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1

Stereochemical control of skeletal diversity.  

PubMed

[reaction: see text]. Substrates having appendages that pre-encode skeletal information (sigma-elements) can be converted into products having distinct skeletons using a common set of reaction conditions. The sequential use of the Ugi 4CC-IMDA reaction, followed by allylation, hydrolysis, and acylation of a chiral amino alcohol appendage (sigma-element), leads to substrates for a ROM/RCM or RCM reaction. The stereochemistry of the sigma-element and not its constitution controls the outcome of the pathway selected. This work illustrates the potential of linking stereochemical control to the challenging problem of skeletal diversity. PMID:14572265

Sello, Jason K; Andreana, Peter R; Lee, Daesung; Schreiber, Stuart L

2003-10-30

2

Diverse aspects of dating: associations with psychosocial functioning from early to middle adolescence.  

PubMed

Theories imply that some aspects of adolescent dating behavior will be associated with individuals' positive psychosocial functioning, while other aspects will be associated with problems. This study addressed associations between diverse aspects of dating at age 16 and: (1) individual and social functioning at age 12 and at age 16; and (2) change in psychosocial functioning from age 12 to age 16. Controlling for physical maturity, overinvolvement in dating at age 16 was associated with poorer psychosocial functioning in early and middle adolescence and also predicted declines in functioning between the two ages. Level of dating experience and quality of romantic relationships were associated with social adaptation at age 16, especially in the friendship and dating domains. PMID:11476609

Zimmer-Gembeck, M J; Siebenbruner, J; Collins, W A

2001-06-01

3

Aspects of Diversity, Inclusion and Democracy within Education and Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational arenas are important sites for understanding how diversity and democracy become operationalised since they constitute and at the same time must attend to students' different needs. This article focuses on diversity from two specific angles: how research activities allow for particular ways of understanding human differences and how…

Bagga-Gupta, Sangeeta

2007-01-01

4

User cooperation diversity. Part II. Implementation aspects and performance analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

For pt.I see ibid., p.1927-38. This is the second of a two-part paper on a new form of spatial diversity, where diversity gains are achieved through the cooperation of mobile users. Part I described the user cooperation concept and proposed a cooperation strategy for a conventional code-division multiple-access (CDMA) system. Part II investigates the cooperation concept further and considers practical

Andrew Sendonaris; Elza Erkip; Behnaam Aazhang

2003-01-01

5

High aspect ratio, remote controlled pumping assembly  

DOEpatents

A miniature dual syringe-type pump assembly which has a high aspect ratio and which is remotely controlled, for use such as in a small diameter penetrometer cone or well packer used in water contamination applications. The pump assembly may be used to supply and remove a reagent to a water contamination sensor, for example, and includes a motor, gearhead and motor encoder assembly for turning a drive screw for an actuator which provides pushing on one syringe and pulling on the other syringe for injecting new reagent and withdrawing used reagent from an associated sensor.

Brown, Steve B. (Livermore, CA); Milanovich, Fred P. (Lafayette, CA)

1995-01-01

6

Ethical aspects of genome diversity research: genome research into cultural diversity or cultural diversity in genome research?  

PubMed

The goal of the Human Genome Diversity Project (HGDP) was to reconstruct the history of human evolution and the historical and geographical distribution of populations with the help of scientific research. Through this kind of research, the entire spectrum of genetic diversity to be found in the human species was to be explored with the hope of generating a better understanding of the history of humankind. An important part of this genome diversity research consists in taking blood and tissue samples from indigenous populations. For various reasons, it has not been possible to execute this project in the planned scope and form to date. Nevertheless, genomic diversity research addresses complex issues which prove to be highly relevant from the perspective of research ethics, transcultural medical ethics, and cultural philosophy. In the article at hand, we discuss these ethical issues as illustrated by the HGDP. This investigation focuses on the confrontation of culturally diverse images of humans and their cosmologies within the framework of genome diversity research and the ethical questions it raises. We argue that in addition to complex questions pertaining to research ethics such as informed consent and autonomy of probands, genome diversity research also has a cultural-philosophical, meta-ethical, and phenomenological dimension which must be taken into account in ethical discourses. Acknowledging this fact, we attempt to show the limits of current guidelines used in international genome diversity studies, following this up by a formulation of theses designed to facilitate an appropriate inquiry and ethical evaluation of intercultural dimensions of genome research. PMID:18592399

Ilkilic, Ilhan; Paul, Norbert W

2009-03-01

7

Exploiting Multiuser Diversity for Medium Access Control in Wireless Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiuser diversity refers to a type of diversity present across different users in a fading environment. This diversity can be exploited by scheduling transmissions so that users transmit when their channel conditions are favorable. Using such an approach leads to a system capacity that increases with the number of users. However, such scheduling requires centralized control. In this paper, we

Xiangping Qin; Randall A. Berry

2003-01-01

8

On aspects of burn/profile control  

SciTech Connect

Distributed parameter system can be flexibly turned into lumped parameter system. Multiple control objectives such as profile and power control requirements can be simultaneously modeled. Profile control is essential to control the sawteeth inversion radius and optimum power production. In this paper, a simple self-tuning control scheme is used to analyze the tokamak control behavior. The model uncertainties can be accommodated in self-tuning systems.

Miley, G.H.; Varadarajan, V.

1991-01-01

9

Stability & Control Aspects of UCAV Configurations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Most UAV configurations are conventional, aerodynamically driven shapes, with conventional stability AND control characteristics. However, the requirements of Combat UAVs (UCAVs) drive to radical configurations with unusual stability AND control challenge...

P. Flux

2002-01-01

10

Guidelines on ergonomic aspects of control rooms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The anthropometry, workstation design, and environmental design of control rooms are outlined. The automated interface and VDTs and displays and various modes of communication between the system and the human operator using VDTs are discussed. The man in the loop is examined, the single controller single task framework and multiple controller multiple tasks issues are considered.

Mitchell, C. M.; Bocast, A. K.; Stewart, L. J.

1983-01-01

11

Control aspects of the mitsubishi continuous process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mitsubishi process for the continuous smelting and converting of copper holds many advantages over conventional processes, where reactions must be conducted in numerous steps and melts must be tapped frequently from the furnaces. The furnaces operate like steady-state reactors with constant melt volume, composition, and temperature. Therefore, optimal control of the process is straightforward, with one operator controlling smelting and converting simultaneously. Recent improvements in temperature control by using newly developed sensors have extended furnace campaign life, and enhanced control over melt compositions has helped further stabilize operations. Applications of the environmentally clean smelting technology are increasing internationally.

Goto, Moto; Oshima, Eiki; Hayashi, Mineo

1998-04-01

12

Innovative Aspects of the SDL Control System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Source Development Lab at BNL consists of a 230 MeV electron linac and 10m long wiggler for short wavelength FEL development. The control system is based on that in use at the NSLS. Two new extensions of the control system using VXI equipment are desc...

W. S. Graves S. K. Feng P. S. Pearson J. D. Smith

1997-01-01

13

Engineering aspects of water pollution control systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of proper engineering when providing pollution control systems is emphasized. Organization of engineering projects is described in detail. Included are discussions of: (1) collection and evaluation of available data; (2) establishment of survey and test program; (3) integration and evaluation of findings; (4) establishment of pollution control and water utilization systems; and (5) specification and detailed design preparation.

R. G. Dalbke; A. J. Turk

1967-01-01

14

Human factors aspects of control room design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A plan for the design and analysis of a multistation control room is reviewed. It is found that acceptance of the computer based information system by the uses in the control room is mandatory for mission and system success. Criteria to improve computer/user interface include: match of system input/output with user; reliability, compatibility and maintainability; easy to learn and little training needed; self descriptive system; system under user control; transparent language, format and organization; corresponds to user expectations; adaptable to user experience level; fault tolerant; dialog capability user communications needs reflected in flexibility, complexity, power and information load; integrated system; and documentation.

Jenkins, J. P.

1983-01-01

15

Aspects of modelling and control of bioprocesses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The modelling and control of bioprocesses are the main subjects in this thesis. Different modelling approaches are proposed for different purposes in various bioprocesses. A conventional global model was constructed for a very complex mammalian cell cultu...

X. Zhang

1995-01-01

16

Innovative Aspects of the SDL Control System  

SciTech Connect

The Source Development Lab at BNL consists of a 230 MeV electron linac and 10m long wiggler for short wavelength FEL development. The control system is based on that in use at the NSLS. Two new extensions of the control system using VXI equipment are described. The first extension is the replacement of patch panels and lab oscilloscopes to monitor RF equipment. Instead, the RF waveforms are fed through a multiplexor into VXI digitizers. The waveforms can then be monitored remotely on any control console. The second extension is the replacement of the analog RF hardware needed to process beam position monitor signals. A digital system based on very fast (sub-nanosecond) VXI waveform digitizers is under development. The difficult operations requiring precise time alignment are then done in software.

Graves, W.S.; Feng, S.K.; Pearson, P.S.; Smith, J.D.

1997-12-31

17

On Social and Material Aspects of Technological Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This commentary on Hugh Lacey's paper emphasises the material aspects of the social structure within which technological control takes place. It is suggested here that when the example of the Green Revolution is examined in detail a clear-cut distinction between material and social constraints\\/possibilities is misleading. I propose a material analysis of the control situation. This analysis is placed within

William E. Herfel

1999-01-01

18

Well Control in Case of Offshore Blowout: Diversion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

By diverting a blowout as soon as possible, the consequences of a platform blowout can be drastically reduced and regaining control facilitated. Various aspects of establishing a Blowout Diverting Preparedness are outlined and discussed. Permanent diverte...

R. H. Westergaard

1981-01-01

19

Well Control in Case of Offshore Blowout. Diversion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

By diverting a blowout as soon as possible, the consequences of a platform blowout can be drastically reduced and regaining control facilitated. Various aspects of establishing a Blowout Diverting Preparedness are outlined and discussed. Permanent diverte...

R. H. Westergaard

1981-01-01

20

Generation of diversity in a reaction-diffusion-based controller.  

PubMed

Abstract A controller of biological or artificial organism (e.g., in bio-inspired cellular robots) consists of a number of processes that drive its dynamics. For a system of processes to perform as a successful controller, different properties can be mentioned. One of the desirable properties of such a system is the capability of generating sufficiently diverse patterns of outputs and behaviors. A system with such a capability is potentially adaptable to perform complicated tasks with proper parameterizations and may successfully reach the solution space of behaviors from the point of view of search and evolutionary algorithms. This article aims to take an early step toward exploring this capability at the levels of individuals and populations by introducing measures of diversity generation and by evaluating the influence of different types of processes on diversity generation. A reaction-diffusion-based controller called the artificial homeostatic hormone system (AHHS) is studied as a system consisting of different processes with various domains of functioning (e.g., internal or external to the control unit). Various combinations of these processes are investigated in terms of diversity generation at levels of both individuals and populations, and the effects of the processes are discussed representing different influences for the processes. A case study of evolving a multimodular AHHS controller with all the various process combinations is also investigated, representing the relevance of the diversity generation measures and practical scenarios. PMID:24730765

Zahadat, Payam; Schmickl, Thomas

2014-01-01

21

Notional Examples and Benchmark Aspects of a Resilient Control System  

SciTech Connect

Digital control system technology has pervaded most industries, leading to improvements in the efficiency and reliability of the associated operations. However, the ease of distributing and connecting related control systems for the purposes of increasing performance has resulted in interdependencies that can lead to unexpected conditions. Even with less complex designs, operators and engineers alike are often left with competing goals that are difficult to resolve. A fundamental reason for this dichotomy is that responsibilities lie with different disciplines, and operations are hosted on separate control systems. In addition, with the rising awareness of cyber security and diverse human interactions with control systems, an understanding of human actions from a malicious and benevolent standpoint is necessary. Resilience considers the multiple facets of requirements that drive the performance of control systems in a holistic fashion, whether they are security or stability, stability or efficiency, human interactions or complex interdependencies. As will be shown by example, current research philosophies lack the depth or the focus on the control system application to satisfy these requirements, such as graceful degradation of hierarchical control while under cyber attack. A resilient control system promises to purposefully consider these diverse requirements, developing an adaptive capacity to complex events that can lead to failure of traditional control system designs.

Craig Rieger

2010-08-01

22

Control Aspects of the Tacoma Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

On February 16, 1983, a 10 MW\\/30 MJ superconducting magnetic energy storage unit was energized at the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) substation in Tacoma, Washington. The unit was retired a year later, after extensive tests directed toward its experimental use as a small-signal stabilizer for the Pacific AC Intertie. This paper addresses the control aspects of the project. These include

J. F. Hauer; H. J. Boenig

1987-01-01

23

Economic aspects of disarmament: Arms race and arms control issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both the arms race and arms control and disarmament must be understood in order to study the economic aspects of disarmament. The end of the East?West arms race by no means implies that the arms race has come to an end, as all of the regional arms races continue and others could develop in several areas of tension and conflict,

Michael D. Intriligator

1994-01-01

24

Transitions in Dynamo Modes Controlled by the Domain Aspect Ratio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic fields of internal origin are observed on many planets in the solar system. The Sun itself acts as a dynamo. While these natural objects are very different in their composition, when it comes to dynamo modeling the governing equations are remarkably similar. One of the controlling parameters to distinguish between these objects is the aspect ratio of the convecting domain. Comparing the Sun to the Earth raises the issue of the nature of reversals. A challenging issue is to determine why the geomagnetic field reverses polarity on an irregular basis, whereas the Sun --which is a much larger object, governed by stronger nonlinearities-- reverses its magnetic polarity on a quasi-periodic timescale of 11 yrs. We use a three-dimensional Boussinesq model (the Parody code) to investigate the transition between these two types of behavior. We show that the aspect ratio of the convecting domain controls the nature of the dynamo field. We report a butterfly-like diagram at large aspect ratio, with magnetic activity near 30° of latitudes, which migrates with time toward the equator. We trace the existence of the dynamo wave solution at various aspect ratio and suggest possible consequences for the geomagnetic secular variation.

Goudard, L.; Dormy, E.

2007-12-01

25

Historical aspects for the control of soil-transmitted helminthiases.  

PubMed

Japan has been one of the very few countries that operated the nationwide control programme against soil-transmitted helminths (STH) infections and gained a great success. On the basis of researches and operational studies, periodical mass-examination using cellophane thick smear (Kato technique) and selective mass-treatment targeted at school children were employed as the most useful control measure. In later years, Japan's experience and the strategy for STH control programme were transferred to Asian countries through Asian Parasite Control Organization (APCO) and also to countries of Asia, Africa and Latin-America through seminar at a modified form of the integration programme (IP) of STH control with family planning and nutritional improvement. The parasitologists group conducted studies in all aspects to seek effective STH control measures for respective countries and obtained many successful results. PMID:16376139

Kobayashi, Akio; Hara, Takaaki; Kajima, Junko

2006-01-01

26

Herbivores and nutrients control grassland plant diversity via light limitation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Human alterations to nutrient cycles and herbivore communities are affecting global biodiversity dramatically. Ecological theory predicts these changes should be strongly counteractive: nutrient addition drives plant species loss through intensified competition for light, whereas herbivores prevent competitive exclusion by increasing ground-level light, particularly in productive systems. Here we use experimental data spanning a globally relevant range of conditions to test the hypothesis that herbaceous plant species losses caused by eutrophication may be offset by increased light availability due to herbivory. This experiment, replicated in 40 grasslands on 6 continents, demonstrates that nutrients and herbivores can serve as counteracting forces to control local plant diversity through light limitation, independent of site productivity, soil nitrogen, herbivore type and climate. Nutrient addition consistently reduced local diversity through light limitation, and herbivory rescued diversity at sites where it alleviated light limitation. Thus, species loss from anthropogenic eutrophication can be ameliorated in grasslands where herbivory increases ground-level light.

Borer, Elizabeth T.; Seabloom, Eric W.; Gruner, Daniel S.; Harpole, W. Stanley; Hillebrand, Helmut; Lind, Eric M.; Alder, Peter B.; Alberti, Juan; Anderson, T. Michael; Bakker, Jonathan D.; Biederman, Lori; Blumenthal, Dana; Brown, Cynthia S.; Brudvig, Lars A.; Buckley, Yvonne M.; Cadotte, Marc; Chu, Chengjin; Cleland, Elsa E.; Crawley, Michael J.; Daleo, Pedro; Damschen, Ellen I.; Davies, Kendi F.; DeCrappeo, Nicole M.; Du, Guozhen; Firn, Jennifer; Hautier, Yann; Heckman, Robert W.; Hector, Andy; HilleRisLambers, Janneke; Iribarne, Oscar; Klein, Julia A.; Knops, Johannes M. H.; La Pierre, Kimberly J.; Leakey, Andrew D. B.; Li, Wei; MacDougall, Andrew S.; McCulley, Rebecca L.; Melbourne, Brett A.; Mitchell, Charles E.; Moore, Joslin L.; Mortensen, Brent; O'Halloran, Lydia R.; Orrock, John L.; Pascual, Jesús; Prober, Suzanne M.; Pyke, David A.; Risch, Anita C.; Schuetz, Martin; Smith, Melinda D.; Stevens, Carly J.; Sullivan, Lauren L.; Williams, Ryan J.; Wragg, Peter D.; Wright, Justin P.; Yang, Louie H.

2014-01-01

27

Ethical and legal aspects of global tobacco control  

PubMed Central

On 28 February 2005, the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control came into force as a result of at least 40 countries becoming State Parties through ratification of this first ever health treaty sponsored by the World Health Organization. This article discusses the bioethical, trade, and legal aspects of global tobacco control. Special emphasis is given to globalisation of tobacco use and the challenges it poses to sovereign nations. It also advocates a bioethical basis in the pursuit of global solutions to expanding tobacco use.

Novotny, T; Carlin, D

2005-01-01

28

On Social and Material Aspects of Technological Control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This commentary on Hugh Lacey's paper emphasises the material aspects of the social structure within which technological control takes place. It is suggested here that when the example of the Green Revolution is examined in detail a clear-cut distinction between material and social constraints/possibilities is misleading. I propose a material analysis of the control situation. This analysis is placed within the material framework of the social structure within which the control system is employed. By widening of the analysis even further it is hoped that the environmental issues of the Green Revolution that concern Vandana Shiva can be addressed. I provide a glimpse of how such an account should proceed.

Herfel, William E.

29

Entomological aspects of filariasis control in Sri Lanka  

PubMed Central

Historical events and suitable environmental conditions in the southwestern coastal areas of Sri Lanka have led to the establishment of a zone of endemic filariasis caused by Wuchereria bancrofti and transmitted by Culex pipiens fatigans. The previous Brugia malayi foci, scattered over widely dispersed areas of the island, were apparently completely eliminated as a result of control of the Mansonia vectors by the destruction of the larval host plants in their swamp habitats. Control measures by the Anti-Filariasis Campaign against W. bancrofti and C. p. fatigans have greatly reduced the human infection rates in the endemic coastal belt and have kept the rate in the dense population to less than 1% over the last several years. This paper assesses the entomological aspects of the control programme during the years 1970-72.

Lambrecht, F. L.

1974-01-01

30

Science aspects of a remotely controlled Mars surface roving vehicle.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Particular attention is given to aspects pertinent to teleoperation, remote control, onboard control, and man-machine relationships in carrying out scientific operations with such a vehicle. It is assumed that landed operations would comprise one Martian year and that the traverse would extend across an area approximately 500 km wide. The mission is assumed to be planned for the early 1980s. Its objective is to obtain data which will aid in answering a number of questions regarding the history of the solar system, the formation of Mars, and the evolution of life on Mars. A series of candidate rover payloads is proposed to meet the requirements. The smallest payload includes a TV camera, a general-purpose manipulator arm, a crusher and siever, an X-ray diffractometer-spectrometer, a gravimeter, a magnetometer, meteorological instruments, and a radio transponder.

Choate, R.; Jaffe, L. D.

1973-01-01

31

Herbivores and nutrients control grassland plant diversity via light limitation.  

SciTech Connect

Human alterations to nutrient cycles1,2 and herbivore communities3–7 are affecting global biodiversity dramatically2. Ecological theory predicts these changes should be strongly counteractive: nutrient addition drives plant species loss through intensified competition for light, whereas herbivores prevent competitive exclusion by increasing ground-level light, particularly in productive systems8,9. Here we use experimental data spanning a globally relevant range of conditions to test the hypothesis that herbaceous plant species losses caused by eutrophication may be offset by increased light availability due to herbivory. This experiment, replicated in 40 grasslands on 6 continents, demonstrates that nutrients and herbivores can serve as counteracting forces to control local plant diversity through light limitation, independent of site productivity, soil nitrogen, herbivore type and climate. Nutrient addition consistently reduced local diversity through light limitation, and herbivory rescued diversity at sites where it alleviated light limitation. Thus, species loss from anthropogenic eutrophication can be ameliorated in grasslands where herbivory increases ground-level light.

Borer, Elizabeth T. [Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior, University of Minnesota; et al, et al

2014-01-01

32

Cross-CZO Contrasts: Aspect Controls and Critical Zone Architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate aspect controls on Critical Zone (CZ) architecture, mobile regolith transport, and landscape morphology, based on a cross-CZO comparison of 1) Niwot Ridge, Boulder Creek CZO (BcCZO), a high alpine site with minimal soil/veg cover, characterized by steep S-facing and shallow N-facing hillslopes and 2) Shale Hills CZO (SSHCZO), a temperate, densely-forested, soil-mantled site with steep N-facing slopes and shallow S-facing slopes. We use high-resolution 2D seismic tomography of P- and S-wave velocities (Vp, Vs) to characterize CZ architecture and constrain depths of weathering fronts, as well as the thickness, character, and transport efficiency of mobile regolith layers. The 2D imagery allows assessment of changes in material properties both lateral and vertical (depth), thus mapping variability in CZ structures along the survey profile. The combination of Vp and Vs are used to better quantify material properties, (i.e., elastics moduli, density, fractures porosity), rock-mass strength, and weathering intensity - and when applied to the very shallow subsurface can help constrain the transport efficiency (strength or erodibility) of mobile regolith layers On Niwot Ridge, the depth of the weathering front and thickness of mobile regolith are substantially greater on shallower N-facing slopes, consistent with frost/freeze driven processes. However, the depth of the weathering front far exceeds modeled extents of frost-cracking depth (for past or present climates), suggesting additional processes also influence deep weathering. Mobile regolith is considerably thicker on shallow N-facing aspects and composed of large, disintegrated cobbles, however, velocity-based estimates of transport efficiency are higher on S-facing slopes composed of small talus blocks and thin soil/veg cover. Although, thin mobile regolith on S-facing slopes may be weak (slow V), the lower gradient of N-facing slopes and southward asymmetry of the ridge divide, suggests that transport efficiency is greatest on N-facing slopes. This may be explained by the dominance of frost/freeze process, which can readily lift or break, and provide a remarkably efficient process to transport the thick mobile regolith layer of large cobbles. At SSHCZO, depths of weathering fronts are invariant with slope aspect, suggesting that aspect control is not a predominant mechanism driving regolith production. Mobile regolith thickness, however, is more than 2-fold greater on N-facing slopes. Additionally, the mobile regolith on both slope aspects is primarily composed of well-developed soils. N-facing soils are thicker with greater cohesion, moisture, and inclusion of rock fragments. This is consistent with velocity-based estimates of lower transport efficiency on N-facing slopes relative to the thin, dry, fine grained soils on S-facing slopes. These results suggest fundamental differences in CZ architecture, weathering processes, and the influence of slope aspect between BcCZO and SSHCZO

Clarke, B. A.; Kirby, E.; Burbank, D. W.; West, N.

2013-12-01

33

Equality and Diversity. An Aspect Report on Provision in Scotland's Colleges by HM Inspectors on Behalf of the Scottish Funding Council  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report evaluates the extent to which Scotland's colleges have developed and embedded a culture of promoting equality and diversity effectively for all learners and staff. It considers how effectively colleges have mainstreamed equality and diversity in all aspects of their operations. The fieldwork for this report has been informed by…

Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education, 2010

2010-01-01

34

Neural aspects of second language representation and language control.  

PubMed

A basic issue in the neurosciences of language is whether an L2 can be processed through the same neural mechanism underlying L1 acquisition and processing. In the present paper I review data from functional neuroimaging studies focusing on grammatical and lexico-semantic processing in bilinguals. The available evidence indicates that the L2 seems to be acquired through the same neural structures responsible for L1 acquisition. This fact is also observed for grammar acquisition in late L2 learners contrary to what one may expect from critical period accounts. However, neural differences for an L2 may be observed, in terms of more extended activity of the neural system mediating L1 processing. These differences may disappear once a more 'native-like' proficiency is established, reflecting a change in language processing mechanisms: from controlled processing for a weak L2 system (i.e., a less proficient L2) to more automatic processing. The neuroimaging data reviewed in this paper also support the notion that language control is a crucial aspect specific to the bilingual language system. The activity of brain areas related to cognitive control during the processing of a 'weak' L2 may reflect competition and conflict between languages which may be resolved with the intervention of these areas. PMID:18479667

Abutalebi, Jubin

2008-07-01

35

The Great Diversion: Danube Delta under Human Control (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many deltas around the world are suffering from sediment deficits that render them unstable to current and predicted rates of sea level rise. One solution proposed to alleviate the complete or partial drowning of such deltas is the use of river diversions to increase the quantity of sediment supplied to the delta plain to support marsh accretion. We examine the results of a half century old program of diversion in the Danube delta that led to the creation of an extensive diversion channel network akin in scope and size to a natural deltaic network. Danube’s importance as a shipping route increased after the Crimean War in the 1850s; the European Danube Commission was charged with maintaining the Sulina distributary as a shipping channel until 1940s. In the same period, several canals were dug to aid fishing in lakes and bring freshwater to brackish lagoons. After World War II, Communist authorities dramatically increased the number of canals for fishing, fish-farming and reed harvesting. New data on sedimentation rates and estimates of sediment fluxes suggest that the intensive canalization in the second half of the 20th Century led to increased sediment deposition that compensated the decreasing sediment discharge linked to damming within the internal fluvial part of the delta; however, the external marine delta has become increasingly sediment starved during the same interval. We emphasize the similarities and contrasts between the “human-controlled” and natural deltaic channel networks of the Danube delta and discuss the sustainability of the delta as a sediment budget problem within a sea level rise context.

Giosan, L.

2009-12-01

36

Multiple replication origins with diverse control mechanisms in Haloarcula hispanica  

PubMed Central

The use of multiple replication origins in archaea is not well understood. In particular, little is known about their specific control mechanisms. Here, we investigated the active replication origins in the three replicons of a halophilic archaeon, Haloarcula hispanica, by extensive gene deletion, DNA mutation and genome-wide marker frequency analyses. We revealed that individual origins are specifically dependent on their co-located cdc6 genes, and a single active origin/cdc6 pairing is essential and sufficient for each replicon. Notably, we demonstrated that the activities of oriC1 and oriC2, the two origins on the main chromosome, are differently controlled. A G-rich inverted repeat located in the internal region between the two inverted origin recognition boxes (ORBs) plays as an enhancer for oriC1, whereas the replication initiation at oriC2 is negatively regulated by an ORB-rich region located downstream of oriC2-cdc6E, likely via Cdc6E-titrating. The oriC2 placed on a plasmid is incompatible with the wild-type (but not the ?oriC2) host strain, further indicating that strict control of the oriC2 activity is important for the cell. This is the first report revealing diverse control mechanisms of origins in haloarchaea, which has provided novel insights into the use and coordination of multiple replication origins in the domain of Archaea.

Wu, Zhenfang; Liu, Jingfang; Yang, Haibo; Liu, Hailong; Xiang, Hua

2014-01-01

37

Multiple replication origins with diverse control mechanisms in Haloarcula hispanica.  

PubMed

The use of multiple replication origins in archaea is not well understood. In particular, little is known about their specific control mechanisms. Here, we investigated the active replication origins in the three replicons of a halophilic archaeon, Haloarcula hispanica, by extensive gene deletion, DNA mutation and genome-wide marker frequency analyses. We revealed that individual origins are specifically dependent on their co-located cdc6 genes, and a single active origin/cdc6 pairing is essential and sufficient for each replicon. Notably, we demonstrated that the activities of oriC1 and oriC2, the two origins on the main chromosome, are differently controlled. A G-rich inverted repeat located in the internal region between the two inverted origin recognition boxes (ORBs) plays as an enhancer for oriC1, whereas the replication initiation at oriC2 is negatively regulated by an ORB-rich region located downstream of oriC2-cdc6E, likely via Cdc6E-titrating. The oriC2 placed on a plasmid is incompatible with the wild-type (but not the ?oriC2) host strain, further indicating that strict control of the oriC2 activity is important for the cell. This is the first report revealing diverse control mechanisms of origins in haloarchaea, which has provided novel insights into the use and coordination of multiple replication origins in the domain of Archaea. PMID:24271389

Wu, Zhenfang; Liu, Jingfang; Yang, Haibo; Liu, Hailong; Xiang, Hua

2014-02-01

38

Investigating the Genome Diversity of B. cereus and Evolutionary Aspects of B. anthracis Emergence  

PubMed Central

Here we report the use of a multi-genome DNA microarray to investigate the genome diversity of Bacillus cereus group members and elucidate the events associated with the emergence of B. anthracis the causative agent of anthrax–a lethal zoonotic disease. We initially performed directed genome sequencing of seven diverse B. cereus strains to identify novel sequences encoded in those genomes. The novel genes identified, combined with those publicly available, allowed the design of a “species” DNA microarray. Comparative genomic hybridization analyses of 41 strains indicates that substantial heterogeneity exists with respect to the genes comprising functional role categories. While the acquisition of the plasmid-encoded pathogenicity island (pXO1) and capsule genes (pXO2) represent a crucial landmark dictating the emergence of B. anthracis, the evolution of this species and its close relatives was associated with an overall a shift in the fraction of genes devoted to energy metabolism, cellular processes, transport, as well as virulence.

Papazisi, Leka; Rasko, David A.; Ratnayake, Shashikala; Bock, Geoff R.; Remortel, Brian G.; Appalla, Lakshmi; Liu, Jia; Dracheva, Tatiana; Braisted, John C.; Shallom, Shamira; Jarrahi, Benham; Snesrud, Erik; Ahn, Susie; Sun, Qiang; Rilstone, Jenifer; ?kstad, Ole Andreas; Kolst?, Anne-Brit; Fleischmann, Robert D.; Peterson, Scott N.

2011-01-01

39

Bioremediation of petroleum pollutants: Diversity and environmental aspects of hydrocarbon biodegradation  

SciTech Connect

The manufacture, transportation, and distribution of petroleum and chemical products during the last century has resulted in hydrocarbon-contamination becoming a major environmental problem. Most of the environmental inputs of petroleum are accommodated largely due to the capacities of microorganisms to biodegrade hydrocarbons. Bioremediation has gained significant political support among competing technologies for in situ cleanup of pollutants. In addition to its potential for local cleanup of contaminated water and soil, bioremediation may have a future role in solving problems on a global scale, including removal of greenhouse gases from the atmosphere. This article examines in detail the following topics: bacterial and fungal metabolism of hydrocarbons; bioremediation of marine oil spills; site remediation; performance and regulatory oversight. In summary diverse microorganisms using diverse metabolic pathways have the capacities for degrading a wide spectrum of hydrocarbon structures in petroleum. Some pathways lead to detoxification and destruction of the pollutants whereas others activate potentially harmful compounds. In most cases of detoxification, environmental modification is used to stimulate the biodegradative activities of indigenous organisms. Biodegradation is emerging as an important cost-effective treatment for marine oil spills and contaminated sites. 13 refs., 2 figs.

Atlas, R.M. [Univ. of Louisville, KY (United States); Cerniglia, C.E. [National Center of Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR (United States)

1995-05-01

40

Physical, Consumer, and Social Aspects of Measuring the Food Environment Among Diverse Low-Income Populations  

PubMed Central

Obesity and other diet-related chronic diseases are directly related to the food environment. We describe how to better assess the food environment in specific ethnic minority settings for designing and implementing interventions, based on a review of our previous work on the food environment in American Indian reservations, Canadian First Nations reserves, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and inner-city Baltimore. The types of food stores available within each setting and the range of healthy foods available varied greatly across these geographic regions. In all settings, proximity to food stores/supermarkets, cost, and limited availability of healthful foods were common features, which limited access to health-promoting food options. Features specific to each population should be considered in an assessment of the food environment, including physical (e.g., openness of stores, mix of types of food sources); consumer (e.g., adequacy of the food supply, seasonal factors); and social (e.g., inter-household food sharing, perceptions of food quality, language differences) aspects. The food environments common in low-income ethnic subpopulations require special focus and consideration due to the vulnerability of the populations and to specific and unique aspects of each setting.

Gittelsohn, Joel; Sharma, Sangita

2011-01-01

41

Physical, consumer, and social aspects of measuring the food environment among diverse low-income populations.  

PubMed

Obesity and other diet-related chronic diseases are directly related to the food environment. We describe how to better assess the food environment in specific ethnic minority settings for designing and implementing interventions, based on a review of our previous work on the food environment in American Indian reservations, Canadian First Nations reserves, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and inner-city Baltimore. The types of food stores available within each setting and the range of healthy foods available varied greatly across these geographic regions. In all settings, proximity to food stores/supermarkets, cost, and limited availability of healthful foods were common features, which limited access to health-promoting food options. Features specific to each population should be considered in an assessment of the food environment, including physical (e.g., openness of stores, mix of types of food sources); consumer (e.g., adequacy of the food supply, seasonal factors); and social (e.g., inter-household food sharing, perceptions of food quality, language differences) aspects. The food environments common in low-income ethnic subpopulations require special focus and consideration due to the vulnerability of the populations and to specific and unique aspects of each setting. PMID:19285208

Gittelsohn, Joel; Sharma, Sangita

2009-04-01

42

Aspects of Benthic Decapod Diversity and Distribution from Rocky Nearshore Habitat at Geographically Widely Dispersed Sites  

PubMed Central

Relationships of diversity, distribution and abundance of benthic decapods in intertidal and shallow subtidal waters to 10 m depth are explored based on data obtained using a standardized protocol of globally-distributed samples. Results indicate that decapod species richness overall is low within the nearshore, typically ranging from one to six taxa per site (mean?=?4.5). Regionally the Gulf of Alaska decapod crustacean community structure was distinguishable by depth, multivariate analysis indicating increasing change with depth, where assemblages of the high and mid tide, low tide and 1 m, and 5 and 10 m strata formed three distinct groups. Univariate analysis showed species richness increasing from the high intertidal zone to 1 m subtidally, with distinct depth preferences among the 23 species. A similar depth trend but with peak richness at 5 m was observed when all global data were combined. Analysis of latitudinal trends, confined by data limitations, was equivocal on a global scale. While significant latitudinal differences existed in community structure among ecoregions, a semi-linear trend in changing community structure from the Arctic to lower latitudes did not hold when including tropical results. Among boreal regions the Canadian Atlantic was relatively species poor compared to the Gulf of Alaska, whereas the Caribbean and Sea of Japan appeared to be species hot spots. While species poor, samples from the Canadian Atlantic were the most diverse at the higher infraordinal level. Linking 11 environmental variables available for all sites to the best fit family-based biotic pattern showed a significant relationship, with the single best explanatory variable being the level of organic pollution and the best combination overall being organic pollution and primary productivity. While data limitations restrict conclusions in a global context, results are seen as a first-cut contribution useful in generating discussion and more in-depth work in the still poorly understood field of biodiversity distribution.

Pohle, Gerhard; Iken, Katrin; Clarke, K. Robert; Trott, Thomas; Konar, Brenda; Cruz-Motta, Juan Jose; Wong, Melisa; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro; Mead, Angela; Miloslavich, Patricia; Mieszkowska, Nova; Milne, Rebecca; Tamburello, Laura; Knowlton, Ann; Kimani, Edward; Shirayama, Yoshihisa

2011-01-01

43

Polysomnographic sleep aspects in liver cirrhosis: A case control study  

PubMed Central

AIM: To study sleep aspects and parameters in cirrhotic patients and assess the role of liver dysfunction severity in polysomnographic results. METHODS: This was a case-control study. Patients with a diagnosis of liver cirrhosis were consecutively enrolled in the study. Clinical examinations and laboratory liver tests were performed in all patients, and disease severity was assessed using the Child-Pugh score. The control group consisted of age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers. All individuals answered a questionnaire about habits, behaviors, and complaints related to sleep and were submitted to polysomnography. Sleep parameters were compared between the two groups, and separate analyses were performed among classes of Child-Pugh classification in the cirrhotic group. RESULTS: Forty-two cirrhotic patients and forty-two controls were enrolled. Compared to the control group, the cirrhotic group exhibited lower sleep efficiency (mean ± SD: 73.89% ± 14.99% vs 84.43% ± 8.55%, P < 0.01), increased latency (151.27 ± 93.24 min vs 90.62 ± 54.74 min, P < 0.01) and a lower percentage of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep (14.04% ± 5.64% vs 20.71% ± 6.77%, P < 0.05) as well as a higher frequency of periodic limb movements (10.56 ± 2.85/h vs 2.79 ± 0.61/h, P < 0.01). The comparison of sleep parameters among Child A, B and C cirrhotic patients revealed a significant reduction of REM sleep stage occurrence in individuals with severe liver disease (Child C patients) compared to Child A/B patients (polysomnography percentage of REM sleep stage of patients Child A: 16.1% ± 1.2%; Child B: 14.9% ± 1.2%; Child C: 8.6% ± 1.6%, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Cirrhosis was associated with shorter sleep time, reduced sleep efficiency, increased sleep latency, increased REM latency and reduced REM sleep. Additionally, disease severity influences sleep parameters.

Teodoro, Vinicius Vasconcelos; Junior, Mauricio Augusto Bragagnolo; Lucchesi, Ligia Mendonca; Cavignolli, Daniel; de Mello, Marco Tulio; Kondo, Mario; Tufik, Sergio

2013-01-01

44

Diversity Strategies for Nuclear Power Plant Instrumentation and Control Systems  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the technical basis for establishing acceptable mitigating strategies that resolve diversity and defense-in-depth (D3) assessment findings and conform to U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements. The research approach employed to establish appropriate diversity strategies involves investigation of available documentation on D3 methods and experience from nuclear power and nonnuclear industries, capture of expert knowledge and lessons learned, determination of best practices, and assessment of the nature of common-cause failures (CCFs) and compensating diversity attributes. The research described in this report does not provide guidance on how to determine the need for diversity in a safety system to mitigate the consequences of potential CCFs. Rather, the scope of this report provides guidance to the staff and nuclear industry after a licensee or applicant has performed a D3 assessment per NUREG/CR-6303 and determined that diversity in a safety system is needed for mitigating the consequences of potential CCFs identified in the evaluation of the safety system design features. Succinctly, the purpose of the research described in this report was to answer the question, 'If diversity is required in a safety system to mitigate the consequences of potential CCFs, how much diversity is enough?' The principal results of this research effort have identified and developed diversity strategies, which consist of combinations of diversity attributes and their associated criteria. Technology, which corresponds to design diversity, is chosen as the principal system characteristic by which diversity criteria are grouped to form strategies. The rationale for this classification framework involves consideration of the profound impact that technology-focused design diversity provides. Consequently, the diversity usage classification scheme involves three families of strategies: (1) different technologies, (2) different approaches within the same technology, and (3) different architectures within the same technology. Using this convention, the first diversity usage family, designated Strategy A, is characterized by fundamentally diverse technologies. Strategy A at the system or platform level is illustrated by the example of analog and digital implementations. The second diversity usage family, designated Strategy B, is achieved through the use of distinctly different technologies. Strategy B can be described in terms of different digital technologies, such as the distinct approaches represented by general-purpose microprocessors and field-programmable gate arrays. The third diversity usage family, designated Strategy C, involves the use of variations within a technology. An example of Strategy C involves different digital architectures within the same technology, such as that provided by different microprocessors (e.g., Pentium and Power PC). The grouping of diversity criteria combinations according to Strategies A, B, and C establishes baseline diversity usage and facilitates a systematic organization of strategic approaches for coping with CCF vulnerabilities. Effectively, these baseline sets of diversity criteria constitute appropriate CCF mitigating strategies for digital safety systems. The strategies represent guidance on acceptable diversity usage and can be applied directly to ensure that CCF vulnerabilities identified through a D3 assessment have been adequately resolved. Additionally, a framework has been generated for capturing practices regarding diversity usage and a tool has been developed for the systematic assessment of the comparative effect of proposed diversity strategies (see Appendix A).

Wood, Richard Thomas [ORNL; Belles, Randy [ORNL; Cetiner, Mustafa Sacit [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Korsah, Kofi [ORNL; Loebl, Andy [ORNL; Mays, Gary T [ORNL; Muhlheim, Michael David [ORNL; Mullens, James Allen [ORNL; Poore III, Willis P [ORNL; Qualls, A L [ORNL; Wilson, Thomas L [ORNL; Waterman, Michael E. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

2010-02-01

45

Molecular aspects of transport in thin films of controlled architecture  

SciTech Connect

Work was done in two principal areas: characterization of diffusion in swollen polymer films both with and without a barrier layer, and initial investigations of molecular aspects of swelling using enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

Not Available

1992-01-01

46

Diversity Strategies for Nuclear Power Plant Instrumentation and Control Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the technical basis for establishing acceptable mitigating strategies that resolve diversity and defense-in-depth (D3) assessment findings and conform to U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements. The research approach emp...

A. S. Loebl G. T. Mays K. Korsah M. S. Cetiner R. Belles R. T. Wood

2010-01-01

47

Diversity in recognition of glycans by F-type lectins and galectins: molecular, structural, and biophysical aspects  

PubMed Central

Although lectins are “hard-wired” in the germline, the presence of tandemly arrayed carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs), of chimeric structures displaying distinct CRDs, of polymorphic genes resulting in multiple isoforms, and in some cases, of a considerable recognition plasticity of their carbohydrate binding sites, significantly expand the lectin ligand-recognition spectrum and lectin functional diversification. Analysis of structural/functional aspects of galectins and F-lectins—the most recently identified lectin family characterized by a unique CRD sequence motif (a distinctive structural fold) and nominal specificity for l-Fuc—has led to a greater understanding of self/nonself recognition by proteins with tandemly arrayed CRDs. For lectins with a single CRD, however, recognition of self and nonself glycans can only be rationalized in terms of protein oligomerization and ligand clustering and presentation. Spatial and temporal changes in lectin expression, secretion, and local concentrations in extracellular microenvironments, as well as structural diversity and spatial display of their carbohydrate ligands on the host or microbial cell surface, are suggestive of a dynamic interplay of their recognition and effector functions in development and immunity.

Vasta, Gerardo R.; Ahmed, Hafiz; Bianchet, Mario A.; Fernandez-Robledo, Jose A.; Amzel, L. Mario

2013-01-01

48

Diversity in recognition of glycans by F-type lectins and galectins: molecular, structural, and biophysical aspects.  

PubMed

Although lectins are "hard-wired" in the germline, the presence of tandemly arrayed carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs), of chimeric structures displaying distinct CRDs, of polymorphic genes resulting in multiple isoforms, and in some cases, of a considerable recognition plasticity of their carbohydrate binding sites, significantly expand the lectin ligand-recognition spectrum and lectin functional diversification. Analysis of structural/functional aspects of galectins and F-lectins-the most recently identified lectin family characterized by a unique CRD sequence motif (a distinctive structural fold) and nominal specificity for l-Fuc-has led to a greater understanding of self/nonself recognition by proteins with tandemly arrayed CRDs. For lectins with a single CRD, however, recognition of self and nonself glycans can only be rationalized in terms of protein oligomerization and ligand clustering and presentation. Spatial and temporal changes in lectin expression, secretion, and local concentrations in extracellular microenvironments, as well as structural diversity and spatial display of their carbohydrate ligands on the host or microbial cell surface, are suggestive of a dynamic interplay of their recognition and effector functions in development and immunity. PMID:22973821

Vasta, Gerardo R; Ahmed, Hafiz; Bianchet, Mario A; Fernández-Robledo, José A; Amzel, L Mario

2012-04-01

49

Adaptive Fuzzy Control of a Direct Drive Motor: Experimental Aspects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a state feedback adaptive control method for position and velocity control of a direct drive motor. The proposed control scheme allows for integrating heuristic knowledge with mathematical knowledge of a system. It performs well even when mathematical model of the system is poorly understood. The controller consists of an adaptive fuzzy controller and a supervisory controller. The supervisory controller requires only knowledge of the upper bound and lower bound of the system parameters. The fuzzy controller is based on fuzzy basis functions and states of the system. The adaptation law is derived based on the Lyapunov function which ensures that the state of the system asymptotically approaches zero. The proposed controller is applied to a direct drive motor with payload and parameter uncertainty, and the effectiveness is experimentally verified. The real-time performance is compared with simulation results.

Medina, E.; Akbarzadeh-T, M.-R.; Kim, Y. T.

1998-01-01

50

Control aspects of the single-fiber scanning endoscope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Single Fiber Scanning Endoscope (SFSE) is a new class of endoscopes being developed at the University of Washington's Human Interface Technology lab which uses combinations of a resonating optical fiber and a single photodetector to produce large field of view, high-resolution images from a small flexible package. Although current prototypes show the validity of the concept, the nonlinear response of the resonant optical fiber under open loop control creates image distortion or limits the frame rate. Due to low damping and nonlinear effects in the fiber, open loop control, phase lock loops, PID control, classical and modern controllers are all unable to produce accurate, reproducible, robust high frequency 2D scans. A nonlinear control scheme, feedback linearization, is capable of accurately producing a scan and is robust to most of the unavoidable manufacturing and environmental variability in the resonant scanner. Through theoretical analysis and simulations, this paper reviews the application of the following variety of open loop and closed loop controllers to the nonlinear scanner of the SFSE: open loop control, modelless closed loop control (phase lock loop and PID control), feedforward plus feedback classical and modern state space tracking control, and nonlinear feedback linearization control.

Smithwick, Quinn Y. J.; Seibel, Eric J.; Reinhall, Per G.; Vagners, J.

2001-06-01

51

[Control of industrial waste consumption residues: ecological and hygienic aspects].  

PubMed

The problem in the provision of safe handling of industrial waste and consumption residues is relatively current. According with the United Nations Organization's data, 25 to 33% of the world's notified diseases are directly associated with the low quality of the human environment. Up to now, a list of chemicals encountered in the waste and residues is unavailable in Russia and foreign countries. By keeping in mind the ubiquitous spread of industrial waste and consumption resides due to human vital activity, their huge formations and their very wide diversity in composition, type, and pattern of a possible dangerous effect, it is important to consider the problem associated with waste handling, by evaluating their environmental and hygienic hazard. PMID:18159741

Rusakov, N V; Korotkova, G I; Orlov, A Iu; Solov'eva, A V; Shemiakina, Iu V

2007-01-01

52

Spared and impaired aspects of motivated cognitive control in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

The ability to upregulate cognitive control in motivationally salient situations was examined in individuals with schizophrenia (patients) and healthy controls. Fifty-four patients and 39 healthy controls were recruited. A computerized monetary response conflict task required participants to identity a picture, over which was printed a matching (congruent), neutral, or incongruent word. This baseline condition was followed by an incentive condition, in which participants were given the opportunity to win money on reward-cued trials. These reward-cued trials were interleaved with nonreward cued trials. Reaction times (RT) were examined for both incentive context effects (difference in RT between baseline and nonreward cue trials in the incentive condition) and incentive cue effects (difference in RT between nonreward and reward cue trials in the incentive condition). Compared with baseline, controls showed a speeding of responses during both the nonreward (incentive context effect) and reward cued (incentive cue effect) trials during the incentive condition, but with a larger incentive context than incentive cue effect, suggesting a reliance on proactive control strategies. Although patients also showed a speeding of responses to both nonreward and reward cued trials, they showed a significantly smaller incentive context effect than controls, suggesting a reduction in the use of proactive control and a greater reliance on the use of "just-in-time," reactive control strategies. These results are discussed in light of the relationship between motivation and cognitive impairments in schizophrenia, and the potential role of impairments in prefrontally mediated active maintenance mechanisms. PMID:23834064

Mann, Claire L; Footer, Owen; Chung, Yu Sun; Driscoll, Lori L; Barch, Deanna M

2013-08-01

53

Notional examples and benchmark aspects of a resilient control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital control system technology has pervaded most industries, leading to improvements in the efficiency and reliability of the associated operations. However, the ease of distributing and connecting related control systems for the purposes of increasing performance has resulted in interdependencies that can lead to unexpected conditions. Even with less complex designs, operators and engineers alike are often left with competing

Craig. G. Rieger

2010-01-01

54

Nanosatellite reflector for optical calibrations: attitude control and determination aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nanosatellite REFLECTOR has been designed to provide an orbital reference target for collaborative optical sensing, imaging, and tracking experiments with space objects. The satellite hosts well-calibrated laser reflectors that provide a unique target for experiments involving laser illumination. A passive gravity-gradient attitude control system is used to ensure a given angular motion of the satellite. A problem of attitude control

V. Shargorodsky; V. Shevchenko; M. Ovchinnikov; V. Penkov; S. Mirer; R. Nemuchinsky

2002-01-01

55

Epidemiological and control aspects of schistosomiasis in Brazilian endemic areas.  

PubMed

The present work analyzes the epidemiology of schistosomiasis in Brazil, its expansion, the attempts to control the disease, and the overall difficulties. The authors present the distribution of schistosomiasis intermediary hosts in Brazil, the migration routes of the human population, and disease distribution in highly and lowly endemic areas and isolated foci. They also analyze the controlling programs developed from 1977 to 2002, indicating the prevalence evolution and the reduction of disease morbi-mortality. In addition, the authors also evaluate controlling methods and conclude that: (a) no isolated method is able to control schistosomiasis, and every controlling program should consider the need of a multidisciplinary application of existing methods; (b) in long term, basic sanitation, potable water supply, as well as sanitary education, and community effective participation are important for infection control; (c) in short term, specific treatment at endemic areas, associated with control of intermediary hosts at epidemiologically important foci, are extremely relevant for controlling disease morbidity, although not enough for interrupting infection transmission. PMID:15486629

Coura, J R; Amaral, R S

2004-01-01

56

Control aspects of photovoltaic/thermal energy systems  

SciTech Connect

Cogeneration of electric and thermal energy through use of combined solar photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collectors is a method for improving the overall efficiency of solar electric energy systems. The control of a PV/T system in general and optimization of performance in particular through use of state space control methods, is addressed in this study. Significant improvement in system performance is noted using optimal control when compared to conventional controllers for deterministic weather forcing functions. Optimal system control, analyzed first through use of Pontryagin's Minimum Principle and then implemented by specification of a performance index and solution of matrix Riccati equations, is shown to be a viable and useful strategy for these hybrid systems.

Bazques, E.O.; Anand, D.K.

1984-08-01

57

Relational database aspects of Argonne's atlas control system.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Argonne's ATLAS (Argonne Tandem-Linac Accelerator System) control system comprises two separate database concepts. The first is the distributed real-time database structure provided by the commercial product Vsystem (1). The second is a more static relati...

D. E. R. Quock F. H. Munson K. J. Eder S. L. Dean

2001-01-01

58

Nutritional and Cultural Aspects of Plant Species Selection for a Controlled Ecological Life Support System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The feasibility of using higher plants in a controlled ecological life support system is discussed. Aspects of this system considered important in the use of higher plants include: limited energy, space, and mass, and problems relating to cultivation and ...

J. E. Hoff J. M. Howe C. A. Mitchell

1982-01-01

59

Control aspects of motor neural prosthesis: sensory interface.  

PubMed

A neural prosthesis (NP) has two applications: permanent assistance of function, and temporary assistance that contributes to long-term recovery of function. Here, we address control issues for a therapeutic NP which uses surface electrodes. We suggest that the effective NP for therapy needs to implement rule-based control. Rule-based control relies on the triggering of preprogrammed sequences of electrical stimulation by the sensory signals. The sensory system in the therapeutic NP needs to be simple for installation, allow self-calibration, it must be robust, and sufficiently redundant in order to guarantee safe operation. The sensory signals need to generate control signals; hence, sensory fusion is needed. MEMS technology today provides sensors that fulfill the technical requirements (accelerometers, gyroscopes, force sensing resistors). Therefore, the task was to design a sensory signal processing method from the mentioned solid state sensors that would recognize phases during the gait cycle. This is necessary for the control of multi channel electrical stimulation. The sensory fusion consists of the following two phases: 1) estimation of vertical and horizontal components of the ground reaction force, center of pressure, and joint angles from the solid-state sensors, and 2) fusion of the estimated signals into a sequence of command signals. The first phase was realized by the use of artificial neural networks and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems, while the second by the use of inductive learning described in our earlier work [1]. PMID:18002969

Popovi?, Dejan B; Dosen, Strahinja; Popovi?, Mirjana B; Stefanovi?, Filip; Kojovi?, Jovana

2007-01-01

60

Some aspects of doping and medication control in equine sports.  

PubMed

This chapter reviews drug and medication control in equestrian sports and addresses the rules of racing, the technological advances that have been made in drug detection and the importance of metabolism studies in the development of effective drug surveillance programmes. Typical approaches to screening and confirmatory analysis are discussed, as are the quality processes that underpin these procedures. The chapter also addresses four specific topics relevant to equestrian sports: substances controlled by threshold values, the approach adopted recently by European racing authorities to control some therapeutic substances, anabolic steroids in the horse and LC-MS analysis in drug testing in animal sports and metabolism studies. The purpose of discussing these specific topics is to emphasise the importance of research and development and collaboration to further global harmonisation and the development and support of international rules. PMID:20020374

Houghton, Ed; Maynard, Steve

2010-01-01

61

On the control aspect of laser frequency stabilization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Realization of frequency stable lasers is viewed as key to progress in many areas of research; therefore, the search for more effective techniques of frequency stabilization has intensified significantly in recent years. Investigating and validating the fundamental linewidth and frequency stability limits of a Nd:YAG laser oscillator, locked to a high finesse reference cavity in the microgravity and vibration-free environment of space, is the objective of a NASA project called SUNLITE at LaRC. The objective of this paper is to further investigate the application of feedback control theory in active frequency control as a frequency stabilization technique and determine the most appropriate control strategy to be used in general and particularly in the SUNLITE Project.

Zia, Omar

1991-01-01

62

[Resuscitation and abdominal surgical aspects of damage control surgery].  

PubMed

In multitrauma patients continuous bleeding is one of the major killers. Coagulation defects have been shown to be a primary event and to occur very early in multitrauma patients (acute traumatic coagulopathy). It is enhanced by acidosis, hypothermia and further coagulation disorders in the "bloody vicious cycle". Due to this a new resuscitation practice has been defined; damage control resuscitation, consisting of hypotensive resuscitation (restricted use of crystalloids), haemostatic resuscitation (balanced use of blood components) in combination with surgical haemostatic procedures (damage control surgery). PMID:21535974

Hillingsø, Jens G; Svendsen, Lars Bo; Johansson, Pär I

2011-05-01

63

Geometric Aspects of Force Controllability for a Swimming Model  

SciTech Connect

We study controllability properties (swimming capabilities) of a mathematical model of an abstract object which 'swims' in the 2-D Stokes fluid. Our goal is to investigate how the geometric shape of this object affects the forces acting upon it. Such problems are of interest in biology and engineering applications dealing with propulsion systems in fluids.

Khapalov, A. Y. [Washington State University, Department of Mathematics (United States)], E-mail: khapala@wsu.edu

2008-02-15

64

Behavioural aspects of the control of parasitic diseases*  

PubMed Central

Human behaviour has been largely neglected in research on the parasitic diseases, in part because of the long-standing separation of the behavioural disciplines from the physical and biomedical sciences. Some of the reasons for the persistence of this ”intellectual discontinuity” are discussed. The paper is principally concerned with the prospects for greater use of the methods and orientations of the behavioural sciences in parasitic disease research and control programmes. Behavioural research tends to fall into two categories employing, on the one hand, survey research and epidemiological methods and, on the other, participant observation and interviewing in depth. These approaches are shown to be complementary—equally useful and necessary. Various categories of health-related behaviour and kinds of research objective are reviewed in the following sections. Special attention is given to psychosocial cost—benefit studies, to analyses of control sectors, and to the formulation of a control philosophy. Finally, some specific behavioural research needs are discussed for some of the parasitic diseases of priority in the UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases—schistosomiasis, filariasis, American and African trypanosomiases, and malaria.

Dunn, Frederick L.

1979-01-01

65

Synthesis and characterization of wurtzite ZnTe nanorods with controllable aspect ratios.  

PubMed

ZnTe nanorods with controllable aspect ratios were synthesized using polytellurides a tellurium precursor. The use of polytellurides which allow nucleation and growth at relatively low temperature is the key to formation of wurtzite phase and controlled anisotropic growth along c-axis. The aspect ratio of the resulting ZnTe nanorods was controlled by tuning the temperature that in turn controls the kinetics of the nanocrystal growth. A diameter dependent quantum confinement effect in ZnTe nanorods was observed by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. Transient absorption measurements show ultrafast charge injection dynamics from ZnTe nanorods, suggesting their strong potential for applications in photocatalysis. PMID:21899348

Zhang, Jun; Jin, Shengye; Fry, H Christopher; Peng, Sheng; Shevchenko, Elena; Wiederrecht, Gary P; Rajh, Tijana

2011-10-01

66

Mineralogical Control on Microbial Diversity in a Weathered Granite?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mineral transformation reactions and the behaviour of metals in rock and soils are affected not only by physicochemical parameters but also by biological factors, particularly by microbial activity. Microbes inhabit a wide range of niches in surface and subsurface environments, with mineral-microbe interactions being generally poorly understood. The focus of this study is to elucidate the role of microbial activity in the weathering of common silicate minerals in granitic rocks. A site in the Wicklow Mountains (Ireland) has been identified that consists of an outcrop surface of Caledonian (ca. 400 million years old) pegmatitic granite from which large intact crystals of variably weathered muscovite, plagioclase, K-feldspar and quartz were sampled, together with whole-rock granite. Culture-based microbial approaches have been widely used to profile microbial communities, particularly from copiotrophic environments, but it is now well established that for oligotrophic environments such as those that would be expected on weathering faces, perhaps less than 1% of microbial diversity can be profiled by cultural means. A number of culture-independent molecular based approaches have been developed to profile microbial diversity and community structure. These rely on successfully isolating environmental DNA from a given environment, followed by the use of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify the typically small quantities of extracted DNA. Amplified DNA can then be analysed using cloning based approaches as well as community fingerprinting systems such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) and ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA). Community DNA was extracted and the intergenic spacer region (ITS) between small (16S) and large (23S) bacterial subunit rRNA genes was amplified. RISA fragments were then electrophoresed on a non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel. Banding patterns suggest that the bacterial population in whole rock, which contained approximately 30 separated bands (indicative of the number of bacterial ribotypes), is greater than muscovite (20), K-feldspar (15), and plagioclase feldspar (12) with quartz exhibiting the lowest number (6). These bands were excised from the gel for sequencing, allowing identification of the major populations. An automated approach was also used to assess similarity of bacterial communities present on each sample type, and this allowed for a statistical evaluation of bacterial diversity. Petrographic studies were carried out to assess mineral alteration effects. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to visualise in-situ bacterial cells.

Gleeson, D.; Clipson, N.; McDermott, F.

2003-12-01

67

Aspects of droplet and particle size control in miniemulsions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Miniemulsion polymerization has become increasingly popular among researchers since it can provide significant advantages over conventional emulsion polymerization in certain cases, such as production of high-solids, low-viscosity latexes with better stability and polymerization of highly water-insoluble monomers. Miniemulsions are relatively stable oil (e.g., monomer) droplets, which can range in size from 50 to 500 nm, and are normally dispersed in an aqueous phase with the aid of a surfactant and a costabilizer. These droplets are the primary locus of the initiation of the polymerization reaction. Since particle formation takes place in the monomer droplets, theoretically, in miniemulsion systems the final particle size can be controlled by the initial droplet size. The miniemulsion preparation process typically generates broad droplet size distributions and there is no complete treatment in the literature regarding the control of the mean droplet size or size distribution. This research aims to control the miniemulsion droplet size and its distribution. In situ emulsification, where the surfactant is synthesized spontaneously at the oil/water interface, has been put forth as a simpler method for the preparation of miniemulsions-like systems. Using the in situ method of preparation, emulsion stability and droplet and particle sizes were monitored and compared with conventional emulsions and miniemulsions. Styrene emulsions prepared by the in situ method do not demonstrate the stability of a comparable miniemulsion. Upon polymerization, the final particle size generated from the in situ emulsion did not differ significantly from the comparable conventional emulsion polymerization; the reaction mechanism for in situ emulsions is more like conventional emulsion polymerization rather than miniemulsion polymerization. Similar results were found when the in situ method was applied to controlled free radical polymerizations (CFRP), which have been advanced as a potential application of the method. Molecular weight control was found to be achieved via diffusion of the CFRP agents through the aqueous phase owing to limited water solubilities. The effects of adsorption rate and energy on the droplet size and size distribution of miniemulsions using different surfactants (sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS), Dowfax 2A1, Aerosol OT-75PG, sodium n-octyl sulfate (SOS), and sodium n-hexadecyl sulfate (SHS)) were analyzed. For this purpose, first, the dynamics of surfactant adsorption at an oil/water interface were examined over a range of surfactant concentrations by the drop volume method and then adsorption rates of the different surfactants were determined for the early stages of adsorption. The results do not show a direct relationship between adsorption rate and miniemulsion droplet size and size distribution. Adsorption energies of these surfactants were also calculated by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm equation and no correlation between adsorption energy and miniemulsion droplet size was found. In order to understand the mechanism of miniemulsification process, the effects of breakage and coalescence processes on droplet size distributions were observed at different surfactant concentrations, monomer ratios, and homogenization conditions. A coalescence and breakup mechanism for miniemulsification is proposed to explain the size distribution of droplets. The multimodal droplet size distribution of ODMA miniemulsions was controlled by the breakage mechanism. The results also showed that, at a surfactant concentration when 100% surface coverage was obtained, the droplet size distribution became unimodal.

Saygi-Arslan, Oznur

68

[Toxins from the aspect of international control programs].  

PubMed

Toxins, chemical substances produced by practically all forms of life, represent a chemically broad group of compounds. Many of them are very toxic for human and represent a serious jeopardy because they may be misused through chemical warfare or terrorist attacks. This danger has been increasing recently because toxins are more and more available due to modern synthetic methods and application of genetic engineering. Therefore the international community adopted multilateral conventions and control regimes, which regulate handling with toxins. These fundamentals are implemented into the Czech system of law too. PMID:12426989

Streda, L; Patocka, J

2002-04-01

69

[Aspects of imaging modalities in relation to damage control surgery].  

PubMed

The imaging modalities computed tomography (CT) and the ultrasonography (US) examination focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) in relation to damage control in traumas are discussed. CT has the advantage of high sensitivity and specificity for detection of organ specific lesions. FAST ultrasound is a good screening tool for intraperitoneal bleeding, but the sensitivity and specificity is lower than by CT. We recommend FAST-US prehospitally or early in the trauma room resuscitation. Haemodynamically stable patients with relevant traumas should undergo CT. PMID:21535973

Ewertsen, Caroline; Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann

2011-05-01

70

Programmable controller system for wind tunnel diversion vanes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A programmable controller (PC) system automatic sequence control, which acts as a supervisory controller for the servos, selects the proper drives, and automatically sequences the vanes, was developed for use in a subsonic wind tunnel. Tunnel modifications include a new second test section (80 ft x 100 ft with a maximum air speed capability of 110 knots) and an increase in maximum velocity flow from 200 knots to 300 knots. A completely automatic sequence control is necessary in order to allow intricate motion of the 14 triangularly arranged vanes which can be as large as 70 ft high x 35 ft wide and which require precise acceleration and deceleration control. Rate servos on each drive aid in this control, and servo cost was minimized by using four silicon controlled rectifier controllers to control the 20 dc drives. The PC has a programming capacity which facilitated the implementation of extensive logic design. A series of diagrams sequencing the vanes and a block diagram of the system are included.

King, R. F.

1982-01-01

71

IQGAP1 and Its Binding Proteins Control Diverse Biological Functions  

PubMed Central

IQGAP proteins have been identified in a wide spectrum of organisms, ranging from yeast to humans. The most extensively studied family member is the ubiquitously expressed scaffold protein IQGAP1, which participates in multiple essential aspects of mammalian biology. IQGAP1 mediates these effects by binding to and regulating the function of numerous interacting proteins. Over ninety proteins have been reported to associate with IQGAP1, either directly or as part of a larger complex. In this review, we summarise those IQGAP1 binding partners that have been identified in the last five years. The molecular mechanisms by which these interactions contribute to the functions of receptors and their signalling cascades, small GTPase function, cytoskeletal dynamics, neuronal regulation and intracellular trafficking are evaluated. The evidence that has accumulated recently validates the role of IQGAP1 as a scaffold protein and expands the repertoire of cellular activities in which it participates.

White, Colin D.; Erdemir, Huseyin H.; Sacks, David B.

2012-01-01

72

Humboldt's spa: microbial diversity is controlled by temperature in geothermal environments.  

PubMed

Over 200 years ago Alexander von Humboldt (1808) observed that plant and animal diversity peaks at tropical latitudes and decreases toward the poles, a trend he attributed to more favorable temperatures in the tropics. Studies to date suggest that this temperature-diversity gradient is weak or nonexistent for Bacteria and Archaea. To test the impacts of temperature as well as pH on bacterial and archaeal diversity, we performed pyrotag sequencing of 16S rRNA genes retrieved from 165 soil, sediment and biomat samples of 36 geothermal areas in Canada and New Zealand, covering a temperature range of 7.5-99?°C and a pH range of 1.8-9.0. This represents the widest ranges of temperature and pH yet examined in a single microbial diversity study. Species richness and diversity indices were strongly correlated to temperature, with R(2) values up to 0.62 for neutral-alkaline springs. The distributions were unimodal, with peak diversity at 24?°C and decreasing diversity at higher and lower temperature extremes. There was also a significant pH effect on diversity; however, in contrast to previous studies of soil microbial diversity, pH explained less of the variability (13-20%) than temperature in the geothermal samples. No correlation was observed between diversity values and latitude from the equator, and we therefore infer a direct temperature effect in our data set. These results demonstrate that temperature exerts a strong control on microbial diversity when considered over most of the temperature range within which life is possible. PMID:24430481

Sharp, Christine E; Brady, Allyson L; Sharp, Glen H; Grasby, Stephen E; Stott, Matthew B; Dunfield, Peter F

2014-06-01

73

APPETITE CONTROL: METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE EVALUATION OF FOODS  

PubMed Central

This report describes a set of scientific procedures used to assess the impact of foods and food ingredients on the expression of appetite (psychological and behavioural). An overarching priority has been to enable potential evaluators of health claims about foods to identify justified claims, and to exclude claims that are not supported by scientific evidence for the effect cited. This priority follows precisely from the principles set down in the PASSCLAIM report. (4) The report allows the evaluation of the strength of health claims, about the effects of foods on appetite, which can be sustained on the basis of the commonly used scientific designs and experimental procedures. The report includes different designs for assessing effects on satiation as opposed to satiety,detailed coverage of the extent to which a change in hunger can stand-alone as a measure of appetite control, and an extensive discussion of the statistical procedures appropriate for handling data in this field of research. Since research in this area is continually evolving, new improved methodologies may emerge over time and will need to be incorporated into the framework. One main objective of the report has been to produce guidance on good practice in carrying out appetite research, and not to set down a series of commandments that must be followed.

Blundell, John; de Graaf, Cees; Hulshof, Toine; Jebb, Susan; Livingstone, Barbara; Lluch, Anne; Mela, David; Salah, Samir; Schuring, Ewoud; van der Knaap, Henk; Westerterp, Margriet

2013-01-01

74

Snoezelen or controlled multisensory stimulation. Treatment aspects from Israel.  

PubMed

In Israel today, with a total population of over 6 million persons, the Division for Mental Retardation (DMR) provides services to 23,000 persons with intellectual disability (ID). Of the 23,000, residential services are provided to more than 6,000 in close to 60 residential centers, another 2,000 are provided residential care in hostels or group homes in the community in about 50 locations, while the rest are served with day-care kindergarten, day-treatment centers, sheltered workshops, or integrated care in the community. The first Snoezelen room (controlled multisensory stimulation) in the DMR was established at the Bnei Zion residential care center in 1995. The Snoezelen method is now used in Israel in more than 30 residential care centers and 3 community settings. Since the year 2000, a physiotherapist has been employed in order to supervise the treatment and development of the method nationally. Professional staff meetings take place every 4 months. A certification course has been established on a national basis for individuals from different professions (occupational therapists, physiotherapists, teachers, music therapists, nurses, speech therapists, or caregivers). Snoezelen has proved to be an important instrument and a powerful therapeutic tool among the various treatment modules employed in Israel for persons with ID. This paper presents the concept illustrated with two case stories. PMID:15167944

Merrick, Joav; Cahana, Carmit; Lotan, Meir; Kandel, Isack; Carmeli, Eli

2004-05-11

75

Algorithmic aspects of topology control problems for ad hoc networks  

SciTech Connect

Topology control problems are concerned with the assignment of power values to nodes of an ad hoc network so that the power assignment leads to a graph topology satisfying some specified properties. This paper considers such problems under several optimization objectives, including minimizing the maximum power and minimizing the total power. A general approach leading to a polynomial algorithm is presented for minimizing maximum power for a class of graph properties, called monotone properties. The difficulty of generalizing the approach to properties that are not monoione is pointed out. Problems involving the minimization of total power are known to be NP-complete even for simple graph properties. A general approach that leads to an approximation algorithm for minimizing the total power for some monotone properties is presented. Using this approach, a new approximation algorithm for the problem of minimizing the total power for obtaining a 2-node-connected graph is obtained. It is shown that this algorithm provides a constant performance guarantee. Experimental results from an implementation of the approximation algorithm are also presented.

Liu, R. (Rui); Lloyd, E. L. (Errol L.); Marathe, M. V. (Madhav V.); Ramanathan, R. (Ram); Ravi, S. S.

2002-01-01

76

Oceanographic controls on the diversity and extinction of planktonic foraminifera.  

PubMed

Understanding the links between long-term biological evolution, the ocean-atmosphere system and plate tectonics is a central goal of Earth science. Although environmental perturbations of many different kinds are known to have affected long-term biological evolution, particularly during major mass extinction events, the relative importance of physical environmental factors versus biological interactions in governing rates of extinction and origination through geological time remains unknown. Here we use macrostratigraphic data from the Atlantic Ocean basin to show that changes in global species diversity and rates of extinction among planktonic foraminifera have been linked to tectonically and climatically forced changes in ocean circulation and chemistry from the Jurassic period to the present. Transient environmental perturbations, such as those that occurred after the asteroid impact at the end of the Cretaceous period approximately 66 million years ago, and the Eocene/Oligocene greenhouse-icehouse transition approximately 34 million years ago, are superimposed on this general long-term relationship. Rates of species origination, by contrast, are not correlated with corresponding macrostratigraphic quantities, indicating that physiochemical changes in the ocean-atmosphere system affect evolution principally by driving the synchronous extinction of lineages that originated owing to more protracted and complex interactions between biological and environmental factors. PMID:23302802

Peters, Shanan E; Kelly, Daniel C; Fraass, Andrew J

2013-01-17

77

Overview of environmental control aspects for the gas-cooled fast reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental control aspects relating to release of radionuclides have been analyzed for the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR). Information on environmental control systems was obtained for the most recent GCFR designs, and was used to evaluate the adequacy of these systems. The GCFR has been designed by the General Atomic Company as an alternative to other fast breeder reactor designs, such

1981-01-01

78

Aspects of flight control software — a software engineering point of view  

Microsoft Academic Search

This contribution reports on some aspects of flight control software. Experience gained from an actual implementation of control laws in Ada is given. The influence of the chosen programming language, the specification of (parts of) the requirements, principles of the software design, and the concept of tests in various environments are covered.

Alfred Roßkopf; Theodor Tempelmeier

2000-01-01

79

Diversity Coding: Using Error Control For Self-Healing in Communication Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

An error-control-based approach, called diversity coding, that provides nearly instantaneous self-healing digital communication networks is presented. This is achieved by constructing an error-correcting code across logically independent channels and by treating link failures within the framework of an erasure channel model. Diversity coding is more efficient than previous approaches to self-healing communication networks since it is nearly instantaneous, is transparent

Ender Ayanoglu; I Chin-lin; Richard D. Gitlin; J. E. Mazo

1990-01-01

80

Technological aspects of corrosion control in metallic systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three corrosion control technologies were investigated, including the effect of nitrogen on the passivity of chromium in sulfate solutions, possible issues associated with the use of amines in steam turbine environments and the microstructure of naval advanced amorphous coatings. Nitrogen (N) is a minor alloying element commonly used to increase the strength of steels by stabilizing the austenite phase. Physical vapor deposited chromium + nitrogen (0, 6.8 and 8.9 at.%N) coatings were investigated as a model system, to test the model. Because Cr passive films have been observed to be generally n-type semiconductors, an impedance function containing a n-type Faradaic impedance was constructed and optimized to electrochemical impedance spectra for the model system at pH 4,7 and 10 1M sulfate solution at 30°C. An apparent deviation from theory was observed, however. The n-type model predicted steady state currents which were independent of potential, while the observed current densities had a positive correlation with potential. Mott-Schottky analysis revealed that the test potentials were within the n-p transition and p-type potential range, which resolves the apparent deviation. Despite this difficulty, however, the impedance model produced reasonably accurate results, calculating current densities to within one order of magnitude of the measured steady state currents where anodic currents were available and passive film thicknesses on the order of 1-2 nm. Various amines are commonly used to inhibit corrosion in thermal power generation systems, including steam turbines, by increasing the pH. However, during the shutdown phase of the power plant, it is possible for these inhibitors to concentrate and cause corrosion of the turbine rotor. The effect of two ammine inhibitors (monoethanolamine and dimethylamine) on the passivity of ASTM A470/471 steel is investigated in a simulated turbine environment at pH 7, and temperatures of 95°C and at 175°C. Potentiodynamic scans and potentiostatic measurements revealed that the steel depassivated with high (0.1M) concentrations of monoethanolamine, in combination with acetate. Because the steel depassivated at low potentials and at neutral pH, it is unlikely to be acid or transpassive depassivation. The proposed mechanism for this depassivation is resistive depassivation, whereby the potential drop incurred by the precipitated outer-layer robs the barrier layer of the passive film of the potential required to maintain a finite film thickness. High velocity oxy-fuel (HFOV) coatings are employed in maritime environments to protect against corrosion and wear. The performance of such coatings is dominated by flaws in the microstructure, such as porosity, delamination and secondary phases. A nondestructive evaluation technique that is capable of determining the quality of a HVOF coating was developed, based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The EIS measurement was correlated to the microstructure observed via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Because a transmission line model was unable to provide discriminatory information, a convenient mathematical impedance function was constructed, with two separated time constants defined by constant phase elements, with time constants for a "fast" and a "slow" process. Enabling the impedance studies above is a new software package for fitting complicated impedance functions of up to 50 parameters to complex impedance data, developed specifically for this work. The curve-fitting software utilizes differential evolution, an evolutionary algorithm which is relatively new to the field of impedance modeling, enabling the operator to obtain high quality fits without the need for excellent starting guesses, taking trial and error out of the curve-fitting process and vastly improving the man-hour efficiency involved in optimizing complicated impedance functions such as the Faradaic impedance of the Point Defect Model. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Taylor, Matthew Logan

81

Coverage Performance of Common/Shared Control Signals Using Transmit Diversity in Evolved UTRA Downlink  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the best transmit diversity schemes for three types of common/shared control signals from the viewpoint of the block error rate (BLER) performance in the Evolved UTRA downlink employing OFDM radio access. This paper also presents the coverage performance of the common/shared control signals using transmit diversity with respect to the outage probability that satisfies the required BLER performance, which is a major factor determining the cell configuration. Simulation results clarify that Space-Frequency Block Code (SFBC) and the combination of SFBC and Frequency Switched Transmit Diversity (FSTD) are the best transmit diversity schemes among the open-loop type transmit diversity candidates for two-antenna and four-antenna transmission cases, respectively. Furthermore, we show through system-level simulations that SFBC is very effective in reducing the outage probability at the required BLER for the physical broadcast channel (PBCH), for the common control signal with resource block (RB)-level assignment such as the dynamic broadcast channel (D-BCH) and paging channel (PCH), and in increasing the number of accommodated L1/L2 control signals over one transmission time interval duration, using mini-control channel element (CCE)-level assignment.

Taoka, Hidekazu; Morimoto, Akihito; Kawai, Hiroyuki; Higuchi, Kenichi; Sawahashi, Mamoru

82

Top-down control of marine phytoplankton diversity in a global ecosystem model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential of marine ecosystems to adapt to ongoing environmental change is largely unknown, making prediction of consequences for nutrient and carbon cycles particularly challenging. Realizing that biodiversity might influence the adaptation potential, recent model approaches have identified bottom-up controls on patterns of phytoplankton diversity regulated by nutrient availability and seasonality. Top-down control of biodiversity, however, has not been considered in depth in such models. Here we demonstrate how zooplankton predation with prey-ratio based food preferences can enhance phytoplankton diversity in a ecosystem-circulation model with self-assembling community structure. Simulated diversity increases more than threefold under preferential grazing relative to standard density-dependent predation, and yields better agreement with observed distributions of phytoplankton diversity. The variable grazing pressure creates refuges for less competitive phytoplankton types, which reduces exclusion and improves the representation of seasonal phytoplankton succession during blooms. The type of grazing parameterization also has a significant impact on primary and net community production. Our results demonstrate how a simple parameterization of a zooplankton community response affects simulated phytoplankton community structure, diversity and dynamics, and motivates development of more detailed representations of top-down processes essential for investigating the role of diversity in marine ecosystems.

Prowe, A. E. Friederike; Pahlow, Markus; Dutkiewicz, Stephanie; Follows, Michael; Oschlies, Andreas

2012-08-01

83

Composite molecular assemblies: nanoscale structural control and spectroelectrochemical diversity.  

PubMed

The controlled deposition of metal complexes from solution on inorganic surfaces offers access to functional materials that otherwise would be elusive. For such surface-confined interfaces to form, specific assembly sequences are often used. We show here that varying the assembly sequence of two well-defined and iso-structural osmium and ruthenium polypyridyl complexes results in interfaces with strikingly different spectroelectrochemical properties. Successive deposition of redox-active layers of osmium and ruthenium polypyridyl complexes, leads to self-propagating molecular assemblies (SPMAs) with distinct internal interfaces and individually addressable components. In contrast, the clear separation of these interfaces upon sequential deposition of these two complexes, results in charge trapping or electrochemical communication between the metal centers, as a function of layer thickness and applied assembly sequence. The SPMAs were characterized using a variety of techniques, including: UV–vis spectroscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry, electrochemistry, synchrotron X-ray reflectivity, angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and spectroelectrochemistry. The combined data demonstrate that the sequence-dependent assembly is a decisive factor that influences and provides the material properties that are difficult to obtain otherwise. PMID:24159900

de Ruiter, Graham; Lahav, Michal; Evmenenko, Guennadi; Dutta, Pulak; Cristaldi, Domenico A; Gulino, Antonino; van der Boom, Milko E

2013-11-01

84

Evolution and diversity of subduction zones controlled by slab width.  

PubMed

Subducting slabs provide the main driving force for plate motion and flow in the Earth's mantle, and geodynamic, seismic and geochemical studies offer insight into slab dynamics and subduction-induced flow. Most previous geodynamic studies treat subduction zones as either infinite in trench-parallel extent (that is, two-dimensional) or finite in width but fixed in space. Subduction zones and their associated slabs are, however, limited in lateral extent (250-7,400 km) and their three-dimensional geometry evolves over time. Here we show that slab width controls two first-order features of plate tectonics-the curvature of subduction zones and their tendency to retreat backwards with time. Using three-dimensional numerical simulations of free subduction, we show that trench migration rate is inversely related to slab width and depends on proximity to a lateral slab edge. These results are consistent with retreat velocities observed globally, with maximum velocities (6-16 cm yr(-1)) only observed close to slab edges (<1,200 km), whereas far from edges (>2,000 km) retreat velocities are always slow (<2.0 cm yr(-1)). Models with narrow slabs (< or =1,500 km) retreat fast and develop a curved geometry, concave towards the mantle wedge side. Models with slabs intermediate in width ( approximately 2,000-3,000 km) are sublinear and retreat more slowly. Models with wide slabs (> or =4,000 km) are nearly stationary in the centre and develop a convex geometry, whereas trench retreat increases towards concave-shaped edges. Additionally, we identify periods (5-10 Myr) of slow trench advance at the centre of wide slabs. Such wide-slab behaviour may explain mountain building in the central Andes, as being a consequence of its tectonic setting, far from slab edges. PMID:17361181

Schellart, W P; Freeman, J; Stegman, D R; Moresi, L; May, D

2007-03-15

85

Hot and Cool Aspects of Cognitive Control in Children with ADHD: Decision-Making and Inhibition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated hot and cool aspects of cognitive control in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The study aimed to: (1) replicate the postulated response inhibition deficit of children with ADHD; (2) explore whether children with ADHD choose disadvantageously in a decision-making task and to explore the mechanisms underlying the expected response pattern; and (3) study whether performance

Hilde M. Geurts; Saskia van der Oord; Eveline A. Crone

2006-01-01

86

Asymptotic analysis of adaptive rate control for diverse sources with delayed feedback  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the effectiveness of a class of adaptive algorithms for rate control in a data network with the following two elements: many sources with diverse characteristics (e.g., nonadaptive and adaptive sources with different feedback delays, different constraints on transmission rates) and a switch, based on ATM or cell-relay technology, with finite buffers. Several adaptive sources compete among themselves

Kerry W. Fendick; Manoel A. Rodrigues

1994-01-01

87

The analysis of three dimensional flow around a low-aspect-ratio control fin with end plate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flow around the tip of control fin is fully three dimensional, and the prediction of lift on the control fin is essential in maneuvering a vehicle in an appropriate manner. Three dimensional flow effect on a low- aspect-ratio control fin is more obvious than on a moderate or high-aspect-ratio control fin. The three dimensional flow effect can be reduced by applying end plate. Through numerical simulations, we examine the flow field around a low-aspect-ratio control fin with and without end plate for different flap angles. The pressure, vorticity, lift and torque on the control fin are analyzed and compared to experiments.

Jung, Chulmin; Lee, Kurnchul; Kim, Chanki

2011-11-01

88

Domain Specific Aspects of Locus of Control: Implications for Modifying Locus of Control Orientation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Goal-setting conferences were employed to improve LOC orientation for academic achievement situations among junior high school students (N=36). Results were interpreted as supporting domain-specific aspects of LOC. Results implied that educators can design programs to modify LOC orientation. (Author)

Bradley, Robert H.; Gaa, John P.

1977-01-01

89

Safety aspects of handling and using fecal material from urine-diversion toilets--a field investigation.  

PubMed

The most advantageous approach to pathogen destruction in a urine-diversion toilet vault is to maximize the effects of various environmental factors (i.e., pH, temperature, moisture content, type of bulking agent, and storage time). To quantify these effects, a field experiment was set up, consisting of 6 urine-diversion toilet vaults, each with a different combination of feces and bulking agent (soil, ash, wood shavings, sodium hydroxide, or straw) and ventilation (ventpipe/no ventpipe). The pH of the mixes varied from 6.37 to 10.09. Temperature probes, which were connected to a data logger, were inserted to the heaps, and the logger monitored over a period of nearly 10 months. Mean heap temperatures ranged from 16.8 degrees C in winter to 27.6 degrees C in summer. In addition, samples were taken at intervals from the various heaps in the vaults and also from an open heap exposed to the elements. The samples were subjected to microbiological testing to quantify the pathogen dieoff over time. In the vaults, there was a 3log10 (99.9%) reduction of total coliform between 130 and 250 days, fecal coliform between 100 and 250 days, and fecal streptococci from 125 days and longer. In the open heap, these times varied, from 115 days for both total and fecal coliform, to 140 days for fecal streptococci. Viable Ascaris ova were reduced to zero between 44 and 174 days in the vaults and by 44 days in the open heap. The results of this research showed that ventilation of the vault by means of a ventpipe does not result in any meaningful difference in the vault temperature or the rate of pathogen dieoff. While the type of bulking agent used does not significantly affect the temperature of the heap, it does have an effect on the rate of pathogen dieoff. The ordinary soil mix was seen to give the best results, and this was ascribed to the effect of competing microorganisms in the soil itself. It is concluded that, for safety, vaults of urine-diversion toilets should be sized for a storage period of 9 to 12 months from the last use. PMID:18536481

Austin, L M; Cloete, T E

2008-04-01

90

Effect of aspect ratio on the low-speed lateral control characteristics of untapered low-aspect-ratio wings equipped with flap and with retractable ailerons  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A low-speed wind-tunnel investigation was made to determine the lateral control characteristics of a series of untapered low-aspect-ratio wings. Sealed flap ailerons of various spans and spanwise locations were investigated on unswept wings of aspect ratios 1.13, 1.13, 4.13, and 6.13; and various projections of 0.60-semispan retractable ailerons were investigated on the unsweptback wings of aspect ratios 1.13, 2.13, and 4.13 and on a 45 degree sweptback wing. The retractable ailerons investigated on the unswept wings spanned the outboard stations of each wing; whereas the plain and stepped retractable ailerons investigated on the sweptback wing were located at various spanwise stations. Design charts based on experimental results are presented for estimating the flap aileron effectiveness for low-aspect-ratio, untapered, unswept.

Fischel, Jack; Naeseth, Rodger L; Hagerman, John R; O'Hare, William M

1952-01-01

91

Nutritional and cultural aspects of plant species selection for a controlled ecological life support system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of using higher plants in a controlled ecological life support system is discussed. Aspects of this system considered important in the use of higher plants include: limited energy, space, and mass, and problems relating to cultivation and management of plants, food processing, the psychological impact of vegetarian diets, and plant propagation. A total of 115 higher plant species are compared based on 21 selection criteria.

Hoff, J. E.; Howe, J. M.; Mitchell, C. A.

1982-01-01

92

SOX6 controls dorsal-ventral progenitor parcellation and interneuron diversity during neocortical development  

PubMed Central

Summary The extraordinary neuronal diversity of the central nervous system emerges largely from controlled spatial and temporal segregation of cell type-specific molecular regulators. Here, we report that the transcription factor SOX6 controls the molecular segregation of dorsal (pallial) from ventral (subpallial) telencephalic progenitors, and the differentiation of cortical interneurons, regulating forebrain progenitor and interneuron heterogeneity. During corticogenesis in mice, SOX6 and highly related SOX5 expression is largely mutually exclusive in pallial and subpallial progenitors, respectively, and remains mutually exclusive in a reverse pattern in postmitotic neuronal progeny. Loss of SOX6 from pallial progenitors causes their inappropriate expression of normally subpallium-restricted developmental controls, conferring mixed dorsal-ventral identity. In postmitotic cortical interneurons, loss of SOX6 dramatically disrupts the differentiation and diversity of cortical interneuron subtypes, analogous to SOX5 control over cortical projection neuron development. These data reveal SOX6 as a novel transcription factor regulator of both progenitor and cortical interneuron diversity during neocortical development.

Azim, Eiman; Jabaudon, Denis; Fame, Ryann; Macklis, Jeffrey D.

2010-01-01

93

Microbial mat controls on infaunal abundance and diversity in modern marine microbialites.  

PubMed

Microbialites are the most abundant macrofossils of the Precambrian. Decline in microbialite abundance and diversity during the terminal Proterozoic and early Phanerozoic has historically been attributed to the concurrent radiation of complex metazoans. Similarly, the apparent resurgence of microbialites in the wake of Paleozoic and Mesozoic mass extinctions is frequently linked to drastic declines in metazoan diversity and abundance. However, it has become increasing clear that microbialites are relatively common in certain modern shallow, normal marine carbonate environments-foremost the Bahamas. For the first time, we present data, collected from the Exuma Cays, the Bahamas, systematically characterizing the relationship between framework-building cyanobacteria, microbialite fabrics, and microbialite-associated metazoan abundance and diversity. We document the coexistence of diverse microbialite and infaunal metazoan communities and demonstrate that the predominant control upon both microbialite fabric and metazoan community structure is microbial mat type. These findings necessitate that we rethink prevalent interpretations of microbialite-metazoan interactions and imply that microbialites are not passive recipients of metazoan-mediated alteration. Additionally, this work provides support for the theory that certain Precambrian microbialites may have been havens of early complex metazoan life, rather than bereft of metazoans, as has been traditionally envisaged. PMID:23889904

Tarhan, L G; Planavsky, N J; Laumer, C E; Stolz, J F; Reid, R P

2013-09-01

94

Modular riboswitch toolsets for synthetic genetic control in diverse bacterial species.  

PubMed

Ligand-dependent control of gene expression is essential for gene functional analysis, target validation, protein production, and metabolic engineering. However, the expression tools currently available are difficult to transfer between species and exhibit limited mechanistic diversity. Here we demonstrate how the modular architecture of purine riboswitches can be exploited to develop orthogonal and chimeric switches that are transferable across diverse bacterial species, modulating either transcription or translation, to provide tunable activation or repression of target gene expression, in response to synthetic non-natural effector molecules. Our novel riboswitch-ligand pairings are shown to regulate physiologically important genes required for bacterial motility in Escherichia coli and cell morphology in Bacillus subtilis. These findings are relevant for future gene function studies and antimicrobial target validation, while providing new modular and orthogonal regulatory components for deployment in synthetic biology regimes. PMID:24971878

Robinson, Christopher J; Vincent, Helen A; Wu, Ming-Cheng; Lowe, Phillip T; Dunstan, Mark S; Leys, David; Micklefield, Jason

2014-07-30

95

The Influence of Positive Mood on Different Aspects of Cognitive Control  

PubMed Central

Some evidence suggests that positive mood influences cognitive control. The current research investigated whether positive mood has differential effects on two aspects of cognitive control, working memory and prepotent response inhibition. In Study 1, following either a positive or neutral mood induction, participants completed the Running Memory Span (RMS), a measure primarily of working memory storage capacity, and the Stroop task, a measure of prepotent response inhibition. Results were that the positive mood group performed worse on the RMS task but not on the Stroop task. In Study 2, participants completed the RMS and another measure of prepotent response inhibition, the Flanker task. Results were that when in a positive mood state participants performed worse on the RMS but not on the Flanker task. Overall, this research suggests that positive mood has differential effects on cognitive control, impairing working memory but having no effect on prepotent response inhibition.

Martin, Elizabeth A.; Kerns, John G.

2010-01-01

96

The supply chain of medicinal controlled substances: addressing the Achilles heel of drug diversion.  

PubMed

The escalation of prescription drug abuse in the U.S. has attracted the attention of public health and safety officials as well as others puzzled by how such a tightly regulated enterprise could so easily be breached by those seeking controlled substances for nonmedical use. Prescribers and patients who use, misuse, or, in some cases, redistribute or divert these drugs have figured prominently in government strategies aimed at addressing this issue. This review departs from this paradigm and focuses on wholesale drug distributors, a highly efficient and largely behinds-the-scene link in the supply chain of controlled substances. By law, distributors are required to identify and report to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) orders for controlled substances that are suspicious and may indicate drug diversion. Ten cases are examined in which distributors were each charged with failing to prevent the diversion of millions of doses of controlled substances. Special attention is given to a payment system employed by the industry that may encourage this unlawful commerce. Court records, agency and industry reports, and other published sources are used to document referenced cases and their disposition, and recommendations are offered for improving distributors' compliance with the law. PMID:22973912

Coleman, John J

2012-09-01

97

Radiation control aspects of the civil construction for a high power free electron laser (FEL) facility  

SciTech Connect

The paper discusses some of the assumptions and methods employed for the control of ionizing radiation in the specifications for the civil construction of a planned free electron laser facility based on a 200 MeV, 5 mA superconducting recirculation electron accelerator. Consideration is given firstly to the way in which the underlying building configuration and siting aspects were optimized on the basis of the early assumptions of beam loss and radiation goals. The various design requirements for radiation protection are then considered, and how they were folded into an aesthetically pleasing and functional building.

Dunn, T.; Neil, G.; Stapleton, G.

1996-12-31

98

Contextualizing diversity and culture within cancer control interventions for Latinas: changing interventions, not cultures.  

PubMed

While there is a growing interest in the development of cancer control intervention initiatives, there continues to be a need to understand how the nuances of different Latino cultures translate to opportunities and barriers for access to cancer screening and care. The diversity by country of origin for Latinas in the United States is often overlooked in cancer control initiatives, and the application of qualitative research can expose processes of inequity and cultural variation to improve these initiatives. This paper presents an interpretation of diverse Latina immigrants' perceptions, experiences and knowledge about breast and cervical cancer screening and demonstrates the use of the PEN-3 model to analyze these data to develop an effective outreach intervention. We conducted 13 focus groups consisting of a total of 112 Latinas in New York City (nine groups) and rural and urban sites in Arkansas (four groups) in 2003 through 2004. Through nonprobability theoretical sampling, we included women from Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic and Mexico in New York and recent Mexican immigrants in Arkansas. Findings demonstrated that country of origin and current geographic residency in the U.S. were significant determinants of women's perspectives on community-based religious organizations, knowledge of anatomy, experiences with the medical system, and access to services which are essential factors to consider in developing effective cancer control interventions. Although breast and cervical cancer are considered women's health issues, they cannot be addressed outside the sociopolitical structures of local communities, especially for the most recent immigrant women. Applying the PEN-3 framework to these data demonstrated a valuable method to interpret and transform qualitative data into intervention content and structure that responds to characteristics and perspectives within diverse Latino communities, such as gender relations, religious affiliations and experiences. PMID:20646810

Erwin, Deborah O; Treviño, Michelle; Saad-Harfouche, Frances G; Rodriguez, Elisa M; Gage, Elizabeth; Jandorf, Lina

2010-08-01

99

Some aspects of numerical simulation of control valves for steam turbines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contribution deals with the numerical simulation of air and steam flow through the model of control valve for steam turbines. Numerical simulations were compared with experimental measurements for the award of the same boundary conditions. Valve characteristics have been computed for individual travel heights and pressure ratios of two variants of seat inflow angle (90° and 60°). Some other aspects are discussed in the article - comparison of the axysymmetric and 3D modelling, influence of the computational domain size, comparison of characteristics for two flow media, experimental model of the valve etc. The mentioned results are important for engineering simulations and also for design of the control valves for steam turbines of the large output.

Hajšman, Martin; Kovandová, Dana; Matas, Richard

2012-04-01

100

Design aspects of long range supersonic LFC airplanes with highly swept wings. [laminar flow control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies on supersonic long-range LFC (laminar flow control) aircraft were performed with the aim of maximizing L/D and alleviating sonic boom during supersonic cruise. It is found that configurations with highly swept LFC wings of very high structural aspect ratio, with the sweep increasing toward the wing root and braced externally by wide chord laminarized struts, appear especially promising. In the supersonic cruise design condition the wing upper surface isobars are swept such that the flow in the direction normal to them is transonic with embedded supersonic zones and practically shock-free over most of the span, with M-perpendicular equal to the two-dimensional design values of advanced SC LFC airfoils, e.g., of the X-787 or X-6 type.

Pfenninger, W.; Vemuru, C. S.

1990-01-01

101

Yangtze River Water Diversion into Lake Taihu for Algal Bloom Control: Is it Helping or Hurting?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Harmful algae blooms in Lake Taihu are getting worse every year due to excess nutrients flowing into the water, especially from the northern watershed areas. Impact of blooms on lake's ecosystem, fisheries and drinking water supply to local towns has been severe. Many efforts have been undertaken by both government entities and researchers since 1990 for restoring the lake such as dredging, wetland construction, control of watershed runoff but none has garnered more attention than the water-diversion project. In the water-diversion project, freshwater from the Yangtze River is transferred into the lake via the Wangyuhe River (in the north) and is eventually discharged from the lake via the Taipuhe River (in the south) in an attempt to dilute the polluted water and flush pollutants out of the lake. The effects of water transfer on lake water quality and ecology have drawn great attention because the effectiveness of this project is conflicting. Recent studies suggest that water transfer could only decrease the concentration of phytoplankton but may actually increase concentrations of phosphorus and nitrogen in some areas of the lake where nutrient concentrations are lower than the influent water. In this study, a three dimensional Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) model was used to investigate mass balance and spatial distribution of nutrients (mainly nitrogen and phosphorus) in Lake Taihu before and after transfer.

Acharya, K.; Li, Y.; Tang, C.; Qiu, L.; Yu, Z.

2012-12-01

102

Mitigating land loss in coastal Louisiana by controlled diversion of Mississippi River sand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After the 1927 flood of record on the Mississippi River, the Bonnet Carré Spillway in Louisiana was constructed as a flood control operation. When it is opened, the spillway diverts floodwaters from the Mississippi River to Lake Pontchartrain, to reduce the water discharge flowing past New Orleans. During the 2011 Mississippi River flood, which had the highest peak discharge since 1927, the Bonnet Carré Spillway was opened for 42 days, from 9May to 20 June. During this period, the average spillway discharge of 6,010m3s-1 amounted to 10-20% of the total river flood discharge. Here we present measurements of the areal extent and thickness of new sediments in the floodway, following the 2011 Mississippi flood. Only the upper 10-15% of the river water column was skimmed into the floodway. Yet, we conservatively estimate that 31-46% of the total sand load carried by the Mississippi River during the period of spillway opening was diverted. We find that local river conditions led to increased concentrations of suspended sand in the upper water column and thus led to diversion of sand from the river into the spillway. We conclude that an appropriate design of engineered river diversions in Louisiana can help mitigate coastal wetland loss.

Nittrouer, Jeffrey A.; Best, James L.; Brantley, Christopher; Cash, Ronald W.; Czapiga, Matthew; Kumar, Praveen; Parker, Gary

2012-08-01

103

Remarkably low mtDNA control region diversity in an abundant demersal fish.  

PubMed

Cape hake, Merluccius paradoxus, is a valuable commercially exploited demersal species. Using the 5' mtDNA control region we show that 96% of 1013 fishes sampled over a three-year period share one of two dominant haplotypes; 19 haplotypes were recovered in total, suggesting a genetically homogenous population of fish. Accordingly, haplotype and nucleotide diversities are low (h = 0.53, pi = 0.0014); an asymptotic haplotype accumulation curve suggests that few additional haplotypes exist. Comparing h and pi with other fish species shows that M. paradoxus and other southern African fish species have remarkably low genetic diversity values compared with other global marine fishes. Despite low genetic variability, frequency differences among M. paradoxus haplotypes suggest weakly structured populations between Namibia and South Africa. However, given the remarkably homogeneous mtDNA population genetic structure between fishes sampled along 1800 km, it is clear that faster evolving markers such a microsatellites are also needed before inferences can be made regarding stock identification and management of this species. PMID:19761857

von der Heyden, Sophie; Lipinski, Marek R; Matthee, Conrad A

2010-06-01

104

Mineralogical Controls on Microbial Diversity in a Sulfuric Acid Karst System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role mineralogy plays on microbial community distribution, composition, niche differentiation, and accumulation is a complex and nebulous association. Microbial phylogenetic diversity and bacterial composition of communities obtained from Lower Kane Cave (LKC), WY, USA, were studied using next generation bacterial 16S rRNA sequencing techniques. The microbial consortium found within LKC was found to be primarily composed of neutrophilic sulfur-oxidizing members of the gamma- and epsilon-proteobacteria . The microbial population within LKC has been instigated in previous studies to have a significant role in the processes of sulfuric acid speleogenesis. Using a LKC biomat as the inoculant in a series of 3 nutrient limited laboratory reactor experiments, and a pure culture of Thiothrix unzii (ATCC type strain 49747) in a parallel experiment, we found that both limestone and dolostone substratum consistently had higher biomass accumulation than silicate minerals in the same reactor. At the Class level, the carbonate substratum (Calcite, Limestone, and Dolostone) had ~84% - 88.7% of phylotypes in common. Aside from Basalt (Simpson's Index, D of 0.53), the carbonate substratum produced the least diverse phylotype distributions. Feldspar and quartz were colonized by the most diverse communities with Simpson's Index values of 0.16 and 0.31. Evaluation of metabolic guild distribution shows that potential neutrophilic sulfur-oxidizers have an affinity for acid neutralizing carbonate substrata over silicate substrata. These potential sulfur-oxidizing guilds compose ~28%-38% of the total microbial community. For feldspar and chert substratum, potential sulfur-oxidizing metabolic guilds composed merely ~5% of the total microbial community. The quartz substratum, in contrast, was uniquely populated by potential acidophilic sulfur-oxidizers Acidithiobacillus and Acidithiomicrobium; composing ~19% of the total community. A quartz substratum may offer these acidophiles a competitive advantage over other microbial communities that do not tolerate an acidic habitat, while optimizing the local microenvironment to better facilitate their metabolic pathway. The basalt substratum community was ~67% Thiothrix spp., a sulfur-oxidizing genus commonly associated with Deep-sea hydrothermal vents. This dominance of Thiothrix spp. on basalt may be due to an advantageous ability to extract, and take advantage of, mineral bound nutrients (P, Fe) in basalt. These results provide substantial evidence to support the hypothesis that mineralogy influences microbial distribution, composition, niche differentiation, and accumulation in a nutrient limited system. Specific microbial populations which have evolved to take advantage of specific mineral substrata and exert highly localized control of biogeochemical conditions. Mineralogy, therefore, plays an active part in the development of subsurface microbial ecology and diversity by exerting selective pressures on the subsurface microbial environment.

Jones, A. A.; Bennett, P.

2011-12-01

105

Passive control of roll oscillations of low-aspect-ratio wings using bleed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A passive flow control method, which uses bleed from a slot near the wing tip, has been shown to attenuate self-excited roll oscillations of a low-aspect-ratio (AR = 2) rectangular flat plate wing. This method was found to be successful across the whole range of angle of attack and better than previous active flow control methods. The effectiveness of the slot strongly depends on its location and width. For effective slot geometries, the tip vortex becomes less coherent, almost eliminating the roll oscillations. Nonlinear interactions between the shear layers shed from the tip and the slot, as well as between the shear layer and the counter-rotating vortex may act as excitation, which can modify the response of the self-sustained oscillator. When the slot is located too close to the tip, there is rapid merging of the shear layers and less interaction, and the slot loses its effectiveness. Also, when the slot is narrow, there is insufficient bleed, resulting in less effective attenuation. Force measurements revealed that this technique can be used as an effective method to suppress roll oscillations without sacrificing and possibly improving aerodynamic performance.

Hu, T.; Wang, Z.; Gursul, I.

2014-06-01

106

The CERN antiproton source: Controls aspects of the additional collector ring and fast sampling devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The upgrade of the CERN antiproton source, meant to gain an order of magnitude in antiproton flux, required the construction of an additional ring to complement the existing antiproton accumulator (AA) and an entire rebuild of the target zone. The AA also needed major modifications to handle the increased flux and perform purely as an accumulator, preceded by collection in the collector ring (AC). The upgrade, known as the ACOL (antiproton collector) project, was approved under strict time and budgetary constraints and the existing AA control system, based on the Proton Synchrotron (PS) Divisional norms of CAMAC and Norsk-Data computers, had to be extended in the light of this. The limited (9 months) installation period for the whole upgrade meant that substantial preparatory and planning activities had to be carried out during the normal running of the AA. Advantage was taken of the upgrade to improve and consolidate the AA. Some aspects of the control system related to this upgrade are discussed together with the integration of new applications and instrumentation. The overall machine installation and running-in was carried out within the defined milestones and the project has now achieved the physics design goals.

Chohan, V.

1990-08-01

107

Genetic Diversity in RNA Virus Quasispecies Is Controlled by Host-Virus Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many RNA viruses have genetically diverse populations known as quasispecies. Important biological char- acteristics may be related to the levels of diversity in the quasispecies (quasispecies cloud size), including adaptability and host range. Previous work using Tobacco mosaic virus and Cucumber mosaic virus indicated that evolutionarily related viruses have very different levels of diversity in a common host. The quasispecies

WILLIAM L. SCHNEIDER; MARILYN J. ROOSSINCK

2001-01-01

108

Increasing zooplankton size diversity enhances the strength of top-down control on phytoplankton in the East China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Body size is one of the fundamental characteristics of organisms linking many ecosystem properties and functions. Recent studies suggest that environmental changes alter the size structure of pelagic food webs; however, ecosystem consequences of such changes remain unclear. Here we tested our main hypothesis that increasing zooplankton size diversity enhances top-down control on phytoplankton in the East China Sea (H1), as well as five conventional hypotheses explaining the top-down control: shallower zooplankton size spectrum enhances the strength of top-down control (H2); nutrient enrichment lessens the strength of top-down control (H3); increasing zooplankton taxonomic diversity enhances the strength of top-down control (H4); increasing fish predation is linked to decreasing the strength of top-down control of zooplankton on phytoplankton (H5); increasing temperature intensifies the strength of top-down control (H6). While the results of our univariate analyses support H1, H2, H3, and H4, more in depth analyses indicate that zooplankton size diversity is the most important factor in determining the strength of top-down control on phytoplankton in East China Sea. Our results suggest a new potential mechanism that increasing predator size diversity enhances the strength of top-down control on prey through diet niche partitioning. This mechanism can be explained by the concept of optimal predator-prey body-mass ratio concept. Suppose each size group of zooplankton predators has its own optimal phytoplankton prey size, increasing size diversity of zooplankton would promote diet niche partitioning of predators and thus elevates the top-down control.Fig. 1 Scatter plots the relationship between zooplankton/phytoplankton biomass ratio versus (A) zooplankton size diversity, (B) slope of zooplankton size spectrum, (C) Zoolankton Shannon diversity, (D) NO3, (E) PO4, (F) SiO3, (G) water temperature, and (H) fish larvae density in the East China Sea. Table 1. Results of the generalized linear mixed-effect model in investigating the effect of each factor on the spatiotemporal dynamics of zooplankton/phytoplankton biomass ratio in the East China Sea, with sampling cruises as a random effect. A lower value of AIC represents better goodness of fit of the model. The p-value was estimated based on MCMC sampling.

Ye, L.; Chang, C.; García-Comas, C.; Gong, G.; Hsieh, C.

2012-12-01

109

Behavioral and technological interventions targeting glycemic control in a racially/ethnically diverse population: a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetes self-care by patients has been shown to assist in the reduction of disease severity and associated medical costs. We compared the effectiveness of two different diabetes self-care interventions on glycemic control in a racially/ethnically diverse population. We also explored whether reductions in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) will be more marked in minority persons. Methods We conducted an open-label randomized controlled trial of 376 patients with type 2 diabetes aged ?18 years and whose last measured HbA1c was ?7.5% (?58 mmol/mol). Participants were randomized to: 1) a Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP; n = 101); 2) a diabetes self-care software on a personal digital assistant (PDA; n = 81); 3) a combination of interventions (CDSMP + PDA; n = 99); or 4) usual care (control; n = 95). Enrollment occurred January 2009-June 2011 at seven regional clinics of a university-affiliated multi-specialty group practice. The primary outcome was change in HbA1c from randomization to 12 months. Data were analyzed using a multilevel statistical model. Results Average baseline HbA1c in the CDSMP, PDA, CDSMP + PDA, and control arms were 9.4%, 9.3%, 9.2%, and 9.2%, respectively. HbA1c reductions at 12 months for the groups averaged 1.1%, 0.7%, 1.1%, and 0.7%, respectively and did not differ significantly from baseline based on the model (P = .771). Besides the participants in the PDA group reporting eating more high-fat foods compared to their counterparts (P < .004), no other significant differences were observed in participants’ diabetes self-care activities. Exploratory sub-analysis did not reveal any marked reductions in HbA1c for minority persons but rather modest reductions for all racial/ethnic groups. Conclusions Although behavioral and technological interventions can result in some modest improvements in glycemic control, these interventions did not fare significantly better than usual care in achieving glycemic control. More research is needed to understand how these interventions can be most effective in clinical practice. The reduction in HbA1c levels found in our control group that received usual care also suggests that good routine care in an integrated healthcare system can lead to better glycemic control. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01221090.

2014-01-01

110

Rates and environmental controls of sediment N and S cycles in diverse aquatic ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chuanhui Gu and Celine Pallud Recent studies of coupled NO3- driven SO42- production found chemolithoautotrophic bacterial metabolism may remove NO3- by coupling its reduction with the oxidation of reduced S to SO42-. The objectives of this study were to investigate the magnitude and interaction of NO3- and SO42- metabolic rates (e.g. nitrate reduction rate, ammonium production rate, sulfate production rate, and sulfate reduction rate, etc) across diverse freshwater, saline, and hypersaline water systems. Metabolic rates of major N and S cycles were measured on intact sediment cores using flow through reactors. Single TEA (i.e.NO3- or SO42-) addition and simultaneous TEAs addition caused a variety of responses in the N and S metabolic rates. We used a multivariate statistics tool, redundancy analysis, to access how environmental factors might control the variability of these metabolic rates. Our analysis showed pH, overlying water SO42- concentration, and salinity were three dominant environmental factors that control the N and S metabolic rates. The three factors combined explained 62% of variance of the metabolic rates. When NO3- and SO42- were both present, however, sediment As content, grain size, and N content determined the variability of the metabolic rates. These three factors together accounted for 58% of total variance of the metabolic rates. The different sets of environmental controls over the N and S metabolic rates under single TEA vs. two TEA conditions indicate the interior coupling between N and S cycles. These results showed there is no single set of environmental variables that can be used to predict the spatial variability of N and S metabolic rates, and controls on N processing in landscape subject to S and N pollution are more complex than previously appreciated.

Gu, C.; Pallud, C. E.

2010-12-01

111

RHOA and PRKCZ control different aspects of cell motility in pancreatic cancer metastatic clones  

PubMed Central

Background Our understanding of the mechanism regulating pancreatic cancer metastatic phenotype is limited. We analyzed the role of RHOA and PRKCZ in the motility attitude of two subclones of the pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line SUIT-2 (S2), with different in vivo metastatic potential in nude mice: S2-m with a low metastatic potential and highly metastatic S2-CP9 using RHOA and PRKCZ cell-permeable inhibitory peptides. Methods Adhesion assays, cell permeable peptides, RHOA activity assay, western blotting Results When used in combination cell-permeable inhibitory peptides partially inhibited cell adhesion by about 50% in clone S2-CP9. In clone S2-m, the effect was limited to 15% inhibition. In a wound healing assay, S2-CP9 was sensitive only to treatment with the combination of both RHOA and PRKCZ inhibitory peptides. Conversely, S2-m was unable to migrate toward both ends of the wound in basal conditions. Migration of cells through a membrane with 8 ?m pores was completely abolished in both clones by individual treatment with RHOA and PRKCZ inhibitory peptides. Conclusion Herein, we demonstrate a critical role for RHOA and PRKCZ in the regulation of different aspects of cell motility of pancreatic adenocarcinoma and demonstrate the need to inhibit both pathways to obtain a functionally relevant effect in most assays. These results indicate that RHOA and PRKCZ, and their downstream effectors, can represent important pharmacological targets that could potentially control the highly metastatic attitude of PDAC.

2010-01-01

112

Using Guard Predicates for Generalized Control of Aspect Instantiation and Activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many aspect-oriented programming languages employ static transformations in order to produce the executable system. Some aspects, however, should only be eective if certain conditions are fulfilled that can only be evaluated at run- time. The na¨ive approach of using conditionals within the advice code easily leads to scattering and tangling regarding these conditionals, suggesting that they should be separated from

Stephan Herrmann; Christine Hundt; Katharina Mehner; Jan Wloka

2005-01-01

113

Microbial diversity in sediments of saline Qinghai Lake, China: linking geochemical controls to microbial ecology.  

PubMed

Saline lakes at high altitudes represent an important and extreme microbial ecosystem, yet little is known about microbial diversity in such environments. The objective of this study was to examine the change of microbial diversity from the bottom of the lake to sediments of 40 cm in depth in a core from Qinghai Lake. The lake is saline (12.5 g/L salinity) and alkaline (pH 9.4) and is located on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau at an altitude of 3196 m above sea level. Pore water chemistry of the core revealed low concentrations of sulfate and iron (<1 mM), but high concentrations of acetate (40-70 mM) and dissolved organic carbon (1596-5443 mg/L). Total organic carbon and total nitrogen contents in the sediments were approximately 2 and <0.5%, respectively. Acridine orange direct count data indicated that cell numbers decreased from 4 x 10(9) cells/g at the water-sediment interface to 6 x 10(7) cells/g wet sediment at the 40-cm depth. This change in biomass was positively correlated with acetate concentration in pore water. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) community structure analyses determined decrease in the proportion of the Proteobacteria and increase in the Firmicutes with increased depth. Characterization of small subunit (SSU) rRNA genes amplified from the sediments indicated a shift in the bacterial community with depth. Whereas the alpha-, beta-, and gamma-Proteobacteria and the Cytophaga/Flavobacterium/Bacteroides (CFB) were dominant at the water-sediment interface, low G + C gram-positive bacteria (a subgroup of Firmicutes) became the predominant group in the anoxic sediments. Both PLFA and the sequence data showed similar trend. The Proteobacteria, CFB, and gram-positive bacteria are present in other saline lakes, but the presence of Actinobacteria and Acidobacteria/Holophaga in significant proportions in the Qinghai Lake sediments appears to be unique. The archaeal diversity was much lower, and clone sequences could be grouped in the Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeota domains. The archaeal clones were not related to any known cultures but to sequences previously found in methane-rich sediments. Acetate-utilizing methanogens were isolated from sediment incubations, and alpha- and gamma-proteobacterial isolates were obtained from a water sample from the lake-bottom (23 m). Our data collectively showed that the observed diversity and shift in the community structure with depth was correlated with geochemical parameters (the redox state and availability of electron acceptor and donor). Heterotrophic methanogenesis is possibly adominant metabolic process in the Qinghai Lake sediments. These results reinforce the importance of geochemical controls on microbial ecology in saline and alkaline lake environments. PMID:16400537

Dong, Hailiang; Zhang, Gengxin; Jiang, Hongchen; Yu, Bingsong; Chapman, Leah R; Lucas, Courtney R; Fields, Matthew W

2006-01-01

114

Hydrographic controls on marine organic matter fate and microbial diversity in the western Irish Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cycling of organic matter (OM) is the key biological process in the marine environment1 and knowledge of the sources and the reactivity of OM, in addition to factors controlling its distribution in estuarine, coastal and shelf sediments are of key importance for understanding global biogeochemical cycles2. With recent advances in cultivation-independent molecular approaches to microbial ecology, the key role of prokaryotes in global biogeochemical cycling in marine ecosystems has been emphasised3,4. However, spatial studies combining the distribution and fate of OM with microbial community abundance and diversity remain rare. Here, a combined spatial lipid biomarker and 16S rRNA tagged pyrosequencing study was conducted in surface sediments and particulate matter across hydrographically distinct zones associated with the seasonal western Irish Sea gyre. The aim was to assess the spatial variation of, and factors controlling, marine organic cycling and sedimentary microbial communities across these distinct zones. The distribution of phospholipid fatty acids, source-specific sterols, wax esters and C25 highly branched isoprenoids indicate that diatoms, dinoflagellates and green algae were the major contributors of marine organic matter, while the distribution of cholesterol, wax esters and C20 and C22 polyunsaturated fatty acids have highlighted the importance of copepod grazing for mineralizing organic matter in the water column5. This marine OM production and mineralisation was greatest in well-mixed waters compared to offshore stratified waters. Lipid analysis and 16S rRNA PCR-DGGE profiling also suggests that sedimentary bacterial abundance increases while community diversity decreases in offshore stratified waters. The major bacterial classes are the Deltaproteobacteria, Clostridia, Flavobacteriia, Gammaproteobactera and Bacteroiidia. At the family/genus level most groups appear to be associated with organoheterotrophic processing of sedimentary OM, ranging from degradation of complex organic matter (e.g. Tepidibacter sp.) to sulfur-dependent utilisation of simple organic molecules (e.g. Desulfobulbaceae and Desulfuromonadaceae. 1. Hedges and Keil (1995) Mar Chem 49, 81-115. 2. Baldock et al., (2004) Mar Chem 92, 39-64. 3. Deming and Baross, (1993) Plenum Press, NY. 4. 4. Gooday, (2002) J Oceanogr 58, 305-332. 5. O'Reilly et al., (2013) Estuar, Coast & Shelf Sci. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2013.11.002

O'Reilly, Shane; Szpak, Michal; Monteys, Xavier; Flanagan, Paul; Allen, Christopher; Kelleher, Brian

2014-05-01

115

Epidemiological Aspects of Diet and Cancer: A Summary Review of Case-Control Studies from Northern Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major findings on dietary aspects of cancer risk are reviewed from a series of hospital-based case-control studies conducted in Northern Italy. Information collected using simple frequency questionnaires indicated that green vegetable consumption was inversely related with the risk of cancers of the breast and of the female genital tract, as well as with oesophageal and gastric neoplasms, whereas there

Carlo La Vecchia; Adriono Decarli; Eva Negri; Fabio Parazzini

1988-01-01

116

Electrical aspects of gaseous fuel flames for microgravity combustion and combustion control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation describes a fundamental study on the influence of electric fields on combustion reactions and their surrounding gases. A detailed literature survey is provided which outlines the works in the past that have contributed to the modern understanding of the fundamental processes. The interactions that occur when electric fields are applied to flames are complicated, and not enough information exists for electrode designs to be evaluated either by first principles or empirical correlations. Moreover, this prevents robust electric field actuators for control, a topic of great interest currently, from being developed without extensive testing. Electric field, chemical, and fluid-dynamic interactions that occur near the combustion reaction zone, and away from the reaction in the electrode spaces. Based on the results from the literature survey, an apparatus is constructed and a series of experiments are performed. A variety of diagnostics are used to probe flame shapes, sizes and the behaviors of the surrounding gases, as well as the characteristics of the electrical discharge from the flame. Techniques such as photography and schlieren imaging are employed for visualization, and chemiluminescence detection is used to probe the chemistry of the flame. In addition, ion probes are developed for measuring overall voltage-current characteristics and resolving the spatial distribution of ion current in the discharge. The system is analyzed analytically and a computational model is generated, providing a model of the system. The results of the model are used to elucidate the fundamental aspects of the system such as time constants, buoyancy characteristics, and chemical changes. Together, the combined experimental techniques and analysis provide a description of the fundamental processes that occur when electric fields are applied to flames beyond what is currently available and provides a method by which the design of such systems can be accomplished.

Papac, Michael James

117

Automatic calibration of a phase diversity wavefront sensing and control testbed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper will report on efforts to automatically calibrate in situ a phase-diversity (PD) wavefront sensing and control (WFS&C) system, the results of which are demonstrated on the General Dynamics Advanced Information System's (GDAIS') QuickStar testbed1, a dual deformable mirror (DM) system which operates at 100Hz sampling rate. The iterative automatic calibration (AutoCal) process includes both coarse and fine calibration modes, initial closed-loop flattening of the commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) DMs, estimation of the system's static wavefront - including DM print-through, determination of PD-derived actuator influence functions, formulating the resulting system matrix and the resulting forward-model parameters. Analyses of the system after the calibration routines shows low-order WFS accuracy of ~0.005? RMS and closed-loop residual wavefront measurement of ~0.002?. All of these results were accomplished with a software package that takes on the order of one hour to operate.

Georges, James A., III; Dorrance, Pam; Gleichman, Kurt; Jonik, Julie; Liskow, Dean; Lapprich, Harold; Naik, Vipul; Parker, Stuart; Paxman, Rick; Warmuth, Matt; Wilson, Aaron; Zaugg, Tom

2007-10-01

118

Transcription Control Pathways Decode Patterned Synaptic Inputs into Diverse mRNA Expression Profiles  

PubMed Central

Synaptic plasticity requires transcription and translation to establish long-term changes that form the basis for long term memory. Diverse stimuli, such as synaptic activity and growth factors, trigger synthesis of mRNA to regulate changes at the synapse. The palette of possible mRNAs is vast, and a key question is how the cell selects which mRNAs to synthesize. To address this molecular decision-making, we have developed a biochemically detailed model of synaptic-activity triggered mRNA synthesis. We find that there are distinct time-courses and amplitudes of different branches of the mRNA regulatory signaling pathways, which carry out pattern-selective combinatorial decoding of stimulus patterns into distinct mRNA subtypes. Distinct, simultaneously arriving input patterns that impinge on the transcriptional control network interact nonlinearly to generate novel mRNA combinations. Our model combines major regulatory pathways and their interactions connecting synaptic input to mRNA synthesis. We parameterized and validated the model by incorporating data from multiple published experiments. The model replicates outcomes of knockout experiments. We suggest that the pattern-selectivity mechanisms analyzed in this model may act in many cell types to confer the capability to decode temporal patterns into combinatorial mRNA expression.

Jain, Pragati; Bhalla, Upinder S.

2014-01-01

119

Landscape-level controls on dissolved carbon flux from diverse catchments of the circumboreal  

USGS Publications Warehouse

While much of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) within rivers is destined for mineralization to CO2, a substantial fraction of riverine bicarbonate (HCO3-) flux represents a CO2 sink, as a result of weathering processes that sequester CO2 as HCO3-. We explored landscape-level controls on DOC and HCO3- flux in subcatchments of the boreal, with a specific focus on the effect of permafrost on riverine dissolved C flux. To do this, we undertook a multivariate analysis that partitioned the variance attributable to known, key regulators of dissolved C flux (runoff, lithology, and vegetation) prior to examining the effect of permafrost, using riverine biogeochemistry data from a suite of subcatchments drawn from the Mackenzie, Yukon, East, and West Siberian regions of the circumboreal. Across the diverse catchments that we study, controls on HCO3- flux were near-universal: runoff and an increased carbonate rock contribution to weathering (assessed as riverwater Ca:Na) increased HCO3- yields, while increasing permafrost extent was associated with decreases in HCO3-. In contrast, permafrost had contrasting and region-specific effects on DOC yield, even after the variation caused by other key drivers of its flux had been accounted for. We used ionic ratios and SO4 yields to calculate the potential range of CO2 sequestered via weathering across these boreal subcatchments, and show that decreasing permafrost extent is associated with increases in weathering-mediated CO2 fixation across broad spatial scales, an effect that could counterbalance some of the organic C mineralization that is predicted with declining permafrost.

Tank, Suzanne; Frey, Karen E.; Striegl, Robert G.; Raymond, Peter A.; Holmes, R. Max; McClelland, James W.; Peterson, Bruce J.

2012-01-01

120

Diversity of regulatory CD4+T cells controlling distinct organ-specific autoimmune diseases.  

PubMed

Depletion of selected regulatory CD4+ T cell subsets induces the spontaneous onset of various immune or autoimmune disorders. It is not clear, however, whether a given subset, notably CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells, protects from a wide spectrum of immune disorders, or whether specialized subsets of regulatory T cells control each given disease or group of diseases. We report here, using diabetes prone nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, that depending on the regulatory T cells that are depleted, i.e., CD25+, CD62L+, or CD45RB(low), distinct immune diseases appear after transfer into NOD severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) recipients. Thus, reconstitution of NOD SCID mice with CD25- T cells induces major gastritis and late-onset diabetes, but no or mild colitis. Reconstitution with CD62L- T cells induces fulminant diabetes with no colitis or gastritis. Reconstitution with CD45RB(high) T cells induces major colitis with wasting disease and no or very moderate gastritis and diabetes. Major differences among the three regulatory T cell subsets are also seen in vitro. The bulk of suppressor cells inhibiting the proliferation of CD4+CD25- T cells in coculture is concentrated within the CD25+ but not the CD62L+ or CD45RB(low) T cell subsets. Similarly, cytokine production patterns are significantly different for each regulatory T cell subset. Collectively, these data point to the diversity and organ selectivity of regulatory T cells controlling distinct autoimmune diseases whatever the underlying mechanisms. PMID:14673094

Alyanakian, Marie-Alexandra; You, Sylvaine; Damotte, Diane; Gouarin, Christine; Esling, Anne; Garcia, Corinne; Havouis, Séverine; Chatenoud, Lucienne; Bach, Jean-François

2003-12-23

121

Landscape-level controls on dissolved carbon flux from diverse catchments of the circumboreal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While much of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) within rivers is destined for mineralization to CO2, a substantial fraction of riverine bicarbonate (HCO3-) flux represents a CO2 sink, as a result of weathering processes that sequester CO2 as HCO3-. We explored landscape-level controls on DOC and HCO3- flux in subcatchments of the boreal, with a specific focus on the effect of permafrost on riverine dissolved C flux. To do this, we undertook a multivariate analysis that partitioned the variance attributable to known, key regulators of dissolved C flux (runoff, lithology, and vegetation) prior to examining the effect of permafrost, using riverine biogeochemistry data from a suite of subcatchments drawn from the Mackenzie, Yukon, East, and West Siberian regions of the circumboreal. Across the diverse catchments that we study, controls on HCO3-flux were near-universal: runoff and an increased carbonate rock contribution to weathering (assessed as riverwater Ca:Na) increased HCO3- yields, while increasing permafrost extent was associated with decreases in HCO3-. In contrast, permafrost had contrasting and region-specific effects on DOC yield, even after the variation caused by other key drivers of its flux had been accounted for. We used ionic ratios and SO4 yields to calculate the potential range of CO2sequestered via weathering across these boreal subcatchments, and show that decreasing permafrost extent is associated with increases in weathering-mediated CO2 fixation across broad spatial scales, an effect that could counterbalance some of the organic C mineralization that is predicted with declining permafrost.

Tank, Suzanne E.; Frey, Karen E.; Striegl, Robert G.; Raymond, Peter A.; Holmes, Robert M.; McClelland, James W.; Peterson, Bruce J.

2012-09-01

122

Basin-scale Controls on the Flux of Dissolved Inorganic Carbon Across Diverse Circumpolar Watersheds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Like dissolved organic carbon, dissolved inorganic C (DIC; the sum of CO2(aq)/H2CO3, HCO3- and CO32-) is an integral component of the global C cycle. Almost all of the HCO3- and CO32- flux from rivers is derived from chemical weathering, which, with photosynthesis, represents one of the two major terrestrial CO2 sinks. This presentation explores controls on riverine DIC flux across the pan-Arctic, by undertaking analyses at two discrete spatial scales. First, we make use of the Arctic Great Rivers Observatory, and its antecedent, PARTNERS (Pan Arctic Transport of Riverine Nutrients and Organic Matter), datasets to explore controls on DIC flux from the mouths of the six largest Arctic rivers: the Ob', Yenisey, Lena, Kolyma, Yukon and Mackenzie, which together drain a total catchment area nearly one and a half times that of the contiguous U.S. The total flux of DIC from these large basins is 30 Tg C yr-1, and at the broad, integrated spatial scale of these watersheds is positively related to runoff, the proportion of the catchment underlain by carbonate rocks, and glacial coverage, but negatively related to permafrost extent. Second, we undertake a sub-watershed analysis that makes use of data from over 200 smaller catchments distributed throughout the broader Ob', Lena, Yukon and Mackenzie basins to resolve how controls on DIC flux might vary across the diverse environments that these sub-watersheds represent. At this finer scale, runoff and lithology continue to have a primary, positive, influence on DIC flux. The negative effect of permafrost, while consistently present, is more varied when examined in this detail, and additional factors, such as weathering by pyrite oxidation, appear to be important in some, but not other, regions. Looking forward, it appears that changes already documented in the Arctic, including an intensification of the hydrologic cycle and decrease in the extent of permafrost, will affect the flux of weathering-derived DIC across broad spatial scales.

Tank, S. E.; Raymond, P.; Striegl, R. G.; Frey, K. E.; McClelland, J. W.; Holmes, R. M.; Peterson, B. J.

2011-12-01

123

Diversity in sequence-dependent control of GRO chemokine mRNA half-life  

PubMed Central

Neutrophil trafficking to sites of injury or infection is regulated, in part, by the closely related GRO family of chemokines (CXCL1, -2, and -3). Expression of the GRO chemokine genes is known to be determined by transcriptional bursts in response to proinflammatory stimulation, but post-transcriptional mechanisms that regulate mRNA half-life are now recognized as important determinants. mRNA half-life is regulated via distinct sequence motifs and sequence-specific, RNA-binding proteins, whose function is subject to regulation by extracellular proinflammatory stimuli. Moreover, such mechanisms exhibit cell-type and stimulus dependency. We now present evidence that in nonmyeloid cells, GRO2 and GRO3 isoforms exhibit at least two patterns of mRNA instability that are distinguished by differential sensitivity to specific mRNA-destabilizing proteins and stimulus-mediated prolongation of mRNA half-life, respectively. Although the 3? UTR regions of GRO2 and GRO3 mRNAs contain multiple AREs, GRO2 has eight AUUUA pentamers, whereas GRO3 has seven. These confer quantitative differences in half-life and show sensitivity for TTP and KSRP but not SF2/ASF. Moreover, these AUUUA determinants do not confer instability that can be modulated in response to IL-1?. In contrast, IL-1?-sensitive instability for GRO2 and GRO3 is conferred by sequences located proximal to the 3? end of the 3?UTR that are independent of the AUUUA sequence motif. These regions are insensitive to TTP and KSRP but show reduced half-life mediated by SF2/ASF. These sequence-linked, post-transcriptional activities provide substantial mechanistic diversity in the control of GRO family chemokine gene expression.

Herjan, Tomasz; Novotny, Michael; Hamilton, Thomas A.

2013-01-01

124

Note: Axially pull-up electrochemical etching method for fabricating tungsten nanoprobes with controllable aspect ratio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mathematical model representing the relation between pulling up speed, time and aspect ratio is reported, accordingly the axially pull-up electrochemical etching method for fabricating nanoprobes is proposed. The tungsten probes with predetermined shape and aspect ratio according to the model were successfully produced with this method. Then the probes were installed inside a micromanipulation system to manipulate the carbon nanotubes and measure their current-voltage (I-V) characteristics. The probe fabrication and application experiments demonstrated the reasonability and reliability of the model and method developed in this note.

Li, Chao-Ling; Fang, Dong-Yu; Li, Xuan; Xue, Tao; Yao, Pei

2012-10-01

125

Note: Axially pull-up electrochemical etching method for fabricating tungsten nanoprobes with controllable aspect ratio.  

PubMed

A mathematical model representing the relation between pulling up speed, time and aspect ratio is reported, accordingly the axially pull-up electrochemical etching method for fabricating nanoprobes is proposed. The tungsten probes with predetermined shape and aspect ratio according to the model were successfully produced with this method. Then the probes were installed inside a micromanipulation system to manipulate the carbon nanotubes and measure their current-voltage (I-V) characteristics. The probe fabrication and application experiments demonstrated the reasonability and reliability of the model and method developed in this note. PMID:23126823

Li, Chao-Ling; Fang, Dong-Yu; Li, Xuan; Xue, Tao; Yao, Pei

2012-10-01

126

Genetic diversity and population history of two related seabird species based on mitochondrial DNA control region sequences.  

PubMed

Geographical variation in two related seabird species, the razorbill (Alca torda) and common guillemot (Uria aalge), was investigated using sequence analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control regions. We determined the nucleotide sequence of the variable 5' segment of the control region in razorbills and common guillemots from breeding colonies across the Atlantic Ocean. The ecology and life history characteristics of razorbill and common guillemot are in many respects similar. They are both considered highly philopatric and have largely overlapping distributions in temperate and subarctic regions of the North Atlantic, yet the species were found to differ widely in the extent and spatial distribution of mtDNA variation. Moreover, the differences in genetic differentiation and diversity were in the opposite direction to that expected from a consideration of traditional classifications and current population sizes. Indices of genetic diversity were highest in razorbill and varied among colonies, as did genotype frequencies, suggestive of restrictions to gene flow. The distribution of genetic variation suggests that razorbills originated from a refugial population in the south-western Atlantic Ocean through sequential founder events and subsequent expansion in the east and north. In common guillemots, genetic diversity was low and there was a lack of geographical structure, consistent with a recent population bottleneck, expansion and gene flow. We suggest that the reduced level of genetic diversity and differentiation in the common guillemot is caused by an inherent propensity for repeated population bottlenecks and concomitantly unstable population structure related to their specialized feeding ecology. PMID:11703652

Moum, T; Arnason, E

2001-10-01

127

Molecular aspects of the E. coli nucleoid protein, H-NS: a central controller of gene regulatory networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nucleoid-associated protein H-NS has a central role in the structuring and control of the enteric bacterial chromosome. This protein has been demonstrated to contribute to the regulation of expression for approximately thirty genes. In this article, the molecular aspects of H-NS structure and function are briefly reviewed. H-NS contains at least two independent structural domains: a C-terminal domain, involved

Roy M. Williams; Sylvie Rimsky

1997-01-01

128

Proceedings of the Workshop on Computational Aspects in the Control of Flexible Systems, part 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Control/Structures Integration Program, a survey of available software for control of flexible structures, computational efficiency and capability, modeling and parameter estimation, and control synthesis and optimization software are discussed.

Taylor, Lawrence W., Jr. (compiler)

1989-01-01

129

Adaptive MIMO-diversity selection with closed-loop power control over wireless CDMA rayleigh-fading channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This contribution considers adaptive (multiple input multiple output) MIMO-diversity selection at the receiver jointly with closed-loop power control (PC) to efficiently combat fading with only few transmit (Tx) and receive (Rx) antennas. Hence we avoid resorting to antenna selection among large MIMO-arrays without PC which would be otherwise required to keep complexity low. With low Doppler closed-loop PC significantly increases

S. Affes; K. Lajnef; K. Cheikhrouhou; P. Mermelstein

2003-01-01

130

Subsonic and transonic pressure measurements on a high-aspect-ratio supercritical-wing model with oscillating control surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high aspect ratio supercritical wing with oscillating control surfaces is described. The semispan wing model was instrumented with 252 static orifices and 164 in situ dynamic pressure gases for studying the effects of control surface position and sinusoidal motion on steady and unsteady pressures. Data from the present test (this is the second in a series of tests on this model) were obtained in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at Mach numbers of 0.60 and 0.78 and are presented in tabular form.

Sandford, M. C.; Ricketts, R. H.; Watson, J. J.

1981-01-01

131

Diversity Strategies to Mitigate Postulated Common Cause Failure Vulnerabilities  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes an approach to establish effective mitigating strategies that can resolve potential common-cause failure (CCF) vulnerabilities in instrumentation and control (I&C) systems at nuclear power plants. A particular objective in the development of these strategies, which consist of combinations of diversity attributes and their associated criteria, is to address the unique characteristics of digital technology that can contribute to CCF concerns. The research approach employed to establish diversity strategies involves investigation of available documentation on diversity usage and experience from nuclear power and non-nuclear industries, capture of expert knowledge and lessons learned, determination of common practices, and assessment of the nature of CCFs and compensating diversity attributes. The resulting diversity strategies address considerations such as the effect of technology choices, the nature of CCF vulnerabilities, and the prospective impact of each diversity type. In particular, the impact of each attribute and criterion on the purpose, process, product, and performance aspects of diverse systems are considered.

Wood, Richard Thomas [ORNL

2010-01-01

132

Genetic diversity studies of Brazilian garlic cultivars and quality control of garlic-clover production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The garlic cultivars grown in Brazil evolved from so- matic mutations and clone selection by breeding programs and by the introduction of germplasm from other countries. Morphological characters have been used to differentiate these cultivars. Two hun- dred and six random amplified polymorphic DNA markers were uti- lized for a diversity analysis of the 17 most planted garlic cultivars in

G. S. C. Buso; M. R. Paiva; A. C. Torres; F. V. Resende; M. A. Ferreira; J. A. Buso; A. N. Dusi

2008-01-01

133

Bacterial Community Structure of Acid-Impacted Lakes: What Controls Diversity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although it is recognized that acidification of freshwater systems results in decreased overall species richness of plants and animals, little is known about the response of aquatic microbial communities to acidification. In this study we examined bacterioplankton community diversity and structure in 18 lakes located in the Adirondack Park (in the state of New York in the United States) that

Sascha F. Percent; Marc E. Frischer; Paul A. Vescio; Ellen B. Duffy; Vincenzo Milano; Maggie McLellan; Brett M. Stevens; Charles W. Boylen; Sandra A. Nierzwicki-Bauer

2008-01-01

134

Some Aspects of Flight Trajectory Control in Future Avionic Systems for Combat Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper considers some of the reasons for increased integration with emphasis on Flight Profile Control in combat aircraft, largely in the ground attack role. Some of the reasons for further integration involving flight control are examined. Next the p...

W. H. McKinlay

1983-01-01

135

Comparison of nematode communities in Baltic and North Sea sublittoral, permeable sands Diversity and environmental control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure of free-living nematode communities was investigated seasonally at two sandy locations representing typical shallow sublittoral, permeable environments of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. At the Baltic study site the chlorophyll and organic carbon concentrations in the sediment were, on average, four times lower than at the North Sea. Highest nematode densities (1674-4100 ind. 10 cm -2) and a higher number of free-living nematode genera (66) were recorded in the North Sea (Baltic: 206-1227 ind. 10 cm -2, 30 genera). Despite lower salinity and lower food availability the less dense and less diverse Baltic nematode community was similar in generic composition to the North Sea community. At the North Sea site, all trophic groups according to Wieser's classification were present with omnivores/predators, dominated by Viscosia, prevailing and followed by epistrate-feeders. In the food-limited Baltic community, non-selective deposit feeders (mainly Ascolaimus, Axonolaimus and Daptonema) and omnivores/predators dominated by Enoplolaimus were the most abundant trophic groups while selective deposit feeders were absent or their contribution was negligible. An analysis of the vertical generic distribution revealed highest diversity of the Baltic community in deeper sediment layers, below the sediment surface affected by ripple migration and near the interface of oxic and anoxic conditions. The diversity pattern in the North Sea sediment was more variable but generally showed high diversity in the upper centimetre of the sediment. These observations suggest that food supply and sediment oxygenation are the most important factors influencing the vertical pattern of nematode generic diversity in sublittoral, permeable sands.

Urban-Malinga, Barbara; Hedtkamp, Stefanie I. C.; van Beusekom, Justus E. E.; Wiktor, Józef; W?s?awski, Jan Marcin

2006-10-01

136

Proceedings of the Workshop on Computational Aspects in the Control of Flexible Systems, part 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Control/Structures Integration program software needs, computer aided control engineering for flexible spacecraft, computer aided design, computational efficiency and capability, modeling and parameter estimation, and control synthesis and optimization software for flexible structures and robots are among the topics discussed.

Taylor, Lawrence W., Jr. (compiler)

1989-01-01

137

Which Aspects of Postural Control Differentiate between Patients with Parkinson's Disease with and without Freezing of Gait?  

PubMed

This exploratory study aimed to identify which aspects of postural control are able to distinguish between subgroups of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and controls. Balance was tested using static and dynamic posturography. Freezers (n = 9), nonfreezers (n = 10), and controls (n = 10) stood on a movable force platform and performed 3 randomly assigned tests: (1) sensory organization test (SOT) to evaluate the effective use of sensory information, (2) motor control test (MCT) to assess automatic postural reactions in response to platform perturbations, and (3) rhythmic weight shift test (RWS) to evaluate the ability to voluntarily move the center of gravity (COG) mediolaterally and anterior-posteriorly (AP). The respective outcome measures were equilibrium and postural strategy scores, response strength and amplitude of weight shift. Patients were in the "on" phase of the medication cycle. In general, freezers performed similarly on SOT and MCT compared to nonfreezers. Freezers showed an intact postural strategy during sensory manipulations and an appropriate response to external perturbations. However, during voluntary weight shifting, freezers showed poorer directional control compared to nonfreezers and controls. This suggests that freezers have adequate automatic postural control and sensory integration abilities in quiet stance, but show specific directional control deficits when weight shifting is voluntary. PMID:23936729

Vervoort, Griet; Nackaerts, Evelien; Mohammadi, Farshid; Heremans, Elke; Verschueren, Sabine; Nieuwboer, Alice; Vercruysse, Sarah

2013-01-01

138

Biological control aspects of biological control—with special reference to arthropods, protozoans and helminths of domesticated animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological control describes situations in which a living antagonist (a predator, parasite, parasitoid or a pathogen) is distributed by man to lower pest (parasite) populations to acceptable sub-clinical densities or to keep the population at a non-harmful level. Ideally, biological control has no negative effects on the environment, whereas chemical control is not always so harmless. Laboratory and field observations

J. Grønvold; S. Aa. Henriksen; M. Larsen; P. Nansen; J. Wolstrup

1996-01-01

139

Integrating multiple sensors and industrial robots: system architecture and control aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

To improve the integration of sensors and robots, a system architecture that defines information processing in closed-loop sensor applications is proposed. The bandwidth of the control loop is increased by introducing additional underlying signal paths. This flexible system architecture reduces the deadtime problem by establishing additional underlying signal paths and allows the use of standard industrial robot controls with minor

Jurgen Wahrburg; W. Duchting

1988-01-01

140

Wavefront sensing and control aspects in a high energy laser optical train  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we review the major elements of a HEL (high energy laser) wavefront sensing and control system with particular emphasis on experimental demonstrations and hardware components developed at Lockheed Missiles & Space Company, Inc. The review concentrates on three important elements of wavefront control: wavefront sampling, wavefront sensing and active mirrors. Methods of wavefront sampling by diffraction gratings

M. Bartosewcz; N. Bareket

1981-01-01

141

Research on the Interior Control of the Final Settlement from the Owner's Aspect  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the promotion of the bill of quantity in china, the payment system which is based on the bill of quantity has raised even stricter requirement for the final settlement. Towards all the issues exposed in the final settlement process, the owner needs to find an efficient way to control the final settlement urgently. Interior control is a method which

Yin Yilin; Guo Kaiyin

2010-01-01

142

Urban Drainage and Flood Control Projects Economic, Legal and Financial Aspects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Techniques for evaluating minor and major Urban Drainage and Flood Control (UDFC) Projects are described. Economic, political, engineering, financial and legal problems must be faced prior to implementation of proper levels of these projects. The measurem...

N. S. Grigg L. H. Botham L. Rice W. J. Shoemaker L. S. Tucker

1976-01-01

143

Bibliography on the Planning Aspects of Air Pollution Control. Summary and Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An examination is made of the literature covering planning principles in terms of their applicability to air pollution control. Subject matter is broken down into six major subheadings: Elementary microclimatological considerations in city planning; relat...

W. J. Pelle

1964-01-01

144

Enforceability Aspects for RACT (Reasonably Available Control Technology) for the Chemical Synthesis Pharmaceutical Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Reasonably available control technology (RACT) requirements apply to pharmaceutical manufacturing plants using synthesis processes that emit more than 15 pounds per day of volatile organic compounds (VOC) located in photochemical oxidant nonattainment are...

T. Briggs C. Harvey J. McClure R. Pollard-Cavalli

1981-01-01

145

Control, monitoring and safety aspects of power distribution in the ATLAS experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this document will be presented examples of different approaches to implement electrical distribution. Ways to achieve the expected level of control will be demonstrated, statistics presenting usage of the control system will be given. Applications developed to enrich monitoring of the electrical infrastructure including also quality of the powering network will be shown. Characteristics of applications focused on safety of the Atlas rack's supply will be demonstrated.

Iwanski, W.

2012-02-01

146

Improvement in the control aspect of laser frequency stabilization for SUNLITE project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flight Electronics Division of Langley Research Center is developing a spaceflight experiment called the Stanford University and NASA Laser In-Space Technology (SUNLITE). The objective of the project is to explore the fundamental limits on frequency stability using an FM laser locking technique on a Nd:YAG non-planar ring (free-running linewidth of 5 KHz) oscillator in the vibration free, microgravity environment of space. Compact and automated actively stabilized terahertz laser oscillators will operate in space with an expected linewidth of less than 3 Hz. To implement and verify this experiment, NASA engineers have designed and built a state of the art, space qualified high speed data acquisition system for measuring the linewidth and stability limits of a laser oscillator. In order to achieve greater stability and better performance, an active frequency control scheme requiring the use of a feedback control loop has been applied. In the summer of 1991, the application of control theory in active frequency control as a frequency stabilization technique was investigated. The results and findings were presented in 1992 at the American Control Conference in Chicago, and have been published in Conference Proceedings. The main focus was to seek further improvement in the overall performance of the system by replacing the analogue controller by a digital algorithm.

Zia, Omar

1992-01-01

147

Technical Studies on the Engineering and Biological Aspects of Controlled Purification of the Eastern Oyster. Volume 3. Tables and Figures for Volume 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document reports results of studies on the engineering and biological aspects of controlled purification of the Eastern Oyster. The volume presents the data on which the analyses of Volumes I and II are based.

D. S. Haven F. O. Perkins R. Morales-Alamo M. Rhodes

1976-01-01

148

Technical Evaluation of the Electrical, Instrumentation, and Control Design Aspects of the Low Temperature Overpressure Protection System for the Yankee Rowe Nuclear Power Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents the technical evaluation of the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects for the low temperature overpressure protection system of the Yankee Rowe nuclear power plant. Design basis criteria used to evaluate the accepta...

V. R. Latorre B. G. Mayn

1979-01-01

149

Technical Evaluation of the Electrical, Instrumentation, and Control Design Aspects of the Low Temperature Overpressure Protection System for the Maine Yankee Nuclear Power Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents the technical evaluation of the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects for the low temperature overpressure protection system of the Maine Yankee nuclear power plant. Design basis criteria used to evaluate the accept...

V. R. Latorre B. G. Mayn

1979-01-01

150

Aspect and soil water repellency controlling water erosion in dry Mediterranean environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil hydrological response in Mediterranean areas is usually highly complex due to the strong spatial variability. This fact is amplified by the marked seasonality of precipitations, which provokes dramatic changes in vegetation cover and soil properties, such as soil water content or soil water repellency (SWR). The goal of this study is to shed light on the relations between SWR, aspect and vegetation, determining the soil hydrological and erosive response throughout the rainy period in different microenvironments. Erosion plots were set up in the north- and the south-facing hillslope, in shrub-covered as well in inter-shrub patches, and rainfall, runoff, sediments and SWR were monitored. Soils showed water repellency at the end of the dry season in both microenvironments of the north-facing hillslope but only in covered patches of the south-facing one. With the onset of the wet season, SWR disappeared and runoff coefficients decrease dramatically in the north-facing hillslope, revealing the importance of SWR in the hydrological response. In the south-facing hillslope seasonal changes were less important and the hydrological behaviour was mainly modulated by the vegetation pattern. Sediment losses were also affected by SWR and it decreased in the wet season when repellency disappeared. Regarding precipitation, the main factor determining the hydrological and erosive response was rainfall intensity, regardless of the rainfall depth of the event.

Gabarron-Galeote, Miguel A.; Martínez-Murillo, Juan F.; Quesada, Miguel A.; Ruiz-Sinoga, José D.

2014-05-01

151

Aspects of model-based rocket engine condition monitoring and control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A rigorous propulsion system modelling method suitable for control and condition monitoring purposes is developed. Previously developed control oriented methods yielding nominal models for gaseous medium propulsion systems are extended to include both nominal and anomalous models for liquid mediums in the following two ways. First, thermodynamic and fluid dynamic properties for liquids such as liquid hydrogen are incorporated into the governing equations. Second, anomalous conditions are captured in ways compatible with existing system theoretic design tools so that anomalous models can be constructed. Control and condition monitoring based methods are seen as an improvement over some existing modelling methods because such methods typically do not rigorously lead to low order models nor do they provide a means for capturing anomalous conditions. Applications to the nominal SSME HPFP and degraded HPFP serve to illustrate the approach.

Karr, Gerald R.; Helmicki, Arthur J.

1994-01-01

152

Aspects of model-based rocket engine condition monitoring and control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A rigorous propulsion system modelling method suitable for control and condition monitoring purposes is developed. Previously developed control oriented methods yielding nominal models for gaseous medium propulsion systems are extended to include both nominal and anomalous models for liquid mediums in the following two ways. First, thermodynamic and fluid dynamic properties for liquids such as liquid hydrogen are incorporated into the governing equations. Second, anomalous conditions are captured in ways compatible with existing system theoretic design tools so that anomalous models can be constructed. Control and condition monitoring based methods are seen as an improvement over some existing modelling methods because such methods typically do not rigorously lead to low order models nor do they provide a means for capturing anomalous conditions. Applications to the nominal SSME HPFP and degraded HPFP serve to illustrate the approach.

Karr, Gerald R.; Helmicki, Arthur J.

1994-04-01

153

Diverse Thinking about Diversity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on the concept of diversity in educational decision making. It is noted that the differences that distinguish the needs, interests and abilities are identified by educators. It lists misconceptions resulting from not attending to within-group diversity, and states that a "loss of self" for individual members of…

Kaplan, Sandra N.

2013-01-01

154

Legal aspects of public health: how law frames communicable disease control in Greece.  

PubMed

We reviewed Greek law (legislation, historic Royal Decrees, and modern Presidential ones, 1833-2010) pertinent to control of communicable diseases and compared this body of Greek law with the revised International Health Regulations. Greece authorizes and regulates communicable disease control commensurate with public health risks, and integrates the principles of equality, objectivity, and respect for human rights. Despite strength at the level of principles, Greek law lacks coherence, clarity, and systematization. An inadequate body of regulations means legislation falls short of adequate implementing authority and guidelines; public health authorities often cannot find or understand the laws, nor are they certain about allocation of jurisdictional authority. We identified areas for improvement. PMID:21866179

Hatzianastasiou, Sophia; Pavli, Androula; Maltezou, Helena C

2011-11-01

155

Theoretical and experimental aspects of chaos control by time-delayed feedback.  

PubMed

We review recent developments for the control of chaos by time-delayed feedback methods. While such methods are easily applied even in quite complex experimental context the theoretical analysis yields infinite-dimensional differential-difference systems which are hard to tackle. The essential ideas for a general theoretical approach are sketched and the results are compared to electronic circuits and to high power ferromagnetic resonance experiments. Our results show that the control performance can be understood on the basis of experimentally accessible quantities without resort to any model for the internal dynamics. PMID:12675432

Just, Wolfram; Benner, Hartmut; Reibold, Ekkehard

2003-03-01

156

Control and operational aspects of the Mascot 4 force feedback servomanipulator of JET  

Microsoft Academic Search

The telemanipulator developed for maintenance of the JET (Joint European Torus) tokamak (Mascot 4) is a microprocessor-controlled unit based on bilateral position servosystems. The main objective of this type of force-feedback servomanipulator is to give the operator, as nearly as possible, the tactile sensations of actually doing the job. Servomanipulator sensitivity, stiffness, time response and low reflected inertia characteristics are

L. Galbiati; T. Raimondi; P. Garetti; G. Costi

1991-01-01

157

Control and voting power in corporate networks: Concepts and computational aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper proposes to rely on power indices to measure the amount of control held by individual shareholders in corporate networks. The value of the indices is determined by a complex voting game viewed as the composition of interlocked weighted majority games; the compound,game reflects the structure of shareholdings. The paper describes an integrated algorithmic approach which allows to

Yves Crama; Luc Leruth

2007-01-01

158

An Economic Analysis of Phosphorous Control and Other Aspects of R76-1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On January 5, 1976, the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency proposed an amendment to the Water Pollution Control Regulations (Chapter 3) which: (1) deletes the general water quality standard for phosphorus of 0.05 mg/l, and (2) adds a new effluent st...

J. E. Ciecka R. G. Fabian D. S. Merilatt T. J. Murphy

1978-01-01

159

Measurement uncertainty and doping control in sport. Part 2: Metrological traceability aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The assessment of (non-)compliance in doping control and in particular the appreciation of uncertainty of measurement in such an assessment has become a subject of debate. In a previous paper, the requirements for evaluating measurement uncertainty have been addressed. The debate now focuses on the estimation of the standard uncertainty. The completeness of an uncertainty budget is discussed in view

Adriaan M. H. van der Veen

2004-01-01

160

Protecting the patient and the environment--new aspects and challenges in hospital infection control.  

PubMed

Environmental pollution has become a major concern for the future of life on our planet; medical care, especially in hospitals, contributes significantly to this pollution. The increasing usage of highly-developed medical devices, drugs and disposable products are a drain on natural resources as well as financial ones. In this situation, it is a major task for hospital epidemiologists to maintain high standards of hygiene while reducing environmental pollution, reducing consumption of limited natural resources, and minimizing costs. The reduction of hospital waste, the control of polluting and toxic emissions, the avoidance of unnecessary disinfection procedures and disposables, the implementation of energy and water saving technologies are practicable measures in hospital ecology. To realize a sustainable development within hospitals, it is necessary that the need to maintain a balance between effective infection control and a good ecological environment is recognized and supported by health-care workers and the hospital management. PMID:9172041

Daschner, F D; Dettenkofer, M

1997-05-01

161

Studies on certain aspects of chemical control of bacterial stalk rot disease of maize.  

PubMed

Sandoz seed dressing 6335 showing high efficacy in checking the growth of the maize stalk rot pathogen Erwinia carotovora f. sp. zeae Sabet in culture. Brestan, Antracol, Difolatan, Aratan, Duter, Ceresan wet, Flit-406, Cuman, Blitox-50, Streptocycline, Agrimycin, Terramycin, Actidione, Aureomycin, Chloromycetin, Penicillin G, and Streptomycin were moderately effective. The rest of the 35 chemicals was negligible in its influence. 15 different chemicals, namely Agrimycin, Streptocycline, Chloromycetin, Sodium penicillin G, Actidione, Terramycin, Aureomycin, Sandoz seed dressing 6335, Antracol, Aratan, Blitox-50, Diflotan-80, Ceresan wet, Cuman and Brestan 60 could also control the disease, but only when the plants were treated in vivo immediately after inoculation. They could not show any effectiveness, however, after 24, 48, and 72 hours of inoculation, showing their failure to control, once the infection has taken place by the pathogen. PMID:857509

Sinha, S K; Prasad, M

1977-01-01

162

Theoretic aspects of the identification of the parameters in the optimal control model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The identification of the parameters of the optimal control model from input-output data of the human operator is considered. Accepting the basic structure of the model as a cascade of a full-order observer and a feedback law, and suppressing the inherent optimality of the human controller, the parameters to be identified are the feedback matrix, the observer gain matrix, and the intensity matrices of the observation noise and the motor noise. The identification of the parameters is a statistical problem, because the system and output are corrupted by noise, and therefore the solution must be based on the statistics (probability density function) of the input and output data of the human operator. However, based on the statistics of the input-output data of the human operator, no distinction can be made between the observation and the motor noise, which shows that the model suffers from overparameterization.

Vanwijk, R. A.; Kok, J. J.

1977-01-01

163

Adapting plans in progress in distributed supervisory work: aspects of complexity, coupling, and control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed supervisory control systems often rely on complex and centralized plans to cope with a variety of unanticipated\\u000a situations. Replanning requires practitioners to forgo standard procedures in favor of making simple plans without simplifying,\\u000a managing task coupling, and anticipating team needs to provide decentralized and elaborate plans. This article proposes a\\u000a plan classification scheme to study what features of plans

Tom Kontogiannis

2010-01-01

164

Analytical and numerical aspects in solving the controlled 3D Gross-Pitaevskii equation  

SciTech Connect

The results of recently developed investigations, that have been carried out within the framework of the controlling potential method (CPM), are reviewed. This method allows one to decompose a three dimensional (3D) Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GPE) into the pair of coupled Schroedinger-type equations. Under suitable mathematical conditions, the solutions of the 3D controlled GPE can be constructed from the solutions of a 2D linear Schroedinger equation (the transverse component of the GPE) coupled with a 1D nonlinear Schroedinger equation (the longitudinal component of the GPE). Such decomposition allows one to cast the solutions in the form of the product of the solutions of the transverse and the longitudinal components of the GPE. The coupling between these two equations is the functional of both the transverse and the longitudinal profiles. It is shown that the CPM can be used to obtain a new class of three-dimensional solitary waves solutions of the GPE, which governs the dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensates. By imposing an external controlling potential, the desired time-dependent shape of the localized BECs is obtained. The stability of the exact solutions was checked with direct simulations of the time -dependent, three-dimensional GPE. Our simulations show that the localized condensates are stable with respect to perturbed initial conditions.

Fedele, R. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita Federico II and INFN Sezione di Napoli, Complesso Universitario di M.S. Angelo, via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Jovanovic, D. [Institute of Physics, P. O. Box 57, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); De Nicola, S. [Istituto di Cibernetica 'Eduardo Caianiello' del CNR Comprensorio 'A. Olivetti' Fabbr. 70, Via Campi Flegrei, 34, I-80078 Pozzuoli (Namibia) (Italy); Eliasson, B.; Shukla, P. K. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik IV, Fakultaet fuer Physik und Astronomie, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

2009-11-10

165

Biological Diversity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Material benefits of biological diversity; The psychological and philosophical basis for preserving biological diversity; Human reduction of biological diversity; Strategies for conserving biological diversity; U.S. policies on biological divers...

1980-01-01

166

Contamination control aspects of attaching waste drums to the WIPP Waste Characterization Chamber  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National Laboratory West (ANL-W) is verifying the characterization and repackaging of contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) mixed waste in support of the Waste Isolation Pilot Program (WIPP) project located in Carlsbad, New Mexico. The WIPP Waste Characterization Chamber (WCC) was designed to allow opening of transuranic waste drums for this process. The WCC became operational in March of 1994 and has characterized approximately 240 drums of transuranic waste. The waste drums are internally contaminated with high levels of transuranic radionuclides. Attaching and detaching drums to the glove box posed serious contamination control problems. Prior to characterizing waste, several drum attachment techniques and materials were evaluated. An inexpensive HEPA filter molded into the bagging material helps with venting during detachment. The current techniques and procedures used to attach and detach transuranic waste drums to the WCC are described.

Rubick, L.M.; Burke, L.L.

1998-12-31

167

Clinical Aspects of the Control of Plasma Volume at Microgravity and During Return to One Gravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plasma volume is reduced by 10%-20% within 24 to 48 h of exposure to simulated or actual microgravity. The clinical importance of microgravity-induced hypovolemia is manifested by its relationship with orthostatic intolerance and reduced VO2max after return to one gravity (1G). Since there is no evidence to suggest plasma volume reduction during microgravity is associated with thirst or renal dysfunctions, a diuresis induced by an immediate blood volume shift to the central circulation appears responsible for microgravity-induced hypovolemia. Since most astronauts choose to restrict their fluid intake before a space mission, absence of increased urine output during actual spaceflight may be explained by low central venous pressure (CVP) which accompanies dehydration. Compelling evidence suggests that prolonged reduction in CVP during exposure to microgravity reflects a 'resetting' to a lower operating point which acts to limit plasma volume expansion during attempts to increase fluid intake. In groudbase and spaceflight experiments, successful restoration and maintenance of plasma volume prior to returning to an upright posture may depend upon development of treatments that can return CVP to its baseline 10 operating point. Fluid-loading and LBNP have not proved completely effective in restoring plasma volume, suggesting that they may not provide the stimulus to elevate the CVP operating point. On the other, exercise, which can chronically increase CVP, has been effective in expanding plasma volume when combined with adequate dietary intake of fluid and electrolytes. The success of designing experiments to understand the physiological mechanisms of and development of effective countermeasures for the control of plasma volume in microgravity and during return to one gravity will depend upon testing that can be conducted under standardized controlled baseline condi

Convertino, Victor A.

1995-01-01

168

Sexually transmitted diseases in the tropics. Epidemiological, diagnostic, therapeutic, and control aspects.  

PubMed

Sexually transmitted diseases, especially syphilis, gonorrhea, granuloma inguinale, and lymphogranuloma, are on the increase in the tropics. Several environmental factors contribute to disease transmission, including polygamy, high bride price, prostitution, civil war, urbanization, and economic development. Diagnosis is generally made on clinical grounds due to inadequate laboratoary facilities, and it is not possible to differentiate syphilis from yaws. This diagnostic inaccuracy has meant that there are no reliable data with which to assess epidemiologic trends, institute control measures, and evaluate their effects. Inadequate treatment, caused by a lack of drugs and poorly trained medical attendants, is also a major problem. Inappropriate treatment has caused over 80% of gonococcal strains in some areas to be penicillin-resistant. Late complications of gonorrhea, epididymitis, and salpingitis are frequently seen and lead to sterility in many cases. These complications are as prevalent in some areas today as they were in pre-sulfonamide days. A determined effort is needed to control the spread of these diseases. A central unit with modern facilities for diagnosis and treatment should be established. Diagnostic tests, such as culture and serology, should be introduced at the district and provincial levels. Rural health centers should employ a polyvalent microscopist who is trained to recognize gonococcus in stained smears. Given the high default rates, treatment should be simplified, using a single dose schedule where possible. The impracticality of follow-up requires epidemiologic treatment of contacts in many cases. If mass screening of pregnant women is not possible, Crede's silver nitrate eyedrops are recommended to prevent ophthalmia neonatorum. High risk populations, including bar girls, migrant workers, soldiers, and sailors, should be targeted for health education campaigns. Such education should focus on regulation of sexual behavior, condom use, and, when infection is present, the importance of avoiding self-medication, early treatment, and cooperation in contact tracing. PMID:577059

Arya, O P; Lawson, J B

1977-04-01

169

In-line filtration minimizes organ dysfunction: New aspects from a prospective, randomized, controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Infused particles induce thrombogenesis, impair microcirculation and modulate immune response. We have previously shown in critically ill children, that particle-retentive in-line filtration reduced the overall complication rate of severe events, length of stay and duration of mechanical ventilation. We now evaluated the influence of in-line filtration on different organ function and thereby elucidated the potential underlying pathophysiological effects of particle infusion. Methods In this single-centre, prospective, randomized controlled trial 807 critically ill children were assigned to either control (n?=?406) or filter group (n?=?401), the latter receiving in-line filtration for complete infusion therapy. Both groups were compared regarding the differences of incidence rates and its 95% confidence interval (CI) of different organ dysfunction as defined by the International Pediatric Sepsis Consensus Conference 2005. Results The incidence rates of respiratory (?5.06%; 95% CI, ?9.52 to ?0.59%), renal (?3.87%; 95% CI, ?7.58 to ?0.15%) and hematologic (?3.89%; 95% CI, ?7.26 to ?0.51%) dysfunction were decreased in the filter group. No difference was demonstrated for the occurrence rates of cardiovascular, hepatic, or neurologic dysfunction between both groups. Conclusions In-line filtration has beneficial effects on the preservation of hematologic, renal and respiratory function in critically ill patients. The presented clinical data further support our hypothesis regarding potential harmful effects of particles. In critically ill patients infused particles may lead to further deterioration of the microcirculation, induce a systemic hypercoagulability and inflammation with consecutive negative effects on organ function. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov number; NCT00209768

2013-01-01

170

Clinical aspects of the control of plasma volume at microgravity and during return to one gravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plasma volume is reduced by 10-20% within 24-48 h of exposure to simulated or actual microgravity. The clinical importance of microgravity induced hypovolemia is manifested by its relationship with orthostatic intolerance and reduced maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) after return to one gravity (1G). Since there is no evidence to suggest that plasma volume reduction during microgravity is associated with thirst or renal dysfunctions, a diuresis induced by an immediate blood volume shift to the central circulation appears responsible for microgravity-induced hypovolemia. Since most astronauts choose to restrict their fluid intake before a space mission, absence of increased urine output during actual space flight may be explained by low central venous pressure (CVP) which accompanies dehydration. Compelling evidence suggests that prolonged reduction in CVP during exposure to microgravity reflects a "resetting" to a lower operating point, which acts to limit plasma volume expansion during attempts to increase fluid intake. In ground based and space flight experiments, successful restoration and maintenance of plasma volume prior to returning to an upright posture may depend upon development of treatments that can return CVP to its baseline IG operating point. Fluid-loading and lower body negative pressure (LBNP) have not proved completely effective in restoring plasma volume, suggesting that they may not provide the stimulus to elevate the CVP operating point. On the other hand, exercise, which can chronically increase CVP, has been effective in expanding plasma volume when combined with adequate dietary intake of fluid and electrolytes. The success of designing experiments to understand the physiological mechanisms of and development of effective counter measures for the control of plasma volume in microgravity and during return to IG will depend upon testing that can be conducted under standardized controlled baseline conditions during both ground-based and space flight investigations.

Convertino, V. A.

1996-01-01

171

Lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis prevention, treatment, and control costs across diverse settings: a systematic review.  

PubMed

The control and eventual elimination of neglected tropical disease (NTD) requires the expansion of interventions such as mass drug administration (MDA), vector control, diagnostic testing, and effective treatment. The purpose of this paper is to present the evidence base for decision-makers on the cost and cost-effectiveness of lymphatic filariasis (LF) and onchocerciasis prevention, treatment, and control. A systematic review of the published literature was conducted. All studies that contained primary or secondary data on costs or cost-effectiveness of prevention and control were considered. A total of 52 papers were included for LF and 24 papers were included for onchocerciasis. Large research gaps exist on the synergies and cost of integrating NTD prevention and control programs, as well as research on the role of health information systems, human resource systems, service delivery, and essential medicines and technology for elimination. The literature available on costs and cost-effectiveness of interventions is also generally older, extremely focal geographically and of limited usefulness for developing estimates of the global economic burden of these diseases and prioritizing among various intervention options. Up to date information on the costs and cost-effectiveness of interventions for LF and onchocerciasis prevention are needed given the vastly expanded funding base for the control and elimination of these diseases. PMID:24699086

Keating, Joseph; Yukich, Joshua O; Mollenkopf, Sarah; Tediosi, Fabrizio

2014-07-01

172

Calibration of high-aspect ratio quality control optical scanning system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas electron multiplier (GEM) detectors are widely used in contemporary high-energy physics experiments. The GEM is a detector containing a densely pierced polymer foil, coated with a thin metal layer on one or both sides. They are able to achieve high amplification gains and performance at low cost, even under harsh radiation conditions. The holes in the foils have a nominal diameter of 70 +/- 5 ?m and 140 ?m pitch distance between the centers of the holes. High-quality assurance is needed to guarantee a long lifespan for the detectors in the severe radiation environment. Mapping of the defects connecting two or more holes is important phase when determining the usability of a foil for detector application. The commercial optical scanning system (OSS) with a scanning area of 950 × 950 mm was further developed in the Detector Laboratory at Helsinki Institute of Physics for controlling the quality of GEM foils. Microfabricated transfer standard containing sets of 10 × 10 numbered etched cavities with a nominal diameter of 70 +/- 5 ?m was produced for system calibration. The cavity dimensions and the expanded uncertainty were calculated with the 95% confidence level, as is required by the ISO Guide for Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement. The transfer standard was examined with the OSS in nine different positions of the scanning area. The results were analyzed, the uncertainties were calculated and the corrections were made according to the ISO requirement.

Karadzhinova, Aneliya; Hildén, Timo; Heino, Jouni; Berdova, Maria; Lauhakangas, Rauno; Garcia, Francisco; Tuominen, Eija; Kassamakov, Ivan

2013-09-01

173

Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis: a neglected aspect of kala-azar control programmes.  

PubMed

Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) was studied in relation to the kala-azar epidemic in Bihar, India. Between 1970 and 1989, 530 individuals, 302 males and 228 females, were admitted to the hospital of Patna Medical College with PKDL, the number of cases steadily rising from two in 1970 to 59 in 1989. The age of the patients varied from four to 70 years, with 33% aged 11-20 years and 16% 0-10 years. The prevalence of kala-azar in India also increased in the same period, mostly as the result of an epidemic of the disease in Bihar. There were no cases of this disease admitted to Patna Medical College from 1958-1970, it having become rare in India in the 1950s, possibly as a result of the DDT sprayed during the National Malaria Eradication Programme. In the period 1977-1990, however, there were 301,076 cases of kala-azar reported in Bihar alone, with a mortality rate over 2% (compared with 31,074 cases and a mortality rate below 0.4% for the rest of India). It seems possible that, once DDT spraying stopped, the re-establishment of large sandfly population and infection of these vectors, largely as a result of them feeding on cases of PKDL, provoked the resurgence of kala-azar. The study emphasizes the need to search for cases of PKDL, even in young children, and to monitor and effectively treat them as part of kala-azar control programmes. All patients could be cured if treated with the right dosage for the right period.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1463355

Thakur, C P; Kumar, K

1992-08-01

174

Aerodynamic and heat transfer aspects of tip and casing treatments used for turbine tip leakage control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Axial flow turbine stages are usually designed with a gap between the tips of the rotating blades and a stationary outer casing. The presence of a strong pressure gradient across this gap drives flow from the pressure side of the blade to the suction side. This leakage flow creates a significant amount of energy loss of working fluid in the turbine stage. In a modern gas turbine engine the outer casing of the high-pressure turbine is also exposed to a combination of high flow temperatures and heat transfer coefficients. The casing is consequently subjected to high levels of convective heat transfer, a situation that is aggravated by flow unsteadiness caused by periodic blade-passing events. An experimental investigation of the aerodynamic and heat transfer effect of tip and casing treatments used in turbine tip leakage control was conducted in a large scale, low speed, rotating research turbine facility. The effects of casing treatments were investigated by measuring the total pressure field at the exit of the rotor using a high frequency response total pressure probe. A smooth wall as a baseline case was also investigated. The test cases presented include results of casing treatments with varying dimensions for tip gap height of t/h=2.5%. The results of the rotor exit total pressure indicate that the casing treatment significantly reduced the leakage mass flow rate and the momentum deficit in the core of the tip vortex. The reductions obtained in the tip vortex size and strength influenced the tip-side passage vortex and other typical core flow characteristics in the passage. Casing treatments with the highest ridge height was the most effective in reducing the total pressure loss in the leakage flow of the test blades. This was observed at a radius near the core of the tip vortex. It appears that casing treatments with the highest ridge height is also the most effective from a global point of view, as shown by the passage averaged pressure coefficient obtained in the last 20% of the blade height. The effect of the new blade tip concept, inclined squealer tip, on tip leakage flow with and without casing treatments is also investigated. The results of the rotor exit total pressure indicate that the inclined squealer tip arrangement has significant effects on both passage core flow and the interaction between the leakage vortex and the tip side passage vortex. A steady-state method of measuring convective heat transfer coefficient on the casing of an axial flow turbine is also developed for the comparison of various casing surface and tip designs used for turbine performance improvements. The free-stream reference temperature, especially in the tip gap region of the casing varies monotonically from the rotor inlet to rotor exit due to work extraction in the stage. In a heat transfer problem of this nature, the definition of the free-stream temperature is not as straight forward as constant free-stream temperature type problems. The accurate determination of the convective heat transfer coefficient depends on the magnitude of the local freestream reference temperature varying in axial direction, from the rotor inlet to exit. The current investigation explains a strategy for the simultaneous determination of the steadystate heat transfer coefficient and free-stream reference temperature on the smooth casing of a single stage rotating turbine facility. The heat transfer approach is also applicable to casing surfaces that have surface treatments for tip leakage control. The overall uncertainty of the method developed is between 5% and 8% of the convective heat transfer coefficient. The test cases presented show that the casing heat transfer is affected by the tip gap height. The heat transfer coefficient increases as the tip gap increases for both with and without casing treatments. It is also shown that the effect of ridge height on heat transfer coefficient is negligible for tip gap height of t/h=0.9%.

Gumusel, Baris

175

Cooperative Diversity with Disconnection Constraints and Sleep Discipline for Power Control in Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

ó We derive a power control policy for a group of sensor nodes that are monitoring a real-time application sensitive to disconnections (outages) of the communication. Specically , we suggest that the sensor nodes perform cooperative diver- sity while running a sleep discipline. After the description of a detailed model of the wireless links, we propose a power minimization algorithm

Carlo Fischione; Alvise Bonivento; Karl Henrik Johansson; Alberto L. Sangiovanni-vincentelli

2006-01-01

176

Tobacco Control Policy Advocacy Attitudes and Self-Efficacy among Ethnically Diverse High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study applied self-efficacy theory to assess empowerment to advocate on behalf of tobacco control policies. The Youth Tobacco Survey with added policy advocacy self-efficacy, attitudes, and outcome expectations scales was given to 9,177 high school students in Texas. Asians showed the lowest prevalence of experimentation and current smoking,…

Ramirez, Amelie G.; Velez, Luis F.; Chalela, Patricia; Grussendorf, Jeannie; McAlister, Alfred L.

2006-01-01

177

Decreased Functional Diversity and Biological Pest Control in Conventional Compared to Organic Crop Fields  

PubMed Central

Organic farming is one of the most successful agri-environmental schemes, as humans benefit from high quality food, farmers from higher prices for their products and it often successfully protects biodiversity. However there is little knowledge if organic farming also increases ecosystem services like pest control. We assessed 30 triticale fields (15 organic vs. 15 conventional) and recorded vascular plants, pollinators, aphids and their predators. Further, five conventional fields which were treated with insecticides were compared with 10 non-treated conventional fields. Organic fields had five times higher plant species richness and about twenty times higher pollinator species richness compared to conventional fields. Abundance of pollinators was even more than one-hundred times higher on organic fields. In contrast, the abundance of cereal aphids was five times lower in organic fields, while predator abundances were three times higher and predator-prey ratios twenty times higher in organic fields, indicating a significantly higher potential for biological pest control in organic fields. Insecticide treatment in conventional fields had only a short-term effect on aphid densities while later in the season aphid abundances were even higher and predator abundances lower in treated compared to untreated conventional fields. Our data indicate that insecticide treatment kept aphid predators at low abundances throughout the season, thereby significantly reducing top-down control of aphid populations. Plant and pollinator species richness as well as predator abundances and predator-prey ratios were higher at field edges compared to field centres, highlighting the importance of field edges for ecosystem services. In conclusion organic farming increases biodiversity, including important functional groups like plants, pollinators and predators which enhance natural pest control. Preventative insecticide application in conventional fields has only short-term effects on aphid densities but long-term negative effects on biological pest control. Therefore conventional farmers should restrict insecticide applications to situations where thresholds for pest densities are reached.

Krauss, Jochen; Gallenberger, Iris; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

2011-01-01

178

Important helminth infections in Southeast Asia diversity, potential for control and prospects for elimination.  

PubMed

Besides the 'big three'-HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis-there are a host of diseases that, by comparison, are truly neglected. These so-called neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), many of which caused by helminths, are intimately linked with poverty and are rampant where housing is poor; access to clean water and adequate sanitation is lacking; hygiene and nutrition is substandard and populations are marginalized and vulnerable. More than a billion people are affected by NTDs, mainly in remote rural and deprived urban settings of the developing world. An overview of papers published in two special thematic volumes of the Advances in Parasitology is provided here under the umbrella of current status of research and control of important helminth infections. A total of 25 comprehensive reviews are presented, which summarise the latest available data pertaining to the diagnosis, epidemiology, pathogenesis, prevention, treatment, control and eventual elimination of NTDs in Southeast Asia and neighbourhood countries. The focus of the first volume provides the current regional status of schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis, food-borne trematodiases, echinococcosis and cysticercosis/taeniasis, less common parasitic diseases that can cause epidemic outbreaks and helminth infections affecting the central nervous system. The second volume deals with the tools and strategies for control, including diagnostics, drugs, vaccines and cutting-edge basic research (e.g. the '-omics' sciences). Moreover, cross-cutting themes such as multiparasitism, social sciences, capacity strengthening, geospatial health technologies, health metrics and modelling the potential impact of climate change on helminthic diseases are discussed. Hopefully, these two volumes will become useful for researchers and, most importantly, disease control managers for integrated and sustainable control, rigorous monitoring and eventual elimination of NTDs in Southeast Asia and elsewhere. PMID:20624526

Utzinger, Jürg; Bergquist, Robert; Olveda, Remigio; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

2010-01-01

179

Integration of Signals along Orthogonal Axes of the Vertebrate Neural Tube Controls Progenitor Competence and Increases Cell Diversity.  

PubMed

A relatively small number of signals are responsible for the variety and pattern of cell types generated in developing embryos. In part this is achieved by exploiting differences in the concentration or duration of signaling to increase cellular diversity. In addition, however, changes in cellular competence-temporal shifts in the response of cells to a signal-contribute to the array of cell types generated. Here we investigate how these two mechanisms are combined in the vertebrate neural tube to increase the range of cell types and deliver spatial control over their location. We provide evidence that FGF signaling emanating from the posterior of the embryo controls a change in competence of neural progenitors to Shh and BMP, the two morphogens that are responsible for patterning the ventral and dorsal regions of the neural tube, respectively. Newly generated neural progenitors are exposed to FGF signaling, and this maintains the expression of the Nk1-class transcription factor Nkx1.2. Ventrally, this acts in combination with the Shh-induced transcription factor FoxA2 to specify floor plate cells and dorsally in combination with BMP signaling to induce neural crest cells. As development progresses, the intersection of FGF with BMP and Shh signals is interrupted by axis elongation, resulting in the loss of Nkx1.2 expression and allowing the induction of ventral and dorsal interneuron progenitors by Shh and BMP signaling to supervene. Hence a similar mechanism increases cell type diversity at both dorsal and ventral poles of the neural tube. Together these data reveal that tissue morphogenesis produces changes in the coincidence of signals acting along orthogonal axes of the neural tube and this is used to define spatial and temporal transitions in the competence of cells to interpret morphogen signaling. PMID:25026549

Sasai, Noriaki; Kutejova, Eva; Briscoe, James

2014-07-01

180

Integration of Signals along Orthogonal Axes of the Vertebrate Neural Tube Controls Progenitor Competence and Increases Cell Diversity  

PubMed Central

A relatively small number of signals are responsible for the variety and pattern of cell types generated in developing embryos. In part this is achieved by exploiting differences in the concentration or duration of signaling to increase cellular diversity. In addition, however, changes in cellular competence—temporal shifts in the response of cells to a signal—contribute to the array of cell types generated. Here we investigate how these two mechanisms are combined in the vertebrate neural tube to increase the range of cell types and deliver spatial control over their location. We provide evidence that FGF signaling emanating from the posterior of the embryo controls a change in competence of neural progenitors to Shh and BMP, the two morphogens that are responsible for patterning the ventral and dorsal regions of the neural tube, respectively. Newly generated neural progenitors are exposed to FGF signaling, and this maintains the expression of the Nk1-class transcription factor Nkx1.2. Ventrally, this acts in combination with the Shh-induced transcription factor FoxA2 to specify floor plate cells and dorsally in combination with BMP signaling to induce neural crest cells. As development progresses, the intersection of FGF with BMP and Shh signals is interrupted by axis elongation, resulting in the loss of Nkx1.2 expression and allowing the induction of ventral and dorsal interneuron progenitors by Shh and BMP signaling to supervene. Hence a similar mechanism increases cell type diversity at both dorsal and ventral poles of the neural tube. Together these data reveal that tissue morphogenesis produces changes in the coincidence of signals acting along orthogonal axes of the neural tube and this is used to define spatial and temporal transitions in the competence of cells to interpret morphogen signaling.

Sasai, Noriaki; Kutejova, Eva; Briscoe, James

2014-01-01

181

Merging metagenomics and geochemistry reveals environmental controls on biological diversity and evolution  

PubMed Central

Background The metabolic strategies employed by microbes inhabiting natural systems are, in large part, dictated by the physical and geochemical properties of the environment. This study sheds light onto the complex relationship between biology and environmental geochemistry using forty-three metagenomes collected from geochemically diverse and globally distributed natural systems. It is widely hypothesized that many uncommonly measured geochemical parameters affect community dynamics and this study leverages the development and application of multidimensional biogeochemical metrics to study correlations between geochemistry and microbial ecology. Analysis techniques such as a Markov cluster-based measure of the evolutionary distance between whole communities and a principal component analysis (PCA) of the geochemical gradients between environments allows for the determination of correlations between microbial community dynamics and environmental geochemistry and provides insight into which geochemical parameters most strongly influence microbial biodiversity. Results By progressively building from samples taken along well defined geochemical gradients to samples widely dispersed in geochemical space this study reveals strong links between the extent of taxonomic and functional diversification of resident communities and environmental geochemistry and reveals temperature and pH as the primary factors that have shaped the evolution of these communities. Moreover, the inclusion of extensive geochemical data into analyses reveals new links between geochemical parameters (e.g. oxygen and trace element availability) and the distribution and taxonomic diversification of communities at the functional level. Further, an overall geochemical gradient (from multivariate analyses) between natural systems provides one of the most complete predictions of microbial taxonomic and functional composition. Conclusions Clustering based on the frequency in which orthologous proteins occur among metagenomes facilitated accurate prediction of the ordering of community functional composition along geochemical gradients, despite a lack of geochemical input. The consistency in the results obtained from the application of Markov clustering and multivariate methods to distinct natural systems underscore their utility in predicting the functional potential of microbial communities within a natural system based on system geochemistry alone, allowing geochemical measurements to be used to predict purely biological metrics such as microbial community composition and metabolism.

2014-01-01

182

Enhancer diversity and the control of a simple pattern of Drosophila CNS midline cell expression.  

PubMed

Transcriptional enhancers integrate information derived from transcription factor binding to control gene expression. One key question concerns the extent of trans- and cis-regulatory variation in how co-expressed genes are controlled. The Drosophila CNS midline cells constitute a group of neurons and glia in which expression changes can be readily characterized during specification and differentiation. Using a transgenic approach, we compare the cis-regulation of multiple genes expressed in the Drosophila CNS midline primordium cells, and show that while the expression patterns may appear alike, the target genes are not equivalent in how these common expression patterns are achieved. Some genes utilize a single enhancer that promotes expression in all midline cells, while others utilize multiple enhancers with distinct spatial, temporal, and quantitative contributions. Two regulators, Single-minded and Notch, play key roles in controlling early midline gene expression. While Single-minded is expected to control expression of most, if not all, midline primordium-expressed genes, the role of Notch in directly controlling midline transcription is unknown. Midline primordium expression of the rhomboid gene is dependent on cell signaling by the Notch signaling pathway. Mutational analysis of a rhomboid enhancer reveals at least 5 distinct types of functional cis-control elements, including a binding site for the Notch effector, Suppressor of Hairless. The results suggest a model in which Notch/Suppressor of Hairless levels are insufficient to activate rhomboid expression by itself, but does so in conjunction with additional factors, some of which, including Single-minded, provide midline specificity to Notch activation. Similarly, a midline glial enhancer from the argos gene, which is dependent on EGF/Spitz signaling, is directly regulated by contributions from both Pointed, the EGF transcriptional effector, and Single-minded. In contrast, midline primordium expression of other genes shows a strong dependence on Single-minded and varying combinations of additional transcription factors. Thus, Single-minded directly regulates midline primordium-expressed genes, but in some cases plays a primary role in directing target gene midline expression, and in others provides midline specificity to cell signaling inputs. PMID:24854999

Pearson, Joseph C; Crews, Stephen T

2014-08-15

183

Arabidopsis Ovate Family Proteins, a Novel Transcriptional Repressor Family, Control Multiple Aspects of Plant Growth and Development  

SciTech Connect

BACKGROUND: The Arabidopsis genome contains 18 genes that are predicted to encode Ovate Family Proteins (AtOFPs), a protein family characterized by a conserved OVATE domain, an approximately 70-amino acid domain that was originally found in tomato OVATE protein. Among AtOFP family members, AtOFP1 has been shown to suppress cell elongation, in part, by suppressing the expression of AtGA20ox1, AtOFP4 has been shown to regulate secondary cell wall formation by interact with KNOTTED1-LIKE HOMEODOMAIN PROTEIN 7 (KNAT7), and AtOFP5 has been shown to regulate the activity of a BEL1-LIKEHOMEODOMAIN 1(BLH1)-KNAT3 complex during early embryo sac development, but little is known about the function of other AtOFPs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We demonstrated here that AtOFP proteins could function as effective transcriptional repressors in the Arabidopsis protoplast transient expression system. The analysis of loss-of-function alleles of AtOFPs suggested AtOFP genes may have overlapping function in regulating plant growth and development, because none of the single mutants identified, including T-DNA insertion mutants in AtOFP1, AtOFP4, AtOFP8, AtOFP10, AtOFP15 and AtOFP16, displayed any apparent morphological defects. Further, Atofp1 Atofp4 and Atofp15 Atofp16 double mutants still did not differ significantly from wild-type. On the other hand, plants overexpressing AtOFP genes displayed a number of abnormal phenotypes, which could be categorized into three distinct classes, suggesting that AtOFP genes may also have diverse functions in regulating plant growth and development. Further analysis suggested that AtOFP1 regulates cotyledon development in a postembryonic manner, and global transcript profiling revealed that it suppress the expression of many other genes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results showed that AtOFPs function as transcriptional repressors and they regulate multiple aspects of plant growth and development. These results provided the first overview of a previously unknown transcriptional repressor family, and revealed their possible roles in plant growth and development.

Wang, Shucai [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Chang, Ying [Northeast Agricultural University; Guo, Jianjun [Harvard University; Zeng, Qingning [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Ellis, Brian [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Chen, Jay [ORNL

2011-01-01

184

DEK Expression is controlled by E2F and deregulated in diverse tumor types.  

PubMed

Deregulation of the retinoblastoma (pRB) tumor suppressor pathway associated with aberrant activity of E2F transcription factors is frequently observed in human cancer. Microarray based analyses have revealed a large number of potential downstream mediators of the tumor suppressing activity of pRB, including DEK, a fusion partner of CAN found in a subset of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) patients carrying a (6; 9) translocation. Here we report that the expression of DEK is under direct control of E2F transcription factors. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays show that the DEK promoter is bound by endogenous E2F in vivo. The DEK promoter is transactivated by E2F and mutation of E2F binding sites eliminates this effect. Expression levels of DEK in human tumors have been investigated by tissue micro array analysis. We find that DEK is overexpressed in many solid tumors such as colon cancer, larynx cancer, bladder cancer, and melanoma. PMID:16721057

Carro, Maria Stella; Spiga, Fabio Mario; Quarto, Micaela; Di Ninni, Valentina; Volorio, Sara; Alcalay, Myriam; Müller, Heiko

2006-06-01

185

Somatic deletions implicated in functional diversity of brain cells of individuals with schizophrenia and unaffected controls.  

PubMed

While somatic DNA copy number variations (CNVs) have been identified in multiple tissues from normal people, they have not been well studied in brain tissues from individuals with psychiatric disorders. With ultrahigh depth sequencing data, we developed an integrated pipeline for calling somatic deletions using data from multiple tissues of the same individual or a single tissue type taken from multiple individuals. Using the pipelines, we identified 106 somatic deletions in DNA from prefrontal cortex (PFC) and/or cerebellum of two normal controls subjects and/or three individuals with schizophrenia. We then validated somatic deletions in 18 genic and in 1 intergenic region. Somatic deletions in BOD1 and CBX3 were reconfirmed using DNA isolated from non-pyramidal neurons and from cells in white matter using laser capture microdissection (LCM). Our results suggest that somatic deletions may affect metabolic processes and brain development in a region specific manner. PMID:24448323

Kim, Junho; Shin, Jong-Yeon; Kim, Jong-Il; Seo, Jeong-Sun; Webster, Maree J; Lee, Doheon; Kim, Sanghyeon

2014-01-01

186

Wildfire, thermokarst and vegetation change: integrating diverse controls over carbon cycling in arctic and boreal ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate is warming more rapidly in the tundra and forests of high northern latitudes than any other place on earth. Large, globally-important stocks of carbon (C) reside in these ecosystems. Characterized by cold, moist climate and frozen soils, these ecosystems have historically acted as a net sink for atmospheric C: they remove more C from the atmosphere on an annual basis than they release, resulting in the accumulation of large stocks in soils and plants. With warming climate comes the potential for fundamental changes in ecological controls over C cycling. Plant growth is limited by both low temperature and the slow regeneration of nutrients such as nitrogen (N). If warming stimulates plant growth by alleviating these limitations, than C uptake may increase. Indeed, satellite indices of greening as well as observations of shrub expansion and northern migration of the arctic treeline point towards increased plant productivity concurrent with climate warming. But as soils warm, microbial decomposition and release of C to the atmosphere, as well as disturbances such as wildfire or thermal erosion (thermokarst), are likely to increase, and it is unclear whether increased C loss may balance or even outweigh increased production, at least on the time-scale of decades to centuries. Understanding the net outcome of these two processes is important because it determines the sign of the feedback between the arctic/boreal C cycle and climate. A positive feedback, where warming increases C losses more than uptake, would amplify anthropogenic changes in climate, accelerating warming and destabilizing feedbacks between ecosystems and the atmosphere. A negative feedback, by contrast, where warming increases C uptake more than losses, would dampen the anthropogenic signal and stabilize climate. This presentation will focus on three general areas of ecological control over net ecosystem C balance in arctic and boreal ecosystems: nutrient availability, changing disturbance regimes, and changing plant species composition.

Mack, M. C.; Alexander, H. D.; DeMarco, J.; Melvin, A.

2012-12-01

187

The 'diverse, dynamic new world of global tobacco control'? An analysis of participation in the Conference of the Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control  

PubMed Central

Introduction The increasingly inequitable impacts of tobacco use highlight the importance of ensuring developing countries’ ongoing participation in global tobacco control. The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) has been widely regarded as reflecting the high engagement and effective influence of developing countries. Methods We examined participation in FCTC governance based on records from the first four meetings of the Conference of the Parties (COP), comparing representation and delegate diversity across income levels and WHO regions. Results While attendance at the COP sessions is high, there are substantial disparities in the relative representation of different income levels and regions, with lower middle and low income countries contributing only 18% and 10% of total meeting delegates, respectively. In regional terms, Europe provided the single largest share of delegates at all except the Durban (2008) meeting. Thirty-nine percent of low income countries and 27% of those from Africa were only ever represented by a single person delegation compared with 10% for high income countries and 11% for Europe. Rotation of the COP meeting location outside of Europe is associated with better representation of other regions and a stronger presence of delegates from national ministries of health and focal points for tobacco control. Conclusions Developing countries face particular barriers to participating in the COP process, and their engagement in global tobacco control is likely to diminish in the absence of specific measures to support their effective participation.

Plotnikova, Evgeniya; Hill, Sarah E; Collin, Jeff

2014-01-01

188

Mechanistic controls on diverse fates of terrestrial organic components in the East China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial carbon transferred from the land to sea is a critical component of the global carbon cycle. A range of geochemical proxies has been developed to fingerprint the fate of terrestrial organic matter (TOM) in marine sediments. However, discrepancies among different proxies limit our ability to quantify and interpret the terrestrial signals in marine sediments, with consequences for the investigation of both the modern carbon cycle and past environmental change. To mechanistically understand these discrepancies, we examined the distributions of a range of terrestrial proxies and their aquatic counterparts (i.e. marine proxies) in the Yangtze river-East China Sea (YR-ECS) shelf system, where TOM experiences extensive modification during transport and burial. TOM proxies in the YR-ECS system collectively fit a power-law model but with distinct attenuation rates (the a? values) for individual molecular proxy groups. Among a range of TOM proxies, the modeled a? values decrease in the order: soil-marker BHPs > triterpenols > lignin > HMW n-alkanols > branched GDGTs > HMW n-alkanes for biomarkers; and Rsoil > BIT > %TOMiso for proxies tracing %TOM. Rapid loss of TOM components through dissociation in the narrow estuary, followed by oxidation over the wide open shelf, are best described by power curves. Inherent chemical reactivity (i.e. the number of functional groups), responses to hydraulic sorting, and in situ production regulate the individual attenuation rates. Of them, chemical reactivity plays the most important role on proxy behavior, supported by a strong correlation between a? values and standard molal Gibbs energies. Both, physical protection and chemical reactivity fundamentally control the overall behavior of TOM components, with the relative importance being setting-dependant: The former is relatively important in the estuary, whereas the later is the primary control over the open shelf. Moreover, regional variation of different marine-counterparts is also significant over the river-ECS shelf system, seemingly regulated by regional nutrient distributions. Therefore, for %TOM estimates using molecular ratio approaches, the specific behavior of individual terrestrial components and marine-counterparts and the physical, biological and chemical characteristics of depositional settings all need to be considered.

Zhu, Chun; Wagner, Thomas; Talbot, Helen M.; Weijers, Johan W. H.; Pan, Jian-Ming; Pancost, Richard D.

2013-09-01

189

Novel aspect in grain size control of nanocrystalline diamond film for thin film waveguide mode resonance sensor application.  

PubMed

Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) thin film growth was systematically investigated for application for the thin film waveguide mode resonance sensor. The NCD thin film was grown on the Si wafer or on the SiO2-coated sapphire substrate using the hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD). The structural/optical properties of the samples were characterized by the high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy. The waveguide modes of the NCD layer were studied by prism coupler technique using laser (wavelength: 632.8 nm) with varying incident angle. A novel aspect was disclosed in the grain size dependence on the growth temperature at the relatively low methane concentration in the precursor gas, which was important for optical property: the grain size increased with decreasing growth temperature, which was contrary to the conventional knowledge prevailing in the microcrystalline diamond (MCD) domain. We have provided discussions to reconcile such observation. An optical waveguide mode resonance was demonstrated in the visible region using the microstructure-controlled transparent NCD thin film waveguide, which provided a strong potential for the waveguide mode resonance sensor applications. PMID:24195713

Lee, Hak-Joo; Lee, Kyeong-Seok; Cho, Jung-Min; Lee, Taek-Sung; Kim, Inho; Jeong, Doo Seok; Lee, Wook-Seong

2013-11-27

190

Stratgies for Diversity Usage to Mitigate Postulated Common Cause Failure Vulnerabilities  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes an approach to establish effective mitigating strategies that can resolve potential common-cause failure (CCF) vulnerabilities in instrumentation and control systems at nuclear power plants. A particular objective in the development of these strategies, which consist of combinations of diversity attributes and their associated criteria, is to address the unique characteristics of digital technology that can contribute to CCF concerns. The research approach employed to establish diversity strategies involves investigation of available documentation on diversity usage and experience from nuclear power and non-nuclear industries, capture of expert knowledge and lessons learned, determination of common practices, and assessment of the nature of CCFs and compensating diversity attributes. The resulting diversity strategies address considerations such as the effect of technology choices, the nature of CCF vulnerabilities, and the prospective impact of each diversity type. In particular, the impact of each attribute and criterion on the purpose, process, product, and performance aspects of diverse systems are considered.

Wood, Richard Thomas [ORNL; Waterman, Michael E. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

2011-01-01

191

Diversity in smartphone usage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using detailed traces from 255 users, we con- duct a comprehensive study of smartphone use. We char- acterize intentional user activities - interactions with the device and the applications used - and the impact of those activities on network and energy usage. We find immense diversity among users. Along all aspects that we study, users differ by one or more

Hossein Falaki; Ratul Mahajan; Srikanth Kandula; Dimitrios Lymberopoulos; Ramesh Govindan; Deborah Estrin

2010-01-01

192

Food hiding and weight control behaviors among ethnically diverse, overweight adolescents. Associations with parental food restriction, food monitoring, and dissatisfaction with adolescent body shape  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aims to extend previous research conducted with children by examining associations between parental behaviors (food restriction, food monitoring) and parental perceptions (dissatisfaction with adolescent body shape) with adolescent behaviors (food hiding and weight control behaviors) among an ethnically diverse sample of overweight adolescents. Survey data were collected from overweight adolescents and their parents\\/guardians (n=116 dyads) at an

DenYelle Baete Kenyon; Jayne A. Fulkerson; Harsohena Kaur

2009-01-01

193

Emergency Victim Care. A Training Manual for Emergency Medical Technicians. Module 2. Equipment, Safe Driving Practices, Legal Aspects, Controlling the Situation, Action Evaluation Conference. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This student manual, the second in a set of 14 modules, is designed to train emergency medical technicians (EMTs) in Ohio. The module contains five sections that cover the following course content: ambulance equipment, safe driving practices for emergency vehicle drivers, legal aspects of the EMT's job, how to maintain control at an accident scene…

Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Vocational Education.

194

Endemic predators, invasive prey and native diversity  

PubMed Central

Interactions between native diversity and invasive species can be more complex than is currently understood. Invasive ant species often substantially reduce diversity in the native ants diversity that act as natural control agents for pest insects. In Indonesia (on the island of Sulawesi), the third largest cacao producer worldwide, we show that a predatory endemic toad (Ingerophrynus celebensis) controls invasive ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes) abundance, and positively affects native ant diversity. We call this the invasive-naivety effect (an opposite of enemy release), whereby alien species may not harbour anti-predatory defences against a novel native predator. A positive effect of the toads on native ants may facilitate their predation on insect vectors of cacao diseases. Hence, toads may increase crop yield, but further research is needed on this aspect. Ironically, amphibians are globally the most threatened vertebrate class and are strongly impacted by the conversion of rainforest to cacao plantations in Sulawesi. It is, therefore, crucial to manage cacao plantations to maintain these endemic toads, as they may provide critical ecosystem services, such as invasion resistance and preservation of native insect diversity.

Wanger, Thomas C.; Wielgoss, Arno C.; Motzke, Iris; Clough, Yann; Brook, Barry W.; Sodhi, Navjot S.; Tscharntke, Teja

2011-01-01

195

Transonic steady- and unsteady-pressure measurements on a high-aspect-ratio supercritical-wing model with oscillating control surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A supercritical wing with an aspect ratio of 10.76 and with two trailing-edge oscillating control surfaces is described. The semispan wing is instrumented with 252 static orifices and 164 in situ dynamic-pressure gages for studying the effects of control-surface position and motion on steady- and unsteady-pressures at transonic speeds. Results from initial tests conducted in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at two Reynolds numbers are presented in tabular form.

Sandford, M. C.; Ricketts, R. H.; Cazier, F. W., Jr.

1980-01-01

196

High-aspect ratio metal tips attached to atomic force microscopy cantilevers with controlled angle, length, and radius for electrostatic force microscopy.  

PubMed

We demonstrate a method to fabricate a high-aspect ratio metal tip attached to microfabricated cantilevers with controlled angle, length, and radius, for use in electrostatic force microscopy. A metal wire, after gluing it into a guiding slot that is cut into the cantilever, is shaped into a long, thin tip using a focused ion beam. The high-aspect ratio results in considerable reduction of the capacitive force between tip body and sample when compared to a metal coated pyramidal tip. PMID:18052479

Cockins, Lynda; Miyahara, Yoichi; Stomp, Romain; Grutter, Peter

2007-11-01

197

Molecular aspects of transport in thin films of controlled architecture. Technical summary, July 1, 1991--June 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect

Work was done in two principal areas: characterization of diffusion in swollen polymer films both with and without a barrier layer, and initial investigations of molecular aspects of swelling using enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

Not Available

1992-12-01

198

Institutionalising campus diversity in South African higher education: Review of diversity scholarship and diversity education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasingly the social, educational, cultural,linguistic, religious and racial diversity ofSouth African society is finding expressionwithin South African institutions of highereducation. Consequently, ``diversity'',``diversity issues'' and ``diversification'', havebecome part of the education debate and policy,and pose new challenges to South Africantertiary institutions. Most institutions areattempting to respond to these challengeswithin the context of a transformation processwhich impacts on every aspect of academic

Michael Cross

2004-01-01

199

Comparison of analytical and experimental subsonic steady and unsteady pressure distributions for a high-aspect-ratio-supercritical wing model with oscillating control surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a comparative study using the unsteady aerodynamic lifting surface theory, known as the Doublet Lattice method, and experimental subsonic steady- and unsteady-pressure measurements, are presented for a high-aspect-ratio supercritical wing model. Comparisons of pressure distributions due to wing angle of attack and control-surface deflections were made. In general, good correlation existed between experimental and theoretical data over most of the wing planform. The more significant deviations found between experimental and theoretical data were in the vicinity of control surfaces for both static and oscillatory control-surface deflections.

Mccain, W. E.

1982-01-01

200

The influence of phytoplankton productivity, temperature and environmental stability on the control of copepod diversity in the North East Atlantic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The patterns of copepod species richness (S) and their relationship with phytoplankton productivity, temperature and environmental stability were investigated at climatological, seasonal and year-to-year time scales as well as scales along latitudinal and oceanic-neritic gradients using monthly time series of the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) Survey collected in the North East Atlantic between 1958 and 2006. Time series analyses confirmed previously described geographic patterns. Equatorward and towards neritic environments, the climatological average of S increases and the variance explained by the seasonal cycle decreases. The bi-modal character of seasonality increases equatorward and the timing of the seasonal cycle takes place progressive earlier equatorward and towards neritic environments. In the long-term, the climatological average of S decreased significantly (p < 0.001) between 1958 and 2006 in the Bay of Biscay and North Iberian shelf at a rate of ca. 0.04 year-1, and increased at the same rate between 1991 and 2006 in the northernmost oceanic location. The climatological averages of S correlate positively with those of the index of seasonality of phytoplankton productivity (ratio between the minimum and maximum monthly values of surface chlorophyll) and sea surface temperature, and negatively with those of the proxy for environmental stability (monthly frequency of occurrence of daily averaged wind speed exceeding 10 m s-1). The seasonal cycles of S and phytoplankton productivity (surface chlorophyll as proxy) exhibit similar features in terms of shape, timing and explained variance, but the relationship between the climatological averages of both variables is non-significant. From year-to-year, the annual averages of S correlate negatively with those of phytoplankton productivity and positively with those of sea surface temperature along the latitudinal gradient, and negatively with those of environmental stability along the oceanic-neritic gradient. The annual anomalies of S (i.e. factoring out geographic variation) show a unimodal relationship with those of sea surface temperature and environmental stability, with S peaking at intermediate values of the anomalies of these variables. The results evidence the role of seasonality of phytoplankton productivity on the control of copepod species richness at seasonal and climatological scales, giving support to the species richness-productivity hypothesis. Although sea surface temperature (SST) is indeed a good predictor of richness along the latitudinal gradient, it is unable to predict the increase of richness form oceanic to neritic environments, thus lessening the generality of the species richness-energy hypothesis. Meteo-hydrographic disturbances (i.e. SST and wind speed anomalies as proxies), presumably through its role on mixed layer depth dynamics and turbulence and hence productivity, maximise local diversity when occurring at intermediate frequency and or intensity, thus providing support to the intermediate disturbance hypothesis on the control of copepod diversity.

Nogueira, Enrique; González-Nuevo, Gonzalo; Valdés, Luis

2012-05-01

201

Relationship between bacterial diversity and function under biotic control: the soil pesticide degraders as a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In soil, the way biotic parameters impact the relationship between bacterial diversity and function is still unknown. To understand these interactions better, we used RNA-based stable-isotope probing to study the diversity of active atrazine-degrading bacteria in relation to atrazine degradation and to explore the impact of earthworm-soil engineering with respect to this relationship. Bulk soil, burrow linings and earthworm casts

Cécile Monard; Philippe Vandenkoornhuyse; Barbara Le Bot; Françoise Binet

2011-01-01

202

Instructional Diversity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how learning occurs in the brain, specifically in the limbic system. Compares traditional teaching methods and diverse learning modes. Describes the characteristics of diverse instructional approaches. First published in 1994. (YDS)

Samples, Bob

2000-01-01

203

Bacterial Diversity in Oral Samples of Children in Niger with Acute Noma, Acute Necrotizing Gingivitis, and Healthy Controls  

PubMed Central

Background Noma is a gangrenous disease that leads to severe disfigurement of the face with high morbidity and mortality, but its etiology remains unknown. Young children in developing countries are almost exclusively affected. The purpose of the study was to record and compare bacterial diversity in oral samples from children with or without acute noma or acute necrotizing gingivitis from a defined geographical region in Niger by culture-independent molecular methods. Methods and Principal Findings Gingival samples from 23 healthy children, nine children with acute necrotizing gingivitis, and 23 children with acute noma (both healthy and diseased oral sites) were amplified using “universal” PCR primers for the 16 S rRNA gene and pooled according to category (noma, healthy, or acute necrotizing gingivitis), gender, and site status (diseased or control site). Seven libraries were generated. A total of 1237 partial 16 S rRNA sequences representing 339 bacterial species or phylotypes at a 98–99% identity level were obtained. Analysis of bacterial composition and frequency showed that diseased (noma or acute necrotizing gingivitis) and healthy site bacterial communities are composed of similar bacteria, but differ in the prevalence of a limited group of phylotypes. Large increases in counts of Prevotella intermedia and members of the Peptostreptococcus genus are associated with disease. In contrast, no clear-cut differences were found between noma and non-noma libraries. Conclusions Similarities between acute necrotizing gingivitis and noma samples support the hypothesis that the disease could evolve from acute necrotizing gingivitis in certain children for reasons still to be elucidated. This study revealed oral microbiological patterns associated with noma and acute necrotizing gingivitis, but no evidence was found for a specific infection-triggering agent.

Stadelmann, Benoit; Baratti-Mayer, Denise; Gizard, Yann; Mombelli, Andrea; Pittet, Didier; Schrenzel, Jacques

2012-01-01

204

Leadership and diversity: theory and research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diversity has become a ubiquitous term within education, often harnessed with a second concept, that of inclusion. Despite heightened interest, theorists in education leadership have remained relatively uninterested in multiple aspects of identity and diversity. This article explores the epistemological and methodological implications of moving forward by considering the symbiosis of how diversity is theorised and researched, and how this

Jacky Lumby; Marlene Morrison

2010-01-01

205

Mutuality as an Aspect of Family Functioning in Predicting Eating Disorder Symptoms in College Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined mutuality, an aspect of Relational Cultural Theory, in an ethnically diverse sample of 397 college women from Midwestern and Western universities. We hypothesized that mutuality would predict scores on an eating disorder scale after controlling for traditional family variables, such as expressed emotion. As predicted, mutuality, as…

Sanftner, Jennifer L.; Cameron, Rebecca P.; Tantillo, Mary; Heigel, Caron P.; Martin, David Myron; Sippel-Silowash, Julie Ann; Taggart, Jane M.

2006-01-01

206

Regulatory aspects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At this time, there is no US legislation that is specifically aimed at regulating the environmental release of genetically engineered organisms or their modified components, either during the research and development stage or during application. There are some statutes, administered by several federal agencies, whose language is broad enough to allow the extension of intended coverage to include certain aspects of biotechnology. The one possible exception is FIFRA, which has already brought about the registration of several natural microbial pesticides but which also has provision for requiring the registration of “strain improved” microbial pesticides. Nevertheless, there may be gaps in coverage even if all pertinent statutes were to be actively applied to the control of environmental release of genetically modified substances. The decision to regulate biotechnology under TSCA was justified, in part, on the basis of its intended role as a gap-filling piece of environmental legislation. The advantage of regulating biotechnology under TSCA is that this statute, unlike others, is concerned with all media of exposure (air, water, soil, sediment, biota) that may pose health and environmental hazards. Experience may show that extending existing legislation to regulate biotechnology is a poor compromise compared to the promulgation of new legislation specifically designed for this purpose. It appears that many other countries are ultimately going to take the latter course to regulate biotechnology.

Stern, Arthur M.

1986-07-01

207

Expression of genes controlling fat deposition in two genetically diverse beef cattle breeds fed high or low silage diets  

PubMed Central

Background Both genetic background and finishing system can alter fat deposition, thus indicating their influence on adipogenic and lipogenic factors. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying fat deposition and fatty acid composition in beef cattle are not fully understood. This study aimed to assess the effect of breed and dietary silage level on the expression patterns of key genes controlling lipid metabolism in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle of cattle. To that purpose, forty bulls from two genetically diverse Portuguese bovine breeds with distinct maturity rates, Alentejana and Barrosã, were selected and fed either low (30% maize silage/70% concentrate) or high silage (70% maize silage/30% concentrate) diets. Results The results suggested that enhanced deposition of fatty acids in the SAT from Barrosã bulls, when compared to Alentejana, could be due to higher expression levels of lipogenesis (SCD and LPL) and ?-oxidation (CRAT) related genes. Our results also indicated that SREBF1 expression in the SAT is increased by feeding the low silage diet. Together, these results point out to a higher lipid turnover in the SAT of Barrosã bulls when compared to Alentejana. In turn, lipid deposition in the LL muscle is related to the expression of adipogenic (PPARG and FABP4) and lipogenic (ACACA and SCD) genes. The positive correlation between ACACA expression levels and total lipids, as well trans fatty acids, points to ACACA as a major player in intramuscular deposition in ruminants. Moreover, results reinforce the role of FABP4 in intramuscular fat development and the SAT as the major site for lipid metabolism in ruminants. Conclusions Overall, the results showed that SAT and LL muscle fatty acid composition are mostly dependent on the genetic background. In addition, dietary silage level impacted on muscle lipid metabolism to a greater extent than on that of SAT, as evaluated by gene expression levels of adipogenic and lipogenic factors. Moreover, the response to diet composition evaluated through mRNA levels and fatty acid composition showed interesting differences between Alentejana and Barrosã bulls. These findings provide evidence that the genetic background should be taken into account while devising diet-based strategies to manipulate fatty acid composition of beef cattle tissues.

2013-01-01

208

Dye-sensitized solar cells based on ZnO nanowire array/TiO2 nanoparticle composite photoelectrodes with controllable nanowire aspect ratio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ZnO nanowire (NW) array/TiO2 nanoparticle (NP) composite photoelectrode with controllable NW aspect ratio has been grown from aqueous solutions for the fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), which combines the advantages of the rapid electron transport in ZnO NW array and the high surface area of TiO2 NPs. The results indicate that the composite photoelectrode achieves higher overall photoelectrical conversion efficiency ( ?) than the ZnO NW alone. As a result, DSSCs based on the ZnO NW array/TiO2 NP composite photoelectrodes get the enhanced photoelectrical conversion efficiency, and the highest ? is also achieved by rational tuning the aspect ratio of ZnO NWs. With the proper aspect ratio (ca. 6) of ZnO NW, the ZnO NW array/TiO2 NP composite DSSC exhibits the highest conversion efficiency (5.5 %). It is elucidated by the dye adsorption amount and interfacial electron transport of DSSCs with the ZnO NW array/TiO2 NP composite photoelectrode, which is quantitatively characterized using the UV-Vis absorption spectra and electrochemical impedance spectra. It is evident that the DSSC with the proper aspect ratio of ZnO NW displays the high dye adsorption amount and fastest interfacial electron transfer.

Qi, Lihong; Yu, Hailong; Lei, Zhenyu; Wang, Qingshan; Ouyang, Qiuyun; Li, Chunyan; Chen, Yujin

2013-04-01

209

Control of landscape diversity by catastrophic disturbance: A theory and a case study of fire in a Canadian boreal forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

A landscape may be envisioned as a space partitioned by a number of ecosystem types, and so it conforms to a neo-Clementsian model of succession. A corollary is that intermediate disturbance rates should maximize landscape (beta) diversity. This was confirmed using eight boreal forest landscapes in northwestern Ontario, Canada, where intermediate rates of forest fire were associated with highest landscape

Roger Suffling; Catherine Lihou; Yvette Morand

1988-01-01

210

The Sr1 gene that controls diversity of the anti-inulin antibody response maps to mouse chromosome 14  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies demonstrated that the diversity of the antibody response of mice to the inulin (In) determinant of bacterial levan is regulated by the gene Spectrotype Regulation 1 (Sr1). BALB\\/c mice produce a monoclonal anti-In response as shown by isoelectric focusing analysis. In contrast, the anti-In antibody response of (BALB\\/c×C57BL\\/6)F1 mice is significantly more heterogeneous. We performed a backcross and

Linda Jones Tiffany; Roy Riblet; Kathryn E. Stein

2003-01-01

211

Controllable synthesis of high aspect ratio Mg2B2O5 nanowires and their applications in reinforced polyhydroxyalkanoate composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highly pure magnesium borate (Mg2B2O5) nanowires with an average diameter of ~ 30 nm, an average length of ~ 15 ?m, and a high aspect ratio of ~ 500 have been synthesized on a large scale via a two-step method. MgBO2(OH) nanowires with high aspect ratios were first prepared via a PVP-assisted hydrothermal technique. Using these nanowires as precursors, single crystalline Mg2B2O5 nanowires were synthesized by post-annealing treatment at a relatively low temperature of 700 °C. The important effect of the MgBO2(OH)—Mg2B2O5 conversion process on the morphology of the Mg2B2O5 nanowires was investigated and it was indicated that the recrystallization process plays an important role in the protection of the one-dimensional (1D) nanostructure. Moreover, the rigidity and the toughness of the Mg2B2O5 nanowire-reinforced PHA composites were tremendously improved compared to those of the pure PHA. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of Mg2B2O5 nanowires for reinforcement applications in polymer composites.

Mo, Zhao-Jun; Chen, Jin-Peng; Lin, Jing; Fan, Ying; Liang, Chun-Yong; Wang, Hong-Shui; Xu, Xue-Wen; Hu, Long; Tang, Cheng-Chun

2014-05-01

212

Experimental Tests of Effects of Plant Productivity and Diversity on Grassland Arthropod Diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because the quantity, quality, and heterogeneity of resources should affect the diversity of consumers, plant productivity, plant composition, and plant diversity may influence the diversity of trophic levels higher up the food chain (''bottom-up'' control of diversity). Increasing plant productivity may increase herbivore diversity by: increasing the abundance of rare resources (''resource rarity hypothesis''), increasing herbivore abun- dance and local

Evan Siemann

1998-01-01

213

Shaping Medical Students' Attitudes Toward Ethically Important Aspects of Clinical Research: Results of a Randomized, Controlled Educational Intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of research ethics training on medical students' attitudes about clinical research are examined. A preliminary randomized controlled trial evaluated 2 didactic approaches to ethics training compared to a no-intervention control. The participant-oriented intervention emphasized subjective experiences of research participants (empathy focused). The criteria-oriented intervention emphasized specific ethical criteria for analyzing protocols (analytic focused). Compared to controls, those in

Laura Weiss Roberts; Teddy D. Warner; Laura B. Dunn; Janet L. Brody; Katherine A. Green Hammond; Brian B. Roberts

2007-01-01

214

Health Aspects of Chemical Safety. Legislative and Administrative Procedures for the Control of Chemicals. Interim Document 5. Legislation and Administration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Each year from 200 to 1000 new chemicals enter the market. Their control is vital, but possible adverse effects of chemicals on human health and the environment must be weighed against the many benefits derived from their use. Many countries have control ...

A. I. Bainova M. Idman-Philp W. Huster S. Westberg A. Gilad

1982-01-01

215

Design aspects of a high-speed sensorless brushless dc motor using third harmonic back-emf for sensorless control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is increasing interest in high-speed permanent magnet (PM) brushless dc motors for a wide range of applications. Back-emf is often utilized for sensorless operation of permanent magnet brushless dc motors, by detecting the emf zero crossings. However, in high-speed motors, the free-wheeling diode conduction can last more than 30 e deg. This can obscure the zero crossings of the phase EMF; therefore, it is preferable to utilize the third harmonic emf instead of the phase emf. In this paper, some design aspects related to this high-speed sensorless operation are presented, including a special nonoverlapping winding arrangement and magnet segmenting technique. Finally, the experimental results confirmed the validity of the proposed design method.

Wang, Kai; Shen, Jianxin; Zhou, Fengzheng; Fei, Weizhong

2008-04-01

216

Design verification and fabrication of active control systems for the DAST ARW-2 high aspect ratio wing. Part 2: Appendices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is Part 2-Appendices of a study conducted under Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) Program to accomplish the final design and hardware fabrication for four active control systems compatible with and ready for installation in the NASA Aeroelastic Research Wing No. 2 (ARW-2) and Firebee II drone flight test vehicle. The wing structure was designed so that Active Control Systems (ACS) are required in the normal flight envelope by integrating control system design with aerodynamics and structure technologies. The DAST ARW-2 configuration uses flutter suppression, relaxed static stability, and gust and maneuver load alleviation ACS systems, and an automatic flight control system. Performance goals and criteria were applied to individual systems and the systems collectively to assure that vehicle stability margins, flutter margins, flying qualities, and load reductions were achieved.

Mcgehee, C. R.

1986-01-01

217

Design verification and fabrication of active control systems for the DAST ARW-2 high aspect ratio wing, part 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was conducted under Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) program to accomplish the final design and hardware fabrication for four active control systems compatible with and ready for installation in the NASA Aeroelastic Research Wing No. 2 (ARW-2) and Firebee II drone flight test vehicle. The wing structure was designed so that Active Control Systems (ACS) are required in the normal flight envelope by integrating control system design with aerodynamics and structure technologies. The DAST ARW-2 configuration uses flutter suppression, relaxed static stability, and gust and maneuver load alleviation ACS systems, and an automatic flight control system. Performance goals and criteria were applied to individual systems and the systems collectively to assure that vehicle stability margins, flutter margins, flying qualities and load reductions are achieved.

Mcgehee, C. R.

1986-01-01

218

Theme: Supporting Professional Diversity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Includes "Supporting Diversity" (Moore); "Reflections on the Need for Diversity" (Bowen); "Understanding Impediments to Diversity in Agricultural Education" (Whent); "Mentoring Diverse Populations" (Jones); "Supporting Diversity: An Unfinished Agenda" (Moore); "Professorial Roles in Supporting Diversity in Teaching, Research, and University…

Moore, Eddie A.; And Others

1994-01-01

219

Spatial aspects of pollution control when pollutants have synergistic effects: Evidence from a differential game with asymmetric information  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   An asymmetric information differential game is utilized to explore the normative issue: should environmental regulations\\u000a be carried out locally or centrally? Modeling localities as having superior information, or more leniency to adopt new environmental\\u000a regulations, results from simulations indicate that local control Pareto dominates central control when enough synergism occurs between pollutants. In contrast to predictions made by those

John A. List; Charles F. Mason

1999-01-01

220

Trypanosoma evansi and Surra: A Review and Perspectives on Transmission, Epidemiology and Control, Impact, and Zoonotic Aspects  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews the transmission modes of Trypanosoma evansi. Its worldwide distribution is attributed to mechanical transmission. While the role of tabanids is clear, we raise questions on the relative role of Haematobia sp. and the possible role of Stomoxys sp. in delayed transmission. A review of the available trypanocidal drugs and their efficacy in various host species is useful for understanding how they interact in disease epidemiology, which is complex. Although there are similarities with other mechanically transmitted trypanosomes, T. evansi has a more complex epidemiology due to the diversity of its hosts and vectors. The impact of clinical and subclinical disease is difficult to establish. A model was developed for buffaloes in the Philippines, which could be transferred to other places and livestock systems. Since Trypanosoma evansi was reported in humans, further research is required to investigate its zoonotic potential. Surra remains a potentially emerging disease that is a threat to Australia, Spain, and France. A number of questions about the disease have yet to be resolved. This brief review of the basic knowledge of T. evansi suggests that there is renewed interest in the parasite, which is spreading and has a major economic impact.

Desquesnes, Marc; Dargantes, Alan; Lai, De-Hua; Lun, Zhao-Rong; Holzmuller, Philippe; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn

2013-01-01

221

Control aspects of underground coal gasification: LLL investigations of ground-water and subsidence effects. [Hoe Creek I and II  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our investigations are designed to evaluate some of the environmental implications of in situ coal gasification, and to identify appropriate environmental controls. Changes in ground-water quality and the possible effects of subsidence and ground movement induced by the underground gasification cavity represent significant environmental concerns associated with the in situ gasification process. We have measured these effects at the site

S. W. Mead; F. T. Wang; H. C. Ganow

1978-01-01

222

The dialogic model: representing human diversity in messages to extraterrestrials 1 1 Paper IAA95IAA.9.2.10 presented at the SETI: Interdisciplinary Aspects Review Meeting, 46th International Astronautical Congress in Oslo, Norway, October 6, 1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Dialogic Model of constructing a unified reply message is suggested in which differences between perspectives are valued, rather than minimized. In this model, a diversity of views is seen as a virtue. Consensus in the broad sense of agreeing to include multiple perspectives is encouraged, while consensus in the narrow sense of everyone agreeing about all parts of the

Douglas A Vakoch

1998-01-01

223

Metacontrast masking and the cortical representation of surface color: dynamical aspects of edge integration and contrast gain control  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews recent theoretical and experimental work supporting the idea that brightness is computed in a series of neural stages involving edge integration and contrast gain control. It is proposed here that metacontrast and paracontrast masking occur as byproducts of the dynamical properties of these neural mechanisms. The brightness computation model assumes, more specifically, that early visual neurons in the retina, and cortical areas V1 and V2, encode local edge signals whose magnitudes are proportional to the logarithms of the luminance ratios at luminance edges within the retinal image. These local edge signals give rise to secondary neural lightness and darkness spatial induction signals, which are summed at a later stage of cortical processing to produce a neural representation of surface color, or achromatic color, in the case of the chromatically neutral stimuli considered here. Prior to the spatial summation of these edge-based induction signals, the weights assigned to local edge contrast are adjusted by cortical gain mechanisms involving both lateral interactions between neural edge detectors and top-down attentional control. We have previously constructed and computer-simulated a neural model of achromatic color perception based on these principles and have shown that our model gives a good quantitative account of the results of several brightness matching experiments. Adding to this model the realistic dynamical assumptions that 1) the neurons that encode local contrast exhibit transient firing rate enhancement at the onset of an edge, and 2) that the effects of contrast gain control take time to spread between edges, results in a dynamic model of brightness computation that predicts the existence Broca-Sulzer transient brightness enhancement of the target, Type B metacontrast masking, and a form of paracontrast masking in which the target brightness is enhanced when the mask precedes the target in time.

Rudd, Michael E.

2008-01-01

224

Species diversity modulates predation.  

PubMed

Predation occurs in a context defined by both prey and non-prey species. At present it is largely unknown how species diversity in general, and species that are not included in a predator's diet in particular, modify predator-prey interactions. Therefore we studied how both the density and diversity of non-prey species modified predation rates in experimental microcosms. We found that even a low density of a single nonprey species depressed the asymptote of a predator's functional response. Increases in the density and diversity of non-prey species further reduced predation rates to very low levels. Controls showed that this diversity effect was not due to the identity of any of the non-prey species. Our results establish that both the density and diversity of species outside a predator's diet can significantly weaken the strength of predator-prey interactions. These results have major implications for ecological theory on species interactions in simple vs. complex communities. We discuss our findings in terms of the relationship between diversity and stability. PMID:17824421

Kratina, Pavel; Vos, Matthijs; Anholt, Bradley R

2007-08-01

225

Cycles in fossil diversity  

SciTech Connect

It is well-known that the diversity of life appears to fluctuate during the course the Phanerozoic, the eon during which hard shells and skeletons left abundant fossils (0-542 Ma). Using Sepkoski's compendium of the first and last stratigraphic appearances of 36380 marine genera, we report a strong 62 {+-} 3 Myr cycle, which is particularly strong in the shorter-lived genera. The five great extinctions enumerated by Raup and Sepkoski may be an aspect of this cycle. Because of the high statistical significance, we also consider contributing environmental factors and possible causes.

Rohde, Robert A.; Muller, Richard A.

2004-10-20

226

TCF/Lef1 activity controls establishment of diverse stem and progenitor cell compartments in mouse epidermis  

PubMed Central

Mammalian epidermis consists of the interfollicular epidermis, hair follicles (HFs) and associated sebaceous glands (SGs). It is constantly renewed by stem and progenitor cell populations that have been identified and each compartment features a distinct mechanism of cellular turnover during renewal. The functional relationship between the diverse stem cell (SC) pools is not known and molecular signals regulating the establishment and maintenance of SC compartments are not well understood. Here, we performed lineage tracing experiments to demonstrate that progeny of HF bulge SCs transit through other SC compartments, suggesting a hierarchy of competent multipotent keratinocytes contributing to tissue renewal. The bulge was identified as a bipotent SC compartment that drives both cyclic regeneration of HFs and continuous renewal of SGs. Our data demonstrate that aberrant signalling by TCF/Lef1, transcription factors crucial for bulge SC activation and hair differentiation, results in development of ectopic SGs originating from bulge cells. This process of de novo SG formation is accompanied by the establishment of new progenitor niches. Detailed molecular analysis suggests the recapitulation of steps of tissue morphogenesis.

Petersson, Monika; Brylka, Heike; Kraus, Andreas; John, Susan; Rappl, Gunter; Schettina, Peter; Niemann, Catherin

2011-01-01

227

A genome-to-genome analysis of associations between human genetic variation, HIV-1 sequence diversity, and viral control  

PubMed Central

HIV-1 sequence diversity is affected by selection pressures arising from host genomic factors. Using paired human and viral data from 1071 individuals, we ran >3000 genome-wide scans, testing for associations between host DNA polymorphisms, HIV-1 sequence variation and plasma viral load (VL), while considering human and viral population structure. We observed significant human SNP associations to a total of 48 HIV-1 amino acid variants (p<2.4 × 10?12). All associated SNPs mapped to the HLA class I region. Clinical relevance of host and pathogen variation was assessed using VL results. We identified two critical advantages to the use of viral variation for identifying host factors: (1) association signals are much stronger for HIV-1 sequence variants than VL, reflecting the ‘intermediate phenotype’ nature of viral variation; (2) association testing can be run without any clinical data. The proposed genome-to-genome approach highlights sites of genomic conflict and is a strategy generally applicable to studies of host–pathogen interaction. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01123.001

Bartha, Istvan; Carlson, Jonathan M; Brumme, Chanson J; McLaren, Paul J; Brumme, Zabrina L; John, Mina; Haas, David W; Martinez-Picado, Javier; Dalmau, Judith; Lopez-Galindez, Cecilio; Casado, Concepcion; Rauch, Andri; Gunthard, Huldrych F; Bernasconi, Enos; Vernazza, Pietro; Klimkait, Thomas; Yerly, Sabine; O'Brien, Stephen J; Listgarten, Jennifer; Pfeifer, Nico; Lippert, Christoph; Fusi, Nicolo; Kutalik, Zoltan; Allen, Todd M; Muller, Viktor; Harrigan, P Richard; Heckerman, David; Telenti, Amalio; Fellay, Jacques

2013-01-01

228

Practical aspects of a maximum likelihood estimation method to extract stability and control derivatives from flight data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A maximum likelihood estimation method was applied to flight data and procedures to facilitate the routine analysis of a large amount of flight data were described. Techniques that can be used to obtain stability and control derivatives from aircraft maneuvers that are less than ideal for this purpose are described. The techniques involve detecting and correcting the effects of dependent or nearly dependent variables, structural vibration, data drift, inadequate instrumentation, and difficulties with the data acquisition system and the mathematical model. The use of uncertainty levels and multiple maneuver analysis also proved to be useful in improving the quality of the estimated coefficients. The procedures used for editing the data and for overall analysis are also discussed.

Iliff, K. W.; Maine, R. E.

1976-01-01

229

Social and cultural aspects of 'malaria' and its control in central C?te d'Ivoire  

PubMed Central

Background A sound local understanding of preventive measures and health-seeking behaviour is important for the effective control of malaria. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes, practices and beliefs of 'malaria' and its control in two rural communities of central Côte d'Ivoire, and to examine associations between 'malaria' and the households' socioeconomic status. Methods A cross-sectional household survey was carried out, using a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods. People's socioeconomic status was estimated, employing a household asset-based approach. Results Malaria was identified as djèkouadjo, the local folk name of the disease. Although people were aware of malaria-related symptoms and their association with mosquitoes, folk perceptions were common. In terms of treatment, a wide array of modern and traditional remedies was employed, often in combination. Individuals with a sound knowledge of the causes and symptoms of malaria continued to use traditional treatments and only a few people sleep under bed nets, whereas folk beliefs did not necessarily translate into refusal of modern treatments. Perceived causes of malaria were linked to the household's socioeconomic status with wealthier individuals reporting mosquitoes more frequently than poorer households. Bed nets were more frequently used in wealthier social strata, whereas other protective measures – perceived to be cheaper – were more prominent among the poorest. Conclusion Equitable access to resources at household, community and health system levels are essential in order to enable community members to prevent and treat malaria. There is a need for community-based approaches that match health care services with poor people's needs and resources.

Esse, Clemence; Utzinger, Jurg; Tschannen, Andres B; Raso, Giovanna; Pfeiffer, Constanze; Granado, Stefanie; Koudou, Benjamin G; N'Goran, Eliezer K; Cisse, Gueladio; Girardin, Olivier; Tanner, Marcel; Obrist, Brigit

2008-01-01

230

Optimality Aspect  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter considers the optimality aspect in distributed multi-agent coordination. We study optimal linear coordination\\u000a algorithms for multi-agent systems with single-integrator dynamics in both continuous-time and discrete-time settings from\\u000a a linear quadratic regulator perspective. We propose two global cost functions, namely, interaction-free and interaction-related\\u000a cost functions. With the interaction-free cost function, we derive the optimal state feedback gain matrix in

Wei Ren; Yongcan Cao

231

Discovering Diversity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces a preservice teacher field trip to the rain forests and coastal areas. This experience develops an awareness for different cultures among preservice teachers by experiencing biological and cultural diversity in Costa Rica. Presents students' own ideas on this experience. (YDS)

Manner, Barbara M.; Hattler, Jean Anne

2000-01-01

232

Diversity's Calling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses how a Harvard-educated scholar of English and poetry, Dr. M. Lee Pelton puts a prominent face on changes that are underway at Boston's Emerson College. Faced with a public controversy over its limited faculty diversity, Emerson College has responded with a spate of hirings and promotions of minorities, capped by the…

Cooper, Kenneth J.

2011-01-01

233

Diversity Trailblazer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When Dr. Kumea Shorter-Gooden took on her newly created job this month at the University of Maryland's flagship College Park campus, she assumed a challenge at the school with a lot riding on her shoulders--helping the University of Maryland strengthen its diversity efforts and, thus, its relevance to the state in the future and standing among the…

Stuart, Reginald

2012-01-01

234

Cyber Diversity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Central Michigan University course in African-American literature, attended mostly by whites, is joined by black students and their professor at the University of Arkansas, Pine Bluff, for lectures and discussions by teleconference. Technology is the tool used for increasing diversity in the teaching/learning experience. But, team teaching…

Roach, Ronald

1998-01-01

235

Animal Diversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor activity, learners find, count and compare as many different kinds of animals as they can find in two different areas: a managed lawn and a weedy area. Learners compare their animal finds, and also examine which plants in the different areas attracted the most animals. Learners consider how people have affected the diversity of animals in the lawn.

Science, Lawrence H.

1982-01-01

236

Topologies and solid electric conductivities of two diverse silver 4-sulfobenzoate coordination polymers controlled by uncoordination and coordination 4-aminopyridine ligands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two new diverse silver 4-sulfobenzoate coordination polymers, {[Ag(4-sb)]·(4-apyH)}n (1) and [Ag2(4-apy)(4-sb)]n (2) where 4-sb is 4-sulfobenzoate dianion and 4-apy is 4-aminopyridine, were prepared by the strategy of different ratio of starting materials and characterized by single-crystal X-ray analysis, elemental analysis, IR spectra, TG analysis, fluorescence spectra and electric conductivity. The molecular structure of 1 is made up of alternating 2-D anionic {[Ag(4-sb)]-}n layers and 4-apyH cations. Complex 2 is a 3-D structure. Both of the molecular structures are pillared architectures. To assess the relationship between structures and properties, the detail topologies of two diverse coordination polymers were analyzed. Complex 1 possesses a 3,6,6-c 3-nodal net with kgd topological layers, while 2 shows a new 4,4,8-c network. The room-temperature solid conductivity of 1 is lower than that of 2, which is controlled by the weak interactions.

Zheng, Xiao-Feng; Zhu, Long-Guan

2013-05-01

237

GABAergic Control of Neurite Outgrowth and Remodeling During Development and Adult Neurogenesis: General Rules and Differences in Diverse Systems  

PubMed Central

During development, Gamma-aminobutyric acidergic (GABAergic) neurons mature at early stages, long before excitatory neurons. Conversely, GABA reuptake transporters become operative later than glutamate transporters. GABA is therefore not removed efficiently from the extracellular domain and it can exert significant paracrine effects. Hence, GABA-mediated activity is a prominent source of overall neural activity in developing CNS networks, while neurons extend dendrites and axons, and establish synaptic connections. One of the unique features of GABAergic functional plasticity is that in early development, activation of GABAA receptors results in depolarizing (mainly excitatory) responses and Ca2+ influx. Although there is strong evidence from several areas of the CNS that GABA plays a significant role in neurite growth not only during development but also during adult neurogenesis, surprisingly little effort has been made into putting all these observations into a common framework in an attempt to understand the general rules that regulate these basic and evolutionary well-conserved processes. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge in this important field. In order to decipher common, universal features and highlight differences between systems throughout development, we compare findings about dendritic proliferation and remodeling in different areas of the nervous system and species, and we also review recent evidence for a role in axonal elongation. In addition to early developmental aspects, we also consider the GABAergic role in dendritic growth during adult neurogenesis, extending our discussion to the roles played by GABA during dendritic proliferation in early developing networks versus adult, well established networks.

Sernagor, Evelyne; Chabrol, Francois; Bony, Guillaume; Cancedda, Laura

2010-01-01

238

Genetic Diversity and Biological Control Activity of Novel Species of Closely Related Pseudomonads Isolated from Wheat Field Soils in South Australia  

PubMed Central

Rhizobacteria closely related to two recently described species of pseudomonads, Pseudomonas brassicacearum and Pseudomonas thivervalensis, were isolated from two geographically distinct wheat field soils in South Australia. Isolation was undertaken by either selective plating or immunotrapping utilizing a polyclonal antibody raised against P. brassicacearum. A subset of 42 isolates were characterized by amplified 16S ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA), BIOLOG analysis, and gas chromatography-fatty acid methyl ester (GC-FAME) analysis and separated into closely related phenetic groups. More than 75% of isolates tested by ARDRA were found to have >95% similarity to either Pseudomonas corrugata or P. brassicacearum-P. thivervalensis type strains, and all isolates had >90% similarity to either type strain. BIOLOG and GC-FAME clustering showed a >70% match to ARDRA profiles. Strains representing different ARDRA groups were tested in two soil types for biological control activity against the soilborne plant pathogen Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, the causative agent of take-all of wheat and barley. Three isolates out of 11 significantly reduced take-all-induced root lesions on wheat plants grown in a red-brown earth soil. Only one strain, K208, was consistent in reducing disease symptoms in both the acidic red-brown earth and a calcareous sandy loam. Results from this study indicate that P. brassicacearum and P. thivervalensis are present in Australian soils and that a level of genetic diversity exists within these two novel species but that this diversity does not appear to be related to geographic distribution. The result of the glasshouse pot trial suggests that some isolates of these species may have potential as biological control agents for plant disease.

Ross, Ian L.; Alami, Younes; Harvey, Paul R.; Achouak, Wafa; Ryder, Maarten H.

2000-01-01

239

What Makes Racial Diversity Work in Higher Education: Academic Leaders Present Successful Policies and Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The essays in this collection establish the case for racial diversity , outline the challenges diversity offers the academic community, presents examples of how some institutions have developed successful models of diversity, and discusses how the history of racial diversity has influenced aspects of diversity today. Following a foreword,…

Hale, Frank W., Jr., Ed.

240

Expanding the forensic German mitochondrial DNA control region database: genetic diversity as a function of sample size and microgeography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitochondrial DNA control region sequences were determined in 109 unrelated German Caucasoid individuals from north west\\u000a Germany for both hypervariable regions 1 (HV1) and 2 (HV2) and 100 polymorphic nucleotide positions (nps) were found, 63 in\\u000a HV1 and 37 in HV2. A total of 100 different mtDNA lineages was revealed, of which 7 were shared by 2 individuals and 1

H. Pfeiffer; B. Brinkmann; J. Hühne; B. Rolf; A. A. Morris; R. Steighner; M. M. Holland; P. Forster

1999-01-01

241

Genetic diversity of swan goose ( Anser cygnoides L.) in Russia: Analysis of the mitochondrial DNA control region polymorphism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using to analysis of hypervariable fragment polymorphism in the control region of mitochondrial DNA(268 bp), the genetic variability\\u000a of Swan goose Anser cygnoides L., included in the first category of endangered species in the Russian Red Book, has been investigated. Samples from the\\u000a two main groups nesting in Russia—the Far Eastern group (Khabarovsk krai, n = 38) and the Dauric

N. D. Poyarkov; A. V. Klenova; M. V. Kholodova

2010-01-01

242

Unexpected Diversity of Cellular Immune Responses against Nef and Vif in HIV1Infected Patients Who Spontaneously Control Viral Replication  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundHIV-1-infected individuals who spontaneously control viral replication represent an example of successful containment of the AIDS virus. Understanding the anti-viral immune responses in these individuals may help in vaccine design. However, immune responses against HIV-1 are normally analyzed using HIV-1 consensus B 15-mers that overlap by 11 amino acids. Unfortunately, this method may underestimate the real breadth of the cellular

Leandro F. Tarosso; Mariana M. Sauer; Sabri Sanabani; Maria Teresa Giret; Helena I. Tomiyama; John Sidney; Shari M. Piaskowski; Ricardo S. Diaz; Ester C. Sabino; Alessandro Sette; Jorge Kalil-Filho; David I. Watkins; Esper G. Kallas

2010-01-01

243

Powerful usage of phylogenetically diverse Staphylococcus aureus control strains for detecting multidrug resistance genes in transcriptomics studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Staphylococcus aureus is an important human pathogen responsible for life-threatening septicemia, endocarditis, and toxic shock syndrome. Although\\u000a positive (MRSA; ATCC 33591) and negative (MSSA; ATCC 25923) control strains have been used for various pathogenesis or assay\\u000a studies, little is known about the genomic structure of the strains, and there has been little genome-wide expression analysis.\\u000a Phylogenetic analyses revealed that ATCC

Jun-Sang Ham; Seung-Gyu Lee; Seok-Geun Jeong; Mi-Hwa Oh; Dong-Hun Kim; Taeheon Lee; Bo-Young Lee; Sook Hee Yoon; Heebal Kim

2010-01-01

244

Unexpected Diversity of Cellular Immune Responses against Nef and Vif in HIV-1-Infected Patients Who Spontaneously Control Viral Replication  

PubMed Central

Background HIV-1-infected individuals who spontaneously control viral replication represent an example of successful containment of the AIDS virus. Understanding the anti-viral immune responses in these individuals may help in vaccine design. However, immune responses against HIV-1 are normally analyzed using HIV-1 consensus B 15-mers that overlap by 11 amino acids. Unfortunately, this method may underestimate the real breadth of the cellular immune responses against the autologous sequence of the infecting virus. Methodology and Principal Findings Here we compared cellular immune responses against nef and vif-encoded consensus B 15-mer peptides to responses against HLA class I-predicted minimal optimal epitopes from consensus B and autologous sequences in six patients who have controlled HIV-1 replication. Interestingly, our analysis revealed that three of our patients had broader cellular immune responses against HLA class I-predicted minimal optimal epitopes from either autologous viruses or from the HIV-1 consensus B sequence, when compared to responses against the 15-mer HIV-1 type B consensus peptides. Conclusion and Significance This suggests that the cellular immune responses against HIV-1 in controller patients may be broader than we had previously anticipated.

Tarosso, Leandro F.; Sauer, Mariana M.; Sanabani, Sabri; Giret, Maria Teresa; Tomiyama, Helena I.; Sidney, John; Piaskowski, Shari M.; Diaz, Ricardo S.; Sabino, Ester C.; Sette, Alessandro; Kalil-Filho, Jorge; Watkins, David I.; Kallas, Esper G.

2010-01-01

245

Microbial Diversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Increasingly, a number of textbook companies are offering complementary access to materials related to their printed textbooks, and in a few instances, they offer users access to the entire textbook. Blackwell Publishing has created this website to offer students and others access to sections of Professor Oladele Ogunseitan's textbook, "Microbial Diversity". Professor Ogunseitan's book is a comprehensive look into the world of microbial diversity, and it spells out the impact of microorganisms on ecological and earth system phenomena. On the site, visitors can click on the "Contents" tab to look over selected chapters (such as "Environmental Evolution"), and then look at the complete "Glossary" area. Perhaps the best feature on the entire site is the "Student Resources" section. Here visitors can take advantage of helpful external links related to this area of study, interviews with researchers in the field, and other related matters.

246

Food hiding and weight control behaviors among ethnically diverse, overweight adolescents. Associations with parental food restriction, food monitoring, and dissatisfaction with adolescent body shape.  

PubMed

The present study aims to extend previous research conducted with children by examining associations between parental behaviors (food restriction, food monitoring) and parental perceptions (dissatisfaction with adolescent body shape) with adolescent behaviors (food hiding and weight control behaviors) among an ethnically diverse sample of overweight adolescents. Survey data were collected from overweight adolescents and their parents/guardians (n=116 dyads) at an urban Midwest adolescent health clinic. Adjusting for parent and adolescent demographic characteristics, logistic regression analyses revealed a significant positive association between parental food restriction and adolescent food hiding. No significant associations were found between dissatisfaction with adolescent body shape or parental food monitoring and adolescent food hiding and adolescent weight control behaviors when controlling for demographic factors. Interventions with parents of overweight adolescents should focus on helping parents talk with their adolescents about weight concerns in a non-judgmental way and teaching parents strategies to both create a healthful home food environment and guide and support their adolescents to lose weight in a healthful manner. PMID:19013205

Kenyon, DenYelle Baete; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Kaur, Harsohena

2009-04-01

247

Biliopancreatic Diversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) has made reacceptable the malabsorptive approach to the surgical treatment of obesity.\\u000a The procedure, in a series of 2241 patients operated on during a 21-year period, caused a mean permanent reduction of about\\u000a 75% of the initial excess weight. The indefinite weight maintenance appears to be due to the existence of a threshold absorption\\u000a capacity for

Nicola Scopinaro; Gian Franco Adami; Giuseppe M. Marinari; Ezio Gianetta; Enrico Traverso; Daniele Friedman; Giovanni Camerini; Giorgio Baschieri; Alessandro Simonelli

1998-01-01

248

Controls on the Entrainment of Juvenile Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) into Large Water Diversions and Estimates of Population-Level Loss  

PubMed Central

Diversion of freshwater can cause significant changes in hydrologic dynamics and this can have negative consequences for fish populations. Additionally, fishes can be directly entrained into diversion infrastructure (e.g. canals, reservoirs, pumps) where they may become lost to the population. However, the effect of diversion losses on fish population dynamics remains unclear. We used 15 years of release and recovery data from coded-wire-tagged juvenile Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) to model the physical, hydrological and biological predictors of salvage at two large water diversions in the San Francisco Estuary. Additionally, entrainment rates were combined with estimates of mortality during migration to quantify the proportion of total mortality that could be attributed to diversions. Statistical modeling revealed a strong positive relationship between diversion rate and fish entrainment at both diversions and all release locations. Other significant relationships were specific to the rivers where the fish were released, and the specific diversion facility. Although significant relationships were identified in statistical models, entrainment loss and the mean contribution of entrainment to total migration mortality were low. The greatest entrainment mortality occurred for fish released along routes that passed closest to the diversions and certain runs of Chinook Salmon released in the Sacramento River suffered greater mortality but only at the highest diversion rates observed during the study. These results suggest losses at diversions should be put into a population context in order to best inform effective management of Chinook Salmon populations.

Zeug, Steven C.; Cavallo, Bradley J.

2014-01-01

249

Bacterial Diversity Stabilizes Community Productivity  

PubMed Central

Background Stability is a crucial ecosystem feature gaining particular importance in face of increasing anthropogenic stressors. Biodiversity is considered to be a driving biotic force maintaining stability, and in this study we investigate how different indices of biodiversity affect the stability of communities in varied abiotic (composition of available resources) and biotic (invasion) contexts. Methodology/Principal Findings We set up microbial microcosms to study the effects of genotypic diversity on the reliability of community productivity, defined as the inverse of the coefficient of variation of across-treatment productivity, in different environmental contexts. We established a bacterial diversity gradient ranging from 1 to 8 Pseudomonas fluorescens genotypes and grew the communities in different resource environments or in the presence of model invasive species. Biodiversity significantly stabilized community productivity across treatments in both experiments. Path analyses revealed that different aspects of diversity determined stability: genotypic richness stabilized community productivity across resource environments, whereas functional diversity determined stability when subjected to invasion. Conclusions/Significance Biodiversity increases the stability of microbial communities against both biotic and abiotic environmental perturbations. Depending on stressor type, varying aspects of biodiversity contribute to the stability of ecosystem functions. The results suggest that both genetic and functional diversity need to be preserved to ensure buffering of communities against abiotic and biotic stresses.

Scheu, Stefan

2012-01-01

250

Treatment of binge eating disorder in racially and ethnically diverse obese patients in primary care: Randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial of self-help and medication.  

PubMed

The objective was to determine whether treatments with demonstrated efficacy for binge eating disorder (BED) in specialist treatment centers can be delivered effectively in primary care settings to racially/ethnically diverse obese patients with BED. This study compared the effectiveness of self-help cognitive-behavioral therapy (shCBT) and an anti-obesity medication (sibutramine), alone and in combination, and it is only the second placebo-controlled trial of any medication for BED to evaluate longer-term effects after treatment discontinuation. 104 obese patients with BED (73% female, 55% non-white) were randomly assigned to one of four 16-week treatments (balanced 2-by-2 factorial design): sibutramine (N = 26), placebo (N = 27), shCBT + sibutramine (N = 26), or shCBT + placebo (N = 25). Medications were administered in double-blind fashion. Independent assessments were performed monthly throughout treatment, post-treatment, and at 6- and 12-month follow-ups (16 months after randomization). Mixed-models analyses revealed significant time and medication-by-time interaction effects for percent weight loss, with sibutramine but not placebo associated with significant change over time. Percent weight loss differed significantly between sibutramine and placebo by the third month of treatment and at post-treatment. After the medication was discontinued at post-treatment, weight re-gain occurred in sibutramine groups and percent weight loss no longer differed among the four treatments at 6- and 12-month follow-ups. For binge-eating, mixed-models revealed significant time and shCBT-by-time interaction effects: shCBT had significantly lower binge-eating frequency at 6-month follow-up but the treatments did not differ significantly at any other time point. Demographic factors did not significantly predict or moderate clinical outcomes. Our findings suggest that pure self-help CBT and sibutramine did not show long-term effectiveness relative to placebo for treating BED in racially/ethnically diverse obese patients in primary care. Overall, the treatments differed little with respect to binge-eating and associated outcomes. Sibutramine was associated with significantly greater acute weight loss than placebo and the observed weight-regain following discontinuation of medication suggests that anti-obesity medications need to be continued for weight loss maintenance. Demographic factors did not predict/moderate clinical outcomes in this diverse patient group. PMID:24857821

Grilo, Carlos M; Masheb, Robin M; White, Marney A; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Barnes, Rachel D; Walsh, B Timothy; McKenzie, Katherine C; Genao, Inginia; Garcia, Rina

2014-07-01

251

Mitochondrial control region I and microsatellite analyses of endangered Philippine hornbill species (Aves; Bucerotidae) detect gene flow between island populations and genetic diversity loss  

PubMed Central

Background The Visayan Tarictic Hornbill (Penelopides panini) and the Walden’s Hornbill (Aceros waldeni) are two threatened hornbill species endemic to the western islands of the Visayas that constitute - between Luzon and Mindanao - the central island group of the Philippine archipelago. In order to evaluate their genetic diversity and to support efforts towards their conservation, we analyzed genetic variation in ~ 600 base pairs (bp) of the mitochondrial control region I and at 12–19 nuclear microsatellite loci. The sampling covered extant populations, still occurring only on two islands (P. panini: Panay and Negros, A. waldeni: only Panay), and it was augmented with museum specimens of extinct populations from neighboring islands. For comparison, their less endangered (= more abundant) sister taxa, the Luzon Tarictic Hornbill (P. manillae) from the Luzon and Polillo Islands and the Writhed Hornbill (A. leucocephalus) from Mindanao Island, were also included in the study. We reconstructed the population history of the two Penelopides species and assessed the genetic population structure of the remaining wild populations in all four species. Results Mitochondrial and nuclear data concordantly show a clear genetic separation according to the island of origin in both Penelopides species, but also unravel sporadic over-water movements between islands. We found evidence that deforestation in the last century influenced these migratory events. Both classes of markers and the comparison to museum specimens reveal a genetic diversity loss in both Visayan hornbill species, P. panini and A. waldeni, as compared to their more abundant relatives. This might have been caused by local extinction of genetically differentiated populations together with the dramatic decline in the abundance of the extant populations. Conclusions We demonstrated a loss in genetic diversity of P. panini and A. waldeni as compared to their sister taxa P. manillae and A. leucocephalus. Because of the low potential for gene flow and population exchange across islands, saving of the remaining birds of almost extinct local populations - be it in the wild or in captivity - is particularly important to preserve the species’ genetic potential.

2012-01-01

252

Lack of association of the HMGA1 IVS5-13insC variant with type 2 diabetes in an ethnically diverse hypertensive case control cohort  

PubMed Central

Background Recently, the high-mobility group A1 gene (HMGA1) variant IVS5-13insC has been associated with type 2 diabetes, but reported associations are inconsistent and data are lacking in Hispanic and African American populations. We sought to investigate the HMGA1-diabetes association and to characterize IVS5-13insC allele frequencies and linkage disequilibrium (LD) in 3,070 Caucasian, Hispanic, and African American patients from the INternational VErapamil SR-Trandolapril STudy (INVEST). Methods INVEST was a randomized, multicenter trial comparing two antihypertensive treatment strategies in an ethnically diverse cohort of hypertensive, coronary artery disease patients. Controls, who were diabetes-free throughout the study, and type 2 diabetes cases, either prevalent or incident, were genotyped for IVS5-13insC using Taqman®, confirmed with Pyrosequencing and Sanger sequencing. For LD analysis, genotyping for eight additional HMGA1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was performed using the Illumina® HumanCVD BeadChip. We used logistic regression to test association of the HMGA1 IVS5-13insC and diabetes, adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, and percentage European, African, and Native American ancestry. Results We observed IVS5-13insC minor allele frequencies consistent with previous literature in Caucasians and African Americans (0.03 in cases and 0.04 in controls for both race/ethnic groups), and higher frequencies in Hispanics (0.07 in cases and 0.07 in controls). The IVS5-13insC was not associated with type 2 diabetes overall (odds ratio 0.98 [0.76-1.26], p=0.88) or in any race/ethnic group. Pairwise LD (r2) of IVS5-13insC and rs9394200, a SNP previously used as a tag SNP for IVS5-13insC, was low (r2=0.47 in Caucasians, r2=0.25 in Hispanics, and r2=0.06 in African Americans). Furthermore, in silico analysis suggested a lack of functional consequences for the IVS5-13insC variant. Conclusions Our results suggest that IVS5-13insC is not a functional variant and not associated with type 2 diabetes in an ethnically diverse, hypertensive, coronary artery disease population. Larger, more adequately powered studies need to be performed to confirm our findings. Trial registration clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00133692)

2013-01-01

253

Diversity of Bacteriophages Infecting Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae in Paddy Fields and Its Potential to Control Bacterial Leaf Blight of Rice.  

PubMed

Bacterial leaf blight (BLB) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is a very serious disease in rice-growing regions of the world. In spite of their economic importance, there are no effective ways of protecting rice plants from this disease. Bacteriophages infecting Xoo affect the population dynamics of the pathogen and consequently the occurrence of the disease. In this study, we investigated the diversity, host range, and infectivity of Xoo phages, and their use as a bicontrol agent on BLB was tested. Among the 34 phages that were isolated from floodwater in paddy fields, 29 belonged to the Myoviridae family, which suggests that the dominant phage in the ecosystem was Myoviridae. The isolated phages were classified into two groups based on plaque size produced on the lawn of Xoo. In general, there was a negative relationship between plaque size and host range, and interestingly the phages having a narrow host range had low efficiency of infectivity. The deduced protein sequence analysis of htf genes indicated that the gene was not a determinant of host specificity. Although the difference in host range and infectivity depending on morphotype needs to be addressed, the results revealed deeper understanding of the interaction between the phages and Xoo strains in floodwater and damp soil environments. The phage mixtures reduced the occurrence of BLB when they were treated with skim milk. The results indicate that the Xoo phages could be used as an alternative control method to increase the control efficacy and reduce the use of agrochemicals. PMID:24651644

Chae, Jong-Chan; Hung, Nguyen Bao; Yu, Sang-Mi; Lee, Ha Kyung; Lee, Yong Hoon

2014-06-28

254

Subsoil heterogeneities controlling porewater contaminant mass and microbial diversity at a site with a complex pollution history  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study seeks to improve our understanding of the conceptual model of pollutant transport and fate in cases of DNAPL contamination at sites with a complex contamination history. The study was carried out in an unconfined aquifer of alluvial fans in the Tarragona Petrochemical Complex (Spain). Two boreholes were drilled and continuous cores were recovered in order to carry out a detailed core description at centimeter scale and a comprehensive sampling of borehole cores. The biogeochemical heterogeneity at these sites is controlled by the conjunction of lithological, hydrochemical and microbiological heterogeneities. Biodegradation processes of contaminant compounds take place not only at the level of the dissolved fraction in the aquifer but also at the level of the fraction retained in the fine, less conductive materials as shown by the biodegradation haloes of parent and metabolite compounds. Sampling the low-conductivity levels also allowed us to identify compounds, e.g. BTEX, that are the remaining traces of the passage of old contaminant plumes whose sources no longer exist. This enabled us to describe past biogeochemical processes and to partially account for the processes occurring today. Transition zones, characterized by numerous textural changes, constitute ecotones whose biostimulation could be effective in promoting the acceleration of the remediation of the multiple pollution at these sites.

Puigserver, Diana; Carmona, José M.; Cortés, Amparo; Viladevall, Manuel; Nieto, José M.; Grifoll, Magdalena; Vila, Joaquim; Parker, Beth L.

2013-01-01

255

The effect of regular walks on various health aspects in older people with dementia: protocol of a randomized-controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Physical activity has proven to be beneficial for physical functioning, cognition, depression, anxiety, rest-activity rhythm, quality of life (QoL), activities of daily living (ADL) and pain in older people. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of walking regularly on physical functioning, the progressive cognitive decline, level of depression, anxiety, rest-activity rhythm, QoL, ADL and pain in older people with dementia. Methods/design This study is a longitudinal randomized controlled, single blind study. Ambulatory older people with dementia, who are regular visitors of daily care or living in a home for the elderly or nursing home in the Netherlands, will be randomly allocated to the experimental or control condition. Participants of the experimental group make supervised walks of 30 minutes a day, 5 days a week, as part of their daily nursing care. Participants of the control group will come together three times a week for tea or other sedentary activities to control for possible positive effects of social interaction. All dependent variables will be assessed at baseline and after 6 weeks, and 3, 6, 9, 12 and 18 months of intervention. The dependent variables include neuropsychological tests to assess cognition, physical tests to determine physical functioning, questionnaires to assess ADL, QoL, level of depression and anxiety, actigraphy to assess rest-activity rhythm and pain scales to determine pain levels. Potential moderating variables at baseline are: socio-demographic characteristics, body mass index, subtype of dementia, apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotype, medication use and comorbidities. Discussion This study evaluates the effect of regular walking as a treatment for older people with dementia. The strength of this study is that 1) it has a longitudinal design with multiple repeated measurements, 2) we assess many different health aspects, 3) the intervention is not performed by research staff, but by nursing staff which enables it to become a routine in usual care. Possible limitations of the study are that 1) only active minded institutions are willing to participate creating a selection bias, 2) the drop-out rate will be high in this population, 3) not all participants will be able to perform/understand all tests. Trial registration NTR1482

2011-01-01

256

Object Creation Aspects with Flexible Aspect Deployment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A great deal of the power of aspect-oriented languages is due to the new and sophisticated notions of software composition they provide. The question how a specific aspect is deployed, i.e., how a lan- guage supports the programmer in expressing under which conditions and within which scope of the base program the aspect definitons are made eective, is an important

Mira Mezini; Klaus Ostermann

257

Genetic diversity and population structure of yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco from five lakes in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, China, based on mitochondrial DNA control region.  

PubMed

Genetic diversity and population structure of yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco were examined by using mitochondrial DNA control region sequences in 143 specimens sampled from five lakes in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, China; 151 polymorphic sites defined 72 distinct haplotypes. Haplotype diversity indices (0.903-0.953) and nucleotide diversity indices (0.00378-0.00970) demonstrated low genetic diversity of the yellow catfish populations in the five lakes. The analysis of molecular variance and the fixation index (F(st) = 0.0896) revealed insignificant genetic difference between samples from different lakes. In addition, neutral tests and analysis of mismatch distribution suggested that yellow catfish might have undergone a population expansion. Neighbor-joining tree indicated a correlation between these population genetic differences and geographic distance. This study revealed the extant population genetic diversity and structure of the yellow catfish and was in favor of the related fishery management issues including fishery stock identification, conservation, and artificial breeding. PMID:23463981

Zhong, Liqiang; Song, Chao; Wang, Minghua; Chen, Youming; Qin, Qin; Pan, Jianlin; Chen, Xiaohui

2013-10-01

258

Cell wall evolution and diversity  

PubMed Central

Plant cell walls display a considerable degree of diversity in their compositions and molecular architectures. In some cases the functional significance of a particular cell wall type appears to be easy to discern: secondary cells walls are often reinforced with lignin that provides durability; the thin cell walls of pollen tubes have particular compositions that enable their tip growth; lupin seed cell walls are characteristically thickened with galactan used as a storage polysaccharide. However, more frequently the evolutionary mechanisms and selection pressures that underpin cell wall diversity and evolution are unclear. For diverse green plants (chlorophytes and streptophytes) the rapidly increasing availability of transcriptome and genome data sets, the development of methods for cell wall analyses which require less material for analysis, and expansion of molecular probe sets, are providing new insights into the diversity and occurrence of cell wall polysaccharides and associated biosynthetic genes. Such research is important for refining our understanding of some of the fundamental processes that enabled plants to colonize land and to subsequently radiate so comprehensively. The study of cell wall structural diversity is also an important aspect of the industrial utilization of global polysaccharide bio-resources.

Fangel, Jonatan U.; Ulvskov, Peter; Knox, J. P.; Mikkelsen, Maria D.; Harholt, Jesper; Popper, Zoe A.; Willats, William G.T.

2012-01-01

259

The Quest for Diversity in Christian Higher Education: Building Institutional Governance Capacity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social justice pertaining to diversity issues in higher education grips the nation, yet Christian higher education (CHE) has moved slowly to address the diversity in our institutions and society. Christian higher education faces the same challenges with growing diversity as secular higher education. Diversity impacts every aspect of institutional…

Nussbaum, Kathleen B.; Chang, Heewon

2013-01-01

260

Annotated Bibliography of Diversity Research Issues in the Navy and U. S. Military.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Navy Personnel Research, Studies, and Technology Department (NPRST) (formerly Navy Personnel Research and Development Center) has been conducting research for many years on aspects of diversity and diversity- related issues such as equal opportunity, ...

A. R. Kee D. L. Alderton L. Burress P. Rosenfeld Z. A. Uriell

2008-01-01

261

Detecting diversity: emerging methods to estimate species diversity.  

PubMed

Estimates of species richness and diversity are central to community and macroecology and are frequently used in conservation planning. Commonly used diversity metrics account for undetected species primarily by controlling for sampling effort. Yet the probability of detecting an individual can vary among species, observers, survey methods, and sites. We review emerging methods to estimate alpha, beta, gamma, and metacommunity diversity through hierarchical multispecies occupancy models (MSOMs) and multispecies abundance models (MSAMs) that explicitly incorporate observation error in the detection process for species or individuals. We examine advantages, limitations, and assumptions of these detection-based hierarchical models for estimating species diversity. Accounting for imperfect detection using these approaches has influenced conclusions of comparative community studies and creates new opportunities for testing theory. PMID:24315534

Iknayan, Kelly J; Tingley, Morgan W; Furnas, Brett J; Beissinger, Steven R

2014-02-01

262

Diversity management : Dialogue, dialectics and diversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses Habermas’ model of dialogue and the public sphere to provide a critical examination of organizational diversity management. The paper argues that, in spite of the dialogic and inclusive claims made by the diversity movement, its basic framework and methods serve to limit and repress productive dialogue on race rather than produce effective organizational change. The diversity movement

Astrid Kersten

2000-01-01

263

Diversity and Leadership in a Changing World  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scholars of leadership have infrequently addressed the diversity of leaders and followers in terms of culture, gender, race and ethnicity, or sexual orientation. This omission has weakened the ability of research and theory to address some of the most provocative aspects of contemporary leadership, including (a) the limited access of individuals…

Eagly, Alice H.; Chin, Jean Lau

2010-01-01

264

Comparison of analytical and experimental steadyand unsteady-pressure distributions at Mach number 0.78 for a high-aspect-ratio supercritical wing model with oscillating control surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The unsteady aerodynamic lifting surface theory, the Doublet Lattice method, with experimental steady and unsteady pressure measurements of a high aspect ratio supercritical wing model at a Mach number of 0.78 were compared. The steady pressure data comparisons were made for incremental changes in angle of attack and control surface deflection. The unsteady pressure data comparisons were made at set angle of attack positions with oscillating control surface deflections. Significant viscous and transonic effects in the experimental aerodynamics which cannot be predicted by the Doublet Lattice method are shown. This study should assist development of empirical correction methods that may be applied to improve Doublet Lattice calculations of lifting surface aerodynamics.

Mccain, W. E.

1984-01-01

265

Hymenopteran Parasitoids on Fruit-infesting Tephritidae (Diptera) in Latin America and the Southern United States: Diversity, Distribution, Taxonomic Status and their use in Fruit Fly Biological Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

We first discuss the diversity of fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) parasitoids (Hymenoptera) of the Neotropics. Even though the emphasis is on Anastrepha parasitoids, we also review all the information available on parasitoids attacking flies in the genera Ceratitis, Rhagoletis, Rhagoletotrypeta, Toxotrypana and Zonosemata. We center our analysis in parasitoid guilds, parasitoid assemblage size and fly host profiles. We also discuss

Sergio Ovruski; Martín Aluja; John Sivinski; Robert Wharton

2000-01-01

266

Hymenopteran parasitoids on fruit-infesting Tephritidae (Diptera) in Latin America and the southern United States: Diversity, distribution, taxonomic status and their use in fruit fly biological control  

Microsoft Academic Search

We first discuss the diversity of fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) parasitoids (Hymenoptera) of the Neotropics. Even though the emphasis is on Anastrepha parasitoids, we also review all the information available on parasitoids attacking flies in the genera Ceratitis, Rhagoletis, Rhagoletotrypeta, Toxotrypana and Zonosemata. We center our analysis in parasitoid guilds, parasitoid assemblage size and fly host profiles. We also discuss

Sergio Ovruski; John Sivinski; Robert Wharton

2000-01-01

267

Aspects of intelligent sensor reconfiguration  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the more powerful aspects of ASICs for intelligent sensors is the possibility of reconfiguring the analogue subsystems under digital control. This permits a variety of self-test and auto-calibration activities, which give increased accuracy and enhanced reliability, despite the greater complexity of such systems. In this study, possibilities are explored for exploiting such techniques by means of circuits fabricated

A. H. Taner; J. E. Brignell

1995-01-01

268

Cognitive Aspects of Depression  

PubMed Central

Depression is a prevalent and impairing psychiatric disorder that affects how we feel and how we think about ourselves and the world around us. Cognitive theories of depression have long posited that various thought processes are involved in the development, maintenance, and recurrence of depressive episodes. Contemporary research has utilized experimental procedures to examine cognitive processes in depressed individuals as well as the nature of the relation of these processes to the emotion dysregulation that is central to the disorder. For example, investigators have assessed the ways in which depression alters aspects of information processing, including attention and perception, interpretation, and memory processes; this research has generated relatively consistent findings. In addition, researchers have attempted to identify and elucidate the cognitive mechanisms that may link these biases in information processing to emotion dysregulation in depression. These mechanisms include inhibitory processes and deficits in working memory, ruminative responses to negative mood states, and the inability to use positive and rewarding stimuli to regulate negative mood. Results of these investigations converge on the formulation that depression is associated with increased elaboration of negative information, difficulties in cognitive control when processing this information, and difficulties disengaging from this information. Research examining cognitive aspects of depression not only enhances our understanding of this common and costly disorder, but also has implications for the treatment of depression and for future investigations of the biological foundations of this disorder.

Joormann, Jutta; Gotlib, Ian H.

2012-01-01

269

Fungal diversity in ectomycorrhizal communities: sampling effort and species detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of recent review articles on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal community diversity have highlighted the unprecedented increase in the number of publications on this ecologically important but neglected area. The general features of these species-rich, highly dynamic and complex communities have been comprehensively covered but one aspect crucial to our assessment of diversity, namely the sampling of ECM communities has

Andy F. S. Taylor

2002-01-01

270

Teaching Diverse Students: How to Avoid Marginalizing Difference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Diversity is defined as differences in groups of people and individuals based on ethnicity, race, language, socioeconomic status, gender, sexual orientation, exceptionalities, and religion. Each of these aspects of diversity is a "culture" in and of itself. The goal of physical education teachers is to become "culturally responsive teachers" and…

Cruz, Luz M.; Petersen, Susan C.

2011-01-01

271

Universal-Diverse Orientation: Linking Social Attitudes with Wellness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study focused on examining the relationships of positive social attitudes with aspects of well-functioning. "Universal-diverse orientation" (UDO), a social attitude characterized by awareness and acceptance of both the similarities and differences among people, was measured with the Miville-Guzman Universality-Diversity Scale, Short…

Miville, Marie L.; Romans, John S. C.; Johnson, Daniel; Lone, Robert

2004-01-01

272

Conflict, Violence, and Cultural Diversity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maintains that conflict and violence among students, and between students and educators, are problems in many schools. Discusses how the increasing cultural diversity at school can create conflict and violence. Encourages greater use of informal means of social control through relationship-building intervention. (CFR)

Regulus, Thomas A.; Leonaitis, Kimberley

1995-01-01

273

Does Staff Diversity Imply Openness to Diversity?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Post-secondary educational organizations are currently some of the most diverse settings to be found. However, few educational studies have dealt with staff diversity and hardly any has looked outside the USA. The purpose of this paper is to present a study of members of international university departments in Denmark. The authors set out…

Lauring, Jakob; Selmer, Jan

2013-01-01

274

Capturing the Diversity in Lexical Diversity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The range, variety, or diversity of words found in learners' language use is believed to reflect the complexity of their vocabulary knowledge as well as the level of their language proficiency. Many indices of lexical diversity have been proposed, most of which involve statistical relationships between types and tokens, and which ultimately…

Jarvis, Scott

2013-01-01

275

Satellite diversity in mobile satellite CDMA systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper addresses the exploitation of satellite diversity in a satellite mobile network. In particular, we focus on the impact of diversity on service availability and on system capacity, considering the forward link of a CDMA system with a multisatellite and multibeam architecture. The analysis includes the effects of path blockage, intrabeam and interbeam interference, imperfect power control, and fading

Carlo Caini; Giovanni Emanuele Corazza

2001-01-01

276

abc : An Extensible AspectJ Compiler  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Research in the design of aspect-oriented programming languages requires a workbench that facilitates easy experimentation\\u000a with new language features and implementation techniques. In particular, new features for AspectJ have been proposed that\\u000a require extensions in many dimensions: syntax, type checking and code generation, as well as data flow and control flow analyses.\\u000a The AspectBench Compiler (abc) is an implementation of

Pavel Avgustinov; Aske Simon Christensen; Laurie J. Hendren; Sascha Kuzins; Jennifer Lhoták; Ondrej Lhoták; Oege De Moor; Damien Sereni; Ganesh Sittampalam; Julian Tibble

2006-01-01

277

How does pedogenesis drive plant diversity?  

PubMed

Some of the most species-rich plant communities occur on ancient, strongly weathered soils, whereas those on recently developed soils tend to be less diverse. Mechanisms underlying this well-known pattern, however, remain unresolved. Here, we present a conceptual model describing alternative mechanisms by which pedogenesis (the process of soil formation) might drive plant diversity. We suggest that long-term soil chronosequences offer great, yet largely untapped, potential as 'natural experiments' to determine edaphic controls over plant diversity. Finally, we discuss how our conceptual model can be evaluated quantitatively using structural equation modeling to advance multivariate theories about the determinants of local plant diversity. This should help us to understand broader-scale diversity patterns, such as the latitudinal gradient of plant diversity. PMID:23561322

Laliberté, Etienne; Grace, James B; Huston, Michael A; Lambers, Hans; Teste, François P; Turner, Benjamin L; Wardle, David A

2013-06-01

278

Linear diversity combining techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides analyses of three types of diversity combining systems in practical use. These are: selection diversity, maximal-ratio diversity, and equal-gain diversity systems. Quantitative measures of the relative performance (under realistic conditions) of the three systems are provided. The effects of various departures from ideal conditions, such as non-Rayleigh fading and partially coherent signal or noise voltages, are considered.

D. G. Brennan

2003-01-01

279

Linear Diversity Combining Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides analyses of three types of diversity combining systems in practical use. These are: selection diversity, maximal-ratio diversity, and equal-gain diversity systems. Quantitative measures of the relative performance (under realistic conditions) of the three systems are provided. The effects of various departures from ideal conditions, such as non-Rayleigh fading and partially coherent signal or noise voltages, are considered.

D. G. Brennan

1959-01-01

280

Leadership and Diversity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of the special edition recognizing the 40th anniversary of "Educational Management Administration & Leadership" this article reviews the coverage of leadership and diversity issues in the journal. The majority of articles concerning diversity have focused on gender, with attention turning to the wider concept of diversity since the year…

Coleman, Marianne

2012-01-01

281

Insights on Diversity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This state-of-the-art report presents a series of essays on the topic of diversity. Essays include: (1) "Committing to Diversity" (George L. Mehaffy); (2) "Serving the Community by Serving Our Members" (Michael P. Wolfe); (3) "How Diversity Matters" (Asa G. Hilliard, III); (4) "A Prerequisite to Teaching Multiculturally" (Mary Louise Gomez); (5)…

Bloom, Carol, Ed.; And Others

282

Managing Generational Diversity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many school leaders have explored the issue of diversity when it comes to students, teachers and staff. Their focus typically has been on gender and ethnicity. However, generational diversity, an area of diversity that warrants serious consideration, has received less attention. Generational intelligence is important today for two reasons. First…

O'Donovan, Eamonn

2009-01-01

283

HTRA proteases: regulated proteolysis in protein quality control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controlled proteolysis underlies a vast diversity of protective and regulatory processes that are of key importance to cell fate. The unique molecular architecture of the widely conserved high temperature requirement A (HTRA) proteases has evolved to mediate critical aspects of ATP-independent protein quality control. The simple combination of a classic Ser protease domain and a carboxy-terminal peptide-binding domain produces cellular

Tim Clausen; Markus Kaiser; Robert Huber; Michael Ehrmann

2011-01-01

284

Stability and control characteristics of an airplane model having a 45.1 degree swept-back wing with aspect ratio 2.50 and taper ratio 0.42 and a 42.8 degree swept-back horizontal tail with aspect ratio 3.87 and taper ratio 0.49  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tests were made of an airplane model having a 45.1 degree swept-back wing with aspect ratio 2.50 and taper ratio 0.42 and a 42.8 degree swept-back horizontal tail with aspect ratio 3.87 and taper ratio 0.49 to determine its low-speed stability and control characteristics. The test Reynolds number was 2.87 x 10(6) based on a mean aerodynamic chord of 2.47 feet except for some of the aileron tests which were made at a Reynolds number of 2.05 x 10(6). With the horizontal tail located near the fuselage juncture on the vertical tail, model results indicated static longitudinal instability above a lift coefficient that was 0.15 below the lift coefficient at which stall occurred. Static longitudinal stability, however, was manifested throughout the life range with the horizontal tail located near the top of the vertical tail. The use of 10 degrees negative dihedral on the wing had little effect on the static longitudinal stability characteristics. Preliminary tests of the complete model revealed an undesirable flat spot in the yawing-moment curves at low angles of attack, the directional stability being neutral for yaw angles of plus-or-minus 2 degrees. This undesirable characteristic was improved by replacing the thick original vertical tail with a thin vertical tail and by flattening the top of the dorsal fairing.

Schuldenfrei, Marvin; Comisarow, Paul; Goodson, Kenneth W

1947-01-01

285

Psychological aspects of pain.  

PubMed

Introduction. Pain is defined "an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage". Pain is a sensation of the body, and is always an unpleasant emotional experience. The role of psychology is auxiliary and supplemental to medicine. This is an aid addressed to the patient, physician and patient's caregivers: professional caregivers, family members and significant others. At each stage of the diagnostic and therapeutic process, psychology offers help, both from the cognitive and practical aspects. Objective. The objective of the article is to present important psychological aspects of studies concerning pain, and the psychological methods and techniques of pain treatment. State of knowledge. Pain is the leading reason for patients seeking medical care and is one of the most disabling, burdensome, and costly conditions. Pain accompanies many diseases, each one of which generates unique/separate diagnostic, therapeutic and research problems. Depression and related psychical disorders. There is a significant relationship between depression and pain symptoms, as well as between pain and suicidal thoughts. Patients with a long history of pain disorders also have increased depression and anxiety symptoms, as well as suicidal thoughts. Patients with more severe depression and anxiety symptoms also have an increase in pain problems. The intensity of pain correlates with the intensity of psychopathological symptoms - both with mood lowering and with anxiety symptoms and worry. Active pain coping strategies strive to function in spite of pain, or to distract oneself from pain, are associated with adaptive functioning. Passive strategies involve withdrawal or relinquishing control to an external force or agent and are related to greater pain and depression. Pain catastrophizing is a negatively distorted perception of pain as awful, horrible and unbearable. Catastrophizing is strongly associated with depression and pain. Studies in which functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used showed that pain catastrophizing, independent of the influence of depression, was significantly associated with increased activity in brain areas related to anticipation of pain, attention to pain, emotional aspects of pain and motor control. Pain behaviour is a conditioned pain. Care and concern on the part of others, secondarily enhance a patient's pain behaviours, which lead to an increase in the intensity of the pain experienced. A history of early life adversity (ELA) - rejection, neglect, physical or sexual abuse is related to the development of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in adulthood. Ovarian hormones have been shown to modulate pain sensitivity. Imaging of the human brain in chronic pain. Acute pain and chronic pain are encoded in different regions of the brain. Chronic pain can be considered a driving force that carves cortical anatomy and physiology, creating the chronic pain brain/ mind state. Cognitive-behavioural methods of pain treatment in domains of pain experience, cognitive coping and appraisal (positive coping measures), and reduced pain experience are effective in reducing pain in patients. PMID:25000837

Gorczyca, Rafa?; Filip, Rafa?; Walczak, Ewa

2013-12-30

286

Psychosocial aspects in phenylketonuria.  

PubMed

Psychosocial aspects in phenylketonuric (PKU) patients are reported. In two separate studies patients with PKU differing in age (children versus adolescents), were assessed. The main message of the first prospective study on 58 10-year-old patients is that normally intelligent PKU patients who were treated early and strictly did not show a higher risk for severe emotional and behavioural maladjustment compared with healthy controls at the age of 10 years. The data were obtained in the course of the German PKU Collaborative Study by the "Personality Questionnaire for Children (PFK 9-14)". All patients received nutritional, medical, and psychological counselling every 6 months. In the second retrospective study, 34 early treated, normally intelligent adolescents with PKU (age: mean = 14.6, SD = 2.0, range = 11-18 years) and their mothers were assessed with several psychometric personality inventories and self-developed questionnaires concerning their psychosocial situation and their disease- and diet-specific knowledge. Using the Mannheimer Biographic Inventory (MBI), the Personality Questionnaire for Children (PFK 9-14), and the Freiburger Personality Inventory (FPI) the adolescent patients described their social life and their emotional development as being distinctly restricted. Their knowledge concerning disease and diet was alarmingly poor and the majority had great difficulties in satisfactory dietetic management without parental help. In addition to the burdensome diet, developmental crises like puberty may cause more frequently emotional and behavioural problems in PKU patients. PMID:8828622

Weglage, J; Fünders, B; Ullrich, K; Rupp, A; Schmidt, E

1996-07-01

287

(18F)Fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose uptake of knee joints in the aspect of age-related osteoarthritis: a case-control study  

PubMed Central

Background This study investigated 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) uptake at knee joints for determination of metabolic alteration in association with the advance of age and joint degeneration such as osteoarthritis (OA). Methods A total of 166 knees from 83 healthy persons who presented for routine health examination and positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT) were enrolled in this study. History of knee OA and joint symptoms and signs were reviewed. The maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) of cartilage and mean SUV (SUVmean) between the epiphyseal plates of femur and tibia were evaluated at knee joints. Assessment of radiological bony changes was performed using the Kallgren-Lawrence (K/L) grading system with reconstructed CT images of the knee. The joint symptoms and signs were counted and used for diagnosis of clinical and radiological OA of the knee. Results The SUVmean of the knee joints showed a remarkable increase with aging in females (r?=?0.503, p?aspect of OA as a surrogate marker for degeneration of the knee in association with aging.

2013-01-01

288

Teaching to Diversity: Creating Compassionate Learning Communities for Diverse Elementary School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emotional and behavioral outcomes of the Respecting Diversity (RD) program, a social and emotional learning (SEL) intervention to develop self-awareness, self-respect and respect for diverse others, were investigated with 218 students in Grades four to seven and their teachers. Intervention and control groups were assessed pre and post…

Katz, Jennifer; Porath, Marion

2011-01-01

289

Physiological and biochemical aspects of the avian uropygial gland.  

PubMed

This review discusses different aspects of the uropygial gland of birds. The gland exhibits a striking morphological diversity in size, shape and presence/absence of tufts of feathers. It was shown that acidic mucins, neutral lipids, glycolipids and phospholipids are normal components of secretion. Several morphological and physiological aspects of the gland were studied on Rock Pigeon Columba livia Gmelin, 1879. The amount of the uropygial gland secretion, its lipid content and fatty acids profile were determined. The extracted lipid mixture contained of C14 to C20 fatty acids, mostly unsaturated; the saturated fatty acids were mainly 14:0, 16:0 and 18:0. No correlation was found between the size of the gland and the aquatic/terrestrial nature of the species. Ablation of the gland did not affect survival, body weight, feeding rate and serum cholesterol, total lipids or calcium levels after 32-120 days. The possible role of the gland in the protection against lipophilic compounds was discussed. The function of the gland is still a subject of controversy. It is accepted that its secretion confers water-repellent properties on the feather coat and maintain the suppleness of the feathers. Other physiological roles of the gland secretion may be associated to pheromone production, control of plumage hygiene, thermal insulation and defence against predators. Concerning the endocrine regulation of the uropygial function, there is scarce information presenting evidence for steroid regulated mechanisms. PMID:19675950

Salibian, A; Montalti, D

2009-05-01

290

Teaching Diverse Learners. Diversities in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes "diverse" as a socially acceptable term for both gifted children and at-risk children. Recommends describing children's specific behavior to create a more definitive picture. Includes example of observation of a "dysgraphic" child and the specific behaviors expressed, suggesting that results of observation can yield ideas about…

Glazer, Susan Mandel

1996-01-01

291

Current status of management, control, complications and psychosocial aspects of patients with diabetes in India: Results from the DiabCare India 2011 Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives: DiabCare India 2011 was a cross-sectional study in patients with diabetes mellitus, undertaken to investigate the relationship between diabetes control, management and complications in a subset of urban Indian diabetes patients treated at referral diabetes care centres in India. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional, multicentre (330 centres) survey in 6168 diabetes patients treated at general hospitals, diabetes clinics and referral clinics across India. Patient data, including medical and clinical examination reports during the past year were collected during their routine visit. The patients’ and physicians’ perceptions about diabetes management were recorded using a questionnaire. Results: A total of 6168 subjects with diabetes (95.8% type 2), mean age 51.9 ± 12.4 years and mean duration of diabetes, 6.9 ± 6.4 years were included. Mean HbA1c was 8.9 ± 2.1% and the mean fasting (FPG), post prandial (PPG) and random (RBG) plasma glucose levels were 148 ± 50 mg/dl 205 ± 66 mg/dl and 193 ± 68mg/dl respectively. Neuropathy was the most common complication (41.4%); other complications were: Foot (32.7%), eye (19.7%), cardiovascular (6.8%) and nephropathy (6.2%). The number of diabetic complications increased with mean duration of diabetes. Most (93.2%) of the patients were on oral anti-diabetic drugs (OADs) and 35.2% were on insulin (±OADs). More than 15% physicians felt that the greatest barrier to insulin therapy from patient's perspective were pain and fear of using injectable modality; 5.2% felt that the greatest barrier to insulin therapy from physician's perspective was the treatment cost; 4.8% felt that the major barriers to achieve optimum diabetic care in practice was loss to follow-up followed by lack of counselling (3.9%) and treatment compliance (3.6%). Conclusion: DiabCare India 2011 has shown that type 2 diabetes sets in early in Indians and glycaemic control is often sub-optimal in these patients. These results indicate a need for more structured intervention at an early stage of the disease and need for increased awareness on benefits of good glycaemic control. It cannot be overemphasized that the status of diabetes care in India needs to be further improved. (ClinTrials.gov identifier: NCT01351922)

Mohan, Viswanathan; Shah, Siddharth N.; Joshi, Shashank R.; Seshiah, V.; Sahay, Binode Kumar; Banerjee, Samar; Wangnoo, Subhash Kumar; Kumar, Ajay; Kalra, Sanjay; Unnikrishnan, A. G.; Sharma, Surendra Kumar; Rao, P. V.; Akhtar, Shahid; Shetty, Raman V.; Das, Ashok Kumar

2014-01-01

292

SCAMP: standardised, concentrated, additional macronutrients, parenteral nutrition in very preterm infants: a phase IV randomised, controlled exploratory study of macronutrient intake, growth and other aspects of neonatal care  

PubMed Central

Background Infants born <29 weeks gestation are at high risk of neurocognitive disability. Early postnatal growth failure, particularly head growth, is an important and potentially reversible risk factor for impaired neurodevelopmental outcome. Inadequate nutrition is a major factor in this postnatal growth failure, optimal protein and calorie (macronutrient) intakes are rarely achieved, especially in the first week. Infants <29 weeks are dependent on parenteral nutrition for the bulk of their nutrient needs for the first 2-3 weeks of life to allow gut adaptation to milk digestion. The prescription, formulation and administration of neonatal parenteral nutrition is critical to achieving optimal protein and calorie intake but has received little scientific evaluation. Current neonatal parenteral nutrition regimens often rely on individualised prescription to manage the labile, unpredictable biochemical and metabolic control characteristic of the early neonatal period. Individualised prescription frequently fails to translate into optimal macronutrient delivery. We have previously shown that a standardised, concentrated neonatal parenteral nutrition regimen can optimise macronutrient intake. Methods We propose a single centre, randomised controlled exploratory trial of two standardised, concentrated neonatal parenteral nutrition regimens comparing a standard macronutrient content (maximum protein 2.8 g/kg/day; lipid 2.8 g/kg/day, dextrose 10%) with a higher macronutrient content (maximum protein 3.8 g/kg/day; lipid 3.8 g/kg/day, dextrose 12%) over the first 28 days of life. 150 infants 24-28 completed weeks gestation and birthweight <1200 g will be recruited. The primary outcome will be head growth velocity in the first 28 days of life. Secondary outcomes will include a) auxological data between birth and 36 weeks corrected gestational age b) actual macronutrient intake in first 28 days c) biomarkers of biochemical and metabolic tolerance d) infection biomarkers and other intravascular line complications e) incidence of major complications of prematurity including mortality f) neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years corrected gestational age Trial registration Current controlled trials: ISRCTN76597892; EudraCT Number: 2008-008899-14

2011-01-01

293

Runtime aspect weaving through metaprogramming  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an extension to the Java language, Handi-Wrap, that supports weaving aspects into code at runtime. Aspects in Handi-Wrap take the form of method wrappers, which allow aspect code to be inserted around method bodies like advice in AspectJ. Handi-Wrap offers several advantages over static aspect languages such as AspectJ. First, aspects can be woven into binary libraries. Second,

Jason Baker; Wilson C. Hsieh

2002-01-01

294

Voices for Diversity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prominent Americans were asked to reflect on the diversity challenge facing America's teacher workforce. The following leaders from several fields voiced their support of teachers and their beliefs America needs more diverse and culturally responsive teachers: (1) Mary Hatwood Futrell, President of Education International; (2) Carol Moseley-Braun,…

Future Teacher, 1995

1995-01-01

295

Evolution & Diversity in Plants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes recent findings that help in understanding how evolution has brought about the diversity of plant life that presently exists. Discusses basic concepts of evolution, diversity and classification, the three-line hypothesis of plant evolution, the origin of fungi, and the geologic time table. Included are 31 references. (CW)

Pearson, Lorentz C.

1988-01-01

296

A Diversity Visionary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today's chief diversity officer could be tomorrow's university president, says Dr. Damon Williams. The author profiles Damon Williams who shines as sought-after expert on issues surrounding higher education inclusion. As head of a diversity division with an eight-figure budget at Wisconsin's flagship state university, Williams oversees four…

Smith, Susan

2012-01-01

297

Reaping benefits from diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance of diversity management initiatives using three good practice examples from employers operating in the manufacturing, IT and charity sectors in the UK. Design methodology\\/approach – Using IBM, Jaguar Land Rover and Scope as case studies, the paper follows the introduction and maintenance of diversity policies based on internal

Andrea Broughton; Marie Strebler

2008-01-01

298

Diversity of Gastric Carcinogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastric cancer is still the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide, although the incidence of this disease has been gradually decreasing. The diversity of gastric cancer is well known. However, the mechanism underlying this diversity is still unknown. We have performed experimental and clinical studies on gastric carcinogenesis. These results suggest that the variety in the type and extent

Michio Kaminishi

2005-01-01

299

Diversity in Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article is a revised version of a talk the author gave 4 October during the 1998 National Academy of Engineering (NAE) Annual Meeting discussing diversity issues in engineering, in terms of both underrepresented populations and 'individual diversity.' Target Audience: 2-4 Year College Faculty/Administrators

Wulf, William A.

2010-02-04

300

Global Diversity and Leadership.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that global diversity has become a business imperative in today's business climate. Global diversity is of core importance even for companies that are considered domestic. Suggests community colleges need help in understanding their customer base and their shifting values in order to meet their needs and win customer loyalty. (NB)

Ruiz, Art

2003-01-01

301

Genetic diversity among sapoviruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Norovirus and Sapovirus are two genera of the family Caliciviridae that contain viruses that can cause acute gastroenteritis in humans. Noroviruses (NOR) are genetically highly diverse but limited studies of the genetic diversity of sapoviruses (SAP) have been reported. In this study we characterized twenty-five SAP detected in our laboratory from outbreaks or sporadic cases of acute gastroenteritis in

T. Farkas; W. M. Zhong; Y. Jing; P. W. Huang; S. M. Espinosa; N. Martinez; A. L. Morrow; G. M. Ruiz-Palacios; L. K. Pickering; X. Jiang

2004-01-01

302

Beyond the Diversity Crisis Model: Decentralized Diversity Planning and Implementation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article critiques the diversity crises model of diversity planning in higher education and presents a decentralized diversity planning model. The model is based on interviews with the nation's leading diversity officers, a review of the literature and the authors own experiences leading diversity change initiatives in higher education. The…

Williams, Damon A.

2008-01-01

303

Archimedes Mission Aspects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main aspects of possible technical solutions in terms of mission characteristics, showing the critical drawbacks in utilizing high elliptical orbits for the satellite system configuration developed under ESA contracts, are presented. The results show ...

P. Palmucci B. Pavesi

1990-01-01

304

A Randomized Controlled Trial of the First Step to Success Early Intervention: Demonstration of Program Efficacy Outcomes in a Diverse, Urban School District  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on a randomized controlled trial of the First Step to Success early intervention that was conducted over a 4-year period in Albuquerque Public Schools. First Step is a selected intervention for students in Grades 1 through 3 with externalizing behavior problems, and it addresses secondary prevention goals and objectives. It…

Walker, Hill M.; Seeley, John R.; Small, Jason; Severson, Herbert H.; Graham, Bethany A.; Feil, Edward G.; Serna, Loretta; Golly, Annemieke M.; Forness, Steven R.

2009-01-01

305

Developmental thermography: multiple aspect thermography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple aspect thermography (MAT) is a kind of developmental thermography. MAT was designed in order to supplement the shortage of the number of coverage aspects in triple aspect thermography (TAT). TAT allows simultaneous display of numbers of thermograms on various selected aspects of the subject in CRT frame. This paper reports on MAT methodology and discusses some aspects of the

Akinori Nagasawa; Kazuichi Katoh

1993-01-01

306

Dinosaur diversity and the rock record.  

PubMed

Palaeobiodiversity analysis underpins macroevolutionary investigations, allowing identification of mass extinctions and adaptive radiations. However, recent large-scale studies on marine invertebrates indicate that geological factors play a central role in moulding the shape of diversity curves and imply that many features of such curves represent sampling artefacts, rather than genuine evolutionary events. In order to test whether similar biases affect diversity estimates for terrestrial taxa, we compiled genus-richness estimates for three Mesozoic dinosaur clades (Ornithischia, Sauropodomorpha and Theropoda). Linear models of expected genus richness were constructed for each clade, using the number of dinosaur-bearing formations available through time as a proxy for the amount of fossiliferous rock outcrop. Modelled diversity estimates were then compared with observed patterns. Strong statistically robust correlations demonstrate that almost all aspects of ornithischian and theropod diversity curves can be explained by geological megabiases, whereas the sauropodomorph record diverges from modelled predictions and may be a stronger contender for identifying evolutionary signals. In contrast to other recent studies, we identify a marked decline in dinosaur genus richness during the closing stages of the Cretaceous Period, indicating that the clade decreased in diversity for several million years prior to the final extinction of non-avian dinosaurs at the Cretaceous-Palaeocene boundary. PMID:19403535

Barrett, Paul M; McGowan, Alistair J; Page, Victoria

2009-07-22

307

Dinosaur diversity and the rock record  

PubMed Central

Palaeobiodiversity analysis underpins macroevolutionary investigations, allowing identification of mass extinctions and adaptive radiations. However, recent large-scale studies on marine invertebrates indicate that geological factors play a central role in moulding the shape of diversity curves and imply that many features of such curves represent sampling artefacts, rather than genuine evolutionary events. In order to test whether similar biases affect diversity estimates for terrestrial taxa, we compiled genus-richness estimates for three Mesozoic dinosaur clades (Ornithischia, Sauropodomorpha and Theropoda). Linear models of expected genus richness were constructed for each clade, using the number of dinosaur-bearing formations available through time as a proxy for the amount of fossiliferous rock outcrop. Modelled diversity estimates were then compared with observed patterns. Strong statistically robust correlations demonstrate that almost all aspects of ornithischian and theropod diversity curves can be explained by geological megabiases, whereas the sauropodomorph record diverges from modelled predictions and may be a stronger contender for identifying evolutionary signals. In contrast to other recent studies, we identify a marked decline in dinosaur genus richness during the closing stages of the Cretaceous Period, indicating that the clade decreased in diversity for several million years prior to the final extinction of non-avian dinosaurs at the Cretaceous–Palaeocene boundary.

Barrett, Paul M.; McGowan, Alistair J.; Page, Victoria

2009-01-01

308

2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, headworks overflow weir to center left, view to east - Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, Salmon Creek, Okanogan, Okanogan County, WA

309

1. DIVERSION GATE AT SPILLWAY, NORTH CANAL DAM (DIVERSION GATE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. DIVERSION GATE AT SPILLWAY, NORTH CANAL DAM (DIVERSION GATE FEEDING PIPE AT LOWER RIGHT), VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - North Canal Dam & Diversion Canals, Deschutes Reclamation & Irrigation Company Canal, Empire Boulevard vicinity, Bend, Deschutes County, OR

310

Climate, energy and diversity  

PubMed Central

In recent years, a number of species–energy hypotheses have been developed to explain global patterns in plant and animal diversity. These hypotheses frequently fail to distinguish between fundamentally different forms of energy which influence diversity in dissimilar ways. Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) can be utilized only by plants, though their abundance and growth rate is also greatly influenced by water. The Gibbs free energy (chemical energy) retained in the reduced organic compounds of tissue can be utilized by all heterotrophic organisms. Neither PAR nor chemical energy influences diversity directly. Both, however, influence biomass and/or abundance; diversity may then increase as a result of secondary population dynamic or evolutionary processes. Temperature is not a form of energy, though it is often used loosely by ecologists as a proxy for energy; it does, however, influence the rate of utilization of chemical energy by organisms. It may also influence diversity by allowing a greater range of energetic lifestyles at warmer temperatures (the metabolic niche hypothesis). We conclude that there is no single species/energy mechanism; fundamentally different processes link energy to abundance in plants and animals, and diversity is affected secondarily. If we are to make progress in elucidating these mechanisms, it is important to distinguish climatic effects on species' distribution and abundance from processes linking energy supply to plant and animal diversity.

Clarke, Andrew; Gaston, Kevin J

2006-01-01

311

Human Mycobacterium bovis infection in the United Kingdom: Incidence, risks, control measures and review of the zoonotic aspects of bovine tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Amongst the members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), M. tuberculosis is mainly a human pathogen, whereas M. bovis has a broad host range and is the principal agent responsible for tuberculosis (TB) in domestic and wild mammals. M. bovis also infects humans, causing zoonotic TB through ingestion, inhalation and, less frequently, by contact with mucous membranes and broken skin. Zoonotic TB is indistinguishable clinically or pathologically from TB caused by M. tuberculosis. Differentiation between the causative organisms may only be achieved by sophisticated laboratory methods involving bacteriological culture of clinical specimens, followed by typing of isolates according to growth characteristics, biochemical properties, routine resistance to pyrazinamide (PZA) and specific non-commercial nucleic acid techniques. All this makes it difficult to accurately estimate the proportion of human TB cases caused by M. bovis infection, particularly in developing countries. Distinguishing between the various members of the MTBC is essential for epidemiological investigation of human cases and, to a lesser degree, for adequate chemotherapy of the human TB patient. Zoonotic TB was formerly an endemic disease in the UK population, usually transmitted to man by consumption of raw cows' milk. Human infection with M. bovis in the UK has been largely controlled through pasteurization of cows' milk and systematic culling of cattle reacting to compulsory tuberculin tests. Nowadays the majority of the 7000 cases of human TB annually reported in the UK are due to M. tuberculosis acquired directly from an infectious person. In the period 1990-2003, between 17 and 50 new cases of human M. bovis infection were confirmed every year in the UK. This represented between 0.5% and 1.5% of all the culture-confirmed TB cases, a proportion similar to that of other industrialized countries. Most cases of zoonotic TB diagnosed in the UK are attributed to (i) reactivation of long-standing latent infections acquired before widespread adoption of milk pasteurization, or (ii) M. bovis infections contracted abroad. Since 1990, only one case has been documented in the UK of confirmed, indigenous human M. bovis infection recently acquired from an animal source. Therefore, for the overwhelming majority of the population, the risk of contracting M. bovis infection from animals appears to be extremely low. However, bovine TB is once again a major animal health problem in the UK. Given the increasing numbers of cattle herds being affected each year, physicians and other public health professionals must remember that zoonotic TB is not just a disease of the past. A significant risk of M. bovis infection remains in certain segments of the UK population in the form of (i) continuing on-farm consumption of unpasteurized cows' milk, (ii) retail sales by approved establishments of unpasteurized milk and dairy products and (iii) occupational exposure to infectious aerosols from tuberculous animals and their carcases. PMID:16257579

de la Rua-Domenech, Ricardo

2006-03-01

312

Motor control of Drosophila courtship song  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Many animals utilize acoustic signals – or songs – to attract mates. During courtship, Drosophila melanogaster males vibrate a wing to produce trains of pulses and extended tone called pulse and sine song, respectively. Courtship songs in the genus Drosophila are exceedingly diverse and different song features appear to have evolved independently of each other. How the nervous system allows such diversity to evolve is not understood. Here, we identify a wing muscle in D. melanogaster (hg1) that is uniquely male-enlarged. The hg1 motoneuron and the sexually dimorphic development of the hg1 muscle are required specifically for the sine component of the male song. In contrast, the motoneuron innervating a sexually monomorphic wing muscle, ps1, is required specifically for a feature of pulse song. Thus, individual wing motor pathways can control separate aspects of courtship song and may provide a “modular” anatomical substrate for the evolution of diverse songs.

Shirangi, Troy R.; Stern, David L.; Truman, James W.

2014-01-01

313

Multilingual Aspects of Fluency Disorders. Communication Disorders across Languages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains contributions by scholars working on diverse aspects of speech who bring their findings to bear on the practical issue of how to treat stuttering in different language groups and in multilingual speakers. The book considers classic issues in speech production research, as well as whether regions of the brain that are affected in…

Howell, Peter; Van Borsel, John

2011-01-01

314

Human Genome Diversity workshop 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Human Genome Diversity Project (HGD) is an international interdisciplinary program whose goal is to reveal as much as possible about the current state of genetic diversity among humans and the processes that were responsible for that diversity. Classi...

1992-01-01

315

Diversity of endophytic fungal community of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) and biological control of Crinipellis perniciosa, causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease.  

PubMed

The basidiomycete fungus Crinipellis perniciosa (Stahel) Singer is the causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease of Cacao (Theobromacacao L.) which is the main factor limiting cacao production in the Americas. Pod losses of up to 90% are experienced in affected areas as evidenced by the 50% drop in production in Bahia province, Brazil following the arrival of the C. perniciosa in the area in 1989. The disease has proven particularly difficult to control and many farmers in affected areas have given up cacao cultivation. In order to evaluate the potential of endophytes as a biological control agent of this phytopathogen, the endophytic fungal community of resistant and susceptible cacao plants as well as affected branches was studied between 2001 and 2002. The fungal community was identified by morphological traits and rDNA sequencing as belonging to the genera Acremonium, Blastomyces, Botryosphaeria, Cladosporium, Colletotrichum, Cordyceps, Diaporthe, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Gibberella, Gliocladium, Lasiodiplodia, Monilochoetes, Nectria, Pestalotiopsis, Phomopsis, Pleurotus, Pseudofusarium, Rhizopycnis, Syncephalastrum, Trichoderma, Verticillium and Xylaria. These fungi were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo by their ability to inhibit C. perniciosa. Among these, some were identified as potential antagonists, but only one fungus (Gliocladium catenulatum) reduced the incidence of Witches' Broom Disease in cacao seedlings to 70%. PMID:15951847

Rubini, Marciano R; Silva-Ribeiro, Rute T; Pomella, Alan W V; Maki, Cristina S; Araújo, Welington L; Dos Santos, Deise R; Azevedo, João L

2005-01-01

316

Diversity of endophytic fungal community of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) and biological control of Crinipellis perniciosa, causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease  

PubMed Central

The basidiomycete fungus Crinipellis perniciosa (Stahel) Singer is the causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease of Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) which is the main factor limiting cacao production in the Americas. Pod losses of up to 90% are experienced in affected areas as evidenced by the 50% drop in production in Bahia province, Brazil following the arrival of the C. perniciosa in the area in 1989. The disease has proven particularly difficult to control and many farmers in affected areas have given up cacao cultivation. In order to evaluate the potential of endophytes as a biological control agent of this phytopathogen, the endophytic fungal community of resistant and susceptible cacao plants as well as affected branches was studied between 2001 and 2002. The fungal community was identified by morphological traits and rDNA sequencing as belonging to the genera Acremonium, Blastomyces, Botryosphaeria, Cladosporium, Colletotrichum, Cordyceps, Diaporthe, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Gibberella, Gliocladium, Lasiodiplodia, Monilochoetes, Nectria, Pestalotiopsis, Phomopsis, Pleurotus, Pseudofusarium, Rhizopycnis, Syncephalastrum, Trichoderma, Verticillium and Xylaria. These fungi were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo by their ability to inhibit C. perniciosa. Among these, some were identified as potential antagonists, but only one fungus (Gliocladium catenulatum) reduced the incidence of Witches' Broom Disease in cacao seedlings to 70%.

2005-01-01

317

Examining Correlates of Diversity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Statistical methods are presented for studying "correlates of diversity," defined as characteristics of educational organizations that predict dispersion on the dependent variable. Strategies based on exact distribution theory and asymptotic normal approximation are considered. (TJH)

Raudenbush, Stephen W.; Bryk, Anthony S.

1987-01-01

318

From Inequality to Diversity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed here is Christopher Jenck's book, Inequality. Topics addressed are massive funding, quality of life, small social effects, and diverse standards. [Available from Publications Branch, Education Department of Victoria, 234 Queensberry Street, Carlton 3053, Victoria, Australia]. (AM)

Peter, R. Scott

1974-01-01

319

Human Genome Diversity Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Human Genome Diversity Project (HGD Project) is an international anthropology project that seeks to study the genetic richness of the entire human species. This kind of genetic information can add a unique thread to the tapestry knowledge of humanity....

L. Cavalli-Sforza

1994-01-01

320

Bacillus subtilis genome diversity.  

PubMed

Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (M-CGH) is a powerful method for rapidly identifying regions of genome diversity among closely related organisms. We used M-CGH to examine the genome diversity of 17 strains belonging to the nonpathogenic species Bacillus subtilis. Our M-CGH results indicate that there is considerable genetic heterogeneity among members of this species; nearly one-third of Bsu168-specific genes exhibited variability, as measured by the microarray hybridization intensities. The variable loci include those encoding proteins involved in antibiotic production, cell wall synthesis, sporulation, and germination. The diversity in these genes may reflect this organism's ability to survive in diverse natural settings. PMID:17114265

Earl, Ashlee M; Losick, Richard; Kolter, Roberto

2007-02-01

321

River Diversions and Shoaling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Coastal and Hydraulics Engineering Technical Note describes the current knowledge of the potential impacts of river diversions on channel morphology, especially induced sedimentation in the river channel. Processes considered in this note are those m...

J. C. Pinkard J. J. Letter N. K. Raphelt

2008-01-01

322

Diversity history of Cenozoic marine siliceous plankton  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine planktonic diatoms and polycystine radiolarians, both with shells of opaline silica, make up a large part of the deep-sea sediment fossil record. Diatom export of organic material to the deep ocean and sediments strongly affects the global carbon cycle; while both groups compete for, and are regulated by the availability of, dissolved silica derived from global weathering. Diatoms and radiolarians also both have a relatively (compared to foraminifera or coccolithophores) complex biogeography, with diverse, endemic polar and tropical assemblages. Changes in past diatom and radiolarian diversity can be used to understand how the ocean's biologic pump has evolved, how co-evolution between groups occurs, and how nutrient availability controls evolutionary change. Lazarus et al. (2014) recently showed that diatom diversity increased by a factor of ca 3.5X over the Cenozoic, with a temporary peak in the latest Eocene, a late Oligocene-early Miocene low interval, very strong diversification in the late Miocene-early Pliocene, and minor decline in the late Pliocene-Recent. Only Phanerozoic scale radiolarian diversity estimates have been available until now, and these are strongly biased by sample size. We employed similar data (NSB database) and methods (1 my bins, 'sqs' subsampling, outlier removal using Pacman trims) as Lazarus et al. (2014) to calculate, for the first time, a detailed estimate of radiolarian diversity history, and origination and extinction rates over the last 50 my, the period for which sufficient NSB data is available. Radiolarian diversity increases almost monotonically by a factor of 5, with relatively rapid increases in the mid Eocene (high relative origination) and early Miocene (due to low extinction rates), and a moderate decline in the Plio-Pleistocene due to high extinction rates. Combined high rates of both extinction and origination, with little diversity change, are seen at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary. Most of these events can be related to changing global paleoceanographic conditions. Radiolarians show a major decrease in Cenozoic silica usage, apparently due to the rise of diatoms and consequent reduction of surface water silica concentrations (Lazarus et al. 2009). This inference based on diatom diversity has been confirmed (Renaudie et al., this meeting) with new estimates showing Cenozoic increasing rates of global diatom silica deposition. Our new radiolarian results show this did not negatively impact radiolarian diversity. Presumably increasing diversity from increasing faunal provinciality dominated Cenozoic radiolarian diversity dynamics, similar to the diversity controls on diatoms (Lazarus et al. 2014). Lazarus et al. (2009). PNAS 106:9333-9338. Lazarus et al. (2014). PLOS One (in press).

Lazarus, David; Renaudie, Johan

2014-05-01

323

Diversity of Chlamydomonas channelrhodopsins.  

PubMed

Channelrhodopsins act as photoreceptors for control of motility behavior in flagellates and are widely used as genetically targeted tools to optically manipulate the membrane potential of specific cell populations ("optogenetics"). The first two channelrhodopsins were obtained from the model organism Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (CrChR1 and CrChR2). By homology cloning we identified three new channelrhodopsin sequences from the same genus, CaChR1, CyChR1 and CraChR2, from C. augustae, C. yellowstonensis and C. raudensis, respectively. CaChR1 and CyChR1 were functionally expressed in HEK293 cells, where they acted as light-gated ion channels similar to CrChR1. However, both, which are similar to each other, differed from CrChR1 in current kinetics, inactivation, light intensity dependence, spectral sensitivity and dependence on the external pH. These results show that extensive channelrhodopsin diversity exists even within the same genus, Chlamydomonas. The maximal spectral sensitivity of CaChR1 was at 520 nm at pH 7.4, about 40 nm redshifted as compared to that of CrChR1 under the same conditions. CaChR1 was successfully expressed in Pichia pastoris and exhibited an absorption spectrum identical to the action spectrum of CaChR1-generated photocurrents. The redshifted spectra and the lack of fast inactivation in CaChR1- and CyChR1-generated currents are features desirable for optogenetics applications. PMID:22044280

Hou, Sing-Yi; Govorunova, Elena G; Ntefidou, Maria; Lane, C Elizabeth; Spudich, Elena N; Sineshchekov, Oleg A; Spudich, John L

2012-01-01

324

Diversity of Chlamydomonas Channelrhodopsins  

PubMed Central

Channelrhodopsins act as photoreceptors for control of motility behavior in flagellates and are widely used as genetically targeted tools to optically manipulate the membrane potential of specific cell populations (“optogenetics”). The first two channelrhodopsins were obtained from the model organism Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (CrChR1 and CrChR2). By homology cloning we identified three new channelrhodopsin sequences from the same genus, CaChR1, CyChR1 and CraChR2, from C. augustae, C. yellowstonensis and C. raudensis, respectively. CaChR1 and CyChR1 were functionally expressed in HEK293 cells, where they acted as light-gated ion channels similar to CrChR1. However, both, which are similar to each other, differed from CrChR1 in current kinetics, inactivation, light intensity dependence, spectral sensitivity, and dependence on the external pH. These results show that extensive channelrhodopsin diversity exists even within the same genus, Chlamydomonas. The maximal spectral sensitivity of CaChR1 was at 520 nm at pH 7.4, about 40 nm red-shifted as compared to that of CrChR1 under the same conditions. CaChR1 was successfully expressed in Pichia pastoris and exhibited an absorption spectrum identical to the action spectrum of CaChR1-generated photocurrents. The red-shifted spectra and the lack of fast inactivation in CaChR1- and CyChR1-generated currents are features desirable for optogenetics applications.

Hou, Sing-Yi; Govorunova, Elena G.; Ntefidou, Maria; Lane, C. Elizabeth; Spudich, Elena N.; Sineshchekov, Oleg A.; Spudich, John L.

2011-01-01

325

Aspects of bamboo agronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various aspects of the growth and development of bamboo are reviewed,includ- ing growth cycles of plant parts,effects of aging on important plant tissues,uptake of water and nutrients,photosynthesis,storage and translocation of photosynthates and nutrients,and accumulation and partitioning of biomass and nutrients.Also discussed are how these aspects can be manipulated with agronomic techniques, such as management of standing-culm density,culm-age structure,leaf area,and leaf-age

Volker Kleinhenz; David J. Midmore

2001-01-01

326

Probabilistic description of topographic slope and aspect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Local topographic features such as slope and aspect play a crucial role in a number of morphological, ecological, and hydrological processes. We propose a simple yet realistic probabilistic description of local slope and aspect as a function of properties of the field of elevation changes. We consider different classes of models of elevation changes and obtain the theoretical distribution of slope and aspect. We relate the features of the obtained distributions to large-scale landscape structures, such as regional trends and anisotropy. We find that the theoretical distribution of slope is strongly impacted by the parameters used to represent the distribution of elevation changes, while large-scale features play a secondary role. Conversely, the distribution of aspect is also controlled by regional trends and anisotopy, even when they are weak. The proposed statistical description of slope and aspect is applied to assess the effects of topographic features on direct solar radiation mean and standard deviation. The main control on direct solar radiation is exerted by the partial derivative variance. We consider four different landscapes across the continental United States and compare the proposed theoretical description of slope and aspect distributions to the observed histograms.

Vico, G.; Porporato, A.

2009-02-01

327

Nutritional aspects in hemodialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutritional aspects in hemodialysis. The results of cross sectional studies throughout the world indicate that maintenance hemodialysis patients are at risk of malnutrition. Longitudinal studies show that malnutrition is associated with a reduced life expectancy mainly because of cardiovascular and infectious complications. Several factors are responsible for malnutrition of hemodialysis patients. Protein-energy intake is often reduced because of inappropriate dietary

Maurice Laville; Denis Fouque

2000-01-01

328

Sociological Aspects of Deafness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nine conference papers treat the sociological aspects of deafness. Included are "Individuals Being Deaf and Blind and Living with a Well Hearing Society" by A. Marx (German Federal Republic), "A Deaf Man's Experiences in a Hearing World" by A. B. Simon(U.S.A.), "Problem of Text Books and School Appliances for Vocational Education of Deaf Adults"…

World Federation of the Deaf, Rome (Italy).

329

The January Aspect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The January aspect of college administration refers to the Roman god Janus, who was capable of looking forward and backward simultaneously. It is applied to academic deans who must look toward both administrative superiors and subordinates, and the same two-directional interface is imposed on presidents, department chairmen, professors, and…

Powers, Glenn F.; And Others

1977-01-01

330

Aspects of cosmological relativity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author reviews cosmological relativity, a new special theory of relativity that was recently developed for cosmology, and discusses in detail some of its aspects. He recalls that in this theory it is assumed that gravitation is negligible. Under this assumption, the receding velocities of galaxies and the distances between them in the Hubble expansion are united into a four-dimensional

Moshe Carmeli

1999-01-01

331

Aspects of strangeness  

SciTech Connect

We review various aspects of strangeness production in relativistic heavy ion collisions from AGS to CERN energies. The experimental data are briefly summarized and various possible theoretical interpretations of these data are evaluated, such as quark-gluon- plasma (QGP), hadron gas (HG) thermal models, or event generators (cascade models). Some comments on the production of strange clusters are offered.

Dover, C.B.

1995-03-01

332

Medico-Legal Aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The legal and ethical aspects of human organ transplantation vary from country to country, although in broad terms the legal\\u000a and ethical requirements denote substantial similarities. This chapter provides an overview principally of the statutory requirements\\u000a relating to heart transplantation.

S. Sanbar

333

Medical Aspects of Surfing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The medical aspects of surfing include ear and eye injuries and sprains and strains of the lower back and neck, as well as skin cancer from exposure to the sun. Treatment, rehabilitation, and prevention of these problems are discussed. Surfing is recommended as part of an exercise program for reasonably healthy people. (Author/MT)

Renneker, Mark

1987-01-01

334

Aspects of superembeddings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some aspects of the geometry of superembeddings and its application to supersymmetric extended objects are discussed. In particular,\\u000a the embeddings of the (3|16) and (6|16) dimensional superspaces into (11|32) dimensional superspace, corresponding to the\\u000a supermembrane and superfivebrane in eleven dimensions, are treated in some detail.

P. S. Howe; E. Sezgin; P. C. West

335

AspectLTL: an aspect language for LTL specifications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present AspectLTL, a temporal-logic based language for the specification and implementation of crosscutting concerns. AspectLTL enables the modular declarative specification of expressive concerns, covering the addition of new behaviors, as well as the specification of safety and liveness properties. Moreover, given an AspectLTL specification, consisting of a base system and a set of aspects, we provide AspectLTL with a

Shahar Maoz; Yaniv Sa'ar

2011-01-01

336

DEVELOPMENT OF AQUATIC MODELS FOR TESTING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GENETIC DIVERSITY AND POPULATION EXTINCTION RISK  

EPA Science Inventory

The relationship between population adaptive potential and extinction risk in a changing environment is not well understood. Although the expectation is that genetic diversity is directly related to the capacity of populations to adapt, the statistical and predictive aspects of ...

337

Assessment of immune interference, antagonism, and diversion following human immunization with biallelic blood-stage malaria viral-vectored vaccines and controlled malaria infection.  

PubMed

Overcoming antigenic variation is one of the major challenges in the development of an effective vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum, a causative agent of human malaria. Inclusion of multiple Ag variants in subunit vaccine candidates is one strategy that has aimed to overcome this problem for the leading blood-stage malaria vaccine targets, that is, merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1) and apical membrane Ag 1 (AMA1). However, previous studies, utilizing malaria Ags, have concluded that inclusion of multiple allelic variants, encoding altered peptide ligands, in such a vaccine may be detrimental to both the priming and in vivo restimulation of Ag-experienced T cells. In this study, we analyze the T cell responses to two alleles of MSP1 and AMA1 induced by vaccination of malaria-naive adult volunteers with bivalent viral-vectored vaccine candidates. We show a significant bias to the 3D7/MAD20 allele compared with the Wellcome allele for the 33 kDa region of MSP1, but not for the 19 kDa fragment or the AMA1 Ag. Although this bias could be caused by "immune interference" at priming, the data do not support a significant role for "immune antagonism" during memory T cell restimulation, despite observation of the latter at a minimal epitope level in vitro. A lack of class I HLA epitopes in the Wellcome allele that are recognized by vaccinated volunteers may in fact contribute to the observed bias. We also show that controlled infection with 3D7 strain P. falciparum parasites neither boosts existing 3D7-specific T cell responses nor appears to "immune divert" cellular responses toward the Wellcome allele. PMID:23293353

Elias, Sean C; Collins, Katharine A; Halstead, Fenella D; Choudhary, Prateek; Bliss, Carly M; Ewer, Katie J; Sheehy, Susanne H; Duncan, Christopher J A; Biswas, Sumi; Hill, Adrian V S; Draper, Simon J

2013-02-01

338

A hierarchical perspective of plant diversity.  

PubMed

Predictive models of plant diversity have typically focused on either a landscape's capacity for richness (equilibrium models), or on the processes that regulate competitive exclusion, and thus allow species to coexist (nonequilibrium models). Here, we review the concepts and purposes of a hierarchical, multiscale model of the controls of plant diversity that incorporates the equilibrium model of climatic favorability at macroscales, nonequilibrium models of competition at microscales, and a mixed model emphasizing environmental heterogeneity at mesoscales. We evaluate the conceptual model using published data from three spatially nested datasets: (1) a macroscale analysis of ecoregions in the continental and western U.S.; (2) a mesoscale study in California; and (3) a microscale study in the Siskiyou Mountains of Oregon and California. At the macroscale (areas from 3889 km2 to 638,300 km2), climate (actual evaporation) was a strong predictor of tree diversity (R2 = 0.80), as predicted by the conceptual model, but area was a better predictor for vascular plant diversity overall (R2 = 0.38), which suggests different types of plants differ in their sensitivity to climatic controls. At mesoscales (areas from 1111 km2 to 15,833 km2), climate was still an important predictor of richness (R2 = 0.52), but, as expected, topographic heterogeneity explained an important share of the variance (R2 = 0.19) showed positive correlations with diversity of trees, shrubs, and annual and perennial herbs, and was the primary predictor of shrub and annual plant species richness. At microscales (0.1 ha plots), spatial patterns of diversity showed a clear unimodal pattern along a climate-driven productivity gradient and a negative relationship with soil fertility. The strong decline in understory and total diversity at the most productive sites suggests that competitive controls, as predicted, can override climatic controls at this scale. We conclude that this hierarchical, multiscale model provides a sound basis to understand and analyze plant species diversity. Specifically, future research should employ the principles in this paper to explore climatic controls on species richness of different life forms, better quantify environmental heterogeneity in landscapes, and analyze how these large-scale factors interact with local nonequilibrium dynamics to maintain plant diversity. PMID:16075870

Sarr, Daniel A; Hibbs, David E; Huston, Michael A

2005-06-01

339

A hierarchical perspective of plant diversity  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Predictive models of plant diversity have typically focused on either a landscapea??s capacity for richness (equilibrium models), or on the processes that regulate competitive exclusion, and thus allow species to coexist (nonequilibrium models). Here, we review the concepts and purposes of a hierarchical, multiscale model of the controls of plant diversity that incorporates the equilibrium model of climatic favorability at macroscales, nonequilibrium models of competition at microscales, and a mixed model emphasizing environmental heterogeneity at mesoscales. We evaluate the conceptual model using published data from three spatially nested datasets: (1) a macroscale analysis of ecoregions in the continental and western U.S.; (2) a mesoscale study in California; and (3) a microscale study in the Siskiyou Mountains of Oregon and California. At the macroscale (areas from 3889 km2 to 638,300 km2), climate (actual evaporation) was a strong predictor of tree diversity (R2 = 0.80), as predicted by the conceptual model, but area was a better predictor for vascular plant diversity overall (R2 = 0.38), which suggests different types of plants differ in their sensitivity to climatic controls. At mesoscales (areas from 1111 km2 to 15,833 km2 ), climate was still an important predictor of richness (R2 = 0.52), but, as expected, topographic heterogeneity explained an important share of the variance (R2 = 0.19), showed positive correlations with diversity of trees, shrubs, and annual and perennial herbs, and was the primary predictor of shrub and annual plant species richness. At microscales (0.1 ha plots), spatial patterns of diversity showed a clear unimodal pattern along a climatea??driven productivity gradient and a negative relationship with soil fertility. The strong decline in understory and total diversity at the most productive sites suggests that competitive controls, as predicted, can override climatic controls at this scale. We conclude that this hierarchical, multiscale model provides a sound basis to understand and analyze plant species diversity. Specifically, future research should employ the principles in this paper to explore climatic controls on species richness of different life forms, better quantify environmental heterogeneity in landscapes, and analyze how these largea??scale factors interact with local nonequilibrium dynamics to maintain plant diversity.

Sarr, Daniel; Hibbs, D. E.; Huston, M.

2005-01-01

340

Quality Control Analysis of Selected Aspects of Programs Administered by the Bureau of Student Financial Assistance. Error-Prone Model Derived from 1978-1979 Quality Control Study. Data Report. [Task 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An error-prone model (EPM) to predict financial aid applicants who are likely to misreport on Basic Educational Opportunity Grant (BEOG) applications was developed, based on interviews conducted with a quality control sample of 1,791 students during 1978-1979. The model was designed to identify corrective methods appropriate for different types of…

Saavedra, Pedro; Kuchak, JoAnn

341

Reshaping Antibody Diversity  

PubMed Central

Summary Unlike humans or mice, some species have limited genome encoded combinatorial diversity potential, yet mount a robust antibody response. Cows are unusual in having exceptionally long CDR H3 loops and few V-regions, but the mechanism for creating diversity is not understood. Deep sequencing revealed that ultralong CDR H3s contain a remarkable complexity of cysteines, suggesting that disulfide-bonded mini-domains may arise during repertoire development. Indeed, crystal structures of two cow antibodies reveal that these CDR H3s form a very unusual architecture composed of a ?-strand “stalk” that supports a structurally diverse, disulfide-bonded, “knob” domain. Sequence analysis suggests that diversity arises from somatic hypermutation of an ultralong DH with a severe codon bias towards mutation to cysteine. These unusual antibodies can be elicited to recognize defined antigens through the knob domain. Thus, the bovine immune system produces an antibody repertoire composed of CDR H3s of unprecedented length that fold into a diversity of mini-domains generated through combinations of somatically generated disulfides.

Wang, Feng; Ekiert, Damian C.; Ahmad, Insha; Yu, Wenli; Zhang, Yong; Bazirgan, Omar; Torkamani, Ali; Raudsepp, Terje; Mwangi, Waithaka; Criscitiello, Michael F.; Wilson, Ian A.; Schultz, Peter G.; Smider, Vaughn V.

2014-01-01

342

The Loss of Genetic Diversity: An Impending Global Issue.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Definitions of biosphere and ecosystem are provided as the basis for understanding a problem that threatens to become (or already is) a global issue, namely, human activity which results in reducing the diversity of life forms present in the biosphere as an ecosystem. Two aspects of this problem are: (1) the growth of human populations worldwide…

Pierce, James P.

343

Using Our National Diversity as an Educational Resource.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides personal perspectives, both from a teacher and her students, on issues of multiculturalism and diversity. Recounts a number of incidents that illustrate some of the trickier aspects of multicultural education ("How do you feel about arranged marriages?"). Concludes with a call for greater understanding and tolerance. (MJP)

Dozier, Therese Knecht

1997-01-01

344

Wind-Tunnel Investigation at Subsonic and Supersonic Speeds of a Fighter Model Employing a Low-Aspect-Ratio Unswept Wing and a Horizontal Tail Mounted Well Above the Wing Plane - Longitudinal Stability and Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental results showing the static longitudinal-stability and control characteristics of a model of a fighter airplane employing a low-aspect-ratio unswept wing and an all-movable horizontal tail are presented. The investigation was made over a Mach number range from 0.60 to 0.90 and from 1.35 to 1.90 at a constant Reynolds number of 2.40 million, based on the wing mean aerodynamic chord. Because of the location of the horizontal tail at the tip of the vertical tail, interference was noted between the vertical tail and the horizontal tail and between the wing and the horizontal tail. This interference produced a positive pitching-moment coefficient at zero lift throughout the Mach number range of the tests, reduced the change in stability with increasing lift coefficient of the wing at moderate lift coefficients in the subsonic speed range, and reduced the stability at low lift coefficients at high supersonic speeds. The lift and pitching-moment effectiveness of the all movable tail was unaffected by the interference effects and was constant throughout the lift-coefficient range of the tests at each Mach number except 1.90.

Smith, Williard G.

1954-01-01

345

Adenocarcinoma following urinary diversion  

PubMed Central

The use of bowel segments in urinary diversions has been associated with an increased risk of neoplasia. This report describes three cases of intestinal adenocarcinoma following urinary diversion. In the first case, a 73-year-old woman developed moderately-differentiated colonic adenocarcinoma in her Indiana pouch 10.5 years after cystectomy. The second case involved a 77-year-old man with well-differentiated adenocarcinoma in his Indiana pouch 9 years after radical cystoprostatectomy and en bloc urethrectomy. The third case involved a 38-year-old man with moderately-differentiated adenocarcinoma arising in his ileal conduit 33 years after the creation of the conduit. These cases highlight the diagnostic signs of adenocarcinoma arising in urinary diversions and emphasize the importance of lifelong surveillance in these patients.

Jian, Peter Yicum; Godoy, Guilherme; Coburn, Michael; Lynch, Garrett; Ro, Jae Y.; Zhai, Qihui "Jim"; Nishino, Michiya; Lerner, Seth P.

2012-01-01

346

Diversity of Naturally Occurring Prokaryotes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the patterns of naturally occurring microbial diversity, how these patterns vary in space and time, and how\\u000a they relate to ecosystem structure and function, remains a significant challenge for microbiologists. A variety of levels\\u000a of microbial diversity are important and relevant from the perspective of microbial ecology, including trophic, physiological\\u000a or functional diversity, intraspecific genetic diversity, or phylogenetic diversity

E. F. Long

347

Diversity for Body Area Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a review of diversity for body-centric communications is presented. On-body communication channels are affected by fading whose effects need to be mitigated. Recently, diversity techniques for on-body systems have been experimentally analyzed. Results on space diversity at 2.4 GHz have been obtained, which proved the effectiveness of diversity scheme implementation. The diversity performances have been evaluated in

A. A. Serra; P. Nepa; G. Manara

348

Aspects of Cosmological Relativity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we review cosmological relativity,a new special theory of relativity that was recentlydeveloped for cosmology, and discuss in detail some ofits aspects. We recall that in this theory it is assumed that gravitation is negligible.Under this assumption, the receding velocities ofgalaxies and the distances between them in the Hubbleexpansion are united into a four-dimensionalpseudo-Euclidean manifold, similarly to space

Moshe Carmeli

1999-01-01

349

Thinking differently about cultural diversity: Using postcolonial theory to (re)read science education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper makes use of postcolonial theory to think differently about aspects of cultural diversity within science education. It briefly reviews some of the increasing scholarship on cultural diversity, and then describes the genealogy and selected key themes of postcolonial theory. Postcolonial theory as oppositional or deconstructive reading practice is privileged, and its practical application illustrated by using some of

Lyn Carter

2004-01-01

350

Social Dating Goals in Female College Students: Failure to Replicate in a Diverse Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports a failure to replicate aspects of the Social Dating Goals Scale (SDGS; Sanderson & Cantor, 1995) with an ethnically diverse group of female college students. The SDGS was developed and validated with predominantly White samples. In the present study, a diverse sample of 82 Asian, Black, Hispanic and White female college…

Killeya-Jones, Ley A.

2004-01-01

351

Addressing Diversity in the Decade of Behavior: Focus on Women of Color.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the lives of women of color, illustrating diversity-minded feminist principles that may inform research and program development related to other aspects of diversity. Notes perspectives and priorities of women of color in psychology. Considers why implementing feminist psychology's inclusive vision for research is a continuing struggle,…

Russo, Nancy Felipe; Vaz, Kim

2001-01-01

352

Student Diversity, Choice, and School Improvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book examines research about trends affecting public school diversity, improvement, and choice. It finds that schools with socioeconomically and racially diversified student bodies are more effective learning communities than schools that are poverty-concentrated and racially homogenous; public school choice implemented via the controlled

Willie, Charles V.; Edwards, Ralph; Alves, Michael J.

353

Functional Cell Surface Display and Controlled Secretion of Diverse Agarolytic Enzymes by Escherichia coli with a Novel Ligation-Independent Cloning Vector Based on the Autotransporter YfaL  

PubMed Central

Autotransporters have been employed as the anchoring scaffold for cell surface display by replacing their passenger domains with heterologous proteins to be displayed. We adopted an autotransporter (YfaL) of Escherichia coli for the cell surface display system. The critical regions in YfaL for surface display were identified for the construction of a ligation-independent cloning (LIC)-based display system. The designed system showed no detrimental effect on either the growth of the host cell or overexpressing heterologous proteins on the cell surface. We functionally displayed monomeric red fluorescent protein (mRFP1) as a reporter protein and diverse agarolytic enzymes from Saccharophagus degradans 2-40, including Aga86C and Aga86E, which previously had failed to be functional expressed. The system could display different sizes of proteins ranging from 25.3 to 143 kDa. We also attempted controlled release of the displayed proteins by incorporating a tobacco etch virus protease cleavage site into the C termini of the displayed proteins. The maximum level of the displayed protein was 6.1 × 104 molecules per a single cell, which corresponds to 5.6% of the entire cell surface of actively growing E. coli.

Ko, Hyeok-Jin; Park, Eunhye; Song, Joseph; Yang, Taek Ho; Lee, Hee Jong; Kim, Kyoung Heon

2012-01-01

354

Formal Methods for Aspect-Oriented Specification of Cyber Physical Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper proposes an approach for specifying cyber physical systems based on aspect-oriented formal method, which exploits\\u000a the diversity and power of existing formal specification languages. There is no requirement that different aspects of a system\\u000a should be expressed in the same language. So the different aspects can be specified by one formal specification technique\\u000a or different formal specification techniques.

Lichen Zhang

355

The Small Tight Aspect Ratio Tokamak experiment  

SciTech Connect

Low-aspect-ratio tokamaks offer both the economic advantage of smaller size and a number of physics advantages which are not available at conventional aspect ratio. The Small Tight Aspect Ratio Tokamak (START) [[ital Fusion] [ital Technology] 1990, edited by B. E. Keen, M. Huguet, and R. Hemsworth (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1991), Vol. 1, p. 353] was conceived as a first substantial test of tokamak plasma behavior at low aspect ratio. It has achieved plasma currents up to 200 kA, peak densities of [similar to]2[times]10[sup 20] m[sup [minus]3] and central electron temperatures of [similar to]500 eV at an aspect ratio of 1.3--1.5. Central beta values of [similar to]13% have been measured and the volume-averaged beta [l angle][beta][r angle] can approach the Troyon limit. Plasmas are naturally elongated ([kappa][approx lt]2.0) and are vertically stable without feedback control. Major disruptions have not been observed at low aspect ratios ([ital A][le]2.0).

Colchin, R.J.; Carolan, P.G.; Duck, R.; Edlington, T.; Erents, S.K.; Ferreira, J.; Fielding, S.J.; Gibson, K.; Goodall, D.H.J.; Gryaznevich, M.; Hender, T.C.; Hugill, J.; Jenkins, I.; Li, J.; Manhood, S.J.; Parham, B.J.; Robinson, D.C.; Singleton, M.; Sykes, A.; Todd, T.N.; Turner, M.F.; Valovic, M.; Walsh, M.; Wilson, H.R. (AEA Fusion Technology, Culham Laboratory (EURATOM/UKAEA Association), Abingdon, Oxon (United Kingdom))

1993-07-01

356

Introduction [to Diversity Challenged].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper introduces a collection of papers that examines the impact of affirmative action on college admission and the importance of school desegregation. The book addresses whether or not the educational value of diversity is sufficiently compelling to justify the consideration of race when making college admission decisions. This introduction…

Orfield, Gary

357

Diversity on the Docket  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School leaders attest to educational and social benefits from diversity. They argue that local housing patterns historically tend to separate families of different races and may lead to schools that are racially homogeneous if the districts do not counter them with assignment policies that consider race. This article discusses race in education…

Trotter, Andrew

2006-01-01

358

Marine Protistan Diversity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Protists have fascinated microbiologists since their discovery nearly 350 years ago. These single-celled, eukaryotic species span an incredible range of sizes, forms, and functions and, despite their generally diminutive size, constitute much of the genetic diversity within the domain Eukarya. Protists in marine ecosystems play fundamental ecological roles as primary producers, consumers, decomposers, and trophic links in aquatic food webs. Much of our knowledge regarding the diversity and ecological activities of these species has been obtained during the past half century, and only within the past few decades have hypotheses depicting the evolutionary relationships among the major clades of protists attained some degree of consensus. This recent progress is attributable to the development of genetic approaches, which have revealed an unexpectedly large diversity of protists, including cryptic species and previously undescribed clades of protists. New genetic tools now exist for identifying protistan species of interest and for reexamining long-standing debates regarding the biogeography of protists. Studies of protistan diversity provide insight regarding how species richness and community composition contribute to ecosystem function. These activities support the development of predictive models that describe how microbial communities will respond to natural or anthropogenically mediated changes in environmental conditions.

Caron, David A.; Countway, Peter D.; Jones, Adriane C.; Kim, Diane Y.; Schnetzer, Astrid

2012-01-01

359

Teaching for Diversity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The summer 1993 Southwest Educational Development Laboratory (SEDL) "Networkshop" focused on the need for teacher education programs to prepare future teachers to work with and teach effectively increasingly diverse student populations, and the need to increase the number of minority teachers. A major focus was on how policy and decisionmakers can…

Jones, Nancy Baker

1994-01-01

360

Modeling Antibody Diversity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding antibody structure and function is difficult for many students. The rearrangement of constant and variable regions during antibody differentiation can be effectively simulated using a paper model. Describes a hands-on laboratory exercise which allows students to model antibody diversity using readily available resources. (PVD)

Baker, William P.; Moore, Cathy Ronstadt

1998-01-01

361

Tapping into microbial diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even though significant advances have been made in understanding microbial diversity, most microorganisms are still only characterized by 'molecular fingerprints' and have resisted cultivation. Many different approaches have been developed to overcome the problems associated with cultivation of microorganisms because one obvious benefit would be the opportunity to investigate the previously inaccessible resources that these microorganisms potentially harbour.

Martin Keller; Karsten Zengler

2004-01-01

362

What Is Diversity Pedagogy?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Diversity Pedagogy Theory (DPT) is a set of principles that point out the natural and inseparable connection between culture and cognition. In other words, to be effective as a teacher, he/she must understand and acknowledge the critical role culture plays in the teaching-learning process. DPT maintains that culturally inclusive teachers (a)…

Sheets, Rosa Hernandez

2009-01-01

363

Diversity and Flexibility.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Responds to five major articles by Duckworth, Goldman, Healy, Sampson, and Goodyear on issues pertaining to testing and assessment in counseling psychology. Suggests that such a diversity of approaches leads to a more comprehensive and flexible model of counseling, adaptable to differences in clients, context, and counselor personalities. (TE)

Anastasi, Anne

1990-01-01

364

How Symbiosis Creates Diversity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Diversity in habitats on Earth is astounding--whether on land or in the sea--and this is in part due to symbiosis. The lesson described in this article helps students understand how symbiosis affects different organisms through a fun and engaging game where they match hosts and symbionts based on their respective needs. This 45-minute lesson is…

Lord, Joshua

2010-01-01

365

Supply and Demand Diversity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Public universities in Virginia, as in many states, have generally not paid much attention to diversity among their suppliers. For years, state expenditures for outside contracts went to the usual suspects--White contractors from well-established companies. Four years ago, former Governor Mark Warner, a progressive Democrat from the high…

Galuszka, Peter

2007-01-01

366

Diversity in Ocean Sciences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

COSEE-SE provides resources and links to help improve diversity in ocean sciences. Included resources are coastal legacy resources for elementary and middle school teachers, Coastal Legacy traveling curriculum kit, documents from the Multicultural Pathways for Ocean Science Education workshop, and university and marine laboratory programs.

367

Employee Diversity Team | Poster  

Cancer.gov

The NCI at Frederick Employee Diversity Team (EDT) has made some changes for 2014. With the help of Data Management Services (DMS) staff, the EDT website has been revamped to have a more streamlined look and act as a “one-stop shop” for anything related to the EDT.

368

Accepting Tolerance and Diversity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Exploring diversity instills in children an awareness and respect for themselves and others. Research projects that address stereotyping, race relations, and prejudice within ourselves can be developed through collaboration between the librarian and classroom teacher (who may themselves be of different cultures). These research projects help…

Hoss, Madeleine; Wylie, Roslyn

369

Banking on Diversity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few organizations have as racially and culturally diverse a work force as the organizations that make up the World Bank Group. Of its 13,000 employees, nearly 60 percent of whom are located in downtown Washington, D.C., and the rest scattered across 160 offices around the globe, nearly every nation in the world is represented in the World Bank…

Roach, Ronald

2010-01-01

370

Taking Advantage of Diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter, we posit that identity integration, an individual difference variable measuring the degree to which multiple and disparate social identities are perceived as compatible, moderates the relationship between team diversity and innovation. Prior research shows that individuals with higher levels of identity integration exhibit higher levels of innovation on tasks that draw from identity-related knowledge systems. In this

Chi-Ying CHENG; J. Sanchez-Burks; F. Lee

2008-01-01

371

At home with diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the ways in which knowledge and understanding of culture can help the health care provider better plan for in-home care of patients from diverse cultural and ethnic backgrounds. A presentation of basic value and belief systems is followed by examples of misunderstandings that arise in communication. The role of the family, traditional healing, and nutritional considerations are

Kathleen Huttlinger

1996-01-01

372

Re: Soviet river diversions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper on `Soviet River Diversions' by Phil Micklin (Eos, 62(19), May 12, 1981) has just come to hand.Referring to the map on page 489, I was interested to see the estimates of river flows for the Amu and Syr Darya, which clearly show the effect of irrigation on inflows to the Aral Sea. Recently, I was passing over the

Jas O. Robertson

1982-01-01

373

The Aspect Markup Language and its Support of Aspect Plugins  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the Aspect Markup Language (AML), an XML- based AOP language for programming aspects. AML separates the binding instructions, written in XML, from the executable aspect code, written in a regular programming language. This separation by itself has some advantages, namely for testing. But the main goal of AML is to provide a highly extensible AOP platform, with which

Cristina Videira Lopes; Trung Chi Ngo

374

Regulatory diversity among metazoan co-activator complexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transcription is a stepwise process that involves many specialized proteins and protein complexes, all of which must work together to express a given gene in a spatially and temporally regulated manner. An integral step in this regulatory process is carried out by large, multisubunit co-activator complexes, which have diverse roles in transcriptional control. Their diversity and large size allows for

Dylan J. Taatjes; Michael T. Marr; Robert Tjian

2004-01-01

375

Algorithms for high aspect ratio oriented triangulations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Grid generation plays an integral part in the solution of computational fluid dynamics problems for aerodynamics applications. A major difficulty with standard structured grid generation, which produces quadrilateral (or hexahedral) elements with implicit connectivity, has been the requirement for a great deal of human intervention in developing grids around complex configurations. This has led to investigations into unstructured grids with explicit connectivities, which are primarily composed of triangular (or tetrahedral) elements, although other subdivisions of convex cells may be used. The existence of large gradients in the solution of aerodynamic problems may be exploited to reduce the computational effort by using high aspect ratio elements in high gradient regions. However, the heuristic approaches currently in use do not adequately address this need for high aspect ratio unstructured grids. High aspect ratio triangulations very often produce the large angles that are to be avoided. Point generation techniques based on contour or front generation are judged to be the most promising in terms of being able to handle complicated multiple body objects, with this technique lending itself well to adaptivity. The eventual goal encompasses several phases: first, a partitioning phase, in which the Voronoi diagram of a set of points and line segments (the input set) will be generated to partition the input domain; second, a contour generation phase in which body-conforming contours are used to subdivide the partition further as well as introduce the foundation for aspect ratio control, and; third, a Steiner triangulation phase in which points are added to the partition to enable triangulation while controlling angle bounds and aspect ratio. This provides a combination of the advancing front/contour techniques and refinement. By using a front, aspect ratio can be better controlled. By using refinement, bounds on angles can be maintained, while attempting to minimize the number of Steiner points.

Posenau, Mary-Anne K.

1995-01-01

376

Ceramics with decorative aspect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The last decades brought the development of bone china techniques used for producing the decorative articles. These products can be glazed with a transparent and thin glaze layer, even with more special (decorative) ones which gives new aesthetic aspect. The present article presents the results obtained after the studies performed for matte glazes for decorative bone china. As microcrystalization agent were used zinc oxide; the content of this oxide bring some changes of the basic glaze thus the chemical composition must be adjusted as the fluxes would present the desired properties after the heating process.

Voica, Cezara

2009-08-01

377

Self-Organized Criticality Induced by Diversity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied the collective behavior of a population of integrate-and-fire oscillators. We show that diversity, introduced in terms of a random distribution of natural periods, is the mechanism that permits one to observe self-organized criticality (SOC) in the long time regime. As diversity increases the system undergoes several transitions from a supercritical regime to a subcritical one, crossing the SOC region. Although there are resemblances with percolation, we give proofs that criticality takes place for a wide range of values of the control parameter instead of a single value.

Corral, Álvaro; Pérez, Conrad J.; Díaz-Guilera, Albert

1997-02-01

378

Ultraviolet radiation alters maize phyllosphere bacterial diversity.  

PubMed

Epiphytic bacteria are subjected to very stressful environments, including UV radiation. Bacterial assemblages on Zea mays (maize) leaves exposure were examined with and without UV-B radiation. Culture-independent molecular techniques were utilized for bacterial identification, diversity analysis and selection of putative UV exposure marker sequences. Few sequences corresponded to previously characterized phyllosphere bacteria. There was a strong tendency toward increased 16S rDNA sequence diversity in UV samples. Overall community structure was assessed using denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis; significant alterations in community structure were found in comparisons of phyllosphere bacterial samples from control and solar UV-B exposed plants. PMID:12704563

Kadivar, H; Stapleton, A E

2003-05-01

379

Aspects of two corrosion processes relevant to military hardware  

SciTech Connect

Corrosion is a leading material degradation mode observed in many military systems. This report contains a description of a small project that was performed to allow some of the important electrochemical aspects of two distinct and potentially relevant degradation modes to be better understood: environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) of aluminum alloys and corrosion in moist salt. Two specific and respective tasks were completed: (A) the characterization of the effect of aluminum microstructural variability on its susceptibility to EAC, and (B) the development of experimental and analytical techniques that can be used to identify the factors and processes that influence the corrosivity of moist salt mixtures. The resultant information constitutes part of the basis needed to ultimately predict component reliability and/or possibly to identify techniques that could be used to control corrosion in critical components. In Task A, a physical model and related understanding for the relevant degradation processes were formulated. The primary result from Task B included the identification and qualitative validation of a methodology for determining the corrosivity of salt mixtures. A detailed compilation of the results obtained from each of these two diverse tasks is presented separately in the body of this report.

Braithwaite, J.W.; Buchheit, R.G.

1997-11-01

380

Nonlinear Aspects of Aeroelastic Problems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report treats the nonlinear aspects of some aeroelastic problems. To get an insight in some specific nonlinear phenomena an introduction is given into the basics of nonlinear vibration theory. Next some aspects are studied of numerically solving nonli...

E. C. van der Peet

1991-01-01

381

Aspects of Gond astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gond community is considered to be one of the most ancient tribes of India with a continuing history of several thousand years. They are also known for their largely isolated history which they have retained through the millennia. Several of their intellectual traditions therefore are a record of parallel aspects of human intellectual growth, and still preserve their original flavour and have not been homogenised by the later traditions of India. In view of this, the Gonds provide a special window to the different currents that constitute contemporary India. In the present study, we summarise their mythology, genetics and script. We then investigate their astronomical traditions and try to understand this community through a survey of 15 Gond villages spread over Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. We show that they have a distinctly different view of the sky from the conventional astronomical ideas encountered elsewhere in India, which is both interesting and informative. We briefly comment on other aspects of their life as culled from our encounters with different members of the Gond community.

Vahia, M. N.; Halkare, Ganesh

2013-03-01

382

Differentiating Diversities: Moral Diversity Is Not Like Other Kinds1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diversity is widely celebrated and pursued in parts of American society, particularly within academe. Diversity is clearly associated with moral goods, such as justice, and with practical goods, such as the variety and quality of ideas. But from a social psychological point of view, diversity ought to cause a number of problems, such as divisiveness and conflict. A resolution of

Jonathan Haidt; Evan Rosenberg; Holly Hom

2003-01-01

383

[Ethical aspects of forensic psychiatry].  

PubMed

Ethical aspects of forensic psychiatry disclose a tension between complementary and conflicting issues. The field of tension extends from offenders and their criminal offence to experts, therapists and conditions of inpatient treatment. In addition, there are legal and political aspects as well as aspects concerning the public, the victims and their next of kins and finally the media. PMID:24983577

Muysers, Jutta

2014-07-01

384

The influence of contextual diversity on eye movements in reading.  

PubMed

Recent research has shown contextual diversity (i.e., the number of passages in which a given word appears) to be a reliable predictor of word processing difficulty. It has also been demonstrated that word-frequency has little or no effect on word recognition speed when accounting for contextual diversity in isolated word processing tasks. An eye-movement experiment was conducted wherein the effects of word-frequency and contextual diversity were directly contrasted in a normal sentence reading scenario. Subjects read sentences with embedded target words that varied in word-frequency and contextual diversity. All 1st-pass and later reading times were significantly longer for words with lower contextual diversity compared to words with higher contextual diversity when controlling for word-frequency and other important lexical properties. Furthermore, there was no difference in reading times for higher frequency and lower frequency words when controlling for contextual diversity. The results confirm prior findings regarding contextual diversity and word-frequency effects and demonstrate that contextual diversity is a more accurate predictor of word processing speed than word-frequency within a normal reading task. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23937235

Plummer, Patrick; Perea, Manuel; Rayner, Keith

2014-01-01

385

Supernovae and Their Diversity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The number of supernovae discovered annually has exploded and this has led to a growing diversity in observed supernova luminosities and properties. Stripped core-collapse supernovae show a range of expansion velocities with the broad-line events associated to gamma-ray bursts. Several types of extremely luminous supernovae have been identified in the past five years. Some may result from a pair-production instability in very massive stars while others appear to come from less massive progenitors and have an uncertain power source. Thermonuclear (type Ia) events are often thought of as uniform in their properties and that is what makes them good distance indicators. But type Ia supernovae are diverse in subtle and not so subtle ways that may reveal the nature of their explosion mechanism and progenitors. Wider, deeper time-domain sky surveys such as DES and LSST are likely to find even more variety in stellar explosions.

Garnavich, Peter M.

2013-06-01

386

DEVELOPMENTAL DIVERSITY OF AMPHIBIANS  

PubMed Central

The current model amphibian, Xenopus laevis, develops rapidly in water to a tadpole which metamorphoses into a frog. Many amphibians deviate from the X. laevis developmental pattern. Among other adaptations, their embryos develop in foam nests on land or in pouches on their mother’s back or on a leaf guarded by a parent. The diversity of developmental patterns includes multinucleated oogenesis, lack of RNA localization, huge non-pigmented eggs, and asynchronous, irregular early cleavages. Variations in patterns of gastrulation highlight the modularity of this critical developmental period. Many species have eliminated the larva or tadpole and directly develop to the adult. The wealth of developmental diversity among amphibians coupled with the wealth of mechanistic information from X. laevis permit comparisons that provide deeper insights into developmental processes.

Elinson, Richard P.; del Pino, Eugenia M.

2011-01-01

387

Diverse Galaxies Lithograph  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Hubble Space Telescope image shows the diversity of galaxies in the universe. A huge elliptical galaxy, designated ESO 325-G004, dominates the image. In addition to many elliptical and spiral galaxies, the image contains a few small irregular galaxies, and red, yellow, and blue foreground stars. The accompanying classroom activity is a current support tool designed for use as an introductory inquiry activity. It can be incorporated into a unit that has a scientific inquiry and/or a galaxy classification theme. During the classroom activity, In Search of ...Galaxy Types, students use the lithograph images and text to generate questions about the diverse collection of galaxies on the front of the lithograph. They conduct research to answer their questions, identify patterns, and/or compare and contrast galaxy characteristics, depending on the teacherâs objectives. Students will organize their material and present a report, providing supporting evidence from their research.

2007-09-01

388

Convention on Biological Diversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Convened after the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, the Convention on Biological Diversity has three primary goals: the conservation of biological diversity, the sustainable use of its components, and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits from the use of genetic resources. The main body of the organization's home page is dedicated to disseminating information about upcoming meetings, news, and events, such as the expert meeting on the global strategy for plant conservation and the various constituent groups that make up the Convention. The number of online documents available here is quite prodigious, and is divided into groups that include quarterly reports, global biodiversity outlook reports, and case-study documents. Users may elect to browse through these collections, or choose to use the search engine.

389

Adaptive optics and phase diversity imaging for responsive space applications.  

SciTech Connect

The combination of phase diversity and adaptive optics offers great flexibility. Phase diverse images can be used to diagnose aberrations and then provide feedback control to the optics to correct the aberrations. Alternatively, phase diversity can be used to partially compensate for aberrations during post-detection image processing. The adaptive optic can produce simple defocus or more complex types of phase diversity. This report presents an analysis, based on numerical simulations, of the efficiency of different modes of phase diversity with respect to compensating for specific aberrations during post-processing. It also comments on the efficiency of post-processing versus direct aberration correction. The construction of a bench top optical system that uses a membrane mirror as an active optic is described. The results of characterization tests performed on the bench top optical system are presented. The work described in this report was conducted to explore the use of adaptive optics and phase diversity imaging for responsive space applications.

Smith, Mark William; Wick, David Victor

2004-11-01

390

Microbial Diversity - student worksheet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a downloadable Microsoft Word document containing a 13-question student assessment worksheet to accompany the Microbial Diversity video segment of the Unseen Life on Earth series from Annenberg Media. The questions mirror language used in the video and focus on clearly stated facts. Thus, the worksheet assesses listening skills more than concept comprehension. This assessment would be appropriate for the secondary or introductory undergraduate level.

Verran, Joanna; LTSN Centre for Bioscience, School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Leeds

391

Diversity Team | Poster  

Cancer.gov

The Employee Diversity Team (EDT) is out and about this fall, making the NCI at Frederick community aware of various cultural traditions and events around Frederick County that employees can participate in. The team is working with staff members of Native American descent to feature a display case and movie selection celebrating Native American Heritage Month in November. The team will keep you informed about Frederick events taking place in November and December. Keep a look out for EDT e-mails.

392

Diversity: The Business Case?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding perceptions and managing expectations are learnable skills that do not necessarily come with project funding. Finding life balance as one moves through a STEM career path poses unique challenges that require a certain skill set that is not always intuitive. Some of those challenges include: selecting grad or post doc positions; balancing work and family commitments; and dealing with employer/advisor perceptions and expectations. As in nature, the STEM enterprise requires multiple perspectives to flourish (necessity of peer review), and in a changing environment (e.g., budget, generations, technology, etc.), embracing diversity in thought and application may help drive the evolution of STEM in the U.S. Many Agencies and organizations have ';workforce development' programs that focus on preparing the next generation of scientists and engineers at the graduate and undergraduate level that focus on preparing students in the diverse disciplines that are unique to those Agency and organizational missions. While financial support certainly is critical to assist students in Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) and other fields, professional development is just as important to equip students with a balanced arsenal of tactics to be successful professionals in the STEM workforce of today. Success in these efforts requires an honest look at the issue of inequality in the STEM ecosystem... meaning, what initiatives have been successful in addressing the imbalance in sources of thought and application, therefore promoting the importance of diversity.

Jones, B.

2013-12-01

393

Resisting HRD's Resistance to Diversity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to empirically illustrate how human resource development (HRD) resists and omits issues of diversity in academic programs, textbooks, and research; analyze the research on HRD and diversity over a ten-year period; discuss HRD's resistance to diversity; and offer some recommendations for a more authentic…

Bierema, Laura L.

2010-01-01

394

Valuing Diversity: The Primary Years.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that children who learn to accept and value human diversity will develop the open, flexible approach to life that is needed in today's world, this book examines ways to help young children learn to appreciate cultural diversity in the classroom. Following introductory chapters on the value of diversity and a child's right to the valuing of…

McCracken, Janet Brown

395

Diversity in the Workplace. Symposium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three papers comprise this symposium on diversity in the workplace. "Factors That Assist and Barriers That Hinder the Success of Diversity Initiatives in Multinational Corporations" (Rose Mary Wentling) reports that factors that assisted in the success were classified under diversity department, human, and work environment; barriers were those of…

2002

396

Toxicological aspects of fire.  

PubMed

Most fatalities from fires are not due to burns, but are a result of inhalation of toxic gases produced during combustion. Fire produces a complex toxic environment, involving flame, heat, oxygen depletion, smoke and toxic gases. As a wide variety of synthetic materials is used in buildings (insulation, furniture, carpeting, electric wiring covering, decorative items), the potential for poisoning from inhalation of products of combustion is continuously increasing. In the present review, the problems that are present in a fire event, the toxicology of the toxic substances and the specific chemical hazards to firefighters are described. Regulatory toxicology aspects are presented concerning the use of non-flammable building and furnishing materials to prevent fires and decrease of poisonings and deaths resulting from fires. PMID:15303394

Stefanidou, M; Athanaselis, S

2004-08-01

397

Sprirtual aspects of psychotherapy.  

PubMed

This article addresses the relevance of spirituality to psychology and psychotherapy. It argues that spiritual experience is phenomenologically legitimate and worthy of study, especially by students of mental health. It utilizes Fox's (1985) definition of spirituality as "unitive experience" to show that spiritual experience is often present, overtly or covertly, within the ritual of psychotherapy. The paper argues that the therapist's adoption of an empathic posture is essentially a spiritual position. This position consists of a sense of peace, eternity, forgiveness, faith, love, truth, and God. These aspects are part of an integrated spiritual gestalt which is, though generally unacknowledged, fundamental to the communal healing process of psychotherapy. The paper concludes by asserting that greater involvement with the unitive (as opposed to the disunitive) represents a positive paradigmatic shift for psychology and humanity. PMID:24272824

Prasinos, S

1992-03-01

398

Aspects of free probability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Free probability theory provides a probabilistic framework for quantities with the highest degree of noncommutativity. This brings out the ties among von Neumann algebras of free groups, the large N limit of random multimatrix models, the operators of the Boltzmann Fock space and combinatorics of noncrossing partitions. Many concepts of classical probability theory have free probability counterparts. In particular, the free analogues of entropy and of Fisher's information will be one of the main focuses of the talk. The analysis of the free variables involved, relies on free difference quotient derivations, which give rise to bialgebras in the class with derivation comultiplication, which appears to be selfdual. Duality for such bialgebras underlies the free entropy and analytic aspects of the free Markov property.

Voiculescu, Dan

2006-03-01

399

Current aspects in immunosensors.  

PubMed

Sensing applications can be used to report biomolecular interactions in order to elucidate the functions of molecules. The use of an analyte and a ligand is a common set-up in sensor development. For several decades, antibodies have been considered to be potential analytes or ligands for development of so-called "immunosensors." In an immunosensor, formation of the complex between antibody and antigen transduces the signal, which is measurable in various ways (e.g., both labeled and label-free based detection). Success of an immunosensor depends on various factors, including surface functionalization, antibody orientation, density of the antibody on the sensor platform, and configuration of the immunosensor. Careful optimization of these factors can generate clear-cut results for any immunosensor. Herein, current aspects, involved in the generated immunosensors, are discussed. PMID:24607580

Gopinath, Subash C B; Tang, Thean-Hock; Citartan, Marimuthu; Chen, Yeng; Lakshmipriya, Thangavel

2014-07-15

400

[Transcultural aspects of suicidal behaviour].  

PubMed

Due to increasing immigration in Germany the German Mental Health Care System today has to deal in a growing number with the assessment of the level of psychic functioning and the capability of self control in patients of different ethnic origin. For clinicians this is a challenge, since suicidal behaviour in terms of its frequency, meaning, motives and manner is very much dependent on the cultural context in which it occurs. Moreover, the general attitude of an individual towards suicide is embedded in the culture of origin of the immigrant. Until now there has been only little systematic research on the influence of culture on suicidal behaviour. In this review the traditions of suicidal behaviour in different cultures in their religious and historical dimensions will be reflected. The historical and cultural roots of suicidal behaviour will be put in context to a categorization of the different variants of suicide, such as institutionalized suicide versus individualized suicide. Psychodynamic aspects of suicidal ideation will be highlighted in cross-cultural perspective with a distinction between a. the wish to die, b. the wish to kill and c. the wish to be killed. It will be shown that there can be differentiated between accepted and non-accepted suicide. With respect to epidemiology there will be discussed the impact of culture on the suicide rates across cultures. The influence of culture on the psychopathology of suicidal behaviour will be summed up systematically. These aspects are of high relevance for the understanding and assessment of suicidal crisis in immigrants, since the suicidal patient even today - although subconsciously - is influenced by the deep rooted traditions of suicidal behaviour in his culture of origin. PMID:17607641

Calliess, I T; Machleidt, W; Ziegenbein, M; Haltenhof, H

2007-11-01

401

[New aspects in age related macular degeneration].  

PubMed

Being the leading cause of blindness in modern world Age Related Macular Degeneration has beneficiated in the last decade of important progress in diagnosis, classification and the discovery of diverse factors who contribute to the etiology of this disease. Treatments have arised who can postpone the irreversible evolution of the disease and thus preserve vision. Recent findings have identified predisposing genetic factors and also inflamatory and imunological parameters that can be modified trough a good and adequate prevention and therapy This articole reviews new aspects of patology of Age Related Macular Degeneration like the role of complement in maintaining inflamation and the role of oxidative stress on different structures of the retina. PMID:22888685

Turlea, C

2012-01-01

402

Institutionalising Campus Diversity in South African Higher Education: Review of Diversity Scholarship and Diversity Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Increasingly the social, educational, cultural, linguistic, religious and racial diversity of South African society is finding expression within South African institutions of higher education. Consequently, "diversity'', "diversity issues'' and "diversification'', have become part of the education debate and policy,and pose new challenges to South…

Cross, Michael

2004-01-01

403

Working with "Diverse Bodies, Diverse Identities": An Approach to Professional Education about "Diversity"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The complexity and diversity of populations in contemporary Western societies is becoming a significant public policy issue. The concept of "diversity" has come to represent cultural, ethnic, racial and religious differences between the "dominant group" and immigrant and indigenous populations. "Diversity training" is amongst many strategies being…

D'Cruz, Heather

2007-01-01

404

Bioenergetic aspects of halophilism.  

PubMed

Examination of microbial diversity in environments of increasing salt concentrations indicates that certain types of dissimilatory metabolism do not occur at the highest salinities. Examples are methanogenesis for H2 + CO2 or from acetate, dissimilatory sulfate reduction with oxidation of acetate, and autotrophic nitrification. Occurrence of the different metabolic types is correlated with the free-energy change associated with the dissimilatory reactions. Life at high salt concentrations is energetically expensive. Most bacteria and also the methanogenic Archaea produce high intracellular concentrations of organic osmotic solutes at a high energetic cost. All halophilic microorganisms expend large amounts of energy to maintain steep gradients of NA+ and K+ concentrations across their cytoplasmic membrane. The energetic cost of salt adaptation probably dictates what types of metabolism can support life at the highest salt concentrations. Use of KCl as an intracellular solute, while requiring far-reaching adaptations of the intracellular machinery, is energetically more favorable than production of organic-compatible solutes. This may explain why the anaerobic halophilic fermentative bacteria (order Haloanaerobiales) use this strategy and also why halophilic homoacetogenic bacteria that produce acetate from H2 + CO2 exist whereas methanogens that use the same substrates in a reaction with a similar free-energy yield do not. PMID:10357854

Oren, A

1999-06-01

405

Bioenergetic Aspects of Halophilism  

PubMed Central

Examinination of microbial diversity in environments of increasing salt concentrations indicates that certain types of dissimilatory metabolism do not occur at the highest salinities. Examples are methanogenesis for H2 + CO2 or from acetate, dissimilatory sulfate reduction with oxidation of acetate, and autotrophic nitrification. Occurrence of the different metabolic types is correlated with the free-energy change associated with the dissimilatory reactions. Life at high salt concentrations is energetically expensive. Most bacteria and also the methanogenic archaea produce high intracellular concentrations of organic osmotic solutes at a high energetic cost. All halophilic microorganisms expend large amounts of energy to maintain steep gradients of NA+ and K+ concentrations across their cytoplasmic membrane. The energetic cost of salt adaptation probably dictates what types of metabolism can support life at the highest salt concentrations. Use of KCl as an intracellular solute, while requiring far-reaching adaptations of the intracellular machinery, is energetically more favorable than production of organic-compatible solutes. This may explain why the anaerobic halophilic fermentative bacteria (order Haloanaerobiales) use this strategy and also why halophilic homoacetogenic bacteria that produce acetate from H2 + CO2 exist whereas methanogens that use the same substrates in a reaction with a similar free-energy yield do not.

Oren, Aharon

1999-01-01

406

Design and implementation of a radiotherapy programme: Clinical, medical physics, radiation protection and safety aspects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is widely acknowledged that the clinical aspects (diagnosis, decision, indication for treatment, follow-up) as well as the procedures related to the physical and technical aspects of patient treatment must be subjected to careful control and planning i...

1998-01-01

407

Environmental aspects of electrochemistry and photoelectrochemistry  

SciTech Connect

Arguably, the end of this century marks the beginning of an era in which an equilibrium between men and environment is no longer an option but a necessity. A full life cycle of new and old technologies will soon be a requirement. Electrochemistry probably plays a more fundamental role toward the end of the life-cycle of many technologies as compared to the beginning of the cycle. This symposium is the first of its kind within the Electrochemical Society in its attempt to unify diverse aspects of the environmental picture. In addition to the scientific interest in the various topics, this diversity reflects the various priorities that emerge in different countries. In Japan a strong emphasis is being put on the environmental consequences of CO[sub 2] accumulation and hence the strong emphasis on CO[sub 2] fixation. In the US and Europe the detoxification of aquatic environments seems at present to attract higher priorities. Almost everywhere there is a need to remedy the cumulative effect of total neglect since the dawn of the industrial revolution that can be traced differently in different parts of the world. In a somewhat arbitrary way the authors have divided the contributions into three categories: (1) CO[sub 2] fixation, (2) Photocatalysis with TiO[sub 2], (3) Electrochemical decontaminations. Although this partition was done mainly for editorial convenience, it follows closely the clustering at the meeting. Individual papers are cataloged separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

Tomkiewicz, M. (ed.) (City Univ. of New York, Brooklyn, NY (United States). Brooklyn Coll.); Haynes, R. (ed.) (AT and T Bell Labs., Princeton, NJ (United States)); Yoneyama, H. (ed.) (Osaka Univ. (Japan)); Hori, Y. (ed.) (Chiba Univ. (Japan))

1993-01-01

408

Aspects of quantum cosmology.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum mechanics may be formulated as Sensible Quantum Mechanics (SQM) so that it contains nothing probabilistic, except, in a certain frequency sense, conscious perceptions. Sets of these perceptions can be deterministically realized with measures given by expectation values of positive-operator-valued awareness operators in a quantum state of the universe which never jumps or collapses. Ratios of the measures for these sets of perceptions can be interpreted as frequency-type probabilities for many actually existing sets rather than as propensities for potentialities to be actualized, so there is nothing indeterministic in SQM. These frequency-type probabilities generally cannot be given by the ordinary quantum "probabilities" for a single set of alternatives. Probabilism, or ascribing probabilities to unconscious aspects of the world, may be seen to be an aethemamorphic myth. No fundamental correlation or equivalence is postulated between different perceptions, so SQM, a variant of Everett's "many-worlds" framework, is a "many-perceptions" framework but not a "many-minds" framework. Different detailed SQM theories may be tested against experienced perceptions by the typicalities (defined herein) they predict for these perceptions. One may adopt the Conditional Aesthemic Principle: among the set of all conscious perceptions, our perceptions are likely to be typical.

Page, D. N.

409

Electrical aspects of rainout  

SciTech Connect

Rainout commonly denotes the aggregate of phenomena associated with precipitation scavenging of radioactivity from a cloud of nuclear debris that is within a natural rain cloud. (In contrast, the term, washout, is applicable when the nuclear cloud is below the rain cloud and the term, fallout, commonly denotes the direct gravitational settling of contaminated solid material from a nuclear cloud.) Nuclear debris aerosols may be scavenged within natural clouds by a variety of different physical processes which may involve diffusion, convection, impaction, nucleation, phoresis, turbulence, and/or electricity among others. Processes which involve electrical aspects are scrutinized for their susceptibility to the intimate presence of the radioactive-cloud environment. This particular choice of electrical processes is not accidental. Nearly all of the listed processes were examined earlier by Williams. His rough estimates suggested that electrical effects, and to a lesser extent turbulence, could enhance the scavenging of those submicron aerosols which reside in the size-range that bridges the minimum in the scavenging rate coefficient which is commonly called the Greenfield gap. This minimum in the scavenging-rate coefficient is created by the simultaneous reduction of scavenging via diffusion and the reduction of scavenging via inertial impaction. However, Williams omitted the specific influence of a radioactive environment. This report aims to remedy this omission.

Rosenkilde, C.E.

1981-11-23

410

Does species diversity limit productivity in natural grassland communities?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Theoretical analyses and experimental studies of synthesized assemblages indicate that under particular circumstances species diversity can enhance community productivity through niche complementarity. It remains unclear whether this process has important effects in mature natural ecosystems where competitive feedbacks and complex environmental influences affect diversity-productivity relationships. In this study, we evaluated diversity-productivity relationships while statistically controlling for environmental influences in 12 natural grassland ecosystems. Because diversity-productivity relationships are conspicuously nonlinear, we developed a nonlinear structural equation modeling (SEM) methodology to separate the effects of diversity on productivity from the effects of productivity on diversity. Meta-analysis was used to summarize the SEM findings across studies. While competitive effects were readily detected, enhancement of production by diversity was not. These results suggest that the influence of small-scale diversity on productivity in mature natural systems is a weak force, both in absolute terms and relative to the effects of other controls on productivity. ?? 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

Grace, J. B.; Anderson, T. M.; Smith, M. D.; Seabloom, E.; Andelman, S. J.; Meche, G.; Weiher, E.; Allain, L. K.; Jutila, H.; Sankaran, M.; Knops, J.; Ritchie, M.; Willig, M. R.

2007-01-01

411

Diversity of Marine Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project, students perform library research on an assigned marine animal, create a formatted poster of their topic, and share with their classmates what they've learned in a poster session, conducted in the way of poster sessions at science conferences. Afterward, students complete a written assignment where they are asked to reflect on their experience as a participant in a community of science students, their focused learning on their own marine animal, their larger learning about the diversity of marine life from their poster session participation, and what it implies about the intrinsic value of the ocean realm, and the need for conservation. The outcomes for this assignment are aligned with course-specific outcomes articulated in the Minnesota Transfer Curriculum. They are: Synthesize central concepts from assigned readings of scientific literature in written assignments. Discuss/compare characteristics of diverse environments in the context of ocean science. Interpret data generated by oceanographic techniques, and present written and oral summaries of their findings. Explain the basic structure and function of the ocean realm, the impact of humans on it, and the impact of the ocean realm on humans.

Kobilka, David

412

Aspect-Oriented Workflow Languages  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Most available aspect-oriented languages today are extensions to programming languages. However, aspect-orientation, which\\u000a is a paradigm for decomposition and modularization, is not only applicable in that context. In this paper, we introduce aspect-oriented\\u000a software development concepts to workflow languages in order to improve the modularity of workflow process specifications\\u000a with respect to crosscutting concerns and crosscutting changes. In fact, crosscutting

Anis Charfiand; Mira Mezini

2006-01-01

413

Hereditary aspects of prostate cancer.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To review current literature on the hereditary aspects of prostate cancer and to evaluate the importance of family history in history taking and screening for prostate cancer. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE was searched for articles in English or French published between Jan. 1, 1956, and Oct. 31, 1994, with the use of MeSH headings "prostatic neoplasms," "genetics" and "chromosomes." Additional references were selected from the bibliographies of articles found during the search. STUDY SELECTION: Case-control studies involving the incidence of prostate cancer and relative risk (RR) of such cancer in the families of men with this disease, compared with a control group, were included. Only studies in which prostate cancer was diagnosed on the basis of histologic tests were included. Animal investigations were excluded. DATA EXTRACTION: Ten case-control studies were evaluated critically in terms of design, case and control groups, the size of the samples and statistical results. The incidence of prostate cancer in the families of cases, compared with that in the families of controls, and differences in RR were reviewed. DATA SYNTHESIS: The lifetime risk of prostate cancer is 9.5% and of death from prostate cancer is 2.9% for a man 50 years of age. For first-degree male relatives of men with prostate cancer, the calculated RR ranges from 1.7 to 8.73. "Hereditary" prostate cancer is a term applied to a specific subset of patients with prostate cancer. This form of prostate cancer is transmitted by a rare, autosomal, dominant allele with high penetrance; it accounts for an estimated 43% of early-onset disease (affecting men less than 55 years of age) but only 9% of all prostate cancer in men up to 85 years of age. A greater number of affected family members and early onset among family members are the most significant predictors of risk. CONCLUSIONS: Recent confirmation of the familial clustering and Mendelian inheritance patterns of some prostate cancer has important implications. It increases the potential for directed research into the causes of prostate cancer and for refinements in the current screening practices to detect this common disease. Manoeuvres to detect prostate cancer should be started earlier among men with one or more first-degree relatives with the disease than among other men.

McLellan, D L; Norman, R W

1995-01-01

414

Le Point sur Quelques Aspects de l'Automatisation des Fabrications Mecaniques (Analysis of Some Aspects of Mechanical Manufacturing Automation).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The industrial applications of robots and automata, the implementation of machining procedures with numerical control systems, and the safety aspects of automation are reviewed. The analysis includes hardware classification, automata programming, workshop...

J. F. Coudurier J. P. Devimeux B. Hoessler M. Jubin P. Pontier

1986-01-01

415

Genetic aspects of plant mineral nutrition  

SciTech Connect

This volume which is partly a reprint represents the papers on the Genetic Aspects of Plant Mineral Nutrition. The mechanisms by which plants acquire, transport and utilize essential mineral nutrients are highly complex. The means by which plants either exclude or tolerate ions of metals toxic to them are equally complex. This book has papers on genetic and breeding research. It also includes biotic interactions under genetic control that either enhanced or impeded ion uptake, e.g., mycorrhizae and nitrogen fixing bacteria.

Gabelman, W.H.; Loughman, B.C.

1987-01-01

416

Structural diversity in social contagion.  

PubMed

The concept of contagion has steadily expanded from its original grounding in epidemic disease to describe a vast array of processes that spread across networks, notably social phenomena such as fads, political opinions, the adoption of new technologies, and financial decisions. Traditional models of social contagion have been based on physical analogies with biological contagion, in which the probability that an individual is affected by the contagion grows monotonically with the size of his or her "contact neighborhood"--the number of affected individuals with whom he or she is in contact. Whereas this contact neighborhood hypothesis has formed the underpinning of essentially all current models, it has been challenging to evaluate it due to the difficulty in obtaining detailed data on individual network neighborhoods during the course of a large-scale contagion process. Here we study this question by analyzing the growth of Facebook, a rare example of a social process with genuinely global adoption. We find that the probability of contagion is tightly controlled by the number of connected components in an individual's contact neighborhood, rather than by the actual size of the neighborhood. Surprisingly, once this "structural diversity" is controlled for, the size of the contact neighborhood is in fact generally a negative predictor of contagion. More broadly, our analysis shows how data at the size and resolution of the Facebook network make possible the identification of subtle structural signals that go undetected at smaller scales yet hold pivotal predictive roles for the outcomes of social processes. PMID:22474360

Ugander, Johan; Backstrom, Lars; Marlow, Cameron; Kleinberg, Jon

2012-04-17

417

Aspects of Embodied Computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-Moore's Law computing will require an assimilation between computational pro- cesses and their physical realizations, both to achieve greater speeds and densities and to allow computational processes to assemble and control matter at the nanoscale. Therefore, we need to investigate \\

Bruce J. MacLennan

2008-01-01

418

Knowledge, Skills, and Dispositions for Diversity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purposes of this research are to explore how currently assessed diversity knowledge, diversity skills, and diversity dispositions of pre-service teachers (PST) relate to each other and further to surmise if the presence of diversity knowledge, diversity skills, and diversity dispositions manifests in cultural efficacy and a general cultural…

Jones, Anne

2011-01-01

419

Underwater Acoustic Imaging by Diversity Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the underwater acoustic imaging is given by diversity techniques. The diversity techniques utilized in this study include the angular and the frequency diversity. The angular diversity means the scattered fields are collected under various angles with respect to the target. The frequency diversity means the scattered fields are collected under various frequencies. Both the angular diversity and

Kun-Chou Lee; Lan-Ting Wang; Jyun-Gu Ou

2007-01-01

420

Nuclear Structure Aspects in Nuclear Astrophysics  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear Astrophysics as a broad and diverse field of study can be viewed as a magnifier of the impact of microscopic processes on the evolution of macroscopic events. One of the primary goals in Nuclear Astrophysics is the understanding of the nucleosynthesis processes that take place in the cosmos and the simulation of the correlated stellar and explosive burning scenarios. These simulations are strongly dependent on the input from Nuclear Physics which sets the time scale for all stellar dynamic processes--from giga-years of stellar evolution to milliseconds of stellar explosions--and provides the basis for most of the signatures that we have for the interpretation of these events--from stellar luminosities, elemental and isotopic abundances to neutrino flux from distant supernovae. The Nuclear Physics input comes through nuclear structure, low energy reaction rates, nuclear masses, and decay rates. There is a common perception that low energy reaction rates are the most important component of the required nuclear physics input; however, in this article we take a broader approach and present an overview of the close correlation between various nuclear structure aspects and their impact on nuclear astrophysics. We discuss the interplay between the weak and the strong forces on stellar time scales due to the limitations they provide for the evolution of slow and rapid burning processes. The effects of shell structure in nuclei on stellar burning processes as well as the impact of clustering in nuclei is outlined. Furthermore we illustrate the effects of the various nuclear structure aspects on the major nucleosynthesis processes that have been identified in the last few decades. We summarize and provide a coherent overview of the impact of all aspects of nuclear structure on nuclear astrophysics.

Smith, Michael Scott [ORNL

2006-12-01

421

Biliopancreatic Diversion with a New Type of Gastrectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an attempt to improve the results of biliopancreatic diversion in the treatment of morbid obesity, two aspects of the procedure\\u000a performed at Laval Hospital were modified to reduce adverse physiological consequences. The distal gastrectomy was replaced\\u000a by a parietal gastrectomy which preserves vagal continuity along with the lesser curvature, and leaves intact the antro-pyloro-duodenal\\u000a pump. The duodenum was stapled

Picard Marceau; Simon Biron; Roch-André Bourque; Martin Potvin; Frédéric-Simon Hould; Serge Simard

1993-01-01

422

Performance limits of coded diversity methods for transmitter antenna arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several aspects of the design and optimization of coded multiple-antenna transmission diversity methods for slowly time-varying channels are explored from an information-theoretic perspective. Both optimized vector-coded systems, which can achieve the maximum possible performance, and suboptimal scalar-coded systems, which reduce complexity by exploiting suitably designed linear precoding, are investigated. The achiev- able rates and associated outage characteristics of these spatial

Aradhana Narula; Mitchell D. Trott; Gregory W. Wornell

1999-01-01

423

Psychological aspects of infertility.  

PubMed

Forty couples who attended the Infertility clinic of Government Royapettah Hospital, Madras, were included in the study and compared with matched controls who had off springs. All 80 persons were administered the M.H.Q. and the E.P.I. Psychosocial data was recorded and a clinical psychiatric evaluation was done. 51 out of 80 in the study group had psychiatric problems, predominantly depression and anxiety. These problems increased with increasing duration of childless marriage. 40 % of the infertile group had psychosexual dysfunction such as premature ejaculation and erectile disturbances as opposed to 2.5% in the controls. Presence of vaginisms, dysmenorrhea and sexual dissatisfaction were more in the women of the study group. 15 males bad oligospermia/azospermia. PMID:21927198

Thara, R; Ramachandran, V; Hassan, P P

1986-10-01

424

PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF INFERTILITY*  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Forty couples who attended the Infertility clinic of Government Royapettah Hospital, Madras, were included in the study and compared with matched controls who had off springs. All 80 persons were administered the M.H.Q. and the E.P.I. Psychosocial data was recorded and a clinical psychiatric evaluation was done. 51 out of 80 in the study group had psychiatric problems, predominantly depression and anxiety. These problems increased with increasing duration of childless marriage. 40 % of the infertile group had psychosexual dysfunction such as premature ejaculation and erectile disturbances as opposed to 2.5% in the controls. Presence of vaginisms, dysmenorrhea and sexual dissatisfaction were more in the women of the study group. 15 males bad oligospermia/azospermia.

Thara, R.; Ramachandran, V.; Hassan, P.P. Mohammed

1986-01-01

425

Exploring cultural diversity.  

PubMed

"Exploring Cultural Diversity" and "Out of the Comfort Zone" are companion articles written from a professor's and student's perspective about experiences in transcultural nursing. The nursing professor describes the planning and implementation phases of the program, and the student describes the life-changing experiences and impressions which occurred. The theory portion of the program takes place at the university in the semester prior to the clinical segment, and the experiential component of the course includes traveling to, living, and practicing within a developing country. A journey to the Dominican Republic in 1994 is recounted. Together the articles emphasize the need for increasing global understanding of the relationship of culture to health in order to promote high level wellness for all the citizens of this planet. PMID:9287597

Levine, M A

1997-01-01

426

Re: Soviet river diversions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper on ‘Soviet River Diversions’ by Phil Micklin (Eos, 62(19), May 12, 1981) has just come to hand.Referring to the map on page 489, I was interested to see the estimates of river flows for the Amu and Syr Darya, which clearly show the effect of irrigation on inflows to the Aral Sea. Recently, I was passing over the northeast corner of the sea on a flight from Tashkent to Moscow when I got the impression that increasing irrigation development on the Syr Darya is likely to decrease the annual inflow even more than in the recent past. The same state of affairs has been going on in the Caspian Sea for years, as a result of irrigation development on the Volga. My impression was that the Aral Sea had shrunk considerably from the 26,000 odd square miles (67,304 km2) area quoted (from memory) in Encyclopaedia Britannica (edition circa 1970).

Robertson, Jas O.

427

Porphyromonas gingivalis Strain Diversity? †  

PubMed Central

Porphyromonas gingivalis is implicated in the etiology of chronic periodontitis. Genotyping studies suggest that genetic variability exists among P. gingivalis strains; however, the extent of variability remains unclear and regions of variability remain largely unidentified. To assess P. gingivalis strain diversity, we previously used heteroduplex analysis of the ribosomal operon intergenic spacer region (ISR) to type strains in clinical samples and identified 22 heteroduplex types. Additionally, we used ISR sequence analysis to determine the relatedness of P. gingivalis strains to one another and demonstrated a link between ISR sequence phylogeny and the disease-associated phenotype of the strains. In the current study, heteroduplex analysis of the ISR was used to determine the worldwide genetic variability and distribution of P. gingivalis, and microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis was used to more comprehensively examine the variability of major heteroduplex type strains by using the entire genome. Heteroduplex analysis of clinical samples from geographically diverse populations identified 6 predominant geographically widespread heteroduplex types (prevalence, ?5%) and 14 rare heterodpulex types (prevalence, <2%) which are found in one or a few locations. CGH analysis of the genomes of seven clinically prevalent heteroduplex type strains identified 133 genes from strain W83 that were divergent in at least one of the other strains. The relatedness of the strains to one another determined on the basis of genome content (microarray) analysis was highly similar to their relatedness determined on the basis of ISR sequence analysis, and a striking correlation between the genome contents and disease-associated phenotypes of the strains was observed.

Igboin, Christina O.; Griffen, Ann L.; Leys, Eugene J.

2009-01-01

428

Current aspects of occupational chemical carcinogenesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The history of measures to control occupational exposure to carcinogenic substances is reviewed. Health hazards associated with exposure to a certain chemical substance must be considered not only from the aspects of its acute or chronic toxicity, but also from its potential to produce tumors (latent effect). There can be no clear distinction between classic toxicity and oncogenesis until the mechanisms of both are completely understood for a given chemical substance. The assessment of carcinogenic potential for a specific substance must include the consideration of published information, monitoring and control data from the affected industry, and the in-depth epidemiologic experience of affected employees.

Lassiter, D.

1975-01-01

429

METHODOLOGICAL BASES AND APPLICATIVE ASPECTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methodological and technical basis and the applicative aspects of ; internal dosimetry are reported with emphasis on the biological and metabolic ; parameters. The principal techniques and methods used on experimental animals ; and humans: classical procedure of mathematical calculation, film dosimetry, and ; solid state microdosimetry with radiophotoluminescence are described. The ; applicative aspects are considered. The distribution,

Laconi

1963-01-01

430

Developmental thermography: triple aspect thermography  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to compensate for the weak points in conventional infrared plane scanning thermography (PST), the authors' efforts toward the technical development of new thermographic imaging since 1968 has led to the following three kinds of developmental thermography (DT): (1) triple aspect thermography (TAT), (2) multiple aspect thermography (MAT) and (3) panoramic thermography (PT). This paper presents the technique for

Akinori Nagasawa; Kazuichi Katoh

1993-01-01

431

Legal Aspects of the Internet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Legal aspects of the Internet can be examined from two points of view: the solution of technical problems concerning the security of information, nets and resources; and the solution of global problems of the Internet as a part of media in a democratic society. The second aspect is the topic of this paper. How do we secure the basic democratic

Ekaterina Genieva

1997-01-01

432

Robots in Space -Psychological Aspects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A viewgraph presentation on the psychological aspects of developing robots to perform routine operations associated with monitoring, inspection, maintenance and repair in space is shown. The topics include: 1) Purpose; 2) Vision; 3) Current Robots in Space; 4) Ground Based Robots; 5) AERCam; 6) Rotating Bladder Robot (ROBLR); 7) DART; 8) Robonaut; 9) Full Immersion Telepresence Testbed; 10) ERA; and 11) Psychological Aspects

Sipes, Walter E.

2006-01-01

433

Uniform Genericity for Aspect Languages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspect-oriented programming languages promise to provide better modularity than pure object-oriented decomposition. A typical benefit of increased modularity is ease of maintenance, evo- lution and reuse. However, it has been noted by various researchers that many of the first generation aspect languages do not provide the degree of reusability initially hoped for. In this paper, we argue that the problem

Tobias Rho; Günter Kniesel

434

Aspects of flux compactification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this thesis, we study three main aspects of flux compactifications: (1) classify supergravity solutions from flux compactification; (2) construct flux-deformed geometry and 4D low-energy theory to describe these flux vacua; and (3) study 4D particle phenomenology and cosmology of flux vacua. In the first part, we review G-structure, the basic tool to study supersymmetric flux solutions, and some typical solutions obtained in heterotic, type IIA and type IIB string theories. Then we present a comprehensive classification of supersymmetric vacua of M-theory compactification on 7D manifolds with general four-form fluxes. We analyze the cases where the resulting four-dimensional vacua have N = 1, 2, 3, 4 supersymmetry and the internal space allows for SU(2)-, SU(3)- or G 2-structures. In particular, we find for N = 2 supersymmetry, that the external space-time is Minkowski and the base manifold of the internal space is conformally Kahler for SU(2) structures, while for SU(3) structures the internal space has to be Einstein-Sasaki and no internal fluxes are allowed. Moreover, we provide a new vacuum with