Sample records for control diverse aspects

  1. The aspects and the role of diversity in socioeconomic systems: an evolutionary perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Igor Matutinovi?

    2001-01-01

    In an evolutionary perspective, diversity is seen as a systemic and resilient property of both biological and socioeconomic systems. Functional aspects of biological and cultural diversity relate to adaptation to different environments, avoidance of head-to-head competition, efficient use of energy and resources, and in providing a range of responses to new selective pressures. Structural aspects of diversity are identified in

  2. Human Factors Aspects of Advanced Process Control

    E-print Network

    Shaw, J. A.

    HUMAN FACTORS ASPECTS OF ADVANCED PRO?CESS CONTROL John A. Shaw Combustion Engineering Taylor Instrument Division Rochester, New York ABSTRACT Energy conservation practices, such as heat recovery and integration, require that many... chemical and related processes use advanced control systems. Many of the more advanced process control strategies and algorithms can cause operator confusion, leading to incorrect operator actions and negating the advantages of the advanced control...

  3. Resource availability controls fungal diversity across a plant diversity gradient

    E-print Network

    Weiblen, George D

    and diversity within the experimental plant communities. We used soil microbial biomass as a temporally, diversity-productivity hypothesis. Ecology Letters (2006) 9: 1127­1135 IN T ROD U CTI ON Soils support communities, we presently lack a theoretical foundation to explain the wealth of microbial diversity in soil

  4. High aspect ratio, remote controlled pumping assembly

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Steve B. (Livermore, CA); Milanovich, Fred P. (Lafayette, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A miniature dual syringe-type pump assembly which has a high aspect ratio and which is remotely controlled, for use such as in a small diameter penetrometer cone or well packer used in water contamination applications. The pump assembly may be used to supply and remove a reagent to a water contamination sensor, for example, and includes a motor, gearhead and motor encoder assembly for turning a drive screw for an actuator which provides pushing on one syringe and pulling on the other syringe for injecting new reagent and withdrawing used reagent from an associated sensor.

  5. Consumer versus resource control of species diversity and ecosystem functioning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boris Worm; Heike K. Lotze; Helmut Hillebrand; Ulrich Sommer

    2002-01-01

    A key question in ecology is which factors control species diversity in a community. Two largely separate groups of ecologists have emphasized the importance of productivity or resource supply, and consumers or physical disturbance, respectively. These variables show unimodal relationships with diversity when manipulated in isolation. Recent multivariate models, however, predict that these factors interact, such that the disturbance-diversity relationship

  6. Human Factors Aspects of Advanced Process Control 

    E-print Network

    Shaw, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    Energy conservation practices, such as heat recovery and integration, require that many chemical and related processes use advanced control systems. Many of the more advanced process control strategies and algorithms can cause operator confusion...

  7. Guidelines on ergonomic aspects of control rooms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, C. M.; Bocast, A. K.; Stewart, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    The anthropometry, workstation design, and environmental design of control rooms are outlined. The automated interface and VDTs and displays and various modes of communication between the system and the human operator using VDTs are discussed. The man in the loop is examined, the single controller single task framework and multiple controller multiple tasks issues are considered.

  8. Religion as an aspect of workplace diversity: an examination of the US context and a call for international research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James E. King Jr; Myrtle P. Bell; Ericka Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    Although religion is a significant factor in human behavior and is a protected area under the US Title VII prohibiting employment discrimination, religion is sorely understudied relative to research on other aspects of diversity. As evidenced by increasing legal action, the dynamics of religious diversity are poorly understood and managed in the workplace. In this paper, we compare and contrast

  9. Engineering aspects of water pollution control systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. G. Dalbke; A. J. Turk

    1967-01-01

    The importance of proper engineering when providing pollution control systems is emphasized. Organization of engineering projects is described in detail. Included are discussions of: (1) collection and evaluation of available data; (2) establishment of survey and test program; (3) integration and evaluation of findings; (4) establishment of pollution control and water utilization systems; and (5) specification and detailed design preparation.

  10. Manual Control Aspects of Orbital Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brody, Adam R. (editor); Ellis, Stephen R. (editor)

    1990-01-01

    A brief description of several laboratories' current research in the general area of manual control of orbital flight is presented. With an operational-space-station era (and its increased traffic levels) approaching, now is an opportune time to investigate issues such as docking and rendezvous profiles and course-planning aids. The tremendous increase in the capabilities of computers and computer graphics has made extensive study possible and economical. It is time to study these areas, from a human factors and manual control perspective in order to preclude the occurrence of problems analogous to those that occurred in the airline and other related industries.

  11. Stockkeeping and controlling under game theoretic aspects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Günter Fandel; Jan Trockel

    The stock level in industrial companies is frequently subject of critical discussions. Material managers tend towards high stock levels to ensure delivery and operational readiness. In contrast, controllers demand lower stock levels to minimize the costs of capital commitment. This decision conflict - based on lateral perception - can be modelled using an approach of game theory and it can

  12. Relational Aspects of Controls from Within

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garfat, Thom

    2009-01-01

    Developing controls from within requires the helper to be a person of influence able to create conditions of safety in relationship. In order to do so, a focus on the characteristics of adults' relationships with youth is essential. Relational practice offers such a focus. In this article, the author talks about relational practice as a connection…

  13. On some recent aspects of stochastic control and their applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huyen Pham

    2005-01-01

    This paper is a survey on some recent aspects and developments in stochastic control. We discuss the two main historical approaches, Bellman's optimality principle and Pontryagin's maximum principle, and their modern exposition with viscosity solutions and backward stochastic differential equations. Some original proofs are presented in a unifying context including degenerate singular control problems. We emphasize key results on characterization

  14. The Leap-Frog Algorithm and Optimal Control: Theoretical Aspects

    E-print Network

    Noakes, Lyle

    The Leap-Frog Algorithm and Optimal Control: Theoretical Aspects C. Yal#24;c#16;n Kaya School@maths.uwa.edu.au Abstract The Leap-Frog Algorithm was originally devised to #12;nd geodesics in connected complete with generalizing the mathematical rigour of the leap-frog algorithm to a class of optimal control problems

  15. Notional Examples and Benchmark Aspects of a Resilient Control System

    SciTech Connect

    Craig Rieger

    2010-08-01

    Digital control system technology has pervaded most industries, leading to improvements in the efficiency and reliability of the associated operations. However, the ease of distributing and connecting related control systems for the purposes of increasing performance has resulted in interdependencies that can lead to unexpected conditions. Even with less complex designs, operators and engineers alike are often left with competing goals that are difficult to resolve. A fundamental reason for this dichotomy is that responsibilities lie with different disciplines, and operations are hosted on separate control systems. In addition, with the rising awareness of cyber security and diverse human interactions with control systems, an understanding of human actions from a malicious and benevolent standpoint is necessary. Resilience considers the multiple facets of requirements that drive the performance of control systems in a holistic fashion, whether they are security or stability, stability or efficiency, human interactions or complex interdependencies. As will be shown by example, current research philosophies lack the depth or the focus on the control system application to satisfy these requirements, such as graceful degradation of hierarchical control while under cyber attack. A resilient control system promises to purposefully consider these diverse requirements, developing an adaptive capacity to complex events that can lead to failure of traditional control system designs.

  16. Notional Examples and Benchmark Aspects Of a Resilient Control System

    SciTech Connect

    Craig. G. Rieger

    2010-08-01

    Digital control system technology has pervaded most industries, leading to improvements in the efficiency and reliability of the associated operations. However, the ease of distributing and connecting related control systems for the purposes of increasing performance has resulted in interdependencies that can lead to unexpected conditions. Even with less complex designs, operators and engineers alike are often left with competing goals that are difficult to resolve. A fundamental reason for this dichotomy is that responsibilities lie with different disciplines, and operations are hosted on separate control systems. In addition, with the rising awareness of cyber security and diverse human interactions with control systems, an understanding of human actions from a malicious and benevolent standpoint is necessary. Resilience considers the multiple facets of requirements that drive the performance of control systems in a holistic fashion, whether they are security or stability, stability or efficiency, human interactions or complex interdependencies. As will be shown by example, current research philosophies lack the depth or the focus on the control system application to satisfy these requirements, such as graceful degradation of hierarchical control while under cyber attack. A resilient control system promises to purposefully consider these diverse requirements, developing an adaptive capacity to complex events that can lead to failure of traditional control system designs.

  17. Thermal environment and thermal control aspects for Mars landers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Reich; G. E. N. Scoon

    1993-01-01

    Spacecraft which are designed for Mars exploration are exposed to different severe thermal environments. The Thermal Control Design for small Mars landers which are being developed for the MARSNET mission is described. During transfer from Earth to Mars they experience large variations of the incident solar radiation, caused by solar aspect angle variations and the decreasing solar radiation intensity. The

  18. Instrumentation and control for Rajasthan Atomic Power Project: construction aspect

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rama Rao; V. V. K

    1973-01-01

    The construction aspects of instrumentation and control systems for ; Rajasthan Atomic Power Project are described. Total quantities of instruments, ; stainless steel tubing and fittings, copper tubing, cabling and junctions for ; RAPP-1 are given. The costs for equipment and installation are mentioned. All ; instruments are inspected, tested and calibrated before installation. Schedules ; of installation with respect

  19. Aspects of aircraft engine control systems R&D

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Yamane; Y. Takahara; T. Oyobe

    1997-01-01

    The FADEC (full authority digital electronic engine control) technology in Japan has matured substantially within the TRDI's JEC-series FADEC R&D programs. The aspects of engineering practice described in this paper have been addressed by the Third Research Center, TRDI (Technical Research and Development Institute), in the R&D process of the JEC-series aircraft engine control systems. It is shown that the

  20. Ethical and legal aspects of global tobacco control

    PubMed Central

    Novotny, T; Carlin, D

    2005-01-01

    On 28 February 2005, the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control came into force as a result of at least 40 countries becoming State Parties through ratification of this first ever health treaty sponsored by the World Health Organization. This article discusses the bioethical, trade, and legal aspects of global tobacco control. Special emphasis is given to globalisation of tobacco use and the challenges it poses to sovereign nations. It also advocates a bioethical basis in the pursuit of global solutions to expanding tobacco use. PMID:16046698

  1. Herbivores and nutrients control grassland plant diversity via light limitation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borer, Elizabeth T.; Seabloom, Eric W.; Gruner, Daniel S.; Harpole, W. Stanley; Hillebrand, Helmut; Lind, Eric M.; Alder, Peter B.; Alberti, Juan; Anderson, T. Michael; Bakker, Jonathan D.; Biederman, Lori; Blumenthal, Dana; Brown, Cynthia S.; Brudvig, Lars A.; Buckley, Yvonne M.; Cadotte, Marc; Chu, Cheng-Jin; Cleland, Elsa E.; Crawley, Michael J.; Daleo, Pedro; Damschen, Ellen I.; Davies, Kendi F.; DeCrappeo, Nicole M.; Du, Guozhen; Firn, Jennifer; Hautier, Yann; Heckman, Robert W.; Hector, Andy; HilleRisLambers, Janneke; Iribarne, Oscar; Klein, Julia A.; Knops, Johannes M.H.; La Pierre, Kimberly J.; Leakey, Andrew D.B.; Li, Wei; MacDougall, Andrew S.; McCulley, Rebecca L.; Melbourne, Brett A.; Mitchell, Charles E.; Moore, Joslin L.; Mortensen, Brent; O'Halloran, Lydia R.; Orrock, John L.; Pascual, Jesús; Prober, Suzanne M.; Pyke, David A.; Risch, Anita C.; Schuetz, Martin; Smith, Melinda D.; Stevens, Carly J.; Sullivan, Lauren L.; Williams, Ryan J.; Wragg, Peter D.; Wright, Justin P.; Yang, Louie H.

    2014-01-01

    Human alterations to nutrient cycles and herbivore communities are affecting global biodiversity dramatically. Ecological theory predicts these changes should be strongly counteractive: nutrient addition drives plant species loss through intensified competition for light, whereas herbivores prevent competitive exclusion by increasing ground-level light, particularly in productive systems. Here we use experimental data spanning a globally relevant range of conditions to test the hypothesis that herbaceous plant species losses caused by eutrophication may be offset by increased light availability due to herbivory. This experiment, replicated in 40 grasslands on 6 continents, demonstrates that nutrients and herbivores can serve as counteracting forces to control local plant diversity through light limitation, independent of site productivity, soil nitrogen, herbivore type and climate. Nutrient addition consistently reduced local diversity through light limitation, and herbivory rescued diversity at sites where it alleviated light limitation. Thus, species loss from anthropogenic eutrophication can be ameliorated in grasslands where herbivory increases ground-level light.

  2. A Diversity-controlling Adaptive Genetic Algorithm for the Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows

    E-print Network

    Zhu, Kenny Q.

    to the changing population dynamics. The adap- tive control maintains population diversity at user-defined levels parameter GA clearly demonstrates the advan- tage of population diversity control. Our experiments in the population environment. We propose a novel function to control this diversity at a desirable level

  3. Herbivores and nutrients control grassland plant diversity via light limitation.

    SciTech Connect

    Borer, Elizabeth T. [Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior, University of Minnesota; et al, et al

    2014-01-01

    Human alterations to nutrient cycles1,2 and herbivore communities3–7 are affecting global biodiversity dramatically2. Ecological theory predicts these changes should be strongly counteractive: nutrient addition drives plant species loss through intensified competition for light, whereas herbivores prevent competitive exclusion by increasing ground-level light, particularly in productive systems8,9. Here we use experimental data spanning a globally relevant range of conditions to test the hypothesis that herbaceous plant species losses caused by eutrophication may be offset by increased light availability due to herbivory. This experiment, replicated in 40 grasslands on 6 continents, demonstrates that nutrients and herbivores can serve as counteracting forces to control local plant diversity through light limitation, independent of site productivity, soil nitrogen, herbivore type and climate. Nutrient addition consistently reduced local diversity through light limitation, and herbivory rescued diversity at sites where it alleviated light limitation. Thus, species loss from anthropogenic eutrophication can be ameliorated in grasslands where herbivory increases ground-level light.

  4. Molecular aspects of transport in thin films of controlled architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Work was done in two principal areas: characterization of diffusion in swollen polymer films both with and without a barrier layer, and initial investigations of molecular aspects of swelling using enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

  5. Personal and Ideological Aspects of Internal and External Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurin, Patricia; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Factor analysis of Rotter's Internal-External Locus of Control Scale using a national sample replicated the distinction between personal control and control ideology. Personal control, but not control ideology, was related to higher socioeconomic status and mastery efforts over personal environment. External control ideology was related to greater…

  6. Temporal Patterns of Ant Diversity across a Mountain with Climatically Contrasting Aspects in the Tropics of Africa

    PubMed Central

    Munyai, Thinandavha Caswell; Foord, Stefan Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    Factors that drive species richness over space and time are still poorly understood and are often context specific. Identifying these drivers for ant diversity has become particularly relevant within the context of contemporary global change events. We report on a long-term bi-annual (wet and dry seasons), standardized sampling of epigeal ants over a five year period on the mesic and arid aspects of an inselberg (Soutpansberg Mountain Range) in the tropics of Africa. We detail seasonal, annual and long-term trends of species density, test the relative contribution of geometric constraints, energy, available area, climate, local environmental variables, time, and space in explaining ant species density patterns through Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMM) where replicates were included as random factors to account for temporal pseudo-replication. Seasonal patterns were very variable and we found evidence of decreased seasonal variation in species density with increased elevation. The extent and significance of a decrease in species density with increased elevation varied with season. Annual patterns point to an increase in ant diversity over time. Ant density patterns were positively correlated with mean monthly temperature but geometric constraints dominated model performance while soil characteristics were minor correlates. These drivers and correlates accounted for all the spatio-temporal variability in the database. Ant diversity was therefore mainly determined by geometric constraints and temperature while soil characteristics (clay and carbon content) accounted for smaller but significant amounts of variation. This study documents the role of season, elevation and their interaction in affecting ant species densities while highlighting the importance of neutral processes and temperature in driving these patterns. PMID:25774670

  7. Evolutionary aspects of lipoxygenases and genetic diversity of human leukotriene signaling.

    PubMed

    Horn, Thomas; Adel, Susan; Schumann, Ralf; Sur, Saubashya; Kakularam, Kumar Reddy; Polamarasetty, Aparoy; Redanna, Pallu; Kuhn, Hartmut; Heydeck, Dagmar

    2015-01-01

    Leukotrienes are pro-inflammatory lipid mediators, which are biosynthesized via the lipoxygenase pathway of the arachidonic acid cascade. Lipoxygenases form a family of lipid peroxidizing enzymes and human lipoxygenase isoforms have been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory, hyperproliferative (cancer) and neurodegenerative diseases. Lipoxygenases are not restricted to humans but also occur in a large number of pro- and eucaryotic organisms. Lipoxygenase-like sequences have been identified in the three domains of life (bacteria, archaea, eucarya) but because of lacking functional data the occurrence of catalytically active lipoxygenases in archaea still remains an open question. Although the physiological and/or pathophysiological functions of various lipoxygenase isoforms have been studied throughout the last three decades there is no unifying concept for the biological importance of these enzymes. In this review we are summarizing the current knowledge on the distribution of lipoxygenases in living single and multicellular organisms with particular emphasis to higher vertebrates and will also focus on the genetic diversity of enzymes and receptors involved in human leukotriene signaling. PMID:25435097

  8. Minority Employees Engaging with (Diversity) Management: An Analysis of Control, Agency, and Micro-Emancipation &ast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrizia Zanoni; Maddy Janssens

    2007-01-01

    abstract? This study analyses how minority employees engage with control in organizations. Differently from most critical studies of diversity management, which focus on how minority employees are discursively controlled, we approach (diversity) management as a constellation of both identity-regulating discourses and bureaucratic controls. We assume that minority employees are agents who actively resist and/or comply with the constellation of controls

  9. Pasture Condition Score Indicators: Controls on Plant and Forage Diversity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-NRCS Pasture Condition Score (PCS) system was developed for evaluating pastures and making management recommendations. Four of the ten rating criteria relate to plant species diversity and composition: percent desirable plants, plant cover, plant diversity, and percent legume. Baseline data...

  10. Preventing Large-Scale Controlled Substance Diversion From Within the Pharmacy

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Emory S.; Dzierba, Steven H.; Jones, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale diversion of controlled substances (CS) from within a hospital or heath system pharmacy is a rare but growing problem. It is the responsibility of pharmacy leadership to scrutinize control processes to expose weaknesses. This article reviews examples of large-scale diversion incidents and diversion techniques and provides practical strategies to stimulate enhanced CS security within the pharmacy staff. Large-scale diversion from within a pharmacy department can be averted by a pharmacist-in-charge who is informed and proactive in taking effective countermeasures. PMID:24421497

  11. Semiotic aspects of control and modeling relations in complex systems

    SciTech Connect

    Joslyn, C.

    1996-08-01

    A conceptual analysis of the semiotic nature of control is provided with the goal of elucidating its nature in complex systems. Control is identified as a canonical form of semiotic relation of a system to its environment. As a form of constraint between a system and its environment, its necessary and sufficient conditions are established, and the stabilities resulting from control are distinguished from other forms of stability. These result from the presence of semantic coding relations, and thus the class of control systems is hypothesized to be equivalent to that of semiotic systems. Control systems are contrasted with models, which, while they have the same measurement functions as control systems, do not necessarily require semantic relations because of the lack of the requirement of an interpreter. A hybrid construction of models in control systems is detailed. Towards the goal of considering the nature of control in complex systems, the possible relations among collections of control systems are considered. Powers arguments on conflict among control systems and the possible nature of control in social systems are reviewed, and reconsidered based on our observations about hierarchical control. Finally, we discuss the necessary semantic functions which must be present in complex systems for control in this sense to be present at all.

  12. Diversity Strategies for Nuclear Power Plant Instrumentation and Control Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Thomas Wood; Randy Belles; Mustafa Sacit Cetiner; David Eugene Holcomb; Kofi Korsah; Andy Loebl; Gary T Mays; Michael David Muhlheim; James Allen Mullens; Willis P Poore; A L Qualls; Thomas L Wilson; Michael E. Waterman

    2010-01-01

    This report presents the technical basis for establishing acceptable mitigating strategies that resolve diversity and defense-in-depth (D3) assessment findings and conform to U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements. The research approach employed to establish appropriate diversity strategies involves investigation of available documentation on D3 methods and experience from nuclear power and nonnuclear industries, capture of expert knowledge and lessons learned,

  13. Spared and impaired aspects of motivated cognitive control in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Mann, Claire L; Footer, Owen; Chung, Yu Sun; Driscoll, Lori L; Barch, Deanna M

    2013-08-01

    The ability to upregulate cognitive control in motivationally salient situations was examined in individuals with schizophrenia (patients) and healthy controls. Fifty-four patients and 39 healthy controls were recruited. A computerized monetary response conflict task required participants to identity a picture, over which was printed a matching (congruent), neutral, or incongruent word. This baseline condition was followed by an incentive condition, in which participants were given the opportunity to win money on reward-cued trials. These reward-cued trials were interleaved with nonreward cued trials. Reaction times (RT) were examined for both incentive context effects (difference in RT between baseline and nonreward cue trials in the incentive condition) and incentive cue effects (difference in RT between nonreward and reward cue trials in the incentive condition). Compared with baseline, controls showed a speeding of responses during both the nonreward (incentive context effect) and reward cued (incentive cue effect) trials during the incentive condition, but with a larger incentive context than incentive cue effect, suggesting a reliance on proactive control strategies. Although patients also showed a speeding of responses to both nonreward and reward cued trials, they showed a significantly smaller incentive context effect than controls, suggesting a reduction in the use of proactive control and a greater reliance on the use of "just-in-time," reactive control strategies. These results are discussed in light of the relationship between motivation and cognitive impairments in schizophrenia, and the potential role of impairments in prefrontally mediated active maintenance mechanisms. PMID:23834064

  14. On Social and Material Aspects of Technological Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herfel, William E.

    1999-01-01

    Suggests that Hugh Lacey's example of a clear-cut distinction between material and social constraints or possibilities in the Green Revolution is misleading. Proposes a material analysis of the control situation placed within the material framework of the social structure within which the control system is employed. (Author/WRM)

  15. Benefit/cost aspects on voluntary control of bovine leukosis.

    PubMed

    Hugoson, G; Wold-Troell, M

    1983-01-01

    An organized voluntary control of bovine leukosis, motivated by export interests, has existed in Sweden since 1969. Owing to reduced prospects for export, the economic justification for the control has been questioned. The present study comprises programs and economical calculations for a twenty-year period and considering three different modes of action, namely A. Continued organized control. B. Discarding of all precautionary measures. C. Private voluntary control based on herd examination and certain precautions in restocking routines. Cost/benefit ratios, net present value (NPV), and effective interest rate (IRR) have been calculated. Profitability throughout was found to be worst in alternative A, similar in the B and C alternatives at a low export rate, and best in alternative C in the case where exports comprise at least 60 animals per year. PMID:6403923

  16. Genetic diversity analysis of mitochondrial DNA control region in artificially propagated Chinese sucker Myxocyprinus asiaticus.

    PubMed

    Wan, Yuan; Zhou, Chun-Hua; Ouyang, Shan; Huang, Xiao-Chen; Zhan, Yang; Zhou, Ping; Rong, Jun; Wu, Xiao-Ping

    2015-08-01

    The genetic diversity of the three major artificially propagated populations of Chinese sucker, an endangered freshwater fish species, was investigated using the sequences of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control regions. Among the 89 individuals tested, 66 variable sites (7.26%) and 10 haplotypes were detected (Haplotype diversity Hd?=?0.805, Nucleotide diversity ??=?0.0287). In general, genetic diversity was lower in artificially propagated populations than in wild populations. This reduction in genetic diversity may be due to population bottlenecks, genetic drift and human selection. A stepping-stone pattern of gene flow was detected in the populations studied, showing much higher gene flow between neighbouring populations. To increase the genetic diversity, wild lineages should be introduced, and more lineages should be shared among artificially propagated populations. PMID:24409897

  17. Electrical Engineering (EE) is a diverse discipline encompassing computer and information systems, controls,

    E-print Network

    Rohs, Remo

    . An overview of modern electrical engineering: communications, computers, circuits, components, controls70 electrical Electrical Engineering (EE) is a diverse discipline encompassing computer such as computers, communications and signal processing, robotics, electromagnetics, or circuits and devices

  18. Prokaryotic Diversity-Magnitude, Dynamics, and Controlling Factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vigdis Torsvik; Lise Øvreås; Tron Frede Thingstad

    2002-01-01

    There are probably millions of species in the microorganismal domains Bacteria and Archaea (the prokaryotes), and we are only just beginning to work out the basic principles governing their distribution and abundance in natural environments. One characteristic that has become clear is that prokaryote diversity in aquatic environments is orders of magnitude less than in sediments and soils. Hypotheses and

  19. Acoustic Aspects of Active-Twist Rotor Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, Earl R., Jr.; Wilbur, Matthew L.

    2002-01-01

    The use of an Active Twist Rotor system to provide both vibration reduction and performance enhancement has been explored in recent analytical and experimental studies. Effects of active-twist control on rotor noise, however, had not been determined. During a recent wind tunnel test of an active-twist rotor system, a set of acoustic measurements were obtained to assess the effects of active-twist control on noise produced by the rotor, especially blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise. It was found that for rotor operating conditions where BVI noise is dominant, active-twist control provided a reduction in BVI noise level. This BVI noise reduction was almost, but not quite, as large as that obtained in a similar test using HHC. However, vibration levels were usually adversely affected at operating conditions favoring minimum BVI noise. Conversely, operating conditions favoring minimum vibration levels affected BVI noise levels, but not always adversely.

  20. Some aspects of robotics calibration, design and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tawfik, Hazem

    1990-01-01

    The main objective is to introduce techniques in the areas of testing and calibration, design, and control of robotic systems. A statistical technique is described that analyzes a robot's performance and provides quantitative three-dimensional evaluation of its repeatability, accuracy, and linearity. Based on this analysis, a corrective action should be taken to compensate for any existing errors and enhance the robot's overall accuracy and performance. A comparison between robotics simulation software packages that were commercially available (SILMA, IGRIP) and that of Kennedy Space Center (ROBSIM) is also included. These computer codes simulate the kinematics and dynamics patterns of various robot arm geometries to help the design engineer in sizing and building the robot manipulator and control system. A brief discussion on an adaptive control algorithm is provided.

  1. Backpressure-based Control Protocols: Design and Computational Aspects

    E-print Network

    Boucherie, Richard J.

    -pressure mechanism that has been proposed and standardized for Ethernet metropolitan networks. In such a mechanism-based mechanisms have been proposed and standardized for congestion control in Ethernet metropoli- tan networks surprising (and very different from the common ` end-to-end

  2. Molecular Aspects of Transport in Thin Films of Controlled Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Paul W. Bohn

    2009-04-16

    Our laboratory focuses on developing spatially localized chemistries which can produce structures of controlled architecture on the supermolecular length scale -- structures which allow us to control the motion of molecular species with high spatial resolution, ultimately on nanometer length scales. Specifically, nanocapillary array membranes (NCAMs) contain an array of nanometer diameter pores connecting vertically separated microfluidic channels. NCAMs can manipulate samples with sub-femtoliter characteristic volumes and attomole sample amounts and are opening the field of chemical analysis of mass-limited samples, because they are capable of digital control of fluid switching down to sub-attoliter volumes; extension of analytical “unit operations” down to sub-femtomole sample sizes; and exerting spatiotemporal control over fluid mixing to enable studies of reaction dynamics. Digital flow switching mediated by nanocapillary array membranes can be controlled by bias, ionic strength, or pore diameter and is being studied by observing the temporal characteristics of transport across a single nanopore in thin PMMA membranes. The control of flow via nanopore surface characteristics, charge density and functional group presentation, is being studied by coupled conductivity and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) measurements. Reactive mixing experiments previously established low millisecond mixing times for NCAM-mediated fluid transfer, and this has been exploited to demonstrate capture of mass-limited target species by Au colloids. Voltage and thermally-activated polymer switches have been developed for active control of transport in NCAMs. Thermally-switchable and size-selective transport was achieved by grafting poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) brushes onto the exterior surface of a Au-coated polycarbonate track-etched membrane, while the voltage-gated properties of poly(hydroxyethylmethacrylate) were characterized dynamically. Electrophoretic separations have been coupled to analyte sampling both by LIF and mass spectrometry. Detection of electrophoresis separation products by electrospray mass spectrometry was achieved through direct interfacing to an electrospray mass spectrometer. Pb(II) interactions with the DNAzyme have been realized in an NCAM-coupled integrated microfluidic structure allowing cation separations to be coupled to molecular beacon detection motifs for the determination of Pb(II) in an electroplating sludge reference material. By changing the DNAzyme to select for other compounds of interest, it is possible to incorporate multiple sensing systems within a single device, thereby achieving great flexibility.

  3. Control aspects of quantum computing using pure and mixed states.

    PubMed

    Schulte-Herbrüggen, Thomas; Marx, Raimund; Fahmy, Amr; Kauffman, Louis; Lomonaco, Samuel; Khaneja, Navin; Glaser, Steffen J

    2012-10-13

    Steering quantum dynamics such that the target states solve classically hard problems is paramount to quantum simulation and computation. And beyond, quantum control is also essential to pave the way to quantum technologies. Here, important control techniques are reviewed and presented in a unified frame covering quantum computational gate synthesis and spectroscopic state transfer alike. We emphasize that it does not matter whether the quantum states of interest are pure or not. While pure states underly the design of quantum circuits, ensemble mixtures of quantum states can be exploited in a more recent class of algorithms: it is illustrated by characterizing the Jones polynomial in order to distinguish between different (classes of) knots. Further applications include Josephson elements, cavity grids, ion traps and nitrogen vacancy centres in scenarios of closed as well as open quantum systems. PMID:22946034

  4. Some Aspects of Doping and Medication Control in Equine Sports

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ed Houghton; Steve Maynard

    \\u000a This chapter reviews drug and medication control in equestrian sports and addresses the rules of racing, the technological\\u000a advances that have been made in drug detection and the importance of metabolism studies in the development of effective drug\\u000a surveillance programmes. Typical approaches to screening and confirmatory analysis are discussed, as are the quality processes\\u000a that underpin these procedures. The chapter

  5. Relations among Aspects of Parental Control, Children's Work-Related Social Skills and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooney, Ramie Robeson

    This research sought to separate aspects of parental control from parental warmth and to investigate the impact of parents' control to child outcomes related to literacy and work-related social skills at the start of kindergarten. Family rules, limits, and disciplinary practices were explored as predictors of cognitive and social school…

  6. Algorithmic aspects of topology control problems for ad hoc networks

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, R. (Rui); Lloyd, E. L. (Errol L.); Marathe, M. V. (Madhav V.); Ramanathan, R. (Ram); Ravi, S. S.

    2002-01-01

    Topology control problems are concerned with the assignment of power values to nodes of an ad hoc network so that the power assignment leads to a graph topology satisfying some specified properties. This paper considers such problems under several optimization objectives, including minimizing the maximum power and minimizing the total power. A general approach leading to a polynomial algorithm is presented for minimizing maximum power for a class of graph properties, called monotone properties. The difficulty of generalizing the approach to properties that are not monoione is pointed out. Problems involving the minimization of total power are known to be NP-complete even for simple graph properties. A general approach that leads to an approximation algorithm for minimizing the total power for some monotone properties is presented. Using this approach, a new approximation algorithm for the problem of minimizing the total power for obtaining a 2-node-connected graph is obtained. It is shown that this algorithm provides a constant performance guarantee. Experimental results from an implementation of the approximation algorithm are also presented.

  7. APPETITE CONTROL: METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE EVALUATION OF FOODS

    PubMed Central

    Blundell, John; de Graaf, Cees; Hulshof, Toine; Jebb, Susan; Livingstone, Barbara; Lluch, Anne; Mela, David; Salah, Samir; Schuring, Ewoud; van der Knaap, Henk; Westerterp, Margriet

    2013-01-01

    This report describes a set of scientific procedures used to assess the impact of foods and food ingredients on the expression of appetite (psychological and behavioural). An overarching priority has been to enable potential evaluators of health claims about foods to identify justified claims, and to exclude claims that are not supported by scientific evidence for the effect cited. This priority follows precisely from the principles set down in the PASSCLAIM report. (4) The report allows the evaluation of the strength of health claims, about the effects of foods on appetite, which can be sustained on the basis of the commonly used scientific designs and experimental procedures. The report includes different designs for assessing effects on satiation as opposed to satiety,detailed coverage of the extent to which a change in hunger can stand-alone as a measure of appetite control, and an extensive discussion of the statistical procedures appropriate for handling data in this field of research. Since research in this area is continually evolving, new improved methodologies may emerge over time and will need to be incorporated into the framework. One main objective of the report has been to produce guidance on good practice in carrying out appetite research, and not to set down a series of commandments that must be followed. PMID:20122136

  8. Humboldt's spa: microbial diversity is controlled by temperature in geothermal environments

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Christine E; Brady, Allyson L; Sharp, Glen H; Grasby, Stephen E; Stott, Matthew B; Dunfield, Peter F

    2014-01-01

    Over 200 years ago Alexander von Humboldt (1808) observed that plant and animal diversity peaks at tropical latitudes and decreases toward the poles, a trend he attributed to more favorable temperatures in the tropics. Studies to date suggest that this temperature–diversity gradient is weak or nonexistent for Bacteria and Archaea. To test the impacts of temperature as well as pH on bacterial and archaeal diversity, we performed pyrotag sequencing of 16S rRNA genes retrieved from 165 soil, sediment and biomat samples of 36 geothermal areas in Canada and New Zealand, covering a temperature range of 7.5–99?°C and a pH range of 1.8–9.0. This represents the widest ranges of temperature and pH yet examined in a single microbial diversity study. Species richness and diversity indices were strongly correlated to temperature, with R2 values up to 0.62 for neutral–alkaline springs. The distributions were unimodal, with peak diversity at 24?°C and decreasing diversity at higher and lower temperature extremes. There was also a significant pH effect on diversity; however, in contrast to previous studies of soil microbial diversity, pH explained less of the variability (13–20%) than temperature in the geothermal samples. No correlation was observed between diversity values and latitude from the equator, and we therefore infer a direct temperature effect in our data set. These results demonstrate that temperature exerts a strong control on microbial diversity when considered over most of the temperature range within which life is possible. PMID:24430481

  9. biologists is to separate the normative aspect of their work (preventing extinction and conserving diversity) from the

    E-print Network

    Harms, Kyle E.

    somehow uniquely produced the highest levels of diversity on Earth. This biological richness (a them are small, rare, and localized.'' Interest in tropical diversity and concern for its loss has and the primary literature to create a grand overview of tropical biodiversity. Tropical biology (like science

  10. Diversity Coding: Using Error Control For Self-Healing in Communication Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ender Ayanoglu; I Chin-lin; Richard D. Gitlin; J. E. Mazo

    1990-01-01

    An error-control-based approach, called diversity coding, that provides nearly instantaneous self-healing digital communication networks is presented. This is achieved by constructing an error-correcting code across logically independent channels and by treating link failures within the framework of an erasure channel model. Diversity coding is more efficient than previous approaches to self-healing communication networks since it is nearly instantaneous, is transparent

  11. Technological aspects of corrosion control in metallic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Matthew Logan

    Three corrosion control technologies were investigated, including the effect of nitrogen on the passivity of chromium in sulfate solutions, possible issues associated with the use of amines in steam turbine environments and the microstructure of naval advanced amorphous coatings. Nitrogen (N) is a minor alloying element commonly used to increase the strength of steels by stabilizing the austenite phase. Physical vapor deposited chromium + nitrogen (0, 6.8 and 8.9 at.%N) coatings were investigated as a model system, to test the model. Because Cr passive films have been observed to be generally n-type semiconductors, an impedance function containing a n-type Faradaic impedance was constructed and optimized to electrochemical impedance spectra for the model system at pH 4,7 and 10 1M sulfate solution at 30°C. An apparent deviation from theory was observed, however. The n-type model predicted steady state currents which were independent of potential, while the observed current densities had a positive correlation with potential. Mott-Schottky analysis revealed that the test potentials were within the n-p transition and p-type potential range, which resolves the apparent deviation. Despite this difficulty, however, the impedance model produced reasonably accurate results, calculating current densities to within one order of magnitude of the measured steady state currents where anodic currents were available and passive film thicknesses on the order of 1-2 nm. Various amines are commonly used to inhibit corrosion in thermal power generation systems, including steam turbines, by increasing the pH. However, during the shutdown phase of the power plant, it is possible for these inhibitors to concentrate and cause corrosion of the turbine rotor. The effect of two ammine inhibitors (monoethanolamine and dimethylamine) on the passivity of ASTM A470/471 steel is investigated in a simulated turbine environment at pH 7, and temperatures of 95°C and at 175°C. Potentiodynamic scans and potentiostatic measurements revealed that the steel depassivated with high (0.1M) concentrations of monoethanolamine, in combination with acetate. Because the steel depassivated at low potentials and at neutral pH, it is unlikely to be acid or transpassive depassivation. The proposed mechanism for this depassivation is resistive depassivation, whereby the potential drop incurred by the precipitated outer-layer robs the barrier layer of the passive film of the potential required to maintain a finite film thickness. High velocity oxy-fuel (HFOV) coatings are employed in maritime environments to protect against corrosion and wear. The performance of such coatings is dominated by flaws in the microstructure, such as porosity, delamination and secondary phases. A nondestructive evaluation technique that is capable of determining the quality of a HVOF coating was developed, based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The EIS measurement was correlated to the microstructure observed via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Because a transmission line model was unable to provide discriminatory information, a convenient mathematical impedance function was constructed, with two separated time constants defined by constant phase elements, with time constants for a "fast" and a "slow" process. Enabling the impedance studies above is a new software package for fitting complicated impedance functions of up to 50 parameters to complex impedance data, developed specifically for this work. The curve-fitting software utilizes differential evolution, an evolutionary algorithm which is relatively new to the field of impedance modeling, enabling the operator to obtain high quality fits without the need for excellent starting guesses, taking trial and error out of the curve-fitting process and vastly improving the man-hour efficiency involved in optimizing complicated impedance functions such as the Faradaic impedance of the Point Defect Model. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  12. Oceanographic controls on the diversity and extinction of planktonic foraminifera.

    PubMed

    Peters, Shanan E; Kelly, Daniel C; Fraass, Andrew J

    2013-01-17

    Understanding the links between long-term biological evolution, the ocean-atmosphere system and plate tectonics is a central goal of Earth science. Although environmental perturbations of many different kinds are known to have affected long-term biological evolution, particularly during major mass extinction events, the relative importance of physical environmental factors versus biological interactions in governing rates of extinction and origination through geological time remains unknown. Here we use macrostratigraphic data from the Atlantic Ocean basin to show that changes in global species diversity and rates of extinction among planktonic foraminifera have been linked to tectonically and climatically forced changes in ocean circulation and chemistry from the Jurassic period to the present. Transient environmental perturbations, such as those that occurred after the asteroid impact at the end of the Cretaceous period approximately 66 million years ago, and the Eocene/Oligocene greenhouse-icehouse transition approximately 34 million years ago, are superimposed on this general long-term relationship. Rates of species origination, by contrast, are not correlated with corresponding macrostratigraphic quantities, indicating that physiochemical changes in the ocean-atmosphere system affect evolution principally by driving the synchronous extinction of lineages that originated owing to more protracted and complex interactions between biological and environmental factors. PMID:23302802

  13. Educational aspects of mechatronic control course design for collaborative remote laboratory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreja Rojko; Darko Hercog; Karel Jezernik

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses educational aspects of a distance learning mechatronic control course, which is one of the 18 courses that compound an international collaborative remote laboratory designed for students of electrical engineering. The work is undertaken in the frame of European Leonardo da Vinci project EDIPE ldquoE-learning distance interactive practical educationrdquo with a goal to offer Web based experimental courses

  14. FlowR: Aspect Oriented Programming for Information Flow Control in Ruby

    E-print Network

    Cambridge, University of

    FlowR: Aspect Oriented Programming for Information Flow Control in Ruby Thomas F. J.-M. Pasquier Jean Bacon University of Cambridge {thomas.pasquier, jean.bacon}@cl.cam.ac.uk Brian Shand Public Health England brian.shand@phe.gov.uk Abstract This paper reports on our experience with providing Information

  15. Chemistry itself is concerned with the understanding and control of all aspects of

    E-print Network

    Schnaufer, Achim

    Chemistry itself is concerned with the understanding and control of all aspects of molecules and Biological Chemistry', `Chemistry with Materials Chemistry', and `Chemistry with Environmental & Sustainable Chemistry' degrees are based on a solid core knowledge of Chemistry. In addition, the flexibility to study

  16. Exploring the performance effects of visible attribute diversity: the moderating role of span of control and organizational life cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Orlando C. Richard; David Ford; Kiran Ismail

    2006-01-01

    Research on how cultural diversity – especially visible attributes such as race and gender – impacts organizational performance remains practically nonexistent. We examine the effect of racial diversity and gender diversity on firm performance utilizing a contingency framework. Empirical findings from a field study support the hypothesized contingent effects of an organization's structure, specifically managerial span of control, on both

  17. Host and parasite diversity jointly control disease risk in complex communities

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Pieter

    Host and parasite diversity jointly control disease risk in complex communities Pieter T. J, Berkeley, CA, and approved September 10, 2013 (received for review June 3, 2013) Host­parasite interactions parasites. To date, however, surprisingly few studies have explored the joint effects of host and parasite

  18. Community Diversity: Controls and Patterns What is biodiversity and why is it important?

    E-print Network

    Hansen, Andrew J.

    Community Diversity: Controls and Patterns Topics · What is biodiversity and why is it important levels of species richness differ among biomes? #12;Patterns of Biodiversity across Biomes Wet Tropical Biodiversity Merriam-Webster - the existence of many different kinds of plants and animals in an environment

  19. Initial Performance of the Attitude Control and Aspect Determination Subsystems on the Chandra Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, R.; Aldcroft, T.; Podgorski, W. A.; Freeman, M. D.

    2000-01-01

    The aspect determination system of the Chandra X-ray Observatory plays a key role in realizing the full potential of Chandra's X-ray optics and detectors. We review the performance of the spacecraft hardware components and sub-systems, which provide information for both real time control of the attitude and attitude stability of the Chandra Observatory and also for more accurate post-facto attitude reconstruction. These flight components are comprised of the aspect camera (star tracker) and inertial reference units (gyros), plus the fiducial lights and fiducial transfer optics which provide an alignment null reference system for the science instruments and X-ray optics, together with associated thermal and structural components. Key performance measures will be presented for aspect camera focal plane data, gyro performance both during stable pointing and during maneuvers, alignment stability and mechanism repeatability.

  20. Evolution and diversity of subduction zones controlled by slab width.

    PubMed

    Schellart, W P; Freeman, J; Stegman, D R; Moresi, L; May, D

    2007-03-15

    Subducting slabs provide the main driving force for plate motion and flow in the Earth's mantle, and geodynamic, seismic and geochemical studies offer insight into slab dynamics and subduction-induced flow. Most previous geodynamic studies treat subduction zones as either infinite in trench-parallel extent (that is, two-dimensional) or finite in width but fixed in space. Subduction zones and their associated slabs are, however, limited in lateral extent (250-7,400 km) and their three-dimensional geometry evolves over time. Here we show that slab width controls two first-order features of plate tectonics-the curvature of subduction zones and their tendency to retreat backwards with time. Using three-dimensional numerical simulations of free subduction, we show that trench migration rate is inversely related to slab width and depends on proximity to a lateral slab edge. These results are consistent with retreat velocities observed globally, with maximum velocities (6-16 cm yr(-1)) only observed close to slab edges (<1,200 km), whereas far from edges (>2,000 km) retreat velocities are always slow (<2.0 cm yr(-1)). Models with narrow slabs (< or =1,500 km) retreat fast and develop a curved geometry, concave towards the mantle wedge side. Models with slabs intermediate in width ( approximately 2,000-3,000 km) are sublinear and retreat more slowly. Models with wide slabs (> or =4,000 km) are nearly stationary in the centre and develop a convex geometry, whereas trench retreat increases towards concave-shaped edges. Additionally, we identify periods (5-10 Myr) of slow trench advance at the centre of wide slabs. Such wide-slab behaviour may explain mountain building in the central Andes, as being a consequence of its tectonic setting, far from slab edges. PMID:17361181

  1. Access and benefit sharing (ABS) under the convention on biological diversity (CBD): implications for microbial biological control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Researchers and implementers of biological control are confronted with a variety of scientific, regulatory and administrative challenges to their biological control programs. One developing challenge will arise from the implementation of provisions of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) co...

  2. Nutritional and cultural aspects of plant species selection for a controlled ecological life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoff, J. E.; Howe, J. M.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of using higher plants in a controlled ecological life support system is discussed. Aspects of this system considered important in the use of higher plants include: limited energy, space, and mass, and problems relating to cultivation and management of plants, food processing, the psychological impact of vegetarian diets, and plant propagation. A total of 115 higher plant species are compared based on 21 selection criteria.

  3. Operational and research aspects of a radio-controlled model flight test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budd, Gerald D.; Gilman, Ronald L.; Eichstedt, David

    1993-01-01

    The operational and research aspects of a subscale, radio-controlled model flight test program are presented. By using low-cost free-flying models, an approach was developed for obtaining research-quality vehicle performance and aerodynamic information. The advantages and limitations learned by applying this approach to a specific flight test program are described. The research quality of the data acquired shows that model flight testing is practical for obtaining consistent repeatable flight data.

  4. Operational and research aspects of a radio-controlled model flight test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budd, Gerald D.; Gilman, Ronald L.; Eichstedt, David

    1993-01-01

    The operational and research aspects of a subscale, radio-controlled model flight test program are presented. By using low-cost free-flying models, an approach was developed for obtaining research-quality vehicle performance and aerodynamic information. The advantages and limitations learned by applying this approach to a specific flight test program are described. The research quality of the data acquired shows that model flight testing is practical for obtaining consistent and repeatable flight data.

  5. Effect of Aspect Ratio on the Low-Speed Lateral Control Characteristics of Untapered Low-Aspect-Ratio Wings Equipped with Flap and with Retractable Ailerons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischel, Jack; Naeseth, Rodger L; Hagerman, John R; O'Hare, William M

    1952-01-01

    A low-speed wind-tunnel investigation was made to determine the lateral control characteristics of a series of untapered low-aspect-ratio wings. Sealed flap ailerons of various spans and spanwise locations were investigated on unswept wings of aspect ratios 1.13, 1.13, 4.13, and 6.13; and various projections of 0.60-semispan retractable ailerons were investigated on the unsweptback wings of aspect ratios 1.13, 2.13, and 4.13 and on a 45 degree sweptback wing. The retractable ailerons investigated on the unswept wings spanned the outboard stations of each wing; whereas the plain and stepped retractable ailerons investigated on the sweptback wing were located at various spanwise stations. Design charts based on experimental results are presented for estimating the flap aileron effectiveness for low-aspect-ratio, untapered, unswept.

  6. Active Flow Control on Low-Aspect Ratio, Low-Reynolds Number Airfoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munson, Matthew; Kim, Daegyoum; Dickson, William; Gharib, Morteza

    2008-11-01

    Insect flight observations show high-lift mechanisms that rely on leading-edge vortex stabilization. These processes are intimately coupled to the flapping motion of the insect wing. In fixed wing applications, suitable for micro-air vehicles, active flow control may be capable of providing similar influence over vortex formation and stabilization. Steady and pulsed mass injection strategies are used to explore the open-loop response of both the evolution of the flow structures and the forces experienced by the wing. Flow structures will be quantitatively visualized using Defocused Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (DDPIV) and forces measured via a six-axis balance. Insect flight typically occurs at Reynolds numbers of 10^2 to 10^4, and aspect ratios near three. For this investigation, Reynolds numbers are approximately 10^3. The airfoil models are NACA 0012 profiles with aspect ratio two.

  7. Optical communication through the turbulent atmosphere with transmitter and receiver diversity, wavefront control, and coherent detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puryear, Andrew L.; Chan, Vincent W. S.

    2009-08-01

    Net-centric warfare in todays dynamically changing military environments and the need for low-cost gigabit intra-city communication present severe challenges for current free-space optical systems. Enabled by high-speed electronics and advances in wavefront control, we develop an architecture that provides free-space coherent optical links with information capacity, security, network robustness and power management performance that exceed the current state-of-the-art, including commercially deployed systems, R&D test-beds, and alternative theoretical architectures proposed. The deleterious effects of the turbulent atmosphere are mitigated with several diversity transmitters and receivers. We allow the phase and the amplitude of each transmitter to be controlled independently and assume, through coherent detection, that the phase and amplitude of the received wave is measured. Thus we can optimally allocate transmit power into the diffraction modes with the smallest propagation losses to increase channel capacity and mitigate turbulence-induced outages. Additionally, spatial mode modulation and rejection provides robust communication in the presence of denial of service via interference by adversaries with a priori knowledge of the system architecture. Some possible implementations of this system are described. New results, including asymptotic singular value distribution, expected bit error rate, interference performance, and performance in the presence of inhomogeneous turbulence, are given. Finally, performance of this system is compared with the performance of optical diversity systems without wavefront control and optical systems without diversity, both current state-of-the-art systems.

  8. Microbial mat controls on infaunal abundance and diversity in modern marine microbialites.

    PubMed

    Tarhan, L G; Planavsky, N J; Laumer, C E; Stolz, J F; Reid, R P

    2013-09-01

    Microbialites are the most abundant macrofossils of the Precambrian. Decline in microbialite abundance and diversity during the terminal Proterozoic and early Phanerozoic has historically been attributed to the concurrent radiation of complex metazoans. Similarly, the apparent resurgence of microbialites in the wake of Paleozoic and Mesozoic mass extinctions is frequently linked to drastic declines in metazoan diversity and abundance. However, it has become increasing clear that microbialites are relatively common in certain modern shallow, normal marine carbonate environments-foremost the Bahamas. For the first time, we present data, collected from the Exuma Cays, the Bahamas, systematically characterizing the relationship between framework-building cyanobacteria, microbialite fabrics, and microbialite-associated metazoan abundance and diversity. We document the coexistence of diverse microbialite and infaunal metazoan communities and demonstrate that the predominant control upon both microbialite fabric and metazoan community structure is microbial mat type. These findings necessitate that we rethink prevalent interpretations of microbialite-metazoan interactions and imply that microbialites are not passive recipients of metazoan-mediated alteration. Additionally, this work provides support for the theory that certain Precambrian microbialites may have been havens of early complex metazoan life, rather than bereft of metazoans, as has been traditionally envisaged. PMID:23889904

  9. Radiation control aspects of the civil construction for a high power free electron laser (FEL) facility

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, T.; Neil, G.; Stapleton, G.

    1996-12-31

    The paper discusses some of the assumptions and methods employed for the control of ionizing radiation in the specifications for the civil construction of a planned free electron laser facility based on a 200 MeV, 5 mA superconducting recirculation electron accelerator. Consideration is given firstly to the way in which the underlying building configuration and siting aspects were optimized on the basis of the early assumptions of beam loss and radiation goals. The various design requirements for radiation protection are then considered, and how they were folded into an aesthetically pleasing and functional building.

  10. Ecological prevalence, genetic diversity, and epidemiological aspects of Salmonella isolated from tomato agricultural regions of the Virginia Eastern Shore.

    PubMed

    Bell, Rebecca L; Zheng, Jie; Burrows, Erik; Allard, Sarah; Wang, Charles Y; Keys, Christine E; Melka, David C; Strain, Errol; Luo, Yan; Allard, Marc W; Rideout, Steven; Brown, Eric W

    2015-01-01

    Virginia is the third largest producer of fresh-market tomatoes in the United States. Tomatoes grown along the eastern shore of Virginia are implicated almost yearly in Salmonella illnesses. Traceback implicates contamination occurring in the pre-harvest environment. To get a better understanding of the ecological niches of Salmonella in the tomato agricultural environment, a 2-year study was undertaken at a regional agricultural research farm in Virginia. Environmental samples, including tomato (fruit, blossoms, and leaves), irrigation water, surface water and sediment, were collected over the growing season. These samples were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella using modified FDA-BAM methods. Molecular assays were used to screen the samples. Over 1500 samples were tested. Seventy-five samples tested positive for Salmonella yielding over 230 isolates. The most commonly isolated serovars were S. Newport and S. Javiana with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis yielding 39 different patterns. Genetic diversity was further underscored among many other serotypes, which showed multiple PFGE subtypes. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) of several S. Newport isolates collected in 2010 compared to clinical isolates associated with tomato consumption showed very few single nucleotide differences between environmental isolates and clinical isolates suggesting a source link to Salmonella contaminated tomatoes. Nearly all isolates collected during two growing seasons of surveillance were obtained from surface water and sediment sources pointing to these sites as long-term reservoirs for persistent and endemic contamination of this environment. PMID:25999938

  11. Ecological prevalence, genetic diversity, and epidemiological aspects of Salmonella isolated from tomato agricultural regions of the Virginia Eastern Shore

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Rebecca L.; Zheng, Jie; Burrows, Erik; Allard, Sarah; Wang, Charles Y.; Keys, Christine E.; Melka, David C.; Strain, Errol; Luo, Yan; Allard, Marc W.; Rideout, Steven; Brown, Eric W.

    2015-01-01

    Virginia is the third largest producer of fresh-market tomatoes in the United States. Tomatoes grown along the eastern shore of Virginia are implicated almost yearly in Salmonella illnesses. Traceback implicates contamination occurring in the pre-harvest environment. To get a better understanding of the ecological niches of Salmonella in the tomato agricultural environment, a 2-year study was undertaken at a regional agricultural research farm in Virginia. Environmental samples, including tomato (fruit, blossoms, and leaves), irrigation water, surface water and sediment, were collected over the growing season. These samples were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella using modified FDA-BAM methods. Molecular assays were used to screen the samples. Over 1500 samples were tested. Seventy-five samples tested positive for Salmonella yielding over 230 isolates. The most commonly isolated serovars were S. Newport and S. Javiana with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis yielding 39 different patterns. Genetic diversity was further underscored among many other serotypes, which showed multiple PFGE subtypes. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) of several S. Newport isolates collected in 2010 compared to clinical isolates associated with tomato consumption showed very few single nucleotide differences between environmental isolates and clinical isolates suggesting a source link to Salmonella contaminated tomatoes. Nearly all isolates collected during two growing seasons of surveillance were obtained from surface water and sediment sources pointing to these sites as long-term reservoirs for persistent and endemic contamination of this environment. PMID:25999938

  12. Some aspects of numerical simulation of control valves for steam turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajšman, Martin; Kovandová, Dana; Matas, Richard

    2012-04-01

    The contribution deals with the numerical simulation of air and steam flow through the model of control valve for steam turbines. Numerical simulations were compared with experimental measurements for the award of the same boundary conditions. Valve characteristics have been computed for individual travel heights and pressure ratios of two variants of seat inflow angle (90° and 60°). Some other aspects are discussed in the article - comparison of the axysymmetric and 3D modelling, influence of the computational domain size, comparison of characteristics for two flow media, experimental model of the valve etc. The mentioned results are important for engineering simulations and also for design of the control valves for steam turbines of the large output.

  13. Human factors aspects of the major upgrade to the control systems at the LANL plutonium facility

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, J.C. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Pope, N. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The Plutonium Facility (TA-55) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has been in operation for almost 20 years. The Operations Center of TA-55 is the nerve center of the facility where operators are on duty around the clock and monitor several thousand data points using the Facility Control System (FCS). The FCS monitors, displays, alarms, and provides some limited control of several systems, including: HVAC, fire detection and suppression, radiation detection, and electrical. The FCS was failing and needed to be replaced expeditiously. This paper will discuss the human factors aspects of the design, installation, and testing of the new FCS within the above noted constraints. Particular items to be discussed include the functional requirements definition, operating experience review, screen designs, test program, operator training, and phased activation of the new circuits in an operational facility.

  14. Tunable, high aspect ratio pillars on diverse substrates using copolymer micelle lithography: an interesting platform for applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamoorthy, S.; Gerbig, Y.; Hibert, C.; Pugin, R.; Hinderling, C.; Brugger, J.; Heinzelmann, H.

    2008-07-01

    We demonstrate the use of copolymer micelle lithography using polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine) reverse micelle thin films in their as-coated form to create nanopillars with tunable dimensions and spacing, on different substrates such as silicon, silicon oxide, silicon nitride and quartz. The promise of the approach as a versatile application oriented platform is highlighted by demonstrating its utility for creating super-hydrophobic surfaces, fabrication of nanoporous polymeric membranes, and controlling the areal density of physical vapor deposition derived titanium nitride nanostructures.

  15. Tunable, high aspect ratio pillars on diverse substrates using copolymer micelle lithography: an interesting platform for applications.

    PubMed

    Krishnamoorthy, S; Gerbig, Y; Hibert, C; Pugin, R; Hinderling, C; Brugger, J; Heinzelmann, H

    2008-07-16

    We demonstrate the use of copolymer micelle lithography using polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine) reverse micelle thin films in their as-coated form to create nanopillars with tunable dimensions and spacing, on different substrates such as silicon, silicon oxide, silicon nitride and quartz. The promise of the approach as a versatile application oriented platform is highlighted by demonstrating its utility for creating super-hydrophobic surfaces, fabrication of nanoporous polymeric membranes, and controlling the areal density of physical vapor deposition derived titanium nitride nanostructures. PMID:21828729

  16. Psychological Aspects in Children and Adolescents With Major Thalassemia: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Behdani, Fatemeh; Badiee, Zahra; Hebrani, Paria; Moharreri, Fatemeh; Badiee, Amir Hossein; Hajivosugh, Negin; Rostami, Zohreh; Akhavanrezayat, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Background: Thalassemia is an inherited blood disease. It is a serious public health problem throughout the Mediterranean region, the Middle East and the Indian subcontinent, as well as in Southeast Asia. Objectives: Thalassemia is an inherited blood disease. It is a serious public health problem. In this study we assessed psychological aspects in Iranian children and adolescents with thalassemia major. Patients and Methods: In this case-control study sixty healthy subjects aged 7-18 years and Sixty Patients with confirmed diagnosis of major thalassemia were enrolled. After obtaining informed consent from parents of all participating thalassemia patients and healthycontrols, we assessed psychological aspects and quality of life by Pediatric Quality of LifeTM (PedsQL™), Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaires (SDQ), State and Trait Anxiety, Children's Depression Inventory (CDI). Results: The results of this study indicate that there are significant changes in depression, anxiety, QOL and behavioral screening between children with thalassemia major compared with healthy subjects by means of both parents and children reports. According to the results, children with thalassemia major have more psychological problems than healthy ones. Patients with thalassemia have a lower QOL than their peers (P = 0.001), the rate of depression is higher in this group (P = 0.015), Also behavioral problems in these children are more than healthy subjects (P = 0.009). Conclusions: We recommend appropriate treatment and counseling procedures in addition to specific treatment of thalassemia. According to the results we suggest to establish pediatric psychiatric clinics beside thalassemic clinics to cure psychological aspects of the disease. PMID:26199704

  17. Affected and unaffected quantitative aspects of grip force control in hemiparetic patients after stroke.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Påvel G; Roche, Nicolas; Robertson, Johanna; Roby-Brami, Agnès; Bussel, Bernard; Maier, Marc A

    2012-05-01

    Adequate grip force modulation is critical to manual dexterity and often impaired in hemiparetic stroke patients. Previous studies in hemiparetic patients suggest that aspects of grip force control may be differently affected by the lesion. We developed a visuomotor power grip force-tracking task allowing quantification of tracking error, force variability and release duration. We investigated force control in 24 chronic stroke patients with varying severity of hemiparesis and in healthy control subjects. Force tracking was performed at 10, 20, and 30% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Control subjects were also tested at absolute force levels similar to those of the patients. Patients tracking with their paretic hand at similar relative (%MVC) grip force levels showed increased error, force variability and release duration, but surprisingly, there was no difference in tracking error or variability between patients and control subjects performing at similar absolute force levels. Furthermore, patients improved their tracking performance across repeated blocks similar to control subjects. Release duration, however, was increased (also in the non-paretic hand), was force-independent and did not correlate with MVC strength. Of the three performance measures, only release duration explained some of the variance in arm and hand function (Frenchay Arm Test score), independent of MVC strength. The findings show (i) that hemiparetic stroke patients preserve the ability to modulate (generate and maintain) power grip force within their limited force range and (ii) that MVC grip strength and duration of grip release are differently affected and are two complementary predictors of arm function after stroke. PMID:22464180

  18. Evaluating controls on the aspect dependence of earthflows in the central California Coast Ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nereson, A. L.; Finnegan, N. J.; Booth, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    Earthflows are an important mass-wasting process in many mountainous landscapes. In addition to radically changing the fabric of the landscape and damaging man-made infrastructure, earthflows deliver, for their area, a disproportionately large sediment load to rivers. In California, earthflows are typically restricted to clay-rich and mechanically-weak lithologies, such as the Franciscan mélange. In addition, several studies have observed that earthflows in California favor south-facing slopes, even in settings with spatially-uniform lithology. This fundamental observation remains largely unexplained under the current understanding of earthflow behavior. Here, we evaluate the controls on the aspect dependence of earthflows in the Alameda Creek watershed near Fremont, California, where many large, but relatively inactive earthflows are observed in the Franciscan mélange. We first apply spectral analysis to LiDAR-derived digital elevation models to objectively map the topographic signature of landslides and determine the degree of aspect dependence. We then explore several hypotheses that can explain our observation that earthflows tend to form on south-facing slopes, including: (1) lack of dense vegetation and trees with slope-stabilizing root systems on south-facing slopes; (2) higher pore fluid pressures due to relatively lower rates of evapotranspiration on sparsely vegetated south-facing slopes; (3) increased dessication and/or deformation cracking on south-facing earthflow surfaces, creating fast-flow pathways into the interior of landslides.

  19. Diversity of Stability, Localization, Interaction and Control of Downstream Gene Activity in the Maize Aux/IAA Protein Family

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, Yvonne; Berendzen, Kenneth W.; Xu, Changzheng; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2014-01-01

    AUXIN/INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID (Aux/IAA) proteins are central regulators of auxin signal transduction. They control many aspects of plant development, share a conserved domain structure and are localized in the nucleus. In the present study, five maize Aux/IAA proteins (ZmIAA2, ZmIAA11, ZmIAA15, ZmIAA20 and ZmIAA33) representing the evolutionary, phylogenetic and expression diversity of this gene family were characterized. Subcellular localization studies revealed that ZmIAA2, ZmIAA11 and ZmIAA15 are confined to the nucleus while ZmIAA20 and ZmIAA33 are localized in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Introduction of specific point mutations in the degron sequence (VGWPPV) of domain II by substituting the first proline by serine or the second proline by leucine stabilized the Aux/IAA proteins. While protein half-life times between ?11 min (ZmIAA2) to ?120 min (ZmIAA15) were observed in wild-type proteins, the mutated forms of all five proteins were almost as stable as GFP control proteins. Moreover, all five maize Aux/IAA proteins repressed downstream gene expression in luciferase assays to different degrees. In addition, bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) analyses demonstrated interaction of all five Aux/IAA proteins with RUM1 (ROOTLESS WITH UNDETECTABLE MERISTEM 1, ZmIAA10) while only ZmIAA15 and ZmIAA33 interacted with the RUM1 paralog RUL1 (RUM-LIKE 1, ZmIAA29). Moreover, ZmIAA11, ZmIAA15 ZmIAA33 displayed homotypic interaction. Hence, despite their conserved domain structure, maize Aux/IAA proteins display a significant variability in their molecular characteristics which is likely associated with the wide spectrum of their developmental functions. PMID:25203637

  20. Environmental controls on dominance and diversity of woody plant species in a Madrean, Sky Island ecosystem, Arizona, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen M. Poulos; Alan H. Taylor; R. Matthew Beaty

    2007-01-01

    The Sky Island archipelagos of the Sierra Madre Occidental contain diverse, highly endemic, and topographically complex ecosystems,\\u000a yet the local and landscape-scale controls on woody plant dominance and diversity patterns are poorly understood. This study\\u000a examines variation in woody plant species composition in relation to a suite of environmental variables (i.e., elevation,\\u000a potential soil moisture, soil type, geologic substrate, and

  1. Adaptive AFM scan speed control for high aspect ratio fast structure tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, Ahmad; Schuh, Andreas; Rangelow, Ivo W. [Department of Microelectronic and Nanoelectronic Systems, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology Ilmenau University of Technology, Gustav-Kirchhoffstr. 1, 98684 Ilmenau (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Improved imaging rates in Atomic Force Microscopes (AFM) are of high interest for disciplines such as life sciences and failure analysis of semiconductor wafers, where the sample topology shows high aspect ratios. Also, fast imaging is necessary to cover a large surface under investigation in reasonable times. Since AFMs are composed of mechanical components, they are associated with comparably low resonance frequencies that undermine the effort to increase the acquisition rates. In particular, high and steep structures are difficult to follow, which causes the cantilever to temporarily loose contact to or crash into the sample. Here, we report on a novel approach that does not affect the scanner dynamics, but adapts the lateral scanning speed of the scanner. The controller monitors the control error signal and, only when necessary, decreases the scan speed to allow the z-piezo more time to react to changes in the sample's topography. In this case, the overall imaging rate can be significantly increased, because a general scan speed trade-off decision is not needed and smooth areas are scanned fast. In contrast to methods trying to increase the z-piezo bandwidth, our method is a comparably simple approach that can be easily adapted to standard systems.

  2. Cellulosic fibers with high aspect ratio from cornhusks via controlled swelling and alkaline penetration.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhuanzhuan; Pan, Gangwei; Xu, Helan; Huang, Yiling; Yang, Yiqi

    2015-06-25

    Cellulosic fibers with high aspect ratio have been firstly obtained from cornhusks via controlled swelling in organic solvent and simultaneous tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAOH) post treatment within restricted depth. Cornhusks, with around 42% cellulose content, are a copious and inexpensive source for natural fibers. However, cornhusk fibers at 20tex obtained via small-molecule alkaline extraction were too coarse for textile applications. Continuous NaOH treatment would result in fine fibers but with length of about 0.5-1.5mm, too short for textile use. In this research, post treatment using TMAOH and under controlled swelling significantly reduced fineness of cornhusk fibers from 21.3±2.88 to 5.72±0.21tex. Fiber length was reduced from 105.47±10.03 to47.2±27.4mm. The cornhusk fibers had more oriented microstructures and cellulose content increased to 84.47%. Besides, cornhusk fibers had similar tenacity, longer elongation, and lower modulus compared to cotton and linen, which endowed them with durability and flexibility. PMID:25839793

  3. Adaptive AFM scan speed control for high aspect ratio fast structure tracking.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Ahmad; Schuh, Andreas; Rangelow, Ivo W

    2014-10-01

    Improved imaging rates in Atomic Force Microscopes (AFM) are of high interest for disciplines such as life sciences and failure analysis of semiconductor wafers, where the sample topology shows high aspect ratios. Also, fast imaging is necessary to cover a large surface under investigation in reasonable times. Since AFMs are composed of mechanical components, they are associated with comparably low resonance frequencies that undermine the effort to increase the acquisition rates. In particular, high and steep structures are difficult to follow, which causes the cantilever to temporarily loose contact to or crash into the sample. Here, we report on a novel approach that does not affect the scanner dynamics, but adapts the lateral scanning speed of the scanner. The controller monitors the control error signal and, only when necessary, decreases the scan speed to allow the z-piezo more time to react to changes in the sample's topography. In this case, the overall imaging rate can be significantly increased, because a general scan speed trade-off decision is not needed and smooth areas are scanned fast. In contrast to methods trying to increase the z-piezo bandwidth, our method is a comparably simple approach that can be easily adapted to standard systems. PMID:25362402

  4. Using Opposing Slope Aspects to Understand Water and Energy Flow Controls on Critical Zone Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, S. P.; Barnhart, K. R.; Kelly, P. K.; Foster, M. A.; Langston, A. L.

    2014-12-01

    A long-standing problem is to understand how climate controls the structure of the critical zone, including the depth of weathering, thickness and character of soils, and morphology of hillslopes. We exploit microclimates on opposing aspects in a watershed in the Boulder Creek CZO to investigate the role of water and energy fluxes on development of critical zone architectures. The 2.6 km2 Gordon Gulch, located at ~2500 m a.s.l. at 40°N latitude, is elongated east-west, and consequently is predominantly composed of north and south-facing soil-mantled slopes, dotted with tors, developed on Precambrian gneiss. The depth to fresh rock ranges from about 8 to 12 m, and is up to 2 m deeper on north-facing slopes. In addition to greater thickness, weathered rock is measurably lower in tensile strength on north-facing slopes. While characteristics of weathered rock vary with aspect, the overlying mobile regolith is relatively uniform in thickness at ~0.5 m across the catchment, and its mineralogy shows only minor chemical alteration from parent rock. These features of the critical zone architecture arise in the face of systematic differences in energy and water delivery by aspect. About 40-50% of the ~500 mm annual precipitation is delivered as snow. During spring, the south-facing slopes receive up to 50% greater direct solar radiation than the north-facing slopes. Consequently, snow cover is ephemeral in the open Ponderosa forests on south-facing slopes, and soil wetting and drying events are frequent. Frost penetration is shallow, and short lived. On north-facing slopes, less direct radiation and a dense Lodgepole pine forest cover leads to snowpack retention. Soils are colder and soil moisture stays elevated for long periods in spring on these slopes. We postulate that deeper and more sustained frost penetration on north-facing slopes enhances the damage rate by frost cracking. Deeper water delivery further aids this process, and supports chemical alteration processes. The uniformity of mobile regolith depths suggests equal mobility on these slopes despite differing conditions.

  5. Mitigating land loss in coastal Louisiana by controlled diversion of Mississippi River sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nittrouer, Jeffrey A.; Best, James L.; Brantley, Christopher; Cash, Ronald W.; Czapiga, Matthew; Kumar, Praveen; Parker, Gary

    2012-08-01

    After the 1927 flood of record on the Mississippi River, the Bonnet Carré Spillway in Louisiana was constructed as a flood control operation. When it is opened, the spillway diverts floodwaters from the Mississippi River to Lake Pontchartrain, to reduce the water discharge flowing past New Orleans. During the 2011 Mississippi River flood, which had the highest peak discharge since 1927, the Bonnet Carré Spillway was opened for 42 days, from 9May to 20 June. During this period, the average spillway discharge of 6,010m3s-1 amounted to 10-20% of the total river flood discharge. Here we present measurements of the areal extent and thickness of new sediments in the floodway, following the 2011 Mississippi flood. Only the upper 10-15% of the river water column was skimmed into the floodway. Yet, we conservatively estimate that 31-46% of the total sand load carried by the Mississippi River during the period of spillway opening was diverted. We find that local river conditions led to increased concentrations of suspended sand in the upper water column and thus led to diversion of sand from the river into the spillway. We conclude that an appropriate design of engineered river diversions in Louisiana can help mitigate coastal wetland loss.

  6. Genetic diversity of norovirus in hospitalised diarrhoeic children and asymptomatic controls in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Moyo, Sabrina; Hanevik, Kurt; Blomberg, Bjørn; Kommedal, Oyvind; Vainio, Kirsti; Maselle, Samuel; Langeland, Nina

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated and reports norovirus diarrhoea, genetic diversity and associated clinical symptoms, HIV status and seasonality in a paediatric population of Tanzania. Stool specimens and demographic/clinical information, were prospectively collected from 705 hospitalised children with diarrhoea (cases) and 561 children without diarrhoea (controls) between 2010 and 2011. Norovirus detection was done by real-time RT-PCR. Genotype was determined using Gel-based and real time RT-PCR methods and sequencing targeting the polymerase and the capsid region respectively. Norovirus was detected in 14.3%, 181/1266 children. The prevalence of norovirus was significantly higher in cases (18.3%, 129/705) than in controls, (9.2%, 52/561), P<0.05. Except for one child who had double infection with GI and GII all 129 cases had GII. Among controls, 23.1% had GI and 76.9% had GII. Norovirus GII.4 was significantly more prevalent in cases 87.9% than in controls 56.5%. Other genotypes detected in both cases and controls were GII.21, GII.16 and GII.g. The highest numbers of norovirus were detected in April 2011. The number of norovirus detected was significantly higher during the first than second year of life (109/540, 20.2% vs. 20/165, 12.1%). The prevalence of norovirus in HIV-positive and negative children was (21.2%, 7/33) and (10.3%, 40/390, P=0.05) respectively, regardless of diarrhoea symptoms. No significant difference in gender, parent's level of education or nutritional status with norovirus infection was observed within cases or controls. This study confirms the significant role of norovirus infection, especially GII.4 in diarrhoeic children who need hospitalisation and adds knowledge on norovirus epidemiology in the African region. PMID:24960396

  7. Mineralogical Controls on Microbial Diversity in a Sulfuric Acid Karst System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. A.; Bennett, P.

    2011-12-01

    The role mineralogy plays on microbial community distribution, composition, niche differentiation, and accumulation is a complex and nebulous association. Microbial phylogenetic diversity and bacterial composition of communities obtained from Lower Kane Cave (LKC), WY, USA, were studied using next generation bacterial 16S rRNA sequencing techniques. The microbial consortium found within LKC was found to be primarily composed of neutrophilic sulfur-oxidizing members of the gamma- and epsilon-proteobacteria . The microbial population within LKC has been instigated in previous studies to have a significant role in the processes of sulfuric acid speleogenesis. Using a LKC biomat as the inoculant in a series of 3 nutrient limited laboratory reactor experiments, and a pure culture of Thiothrix unzii (ATCC type strain 49747) in a parallel experiment, we found that both limestone and dolostone substratum consistently had higher biomass accumulation than silicate minerals in the same reactor. At the Class level, the carbonate substratum (Calcite, Limestone, and Dolostone) had ~84% - 88.7% of phylotypes in common. Aside from Basalt (Simpson's Index, D of 0.53), the carbonate substratum produced the least diverse phylotype distributions. Feldspar and quartz were colonized by the most diverse communities with Simpson's Index values of 0.16 and 0.31. Evaluation of metabolic guild distribution shows that potential neutrophilic sulfur-oxidizers have an affinity for acid neutralizing carbonate substrata over silicate substrata. These potential sulfur-oxidizing guilds compose ~28%-38% of the total microbial community. For feldspar and chert substratum, potential sulfur-oxidizing metabolic guilds composed merely ~5% of the total microbial community. The quartz substratum, in contrast, was uniquely populated by potential acidophilic sulfur-oxidizers Acidithiobacillus and Acidithiomicrobium; composing ~19% of the total community. A quartz substratum may offer these acidophiles a competitive advantage over other microbial communities that do not tolerate an acidic habitat, while optimizing the local microenvironment to better facilitate their metabolic pathway. The basalt substratum community was ~67% Thiothrix spp., a sulfur-oxidizing genus commonly associated with Deep-sea hydrothermal vents. This dominance of Thiothrix spp. on basalt may be due to an advantageous ability to extract, and take advantage of, mineral bound nutrients (P, Fe) in basalt. These results provide substantial evidence to support the hypothesis that mineralogy influences microbial distribution, composition, niche differentiation, and accumulation in a nutrient limited system. Specific microbial populations which have evolved to take advantage of specific mineral substrata and exert highly localized control of biogeochemical conditions. Mineralogy, therefore, plays an active part in the development of subsurface microbial ecology and diversity by exerting selective pressures on the subsurface microbial environment.

  8. Anaplasma marginale major surface protein 1a: A marker of strain diversity with implications for control of bovine anaplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; de la Fuente, José

    2015-04-01

    Classification of bacteria is challenging due to the lack of a theory-based framework. In addition, the adaptation of bacteria to ecological niches often results in selection of strains with diverse virulence, pathogenicity and transmission characteristics. Bacterial strain diversity presents challenges for taxonomic classification, which in turn impacts the ability to develop accurate diagnostics and effective vaccines. Over the past decade, the worldwide diversity of Anaplasma marginale, an economically important tick-borne pathogen of cattle, has become apparent. The extent of A. marginale strain diversity, formerly underappreciated, has contributed to the challenges of classification which, in turn, likely impacts the design and development of improved vaccines. Notably, the A. marginale surface protein 1a (MSP1a) is a model molecule for these studies because it serves as a marker for strain identity, is both an adhesin necessary for infection of cells and an immuno-reactive protein and is also an indicator of the evolution of strain diversity. Herein, we discuss a molecular taxonomic approach for classification of A. marginale strain diversity. Taxonomic analysis of this important molecule provides the opportunity to understand A. marginale strain diversity as it relates geographic and ecological factors and to the development of effective vaccines for control of bovine anaplasmosis worldwide. PMID:25802034

  9. Targeting CTCF to Control Virus Gene Expression: A Common Theme amongst Diverse DNA Viruses.

    PubMed

    Pentland, Ieisha; Parish, Joanna L

    2015-01-01

    All viruses target host cell factors for successful life cycle completion. Transcriptional control of DNA viruses by host cell factors is important in the temporal and spatial regulation of virus gene expression. Many of these factors are recruited to enhance virus gene expression and thereby increase virus production, but host cell factors can also restrict virus gene expression and productivity of infection. CCCTC binding factor (CTCF) is a host cell DNA binding protein important for the regulation of genomic chromatin boundaries, transcriptional control and enhancer element usage. CTCF also functions in RNA polymerase II regulation and in doing so can influence co-transcriptional splicing events. Several DNA viruses, including Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human papillomavirus (HPV) utilize CTCF to control virus gene expression and many studies have highlighted a role for CTCF in the persistence of these diverse oncogenic viruses. CTCF can both enhance and repress virus gene expression and in some cases CTCF increases the complexity of alternatively spliced transcripts. This review article will discuss the function of CTCF in the life cycle of DNA viruses in the context of known host cell CTCF functions. PMID:26154016

  10. [Discussion on the key aspects of risk control and problems of quality management systems for allogeneic bone products].

    PubMed

    Tian, Shaolei

    2012-09-01

    From the view of the potential risks of allogeneic bone products in clinical use. the key aspects of risk control and quality management for these products are discussed, as well as the general problems existing in the quality management system of their production enterprises in China are briefly introduced. PMID:23289344

  11. Microbial Diversity in Sediments of Saline Qinghia Lake, China:Linking Geochemical Controls to Microbial Ecoloby

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Hailiang; Zhang, Gengxin; Jiang, Hongchen; Yu, Bingsong; Chapman, Leah R.; Lucas, Courtney R.; Fields, Matthew W.

    2007-03-30

    Saline lakes at high altitudes represent an important andextreme microbial ecosystem, yet little is known about microbialdiversity in such environments. The objective of this study was toexamine the change of microbial diversity from the bottom of the lake tosediments of 40 cm in depth in a core from Qinghai Lake. The lake issaline (12.5 g/L salinity) and alkaline (pH 9.4) and is located on theQinghai-Tibetan Plateau at an altitude of 3196 m above sea level. Porewater chemistry of the core revealed low concentrations of sulfate andiron (<1 mM), but high concentrations of acetate (40-70 mM) anddissolved organic carbon (1596-5443 mg/L). Total organic carbon and totalnitrogen contents in the sediments were approximately 2 and<0.5percent, respectively. Acridine orange direct count data indicated thatcell numbers decreased from 4 x 10(9) cells/g at the water-sedimentinterface to 6 x 10(7) cells/g wet sediment at the 40-cm depth. Thischange in biomass was positively correlated with acetate concentration inpore water. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) community structure analysesdetermined decrease in the proportion of the Proteobacteria and increasein the Firmicutes with increased depth. Characterization of small subunit(SSU) rRNA genes amplified from the sediments indicated a shift in thebacterial community with depth. Whereas the alpha-, beta-, andgamma-Proteobacteria and the Cytophaga/Flavobacterium/Bacteroides (CFB)were dominant at the water-sediment interface, low G + C gram-positivebacteria (a subgroup of Firmicutes) became the predominant group in theanoxic sediments. Both PLFA and the sequence data showed similar trend.The Proteobacteria, CFB, and gram-positive bacteria are present in othersaline lakes, but the presence of Actinobacteria andAcidobacteria/Holophaga in significant proportions in the Qinghai Lakesediments appears to be unique. The archaeal diversity was much lower,and clone sequences could be grouped in the Euryarchaeota andCrenarchaeota domains. The archaeal clones were not related to any knowncultures but to sequences previously found in methane-rich sediments.Acetate-utilizing methanogens were isolated from sediment incubations,and alpha- and gamma-proteobacterial isolates were obtained from a watersample from the lake-bottom (23 m). Our data collectively showed that theobserved diversity and shift in the community structure with depth wascorrelated with geochemical parameters (the redox state and availabilityof electron acceptor and donor). Heterotrophic methanogenesis is possiblyadominant metabolic process in the Qinghai Lake sediments. These resultsreinforce the importance of geochemical controls on microbial ecology insaline and alkaline lake environments.

  12. Genome-Wide Association Studies of HIV-1 Host Control in Ethnically Diverse Chinese Populations.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zejun; Liu, Yang; Xu, Heng; Tang, Kun; Wu, Hao; Lu, Lin; Wang, Zhe; Chen, Zhengjie; Xu, Junjie; Zhu, Yufei; Hu, Landian; Shang, Hong; Zhao, Guoping; Kong, Xiangyin

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have revealed several genetic loci associated with HIV-1 outcome following infection (e.g., HLA-C at 6p21.33) in multi-ethnic populations with genetic heterogeneity and racial/ethnic differences among Caucasians, African-Americans, and Hispanics. To systematically investigate the inherited predisposition to modulate HIV-1 infection in Chinese populations, we performed GWASs in three ethnically diverse HIV-infected patients groups (i.e., HAN, YUN, and XIN, N?=?538). The reported loci at 6p21.33 was validated in HAN (e.g., rs9264942, P?=?0.0018). An independent association signal (rs2442719, P?=?7.85?×?10(-7), HAN group) in the same region was observed. Imputation results suggest that haplotype HLA-B*13:02/C*06:02, which can partially account for the GWAS signal, is associated with lower viral load in Han Chinese. Moreover, several novel loci were identified using GWAS approach including the top association signals at 6q13 (KCNQ5, rs947612, P?=?2.15?×?10(-6)), 6p24.1 (PHACTR1, rs202072, P?=?3.8?×?10(-6)), and 11q12.3 (SCGB1D4, rs11231017, P?=?7.39?×?10(-7)) in HAN, YUN, and XIN groups, respectively. Our findings imply shared or specific mechanisms for host control of HIV-1 in ethnically diverse Chinese populations, which may shed new light on individualized HIV/AIDS therapy in China. PMID:26039976

  13. Genome-Wide Association Studies of HIV-1 Host Control in Ethnically Diverse Chinese Populations

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Zejun; Liu, Yang; Xu, Heng; Tang, Kun; Wu, Hao; Lu, Lin; Wang, Zhe; Chen, Zhengjie; Xu, Junjie; Zhu, Yufei; Hu, Landian; Shang, Hong; Zhao, Guoping; Kong, Xiangyin

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have revealed several genetic loci associated with HIV-1 outcome following infection (e.g., HLA-C at 6p21.33) in multi-ethnic populations with genetic heterogeneity and racial/ethnic differences among Caucasians, African-Americans, and Hispanics. To systematically investigate the inherited predisposition to modulate HIV-1 infection in Chinese populations, we performed GWASs in three ethnically diverse HIV-infected patients groups (i.e., HAN, YUN, and XIN, N?=?538). The reported loci at 6p21.33 was validated in HAN (e.g., rs9264942, P?=?0.0018). An independent association signal (rs2442719, P?=?7.85?×?10?7, HAN group) in the same region was observed. Imputation results suggest that haplotype HLA-B*13:02/C*06:02, which can partially account for the GWAS signal, is associated with lower viral load in Han Chinese. Moreover, several novel loci were identified using GWAS approach including the top association signals at 6q13 (KCNQ5, rs947612, P?=?2.15?×?10?6), 6p24.1 (PHACTR1, rs202072, P?=?3.8?×?10?6), and 11q12.3 (SCGB1D4, rs11231017, P?=?7.39?×?10?7) in HAN, YUN, and XIN groups, respectively. Our findings imply shared or specific mechanisms for host control of HIV-1 in ethnically diverse Chinese populations, which may shed new light on individualized HIV/AIDS therapy in China. PMID:26039976

  14. Bacterial community structure of acid-impacted lakes: what controls diversity?

    PubMed

    Percent, Sascha F; Frischer, Marc E; Vescio, Paul A; Duffy, Ellen B; Milano, Vincenzo; McLellan, Maggie; Stevens, Brett M; Boylen, Charles W; Nierzwicki-Bauer, Sandra A

    2008-03-01

    Although it is recognized that acidification of freshwater systems results in decreased overall species richness of plants and animals, little is known about the response of aquatic microbial communities to acidification. In this study we examined bacterioplankton community diversity and structure in 18 lakes located in the Adirondack Park (in the state of New York in the United States) that were affected to various degrees by acidic deposition and assessed correlations with 31 physical and chemical parameters. The pH of these lakes ranged from 4.9 to 7.8. These studies were conducted as a component of the Adirondack Effects Assessment Program supported by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Thirty-one independent 16S rRNA gene libraries consisting of 2,135 clones were constructed from epilimnion and hypolimnion water samples. Bacterioplankton community composition was determined by sequencing and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis of the clone libraries. Nineteen bacterial classes representing 95 subclasses were observed, but clone libraries were dominated by representatives of the Actinobacteria and Betaproteobacteria classes. Although the diversity and richness of bacterioplankton communities were positively correlated with pH, the overall community composition assessed by principal component analysis was not. The strongest correlations were observed between bacterioplankton communities and lake depth, hydraulic retention time, dissolved inorganic carbon, and nonlabile monomeric aluminum concentrations. While there was not an overall correlation between bacterioplankton community structure and pH, several bacterial classes, including the Alphaproteobacteria, were directly correlated with acidity. These results indicate that unlike more identifiable correlations between acidity and species richness for higher trophic levels, controls on bacterioplankton community structure are likely more complex, involving both direct and indirect processes. PMID:18245245

  15. Deep Reactive Ion Etch (DRIE) Control for High-Aspect Ratio Silicon Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shul, Randy

    2003-10-01

    Deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) of Si, also referred to as the Bosch process, has opened new areas of application in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and mixed technology integration. A fully integrated microsystem could include biological or chemical sensors, mechanical gears and actuators, control electronics, micro-fluidics, and optics in a variety of material systems on a single chip or in a single package. As the device designs become more complicated or monolithic integration becomes necessary, the requirements for DRIE of Si become more difficult. For example, anisotropic etch profiles, smooth etch morphology, high etch selectivity to form freestanding membrane structures, and the fabrication of multi-level etched features becomes critical to device performance. The DRIE process relies on the formation of a sidewall etch inhibitor to prevent lateral etching of the Si thus resulting in highly anisotropic etch profiles at reasonably high etch rates. In this presentation we will report on the use of the DRIE platform to fabricate deep, high-aspect ratio Si features 100 microns wide, 400 microns deep with 25 microns walls. Optimization of the DRIE process by varying process parameters including reactive gas flow, pressure, and ion energy will be discussed. The use of parameter ramping as well as multi-level masking processes to meet the challenges of advanced micro-sensor designs will also be discussed. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  16. Diversity, functional similarity, and top-down control drive synchronization and the reliability of ecosystem function.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Barbara; Vos, Matthijs; Klauschies, Toni; Gaedke, Ursula

    2014-03-01

    The concept that diversity promotes reliability of ecosystem function depends on the pattern that community-level biomass shows lower temporal variability than species-level biomasses. However, this pattern is not universal, as it relies on compensatory or independent species dynamics. When in contrast within-trophic level synchronization occurs, variability of community biomass will approach population-level variability. Current knowledge fails to integrate how species richness, functional distance between species, and the relative importance of predation and competition combine to drive synchronization at different trophic levels. Here we clarify these mechanisms. Intense competition promotes compensatory dynamics in prey, but predators may at the same time increasingly synchronize, under increasing species richness and functional similarity. In contrast, predators and prey both show perfect synchronization under strong top-down control, which is promoted by a combination of low functional distance and high net growth potential of predators. Under such conditions, community-level biomass variability peaks, with major negative consequences for reliability of ecosystem function. PMID:24561602

  17. Transcription Control Pathways Decode Patterned Synaptic Inputs into Diverse mRNA Expression Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Pragati; Bhalla, Upinder S.

    2014-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity requires transcription and translation to establish long-term changes that form the basis for long term memory. Diverse stimuli, such as synaptic activity and growth factors, trigger synthesis of mRNA to regulate changes at the synapse. The palette of possible mRNAs is vast, and a key question is how the cell selects which mRNAs to synthesize. To address this molecular decision-making, we have developed a biochemically detailed model of synaptic-activity triggered mRNA synthesis. We find that there are distinct time-courses and amplitudes of different branches of the mRNA regulatory signaling pathways, which carry out pattern-selective combinatorial decoding of stimulus patterns into distinct mRNA subtypes. Distinct, simultaneously arriving input patterns that impinge on the transcriptional control network interact nonlinearly to generate novel mRNA combinations. Our model combines major regulatory pathways and their interactions connecting synaptic input to mRNA synthesis. We parameterized and validated the model by incorporating data from multiple published experiments. The model replicates outcomes of knockout experiments. We suggest that the pattern-selectivity mechanisms analyzed in this model may act in many cell types to confer the capability to decode temporal patterns into combinatorial mRNA expression. PMID:24787753

  18. Landscape-level controls on dissolved carbon flux from diverse catchments of the circumboreal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tank, Suzanne E.; Frey, Karen E.; Striegl, Robert G.; Raymond, Peter A.; Holmes, Robert M.; McClelland, James W.; Peterson, Bruce J.

    2012-09-01

    While much of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) within rivers is destined for mineralization to CO2, a substantial fraction of riverine bicarbonate (HCO3-) flux represents a CO2 sink, as a result of weathering processes that sequester CO2 as HCO3-. We explored landscape-level controls on DOC and HCO3- flux in subcatchments of the boreal, with a specific focus on the effect of permafrost on riverine dissolved C flux. To do this, we undertook a multivariate analysis that partitioned the variance attributable to known, key regulators of dissolved C flux (runoff, lithology, and vegetation) prior to examining the effect of permafrost, using riverine biogeochemistry data from a suite of subcatchments drawn from the Mackenzie, Yukon, East, and West Siberian regions of the circumboreal. Across the diverse catchments that we study, controls on HCO3-flux were near-universal: runoff and an increased carbonate rock contribution to weathering (assessed as riverwater Ca:Na) increased HCO3- yields, while increasing permafrost extent was associated with decreases in HCO3-. In contrast, permafrost had contrasting and region-specific effects on DOC yield, even after the variation caused by other key drivers of its flux had been accounted for. We used ionic ratios and SO4 yields to calculate the potential range of CO2sequestered via weathering across these boreal subcatchments, and show that decreasing permafrost extent is associated with increases in weathering-mediated CO2 fixation across broad spatial scales, an effect that could counterbalance some of the organic C mineralization that is predicted with declining permafrost.

  19. Landscape-level controls on dissolved carbon flux from diverse catchments of the circumboreal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tank, Suzanne; Frey, Karen E.; Striegl, Robert G.; Raymond, Peter A.; Holmes, R. Max; McClelland, James W.; Peterson, Bruce J.

    2012-01-01

    While much of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) within rivers is destined for mineralization to CO2, a substantial fraction of riverine bicarbonate (HCO3-) flux represents a CO2 sink, as a result of weathering processes that sequester CO2 as HCO3-. We explored landscape-level controls on DOC and HCO3- flux in subcatchments of the boreal, with a specific focus on the effect of permafrost on riverine dissolved C flux. To do this, we undertook a multivariate analysis that partitioned the variance attributable to known, key regulators of dissolved C flux (runoff, lithology, and vegetation) prior to examining the effect of permafrost, using riverine biogeochemistry data from a suite of subcatchments drawn from the Mackenzie, Yukon, East, and West Siberian regions of the circumboreal. Across the diverse catchments that we study, controls on HCO3- flux were near-universal: runoff and an increased carbonate rock contribution to weathering (assessed as riverwater Ca:Na) increased HCO3- yields, while increasing permafrost extent was associated with decreases in HCO3-. In contrast, permafrost had contrasting and region-specific effects on DOC yield, even after the variation caused by other key drivers of its flux had been accounted for. We used ionic ratios and SO4 yields to calculate the potential range of CO2 sequestered via weathering across these boreal subcatchments, and show that decreasing permafrost extent is associated with increases in weathering-mediated CO2 fixation across broad spatial scales, an effect that could counterbalance some of the organic C mineralization that is predicted with declining permafrost.

  20. Mobile radio slotted ALOHA with capture, diversity and retransmission control in the presence of shadowing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michele Zorzi

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, the capture performance of a random access scheme in the presence of Rayleigh fading, shadowing and diversity is studied. The conditional throughput Cn, i.e., the average number of packets which are correctly received per slot, given the number of colliding packets, n, is computed, as well as its limit as n?8. Some different diversity schemes are compared.

  1. Frequency diversity in multistatic radars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Byung Wook Jung; R aviraj S. Adve; Joohwan Chun

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the model and analysis of a frequency-diverse radar system. Multistatic radar systems provide an inherent spatial diversity by processing signals from different platforms which view a potential target from different aspect angles. By using different frequencies at each platform, an additional diversity gain can be obtained on top of the advantages of spatial diversity. Here, since platforms

  2. Control aspects of the Schuchuli Village stand-alone photovoltaic power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groumpos, P. P.; Culler, J. E.; Delombard, R.

    1984-01-01

    A photovoltaic power system in an Arizona Indian village was installed. The control subsystem of this photovoltaic power system was analyzed. The four major functions of the control subsystem are: (1) voltage regulation; (2) load management; (3) water pump control; and (4) system protection. The control subsystem functions flowcharts for the control subsystem operation, and a computer program that models the control subsystem are presented.

  3. Electrical Engineering is a diverse discipline encompassing computer and information systems, controls, lasers,

    E-print Network

    Rohs, Remo

    70 ELECTRICAL Electrical Engineering is a diverse discipline encompassing computer and information environmental engineering and manufacturing to semiconductors and telecommunications. The Electrical Engineering Technology and the Signal and Image Processing institute. PROGRAMS AVAILABLE · Electrical Engineering

  4. Mitochondrial DNA diversity of Cleruchoides noackae (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae): a potential biological control

    E-print Network

    Mitochondrial DNA diversity of Cleruchoides noackae (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae): a potential (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) was recently discovered as an egg parasitoid of the Thaumastocoridae in Australia parasitoid Á Hemiptera Á Hymenoptera Á Laboratory rearing Á Mymaridae Á Thaumastocoridae Introduction

  5. Microbial Diversity in Sediments of Saline Qinghai Lake, China: Linking Geochemical Controls to Microbial Ecology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hailiang Dong; Gengxin Zhang; Hongchen Jiang; Bingsong Yu; Leah R. Chapman; Courtney R. Lucas; Matthew W. Fields

    2006-01-01

    Saline lakes at high altitudes represent an important and extreme microbial ecosystem, yet little is known about microbial\\u000a diversity in such environments. The objective of this study was to examine the change of microbial diversity from the bottom\\u000a of the lake to sediments of 40 cm in depth in a core from Qinghai Lake. The lake is saline (12.5 g\\/L salinity) and

  6. Proceedings of the Workshop on Computational Aspects in the Control of Flexible Systems, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Lawrence W., Jr. (compiler)

    1989-01-01

    Control/Structures Integration program software needs, computer aided control engineering for flexible spacecraft, computer aided design, computational efficiency and capability, modeling and parameter estimation, and control synthesis and optimization software for flexible structures and robots are among the topics discussed.

  7. Assessing genetic diversity of wild and hatchery samples of the Chinese sucker (Myxocyprinus asiaticus) by the mitochondrial DNA control region.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiayun; Wu, Bo; Hou, Feixia; Chen, Yongbai; Li, Chong; Song, Zhaobin

    2014-09-22

    Abstract To restore the natural populations of Chinese sucker (Myxocyprinus asiaticus), a hatchery release program has been underway for nearly 10 years. Using DNA sequences of the mitochondrial control region, we assessed the genetic diversity and genetic structure among samples collected from three sites of the wild population as well as from three hatcheries. The haplotype diversity of the wild samples (h?=?0.899-0.975) was significantly higher than that of the hatchery ones (h?=?0.296-0.666), but the nucleotide diversity was almost identical between them (??=?0.0170-0.0280). Relatively high gene flow was detected between the hatchery and wild samples. Analysis of effective population size indicated that M. asiaticus living in the Yangtze River has been expanding following a bottleneck in the recent past. Our results suggest the hatchery release programs for M. asiaticus have not reduced the genetic diversity, but have influenced the genetic structure of the species in the upper Yangtze River. PMID:25242190

  8. Materials for Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms: Molecular Pharmaceutics and Controlled Release Drug Delivery Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Mansour, Heidi M.; Sohn, MinJi; Al-Ghananeem, Abeer; DeLuca, Patrick P.

    2010-01-01

    Controlled release delivery is available for many routes of administration and offers many advantages (as microparticles and nanoparticles) over immediate release delivery. These advantages include reduced dosing frequency, better therapeutic control, fewer side effects, and, consequently, these dosage forms are well accepted by patients. Advances in polymer material science, particle engineering design, manufacture, and nanotechnology have led the way to the introduction of several marketed controlled release products and several more are in pre-clinical and clinical development. PMID:20957095

  9. Nanometer scale high-aspect-ratio trench etching at controllable angles using ballistic reactive ion etching

    SciTech Connect

    Cybart, Shane; Roediger, Peter; Ulin-Avila, Erick; Wu, Stephen; Wong, Travis; Dynes, Robert

    2012-11-30

    We demonstrate a low pressure reactive ion etching process capable of patterning nanometer scale angled sidewalls and three dimensional structures in photoresist. At low pressure the plasma has a large dark space region where the etchant ions have very large highly-directional mean free paths. Mounting the sample entirely within this dark space allows for etching at angles relative to the cathode with minimal undercutting, resulting in high-aspect ratio nanometer scale angled features. By reversing the initial angle and performing a second etch we create three-dimensional mask profiles.

  10. Diversity”; and organizational communication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brenda J. Allen

    1995-01-01

    Although popular organizational literature abounds with discussions of workplace diversity, few studies of organizational communication address this topic. This essay entreats scholars to conduct research on race?ethnicity—one of the most salient aspects of diversity—and its role in organizational communication processes. The author offers a rationale for her position, reviews related literature, and provides recommendations for future investigations.

  11. Bacterial Community Structure of Acid-Impacted Lakes: What Controls Diversity?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sascha F. Percent; Marc E. Frischer; Paul A. Vescio; Ellen B. Duffy; Vincenzo Milano; Maggie McLellan; Brett M. Stevens; Charles W. Boylen; Sandra A. Nierzwicki-Bauer

    2008-01-01

    Although it is recognized that acidification of freshwater systems results in decreased overall species richness of plants and animals, little is known about the response of aquatic microbial communities to acidification. In this study we examined bacterioplankton community diversity and structure in 18 lakes located in the Adirondack Park (in the state of New York in the United States) that

  12. Chemical Control of Fish and Fish Eggs in the Garrison Diversion Unit, North Dakota

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. L. Marking; T. D. Bills; J. J. Rach; S. J. Grabowski

    1983-01-01

    The Garrison Diversion Unit involves the proposed transfer of Missouri River water to a large part of eastern North Dakota for agricultural and industrial uses. Some of the water would flow into Canada through the Red River of the North. Canadian officials are concerned that some nonindigenous species might be introduced to their waters; namely, gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum), rainbow

  13. Human factors aspects of the major upgrade to the control systems at the LANL Plutonium Facility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Higgins; N. Pope

    1997-01-01

    The Plutonium Facility (TA-55) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has been in operation for almost 20 years. The Operations Center of TA-55 is the nerve center of the facility where operators are on duty around the clock and monitor several thousand data points using the Facility Control System (FCS). The FCS monitors, displays, alarms, and provides some limited control

  14. An underlying cognitive aspect of design creativity: Limited Commitment Mode control strategy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. Kim; Y. S. Kim; H. S. Lee; J. A. Park

    2007-01-01

    Design creativity can be enhanced by identifying the underlying cognitive capabilities used by expert designers and training novice designers for those capabilities specifically. It has been identified by Goel that designers use the Limited Commitment Mode (LCM) control strategy in design problem solving. In this work, we conducted a study to confirm that LCM control strategy is used in solving

  15. DESIGN, FABRICATION, AND CONTROL OF A HIGH-ASPECT RATIO MICROACTUATOR FOR

    E-print Network

    Horowitz, Roberto

    IN A HARD DISK DRIVE Kenn Oldham Xinghui Huang Alain Chahwan Roberto Horowitz ,1 Computer Mechanics a MEMS microactuator for installation in a dual-stage servo system for a hard disk drive and controller. The microactuator is installed in a hard disk drive and will be used to evaluate controllers designed to suppress

  16. Oceanographers study all aspects of the marine environment and how it interacts with and influences planet Earth. We do this in diverse environments from coastal mangroves in

    E-print Network

    Kurapov, Alexander

    Oceanographers study all aspects of the marine environment and how it interacts with and influences you to completion of a B.S. degree in Ocean Science. The world is truly your oyster, if you · Graduate studies in many areas of natural or physical science Earth Sciences with Ocean Science Option #12

  17. Improvement in the control aspect of laser frequency stabilization for SUNLITE project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zia, Omar

    1992-01-01

    Flight Electronics Division of Langley Research Center is developing a spaceflight experiment called the Stanford University and NASA Laser In-Space Technology (SUNLITE). The objective of the project is to explore the fundamental limits on frequency stability using an FM laser locking technique on a Nd:YAG non-planar ring (free-running linewidth of 5 KHz) oscillator in the vibration free, microgravity environment of space. Compact and automated actively stabilized terahertz laser oscillators will operate in space with an expected linewidth of less than 3 Hz. To implement and verify this experiment, NASA engineers have designed and built a state of the art, space qualified high speed data acquisition system for measuring the linewidth and stability limits of a laser oscillator. In order to achieve greater stability and better performance, an active frequency control scheme requiring the use of a feedback control loop has been applied. In the summer of 1991, the application of control theory in active frequency control as a frequency stabilization technique was investigated. The results and findings were presented in 1992 at the American Control Conference in Chicago, and have been published in Conference Proceedings. The main focus was to seek further improvement in the overall performance of the system by replacing the analogue controller by a digital algorithm.

  18. Using Multiple Levels of Learning and Diverse Evidence Sources to Uncover Coordinately Controlled Genes

    E-print Network

    Craven, Mark

    . coli genome. A number of factors make this an interesting applica- tion for machine learning: (i and interactions of genes in the heavily studied organism E. coli. A key aspect of our approach is to learn, WI 53706 USA Jeremy Glasner jeremy@genome.wisc.edu Department of Genetics, University of Wisconsin

  19. Temporal patterns of diversity: Assessing the biotic and abiotic controls on ant assemblages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunn, R.R.; Parker, C.R.; Sanders, N.J.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we use 12 months of data from 11 ant assemblages to test whether seasonal variation in ant diversity is governed by either the structuring influences of interspecific competition or environmental conditions. Because the importance of competition might vary along environmental gradients, we also test whether the signature of competition depends on elevation. We find little evidence that competition structures the seasonal patterns of activity in the ant assemblages considered, but find support for the effects of temperature on seasonal patterns of diversity, especially at low-elevation sites. Although, in general, both competition and the environment interact to structure ant assemblages, our results suggest that environmental conditions are the primary force structuring the seasonal activity of the ant assemblages studied here. ?? 2007 The Linnean Society of London.

  20. Diversity of agromyzidae and associated hymenopteran parasitoid species in the afrotropical region: implications for biological control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Musundire; Adenirin Chabi-Olaye; Bernhard Löhr; Kerstin Krüger

    2011-01-01

    Agromyzidae (Diptera) is a family with many species of economic importance on agricultural plants. However, many species are\\u000a attacked by hymenopteran parasitoids which are known to be habitat rather than species specific. In the Afrotropical region,\\u000a information about agromyzid and parasitoid diversity in different habitats is scattered in literature. Our aim was to assemble\\u000a this dispersed information and discuss future

  1. Soil, biomass, and management of semi-natural vegetation – Part II. Factors controlling species diversity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    André P. Schaffers

    2002-01-01

    Using a wide range of conditions and plant community types, species diversity was investigated in relation to edaphic and non-edaphic site conditions, management, and biomass characteristics. Both standing biomass and aboveground production were investigated, and their effects compared. Three taxonomic assemblages were studied: (1) vascular plants only, (2) bryophytes also included, (3) terrestrial lichens included as well. Using a multivariate approach, both species

  2. Resident-Invader Phylogenetic Relatedness, Not Resident Phylogenetic Diversity, Controls Community Invasibility.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jiaqi; Pu, Zhichao; Ryberg, Wade A; Jiang, Lin

    2015-07-01

    A central goal of invasion biology is to elucidate mechanisms regulating community invasibility. Darwin's naturalization hypothesis, one of the oldest hypotheses in invasion biology, emphasizes the importance of phylogenetic relatedness (PR) between resident and invader species for predicting invasibility. Alternatively, a recent extension of the diversity-invasibility hypothesis predicts that phylogenetic diversity (PD) of resident communities influences invasibility. Neither of these hypotheses has undergone rigorous experimental testing, and the relative contributions of PR and PD to community invasibility are unknown, in part because their effects tend to be confounded with each other. Here we consider both perspectives together by independently manipulating PR and PD in laboratory bacterial assemblages. We found that, although invader abundance decreased significantly as PR increased, it was unaffected by PD. Likewise, we found that resident-invader functional similarity, not functional diversity of resident communities, was a significant predictor of invader abundance. Nevertheless, invader abundance was better predicted by PR than by functional similarity. These results highlight the importance of considering species evolutionary relationships, especially the PR between resident and invader species, for the prediction, prevention, and management of biological invasions. PMID:26098339

  3. Aspects of model-based rocket engine condition monitoring and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karr, Gerald R.; Helmicki, Arthur J.

    1994-01-01

    A rigorous propulsion system modelling method suitable for control and condition monitoring purposes is developed. Previously developed control oriented methods yielding nominal models for gaseous medium propulsion systems are extended to include both nominal and anomalous models for liquid mediums in the following two ways. First, thermodynamic and fluid dynamic properties for liquids such as liquid hydrogen are incorporated into the governing equations. Second, anomalous conditions are captured in ways compatible with existing system theoretic design tools so that anomalous models can be constructed. Control and condition monitoring based methods are seen as an improvement over some existing modelling methods because such methods typically do not rigorously lead to low order models nor do they provide a means for capturing anomalous conditions. Applications to the nominal SSME HPFP and degraded HPFP serve to illustrate the approach.

  4. Aspects of model-based rocket engine condition monitoring and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karr, Gerald R.; Helmicki, Arthur J.

    1994-04-01

    A rigorous propulsion system modelling method suitable for control and condition monitoring purposes is developed. Previously developed control oriented methods yielding nominal models for gaseous medium propulsion systems are extended to include both nominal and anomalous models for liquid mediums in the following two ways. First, thermodynamic and fluid dynamic properties for liquids such as liquid hydrogen are incorporated into the governing equations. Second, anomalous conditions are captured in ways compatible with existing system theoretic design tools so that anomalous models can be constructed. Control and condition monitoring based methods are seen as an improvement over some existing modelling methods because such methods typically do not rigorously lead to low order models nor do they provide a means for capturing anomalous conditions. Applications to the nominal SSME HPFP and degraded HPFP serve to illustrate the approach.

  5. Fit, fat and fat free: the metabolic aspects of weight control.

    PubMed

    Saris, W H

    1998-08-01

    This paper examines the role of energy expenditure, especially physical activity related energy expenditure, in the metabolic aspects of body weight regulation. New data have emerged from studies conducted over the last decade, demonstrating that physical activity is a critical factor contributing to successful body weight regulation in lean and obese individuals. A growing number of prospective studies show the protective role of increased physical activity against weight gain over time. Also, individuals who are successful in long-term maintenance of a weight reduction are highly likely to also be physically active. Participation in physical activity is among the best predictors of success in weight maintenance. Physical activity facilitates weight maintenance through direct energy expenditure and improved physical fitness. The latter facilitates the amount and intensity of daily activities. Both components are of importance in relation to energy and substrate balance. Exercise may act as a substitute for an enlarged fat mass, in bringing about rates of fat oxidation commensurate with fat intake. Metabolic effects on lipid mobilization and oxidation and morphological/biochemical changes in the muscle fiber, contribute to this successful regulation of body weight. A limited number of studies indicate that, the minimal level of additional energy expenditure by physical exercise required for protection against gain in excessive body fatness, is around 12 kcal/kg body weight/d. In conclusion, the amount of energy expended in physical activity, mediated by several metabolic factors, may play an important role in body weight regulation. PMID:9778092

  6. Molecular and genetic aspects of controlling the soilborne necrotrophic pathogens Rhizoctonia and Pythium.

    PubMed

    Okubara, Patricia A; Dickman, Martin B; Blechl, Ann E

    2014-11-01

    The soilborne necrotrophic pathogens Rhizoctonia and Pythium infect a wide range of crops in the US and worldwide. These pathogens pose challenges to growers because the diseases they cause are not adequately controlled by fungicides, rotation or, for many hosts, natural genetic resistance. Although a combination of management practices are likely to be required for control of Rhizoctonia and Pythium, genetic resistance remains a key missing component. This review discusses the recent deployment of introduced genes and genome-based information for control of Rhizoctonia, with emphasis on three pathosystems: Rhizoctonia solani AG8 and wheat, R. solani AG1-IA and rice, and R. solani AG3 or AG4 and potato. Molecular mechanisms underlying disease suppression will be addressed, if appropriate. Although less is known about genes and factors suppressive to Pythium, pathogen genomics and biological control studies are providing useful leads to effectors and antifungal factors. Prospects for resistance to Rhizoctonia and Pythium spp. will continue to improve with growing knowledge of pathogenicity strategies, host defense gene action relative to the pathogen infection process, and the role of environmental factors on pathogen-host interactions. PMID:25438786

  7. The system management approach of biological weed control: Some theoretical considerations and aspects of application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Frantzen; N. D. Paul; H. Müller-schärer

    2001-01-01

    Theoretical considerations behind the system management approach of biological weed control are presented. These include, a part describing and explaining the effects of parasitic fungi on crop – weed competition, a part describing and explaining the epidemic spread of parasitic fungi on weeds, and a part relating crop – weed competition at the population level to epidemics. The theoretical framework

  8. DESIGN, FABRICATION, AND CONTROL OF A HIGH-ASPECT RATIO MICROACTUATOR FOR

    E-print Network

    Horowitz, Roberto

    IN A HARD DISK DRIVE Kenn Oldham Xinghui Huang Roberto Horowitz ,1 Computer Mechanics Laboratory the read-write head in a hard disk drive over data bits at densities now approaching 1 terabit per square for installation in a dual-stage servo system for a hard disk drive and controller designs that utilize

  9. Engineering aspects of a thermal control subsystem for the 25 kW power module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, P. E.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents the key trade study results, analysis results, and the recommended thermal control approach for the 25 kW power module defined by NASA. Power conversion inefficiencies and component heat dissipation results in a minimum heat rejection requirement of 9 kW to maintain the power module equipment at desired temperature levels. Additionally, some cooling capacity should be provided for user payloads in the sortie and free-flying modes. The baseline thermal control subsystem includes a dual-loop-pumped Freon-21 coolant with the heat rejected from deployable existing orbiter radiators. Thermal analysis included an assessment of spacecraft orientations, radiator shapes and locations, and comparison of hybrid heat pipe and all liquid panels.

  10. Vaccines for the control of reproduction--status in mammals, and aspects of comparative interest.

    PubMed

    Delves, P J; Roitt, I M

    2005-01-01

    The objective of producing vaccines which target elements of the reproductive system to control fertility has been pursued for many years. Of the many targets for such vaccines, several sperm-associated antigens have been proposed for antibody-mediated intervention before fertilization but the very abundance of antigen to be neutralized has been a barrier. Zona pellucida antigens associated with the surface of the oocyte have also been targeted and used successfully for control of 'wild' elephant populations but worries concerning immunopathologically-mediated tissue damage have been mooted. Vaccines using human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) which is required for the implantation and maintenance of the fertilized egg, although of interest for the development of fertility control in human populations, has no relevance in the context of the present conference because external fertilization of fish eggs is independent. The pathways by which gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secreted by the hypothalamus promote release of luteinizing (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) which govern the physiological maturation and maintenance of the reproductive organs, provide many targets for immunological intervention. Most consistent success has been reported using GnRH-based vaccines which are immunosterilizing in a variety of mammalian species such as pigs, rodents and white-tailed deer. The fact that the structure of the decapeptide, GnRH, has been maintained over so many years of evolution and been conserved across so many animal species, encourages the view that a strategy for control of sexual maturation in fish based upon stimulation of GnRH antibodies may well prove to be a practical proposition, provided the formulation of an appropriate highly immunogenic vaccine can be achieved. PMID:15962489

  11. Economic aspect of HIV/AIDS control and injecting drug use in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Siregar, Adiatma Y M; Komarudin, Dindin; Leuwol, Barnabas; Afriandi, Irvan; Djuhaeni, Heni; Baltussen, Rob

    2009-07-01

    The HIV epidemic in Indonesia is among the fastest growing in Asia, and limited funding is available for HIV/AIDS control. This raises a number of important policy questions, about the adequacy of the level of available funding, the appropriateness of its use, and its financial sustainability. This paper puts these questions in context of the present Indonesian health system. The Indonesian health policy response to HIV/AIDS faces a number of challenges. The nature of the Indonesian HIV epidemic (increasing overall prevalence, with different epidemic profiles); the characteristics of the Indonesian health system (decentralized policy making, low and inequitable funding), and the low and highly internationalized funding of HIV/AIDS control (resulting in low service coverage and questions of sustainability) draw out a very specific health environment of HIV/AIDS. Economic analyses in health are instrumental to guide policy makers on the best use of scarce resources, and holds as such also large potential in this context. However, very little information on the costs and effects of HIV/AIDS control in Indonesia is available, and we call for a broader application. PMID:19920302

  12. A safety awareness program for women with diverse disabilities: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Robinson-Whelen, Susan; Hughes, Rosemary B; Gabrielli, Joy; Lund, Emily M; Abramson, Wendie; Swank, Paul R

    2014-07-01

    Women with diverse disabilities (N = 213), recruited through 10 centers for independent living (CILs), were randomly assigned to either a personal safety awareness program or usual care. The 8-week program, led by CIL staff, was designed to increase safety awareness, abuse and safety knowledge, safety skills, safety self-efficacy, social support, and safety promoting behaviors. All participants completed pre-, post-, and 6-month follow-up questionnaires. Results revealed that participation in a brief safety awareness program may improve safety protective factors among women with disabilities who vary widely in their experience with abuse. The program holds promise for enhancing safety among women with disabilities. PMID:25031362

  13. Does Intraspecific Size Variation in a Predator Affect Its Diet Diversity and Top-Down Control of Prey?

    PubMed Central

    Ingram, Travis; Stutz, William E.; Bolnick, Daniel I.

    2011-01-01

    It has long been known that intraspecific variation impacts evolutionary processes, but only recently have its potential ecological effects received much attention. Theoretical models predict that genetic or phenotypic variance within species can alter interspecific interactions, and experiments have shown that genotypic diversity in clonal species can impact a wide range of ecological processes. To extend these studies to quantitative trait variation within populations, we experimentally manipulated the variance in body size of threespine stickleback in enclosures in a natural lake environment. We found that body size of stickleback in the lake is correlated with prey size and (to a lesser extent) composition, and that stickleback can exert top-down control on their benthic prey in enclosures. However, a six-fold contrast in body size variance had no effect on the degree of diet variation among individuals, or on the abundance or composition of benthic or pelagic prey. Interestingly, post-hoc analyses revealed suggestive correlations between the degree of diet variation and the strength of top-down control by stickleback. Our negative results indicate that, unless the correlation between morphology and diet is very strong, ecological variation among individuals may be largely decoupled from morphological variance. Consequently we should be cautious in our interpretation both of theoretical models that assume perfect correlations between morphology and diet, and of empirical studies that use morphological variation as a proxy for resource use diversity. PMID:21687670

  14. In Journal of Intelligent and Robotic Systems: Theory and Applications. Special Issue on Com putational Aspects of Robot Kinematics, Dynamics, and Control Vol. 9, pp. 121148, 1994.

    E-print Network

    In Journal of Intelligent and Robotic Systems: Theory and Applications. Special Issue on Com­ putational Aspects of Robot Kinematics, Dynamics, and Control Vol. 9, pp. 121­148, 1994. Computational Considerations in the Implementation of Force Control Strategies Richard Volpe \\Lambda and Pradeep Khosla y

  15. The highly dynamic CRISPR1 system of Streptococcus agalactiae controls the diversity of its mobilome.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Sanchez, Maria-José; Sauvage, Elisabeth; Da Cunha, Violette; Clermont, Dominique; Ratsima Hariniaina, Elisoa; Gonzalez-Zorn, Bruno; Poyart, Claire; Rosinski-Chupin, Isabelle; Glaser, Philippe

    2012-09-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) confer immunity against mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in prokaryotes. Streptococcus agalactiae, a leading cause of neonatal infections contains in its genome two CRISPR/Cas systems. We show that type 1-C CRISPR2 is present in few strains but type 2-A CRISPR1 is ubiquitous. Comparative sequence analysis of the CRISPR1 spacer content of 351 S.?agalactiae strains revealed that it is extremely diverse due to the acquisition of new spacers, spacer duplications and spacer deletions that witness the dynamics of this system. The spacer content profile mirrors the S. agalactiae population structure. Transfer of a conjugative transposon targeted by CRISPR1 selected for spacer rearrangements, suggesting that deletions and duplications pre-exist in the population. The comparison of protospacers located within MGE or the core genome and protospacer-associated motif-shuffling demonstrated that the GG motif is sufficient to discriminate self and non-self and for spacer selection and integration. Strikingly more than 40% of the 949 different CRISPR1 spacers identified target MGEs found in S.?agalactiae genomes. We thus propose that the S.?agalactiae type II-A CRISPR1/Cas system modulates the cohabitation of the species with its mobilome, as such contributing to the diversity of MGEs in the population. PMID:22834929

  16. Systems engineering aspects of a preliminary conceptual design of the space station environmental control and life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, C. H.; Meyer, M. S.

    1983-01-01

    The systems engineering aspects of developing a conceptual design of the Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) are discussed. Topics covered include defining system requirements and groundrules for approach, formulating possible cycle closure options, and establishing a system-level mass balance on the essential materials processed in oxygen and water cycles. Consideration is also given to the performance of a system trade-off study to determine the best degree of cycle closure for the ECLSS, and the construction of a conceptual design of the ECLSS with subsystem performance specifications and candidate concepts. For the optimum balance between development costs, technological risks, and resupply penalties, a partially closed cycle ECLSS option is suggested.

  17. High-aspect ratio metal tips attached to atomic force microscopy cantilevers with controlled angle, length, and radius for electrostatic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cockins, Lynda; Miyahara, Yoichi; Stomp, Romain; Grutter, Peter

    2007-11-01

    We demonstrate a method to fabricate a high-aspect ratio metal tip attached to microfabricated cantilevers with controlled angle, length, and radius, for use in electrostatic force microscopy. A metal wire, after gluing it into a guiding slot that is cut into the cantilever, is shaped into a long, thin tip using a focused ion beam. The high-aspect ratio results in considerable reduction of the capacitive force between tip body and sample when compared to a metal coated pyramidal tip.

  18. Ethical aspects of HIV/AIDS prevention strategies and control in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Mfutso-Bengo, Joseph-Matthew; Mfutso-Bengo, Eva-Maria; Masiye, Francis

    2008-01-01

    HIV/AIDS prevention campaigns have been overshadowed by conflicting, competing, and contradictory views between those who support condom use as a last resort and those who are against it for fear of promoting sexual immorality. We argue that abstinence and faithfulness to one partner are the best available moral solutions to the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Of course, deontologists may argue that condom use might appear useful and effective in controlling HIV/AIDS; however, not everything that is useful is always good. In principle, all schools of thought and faith seem to agree on the question of faithfulness for married couples and abstinence for those who are not married. But they differ on condom use. On the ground, the situation is far more complex. We simply lack a single, entirely reliable way to resolve all disagreements regarding HIV/AIDS prevention strategies. PMID:19130297

  19. Clinical aspects of the control of plasma volume at microgravity and during return to one gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.

    1996-01-01

    Plasma volume is reduced by 10-20% within 24-48 h of exposure to simulated or actual microgravity. The clinical importance of microgravity induced hypovolemia is manifested by its relationship with orthostatic intolerance and reduced maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) after return to one gravity (1G). Since there is no evidence to suggest that plasma volume reduction during microgravity is associated with thirst or renal dysfunctions, a diuresis induced by an immediate blood volume shift to the central circulation appears responsible for microgravity-induced hypovolemia. Since most astronauts choose to restrict their fluid intake before a space mission, absence of increased urine output during actual space flight may be explained by low central venous pressure (CVP) which accompanies dehydration. Compelling evidence suggests that prolonged reduction in CVP during exposure to microgravity reflects a "resetting" to a lower operating point, which acts to limit plasma volume expansion during attempts to increase fluid intake. In ground based and space flight experiments, successful restoration and maintenance of plasma volume prior to returning to an upright posture may depend upon development of treatments that can return CVP to its baseline IG operating point. Fluid-loading and lower body negative pressure (LBNP) have not proved completely effective in restoring plasma volume, suggesting that they may not provide the stimulus to elevate the CVP operating point. On the other hand, exercise, which can chronically increase CVP, has been effective in expanding plasma volume when combined with adequate dietary intake of fluid and electrolytes. The success of designing experiments to understand the physiological mechanisms of and development of effective counter measures for the control of plasma volume in microgravity and during return to IG will depend upon testing that can be conducted under standardized controlled baseline conditions during both ground-based and space flight investigations.

  20. Social and cultural aspects of 'malaria' and its control in central Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Essé, Clémence; Utzinger, Jürg; Tschannen, Andres B; Raso, Giovanna; Pfeiffer, Constanze; Granado, Stefanie; Koudou, Benjamin G; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Cissé, Guéladio; Girardin, Olivier; Tanner, Marcel; Obrist, Brigit

    2008-01-01

    Background A sound local understanding of preventive measures and health-seeking behaviour is important for the effective control of malaria. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes, practices and beliefs of 'malaria' and its control in two rural communities of central Côte d'Ivoire, and to examine associations between 'malaria' and the households' socioeconomic status. Methods A cross-sectional household survey was carried out, using a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods. People's socioeconomic status was estimated, employing a household asset-based approach. Results Malaria was identified as djèkouadjo, the local folk name of the disease. Although people were aware of malaria-related symptoms and their association with mosquitoes, folk perceptions were common. In terms of treatment, a wide array of modern and traditional remedies was employed, often in combination. Individuals with a sound knowledge of the causes and symptoms of malaria continued to use traditional treatments and only a few people sleep under bed nets, whereas folk beliefs did not necessarily translate into refusal of modern treatments. Perceived causes of malaria were linked to the household's socioeconomic status with wealthier individuals reporting mosquitoes more frequently than poorer households. Bed nets were more frequently used in wealthier social strata, whereas other protective measures – perceived to be cheaper – were more prominent among the poorest. Conclusion Equitable access to resources at household, community and health system levels are essential in order to enable community members to prevent and treat malaria. There is a need for community-based approaches that match health care services with poor people's needs and resources. PMID:18973663

  1. Coupling Temperature Control with Electrochemically Modulated Liquid Chromatography: Fundamental Aspects and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lisa M. Ponton

    2004-12-19

    The primary focus of the doctoral research presented herein has been the integration of temperature control into electrochemically modulated liquid chromatography (EMLC). The combination of temperature control and the tunable characteristics of carbonaceous EMLC stationary phases have been invaluable in deciphering the subtleties of the retention mechanism. The effects of temperature and E{sub app} on the retention of several naphthalene disulfonates were therefore examined by the van' Hoff relationship. The results indicate that while the retention of both compounds is exothermic at levels comparable to that in many reversed-phase separations, the potential dependence of the separation is actually entropically affected in a manner paralleling that of several classical ion exchange systems. Furthermore, the retention of small inorganic anions at constant temperature also showed evidence of an ion exchange type of mechanism. While a more complete mechanistic description will come from examining the thermodynamics of retention for a wider variety of analytes, this research has laid the groundwork for full exploitation of temperature as a tool to develop retention rules for EMLC. Operating EMLC at elevated temperature and flow conditions has decreased analysis time and has enabled the separation of analytes not normally achievable on a carbon stationary phase. The separation of several aromatic sulfonates was achieved in less than 1 min, a reduction of analysis time by more than a factor of 20 as compared to room temperature separations. The use of higher operating temperatures also facilitated the separation of this mixture with an entirely aqueous mobile phase in less than 2 min. This methodology was extended to the difficult separation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on PGC. This study also brought to light the mechanistic implications of the unique retention behavior of these analytes through variations of the mobile phase composition.

  2. Clinical Aspects of the Control of Plasma Volume at Microgravity and During Return to One Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    1995-01-01

    Plasma volume is reduced by 10%-20% within 24 to 48 h of exposure to simulated or actual microgravity. The clinical importance of microgravity-induced hypovolemia is manifested by its relationship with orthostatic intolerance and reduced VO2max after return to one gravity (1G). Since there is no evidence to suggest plasma volume reduction during microgravity is associated with thirst or renal dysfunctions, a diuresis induced by an immediate blood volume shift to the central circulation appears responsible for microgravity-induced hypovolemia. Since most astronauts choose to restrict their fluid intake before a space mission, absence of increased urine output during actual spaceflight may be explained by low central venous pressure (CVP) which accompanies dehydration. Compelling evidence suggests that prolonged reduction in CVP during exposure to microgravity reflects a 'resetting' to a lower operating point which acts to limit plasma volume expansion during attempts to increase fluid intake. In groudbase and spaceflight experiments, successful restoration and maintenance of plasma volume prior to returning to an upright posture may depend upon development of treatments that can return CVP to its baseline 10 operating point. Fluid-loading and LBNP have not proved completely effective in restoring plasma volume, suggesting that they may not provide the stimulus to elevate the CVP operating point. On the other, exercise, which can chronically increase CVP, has been effective in expanding plasma volume when combined with adequate dietary intake of fluid and electrolytes. The success of designing experiments to understand the physiological mechanisms of and development of effective countermeasures for the control of plasma volume in microgravity and during return to one gravity will depend upon testing that can be conducted under standardized controlled baseline condi

  3. Diverse lamin-dependent mechanisms interact to control chromatin dynamics. Focus on laminopathies.

    PubMed

    Camozzi, Daria; Capanni, Cristina; Cenni, Vittoria; Mattioli, Elisabetta; Columbaro, Marta; Squarzoni, Stefano; Lattanzi, Giovanna

    2014-01-01

    Interconnected functional strategies govern chromatin dynamics in eukaryotic cells. In this context, A and B type lamins, the nuclear intermediate filaments, act on diverse platforms involved in tissue homeostasis. On the nuclear side, lamins elicit large scale or fine chromatin conformational changes, affect DNA damage response factors and transcription factor shuttling. On the cytoplasmic side, bridging-molecules, the LINC complex, associate with lamins to coordinate chromatin dynamics with cytoskeleton and extra-cellular signals.   Consistent with such a fine tuning, lamin mutations and/or defects in their expression or post-translational processing, as well as mutations in lamin partner genes, cause a heterogeneous group of diseases known as laminopathies. They include muscular dystrophies, cardiomyopathy, lipodystrophies, neuropathies, and progeroid syndromes. The study of chromatin dynamics under pathological conditions, which is summarized in this review, is shedding light on the complex and fascinating role of the nuclear lamina in chromatin regulation. PMID:25482195

  4. Afferent and Efferent Aspects of Mandibular Sensorimotor Control in Adults who Stutter

    PubMed Central

    Daliri, Ayoub; Prokopenko, Roman A.; Max, Ludo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Individuals who stutter show sensorimotor deficiencies in speech and nonspeech movements. For the mandibular system, we dissociated the sense of kinesthesia from the efferent control component to examine whether kinesthetic integrity itself is compromised in stuttering or whether deficiencies occur only when generating motor commands. Method We investigated 11 stuttering and 11 nonstuttering adults’ kinesthetic sensitivity threshold and kinesthetic accuracy for passive jaw movements as well as their minimal displacement threshold and positioning accuracy for active jaw movements. We also investigated the correlation with an anatomical index of jaw size. Results The groups showed no statistically significant differences on sensory measures for passive jaw movements. Although some stuttering individuals performed more poorly than any nonstuttering participants on the active movement tasks, between-group differences for active movements were also not statistically significant. Unlike fluent speakers, however, the stuttering group showed a statistically significant correlation between mandibular size and performance in the active and passive near-threshold tasks. Conclusions Previously reported minimal movement differences were not replicated. Instead, stuttering individuals’ performance varied with anatomical properties. These correlational results are consistent with the hypothesis that stuttering participants generate and perceive movements based on less accurate internal models of the involved neuromechanical systems. PMID:23816664

  5. A Conserved Supergene Locus Controls Colour Pattern Diversity in Heliconius Butterflies

    E-print Network

    location acts as a ``supergene'', determining multiple sympatric morphs in a third species, H. numata. H. melpomene and H. erato appears to have gained control of the entire wing-pattern variability in H. numata

  6. Aerodynamic and heat transfer aspects of tip and casing treatments used for turbine tip leakage control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumusel, Baris

    Axial flow turbine stages are usually designed with a gap between the tips of the rotating blades and a stationary outer casing. The presence of a strong pressure gradient across this gap drives flow from the pressure side of the blade to the suction side. This leakage flow creates a significant amount of energy loss of working fluid in the turbine stage. In a modern gas turbine engine the outer casing of the high-pressure turbine is also exposed to a combination of high flow temperatures and heat transfer coefficients. The casing is consequently subjected to high levels of convective heat transfer, a situation that is aggravated by flow unsteadiness caused by periodic blade-passing events. An experimental investigation of the aerodynamic and heat transfer effect of tip and casing treatments used in turbine tip leakage control was conducted in a large scale, low speed, rotating research turbine facility. The effects of casing treatments were investigated by measuring the total pressure field at the exit of the rotor using a high frequency response total pressure probe. A smooth wall as a baseline case was also investigated. The test cases presented include results of casing treatments with varying dimensions for tip gap height of t/h=2.5%. The results of the rotor exit total pressure indicate that the casing treatment significantly reduced the leakage mass flow rate and the momentum deficit in the core of the tip vortex. The reductions obtained in the tip vortex size and strength influenced the tip-side passage vortex and other typical core flow characteristics in the passage. Casing treatments with the highest ridge height was the most effective in reducing the total pressure loss in the leakage flow of the test blades. This was observed at a radius near the core of the tip vortex. It appears that casing treatments with the highest ridge height is also the most effective from a global point of view, as shown by the passage averaged pressure coefficient obtained in the last 20% of the blade height. The effect of the new blade tip concept, inclined squealer tip, on tip leakage flow with and without casing treatments is also investigated. The results of the rotor exit total pressure indicate that the inclined squealer tip arrangement has significant effects on both passage core flow and the interaction between the leakage vortex and the tip side passage vortex. A steady-state method of measuring convective heat transfer coefficient on the casing of an axial flow turbine is also developed for the comparison of various casing surface and tip designs used for turbine performance improvements. The free-stream reference temperature, especially in the tip gap region of the casing varies monotonically from the rotor inlet to rotor exit due to work extraction in the stage. In a heat transfer problem of this nature, the definition of the free-stream temperature is not as straight forward as constant free-stream temperature type problems. The accurate determination of the convective heat transfer coefficient depends on the magnitude of the local freestream reference temperature varying in axial direction, from the rotor inlet to exit. The current investigation explains a strategy for the simultaneous determination of the steadystate heat transfer coefficient and free-stream reference temperature on the smooth casing of a single stage rotating turbine facility. The heat transfer approach is also applicable to casing surfaces that have surface treatments for tip leakage control. The overall uncertainty of the method developed is between 5% and 8% of the convective heat transfer coefficient. The test cases presented show that the casing heat transfer is affected by the tip gap height. The heat transfer coefficient increases as the tip gap increases for both with and without casing treatments. It is also shown that the effect of ridge height on heat transfer coefficient is negligible for tip gap height of t/h=0.9%.

  7. Performance of sanitary sewer collection system odour control devices operating in diverse conditions.

    PubMed

    Camarillo, Mary Kay; Stringfellow, William T; Hanlon, Jeremy S; Basha, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Controlling odours from sanitary sewer systems is challenging as a result of the expansive nature of these systems. Addition of oxidizing chemicals is often practiced as a mitigation strategy. One alternative is to remove odorous compounds in the gases vented from manholes using adsorptive media. In this study, odour control devices located at manholes were observed to determine the ability of these systems to reduce hydrogen sulphide from vented gases. The odour control devices incorporated pressure regulation to control gas flow out of manhole covers and adsorptive media to remove hydrogen sulphide in the vented gases prior to release. Pressure regulation was accomplished using a variable volume bladder and two pressure relief valves that permitted gas flow when pressures exceeded 1.3 to 2.5 cm water column. The reduction in gas flow vented from manholes was intended to extend the service life of the adsorptive media, as compared with odour control devices that do not incorporate pressure modulation. Devices were deployed at four locations and three adsorptive media were tested. Although measured collection system hydrogen sulphide concentrations varied from zero to over 1,000 ppm, the removal rates observed using odour control devices were typically above 90%. The lower removal rates observed at one of the sites (50.5 ± 36.1%) appeared related to high gas flow rates being emitted at this location. Activated carbon was used in most of the tests, although use of iron media resulted in the highest removal observed: 97.8 ± 3.6%. The expected service life of the adsorptive media contained within the odour control devices is a function of site-specific hydrogen sulphide concentrations and gas flow rates. The units used in this study were in service for more than 8 to 12 months prior to requiring media replacement. PMID:24355837

  8. Integration of signals along orthogonal axes of the vertebrate neural tube controls progenitor competence and increases cell diversity.

    PubMed

    Sasai, Noriaki; Kutejova, Eva; Briscoe, James

    2014-07-01

    A relatively small number of signals are responsible for the variety and pattern of cell types generated in developing embryos. In part this is achieved by exploiting differences in the concentration or duration of signaling to increase cellular diversity. In addition, however, changes in cellular competence-temporal shifts in the response of cells to a signal-contribute to the array of cell types generated. Here we investigate how these two mechanisms are combined in the vertebrate neural tube to increase the range of cell types and deliver spatial control over their location. We provide evidence that FGF signaling emanating from the posterior of the embryo controls a change in competence of neural progenitors to Shh and BMP, the two morphogens that are responsible for patterning the ventral and dorsal regions of the neural tube, respectively. Newly generated neural progenitors are exposed to FGF signaling, and this maintains the expression of the Nk1-class transcription factor Nkx1.2. Ventrally, this acts in combination with the Shh-induced transcription factor FoxA2 to specify floor plate cells and dorsally in combination with BMP signaling to induce neural crest cells. As development progresses, the intersection of FGF with BMP and Shh signals is interrupted by axis elongation, resulting in the loss of Nkx1.2 expression and allowing the induction of ventral and dorsal interneuron progenitors by Shh and BMP signaling to supervene. Hence a similar mechanism increases cell type diversity at both dorsal and ventral poles of the neural tube. Together these data reveal that tissue morphogenesis produces changes in the coincidence of signals acting along orthogonal axes of the neural tube and this is used to define spatial and temporal transitions in the competence of cells to interpret morphogen signaling. PMID:25026549

  9. Genetic diversity of Aphthona flea beetles introduced into North America for biological control of leafy spurge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five species of Aphthona flea beetles from Europe (Aphthona flava, Aphthona cyparissiae, Aphthona nigriscutis, Aphthona czwalinae, and Aphthona lacertosa) have been introduced and become established in North America for the purpose of controlling the noxious weed, leafy spurge. Within species gene...

  10. Decreased functional diversity and biological pest control in conventional compared to organic crop fields.

    PubMed

    Krauss, Jochen; Gallenberger, Iris; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2011-01-01

    Organic farming is one of the most successful agri-environmental schemes, as humans benefit from high quality food, farmers from higher prices for their products and it often successfully protects biodiversity. However there is little knowledge if organic farming also increases ecosystem services like pest control. We assessed 30 triticale fields (15 organic vs. 15 conventional) and recorded vascular plants, pollinators, aphids and their predators. Further, five conventional fields which were treated with insecticides were compared with 10 non-treated conventional fields. Organic fields had five times higher plant species richness and about twenty times higher pollinator species richness compared to conventional fields. Abundance of pollinators was even more than one-hundred times higher on organic fields. In contrast, the abundance of cereal aphids was five times lower in organic fields, while predator abundances were three times higher and predator-prey ratios twenty times higher in organic fields, indicating a significantly higher potential for biological pest control in organic fields. Insecticide treatment in conventional fields had only a short-term effect on aphid densities while later in the season aphid abundances were even higher and predator abundances lower in treated compared to untreated conventional fields. Our data indicate that insecticide treatment kept aphid predators at low abundances throughout the season, thereby significantly reducing top-down control of aphid populations. Plant and pollinator species richness as well as predator abundances and predator-prey ratios were higher at field edges compared to field centres, highlighting the importance of field edges for ecosystem services. In conclusion organic farming increases biodiversity, including important functional groups like plants, pollinators and predators which enhance natural pest control. Preventative insecticide application in conventional fields has only short-term effects on aphid densities but long-term negative effects on biological pest control. Therefore conventional farmers should restrict insecticide applications to situations where thresholds for pest densities are reached. PMID:21611171

  11. Genetic diversity studies of Brazilian garlic cultivars and quality control of garlic-clover production.

    PubMed

    Buso, G S C; Paiva, M R; Torres, A C; Resende, F V; Ferreira, M A; Buso, J A; Dusi, A N

    2008-01-01

    The garlic cultivars grown in Brazil evolved from somatic mutations and clone selection by breeding programs and by the introduction of germplasm from other countries. Morphological characters have been used to differentiate these cultivars. Two hundred and six random amplified polymorphic DNA markers were utilized for a diversity analysis of the 17 most planted garlic cultivars in Brazil. Bootstrap analysis showed that the number of markers was efficient and sufficient to obtain a coefficient of variation of 10%. Similarity varied between 16 and 98% and cluster analysis showed that, in general, genetic similarities correlate with morphological characters of the cultivars and production cycle variation. High bootstrap values at most of the nodes supported the dendrogram stability. The grouping of most varieties agreed well with previous reports based on morphological characters. As a vegetative-propagated species, viral diseases are a key problem regarding production and quality of the bulbs, causing gradual loss of yield and decrease in storage capacity. To improve the health quality of garlic seed, a virus-free stock of garlic cloves of the Amarante cultivar was obtained. The ability to distinguish garlic cultivars to detect varietal mixing after in vitro multiplication is extremely important, since correct identification is not possible until bulbs are produced. Random amplified polymorphic DNA markers were also used to differentiate cultivars while they are in vitro and not amenable to morphological discrimination. No difference was identified between the fingerprints of the virus-free or of the infected bulks of Amarante, showing that there was no clove mixing in the handling of material in the clonal multiplication phase. PMID:18752178

  12. The diversity of chemical substances controlling the nyctinastic leaf-movement in plants.

    PubMed

    Ueda, M; Shigemori, H; Sata, N; Yamamura, S

    2000-01-01

    Leaf-movement in nyctinastic plants has long been believed to be controlled by plant hormones that are common among all nyctinastic plants. We have identified several bioactive substances for nyctinasty, whose bioactivities were highly specific to the original plant, based on the bioassay using the original plant leaf, and have shown that nyctinastic leaf-movement is not regulated by plant hormones. Our present results are in accordance with Umrath et al. physiologically significant opinion. PMID:10656405

  13. Merging metagenomics and geochemistry reveals environmental controls on biological diversity and evolution

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The metabolic strategies employed by microbes inhabiting natural systems are, in large part, dictated by the physical and geochemical properties of the environment. This study sheds light onto the complex relationship between biology and environmental geochemistry using forty-three metagenomes collected from geochemically diverse and globally distributed natural systems. It is widely hypothesized that many uncommonly measured geochemical parameters affect community dynamics and this study leverages the development and application of multidimensional biogeochemical metrics to study correlations between geochemistry and microbial ecology. Analysis techniques such as a Markov cluster-based measure of the evolutionary distance between whole communities and a principal component analysis (PCA) of the geochemical gradients between environments allows for the determination of correlations between microbial community dynamics and environmental geochemistry and provides insight into which geochemical parameters most strongly influence microbial biodiversity. Results By progressively building from samples taken along well defined geochemical gradients to samples widely dispersed in geochemical space this study reveals strong links between the extent of taxonomic and functional diversification of resident communities and environmental geochemistry and reveals temperature and pH as the primary factors that have shaped the evolution of these communities. Moreover, the inclusion of extensive geochemical data into analyses reveals new links between geochemical parameters (e.g. oxygen and trace element availability) and the distribution and taxonomic diversification of communities at the functional level. Further, an overall geochemical gradient (from multivariate analyses) between natural systems provides one of the most complete predictions of microbial taxonomic and functional composition. Conclusions Clustering based on the frequency in which orthologous proteins occur among metagenomes facilitated accurate prediction of the ordering of community functional composition along geochemical gradients, despite a lack of geochemical input. The consistency in the results obtained from the application of Markov clustering and multivariate methods to distinct natural systems underscore their utility in predicting the functional potential of microbial communities within a natural system based on system geochemistry alone, allowing geochemical measurements to be used to predict purely biological metrics such as microbial community composition and metabolism. PMID:24886397

  14. Relationships Between Alcohol-Related informal Social Control, Parental Monitoring and Adolescent Problem Behaviors Among Racially Diverse Urban Youth

    PubMed Central

    Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Pasch, Keryn E.; Perry, Cheryl L.; Komro, Kelli

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the relationships between alcohol-related informal social control and parental monitoring on alcohol use, behavior and intentions; violent behavior; and delinquent behavior in a racially diverse population of young urban adolescents. Baseline surveys were administered to 6th grade male and female students in 61 urban Chicago schools as part of Project Northland Chicago, a group randomized trial for the prevention/reduction of substance use. A subset of their parents (n=3034) was also surveyed regarding alcohol use, violence, and delinquency and related issues. Structural equation modeling was used to assess relationships between alcohol-related informal social control (as measured by parental perceptions of neighborhood action regarding youth drinking) and parental monitoring (as reported by parents), and three adolescent outcomes (alcohol use, behaviors and intentions; violent behavior; and delinquent behavior; as reported by teens). Associations between alcohol-related informal social control and parental monitoring were positive and significant (p<.001). Direct paths from parental monitoring to all three adolescent outcomes were negative and statistically significant (alcohol use, behaviors and intentions, p<.001; violent behavior, p<.001; and delinquent behavior, p<.001). Alcohol-related informal social control was not significantly associated with adolescent outcomes. Efforts to engage parents to be more active in monitoring adolescents’ activities may be related to lower levels of underage drinking, violence and delinquency among both female and male urban youth. Neighborhood norms and action against teenage drinking may be too distal to adolescent outcomes to be directly associated. PMID:18607698

  15. Transonic steady- and unsteady-pressure measurements on a high-aspect-ratio supercritical-wing model with oscillating control surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandford, M. C.; Ricketts, R. H.; Cazier, F. W., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A supercritical wing with an aspect ratio of 10.76 and with two trailing-edge oscillating control surfaces is described. The semispan wing is instrumented with 252 static orifices and 164 in situ dynamic-pressure gages for studying the effects of control-surface position and motion on steady- and unsteady-pressures at transonic speeds. Results from initial tests conducted in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at two Reynolds numbers are presented in tabular form.

  16. Endemic predators, invasive prey and native diversity.

    PubMed

    Wanger, Thomas C; Wielgoss, Arno C; Motzke, Iris; Clough, Yann; Brook, Barry W; Sodhi, Navjot S; Tscharntke, Teja

    2011-03-01

    Interactions between native diversity and invasive species can be more complex than is currently understood. Invasive ant species often substantially reduce diversity in the native ants diversity that act as natural control agents for pest insects. In Indonesia (on the island of Sulawesi), the third largest cacao producer worldwide, we show that a predatory endemic toad (Ingerophrynus celebensis) controls invasive ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes) abundance, and positively affects native ant diversity. We call this the invasive-naivety effect (an opposite of enemy release), whereby alien species may not harbour anti-predatory defences against a novel native predator. A positive effect of the toads on native ants may facilitate their predation on insect vectors of cacao diseases. Hence, toads may increase crop yield, but further research is needed on this aspect. Ironically, amphibians are globally the most threatened vertebrate class and are strongly impacted by the conversion of rainforest to cacao plantations in Sulawesi. It is, therefore, crucial to manage cacao plantations to maintain these endemic toads, as they may provide critical ecosystem services, such as invasion resistance and preservation of native insect diversity. PMID:20826488

  17. Exploiting the genetic diversity of Beauveria bassiana for improving the biological control of the coffee berry borer through the use of strain mixtures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lina P. Cruz; Alvaro L. Gaitan; Carmenza E. Gongora

    2006-01-01

    Beauveria bassiana is an entomopathogen widely used to control the coffee berry borer in Colombia, as part of an Integrated Pest Management strategy. Traditionally, the development of fungal insect pathogens as biocontrol agents in crop pests has been oriented towards the selection and formulation of elite clonal strains. Instead, we explored the potential application of genetic diversity in B. bassiana

  18. Local Versus Landscape Control of Leaf Litter Chemistry on a Diverse Tropical Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, H. E.; Helmer, E. H.; Brandeis, T. J.; Lugo, A. E.

    2008-12-01

    Recent advances in remote sensing technologies offer the opportunity to map terrestrial landscapes to broad physiognomic classes. A question that arises is whether additional local or landscape-scale information is needed to describe and model ecosystem properties at large, regional scales. Soils exhibit biogeochemical heterogeneity at multiple scales. Many soil nutrients are likely under more regional scale control due to gradients in climate and lithology, while others under more local control due to effects of species composition and topographic position. To examine some of these processes, we analyzed 11 elements in O horizon leaf litter from 147 Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plots systematically located across the island of Puerto Rico. We then asked whether there were differences according to 1: Holdridge life zone, 2: forest cover type (primarily evergreen vs. drought deciduous broadleaf), derived from remotely sensed vegetation data in 2000 combined with coarse-scale geology (karst vs. non-karst), and 3: forest assemblages, based on tree survey data from the FIA plots. Three elements (C, Ca, and Mn) differed by Holdridge life zone, 2 elements (C, Ca) by 2000 forest cover type, 6 by geology (C, P, Ca, Mn, Al, and Fe), and 10 (including N) by groups of forest assemblages. As well, across and within several forest assemblages, leaf litter N and P were positively related to the basal area of putatively N-fixing tree legumes. These findings confirm the role of species in contributing to the spatial heterogeneity of N and P and suggest that without detailed data on vegetation composition, scaling up to landscapes may be problematic for some elements.

  19. Engaging adolescent girls from linguistically diverse and low income backgrounds in school sport: a pilot randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Dudley, Dean A; Okely, Anthony D; Pearson, Philip; Peat, Jennifer

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility, acceptability, and potential efficacy of a school-based physical activity program delivered during school sport time among adolescent girls from low income predominately linguistically diverse backgrounds in New South Wales, Australia. Using a 3-month, 2-arm, parallel-group pilot RCT design, 38 adolescent girls (Year 11) were recruited to participate in the program and randomised into intervention (n=17) or control groups (n=21). The intervention program aimed to increase physical activity by improving enjoyment, physical self-perception and perceived competence. Baseline and follow-up (12 weeks) assessments included enjoyment of physical activity, physical self-perception, and objectively measured physical activity during school sport sessions. Process data were collected through observations of lessons, attendance records, and interviews with participants and staff. Recruitment (63%) and retention (68%) goals were less than anticipated but similar to other studies. Participation was higher for the intervention (72%) than the control (60%) group and the intervention group reported high levels of satisfaction with the program. At follow-up, girls in the intervention group, compared with the control group, showed greater improvement in their enjoyment of physical activity during school sport (adjusted mean difference=3.8, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] -2.4, 10.1; Cohen's d=0.42 standard deviation units) and body image (adjusted difference mean=1.0, 95% CI -0.4, 2.3; d=0.50). There was a smaller decline in participation in physical activity during school sport (adjusted mean=13.6, 95% CI -21.8, 48.9; d=0.24). This study highlights major barriers confronting adolescent girls' participation in school sport. Some of these include teacher attitudes and support, activities and programming, purpose and distinction, and student input. Negotiating these barriers and overcoming them in a school setting appears feasible with support from the entire school community. PMID:19574099

  20. Mechanistic controls on diverse fates of terrestrial organic components in the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chun; Wagner, Thomas; Talbot, Helen M.; Weijers, Johan W. H.; Pan, Jian-Ming; Pancost, Richard D.

    2013-09-01

    Terrestrial carbon transferred from the land to sea is a critical component of the global carbon cycle. A range of geochemical proxies has been developed to fingerprint the fate of terrestrial organic matter (TOM) in marine sediments. However, discrepancies among different proxies limit our ability to quantify and interpret the terrestrial signals in marine sediments, with consequences for the investigation of both the modern carbon cycle and past environmental change. To mechanistically understand these discrepancies, we examined the distributions of a range of terrestrial proxies and their aquatic counterparts (i.e. marine proxies) in the Yangtze river-East China Sea (YR-ECS) shelf system, where TOM experiences extensive modification during transport and burial. TOM proxies in the YR-ECS system collectively fit a power-law model but with distinct attenuation rates (the a? values) for individual molecular proxy groups. Among a range of TOM proxies, the modeled a? values decrease in the order: soil-marker BHPs > triterpenols > lignin > HMW n-alkanols > branched GDGTs > HMW n-alkanes for biomarkers; and Rsoil > BIT > %TOMiso for proxies tracing %TOM. Rapid loss of TOM components through dissociation in the narrow estuary, followed by oxidation over the wide open shelf, are best described by power curves. Inherent chemical reactivity (i.e. the number of functional groups), responses to hydraulic sorting, and in situ production regulate the individual attenuation rates. Of them, chemical reactivity plays the most important role on proxy behavior, supported by a strong correlation between a? values and standard molal Gibbs energies. Both, physical protection and chemical reactivity fundamentally control the overall behavior of TOM components, with the relative importance being setting-dependant: The former is relatively important in the estuary, whereas the later is the primary control over the open shelf. Moreover, regional variation of different marine-counterparts is also significant over the river-ECS shelf system, seemingly regulated by regional nutrient distributions. Therefore, for %TOM estimates using molecular ratio approaches, the specific behavior of individual terrestrial components and marine-counterparts and the physical, biological and chemical characteristics of depositional settings all need to be considered.

  1. Controlling and culturing diversity: Experimental zoology before World War II and Vienna's Biologische Versuchsanstalt.

    PubMed

    Logan, Cheryl A; Brauckmann, Sabine

    2015-04-01

    Founded in Vienna in 1903, the Institute for Experimental Biology pioneered the application of experimental methods to living organisms maintained for sustained periods in captivity. Its Director, the zoologist Hans Przibram, oversaw until 1938, the attempt to integrate ontogeny with studies of inheritance using precise and controlled measurements of the impact of environmental influences on the emergence of form and function. In the early years, these efforts paralleled and even fostered the emergence of experimental biology in America. But fate intervened. Though the Institute served an international community, most of its resident scientists and staff were of Jewish ancestry. Well before the Nazis entered Austria in 1938, these men and women were being fired and driven out; some, including Przibram, were eventually killed. We describe the unprecedented facilities built and the topics addressed by the several departments that made up this Institute, stressing those most relevant to the establishment and success of the Journal of Experimental Zoology, which was founded just a year later. The Institute's diaspora left an important legacy in North America, perhaps best embodied by the career of the developmental neuroscientist Paul Weiss. J. Exp. Zool. 323A: 211-226, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25857375

  2. Exploiting natural variation of secondary metabolism identifies a gene controlling the glycosylation diversity of dihydroxybenzoic acids in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Li, Xu; Svedin, Elisabeth; Mo, Huaping; Atwell, Susanna; Dilkes, Brian P; Chapple, Clint

    2014-11-01

    Plant secondary metabolism is an active research area because of the unique and important roles the specialized metabolites have in the interaction of plants with their biotic and abiotic environment, the diversity and complexity of the compounds and their importance to human medicine. Thousands of natural accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana characterized with increasing genomic precision are available, providing new opportunities to explore the biochemical and genetic mechanisms affecting variation in secondary metabolism within this model species. In this study, we focused on four aromatic metabolites that were differentially accumulated among 96 Arabidopsis natural accessions as revealed by leaf metabolic profiling. Using UV, mass spectrometry, and NMR data, we identified these four compounds as different dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) glycosides, namely 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (gentisic acid) 5-O-?-D-glucoside, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid 3-O-?-D-glucoside, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid 5-O-?-D-xyloside, and 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid 3-O-?-D-xyloside. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping using recombinant inbred lines generated from C24 and Col-0 revealed a major-effect QTL controlling the relative proportion of xylosides vs. glucosides. Association mapping identified markers linked to a gene encoding a UDP glycosyltransferase gene. Analysis of Transfer DNA (T-DNA) knockout lines verified that this gene is required for DHBA xylosylation in planta and recombinant protein was able to xylosylate DHBA in vitro. This study demonstrates that exploiting natural variation of secondary metabolism is a powerful approach for gene function discovery. PMID:25173843

  3. Molecular aspects of transport in thin films of controlled architecture. Technical summary, July 1, 1991--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    Work was done in two principal areas: characterization of diffusion in swollen polymer films both with and without a barrier layer, and initial investigations of molecular aspects of swelling using enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

  4. Low Genetic Diversity and Strong Geographical Structure of the Critically Endangered White-Headed Langur (Trachypithecus leucocephalus) Inferred from Mitochondrial DNA Control Region Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weiran; Qiao, Yu; Pan, Wenshi; Yao, Meng

    2015-01-01

    Many Asian colobine monkey species are suffering from habitat destruction and population size decline. There is a great need to understand their genetic diversity, population structure and demographic history for effective species conservation. The white-headed langur (Trachypithecus leucocephalus) is a Critically Endangered colobine species endemic to the limestone karst forests in southwestern China. We analyzed the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences of 390 fecal samples from 40 social groups across the main distribution areas, which represented one-third of the total extant population. Only nine haplotypes and 10 polymorphic sites were identified, indicating remarkably low genetic diversity in the species. Using a subset of 77 samples from different individuals, we evaluated genetic variation, population structure, and population demographic history. We found very low values of haplotype diversity (h = 0.570 ± 0.056) and nucleotide diversity (? = 0.00323 ± 0.00044) in the hypervariable region I (HVRI) of the mtDNA control region. Distribution of haplotypes displayed marked geographical pattern, with one population (Chongzuo, CZ) showing a complete lack of genetic diversity (having only one haplotype), whereas the other population (Fusui, FS) having all nine haplotypes. We detected strong population genetic structure among habit patches (?ST = 0.375, P < 0.001). In addition, the Mantel test showed a significant correlation between the pairwise genetic distances and geographical distances among social groups in FS (correlation coefficient = 0.267, P = 0.003), indicting isolation-by-distance pattern of genetic divergence in the mtDNA sequences. Analyses of demographic history suggested an overall stable historical population size and modest population expansion in the last 2,000 years. Our results indicate different genetic diversity and possibly distinct population history for different local populations, and suggest that CZ and FS should be considered as one evolutionarily significant unit (ESU) and two management units (MUs) pending further investigation using nuclear markers. PMID:26057239

  5. Single-pulse femtosecond laser Bessel beams drilling of high-aspect-ratio microholes based on electron dynamics control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Weiwei; Li, Xiaowei; Xia, Bo; Yan, Xueliang; Han, Weina; Lu, Yongfeng; Jiang, Lan

    2014-11-01

    Microholes drilling has attracted extensive research efforts for its broad applications in photonics, microfluidics, optical fibers and many other fields. A femtosecond (fs) laser is a promising tool for high-precision materials processing with reduced recast/microcracks and minimized heat affected zones. But there remain many challenges in hole drilling using conventional fs laser with Gaussian beams, such as low aspect ratio and taper effects. We report small-diameter and high-aspect-ratio microholes with taper free drilling in PMMA (polymethyl methacrylate) using single-pulse fs laser Bessel beams. Axicon is used to transform Gaussian beams into Bessel beams, which then irradiate in the sample by a telescope consisting of plano-convex lens and microscope objective. Using this technique, we enhance the aspect ratio of microholes by 55 times as compared with Gaussian beams. We attribute this high aspect ratio and high quality microholes formation to the unique spatial intensity distribution and propagation stability of Bessel beams, which can effectively adjust the transient localized electron density distribution leading to a long and uniform localized-interacted zone. By using the optimized pulse energy and focal depth position, the microholes diameter ranges between 1.4-2.1 ?m and the aspect ratio can exceed 460. This efficient technique is of great potentials for fabrication of microphotonics devices and microfluidics.

  6. Comparative genomic analysis reveals new aspects of the biology and secondary metabolism of biological control strains of Pseudomonas spp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To explore the genomic diversity of biocontrol strains of Pseudomonas spp., we derived high quality draft sequences of seven strains that suppress plant disease. The strains were isolated from the phyllosphere of pear (P. fluorescens A506), the rhizosphere of wheat (three strains of P. fluorescens ...

  7. Evaluation of carbonate pore system under texture control for prediction of microporosity aspect ratio and shear wave velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima Neto, Irineu A.; Misságia, Roseane M.; Ceia, Marco A.; Archilha, Nathaly L.; Hollis, Cathy

    2015-06-01

    This work evaluates a suite of carbonate rocks from Albian age in the Campos Basin - Brazil, complemented by data from the literature, totaling 472 samples with detailed description of diagenetic features, quantitative mineralogy analyses, and P- and S-wave velocities (Vp and Vs) measured at three ranges of effective pressure loading: low (5-7.5 MPa), moderate (20 MPa) and high (40-50 MPa) values. Digital image analysis (DIA) was applied on microtomography (?CT) images to quantitatively describe the macro-mesopore system of the Albian carbonates, and was extended to characterize different textures from literature data to estimate reference values for carbonates. The methodology utilized to predict the aspect ratio of microporosity assumes three pore-space scales in two representative scenarios: 1) measured macro-mesopore aspect ratio from DIA, and 2) predicted microporosity aspect ratio, using Vp measurement as the main input parameter. The differential effective medium model (DEMM) is combined with analytical theories of data analysis to characterize microporosity. Shear modulus and microporosity aspect ratio calibrated by this methodology were used to predict Vs, which was compared to experimental data, resulting in a good match for all samples. Polynomial curves are fitted with a variety of carbonate textures by velocities at effective pressure and bulk porosity crossplots, establishing important relationships for velocity prediction. The effects of effective pressure on the pore system within dry plugs of Albian samples were evaluated by combining triaxial measurements at 0-10 MPa, relative pore volume reduction (RPVR) and microporosity aspect ratio prediction. According to the results, micropores that exhibit low aspect ratio tend to close with stress and cause an increase on Vp and Vs. A wide textural heterogeneity of data base and different digital image analysis and resolutions were employed successfully, combining rock physics methodologies and concepts to characterize carbonate pore system as microporosity and pressure effects.

  8. Multidimensional display controller for displaying to a user an aspect of a multidimensional space visible from a base viewing location along a desired viewing orientation

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, George S. (Albuquerque, NM); Anderson, Thomas G. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01

    A display controller allows a user to control a base viewing location, a base viewing orientation, and a relative viewing orientation. The base viewing orientation and relative viewing orientation are combined to determine a desired viewing orientation. An aspect of a multidimensional space visible from the base viewing location along the desired viewing orientation is displayed to the user. The user can change the base viewing location, base viewing orientation, and relative viewing orientation by changing the location or other properties of input objects.

  9. Outbreak Control and Clinical, Pathological, and Epidemiological Aspects and Molecular Characterization of a Bovine Herpesvirus Type 5 on a Feedlot Farm in São Paulo State

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira Vicente, Acácia; Appolinario, Camila Michele; Allendorf, Susan Dora; Gasparini Baraldi, Thaís; Cortez, Adriana; Bryan Heinemann, Marcos; Reinaldo Silva Fonseca, Clovis; Cristina Pelícia, Vanessa; Devidé Ribeiro, Bruna Leticia; Hiromi Okuda, Liria; Pituco, Edviges Maristela

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the control, epidemiological, pathological, and molecular aspects of an outbreak of meningoencephalitis in calves due to bovine herpesvirus 5 at a feedlot with 540 animals in São Paulo State, Brazil. The introduction of new animals and contact between the resident animals and the introduced ones were most likely responsible for virus transmission. Bovine herpesvirus 1 vaccine was used, resulting in the efficacy of the outbreak control, although two bovine herpesvirus 1 positive animals, vaccinated and revaccinated, presented meningoencephalitis, thereby characterizing vaccinal failure. PMID:26090469

  10. Echolocation Diversity

    E-print Network

    Wilkinson, Gerald S.

    Echolocation · Diversity ­ Organisms ­ Sound production and reception · Information decoded from echos ­ Distance ­ Velocity ­ Prey size and location · FM vs CF bat adaptations #12;Echolocating animals diversity Microchiroptera: 1000 species, 15 families, all echolocate Megachiroptera: 100 species, 1 family

  11. Workplace Diversity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nan Van Den Bergh

    1991-01-01

    This chapter describes the impact of changing demographic trends on the workplace and its implications for EAPs. Diversity is defined and examples of workplace diversity programs are shared. Additionally, a theoretical model explaining variance in the readiness of one to be culturally sensitive is offered. A model for supervisory training on managing diversity is shared as well as a model

  12. Rethinking Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Jack

    1992-01-01

    Managing diversity is about coping with unassimilated differences, about building systems and a culture that unite different people in a common pursuit without undermining their diversity. The goal of diversity training is a high performance organization rather than a climate in which no one's feathers are ruffled. (SK)

  13. From disk to ring: Aspect ratio control of the magnetoplasmonic response in Au/Co/Au nanostructures fabricated by hole-mask colloidal lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Hua Yu; Luo, Feng; Meneses-Rodríguez, David; Armelles, Gaspar; Cebollada, Alfonso

    2015-02-01

    Morphology tuning of a series of Au/Co/Au nanostructures which gradually evolve from disk to ring allows controlling their optical and magneto-optical spectral responses in the visible and near infrared ranges. This is achieved by the combined use of hole mask colloidal lithography with off-normal deposition and substrate rotation. The morphological parameters responsible for this control, the disk/ring outer diameter and height, are determined by the off-normal deposition angle and the amount of deposited material, respectively. The single dipolar symmetric resonance mode in nanodisk splits into two characteristics, low (symmetric) and high energy (antisymmetric) ring modes. The ring's high energy mode, determined by the rings' section, is basically independent of the deposition angle, while the low energy symmetric mode is basically controlled by the outer diameter/height aspect ratio for both disk-like and ring structures, and therefore allowing a fine tuning of the wavelength position of this resonance.

  14. Controllable synthesis of high aspect ratio Mg2B2O5 nanowires and their applications in reinforced polyhydroxyalkanoate composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Zhao-Jun; Chen, Jin-Peng; Lin, Jing; Fan, Ying; Liang, Chun-Yong; Wang, Hong-Shui; Xu, Xue-Wen; Hu, Long; Tang, Cheng-Chun

    2014-05-01

    Highly pure magnesium borate (Mg2B2O5) nanowires with an average diameter of ~ 30 nm, an average length of ~ 15 ?m, and a high aspect ratio of ~ 500 have been synthesized on a large scale via a two-step method. MgBO2(OH) nanowires with high aspect ratios were first prepared via a PVP-assisted hydrothermal technique. Using these nanowires as precursors, single crystalline Mg2B2O5 nanowires were synthesized by post-annealing treatment at a relatively low temperature of 700 °C. The important effect of the MgBO2(OH)—Mg2B2O5 conversion process on the morphology of the Mg2B2O5 nanowires was investigated and it was indicated that the recrystallization process plays an important role in the protection of the one-dimensional (1D) nanostructure. Moreover, the rigidity and the toughness of the Mg2B2O5 nanowire-reinforced PHA composites were tremendously improved compared to those of the pure PHA. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of Mg2B2O5 nanowires for reinforcement applications in polymer composites.

  15. Design verification and fabrication of active control systems for the DAST ARW-2 high aspect ratio wing. Part 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgehee, C. R.

    1986-01-01

    This is Part 2-Appendices of a study conducted under Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) Program to accomplish the final design and hardware fabrication for four active control systems compatible with and ready for installation in the NASA Aeroelastic Research Wing No. 2 (ARW-2) and Firebee II drone flight test vehicle. The wing structure was designed so that Active Control Systems (ACS) are required in the normal flight envelope by integrating control system design with aerodynamics and structure technologies. The DAST ARW-2 configuration uses flutter suppression, relaxed static stability, and gust and maneuver load alleviation ACS systems, and an automatic flight control system. Performance goals and criteria were applied to individual systems and the systems collectively to assure that vehicle stability margins, flutter margins, flying qualities, and load reductions were achieved.

  16. Geographical and environmental controls of palm beta diversity in paleo-riverine terrace forests in Amazonian Peru

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Signe Normand; Jaana Vormisto; Jens-Christian Svenning; César Grández; Henrik Balslev

    2006-01-01

    The palm (Arecaceae) community on low paleo-riverine terraces (terrace forest) in the north-western Amazon, is described, and we assessed the importance of environmental differences and geographic distance as drivers of its local (252 grain and 0–500 extent) and regional scale (5002 grain and 0.3–143 km extent) beta diversity using ordination, multiple regressions on distance matrices and Indicator Species Analysis. A

  17. Dynamic aspects and controllability of the MELiSSA project: a bioregenerative system to provide life support in space.

    PubMed

    Farges, Bérangère; Poughon, Laurent; Creuly, Catherine; Cornet, Jean-François; Dussap, Claude-Gilles; Lasseur, Christophe

    2008-12-01

    Manmade ecosystems differ from their prototype biosphere by the principle of control. The Earth Biosphere is sustainable by stochastic control and very large time constants. By contrast, in a closed ecosystem such as the micro-ecological life support system alternative (MELiSSA system) developed by the European Space Agency for space exploration, a deterministic control is a prerequisite of sustainable existence. MELiSSA is an integrated sum of interconnected biological subsystems. On one hand, all unit operations in charge of the elementary functions constitutive of the entire life support system are studied until a thorough understanding and mathematical modelling. On the other hand, the systemic approach of complex, highly branched systems with feedback loops is performed. This leads to study in the same perspective, with the same degree of accuracy and with the same language, waste degradation, water recycling, atmosphere revitalisation and food production systems prior to the integration of knowledge-based control models. This paper presents the mathematical modelling of the MELiSSA system and the interface between the control strategy of the entire system and the control of the bioreactors. PMID:18592407

  18. Functional Aspects of Gait in Essential Tremor: A Comparison with Age-Matched Parkinson’s Disease Cases, Dystonia Cases, and Controls

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Elan D.; Rao, Ashwini K.

    2015-01-01

    Background An understanding of the functional aspects of gait and balance has wide ramifications. Individuals with balance disorders often restrict physical activity, travel, and social commitments to avoid falling, and loss of balance confidence, itself, is a source of disability. We studied the functional aspects of gait in patients with essential tremor (ET), placing their findings within the context of two other neurological disorders (Parkinson’s disease [PD] and dystonia) and comparing them with age-matched controls. Methods We administered the six-item Activities of Balance Confidence (ABC-6) Scale and collected data on number of falls and near-falls, and use of walking aids in 422 participants (126 ET, 77 PD, 46 dystonia, 173 controls). Results Balance confidence was lowest in PD, intermediate in ET, and relatively preserved in dystonia compared with controls. This ordering reoccurred for each of the six ABC-6 items. The number of near-falls and falls followed a similar ordering. Use of canes, walkers, and wheelchairs was elevated in ET and even greater in PD. Several measures of balance confidence (ABC-6 items 1, 4, 5, and 6) were lower in torticollis cases than in those with blepharospasm, although the two groups did not differ with respect to falls or use of walking aids. Discussion Lower balance confidence, increased falls, and greater need for walking aids are variably features of a range of movement disorder patients compared to age-matched controls. While most marked among PD patients, these issues affected ET patients as well and, to a small degree, some patients with dystonia.

  19. Embracing Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roeck, Kathryn T.

    2009-01-01

    The high school art unit "Embracing Diversity" was the author's principal work towards the completion of a Masters thesis. The objective was to learn whether or not teaching an art unit that focused on sexual diversity could have a positive impact on the current culture one finds in high schools. The unit was found to have a positive impact on…

  20. Enjoying Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Renatta; Jones, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    Parents and teachers want their children to be safe and to learn the skills they will need to live successful lives in a competitive society. In a diverse and rapidly changing world where people are only an e-mail's blink away from all those strangers everywhere, then it would be safest in the long run to teach young children to "enjoy diversity."…

  1. Trypanosoma evansi and Surra: A Review and Perspectives on Transmission, Epidemiology and Control, Impact, and Zoonotic Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Desquesnes, Marc; Dargantes, Alan; Lai, De-Hua; Lun, Zhao-Rong; Holzmuller, Philippe; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the transmission modes of Trypanosoma evansi. Its worldwide distribution is attributed to mechanical transmission. While the role of tabanids is clear, we raise questions on the relative role of Haematobia sp. and the possible role of Stomoxys sp. in delayed transmission. A review of the available trypanocidal drugs and their efficacy in various host species is useful for understanding how they interact in disease epidemiology, which is complex. Although there are similarities with other mechanically transmitted trypanosomes, T. evansi has a more complex epidemiology due to the diversity of its hosts and vectors. The impact of clinical and subclinical disease is difficult to establish. A model was developed for buffaloes in the Philippines, which could be transferred to other places and livestock systems. Since Trypanosoma evansi was reported in humans, further research is required to investigate its zoonotic potential. Surra remains a potentially emerging disease that is a threat to Australia, Spain, and France. A number of questions about the disease have yet to be resolved. This brief review of the basic knowledge of T. evansi suggests that there is renewed interest in the parasite, which is spreading and has a major economic impact. PMID:24151595

  2. Tissue growth controlled by geometric boundary conditions: a simple model recapitulating aspects of callus formation and bone healing.

    PubMed

    Fischer, F Dieter; Zickler, Gerald A; Dunlop, John W C; Fratzl, Peter

    2015-06-01

    The shape of tissues arises from a subtle interplay between biochemical driving forces, leading to cell growth, division and extracellular matrix formation, and the physical constraints of the surrounding environment, giving rise to mechanical signals for the cells. Despite the inherent complexity of such systems, much can still be learnt by treating tissues that constantly remodel as simple fluids. In this approach, remodelling relaxes all internal stresses except for the pressure which is counterbalanced by the surface stress. Our model is used to investigate how wettable substrates influence the stability of tissue nodules. It turns out for a growing tissue nodule in free space, the model predicts only two states: either the tissue shrinks and disappears, or it keeps growing indefinitely. However, as soon as the tissue wets a substrate, stable equilibrium configurations become possible. Furthermore, by investigating more complex substrate geometries, such as tissue growing at the end of a hollow cylinder, we see features reminiscent of healing processes in long bones, such as the existence of a critical gap size above which healing does not occur. Despite its simplicity, the model may be useful in describing various aspects related to tissue growth, including biofilm formation and cancer metastases. PMID:26018964

  3. Vertical Profile Control in Ultrahigh-Aspect-Ratio Contact Hole Etching with 0.05-µm-Diameter Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikegami, Naokatsu; Yabata, Atsushi; Liu, Guo; Uchida, Hidetsugu; Hirashita, Norio; Kanamori, Jun

    1998-04-01

    Vertical processing of 0.05-µm-class SiO2 holes with an aspect ratio around 20 was realized using a dipole-ring-type magnetron reactive-ion-etching system in a mixture of C4F8/O2/Ar gas. Secondary ion mass spectrometric study of the F and C concentration profiles of the polymer deposited inside the holes in the depth direction revealed that a very small amount of polymer deposition occurred in this system. This indicates that energetic species reached the hole bottoms with excellent verticality, even in an extremely fine feature. In contrast, the CHF3/CO process (tapered shape) resulted in an extremely thick polymer and carbonized region on the sidewalls, suggesting the presence of energetic species sticking to the sidewalls. The effects of energetic species impinging onto the sidewalls and the protection resulting from polymer deposition have been discussed in terms of the etched shape and F/C depth profile. Vertical incidence of the energetic species into the holes is concluded to be a significant factor in realizing a vertical profile.

  4. Physical and theoretical aspects of a new vacuum arc control technology-self arc diffusion by electrode: SADE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Homma; H. Somei; Y. Niwa; K. Yokokura; I. Ohshima

    1998-01-01

    Our new vacuum arc control technology: SADE doubles the high current interruption capability of our conventional AMF technology. First, we describe the vacuum arc motion behavior recorded by a high speed CCD video camera. This arc behavior is closely related to axial magnetic field intensity. In particular, it depends on the profile of the externally generated axial magnetic field. The

  5. Physical and theoretical aspects of a new vacuum arc control technology-self arc diffusion by electrode: SADE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mitsutaka Homma; H. Somei; Y. Niwa; K. Yokokura; I. Ohshima

    1999-01-01

    Our new vacuum arc control technology SADE doubles the high current interruption capability of our conventional axial magnetic field technology. First, we describe the vacuum arc motion behavior recorded by a high speed charge-coupled device video camera. This arc behavior is closely related to axial magnetic field intensity. In particular, it depends on the profile of the externally generated axial

  6. Theme: Supporting Professional Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Eddie A.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Includes "Supporting Diversity" (Moore); "Reflections on the Need for Diversity" (Bowen); "Understanding Impediments to Diversity in Agricultural Education" (Whent); "Mentoring Diverse Populations" (Jones); "Supporting Diversity: An Unfinished Agenda" (Moore); "Professorial Roles in Supporting Diversity in Teaching, Research, and University…

  7. High-order myopic coronagraphic phase diversity (COFFEE) for wave-front control in high-contrast imaging systems.

    PubMed

    Paul, B; Mugnier, L M; Sauvage, J-F; Dohlen, K; Ferrari, M

    2013-12-30

    The estimation and compensation of quasi-static aberrations is mandatory to reach the ultimate performance of high-contrast imaging systems. COFFEE is a focal plane wave-front sensing method that consists in the extension of phase diversity to high-contrast imaging systems. Based on a Bayesian approach, it estimates the quasi-static aberrations from two focal plane images recorded from the scientific camera itself. In this paper, we present COFFEE's extension which allows an estimation of low and high order aberrations with nanometric precision for any coronagraphic device. The performance is evaluated by realistic simulations, performed in the SPHERE instrument framework. We develop a myopic estimation that allows us to take into account an imperfect knowledge on the used diversity phase. Lastly, we evaluate COFFEE's performance in a compensation process, to optimize the contrast on the detector, and show it allows one to reach the 10(-6) contrast required by SPHERE at a few resolution elements from the star. Notably, we present a non-linear energy minimization method which can be used to reach very high contrast levels (better than 10(7) in a SPHERE-like context). PMID:24514771

  8. Inhibitory Control in Preschool Predicts Early Math Skills in First Grade: Evidence from an Ethnically Diverse Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Florrie Fei-Yin; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Sze, Irene Nga-Lam

    2015-01-01

    Preschoolers' inhibitory control and early math skills were concurrently and longitudinally examined in 255 Chinese, African American, Dominican, and Mexican 4-year-olds in the United States. Inhibitory control at age 4, assessed with a peg-tapping task, was associated with early math skills at age 4 and predicted growth in such skills from…

  9. Leadership and Diversity: Theory and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumby, Jacky; Morrison, Marlene

    2010-01-01

    Diversity has become a ubiquitous term within education, often harnessed with a second concept, that of inclusion. Despite heightened interest, theorists in education leadership have remained relatively uninterested in multiple aspects of identity and diversity. This article explores the epistemological and methodological implications of moving…

  10. Topographic Controls on Spatial Patterns of Soil Texture and Moisture in a Semi-arid Montane Catchment with Aspect-Dependent Vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehman, B. M.; Niemann, J. D.

    2008-12-01

    Soil moisture exerts significant control over the partitioning of latent and sensible energy fluxes, the magnitude of both vertical and lateral water fluxes, the physiological and water-use characteristics of vegetation, and nutrient cycling. Considerable progress has been made in determining how soil characteristics, topography, and vegetation influence spatial patterns of soil moisture in humid environments at the catchment, hillslope, and plant scales. However, understanding of the controls on soil moisture patterns beyond the plant scale in semi-arid environments remains more limited. This study examines the relationships between the spatial patterns of near surface soil moisture (upper 5 cm), terrain indices, and soil properties in a small, semi-arid, montane catchment. The 8 ha catchment, located in the Cache La Poudre River Canyon in north-central Colorado, has a total relief of 115 m and an average elevation of 2193 m. It is characterized by steep slopes and shallow, gravelly/sandy soils with scattered granite outcroppings. Depth to bedrock ranges from 0 m to greater than 1 m. Vegetation in the catchment is highly correlated with topographic aspect. In particular, north-facing hillslopes are predominately vegetated by ponderosa pines, while south-facing slopes are mostly vegetated by several shrub species. Soil samples were collected at a 30 m resolution to characterize soil texture and bulk density, and several datasets consisting of more than 300 point measurements of soil moisture were collected using time domain reflectometry (TDR) between Fall 2007 and Summer 2008 at a 15 m resolution. Results from soil textural analysis performed with sieving and the ASTM standard hydrometer method show that soil texture is finer on the north-facing hillslope than on the south-facing hillslope. Cos(aspect) is the best univariate predictor of silts, while slope is the best predictor of coarser fractions up to fine gravel. Bulk density increases with depth but shows no significant relationship with topographic indices. When the catchment average soil moisture is low, the variance of soil moisture increases with the average. When the average is high, the variance remains relatively constant. Little of the variation in soil moisture is explained by topographic indices when the catchment is either very wet or dry; however, when the average soil moisture takes on intermediate values, cos(aspect) is consistently the best predictor among the terrain indices considered.

  11. Driver choice compared to controlled diversion for a freeway double on-ramp in the framework of three-phase traffic theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, L. C.

    2008-11-01

    Two diversion schemes that apportion demand between two on-ramps to reduce congestion and improve throughput on a freeway are analyzed. In the first scheme, drivers choose to merge or to divert to a downstream on-ramp based on information about average travel times for the two routes: (1) merge and travel on the freeway or (2) divert and travel on a surface street with merging downstream. The flow, rate of merging at the ramps, and the travel times oscillate strongly, but irregularly, due to delayed feedback. In the second scheme, diversion is controlled by the average mainline velocities just upstream of the on-ramps. Driver choice is not involved. If the average upstream velocity on the mainline drops below a predetermined value (20 m/s) vehicles are diverted to the downstream ramp. When the average mainline velocity downstream becomes too low, diversion is no longer permitted. The resultant oscillations in this scheme are nearly periodic. The period is dominated by the response time of the mainline to interruption of merging rather than delayed feedback, which contributes only a minor component linear in the distance separating the on-ramps. In general the second scheme produces more effective congestion reduction and greater throughput. Also the travel times for on-ramp drivers are less than that obtained by drivers who attempt to minimize their own travel times (first scheme). The simulations are done using the Kerner-Klenov stochastic three-phase theory of traffic [B.S. Kerner, S.L. Klenov, Phys. Rev. E 68 (2003) 036130].

  12. Primate cranial diversity.

    PubMed

    Fleagle, John G; Gilbert, Christopher C; Baden, Andrea L

    2010-08-01

    Many studies in primate and human evolution focus on aspects of cranial morphology to address issues of systematics, phylogeny, and functional anatomy. However, broad analyses of cranial diversity within Primates as an Order are notably absent. In this study, we present a 3D geometric morphometric analysis of primate cranial morphology, providing a multivariate comparison of the major patterns of cranial shape change during primate evolution and quantitative assessments of cranial diversity among different clades. We digitized a set of 18 landmarks designed to capture overall cranial shape on male and female crania representing 66 genera of living primates. The landmark data were aligned using a Generalized Procrustes Analysis and then subjected to a principal components analysis to identify the major axes of cranial variation. Cranial diversity among clades was compared using multivariate measurements of variance. The first principal component axis reflects differences in cranial flexion, orbit size and orientation, and relative neurocranial volume. In general, it separates strepsirrhines from anthropoids. The second axis reflects differences in relative cranial height and snout length and primarily describes differences among anthropoids. Eulemur, Mandrillus, Pongo, and Homo are among the extremes in cranial shape. Anthropoids, catarrhines, and haplorhines show a higher variance than prosimians or strepsirrhines. Hominoids show the highest variance in cranial shape among extant primate clades, and much of this diversity is driven by the unique cranium of Homo sapiens. PMID:20186744

  13. Biodiversity in riverbank techniques for erosion control: assessment of animal and plant species diversity along a natural gradient.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Biodiversity in riverbank techniques for erosion control: assessment of animal and plant species * Corresponding author: paul.cavaille@cemagref.fr Keywords: beetles, biodiversity, ecological restoration, plant.). However, whether such installations can accommodate natural biodiversity has not been well assessed

  14. Genetic and antigenic diversity of Theileria parva in cattle in Eastern and Southern zones of Tanzania. A study to support control of East Coast fever.

    PubMed

    Elisa, Mwega; Hasan, Salih Dia; Moses, Njahira; Elpidius, Rukambile; Skilton, Robert; Gwakisa, Paul

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the genetic and antigenic diversity of Theileria parva in cattle from the Eastern and Southern zones of Tanzania. Thirty-nine (62%) positive samples were genotyped using 14 mini- and microsatellite markers with coverage of all four T. parva chromosomes. Wright's F index (F(ST) = 0 × 094) indicated a high level of panmixis. Linkage equilibrium was observed in the two zones studied, suggesting existence of a panmyctic population. In addition, sequence analysis of CD8+ T-cell target antigen genes Tp1 revealed a single protein sequence in all samples analysed, which is also present in the T. parva Muguga strain, which is a component of the FAO1 vaccine. All Tp2 epitope sequences were identical to those in the T. parva Muguga strain, except for one variant of a Tp2 epitope, which is found in T. parva Kiambu 5 strain, also a component the FAO1 vaccine. Neighbour joining tree of the nucleotide sequences of Tp2 showed clustering according to geographical origin. Our results show low genetic and antigenic diversity of T. parva within the populations analysed. This has very important implications for the development of sustainable control measures for T. parva in Eastern and Southern zones of Tanzania, where East Coast fever is endemic. PMID:25417727

  15. Some aspects of the biology and control using botanicals of the rice moth, Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton), on some pulses.

    PubMed

    Allotey; Azalekor

    2000-07-01

    The life cycle of Corcyra cephalonica was studied under ambient laboratory conditions (temperature range 27.5-30 degrees C and 60-73% r.h.) on groundnut, bambara groundnut and cowpea. The mean developmental period ranged from 33.2+/-0.2 to 45.3+/-1.8 days on whole, broken and powdered forms of the food media. Egg hatchability was found to be 83%, while adult longevity ranged from 1.5+/-0.5 to 11.9+/-1.3 days for males and 1.5+/-0.5 to 16.5+/-1.2 days for females. Sex ratio (male symbol:female symbol) of emerged adults ranged from 1:1 to 1:2.1. Mean fecundities ranged from 128+/-5 to 157+/-8 on the food media. In experiments to assess the insecticidal potential of three plant materials against C. cephalonica, Eichhornia crassipes powder showed a higher efficacy than both Citrus sinensis peel powder and the leaf powder of Chromolaena odorata at dosages of 0.5-2.0 g per 40 g of legume seed. At the higher dosage of 2.5 g, C. sinensis was more effective and reduced the population of C. cephalonica by half when compared to the population in control jars over a period of 1.5 months. PMID:10758262

  16. What Makes Racial Diversity Work in Higher Education: Academic Leaders Present Successful Policies and Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Frank W., Jr., Ed.

    The essays in this collection establish the case for racial diversity , outline the challenges diversity offers the academic community, presents examples of how some institutions have developed successful models of diversity, and discusses how the history of racial diversity has influenced aspects of diversity today. Following a foreword,…

  17. Comparative studies on the effects of Bt-transgenic and nontransgenic cotton on arthropod diversity, seedcotton yield and bollworms control.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, M K; Sharma, H C

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of commercial Bt-cotton in pest management, influence on arthropod diversity, natural enemies, and toxin flow in the insect fauna under field conditions were studied keeping in view the need to assess bioefficacy and biosafety of Bt-transgenic cotton. There were no significant differences in oviposition by Helicoverpa armigera on Bt-transgenic and non-transgenic cottons (9.2 versus 9.6 eggs plants(-100)), while the numbers of H. armigera larvae were significantly more on non-transgenic than on Bt-transgenic (10.4 versus 4.0 larvae plants(-100)) cotton. The Bt-cotton had significantly more number of mature opened bolls (9.6 versus 4.4 bolls plant(-1)), lower bollworm damage (12.8 versus 40.2% bolls damaged), and higher seedcotton yield (667.7 versus 231.7 kg ha 1). Population of cotton leafhopper, Amrasca biguttula biguttula was lower (582.2 versus 732.2 leafhoppers plants(-100)), while that of whitefly, Bemisia tabaci was higher on Bt-transgenic (65.2 versus 45.6 whiteflies plants(-100)) than on non-transgenic cotton. There was no significant influence of Bt-transgenic cotton on abundance of natural enemies of crop pests - chrysopids (9.6 versus 8.4 chrysopids plants(-100), ladybird beetles (16.0 versus 10.8 ladybirds plants(-100)), and spiders (128.4 versus 142.8 spiders plants(-100)). There were no significant differences in H. ormigera egg (19.8 versus 20.9%), larval (7.4 versus 9.6%), and larval-pupal (1.3 versus 2.9%) parasitism on Bt-transgenic and non-transgenic cottons in the farmer's fields. The parasitism in larvae of H. armigera was far lower than that of the eggs, which might be because of early mortality of H. armigera prior to parasitoid development in the host larvae. Although, Cry1Ac Bt toxin was detected in Cheilomenes sexmoculatus, chrysopids, A. bigutulla bigutulla, Thrips taboci, Myllocerus sp., Oxycarenus laetus, Dysdercus koenigii, spiders, bugs, and grasshoppers, no significant differences were observed in their abundance on Bt-transgenic and non-transgenic cottons, suggesting that there were no adverse effects of Bt-cotton on the arthropod diversity under field conditions. PMID:24006809

  18. GABAergic Control of Neurite Outgrowth and Remodeling During Development and Adult Neurogenesis: General Rules and Differences in Diverse Systems

    PubMed Central

    Sernagor, Evelyne; Chabrol, François; Bony, Guillaume; Cancedda, Laura

    2010-01-01

    During development, Gamma-aminobutyric acidergic (GABAergic) neurons mature at early stages, long before excitatory neurons. Conversely, GABA reuptake transporters become operative later than glutamate transporters. GABA is therefore not removed efficiently from the extracellular domain and it can exert significant paracrine effects. Hence, GABA-mediated activity is a prominent source of overall neural activity in developing CNS networks, while neurons extend dendrites and axons, and establish synaptic connections. One of the unique features of GABAergic functional plasticity is that in early development, activation of GABAA receptors results in depolarizing (mainly excitatory) responses and Ca2+ influx. Although there is strong evidence from several areas of the CNS that GABA plays a significant role in neurite growth not only during development but also during adult neurogenesis, surprisingly little effort has been made into putting all these observations into a common framework in an attempt to understand the general rules that regulate these basic and evolutionary well-conserved processes. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge in this important field. In order to decipher common, universal features and highlight differences between systems throughout development, we compare findings about dendritic proliferation and remodeling in different areas of the nervous system and species, and we also review recent evidence for a role in axonal elongation. In addition to early developmental aspects, we also consider the GABAergic role in dendritic growth during adult neurogenesis, extending our discussion to the roles played by GABA during dendritic proliferation in early developing networks versus adult, well established networks. PMID:20428495

  19. Circling the Wagons: Agriculturalists and Conservation Biologists Must Cooperate to Protect Endemic Hawaiian Invertebrate Diversity and Control Invasive Species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Rubinoff

    2007-01-01

    Conservation of native Hawaiian insects and suppression of invasive spe- cies are intrinsically connected propositions. The isolation of the Hawaiian Islands has produced a large endemic insect fauna that is ill equipped to compete with the onslaught of species that have been intentionally or inadvertently unleashed. However, most of the data needed to effectively preserve natives and control invasive species

  20. Representative Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacklin, Phil

    1978-01-01

    Presents eight propositions for different kinds of diversity, in order of importance, based on relevance to democracy; specifically, relevance to openness in the marketplace of ideas, and to creation of the system of communications which is least restrictive of freedom of speech and of the press. (JMF)

  1. PLANT DIVERSITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Habitat change statistics and species-area curves were used to estimate the effects of alternative future scenarios for agriculture on plant diversity in Iowa farmlands. Study areas were two watersheds in central Iowa of about 50 and 90 square kilometers, respectively. Future s...

  2. Cyber Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    1998-01-01

    A Central Michigan University course in African-American literature, attended mostly by whites, is joined by black students and their professor at the University of Arkansas, Pine Bluff, for lectures and discussions by teleconference. Technology is the tool used for increasing diversity in the teaching/learning experience. But, team teaching…

  3. Diversity Trailblazer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Reginald

    2012-01-01

    When Dr. Kumea Shorter-Gooden took on her newly created job this month at the University of Maryland's flagship College Park campus, she assumed a challenge at the school with a lot riding on her shoulders--helping the University of Maryland strengthen its diversity efforts and, thus, its relevance to the state in the future and standing among the…

  4. Contribution of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Inhibitory Control to Assess the Neurobiological Aspects of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Baptista, Abrahão Fontes; de Sena, Eduardo Pondé

    2015-01-01

    Background The applicability of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has not yet been investigated. This low-cost, non-invasive, and safe technique optimized to modulate the inhibitory response might be a useful treatment option for those affected by this condition. Objective The aim of this single center, parallel, randomized, double-blinded, sham-controlled trial is to investigate the efficacy of transcranial direct current stimulation over the prefrontal cortex on the modulation of inhibitory control in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Methods A total of 60 individuals will be divided into 2 groups by block randomization to receive active or sham stimulation. Anodal stimulation over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex will be applied at 1 mA during a single 20-minute session. Before and after interventions, subjects will perform 2 go/no go tasks and the brain electrical activity will be recorded by electroencephalogram (EEG) with 32 channels, according to the 10-20 international EEG system. Results The trial began in May 2013 and we are currently performing the statistical analysis for the secondary outcomes. Conclusions The findings from this study will provide preliminary results about the role of prefrontal cortex activation through tDCS on ADHD patients. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01968512; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01968512 (Archived by WebCite at www.webcitation.org/6YMSW2tkD). PMID:25986784

  5. Biological principles of microRNA-mediated regulation: shared themes amid diversity.

    PubMed

    Flynt, Alex S; Lai, Eric C

    2008-11-01

    Regulation of gene activity by microRNAs is critical to myriad aspects of eukaryotic development and physiology. Amidst an extensive regulatory web that is predicted to involve thousands of transcripts, emergent themes are now beginning to illustrate how microRNAs have been incorporated into diverse settings. These include potent inhibition of individual key targets, fine-tuning of target activity, the coordinated regulation of target batteries, and the reversibility of some aspects of microRNA-mediated repression. Such themes may reflect some of the inherent advantages of exploiting microRNA control in biological circuits, and provide insight into the consequences of microRNA dysfunction in disease. PMID:18852696

  6. Exploiting Multiuser Diversity in Wireless ALOHA Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiangping Qin; Randall Berry

    2001-01-01

    In wireless networks, diversity techniques are widely used to compensate for the un- stable environment. Multiuser diversity has recently received attention in the literature. The idea of multiuser diversity has its roots in (1), where a centralized power control scheme for maximizing the information theoretic capacity of the uplink of a single cell is studied. The optimal strategy is shown

  7. Supporting Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Betty, Ed.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This newsletter feature issue focuses on services for persons with developmental disabilities that support the whole person by acknowledging, respecting, and incorporating aspects of identity such as race, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, gender, age, and class. Articles include: (1) "Serving the Whole Person: The Journey to Embracing…

  8. Microbial Diversity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Increasingly, a number of textbook companies are offering complementary access to materials related to their printed textbooks, and in a few instances, they offer users access to the entire textbook. Blackwell Publishing has created this website to offer students and others access to sections of Professor Oladele Ogunseitan's textbook, "Microbial Diversity". Professor Ogunseitan's book is a comprehensive look into the world of microbial diversity, and it spells out the impact of microorganisms on ecological and earth system phenomena. On the site, visitors can click on the "Contents" tab to look over selected chapters (such as "Environmental Evolution"), and then look at the complete "Glossary" area. Perhaps the best feature on the entire site is the "Student Resources" section. Here visitors can take advantage of helpful external links related to this area of study, interviews with researchers in the field, and other related matters.

  9. Biliopancreatic Diversion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicola Scopinaro; Gian Franco Adami; Giuseppe M. Marinari; Ezio Gianetta; Enrico Traverso; Daniele Friedman; Giovanni Camerini; Giorgio Baschieri; Alessandro Simonelli

    1998-01-01

    . Biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) has made reacceptable the malabsorptive approach to the surgical treatment of obesity.\\u000a The procedure, in a series of 2241 patients operated on during a 21-year period, caused a mean permanent reduction of about\\u000a 75% of the initial excess weight. The indefinite weight maintenance appears to be due to the existence of a threshold absorption\\u000a capacity for

  10. Impacts of plant diversity on biomass production increase through time because of species complementarity.

    PubMed

    Cardinale, Bradley J; Wright, Justin P; Cadotte, Marc W; Carroll, Ian T; Hector, Andy; Srivastava, Diane S; Loreau, Michel; Weis, Jerome J

    2007-11-13

    Accelerating rates of species extinction have prompted a growing number of researchers to manipulate the richness of various groups of organisms and examine how this aspect of diversity impacts ecological processes that control the functioning of ecosystems. We summarize the results of 44 experiments that have manipulated the richness of plants to examine how plant diversity affects the production of biomass. We show that mixtures of species produce an average of 1.7 times more biomass than species monocultures and are more productive than the average monoculture in 79% of all experiments. However, in only 12% of all experiments do diverse polycultures achieve greater biomass than their single most productive species. Previously, a positive net effect of diversity that is no greater than the most productive species has been interpreted as evidence for selection effects, which occur when diversity maximizes the chance that highly productive species will be included in and ultimately dominate the biomass of polycultures. Contrary to this, we show that although productive species do indeed contribute to diversity effects, these contributions are equaled or exceeded by species complementarity, where biomass is augmented by biological processes that involve multiple species. Importantly, both the net effect of diversity and the probability of polycultures being more productive than their most productive species increases through time, because the magnitude of complementarity increases as experiments are run longer. Our results suggest that experiments to date have, if anything, underestimated the impacts of species extinction on the productivity of ecosystems. PMID:17991772

  11. Impacts of plant diversity on biomass production increase through time because of species complementarity

    PubMed Central

    Cardinale, Bradley J.; Wright, Justin P.; Cadotte, Marc W.; Carroll, Ian T.; Hector, Andy; Srivastava, Diane S.; Loreau, Michel; Weis, Jerome J.

    2007-01-01

    Accelerating rates of species extinction have prompted a growing number of researchers to manipulate the richness of various groups of organisms and examine how this aspect of diversity impacts ecological processes that control the functioning of ecosystems. We summarize the results of 44 experiments that have manipulated the richness of plants to examine how plant diversity affects the production of biomass. We show that mixtures of species produce an average of 1.7 times more biomass than species monocultures and are more productive than the average monoculture in 79% of all experiments. However, in only 12% of all experiments do diverse polycultures achieve greater biomass than their single most productive species. Previously, a positive net effect of diversity that is no greater than the most productive species has been interpreted as evidence for selection effects, which occur when diversity maximizes the chance that highly productive species will be included in and ultimately dominate the biomass of polycultures. Contrary to this, we show that although productive species do indeed contribute to diversity effects, these contributions are equaled or exceeded by species complementarity, where biomass is augmented by biological processes that involve multiple species. Importantly, both the net effect of diversity and the probability of polycultures being more productive than their most productive species increases through time, because the magnitude of complementarity increases as experiments are run longer. Our results suggest that experiments to date have, if anything, underestimated the impacts of species extinction on the productivity of ecosystems. PMID:17991772

  12. Bioengineering applied to erosion and stability control in the North Apennines (Emilia-Romagna Region, Italy): a check about critical aspects of the works.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selli, Lavinia; Cavazza, Claudio; Pavanelli, Donatella

    2013-04-01

    Because of its geological structure, in the Emilia-Romagna Region over 32,000 landslides have been identified. Several works have been made in order to control mass movement's dynamics and to secure of Reno and Lamone Mountain Basin Rivers, the road network and near by villages and towns. Most of the control works dealt with bioengineering practices: palisades piles, geotextiles, seedings, surface flow control works, dikes within main drainage ditches. In order to check about critical aspects related to the use of these techniques in the Apennines, a survey in this basins was designed with specific interest in the several kinds of works realised, in which plant species were mostly used and in the factors that affected the success or failure of the works. Territory encompasses steep slopes covered with woods to low reliefs covered with grasslands. It is characterized by prevailing clays, inducing instability, and arenaceous lithology with impermeable soils; drainage density is quite high and hillsides suffer extensive and severe erosion and slope stability problems. Chestnut woods mainly represent land use at higher altitudes, while coppice, pastures and crops are present on milder hillsides. The remaining part of the basin is covered by vineyards, orchards, ponds and urban areas, which are basically located in the valley floor. Precipitation events mainly consist of rainfall ranging between 950-1015 mm per year; few snowfalls occur during winter and a long dry season lasts from June until September. We have analyzed 187 works designed mainly for the consolidation of slope instabilities through a widespread enhancement of the vegetation cover. The surveyed works are classified as a function of their building features: it can be seen that cribwalls and palisades are by far the most common types, being the 24% and the 34% respectively of the works. As far as the most adopted plant species, they were silver willow (Salix alba), Spanish Broom (Spartium Junceum) and purple willow (Salix purpurea). Only the 25% of the interventions was accomplished by the use of secondary plant species, as tamarisk (Tamarix spp.,) blackthorn (Prunus spinosa) , whitethorn (Crataegus spp.), sea-buckthorn (Hipphopae rhamnoides), wild pear (Pyrus pyraster), cottonwood (Populus nigra), eglantine (Rosa spp.), goat-willow (Salix caprea) and cornel (Cornus sanguinea). Better results were achieved with Spanish Broom, a very rural plant that can effectively colonise even poor soils like badlands; as a matter of fact, more than the 75% of the interventions had positive outcomes The efficacy of the consolidation work by the presence of living structures point out an increase of the stability of those interventions older than 4 years, with taking root species present from 54% to 78%. So far, the construction and the reliability of the works have been monitored, in order to capture critical aspects for the success of works and to build a geo-referenced data base of the existing works and their status.

  13. Plant diversity predicts beta but not alpha diversity of soil microbes across grasslands worldwide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prober, Suzanne M.; Leff, Jonathan W.; Bates, Scott T.; Borer, Elizabeth T.; Firn, Jennifer; Harpole, W. Stanley; Lind, Eric M.; Seabloom, Eric W.; Adler, Peter B.; Bakker, Jonathan D.; Cleland, Elsa E.; DeCrappeo, Nicole; DeLorenze, Elizabeth; Hagenah, Nicole; Hautier, Yann; Hofmockel, Kirsten S.; Kirkman, Kevin P.; Knops, Johannes M. H.; La Pierre, Kimberly J.; MacDougall, Andrew S.; McCulley, Rebecca L.; Mitchell, Charles E.; Risch, Anita C.; Schuetz, Martin; Stevens, Carly J.; Williams, Ryan J.; Fierer, Noah

    2015-01-01

    Aboveground–belowground interactions exert critical controls on the composition and function of terrestrial ecosystems, yet the fundamental relationships between plant diversity and soil microbial diversity remain elusive. Theory predicts predominantly positive associations but tests within single sites have shown variable relationships, and associations between plant and microbial diversity across broad spatial scales remain largely unexplored. We compared the diversity of plant, bacterial, archaeal and fungal communities in one hundred and forty-five 1 m2 plots across 25 temperate grassland sites from four continents. Across sites, the plant alpha diversity patterns were poorly related to those observed for any soil microbial group. However, plant beta diversity (compositional dissimilarity between sites) was significantly correlated with the beta diversity of bacterial and fungal communities, even after controlling for environmental factors. Thus, across a global range of temperate grasslands, plant diversity can predict patterns in the composition of soil microbial communities, but not patterns in alpha diversity.

  14. Effects of N-glycan precursor length diversity on quality control of protein folding and on protein glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Samuelson, John; Robbins, Phillips W

    2015-05-01

    Asparagine-linked glycans (N-glycans) of medically important protists have much to tell us about the evolution of N-glycosylation and of N-glycan-dependent quality control (N-glycan QC) of protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum. While host N-glycans are built upon a dolichol-pyrophosphate-linked precursor with 14 sugars (Glc3Man9GlcNAc2), protist N-glycan precursors vary from Glc3Man9GlcNAc2 (Acanthamoeba) to Man9GlcNAc2 (Trypanosoma) to Glc3Man5GlcNAc2 (Toxoplasma) to Man5GlcNAc2 (Entamoeba, Trichomonas, and Eimeria) to GlcNAc2 (Plasmodium and Giardia) to zero (Theileria). As related organisms have differing N-glycan lengths (e.g. Toxoplasma, Eimeria, Plasmodium, and Theileria), the present N-glycan variation is based upon secondary loss of Alg genes, which encode enzymes that add sugars to the N-glycan precursor. An N-glycan precursor with Man5GlcNAc2 is necessary but not sufficient for N-glycan QC, which is predicted by the presence of the UDP-glucose:glucosyltransferase (UGGT) plus calreticulin and/or calnexin. As many parasites lack glucose in their N-glycan precursor, UGGT product may be identified by inhibition of glucosidase II. The presence of an armless calnexin in Toxoplasma suggests secondary loss of N-glycan QC from coccidia. Positive selection for N-glycan sites occurs in secreted proteins of organisms with N-glycan QC and is based upon an increased likelihood of threonine but not serine in the +2 position versus asparagine. In contrast, there appears to be selection against N-glycan length in Plasmodium and N-glycan site density in Toxoplasma. Finally, there is suggestive evidence for N-glycan-dependent ERAD in Trichomonas, which glycosylates and degrades the exogenous reporter mutant carboxypeptidase Y (CPY*). PMID:25475176

  15. Valuing Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Fryer, Roland G.; Loury, Glenn C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the economics of diversity-enhancing policies. A model is proposed in which heterogeneous agents, distinguished by skill level and social identity, purchase productive opportunities in a competitive market. We analyze policies designed to raise the status of a disadvantaged identity group. When agent identity is contractible, efficient policy grants preferred access to slots but offers no direct assistance for acquiring skills. When identity is not contractible, efficient policy provides universal subsidies to skill development when the fraction of the disadvantaged group at the skill development margin is larger than their share at the slot assignment margin. PMID:25525280

  16. Diversity SurveyDiversity Survey Spring 2003

    E-print Network

    a better job of achieving a campus or workplace that reflects diversity. 82 89 80 90 100 48 50 60 70 80 FacDiversity SurveyDiversity Survey Spring 2003 #12;Community Relations CommitteeCommittee #12;Who Year 113 125 Freshmen Sophomores 178 Sophomores Juniors Seniors 166 #12;Status of diversity at Furman

  17. Effectiveness of Housing First with Intensive Case Management in an Ethnically Diverse Sample of Homeless Adults with Mental Illness: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Stergiopoulos, Vicky; Gozdzik, Agnes; Misir, Vachan; Skosireva, Anna; Connelly, Jo; Sarang, Aseefa; Whisler, Adam; Hwang, Stephen W.; O’Campo, Patricia; McKenzie, Kwame

    2015-01-01

    Housing First (HF) is being widely disseminated in efforts to end homelessness among homeless adults with psychiatric disabilities. This study evaluates the effectiveness of HF with Intensive Case Management (ICM) among ethnically diverse homeless adults in an urban setting. 378 participants were randomized to HF with ICM or treatment-as-usual (TAU) in Toronto (Canada), and followed for 24 months. Measures of effectiveness included housing stability, physical (EQ5D-VAS) and mental (CSI, GAIN-SS) health, social functioning (MCAS), quality of life (QoLI20), and health service use. Two-thirds of the sample (63%) was from racialized groups and half (50%) were born outside Canada. Over the 24 months of follow-up, HF participants spent a significantly greater percentage of time in stable residences compared to TAU participants (75.1% 95% CI 70.5 to 79.7 vs. 39.3% 95% CI 34.3 to 44.2, respectively). Similarly, community functioning (MCAS) improved significantly from baseline in HF compared to TAU participants (change in mean difference = +1.67 95% CI 0.04 to 3.30). There was a significant reduction in the number of days spent experiencing alcohol problems among the HF compared to TAU participants at 24 months (ratio of rate ratios = 0.47 95% CI 0.22 to 0.99) relative to baseline, a reduction of 53%. Although the number of emergency department visits and days in hospital over 24 months did not differ significantly between HF and TAU participants, fewer HF participants compared to TAU participants had 1 or more hospitalizations during this period (70.4% vs. 81.1%, respectively; P=0.044). Compared to non-racialized HF participants, racialized HF participants saw an increase in the amount of money spent on alcohol (change in mean difference = $112.90 95% CI 5.84 to 219.96) and a reduction in physical community integration (ratio of rate ratios = 0.67 95% CI 0.47 to 0.96) from baseline to 24 months. Secondary analyses found a significant reduction in the number of days experiencing problems due to alcohol use among foreign-born (vs. Canadian-born) HF participants at 24 months (ratio of rate ratios = 0.19 95% 0.04 to 0.88), relative to baseline. Compared to usual care, HF with ICM can improve housing stability and community functioning and reduce the days of alcohol related problems in an ethnically diverse sample of homeless adults with mental illness within 2-years. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN42520374. PMID:26176621

  18. Job aspects in the School Psychology Service: Empirically distinct associations with positive challenge at work, perceived control at work, and job attitudes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thormod Idsoe

    2006-01-01

    Activities within the Norwegian School Psychology Service traditionally concentrate on assessment of individuals in need and report writing (individual-level treatment). In recent years, a more “systemic” job aspect, providing preschool\\/school staff with tools to prevent the emergence of problems (systemic-level prevention) has been in demand. This study investigates the predictive value of these distinct aspects of work behaviour in the

  19. Synthetic Approaches to Skeletally Diverse Sultams Using Vinyl- and ?-Halo Benzenesulfonamides

    E-print Network

    Jeon, KyuOk

    2012-08-31

    The development of new chemical methods to generate novel and diverse structures to probe chemical space is an important aspect of early phase drug discovery. Diversity-Oriented Synthesis (DOS) is a powerful strategy that ...

  20. A Brief Overview of Population Diversity Measures in Genetic Programming

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    A Brief Overview of Population Diversity Measures in Genetic Programming Nguyen Thi Hien1, Nguyen a diversity measurement and controls this quantitative metric to maintain genetically diverse populations in a population. In Genetic Programming (GP), population diversity has been long considered as an important

  1. Cell wall evolution and diversity

    PubMed Central

    Fangel, Jonatan U.; Ulvskov, Peter; Knox, J. P.; Mikkelsen, Maria D.; Harholt, Jesper; Popper, Zoë A.; Willats, William G.T.

    2012-01-01

    Plant cell walls display a considerable degree of diversity in their compositions and molecular architectures. In some cases the functional significance of a particular cell wall type appears to be easy to discern: secondary cells walls are often reinforced with lignin that provides durability; the thin cell walls of pollen tubes have particular compositions that enable their tip growth; lupin seed cell walls are characteristically thickened with galactan used as a storage polysaccharide. However, more frequently the evolutionary mechanisms and selection pressures that underpin cell wall diversity and evolution are unclear. For diverse green plants (chlorophytes and streptophytes) the rapidly increasing availability of transcriptome and genome data sets, the development of methods for cell wall analyses which require less material for analysis, and expansion of molecular probe sets, are providing new insights into the diversity and occurrence of cell wall polysaccharides and associated biosynthetic genes. Such research is important for refining our understanding of some of the fundamental processes that enabled plants to colonize land and to subsequently radiate so comprehensively. The study of cell wall structural diversity is also an important aspect of the industrial utilization of global polysaccharide bio-resources. PMID:22783271

  2. Mitochondrial control region diversity of the houbara bustard Chlamydotis undulata complex and genetic structure along the Atlantic seaboard of North Africa.

    PubMed

    Idaghdour, Youssef; Broderick, Damien; Korrida, Amal; Chbel, Faiza

    2004-01-01

    The houbara bustard, Chlamydotis undulata, is a declining cryptic desert bird whose range extends from North Africa to Central Asia. Three subspecies are currently recognized by geographical distribution and morphology: C.u.fuertaventurae, C.u.undulata and C.u.macqueenii. We have sequenced 854 bp of mitochondrial control region from 73 birds to describe their population genetic structure with a particular sampling focus on the connectivity between C.u.fuertaventurae and C.u.undulata along the Atlantic seaboard of North Africa. Nucleotide and haplotypic diversity varied among the subspecies being highest in C.u.undulata, lowest in C.u.fuertaventurae and intermediate in C.u.macqueenii. C.u.fuertaventurae and C.u.undulata are paraphyletic and an average nucleotide divergence of 2.08% splits the later from C.u.macqueenii. We estimate that C.u.fuertaventurae and C.u.undulata split from C.u.macqueenii approximately 430 000 years ago. C.u.fuertaventurae and C.u.undulata are weakly differentiated (FST = 0.27, Nm = 1.3), indicative of a recent shared history. Archaeological evidence indicates that houbara bustards have been present on the Canary Islands for 130-170 000 years. However, our genetic data point to a more recent separation of C.u.fuertaventurae and C.u.undulata at around 20-25 000 years. Concordant archaeological, climatic opportunities for colonization and genetic data point to a scenario of: (i) initial colonization of the Canary Islands about 130 000 years ago; (ii) a period of secondary contact 19-30 000 years ago homogenizing any pre-existing genetic structure followed by; (iii) a period of relative isolation that persists today. PMID:14653787

  3. BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUS ANTIGENIC DIVERSITY: IMPACT ON DISEASE AND VACCINATION PROGRAMS (DETECTING AND CONTROLLING BVDV INFECTIONS, 4/4-5/02, AMES, IA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections in cattle are associated with a variety or "diverse" clinical forms. These include digestive tract disease, respiratory disease, fetal diseases (varied, dependent on fetal age), systemic disease such as mucosal disease, immunosuppression, hemorrhagic di...

  4. Technical evaluation of the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the override of containment purge valve isolation and other engineered safety feature signals for the Fort Calhoun Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hackett, D.B.

    1980-01-01

    This report documents the technical evaluation of the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the override of containment purge valve isolation and other engineered safety feature signals for the Fort Calhoun nuclear power plant. The review criteria are based on IEEE Std-279-1971 requirements for the safety signals to all purge and ventilation isolation valves. This report is supplied as part of the Selected Electrical, Instrumentation, and Control Systems Issues Program being conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory.

  5. Office of Inclusion & Diversity Leadership Diversity Notes

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Jonathan

    Office of Inclusion & Diversity Leadership Diversity Notes March 2014 New EOO Tagline://eoo.uga.edu/policies/non-discrimination-anti- harassment-policy Workplace Violence o http://policies.uga.edu/FA/nodes/view/1136/Workplace- Violence

  6. Cenozoic plant diversity in the neotropics.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Carlos; Rueda, Milton J; Mora, Germán

    2006-03-31

    Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the high levels of plant diversity in the Neotropics today, but little is known about diversification patterns of Neotropical floras through geological time. Here, we present the longest time series compiled for palynological plant diversity of the Neotropics (15 stratigraphic sections, 1530 samples, 1411 morphospecies, and 287,736 occurrences) from the Paleocene to the early Miocene (65 to 20 million years ago) in central Colombia and western Venezuela. The record shows a low-diversity Paleocene flora, a significantly more diverse early to middle Eocene flora exceeding Holocene levels, and a decline in diversity at the end of the Eocene and early Oligocene. A good correlation between diversity fluctuations and changes in global temperature was found, suggesting that tropical climate change may be directly driving the observed diversity pattern. Alternatively, the good correspondence may result from the control that climate exerts on the area available for tropical plants to grow. PMID:16574860

  7. Cognitive Aspects of Depression

    PubMed Central

    Joormann, Jutta; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2012-01-01

    Depression is a prevalent and impairing psychiatric disorder that affects how we feel and how we think about ourselves and the world around us. Cognitive theories of depression have long posited that various thought processes are involved in the development, maintenance, and recurrence of depressive episodes. Contemporary research has utilized experimental procedures to examine cognitive processes in depressed individuals as well as the nature of the relation of these processes to the emotion dysregulation that is central to the disorder. For example, investigators have assessed the ways in which depression alters aspects of information processing, including attention and perception, interpretation, and memory processes; this research has generated relatively consistent findings. In addition, researchers have attempted to identify and elucidate the cognitive mechanisms that may link these biases in information processing to emotion dysregulation in depression. These mechanisms include inhibitory processes and deficits in working memory, ruminative responses to negative mood states, and the inability to use positive and rewarding stimuli to regulate negative mood. Results of these investigations converge on the formulation that depression is associated with increased elaboration of negative information, difficulties in cognitive control when processing this information, and difficulties disengaging from this information. Research examining cognitive aspects of depression not only enhances our understanding of this common and costly disorder, but also has implications for the treatment of depression and for future investigations of the biological foundations of this disorder. PMID:23240069

  8. Diversity and Leadership in a Changing World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagly, Alice H.; Chin, Jean Lau

    2010-01-01

    Scholars of leadership have infrequently addressed the diversity of leaders and followers in terms of culture, gender, race and ethnicity, or sexual orientation. This omission has weakened the ability of research and theory to address some of the most provocative aspects of contemporary leadership, including (a) the limited access of individuals…

  9. Cultural Diversity and Conflict in Multicultural Cities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alaknanda Patel

    2003-01-01

    India has been known as the land of many cultures. Gujarat, an Indian state, has reflected this special aspect for over a millennium. In addition to the people of different religious faith like Hindu, Muslim, Jain, Christian and Zorastrian, various caste groups within the Hindus and migrant workers ensured a diversity of culture and lifestyle. This is especially true in

  10. Binding of dietary polyphenols to cellulose: structural and nutritional aspects.

    PubMed

    Phan, Anh Dao T; Netzel, Gabriele; Wang, Dongjie; Flanagan, Bernadine M; D'Arcy, Bruce R; Gidley, Michael J

    2015-03-15

    The interactions between polyphenols and plant fibres play an important role in controlling the release of phenolic compounds from food matrices for absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. This study probed the molecular interactions of diverse polyphenols with cellulose fibres by using a pure cellulose-producing bacterial model. Alkali treatment of bacterial cellulose was an effective method for obtaining a high purity cellulose model for study of polyphenol binding. Representatives of different polyphenol classes all bound to cellulose spontaneously, rapidly, and to comparable extents (up to 60% w/w of cellulose). Langmuir binding isotherms were applied to determine quantitative aspects of the adsorption at equilibrium. The study indicated that binding was similar on a molar basis for ferulic acid, gallic acid, catechin and cyanidin-3-glucoside (but lower for chlorogenic acid), with the native charge of polyphenols a secondary factor in the interactions between polyphenols and cellulose. PMID:25308685

  11. Market change and diversity in the Korean movie market

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sora Park

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the relationships among the different, measurable aspects of media diversity (source, content and exposure) were examined. The aim was to look at how changes in the market environment affect the diversity of movies that are exhibited. The Korean movie market since the late 1980s provides a fruitful example of how an increased exhibition outlet affects the source,

  12. Frequency diversity and its applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Carassa; G. Tartara; E. Matricciani

    1988-01-01

    Adaptive shared resource methods may be the only available effective countermeasures to rain-induced attenuation in satellite communication systems above 20 GHz. Two of these methods, frequency diversity (FDV) and burst length control (BLC) are examined and compared by using a unified approach. The fundamental statistical relationships between unassisted and assisted conditions are derived, and optimum values are identified. It is

  13. The genetic diversity of Plasmodium vivax populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liwang Cui; Ananias A. Escalante; Mallika Imwong; Georges Snounou

    2003-01-01

    Little is known of the genetic diversity and population structure of Plasmodium vivax, a debilitating and highly prevalent malaria parasite of humans. This article reviews the known polymorphic genetic markers, summarizes current data on the population structure of this parasite and discusses future prospects for using knowledge of the genetic diversity to improve control measures.

  14. Brooklyn College Diversity and

    E-print Network

    Dexter, Scott

    , both in the classroom and in the workplace. The result is the Brooklyn College Diversity and Inclusion1 Brooklyn College Diversity and Inclusion Plan 2008­2013 #12;Preface Periodically, the Brooklyn College community comes together to write a Diversity Plan, which informs and directs our diversity

  15. UH Mnoa Commission on Diversity Faculty and Staff Diversity Enhancement

    E-print Network

    Dong, Yingfei

    UH Mnoa Commission on Diversity Faculty and Staff Diversity Enhancement Awards Nomination Form on Diversity Faculty and Staff Diversity Enhancement Awards Nomination Form 2011 Nomination Information Faculty and Staff Diversity Enhancement Awards. This annual awards program recognizes faculty and staff

  16. Capacity of the diversion channel below the flood-control dam on the Big Lost River at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1986-01-01

    Stage-discharge relations were computed for two selected cross sections of a diversion channel at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for discharges between 2000 and 7200 cubic feet per second. The channel diverts water from the Big Lost River into four spreading areas where the water infiltrates into the ground or evaporates. Computed water-surface profiles, based on channel conditions in the

  17. Tracking the ends: a dynamic protein network controls the fate of microtubule tips

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Akhmanova; Michel O. Steinmetz

    2008-01-01

    Microtubule plus-end tracking proteins (+TIPs) are a diverse group of evolutionarily conserved cellular factors that accumulate at the ends of growing microtubules. They form dynamic networks through the interaction of a limited set of protein modules, repeat sequences and linear motifs that bind to each other with moderate affinities. +TIPs regulate different aspects of cell architecture by controlling microtubule dynamics,

  18. Future aspects of bioprocess monitoring.

    PubMed

    Becker, Thomas; Hitzmann, Bernd; Muffler, K; Pörtner, Ralf; Reardon, Kenneth F; Stahl, Frank; Ulber, Roland

    2007-01-01

    Nature has the impressive ability to efficiently and precisely control biological processes by applying highly evolved principles and using minimal space and relatively simple building blocks. The challenge is to transfer these principles into technically applicable and precise analytical systems that can be used for many applications. This article summarizes some of the new approaches in sensor technology and control strategies for different bioprocesses such as fermentations, biotransformations, and downstream processes. It focuses on bio- and chemosensors, optical sensors, DNA and protein chip technology, software sensors, and modern aspects of data evaluation for improved process monitoring and control. PMID:17408086

  19. Pitfalls in Aspect Mining

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kim Mens; Andy Kellens; Jens Krinke

    2008-01-01

    The research domain of aspect mining studies the prob- lem of (semi-)automatically identifying potential aspects and crosscutting concerns in a software system, to improve the system's comprehensibility or enable its migration to an aspect-oriented solution. Unfortunately, most proposed as- pect mining techniques have not lived up to their expecta- tions yet. In this paper we provide a list of problems

  20. How does pedogenesis drive plant diversity?

    PubMed

    Laliberté, Etienne; Grace, James B; Huston, Michael A; Lambers, Hans; Teste, François P; Turner, Benjamin L; Wardle, David A

    2013-06-01

    Some of the most species-rich plant communities occur on ancient, strongly weathered soils, whereas those on recently developed soils tend to be less diverse. Mechanisms underlying this well-known pattern, however, remain unresolved. Here, we present a conceptual model describing alternative mechanisms by which pedogenesis (the process of soil formation) might drive plant diversity. We suggest that long-term soil chronosequences offer great, yet largely untapped, potential as 'natural experiments' to determine edaphic controls over plant diversity. Finally, we discuss how our conceptual model can be evaluated quantitatively using structural equation modeling to advance multivariate theories about the determinants of local plant diversity. This should help us to understand broader-scale diversity patterns, such as the latitudinal gradient of plant diversity. PMID:23561322

  1. Does Staff Diversity Imply Openness to Diversity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauring, Jakob; Selmer, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Post-secondary educational organizations are currently some of the most diverse settings to be found. However, few educational studies have dealt with staff diversity and hardly any has looked outside the USA. The purpose of this paper is to present a study of members of international university departments in Denmark. The authors set out…

  2. Diversity, diversity indices and tropical cockroaches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henk Wolda

    1983-01-01

    The diversity of samples of cockroaches (Blattaria) taken with light-traps in six localities in Panama is described. As a diversity index a of the log series is found to be more satisfactory than either N2 or N1 of Hills's series or Hurlbert's Sm, even if the distribution of the relative abundances is significantly different from a log series. However, even

  3. Wind-tunnel investigation of longitudinal and lateral-directional stability and control characteristics of a 0.237-scale model of a remotely piloted research vehicle with a thick, high-aspect-ratio supercritical wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrdsong, T. A.; Brooks, C. W., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A 0.237-scale model of a remotely piloted research vehicle equipped with a thick, high-aspect-ratio supercritical wing was tested in the Langley 8-foot transonic tunnel to provide experimental data for a prediction of the static stability and control characteristics of the research vehicle as well as to provide an estimate of vehicle flight characteristics for a computer simulation program used in the planning and execution of specific flight-research mission. Data were obtained at a Reynolds number of 16.5 x 10 to the 6th power per meter for Mach numbers up to 0.92. The results indicate regions of longitudinal instability; however, an adequate margin of longitudinal stability exists at a selected cruise condition. Satisfactory effectiveness of pitch, roll, and yaw control was also demonstrated.

  4. Stability and Control Characteristics of a Complete Airplane Model Having a Wing with Quarter-chord Line Swept Back 40 Degrees, Aspect Ratio 2.50, and Taper Ratio 0.42

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulderfrei, Marvin; Comisarow, Paul; Goodson, Kenneth W

    1951-01-01

    An investigation has been made of a complete airplane model having a wing with the quarter-chord line swept back 40 degrees, aspect ratio 2.50, and taper ratio 0.42 to determine its low-speed stability and control characteristics. The longitudinal stability investigation included stabilizer and tail-off tests with different wing dihedral angles (Gamma = 0 degrees and Gamma = -10 degrees) over an angle-of-attack range for the cruising and landing configurations and tests. with a high horizontal-tail location (Gamma = -10 degrees) for the cruising configuration. Tests were made of the wing alone and to determine the effect of wing end plates in pitch. Lateral stability characteristics were determined for the airplane with different geometric wing dihedrals, with end plates, and with several dorsal modifications. Tests were made with ailerons and spoilers to determine control characteristics.

  5. Blood and Diversity

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Learn About Blood > Blood and Diversity Printable Version Blood and Diversity People come in all different shapes, ... looking for a needle in a haystack. Rare Blood Types Red blood cells carry markers called antigens ...

  6. Diversity Outlook, April 2012

    E-print Network

    2012-04-01

    .” Elsewhere in this issue is a draft definition and the DEAC welcomes any feedback on that to fredrod@ku.edu. As always, thank you for your continued support. DIVERSITY OUTLOOK • THE NEWSLETTER OF CAMPUS DIVERSITY APRIL 2012VOL. 3 • ISSUE 8 THE SCHOLARSHIP... multicultural course requirements.” Source: INSIDE Higher Ed http://www.insidehighered.com/news/2012/04/10/study-suggests-students-grow-less- interested-promoting-racial-understanding Defining Diversity at KU: A DRAFT The diversity of the people...

  7. Diversity Outlook, April 2013

    E-print Network

    2013-04-01

    mass meetings of 1963. DIVERSITY OUTLOOK • THE NEWSLETTER OF CAMPUS DIVERSITY APRIL 2013VOL. 3 • ISSUE 9 SCHOLARSHIP OF DIVERSITY: A SYNOPSIS Attracting the missing students A study reported in December revealed that most low-income, high... study. Synopsis by Scott Jaschik, on Inside Higher Ed www.insidehighered.com, April 1, 2013; report by Caroline M. Hoxby & Christopher Aver, NBER Working Paper No. 18586, Dec. 2012. PROGRAM IN THE SPOTLIGHT UPCOMING EVENTS WEIGH IN ON THE DIVERSITY...

  8. Some aspects of the ecology and lifecycle of Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius 1787) in Trinidad and their influence on tick control measures.

    PubMed

    Smith, M W

    1975-03-01

    The distribution in Trinidad of the tick Amblyomma cajennense is defined, and the methods used to determine the boundaries of the infested areas are outlined. The relationships between climate, vegetation and husbandry methods and the distribution of the tick are described. Monthly tick collections from specific animals to determine exact seasonal variations were not possible but a study was made of the normal life cycle under laboratory conditions, the results being used to assist in interpreting the field picture and formulating methods of control. Possible systems of control are outlined and mention is made of the feasibility of eradication of the species in Trinidad. PMID:1124964

  9. Diversity Dialogue Groups

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janice Simmons-Welburn

    1999-01-01

    Academic libraries have tor some time focused on [lie importance of achieving diversity within our organizations. However, the focus is shitting beyond efforts to increase the number of iintlertepresenled groups in the workplace, to managing workplace diversity. The creation of Diversity Dialogue Groups presents libraries with a new model for increasing the understanding and acceptance of differences in the workplace.

  10. Insights on Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Carol, Ed.; And Others

    This state-of-the-art report presents a series of essays on the topic of diversity. Essays include: (1) "Committing to Diversity" (George L. Mehaffy); (2) "Serving the Community by Serving Our Members" (Michael P. Wolfe); (3) "How Diversity Matters" (Asa G. Hilliard, III); (4) "A Prerequisite to Teaching Multiculturally" (Mary Louise Gomez); (5)…

  11. BioDiversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, E. O., Ed.; Peter, Frances M., Ed.

    The diversity of life forms is one of the greatest wonders of the planet earth. The biosphere is an intricate tapestry of interwoven life forms. This book offers an overall view of this biological diversity and carries an urgent warning about the rapid alteration and destruction of the environments that have fostered the diversity of life forms…

  12. Leadership and Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    As part of the special edition recognizing the 40th anniversary of "Educational Management Administration & Leadership" this article reviews the coverage of leadership and diversity issues in the journal. The majority of articles concerning diversity have focused on gender, with attention turning to the wider concept of diversity since the year…

  13. Multilevel and Diverse Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baurain, Bradley, Ed.; Ha, Phan Le, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The benefits and advantages of classroom practices incorporating unity-in-diversity and diversity-in-unity are what "Multilevel and Diverse Classrooms" is all about. Multilevel classrooms--also known as mixed-ability or heterogeneous classrooms--are a fact of life in ESOL programs around the world. These classrooms are often not only multilevel…

  14. Context-Aware Aspects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Éric Tanter; Kris Gybels; Marcus Denker; Alexandre Bergel

    2006-01-01

    Context-aware applications behave differently depending on the context in which they are running. Since context-specific behavior tends to crosscut base programs, it can advantageously be implemented as aspects. This leads to the notion of context-aware aspects, i.e. ,a spects whose behavior depends on context. This paper analyzes the issue of appropriate support from the aspect language to both restrict the

  15. Exposing malaria in-host diversity and estimating population diversity by capture-recapture using

    E-print Network

    Read, Andrew

    Exposing malaria in-host diversity and estimating population diversity by capture-recapture using, Blantyre 3, Malawi; d The National Center for Parasitology, Entomology and Malaria Control, Phnom Penh, MD, and approved October 12, 2010 (received for review May 20, 2010) Malaria infections commonly

  16. Vehicle and positive control values from the in vivo rodent comet assay and biomonitoring studies using human lymphocytes: historical database and influence of technical aspects.

    PubMed

    Pant, Kamala; Springer, S; Bruce, S; Lawlor, T; Hewitt, N; Aardema, M J

    2014-10-01

    There is increased interest in the in vivo comet assay in rodents as a follow-up approach for determining the biological relevance of chemicals that are genotoxic in in vitro assays. This is partly because, unlike other assays, DNA damage can be assessed in this assay in virtually any tissue. Since background levels of DNA damage can vary with the species, tissue, and cell processing method, a robust historical control database covering multiple tissues is essential. We describe extensive vehicle and positive control data for multiple tissues from rats and mice. In addition, we report historical data from control and genotoxin-treated human blood. Technical issues impacting comet results are described, including the method of cell preparation and freezing. Cell preparation by scraping (stomach and other GI tract organs) resulted in higher % tail DNA than mincing (liver, spleen, kidney etc) or direct collection (blood or bone marrow). Treatment with the positive control genotoxicant, ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) in rats and methyl methanesulfonate in mice, resulted in statistically significant increases in % tail DNA. Background DNA damage was not markedly increased when cell suspensions were stored frozen prior to preparing slides, and the outcome of the assay was unchanged (EMS was always positive). In conclusion, historical data from our laboratory for the in vivo comet assay for multiple tissues from rats and mice, as well as human blood show very good reproducibility. These data and recommendations provided are aimed at contributing to the design and proper interpretation of results from comet assays. PMID:24957907

  17. Improved telemetry diversity combiner system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busch, Charles E.; Fernandez, Jose M.

    This paper presents a new diversity combiner architecture developed specifically to address the requirements of phase-modulated telemetry links and also provide improved performance for PCM/FM data links over present combiners. The design concept is described, including the automatic phase/frequency control, AM/AGC weighting, and auxiliary functions. Test performance results are reviewed which indicate that the design goals are met by this combiner.

  18. Biomechanical aspects of segmented arch mechanics combined with power arm for controlled anterior tooth movement: A three-dimensional finite element study.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Hiroya; Tominaga, Jun-Ya; Hamanaka, Ryo; Sumi, Mayumi; Chiang, Pao-Chang; Tanaka, Motohiro; Koga, Yoshiyuki; Yoshida, Noriaki

    2015-01-01

    The porpose of this study was to determine the optimal length of power arms for achieving controlled anterior tooth movement in segmented arch mechanics combined with power arm. A three-dimensional finite element method was applied for the simulation of en masse anterior tooth retraction in segmented power arm mechanics. The type of tooth movement, namely, the location of center of rotation of the maxillary central incisor in association with power arm length, was calculated after the retraction force was applied. When a 0.017?×?0.022-in archwire was inserted into the 0.018-in slot bracket, bodily movement was obtained at 9.1?mm length of power arm, namely, at the level of 1.8?mm above the center of resistance. In case a 0.018?×?0.025-in full-size archwire was used, bodily movement of the tooth was produced at the power arm length of 7.0?mm, namely, at the level of 0.3?mm below the center of resistance. Segmented arch mechanics required shorter length of power arms for achieving any type of controlled anterior tooth movement as compared to sliding mechanics. Therefore, this space closing mechanics could be widely applied even for the patients whose gingivobuccal fold is shallow. The segmented arch mechanics combined with power arm could provide higher amount of moment-to-force ratio sufficient for controlled anterior tooth movement without generating friction, and vertical forces when applying retraction force parallel to the occlusal plane. It is, therefore, considered that the segmented power arm mechanics has a simple appliance design and allows more efficient and controllable tooth movement. PMID:25610497

  19. Local ensemble transform Kalman filter, a fast non-stationary control law for adaptive optics on ELTs: theoretical aspects and first simulation results.

    PubMed

    Gray, Morgan; Petit, Cyril; Rodionov, Sergey; Bocquet, Marc; Bertino, Laurent; Ferrari, Marc; Fusco, Thierry

    2014-08-25

    We propose a new algorithm for an adaptive optics system control law, based on the Linear Quadratic Gaussian approach and a Kalman Filter adaptation with localizations. It allows to handle non-stationary behaviors, to obtain performance close to the optimality defined with the residual phase variance minimization criterion, and to reduce the computational burden with an intrinsically parallel implementation on the Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs). PMID:25321291

  20. Motor control of Drosophila courtship song

    PubMed Central

    Shirangi, Troy R.; Stern, David L.; Truman, James W.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Many animals utilize acoustic signals – or songs – to attract mates. During courtship, Drosophila melanogaster males vibrate a wing to produce trains of pulses and extended tone called pulse and sine song, respectively. Courtship songs in the genus Drosophila are exceedingly diverse and different song features appear to have evolved independently of each other. How the nervous system allows such diversity to evolve is not understood. Here, we identify a wing muscle in D. melanogaster (hg1) that is uniquely male-enlarged. The hg1 motoneuron and the sexually dimorphic development of the hg1 muscle are required specifically for the sine component of the male song. In contrast, the motoneuron innervating a sexually monomorphic wing muscle, ps1, is required specifically for a feature of pulse song. Thus, individual wing motor pathways can control separate aspects of courtship song and may provide a “modular” anatomical substrate for the evolution of diverse songs. PMID:24183665

  1. BK and Kv3.1 potassium channels control different aspects of deep cerebellar nuclear neurons action potentials and spiking activity.

    PubMed

    Pedroarena, Christine M

    2011-12-01

    Deep cerebellar nuclear neurons (DCNs) display characteristic electrical properties, including spontaneous spiking and the ability to discharge narrow spikes at high frequency. These properties are thought to be relevant to processing inhibitory Purkinje cell input and transferring well-timed signals to cerebellar targets. Yet, the underlying ionic mechanisms are not completely understood. BK and Kv3.1 potassium channels subserve similar functions in spike repolarization and fast firing in many neurons and are both highly expressed in DCNs. Here, their role in the abovementioned spiking characteristics was addressed using whole-cell recordings of large and small putative-glutamatergic DCNs. Selective BK channel block depolarized DCNs of both groups and increased spontaneous firing rate but scarcely affected evoked activity. After adjusting the membrane potential to control levels, the spike waveforms under BK channel block were indistinguishable from control ones, indicating no significant BK channel involvement in spike repolarization. The increased firing rate suggests that lack of DCN-BK channels may have contributed to the ataxic phenotype previously found in BK channel-deficient mice. On the other hand, block of Kv3.1 channels with low doses of 4-aminopyridine (20 ?M) hindered spike repolarization and severely depressed evoked fast firing. Therefore, I propose that despite similar characteristics of BK and Kv3.1 channels, they play different roles in DCNs: BK channels control almost exclusively spontaneous firing rate, whereas DCN-Kv3.1 channels dominate the spike repolarization and enable fast firing. Interestingly, after Kv3.1 channel block, BK channels gained a role in spike repolarization, demonstrating how the different function of each of the two channels is determined in part by their co-expression and interplay. PMID:21750937

  2. Diversity and leadership in a changing world.

    PubMed

    Eagly, Alice H; Chin, Jean Lau

    2010-04-01

    Scholars of leadership have infrequently addressed the diversity of leaders and followers in terms of culture, gender, race and ethnicity, or sexual orientation. This omission has weakened the ability of research and theory to address some of the most provocative aspects of contemporary leadership, including (a) the limited access of individuals from diverse identity groups to leadership roles; (b) the shaping of leaders' behavior by their dual identities as leaders and members of gender, racial, ethnic, or other identity groups; and (c) the potential of individuals from groups formerly excluded from leadership roles to provide excellent leadership because of their differences from traditional leaders. In addressing such issues, we argue that the joining of the two bodies of theory and research--one pertaining to leadership and the other to diversity--enriches both domains of knowledge and provides guidelines for optimizing leadership in contemporary organizations and nations. PMID:20350020

  3. Current status of management, control, complications and psychosocial aspects of patients with diabetes in India: Results from the DiabCare India 2011 Study

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Viswanathan; Shah, Siddharth N.; Joshi, Shashank R.; Seshiah, V.; Sahay, Binode Kumar; Banerjee, Samar; Wangnoo, Subhash Kumar; Kumar, Ajay; Kalra, Sanjay; Unnikrishnan, A. G.; Sharma, Surendra Kumar; Rao, P. V.; Akhtar, Shahid; Shetty, Raman V.; Das, Ashok Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: DiabCare India 2011 was a cross-sectional study in patients with diabetes mellitus, undertaken to investigate the relationship between diabetes control, management and complications in a subset of urban Indian diabetes patients treated at referral diabetes care centres in India. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional, multicentre (330 centres) survey in 6168 diabetes patients treated at general hospitals, diabetes clinics and referral clinics across India. Patient data, including medical and clinical examination reports during the past year were collected during their routine visit. The patients’ and physicians’ perceptions about diabetes management were recorded using a questionnaire. Results: A total of 6168 subjects with diabetes (95.8% type 2), mean age 51.9 ± 12.4 years and mean duration of diabetes, 6.9 ± 6.4 years were included. Mean HbA1c was 8.9 ± 2.1% and the mean fasting (FPG), post prandial (PPG) and random (RBG) plasma glucose levels were 148 ± 50 mg/dl 205 ± 66 mg/dl and 193 ± 68mg/dl respectively. Neuropathy was the most common complication (41.4%); other complications were: Foot (32.7%), eye (19.7%), cardiovascular (6.8%) and nephropathy (6.2%). The number of diabetic complications increased with mean duration of diabetes. Most (93.2%) of the patients were on oral anti-diabetic drugs (OADs) and 35.2% were on insulin (±OADs). More than 15% physicians felt that the greatest barrier to insulin therapy from patient's perspective were pain and fear of using injectable modality; 5.2% felt that the greatest barrier to insulin therapy from physician's perspective was the treatment cost; 4.8% felt that the major barriers to achieve optimum diabetic care in practice was loss to follow-up followed by lack of counselling (3.9%) and treatment compliance (3.6%). Conclusion: DiabCare India 2011 has shown that type 2 diabetes sets in early in Indians and glycaemic control is often sub-optimal in these patients. These results indicate a need for more structured intervention at an early stage of the disease and need for increased awareness on benefits of good glycaemic control. It cannot be overemphasized that the status of diabetes care in India needs to be further improved. (ClinTrials.gov identifier: NCT01351922) PMID:24944934

  4. Diversity Outlook, January 2013

    E-print Network

    2013-01-01

    disability—academic or non-academic; the spring Symposium on the Scholarship of Diversity, March 28; Kauffman Scholar Advisory Council; Haskell/KU partnership; Langston Hughes Visiting Professorship; benchmarking for diversity; and diversity advisory... council meetings. As always, I welcome your comments or questions at fredrod@ku.edu. BEYOND THE HILL The annual Langston Hughes Creative Writing Awards will be presented in a public celebration, Feb. 1, 7 p.m., at the Lawrence Arts Center. Celebrate...

  5. Continent Urinary Diversion

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Andrew; Vasdev, Nikhil; Thorpe, Andrew C.

    2013-01-01

    We present a review on the current options for continent urinary diversion and their different indications on the basis of patient selection. In current clinical practice continent urinary diversion is being used world-wide in patients undergoing radical cystectomy and in severe cases of benign bladder pathologies. We also discuss the specific complications of continent urinary diversion and highlight the need to rigorously monitor these patients in the long- term specifically in terms of their renal function and cancer recurrence. PMID:24235792

  6. Diversity Outlook, Summer, 2012

    E-print Network

    2012-07-01

    -American and Hispanic ball players who, in the years 1947-59, transitioned to Major League teams and later became All-Stars. DIVERSITY OUTLOOK • THE NEWSLETTER OF CAMPUS DIVERSITY SUMMER 2012VOL. 3 • ISSUE 9 THE SCHOLARSHIP OF DIVERSITY: A SYNOPSIS Over the past... ahead. Reference: The full findings are available and online at http://diverseeducation.com/top100/; from Diverse - Issues in Higher Education, June 7, 2012, vol.29: no. .9, 19-20.. 2003. PLAN NOW TO ATTEND MICHAEL TILFORD CONFERENCE Kansas State...

  7. [Ecological and epidemiologic aspects of the attacks by vampire bats and paralytic rabies in Argentina and analysis of the proposals carried out for their control].

    PubMed

    Delpietro, H A; Russo, R G

    1996-09-01

    The authors describe the ecology of attacks by vampire bats and the epidemiology of rabies (paralytic rabies) transmitted by these bats in Argentina, based on data obtained from an epidemiological vigilance programme conducted between 1984 and 1993. It was found that rabies spread rapidly among vampire bats, causing high mortality (over 50%); subsequently, the population recovered slowly due to the low reproductive rate. This explains the features of paralytic rabies, such as high mortality among affected populations, brief duration and subsequent recurrence. Paralytic rabies occurs throughout the year without evidence of seasonal occurrence and with no relationship to rainfall. This is because vampire bats remain active within their habitat, neither hibernating nor migrating. The problem created by vampire bats depends on the ecosystem of their habitat. In the livestock ecosystem, the bats are synanthropic and their population is abundant. They feed almost exclusively on livestock and attacks on human beings are sporadic. In this ecosystem, paralytic rabies is a serious economic problem because of its frequency and readiness to spread (41 separate outbreaks were recorded in addition to an epidemic). On the contrary, in the scarcely populated livestock ecosystem, the vampire but population is much smaller; they feed on various species of animals, and attacks on human beings are more common, but paralytic rabies occurs only sporadically (one isolated outbreak). For overall control of paralytic rabies, the authors recommend reduction of the vampire bat population to a safe level, in order to break the chain of rabies transmission and diminish attacks by bats. PMID:9376648

  8. ECOPHYSIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF ALLELOPATHY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Allelochemicals play an important role in explaining plant growth inhibition in interspecies interactions and in structuring the plant community. Five aspects of allelochemicals are discussed from an ecophysiological perspective: (i) modes of release and avoidance of autotoxicity; (ii) biosynthesis...

  9. Cognitive Aspects of Prejudice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tajfel, Henri

    1969-01-01

    This paper is a slightly revised version of a contribution to a symposium on the "Biosocial Aspects of Race," held in London, September, 1968; symposium was published in the "Journal of Biosocial Science," Supplement No. 1, July, 1969. (RJ)

  10. Why psychology? Every aspect of human experience, as well as

    E-print Network

    Sussex, University of

    Psychology Why psychology? Every aspect of human experience, as well as behaviours in non-human species, falls within the scope of psychology. Psychologists explore topics as diverse as individual as more recently established fields such as cognitive science and artificial intelligence. Psychology

  11. A Randomized Controlled Trial of the First Step to Success Early InterventionDemonstration of Program Efficacy Outcomes in a Diverse, Urban School District

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hill M. Walker; John R. Seeley; Jason Small; Herbert H. Severson; Bethany A. Graham; Edward G. Feil; Loretta Serna; Annemieke M. Golly; Steven R. Forness

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on a randomized controlled trial of the First Step to Success early intervention that was conducted over a 4-year period in Albuquerque Public Schools. First Step is a selected intervention for students in Grades 1 through 3 with externalizing behavior problems, and it addresses secondary prevention goals and objectives. It consists of three modular components (screening, school

  12. Beyond the Diversity Crisis Model: Decentralized Diversity Planning and Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Damon A.

    2008-01-01

    This article critiques the diversity crises model of diversity planning in higher education and presents a decentralized diversity planning model. The model is based on interviews with the nation's leading diversity officers, a review of the literature and the authors own experiences leading diversity change initiatives in higher education. The…

  13. Dinosaur diversity and the rock record.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Paul M; McGowan, Alistair J; Page, Victoria

    2009-07-22

    Palaeobiodiversity analysis underpins macroevolutionary investigations, allowing identification of mass extinctions and adaptive radiations. However, recent large-scale studies on marine invertebrates indicate that geological factors play a central role in moulding the shape of diversity curves and imply that many features of such curves represent sampling artefacts, rather than genuine evolutionary events. In order to test whether similar biases affect diversity estimates for terrestrial taxa, we compiled genus-richness estimates for three Mesozoic dinosaur clades (Ornithischia, Sauropodomorpha and Theropoda). Linear models of expected genus richness were constructed for each clade, using the number of dinosaur-bearing formations available through time as a proxy for the amount of fossiliferous rock outcrop. Modelled diversity estimates were then compared with observed patterns. Strong statistically robust correlations demonstrate that almost all aspects of ornithischian and theropod diversity curves can be explained by geological megabiases, whereas the sauropodomorph record diverges from modelled predictions and may be a stronger contender for identifying evolutionary signals. In contrast to other recent studies, we identify a marked decline in dinosaur genus richness during the closing stages of the Cretaceous Period, indicating that the clade decreased in diversity for several million years prior to the final extinction of non-avian dinosaurs at the Cretaceous-Palaeocene boundary. PMID:19403535

  14. Diversity at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabo, Sandra R.

    2000-01-01

    Diversity in the workplace goes beyond racial, ethnic, and cultural backgrounds. It extends to those with disabilities of all types and older workers. Students must be able to acknowledge and appreciate peoples' differences and educators must integrate diversity into the classroom. (JOW)

  15. Diversity and Social Cohesion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagani, Camilla

    2014-01-01

    The issue of diversity, in its broadest sense, is discussed here in its relation to social cohesion, cross-cultural relations, ingroup-outgroup relations and educational interventions. The main thesis of the paper is that real social cohesion in an ingroup rests on the acknowledgment of and the dialog with the diversities of the members of the…

  16. Indonesia's Unity through Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sa'ud, Udin

    1988-01-01

    Discusses cultural diversity and national unity in Indonesia, a country with a population of 165 million people from over 300 ethnic groups. Examines the philosophical basis of the Indonesian way of life and the country's national symbol of unity, "Bhineka Tunggal Ika," which means "unity in diversity." (GEA)

  17. Diversity in Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beer, Janet

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a lecture given at the 17th Annual Lecture of the Association of University Administrators (AUA). The subject of the lecture is equality and diversity in higher education (HE) leadership, or possibly the absence of equality and diversity. The author focuses on what can be done to ensure that capable women enter HE leadership…

  18. Why Diversity Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bollinger, Lee C.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author provides insight on the issue of diversity in higher education. The author asserts that diversity--one of the great strengths of American education--is under siege today. At the elementary- and secondary-school levels, resegregation is making it exceedingly difficult for minority students to get the resources that…

  19. Advancing Diversity in STEM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Paul L.; Shaw, Rose A.; Taylor, Jan R.; Hallar, Brittan L.

    2011-01-01

    Although progress has been made, greater efforts are needed to promote faculty diversity at the college and university levels, especially in STEM fields. Thus, it is important to elucidate best practices both for increasing awareness of diversity issues pertaining to higher education and for implementing change. This article focuses on the…

  20. Issue Brief on Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Division on Developmental Disabilities, Council for Exceptional Children (NJ1), 2013

    2013-01-01

    During the past year, the Diversity Committee of the Division of Developmental Disabilities (DDD) Board worked with the Board and the Issues Committee Chair to develop an issue brief addressing diversity, its impact on the membership and the wider community that is served by the work of DDD, resulting in recommendations that will influence policy…

  1. A Diversity Visionary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Today's chief diversity officer could be tomorrow's university president, says Dr. Damon Williams. The author profiles Damon Williams who shines as sought-after expert on issues surrounding higher education inclusion. As head of a diversity division with an eight-figure budget at Wisconsin's flagship state university, Williams oversees four…

  2. Pasture diversity and management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the economic importance of pastures in the northeastern United States, not much is known about their ecology, including taxonomic and functional diversity. This factsheet presents results from a 1998-2005 survey of pastures on 44 farms from Maine to Maryland. Pastures are quite diverse; the ...

  3. Soybean Molecular Genetic Diversity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A history of the various DNA marker types used in the assessment of molecular genetic diversity in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is followed by a description of a number of studies on the assessment of genetic diversity. These studies include a review of reports on 1) the quantification and comp...

  4. Valuing socio-diversity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabine U. O’Hara

    1995-01-01

    The loss of bio-diversity has received increasing attention as one of the most serious environmental threats we face. Yet not only biodiversity is being lost at staggering rates, socio-diversity is being lost as well. Sociodiversity is defined as the various social and economic arrangements by which people organize their societies, particularly the underlying assumptions, goals, values and social behaviours guiding

  5. Diversity makes good business

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meena Chavan

    2005-01-01

    In a world where every competitive advantage must be fully exploited, productive diversity – utilising Australia’s linguistic and cultural diversity to economic benefit – offers a practical resource, which no organisation, including government, can afford to ignore. Astute employers have begun to tap this resource – people who speak the language, understand the culture and often maintain business and personal

  6. Human Mycobacterium bovis infection in the United Kingdom: Incidence, risks, control measures and review of the zoonotic aspects of bovine tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    de la Rua-Domenech, Ricardo

    2006-03-01

    Amongst the members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), M. tuberculosis is mainly a human pathogen, whereas M. bovis has a broad host range and is the principal agent responsible for tuberculosis (TB) in domestic and wild mammals. M. bovis also infects humans, causing zoonotic TB through ingestion, inhalation and, less frequently, by contact with mucous membranes and broken skin. Zoonotic TB is indistinguishable clinically or pathologically from TB caused by M. tuberculosis. Differentiation between the causative organisms may only be achieved by sophisticated laboratory methods involving bacteriological culture of clinical specimens, followed by typing of isolates according to growth characteristics, biochemical properties, routine resistance to pyrazinamide (PZA) and specific non-commercial nucleic acid techniques. All this makes it difficult to accurately estimate the proportion of human TB cases caused by M. bovis infection, particularly in developing countries. Distinguishing between the various members of the MTBC is essential for epidemiological investigation of human cases and, to a lesser degree, for adequate chemotherapy of the human TB patient. Zoonotic TB was formerly an endemic disease in the UK population, usually transmitted to man by consumption of raw cows' milk. Human infection with M. bovis in the UK has been largely controlled through pasteurization of cows' milk and systematic culling of cattle reacting to compulsory tuberculin tests. Nowadays the majority of the 7000 cases of human TB annually reported in the UK are due to M. tuberculosis acquired directly from an infectious person. In the period 1990-2003, between 17 and 50 new cases of human M. bovis infection were confirmed every year in the UK. This represented between 0.5% and 1.5% of all the culture-confirmed TB cases, a proportion similar to that of other industrialized countries. Most cases of zoonotic TB diagnosed in the UK are attributed to (i) reactivation of long-standing latent infections acquired before widespread adoption of milk pasteurization, or (ii) M. bovis infections contracted abroad. Since 1990, only one case has been documented in the UK of confirmed, indigenous human M. bovis infection recently acquired from an animal source. Therefore, for the overwhelming majority of the population, the risk of contracting M. bovis infection from animals appears to be extremely low. However, bovine TB is once again a major animal health problem in the UK. Given the increasing numbers of cattle herds being affected each year, physicians and other public health professionals must remember that zoonotic TB is not just a disease of the past. A significant risk of M. bovis infection remains in certain segments of the UK population in the form of (i) continuing on-farm consumption of unpasteurized cows' milk, (ii) retail sales by approved establishments of unpasteurized milk and dairy products and (iii) occupational exposure to infectious aerosols from tuberculous animals and their carcases. PMID:16257579

  7. Diversity within a unified model for Archaean gold mineralization in the Yilgarn Craton of Western Australia: An overview of the late-orogenic, structurally-controlled gold deposits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. K Witt; F Vanderhor

    1998-01-01

    The Archaean Yilgarn Craton has produced >3000 tonnes of gold, mainly from structurally-controlled deposits that formed during the latest stages of an orogenic event that affected the entire craton and culminated in the period 2.66–2.63 Ga. As a group, these late-orogenic deposits encompass a wide range of host rocks, structural settings and structural styles and alteration types. However, several consistent

  8. p53 Controls Global Nucleotide Excision Repair of Low Levels of Structurally Diverse Benzo(g)chrysene-DNA Adducts in Human Fibroblasts1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel R. Lloyd; Philip C. Hanawalt

    Benzo(g)chrysene is a widespread environmental contaminant and po- tent carcinogen. We have measured the formation and nucleotide excision repair of covalent DNA adducts formed by the DNA-reactive metabolite of this compound in human fibroblasts, in which expression of the p53 tumor suppressor gene could be controlled by a tetracycline-inducible promoter. Cells were exposed fo r1ht o0.01, 0.1, or 1.2 M

  9. 2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, headworks overflow weir to center left, view to east - Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, Salmon Creek, Okanogan, Okanogan County, WA

  10. "No. 190. Grand Valley Diversion Dam. Diversion gates, water flowing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    "No. 190. Grand Valley Diversion Dam. Diversion gates, water flowing into high line. June, 1917. R.B.D." - Grand Valley Diversion Dam, Half a mile north of intersection of I-70 & Colorado State Route 65, Cameo, Mesa County, CO

  11. Fundamental aspects of combustion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Linan; F. A. Williams

    1993-01-01

    This book is addressed to readers who have not specialized in combustion. Chapter 1 provides introductory information on combustion. Premixed flames and diffusion flames are the main topics of chapters 2 and 3, emphasizing the important roles played by asymptotic analysis and the diversity arising from chemical kinetics in flames. In an attempt to emphasize their common features, the subjects

  12. Weathering, Water, and Slope Aspect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, S. P.; Blum, A.; Lee, J.; Cowie, R. M.; Williams, M. W.; Frederick, Z. A.

    2009-12-01

    Aspect controls solar radiation to hillslopes: north facing slopes are more shaded (in the northern hemisphere), while south facing slopes are not. Here we explore how this simple topographic control on energy balance plays out in the architecture of the Critical Zone of a subwatershed in the Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory. Gordon Gulch catchment is within the upper montane forest of the Colorado Front Range, with mixed lodgepole-ponderosa pine forest cover. Because the valley trends E-W, hillslopes are either N-facing or S-facing. The annual snowpack is deeper and longer lasting on the lodgepole pine dominated N-facing slopes. Snow is thin or patchy on the open ponderosa pine dominated S-facing slopes. These shading and snowpack differences can be seen in soil temperatures and soil moisture. In a series of soil pits, we found mobile regolith was nearly twice as deep on the moist, N-facing slopes, and saprolite was more weathered in these locations. Saprolite was found at shallower depths on south-facing slopes, and was less weathered, and more competent. We entertain two hypotheses. The depth of mobile layer and degree of weathering of saprolite reflect either differences in material transport rates or differences in chemical weathering rates. In the case of material transport rate control, creep and bioturbation remove highly weathered saprolite, keeping fresher rock closer to the surface on the S-facing slopes. In the case of chemical weathering control, soil moisture maintains greater rates of chemical alteration of saprolite, and physical disruption by creep and bioturbation is minimal on N-facing slopes. The differences in weathering profile development in association with slope aspect provide a natural experiment to unravel competing effects of weathering and erosion on landscape development.

  13. Species diversity can drive speciation.

    PubMed

    Emerson, Brent C; Kolm, Niclas

    2005-04-21

    A fundamental question in evolutionary ecology and conservation biology is: why do some areas contain greater species diversity than others? Island biogeographic theory has identified the roles of immigration and extinction in relation to area size and proximity to source areas, and the role of speciation is also recognized as an important factor. However, one as yet unexplored possibility is that species diversity itself might help to promote speciation, and indeed the central tenets of island biogeographic theory support such a prediction. Here we use data for plants and arthropods of the volcanic archipelagos of the Canary and Hawaiian Islands to address whether there is a positive relationship between species diversity and rate of diversification. Our index of diversification for each island is the proportion of species that are endemic, and we test our prediction that this increases with increasing species number. We show that even after controlling for several important physical features of islands, diversification is strongly related to species number. PMID:15846345

  14. [Benzodiazepines and forensic aspects].

    PubMed

    Michel, L; Lang, J-P

    2003-01-01

    Adverse effects of benzodiazepines are well known since the first one was used in 1958 (chlordiazepoxide). The literature collects study-cases or rarely controlled studies concerning side effects or paradoxical reactions to benzodiazepines. They mostly described drowsiness and behavioral disinhibition, including increased well-being feeling but also hostility, rage access with feeling of invulnerability, serious crimes and sometimes homicides. Delusional, manic, confusional or depressive states are also pointed out. Rate for aggressive behaviour is 0.3 to 0.7% but distinction should be done between accidental or "idiosyncratic" reaction and voluntary sought disinhibition, clearly more frequent. No benzodiazepine has any specificity for these adverse effects but pharmacology, doses, associated drugs (or alcohol) and psychopathology interact to produce hazardous psychic states. Pharmacology: GABA induces a decrease in serotonin compound and vigilance. Pharmacokinetic: first dose effect or over-dose effect, short half-life, lipophily, affinity, digestive absorption, active metabolites interact. Psychopathology: age, alcohol association, psychological status (high initial level of hostility, impulsivity, frustration, personality disorder and depressive status). External conditions: chronic illness, affective and professional frustrations, physical or psychic exhaustion contribute also. Some benzodiazepines (flunitrazepam, diazepam, clorazepate, triazolam, alprazolam, lorazepam, for example) are more often concerned for pharmacokinetics characteristics but also prescription habits. Forensic aspects should be considered in case of homicide. Especially, reality of benzodiazepines consumption and awareness of the potential paradoxical reaction should be precisely evaluated. Special focus on voluntary induced disinhibition has to be done for forensic considerations. Relationship but also crime facilitations are sometimes consciously sought. Some benzodiazepines have already been identified for this use: flunitrazepam, clorazepate but also triazolam and temazepam in UK, alprazolam in USA. Flunitrazepam is prohibited in USA and considered as narcotics in France. A Swedish study showed that violent acts were more frequent and serious in juvenile offenders taking flunitrazepam/alcohol than other young offenders staying in the same correctional institution. They recommended classification of flunitrazepam as narcotic. A study from Belgium with drug addicts concluded in the same way and asked for an increased information of professionals and a more efficient control of the delivery. Before concluding to idiosyncratic effect, and then possibly to penal irresponsibility, the forensic approach should consider: firstly the reality of the benzodiazepines absorption and implication in committing violence (urine test, chronology, amnesia); secondly, the association of unusual behaviour and converging circumstances (pharmacological, pharmacokinetic, psychopathology, external conditions); thirdly the consumer's knowledge of the disinhibition effect. In our prison practice, we have to be particularly cautious as population frequently associates personality disorder, drug addiction and high level of frustration related to penitential context. Special information should be given to inmates when benzodiazepines are prescribed, but more extensively, a preventive strategy should be adopted in general population. PMID:15029082

  15. Organisational aspects of care.

    PubMed

    Bloomfield, Jacqueline; Pegram, Anne

    2015-03-01

    Organisational aspects of care, the second essential skills cluster, identifies the need for registered nurses to systematically assess, plan and provide holistic patient care in accordance with individual needs. Safeguarding, supporting and protecting adults and children in vulnerable situations; leading, co-ordinating and managing care; functioning as an effective and confident member of the multidisciplinary team; and managing risk while maintaining a safe environment for patients and colleagues, are vital aspects of this cluster. This article discusses the roles and responsibilities of the newly registered graduate nurse. Throughout their education, nursing students work towards attaining this knowledge and these skills in preparation for their future roles as nurses. PMID:25736672

  16. Aspects of bamboo agronomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Volker Kleinhenz; David J. Midmore

    2001-01-01

    Various aspects of the growth and development of bamboo are reviewed,includ- ing growth cycles of plant parts,effects of aging on important plant tissues,uptake of water and nutrients,photosynthesis,storage and translocation of photosynthates and nutrients,and accumulation and partitioning of biomass and nutrients.Also discussed are how these aspects can be manipulated with agronomic techniques, such as management of standing-culm density,culm-age structure,leaf area,and leaf-age

  17. Diversity Outlook, November 2012

    E-print Network

    2012-11-01

    or send a proposal: worldhunger_summit. DIVERSITY OUTLOOK • THE NEWSLETTER OF CAMPUS DIVERSITY NOVEMBER 2012VOL. 4 • ISSUE 4 UPCOMING EVENTS KEEP UP TO DATE AT WWW.DIVERSITY.KU.EDU Cassandra (Casey) Mes- sick became Curator of Global Indigenous Art... Nez had com- pleted three years at the University of Kansas. Unfortunately, he had exhausted his GI Bill funding. Unable to secure enough money to complete his fine arts studies, Nez, a Navajo who grew up in New Mexico before attending Arizona...

  18. Quality Control Analysis of Selected Aspects of Programs Administered by the Bureau of Student Financial Assistance. Error-Prone Model Derived from 1978-1979 Quality Control Study. Data Report. [Task 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saavedra, Pedro; Kuchak, JoAnn

    An error-prone model (EPM) to predict financial aid applicants who are likely to misreport on Basic Educational Opportunity Grant (BEOG) applications was developed, based on interviews conducted with a quality control sample of 1,791 students during 1978-1979. The model was designed to identify corrective methods appropriate for different types of…

  19. Does Ethnic Diversity Mean Cultural Diversity?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana Azevedo; Mary Ann Von Glinow; Karen Paul

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the degree of cultural diversity between two ethnic groups in South Florida. The cultural attitudes and\\u000a causal attributions for unethical work behavior of 269 Anglo and Hispanic business graduate students and of 255 Anglo and\\u000a Hispanic business executives were investigated. Findings from t-test comparisons for both of these samples suggest a strong\\u000a agreement between Hispanics and Anglos

  20. Differential changes in self-reported aspects of interoceptive awareness through 3 months of contemplative training.

    PubMed

    Bornemann, Boris; Herbert, Beate M; Mehling, Wolf E; Singer, Tania

    2014-01-01

    Interoceptive body awareness (IA) is crucial for psychological well-being and plays an important role in many contemplative traditions. However, until recently, standardized self-report measures of IA were scarce, not comprehensive, and the effects of interoceptive training on such measures were largely unknown. The Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA) questionnaire measures IA with eight different scales. In the current study, we investigated whether and how these different aspects of IA are influenced by a 3-months contemplative intervention in the context of the ReSource project, in which 148 subjects engaged in daily practices of "Body Scan" and "Breath Meditation." We developed a German version of the MAIA and tested it in a large and diverse sample (n = 1,076). Internal consistencies were similar to the English version (0.56-0.89), retest reliability was high (rs: 0.66-0.79), and the MAIA showed good convergent and discriminant validity. Importantly, interoceptive training improved five out of eight aspects of IA, compared to a retest control group. Participants with low IA scores at baseline showed the biggest changes. Whereas practice duration only weakly predicted individual differences in change, self-reported liking of the practices and degree of integration into daily life predicted changes on most scales. Interestingly, the magnitude of observed changes varied across scales. The strongest changes were observed for the regulatory aspects of IA, that is, how the body is used for self-regulation in daily life. No significant changes were observed for the Noticing aspect (becoming aware of bodily changes), which is the aspect that is predominantly assessed in other IA measures. This differential pattern underscores the importance to assess IA multi-dimensionally, particularly when interested in enhancement of IA through contemplative practice or other mind-body interventions. PMID:25610410

  1. A hierarchical perspective of plant diversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sarr, Daniel; Hibbs, D.E.; Huston, M.

    2005-01-01

    Predictive models of plant diversity have typically focused on either a landscapea??s capacity for richness (equilibrium models), or on the processes that regulate competitive exclusion, and thus allow species to coexist (nonequilibrium models). Here, we review the concepts and purposes of a hierarchical, multiscale model of the controls of plant diversity that incorporates the equilibrium model of climatic favorability at macroscales, nonequilibrium models of competition at microscales, and a mixed model emphasizing environmental heterogeneity at mesoscales. We evaluate the conceptual model using published data from three spatially nested datasets: (1) a macroscale analysis of ecoregions in the continental and western U.S.; (2) a mesoscale study in California; and (3) a microscale study in the Siskiyou Mountains of Oregon and California. At the macroscale (areas from 3889 km2 to 638,300 km2), climate (actual evaporation) was a strong predictor of tree diversity (R2 = 0.80), as predicted by the conceptual model, but area was a better predictor for vascular plant diversity overall (R2 = 0.38), which suggests different types of plants differ in their sensitivity to climatic controls. At mesoscales (areas from 1111 km2 to 15,833 km2 ), climate was still an important predictor of richness (R2 = 0.52), but, as expected, topographic heterogeneity explained an important share of the variance (R2 = 0.19), showed positive correlations with diversity of trees, shrubs, and annual and perennial herbs, and was the primary predictor of shrub and annual plant species richness. At microscales (0.1 ha plots), spatial patterns of diversity showed a clear unimodal pattern along a climatea??driven productivity gradient and a negative relationship with soil fertility. The strong decline in understory and total diversity at the most productive sites suggests that competitive controls, as predicted, can override climatic controls at this scale. We conclude that this hierarchical, multiscale model provides a sound basis to understand and analyze plant species diversity. Specifically, future research should employ the principles in this paper to explore climatic controls on species richness of different life forms, better quantify environmental heterogeneity in landscapes, and analyze how these largea??scale factors interact with local nonequilibrium dynamics to maintain plant diversity.

  2. [New data on the phylogeography and genetic diversity of the brown bear Ursus arctos Linnaeus, 1758 of northeastern Eurasia (mtDNA control region polymorphism analysis)].

    PubMed

    Salomashkina, V V; Kholodova, M V; Tiuten'kov, O Iu; Moskvitina, N S; Erokhin, N G

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of polymorphism of the fragment of the control region of mitochondrial DNA of 53 tissue samples of the brown bear Ursus arctos from several regions of the eastern part of Russia was carried out. It was found that most of the described haplotypes belong to cluster 3a, the most common in Eurasia, and do not form regionally specific haplogroups. However, among the bears from Western and Eastern Siberia, as well as the island of Kunashir, three haplotypes were identified, which are close to the haplogroup typical of Eastern Hokkaido bears. The assumption was made of the existence in Siberia and the Far East of one or more Pleistocene refugia. PMID:25735154

  3. Neural aspects of cognitive motor control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Apostolos P Georgopoulos

    2000-01-01

    Traditionally, motor and cognitive functions were studied separately; however, the investigation of processes at the interface between cognition and action has become more and more popular recently. Typical research goals include the identification of the processes involved using experimental psychological methods, and understanding the neural mechanisms underlying these processes using neurophysiological and functional neuroimaging methods. Specifically, there has been a

  4. Sociomedical aspects of malaria control in Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renate Lipowsky; Axel Kroeger; María Luisa Vazquez

    1992-01-01

    A household interview survey combined with a serological survey on the incidence of malaria attacks and prevalence of antibodies has been carried out in rural and urban areas of the pacific coast of Colombia. Additional information on people's knowledge, attitudes and behaviour towards malaria was collected by means of participant observation and informal interviews. The results show that people incorporate

  5. Aspects of Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolinger, Dwight

    A survey of the substance of linguistics and of the activities of linguists is presented in an attempt to acquaint ordinary readers with the various aspects of la"guage. A discussion of the human tendency toward speech, of the traits of language, and of phonetic elements prepares the way for an analysis of the structure of languag e in terms of…

  6. Aspects of Superembeddings

    E-print Network

    P. S. Howe; E. Sezgin; P. C. West

    1997-06-03

    Some aspects of the geometry of superembeddings and its application to supersymmetric extended objects are discussed. In particular, the embeddings of (3|16) and (6|16) dimensional superspaces into (11|32) dimensional superspace, corresponding to supermembranes and superfivebranes in eleven dimensions, are treated in some detail.

  7. [Psychological aspects of diabetes].

    PubMed

    Hinneburg, Iris

    2014-06-01

    The diagnosis of diabetes shakes up everyday life for the patients. Therefore, diabetes therapy also has to consider psychological aspects helping patients to cope with their disease. Additionally, the incidence of some mental health problems such as depression are associated with diabetes and may interact with diabetes therapy. PMID:25051812

  8. CLIMATE VARIABILITY Nonlinear Aspects

    E-print Network

    Ghil, Michael

    CLIMATE VARIABILITY Nonlinear Aspects M Ghil, University of California­Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA Introduction The global climate system is composed of a number of subsystems F atmosphere, biosphere subsystem and another. The interactions between the subsystems thus give rise to climate variability on all

  9. Wind-Tunnel Investigation at Subsonic and Supersonic Speeds of a Fighter Model Employing a Low-Aspect-Ratio Unswept Wing and a Horizontal Tail Mounted Well Above the Wing Plane - Longitudinal Stability and Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Williard G.

    1954-01-01

    Experimental results showing the static longitudinal-stability and control characteristics of a model of a fighter airplane employing a low-aspect-ratio unswept wing and an all-movable horizontal tail are presented. The investigation was made over a Mach number range from 0.60 to 0.90 and from 1.35 to 1.90 at a constant Reynolds number of 2.40 million, based on the wing mean aerodynamic chord. Because of the location of the horizontal tail at the tip of the vertical tail, interference was noted between the vertical tail and the horizontal tail and between the wing and the horizontal tail. This interference produced a positive pitching-moment coefficient at zero lift throughout the Mach number range of the tests, reduced the change in stability with increasing lift coefficient of the wing at moderate lift coefficients in the subsonic speed range, and reduced the stability at low lift coefficients at high supersonic speeds. The lift and pitching-moment effectiveness of the all movable tail was unaffected by the interference effects and was constant throughout the lift-coefficient range of the tests at each Mach number except 1.90.

  10. Technical Note Human Aspects of Computing

    E-print Network

    Shneiderman, Ben

    Technical Note Human Aspects of Computing Henry Ledgard Editor Control Flow and Data Structure; Experimentation; Human Factors Additional Key Words and Phrases: pseudocode, data structure diagrams 1 is by permission of the Association for Computing Machinery. To copy otherwise, or to republish, requires a fee and

  11. Subduction modelling with ASPECT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glerum, Anne; Thieulot, Cédric; Spakman, Wim; Quinquis, Matthieu; Buiter, Susanne

    2013-04-01

    ASPECT (Advanced Solver for Problems in Earth's ConvecTion) is a promising new code designed for modelling thermal convection in the mantle (Kronbichler et al. 2012). The code uses state-of-the-art numerical methods, such as high performance solvers and adaptive mesh refinement. It builds on tried-and-well-tested libraries and works with plug-ins allowing easy extension to fine-tune it to the user's specific needs. We make use of the promising features of ASPECT, especially Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR), for modelling lithosphere subduction in 2D and 3D geometries. The AMR allows for mesh refinement where needed and mesh coarsening in regions less important to the parameters under investigation. In the context of subduction, this amounts to having very small grid cells at material interfaces and larger cells in more uniform mantle regions. As lithosphere subduction modelling is not standard to ASPECT, we explore the necessary adaptive grid refinement and test ASPECT with widely accepted benchmarks. We showcase examples of mechanical and thermo-mechanical oceanic subduction in which we vary the number of materials making up the overriding and subducting plates as well as the rheology (from linear viscous to more complicated rheologies). Both 2D and 3D geometries are used, as ASPECT easily extends to three dimensions (Kronbichler et al. 2012). Based on these models, we discuss the advection of compositional fields coupled to material properties and the ability of AMR to trace the slab's path through the mantle. Kronbichler, M., T. Heister and W. Bangerth (2012), High Accuracy Mantle Convection Simulation through Modern Numerical Methods, Geophysical Journal International, 191, 12-29.

  12. Diversity and factors controlling widespread occurrence of syn-rift Ladinian microbialites in the western Tethys (Triassic Catalan Basin, NE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercedes-Martín, Ramon; Arenas, Concha; Salas, Ramon

    2014-11-01

    The fault-block carbonate ramps of the Ladinian (Middle Triassic) Catalan Basin hosted a wide variety of microbial deposits which formed during a syn-rift stage. Stratigraphical and sedimentological analyses of these microbialites allow us to reconstruct two depositional models for such microbial deposits. Moreover new insights into the interplay between the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that controlled the widespread development of these microbialites are provided. Stromatolites, ooidal-muddy microbial laminites and thrombolites were analyzed on the basis of their geometry, lamination and textural attributes. These microbialites are distributed over two Transgressive-Regressive sequences and coexisted during the Fassanian (Early Ladinian) regressive stage. Later, stromatolites and ooidal-muddy microbial laminites developed during the Longobardian (Late Ladinian) transgressive stage. Three types of lamina couplets reflect distinct accretion processes linked to water chemistry, sediment supply and hydrodynamic conditions. Thrombolite textures were produced by accretionary, binding and encrusting processes (microbially mediated) and pervasive cementation. The widespread occurrence of microbial deposits is explained as a consequence of a biogeochemical cascade of events (e.g., anoxic/dysoxic seawater conditions, volcanic activity, upwelling of alkaline waters, nutrient concentrations, and microbial blooms), which promoted favorable conditions for microbial growth in the Tethys during the Ladinian. Furthermore, in the Catalan Basin, syn-rift fault induced subsidence and local water energy gradients exerted an essential role in the distribution of the three types of microbialites through space and time. Thrombolites were prone to grow in the hanging wall block of a half-graben (subtidal conditions), whereas stromatolites and ooidal-muddy microbial laminites flourished preferably in a foot wall block setting (intertidal-shallow subtidal conditions). However, the fact that thrombolites exhibit abundant botryoidal and isopachous fibrous marine cements, corrosion and significant microbial evidence allow us to hypothesize about the relationship between thrombolite occurrence and hydrothermal fault-controlled fluid circulation during the Triassic rifting. The two depositional models here proposed constitute a step forward the understanding of the platform-to-basin microbialite heterogeneity during the Ladinian. Furthermore this work sheds new light on the mechanisms that likely promoted microbialite development during a period of major ecological restructuration and complex oceanographic conditions.

  13. Gender and Cultural Diversity Bias in Developmental Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conti, Nancy E.; Kimmel, Ellen B.

    This paper reports the results of a content-analysis for the treatment of gender and diversity in the 11 top-selling lifespan developmental textbooks. The purposes were to measure the amount of information provided on aspects of development specific to Caucasian females and females of Color and to evaluate qualitatively the incorporation of the…

  14. The Loss of Genetic Diversity: An Impending Global Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, James P.

    Definitions of biosphere and ecosystem are provided as the basis for understanding a problem that threatens to become (or already is) a global issue, namely, human activity which results in reducing the diversity of life forms present in the biosphere as an ecosystem. Two aspects of this problem are: (1) the growth of human populations worldwide…

  15. MATHEMATICS AND TECHNOLOGIES: BRIDGING DIVERSE LANGUAGES Isabel Cabrita

    E-print Network

    Spagnolo, Filippo

    72 MATHEMATICS AND TECHNOLOGIES: BRIDGING DIVERSE LANGUAGES Isabel Cabrita University of Aveiro is the existence of an increasing community of immigrants from the so-called eastern countries and from the PALOP (countries whit Portuguese as their official language). Very little is known about how different aspects

  16. Culturally Relevant Pedagogy in a Diverse Urban Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, H. Richard

    2011-01-01

    While it is well established that the ability of teachers to build cultural competence is a critical aspect of their work especially in urban and highly diverse settings, the kinds of experiences that help them build cultural competence is less clear. The author attempts to contribute to this void by showcasing a White, science teacher's…

  17. Acting on Beliefs in Teacher Education for Cultural Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gay, Geneva

    2010-01-01

    This discussion focuses on an aspect of teacher education for diversity that is frequently mentioned but not developed in sufficient detail. It is preservice teachers' and teacher educators' attitudes and beliefs about racial, cultural, and ethnic differences. These are the ideological anchors of teaching decisions and behaviors and meet Cuban's…

  18. Herbaria and Botanic Gardens as the memory of biological diversity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabio Garbari

    1993-01-01

    In order to fully understand biological diversity of plants, it is necessary to study their genetic and metabolic-functional aspects. However, it is also necessary to identify with utmost precision the kind of organism under study, to allow the reproducibility of experimental results. Within this context, a major role is played by Botanic Gardens and Herbaria, where the investigated specimens are

  19. Teachers' Dispositions and Beliefs about Cultural and Linguistic Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vázquez-Montilla, Elia; Just, Megan; Triscari, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Teachers' beliefs towards their students' cultural backgrounds and languages affect all aspects of learning. Critical consciousness of attitudes and beliefs about the increasing culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) student population is necessary for aligning individual beliefs with effective teaching practices. Rethinking how to work with…

  20. Diversion of Drugs Within Health Care Facilities, a Multiple-Victim Crime: Patterns of Diversion, Scope, Consequences, Detection, and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Berge, Keith H.; Dillon, Kevin R.; Sikkink, Karen M.; Taylor, Timothy K.; Lanier, William L.

    2012-01-01

    Mayo Clinic has been involved in an ongoing effort to prevent the diversion of controlled substances from the workplace and to rapidly identify and respond when such diversion is detected. These efforts have found that diversion of controlled substances is not uncommon and can result in substantial risk not only to the individual who is diverting the drugs but also to patients, co-workers, and employers. We believe that all health care facilities should have systems in place to deter controlled substance diversion and to promptly identify diversion and intervene when it is occurring. Such systems are multifaceted and require close cooperation between multiple stakeholders including, but not limited to, departments of pharmacy, safety and security, anesthesiology, nursing, legal counsel, and human resources. Ideally, there should be a broad-based appreciation of the dangers that diversion creates not only for patients but also for all employees of health care facilities, because diversion can occur at any point along a long supply chain. All health care workers must be vigilant for signs of possible diversion and must be aware of how to engage a preexisting group with expertise in investigating possible diversions. In addition, clear policies and procedures should be in place for dealing with such investigations and for managing the many possible outcomes of a confirmed diversion. This article provides an overview of the multiple types of risk that result from drug diversion from health care facilities. Further, we describe a system developed at Mayo Clinic for evaluating episodes of potential drug diversion and for taking action once diversion is confirmed. PMID:22766087

  1. The Small Tight Aspect Ratio Tokamak experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Colchin, R.J.; Carolan, P.G.; Duck, R.; Edlington, T.; Erents, S.K.; Ferreira, J.; Fielding, S.J.; Gibson, K.; Goodall, D.H.J.; Gryaznevich, M.; Hender, T.C.; Hugill, J.; Jenkins, I.; Li, J.; Manhood, S.J.; Parham, B.J.; Robinson, D.C.; Singleton, M.; Sykes, A.; Todd, T.N.; Turner, M.F.; Valovic, M.; Walsh, M.; Wilson, H.R. (AEA Fusion Technology, Culham Laboratory (EURATOM/UKAEA Association), Abingdon, Oxon (United Kingdom))

    1993-07-01

    Low-aspect-ratio tokamaks offer both the economic advantage of smaller size and a number of physics advantages which are not available at conventional aspect ratio. The Small Tight Aspect Ratio Tokamak (START) [[ital Fusion] [ital Technology] 1990, edited by B. E. Keen, M. Huguet, and R. Hemsworth (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1991), Vol. 1, p. 353] was conceived as a first substantial test of tokamak plasma behavior at low aspect ratio. It has achieved plasma currents up to 200 kA, peak densities of [similar to]2[times]10[sup 20] m[sup [minus]3] and central electron temperatures of [similar to]500 eV at an aspect ratio of 1.3--1.5. Central beta values of [similar to]13% have been measured and the volume-averaged beta [l angle][beta][r angle] can approach the Troyon limit. Plasmas are naturally elongated ([kappa][approx lt]2.0) and are vertically stable without feedback control. Major disruptions have not been observed at low aspect ratios ([ital A][le]2.0).

  2. Center for Diversity & Inclusion DIVERSITY DIGEST February 2013

    E-print Network

    Chapman, Michael S.

    for Diversity & Inclusion is working alongside the Schools of Dentistry, Medicine, and Nursing and the College School of Nursing, Founders Auditorium. read more #12;Center for Diversity & Inclusion Important LinksCenter for Diversity & Inclusion DIVERSITY DIGEST February 2013 Celebrating Black History Month

  3. Seeing is believing: Using film for teaching issues of diversity in sport

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason Lee; Dan Drane; Richard Kane

    2009-01-01

    Given that both classrooms and respective industry workforces are made up of heterogeneous groups of individuals, sport academics must make purposeful efforts to teach aspects of diversity. Film provides a valuable media form that can positively contribute to the teaching concepts of diversity. Educators may find that film implementation aids in facilitating student learning and knowledge retention. Film provides the

  4. Social Dating Goals in Female College Students: Failure to Replicate in a Diverse Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killeya-Jones, Ley A.

    2004-01-01

    This article reports a failure to replicate aspects of the Social Dating Goals Scale (SDGS; Sanderson & Cantor, 1995) with an ethnically diverse group of female college students. The SDGS was developed and validated with predominantly White samples. In the present study, a diverse sample of 82 Asian, Black, Hispanic and White female college…

  5. Diversity Taboos: Religion and Sexual Orientation in the Social Studies Classroom. Curriculum Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Rahima, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Asserts that, in many schools, educators have made great strides in responding to ethnic diversity and gender issues. Argues that two other aspects of diversity--sexual orientation and religious differences--are often ignored. Discusses curriculum design, school policy development, and teaching methods related to these topics. (CFR)

  6. Assessment of immune interference, antagonism, and diversion following human immunization with biallelic blood-stage malaria viral-vectored vaccines and controlled malaria infection.

    PubMed

    Elias, Sean C; Collins, Katharine A; Halstead, Fenella D; Choudhary, Prateek; Bliss, Carly M; Ewer, Katie J; Sheehy, Susanne H; Duncan, Christopher J A; Biswas, Sumi; Hill, Adrian V S; Draper, Simon J

    2013-02-01

    Overcoming antigenic variation is one of the major challenges in the development of an effective vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum, a causative agent of human malaria. Inclusion of multiple Ag variants in subunit vaccine candidates is one strategy that has aimed to overcome this problem for the leading blood-stage malaria vaccine targets, that is, merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1) and apical membrane Ag 1 (AMA1). However, previous studies, utilizing malaria Ags, have concluded that inclusion of multiple allelic variants, encoding altered peptide ligands, in such a vaccine may be detrimental to both the priming and in vivo restimulation of Ag-experienced T cells. In this study, we analyze the T cell responses to two alleles of MSP1 and AMA1 induced by vaccination of malaria-naive adult volunteers with bivalent viral-vectored vaccine candidates. We show a significant bias to the 3D7/MAD20 allele compared with the Wellcome allele for the 33 kDa region of MSP1, but not for the 19 kDa fragment or the AMA1 Ag. Although this bias could be caused by "immune interference" at priming, the data do not support a significant role for "immune antagonism" during memory T cell restimulation, despite observation of the latter at a minimal epitope level in vitro. A lack of class I HLA epitopes in the Wellcome allele that are recognized by vaccinated volunteers may in fact contribute to the observed bias. We also show that controlled infection with 3D7 strain P. falciparum parasites neither boosts existing 3D7-specific T cell responses nor appears to "immune divert" cellular responses toward the Wellcome allele. PMID:23293353

  7. Intraspecific Diversity Regulates Fungal Productivity and Respiration

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Anna; Solan, Martin; Taylor, Andrew F. S.; Alexander, Ian J.; Johnson, David

    2010-01-01

    Individuals and not just species are key components of biodiversity, yet the relationship between intraspecific diversity and ecosystem functioning in microbial systems remains largely untested. This limits our ability to understand and predict the effects of altered genetic diversity in regulating key ecosystem processes and functions. Here, we use a model fungal system to test the hypothesis that intraspecific genotypic richness of Paxillus obscurosporus stimulates biomass and CO2 efflux, but that this is dependent on nitrogen supply. Using controlled experimental microcosms, we show that populations containing several genotypes (maximum 8) of the fungus had greater productivity and produced significantly more CO2 than those with fewer genotypes. Moreover, intraspecific diversity had a much stronger effect than a four-fold manipulation of the carbon:nitrogen ratio of the growth medium. The effects of intraspecific diversity were underpinned by strong roles of individuals, but overall intraspecific diversity increased the propensity of populations to over-yield, indicating that both complementarity and selection effects can operate within species. Our data demonstrate the importance of intraspecific diversity over a range of nitrogen concentrations, and the need to consider fine scale phylogenetic information of microbial communities in understanding their contribution to ecosystem processes. PMID:20830299

  8. Diversity in computerized reactor protection systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. D. Fischer; L. Piel

    1999-01-01

    Based on engineering judgement, the most important measures to increase the independency of redundant trains of a computerized safety instrumentation and control system (I&C) in a nuclear power plant are evaluated with respect to practical applications. This paper will contribute to an objective discussion on the necessary and justifiable arrangement of diversity in a computerized safety I&C system. Important conclusions

  9. Effects of herbivores on grassland plant diversity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Han Olff; Mark E. Ritchie

    1998-01-01

    The role of herbivores in controlling plant species richness is a critical issue in the conservation and management of grassland biodiversity. Numerous field experiments in grassland plant communities show that herbivores often, but not always, increase plant diversity. Recent work suggests that the mechanisms of these effects involve alteration of local colonization of species from regional species pools or local

  10. Aspects of two corrosion processes relevant to military hardware

    SciTech Connect

    Braithwaite, J.W.; Buchheit, R.G.

    1997-11-01

    Corrosion is a leading material degradation mode observed in many military systems. This report contains a description of a small project that was performed to allow some of the important electrochemical aspects of two distinct and potentially relevant degradation modes to be better understood: environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) of aluminum alloys and corrosion in moist salt. Two specific and respective tasks were completed: (A) the characterization of the effect of aluminum microstructural variability on its susceptibility to EAC, and (B) the development of experimental and analytical techniques that can be used to identify the factors and processes that influence the corrosivity of moist salt mixtures. The resultant information constitutes part of the basis needed to ultimately predict component reliability and/or possibly to identify techniques that could be used to control corrosion in critical components. In Task A, a physical model and related understanding for the relevant degradation processes were formulated. The primary result from Task B included the identification and qualitative validation of a methodology for determining the corrosivity of salt mixtures. A detailed compilation of the results obtained from each of these two diverse tasks is presented separately in the body of this report.

  11. Effect of diversity on turnover: A large case study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan S. Leonard; David I. Levine

    2006-01-01

    Using longitudinal data collected in 1996-98 from over 800 similar workplaces owned and operated by a single corporation, the authors examine how workplace diversity and employee isolation along the dimensions of gender, race, and age affected employee turnover. Their design controls for much of the variation in job characteristics and labor markets that have confounded other studies of diversity. They

  12. Cultural Diversity and the Performance of Multinational Firms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis R. Gómez-mejia; Leslie E. Palich

    1997-01-01

    We test the hypothesis that culturally related international diversification will have a positive impact on firm performance and that the opposite will be true for culturally unrelated globalization. Cultural diversity for Fortune 500 firms was used to predict performance over a ten-year period (1985–1994), controlling for several organizational and industry characteristics. Regression tests using nine indicators of cultural diversity revealed

  13. Aspects of B physics

    SciTech Connect

    Gaillard, M.K.

    1987-10-14

    Various aspects of weak decays are commented on. Probing of the standard model and of phenomena beyond the standard model are discussed, followed by a theoretical view of B mesons and some experimental observations on B mesons. The point is made that any data on B decay would be interesting in that it would provide powerful new constraints in analyses of the standard model and extensions thereof. (LEW)

  14. Morphofunctional aspects of dental implants.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Georg; Fanghänel, Jochen; Proff, Peter

    2012-03-20

    Although oral implantology is among the most beneficial developments of modern dentistry, the widely spread opinion that the long-term outcome of implants is superior to that of natural teeth has been refuted. To evade uncritical extractions, the morphofunctional properties of natural teeth and implant-supported restorations are compared from a proprioceptive and occlusal trauma perspective. The periodontal ligament of natural teeth provides the central nerve system with feedback for sensory perception and motor control. Conversely, the lack of such proprioception causes lower tactile sensitivity and less coordinated masticatory muscle activity in implant-borne restorations and makes them more prone to occlusal overload and possible subsequent failure. Moreover, occlusal anomalies may be conducive to parafunctional activity, craniomandibular disorder, tinnitus, and headache. Oral implantology, therefore, has to take appropriate account of occlusal conditions and the biomechanical and neuromuscular aspects of masticatory function. PMID:22137145

  15. EXTENSION DIVERSITY PLAN 2009 -2012

    E-print Network

    , both in the workplace and in their communities. Strategy/Program/Activities ­ Maintain DiversityEXTENSION DIVERSITY PLAN 2009 - 2012 November 17, 2010 - Page 1 Extension Diversity Plan Goal ­All within Extension continually strive to be culturally competent and are successful in supporting diversity

  16. Leveraging Workplace Diversity in Organizations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alison M Konrad

    2006-01-01

    Research identifies several substantial barriers to the building of good working relationships among diverse cultural groups, and diversity must be managed if organizations are to attain the benefits promised by the business case for diversity. Many organizations have created diversity initiatives to address the demographic changes in the labor force and customer base, but few have achieved the goal of

  17. Phylum Cnidaria Origin of Diversity

    E-print Network

    Cochran-Stafira, D. Liane

    1 Phylum Cnidaria Origin of Diversity How has so much diversity been possible in the Phylum Cnidaria 1. Polyp and medusa forms ­ Provide the basic diversity by offering two different ways of life diversity been possible in the Phylum Cnidaria 2. Colony formation ­ Most common results of budding ability

  18. LINGUISTIC, CULTURAL, AND BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luisa Maffi

    2005-01-01

    Over the past decade, the field of biocultural diversity has arisen as an area of transdisciplinary research concerned with investigat- ing the links between the world's linguistic, cultural, and biologi- cal diversity as manifestations of the diversity of life. The impetus for the emergence of this field came from the observation that all three diversities are under threat by some

  19. Reshaping Antibody Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feng; Ekiert, Damian C.; Ahmad, Insha; Yu, Wenli; Zhang, Yong; Bazirgan, Omar; Torkamani, Ali; Raudsepp, Terje; Mwangi, Waithaka; Criscitiello, Michael F.; Wilson, Ian A.; Schultz, Peter G.; Smider, Vaughn V.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Unlike humans or mice, some species have limited genome encoded combinatorial diversity potential, yet mount a robust antibody response. Cows are unusual in having exceptionally long CDR H3 loops and few V-regions, but the mechanism for creating diversity is not understood. Deep sequencing revealed that ultralong CDR H3s contain a remarkable complexity of cysteines, suggesting that disulfide-bonded mini-domains may arise during repertoire development. Indeed, crystal structures of two cow antibodies reveal that these CDR H3s form a very unusual architecture composed of a ?-strand “stalk” that supports a structurally diverse, disulfide-bonded, “knob” domain. Sequence analysis suggests that diversity arises from somatic hypermutation of an ultralong DH with a severe codon bias towards mutation to cysteine. These unusual antibodies can be elicited to recognize defined antigens through the knob domain. Thus, the bovine immune system produces an antibody repertoire composed of CDR H3s of unprecedented length that fold into a diversity of mini-domains generated through combinations of somatically generated disulfides. PMID:23746848

  20. Extending UML with Aspects: Aspect Support in the Design Phase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junichi Suzuki; Yoshikazu Yamamoto

    1999-01-01

    Aspect-Oriented Programming (AOP) has been considered a promising abstraction principle to reduce the problem of code tangling and make software structure clean and configurable. This paper addresses the aspect support in the design level while it has been focused mainly in the implementation\\/coding phase. We propose an extension to Unified Modeling Language (UML) to support aspects properly without breaking the

  1. Diversity as strategy.

    PubMed

    Thomas, David A

    2004-09-01

    IBM's turnaround in the last decade is an impressive and well-documented business story. But behind that success is a less told people story, which explains how the corporation dramatically altered its already diverse composition and created millions of dollars in new business. By the time Lou Gerstner took the helm in 1993, IBM had a long history of progressive management when it came to civil rights and equal-opportunity employment. But Gerstner felt IBM wasn't taking full advantage of a diverse market for talent, nor was it maximizing the potential of its diverse customer and employee base. So in 1995, he launched a diversity task force initiative to uncover and understand differences among people within the organization and find ways to appeal to an even broader set of employees and customers. Gerstner established a task force for each of eight constituencies: Asians; blacks; the gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgendered community; Hispanics; white men; Native Americans; people with disabilities; and women. He asked the task forces to research four questions: What does your constituency need to feel welcome and valued at IBM? What can the corporation do, in partnership with your group, to maximize your constituency's productivity? What can the corporation do to influence your constituency's buying decisions so that IBM is seen as a preferred solution provider? And with which external organizations should IBM form relationships to better understand the needs of your constituency? The answers to these questions became the basis for IBM's diversity strategy. Thomas stresses that four factors are key to implementing any major change initiative: strong support from company leaders, an employee base that is fully engaged with the initiative, management practices that are integrated and aligned with the effort, and a strong and well-articulated business case for action. All four elements have helped IBM make diversity a key corporate strategy tied to real growth. PMID:15449859

  2. GCS plan for software aspects of certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shagnea, Anita M.; Lowman, Douglas S.; Withers, B. Edward

    1990-01-01

    As part of the Guidance and Control Software (GCS) research project being sponsored by NASA to evaluate the failure processes of software, standard industry software development procedures are being employed. To ensure that these procedures are authentic, the guidelines outlined in the Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA/DO-178A document entitled, software considerations in airborne systems and equipment certification, were adopted. A major aspect of these guidelines is proper documentation. As such, this report, the plan for software aspects of certification, was produced in accordance with DO-178A. An overview is given of the GCS research project, including the goals of the project, project organization, and project schedules. It also specifies the plans for all aspects of the project which relate to the certification of the GCS implementations developed under a NASA contract. These plans include decisions made regarding the software specification, accuracy requirements, configuration management, implementation development and verification, and the development of the GCS simulator.

  3. The influence of contextual diversity on eye movements in reading.

    PubMed

    Plummer, Patrick; Perea, Manuel; Rayner, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has shown contextual diversity (i.e., the number of passages in which a given word appears) to be a reliable predictor of word processing difficulty. It has also been demonstrated that word-frequency has little or no effect on word recognition speed when accounting for contextual diversity in isolated word processing tasks. An eye-movement experiment was conducted wherein the effects of word-frequency and contextual diversity were directly contrasted in a normal sentence reading scenario. Subjects read sentences with embedded target words that varied in word-frequency and contextual diversity. All 1st-pass and later reading times were significantly longer for words with lower contextual diversity compared to words with higher contextual diversity when controlling for word-frequency and other important lexical properties. Furthermore, there was no difference in reading times for higher frequency and lower frequency words when controlling for contextual diversity. The results confirm prior findings regarding contextual diversity and word-frequency effects and demonstrate that contextual diversity is a more accurate predictor of word processing speed than word-frequency within a normal reading task. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23937235

  4. Diversity Outlook, February 2013

    E-print Network

    2013-02-01

    people of all sexual orientations and gender identities are accepted and affirmed: Feb. 14, March 1, April 12. Info at LGBT Resource Center or lgbt@ku.edu DIVERSITY OUTLOOK • THE NEWSLETTER OF CAMPUS DIVERSITY FEBRUARY 2013VOL. 4 • ISSUE 7 FIND OUT... sustained me while I was in prison all those years.” Read the full text of the ten facts and more at http://www.huffingtonpost.com/jeanne-theoharis/rosa-parks-100th- birthday_b_2614678.html PROGRAM IN THE SPOTLIGHT UPCOMING EVENTS KEEP UP TO DATE AT WWW...

  5. The biology of hair diversity.

    PubMed

    Westgate, Gillian E; Botchkareva, Natalia V; Tobin, Desmond J

    2013-08-01

    Hair diversity, its style, colour, shape and growth pattern is one of our most defining characteristics. The natural versus temporary style is influenced by what happens to our hair during our lifetime, such as genetic hair loss, sudden hair shedding, greying and pathological hair loss in the various forms of alopecia because of genetics, illness or medication. Despite the size and global value of the hair care market, our knowledge of what controls the innate and within-lifetime characteristics of hair diversity remains poorly understood. In the last decade, drivers of knowledge have moved into the arena of genetics where hair traits are obvious and measurable and genetic polymorphisms are being found that raise valuable questions about the biology of hair growth. The recent discovery that the gene for trichohyalin contributes to hair shape comes as no surprise to the hair biologists who have believed for 100 years that hair shape is linked to the structure and function of the inner root sheath. Further conundrums awaiting elucidation include the polymorphisms in the androgen receptor (AR) described in male pattern alopecia whose location on the X chromosome places this genetic contributor into the female line. The genetics of female hair loss is less clear with polymorphisms in the AR not associated with female pattern hair loss. Lifestyle choices are also implicated in hair diversity. Greying, which also has a strong genetic component, is often suggested to have a lifestyle (stress) influence and hair follicle melanocytes show declining antioxidant protection with age and lowered resistance to stress. It is likely that hair research will undergo a renaissance on the back of the rising information from genetic studies as well as the latest contributions from the field of epigenetics. PMID:23363384

  6. Adaptive optics and phase diversity imaging for responsive space applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Mark William; Wick, David Victor

    2004-11-01

    The combination of phase diversity and adaptive optics offers great flexibility. Phase diverse images can be used to diagnose aberrations and then provide feedback control to the optics to correct the aberrations. Alternatively, phase diversity can be used to partially compensate for aberrations during post-detection image processing. The adaptive optic can produce simple defocus or more complex types of phase diversity. This report presents an analysis, based on numerical simulations, of the efficiency of different modes of phase diversity with respect to compensating for specific aberrations during post-processing. It also comments on the efficiency of post-processing versus direct aberration correction. The construction of a bench top optical system that uses a membrane mirror as an active optic is described. The results of characterization tests performed on the bench top optical system are presented. The work described in this report was conducted to explore the use of adaptive optics and phase diversity imaging for responsive space applications.

  7. [Cutaneous hemangioma: clinical aspects].

    PubMed

    Casanova, D; Norat, F; Bardot, J; Magalon, G

    2006-01-01

    Infantile cutaneous hemangioma is a benign vascular tumour present at 10% of the infants. It forms part of the group of the vascular tumours in the classification of International Society for Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA). Clinical diagnosis is easy in its triphasic typical form with a phase of sometimes brutal postnatal growth, a phase of stabilization and a phase of slow secondary regression. Classically, it is presented in the form of a mass or stains cutaneous red, of a subcutaneous mass or, generally, of a mixed form associating the two aspects. PMID:16997447

  8. Theoretical Aspects of Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Deem, Michael W.; Hejazi, Pooya

    2015-01-01

    The immune system recognizes a myriad of invading pathogens and their toxic products. It does so with a finite repertoire of antibodies and T cell receptors. We here describe theories that quantify the immune system dynamics. We describe how the immune system recognizes antigens by searching the large space of receptor molecules. We consider in some detail the theories that quantify the immune response to influenza and dengue fever. We review theoretical descriptions of the complementary evolution of pathogens that occurs in response to immune system pressure. Methods including bioinformatics, molecular simulation, random energy models, and quantum field theory contribute to a theoretical understanding of aspects of immunity. PMID:22432581

  9. The diversity of hydrostatic skeletons.

    PubMed

    Kier, William M

    2012-04-15

    A remarkably diverse group of organisms rely on a hydrostatic skeleton for support, movement, muscular antagonism and the amplification of the force and displacement of muscle contraction. In hydrostatic skeletons, force is transmitted not through rigid skeletal elements but instead by internal pressure. Functioning of these systems depends on the fact that they are essentially constant in volume as they consist of relatively incompressible fluids and tissue. Contraction of muscle and the resulting decrease in one of the dimensions thus results in an increase in another dimension. By actively (with muscle) or passively (with connective tissue) controlling the various dimensions, a wide array of deformations, movements and changes in stiffness can be created. An amazing range of animals and animal structures rely on this form of skeletal support, including anemones and other polyps, the extremely diverse wormlike invertebrates, the tube feet of echinoderms, mammalian and turtle penises, the feet of burrowing bivalves and snails, and the legs of spiders. In addition, there are structures such as the arms and tentacles of cephalopods, the tongue of mammals and the trunk of the elephant that also rely on hydrostatic skeletal support but lack the fluid-filled cavities that characterize this skeletal type. Although we normally consider arthropods to rely on a rigid exoskeleton, a hydrostatic skeleton provides skeletal support immediately following molting and also during the larval stage for many insects. Thus, the majority of animals on earth rely on hydrostatic skeletons. PMID:22442361

  10. Diversity in the Workplace

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Morgan; Felix Várdy

    2009-01-01

    We study minority representation in the workplace when employers engage in optimal sequential search and minorities convey noisier signals of ability than mainstream job candidates. The greater signal noise makes it harder for minorities to change employers' prior beliefs. When employers are selective, this leads to minority underrepresentation in the workplace. Diversity improves when the cost of interviewing, the average

  11. Workplace Diversity Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This document contains three symposium papers on workplace diversity issues. "Expanding Theories of Career Development: Adding the Voices of African American Women in the White Academy" (Mary V. Alfred) questions the validity of existing career development models for women and minority groups and examines the professional development of five…

  12. National Testing and Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hajj-Bahous, Jocelyne

    This paper examines the direct relationship between curriculum, instruction, and evaluation, suggesting that following a national curriculum and preparing students to take national examinations requires diverse teaching materials, teaching methodologies, and testing techniques to train students to apply their cognitive skills to thinking,…

  13. The Quest for Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Susan J.

    1996-01-01

    The current promotion of diversity encourages people from assorted backgrounds and mutual goals to find compatible but not necessarily identical ways to work together. Each literacy program will have a different need to expand its circle. It must consider all the characteristics that might widen its constituency, analyze all participants, and be…

  14. Institutionalizing Diversity Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Samuel A.; Van Natta, Carol

    1999-01-01

    Metropolitan universities are in the forefront of developing new administrative approaches to support and expand minority opportunities in higher education. Three design principles are at the heart of successful efforts to institutionalize diversity: strategic planning; the learning model; and integration across goals and functions. The experience…

  15. Diversity and Privilege

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Frances A.; Tetreault, Mary Kay

    2009-01-01

    Efforts to diversify university faculties began almost forty years ago. Since then, the number of white women faculty and faculty of color on U.S. campuses has grown slowly but steadily. At the same time, the explanatory framework for this shift--what they call the "terms of inclusion"--has changed profoundly. "Diversity" and "excellence" were…

  16. Supply and Demand Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galuszka, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Public universities in Virginia, as in many states, have generally not paid much attention to diversity among their suppliers. For years, state expenditures for outside contracts went to the usual suspects--White contractors from well-established companies. Four years ago, former Governor Mark Warner, a progressive Democrat from the high…

  17. An appreciation of diversity.

    PubMed

    Dhadda, Sukdeep

    Nursing students are in contact with patients, families and colleagues from cultural backgrounds that can be quite different from their own. Cultural competence is a strategy for addressing the needs of patients from diverse backgrounds and improving their care. PMID:24617411

  18. How Symbiosis Creates Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lord, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Diversity in habitats on Earth is astounding--whether on land or in the sea--and this is in part due to symbiosis. The lesson described in this article helps students understand how symbiosis affects different organisms through a fun and engaging game where they match hosts and symbionts based on their respective needs. This 45-minute lesson is…

  19. "An Engine of Diversity"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galuszka, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This article features North Carolina's Research Triangle Park (RTP), which provides research and career opportunities for the region and creates a diverse work force. The convergence of higher education and research at the famed RTP has been all but idyllic for years. What happened there is a strong example of how regions can start their own…

  20. Diversity Is Not Enough.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling-Sendor, Benjamin

    1999-01-01

    Recent court decisions have rejected fostering of diversity as a compelling state interest. In a 1999 case (Brewer v West Irondequoit School District), Federal District Judge David Larimer ordered the West Irondequoit Central School District to admit a previously rejected (white) transfer student. Using class, not race, as an admission criterion…

  1. Education and Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, James A.; Cookson, Peter; Gay, Geneva; Hawley, Willis D.; Irvine, Jacqueline Jordan; Nieto, Sonia; Schofield, Janet Ward; Stephan, Walter G.

    2005-01-01

    What do we know about education and diversity, and how do we know it? This two-part question guided the work of the Multicultural Education Consensus Panel, which included the eight scholars named above. The panel's work was sponsored by the Center for Multicultural Education at the University of Washington and the Common Destiny Alliance at the…

  2. Accepting Tolerance and Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoss, Madeleine; Wylie, Roslyn

    Exploring diversity instills in children an awareness and respect for themselves and others. Research projects that address stereotyping, race relations, and prejudice within ourselves can be developed through collaboration between the librarian and classroom teacher (who may themselves be of different cultures). These research projects help…

  3. What Is Diversity Pedagogy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheets, Rosa Hernandez

    2009-01-01

    Diversity Pedagogy Theory (DPT) is a set of principles that point out the natural and inseparable connection between culture and cognition. In other words, to be effective as a teacher, he/she must understand and acknowledge the critical role culture plays in the teaching-learning process. DPT maintains that culturally inclusive teachers (a)…

  4. Animal Diversity Web

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Roger Espinosa (University of Michigan Museum of Zoology)

    2006-04-20

    Animal Diversity Web (ADW) is an online database of animal natural history, distribution, classification, and conservation biology, from the University of Michigan. It is a searchable encyclopedia, science learning tool and virtual museum. It has pages suggesting uses for the site in both undergraduate and K12 education.

  5. Diversity and Flexibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasi, Anne

    1990-01-01

    Responds to five major articles by Duckworth, Goldman, Healy, Sampson, and Goodyear on issues pertaining to testing and assessment in counseling psychology. Suggests that such a diversity of approaches leads to a more comprehensive and flexible model of counseling, adaptable to differences in clients, context, and counselor personalities. (TE)

  6. Strength in diversity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arnab Pain; Lisa Crossman; Mohammed Sebaihia; Ana Cerdeño-Tárraga; Julian Parkhill

    2004-01-01

    A diverse set of genomes is described in this month's column, all of which are involved at some level in interactions with a human host. These range from the eukaryotic intracellular pathogen Cryptosporidium parvum, through the prokaryotic opportunistic pathogens Bacillus cereus and Leptospira interrogans, to the gut commensal Lactobacillus johnsonii. The genomes of these organisms display a wide range of

  7. Campus Diversity Climate Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hindes, Victoria

    In order to be responsive to the changing demographics of the emerging community college student population, and in an attempt to answer the Chancellor's Office's call to discover how community colleges serve the diverse needs of students, Shasta College, California, collaborated with Feather River College, California, to conduct a study that…

  8. Organising for cultural diversity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geert Hofstede

    1989-01-01

    Corporations operating across national borders and diversified into different types of business are bound to host considerable cultural diversity within their ranks. For an effective coordination of their various activities, cultural considerations should enter into the design of their corporate structure. This demands a cultural awareness on their management's side which does not belong to the classic selection criteria for

  9. Genetic diversity and disease control in rice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Youyong Zhu; Hairu Chen; Jinghua Fan; Yunyue Wang; Yan Li; Jianbing Chen; JinXiang Fan; Shisheng Yang; Lingping Hu; Hei Leung; Tom W. Mew; Paul S. Teng; Zonghua Wang; Christopher C. Mundt

    2000-01-01

    Crop heterogeneity is a possible solution to the vulnerability of monocultured crops to disease. Both theory and observation indicate that genetic heterogeneity provides greater disease suppression when used over large areas, though experimental data are lacking. Here we report a unique cooperation among farmers, researchers and extension personnel in Yunnan Province, China-genetically diversified rice crops were planted in all the

  10. A multi-component analysis of species diversity of groundfish assemblages on the continental shelf of the Gulf of Lions (north-western Mediterranean Sea)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bastien Mérigot; Jacques A. Bertrand; Nabila Mazouni; Claude Manté; Jean-Pierre Durbec; Jean-Claude Gaertner

    2007-01-01

    The multi-component aspect of species diversity of groundfish assemblages was examined on the basis of a set of experimental trawl surveys conducted on the continental shelf of the Gulf of Lions. The structure of species diversity was investigated through the simultaneous analysis of indices relating to 4 diversity components: (1) the number of species (species density S and Margalef's Dmg

  11. Diversity in the high-tech workplace: forums for diversity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Batten

    1992-01-01

    The ways in which AT&T deals with an increasingly diverse workforce are discussed. Advantages that the company gains by having a diverse workforce are considered. Activities that promote mutual understanding are described

  12. Competing signals drive telencephalon diversity.

    PubMed

    Sylvester, J B; Rich, C A; Yi, C; Peres, J N; Houart, C; Streelman, J T

    2013-01-01

    The telencephalon is the most complex brain region, controlling communication, emotion, movement and memory. Its adult derivatives develop from the dorsal pallium and ventral subpallium. Despite knowledge of genes required in these territories, we do not understand how evolution has shaped telencephalon diversity. Here, using rock- and sand-dwelling cichlid fishes from Lake Malawi, we demonstrate that differences in strength and timing of opposing Hedgehog and Wingless signals establish evolutionary divergence in dorsal-ventral telencephalon patterning. Rock dwellers exhibit early, extensive Hedgehog activity in the ventral forebrain resulting in expression of foxg1 before dorsal Wingless signals, and a larger subpallium. Sand dwellers show rapid deployment of Wingless, later foxg1 expression and a larger pallium. Manipulation of the Hedgehog and Wingless pathways in cichlid and zebrafish embryos is sufficient to mimic differences between rock- versus sand-dweller brains. Our data suggest that competing ventral Hedgehog and dorsal Wingless signals mediate evolutionary diversification of the telencephalon. PMID:23612286

  13. Effects of Seasonality and Species Diversity on Nitrogen Uptake in Grassland Johanna Jensen

    E-print Network

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    1 Effects of Seasonality and Species Diversity on Nitrogen Uptake in Grassland Ecosystems Johanna controls on nitrogen cycling in grassland ecosystems than species diversity in fall months. Three grassland growing season and affinity for nitrate, while a senescing, diverse grassland had the least. In addition

  14. Neurological Aspects of Human Glycosylation Disorders.

    PubMed

    Freeze, Hudson H; Eklund, Erik A; Ng, Bobby G; Patterson, Marc C

    2015-07-01

    This review presents principles of glycosylation, describes the relevant glycosylation pathways and their related disorders, and highlights some of the neurological aspects and issues that continue to challenge researchers. More than 100 rare human genetic disorders that result from deficiencies in the different glycosylation pathways are known today. Most of these disorders impact the central and/or peripheral nervous systems. Patients typically have developmental delays/intellectual disabilities, hypotonia, seizures, neuropathy, and metabolic abnormalities in multiple organ systems. Among these disorders there is great clinical diversity because all cell types differentially glycosylate proteins and lipids. The patients have hundreds of misglycosylated products, which afflict a myriad of processes, including cell signaling, cell-cell interaction, and cell migration. This vast complexity in glycan composition and function, along with the limited availability of analytic tools, has impeded the identification of key glycosylated molecules that cause pathologies. To date, few critical target proteins have been pinpointed. PMID:25840006

  15. Aspects of Plant Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    TREWAVAS, ANTHONY

    2003-01-01

    Intelligence is not a term commonly used when plants are discussed. However, I believe that this is an omission based not on a true assessment of the ability of plants to compute complex aspects of their environment, but solely a reflection of a sessile lifestyle. This article, which is admittedly controversial, attempts to raise many issues that surround this area. To commence use of the term intelligence with regard to plant behaviour will lead to a better understanding of the complexity of plant signal transduction and the discrimination and sensitivity with which plants construct images of their environment, and raises critical questions concerning how plants compute responses at the whole?plant level. Approaches to investigating learning and memory in plants will also be considered. PMID:12740212

  16. Procedures to increase some aspects of creativity.

    PubMed Central

    Glover, J; Gary, A L

    1976-01-01

    Instructions reinforcement (team points), and practice were applied to four behaviorally defined creative behaviors of eight fourth- and fifth-grade students. All four aspects (number of different responses, fluency; number of verb forms, flexibility; number of words per response, elaboration; and statistical infrequency of response forms, originality) were demonstrated to be under experimental control. The procedures also raised students' scores on Torrance's tests of creativity. Application of the experimental procedures may well be practical for classroom teachers. PMID:943391

  17. Compromising Baltic salmon genetic diversity -

    E-print Network

    Compromising Baltic salmon genetic diversity - conservation genetic risks associated with compensatory releases of salmon in the Baltic Sea Havs- och vattenmyndighetens rapport 2012:18 #12;Compromising Baltic salmon genetic diversity - conservation genetic risks associated with compensatory releases

  18. Does species diversity limit productivity in natural grassland communities?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grace, J.B.; Anderson, T.M.; Smith, M.D.; Seabloom, E.; Andelman, S.J.; Meche, G.; Weiher, E.; Allain, L.K.; Jutila, H.; Sankaran, M.; Knops, J.; Ritchie, M.; Willig, M.R.

    2007-01-01

    Theoretical analyses and experimental studies of synthesized assemblages indicate that under particular circumstances species diversity can enhance community productivity through niche complementarity. It remains unclear whether this process has important effects in mature natural ecosystems where competitive feedbacks and complex environmental influences affect diversity-productivity relationships. In this study, we evaluated diversity-productivity relationships while statistically controlling for environmental influences in 12 natural grassland ecosystems. Because diversity-productivity relationships are conspicuously nonlinear, we developed a nonlinear structural equation modeling (SEM) methodology to separate the effects of diversity on productivity from the effects of productivity on diversity. Meta-analysis was used to summarize the SEM findings across studies. While competitive effects were readily detected, enhancement of production by diversity was not. These results suggest that the influence of small-scale diversity on productivity in mature natural systems is a weak force, both in absolute terms and relative to the effects of other controls on productivity. ?? 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  19. AspectJ(tm): Aspect-Oriented Programming in Java

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregor Kiczales

    2002-01-01

    Aspect-oriented programming (AOP) gives software developers a powerful new tool for structuring the design and code of software\\u000a systems. AOP simplifies development of system aspects that previously were among the most difficult to handle, including failure\\u000a handling strategies, synchronization policies, change propagation, security checking, distribution, policy enforcement and\\u000a many others. AOP using AspectJ makes it possible to describe, in just

  20. DEVELOPMENTAL DIVERSITY OF AMPHIBIANS

    PubMed Central

    Elinson, Richard P.; del Pino, Eugenia M.

    2011-01-01

    The current model amphibian, Xenopus laevis, develops rapidly in water to a tadpole which metamorphoses into a frog. Many amphibians deviate from the X. laevis developmental pattern. Among other adaptations, their embryos develop in foam nests on land or in pouches on their mother’s back or on a leaf guarded by a parent. The diversity of developmental patterns includes multinucleated oogenesis, lack of RNA localization, huge non-pigmented eggs, and asynchronous, irregular early cleavages. Variations in patterns of gastrulation highlight the modularity of this critical developmental period. Many species have eliminated the larva or tadpole and directly develop to the adult. The wealth of developmental diversity among amphibians coupled with the wealth of mechanistic information from X. laevis permit comparisons that provide deeper insights into developmental processes. PMID:22662314

  1. Imposing genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Sparrow, Robert

    2015-06-01

    The idea that a world in which everyone was born "perfect" would be a world in which something valuable was missing often comes up in debates about the ethics of technologies of prenatal testing and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). This thought plays an important role in the "disability critique" of prenatal testing. However, the idea that human genetic variation is an important good with significant benefits for society at large is also embraced by a wide range of figures writing in the bioethics literature, including some who are notoriously hostile to the idea that we should not select against disability. By developing a number of thought experiments wherein we are to contemplate increasing genetic diversity from a lower baseline in order to secure this value, I argue that this powerful intuition is more problematic than is generally recognized, especially where the price of diversity is the well-being of particular individuals. PMID:26030484

  2. Convention on Biological Diversity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Convened after the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, the Convention on Biological Diversity has three primary goals: the conservation of biological diversity, the sustainable use of its components, and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits from the use of genetic resources. The main body of the organization's home page is dedicated to disseminating information about upcoming meetings, news, and events, such as the expert meeting on the global strategy for plant conservation and the various constituent groups that make up the Convention. The number of online documents available here is quite prodigious, and is divided into groups that include quarterly reports, global biodiversity outlook reports, and case-study documents. Users may elect to browse through these collections, or choose to use the search engine.

  3. Nelson Diversity Surveys

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site provides results of and information about our diversity surveys, which determined demographics of tenured / tenure track faculty at pertinent departments of the "top 50" universities, ranked by NSF (National Science Foundation) according to research expenditures in that discipline. These are the first published data, disaggregated by gender, by race, and by rank, on faculty at the top 50 research universities in each of 14 science and engineering disciplines. These surveys were conducted under the auspices of the University of Oklahoma and the Diversity in Science Association. Data were collected by surveying department chairs; each department chair provided faculty data, disaggregated by gender, by race/ethnicity, and by rank. Fifty universities (chairs) were surveyed in each of the 14 disciplines studied. Target Audience: 2-4 Year College Faculty/Administrators, Engineers, Industry Personnel, Government Personnel, Scientists,Technicians, General Public

  4. Sessions Focus on Diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamec, Bethany Holm

    2013-01-01

    Education and outreach play a significant role in AGU's mission; one of our major strategic goals is developing and nurturing the next generation of Earth and space scientists. Particular emphasis is placed on exploring ways to strengthen the numbers and diversity of the Earth and space science workforce and helping to strengthen Earth and space science departments and undergraduate teaching at the college and university levels.

  5. Similarity vs. Diversity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barry Smyth; Paul Mcclave

    2001-01-01

    Case-based reasoning systems usually accept the conventional similarity assumption during retrieval, preferring to retrieve\\u000a a set of cases that are maximally similar to the target problem. While we accept that this works well in many domains, we\\u000a suggest that in others it is misplaced. In particular, we argue that often diversity can be as important as similarity. This\\u000a is especially

  6. Microbial Diversity - student worksheet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Joanna Verran

    This is a downloadable Microsoft Word document containing a 13-question student assessment worksheet to accompany the Microbial Diversity video segment of the Unseen Life on Earth series from Annenberg Media. The questions mirror language used in the video and focus on clearly stated facts. Thus, the worksheet assesses listening skills more than concept comprehension. This assessment would be appropriate for the secondary or introductory undergraduate level.

  7. Campus Conversations on Diversity & Inclusion

    E-print Network

    Weaver, Harold A. "Hal"

    for Managing Workplace Diversity that is included in the Supervisory Training Program. To register, access httpCampus Conversations on Diversity & Inclusion At Johns Hopkins University To register go to http about: Equity, Civility and Respect @JHU Minimizing conflict Perceptions of power Diverse

  8. Diversity in the Workplace. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    Three papers comprise this symposium on diversity in the workplace. "Factors That Assist and Barriers That Hinder the Success of Diversity Initiatives in Multinational Corporations" (Rose Mary Wentling) reports that factors that assisted in the success were classified under diversity department, human, and work environment; barriers were those of…

  9. 2008-09 Diversity Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada System of Higher Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Pursuant to Board of Regents' policy, the Nevada System of Higher Education (NSHE) prepares a diversity report intended to provide an overview of the current status of enrollment and employment of members of diverse groups across the System. The information presented in this report follows the NSHE "2007-08 Diversity Report" that was presented to…

  10. Genetic diversity in Gossypium genus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The overall objectives of this paper are to report on cotton germplasm resources, morphobiological and agronomic diversity of Gossypium genus and review efforts on molecular genetic diversity of cotton gene pools as well as on the challenges and perspectives of exploiting genetic diversity in cotton...

  11. Religious Diversity in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michel, George J.; Smith, William Gause; Vickers, Dianne Koenig; Brown, Elsie

    This document contains four papers that address constitutional issues of religious diversity in the schools. The first paper, "Religious Diversity in the Schools--The Overview" (George J. Michel), provides an overview of religious diversity in American public schools, with a focus on the long history of cooperation with Christian churches. It…

  12. NARRATIVES OF DIVERSITY: ENCOURAGING CULTURAL

    E-print Network

    Qiu, Weigang

    12/13/14 9am-3pm PLACE: TBA NARRATIVES OF DIVERSITY: ENCOURAGING CULTURAL RESPONSIVENESS PRESENTERS professionals, including faculty and students of the health professions.The aim of the Narratives of Diversity experiences with diversity and marginalization in order to bring a heightened awareness of these issues

  13. Diversity beyond the Golden Rule.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnevale, Anthony P.; Stone, Susan C.

    1994-01-01

    Diversity implies differences in people based on their identifications with various groups and is also a process of acknowledging differences through action. Those organizations that have welcomed diversity are more productive and have a competitive advantage. Diversity training can be awareness based (cognitive) or skill based (behavioral). (JOW)

  14. Understanding plant reproductive diversity.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Spencer C H

    2010-01-12

    Flowering plants display spectacular floral diversity and a bewildering array of reproductive adaptations that promote mating, particularly outbreeding. A striking feature of this diversity is that related species often differ in pollination and mating systems, and intraspecific variation in sexual traits is not unusual, especially among herbaceous plants. This variation provides opportunities for evolutionary biologists to link micro-evolutionary processes to the macro-evolutionary patterns that are evident within lineages. Here, I provide some personal reflections on recent progress in our understanding of the ecology and evolution of plant reproductive diversity. I begin with a brief historical sketch of the major developments in this field and then focus on three of the most significant evolutionary transitions in the reproductive biology of flowering plants: the pathway from outcrossing to predominant self-fertilization, the origin of separate sexes (females and males) from hermaphroditism and the shift from animal pollination to wind pollination. For each evolutionary transition, I consider what we have discovered and some of the problems that still remain unsolved. I conclude by discussing how new approaches might influence future research in plant reproductive biology. PMID:20008389

  15. DiversityRx

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    DiversityRx is a program that aims to provide culturally and linguistically sensitive health care services to "minority, immigrant, and indigenous communities." An iteration of the program began in the mid-1990s, and resulted in the creation of the Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services in Health Care (CLAS) standards, which is supported by various government agencies. DiversityRx's website gives visitors plenty of opportunities to learn about cultural competence, from the "Topics" tab in the menu across the top of the page. The "Cultural Competence 101" link lists all the material on the website related to cultural competence. Visitors should not miss the blog entry entitled "Diversity Training vs. Cultural Competency Training", a video entitled "Faces of Disparity Video", and "'I Speak' Language Identification Cards". The "Resources" tab has a link to the "Resource Database", which can be searched or browsed. Once a visitor becomes a member - it's free to join- they can add to, comment on and mark as a favorite, any of the resources in the database.

  16. Bioenergetic Aspects of Halophilism

    PubMed Central

    Oren, Aharon

    1999-01-01

    Examinination of microbial diversity in environments of increasing salt concentrations indicates that certain types of dissimilatory metabolism do not occur at the highest salinities. Examples are methanogenesis for H2 + CO2 or from acetate, dissimilatory sulfate reduction with oxidation of acetate, and autotrophic nitrification. Occurrence of the different metabolic types is correlated with the free-energy change associated with the dissimilatory reactions. Life at high salt concentrations is energetically expensive. Most bacteria and also the methanogenic archaea produce high intracellular concentrations of organic osmotic solutes at a high energetic cost. All halophilic microorganisms expend large amounts of energy to maintain steep gradients of NA+ and K+ concentrations across their cytoplasmic membrane. The energetic cost of salt adaptation probably dictates what types of metabolism can support life at the highest salt concentrations. Use of KCl as an intracellular solute, while requiring far-reaching adaptations of the intracellular machinery, is energetically more favorable than production of organic-compatible solutes. This may explain why the anaerobic halophilic fermentative bacteria (order Haloanaerobiales) use this strategy and also why halophilic homoacetogenic bacteria that produce acetate from H2 + CO2 exist whereas methanogens that use the same substrates in a reaction with a similar free-energy yield do not. PMID:10357854

  17. Current aspects of occupational chemical carcinogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lassiter, D.

    1975-01-01

    The history of measures to control occupational exposure to carcinogenic substances is reviewed. Health hazards associated with exposure to a certain chemical substance must be considered not only from the aspects of its acute or chronic toxicity, but also from its potential to produce tumors (latent effect). There can be no clear distinction between classic toxicity and oncogenesis until the mechanisms of both are completely understood for a given chemical substance. The assessment of carcinogenic potential for a specific substance must include the consideration of published information, monitoring and control data from the affected industry, and the in-depth epidemiologic experience of affected employees.

  18. Electrical Aspects of Impinging Flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, Yu-Chien

    This dissertation examines the use of electric fields as one mechanism for controlling combustion as flames are partially extinguished when impinging on nearby surfaces. Electrical aspects of flames, specifically, the production of chemi-ions in hydrocarbon flames and the use of convective flows driven by these ions, have been investigated in a wide range of applications in prior work but despite this fairly comprehensive effort to study electrical aspects of combustion, relatively little research has focused on electrical phenomena near flame extinguishment, nor for flames near impingement surfaces. Electrical impinging flames have complex properties under global influences of ion-driven winds and flow field disturbances from the impingement surface. Challenges of measurements when an electric field is applied in the system have limited an understanding of changes to the flame behavior and species concentrations caused by the field. This research initially characterizes the ability of high voltage power supplies to respond on sufficiently short time scales to permit real time electrical flame actuation. The study then characterizes the influence of an electric field on the impinging flame shape, ion current and flow field of the thermal plume associated with the flame. The more significant further examinations can be separated into two parts: 1) the potential for using electric fields to control the release of carbon monoxide (CO) from surface-impinging flames, and 2) an investigation of controlling electrically the heat transfer to a plate on which the flame impinges. Carbon monoxide (CO) results from the incomplete oxidation of hydrocarbon fuels and, while CO can be desirable in some syngas processes, it is usually a dangerous emission from forest fires, gas heaters, gas stoves, or furnaces where insufficient oxygen in the core reaction does not fully oxidize the fuel to carbon dioxide and water. Determining how carbon monoxide is released and how heat transfer from the flame to the plate can be controlled using the electric field are the two main goals of this research. Multiple diagnostic techniques are employed such as OH chemiluminescence to identify the reaction zone, OH PLIF to characterize the location of this radical species, CO released from the flame, IR imaging and OH PLIF thermometry to understand the surface and gas temperature distribution, respectively. The principal finding is that carbon monoxide release from an impinging diffusion flame results from the escape of carbon monoxide created on the fuel side of the flame along the boundary layer near the surface where it avoids oxidation by OH, which sits to the air side of the reaction sheet interface. In addition, the plate proximity to the flame has a stronger influence on the emission of toxic carbon monoxide than does the electric field strength. There is, however, a narrow region of burner to surface distance where the electric field is most effective. The results also show that heat transfer can be spatially concentrated effectively using an electric field driven ion wind, particularly at some burner to surface distances.

  19. Equality & Diversity Unit, UCD HR Disability and Diversity Awareness Seminar Disability & Diversity Awareness

    E-print Network

    Equality & Diversity Unit, UCD HR ­ Disability and Diversity Awareness Seminar Disability & Diversity Awareness Target Audience: All staff Overview: A flexible and thought provoking one-day learning in the workplace and society at large. It provides a full range of practical ideas to develop key skills

  20. Working with "Diverse Bodies, Diverse Identities": An Approach to Professional Education about "Diversity"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Cruz, Heather

    2007-01-01

    The complexity and diversity of populations in contemporary Western societies is becoming a significant public policy issue. The concept of "diversity" has come to represent cultural, ethnic, racial and religious differences between the "dominant group" and immigrant and indigenous populations. "Diversity training" is amongst many strategies being…

  1. Electrical aspects of rainout

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenkilde, C.E.

    1981-11-23

    Rainout commonly denotes the aggregate of phenomena associated with precipitation scavenging of radioactivity from a cloud of nuclear debris that is within a natural rain cloud. (In contrast, the term, washout, is applicable when the nuclear cloud is below the rain cloud and the term, fallout, commonly denotes the direct gravitational settling of contaminated solid material from a nuclear cloud.) Nuclear debris aerosols may be scavenged within natural clouds by a variety of different physical processes which may involve diffusion, convection, impaction, nucleation, phoresis, turbulence, and/or electricity among others. Processes which involve electrical aspects are scrutinized for their susceptibility to the intimate presence of the radioactive-cloud environment. This particular choice of electrical processes is not accidental. Nearly all of the listed processes were examined earlier by Williams. His rough estimates suggested that electrical effects, and to a lesser extent turbulence, could enhance the scavenging of those submicron aerosols which reside in the size-range that bridges the minimum in the scavenging rate coefficient which is commonly called the Greenfield gap. This minimum in the scavenging-rate coefficient is created by the simultaneous reduction of scavenging via diffusion and the reduction of scavenging via inertial impaction. However, Williams omitted the specific influence of a radioactive environment. This report aims to remedy this omission.

  2. Psychosocial aspects of abortion

    PubMed Central

    Illsley, Raymond; Hall, Marion H.

    1976-01-01

    The literature on psychosocial aspects of abortion is confusing. Individual publications must be interpreted in the context of cultural, religious, and legal constraints obtaining in a particular society at a given time, with due attention to the status and availability of alternatives to abortion that might be chosen by a woman with an “unwanted” pregnancy. A review of the literature shows that, where careful pre- and post-abortion assessments are made, the evidence is that psychological benefit commonly results, and serious adverse emotional sequelae are rare. The outcome of refused abortion seems less satisfactory, with regrets and distress frequently occurring. Research on the administration of abortion services suggests that counselling is often of value, that distress is frequently caused by delays in deciding upon and in carrying out abortions, and by unsympathetic attitudes of service providers. The phenomenon of repeated abortion seeking should be seen in the context of the availability and cost of contraception and sterilization. The place of sterilization with abortion requires careful study. A recommendation is made for observational descriptive research on populations of women with potentially unwanted pregnancies in different cultures, with comparisons of management systems and an evaluation of their impact on service users. PMID:1085671

  3. [Psychosocial aspects of halitosis].

    PubMed

    de Jongh, A; de Baat, C; Horstman, M

    2012-09-01

    Using a representative sample from the Dutch population, some psychosocial aspects of halitosis were examined. The results of the survey showed that almost 90% of the Dutch population aged 16 years and older were regularly faced with halitosis. Forty percent reported to be exposed to someone with halitosis at least once a week, men significantly more frequently than women. Although less strongly than body odour, halitosis was reported as being one of the most severe 'let-downs' in social interactions. The greater the social distance between subjects, the less likely is the chance that a person's attention will be drawn to halitosis experienced. When it comes to an unknown person, the chance was no more than 7%, suggesting that it is problematic to draw a person's attention to the presence of halitosis. Considering the potential social consequences of halitosis is it important that dentists and dental hygienists draw patients' attention to the presence of halitosis, when this is the case, thereby encouraging them to seek adequate treatment. PMID:23050381

  4. Strategic Aspects of Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagen, Edward; Hammerstein, Peter; Hess, Nicole

    Rarely do human behavioral scientists and scholars study language, music, and other forms of communication as strategies—a means to some end. Some even deny that communication is the primary function of these phenomena. Here we draw upon selections of our earlier work to briefly define the strategy concept and sketch how decision theory, developed to explain the behavior of rational actors, is applied to evolved agents. Communication can then be interpreted as a strategy that advances the "fitness interests" of such agents. When this perspective is applied to agents with conflicts of interest, deception emerges as an important aspect of communication. We briefly review costly signaling, one solution to the problem of honest communication among agents with conflicts of interest. We also explore the subversion of cooperative signals by parasites and by plants defending themselves against herbivores, and we touch on biases in human gossip. Experiments with artificial embodied and communicating agents confirm that when there are conflicts of interest among agents, deception readily evolves. Finally, we consider signaling among super-organisms and the possible implications for understanding human music and language.

  5. Environmental aspects of wastewater reclamation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sunil; Choudhary, Mahendra Pratap

    2007-07-01

    The population is increasing rapidly and the demand for water by cities, industries and agriculture has tended to grow even faster than the population. Wastewater reclamation consists of a combination of conventional and advanced treatment processes employed to return a wastewater to nearly original quality, reclaiming the water. The environmental health aspects associated with reclamation of wastewater include quality aspects and public health aspects. An attempt has been made in the present paper to describe these aspects and to suggest appropriate solutions. PMID:18476450

  6. Neuroendocrine aspects of catamenial epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Samba Reddy, Doodipala

    2012-01-01

    This review describes the neuroendocrinological aspects of catamenial epilepsy, a menstrual cycle-related seizure disorder in women with epilepsy. Catamenial epilepsy is a multifaceted neuroendocrine condition in which seizures are clustered around specific points in the menstrual cycle, most often around perimenstrual or periovulatory period. Three types of catamenial seizures (perimenstrual, periovulatory and inadequate luteal) have been identified. The molecular pathophysiology of catamenial epilepsy remains unclear. Cyclical changes in the circulating levels of estrogens and progesterone (P) play a central role in the development of catamenial epilepsy. Endogenous neurosteroids such as allopregnanolone (AP) and allotetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone (THDOC) that modulate seizure susceptibility could play a critical role in catamenial epilepsy. In addition, plasticity in GABA-A receptor subunits could play a role in the enhanced seizure susceptibility in catamenial epilepsy. P-derived neurosteroids such as AP and THDOC potentiate synaptic GABA-A receptor function and also activate extrasynaptic GABA-A receptors in the hippocampus and thus may represent endogenous regulators of catamenial seizure susceptibility. Experimental studies have shown that neurosteroids confer greater seizure protection in animal models of catamenial epilepsy, especially without evident tolerance to their actions during chronic therapy. In the recently completed NIH-sponsored, placebo controlled Phase 3 clinical trial, P therapy proved to be beneficial only in women with perimenstrual catamenial epilepsy but not in non-catamenial subjects. Neurosteroid analogs with favorable profile may be useful in the treatment of catamenial epilepsy. PMID:22579656

  7. Psychosocial aspects of induced abortion.

    PubMed

    Stotland, N L

    1997-09-01

    US anti-abortion groups have used misinformation on the long-term psychological impact of induced abortion to advance their position. This article reviews the available research evidence on the definition, history, cultural context, and emotional and psychiatric sequelae of induced abortion. Notable has been a confusion of normative, transient reactions to unintended pregnancy and abortion (e.g., guilt, depression, anxiety) with serious mental disorders. Studies of the psychiatric aspects of abortion have been limited by methodological problems such as the impossibility of randomly assigning women to study and control groups, resistance to follow-up, and confounding variables. Among the factors that may impact on an unintended pregnancy and the decision to abort are ongoing or past psychiatric illness, poverty, social chaos, youth and immaturity, abandonment issues, ongoing domestic responsibilities, rape and incest, domestic violence, religion, and contraceptive failure. Among the risk factors for postabortion psychosocial difficulties are previous or concurrent psychiatric illness, coercion to abort, genetic or medical indications, lack of social supports, ambivalence, and increasing length of gestation. Overall, the literature indicates that serious psychiatric illness is at least 8 times more common among postpartum than among postabortion women. Abortion center staff should acknowledge that the termination of a pregnancy may be experienced as a loss even when it is a voluntary choice. Referrals should be offered to women who show great emotional distress, have had several previous abortions, or request psychiatric consultation. PMID:9328746

  8. Emerging therapeutic aspects in oncology

    PubMed Central

    MacEwan, David J

    2013-01-01

    Cancer remains a peculiarly stubborn disease to treat. Some forms of cancer have seen tremendous advances in the effectiveness of their treatments, whereas other forms have remained resistant to pharmacological control. This lack of hope for success is in part due to the types of drugs that are used in the clinic, and the targeted biological system being based purely on cellular growth rates. However, recent drugs designed to affect specific signalling pathways or proteins have been showing much success. Thanks to the ingenuity of pharmacologists in understanding and targeting these processes, there have been real improvements in treatment. Here we are presented with some of the research into such critical systems that have to be understood, so that they can be conquered. We will also look at the challenges facing cancer pharmacologists and what the field may present to us all in the future. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Emerging Therapeutic Aspects in Oncology. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2013.169.issue-8 PMID:23889318

  9. ROADLESS HABITATS AS REFUGES FOR NATIVE GRASSLANDS: INTERACTIONS WITH SOIL, ASPECT, AND GRAZING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan L. Gelbard; Susan Harrison

    2003-01-01

    The idea that roadless habitats act as refuges for native-plant diversity against exotic-plant invasion has seldom been tested. We examined the effect of distance from roads and its interactions with soil type, aspect, and livestock grazing on native- and exotic- plant diversity in a 130 000-ha inland California (USA) foothill grassland landscape. During spring 2000 and 2001, we measured the

  10. Microscale diversity in satellite communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardoso, J. C.; Safaai-Jazi, Ahmad; Stutzman, Warren L.

    1993-01-01

    Results from an investigation into a microscale diversity scheme for the purpose of mitigating attenuation due to tropospheric scintillations are presented. Data from an experiment using the 20 GHz Olympus satellite beacon were analyzed to evaluate the performance of short-baseline site-diversity systems. Results indicate that with a baseline separation of about 50 m the signals received by the main and diversity terminals become decorrelated. Examination of several high-scintillation events shows that such a diversity technique could substantially increase the uptime of low-power-margin VSAT systems. The performance of microscale diversity for several baseline separations is evaluated in terms of a parameter called diversity recovery. Applications and conditions under which microscale diversity performs best are addressed.

  11. 1. Where do the products Environmental aspects Social aspects

    E-print Network

    1. Where do the products come from? 1.Origin Environmental aspects Social aspects Sustainability things you should know I 1. Where do the products come from? link many wood producers and dealers across a pulp mill (Box 1). In a sawmill, logs usually lose their link to individual landowners in a sorting

  12. Nuclear Structure Aspects in Nuclear Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Michael Scott [ORNL

    2006-12-01

    Nuclear Astrophysics as a broad and diverse field of study can be viewed as a magnifier of the impact of microscopic processes on the evolution of macroscopic events. One of the primary goals in Nuclear Astrophysics is the understanding of the nucleosynthesis processes that take place in the cosmos and the simulation of the correlated stellar and explosive burning scenarios. These simulations are strongly dependent on the input from Nuclear Physics which sets the time scale for all stellar dynamic processes--from giga-years of stellar evolution to milliseconds of stellar explosions--and provides the basis for most of the signatures that we have for the interpretation of these events--from stellar luminosities, elemental and isotopic abundances to neutrino flux from distant supernovae. The Nuclear Physics input comes through nuclear structure, low energy reaction rates, nuclear masses, and decay rates. There is a common perception that low energy reaction rates are the most important component of the required nuclear physics input; however, in this article we take a broader approach and present an overview of the close correlation between various nuclear structure aspects and their impact on nuclear astrophysics. We discuss the interplay between the weak and the strong forces on stellar time scales due to the limitations they provide for the evolution of slow and rapid burning processes. The effects of shell structure in nuclei on stellar burning processes as well as the impact of clustering in nuclei is outlined. Furthermore we illustrate the effects of the various nuclear structure aspects on the major nucleosynthesis processes that have been identified in the last few decades. We summarize and provide a coherent overview of the impact of all aspects of nuclear structure on nuclear astrophysics.

  13. One species, many terpenes: matching chemical and biological diversity.

    PubMed

    Loreto, Francesco; Bagnoli, Francesca; Fineschi, Silvia

    2009-08-01

    Volatile terpenes have been proposed as chemotaxonomic markers, despite the strong environmental control on their synthesis. To clarify whether chemical profiles match biological diversity, cork oak, a monoterpene-emitting species that has been bred by humans and frequently hybridizes with other oaks, is a useful case-study. Analysis of the available genetic information in cork oak provenances suggests that volatile terpenes might indeed suitably track geographical diversity even at the intraspecific level. Phylogeographical diversity does not reflect chemical diversity in other evergreen oaks that have not been intensively bred. Breeding for productive traits might therefore drive selection for terpene diversity, in turn modulating important adaptive mechanisms against biotic and abiotic stressors. PMID:19616466

  14. Structural diversity in social contagion.

    PubMed

    Ugander, Johan; Backstrom, Lars; Marlow, Cameron; Kleinberg, Jon

    2012-04-17

    The concept of contagion has steadily expanded from its original grounding in epidemic disease to describe a vast array of processes that spread across networks, notably social phenomena such as fads, political opinions, the adoption of new technologies, and financial decisions. Traditional models of social contagion have been based on physical analogies with biological contagion, in which the probability that an individual is affected by the contagion grows monotonically with the size of his or her "contact neighborhood"--the number of affected individuals with whom he or she is in contact. Whereas this contact neighborhood hypothesis has formed the underpinning of essentially all current models, it has been challenging to evaluate it due to the difficulty in obtaining detailed data on individual network neighborhoods during the course of a large-scale contagion process. Here we study this question by analyzing the growth of Facebook, a rare example of a social process with genuinely global adoption. We find that the probability of contagion is tightly controlled by the number of connected components in an individual's contact neighborhood, rather than by the actual size of the neighborhood. Surprisingly, once this "structural diversity" is controlled for, the size of the contact neighborhood is in fact generally a negative predictor of contagion. More broadly, our analysis shows how data at the size and resolution of the Facebook network make possible the identification of subtle structural signals that go undetected at smaller scales yet hold pivotal predictive roles for the outcomes of social processes. PMID:22474360

  15. Title: Genetic Diversity Research at Cornell The New Life Sciences initiative has amplified the impact that Cornell makes with its

    E-print Network

    Angenent, Lars T.

    Title: Genetic Diversity Research at Cornell The New Life Sciences initiative has amplified the impact that Cornell makes with its genetics and genomics research. In particular, studies of genetic, research on aspects of genetic diversity at Cornell is spread out across at least ten departments and three

  16. Biliopancreatic Diversion with a New Type of Gastrectomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Picard Marceau; Simon Biron; Roch-André Bourque; Martin Potvin; Frédéric-Simon Hould; Serge Simard

    1993-01-01

    In an attempt to improve the results of biliopancreatic diversion in the treatment of morbid obesity, two aspects of the procedure\\u000a performed at Laval Hospital were modified to reduce adverse physiological consequences. The distal gastrectomy was replaced\\u000a by a parietal gastrectomy which preserves vagal continuity along with the lesser curvature, and leaves intact the antro-pyloro-duodenal\\u000a pump. The duodenum was stapled

  17. Best Practices for Managing Organizational Diversity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia A. Kreitz

    2008-01-01

    Organizations with increasingly diverse workforces and customer populations face challenges in reaping diversity’s benefits while managing its potentially disruptive effects. This article defines workplace diversity and identifies best practices supporting planned and positive diversity management. It explores how academic libraries can apply diversity management best practices and provides a reading list for leaders and human resource managers wishing to optimize

  18. Knowledge, Skills, and Dispositions for Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Anne

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this research are to explore how currently assessed diversity knowledge, diversity skills, and diversity dispositions of pre-service teachers (PST) relate to each other and further to surmise if the presence of diversity knowledge, diversity skills, and diversity dispositions manifests in cultural efficacy and a general cultural…

  19. Genetic diversity, parasite prevalence and immunity in wild bumblebees

    PubMed Central

    Whitehorn, Penelope R.; Tinsley, Matthew C.; Brown, Mark J. F.; Darvill, Ben; Goulson, Dave

    2011-01-01

    Inbreeding and a consequent loss of genetic diversity threaten small, isolated populations. One mechanism by which genetically impoverished populations may become extinct is through decreased immunocompetence and higher susceptibility to parasites. Here, we investigate the relationship between immunity and inbreeding in bumblebees, using Hebridean island populations of Bombus muscorum. We sampled nine populations and recorded parasite prevalence and measured two aspects of immunity: the encapsulation response and levels of phenoloxidase (PO). We found that prevalence of the gut parasite Crithidia bombi was higher in populations with lower genetic diversity. Neither measure of immune activity was correlated with genetic diversity. However, levels of PO declined with age and were also negatively correlated with parasite abundance. Our results suggest that as insect populations lose heterozygosity, the impact of parasitism will increase, pushing threatened populations closer to extinction. PMID:20926436

  20. Genetic diversity, parasite prevalence and immunity in wild bumblebees.

    PubMed

    Whitehorn, Penelope R; Tinsley, Matthew C; Brown, Mark J F; Darvill, Ben; Goulson, Dave

    2011-04-22

    Inbreeding and a consequent loss of genetic diversity threaten small, isolated populations. One mechanism by which genetically impoverished populations may become extinct is through decreased immunocompetence and higher susceptibility to parasites. Here, we investigate the relationship between immunity and inbreeding in bumblebees, using Hebridean island populations of Bombus muscorum. We sampled nine populations and recorded parasite prevalence and measured two aspects of immunity: the encapsulation response and levels of phenoloxidase (PO). We found that prevalence of the gut parasite Crithidia bombi was higher in populations with lower genetic diversity. Neither measure of immune activity was correlated with genetic diversity. However, levels of PO declined with age and were also negatively correlated with parasite abundance. Our results suggest that as insect populations lose heterozygosity, the impact of parasitism will increase, pushing threatened populations closer to extinction. PMID:20926436

  1. Diverse Functions of Restriction-Modification Systems in Addition to Cellular Defense

    PubMed Central

    Vasu, Kommireddy

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Restriction-modification (R-M) systems are ubiquitous and are often considered primitive immune systems in bacteria. Their diversity and prevalence across the prokaryotic kingdom are an indication of their success as a defense mechanism against invading genomes. However, their cellular defense function does not adequately explain the basis for their immaculate specificity in sequence recognition and nonuniform distribution, ranging from none to too many, in diverse species. The present review deals with new developments which provide insights into the roles of these enzymes in other aspects of cellular function. In this review, emphasis is placed on novel hypotheses and various findings that have not yet been dealt with in a critical review. Emerging studies indicate their role in various cellular processes other than host defense, virulence, and even controlling the rate of evolution of the organism. We also discuss how R-M systems could have successfully evolved and be involved in additional cellular portfolios, thereby increasing the relative fitness of their hosts in the population. PMID:23471617

  2. The diversity and biogeography of soil bacterial communities

    PubMed Central

    Fierer, Noah; Jackson, Robert B.

    2006-01-01

    For centuries, biologists have studied patterns of plant and animal diversity at continental scales. Until recently, similar studies were impossible for microorganisms, arguably the most diverse and abundant group of organisms on Earth. Here, we present a continental-scale description of soil bacterial communities and the environmental factors influencing their biodiversity. We collected 98 soil samples from across North and South America and used a ribosomal DNA-fingerprinting method to compare bacterial community composition and diversity quantitatively across sites. Bacterial diversity was unrelated to site temperature, latitude, and other variables that typically predict plant and animal diversity, and community composition was largely independent of geographic distance. The diversity and richness of soil bacterial communities differed by ecosystem type, and these differences could largely be explained by soil pH (r2 = 0.70 and r2 = 0.58, respectively; P < 0.0001 in both cases). Bacterial diversity was highest in neutral soils and lower in acidic soils, with soils from the Peruvian Amazon the most acidic and least diverse in our study. Our results suggest that microbial biogeography is controlled primarily by edaphic variables and differs fundamentally from the biogeography of “macro” organisms. PMID:16407148

  3. Veterinary aspects of rabies

    PubMed Central

    Blamire, R. V.

    1973-01-01

    Rabies occurs in domestic animals and wildlife in most parts of the world. Affected mammals invariably die and the disease is greatly feared by man. Control measures can be effective in domestic animals but are difficult to apply in situations where wildlife is affected. Wildlife rabies is spreading southwards in Europe. New legislation has recently been introduced to strengthen the safeguards against importing the disease into Great Britain. Persons should be made aware of this legislation and the dangers of illegally introducing susceptible animals to this country. PMID:4788837

  4. Terrestrial vertebrates promote arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal diversity and inoculum

    E-print Network

    Gehring, Catherine "Kitty"

    REPORT Terrestrial vertebrates promote arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal diversity and inoculum mycorrhizal fungal spore communities and mycorrhizal inoculum potential (MIP) of a tropical rain forest soil and control plots. Seedlings of both plant species grown in control cores had significantly higher arbuscular-mycorrhizal

  5. Ameba community dynamics and diversity in a desert ecosystem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Mayzlish-Gati; Y. Steinberger

    2007-01-01

    A field study was conducted to monitor the effect of different desert shrub ecophysiological adaptations on the composition,\\u000a size, and diversity of soil free-living amebae. Population diversity was also analyzed using four morphological types. Samples\\u000a were collected seasonally under the canopy of the common desert shrubs Artemisia herba alba, Reaumuria negevensis, and Noea mucronata. Control samples were taken from exposed

  6. Transparent self-healing communication networks via diversity coding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chih-Lin I; Ender Ayanoglu; R. D. Gitlin; J. E. Mazo

    1990-01-01

    The authors present an error control based approach, called diversity coding, to provide nearly instantaneous self-healing digital communication networks. This is achieved by constructing an error-correcting code across logically independent channels and by treating link failures within the framework of an erasure channel model. Diversity coding is more efficient than the existing approaches to self-healing communication networks since it is

  7. The interplay between inflorescence development and function as the crucible of architectural diversity

    PubMed Central

    Harder, Lawrence D.; Prusinkiewicz, Przemyslaw

    2013-01-01

    Background Most angiosperms present flowers in inflorescences, which play roles in reproduction, primarily related to pollination, beyond those served by individual flowers alone. An inflorescence's overall reproductive contribution depends primarily on the three-dimensional arrangement of the floral canopy and its dynamics during its flowering period. These features depend in turn on characteristics of the underlying branching structure (scaffold) that supports and supplies water and nutrients to the floral canopy. This scaffold is produced by developmental algorithms that are genetically specified and hormonally mediated. Thus, the extensive inflorescence diversity evident among angiosperms evolves through changes in the developmental programmes that specify scaffold characteristics, which in turn modify canopy features that promote reproductive performance in a particular pollination and mating environment. Nevertheless, developmental and ecological aspects of inflorescences have typically been studied independently, limiting comprehensive understanding of the relations between inflorescence form, reproductive function, and evolution. Scope This review fosters an integrated perspective on inflorescences by summarizing aspects of their development and pollination function that enable and guide inflorescence evolution and diversification. Conclusions The architecture of flowering inflorescences comprises three related components: topology (branching patterns, flower number), geometry (phyllotaxis, internode and pedicel lengths, three-dimensional flower arrangement) and phenology (flower opening rate and longevity, dichogamy). Genetic and developmental evidence reveals that these components are largely subject to quantitative control. Consequently, inflorescence evolution proceeds along a multidimensional continuum. Nevertheless, some combinations of topology, geometry and phenology are represented more commonly than others, because they serve reproductive function particularly effectively. For wind-pollinated species, these combinations often represent compromise solutions to the conflicting physical influences on pollen removal, transport and deposition. For animal-pollinated species, dominant selective influences include the conflicting benefits of large displays for attracting pollinators and of small displays for limiting among-flower self-pollination. The variety of architectural components that comprise inflorescences enable diverse resolutions of these conflicts. PMID:23243190

  8. Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems: Natural and Artificial Ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macelroy, Robert D. (editor); Thompson, Brad G. (editor); Tibbitts, Theodore W. (editor); Volk, Tyler (editor)

    1989-01-01

    The scientists supported by the NASA sponsored Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) program have played a major role in creating a Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) section devoted to the development of bioregenerative life support for use in space. The series of 22 papers were sponsored by Subcommission F.4. The papers deal with many of the diverse aspects of life support, and with outgrowth technologies that may have commercial applications in fields such as biotechnology and bioengineering. Papers from researchers in France, Canada, Japan and the USSR are also presented.

  9. Metabolic changes after urinary diversion.

    PubMed

    Van der Aa, Frank; Joniau, Steven; Van Den Branden, Marcel; Van Poppel, Hein

    2011-01-01

    Urinary diversion is performed on a regular basis in urological practice. Surgeons tend to underestimate the metabolic effects of any type of diversion. From the patient's perspective, diarrhea is the most bothersome complaint after urinary diversion. This might be accompanied by malabsorption syndromes, such as vitamin B12 deficiency. Electrolyte abnormalities can occur frequently such as hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis, or less frequently such as hypokalemia, hypocalcaemia, and hypomagnesaemia. Bone health is at risk in patients with urinary diversion. Some patients might benefit from vitamin D and calcium supplementation. Many patients are also subject to urinary calculus formation, both at the level of the upper urinary tract as in intestinal reservoirs. Urinary diversion can affect hepatic metabolism, certainly in the presence of urea-splitting bacteria. The kidney function has to be monitored prior to and lifelong after urinary diversion. Screening for reversible causes of renal deterioration is an integral part of the followup. PMID:21687576

  10. BacDive—the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase

    PubMed Central

    Söhngen, Carola; Bunk, Boyke; Podstawka, Adam; Gleim, Dorothea; Overmann, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    BacDive—the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase (http://bacdive.dsmz.de) merges detailed strain-linked information on the different aspects of bacterial and archaeal biodiversity. Currently (release 9/2013), BacDive contains entries for 23 458 strains and provides information on their taxonomy, morphology, physiology, sampling and concomitant environmental conditions as well as molecular biology. Where available, links to access the respective biological resources are given. The majority of the BacDive data is manually annotated and curated. The BacDive portal offers an easy-to-use simple search and in addition powerful advanced search functionalities allowing to combine more than 30 search fields for text and numerical data. The user can compile individual sets of strains to a download selection that can easily be imported into nearly all spreadsheet applications. PMID:24214959

  11. Diversity in the immune system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. M. Borghans

    2000-01-01

    This thesis addresses various sources of diversity in the vertebrate immune system. In particular, we study the differences between thediversity of lymphocytes and major istocompatibility (MHC) molecules.While any individual expresses a huge\\u000a diversity of B and T ymphocytes, the diversity of MHC molecules is mainly expressed at the population level. We use various\\u000a mathematical models and computer simulations to study

  12. Genetic diversity of Ascaris in southwestern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Betson, Martha; Nejsum, Peter; Llewellyn-Hughes, Julia; Griffin, Claire; Atuhaire, Aaron; Arinaitwe, Moses; Adriko, Moses; Ruggiana, Andrew; Turyakira, Grace; Kabatereine, Narcis B; Stothard, J Russell

    2012-02-01

    Despite the common occurrence of ascariasis in southwestern Uganda, helminth control in the region has been limited. To gain further insights into the genetic diversity of Ascaris in this area, a parasitological survey in mothers (n=41) and children (n=74) living in two villages, Habutobere and Musezero, was carried out. Adult Ascaris worms were collected from infected individuals by chemo-expulsion using pyrantel pamoate treatment. Genetic diversity within these worms was assessed by inspection of DNA sequence variation in a mitochondrial marker and length polymorphism at microsatellite loci. Overall prevalence of ascariasis was 42.5% in mothers and 30.4% in their children and a total of 98 worms was examined from 18 hosts. Sequence analysis of a portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene revealed 19 different haplotypes, 13 of which had not been previously encountered. Microsatellite analysis using eight loci provided evidence for high gene flow between worm populations from the two villages but comparing these worms with others obtained in a prior study on Unguja, Zanzibar, confirmed little genetic exchange and mixing of worm populations between the two areas. By adding to our understanding of the genetic diversity of Ascaris in Africa, this study provides useful information for monitoring changes in parasite population structure in the face of ongoing and future control. PMID:22192492

  13. Organizational Development and Staff Diversity

    E-print Network

    Mahon, Bradford Z.

    Organizational Development and Staff Diversity Safe Space The Safe Space program addresses ways) & Allied people regarding issues they may confront in the workplace and elsewhere. Participants who compete

  14. Microbial diversity--biotechnological and industrial perspectives.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, C K M; Tripathi, Divya; Praveen, Vandana; Bihari, Vinod

    2007-04-01

    Biodiversity is an addition sum of the studies on genetic, taxonomic commercial and ecosystem aspects of living systems. All the living individuals of a species contain a distinct combination of genes and the intrinsic interaction among the gene pool influences evolution, survival and phenotypic/genotypic changes of the part of the biodiversity i.e. community. The amount of genetic diversity within population varies tremendously and much of modern conservation biology is concerned with the maintenance of genetic diversity within the population of plants, animals and microbes. Germplasm, obtained with the vast biodiversity, provides a major source of biological material for the development of medicines, vaccines, pharmaceutical products, improved crop and animal varieties and for other environmental applications. Industrialized nations, who have the technology and resources to patent and develop commercial biological products, are having the benefits of biodiversity through the collected and conserved germplasm flowing through the international research centers. In fact a particular genetic contribution usually represents only a small percentage of the total value of the eventual products. In addition, the research and development process required to commercialize a particular product requires enormous technical efforts. The principle of patenting genes is the morally or ethically correct is a matter of intense debate. However, geneticists, having conceived of the technologies with vast and immediate therapeutic, food and environmental values must try to bring to the material to market as soon as possible. PMID:17477303

  15. Diversity of potato genetic resources.

    PubMed

    Machida-Hirano, Ryoko

    2015-03-01

    A considerable number of highly diverse species exist in genus Solanum. Because they can adapt to a broad range of habitats, potato wild relatives are promising sources of desirable agricultural traits. Potato taxonomy is quite complex because of introgression, interspecific hybridization, auto- and allopolyploidy, sexual compatibility among many species, a mixture of sexual and asexual reproduction, possible recent species divergence, phenotypic plasticity, and the consequent high morphological similarity among species. Recent researchers using molecular tools have contributed to the identification of genes controlling several types of resistance as well as to the revision of taxonomical relationships among potato species. Historically, primitive forms of cultivated potato and its wild relatives have been used in breeding programs and there is still an enormous and unimaginable potential for discovering desirable characteristics, particularly in wild species Different methods have been developed to incorporate useful alleles from these wild species into the improved cultivars. Potato germplasm comprising of useful alleles for different breeding objectives is preserved in various gene banks worldwide. These materials, with their invaluable information, are accessible for research and breeding purposes. Precise identification of species base on the new taxonomy is essential for effective use of the germplasm collection. PMID:25931978

  16. Immune aspects of sarcoidosis.

    PubMed Central

    Poulter, L. W.

    1988-01-01

    Although the initiating factor(s) is unknown, it is now accepted that pulmonary sarcoidosis develops as a result of an over-stimulated local cellular immune response. Starting as a lymphocytic alveolitis, there is a progression to granuloma formation within the interstitium as stimulated T lymphocytes release mediators capable of attracting and activating monocytes to differentiate into macrophages and epithelioid cells. We are also aware that macrophage-like cells must act as antigen presenters to initiate T cell stimulation within the immune response. To date, interest in the alveolar macrophages of patients with sarcoidosis has focused more on their passive role as responders of the soluble T cell products released as the disease progresses. This paper explores the active role of mononuclear non-lymphoid cells as inducers of immune responses, by taking advantage of monoclonal antibodies capable of discriminating between phenotypically distinct subsets of macrophages. Recent results are presented that suggest a central role for these cells in controlling the course of this disease, focusing specifically on the mechanisms underlying the failure in some patients to resolve the interstitial inflammation and subsequently progressing to fibrosis. A new hypothesis proposes that aberrations in the functional capacity of macrophages may prohibit the emergence of a granuloma-resolving mechanism in some sarcoid patients. PMID:3074287

  17. CLINICAL ASPECTS OF VETERINARY LISTERIOSIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This invited presentation updates the clinical aspects of Listeria monocytogenes in food animals. It summarizes the epidemiology and diagnostic methods. Virtually all domesticated animal species are susceptible to listeric infection, with a large proportion of healthy asymptomatic animals shedding...

  18. Statistical aspects of food safety sampling.

    PubMed

    Jongenburger, I; den Besten, H M W; Zwietering, M H

    2015-01-01

    In food safety management, sampling is an important tool for verifying control. Sampling by nature is a stochastic process. However, uncertainty regarding results is made even greater by the uneven distribution of microorganisms in a batch of food. This article reviews statistical aspects of sampling and describes the impact of distributions on the sampling results. Five different batch contamination scenarios are illustrated: a homogeneous batch, a heterogeneous batch with high- or low-level contamination, and a batch with localized high- or low-level contamination. These batch contamination scenarios showed that sampling results have to be interpreted carefully, especially when heterogeneous and localized contamination in food products is expected. PMID:25747233

  19. Advancing Diversity in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Caroline S.

    2013-01-01

    This special section of the "Journal of Diversity in Higher Education" ("JDHE") on "Advancing Diversity in Higher Education" emerged from the 2012 Association for the Study of Higher Education Council on Ethnic Participation (ASHE-CEP) Pre-Conference Forum. CEP, a standing committee of ASHE, partnered with the…

  20. Feed your soil through diversity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our soil resource is fundamental to plant and animal life, therefore, proper management is essential. One of the key tools to maintain our soil resource is diversity both below and above ground. Diversity is an important concept in all areas of our lives, from the food we eat, to the weather we ex...

  1. Genetic Diversity and Human Equality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobzhansky, Theodosius

    The idea of equality often, if not frequently, bogs down in confusion and apparent contradictions; equality is confused with identity, and diversity with inequality. It would seem that the easiest way to discredit the idea of equality is to show that people are innately, genetically, and, therefore, irremediably diverse and unlike. The snare is,…

  2. Socioeconomics drive urban plant diversity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diane Hope; Corinna Gries; Weixing Zhu; William F. Fagan; Charles L. Redman; Nancy B. Grimm; Amy L. Nelson; Chris Martin; Ann Kinzig

    2003-01-01

    Spatial variation in plant diversity has been attributed to heterogeneity in resource availability for many ecosystems. However, urbanization has resulted in entire landscapes that are now occupied by plant communities wholly created by humans, in which diversity may reflect social, economic, and cultural influences in addition to those recognized by traditional ecological theory. Here we use data from a probability-based

  3. Waveform diversity via mutual information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaime R. Roman; Dennis W. Davis; John W. Garnham; Paul Antonik

    2009-01-01

    A novel criterion for waveform diversity in radar systems is presented that is based on the information theoretic concept of Shannon mutual information (MI). In general, waveform diversity refers to adaptively changing a transmitted waveform based on the target and interference environment. MI is a measure of the information in a random variable or vector about another random variable or

  4. Social Diversity in the Forestry

    E-print Network

    Social Diversity in the Forestry Profession #12;Diversity & the forestry profession Forest Research Ymchwil Coedwigaeth Forestry Commission Wales Gwydyr Uchaf Office Swyddfa Comisiwn Coedwigaeth Cymru Gwydyr Uchaf Llanrwst Conwy LL26 0PN Tel/ffon: 0300 068 0300 email/ebost: Bianca.Ambrose-Oji@forestry

  5. Molecular Diversity of K+ Channels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William A. Coetzee; Yimy Amarillo; Joanna Chiu; Alan Chow; David Lau; Tom McCormack; Herman Morena; Marcela S. Nadal; Ander Ozaita; David Pountney; Michael Saganich; Eleazar Vega-Saenz Miera; Bernardo Rudy

    1999-01-01

    K+ channel principal subunits are by far the largest and most diverse of the ion channels. This diversity originates partly from the large number of genes cod- ing for K+ channel principal subunits, but also from other processes such as alterna- tive splicing, generating multiple mRNA transcripts from a single gene, heteromeric assembly of different principal subunits, as well as

  6. Genetic Diversity among the Arabs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmad S. Teebi; Saeed A. Teebi

    2005-01-01

    The Arabs in general are genetically diverse. Major factors that contributed to their diversity include the migrations of Semitic tribes from the Arabian Peninsula, the Islamic expansion in the 7th century AD, the Crusade wars and the recent migration dynamics. These events have resulted in the admixture of the original Arabs with other populations extending from east and south Asia

  7. The Changing Face of Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Noni Mendoza; Mendez, Sylvia

    2009-01-01

    As the nation's schools strive to provide quality education for students most at risk for failure, the notion of diversity continues to lead the discussion. Revisiting understandings about diversity as a response to creating equitable learning opportunities to foster achievement for all students has become increasingly urgent given that, while the…

  8. Cultural Diversity in Multinational Organisations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marian Crowley-Henry

    2005-01-01

    With the rhetoric in international management espousing the value of being able to access and capitalise on the knowledge of a workforce with international experience in order to compete globally and the need to embrace diversity (including cultural or ethnic diversity) in and across organisations, this paper discusses the findings from a qualitative research undertaking where senior and middle managers

  9. Diversity: Gender, Color, and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essed, Philomena

    This book serves as an introduction to issues of diversity. Each chapter addresses an issue relevant to life and work in gender-conscious and ethnically diverse environments. Taken together, the chapters challenge the reader to develop alternative views on gender, color, culture, and human relations. The first chapter introduces key notions, such…

  10. Soil water response to slope aspect and grazing in silvopasture during drought

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Silvopasture is receiving increasing attention as a robust management system for production of forage for livestock grazing on the diverse landscapes of the Appalachian region. Little knowledge about soil water response to slope aspect and grazing pressure in silvopasture systems of the Region is a...

  11. Molecular and Biotechnological Aspects of Microbial Proteases†

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Mala B.; Tanksale, Aparna M.; Ghatge, Mohini S.; Deshpande, Vasanti V.

    1998-01-01

    Proteases represent the class of enzymes which occupy a pivotal position with respect to their physiological roles as well as their commercial applications. They perform both degradative and synthetic functions. Since they are physiologically necessary for living organisms, proteases occur ubiquitously in a wide diversity of sources such as plants, animals, and microorganisms. Microbes are an attractive source of proteases owing to the limited space required for their cultivation and their ready susceptibility to genetic manipulation. Proteases are divided into exo- and endopeptidases based on their action at or away from the termini, respectively. They are also classified as serine proteases, aspartic proteases, cysteine proteases, and metalloproteases depending on the nature of the functional group at the active site. Proteases play a critical role in many physiological and pathophysiological processes. Based on their classification, four different types of catalytic mechanisms are operative. Proteases find extensive applications in the food and dairy industries. Alkaline proteases hold a great potential for application in the detergent and leather industries due to the increasing trend to develop environmentally friendly technologies. There is a renaissance of interest in using proteolytic enzymes as targets for developing therapeutic agents. Protease genes from several bacteria, fungi, and viruses have been cloned and sequenced with the prime aims of (i) overproduction of the enzyme by gene amplification, (ii) delineation of the role of the enzyme in pathogenecity, and (iii) alteration in enzyme properties to suit its commercial application. Protein engineering techniques have been exploited to obtain proteases which show unique specificity and/or enhanced stability at high temperature or pH or in the presence of detergents and to understand the structure-function relationships of the enzyme. Protein sequences of acidic, alkaline, and neutral proteases from diverse origins have been analyzed with the aim of studying their evolutionary relationships. Despite the extensive research on several aspects of proteases, there is a paucity of knowledge about the roles that govern the diverse specificity of these enzymes. Deciphering these secrets would enable us to exploit proteases for their applications in biotechnology. PMID:9729602

  12. Multiple paternity does not depend on male genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Thonhauser, Kerstin E; Raveh, Shirley; Penn, Dustin J

    2014-07-01

    Polyandry is common in many species and it has been suggested that females engage in multiple mating to increase the genetic diversity of their offspring (genetic diversity hypothesis). Multiple paternity occurs in 30% of litters in wild populations of house mice, Mus musculus musculus, and multiple-sired litters are genetically more diverse than single-sired ones. Here, we aimed to test whether female house mice produce multiple-sired litters when they have the opportunity to produce genetically diverse litters. We assessed the rates of multiple paternity when females could choose to mate with two males that were genetically dissimilar to each other (i.e. nonsiblings and MHC dissimilar) compared with when females could choose to mate with two males that were genetically similar to each other (i.e. siblings and shared MHC alleles). Multiple mating may depend upon a female's own condition, and, therefore, we also tested whether inbred (from full-sibling matings) females were more likely to produce multiple-sired progeny than outbred controls. Overall we found that 29% of litters had multiple sires, but we found no evidence that females were more likely to produce multiple-sired litters when they had the opportunity to mate with genetically dissimilar males compared with controls, regardless of whether females were inbred or outbred. Thus, our findings do not support the idea that female mice increase multiple paternity when they have the opportunity to increase the genetic diversity of their offspring, as expected from the genetic diversity hypothesis. PMID:25018559

  13. Plant species identity and diversity effects on different trophic levels of nematodes in the soil food web

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerlinde B. De Deyn; Ciska E. Raaijmakers; Jasper van Ruijven; Frank Berendse; Wim H. van der Putten

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies on biodiversity and soil food web composition have mentioned plant species identity, as well as plant species diversity as the main factors affecting the abundance and diversity of soil organisms. However, most studies have been carried out under limitations of time, space, or appropriate controls. In order to further examine the relation between plant species diversity and the

  14. Danshen diversity defeating dementia.

    PubMed

    Hügel, Helmut M; Jackson, Neale

    2014-02-01

    Salvia miltiorrhiza (danshen) is widely used for the clinical treatment of cerebral ischemia and cardiovascular diseases. Its diverse molecular makeup of simple and poly hydroxycinnamic acids and diterpenoid quinones are also associated with its beneficial health effects such as improved cognitive deficits in mice, protection of neuronal cells, prevention of amyloid fibril formation and preformed amyloid fibril disaggregation related to Alzheimer's disease. Whilst the in vitro studies have therapeutic promise, the anti-dementia effect/impact of danshen however depends on its absorbed constituents and pharmacokinetic properties. Both the water and lipid danshen fractions have been shown to have low oral bioavailability and at physiological pH, the polyphenolic carboxylate anions are not brain permeable. To tap into the many neuroprotective and other biological benefits of danshen, the key challenge resides in developing danshen nanopharmaceuticals, semi-synthetic pro-drug forms of its constituents to improve its biocompatability, that is, absorption, circulation in bloodstream and optimization of BBB permeability. PMID:24393583

  15. The Sahara's Diverse Landscape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Vast stretches of uninterrupted sand are only one kind of Saharan landscape. This true-color MODIS image from November 9, 2001, reveals a diversity of land surface features, including ancient lava flows and volcanoes. Beginning at upper left and moving clockwise are the countries of Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Chad, and Niger. Evidence of previous volcanic activity in the Sahara can be found in northeastern Chad, in particular, in a region known as Tibesti. Reaching up out of the surrounding desert, the dark rock of the Tibesti Plateau stands out in dark brown against the sand. Scattered throughout the region are the circular cones and calderas of several volcanoes. The dark remains of a lava flow mark the location of the Tousside volcano. North of Tibesti, in Libya, more dark-colored lava beds leave their mark on the landscape. Variety exists in Algeria, where the Grand Erg Oriental desert (far upper left) is hemmed in to the south by the Tinrhert Plateau. South of the Plateau, desert resumes briefly, only to give way to a mountainous region traced with impermanent rivers. In northern Niger, a sinuous gray-green line marks the edge of an escarpment that separates the Mangueni Plateau to the north from the rock deserts to the south. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  16. Diversity among African Pygmies

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez Rozzi, Fernando V.; Sardi, Marina L.

    2010-01-01

    Although dissimilarities in cranial and post-cranial morphology among African pygmies groups have been recognized, comparative studies on skull morphology usually pull all pygmies together assuming that morphological characters are similar among them and different with respect to other populations. The main aim of this study is to compare cranial morphology between African pygmies and non-pygmies populations from Equatorial Africa derived from both the Eastern and the Western regions in order to test if the greatest morphological difference is obtained in the comparison between pygmies and non-pygmies. Thirty three-dimensional (3D) landmarks registered with Microscribe in four cranial samples (Western and Eastern pygmies and non-pygmies) were obtained. Multivariate analysis (generalized Procrustes analysis, Mahalanobis distances, multivariate regression) and complementary dimensions of size were evaluated with ANOVA and post hoc LSD. Results suggest that important cranial shape differentiation does occur between pygmies and non-pygmies but also between Eastern and Western populations and that size changes and allometries do not affect similarly Eastern and Western pygmies. Therefore, our findings raise serious doubt about the fact to consider African pygmies as a homogenous group in studies on skull morphology. Differences in cranial morphology among pygmies would suggest differentiation after divergence. Although not directly related to skull differentiation, the diversity among pygmies would probably suggest that the process responsible for reduced stature occurred after the split of the ancestors of modern Eastern and Western pygmies. PMID:21049030

  17. Abuse and diversion of buprenorphine sublingual tablets and film.

    PubMed

    Lavonas, Eric J; Severtson, S Geoffrey; Martinez, Erin M; Bucher-Bartelson, Becki; Le Lait, Marie-Claire; Green, Jody L; Murrelle, Lenn E; Cicero, Theodore J; Kurtz, Steven P; Rosenblum, Andrew; Surratt, Hilary L; Dart, Richard C

    2014-07-01

    Buprenorphine abuse is common worldwide. Rates of abuse and diversion of three sublingual buprenorphine formulations (single ingredient tablets; naloxone combination tablets and film) were compared. Data were obtained from the Researched Abuse, Diversion, and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS) System Poison Center, Drug Diversion, Opioid Treatment (OTP), Survey of Key Informants' Patients (SKIP), and College Survey Programs through December 2012. To control for drug availability, event ratios (rates) were calculated quarterly, based on the number of patients filling prescriptions for each formulation ("unique recipients of a dispensed drug," URDD) and averaged and compared using negative binomial regression. Abuse rates in the OTP, SKIP, and College Survey Programs were greatest for single ingredient tablets, and abuse rates in the Poison Center Program and illicit diversion rates were greatest for the combination tablets. Combination film rates were significantly less than rates for either tablet formulation in all programs. No geographic pattern could be discerned. PMID:24680219

  18. Niche partitioning increases resource exploitation by diverse communities.

    PubMed

    Finke, Deborah L; Snyder, William E

    2008-09-12

    Classical ecological theory suggests that the coexistence of consumer species is fostered by resource-use differences, leading to greater resource use in communities with more species. However, explicit empirical support for this idea is lacking, because resource use by species is generally confounded with other species-specific attributes. We overcame this obstacle by co-opting behavioral plasticity in food choice among a group of animal consumers, allowing us to manipulate patterns of resource use while controlling for the effects of species identity and diversity. Within an aphid-parasitoid-radish community, we created a fully factorial manipulation of consumer resource-use breadth (specialist versus generalist) and species diversity (one versus three species) and found that resource exploitation improved with greater specialist, but not generalist, diversity. Therefore, resource partitioning, and not diversity per se, fostered greater overall resource consumption in our multispecies consumer communities. PMID:18787167

  19. Relationships between Plant Diversity and the Abundance and ?-Diversity of Predatory Ground Beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in a Mature Asian Temperate Forest Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Yi; Sang, Weiguo; Bai, Fan; Axmacher, Jan Christoph

    2013-01-01

    A positive relationship between plant diversity and both abundance and diversity of predatory arthropods is postulated by the Enemies Hypothesis, a central ecological top-down control hypothesis. It has been supported by experimental studies and investigations of agricultural and grassland ecosystems, while evidence from more complex mature forest ecosystems is limited. Our study was conducted on Changbai Mountain in one of the last remaining large pristine temperate forest environments in China. We used predatory ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) as target taxon to establish the relationship between phytodiversity and their activity abundance and diversity. Results showed that elevation was the only variable included in both models predicting carabid activity abundance and ?-diversity. Shrub diversity was negatively and herb diversity positively correlated with beetle abundance, while shrub diversity was positively correlated with beetle ?-diversity. Within the different forest types, a negative relationship between plant diversity and carabid activity abundance was observed, which stands in direct contrast to the Enemies Hypothesis. Furthermore, plant species density did not predict carabid ?-diversity. In addition, the density of herbs, which is commonly believed to influence carabid movement, had little impact on the beetle activity abundance recorded on Changbai Mountain. Our study indicates that in a relatively large and heterogeneous mature forest area, relationships between plant and carabid diversity are driven by variations in environmental factors linked with altitudinal change. In addition, traditional top-down control theories that are suitable in explaining diversity patterns in ecosystems of low diversity appear to play a much less pronounced role in highly complex forest ecosystems. PMID:24376582

  20. Robust optical wireless links over turbulent media using diversity solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi, Hassan

    Free-space optic (FSO) technology, i.e., optical wireless communication (OWC), is widely recognized as superior to radio frequency (RF) in many aspects. Visible and invisible optical wireless links solve first/last mile connectivity problems and provide secure, jam-free communication. FSO is license-free and delivers high-speed data rates in the order of Gigabits. Its advantages have fostered significant research efforts aimed at utilizing optical wireless communication, e.g. visible light communication (VLC), for high-speed, secure, indoor communication under the IEEE 802.15.7 standard. However, conventional optical wireless links demand precise optical alignment and suffer from atmospheric turbulence. When compared with RF, they suffer a low degree of reliability and lack robustness. Pointing errors cause optical transceiver misalignment, adversely affecting system reliability. Furthermore, atmospheric turbulence causes irradiance fluctuations and beam broadening of transmitted light. Innovative solutions to overcome limitations on the exploitation of high-speed optical wireless links are greatly needed. Spatial diversity is known to improve RF wireless communication systems. Similar diversity approaches can be adapted for FSO systems to improve its reliability and robustness; however, careful diversity design is needed since FSO apertures typically remain unbalanced as a result of FSO system sensitivity to misalignment. Conventional diversity combining schemes require persistent aperture monitoring and repetitive switching, thus increasing FSO implementation complexities. Furthermore, current RF diversity combining schemes may not be optimized to address the issue of unbalanced FSO receiving apertures. This dissertation investigates two efficient diversity combining schemes for multi-receiving FSO systems: switched diversity combining and generalized selection combining. Both can be exploited to reduce complexity and improve combining efficiency. Unlike maximum ratio combing, equal gain combining, and selective combining, switched diversity simplifies receiver design by avoiding unnecessary switching among receiving apertures. The most significant advantage of generalized combining is its ability to exclude apertures with low quality that could potentially affect the resultant output signal performance. This dissertation also investigates mobile FSO by considering a multi-receiving system in which all receiving FSO apertures are circularly placed on a platform. System mobility and performance are analyzed. Performance results confirm improvements when using angular diversity and generalized selection combining. The precis of this dissertation establishes the foundation of reliable FSO communications using efficient diversity-based solutions. Performance parameters are analyzed mathematically, and then evaluated using computer simulations. A testbed prototype is developed to facilitate the evaluation of optical wireless links via lab experiments.

  1. Ecosystem Functions across Trophic Levels Are Linked to Functional and Phylogenetic Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Patrick L.; Davies, T. Jonathan; Gonzalez, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    In experimental systems, it has been shown that biodiversity indices based on traits or phylogeny can outperform species richness as predictors of plant ecosystem function. However, it is unclear whether this pattern extends to the function of food webs in natural ecosystems. Here we tested whether zooplankton functional and phylogenetic diversity explains the functioning of 23 natural pond communities. We used two measures of ecosystem function: (1) zooplankton community biomass and (2) phytoplankton abundance (Chl a). We tested for diversity-ecosystem function relationships within and across trophic levels. We found a strong correlation between zooplankton diversity and ecosystem function, whereas local environmental conditions were less important. Further, the positive diversity-ecosystem function relationships were more pronounced for measures of functional and phylogenetic diversity than for species richness. Zooplankton and phytoplankton biomass were best predicted by different indices, suggesting that the two functions are dependent upon different aspects of diversity. Zooplankton community biomass was best predicted by zooplankton trait-based functional richness, while phytoplankton abundance was best predicted by zooplankton phylogenetic diversity. Our results suggest that the positive relationship between diversity and ecosystem function can extend across trophic levels in natural environments, and that greater insight into variation in ecosystem function can be gained by combining functional and phylogenetic diversity measures. PMID:25693188

  2. Industrial noise control: Architectural and environmental aspects. January 1977-January 1990 (A Bibliography from the INSPEC: Information Services for the Physics and Engineering Communities data base). Report for January 1977-January 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning architectural and engineering acoustics associated with noise control in industrial environments. Important sources of industrial noise and the level of exposure by workers to noise are examined. Methods for active attenuation of noise, that is, the cancelling of a noise by the addition of further noise, are examined. Both absorptive and non-absorptive noise control methods are presented. (This updated bibliography contains 266 citations, 23 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  3. Hindlimb unloading rodent model: technical aspects.

    PubMed

    Morey-Holton, Emily R; Globus, Ruth K

    2002-04-01

    Since its inception at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center in the mid-1970s, many laboratories around the world have used the rat hindlimb unloading model to simulate weightlessness and to study various aspects of musculoskeletal loading. In this model, the hindlimbs of rodents are elevated to produce a 30 degrees head-down tilt, which results in a cephalad fluid shift and avoids weightbearing by the hindquarters. Although several reviews have described scientific results obtained with this model, this is the first review to focus on the technical aspects of hindlimb unloading. This review includes a history of the technique, a brief comparison with spaceflight data, technical details, extension of the model to mice, and other important technical considerations (e.g., housing, room temperature, unloading angle, the potential need for multiple control groups, age, body weight, the use of the forelimb tissues as internal controls, and when to remove animals from experiments). This paper is intended as a reference for researchers, reviewers of manuscripts, and institutional animal care and use committees. Over 800 references, related to the hindlimb unloading model, can be accessed via the electronic version of this article. PMID:11895999

  4. Vertebrate protein glycosylation: diversity, synthesis and function

    PubMed Central

    Moremen, Kelley W.; Tiemeyer, Michael; Nairn, Alison V.

    2014-01-01

    Protein glycosylation is a ubiquitous post-translational modification found in all domains of life. Despite their significant complexity in animal systems, glycan structures have crucial biological and physiological roles, from contributions in protein folding and quality control to involvement in a large number of biological recognition events. As a result, they impart an additional level of ‘information content’ to underlying polypeptide structures. Improvements in analytical methodologies for dissecting glycan structural diversity, along with recent developments in biochemical and genetic approaches for studying glycan biosynthesis and catabolism, have provided a greater understanding of the biological contributions of these complex structures in vertebrates. PMID:22722607

  5. The phylogenetic diversity of metagenomes.

    PubMed

    Kembel, Steven W; Eisen, Jonathan A; Pollard, Katherine S; Green, Jessica L

    2011-01-01

    Phylogenetic diversity--patterns of phylogenetic relatedness among organisms in ecological communities--provides important insights into the mechanisms underlying community assembly. Studies that measure phylogenetic diversity in microbial communities have primarily been limited to a single marker gene approach, using the small subunit of the rRNA gene (SSU-rRNA) to quantify phylogenetic relationships among microbial taxa. In this study, we present an approach for inferring phylogenetic relationships among microorganisms based on the random metagenomic sequencing of DNA fragments. To overcome challenges caused by the fragmentary nature of metagenomic data, we leveraged fully sequenced bacterial genomes as a scaffold to enable inference of phylogenetic relationships among metagenomic sequences from multiple phylogenetic marker gene families. The resulting metagenomic phylogeny can be used to quantify the phylogenetic diversity of microbial communities based on metagenomic data sets. We applied this method to understand patterns of microbial phylogenetic diversity and community assembly along an oceanic depth gradient, and compared our findings to previous studies of this gradient using SSU-rRNA gene and metagenomic analyses. Bacterial phylogenetic diversity was highest at intermediate depths beneath the ocean surface, whereas taxonomic diversity (diversity measured by binning sequences into taxonomically similar groups) showed no relationship with depth. Phylogenetic diversity estimates based on the SSU-rRNA gene and the multi-gene metagenomic phylogeny were broadly concordant, suggesting that our approach will be applicable to other metagenomic data sets for which corresponding SSU-rRNA gene sequences are unavailable. Our approach opens up the possibility of using metagenomic data to study microbial diversity in a phylogenetic context. PMID:21912589

  6. The Phylogenetic Diversity of Metagenomes

    PubMed Central

    Kembel, Steven W.; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Pollard, Katherine S.; Green, Jessica L.

    2011-01-01

    Phylogenetic diversity—patterns of phylogenetic relatedness among organisms in ecological communities—provides important insights into the mechanisms underlying community assembly. Studies that measure phylogenetic diversity in microbial communities have primarily been limited to a single marker gene approach, using the small subunit of the rRNA gene (SSU-rRNA) to quantify phylogenetic relationships among microbial taxa. In this study, we present an approach for inferring phylogenetic relationships among microorganisms based on the random metagenomic sequencing of DNA fragments. To overcome challenges caused by the fragmentary nature of metagenomic data, we leveraged fully sequenced bacterial genomes as a scaffold to enable inference of phylogenetic relationships among metagenomic sequences from multiple phylogenetic marker gene families. The resulting metagenomic phylogeny can be used to quantify the phylogenetic diversity of microbial communities based on metagenomic data sets. We applied this method to understand patterns of microbial phylogenetic diversity and community assembly along an oceanic depth gradient, and compared our findings to previous studies of this gradient using SSU-rRNA gene and metagenomic analyses. Bacterial phylogenetic diversity was highest at intermediate depths beneath the ocean surface, whereas taxonomic diversity (diversity measured by binning sequences into taxonomically similar groups) showed no relationship with depth. Phylogenetic diversity estimates based on the SSU-rRNA gene and the multi-gene metagenomic phylogeny were broadly concordant, suggesting that our approach will be applicable to other metagenomic data sets for which corresponding SSU-rRNA gene sequences are unavailable. Our approach opens up the possibility of using metagenomic data to study microbial diversity in a phylogenetic context. PMID:21912589

  7. Diversity Awareness Calendar 2014/2015

    E-print Network

    Ida, Nathan

    Diversity Awareness Calendar 2014/2015 Diversity Calendar Mission Statement The purpose of this calendar is to address and support the diversity of students to the extensive number of cultural holidays, dates for this calendar were determined

  8. Soil animals alter plant litter diversity effects on decomposition

    PubMed Central

    Hättenschwiler, Stephan; Gasser, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    Most of the terrestrial net primary production enters the decomposer system as dead organic matter, and the subsequent recycling of C and nutrients are key processes for the functioning of ecosystems and the delivery of ecosystem goods and services. Although climatic and substrate quality controls are reasonably well understood, the functional role of biodiversity for biogeochemical cycles remains elusive. Here we ask how altering litter species diversity affects species-specific decomposition rates and whether large litter-feeding soil animals control the litter diversity–function relationship in a temperate forest ecosystem. We found that decomposition of a given litter species changed greatly in the presence of litters from other cooccurring species despite unaltered climatic conditions and litter chemistry. Most importantly, soil fauna determined the magnitude and direction of litter diversity effects. Our data show that litter species richness and soil fauna interactively determine rates of decomposition in a temperate forest, suggesting a combination of bottom-up and top-down controls of litter diversity effects on ecosystem C and nutrient cycling. These results provide evidence that, in ecosystems supporting a well developed soil macrofauna community, animal activity plays a fundamental role for altered decomposition in response to changing litter diversity, which in turn has important implications for biogeochemical cycles and the long-term functioning of ecosystems with ongoing biodiversity loss. PMID:15671172

  9. Organizational strategy and diversity management: diversity-sensitive orientation as a moderating influence.

    PubMed

    Dansky, Kathryn H; Weech-Maldonado, Robert; De Souza, Gita; Dreachslin, Janice L

    2003-01-01

    Empirical studies on diversity suggest that health care organizations have been slow to embrace diversity management. We propose that sensitivity to diversity, at the corporate level, moderates strategic decision making, which influences human resource management practices such as diversity initiatives. This study of 203 hospitals explored the relationships among organizational strategy, organizational sensitivity to diversity, and diversity management practices. PMID:12940346

  10. Estimating T-cell repertoire diversity: limitations of classical estimators and a new approach.

    PubMed

    Laydon, Daniel J; Bangham, Charles R M; Asquith, Becca

    2015-08-19

    A highly diverse T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire is a fundamental property of an effective immune system, and is associated with efficient control of viral infections and other pathogens. However, direct measurement of total TCR diversity is impossible. The diversity is high and the frequency distribution of individual TCRs is heavily skewed; the diversity therefore cannot be captured in a blood sample. Consequently, estimators of the total number of TCR clonotypes that are present in the individual, in addition to those observed, are essential. This is analogous to the 'unseen species problem' in ecology. We review the diversity (species richness) estimators that have been applied to T-cell repertoires and the methods used to validate these estimators. We show that existing approaches have significant shortcomings, and frequently underestimate true TCR diversity. We highlight our recently developed estimator, DivE, which can accurately estimate diversity across a range of immunological and biological systems. PMID:26150657

  11. Best Practices for Managing Organizational Diversity

    SciTech Connect

    Kreitz, Patricia; /SLAC

    2007-10-15

    Organizations with increasingly diverse workforces and customer populations face challenges in reaping diversity's benefits while managing its potentially disruptive effects. This article defines workplace diversity and identifies best practices supporting planned and positive diversity management. It explores how academic libraries can apply diversity management best practices and provides a reading list for leaders and human resource managers wishing to optimize their organization's approach to diversity.

  12. Psychological aspects of painful medical conditions in children. I. Developmental aspects and assessment.

    PubMed

    Lavigne, J V; Schulein, M J; Hahn, Y S

    1986-11-01

    The assessment and development of pain in children is reviewed in the first part of a two-part series. Assessment of pain in children has relied on self-report measures that have included visual analogue procedures using concrete stimuli for ratings. Behavioral assessment procedures are more sophisticated, but research on behavioral assessment of pediatric pain has begun to emergy only recently. There has been very little research on the developmental aspects of pain tolerance and pain threshold in children. There are preliminary indications that children's thoughts and attitudes about pain may change with age in a manner that contributes to more intense feelings of pain in adolescence than childhood. Children undergoing painful medical procedures show declining emotional outbursts with age and increasing signs of self-control and muscular rigidity. Possibilities for integrating the study of the developmental aspects of pain with social learning theory, cognitive developmental theory, and the psychology of physical symptom perception are discussed. PMID:3540810

  13. Marine Technology: Diversity and Flexibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Dale R.

    1973-01-01

    Training for a specific field must reflect the diversity of that field and also remain flexible enough to accommodate fluctuations in the job market and the field, as marine technology illustrates. (Editor)

  14. Deconstructive Globalization: Universalism, Globality, Diversity+

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Deconstructive Globalization: Universalism, Globality, Diversity+ Alain-Marc Rieu* + * Professor of Globalization alternative to Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri's perspective in Empire (Cambridge: Harvard the world and opening a major transition. The first process is identified as Globalization, it concerns

  15. Pattern diversity compact patch antenna

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Ruiz Palacios; M. J. Martinez Silva

    2010-01-01

    Diversity is a required property for antennas in Multiple Input-Multiple Output (MIMO) systems. In this paper a pattern diversity antenna is presented for operation in the 2.4 band of IEEE 802.11n WLAN MIMO standard. This compact antenna is formed by two shorted air substrate patch antennas located back to back in order to produce two lobes oriented in different directions.

  16. Experimental investigation of polarization diversity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Morshedi; Murat Torlak

    2008-01-01

    Polarization diversity is an interesting alternative to space diversity, but the channel characteristics need to be investigated. To evaluate the dual polarized channels, a 2times2 multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) wireless testbed has been developed. In addition, a dual polarized microstrip patch antenna array has been designed to be used as the transmitter and receiver in this system. Performance evaluation has been based

  17. Diversity in the Immune System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. M. Borghans; R. J. de Boer

    2000-01-01

    Diversity is one of the key characteristics of the vertebrate immune system.\\u000aLymphocyte repertoires of at least 3x10? different clonotypes protect humans\\u000aagainst infections, while avoiding unwanted immune responses against\\u000aself-peptides and innocuous antigens. It is this lymphocyte diversity that\\u000aforms the main difference between the immune systems of invertebrate and\\u000avertebrate species.

  18. Biotechnological Aspects of Microbial Extracellular Electron Transfer.

    PubMed

    Kato, Souichiro

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular electron transfer (EET) is a type of microbial respiration that enables electron transfer between microbial cells and extracellular solid materials, including naturally-occurring metal compounds and artificial electrodes. Microorganisms harboring EET abilities have received considerable attention for their various biotechnological applications, in addition to their contribution to global energy and material cycles. In this review, current knowledge on microbial EET and its application to diverse biotechnologies, including the bioremediation of toxic metals, recovery of useful metals, biocorrosion, and microbial electrochemical systems (microbial fuel cells and microbial electrosynthesis), were introduced. Two potential biotechnologies based on microbial EET, namely the electrochemical control of microbial metabolism and electrochemical stimulation of microbial symbiotic reactions (electric syntrophy), were also discussed. PMID:26004795

  19. Biotechnological Aspects of Microbial Extracellular Electron Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Souichiro

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular electron transfer (EET) is a type of microbial respiration that enables electron transfer between microbial cells and extracellular solid materials, including naturally-occurring metal compounds and artificial electrodes. Microorganisms harboring EET abilities have received considerable attention for their various biotechnological applications, in addition to their contribution to global energy and material cycles. In this review, current knowledge on microbial EET and its application to diverse biotechnologies, including the bioremediation of toxic metals, recovery of useful metals, biocorrosion, and microbial electrochemical systems (microbial fuel cells and microbial electrosynthesis), were introduced. Two potential biotechnologies based on microbial EET, namely the electrochemical control of microbial metabolism and electrochemical stimulation of microbial symbiotic reactions (electric syntrophy), were also discussed. PMID:26004795

  20. Diversity, biodiversity, conservation, and sustainability.

    PubMed

    Marques, J C

    2001-10-11

    The concepts of diversity and biodiversity are analysed regarding their historical emergence, and their intrinsic meaning and differences are discussed. Through a brief synopsis, difficulties usually experienced by statisticians in capturing the dynamics of diversity are analysed and main problems identified. The shift from diversity to the more holistic biodiversity as a working concept is appraised in terms of the novelty involved. Through a number of examples, the way the two concepts capture natural cyclic changes is analysed, and their reciprocal and complementary relations are approached theoretically. The way diversity could develop from the stores of biodiversity as its active expression through selective and evolutionary processes is described. Through the use of a very simple dynamic model, the concepts of diversity and biodiversity are analysed in extremely opposite hypothetical scenarios. Comparisons with natural situations are made and the theoretical implications from the conservation point of view are discussed. These support the opinion that conservation undertaken in restricted and protected areas is not self-sustainable, needing permanent external intervention to regulate internal processes, and in the long run will most probably lead in the direction of obsolescence and extinction. Finally, the relations between diversity, biodiversity, and sustainability are approached. The vagueness of the sustainability concept is discussed. Preservation of biodiversity is then defended as one of the best available indicators to assist us in fixing boundaries which may help to provide a more precise definition of sustainability. PMID:12805846

  1. Effects of fire on bird diversity and abundance in an East African savanna

    E-print Network

    Palmer, Todd M.

    Effects of fire on bird diversity and abundance in an East African savanna Lindsay O'Reilly1 of many aspects of savanna ecosystem structure and function. However, rel- atively little is known about the effects of fire on faunal biodiversity in savannas. We conducted a short-term study to examine the effects

  2. Educating beyond Cultural Diversity: Redrawing the Boundaries of a Democratic Plurality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I draw some distinctions between the terms "cultural diversity" and "plurality" and argue that a radical conception of plurality is needed in order both to re-imagine the boundaries of democratic education and to address more fully the political aspects of conflict that plurality gives rise to. This paper begins with a brief…

  3. Embracing and Harnessing Diversity in the US Workforce: What Have We Learned?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Cultural diversity in the US includes race, ethnicity, gender, disability, age, sexual orientation, religion, and other aspects of culture. American ethnic and racial minorities currently account for 31% of the US population, and growing. Their career development issues include the barriers they regularly encounter, such as discrimination;…

  4. Environmental aspects of nuclear power

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear power provides the world with an important option for generating electricity. To successfully and safely utilize this power, engineering and environmental factors should be carefully considered throughout a nuclear power plant project, especially during the planning stages. This paper discusses the major environmental aspects of a nuclear power plant project from site selection to retirement. During the site selection

  5. Thermodynamic aspects of thermoacoustic theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Tominaga

    1995-01-01

    The study of thermoacoustic phenomena has a long history, and a fluid mechanics description of them has been developed in this century. Thermodynamic aspects of the thermoacoustic theory are discussed in this paper. Work flux, heat flux and energy conversion are introduced. Two thermodynamic media (a solid and an oscillating fluid) are regarded as catalysts for the heat flow and

  6. Nonlinear aspects of astrobiological research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Axel Brandenburg

    2008-01-01

    Several aspects of mathematical astrobiology are discussed. It is argued that around the time of the origin of life the handedness of biomolecules must have established itself through an instability. Possible pathways of producing a certain handedness include mechanisms involving either autocatalysis or, alternatively, epimerization as governing effects. Concepts for establishing hereditary information are discussed in terms of the theory

  7. Mathematical Aspects of Neural Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Hammer; Thomas Villmann

    2003-01-01

    In this tutorial paper about mathematical aspects of neural networks, we will focus on two directions: on the one hand, we will motivate standard math- ematical questions and well studied theory of classical neural models used in ma- chine learning. On the other hand, we collect some recent theoretical results (as of beginning of 2003) in the respective areas. Thereby,

  8. Legal Aspects of the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borrull, Alexandre Lopez; Oppenheim, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to legal aspects of the Web: copyright; domain names and trademarks; linking, framing, caching, and spamdexing; patents; pornography and censorship on the Internet; defamation; liability; conflict of laws and jurisdiction; legal deposit; and spam, i.e., unsolicited mails.…

  9. Morphometric aspects of reflux nephropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahmoud T El-Khatib; Gavin J Becker; Priscilla S Kincaid-Smith

    1987-01-01

    Morphometric aspects of reflux nephropathy. We have studied the relationships between renal size, glomerular hypertrophy and sclerosis and renal function in adults with reflux nephropathy. A digitizer was used to measure the renal surface areas in intravenous pyelogram films. This was then corrected for patient size by dividing by the area of the first three lumbar vertebrae. In renal biopsies,

  10. Kantian Aspects in Marriage Counseling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Nowik

    Kant's conception of the interactions between individuals is that they contain an inherent dichotomy, that is, a compulsive attraction for each other's company but an equal need and necessity to maintain personal space based on respect for the autonomy of the will in oneself and others. The modern discipline of marriage counseling contains and uses aspects of two of his

  11. Additional aspects of elastohydrodynamic lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.

    1978-01-01

    An up-to-date review of the varying aspects of elastohydrodynamic lubrication is presented.. Some recent work on elastohydrodynamic lubrication of materials of low elastic modulus as well as on hydrodynamic lubrication is included. Both these topics are applicable for contacts with any ellipticity parameter (ranging from a circular contact to a line contact).

  12. [Physicians and aspects of liability].

    PubMed

    Hoeren, T

    1999-01-01

    Physicians have discovered the internet for their purposes. Special emphasis is given to the provision of medical information through the world wide web but aspects of right are paid less attention to. This can result in severe cases of liability. PMID:10486885

  13. Aspects of Spirituality in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bussing, Arndt; Foller-Mancini, Axel; Gidley, Jennifer; Heusser, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses which aspects of spirituality are valued by adolescents, and how they are interconnected with youths' life satisfaction and "self-centeredness". The participants were 254 adolescents (11th grade) of four different high schools from west Germany. After re-validation of the 6-factorial student's version of the ASP questionnaire…

  14. Radiological aspects of the SSRL 3 GeV injector

    SciTech Connect

    Ipe, N.

    1991-09-01

    This document describes the shielding of the injector, results of radiation measurements, the personnel protection system, the beam containment system, the area monitoring, administrative controls and procedures, operator training and personnel dosimetry. In addition, other radiological aspects of the injector such as muons, air activation, toxic gases, induced activity and skyshine are discussed. 79 refs., 18 figs., 13 tabs.

  15. Random aspects of beam physics and laser-plasma interactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Emile Charman

    2007-01-01

    Aspects of the dynamics of charged particle and radiation beams, and of the interaction of plasmas with radiation are investigated, informed by concerns of classical and quantum mechanical uncertainty and noise, and related by notions of particle and radiation phase space manipulation, overlap, and control. We begin by studying questions of optimal longitudinal pulse-shaping in laser wakefield accelerators, based on

  16. Hedonic and ergonomic quality aspects determine a software's appeal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Hassenzahl; Axel Platz; Michael Burmester; Katrin Lehner

    2000-01-01

    The present study examines the role of subjectively perceived ergonomic quality (e.g. simplicity, controllability) and hedonic quality (e.g. novelty, originality) of a software system in forming a judgement of appeal. A hypothesised research model is presented. The two main research question are: (1) Are ergonomic and hedonic quality subjectively different quality aspects that can be independently perceived by the users?

  17. CIA2326: Coursework Formal Aspects of Computer Science

    E-print Network

    McCluskey, Thomas Leo

    CIA2326: Coursework Formal Aspects of Computer Science Background and Context In safety critical, flight plans (called `Flight Profiles') are logged with an Air Traffic Control Officer (ATCO) a period logged flight profiles are mutually conflict free. Assume you are called in to create a set of require

  18. Citizenship, Diversity and Distance Learning: Videoconferencing in Connecticut.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sembor, Edward C.

    1997-01-01

    Profiles a videoconference that brought together two seventh-grade classes in Connecticut. Over several days, white, middle-class, rural students discussed topical issues with urban black students. Topics raised included diversity, politics, gun control and local issues. Includes students' responses to the program. (MJP)

  19. The genomic and phenotypic diversity of Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Jeffares, Daniel C; Rallis, Charalampos; Rieux, Adrien; Speed, Doug; P?evorovský, Martin; Mourier, Tobias; Marsellach, Francesc X; Iqbal, Zamin; Lau, Winston; Cheng, Tammy M K; Pracana, Rodrigo; Mülleder, Michael; Lawson, Jonathan L D; Chessel, Anatole; Bala, Sendu; Hellenthal, Garrett; O'Fallon, Brendan; Keane, Thomas; Simpson, Jared T; Bischof, Leanne; Tomiczek, Bartlomiej; Bitton, Danny A; Sideri, Theodora; Codlin, Sandra; Hellberg, Josephine E E U; van Trigt, Laurent; Jeffery, Linda; Li, Juan-Juan; Atkinson, Sophie; Thodberg, Malte; Febrer, Melanie; McLay, Kirsten; Drou, Nizar; Brown, William; Hayles, Jacqueline; Carazo Salas, Rafael E; Ralser, Markus; Maniatis, Nikolas; Balding, David J; Balloux, Francois; Durbin, Richard; Bähler, Jürg

    2015-03-01

    Natural variation within species reveals aspects of genome evolution and function. The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe is an important model for eukaryotic biology, but researchers typically use one standard laboratory strain. To extend the usefulness of this model, we surveyed the genomic and phenotypic variation in 161 natural isolates. We sequenced the genomes of all strains, finding moderate genetic diversity (? = 3 × 10(-3) substitutions/site) and weak global population structure. We estimate that dispersal of S. pombe began during human antiquity (?340 BCE), and ancestors of these strains reached the Americas at ?1623 CE. We quantified 74 traits, finding substantial heritable phenotypic diversity. We conducted 223 genome-wide association studies, with 89 traits showing at least one association. The most significant variant for each trait explained 22% of the phenotypic variance on average, with indels having larger effects than SNPs. This analysis represents a rich resource to examine genotype-phenotype relationships in a tractable model. PMID:25665008

  20. A Taxonomy for Robot Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Miljanovic; Elizabeth A. Croft

    1999-01-01

    In this work, a limited survey of the diverse issues related to robot control design architectures is presented. Based on this review, an initiatory taxonomy of robot control tasks, motions, architectures, and controllers is proposed. The objective for this taxonomy is to develop an expert system for industrial robot control under the emerging open architecture controller paradigm