

E-print Network

Biodiversity in riverbank techniques for erosion control: assessment of animal and plant species * Corresponding author: paul.cavaille@cemagref.fr Keywords: beetles, biodiversity, ecological restoration, plant.). However, whether such installations can accommodate natural biodiversity has not been well assessed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

216

The Pediatric Asthma Control and Communication Instrument asthma questionnaire: For use in diverse children of all ages  

PubMed Central

Background National Institutes of Health asthma guidelines recommend questionnaires to assess asthma control, but these questionnaires are not useable across the entire pediatric age spectrum and have not been validated among significant numbers of minority or Spanish-speaking children. Objective We sought to evaluate a questionnaire designed to assess asthma control across a broad age range of minority and Spanish-speaking children cared for in an outpatient setting. Methods Between July 1, 2007, and September 30, 2010, we collected information using the Pediatric Asthma Control and Communication Instrument (PACCI), the Asthma Control Test (ACT; or the childhood ACT for children 4–11 years old), the Pediatric Asthma Caregiver Quality of Life Questionnaire, and lung function and clinicians’ ratings of asthma status among a population of children presenting for routine asthma specialist care. The PACCI measure of asthma control was validated by evaluating accuracy, internal reliability, and concurrent, discriminative, and known-groups validity. Results We collected information on 265 English- and 52 Spanish-speaking children (mean age, 8.2 years; 58% male; 44% African American). Across all age groups and in both languages, PACCI control showed good internal reliability and strong concurrent, discriminative, and known-groups validity with ACT and Pediatric Asthma Caregiver Quality of Life Questionnaire scores and clinicians’ ratings of asthma control. The accuracy of the PACCI in classifying children with uncontrolled asthma was good (area under the curve, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.79–0.88). Conclusions The PACCI accurately measures asthma control in English- and Spanish-speaking children. The PACCI should be useful to clinicians to assess and classify asthma according to National Institutes of Health asthma guidelines. PMID:23434285

Okelo, Sande O.; Eakin, Michelle N.; Patino, Cecilia M.; Teodoro, Alvin P.; Bilderback, Andrew L.; Thompson, Darcy A.; Loiaza-Martinez, Antonio; Rand, Cynthia S.; Thyne, Shannon; Diette, Gregory B.; Riekert, Kristin A.

2014-01-01

217

Opportunistic Multi-Access: Multiuser Diversity, Relay-Aided Opportunistic Scheduling, and Traffic-Aided Smooth Admission Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study multi-access control in opportunistic communication systems, and propose two new schemes to address channel asymmetry and throughput-guaranteed admission control, respectively. We first devise a relay-aided opportunistic scheduling (RAOS) scheme, in which a user can choose to communicate with the base station either directly or using multiple hops (relay transmissions). We develop relay\\/direct link construction algorithms using either a

Ming Hu; Junshan Zhang

2004-01-01

218

Genetic and antigenic diversity of Theileria parva in cattle in Eastern and Southern zones of Tanzania. A study to support control of East Coast fever.  

PubMed

SUMMARY This study investigated the genetic and antigenic diversity of Theileria parva in cattle from the Eastern and Southern zones of Tanzania. Thirty-nine (62%) positive samples were genotyped using 14 mini- and microsatellite markers with coverage of all four T. parva chromosomes. Wright's F index (F ST = 0 × 094) indicated a high level of panmixis. Linkage equilibrium was observed in the two zones studied, suggesting existence of a panmyctic population. In addition, sequence analysis of CD8+ T-cell target antigen genes Tp1 revealed a single protein sequence in all samples analysed, which is also present in the T. parva Muguga strain, which is a component of the FAO1 vaccine. All Tp2 epitope sequences were identical to those in the T. parva Muguga strain, except for one variant of a Tp2 epitope, which is found in T. parva Kiambu 5 strain, also a component the FAO1 vaccine. Neighbour joining tree of the nucleotide sequences of Tp2 showed clustering according to geographical origin. Our results show low genetic and antigenic diversity of T. parva within the populations analysed. This has very important implications for the development of sustainable control measures for T. parva in Eastern and Southern zones of Tanzania, where East Coast fever is endemic. PMID:25417727

Elisa, Mwega; Hasan, Salih Dia; Moses, Njahira; Elpidius, Rukambile; Skilton, Robert; Gwakisa, Paul

2014-11-24

219

75 FR 81244 - Military Leadership Diversity Commission Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...all members of the Military Leadership Diversity Commission before...the control of the Military Leadership Diversity Commission or its...2011 meeting of the Military Leadership Diversity Commission as required...Accordingly, the Advisory Committee Management Officer for the...

2010-12-27

220

Genetic Diversity and Biological Control Activity of Novel Species of Closely Related Pseudomonads Isolated from Wheat Field Soils in South Australia  

PubMed Central

Rhizobacteria closely related to two recently described species of pseudomonads, Pseudomonas brassicacearum and Pseudomonas thivervalensis, were isolated from two geographically distinct wheat field soils in South Australia. Isolation was undertaken by either selective plating or immunotrapping utilizing a polyclonal antibody raised against P. brassicacearum. A subset of 42 isolates were characterized by amplified 16S ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA), BIOLOG analysis, and gas chromatography-fatty acid methyl ester (GC-FAME) analysis and separated into closely related phenetic groups. More than 75% of isolates tested by ARDRA were found to have >95% similarity to either Pseudomonas corrugata or P. brassicacearum-P. thivervalensis type strains, and all isolates had >90% similarity to either type strain. BIOLOG and GC-FAME clustering showed a >70% match to ARDRA profiles. Strains representing different ARDRA groups were tested in two soil types for biological control activity against the soilborne plant pathogen Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, the causative agent of take-all of wheat and barley. Three isolates out of 11 significantly reduced take-all-induced root lesions on wheat plants grown in a red-brown earth soil. Only one strain, K208, was consistent in reducing disease symptoms in both the acidic red-brown earth and a calcareous sandy loam. Results from this study indicate that P. brassicacearum and P. thivervalensis are present in Australian soils and that a level of genetic diversity exists within these two novel species but that this diversity does not appear to be related to geographic distribution. The result of the glasshouse pot trial suggests that some isolates of these species may have potential as biological control agents for plant disease. PMID:10742249

Ross, Ian L.; Alami, Younes; Harvey, Paul R.; Achouak, Wafa; Ryder, Maarten H.

2000-01-01

221

Beneficial effects of short-term combination exercise training on diverse cognitive functions in healthy older people: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Results of previous studies have shown that exercise training can improve cognitive functions in healthy older people. Some studies have demonstrated that long-term combination exercise training can facilitate memory function improvement better than either aerobic or strength exercise training alone. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether short-term combination exercise training can improve diverse cognitive functions in healthy older people or not. We investigate the effects of four weeks of short-term combination exercise training on various cognitive functions (executive functions, episodic memory, short-term memory, working memory, attention, reading ability, and processing speed) of healthy older people. Methods A single-blinded intervention with two parallel groups (combination exercise training; waiting list control) is used. Testers are blind to the study hypothesis and the participants’ group membership. Through an advertisement in a local newspaper, 64 healthy older adults are recruited and then assigned randomly to a combination exercise training group or a waiting list control group. Participants in the combination exercise training group must participate in the short-term combination exercise training (aerobic and strength exercise training) three days per week during the four weeks (12 workouts in total). The waiting list group does not participate in the combination exercise training. The primary outcome measure is the Stroop test score: a measure of executive function. Secondary outcome measures are assessments including the Verbal Fluency Task, Logical Memory, First and Second Names, Digit Span Forward, Digit span backward, Japanese Reading Test, Digit Cancellation Task, Digit Symbol Coding, and Symbol Search. We assess these outcome measures before and after the intervention. Discussion This report is the first of a study that investigates the beneficial effects of short-term combination exercise training on diverse cognitive functions of older people. Our study is expected to provide sufficient evidence of short-term combination exercise’s effectiveness. Trial registration This trial was registered in The University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry (Number UMIN000007828). PMID:23107038

2012-01-01

222

The Academy for Future Science Faculty: randomized controlled trial of theory-driven coaching to shape development and diversity of early-career scientists  

PubMed Central

Background Approaches to training biomedical scientists have created a talented research community. However, they have failed to create a professional workforce that includes many racial and ethnic minorities and women in proportion to their representation in the population or in PhD training. This is particularly true at the faculty level. Explanations for the absence of diversity in faculty ranks can be found in social science theories that reveal processes by which individuals develop identities, experiences, and skills required to be seen as legitimate within the profession. Methods/Design Using the social science theories of Communities of Practice, Social Cognitive Career Theory, identity formation, and cultural capital, we have developed and are testing a novel coaching-based model to address some of the limitations of previous diversity approaches. This coaching intervention (The Academy for Future Science Faculty) includes annual in-person meetings of students and trained faculty Career Coaches, along with ongoing virtual coaching, group meetings and communication. The model is being tested as a randomized controlled trial with two cohorts of biomedical PhD students from across the U.S., one recruited at the start of their PhDs and one nearing completion. Stratification into the experimental and control groups, and to coaching groups within the experimental arms, achieved equal numbers of students by race, ethnicity and gender to the extent possible. A fundamental design element of the Academy is to teach and make visible the social science principles which highly influence scientific advancement, as well as acknowledging the extra challenges faced by underrepresented groups working to be seen as legitimate within the scientific communities. Discussion The strategy being tested is based upon a novel application of the well-established principles of deploying highly skilled coaches, selected and trained for their ability to develop talents of others. This coaching model is intended to be a complement, rather than a substitute, for traditional mentoring in biomedical research training, and is being tested as such. PMID:25084625

2014-01-01

223

Diversity in Control and Management Techniques for Cactoblastis cactorum and Its Response in its Adventive North American Range  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The South American cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is celebrated for its role as a biological control agent for weedy Opuntia spp. However, multiple unintentional arrivals of C. cactorum in North America represent an economical and ecological threat to native Opun...

224

Expanding the forensic German mitochondrial DNA control region database: genetic diversity as a function of sample size and microgeography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitochondrial DNA control region sequences were determined in 109 unrelated German Caucasoid individuals from north west\\u000a Germany for both hypervariable regions 1 (HV1) and 2 (HV2) and 100 polymorphic nucleotide positions (nps) were found, 63 in\\u000a HV1 and 37 in HV2. A total of 100 different mtDNA lineages was revealed, of which 7 were shared by 2 individuals and 1

H. Pfeiffer; B. Brinkmann; J. Hühne; B. Rolf; A. A. Morris; R. Steighner; M. M. Holland; P. Forster

1999-01-01

225

Powerful usage of phylogenetically diverse Staphylococcus aureus control strains for detecting multidrug resistance genes in transcriptomics studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Staphylococcus aureus is an important human pathogen responsible for life-threatening septicemia, endocarditis, and toxic shock syndrome. Although\\u000a positive (MRSA; ATCC 33591) and negative (MSSA; ATCC 25923) control strains have been used for various pathogenesis or assay\\u000a studies, little is known about the genomic structure of the strains, and there has been little genome-wide expression analysis.\\u000a Phylogenetic analyses revealed that ATCC

Jun-Sang Ham; Seung-Gyu Lee; Seok-Geun Jeong; Mi-Hwa Oh; Dong-Hun Kim; Taeheon Lee; Bo-Young Lee; Sook Hee Yoon; Heebal Kim

2010-01-01

226

Diversity Trailblazer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When Dr. Kumea Shorter-Gooden took on her newly created job this month at the University of Maryland's flagship College Park campus, she assumed a challenge at the school with a lot riding on her shoulders--helping the University of Maryland strengthen its diversity efforts and, thus, its relevance to the state in the future and standing among the…

Stuart, Reginald

2012-01-01

227

PLANT DIVERSITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Habitat change statistics and species-area curves were used to estimate the effects of alternative future scenarios for agriculture on plant diversity in Iowa farmlands. Study areas were two watersheds in central Iowa of about 50 and 90 square kilometers, respectively. Future s...

228

Diversity's Calling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses how a Harvard-educated scholar of English and poetry, Dr. M. Lee Pelton puts a prominent face on changes that are underway at Boston's Emerson College. Faced with a public controversy over its limited faculty diversity, Emerson College has responded with a spate of hirings and promotions of minorities, capped by the…

Cooper, Kenneth J.

2011-01-01

229

Discovering Diversity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces a preservice teacher field trip to the rain forests and coastal areas. This experience develops an awareness for different cultures among preservice teachers by experiencing biological and cultural diversity in Costa Rica. Presents students' own ideas on this experience. (YDS)

Manner, Barbara M.; Hattler, Jean Anne

2000-01-01

230

Animal Diversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor activity, learners find, count and compare as many different kinds of animals as they can find in two different areas: a managed lawn and a weedy area. Learners compare their animal finds, and also examine which plants in the different areas attracted the most animals. Learners consider how people have affected the diversity of animals in the lawn.

Science, Lawrence H.

1982-01-01

231

Development and Psychometric Properties of the Organizational Diversity Inventory (ODI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A newly developed 20-item Organizational Diversity Inventory (ODI) is described. A battery of 200 statements dealing with various aspects of diversity was evaluated as to the statements' relevancy by a diverse group of 40 middle managers. Thirty-five items were selected for further exploration. Four hundred and fifty managerial employees from 27 organizations completed this 35-item inventory. Relying on half of

W. Harvey Hegarty; Dan R. Dalton

1995-01-01

232

Controls on the Entrainment of Juvenile Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) into Large Water Diversions and Estimates of Population-Level Loss  

PubMed Central

Diversion of freshwater can cause significant changes in hydrologic dynamics and this can have negative consequences for fish populations. Additionally, fishes can be directly entrained into diversion infrastructure (e.g. canals, reservoirs, pumps) where they may become lost to the population. However, the effect of diversion losses on fish population dynamics remains unclear. We used 15 years of release and recovery data from coded-wire-tagged juvenile Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) to model the physical, hydrological and biological predictors of salvage at two large water diversions in the San Francisco Estuary. Additionally, entrainment rates were combined with estimates of mortality during migration to quantify the proportion of total mortality that could be attributed to diversions. Statistical modeling revealed a strong positive relationship between diversion rate and fish entrainment at both diversions and all release locations. Other significant relationships were specific to the rivers where the fish were released, and the specific diversion facility. Although significant relationships were identified in statistical models, entrainment loss and the mean contribution of entrainment to total migration mortality were low. The greatest entrainment mortality occurred for fish released along routes that passed closest to the diversions and certain runs of Chinook Salmon released in the Sacramento River suffered greater mortality but only at the highest diversion rates observed during the study. These results suggest losses at diversions should be put into a population context in order to best inform effective management of Chinook Salmon populations. PMID:25019205

Zeug, Steven C.; Cavallo, Bradley J.

2014-01-01

233

HelioScan: a software framework for controlling in vivo microscopy setups with high hardware flexibility, functional diversity and extendibility.  

PubMed

Intravital microscopy such as in vivo imaging of brain dynamics is often performed with custom-built microscope setups controlled by custom-written software to meet specific requirements. Continuous technological advancement in the field has created a need for new control software that is flexible enough to support the biological researcher with innovative imaging techniques and provide the developer with a solid platform for quickly and easily implementing new extensions. Here, we introduce HelioScan, a software package written in LabVIEW, as a platform serving this dual role. HelioScan is designed as a collection of components that can be flexibly assembled into microscope control software tailored to the particular hardware and functionality requirements. Moreover, HelioScan provides a software framework, within which new functionality can be implemented in a quick and structured manner. A specific HelioScan application assembles at run-time from individual software components, based on user-definable configuration files. Due to its component-based architecture, HelioScan can exploit synergies of multiple developers working in parallel on different components in a community effort. We exemplify the capabilities and versatility of HelioScan by demonstrating several in vivo brain imaging modes, including camera-based intrinsic optical signal imaging for functional mapping of cortical areas, standard two-photon laser-scanning microscopy using galvanometric mirrors, and high-speed in vivo two-photon calcium imaging using either acousto-optic deflectors or a resonant scanner. We recommend HelioScan as a convenient software framework for the in vivo imaging community. PMID:23416135

Langer, Dominik; van 't Hoff, Marcel; Keller, Andreas J; Nagaraja, Chetan; Pfäffli, Oliver A; Göldi, Maurice; Kasper, Hansjörg; Helmchen, Fritjof

2013-04-30

234

The effect of regular walks on various health aspects in older people with dementia: protocol of a randomized-controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Physical activity has proven to be beneficial for physical functioning, cognition, depression, anxiety, rest-activity rhythm, quality of life (QoL), activities of daily living (ADL) and pain in older people. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of walking regularly on physical functioning, the progressive cognitive decline, level of depression, anxiety, rest-activity rhythm, QoL, ADL and pain in older people with dementia. Methods/design This study is a longitudinal randomized controlled, single blind study. Ambulatory older people with dementia, who are regular visitors of daily care or living in a home for the elderly or nursing home in the Netherlands, will be randomly allocated to the experimental or control condition. Participants of the experimental group make supervised walks of 30 minutes a day, 5 days a week, as part of their daily nursing care. Participants of the control group will come together three times a week for tea or other sedentary activities to control for possible positive effects of social interaction. All dependent variables will be assessed at baseline and after 6 weeks, and 3, 6, 9, 12 and 18 months of intervention. The dependent variables include neuropsychological tests to assess cognition, physical tests to determine physical functioning, questionnaires to assess ADL, QoL, level of depression and anxiety, actigraphy to assess rest-activity rhythm and pain scales to determine pain levels. Potential moderating variables at baseline are: socio-demographic characteristics, body mass index, subtype of dementia, apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotype, medication use and comorbidities. Discussion This study evaluates the effect of regular walking as a treatment for older people with dementia. The strength of this study is that 1) it has a longitudinal design with multiple repeated measurements, 2) we assess many different health aspects, 3) the intervention is not performed by research staff, but by nursing staff which enables it to become a routine in usual care. Possible limitations of the study are that 1) only active minded institutions are willing to participate creating a selection bias, 2) the drop-out rate will be high in this population, 3) not all participants will be able to perform/understand all tests. Trial registration NTR1482 PMID:21827648

2011-01-01

235

Lack of association of the HMGA1 IVS5-13insC variant with type 2 diabetes in an ethnically diverse hypertensive case control cohort  

PubMed Central

Background Recently, the high-mobility group A1 gene (HMGA1) variant IVS5-13insC has been associated with type 2 diabetes, but reported associations are inconsistent and data are lacking in Hispanic and African American populations. We sought to investigate the HMGA1-diabetes association and to characterize IVS5-13insC allele frequencies and linkage disequilibrium (LD) in 3,070 Caucasian, Hispanic, and African American patients from the INternational VErapamil SR-Trandolapril STudy (INVEST). Methods INVEST was a randomized, multicenter trial comparing two antihypertensive treatment strategies in an ethnically diverse cohort of hypertensive, coronary artery disease patients. Controls, who were diabetes-free throughout the study, and type 2 diabetes cases, either prevalent or incident, were genotyped for IVS5-13insC using Taqman®, confirmed with Pyrosequencing and Sanger sequencing. For LD analysis, genotyping for eight additional HMGA1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was performed using the Illumina® HumanCVD BeadChip. We used logistic regression to test association of the HMGA1 IVS5-13insC and diabetes, adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, and percentage European, African, and Native American ancestry. Results We observed IVS5-13insC minor allele frequencies consistent with previous literature in Caucasians and African Americans (0.03 in cases and 0.04 in controls for both race/ethnic groups), and higher frequencies in Hispanics (0.07 in cases and 0.07 in controls). The IVS5-13insC was not associated with type 2 diabetes overall (odds ratio 0.98 [0.76-1.26], p=0.88) or in any race/ethnic group. Pairwise LD (r2) of IVS5-13insC and rs9394200, a SNP previously used as a tag SNP for IVS5-13insC, was low (r2=0.47 in Caucasians, r2=0.25 in Hispanics, and r2=0.06 in African Americans). Furthermore, in silico analysis suggested a lack of functional consequences for the IVS5-13insC variant. Conclusions Our results suggest that IVS5-13insC is not a functional variant and not associated with type 2 diabetes in an ethnically diverse, hypertensive, coronary artery disease population. Larger, more adequately powered studies need to be performed to confirm our findings. Trial registration clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00133692) PMID:23302499

2013-01-01

236

Mitochondrial control region I and microsatellite analyses of endangered Philippine hornbill species (Aves; Bucerotidae) detect gene flow between island populations and genetic diversity loss  

PubMed Central

Background The Visayan Tarictic Hornbill (Penelopides panini) and the Walden’s Hornbill (Aceros waldeni) are two threatened hornbill species endemic to the western islands of the Visayas that constitute - between Luzon and Mindanao - the central island group of the Philippine archipelago. In order to evaluate their genetic diversity and to support efforts towards their conservation, we analyzed genetic variation in ~ 600 base pairs (bp) of the mitochondrial control region I and at 12–19 nuclear microsatellite loci. The sampling covered extant populations, still occurring only on two islands (P. panini: Panay and Negros, A. waldeni: only Panay), and it was augmented with museum specimens of extinct populations from neighboring islands. For comparison, their less endangered (= more abundant) sister taxa, the Luzon Tarictic Hornbill (P. manillae) from the Luzon and Polillo Islands and the Writhed Hornbill (A. leucocephalus) from Mindanao Island, were also included in the study. We reconstructed the population history of the two Penelopides species and assessed the genetic population structure of the remaining wild populations in all four species. Results Mitochondrial and nuclear data concordantly show a clear genetic separation according to the island of origin in both Penelopides species, but also unravel sporadic over-water movements between islands. We found evidence that deforestation in the last century influenced these migratory events. Both classes of markers and the comparison to museum specimens reveal a genetic diversity loss in both Visayan hornbill species, P. panini and A. waldeni, as compared to their more abundant relatives. This might have been caused by local extinction of genetically differentiated populations together with the dramatic decline in the abundance of the extant populations. Conclusions We demonstrated a loss in genetic diversity of P. panini and A. waldeni as compared to their sister taxa P. manillae and A. leucocephalus. Because of the low potential for gene flow and population exchange across islands, saving of the remaining birds of almost extinct local populations - be it in the wild or in captivity - is particularly important to preserve the species’ genetic potential. PMID:23057730

2012-01-01

237

Microbial Diversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Increasingly, a number of textbook companies are offering complementary access to materials related to their printed textbooks, and in a few instances, they offer users access to the entire textbook. Blackwell Publishing has created this website to offer students and others access to sections of Professor Oladele Ogunseitan's textbook, "Microbial Diversity". Professor Ogunseitan's book is a comprehensive look into the world of microbial diversity, and it spells out the impact of microorganisms on ecological and earth system phenomena. On the site, visitors can click on the "Contents" tab to look over selected chapters (such as "Environmental Evolution"), and then look at the complete "Glossary" area. Perhaps the best feature on the entire site is the "Student Resources" section. Here visitors can take advantage of helpful external links related to this area of study, interviews with researchers in the field, and other related matters.

238

Invertebrate Diversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this introduction to invertebrate diversity, students compare the external anatomy and locomotion of earthworms, mealworms, crickets and crayfish, all of which can be purchased at low cost from local pet stores. Discussion questions help students understand the evolutionary basis of observed similarities and differences. This activity can be used as an introduction to the Annelid and Arthropod phyla and the principle that form matches function.

Doherty, Jennifer; Waldron, Ingrid

239

Trace-based Aspects Remi Douence1,  

E-print Network

illustrate how to keep the semantic impact of aspects under control and to implement weaving statically. 1 crosscutting functionalities of complex applications. By en- capsulating such functionalities into aspects, AOP- malization of aspects and weaving. Restrictions on these languages allow us to design static analysis

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

240

Bioengineering applied to erosion and stability control in the North Apennines (Emilia-Romagna Region, Italy): a check about critical aspects of the works.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because of its geological structure, in the Emilia-Romagna Region over 32,000 landslides have been identified. Several works have been made in order to control mass movement's dynamics and to secure of Reno and Lamone Mountain Basin Rivers, the road network and near by villages and towns. Most of the control works dealt with bioengineering practices: palisades piles, geotextiles, seedings, surface flow control works, dikes within main drainage ditches. In order to check about critical aspects related to the use of these techniques in the Apennines, a survey in this basins was designed with specific interest in the several kinds of works realised, in which plant species were mostly used and in the factors that affected the success or failure of the works. Territory encompasses steep slopes covered with woods to low reliefs covered with grasslands. It is characterized by prevailing clays, inducing instability, and arenaceous lithology with impermeable soils; drainage density is quite high and hillsides suffer extensive and severe erosion and slope stability problems. Chestnut woods mainly represent land use at higher altitudes, while coppice, pastures and crops are present on milder hillsides. The remaining part of the basin is covered by vineyards, orchards, ponds and urban areas, which are basically located in the valley floor. Precipitation events mainly consist of rainfall ranging between 950-1015 mm per year; few snowfalls occur during winter and a long dry season lasts from June until September. We have analyzed 187 works designed mainly for the consolidation of slope instabilities through a widespread enhancement of the vegetation cover. The surveyed works are classified as a function of their building features: it can be seen that cribwalls and palisades are by far the most common types, being the 24% and the 34% respectively of the works. As far as the most adopted plant species, they were silver willow (Salix alba), Spanish Broom (Spartium Junceum) and purple willow (Salix purpurea). Only the 25% of the interventions was accomplished by the use of secondary plant species, as tamarisk (Tamarix spp.,) blackthorn (Prunus spinosa) , whitethorn (Crataegus spp.), sea-buckthorn (Hipphopae rhamnoides), wild pear (Pyrus pyraster), cottonwood (Populus nigra), eglantine (Rosa spp.), goat-willow (Salix caprea) and cornel (Cornus sanguinea). Better results were achieved with Spanish Broom, a very rural plant that can effectively colonise even poor soils like badlands; as a matter of fact, more than the 75% of the interventions had positive outcomes The efficacy of the consolidation work by the presence of living structures point out an increase of the stability of those interventions older than 4 years, with taking root species present from 54% to 78%. So far, the construction and the reliability of the works have been monitored, in order to capture critical aspects for the success of works and to build a geo-referenced data base of the existing works and their status.

Selli, Lavinia; Cavazza, Claudio; Pavanelli, Donatella

2013-04-01

241

Plant diversity predicts beta but not alpha diversity of soil microbes across grasslands worldwide  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Aboveground–belowground interactions exert critical controls on the composition and function of terrestrial ecosystems, yet the fundamental relationships between plant diversity and soil microbial diversity remain elusive. Theory predicts predominantly positive associations but tests within single sites have shown variable relationships, and associations between plant and microbial diversity across broad spatial scales remain largely unexplored. We compared the diversity of plant, bacterial, archaeal and fungal communities in one hundred and forty-five 1 m2 plots across 25 temperate grassland sites from four continents. Across sites, the plant alpha diversity patterns were poorly related to those observed for any soil microbial group. However, plant beta diversity (compositional dissimilarity between sites) was significantly correlated with the beta diversity of bacterial and fungal communities, even after controlling for environmental factors. Thus, across a global range of temperate grasslands, plant diversity can predict patterns in the composition of soil microbial communities, but not patterns in alpha diversity.

Prober, Suzanne M.; Leff, Jonathan W.; Bates, Scott T.; Borer, Elizabeth T.; Firn, Jennifer; Harpole, W. Stanley; Lind, Eric M.; Seabloom, Eric W.; Adler, Peter B.; Bakker, Jonathan D.; Cleland, Elsa E.; DeCrappeo, Nicole; DeLorenze, Elizabeth; Hagenah, Nicole; Hautier, Yann; Hofmockel, Kirsten S.; Kirkman, Kevin P.; Knops, Johannes M. H.; La Pierre, Kimberly J.; MacDougall, Andrew S.; McCulley, Rebecca L.; Mitchell, Charles E.; Risch, Anita C.; Schuetz, Martin; Stevens, Carly J.; Williams, Ryan J.; Fierer, Noah

2015-01-01

242

Plant diversity predicts beta but not alpha diversity of soil microbes across grasslands worldwide.  

PubMed

Aboveground-belowground interactions exert critical controls on the composition and function of terrestrial ecosystems, yet the fundamental relationships between plant diversity and soil microbial diversity remain elusive. Theory predicts predominantly positive associations but tests within single sites have shown variable relationships, and associations between plant and microbial diversity across broad spatial scales remain largely unexplored. We compared the diversity of plant, bacterial, archaeal and fungal communities in one hundred and forty-five 1 m(2) plots across 25 temperate grassland sites from four continents. Across sites, the plant alpha diversity patterns were poorly related to those observed for any soil microbial group. However, plant beta diversity (compositional dissimilarity between sites) was significantly correlated with the beta diversity of bacterial and fungal communities, even after controlling for environmental factors. Thus, across a global range of temperate grasslands, plant diversity can predict patterns in the composition of soil microbial communities, but not patterns in alpha diversity. PMID:25430889

Prober, Suzanne M; Leff, Jonathan W; Bates, Scott T; Borer, Elizabeth T; Firn, Jennifer; Harpole, W Stanley; Lind, Eric M; Seabloom, Eric W; Adler, Peter B; Bakker, Jonathan D; Cleland, Elsa E; DeCrappeo, Nicole M; DeLorenze, Elizabeth; Hagenah, Nicole; Hautier, Yann; Hofmockel, Kirsten S; Kirkman, Kevin P; Knops, Johannes M H; La Pierre, Kimberly J; MacDougall, Andrew S; McCulley, Rebecca L; Mitchell, Charles E; Risch, Anita C; Schuetz, Martin; Stevens, Carly J; Williams, Ryan J; Fierer, Noah

2015-01-01

243

Controlled Evaluation of the IDI-MRSA Assay for Detection of Colonization by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Diverse Mucocutaneous Specimens?  

PubMed Central

Rapid and reliable detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriers is crucial for the effective control of MRSA transmission in healthcare facilities. The aim of this study was to verify the performance of the IDI-MRSA real-time PCR assay for direct MRSA detection in diverse mucocutaneous swabs from hospitalized patients. Swabs from nares (n = 522) and skin or other superficial sites (n = 478) were prospectively collected for MRSA screening from 466 patients admitted to an 858-bed teaching hospital. Swabs were inoculated onto selective chromogenic MRSA-ID agar, buffer extraction solution for IDI-MRSA assay, and enrichment broth. MRSA was detected by culture in 100 specimens from 47 patients. Compared to enrichment culture, the sensitivity and specificity of the PCR assay were 81.0 and 97.0%, respectively, and its positive and negative predictive values were 75.0 and 97.9%, respectively. The IDI-MRSA assay was more sensitive on swabs from nares (90.6%) than from other body sites (76.5%, P < 0.01). The PCR assay detected MRSA in 42 of 47 patients with culture positive study samples. Of 26 patients with culture-negative but PCR-positive study samples, 11 were probable true MRSA carriers based on patient history and/or positive culture on a new sample. The median turnaround time for PCR results was 19 h versus 3 days for agar culture results and 6 days for enrichment culture results. These data confirm the value of IDI-MRSA assay for rapid screening of MRSA mucocutaneous carriage among hospitalized patients. Cost-effectiveness studies are warranted to evaluate the impact of this assay on infection control procedures in healthcare settings. PMID:17287320

de San, Nour; Denis, Olivier; Gasasira, Marie-Fabrice; De Mendonça, Ricardo; Nonhoff, Claire; Struelens, Marc J.

2007-01-01

244

The Quest for Diversity in Christian Higher Education: Building Institutional Governance Capacity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social justice pertaining to diversity issues in higher education grips the nation, yet Christian higher education (CHE) has moved slowly to address the diversity in our institutions and society. Christian higher education faces the same challenges with growing diversity as secular higher education. Diversity impacts every aspect of institutional…

Nussbaum, Kathleen B.; Chang, Heewon

2013-01-01

245

Applying the European protocol for the quality control of the physical and technical aspects of mammography screening threshold contrast visibility assessment to digital systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need to assure the image quality of digital systems for mammography screening applications is now widely recognized. One approach is embodied in Part B of the European Protocol for the Quality Control of the Physical and Technical Aspects of Mammography Screening (EPQCM), which prescribes criteria for several interconnected image quality metrics. The focus of this study is on the "threshold contrast visibility" (TCV) protocol (section 2.4.1 of the EPQCM), in which human observers score images of a CDMAM or similar 4-AFC phantom. This section of the EPQCM currently omits many critical experimental details, which must be gleaned from ancillary documents. Given these, the purpose of this study is to quantify the effects of several remaining experimental variables, including phantom design, and the methods used for scoring and analysis, on the measured results. Preliminary studies of two CDMAM version 3.4 (CDMAM 3.4) phantoms have revealed a 17% difference in TCV when averaged over all target diameters from 0.1 to 2.0 mm. This indicates phantom variability may affect results at some sites. More importantly, we have shown that the current CDMAM phantom design, methods for scoring, and analysis, substantially limit the ability to measure system performance accurately and precisely. An improved phantom design has been shown to avoid these limitations. Viewing environment and presentation context affect the performance and efficiency of visual scoring of phantom images. An automated display tool has been developed that isolates individual 4-AFC targets of CDMAM phantom images, automatically optimizes window/level, and automatically records observers' scores. While not substantially changing TCV, the tool has increased scoring efficiency while mitigating several of the limitations associated with unassisted visual scoring. For example, learning bias and navigational issues are completely avoided. Ultimately, software-based ideal observer scoring will likely prove to be a better approach. Statistical-decision-theory-based (SDT) analysis has been shown to mitigate limitations associated with the current CDMAM phantom and the ad hoc nearest-neighbor correcting (NNC) scoring method. NNC analysis is sensitive to the degree of incomplete scoring (stopping criteria). However, SDT substantially mitigates this problem, using all of the available data to derive thresholds that are more interpretable. Bootstrap sampling was used to provide an estimate of the standard error for SDT analysis. In conclusion, the current EPQCM section 2.4.1 protocol fails to measure TCV accurately and precisely enough to qualify digital mammography systems. This paper presents a series of recommendations that supplement section 2.4.1 of the EPQCM and that provide a stable and accurate measure of TCV.

Van Metter, Richard; Heath, Michael; Fletcher-Heath, Lynn

2006-03-01

246

Cell wall evolution and diversity  

PubMed Central

Plant cell walls display a considerable degree of diversity in their compositions and molecular architectures. In some cases the functional significance of a particular cell wall type appears to be easy to discern: secondary cells walls are often reinforced with lignin that provides durability; the thin cell walls of pollen tubes have particular compositions that enable their tip growth; lupin seed cell walls are characteristically thickened with galactan used as a storage polysaccharide. However, more frequently the evolutionary mechanisms and selection pressures that underpin cell wall diversity and evolution are unclear. For diverse green plants (chlorophytes and streptophytes) the rapidly increasing availability of transcriptome and genome data sets, the development of methods for cell wall analyses which require less material for analysis, and expansion of molecular probe sets, are providing new insights into the diversity and occurrence of cell wall polysaccharides and associated biosynthetic genes. Such research is important for refining our understanding of some of the fundamental processes that enabled plants to colonize land and to subsequently radiate so comprehensively. The study of cell wall structural diversity is also an important aspect of the industrial utilization of global polysaccharide bio-resources. PMID:22783271

Fangel, Jonatan U.; Ulvskov, Peter; Knox, J. P.; Mikkelsen, Maria D.; Harholt, Jesper; Popper, Zoë A.; Willats, William G.T.

2012-01-01

247

BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUS ANTIGENIC DIVERSITY: IMPACT ON DISEASE AND VACCINATION PROGRAMS (DETECTING AND CONTROLLING BVDV INFECTIONS, 4/4-5/02, AMES, IA)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections in cattle are associated with a variety or "diverse" clinical forms. These include digestive tract disease, respiratory disease, fetal diseases (varied, dependent on fetal age), systemic disease such as mucosal disease, immunosuppression, hemorrhagic di...

248

Comparison of analytical and experimental steadyand unsteady-pressure distributions at Mach number 0.78 for a high-aspect-ratio supercritical wing model with oscillating control surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The unsteady aerodynamic lifting surface theory, the Doublet Lattice method, with experimental steady and unsteady pressure measurements of a high aspect ratio supercritical wing model at a Mach number of 0.78 were compared. The steady pressure data comparisons were made for incremental changes in angle of attack and control surface deflection. The unsteady pressure data comparisons were made at set angle of attack positions with oscillating control surface deflections. Significant viscous and transonic effects in the experimental aerodynamics which cannot be predicted by the Doublet Lattice method are shown. This study should assist development of empirical correction methods that may be applied to improve Doublet Lattice calculations of lifting surface aerodynamics.

Mccain, W. E.

1984-01-01

249

Socioeconomics drive urban plant diversity  

PubMed Central

Spatial variation in plant diversity has been attributed to heterogeneity in resource availability for many ecosystems. However, urbanization has resulted in entire landscapes that are now occupied by plant communities wholly created by humans, in which diversity may reflect social, economic, and cultural influences in addition to those recognized by traditional ecological theory. Here we use data from a probability-based survey to explore the variation in plant diversity across a large metropolitan area using spatial statistical analyses that incorporate biotic, abiotic, and human variables. Our prediction for the city was that land use, along with distance from urban center, would replace the dominantly geomorphic controls on spatial variation in plant diversity in the surrounding undeveloped Sonoran desert. However, in addition to elevation and current and former land use, family income and housing age best explained the observed variation in plant diversity across the city. We conclude that a functional relationship, which we term the “luxury effect,” may link human resource abundance (wealth) and plant diversity in urban ecosystems. This connection may be influenced by education, institutional control, and culture, and merits further study. PMID:12847293

Hope, Diane; Gries, Corinna; Zhu, Weixing; Fagan, William F.; Redman, Charles L.; Grimm, Nancy B.; Nelson, Amy L.; Martin, Chris; Kinzig, Ann

2003-01-01

250

Diversity & Inclusion Progress Report  

E-print Network

Diversity & Inclusion Progress Report Dr. Henry Odi, Vice Provost for Academic Diversity Provost..................................................................................................... 23 XVIII. Office of the Vice Provost for Academic Diversity (VPAD.................................................................................................... 31 APPENDIX 2: The Principles of Our Equitable Community

Napier, Terrence

251

Relationships between arthropod richness, evenness, and diversity are altered by complementarity among plant genotypes.  

PubMed

Biodiversity is quantified via richness (e.g., the number of species), evenness (the relative abundance distribution of those species), or proportional diversity (a combination of richness and evenness, such as the Shannon index, H'). While empirical studies show no consistent relationship between these aspects of biodiversity within communities, the mechanisms leading to inconsistent relationships have received little attention. Here, using common evening primrose (Oenothera biennis) and its associated arthropod community, we show that relationships between arthropod richness, evenness, and proportional diversity are altered by plant genotypic richness. Arthropod richness increased with O. biennis genotypic richness due to an abundance-driven accumulation of species in response to greater plant biomass. Arthropod evenness and proportional diversity decreased with plant genotypic richness due to a nonadditive increase in abundance of a dominant arthropod, the generalist florivore/omnivore Plagiognathas politus (Miridae). The greater quantity of flowers and buds produced in polycultures-which resulted from positive complementarity among O. biennis genotypes-increased the abundance of this dominant insect. Using choice bioassays, we show that floral quality did not change in plant genotypic mixtures. These results elucidate mechanisms for how plant genotypic richness can modify relationships between arthropod richness, evenness, and proportional diversity. More broadly, our results suggest that trophic interactions may be a previously underappreciated factor controlling relationships between these different aspects of biodiversity. PMID:22002039

McArt, Scott H; Cook-Patton, Susan C; Thaler, Jennifer S

2012-04-01

252

Dark diversity: shedding light on absent species  

E-print Network

be used to counteract biodiversity loss and to estimate the restoration potential of ecosystems. We diversities enables biodiversity comparisons between regions, ecosystems and taxo- nomic groups, such as diversification and historic migration [7­9] or dispersal [10,11]. Various aspects and measures of biodiversity

Vellend, Mark

253

Universal-Diverse Orientation: Linking Social Attitudes with Wellness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study focused on examining the relationships of positive social attitudes with aspects of well-functioning. "Universal-diverse orientation" (UDO), a social attitude characterized by awareness and acceptance of both the similarities and differences among people, was measured with the Miville-Guzman Universality-Diversity Scale, Short…

Miville, Marie L.; Romans, John S. C.; Johnson, Daniel; Lone, Robert

2004-01-01

254

Analysis of a polarization diversity weather radar design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report focuses not only on a design for a pulse to pulse polarization diversity modification of the Air Force Geophysics Laboratory (AFGL) S-band Doppler weather radar, but also upon the meteorological and technical requirements of such a radar. The theoretical aspects of and physical limitations imposed by the polarization diversity requirement are presented independently of this design and as

J. S. Ussailis; L. A. Leiker; R. M. Goodman IV; J. I. Mecalf

1982-01-01

255

Binding of dietary polyphenols to cellulose: structural and nutritional aspects.  

PubMed

The interactions between polyphenols and plant fibres play an important role in controlling the release of phenolic compounds from food matrices for absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. This study probed the molecular interactions of diverse polyphenols with cellulose fibres by using a pure cellulose-producing bacterial model. Alkali treatment of bacterial cellulose was an effective method for obtaining a high purity cellulose model for study of polyphenol binding. Representatives of different polyphenol classes all bound to cellulose spontaneously, rapidly, and to comparable extents (up to 60% w/w of cellulose). Langmuir binding isotherms were applied to determine quantitative aspects of the adsorption at equilibrium. The study indicated that binding was similar on a molar basis for ferulic acid, gallic acid, catechin and cyanidin-3-glucoside (but lower for chlorogenic acid), with the native charge of polyphenols a secondary factor in the interactions between polyphenols and cellulose. PMID:25308685

Phan, Anh Dao T; Netzel, Gabriele; Wang, Dongjie; Flanagan, Bernadine M; D'Arcy, Bruce R; Gidley, Michael J

2015-03-15

256

Angiosperm ovules: diversity, development, evolution  

PubMed Central

Background Ovules as developmental precursors of seeds are organs of central importance in angiosperm flowers and can be traced back in evolution to the earliest seed plants. Angiosperm ovules are diverse in their position in the ovary, nucellus thickness, number and thickness of integuments, degree and direction of curvature, and histological differentiations. There is a large body of literature on this diversity, and various views on its evolution have been proposed over the course of time. Most recently evo–devo studies have been concentrated on molecular developmental genetics in ovules of model plants. Scope The present review provides a synthetic treatment of several aspects of the sporophytic part of ovule diversity, development and evolution, based on extensive research on the vast original literature and on experience from my own comparative studies in a broad range of angiosperm clades. Conclusions In angiosperms the presence of an outer integument appears to be instrumental for ovule curvature, as indicated from studies on ovule diversity through the major clades of angiosperms, molecular developmental genetics in model species, abnormal ovules in a broad range of angiosperms, and comparison with gymnosperms with curved ovules. Lobation of integuments is not an atavism indicating evolution from telomes, but simply a morphogenetic constraint from the necessity of closure of the micropyle. Ovule shape is partly dependent on locule architecture, which is especially indicated by the occurrence of orthotropous ovules. Some ovule features are even more conservative than earlier assumed and thus of special interest in angiosperm macrosystematics. PMID:21606056

Endress, Peter K.

2011-01-01

257

Frequency diversity and its applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptive shared resource methods may be the only available effective countermeasures to rain-induced attenuation in satellite communication systems above 20 GHz. Two of these methods, frequency diversity (FDV) and burst length control (BLC) are examined and compared by using a unified approach. The fundamental statistical relationships between unassisted and assisted conditions are derived, and optimum values are identified. It is

F. Carassa; G. Tartara; E. Matricciani

1988-01-01

258

Cognitive diversity and moral enhancement.  

PubMed

One debate in contemporary bioethics centers on whether the development of cognitive enhancement technologies (CETs) will hasten the need for moral enhancement. In this article we provide a new argument in favor of pursuing these enhancement technologies together. The widespread availability of CETs will likely increase population-level cognitive diversity. Different people will choose to enhance different aspects of their cognition, and some won't enhance themselves at all. Although this has the potential to be beneficial for society, it could also result in harms as people become more different from one another. Aspects of our moral psychology make it difficult for people to cooperate and coordinate actions with those who are very different from themselves. These moral failings could be targeted by moral enhancement technologies, which may improve cooperation among individuals. Moral enhancement technologies will therefore help society maximize the benefits, and reduce the costs, associated with widespread access to cognitive enhancements. PMID:25473859

Gyngell, Chris; Easteal, Simon

2015-01-01

259

10 Diversity Champions II  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introducing the "Champions of Diversity" in the Academic Kickoff issue proved a timely reminder of the mission of Diverse during the lead up to the 25th anniversary of Cox, Matthews and Associates, the founder of the former Black Issues in Higher Education and publisher of Diverse. In this edition, the editors at Diverse unveil its second slate of…

Nealy, Michelle J.; Pluviose, David; Roach, Ronald

2008-01-01

260

75 FR 25024 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-5501, Electronic Diversity Visa Entry Form...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Information Collection: DS-5501, Electronic Diversity Visa Entry Form, OMB Control Number...of Information Collection: Electronic Diversity Visa Entry Form. OMB Control Number... Respondents: Aliens entering the Diversity Visa Lottery. Estimated Number...

2010-05-06

261

75 FR 4901 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-5501, Electronic Diversity Visa Entry Form...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Information Collection: DS-5501, Electronic Diversity Visa Entry Form, OMB Control Number...of Information Collection: Electronic Diversity Visa Entry Form. OMB Control Number... Respondents: Aliens entering the Diversity Visa Lottery. Estimated Number...

2010-01-29

262

Controlling Effective Aspect Ratio and Packing of Clay with pH for Improved Gas Barrier in Nanobrick Wall Thin Films.  

PubMed

Polymer-clay thin films constructed via layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly, with a nanobrick wall structure (i.e., clay nanoplatelets as bricks surrounded by a polyelectrolyte mortar), are known to exhibit a high oxygen barrier. Further barrier improvement can be achieved by lowering the pH of the clay suspension in the polyethylenimine (PEI) and montmorillonite (MMT) system. In this case, the charge of the deposited PEI layer is increased in the clay suspension environment, which causes more clay to be deposited. At pH 4, MMT platelets deposit with near perfect ordering, observed with transmission electron microscopy, enabling a 5× improvement in the gas barrier for a 10 PEI/MMT bilayer thin film (85 nm) relative to the same film made with pH 10 MMT. This improved gas barrier approaches that achieved with much higher aspect ratio vermiculite clay. In essence, lower pH is generating a higher effective aspect ratio for MMT due to greater induced surface charge in the PEI layers, which causes heavier clay deposition. These flexible, transparent nanocoatings have a wide range of possible applications, from food and electronics packaging to pressurized bladders. PMID:25474229

Hagen, David A; Saucier, Lauren; Grunlan, Jaime C

2014-12-24

263

78 FR 41971 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Electronic Diversity Visa Entry Form  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Proposed Information Collection: Electronic Diversity Visa Entry Form ACTION: Notice of request...of Information Collection: Electronic Diversity Visa Entry Form. OMB Control Number... Respondents: Aliens entering the Diversity Visa Lottery. Estimated Number...

2013-07-12

264

78 FR 12132 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Electronic Diversity Visa Entry Form  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Proposed Information Collection: Electronic Diversity Visa Entry Form ACTION: Notice of request...of Information Collection: Electronic Diversity Visa Entry Form. OMB Control Number... Respondents: Aliens entering the Diversity Visa Lottery. Estimated Number...

2013-02-21

265

75 FR 56516 - Federal Advisory Committee; Military Leadership Diversity Commission (MLDC)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...the control of the Military Leadership Diversity Commission or its...meeting of the Military Leadership Diversity Commission as required...Accordingly, the Advisory Committee Management Officer for the Department...commissioners of the Military Leadership Diversity Commission to...

2010-09-16

266

Wind-tunnel investigation of longitudinal and lateral-directional stability and control characteristics of a 0.237-scale model of a remotely piloted research vehicle with a thick, high-aspect-ratio supercritical wing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 0.237-scale model of a remotely piloted research vehicle equipped with a thick, high-aspect-ratio supercritical wing was tested in the Langley 8-foot transonic tunnel to provide experimental data for a prediction of the static stability and control characteristics of the research vehicle as well as to provide an estimate of vehicle flight characteristics for a computer simulation program used in the planning and execution of specific flight-research mission. Data were obtained at a Reynolds number of 16.5 x 10 to the 6th power per meter for Mach numbers up to 0.92. The results indicate regions of longitudinal instability; however, an adequate margin of longitudinal stability exists at a selected cruise condition. Satisfactory effectiveness of pitch, roll, and yaw control was also demonstrated.

Byrdsong, T. A.; Brooks, C. W., Jr.

1980-01-01

267

Diversity, diversity indices and tropical cockroaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diversity of samples of cockroaches (Blattaria) taken with light-traps in six localities in Panama is described. As a diversity index a of the log series is found to be more satisfactory than either N2 or N1 of Hills's series or Hurlbert's Sm, even if the distribution of the relative abundances is significantly different from a log series. However, even

Henk Wolda

1983-01-01

268

Does Staff Diversity Imply Openness to Diversity?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Post-secondary educational organizations are currently some of the most diverse settings to be found. However, few educational studies have dealt with staff diversity and hardly any has looked outside the USA. The purpose of this paper is to present a study of members of international university departments in Denmark. The authors set out…

Lauring, Jakob; Selmer, Jan

2013-01-01

269

Certain aspects of inventory control as one of the management tools for the retail lumber and building material dealer of Texas  

E-print Network

of inventory control ara sons of tha more important and will enable the lumber and building material deal- er of Texas to operate at a better than present profit rate. 14 CHAPTER II SOME BASIC PRINCIPLES OF INVENTORY CONTROL The retail lumber and building... deductions fram merchandise during tha period under consider- ation. Total deductions are net sales plus nark-downs less sark- down cancellations. Nark-downs result from entering in the book Barker and Andarsea, op. cit. , p. 192. Upward revisions...

Amason, Robert Daniel

1958-01-01

270

Blood and Diversity  

MedlinePLUS

... Learn About Blood > Blood and Diversity Printable Version Blood and Diversity People come in all different shapes, ... looking for a needle in a haystack. Rare Blood Types Red blood cells carry markers called antigens ...

271

CRCHD Diversity Training  

Cancer.gov

The Center to Reduce Cancer Health Disparities (CRCHD) Diversity Training Branch (DTB) leads NCI's efforts to fund training for students and investigators from diverse populations to become the next generation of competitive researchers in cancer and cancer health disparities research.

272

Vehicle and positive control values from the in vivo rodent comet assay and biomonitoring studies using human lymphocytes: historical database and influence of technical aspects.  

PubMed

There is increased interest in the in vivo comet assay in rodents as a follow-up approach for determining the biological relevance of chemicals that are genotoxic in in vitro assays. This is partly because, unlike other assays, DNA damage can be assessed in this assay in virtually any tissue. Since background levels of DNA damage can vary with the species, tissue, and cell processing method, a robust historical control database covering multiple tissues is essential. We describe extensive vehicle and positive control data for multiple tissues from rats and mice. In addition, we report historical data from control and genotoxin-treated human blood. Technical issues impacting comet results are described, including the method of cell preparation and freezing. Cell preparation by scraping (stomach and other GI tract organs) resulted in higher % tail DNA than mincing (liver, spleen, kidney etc) or direct collection (blood or bone marrow). Treatment with the positive control genotoxicant, ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) in rats and methyl methanesulfonate in mice, resulted in statistically significant increases in % tail DNA. Background DNA damage was not markedly increased when cell suspensions were stored frozen prior to preparing slides, and the outcome of the assay was unchanged (EMS was always positive). In conclusion, historical data from our laboratory for the in vivo comet assay for multiple tissues from rats and mice, as well as human blood show very good reproducibility. These data and recommendations provided are aimed at contributing to the design and proper interpretation of results from comet assays. PMID:24957907

Pant, Kamala; Springer, S; Bruce, S; Lawlor, T; Hewitt, N; Aardema, M J

2014-10-01

273

Effects of controlled interruption of the enterohepatic circulation of bile salts by biliary diversion and by ileal resection on bile salt secretion, synthesis, and pool size in the rhesus monkey  

PubMed Central

The effects of controlled interruption of the enterohepatic circulation (EHC) of bile salts by biliary diversion on bile volume, bile salt secretion and synthesis rates, bile salt pool size, and the relationship to fecal fat excretion were studied in 16 rhesus monkeys. Bile from a chronic bile fistula was returned to the intestine through an electronic stream-splitter which, by diverting different percentages of bile to a collecting system, provided graded and controlled interruption of the EHC. The increase in hepatic bile salt synthesis in response to interruption of the EHC was limited and reached a maximum rate at 20% interruption of the EHC. Up to this level of biliary diversion, the increased hepatic synthesis compensated for bile salt loss so that bile salt secretion and pool size were maintained at normal levels. With diversion of 33% or more, there was no further increase in hepatic bile salt synthesis to compensate for external loss, and as a result there was diminished bile salt secretion, a reduction in bile salt pool size, and steatorrhea was observed. The effects of interruption of the EHC by the streamsplitter were compared with those produced by resection of the distal one-third or two-thirds of small bowel. While ileal resection appreciably reduced bile salt secretion, the EHC was by no means abolished. Bile salt reabsorption from the residual intestine was greater after one-third than after two-thirds small bowel resection. These observations suggest that jejunal reabsorption of bile salts occurs and may well contribute to the normal EHC. PMID:4983661

Dowling, R. Hermon; Mack, Eberhard; Small, Donald M.

1970-01-01

274

Linear diversity combining techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides analyses of three types of diversity combining systems in practical use. These are: selection diversity, maximal-ratio diversity, and equal-gain diversity systems. Quantitative measures of the relative performance (under realistic conditions) of the three systems are provided. The effects of various departures from ideal conditions, such as non-Rayleigh fading and partially coherent signal or noise voltages, are considered.

D. G. Brennan

2003-01-01

275

Linear Diversity Combining Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides analyses of three types of diversity combining systems in practical use. These are: selection diversity, maximal-ratio diversity, and equal-gain diversity systems. Quantitative measures of the relative performance (under realistic conditions) of the three systems are provided. The effects of various departures from ideal conditions, such as non-Rayleigh fading and partially coherent signal or noise voltages, are considered.

D. G. Brennan

1959-01-01

276

Leadership and Diversity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of the special edition recognizing the 40th anniversary of "Educational Management Administration & Leadership" this article reviews the coverage of leadership and diversity issues in the journal. The majority of articles concerning diversity have focused on gender, with attention turning to the wider concept of diversity since the year…

Coleman, Marianne

2012-01-01

277

BioDiversity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The diversity of life forms is one of the greatest wonders of the planet earth. The biosphere is an intricate tapestry of interwoven life forms. This book offers an overall view of this biological diversity and carries an urgent warning about the rapid alteration and destruction of the environments that have fostered the diversity of life forms…

Wilson, E. O., Ed.; Peter, Frances M., Ed.

278

Multilevel and Diverse Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The benefits and advantages of classroom practices incorporating unity-in-diversity and diversity-in-unity are what "Multilevel and Diverse Classrooms" is all about. Multilevel classrooms--also known as mixed-ability or heterogeneous classrooms--are a fact of life in ESOL programs around the world. These classrooms are often not only multilevel…

Baurain, Bradley, Ed.; Ha, Phan Le, Ed.

2010-01-01

279

Modeling Diverse Communities of  

E-print Network

Modeling Diverse Communities of Marine Microbes Michael J. Follows and Stephanie Dutkiewicz Earth in the ocean are mediated by complex and diverse microbial communities. Over the past decade, marine ecosystem of marine microbial communities. These models begin to resolve, and address the significance of, diversity

Follows, Mick

280

Researching Diverse Populations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines current literature and personal experiences with researching diverse populations, emphasizing the value of becoming more sensitive about researching diverse populations. The paper addresses four issues: being a member of the researched group, choosing methods and strategies, involving diverse groups in research, and how researching…

Henderson, Karla A.

1998-01-01

281

Equality and Diversity Strategy  

E-print Network

Forestry Commission Equality and Diversity Strategy C o m m i t t e d t o y o u a n d o u r f u t u of this strategy is to articulate the Commission's approach to equality and diversity, and to demonstrate our experiences, viewpoints, cultures and ideas. Equality and diversity is fundamental not only to our employment

282

Biomechanical aspects of segmented arch mechanics combined with power arm for controlled anterior tooth movement: A three-dimensional finite element study  

PubMed Central

The porpose of this study was to determine the optimal length of power arms for achieving controlled anterior tooth movement in segmented arch mechanics combined with power arm. A three-dimensional finite element method was applied for the simulation of en masse anterior tooth retraction in segmented power arm mechanics. The type of tooth movement, namely, the location of center of rotation of the maxillary central incisor in association with power arm length, was calculated after the retraction force was applied. When a 0.017?×?0.022-in archwire was inserted into the 0.018-in slot bracket, bodily movement was obtained at 9.1?mm length of power arm, namely, at the level of 1.8?mm above the center of resistance. In case a 0.018?×?0.025-in full-size archwire was used, bodily movement of the tooth was produced at the power arm length of 7.0?mm, namely, at the level of 0.3?mm below the center of resistance. Segmented arch mechanics required shorter length of power arms for achieving any type of controlled anterior tooth movement as compared to sliding mechanics. Therefore, this space closing mechanics could be widely applied even for the patients whose gingivobuccal fold is shallow. The segmented arch mechanics combined with power arm could provide higher amount of moment-to-force ratio sufficient for controlled anterior tooth movement without generating friction, and vertical forces when applying retraction force parallel to the occlusal plane. It is, therefore, considered that the segmented power arm mechanics has a simple appliance design and allows more efficient and controllable tooth movement. PMID:25610497

Ozaki, Hiroya; Tominaga, Jun-ya; Hamanaka, Ryo; Sumi, Mayumi; Chiang, Pao-Chang; Tanaka, Motohiro; Koga, Yoshiyuki

2015-01-01

283

Aspect aware UAV localization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider target detection and tracking of stealthy targets. These targets can be characterized by a strong aspect dependence leading to difficult detectability without a multi-static setup. Even in a multi-static setup only sensors in a certain zone can detect the return signal, if the the aspect dependent return has a small bandwidth. We propose a solution based on a

Christian R. Berger; Shengli Zhou; Peter Willett

2008-01-01

284

Exposing malaria in-host diversity and estimating population diversity by capture-recapture using  

E-print Network

Exposing malaria in-host diversity and estimating population diversity by capture-recapture using, Blantyre 3, Malawi; d The National Center for Parasitology, Entomology and Malaria Control, Phnom Penh, MD, and approved October 12, 2010 (received for review May 20, 2010) Malaria infections commonly

Read, Andrew

285

Office of Inclusion & Diversity Leadership Diversity Notes  

E-print Network

a work and learning environment that is inclusive. Women, minorities, and people with disabilities to support the college's goals of creating and sustaining a diverse and inclusive learning environment." OIE

Arnold, Jonathan

286

The nuclear hormone receptor family member NR5A2 controls aspects of multipotent progenitor cell formation and acinar differentiation during pancreatic organogenesis.  

PubMed

The orphan nuclear receptor NR5A2 is necessary for the stem-like properties of the epiblast of the pre-gastrulation embryo and for cellular and physiological homeostasis of endoderm-derived organs postnatally. Using conditional gene inactivation, we show that Nr5a2 also plays crucial regulatory roles during organogenesis. During the formation of the pancreas, Nr5a2 is necessary for the expansion of the nascent pancreatic epithelium, for the subsequent formation of the multipotent progenitor cell (MPC) population that gives rise to pre-acinar cells and bipotent cells with ductal and islet endocrine potential, and for the formation and differentiation of acinar cells. At birth, the NR5A2-deficient pancreas has defects in all three epithelial tissues: a partial loss of endocrine cells, a disrupted ductal tree and a >90% deficit of acini. The acinar defects are due to a combination of fewer MPCs, deficient allocation of those MPCs to pre-acinar fate, disruption of acinar morphogenesis and incomplete acinar cell differentiation. NR5A2 controls these developmental processes directly as well as through regulatory interactions with other pancreatic transcriptional regulators, including PTF1A, MYC, GATA4, FOXA2, RBPJL and MIST1 (BHLHA15). In particular, Nr5a2 and Ptf1a establish mutually reinforcing regulatory interactions and collaborate to control developmentally regulated pancreatic genes by binding to shared transcriptional regulatory regions. At the final stage of acinar cell development, the absence of NR5A2 affects the expression of Ptf1a and its acinar specific partner Rbpjl, so that the few acinar cells that form do not complete differentiation. Nr5a2 controls several temporally distinct stages of pancreatic development that involve regulatory mechanisms relevant to pancreatic oncogenesis and the maintenance of the exocrine phenotype. PMID:25063451

Hale, Michael A; Swift, Galvin H; Hoang, Chinh Q; Deering, Tye G; Masui, Toshi; Lee, Youn-Kyoung; Xue, Jumin; MacDonald, Raymond J

2014-08-01

287

[Regulatory genes of garden pea (Pisum sativum L.) controlling the development of nitrogen-fixing nodules and arbuscular mycorrhiza: a review of basic and applied aspects].  

PubMed

The review sums up the long experience of the authors and other researchers in studying the genetic system of garden pea (Pisum sativum L.), which controls sthe development of nitrogen-fixing symbiosis and arbuscular mycorrhiza. A justified phenotypic classification of pea mutants is presented. Progress in identifying and cloning symbiotic genes is adequately reflected. The feasibility of using double inoculation as a means of increasing the plant productivity is demonstrated, in which the potential of a tripartite symbiotic system (pea plants-root nodule bacteria-arbuscular mycorrhiza) is mobilized. PMID:17619572

Borisov, A Iu; Vasil'chikov, A G; Voroshilova, V A; Danilova, T N; Zhernakov, A I; Zhukov, V A; Koroleva, T A; Kuznetsova, E V; Madsen, L; Mofett, M; Naumkina, T S; Nemankin, T A; Ovchinnikova, E S; Pavlova, Z B; Petrova, N E; Pinaev, A G; Radutoiu, S; Rozov, S M; Rychagova, T S; Solovov, I I; Stougaard, J; Topunov, A F; Weeden, N F; Tsyganov, V E; Shtark, O Iu; Tikhonovich, I A

2007-01-01

288

Equality and Diversity Annual Report  

E-print Network

1 Equality and Diversity Annual Report 2012-13 #12;2 EQUALITY AND DIVERSITY ANNUAL REPORT 2012-13 Table of Contents EQUALITY AND DIVERSITY ANNUAL REPORT 2012.................................................................................................................................................4 Equality and Diversity Committee Membership 2012

Elliott, Chris

289

Motor control of Drosophila courtship song.  

PubMed

Many animals utilize acoustic signals-or songs-to attract mates. During courtship, Drosophila melanogaster males vibrate a wing to produce trains of pulses and extended tone, called pulse and sine song, respectively. Courtship songs in the genus Drosophila are exceedingly diverse, and different song features appear to have evolved independently of each other. How the nervous system allows such diversity to evolve is not understood. Here, we identify a wing muscle in D. melanogaster (hg1) that is uniquely male-enlarged. The hg1 motoneuron and the sexually dimorphic development of the hg1 muscle are required specifically for the sine component of the male song. In contrast, the motoneuron innervating a sexually monomorphic wing muscle, ps1, is required specifically for a feature of pulse song. Thus, individual wing motor pathways can control separate aspects of courtship song and may provide a "modular" anatomical substrate for the evolution of diverse songs. PMID:24183665

Shirangi, Troy R; Stern, David L; Truman, James W

2013-11-14

290

Diversity at Sherwood Forest District  

E-print Network

Working with inner city schools #12;Diversity at Sherwood Social deprivation Community WoodlandsDiversity at Sherwood Forest District #12;Diversity at Sherwood Forestry Commission #12;Diversity at Sherwood Sherwood's Team Shortlisted for Civil Service `Diversity and Equality Award' #12;Diversity

291

Muscle morphometric effect of anterior cruciate ligament injury measured by computed tomography: aspects on using non-injured leg as control  

PubMed Central

Background Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears are common, functionally disabling, and predispose to subsequent injuries and early onset of osteoarthritis in the knee. Injuries result in muscular atrophy and impaired muscular activation. To optimize surgical methods and rehabilitation strategies, knowledge of the effects of ACL injuries on muscles size and function is needed. Asymmetry due to limb dominance implies that the effect of ACL-injury might be different in right-sided and left-sided injuries which, should be taken in account when evaluating the effect of an injury. Evaluation of the effects of injuries is usually made with the contralateral leg as control. The aim of this study is to describe the effect of ACL-injuries on thigh muscle size and also to analyze feasibility of using contralateral limb as control. Methods Sixty-two patients scheduled to undergo ACL reconstruction were examined with computed tomography (CT). Muscle cross sectional area (CSA) was recorded for quadriceps, hamstrings, gracilis and sartorius 15 cm above the knee joint. Comparisons were made between the injured and non-injured side and between individuals separated by gender and side of injury. Comparisons were also made for patients with or without concomitant meniscal tear, for patients differing in time between injury and examinations and for patients with different level of physical activity after the injury. Results Quadriceps CSA was 5% smaller on the injured side. There was an indication that the muscles of the right thigh were generally bigger than those of the left thigh. The difference between the injured and the non-injured side was larger for right-sided injuries than for left-sided. There was also a greater difference in semimembranosus for women than for men. There were no differences related to meniscal injury, time since injury or physical activity. Conclusion The use of contralateral leg for evaluating the effect of ACL-injury is often the only available alternative but our study indicates that the difference in CSA between injured and non-injured side does not necessarily reflect the true degree of atrophy, as there are side differences both in muscle size in general and in the effect of an ACL-injury on muscle size. PMID:23628130

2013-01-01

292

Design Aspects of a Case-Control Clinical Investigation of the Effect of HIV on Oral and Gastrointestinal Soluble Innate Factors and Microbes  

PubMed Central

Introduction The impaired host defense system in HIV infection impacts the oral and gastrointestinal microbiota and associated opportunistic infections. Antiretroviral treatment is predicted to partially restore host defenses and decrease the oral manifestation of HIV/AIDS. Well-designed longitudinal studies are needed to better understand the interactions of soluble host defense proteins with bacteria and virus in HIV/AIDS. “Crosstalk” was designed as a longitudinal study of host responses along the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and interactions between defense molecules and bacteria in HIV infection and subsequent therapy. Purpose The clinical core formed the infrastructure for the study of the interactions between the proteome, microbiome and innate immune system. The core recruited and retained study subjects, scheduled visits, obtained demographic and medical data, assessed oral health status, collected samples, and guided analysis of the hypotheses. This manuscript presents a well-designed clinical core that may serve as a model for studies that combine clinical and laboratory data. Methods Crosstalk was a case-control longitudinal clinical study an initial planned enrollment of 170 subjects. HIV+ antiretroviral naïve subjects were followed for 9 visits over 96 weeks and HIV uninfected subjects for 3 visits over 24 weeks. Clinical prevalence of oral mucosal lesions, dental caries and periodontal disease were assessed. Results During the study, 116 subjects (47 HIV+, 69 HIV-) were enrolled. Cohorts of HIV+ and HIV- were demographically similar except for a larger proportion of women in the HIV- group. The most prevalent oral mucosal lesions were oral candidiasis and hairy leukoplakia in the HIV+ group. Discussion The clinical core was essential to enable the links between clinical and laboratory data. The study aims to determine specific differences between oral and GI tissues that account for unique patterns of opportunistic infections and to delineate the differences in their susceptibility to infection by HIV and their responses post-HAART. PMID:25409430

Phelan, Joan A.; Abrams, William R.; Norman, Robert G.; Li, Yihong; Laverty, Maura; Corby, Patricia M.; Nembhard, Jason; Neri, Dinah; Barber, Cheryl A.; Aberg, Judith A.; Fisch, Gene S.; Poles, Michael A.; Malamud, Daniel

2014-01-01

293

Continent Urinary Diversion  

PubMed Central

We present a review on the current options for continent urinary diversion and their different indications on the basis of patient selection. In current clinical practice continent urinary diversion is being used world-wide in patients undergoing radical cystectomy and in severe cases of benign bladder pathologies. We also discuss the specific complications of continent urinary diversion and highlight the need to rigorously monitor these patients in the long- term specifically in terms of their renal function and cancer recurrence. PMID:24235792

Moon, Andrew; Vasdev, Nikhil; Thorpe, Andrew C.

2013-01-01

294

Diversity-induced resonance.  

PubMed

We present conclusive evidence showing that different sources of diversity, such as those represented by quenched disorder or noise, can induce a resonant collective behavior in an ensemble of coupled bistable or excitable systems. Our analytical and numerical results show that when such systems are subjected to an external subthreshold signal, their response is optimized for an intermediate value of the diversity. These findings show that intrinsic diversity might have a constructive role and suggest that natural systems might profit from their diversity in order to optimize the response to an external stimulus. PMID:17155633

Tessone, Claudio J; Mirasso, Claudio R; Toral, Raúl; Gunton, James D

2006-11-10

295

Why psychology? Every aspect of human experience, as well as  

E-print Network

Psychology Why psychology? Every aspect of human experience, as well as behaviours in non-human species, falls within the scope of psychology. Psychologists explore topics as diverse as individual as more recently established fields such as cognitive science and artificial intelligence. Psychology

Sussex, University of

296

Multilingual Aspects of Fluency Disorders. Communication Disorders across Languages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains contributions by scholars working on diverse aspects of speech who bring their findings to bear on the practical issue of how to treat stuttering in different language groups and in multilingual speakers. The book considers classic issues in speech production research, as well as whether regions of the brain that are affected in…

Howell, Peter; Van Borsel, John

2011-01-01

297

Microbial Diversity 21 : biodiversity amongst microorganisms and its relevance  

Microsoft Academic Search

An introduction to, and the Action StatementMicrobial Diversity 21 arising from, the joint IUBS\\/IUMS workshop on Biodiversity amongst microorganisms and its relevance held in Amsterdam on 7–8 September 1991 are presented. The workshop was held in support of the IUBS\\/SCOPE\\/UNESCO initiative on the importance of biodiversity in ecosystem function, namedDiversitas. The current state of knowledge on diverse aspects of the

David L. Hawksworth; Rita R. Colwell

1992-01-01

298

Self-help for Binge Eating Disorder in Primary Care: A Randomized Controlled Trial with Ethnically and Racially Diverse Obese Patients  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective was to examine the effectiveness of a self-help treatment as a first line primary care intervention for binge eating disorder (BED) in obese patients. This study compared the effectiveness of a usual care plus self-help version of cognitive behavioral therapy (shCBT) to usual care (UC) only in ethnically/racially diverse obese patients with BED in primary care settings in an urban center. Method 48 obese patients with BED were randomly assigned to either shCBT (N=24) or UC (N=24) for four months. Independent assessments were performed monthly throughout treatment and at post-treatment. Results Binge-eating remission rates did not differ significantly between shCBT (25%) and UC (8.3%) at post-treatment. Mixed models of binge eating frequency determined using the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) revealed significant decreases for both conditions but that shCBT and UC did not differ. Mixed models of binge eating frequency from repeated monthly EDE-questionnaire assessments revealed a significant treatment-by-time interaction indicating that shCBT had significant reductions whereas UC did not during the four-month treatments. Mixed models revealed no differences between groups on associated eating disorder psychopathology or depression. No weight loss was observed in either condition. Conclusions Our findings suggest that pure self-help CBT did not show effectiveness relative to usual care for treating BED in obese patients in primary care. Thus, self-help CBT may not have utility as a front-line intervention for BED for obese patients in primary care and future studies should test guided-self-help methods for delivering CBT in primary care generalist settings. PMID:24189569

Grilo, Carlos M.; White, Marney A.; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Barnes, Rachel D.; Masheb, Robin M.

2013-01-01

299

Human Mycobacterium bovis infection in the United Kingdom: Incidence, risks, control measures and review of the zoonotic aspects of bovine tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Amongst the members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), M. tuberculosis is mainly a human pathogen, whereas M. bovis has a broad host range and is the principal agent responsible for tuberculosis (TB) in domestic and wild mammals. M. bovis also infects humans, causing zoonotic TB through ingestion, inhalation and, less frequently, by contact with mucous membranes and broken skin. Zoonotic TB is indistinguishable clinically or pathologically from TB caused by M. tuberculosis. Differentiation between the causative organisms may only be achieved by sophisticated laboratory methods involving bacteriological culture of clinical specimens, followed by typing of isolates according to growth characteristics, biochemical properties, routine resistance to pyrazinamide (PZA) and specific non-commercial nucleic acid techniques. All this makes it difficult to accurately estimate the proportion of human TB cases caused by M. bovis infection, particularly in developing countries. Distinguishing between the various members of the MTBC is essential for epidemiological investigation of human cases and, to a lesser degree, for adequate chemotherapy of the human TB patient. Zoonotic TB was formerly an endemic disease in the UK population, usually transmitted to man by consumption of raw cows' milk. Human infection with M. bovis in the UK has been largely controlled through pasteurization of cows' milk and systematic culling of cattle reacting to compulsory tuberculin tests. Nowadays the majority of the 7000 cases of human TB annually reported in the UK are due to M. tuberculosis acquired directly from an infectious person. In the period 1990-2003, between 17 and 50 new cases of human M. bovis infection were confirmed every year in the UK. This represented between 0.5% and 1.5% of all the culture-confirmed TB cases, a proportion similar to that of other industrialized countries. Most cases of zoonotic TB diagnosed in the UK are attributed to (i) reactivation of long-standing latent infections acquired before widespread adoption of milk pasteurization, or (ii) M. bovis infections contracted abroad. Since 1990, only one case has been documented in the UK of confirmed, indigenous human M. bovis infection recently acquired from an animal source. Therefore, for the overwhelming majority of the population, the risk of contracting M. bovis infection from animals appears to be extremely low. However, bovine TB is once again a major animal health problem in the UK. Given the increasing numbers of cattle herds being affected each year, physicians and other public health professionals must remember that zoonotic TB is not just a disease of the past. A significant risk of M. bovis infection remains in certain segments of the UK population in the form of (i) continuing on-farm consumption of unpasteurized cows' milk, (ii) retail sales by approved establishments of unpasteurized milk and dairy products and (iii) occupational exposure to infectious aerosols from tuberculous animals and their carcases. PMID:16257579

de la Rua-Domenech, Ricardo

2006-03-01

300

Selenium. Nutritional, toxicologic, and clinical aspects.  

PubMed Central

Despite the recent findings of environmental contamination, selenium toxicosis in humans is exceedingly rare in the United States, with the few known cases resulting from industrial accidents and an episode involving the ingestion of superpotent selenium supplements. Chronic selenosis is essentially unheard of in this country because of the typical diversity of the American diet. Nonetheless, because of the growing public interest in selenium as a dietary supplement and the occurrence of environmental selenium contamination, medical practitioners should be familiar with the nutritional, toxicologic, and clinical aspects of this trace element. PMID:2219873

Fan, A. M.; Kizer, K. W.

1990-01-01

301

Selenium. Nutritional, toxicologic, and clinical aspects  

SciTech Connect

Despite the recent findings of environmental contamination, selenium toxicosis in humans is exceedingly rare in the United States, with the few known cases resulting from industrial accidents and an episode involving the ingestion of superpotent selenium supplements. Chronic selenosis is essentially unheard of in this country because of the typical diversity of the American diet. Nonetheless, because of the growing public interest in selenium as a dietary supplement and the occurrence of environmental selenium contamination, medical practitioners should be familiar with the nutritional, toxicologic, and clinical aspects of this trace element. 53 references.

Fan, A.M.; Kizer, K.W. (California Department of Health Services, Berkeley (USA))

1990-08-01

302

Beyond the Diversity Crisis Model: Decentralized Diversity Planning and Implementation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article critiques the diversity crises model of diversity planning in higher education and presents a decentralized diversity planning model. The model is based on interviews with the nation's leading diversity officers, a review of the literature and the authors own experiences leading diversity change initiatives in higher education. The…

Williams, Damon A.

2008-01-01

303

Effects of diversity on diversity: consequences of competition and facilitation  

E-print Network

, and genetic diversity in a focal species vs species diversity in the rest of the community. I used simulationEffects of diversity on diversity: consequences of competition and facilitation Mark Vellend M. of British Columbia, Vancouver, BCV6T 1Z4, Canada. Diversity in one group of species or genotypes is often

Vellend, Mark

304

Dinosaur diversity and the rock record.  

PubMed

Palaeobiodiversity analysis underpins macroevolutionary investigations, allowing identification of mass extinctions and adaptive radiations. However, recent large-scale studies on marine invertebrates indicate that geological factors play a central role in moulding the shape of diversity curves and imply that many features of such curves represent sampling artefacts, rather than genuine evolutionary events. In order to test whether similar biases affect diversity estimates for terrestrial taxa, we compiled genus-richness estimates for three Mesozoic dinosaur clades (Ornithischia, Sauropodomorpha and Theropoda). Linear models of expected genus richness were constructed for each clade, using the number of dinosaur-bearing formations available through time as a proxy for the amount of fossiliferous rock outcrop. Modelled diversity estimates were then compared with observed patterns. Strong statistically robust correlations demonstrate that almost all aspects of ornithischian and theropod diversity curves can be explained by geological megabiases, whereas the sauropodomorph record diverges from modelled predictions and may be a stronger contender for identifying evolutionary signals. In contrast to other recent studies, we identify a marked decline in dinosaur genus richness during the closing stages of the Cretaceous Period, indicating that the clade decreased in diversity for several million years prior to the final extinction of non-avian dinosaurs at the Cretaceous-Palaeocene boundary. PMID:19403535

Barrett, Paul M; McGowan, Alistair J; Page, Victoria

2009-07-22

305

The Uniformity and Diversity of Language: Evidence from Sign Language  

PubMed Central

Evidence from sign language strongly supports three positions: (1) language is a coherent system with universal properties; (2) sign languages diverge from spoken languages in some aspects of their structure; and (3) domain-external factors can be identified that account for some crucial aspects of language structure -- uniform and diverse -- in both modalities. Assuming that any of these positions excludes the others defeats the purpose of the enterprise. PMID:21076645

Sandler, Wendy

2010-01-01

306

Pasture diversity and management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Despite the economic importance of pastures in the northeastern United States, not much is known about their ecology, including taxonomic and functional diversity. This factsheet presents results from a 1998-2005 survey of pastures on 44 farms from Maine to Maryland. Pastures are quite diverse; the ...

307

Soybean Molecular Genetic Diversity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A history of the various DNA marker types used in the assessment of molecular genetic diversity in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is followed by a description of a number of studies on the assessment of genetic diversity. These studies include a review of reports on 1) the quantification and comp...

308

Frequency diverse array radars  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a generalized structure for a frequency diverse array radar. In its simplest form, the frequency diverse array applies a linear phase progression across the aperture. This linear phase progression induces an electronic beam scan, as in a conventional phased array. When an additional linear frequency shift is applied across the elements, a new term is generated which

Paul Antonik; Michael C. Wicks; Hugh D. Griffiths; Christopher J. Baker

2006-01-01

309

Global Diversity and Leadership.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that global diversity has become a business imperative in today's business climate. Global diversity is of core importance even for companies that are considered domestic. Suggests community colleges need help in understanding their customer base and their shifting values in order to meet their needs and win customer loyalty. (NB)

Ruiz, Art

2003-01-01

310

Why Diversity Matters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author provides insight on the issue of diversity in higher education. The author asserts that diversity--one of the great strengths of American education--is under siege today. At the elementary- and secondary-school levels, resegregation is making it exceedingly difficult for minority students to get the resources that…

Bollinger, Lee C.

2007-01-01

311

Evolution & Diversity in Plants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes recent findings that help in understanding how evolution has brought about the diversity of plant life that presently exists. Discusses basic concepts of evolution, diversity and classification, the three-line hypothesis of plant evolution, the origin of fungi, and the geologic time table. Included are 31 references. (CW)

Pearson, Lorentz C.

1988-01-01

312

Reconsidering the Diversity Rationale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concept of diversity has come a long way in U.S. higher education, and its impact has been far reaching. Over the last three and a half decades, diversity and its related interventions have evolved to encompass a broad set of purposes, issues, and initiatives on college campuses. The earliest initiatives to increase minority access on…

Chang, Mitchell J.

2005-01-01

313

Voices for Diversity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prominent Americans were asked to reflect on the diversity challenge facing America's teacher workforce. The following leaders from several fields voiced their support of teachers and their beliefs America needs more diverse and culturally responsive teachers: (1) Mary Hatwood Futrell, President of Education International; (2) Carol Moseley-Braun,…

Future Teacher, 1995

1995-01-01

314

A Diversity Visionary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today's chief diversity officer could be tomorrow's university president, says Dr. Damon Williams. The author profiles Damon Williams who shines as sought-after expert on issues surrounding higher education inclusion. As head of a diversity division with an eight-figure budget at Wisconsin's flagship state university, Williams oversees four…

Smith, Susan

2012-01-01

315

Diversity within a unified model for Archaean gold mineralization in the Yilgarn Craton of Western Australia: An overview of the late-orogenic, structurally-controlled gold deposits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Archaean Yilgarn Craton has produced >3000 tonnes of gold, mainly from structurally-controlled deposits that formed during the latest stages of an orogenic event that affected the entire craton and culminated in the period 2.66–2.63 Ga. As a group, these late-orogenic deposits encompass a wide range of host rocks, structural settings and structural styles and alteration types. However, several consistent

W. K Witt; F Vanderhor

1998-01-01

316

Requirements Engineering and Aspects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fundamental problem with requirements engineering (RE) is to validate that a design does satisfy stakeholder requirements. Some requirements can be fulfilled locally by designed modules, where others must be accommodated globally by multiple modules together. These global requirements often crosscut with other local requirements and as such lead to scattered concerns. We explore the possibility of borrowing concepts from aspect-oriented programming (AOP) to tackle these problems in early requirements. In order to validate the design against such early aspects, we propose a framework to trace them into coding and testing aspects. We demonstrate the approach using an open-source e-commerce platform. In the conclusion of this work, we reflect on the lessons learnt from the case study on how to fit RE and AOP research together.

Yu, Yijun; Niu, Nan; González-Baixauli, Bruno; Mylopoulos, John; Easterbrook, Steve; Do Prado Leite, Julio Cesar Sampaio

317

Aspects of bamboo agronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various aspects of the growth and development of bamboo are reviewed,includ- ing growth cycles of plant parts,effects of aging on important plant tissues,uptake of water and nutrients,photosynthesis,storage and translocation of photosynthates and nutrients,and accumulation and partitioning of biomass and nutrients.Also discussed are how these aspects can be manipulated with agronomic techniques, such as management of standing-culm density,culm-age structure,leaf area,and leaf-age

Volker Kleinhenz; David J. Midmore

2001-01-01

318

2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, headworks overflow weir to center left, view to east - Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, Salmon Creek, Okanogan, Okanogan County, WA

319

Diversity of endophytic fungal community of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) and biological control of Crinipellis perniciosa, causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease  

PubMed Central

The basidiomycete fungus Crinipellis perniciosa (Stahel) Singer is the causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease of Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) which is the main factor limiting cacao production in the Americas. Pod losses of up to 90% are experienced in affected areas as evidenced by the 50% drop in production in Bahia province, Brazil following the arrival of the C. perniciosa in the area in 1989. The disease has proven particularly difficult to control and many farmers in affected areas have given up cacao cultivation. In order to evaluate the potential of endophytes as a biological control agent of this phytopathogen, the endophytic fungal community of resistant and susceptible cacao plants as well as affected branches was studied between 2001 and 2002. The fungal community was identified by morphological traits and rDNA sequencing as belonging to the genera Acremonium, Blastomyces, Botryosphaeria, Cladosporium, Colletotrichum, Cordyceps, Diaporthe, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Gibberella, Gliocladium, Lasiodiplodia, Monilochoetes, Nectria, Pestalotiopsis, Phomopsis, Pleurotus, Pseudofusarium, Rhizopycnis, Syncephalastrum, Trichoderma, Verticillium and Xylaria. These fungi were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo by their ability to inhibit C. perniciosa. Among these, some were identified as potential antagonists, but only one fungus (Gliocladium catenulatum) reduced the incidence of Witches' Broom Disease in cacao seedlings to 70%. PMID:15951847

2005-01-01

320

Diversity history of Cenozoic marine siliceous plankton  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine planktonic diatoms and polycystine radiolarians, both with shells of opaline silica, make up a large part of the deep-sea sediment fossil record. Diatom export of organic material to the deep ocean and sediments strongly affects the global carbon cycle; while both groups compete for, and are regulated by the availability of, dissolved silica derived from global weathering. Diatoms and radiolarians also both have a relatively (compared to foraminifera or coccolithophores) complex biogeography, with diverse, endemic polar and tropical assemblages. Changes in past diatom and radiolarian diversity can be used to understand how the ocean's biologic pump has evolved, how co-evolution between groups occurs, and how nutrient availability controls evolutionary change. Lazarus et al. (2014) recently showed that diatom diversity increased by a factor of ca 3.5X over the Cenozoic, with a temporary peak in the latest Eocene, a late Oligocene-early Miocene low interval, very strong diversification in the late Miocene-early Pliocene, and minor decline in the late Pliocene-Recent. Only Phanerozoic scale radiolarian diversity estimates have been available until now, and these are strongly biased by sample size. We employed similar data (NSB database) and methods (1 my bins, 'sqs' subsampling, outlier removal using Pacman trims) as Lazarus et al. (2014) to calculate, for the first time, a detailed estimate of radiolarian diversity history, and origination and extinction rates over the last 50 my, the period for which sufficient NSB data is available. Radiolarian diversity increases almost monotonically by a factor of 5, with relatively rapid increases in the mid Eocene (high relative origination) and early Miocene (due to low extinction rates), and a moderate decline in the Plio-Pleistocene due to high extinction rates. Combined high rates of both extinction and origination, with little diversity change, are seen at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary. Most of these events can be related to changing global paleoceanographic conditions. Radiolarians show a major decrease in Cenozoic silica usage, apparently due to the rise of diatoms and consequent reduction of surface water silica concentrations (Lazarus et al. 2009). This inference based on diatom diversity has been confirmed (Renaudie et al., this meeting) with new estimates showing Cenozoic increasing rates of global diatom silica deposition. Our new radiolarian results show this did not negatively impact radiolarian diversity. Presumably increasing diversity from increasing faunal provinciality dominated Cenozoic radiolarian diversity dynamics, similar to the diversity controls on diatoms (Lazarus et al. 2014). Lazarus et al. (2009). PNAS 106:9333-9338. Lazarus et al. (2014). PLOS One (in press).

Lazarus, David; Renaudie, Johan

2014-05-01

321

DEVELOPMENT OF AQUATIC MODELS FOR TESTING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GENETIC DIVERSITY AND POPULATION EXTINCTION RISK  

EPA Science Inventory

The relationship between population adaptive potential and extinction risk in a changing environment is not well understood. Although the expectation is that genetic diversity is directly related to the capacity of populations to adapt, the statistical and predictive aspects of ...

322

Climate, energy and diversity  

PubMed Central

In recent years, a number of species–energy hypotheses have been developed to explain global patterns in plant and animal diversity. These hypotheses frequently fail to distinguish between fundamentally different forms of energy which influence diversity in dissimilar ways. Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) can be utilized only by plants, though their abundance and growth rate is also greatly influenced by water. The Gibbs free energy (chemical energy) retained in the reduced organic compounds of tissue can be utilized by all heterotrophic organisms. Neither PAR nor chemical energy influences diversity directly. Both, however, influence biomass and/or abundance; diversity may then increase as a result of secondary population dynamic or evolutionary processes. Temperature is not a form of energy, though it is often used loosely by ecologists as a proxy for energy; it does, however, influence the rate of utilization of chemical energy by organisms. It may also influence diversity by allowing a greater range of energetic lifestyles at warmer temperatures (the metabolic niche hypothesis). We conclude that there is no single species/energy mechanism; fundamentally different processes link energy to abundance in plants and animals, and diversity is affected secondarily. If we are to make progress in elucidating these mechanisms, it is important to distinguish climatic effects on species' distribution and abundance from processes linking energy supply to plant and animal diversity. PMID:16928626

Clarke, Andrew; Gaston, Kevin J

2006-01-01

323

Emergence of diversity in a model ecosystem.  

PubMed

The biological requirements for an ecosystem to develop and maintain species diversity are in general unknown. Here we consider a model ecosystem of sessile and mutually excluding organisms competing for space [Mathiesen et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 188101 (2011)]. Competition is controlled by an interaction network with fixed links chosen by a Bernoulli process. New species are introduced in the system at a predefined rate. In the limit of small introduction rates, the system becomes bistable and can undergo a phase transition from a state of low diversity to high diversity. We suggest that isolated patches of metapopulations formed by the collapse of cyclic relations are essential for the transition to the state of high diversity. PMID:23005473

Mitarai, Namiko; Mathiesen, Joachim; Sneppen, Kim

2012-07-01

324

[Genetic aspects of mucopolysaccharidoses].  

PubMed

Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are inherited metabolic diseases caused by mutations in the genes coding for one of the eleven enzymes involved in lysosomal catabolism of different glycosaminoglycans (or mucopolysaccharides). The different enzyme deficiencies result in a total of seven distinct mucopolysaccharidoses (I to IV, VI, VII and IX). This review considers the genetic and molecular aspects of the seven types of MPS. PMID:25063380

Lacombe, D; Germain, D P

2014-06-01

325

Ecophysiological aspects of allelopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allelochemicals play an important role in explaining plant growth inhibition in interspecies interactions and in structuring the plant community. Five aspects of allelochemicals are discussed from an ecophysiological perspective: (i) biosynthesis, (ii) mode of release, (iii) mode of action, (iv) detoxification and prevention of autotoxicity, and (v) joint action of allelochemicals. A discussion on identifying a compound as an allelochemical

Inderjit; Stephen O. Duke

2003-01-01

326

Sociological Aspects of Deafness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nine conference papers treat the sociological aspects of deafness. Included are "Individuals Being Deaf and Blind and Living with a Well Hearing Society" by A. Marx (German Federal Republic), "A Deaf Man's Experiences in a Hearing World" by A. B. Simon(U.S.A.), "Problem of Text Books and School Appliances for Vocational Education of Deaf Adults"…

World Federation of the Deaf, Rome (Italy).

327

Theoretical Aspects of Translation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study attempts to bring some clarification into the concept of translation, especially into the theoretical problems presented by the difficulties of translation. The following aspects of the question are treated: (1) translation in the past and present, including the controversy over translation as an art or a science, the relevance of…

House, Juliane M.

328

Office for Faculty Development and Diversity 2013 Annual Diversity Report 2013 Annual Diversity Report  

E-print Network

our full aspirations as a diverse and inclusive community. Our future as a UniversityOffice for Faculty Development and Diversity 2013 Annual Diversity Report 2013 Annual Diversity Report Office for Faculty Development and Diversity May 2013 #12;2 2 Office for Faculty Development

Portman, Douglas

329

Differential changes in self-reported aspects of interoceptive awareness through 3 months of contemplative training  

PubMed Central

Interoceptive body awareness (IA) is crucial for psychological well-being and plays an important role in many contemplative traditions. However, until recently, standardized self-report measures of IA were scarce, not comprehensive, and the effects of interoceptive training on such measures were largely unknown. The Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA) questionnaire measures IA with eight different scales. In the current study, we investigated whether and how these different aspects of IA are influenced by a 3-months contemplative intervention in the context of the ReSource project, in which 148 subjects engaged in daily practices of “Body Scan” and “Breath Meditation.” We developed a German version of the MAIA and tested it in a large and diverse sample (n = 1,076). Internal consistencies were similar to the English version (0.56–0.89), retest reliability was high (rs: 0.66–0.79), and the MAIA showed good convergent and discriminant validity. Importantly, interoceptive training improved five out of eight aspects of IA, compared to a retest control group. Participants with low IA scores at baseline showed the biggest changes. Whereas practice duration only weakly predicted individual differences in change, self-reported liking of the practices and degree of integration into daily life predicted changes on most scales. Interestingly, the magnitude of observed changes varied across scales. The strongest changes were observed for the regulatory aspects of IA, that is, how the body is used for self-regulation in daily life. No significant changes were observed for the Noticing aspect (becoming aware of bodily changes), which is the aspect that is predominantly assessed in other IA measures. This differential pattern underscores the importance to assess IA multi-dimensionally, particularly when interested in enhancement of IA through contemplative practice or other mind–body interventions. PMID:25610410

Bornemann, Boris; Herbert, Beate M.; Mehling, Wolf E.; Singer, Tania

2015-01-01

330

Diversity and factors controlling widespread occurrence of syn-rift Ladinian microbialites in the western Tethys (Triassic Catalan Basin, NE Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fault-block carbonate ramps of the Ladinian (Middle Triassic) Catalan Basin hosted a wide variety of microbial deposits which formed during a syn-rift stage. Stratigraphical and sedimentological analyses of these microbialites allow us to reconstruct two depositional models for such microbial deposits. Moreover new insights into the interplay between the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that controlled the widespread development of these microbialites are provided. Stromatolites, ooidal-muddy microbial laminites and thrombolites were analyzed on the basis of their geometry, lamination and textural attributes. These microbialites are distributed over two Transgressive-Regressive sequences and coexisted during the Fassanian (Early Ladinian) regressive stage. Later, stromatolites and ooidal-muddy microbial laminites developed during the Longobardian (Late Ladinian) transgressive stage. Three types of lamina couplets reflect distinct accretion processes linked to water chemistry, sediment supply and hydrodynamic conditions. Thrombolite textures were produced by accretionary, binding and encrusting processes (microbially mediated) and pervasive cementation. The widespread occurrence of microbial deposits is explained as a consequence of a biogeochemical cascade of events (e.g., anoxic/dysoxic seawater conditions, volcanic activity, upwelling of alkaline waters, nutrient concentrations, and microbial blooms), which promoted favorable conditions for microbial growth in the Tethys during the Ladinian. Furthermore, in the Catalan Basin, syn-rift fault induced subsidence and local water energy gradients exerted an essential role in the distribution of the three types of microbialites through space and time. Thrombolites were prone to grow in the hanging wall block of a half-graben (subtidal conditions), whereas stromatolites and ooidal-muddy microbial laminites flourished preferably in a foot wall block setting (intertidal-shallow subtidal conditions). However, the fact that thrombolites exhibit abundant botryoidal and isopachous fibrous marine cements, corrosion and significant microbial evidence allow us to hypothesize about the relationship between thrombolite occurrence and hydrothermal fault-controlled fluid circulation during the Triassic rifting. The two depositional models here proposed constitute a step forward the understanding of the platform-to-basin microbialite heterogeneity during the Ladinian. Furthermore this work sheds new light on the mechanisms that likely promoted microbialite development during a period of major ecological restructuration and complex oceanographic conditions.

Mercedes-Martín, Ramon; Arenas, Concha; Salas, Ramon

2014-11-01

331

Diverse bacterial microcompartment organelles.  

PubMed

Bacterial microcompartments (MCPs) are sophisticated protein-based organelles used to optimize metabolic pathways. They consist of metabolic enzymes encapsulated within a protein shell, which creates an ideal environment for catalysis and facilitates the channeling of toxic/volatile intermediates to downstream enzymes. The metabolic processes that require MCPs are diverse and widely distributed and play important roles in global carbon fixation and bacterial pathogenesis. The protein shells of MCPs are thought to selectively control the movement of enzyme cofactors, substrates, and products (including toxic or volatile intermediates) between the MCP interior and the cytoplasm of the cell using both passive electrostatic/steric and dynamic gated mechanisms. Evidence suggests that specialized shell proteins conduct electrons between the cytoplasm and the lumen of the MCP and/or help rebuild damaged iron-sulfur centers in the encapsulated enzymes. The MCP shell is elaborated through a family of small proteins whose structural core is known as a bacterial microcompartment (BMC) domain. BMC domain proteins oligomerize into flat, hexagonally shaped tiles, which assemble into extended protein sheets that form the facets of the shell. Shape complementarity along the edges allows different types of BMC domain proteins to form mixed sheets, while sequence variation provides functional diversification. Recent studies have also revealed targeting sequences that mediate protein encapsulation within MCPs, scaffolding proteins that organize lumen enzymes and the use of private cofactor pools (NAD/H and coenzyme A [HS-CoA]) to facilitate cofactor homeostasis. Although much remains to be learned, our growing understanding of MCPs is providing a basis for bioengineering of protein-based containers for the production of chemicals/pharmaceuticals and for use as molecular delivery vehicles. PMID:25184561

Chowdhury, Chiranjit; Sinha, Sharmistha; Chun, Sunny; Yeates, Todd O; Bobik, Thomas A

2014-09-01

332

Diversity Team | Poster  

Cancer.gov

The Employee Diversity Team (EDT) is looking for bright, talented, and committed Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNL) employees—both government and contractor—who want to share in the team’s mission.

333

A hierarchical perspective of plant diversity  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Predictive models of plant diversity have typically focused on either a landscapea??s capacity for richness (equilibrium models), or on the processes that regulate competitive exclusion, and thus allow species to coexist (nonequilibrium models). Here, we review the concepts and purposes of a hierarchical, multiscale model of the controls of plant diversity that incorporates the equilibrium model of climatic favorability at macroscales, nonequilibrium models of competition at microscales, and a mixed model emphasizing environmental heterogeneity at mesoscales. We evaluate the conceptual model using published data from three spatially nested datasets: (1) a macroscale analysis of ecoregions in the continental and western U.S.; (2) a mesoscale study in California; and (3) a microscale study in the Siskiyou Mountains of Oregon and California. At the macroscale (areas from 3889 km2 to 638,300 km2), climate (actual evaporation) was a strong predictor of tree diversity (R2 = 0.80), as predicted by the conceptual model, but area was a better predictor for vascular plant diversity overall (R2 = 0.38), which suggests different types of plants differ in their sensitivity to climatic controls. At mesoscales (areas from 1111 km2 to 15,833 km2 ), climate was still an important predictor of richness (R2 = 0.52), but, as expected, topographic heterogeneity explained an important share of the variance (R2 = 0.19), showed positive correlations with diversity of trees, shrubs, and annual and perennial herbs, and was the primary predictor of shrub and annual plant species richness. At microscales (0.1 ha plots), spatial patterns of diversity showed a clear unimodal pattern along a climatea??driven productivity gradient and a negative relationship with soil fertility. The strong decline in understory and total diversity at the most productive sites suggests that competitive controls, as predicted, can override climatic controls at this scale. We conclude that this hierarchical, multiscale model provides a sound basis to understand and analyze plant species diversity. Specifically, future research should employ the principles in this paper to explore climatic controls on species richness of different life forms, better quantify environmental heterogeneity in landscapes, and analyze how these largea??scale factors interact with local nonequilibrium dynamics to maintain plant diversity.

Sarr, Daniel; Hibbs, D.E.; Huston, M.

2005-01-01

334

Does Socioeconomic Diversity Make a Difference? Racial Diversity, Socioeconomic Diversity, and Campus Climate  

E-print Network

Does Socioeconomic Diversity Make a Difference? Racial Diversity of socioeconomic diversity in higher education, little research exists on whether, which is associated both with more frequent interactions across race and greater

Rose, Michael R.

335

Gender and Cultural Diversity Bias in Developmental Textbooks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports the results of a content-analysis for the treatment of gender and diversity in the 11 top-selling lifespan developmental textbooks. The purposes were to measure the amount of information provided on aspects of development specific to Caucasian females and females of Color and to evaluate qualitatively the incorporation of the…

Conti, Nancy E.; Kimmel, Ellen B.

336

The Loss of Genetic Diversity: An Impending Global Issue.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Definitions of biosphere and ecosystem are provided as the basis for understanding a problem that threatens to become (or already is) a global issue, namely, human activity which results in reducing the diversity of life forms present in the biosphere as an ecosystem. Two aspects of this problem are: (1) the growth of human populations worldwide…

Pierce, James P.

337

Using Our National Diversity as an Educational Resource.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides personal perspectives, both from a teacher and her students, on issues of multiculturalism and diversity. Recounts a number of incidents that illustrate some of the trickier aspects of multicultural education ("How do you feel about arranged marriages?"). Concludes with a call for greater understanding and tolerance. (MJP)

Dozier, Therese Knecht

1997-01-01

338

Mechanical aspects of CO? angiography.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is to clarify some physical-mechanical aspects involved in the carbon dioxide angiography procedure (CO? angiography), with a particular attention to a possible damage of the vascular wall. CO? angiography is widely used on patients with iodine intolerance. The injection of a gaseous element, in most cases manually performed, requires a long training period. Automatic systems allow better control of the injection and the study of the mechanical behaviour of the gas. CO? injections have been studied by using manual and automatic systems. Pressures, flows and jet shapes have been monitored by using a cardiovascular mock. Photographic images of liquid and gaseous jet have been recorded in different conditions, and the vascular pressure rises during injection have been monitored. The shape of the liquid jet during the catheter washing phase is straight in the catheter direction and there is no jet during gas injection. Gas bubbles are suddenly formed at the catheter's hole and move upwards: buoyancy is the only governing phenomenon and no bubbles fragmentation is detected. The pressure rise in the vessel depends on the injection pressure and volume and in some cases of manual injection it may double the basal vascular pressure values. CO? angiography is a powerful and safe procedure which diffusion will certainly increase, although some aspects related to gas injection and chamber filling are not jet well known. The use of an automatic system permits better results, shorter training period and limitation of vascular wall damage risk. PMID:22138139

Corazza, Ivan; Rossi, Pier Luca; Feliciani, Giacomo; Pisani, Luca; Zannoli, Sebastiano; Zannoli, Romano

2013-01-01

339

High-aspect-ratio wings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High-aspect-ratio aircraft include most transport aircraft such as commercial and military transports, business aircraft, and cargo aircraft. Generally, these types of aircraft are designed to cruise over a narrow range of lift coefficients and Mach numbers in the performance of their mission. Emphasis is therefore placed on the cruise performance of transport aircraft and every effort is made to obtain accurate wind-tunnel data to use as a basis for prediction of full-scale cruise performance. However, off-cruise performance is also important and methods were developed for extrapolating wind-tunnel data on buffet and flutter at transonic speed. Transport-type aircraft were tested extensively in various wind tunnels around the world and many different test techniques were developed to simulate higher Reynolds numbers. Methods developed for one tunnel may not be applicable to another tunnel because of differences in size, Reynolds number capability, running time, and test objectives. Many of the methods of boundary-layer control developed in two-dimensional airfoil testing can be applied in tests of transport configurations, but sometimes the three-dimensional flow fields that develop on tranpsort aircraft can make application of the two-dimensional methods difficult or impossible. The discussion is intended to be a representative, but not exhaustive, survey of the various methods of high Reynolds number simulation in the testing of high-aspect-ratio aircraft.

Peterson, John B., Jr.

1988-01-01

340

Behavioural aspects of terrorism.  

PubMed

Behavioural and social sciences are useful in collecting and analysing intelligence data, understanding terrorism, and developing strategies to combat terrorism. This article aims to examine the psychopathological concepts of terrorism and discusses the developing roles for behavioural scientists. A systematic review was conducted of studies investigating behavioural aspects of terrorism. These studies were identified by a systematic search of databases, textbooks, and a supplementary manual search of references. Several fundamental concepts were identified that continue to influence the motives and the majority of the behaviours of those who support or engage in this kind of specific violence. Regardless of the psychological aspects and new roles for psychiatrists, the behavioural sciences will continue to be called upon to assist in developing better methods to gather and analyse intelligence, to understand terrorism, and perhaps to stem the radicalisation process. PMID:23597734

Leistedt, Samuel J

2013-05-10

341

Aspects of multimetric gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a class of gravity theories containing N >= 2 metric tensors and a corresponding number of standard model copies. In the Newtonian limit gravity is attractive within each standard model copy, but different standard model copies mutually repel each other. We discuss several aspects of these multimetric gravity theories, including cosmology, structure formation, the post-Newtonian limit and gravitational waves. The most interesting feature we find is an accelerating expansion of the universe that naturally becomes small at late times.

Hohmann, M.

2014-09-01

342

OHSU Diversity Action Plan 2013: Creating a Community of Diversity  

E-print Network

OHSU Diversity Action Plan 2013: Creating a Community of Diversity and Inclusion #12;Table and community outreach. We recognize that diversity of people and ideas are essential to succeed and thrive. DIverSIty ACtIon plAn vISIon OHSU will successfully use the abilities of all OHSU community members

Chapman, Michael S.

343

TUM.Diversity Die hochschulweite Diversity-Strategie verfolgt  

E-print Network

to make it possible that all members of the university's community can study and work in a diverse, openTUM.Diversity #12;Die hochschulweite Diversity-Strategie verfolgt das Ziel, allen ein Studieren und Arbeiten in einem vielfältigen, weltoffenen und toleranten Umfeld zu ermöglichen. Das Team von TUM.Diversity

Cengarle, María Victoria

344

Addressing Diversity in the Decade of Behavior: Focus on Women of Color.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the lives of women of color, illustrating diversity-minded feminist principles that may inform research and program development related to other aspects of diversity. Notes perspectives and priorities of women of color in psychology. Considers why implementing feminist psychology's inclusive vision for research is a continuing struggle,…

Russo, Nancy Felipe; Vaz, Kim

2001-01-01

345

Aspect aware UAV localization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider target detection and tracking of stealthy targets. These targets can be characterized by a strong aspect dependence leading to difficult detectability without a multi-static setup. Even in a multi-static setup only sensors in a certain zone can detect the return signal, if the the aspect dependent return has a small bandwidth. We propose a solution based on a large number of simple sensor, as using many receivers increases the probability of detection. The sensors are simple in the sense that they only transmit binary detection results to a fusion center that has comparatively deep capabilities, and they do not need to know their own position or communicate with other sensors. We characterize the target position estimation performance using the Cramer-Rao bound and simulation results, considering uncertainty in nuisance parameters as the sensor positions or the specifics of the aspect dependence. We suggest a data collection protocol that includes locating sensors that detect the target and has low communication complexity. As a novelty we also include information about "non-localized" sensors, as sensors which do not detect the target stay quiet to save bandwidth and energy, therefore are not known to the fusion center except via knowledge of the deployed sensor density and deployment region.

Berger, Christian R.; Zhou, Shengli; Willett, Peter

2008-04-01

346

Algorithms for high aspect ratio oriented triangulations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Grid generation plays an integral part in the solution of computational fluid dynamics problems for aerodynamics applications. A major difficulty with standard structured grid generation, which produces quadrilateral (or hexahedral) elements with implicit connectivity, has been the requirement for a great deal of human intervention in developing grids around complex configurations. This has led to investigations into unstructured grids with explicit connectivities, which are primarily composed of triangular (or tetrahedral) elements, although other subdivisions of convex cells may be used. The existence of large gradients in the solution of aerodynamic problems may be exploited to reduce the computational effort by using high aspect ratio elements in high gradient regions. However, the heuristic approaches currently in use do not adequately address this need for high aspect ratio unstructured grids. High aspect ratio triangulations very often produce the large angles that are to be avoided. Point generation techniques based on contour or front generation are judged to be the most promising in terms of being able to handle complicated multiple body objects, with this technique lending itself well to adaptivity. The eventual goal encompasses several phases: first, a partitioning phase, in which the Voronoi diagram of a set of points and line segments (the input set) will be generated to partition the input domain; second, a contour generation phase in which body-conforming contours are used to subdivide the partition further as well as introduce the foundation for aspect ratio control, and; third, a Steiner triangulation phase in which points are added to the partition to enable triangulation while controlling angle bounds and aspect ratio. This provides a combination of the advancing front/contour techniques and refinement. By using a front, aspect ratio can be better controlled. By using refinement, bounds on angles can be maintained, while attempting to minimize the number of Steiner points.

Posenau, Mary-Anne K.

1995-01-01

347

Aspects of two corrosion processes relevant to military hardware  

SciTech Connect

Corrosion is a leading material degradation mode observed in many military systems. This report contains a description of a small project that was performed to allow some of the important electrochemical aspects of two distinct and potentially relevant degradation modes to be better understood: environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) of aluminum alloys and corrosion in moist salt. Two specific and respective tasks were completed: (A) the characterization of the effect of aluminum microstructural variability on its susceptibility to EAC, and (B) the development of experimental and analytical techniques that can be used to identify the factors and processes that influence the corrosivity of moist salt mixtures. The resultant information constitutes part of the basis needed to ultimately predict component reliability and/or possibly to identify techniques that could be used to control corrosion in critical components. In Task A, a physical model and related understanding for the relevant degradation processes were formulated. The primary result from Task B included the identification and qualitative validation of a methodology for determining the corrosivity of salt mixtures. A detailed compilation of the results obtained from each of these two diverse tasks is presented separately in the body of this report.

Braithwaite, J.W.; Buchheit, R.G.

1997-11-01

348

Longitudinal patterns in species richness and genetic diversity in European oaks and oak gallwasps  

Microsoft Academic Search

While latitudinal patterns of genetic diversity are well known for many taxa in Europe, there has been little analysis of\\u000a longitudinal patterns across Pleistocene glacial refugia. Here we analyze longitudinal patterns in two aspects of diversity\\u000a (species richness and intraspecific genetic diversity) for two trophically related groups of organisms – oaks (Fagaceae, genus\\u000a Quercus) and their associated gallwasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae)

Rachel J. Atkinson; Antonis Rokas; Graham N. Stone

349

The marine diversity spectrum  

PubMed Central

Distributions of species body sizes within a taxonomic group, for example, mammals, are widely studied and important because they help illuminate the evolutionary processes that produced these distributions. Distributions of the sizes of species within an assemblage delineated by geography instead of taxonomy (all the species in a region regardless of clade) are much less studied but are equally important and will illuminate a different set of ecological and evolutionary processes. We develop and test a mechanistic model of how diversity varies with body mass in marine ecosystems. The model predicts the form of the ‘diversity spectrum’, which quantifies the distribution of species' asymptotic body masses, is a species analogue of the classic size spectrum of individuals, and which we have found to be a new and widely applicable description of diversity patterns. The marine diversity spectrum is predicted to be approximately linear across an asymptotic mass range spanning seven orders of magnitude. Slope ?0·5 is predicted for the global marine diversity spectrum for all combined pelagic zones of continental shelf seas, and slopes for large regions are predicted to lie between ?0·5 and ?0·1. Slopes of ?0·5 and ?0·1 represent markedly different communities: a slope of ?0·5 depicts a 10-fold reduction in diversity for every 100-fold increase in asymptotic mass; a slope of ?0·1 depicts a 1·6-fold reduction. Steeper slopes are predicted for larger or colder regions, meaning fewer large species per small species for such regions. Predictions were largely validated by a global empirical analysis. Results explain for the first time a new and widespread phenomenon of biodiversity. Results have implications for estimating numbers of species of small asymptotic mass, where taxonomic inventories are far from complete. Results show that the relationship between diversity and body mass can be explained from the dependence of predation behaviour, dispersal, and life history on body mass, and a neutral assumption about speciation and extinction. PMID:24588547

Reuman, Daniel C; Gislason, Henrik; Barnes, Carolyn; Mélin, Frédéric; Jennings, Simon

2014-01-01

350

Effects of herbivores on grassland plant diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of herbivores in controlling plant species richness is a critical issue in the conservation and management of grassland biodiversity. Numerous field experiments in grassland plant communities show that herbivores often, but not always, increase plant diversity. Recent work suggests that the mechanisms of these effects involve alteration of local colonization of species from regional species pools or local

Han Olff; Mark E. Ritchie

1998-01-01

351

EXTENSION DIVERSITY PLAN 2009 -2012  

E-print Network

, both in the workplace and in their communities. Strategy/Program/Activities ­ Maintain Diversity ­ Community Goal, Outcome 1 Ensure that diverse communities are served by Extension programming. OrientEXTENSION DIVERSITY PLAN 2009 - 2012 November 17, 2010 - Page 1 Extension Diversity Plan Goal ­All

352

Extending UML with Aspects: Aspect Support in the Design Phase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspect-Oriented Programming (AOP) has been considered a promising abstraction principle to reduce the problem of code tangling and make software structure clean and configurable. This paper addresses the aspect support in the design level while it has been focused mainly in the implementation\\/coding phase. We propose an extension to Unified Modeling Language (UML) to support aspects properly without breaking the

Junichi Suzuki; Yoshikazu Yamamoto

1999-01-01

353

Effect of diversity on turnover: A large case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using longitudinal data collected in 1996-98 from over 800 similar workplaces owned and operated by a single corporation, the authors examine how workplace diversity and employee isolation along the dimensions of gender, race, and age affected employee turnover. Their design controls for much of the variation in job characteristics and labor markets that have confounded other studies of diversity. They

Jonathan S. Leonard; David I. Levine

2006-01-01

354

GCS plan for software aspects of certification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of the Guidance and Control Software (GCS) research project being sponsored by NASA to evaluate the failure processes of software, standard industry software development procedures are being employed. To ensure that these procedures are authentic, the guidelines outlined in the Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA/DO-178A document entitled, software considerations in airborne systems and equipment certification, were adopted. A major aspect of these guidelines is proper documentation. As such, this report, the plan for software aspects of certification, was produced in accordance with DO-178A. An overview is given of the GCS research project, including the goals of the project, project organization, and project schedules. It also specifies the plans for all aspects of the project which relate to the certification of the GCS implementations developed under a NASA contract. These plans include decisions made regarding the software specification, accuracy requirements, configuration management, implementation development and verification, and the development of the GCS simulator.

Shagnea, Anita M.; Lowman, Douglas S.; Withers, B. Edward

1990-01-01

355

Diversity of Poissonian populations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Populations represented by collections of points scattered randomly on the real line are ubiquitous in science and engineering. The statistical modeling of such populations leads naturally to Poissonian populations—Poisson processes on the real line with a distinguished maximal point. Poissonian populations are infinite objects underlying key issues in statistical physics, probability theory, and random fractals. Due to their infiniteness, measuring the diversity of Poissonian populations depends on the lower-bound cut-off applied. This research characterizes the classes of Poissonian populations whose diversities are invariant with respect to the cut-off level applied and establishes an elemental connection between these classes and extreme-value theory. The measures of diversity considered are variance and dispersion, Simpson’s index and inverse participation ratio, Shannon’s entropy and Rényi’s entropy, and Gini’s index.

Eliazar, Iddo I.; Sokolov, Igor M.

2010-01-01

356

ASPECT IMPACT ANALYSIS Dehua Zhang  

E-print Network

ASPECT IMPACT ANALYSIS by Dehua Zhang School of Computer Science McGill University, Montr of the major challenges in aspect-oriented programming is that aspects may have unintended impacts on a base program. Thus, it is important to develop techniques and tools that can both summarize the impacts

Verbrugge, Clark

357

GAP: Generic Aspects for PHP  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we explore how aspect-oriented programming can be implemented for the PHP programming language. We start with an overview of existing implementations, identifying their strengths and weaknesses. We then introduce GAP, our implementation of aspect-oriented programming for PHP that uses dynamic weaving, supports aspect genericity, and provides a framework to implement custom pointcut languages on top of it.

Sebastian Bergmann; Günter Kniesel

2006-01-01

358

Predator Diversity and Abundance Provide Little Support for the Enemies Hypothesis in Forests of High Tree Diversity  

PubMed Central

Predatory arthropods can exert strong top-down control on ecosystem functions. However, despite extensive theory and experimental manipulations of predator diversity, our knowledge about relationships between plant and predator diversity—and thus information on the relevance of experimental findings—for species-rich, natural ecosystems is limited. We studied activity abundance and species richness of epigeic spiders in a highly diverse forest ecosystem in subtropical China across 27 forest stands which formed a gradient in tree diversity of 25–69 species per plot. The enemies hypothesis predicts higher predator abundance and diversity, and concomitantly more effective top-down control of food webs, with increasing plant diversity. However, in our study, activity abundance and observed species richness of spiders decreased with increasing tree species richness. There was only a weak, non-significant relationship with tree richness when spider richness was rarefied, i.e. corrected for different total abundances of spiders. Only foraging guild richness (i.e. the diversity of hunting modes) of spiders was positively related to tree species richness. Plant species richness in the herb layer had no significant effects on spiders. Our results thus provide little support for the enemies hypothesis—derived from studies in less diverse ecosystems—of a positive relationship between predator and plant diversity. Our findings for an important group of generalist predators question whether stronger top-down control of food webs can be expected in the more plant diverse stands of our forest ecosystem. Biotic interactions could play important roles in mediating the observed relationships between spider and plant diversity, but further testing is required for a more detailed mechanistic understanding. Our findings have implications for evaluating the way in which theoretical predictions and experimental findings of functional predator effects apply to species-rich forest ecosystems, in which trophic interactions are often considered to be of crucial importance for the maintenance of high plant diversity. PMID:21829551

Schuldt, Andreas; Both, Sabine; Bruelheide, Helge; Härdtle, Werner; Schmid, Bernhard; Zhou, Hongzhang; Assmann, Thorsten

2011-01-01

359

Improved viability of populations with diverse life-history portfolios.  

PubMed

A principle shared by both economists and ecologists is that a diversified portfolio spreads risk, but this idea has little empirical support in the field of population biology. We found that population growth rates (recruits per spawner) and life-history diversity as measured by variation in freshwater and ocean residency were negatively correlated across short time periods (one to two generations), but positively correlated at longer time periods, in nine Bristol Bay sockeye salmon populations. Further, the relationship between variation in growth rate and life-history diversity was consistently negative. These findings strongly suggest that life-history diversity can both increase production and buffer population fluctuations, particularly over long time periods. Our findings provide new insights into the importance of biocomplexity beyond spatio-temporal aspects of populations, and suggest that maintaining diverse life-history portfolios of populations may be crucial for their resilience to unfavourable conditions like habitat loss and climate change. PMID:20007162

Greene, Correigh M; Hall, Jason E; Guilbault, Kimberly R; Quinn, Thomas P

2010-06-23

360

Thermodynamic aspects of OMVPE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermodynamic factors are important for determining several aspects of the overall organometallic vapor phase epitaxial (OMVPE) growth process including the maximum growth rate, the occurence of parasitic homogeneous gas phase reactions, the phase diagram, i.e. the conditions necessary for the growth of a single phase III/V semiconductor without the presence of other liquid or solid phases, and the solid III/V alloy composition. Each of these is discussed in turn. A simple model is developed which assumes thermodynamic equilibrium to be established at the solid/vapor interface. This model can be used to understand the growth rate limiting process, the conditions necessary to grow a single phase III/V material, and the factors determining solid composition. Systems with mixing on the group V sublattice such as InAsSb and GaAsSb have been studied in detail. The thermodynamic calculations predict accurately the effects of the ratio of As/Sb and V/III ratio in the vapor phase on solid composition. An additional aspect of the thermodynamic analysis is that it predicts the occurrence of solid phase miscibility gaps in many III/V ternary and quaternary systems. OMVPE is found capable of growing alloys within the range of solid immiscibility. The growth and properties of the model alloy GaAsSb in the range of solid immiscibility will be discussed briefly.

Stringfellow, G. B.

1984-12-01

361

Aspects of Gond astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gond community is considered to be one of the most ancient tribes of India with a continuing history of several thousand years. They are also known for their largely isolated history which they have retained through the millennia. Several of their intellectual traditions therefore are a record of parallel aspects of human intellectual growth, and still preserve their original flavour and have not been homogenised by the later traditions of India. In view of this, the Gonds provide a special window to the different currents that constitute contemporary India. In the present study, we summarise their mythology, genetics and script. We then investigate their astronomical traditions and try to understand this community through a survey of 15 Gond villages spread over Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. We show that they have a distinctly different view of the sky from the conventional astronomical ideas encountered elsewhere in India, which is both interesting and informative. We briefly comment on other aspects of their life as culled from our encounters with different members of the Gond community.

Vahia, M. N.; Halkare, Ganesh

2013-03-01

362

The influence of contextual diversity on eye movements in reading.  

PubMed

Recent research has shown contextual diversity (i.e., the number of passages in which a given word appears) to be a reliable predictor of word processing difficulty. It has also been demonstrated that word-frequency has little or no effect on word recognition speed when accounting for contextual diversity in isolated word processing tasks. An eye-movement experiment was conducted wherein the effects of word-frequency and contextual diversity were directly contrasted in a normal sentence reading scenario. Subjects read sentences with embedded target words that varied in word-frequency and contextual diversity. All 1st-pass and later reading times were significantly longer for words with lower contextual diversity compared to words with higher contextual diversity when controlling for word-frequency and other important lexical properties. Furthermore, there was no difference in reading times for higher frequency and lower frequency words when controlling for contextual diversity. The results confirm prior findings regarding contextual diversity and word-frequency effects and demonstrate that contextual diversity is a more accurate predictor of word processing speed than word-frequency within a normal reading task. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23937235

Plummer, Patrick; Perea, Manuel; Rayner, Keith

2014-01-01

363

The influence of contextual diversity on eye movements in reading  

PubMed Central

Recent research has shown contextual diversity (i.e., the number of passages in which a given word appears) to be a reliable predictor of word processing difficulty. It has also been demonstrated that word-frequency has little or no effect on word recognition speed when accounting for contextual diversity in isolated word processing tasks. An eye-movement experiment was conducted wherein the effects of word-frequency and contextual diversity were directly contrasted in a normal sentence reading scenario. Subjects read sentences with embedded target words which varied in word frequency and contextual diversity. All first-pass and later reading times were significantly longer for words with lower contextual diversity compared to words with higher contextual diversity when controlling for word-frequency and other important lexical properties. Furthermore, there was no difference in reading times for higher frequency and lower frequency words when controlling for contextual diversity. The results confirm prior findings regarding contextual diversity and word-frequency effects and demonstrate that contextual diversity is a more accurate predictor of word processing speed than word-frequency within a normal reading task. PMID:23937235

Plummer, Patrick; Perea, Manuel; Rayner, Keith

2014-01-01

364

Resources on Diversity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lists resources available to teachers who wish to gain additional information and insight on cultural diversity in the United States. Includes works by and about African Americans, Latinos, and Native Americans. Covers topics such as conflict resolution, history, prejudice reduction, and history. (DK)

Update on Law-Related Education, 1992

1992-01-01

365

Supply and Demand Diversity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Public universities in Virginia, as in many states, have generally not paid much attention to diversity among their suppliers. For years, state expenditures for outside contracts went to the usual suspects--White contractors from well-established companies. Four years ago, former Governor Mark Warner, a progressive Democrat from the high…

Galuszka, Peter

2007-01-01

366

Diversity and International.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains the following papers on diversity and international issues in technology and teacher education: (1) "'At-Risk' Learners and the 'Digital Divide': Exploring the Equity in Access Issue" (Jeanne M. Foster and Sharla L. Snider); (2) "Integrating Standards-Based Instructional Technology" (Nicole M. Snow); (3) "Technology and the…

Justice, Madeline, Ed.

367

Re: Soviet river diversions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper on `Soviet River Diversions' by Phil Micklin (Eos, 62(19), May 12, 1981) has just come to hand.Referring to the map on page 489, I was interested to see the estimates of river flows for the Amu and Syr Darya, which clearly show the effect of irrigation on inflows to the Aral Sea. Recently, I was passing over the

Jas O. Robertson

1982-01-01

368

Diversity & Community: Maintaining Allegiances.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The quest for diversity must overcome the resistance of traditional White, male faculty to redefining the mission and curriculum of the liberal arts college. Change will be difficult, but it must occur if liberal arts colleges are to survive and maintain a central and relevant place in multicultural America. (MSE)

Pena, Devon G.

1990-01-01

369

Teaching for Diversity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The summer 1993 Southwest Educational Development Laboratory (SEDL) "Networkshop" focused on the need for teacher education programs to prepare future teachers to work with and teach effectively increasingly diverse student populations, and the need to increase the number of minority teachers. A major focus was on how policy and decisionmakers can…

Jones, Nancy Baker

1994-01-01

370

Banking on Diversity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few organizations have as racially and culturally diverse a work force as the organizations that make up the World Bank Group. Of its 13,000 employees, nearly 60 percent of whom are located in downtown Washington, D.C., and the rest scattered across 160 offices around the globe, nearly every nation in the world is represented in the World Bank…

Roach, Ronald

2010-01-01

371

Animal Diversity Web  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Animal Diversity Web (ADW) is an online database of animal natural history, distribution, classification, and conservation biology, from the University of Michigan. It is a searchable encyclopedia, science learning tool and virtual museum. It has pages suggesting uses for the site in both undergraduate and K12 education.

Roger Espinosa (University of Michigan Museum of Zoology)

2006-04-20

372

Diversity Team | Poster  

Cancer.gov

The NCI at Frederick Employee Diversity Team (EDT) has prepared a new display that features a sample of the foreign films from the team’s collection in the Scientific Library. “Foreign films really help stimulate an awareness of different cultures and countries.

373

Tapping into microbial diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even though significant advances have been made in understanding microbial diversity, most microorganisms are still only characterized by 'molecular fingerprints' and have resisted cultivation. Many different approaches have been developed to overcome the problems associated with cultivation of microorganisms because one obvious benefit would be the opportunity to investigate the previously inaccessible resources that these microorganisms potentially harbour.

Martin Keller; Karsten Zengler

2004-01-01

374

Diversity & Inclusion Executive Summary  

E-print Network

the importance of smaller and less visible action as well as large and more visible action. Here are just a few recruitment, retention, and development of women in the STEM (science, technology, engineering on diversity and inclusion for the members of the Strategic Plan Implementation Group (SPIG). A comprehensive

Napier, Terrence

375

This Trend Called Diversity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The work of diversity in libraries begins at the crossroad where superiority, inaction, and denial become intolerable. The paradoxes involved present questions that serve as teachable moments or paralyzing hurdles. Once at the crossroads, however, there are systematic strategies and operating principles for bringing significance, meaning, and…

Balderrama, Sandra Rios

2000-01-01

376

Diversity in Ocean Sciences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

COSEE-SE provides resources and links to help improve diversity in ocean sciences. Included resources are coastal legacy resources for elementary and middle school teachers, Coastal Legacy traveling curriculum kit, documents from the Multicultural Pathways for Ocean Science Education workshop, and university and marine laboratory programs.

377

How Symbiosis Creates Diversity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Diversity in habitats on Earth is astounding--whether on land or in the sea--and this is in part due to symbiosis. The lesson described in this article helps students understand how symbiosis affects different organisms through a fun and engaging game where they match hosts and symbionts based on their respective needs. This 45-minute lesson is…

Lord, Joshua

2010-01-01

378

Avoiding ageism and promoting diversity at Coca-Cola  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catherine Webb, HR controller at Coca-Cola Enterprises, provides examples of how the organization has established forward-thinking, diverse, anti-ageism policies in order to achieve “Employer Champion” status.

Catherine Webb

2006-01-01

379

Aspects of spinorial geometry  

E-print Network

We review some aspects of the spinorial geometry approach to the classification of supersymmetric solutions of supergravity theories. In particular, we explain how spinorial geometry can be used to express the Killing spinor equations in terms of a linear system for the fluxes and the geometry of spacetime. The solutions of this linear system express some of the fluxes in terms of the spacetime geometry and determine the conditions on the spacetime geometry imposed by supersymmetry. We also present some of the recent applications like the classification of maximally supersymmetric G-backgrounds in IIB, this includes the most general pp-wave solution preserving 1/2 supersymmetry, and the classification of N=31 backgrounds in ten and eleven dimensions.

U. Gran; J. Gutowski; G. Papadopoulos; D. Roest

2006-12-14

380

Aspects, Wrappers and Events  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation provides information on Object Infrastructure Framework (OIF), an Aspect-Oriented Programming (AOP) system. The presentation begins with an introduction to the difficulties and requirements of distributed computing, including functional and non-functional requirements (ilities). The architecture of Distributed Object Technology includes stubs, proxies for implementation objects, and skeletons, proxies for client applications. The key OIF ideas (injecting behavior, annotated communications, thread contexts, and pragma) are discussed. OIF is an AOP mechanism; AOP is centered on: 1) Separate expression of crosscutting concerns; 2) Mechanisms to weave the separate expressions into a unified system. AOP is software engineering technology for separately expressing systematic properties while nevertheless producing running systems that embody these properties.

Filman, Robert E.

2003-01-01

381

Dark aspects of cosmology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis investigates aspects of dark matter and dark energy and constraints that can be imposed on them from current and future observations. Specifically, we first study the idea that the observed acceleration of the Universe could be due to the gravitational backreaction of perturbations on superhorizon scales. We show that this does not work for the case of a cosmological model containing baryonic matter, cold dark matter and a scalar field. Next, assuming the presence of dark energy and dark matter, we study the gravitational lensing effects of large scale structures on luminosity distances of sources. Standard candle sources such as supernovae have been used to measure the dark energy content of the Universe, and gravitational lensing is a source of systematic error in these measurements. We investigate the effects of large scale structures like voids and smaller halos using Monte Carlo simulations.

Kumar, Naresh

382

Diversity within the Profession. Part Two: Initiatives Promoting Diversity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the literature on minority experiences in optometry and other health professions, describing programs geared either toward increasing diversity or facilitating acceptance of diversity within the optometric profession, including affirmative action and other institutional support structures. (EV)

Spafford, Marlee M.; Sharma, Neepun; Nygaard, Vicki L.; Kahlou, Christina

2002-01-01

383

HUMAN DIVERSITY AND LANGUAGE DIVERSITY WILLIAM So-YoWANG  

E-print Network

dynastyand ruled the entirety of China for nearly 300 yearsHUMAN DIVERSITY AND LANGUAGE DIVERSITY WILLIAM So-YoWANG Departmentof still speakManchu.Thoseover thirty years old were likely to understandit

Wang, William Shi-Yuan

384

Cocoa agronomy, quality, nutritional, and health aspects.  

PubMed

The history of cocoa and chocolate including the birth and the expansion of the chocolate industry was described. Recent developments in the industry and cocoa economy were briefly depicted. An overview of the classification of cacao as well as studies on phenotypic and genetic diversity was presented. Cocoa agronomic practices including traditional and modern propagation techniques were reviewed. Nutrition-related health benefits derived from cocoa consumption were listed and widely reviewed. The specific action of cocoa antioxidants was compared to those of teas and wines. Effects of adding milk to chocolate and chocolate drinks versus bioavailability of cocoa polyphenols were discussed. Finally, flavor, sensory, microbiological, and toxicological aspects of cocoa consumption were presented. PMID:24915358

Badrie, Neela; Bekele, Frances; Sikora, Elzbieta; Sikora, Marek

2015-01-01

385

Diversity of animal immune receptors and the origins of recognition complexity in the deuterostomes.  

PubMed

Invertebrate animals are characterized by extraordinary diversity in terms of body plan, life history and life span. The past impression that invertebrate immune responses are controlled by relatively simple innate systems is increasingly contradicted by genomic analyses that reveal significant evolutionary novelty and complexity. One accessible measure of this complexity is the multiplicity of genes encoding homologs of pattern recognition receptors. These multigene families vary significantly in size, and their sequence character suggests that they vary in function. At the same time, certain aspects of downstream signaling appear to be conserved. Here, we analyze five major classes of immune recognition receptors from newly available animal genome sequences. These include the Toll-like receptors (TLR), Nod-like receptors (NLR), SRCR domain scavenger receptors, peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRP), and Gram negative binding proteins (GNBP). We discuss innate immune complexity in the invertebrate deuterostomes, which was first recognized in sea urchins, within the wider context of emerging genomic information across animal phyla. PMID:25450907

Buckley, Katherine M; Rast, Jonathan P

2015-03-01

386

[Recovery Room. Organization and clinical aspects].  

PubMed

Correct administration in the early postoperative phase is decisive in the final outcome of surgery and the presence of the Recovery Room (RR) contributes significantly to a reduction in the post-operative risk rate. The objectives of the RR are: removal of the pharmacological effect of general anaesthesia; stabilization of vital parameters (circulation and ventilation); stabilization of body temperature; control of the hydro-electrolytic balance; intensive intervention in the case of an acute complication; prescribing a suitable postoperative analgesia; recovering movement in the case of loco-regional anesthesia. Organization of RR must take into consideration: 1) aspect of environment and location; 2) transport of the patient from the operating room to the RR; 3) definition of the equipment necessary for the RR; 4) definition of the role and qualification of the medical and nursing staff; 5) definition of regulations of assistance and the clinical file; 6) definition of criteria for discharge and transfer; 7) definition of means of adjournment, improvement and comparison with other similar structures. RR is administered by an Anesthetist with clinical, therapeutic and decision-making responsibility for the discharge of patients, while the supervision and assistance patients is entrusted to specialised professional nurses. From a clinical point of view the following data are monitored and recorded: the vital signs (passage of air-ways, cardiac and respiratory frequency, arterial pressure, saturation of O2, EtCO2 (in patient with air-way support), body temperature and the state of consciousness, instrumental monitoring of the patient (at pre-established time intervals), control of the skin, the peripheral circulation, surgical wounds, drainage and catheters. The percentage of incidence of complications in RR varies from 6-7 to 30% depending on various studies, probably in relation to the diversity of criteria in defining the complication. The principal complications which can be found in RR, reported in several studies are: respiratory (obstruction of the air-way, hypoxemia, hypoventilation, inhalation), cardio-circulatory (hypotension, hypertension, arrhythmia, myocardial ischemia), postoperative nausea and vomiting, hypothermia and hyperthermia, delayed re-awakening, disorientation and hyper-excitability, postoperative shivering. As long as the patient can be discharged from the RR the following requisites must be satisfied: return of a state of consciousness, stable cardio-circulatory parameters, absence of respiratory depression, absence of bleeding, absence of nausea and vomiting, good analgesia and recovery of movement in the case of loco-regional anesthesia (on this last point not all authors agree). What has been said until now shows the function, usefulness and importance of RRs which must not replace the Intensive Therapy Units. In fact, they are places where the cure must be concluded, in which the Anesthetist is responsible for the whole process. This cure must begin in the preoperative period, continue in the intraoperative period and it is compulsory to proceed in the immediate postoperative period until such a time that, because of the anesthesia administered, the clinical situation of the patient ceases to be considered a potential medical-surgical urgency-emergency . PMID:11602873

Leykin, Y; Costa, N; Gullo, A

2001-01-01

387

UH Mnoa Commission on Diversity Faculty and Staff Diversity Enhancement  

E-print Network

that honors and supports diversity and has made an impact on the university community · Achievement on the university community · Achievement in recruiting, retaining, and graduating diverse groups of students and accomplishments toward enhancing diversity in the university community · No more than 3 letters of support

Dong, Yingfei

388

1 OHSU Diversity Digest | March 2013 OHSU State of Diversity  

E-print Network

;2 OHSU Diversity Digest | March 2013 Community 1 OHSU Diversity Digest | March 2013 OHSU State of Diversity Join us from 12-2pm on Thursday, March 14 as we celebrate accomplishments in creating a community of inclusion, and renewed commitment

Chapman, Michael S.

389

Diversity of the gut microbiota and eczema in early life  

PubMed Central

Background A modest number of prospective studies of the composition of the intestinal microbiota and eczema in early life have yielded conflicting results. Objective To examine the relationship between the bacterial diversity of the gut and the development of eczema in early life by methods other than stool culture. Methods Fecal samples were collected from 21 infants at 1 and 4 months of life. Nine infants were diagnosed with eczema by the age of 6 months (cases) and 12 infants were not (controls). After conducting denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of stool samples, we compared the microbial diversity of cases and controls using the number of electrophoretic bands and the Shannon index of diversity (H') as indicators. Results Control subjects had significantly greater fecal microbial diversity than children with eczema at ages 1 (mean H' for controls = 0.75 vs. 0.53 for cases, P = 0.01) and 4 months (mean H' for controls = 0.92 vs. 0.59 for cases, P = 0.02). The increase in diversity from 1 to 4 months of age was significant in controls (P = 0.04) but not in children who developed eczema by 6 months of age (P = 0.32). Conclusion Our findings suggest that reduced microbial diversity is associated with the development of eczema in early life. PMID:18808715

Forno, Erick; Onderdonk, Andrew B; McCracken, John; Litonjua, Augusto A; Laskey, Daniel; Delaney, Mary L; DuBois, Andrea M; Gold, Diane R; Ryan, Louise M; Weiss, Scott T; Celedón, Juan C

2008-01-01

390

Compromising Baltic salmon genetic diversity -  

E-print Network

Compromising Baltic salmon genetic diversity - conservation genetic risks associated with compensatory releases of salmon in the Baltic Sea Havs- och vattenmyndighetens rapport 2012:18 #12;Compromising Baltic salmon genetic diversity - conservation genetic risks associated with compensatory releases

391

Bioenergetic Aspects of Halophilism  

PubMed Central

Examinination of microbial diversity in environments of increasing salt concentrations indicates that certain types of dissimilatory metabolism do not occur at the highest salinities. Examples are methanogenesis for H2 + CO2 or from acetate, dissimilatory sulfate reduction with oxidation of acetate, and autotrophic nitrification. Occurrence of the different metabolic types is correlated with the free-energy change associated with the dissimilatory reactions. Life at high salt concentrations is energetically expensive. Most bacteria and also the methanogenic archaea produce high intracellular concentrations of organic osmotic solutes at a high energetic cost. All halophilic microorganisms expend large amounts of energy to maintain steep gradients of NA+ and K+ concentrations across their cytoplasmic membrane. The energetic cost of salt adaptation probably dictates what types of metabolism can support life at the highest salt concentrations. Use of KCl as an intracellular solute, while requiring far-reaching adaptations of the intracellular machinery, is energetically more favorable than production of organic-compatible solutes. This may explain why the anaerobic halophilic fermentative bacteria (order Haloanaerobiales) use this strategy and also why halophilic homoacetogenic bacteria that produce acetate from H2 + CO2 exist whereas methanogens that use the same substrates in a reaction with a similar free-energy yield do not. PMID:10357854

Oren, Aharon

1999-01-01

392

Continent cutaneous diversion.  

PubMed

Continent urinary diversion requires the creation of a reservoir, ureteric implantation and establishment of a continence mechanism in the efferent segment. This review is a short overview on the history of different techniques in current use. Reservoirs with high volume and low pressure can be fashioned by antimesenteric opening and spherical reconfiguration of the bowel. Previously, techniques for ureteric implantation were simply transferred to continent urinary diversion. Currently the need for antirefluxive ureteric implantation techniques is questioned and there is a trend towards refluxive implantation. To create a continence mechanism, simple and reproducible procedures. e.g. the incorporation of the efferent segment into the pouch wall (e.g. appendix stoma, flap valve T mechanism, serosal-lined extramural tunnel) have been developed. Long-term data for different surgical techniques show excellent continence and acceptable complication rates. PMID:19035898

Fisch, Margit; Thüroff, Joachim W

2008-11-01

393

Diverse Galaxies Lithograph  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Hubble Space Telescope image shows the diversity of galaxies in the universe. A huge elliptical galaxy, designated ESO 325-G004, dominates the image. In addition to many elliptical and spiral galaxies, the image contains a few small irregular galaxies, and red, yellow, and blue foreground stars. The accompanying classroom activity is a current support tool designed for use as an introductory inquiry activity. It can be incorporated into a unit that has a scientific inquiry and/or a galaxy classification theme. During the classroom activity, In Search of ...Galaxy Types, students use the lithograph images and text to generate questions about the diverse collection of galaxies on the front of the lithograph. They conduct research to answer their questions, identify patterns, and/or compare and contrast galaxy characteristics, depending on the teacherâs objectives. Students will organize their material and present a report, providing supporting evidence from their research.

2007-09-01

394

Animal Diversity Web  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Michigan Museum of Zoology provides the searchable Animal Diversity Web database, with species accounts (images and text) of some of the world's mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles, sharks, bony fishes, mollusks, arthropods and echinoderms. The database is searchable by common or scientific name. For each species account, information includes scientific and common name, classification (Phylum through Genus), and color photographs (many beauties). Some accounts supply additional information, such as geographic range, physical characteristics, natural history (food habits, reproduction, behavior, conservation, and habitat), other comments, and references. Although the list of species is by no means complete, these simple but effective accounts are interesting to read and will be helpful as supplemental resources in a biological diversity/ ecology course.

395

Convention on Biological Diversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Convened after the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, the Convention on Biological Diversity has three primary goals: the conservation of biological diversity, the sustainable use of its components, and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits from the use of genetic resources. The main body of the organization's home page is dedicated to disseminating information about upcoming meetings, news, and events, such as the expert meeting on the global strategy for plant conservation and the various constituent groups that make up the Convention. The number of online documents available here is quite prodigious, and is divided into groups that include quarterly reports, global biodiversity outlook reports, and case-study documents. Users may elect to browse through these collections, or choose to use the search engine.

396

DEVELOPMENTAL DIVERSITY OF AMPHIBIANS  

PubMed Central

The current model amphibian, Xenopus laevis, develops rapidly in water to a tadpole which metamorphoses into a frog. Many amphibians deviate from the X. laevis developmental pattern. Among other adaptations, their embryos develop in foam nests on land or in pouches on their mother’s back or on a leaf guarded by a parent. The diversity of developmental patterns includes multinucleated oogenesis, lack of RNA localization, huge non-pigmented eggs, and asynchronous, irregular early cleavages. Variations in patterns of gastrulation highlight the modularity of this critical developmental period. Many species have eliminated the larva or tadpole and directly develop to the adult. The wealth of developmental diversity among amphibians coupled with the wealth of mechanistic information from X. laevis permit comparisons that provide deeper insights into developmental processes. PMID:22662314

Elinson, Richard P.; del Pino, Eugenia M.

2011-01-01

397

Microbial Diversity - student worksheet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a downloadable Microsoft Word document containing a 13-question student assessment worksheet to accompany the Microbial Diversity video segment of the Unseen Life on Earth series from Annenberg Media. The questions mirror language used in the video and focus on clearly stated facts. Thus, the worksheet assesses listening skills more than concept comprehension. This assessment would be appropriate for the secondary or introductory undergraduate level.

Joanna Verran

398

Effects of Seasonality and Species Diversity on Nitrogen Uptake in Grassland Johanna Jensen  

E-print Network

1 Effects of Seasonality and Species Diversity on Nitrogen Uptake in Grassland Ecosystems Johanna controls on nitrogen cycling in grassland ecosystems than species diversity in fall months. Three grassland growing season and affinity for nitrate, while a senescing, diverse grassland had the least. In addition

Vallino, Joseph J.

399

Character Convergence, Diversity, and Disturbance in Tropical Rain Forest in Guyana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The level of tree diversity varies greatly between sites in Guyana and de- creases along a gradient from south to north. We conducted a study to understand what controls this gradient of diversity using data from country-wide forest inventories. Analysis of tree diversity on the basis of soil and rainfall effects in an area of 15 3 106 ha showed

Hans ter Steege; David S. Hammond

2001-01-01

400

DiversityRx  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DiversityRx is a program that aims to provide culturally and linguistically sensitive health care services to "minority, immigrant, and indigenous communities." An iteration of the program began in the mid-1990s, and resulted in the creation of the Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services in Health Care (CLAS) standards, which is supported by various government agencies. DiversityRx's website gives visitors plenty of opportunities to learn about cultural competence, from the "Topics" tab in the menu across the top of the page. The "Cultural Competence 101" link lists all the material on the website related to cultural competence. Visitors should not miss the blog entry entitled "Diversity Training vs. Cultural Competency Training", a video entitled "Faces of Disparity Video", and "'I Speak' Language Identification Cards". The "Resources" tab has a link to the "Resource Database", which can be searched or browsed. Once a visitor becomes a member - it's free to join- they can add to, comment on and mark as a favorite, any of the resources in the database.

401

Diversity-Generating Retroelements  

PubMed Central

Summary Parasite adaptation to dynamic host characteristics is a recurrent theme in biology. Diversity-generating retroelements (DGRs) are a newly discovered family of genetic elements that function to diversify DNA sequences and the proteins they encode. The prototype DGR was identified in a temperate bacteriophage, BPP-1, on the basis of its ability to generate variability in a gene that specifies tropism for receptor molecules on host Bordetella species. Tropism switching is a template-dependent, reverse transcriptase mediated process that introduces nucleotide substitutions at defined locations within a target gene. This cassette-based mechanism is theoretically capable of generating trillions of different amino acid sequences in a distal tail fiber protein, providing a vast repertoire of potential ligand-receptor interactions. Variable residues are displayed in the context of a specialized C-type lectin fold, which has evolved a unique solution for balancing protein diversity against structural stability. Homologous DGRs have been identified in the chromosomes of diverse bacterial species. These unique genetic elements have the potential to confer powerful selective advantages to their hosts, and their ability to generate novel binding specificities and dynamic antimicrobial agents suggests numerous applications. “Human subtlety will never devise an invention more beautiful, more simple or more direct than does Nature, because in her inventions, nothing is lacking and nothing is superfluous.”- Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) PMID:17703991

Medhekar, Bob; Miller, Jeff F

2009-01-01

402

Understanding plant reproductive diversity  

PubMed Central

Flowering plants display spectacular floral diversity and a bewildering array of reproductive adaptations that promote mating, particularly outbreeding. A striking feature of this diversity is that related species often differ in pollination and mating systems, and intraspecific variation in sexual traits is not unusual, especially among herbaceous plants. This variation provides opportunities for evolutionary biologists to link micro-evolutionary processes to the macro-evolutionary patterns that are evident within lineages. Here, I provide some personal reflections on recent progress in our understanding of the ecology and evolution of plant reproductive diversity. I begin with a brief historical sketch of the major developments in this field and then focus on three of the most significant evolutionary transitions in the reproductive biology of flowering plants: the pathway from outcrossing to predominant self-fertilization, the origin of separate sexes (females and males) from hermaphroditism and the shift from animal pollination to wind pollination. For each evolutionary transition, I consider what we have discovered and some of the problems that still remain unsolved. I conclude by discussing how new approaches might influence future research in plant reproductive biology. PMID:20008389

Barrett, Spencer C. H.

2010-01-01

403

Resisting HRD's Resistance to Diversity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to empirically illustrate how human resource development (HRD) resists and omits issues of diversity in academic programs, textbooks, and research; analyze the research on HRD and diversity over a ten-year period; discuss HRD's resistance to diversity; and offer some recommendations for a more authentic…

Bierema, Laura L.

2010-01-01

404

Diversity in the Workplace. Symposium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three papers comprise this symposium on diversity in the workplace. "Factors That Assist and Barriers That Hinder the Success of Diversity Initiatives in Multinational Corporations" (Rose Mary Wentling) reports that factors that assisted in the success were classified under diversity department, human, and work environment; barriers were those of…

2002

405

Rutgers University Libraries Diversity Plan  

E-print Network

Rutgers University Libraries Diversity Plan 20092010 The Rutgers University Libraries formed of diversity. The overall goal of the library diversity program is to assure that all library personnel and library users feel welcomed, valued, and respected and to assure that library personnel, services

Hanson, Stephen José

406

Religious Diversity in the Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains four papers that address constitutional issues of religious diversity in the schools. The first paper, "Religious Diversity in the Schools--The Overview" (George J. Michel), provides an overview of religious diversity in American public schools, with a focus on the long history of cooperation with Christian churches. It…

Michel, George J.; Smith, William Gause; Vickers, Dianne Koenig; Brown, Elsie

407

Juvenile Sex Offenders in Diversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to address the treatment of juvenile sex offenders within diversion programs. Using data from 32 diversion programs in Colorado during the 1998–1999 fiscal year, the study observed the demographic and legal characteristics of 112 juvenile (Mean age = 14.64) sex offenders referred to diversion programs for seven types of sex assault, incest, and indecent exposure charges.

Justin S. Campbell; Cherise Lerew

2002-01-01

408

Cognitive Diversity and the Progress of Science .  

E-print Network

??Science benefits from substantial cognitive diversity because cognitive diversity promotes scientific progress toward greater accuracy. Without diversity of goals, beliefs, and methods, science would neither… (more)

Lenhart, Stephen J.

2011-01-01

409

Does species diversity limit productivity in natural grassland communities?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Theoretical analyses and experimental studies of synthesized assemblages indicate that under particular circumstances species diversity can enhance community productivity through niche complementarity. It remains unclear whether this process has important effects in mature natural ecosystems where competitive feedbacks and complex environmental influences affect diversity-productivity relationships. In this study, we evaluated diversity-productivity relationships while statistically controlling for environmental influences in 12 natural grassland ecosystems. Because diversity-productivity relationships are conspicuously nonlinear, we developed a nonlinear structural equation modeling (SEM) methodology to separate the effects of diversity on productivity from the effects of productivity on diversity. Meta-analysis was used to summarize the SEM findings across studies. While competitive effects were readily detected, enhancement of production by diversity was not. These results suggest that the influence of small-scale diversity on productivity in mature natural systems is a weak force, both in absolute terms and relative to the effects of other controls on productivity. ?? 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

Grace, J.B.; Anderson, T.M.; Smith, M.D.; Seabloom, E.; Andelman, S.J.; Meche, G.; Weiher, E.; Allain, L.K.; Jutila, H.; Sankaran, M.; Knops, J.; Ritchie, M.; Willig, M.R.

2007-01-01

410

When Does Diversity Erode Trust? Neighborhood Diversity, Interpersonal Trust and the Mediating Effect of Social Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article contributes to the debate about the effects of ethnic diversity on social cohesion, particularly generalized trust. The analysis relies on data from both the 'Citizenship, Involvement, Democracy' (CID) survey in the US and the 'Equality, Security and Community Survey' (ESCS) in Canada. Our analysis, one of the first controlled cross-national comparisons of small-unit contextual variation, confirms recent findings

Dietlind Stolle; Stuart Soroka; Richard Johnston

2008-01-01

411

Data integration: Quality aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is now possible to observe that the advances in technology have led to increased capacity to generate and store huge amounts of data in all areas of knowledge, characterizing a generalized explosion of data. In the area of electric power, the vast amount of data collected by different systems of supervision and control and stored in historical bases, has

M. R. Bastos; J. S. C. Martini; J. R. de Almeida; S. Viana

2010-01-01

412

Emerging therapeutic aspects in oncology  

PubMed Central

Cancer remains a peculiarly stubborn disease to treat. Some forms of cancer have seen tremendous advances in the effectiveness of their treatments, whereas other forms have remained resistant to pharmacological control. This lack of hope for success is in part due to the types of drugs that are used in the clinic, and the targeted biological system being based purely on cellular growth rates. However, recent drugs designed to affect specific signalling pathways or proteins have been showing much success. Thanks to the ingenuity of pharmacologists in understanding and targeting these processes, there have been real improvements in treatment. Here we are presented with some of the research into such critical systems that have to be understood, so that they can be conquered. We will also look at the challenges facing cancer pharmacologists and what the field may present to us all in the future. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Emerging Therapeutic Aspects in Oncology. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2013.169.issue-8 PMID:23889318

MacEwan, David J

2013-01-01

413

Neuroendocrine aspects of catamenial epilepsy  

PubMed Central

This review describes the neuroendocrinological aspects of catamenial epilepsy, a menstrual cycle-related seizure disorder in women with epilepsy. Catamenial epilepsy is a multifaceted neuroendocrine condition in which seizures are clustered around specific points in the menstrual cycle, most often around perimenstrual or periovulatory period. Three types of catamenial seizures (perimenstrual, periovulatory and inadequate luteal) have been identified. The molecular pathophysiology of catamenial epilepsy remains unclear. Cyclical changes in the circulating levels of estrogens and progesterone (P) play a central role in the development of catamenial epilepsy. Endogenous neurosteroids such as allopregnanolone (AP) and allotetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone (THDOC) that modulate seizure susceptibility could play a critical role in catamenial epilepsy. In addition, plasticity in GABA-A receptor subunits could play a role in the enhanced seizure susceptibility in catamenial epilepsy. P-derived neurosteroids such as AP and THDOC potentiate synaptic GABA-A receptor function and also activate extrasynaptic GABA-A receptors in the hippocampus and thus may represent endogenous regulators of catamenial seizure susceptibility. Experimental studies have shown that neurosteroids confer greater seizure protection in animal models of catamenial epilepsy, especially without evident tolerance to their actions during chronic therapy. In the recently completed NIH-sponsored, placebo controlled Phase 3 clinical trial, P therapy proved to be beneficial only in women with perimenstrual catamenial epilepsy but not in non-catamenial subjects. Neurosteroid analogs with favorable profile may be useful in the treatment of catamenial epilepsy. PMID:22579656

Samba Reddy, Doodipala

2012-01-01

414

Neuroendocrine aspects of catamenial epilepsy.  

PubMed

This review describes the neuroendocrinological aspects of catamenial epilepsy, a menstrual cycle-related seizure disorder in women with epilepsy. Catamenial epilepsy is a multifaceted neuroendocrine condition in which seizures are clustered around specific points in the menstrual cycle, most often around perimenstrual or periovulatory period. Three types of catamenial seizures (perimenstrual, periovulatory and inadequate luteal) have been identified. The molecular pathophysiology of catamenial epilepsy remains unclear. Cyclical changes in the circulating levels of estrogens and progesterone (P) play a central role in the development of catamenial epilepsy. Endogenous neurosteroids such as allopregnanolone (AP) and allotetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone (THDOC) that modulate seizure susceptibility could play a critical role in catamenial epilepsy. In addition, plasticity in GABA-A receptor subunits could play a role in the enhanced seizure susceptibility in catamenial epilepsy. P-derived neurosteroids such as AP and THDOC potentiate synaptic GABA-A receptor function and also activate extrasynaptic GABA-A receptors in the hippocampus and thus may represent endogenous regulators of catamenial seizure susceptibility. Experimental studies have shown that neurosteroids confer greater seizure protection in animal models of catamenial epilepsy, especially without evident tolerance to their actions during chronic therapy. In the recently completed NIH-sponsored, placebo controlled phase 3 clinical trial, P therapy proved to be beneficial only in women with perimenstrual catamenial epilepsy but not in non-catamenial subjects. Neurosteroid analogs with favorable profile may be useful in the treatment of catamenial epilepsy. PMID:22579656

Reddy, Doodipala Samba

2013-02-01

415

Psychosocial aspects of induced abortion.  

PubMed

US anti-abortion groups have used misinformation on the long-term psychological impact of induced abortion to advance their position. This article reviews the available research evidence on the definition, history, cultural context, and emotional and psychiatric sequelae of induced abortion. Notable has been a confusion of normative, transient reactions to unintended pregnancy and abortion (e.g., guilt, depression, anxiety) with serious mental disorders. Studies of the psychiatric aspects of abortion have been limited by methodological problems such as the impossibility of randomly assigning women to study and control groups, resistance to follow-up, and confounding variables. Among the factors that may impact on an unintended pregnancy and the decision to abort are ongoing or past psychiatric illness, poverty, social chaos, youth and immaturity, abandonment issues, ongoing domestic responsibilities, rape and incest, domestic violence, religion, and contraceptive failure. Among the risk factors for postabortion psychosocial difficulties are previous or concurrent psychiatric illness, coercion to abort, genetic or medical indications, lack of social supports, ambivalence, and increasing length of gestation. Overall, the literature indicates that serious psychiatric illness is at least 8 times more common among postpartum than among postabortion women. Abortion center staff should acknowledge that the termination of a pregnancy may be experienced as a loss even when it is a voluntary choice. Referrals should be offered to women who show great emotional distress, have had several previous abortions, or request psychiatric consultation. PMID:9328746

Stotland, N L

1997-09-01

416

Nuclear Structure Aspects in Nuclear Astrophysics  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear Astrophysics as a broad and diverse field of study can be viewed as a magnifier of the impact of microscopic processes on the evolution of macroscopic events. One of the primary goals in Nuclear Astrophysics is the understanding of the nucleosynthesis processes that take place in the cosmos and the simulation of the correlated stellar and explosive burning scenarios. These simulations are strongly dependent on the input from Nuclear Physics which sets the time scale for all stellar dynamic processes--from giga-years of stellar evolution to milliseconds of stellar explosions--and provides the basis for most of the signatures that we have for the interpretation of these events--from stellar luminosities, elemental and isotopic abundances to neutrino flux from distant supernovae. The Nuclear Physics input comes through nuclear structure, low energy reaction rates, nuclear masses, and decay rates. There is a common perception that low energy reaction rates are the most important component of the required nuclear physics input; however, in this article we take a broader approach and present an overview of the close correlation between various nuclear structure aspects and their impact on nuclear astrophysics. We discuss the interplay between the weak and the strong forces on stellar time scales due to the limitations they provide for the evolution of slow and rapid burning processes. The effects of shell structure in nuclei on stellar burning processes as well as the impact of clustering in nuclei is outlined. Furthermore we illustrate the effects of the various nuclear structure aspects on the major nucleosynthesis processes that have been identified in the last few decades. We summarize and provide a coherent overview of the impact of all aspects of nuclear structure on nuclear astrophysics.

Smith, Michael Scott [ORNL

2006-12-01

417

Nuclear structure aspects in nuclear astrophysics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear Astrophysics as a broad and diverse field of study can be viewed as a magnifier of the impact of microscopic processes on the evolution of macroscopic events. One of the primary goals in Nuclear Astrophysics is the understanding of the nucleosynthesis processes that take place in the cosmos and the simulation of the correlated stellar and explosive burning scenarios. These simulations are strongly dependent on the input from Nuclear Physics which sets the time scale for all stellar dynamic processes—from giga-years of stellar evolution to milli-seconds of stellar explosions—and provides the basis for most of the signatures that we have for the interpretation of these events—from stellar luminosities, elemental and isotopic abundances to neutrino flux from distant supernovae. The Nuclear Physics input comes through nuclear structure, low energy reaction rates, nuclear masses, and decay rates. There is a common perception that low energy reaction rates are the most important component of the required nuclear physics input; however, in this article we take a broader approach and present an overview of the close correlation between various nuclear structure aspects and their impact on nuclear astrophysics. We discuss the interplay between the weak and the strong forces on stellar time scales due to the limitations they provide for the evolution of slow and rapid burning processes. The effects of shell structure in nuclei on stellar burning processes as well as the impact of clustering in nuclei is outlined. Furthermore we illustrate the effects of the various nuclear structure aspects on the major nucleosynthesis processes that have been identified in the last few decades. We summarize and provide a coherent overview of the impact of all aspects of nuclear structure on nuclear astrophysics.

Aprahamian, A.; Langanke, K.; Wiescher, M.

2005-04-01

418

Psychiatric aspects of Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease (PD) is essentially characterized by the motor symptoms in the form of resting tremor, rigidity and bradykinesia. However, over the years it has been recognized that motor symptoms are just the "tip of the iceberg" of clinical manifestations of PD. Besides motor symptoms, PD characterized by many non-motor symptoms, which include cognitive decline, psychiatric disturbances (depression, psychosis and impulse control), sleep difficulties, autonomic failures (gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, urinary, thermoregulation) and pain syndrome. This review evaluates the various aspects of psychiatric disorders including cognitive decline and sleep disturbances in patients with PD. The prevalence rate of various psychiatric disorders is high in patients with PD. In terms of risk factors, various demographic, clinical and treatment-related variables have been shown to be associated with higher risk of development of psychiatric morbidity. Evidence also suggests that the presence of psychiatric morbidity is associated with poorer outcome. Randomized controlled trials, evaluating the various pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for management of psychiatric morbidity in patients with PD are meager. Available evidence suggests that tricyclic antidepressants like desipramine and nortriptyline are efficacious for management of depression. Among the antipsychotics, clozapine is considered to be the best choice for management of psychosis in patients with PD. Among the various cognitive enhancers, evidence suggest efficacy of rivastigmine in management of dementia in patients with PD. To conclude, this review suggests that psychiatric morbidity is highly prevalent in patients with PD. Hence, a multidisciplinary approach must be followed to improve the overall outcome of PD. Further studies are required to evaluate the efficacy of various other measures for management of psychiatric morbidity in patients with PD. PMID:25552854

Grover, Sandeep; Somaiya, Mansi; Kumar, Santhosh; Avasthi, Ajit

2015-01-01

419

Psychiatric aspects of Parkinson's disease  

PubMed Central

Parkinson's disease (PD) is essentially characterized by the motor symptoms in the form of resting tremor, rigidity and bradykinesia. However, over the years it has been recognized that motor symptoms are just the “tip of the iceberg” of clinical manifestations of PD. Besides motor symptoms, PD characterized by many non-motor symptoms, which include cognitive decline, psychiatric disturbances (depression, psychosis and impulse control), sleep difficulties, autonomic failures (gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, urinary, thermoregulation) and pain syndrome. This review evaluates the various aspects of psychiatric disorders including cognitive decline and sleep disturbances in patients with PD. The prevalence rate of various psychiatric disorders is high in patients with PD. In terms of risk factors, various demographic, clinical and treatment-related variables have been shown to be associated with higher risk of development of psychiatric morbidity. Evidence also suggests that the presence of psychiatric morbidity is associated with poorer outcome. Randomized controlled trials, evaluating the various pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for management of psychiatric morbidity in patients with PD are meager. Available evidence suggests that tricyclic antidepressants like desipramine and nortriptyline are efficacious for management of depression. Among the antipsychotics, clozapine is considered to be the best choice for management of psychosis in patients with PD. Among the various cognitive enhancers, evidence suggest efficacy of rivastigmine in management of dementia in patients with PD. To conclude, this review suggests that psychiatric morbidity is highly prevalent in patients with PD. Hence, a multidisciplinary approach must be followed to improve the overall outcome of PD. Further studies are required to evaluate the efficacy of various other measures for management of psychiatric morbidity in patients with PD. PMID:25552854

Grover, Sandeep; Somaiya, Mansi; Kumar, Santhosh; Avasthi, Ajit

2015-01-01

420

ROADLESS HABITATS AS REFUGES FOR NATIVE GRASSLANDS: INTERACTIONS WITH SOIL, ASPECT, AND GRAZING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The idea that roadless habitats act as refuges for native-plant diversity against exotic-plant invasion has seldom been tested. We examined the effect of distance from roads and its interactions with soil type, aspect, and livestock grazing on native- and exotic- plant diversity in a 130 000-ha inland California (USA) foothill grassland landscape. During spring 2000 and 2001, we measured the

Jonathan L. Gelbard; Susan Harrison

2003-01-01

421

Relationship between plant diversity andRelationship between plant diversity and AMF diversity in grassland ecosystems  

E-print Network

Experimental designdesign 44 Plant Function Groups (PFG)Plant Function Groups (PFG) PR(PR(perennial rhizomeRelationship between plant diversity andRelationship between plant diversity and AMF diversity)replicates (96 plots) A i i (A i i ( AMF community in plant roots (TAMF community in plant roots (T-- RFLP

Bruns, Tom

422

Cultural aspects of suicide.  

PubMed

Undefined cultural factors cannot be dismissed and significantly contribute to the worldwide incidence of death by suicide. Culture is an all embracing term and defines the relationship of an individual to his environment. This study seeks to investigate the effect of culture on suicide both regionally and internationally. Culture-bound syndrome with suicidal behaviours specific to a particular culture or geographical region are discussed. Opinions are divided as to the status of religious martyrs. The law itself is silent on many aspects of suicidal behaviour and despite decriminalization of suicide as self-murder, the latter remains on the statutes of many developing countries. The Caribbean region is of concern due to its steady rise in mean suicide rate, especially in Trinidad and Tobago where socio-cultural factors are instrumental in influencing suicidal behaviour. These include transgenerational cultural conflicts, psycho-social problems, media exposure, unemployment, social distress, religion and family structure. The methods used are attributed to accessibility and lethality. Ingestion of poisonous substances is most popular followed by hanging. The gender differences seen with regard to suicidality can also be attributed to gender related psychopathology and psychosocial differences in help-seeking behaviour. These are influenced by the cultural environment to which the individual is exposed. Culture provides coping strategies to individuals; as civilization advances many of these coping mechanisms are lost unclothing the genetic predisposition of vulnerable groups. In the management of suicidal behaviour, a system of therapeutic re-culturation is needed with an emphasis on relevant culture- based therapies. PMID:16155688

Maharajh, Hari D; Abdool, Petal S

2005-09-01

423

Cognitive aspects of performance.  

PubMed Central

The study of cognitive structures and processes in the control of skilled performance is considered and reviewed with special reference to a proposed hierarchical system incorporating levels of motor integration. Cognitive styles and dispositions of general behaviour are suggested as factors which may determine performance levels. The relative importance of these personal factors and stronger personality traits in accounting for variance in performance is considered in the light of a critique of the current interactional controversy. PMID:444808

Kane, J. E.

1978-01-01

424

Robots in Space -Psychological Aspects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A viewgraph presentation on the psychological aspects of developing robots to perform routine operations associated with monitoring, inspection, maintenance and repair in space is shown. The topics include: 1) Purpose; 2) Vision; 3) Current Robots in Space; 4) Ground Based Robots; 5) AERCam; 6) Rotating Bladder Robot (ROBLR); 7) DART; 8) Robonaut; 9) Full Immersion Telepresence Testbed; 10) ERA; and 11) Psychological Aspects

Sipes, Walter E.

2006-01-01

425

Diversity, function and stability in parasitoid communities  

E-print Network

Diversity, function and stability in parasitoid communities Abstract The parasitoid assemblages diversity (species richness), community function (total parasitism rate) and stability (variability to be common in parasitoid communities. Keywords Bottom-up, density compensation, diversity-function, diversity

Rodríguez, Miguel Ángel

426

Perception and History: Molecular Phylogeny of a Diverse Group of Neotropical Frogs, the 30-Chromosome Hyla (Anura: Hylidae)  

E-print Network

the history of the "30-chromo- some" Hyla, a diverse assemblage of neotropical tree- frogs. Three aspectsPerception and History: Molecular Phylogeny of a Diverse Group of Neotropical Frogs, the 30 of these frogs were examined: (1) phylogenetic relationships among constituent species groups, among the species

Lougheed, Stephen

427

Diverse Rock Named Squash  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image from the Sojourner rover's right front camera was taken on Sol 27. The Pathfinder lander is seen at middle left. The large rock at right, nicknamed 'Squash', exhibits a diversity of textures. It looks very similar to a conglomerate, a type of rock found on Earth that forms from sedimentary processes.

Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and managed the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

1997-01-01

428

Diversity Outlook, Summer, 2012  

E-print Network

&E website. Don’t miss this chance to hear Sylvia Hurtado (UCLA) and Shaun Harper (Penn) again or for the first time. Click here to view the videos. SPENCER PRESENTS DIVERSE ART The Ray of Hope: Aaron Douglas Inspired Quilts/Murals 7/15-9/16 Mary... Sibande & Sophie Ntombi- kayise Take Central Court 8/10 Nationally known quilt artist Marla Jackson, of Lawrence, worked with area school children to produce painted and quilted works inspired by Aaron Douglas and the Harlem Renaissance. Two large...

2012-07-01

429

Animal Diversity Web - Insects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of the University of Michigan Museum of Zoology's Animal Diversity Web, this site gives a general overview of the class Insecta targeted at college students. The site is organized into five tabs: Information, Pictures, Specimens, Sounds and Classification. Resources include images of live insects and pinned specimens, and sound recordings. Some pictures are only labeled with scientific genus and species names, making it difficult for novice users to understand what Order they are looking at, but many also have common names. Photos and sound bytes are good quality and easy to view and download. A very good resource for teachers needing lecture materials.

0002-11-30

430

Phosphatidylinositol transfer proteins: negotiating the regulatory interface between lipid metabolism and lipid signaling in diverse cellular processes.  

PubMed

Phosphoinositides represent only a small percentage of the total cellular lipid pool. Yet, these molecules play crucial roles in diverse intracellular processes such as signal transduction at membrane-cytosol interface, regulation of membrane trafficking, cytoskeleton organization, nuclear events, and the permeability and transport functions of the membrane. A central principle in such lipid-mediated signaling is the appropriate coordination of these events. Such an intricate coordination demands fine spatial and temporal control of lipid metabolism and organization, and consistent mechanisms for specifically coupling these parameters to dedicated physiological processes. In that regard, recent studies have identified Sec14-like phosphatidylcholine transfer protein (PITPs) as "coincidence detectors," which spatially and temporally link the diverse aspects of the cellular lipid metabolome with phosphoinositide signaling. The integral role of PITPs in eukaryotic signal transduction design is amply demonstrated by the mammalian diseases associated with the derangements in the function of these proteins, to stress response and developmental regulation in plants, to fungal dimorphism and pathogenicity, to membrane trafficking in yeast, and higher eukaryotes. This review updates the recent advances made in the understanding of how these proteins, specifically PITPs of the Sec14-protein superfamily, operate at the molecular level and further describes how this knowledge has advanced our perception on the diverse biological functions of PITPs. PMID:21915936

Ghosh, Ratna; Bankaitis, Vytas A

2011-01-01

431

[Animal experiments: legal, scientific and ethical aspects].  

PubMed

Among the legal aspects the following topics are treated: the definitions of an experimental animal, an animal experiment and alternative methods with special reference to the 3 R's (replacement, reduction and refinement of animal experiments); the qualifications, education and training of researchers and animal technicians; the licence for animal experimentation; the control on animal welfare; the origin and identification of experimental animals; statistical data on the number of experimental animals; ethics committees and their structure and functions in The Netherlands and Flanders. Extrapolation, species specificity and variability are the most important scientific limitations of animal experimentation. After a short historical survey on the man-animal relation, the following ethical aspects are discussed: the instrumental versus intrinsic value of an experimental animal; the hybrid status of the animal; the objectives of animal rights movements; the balance between the human benefit of an animal experiment and the discomfort for the animal; the problem of animal rights and animal suffering and pain. PMID:10818819

Houvenaghel, A

2000-01-01

432

Veterinary aspects of rabies  

PubMed Central

Rabies occurs in domestic animals and wildlife in most parts of the world. Affected mammals invariably die and the disease is greatly feared by man. Control measures can be effective in domestic animals but are difficult to apply in situations where wildlife is affected. Wildlife rabies is spreading southwards in Europe. New legislation has recently been introduced to strengthen the safeguards against importing the disease into Great Britain. Persons should be made aware of this legislation and the dangers of illegally introducing susceptible animals to this country. PMID:4788837

Blamire, R. V.

1973-01-01

433

Knowledge, Skills, and Dispositions for Diversity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of this research are to explore how currently assessed diversity knowledge, diversity skills, and diversity dispositions of pre-service teachers (PST) relate to each other and further to surmise if the presence of diversity knowledge, diversity skills, and diversity dispositions manifests in cultural efficacy and a general cultural…

Jones, Anne

2011-01-01

434

Diversity of Marine Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project, students perform library research on an assigned marine animal, create a formatted poster of their topic, and share with their classmates what they've learned in a poster session, conducted in the way of poster sessions at science conferences. Afterward, students complete a written assignment where they are asked to reflect on their experience as a participant in a community of science students, their focused learning on their own marine animal, their larger learning about the diversity of marine life from their poster session participation, and what it implies about the intrinsic value of the ocean realm, and the need for conservation. The outcomes for this assignment are aligned with course-specific outcomes articulated in the Minnesota Transfer Curriculum. They are: Synthesize central concepts from assigned readings of scientific literature in written assignments. Discuss/compare characteristics of diverse environments in the context of ocean science. Interpret data generated by oceanographic techniques, and present written and oral summaries of their findings. Explain the basic structure and function of the ocean realm, the impact of humans on it, and the impact of the ocean realm on humans.

David Kobilka

435

Tapping into yeast diversity.  

PubMed

Domesticated organisms demonstrate our capacity to influence wild species but also provide us with the opportunity to understand rapid evolution in the context of substantially altered environments and novel selective pressures. Recent advances in genetics and genomics have brought unprecedented insights into the domestication of many organisms and have opened new avenues for further improvements to be made. Yet, our ability to engineer biological systems is not without limits; genetic manipulation is often quite difficult. The budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is not only one of the most powerful model organisms, but is also the premier producer of fermented foods and beverages around the globe. As a model system, it entertains a hefty workforce dedicated to deciphering its genome and the function it encodes at a rich mechanistic level. As a producer, it is used to make leavened bread, and dozens of different alcoholic beverages, such as beer and wine. Yet, applying the awesome power of yeast genetics to understanding its origins and evolution requires some knowledge of its wild ancestors and the environments from which they were derived. A number of surprisingly diverse lineages of S. cerevisiae from both primeval and secondary forests in China have been discovered by Wang and his colleagues. These lineages substantially expand our knowledge of wild yeast diversity and will be a boon to elucidating the ecology, evolution and domestication of this academic and industrial workhorse. PMID:23281494

Fay, Justin C

2012-11-01

436

Nutritional aspects of selenium  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project was to investigate the effect of protein and/or dietary fiber supplementation on selenium absorption and metabolism. These relationships might be of importance in determining either minimum selenium nutritional requirements or levels of intake at which this mineral becomes toxic. Three studies compose the project. The first study involved the controlled feeding of fifteen young adults mice. Subjects were fed a laboratory-controlled diet with and without supplements of selenium or selenium plus guar gum. Selenium supplementation resulted in increased selenium excretion in urine and feces. Supplementation of guar gum, as a dietary fiber, tended to increase fecal selenium excretion and to decrease selenium balance and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity regardless of dietary selenium levels. In study II, seventy two weanling mice were fed varied levels of dietary selenium and protein. Numerically, urinary selenium excretion increased and fecal selenium excretion and selenium balance decreased with increased dietary protein level within the same level of dietary selenium; however, selenium absorption rate tended to decrease with increased dietary protein level. Whole blood and brain tissue glutathione peroxidase activities were higher in animals fed moderate protein level than those fed the other two protein levels. In study III, a survey was conducted to investigate the correlation between dietary fiber or protein intake and urinary selenium excretion. There was a negative correlation between dietary fiber and urinary selenium excretion levels while dietary protein and urinary selenium excretion were positively correlated.

Choe, M.

1987-01-01

437

ITER physics design guidelines at high aspect ratio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physics requirements for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) design are formulated in a set of physics design guidelines. These guidelines, established by the ITER Physics Group during the Conceptual Design Activity (CDA, 1988--90), were based on credible extrapolations of the tokamak physics database as assessed during the CDA, and defined a class of tokamak designs (with plasma current I is approximately 20 MA and aspect ratio A is approximately 2.5--3.5) that meet the ITER objectives. Recent U.S. studies have indicated that there may be significant benefits if the ITER-CDA design point is moved from the low aspect ratio, high current baseline (A = 2.79, I = 22 MA) to a high aspect ratio machine at Ais approximately 4, I is approximately 15 MA, especially regarding steady-state, technology-testing performance. To adequately assess the physics and technology testing capability of higher aspect ratio design options, several changes are proposed to the original ITER guidelines to reflect the latest developments in physics understanding at higher aspect ratios. The critical issues for higher aspect ratio design options are the uncertainty in scaling of confinement with aspect ratio, the variation of vertical stability with elongation and aspect ratio, plasma shaping requirements, ability to control and maintain plasma current and q-profiles for MHD stability (and volt-second consumption), access for current drive, restrictions on field ripple and divertor plate incident angles, etc.

Uckan, N. A.

1991-09-01

438

Hormonal Aspects of Epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Synopsis The interactions between hormones, epilepsy, and the medications used to treat epilepsy are complex, with tridirectional interactions which affect both men and women in various ways. Abnormalities of baseline endocrine status occur more commonly in people with epilepsy, and are most often described for the sex steroid hormone axis. Common symptoms include sexual dysfunction, decreased fertility, premature menopause, and polycystic ovarian syndrome. Antiepileptic drugs and hormones have a bidirectional interaction, with a decrease in the efficacy of hormonal contraceptive agents with some AEDs and a decrease in the concentration and efficacy of other AEDs with hormonal contraceptives. Endogenous hormones can influence seizure severity and frequency, resulting in catamenial patterns of epilepsy. However, this knowledge can be used to develop hormonal strategies to improve seizure control in people with epilepsy. PMID:19853217

Pennell, Page B.

2009-01-01

439

[Ergonomic aspects of sitting].  

PubMed

Although basing on anecdotal rather than scientific evidence, it is now thought that adopting a poor posture while seated is involved in the present "epidemic" of back pain. This poses the question as to what constitutes a correct sitting posture. Surprisingly, the literature offers little verifiable information. An adjustable angle between the seat and the backrest would appear favorable. Armrests are also recommended for certain activities. It is important that the chair can be adapted to the dimensions of the individual, and to the needs dictated by the surroundings. Innovative chair designs are controversial, and most may be recommended only as a "training device". Car seats create special demands, and should always be subjected to functional testing. In conclusion, scientific data on the ergonomics of sitting are sparse. Further controlled studies are urgently needed. PMID:1532950

Ernst, E

1992-01-20

440

The interplay between inflorescence development and function as the crucible of architectural diversity  

PubMed Central

Background Most angiosperms present flowers in inflorescences, which play roles in reproduction, primarily related to pollination, beyond those served by individual flowers alone. An inflorescence's overall reproductive contribution depends primarily on the three-dimensional arrangement of the floral canopy and its dynamics during its flowering period. These features depend in turn on characteristics of the underlying branching structure (scaffold) that supports and supplies water and nutrients to the floral canopy. This scaffold is produced by developmental algorithms that are genetically specified and hormonally mediated. Thus, the extensive inflorescence diversity evident among angiosperms evolves through changes in the developmental programmes that specify scaffold characteristics, which in turn modify canopy features that promote reproductive performance in a particular pollination and mating environment. Nevertheless, developmental and ecological aspects of inflorescences have typically been studied independently, limiting comprehensive understanding of the relations between inflorescence form, reproductive function, and evolution. Scope This review fosters an integrated perspective on inflorescences by summarizing aspects of their development and pollination function that enable and guide inflorescence evolution and diversification. Conclusions The architecture of flowering inflorescences comprises three related components: topology (branching patterns, flower number), geometry (phyllotaxis, internode and pedicel lengths, three-dimensional flower arrangement) and phenology (flower opening rate and longevity, dichogamy). Genetic and developmental evidence reveals that these components are largely subject to quantitative control. Consequently, inflorescence evolution proceeds along a multidimensional continuum. Nevertheless, some combinations of topology, geometry and phenology are represented more commonly than others, because they serve reproductive function particularly effectively. For wind-pollinated species, these combinations often represent compromise solutions to the conflicting physical influences on pollen removal, transport and deposition. For animal-pollinated species, dominant selective influences include the conflicting benefits of large displays for attracting pollinators and of small displays for limiting among-flower self-pollination. The variety of architectural components that comprise inflorescences enable diverse resolutions of these conflicts. PMID:23243190

Harder, Lawrence D.; Prusinkiewicz, Przemyslaw

2013-01-01

441

BacDive—the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase  

PubMed Central

BacDive—the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase (http://bacdive.dsmz.de) merges detailed strain-linked information on the different aspects of bacterial and archaeal biodiversity. Currently (release 9/2013), BacDive contains entries for 23 458 strains and provides information on their taxonomy, morphology, physiology, sampling and concomitant environmental conditions as well as molecular biology. Where available, links to access the respective biological resources are given. The majority of the BacDive data is manually annotated and curated. The BacDive portal offers an easy-to-use simple search and in addition powerful advanced search functionalities allowing to combine more than 30 search fields for text and numerical data. The user can compile individual sets of strains to a download selection that can easily be imported into nearly all spreadsheet applications. PMID:24214959

Söhngen, Carola; Bunk, Boyke; Podstawka, Adam; Gleim, Dorothea; Overmann, Jörg

2014-01-01

442

Human nature, cultural diversity and evolutionary theory  

PubMed Central

Incorporating culture into an expanded theory of evolution will provide the foundation for a universal account of human diversity. Two requirements must be met. The first is to see learning as an extension of the processes of evolution. The second is to understand that there are specific components of human culture, viz. higher order knowledge structures and social constructions, which give rise to culture as invented knowledge. These components, which are products of psychological processes and mechanisms, make human culture different from the forms of shared knowledge observed in other species. One serious difficulty for such an expanded theory is that social constructions may not add to the fitness of all humans exposed to them. This may be because human culture has existed for only a relatively short time in evolutionary terms. Or it may be that, as some maintain, adaptation is a limited, even a flawed, aspect of evolutionary theory. PMID:21199849

Plotkin, Henry

2011-01-01

443

Sensing Wave-Front Amplitude and Phase with Phase Diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show in benchtop experiments that wave-front phase estimation by phase diversity can be signifi- cantly improved by simultaneous amplitude estimation. Processing speed, which will be important for real-time wave-front control applications, can be enhanced by use of small-format detectors with pixels that do not fully sample the diffraction limit. Using an object-independent phase-diversity algorithm, we show that, for both

Stuart M. Jefferies; Michael Lloyd-Hart; E. Keith Hege; James Georges

2002-01-01

444

Transparent self-healing communication networks via diversity coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present an error control based approach, called diversity coding, to provide nearly instantaneous self-healing digital communication networks. This is achieved by constructing an error-correcting code across logically independent channels and by treating link failures within the framework of an erasure channel model. Diversity coding is more efficient than the existing approaches to self-healing communication networks since it is

Chih-Lin I; Ender Ayanoglu; R. D. Gitlin; J. E. Mazo

1990-01-01

445

Re: Soviet river diversions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper on ‘Soviet River Diversions’ by Phil Micklin (Eos, 62(19), May 12, 1981) has just come to hand.Referring to the map on page 489, I was interested to see the estimates of river flows for the Amu and Syr Darya, which clearly show the effect of irrigation on inflows to the Aral Sea. Recently, I was passing over the northeast corner of the sea on a flight from Tashkent to Moscow when I got the impression that increasing irrigation development on the Syr Darya is likely to decrease the annual inflow even more than in the recent past. The same state of affairs has been going on in the Caspian Sea for years, as a result of irrigation development on the Volga. My impression was that the Aral Sea had shrunk considerably from the 26,000 odd square miles (67,304 km2) area quoted (from memory) in Encyclopaedia Britannica (edition circa 1970).

Robertson, Jas O.

446

California Natural Diversity Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is the goal of the California Natural Diversity Database? Simply put, it is "a program that inventories the status and locations of rare plants and animals in California." On its page, visitors can look over a remarkable database of GIS-mapped locations, along with key facts about the database, a host of white papers, and information about its vegetation, classification, and mapping program. The Maps & Data area is a true find, as it contains interactive maps that offer visitors the ability to engage with data over time. Materials dating back to 2003 may be accessed here. Also, users can submit their own data to the database via the Submitting Data to CNDDB section of the site. Interested users can also sign up to receive updates about the site and its new additions.

447

Animal Diversity Web  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Animal Diversity Web (ADW) is an online database of animal natural history, distribution, classification, and conservation biology hosted by the University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. It provides descriptions of levels of organization above the species level, especially phyla, classes, and in some cases orders and families. Hundreds of hyperlinked pages and images illustrate the traits and general biology of these groups. This component of ADW is prepared by professional biologists. It also offers thousands of species accounts that may include text, pictures, photographs, and movies of specimens and/or sound recordings. Student authorship of species accounts is an essential feature of ADW. A web-based template ensures a consistent format for species accounts, and instructors and ADW staff review and edit them before they are added to the site.

2004-02-16

448

Topological Aspects of Information Retrieval.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses topological aspects of theoretical information retrieval, including retrieval topology; similarity topology; pseudo-metric topology; document spaces as topological spaces; Boolean information retrieval as a subsystem of any topological system; and proofs of theorems. (LRW)

Egghe, Leo; Rousseau, Ronald

1998-01-01

449

Forgotten Aspects of Total Communication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed are various aspects of the "total communication" concept of deaf education that have been neglected, including diagnosis, teacher certification, amplification, voice and sign, speechreading, speech teaching and development, and skill in sign language. (DLS)