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1

Economic and biological aspects of genetic diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines some of the characteristics of biological diversity and the appropriateness of the standard economic model in developing policies to protect genetic resources. It is argued that the assumptions of the standard model of perfect competition, including perfect information, reversibility, the emphasis on marginal analysis, and the appropriateness of discounting the future, place severe limitations on the usefulness

John M. Gowdy

1993-01-01

2

Microevolution of Fishes: Evolutionary Aspects of Phenetic Diversity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The book highlights the principles and methods to identify and describe the nature of phenetic diversity in fish. The author reviews the literature on morphological and ecological diversity of fish and discusses this topic in light of his own work. Also e...

M. V. Mina A. V. Yablokov

1991-01-01

3

User cooperation diversity. Part II. Implementation aspects and performance analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

For pt.I see ibid., p.1927-38. This is the second of a two-part paper on a new form of spatial diversity, where diversity gains are achieved through the cooperation of mobile users. Part I described the user cooperation concept and proposed a cooperation strategy for a conventional code-division multiple-access (CDMA) system. Part II investigates the cooperation concept further and considers practical

Andrew Sendonaris; Elza Erkip; Behnaam Aazhang

2003-01-01

4

High aspect ratio, remote controlled pumping assembly  

DOEpatents

A miniature dual syringe-type pump assembly which has a high aspect ratio and which is remotely controlled, for use such as in a small diameter penetrometer cone or well packer used in water contamination applications. The pump assembly may be used to supply and remove a reagent to a water contamination sensor, for example, and includes a motor, gearhead and motor encoder assembly for turning a drive screw for an actuator which provides pushing on one syringe and pulling on the other syringe for injecting new reagent and withdrawing used reagent from an associated sensor.

Brown, Steve B. (Livermore, CA); Milanovich, Fred P. (Lafayette, CA)

1995-01-01

5

High aspect ratio, remote controlled pumping assembly  

DOEpatents

A miniature dual syringe-type pump assembly is described which has a high aspect ratio and which is remotely controlled, for use such as in a small diameter penetrometer cone or well packer used in water contamination applications. The pump assembly may be used to supply and remove a reagent to a water contamination sensor, for example, and includes a motor, gearhead and motor encoder assembly for turning a drive screw for an actuator which provides pushing on one syringe and pulling on the other syringe for injecting new reagent and withdrawing used reagent from an associated sensor. 4 figs.

Brown, S.B.; Milanovich, F.P.

1995-11-14

6

Benefits of aspect diversity for SAR ATR: fundamental and experimental results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper continues the study reported in Ref. 1 and Ref. 2 trading off the fundamental ATR performance capability (i.e., algorithm-independent) of various SAR design options. The previous papers considered the performance impact of SAR range/cross-range resolution and compared the use of 1-D HRR (high-range-resolution radar) versus 2-D SAR, versus multisensor, 3-D SAR. The work reported here extends the SAR and HRR results of Ref. 2 to include aspect diversity in the SAR measurements. We show that SAR and HRR are benefited by multi-aspect measurements mostly because multiple views add diversity: poorer views benefit from having better views combined in a multi-aspect classifier. Finally, as a proof of concept, multi-aspect diversity is incorporated into an existing SAR ATR classifier; performance of an MSTAR 10-class MSE classifier is shown to improve substantially. A major tenet is verified by the experimental results: added measurement domains, such as aspect diversity, which separate the target signature vectors in the observation space, make it easier to obtain better target classification, enhanced false- alarm rejection, and robustness to unknown statistics.

Brendel, Gary F.; Horowitz, Larry L.

2000-08-01

7

Functional aspects of redox control during neuroinflammation.  

PubMed

Neuroinflammation is a CNS reaction to injury in which some severe pathologies, regardless of their origin, converge. The phenomenon emphasizes crosstalk between neurons and glia and reveals a complex interaction with oxidizing agents through redox sensors localized in enzymes, receptors, and transcription factors. When oxidizing pressures cause reversible molecular changes, such as minimal or transitory proinflammatory cytokine overproduction, redox couples provide a means of translating the presence of reactive oxygen or nitrogen species into useful signals in the cell. Additionally, thiol-based redox sensors convey information about localized changes in redox potential induced by physiologic or pathologic situations. They are susceptible to oxidative changes and become key events during neuroinflammation, altering the course of a signaling response or the behavior of specific transcription factors. When oxidative stress augments the pressure on the intracellular environment, the effective reduction potential of redox pairs diminishes, and cell signaling shifts toward proinflammatory and proapoptotic signals, creating a vicious cycle between oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. In addition, electrophilic compounds derived from the oxidative cascade react with key protein thiols and interfere with redox signaling. This article reviews the relevant functional aspects of redox control during the neuroinflammatory process. PMID:19951033

Rosales-Corral, Sergio; Reiter, Russel J; Tan, Dun-Xian; Ortiz, Genaro G; Lopez-Armas, Gabriela

2010-07-15

8

Aspect-ratio-controlled synthesis of high-aspect-ratio gold nanorods in high-yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a modified seed-mediated synthesis of high-aspect-ratio gold nanorods controlling the aspect ratio with variation of pH in the growth solution. By adding various amounts of sodium hydroxide, pH in the growth solution was controlled from 1.29 to 7.06 in the presence of nitrate anions. At various pH of the growth solution, the yield of high-aspect-ratio gold nanorods was

Won Min Park; Yun Suk Huh; Won Hi Hong

2009-01-01

9

Hierarchical controls on patterns of habitat and species diversity in river networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Patterns of habitat heterogeneity and species diversity in river networks are constrained by a nested hierarchy of physical controls. Large-scale, long-term controls set bounds for habitat and biological expression, whereas short-term and smaller-scale processes determine conditions at a point in time. At the river basin scale, geologic and topographic controls constrain reach attributes such as channel slope and channel confinement, which in turn constrains finer scale habitat structure. Overlain on this geologic template are down-valley trends in relative sediment supply that cause a systematic shift in channel-floodplain dynamics. At the reach-scale, channel slope is a primary control on habitat types (e.g., pools, riffles, ponds) in single thread channels, but local bed load and wood supply influence local habitat diversity. In floodplain reaches, diversity of habitat types is controlled mainly by the rate of lateral channel movement and floodplain turnover, which decrease down-valley with decreasing bed load supply. These controls drive two important aspects of environmental complexity, which in turn drive biological diversity in river networks: diversity of patch ages, and diversity of patch types. Ecological theory suggests that floodplain forest communities will be most diverse in floodplain reaches with intermediate rates of floodplain turnover, and reach-level aquatic communities will be most diverse in mid-network where habitat heterogeneity is highest.

Beechie, T.; Pess, G.

2007-12-01

10

Exploiting Multiuser Diversity for Medium Access Control in Wireless Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiuser diversity refers to a type of diversity present across different users in a fading environment. This diversity can be exploited by scheduling transmissions so that users transmit when their channel conditions are favorable. Using such an approach leads to a system capacity that increases with the number of users. However, such scheduling requires centralized control. In this paper, we

Xiangping Qin; Randall A. Berry

2003-01-01

11

Computational aspects of structural shape control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of shape control is nullification of the structural deformations caused by certain external disturbances, mainly body forces and surface traction. Dynamic structural shape control is concerned with vibration suppression. Determination of a proper distributed actuation is understood through the interaction of structural mechanics (of smart materials) and control engineering. Imposed strains (eigenstrains) are of quasistatic thermal nature in

Franz Ziegler

2005-01-01

12

Religion as an aspect of workplace diversity: an examination of the US context and a call for international research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although religion is a significant factor in human behavior and is a protected area under the US Title VII prohibiting employment discrimination, religion is sorely understudied relative to research on other aspects of diversity. As evidenced by increasing legal action, the dynamics of religious diversity are poorly understood and managed in the workplace. In this paper, we compare and contrast

James E. King Jr; Myrtle P. Bell; Ericka Lawrence

2009-01-01

13

Aspects of modelling and control of bioprocesses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The modelling and control of bioprocesses are the main subjects in this thesis. Different modelling approaches are proposed for different purposes in various bioprocesses. A conventional global model was constructed for a very complex mammalian cell cultu...

X. Zhang

1995-01-01

14

Control of Industrial Crystallizers: The Physical Aspects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three major requirements are to be met in order to establish Crystal Size Distribution (CSD) control: an on line CSD measurement, an accurate dynamic model, and effective process inputs. The continuous crystallization of ammonium sulfate in a draft tube b...

J. Jager

1990-01-01

15

Innovative Aspects of the SDL Control System  

SciTech Connect

The Source Development Lab at BNL consists of a 230 MeV electron linac and 10m long wiggler for short wavelength FEL development. The control system is based on that in use at the NSLS. Two new extensions of the control system using VXI equipment are described. The first extension is the replacement of patch panels and lab oscilloscopes to monitor RF equipment. Instead, the RF waveforms are fed through a multiplexor into VXI digitizers. The waveforms can then be monitored remotely on any control console. The second extension is the replacement of the analog RF hardware needed to process beam position monitor signals. A digital system based on very fast (sub-nanosecond) VXI waveform digitizers is under development. The difficult operations requiring precise time alignment are then done in software.

Graves, W.S.; Feng, S.K.; Pearson, P.S.; Smith, J.D.

1997-12-31

16

Stockkeeping and controlling under game theoretic aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stock level in industrial companies is frequently subject of critical discussions. Material managers tend towards high stock levels to ensure delivery and operational readiness. In contrast, controllers demand lower stock levels to minimize the costs of capital commitment. This decision conflict - based on lateral perception - can be modelled using an approach of game theory and it can

Günter Fandel; Jan Trockel

17

Algorithmic aspects of multiversion concurrency control  

Microsoft Academic Search

MuJtiversion schcdulcrs arc now a widely ac- ccptcd n&hod for mhancing the pcrformancc of the concurrency control component of a datnlmsc. In this paper we introduce a new notion of multivcrsion scri- alizability (MVSR) based on confficts (MVCSR), and discuss and its rcJi&tion with the well known single ver- sim conflict serialkabiljty (CSR). On-Jim schcdubblc (OLS) sulmts of JbfVSR were

Thanasis Hadzilacos; Christos H. PapadimitriouZ

1985-01-01

18

Placebo controls: historical, methodological and general aspects  

PubMed Central

Control conditions were introduced through the trial of Mesmerism in Paris. Placebo controls became codified standard in 1946. Although seemingly unchallenged, there are various problems with this received view. The notion of a placebo is only defined from the negative. A positive notion proposed that placebo effects are effects owing to the meaning an intervention has for an individual. Thus, placebo effects are individualized, whereas standard research paradigms reveal only grossly averaged behaviour. Also, placebo effects are context sensitive, dependent on psychological factors such as expectancy, relief of stress and anxiety, and hence can generate strong and long-lasting treatment effects. These, however, are not predictable. Such a situation can lead to the efficacy paradox: sometimes, sham interventions can be more powerful than proved, evidence-based treatments. This situation has methodological consequences. Placebo-controlled randomized trials reveal only part of the answer, whether an intervention is effective. This is valuable information for regulators, but not necessarily also for patients and of limited value for providers. Hence, I have argued that we need to complement the hierarchical model of evidence by a circular one, in which various methods are employed on equal footing to answer different questions.

Walach, Harald

2011-01-01

19

Ethical and legal aspects of global tobacco control  

Microsoft Academic Search

On 28 February 2005, the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control came into force as a result of at least 40 countries becoming State Parties through ratification of this first ever health treaty sponsored by the World Health Organization. This article discusses the bioethical, trade, and legal aspects of global tobacco control. Special emphasis is given to globalisation of tobacco use

T E Novotny; D Carlin

2005-01-01

20

Control Aspects of the Tacoma Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

On February 16, 1983, a 10 MW\\/30 MJ superconducting magnetic energy storage unit was energized at the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) substation in Tacoma, Washington. The unit was retired a year later, after extensive tests directed toward its experimental use as a small-signal stabilizer for the Pacific AC Intertie. This paper addresses the control aspects of the project. These include

J. F. Hauer; H. J. Boenig

1987-01-01

21

Notional Examples and Benchmark Aspects of a Resilient Control System  

SciTech Connect

Digital control system technology has pervaded most industries, leading to improvements in the efficiency and reliability of the associated operations. However, the ease of distributing and connecting related control systems for the purposes of increasing performance has resulted in interdependencies that can lead to unexpected conditions. Even with less complex designs, operators and engineers alike are often left with competing goals that are difficult to resolve. A fundamental reason for this dichotomy is that responsibilities lie with different disciplines, and operations are hosted on separate control systems. In addition, with the rising awareness of cyber security and diverse human interactions with control systems, an understanding of human actions from a malicious and benevolent standpoint is necessary. Resilience considers the multiple facets of requirements that drive the performance of control systems in a holistic fashion, whether they are security or stability, stability or efficiency, human interactions or complex interdependencies. As will be shown by example, current research philosophies lack the depth or the focus on the control system application to satisfy these requirements, such as graceful degradation of hierarchical control while under cyber attack. A resilient control system promises to purposefully consider these diverse requirements, developing an adaptive capacity to complex events that can lead to failure of traditional control system designs.

Craig Rieger

2010-08-01

22

Slope control on the aspect ratio of river basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

River networks and their drainage basins have attracted a large attention due to their remarkable statistical properties (1-5). For example, although fluvial networks patterns seem to be influenced by diverse geological and climatic processes, the river basins that enclose them appear to mirror each other faithfully. Basin area A and length L of rivers from around the world consistently scale following L=cAexp(h) (2) with h often close to 0.5 (and c a constant) suggesting that river basins are self-similar (1, 6). Likewise, the main river basins that drain linear mountain ranges consistently manifest similar length-width aspect ratios between 1 and 5 (7). These observations question how the interplay between climate and tectonics is reflected in landscapes, and they highlight the challenge of inverting modern landscape records to reveal previous climates and tectonics. The invariance of river basins aspect-ratio is puzzling when compared against observations at smaller spatial scales (<10 km). In analogue experiments, numerical simulations and outcrops, the form of stream networks is influenced by surface slope (8-11). Steep surfaces develop narrow elongate basins with near-parallel rills, whereas flatter surfaces produce wider basins. Initial surface geometry is also important in setting rivers paths and certain landscape properties such as the slope-area relationship (12). Here we thus investigate the form of river basins developed on surfaces longer than 10 kilometres showing limited dissection such that the initial surface slopes can be measured. We find that, as for small scale basins, the form of large scale river basins is controlled by surface slope, with steep slopes developing narrower basins. This observation is interpreted to originate from the nature of water flow over rough surfaces, with steeper slopes causing less flow convergence and longer-narrower basins. We derive an empirical relationship that can be used to infer the slope of a surface on which a river basin acquired its geometry based solely on a measure of its basin form. This relation provides a unique means of inferring the relative chronology of river basin development with respect to surface tilting and therefore provides a direct link between river basin morphology and tectonics. Instead of viewing river basins as largely invariant, this work highlights the differences between basins that bear important information about tectonics and climate. 1.P. S. Dodds, D. H. Rothman, Ann. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 28, 571 (2000). 2.J. T. Hack, US Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap. 294-B, (1957). 3.R. E. Horton, Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 56, 275 (1945). 4.J. W. Kirchner, Geology 21, 591 (1993). 5.I. Rodriguez-Iturbe, A. Rinaldo, Fractal river basins: chance and self-organization. (1997). 6.D. R. Montgomery, W. E. Dietrich, Science 255, 826 (1992). 7.N. Hovius, Basin Res. 8, 29 (1996). 8.R. S. Parker, Hydrology Papers, Colorado State University 90, 58 (1977). 9.J. D. Pelletier, Geomorphology 53, 183 (2003). 10.Schumm, The Fluvial System. (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1977), pp. 338. 11.G. D. H. Simpson, F. Schlunegger, J. Geophys. Res 108, 2300 (2003). 12.N. Schorghofer, D. H. Rothman, Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1633 (2002).

Castelltort, S.; Simpson, G.; Darrioulat, A.

2009-04-01

23

Control aspects of the Tacoma superconducting magnetic energy storage project  

SciTech Connect

On February 16, 1983, a 10 MW/30 MJ superconducting magnetic energy storage unit was energized at the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) substation in Tacoma, Washington. The unit was retired a year later, after extensive tests directed toward its experimental use as a small-signal stabilizer for the Pacific AC Intertie. This paper addresses the control aspects of the project. These include the response characteristics of the unit, a-priori modeling of power system response, tradeoffs in control-law design, measured power system dynamics, and projection of unit effectiveness as a stabilizer.

Hauer, J.F.; Boenig, H.J.

1987-05-01

24

Characteristics associated with the diversion of controlled medications among adolescents  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this study was to estimate the lifetime prevalence of diversion (i.e., trading, selling, giving away or loaning) of four classes of controlled medications (pain, stimulant, anti-anxiety, and sleeping) among adolescents, and to identify demographic and behavioral characteristics of adolescents who divert their own controlled medications. Methods A web-based survey was self-administered by 2744 secondary school students from two southeastern Michigan school districts in 2009–2010. The sample consisted of 51% females, 65% Whites, 29% African-Americans, 4% Asians, 1% Hispanics and 1% from other racial categories. Results Thirty-three percent of the students had ever been prescribed at least one controlled pain, stimulant, anti-anxiety, or sleeping medication. Approximately 13.8% (n = 117) of lifetime prescribed users of controlled medications (n = 848) had ever traded, sold, given away or loaned their medications. Multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that being approached to divert medications, nonmedical use of prescription medications, externalizing behaviors, and being non-White were significantly associated with the diversion of controlled medications. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that the odds of substance use and abuse for lifetime prescribed users who diverted their controlled medications were significantly greater than prescribed users who never diverted. Conclusions The findings indicate that approximately one in seven prescribed users had diverted their controlled medications in their lifetimes. Being approached to divert medications and substance use are more prevalent among adolescents who diverted their controlled medications. Careful assessments, diligent prescribing and monitoring of controlled medications, and continual patient education could be useful in reducing medication diversion.

McCabe, Sean Esteban; West, Brady T.; Teter, Christian J.; Ross-Durow, Paula; Young, Amy; Boyd, Carol J.

2011-01-01

25

Liquid Crystals of Disks of Controlled Aspect Ratios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanoparticles with quasi two-dimensional shapes serve as building blocks for discotic colloidal liquid crystals. However, due to difficulty of synthesis and especially shape-tuning of disk-shaped nanoparticles, good model systems for the study of discotic colloidal liquid crystals are hard to found. ?-zirconium phosphate (ZrP) crystals synthesized through hydrothermal treatment has regular disk shapes and controllable size, thickness, as well as size polydispersity. We experimentally illustrate that aqueous suspensions of these ZrP disks form stable liquid crystal phase easily. By choosing the thickness of the disks, an iridescent liquid crystal phase has been achieved. The critical concentration of the phase transition was found to be dependent on aspect ratios. We will also discuss our recent results on the phase diagram of discotic liquid crystals as a function of aspect ratio and particle concentration using ZrP monolayers and wax disks.

Cheng, Zhengdong; Shuai, Min; Mejia, Andres F.

2013-03-01

26

Financial and economic aspects of environmental management for vector control.  

PubMed

Short term economic benefits of resource development generally carry more weight in political decision-making than the adverse health effects such projects may have in the medium and long term. This problem is particularly acute in the case of water resource development projects which can often promote the prevalence and incidence of certain vector-borne diseases such as schistosomiasis and malaria. And while the agricultural sector is usually strengthened by production increase resulting from water resource development, the health sector may ultimately have to pick up the bill for disease control programmes which become necessary as a consequence. At its sixth meeting in Geneva, the WHO/FAO/UNEP Panel of Experts on Environmental Management for Vector Control (PEEM) discussed the financial and economic aspects of environmental management, and its cost effectiveness as a vector control measure. Their report is now available and in this article, Robert Bos and Anne Mills discuss some of the key findings. PMID:15462944

Bos, R; Mills, A

1987-05-01

27

Controls on development and diversity of Early Archean stromatolites  

PubMed Central

The ?3,450-million-year-old Strelley Pool Formation in Western Australia contains a reef-like assembly of laminated sedimentary accretion structures (stromatolites) that have macroscale characteristics suggestive of biological influence. However, direct microscale evidence of biology—namely, organic microbial remains or biosedimentary fabrics—has to date eluded discovery in the extensively-recrystallized rocks. Recently-identified outcrops with relatively good textural preservation record microscale evidence of primary sedimentary processes, including some that indicate probable microbial mat formation. Furthermore, we find relict fabrics and organic layers that covary with stromatolite morphology, linking morphologic diversity to changes in sedimentation, seafloor mineral precipitation, and inferred microbial mat development. Thus, the most direct and compelling signatures of life in the Strelley Pool Formation are those observed at the microscopic scale. By examining spatiotemporal changes in microscale characteristics it is possible not only to recognize the presence of probable microbial mats during stromatolite development, but also to infer aspects of the biological inputs to stromatolite morphogenesis. The persistence of an inferred biological signal through changing environmental circumstances and stromatolite types indicates that benthic microbial populations adapted to shifting environmental conditions in early oceans.

Allwood, Abigail C.; Grotzinger, John P.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Burch, Ian W.; Anderson, Mark S.; Coleman, Max L.; Kanik, Isik

2009-01-01

28

Genetic diversity and safety aspects of enterococci from slightly fermented sausages  

Microsoft Academic Search

B. MARTIN, M. GARRIGA, M. HUGAS AND T. AYMERICH. 2005. Aims: To determine the biodiversity of enterococci from slightly fermented sausages (chorizo and fuet) at species and strain level by molecular typing, while considering their safety aspects. Methods and Results: Species-specific PCR and partial sequencing of 16S rRNA and sodA genes were used to identify enterococcal population. Enterococcus faecium was

B. Martin; M. Garriga; M. Hugas; T. Aymerich

2005-01-01

29

Bioremediation of petroleum pollutants: Diversity and environmental aspects of hydrocarbon biodegradation  

SciTech Connect

The manufacture, transportation, and distribution of petroleum and chemical products during the last century has resulted in hydrocarbon-contamination becoming a major environmental problem. Most of the environmental inputs of petroleum are accommodated largely due to the capacities of microorganisms to biodegrade hydrocarbons. Bioremediation has gained significant political support among competing technologies for in situ cleanup of pollutants. In addition to its potential for local cleanup of contaminated water and soil, bioremediation may have a future role in solving problems on a global scale, including removal of greenhouse gases from the atmosphere. This article examines in detail the following topics: bacterial and fungal metabolism of hydrocarbons; bioremediation of marine oil spills; site remediation; performance and regulatory oversight. In summary diverse microorganisms using diverse metabolic pathways have the capacities for degrading a wide spectrum of hydrocarbon structures in petroleum. Some pathways lead to detoxification and destruction of the pollutants whereas others activate potentially harmful compounds. In most cases of detoxification, environmental modification is used to stimulate the biodegradative activities of indigenous organisms. Biodegradation is emerging as an important cost-effective treatment for marine oil spills and contaminated sites. 13 refs., 2 figs.

Atlas, R.M. [Univ. of Louisville, KY (United States); Cerniglia, C.E. [National Center of Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR (United States)

1995-05-01

30

Investigating the Genome Diversity of B. cereus and Evolutionary Aspects of B. anthracis Emergence  

PubMed Central

Here we report the use of a multi-genome DNA microarray to investigate the genome diversity of Bacillus cereus group members and elucidate the events associated with the emergence of B. anthracis the causative agent of anthrax–a lethal zoonotic disease. We initially performed directed genome sequencing of seven diverse B. cereus strains to identify novel sequences encoded in those genomes. The novel genes identified, combined with those publicly available, allowed the design of a “species” DNA microarray. Comparative genomic hybridization analyses of 41 strains indicates that substantial heterogeneity exists with respect to the genes comprising functional role categories. While the acquisition of the plasmid-encoded pathogenicity island (pXO1) and capsule genes (pXO2) represent a crucial landmark dictating the emergence of B. anthracis, the evolution of this species and its close relatives was associated with an overall a shift in the fraction of genes devoted to energy metabolism, cellular processes, transport, as well as virulence.

Papazisi, Leka; Rasko, David A.; Ratnayake, Shashikala; Bock, Geoff R.; Remortel, Brian G.; Appalla, Lakshmi; Liu, Jia; Dracheva, Tatiana; Braisted, John C.; Shallom, Shamira; Jarrahi, Benham; Snesrud, Erik; Ahn, Susie; Sun, Qiang; Rilstone, Jenifer; ?kstad, Ole Andreas; Kolst?, Anne-Brit; Fleischmann, Robert D.; Peterson, Scott N.

2011-01-01

31

Diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay describes the many political und societal harriers that impede libraries horn having a staff that reflects diversity. The efforts to kill affirmative action programs, the diminution of civil rights laws and other laws to protect minorities, the small number of minorities that are recruited to the profession have been barriers quite difficult to overcome. It was President Lyndon

E. J. Josey

1999-01-01

32

Physical, Consumer, and Social Aspects of Measuring the Food Environment Among Diverse Low-Income Populations  

PubMed Central

Obesity and other diet-related chronic diseases are directly related to the food environment. We describe how to better assess the food environment in specific ethnic minority settings for designing and implementing interventions, based on a review of our previous work on the food environment in American Indian reservations, Canadian First Nations reserves, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and inner-city Baltimore. The types of food stores available within each setting and the range of healthy foods available varied greatly across these geographic regions. In all settings, proximity to food stores/supermarkets, cost, and limited availability of healthful foods were common features, which limited access to health-promoting food options. Features specific to each population should be considered in an assessment of the food environment, including physical (e.g., openness of stores, mix of types of food sources); consumer (e.g., adequacy of the food supply, seasonal factors); and social (e.g., inter-household food sharing, perceptions of food quality, language differences) aspects. The food environments common in low-income ethnic subpopulations require special focus and consideration due to the vulnerability of the populations and to specific and unique aspects of each setting.

Gittelsohn, Joel; Sharma, Sangita

2011-01-01

33

Aspects of benthic decapod diversity and distribution from rocky nearshore habitat at geographically widely dispersed sites.  

PubMed

Relationships of diversity, distribution and abundance of benthic decapods in intertidal and shallow subtidal waters to 10 m depth are explored based on data obtained using a standardized protocol of globally-distributed samples. Results indicate that decapod species richness overall is low within the nearshore, typically ranging from one to six taxa per site (mean?=?4.5). Regionally the Gulf of Alaska decapod crustacean community structure was distinguishable by depth, multivariate analysis indicating increasing change with depth, where assemblages of the high and mid tide, low tide and 1 m, and 5 and 10 m strata formed three distinct groups. Univariate analysis showed species richness increasing from the high intertidal zone to 1 m subtidally, with distinct depth preferences among the 23 species. A similar depth trend but with peak richness at 5 m was observed when all global data were combined. Analysis of latitudinal trends, confined by data limitations, was equivocal on a global scale. While significant latitudinal differences existed in community structure among ecoregions, a semi-linear trend in changing community structure from the Arctic to lower latitudes did not hold when including tropical results. Among boreal regions the Canadian Atlantic was relatively species poor compared to the Gulf of Alaska, whereas the Caribbean and Sea of Japan appeared to be species hot spots. While species poor, samples from the Canadian Atlantic were the most diverse at the higher infraordinal level. Linking 11 environmental variables available for all sites to the best fit family-based biotic pattern showed a significant relationship, with the single best explanatory variable being the level of organic pollution and the best combination overall being organic pollution and primary productivity. While data limitations restrict conclusions in a global context, results are seen as a first-cut contribution useful in generating discussion and more in-depth work in the still poorly understood field of biodiversity distribution. PMID:21533220

Pohle, Gerhard; Iken, Katrin; Clarke, K Robert; Trott, Thomas; Konar, Brenda; Cruz-Motta, Juan José; Wong, Melisa; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro; Mead, Angela; Miloslavich, Patricia; Mieszkowska, Nova; Milne, Rebecca; Tamburello, Laura; Knowlton, Ann; Kimani, Edward; Shirayama, Yoshihisa

2011-04-14

34

Aspects of Benthic Decapod Diversity and Distribution from Rocky Nearshore Habitat at Geographically Widely Dispersed Sites  

PubMed Central

Relationships of diversity, distribution and abundance of benthic decapods in intertidal and shallow subtidal waters to 10 m depth are explored based on data obtained using a standardized protocol of globally-distributed samples. Results indicate that decapod species richness overall is low within the nearshore, typically ranging from one to six taxa per site (mean?=?4.5). Regionally the Gulf of Alaska decapod crustacean community structure was distinguishable by depth, multivariate analysis indicating increasing change with depth, where assemblages of the high and mid tide, low tide and 1 m, and 5 and 10 m strata formed three distinct groups. Univariate analysis showed species richness increasing from the high intertidal zone to 1 m subtidally, with distinct depth preferences among the 23 species. A similar depth trend but with peak richness at 5 m was observed when all global data were combined. Analysis of latitudinal trends, confined by data limitations, was equivocal on a global scale. While significant latitudinal differences existed in community structure among ecoregions, a semi-linear trend in changing community structure from the Arctic to lower latitudes did not hold when including tropical results. Among boreal regions the Canadian Atlantic was relatively species poor compared to the Gulf of Alaska, whereas the Caribbean and Sea of Japan appeared to be species hot spots. While species poor, samples from the Canadian Atlantic were the most diverse at the higher infraordinal level. Linking 11 environmental variables available for all sites to the best fit family-based biotic pattern showed a significant relationship, with the single best explanatory variable being the level of organic pollution and the best combination overall being organic pollution and primary productivity. While data limitations restrict conclusions in a global context, results are seen as a first-cut contribution useful in generating discussion and more in-depth work in the still poorly understood field of biodiversity distribution.

Pohle, Gerhard; Iken, Katrin; Clarke, K. Robert; Trott, Thomas; Konar, Brenda; Cruz-Motta, Juan Jose; Wong, Melisa; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro; Mead, Angela; Miloslavich, Patricia; Mieszkowska, Nova; Milne, Rebecca; Tamburello, Laura; Knowlton, Ann; Kimani, Edward; Shirayama, Yoshihisa

2011-01-01

35

Aspects of the control of synchronous reluctance machines including saturation and iron losses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors consider aspects of the control of synchronous reluctance machines driven from an inverter when the effects of saturation and iron losses are taken into account. The control strategies considered are maximum torque control (i.e. maximum torque per ampere), maximum power factor control, maximum rate of change of torque control, maximum efficiency control, and field weakening control. A general

R. E. Betz; M. Jovanovic; R. Lagerquist; T. J. E. Miller

1992-01-01

36

Pasture Condition Score Indicators: Controls on Plant and Forage Diversity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The USDA-NRCS Pasture Condition Score (PCS) system was developed for evaluating pastures and making management recommendations. Four of the ten rating criteria relate to plant species diversity and composition: percent desirable plants, plant cover, plant diversity, and percent legume. Baseline data...

37

A simple method for improving control area performance: Area Control Error (ACE) Diversity Interchange -- ADI  

SciTech Connect

Control Areas within three major (and essentially separate) areas of North America are interconnected electrically, thus enjoying vastly improved reliability and economy of operation compared to operating in isolation. Each must continually balance load, interchange and generation to minimize adverse influence on neighboring control areas and interconnection frequency. This requires investment in control systems and the sacrifice of some fuel conversion efficiencies to achieve the objective of complying with minimum control performance standards set by the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC). Control also increases wear and tear on machinery in the pursuit of these goals. Area Control Error (ACE) Diversity Interchange (ADI) offers a means of reducing this control burden without undue investment or sacrifice by any participant in a group. This paper describes the philosophy of ADI and the ENEREX partnership`s favorable experiences with its actual implementation in Iowa.

Oneal, A.R. [ENEREX, Des Moines, IA (United States)

1995-05-01

38

Diversity Strategies for Nuclear Power Plant Instrumentation and Control Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the technical basis for establishing acceptable mitigating strategies that resolve diversity and defense-in-depth (D3) assessment findings and conform to U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements. The research approach emp...

A. S. Loebl G. T. Mays K. Korsah M. S. Cetiner R. Belles R. T. Wood

2010-01-01

39

EXPLORING THE RELATIONSHIP AMONG PREDATOR DIVERSITY, INTRAGUILD PREDATION, AND EFFECTIVE BIOLOGICAL CONTROL  

Microsoft Academic Search

In conservation biological control, we seek to make agricultural systems more hospitable to natural enemies, in an attempt to increase enemy abundance and diversity. However, it is unclear whether the effectiveness of biological control actually increases with growing natu- ral enemy diversity, in communities including many species of generalist predators. Studies have shown that suppression of herbivores may be either

William SNYDER; Cory STRAUB

40

Diversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Look at the following resources to find information about diversity. Use your information to complete the assignment for your class. CIVIL RIGHTS Civil Rights Era Civil Rights Timeline JIM CROW LAWS AND SEGREGATION The Rise and Fall of Jim Crow Jim Crow and Segregation MARTIN LUTHER KING Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Biography Dr. Martin Luther King: I Have a Dream ROSA PARKS Rosa Parks: The Woman Who Changed a Nation Rosa Parks Biography EMMETT TILL The Murder of Emmett Till About African American History: The Biography of Emmett Till THE LITTLE ROCK 9 Little Rock 9 The 1957-1958 School Year School Integration in Little Rock, Arkansas MONTGOMERY BUS BOYCOTT Montgomery Bus Boycott They Changed the World: The Story of the Montgomery Bus Boycott Montgomery Bus Boycott FREEDOM RIDES Freedom Rides SNCC: Freedom Rides WOMEN'S RIGHTS Women s Rights Movement in the US--Timeline Women s Rights: National Historic Park History of the Equal Rights Amendment JAPANESE INTERNMENT Topaz Museum Japanese Relocation Photographs TRAIL OF TEARS Trail of Tears Trail of Tears Era HOLOCAUST Holocaust Encyclopedia The History Place: Holocaust Timeline Holocaust History Project ...

Bates, Albion M.

2007-01-25

41

Semiotic aspects of control and modeling relations in complex systems  

SciTech Connect

A conceptual analysis of the semiotic nature of control is provided with the goal of elucidating its nature in complex systems. Control is identified as a canonical form of semiotic relation of a system to its environment. As a form of constraint between a system and its environment, its necessary and sufficient conditions are established, and the stabilities resulting from control are distinguished from other forms of stability. These result from the presence of semantic coding relations, and thus the class of control systems is hypothesized to be equivalent to that of semiotic systems. Control systems are contrasted with models, which, while they have the same measurement functions as control systems, do not necessarily require semantic relations because of the lack of the requirement of an interpreter. A hybrid construction of models in control systems is detailed. Towards the goal of considering the nature of control in complex systems, the possible relations among collections of control systems are considered. Powers arguments on conflict among control systems and the possible nature of control in social systems are reviewed, and reconsidered based on our observations about hierarchical control. Finally, we discuss the necessary semantic functions which must be present in complex systems for control in this sense to be present at all.

Joslyn, C.

1996-08-01

42

Diversity in recognition of glycans by F-type lectins and galectins: molecular, structural, and biophysical aspects  

PubMed Central

Although lectins are “hard-wired” in the germline, the presence of tandemly arrayed carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs), of chimeric structures displaying distinct CRDs, of polymorphic genes resulting in multiple isoforms, and in some cases, of a considerable recognition plasticity of their carbohydrate binding sites, significantly expand the lectin ligand-recognition spectrum and lectin functional diversification. Analysis of structural/functional aspects of galectins and F-lectins—the most recently identified lectin family characterized by a unique CRD sequence motif (a distinctive structural fold) and nominal specificity for l-Fuc—has led to a greater understanding of self/nonself recognition by proteins with tandemly arrayed CRDs. For lectins with a single CRD, however, recognition of self and nonself glycans can only be rationalized in terms of protein oligomerization and ligand clustering and presentation. Spatial and temporal changes in lectin expression, secretion, and local concentrations in extracellular microenvironments, as well as structural diversity and spatial display of their carbohydrate ligands on the host or microbial cell surface, are suggestive of a dynamic interplay of their recognition and effector functions in development and immunity.

Vasta, Gerardo R.; Ahmed, Hafiz; Bianchet, Mario A.; Fernandez-Robledo, Jose A.; Amzel, L. Mario

2013-01-01

43

Efficiency aspects of vector control applied to synchronous reluctance motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Core losses in a synchronous reluctance machine are modelled. The empirical model obtained is used to implement a control scheme to compensate for equivalent core loss currents. This enables accurate control of the magnetising currents, hence torque. Efficiency over the base speed operating range of the machine is compared for two different vector control schemes. Methods of triplen series injection

John E. Fletcher; Barry W. Williams; Tim C. Green

1995-01-01

44

Optimization Aspects in a Class of Fuzzy Controlled Servosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper suggests a fuzzy control solution for a class of servo systems. Simplified mathematical models of second-order integral type characterize the controlled plants. The design is done using the linear case results on the basis of the extended symmetrical optimum (ESO) method and Iterative Learning Control and by the transfer of these results to the fuzzy case. The sensitivity

R.-E. Precup; S. Preitli; J. K. Tar; M. Takacs

2007-01-01

45

The Great Diversion: Danube Delta under Human Control (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many deltas around the world are suffering from sediment deficits that render them unstable to current and predicted rates of sea level rise. One solution proposed to alleviate the complete or partial drowning of such deltas is the use of river diversions to increase the quantity of sediment supplied to the delta plain to support marsh accretion. We examine the

L. Giosan

2009-01-01

46

On Social and Material Aspects of Technological Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that Hugh Lacey's example of a clear-cut distinction between material and social constraints or possibilities in the Green Revolution is misleading. Proposes a material analysis of the control situation placed within the material framework of the social structure within which the control system is employed. (Author/WRM)

Herfel, William E.

1999-01-01

47

On Social and Material Aspects of Technological Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Suggests that Hugh Lacey's example of a clear-cut distinction between material and social constraints or possibilities in the Green Revolution is misleading. Proposes a material analysis of the control situation placed within the material framework of the social structure within which the control system is employed. (Author/WRM)|

Herfel, William E.

1999-01-01

48

Theoretical aspects of high-speed supercavitation vehicle control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A control system based on feedback linearization is developed for a high-speed supercavitating underwater vehicle. The supercavitation bubble surrounding the body leads to reduced drag but is also responsible for the undesired switched, nonlinear and delay dependent behavior caused by the phenomena known as planing. The theoretical contributions of the switched control design are discussed in connection with the mathematical

B. Vanek; J. Bokor; G. Balas

2006-01-01

49

Will the Convention on Biological Diversity put an end to biological control?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Will the Convention on Biological Diversity put an end to biological control? Under the Convention on Biological Diversity countries have sovereign rights over their genetic resources. Agreements governing the access to these resources and the sharing of the benefits arising from their use need to be established between involved parties. This also applies to species collected for potential use in

Lenteren van J. C; M. J. W. Cock; J. Brodeur; B. I. P. Barratt; F. Bigler; K. Bolckmans; F. Haas; P. G. Mason; J. R. P. Parra

2011-01-01

50

Control aspects of a compressor station for gas lift  

SciTech Connect

The type and characteristics of the control system to be used for a centrifugal compressor station depend on several factors such as the compressor driver, process requirements, and the conditions under which the compressor will be operated. Designing a compressor control system for gas lift applications present different types of problems than those of conventional pipeline applications. This paper describes the control philosophy of a compressor station used for lifting water in a closed-rotative gas lift installation in Bu Hasa field, Abu Dhabi.

Saadawi, H.

1983-01-01

51

Benefit/cost aspects on voluntary control of bovine leukosis.  

PubMed

An organized voluntary control of bovine leukosis, motivated by export interests, has existed in Sweden since 1969. Owing to reduced prospects for export, the economic justification for the control has been questioned. The present study comprises programs and economical calculations for a twenty-year period and considering three different modes of action, namely A. Continued organized control. B. Discarding of all precautionary measures. C. Private voluntary control based on herd examination and certain precautions in restocking routines. Cost/benefit ratios, net present value (NPV), and effective interest rate (IRR) have been calculated. Profitability throughout was found to be worst in alternative A, similar in the B and C alternatives at a low export rate, and best in alternative C in the case where exports comprise at least 60 animals per year. PMID:6403923

Hugoson, G; Wold-Troell, M

1983-01-01

52

Control aspects of photovoltaic\\/thermal energy systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cogeneration of electric and thermal energy through use of combined solar photovoltaic\\/thermal (PV\\/T) collectors is a method for improving the overall efficiency of solar electric energy systems. The control of a PV\\/T system in general and optimization of performance in particular through use of state space control methods, is addressed in this study. Significant improvement in system performance is noted

E. O. Bazques; D. K. Anand

1984-01-01

53

Nutritional and Cultural Aspects of Plant Species Selection for a Controlled Ecological Life Support System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The feasibility of using higher plants in a controlled ecological life support system is discussed. Aspects of this system considered important in the use of higher plants include: limited energy, space, and mass, and problems relating to cultivation and ...

J. E. Hoff J. M. Howe C. A. Mitchell

1982-01-01

54

Some Aspects of the Probability Sampling Technique of Controlled Selection  

PubMed Central

Data for the 1961 universe of nonfederal, short-term general medical hospitals in the United States are used to illustrate application of estimation and variance formulas for controlled selection, the probability sampling technique developed by Goodman and Kish. Some advantages of this sampling technique are discussed, and a controlled selection model is described. Comparisons are made between the variances of multiple stratification and those of controlled selection; the variances of the latter are seen to have two components, a between pattern and a within pattern component, where a pattern may be regarded as a first stage sample specifying the number of units to be drawn from each control cell. Three strategies for approximating the sampling variance are investigated. Each is seen to overestimate the per hospital estimate of bed capacity, admissions, and inpatient days, but to underestimate slightly the variance of average length of stay. The report that follows is believed to describe the first experience in programming controlled selection for an electronic computer. Steps in the preparatory work, whether for the manual or for the computer operation, are outlined. Some suggestions for continued program development are made.

Hess, Irene; Srikantan, K. S.

1966-01-01

55

Some aspects of doping and medication control in equine sports.  

PubMed

This chapter reviews drug and medication control in equestrian sports and addresses the rules of racing, the technological advances that have been made in drug detection and the importance of metabolism studies in the development of effective drug surveillance programmes. Typical approaches to screening and confirmatory analysis are discussed, as are the quality processes that underpin these procedures. The chapter also addresses four specific topics relevant to equestrian sports: substances controlled by threshold values, the approach adopted recently by European racing authorities to control some therapeutic substances, anabolic steroids in the horse and LC-MS analysis in drug testing in animal sports and metabolism studies. The purpose of discussing these specific topics is to emphasise the importance of research and development and collaboration to further global harmonisation and the development and support of international rules. PMID:20020374

Houghton, Ed; Maynard, Steve

2010-01-01

56

Prediction, control, and decision-making aspects for chaotic systems  

SciTech Connect

Several examples of chaotic systems are discussed for which occurrence of chaos, information recovery, control, and decision- making processes appear in a new, sometimes counterintuitive light. From case to case, explanations, conjectures, and/or possible applications are indicated. 14 refs.

Protopopescu, V.

1990-01-01

57

Geometric Aspects of Force Controllability for a Swimming Model  

SciTech Connect

We study controllability properties (swimming capabilities) of a mathematical model of an abstract object which 'swims' in the 2-D Stokes fluid. Our goal is to investigate how the geometric shape of this object affects the forces acting upon it. Such problems are of interest in biology and engineering applications dealing with propulsion systems in fluids.

Khapalov, A. Y. [Washington State University, Department of Mathematics (United States)], E-mail: khapala@wsu.edu

2008-02-15

58

TELEMETRIC CONTROL OF TRAFFIC LIGHTS INTERSECTIONS ASPECT RATIO IN GHANA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the current operation and maintenance of traffic light intersections and the design of a telemetry system to monitor and control traffic light intersections in the Accra metropolis. Telemetry is a technology that allows the remote measurement and reporting of information of interest to the system designer or operator. The design of a telemetry system constitutes the selection

Erwin Normanyo; Neville Dodoo-Quartey; Adetunde Isaac

2009-01-01

59

Biological Control of Giant Reed (Arundo donax): Economic Aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arundo donax is a large, invasive weed consuming large quantities of water in the riparian area of the Texas Rio Grande Basin. With water availability a concern to the area, the USDA-ARS is investigating biological control agents to increase available water, creating a benefit to both the region’s economy and society in general.

Emily K. Seawright; M. Edward Rister; Ronald D. Lacewell; Allen W. Sturdivant; John A. Goolsby; Dean A. McCorkle

2009-01-01

60

Molecular Aspects of Transport in Thin Films of Controlled Architecture  

SciTech Connect

Our laboratory focuses on developing spatially localized chemistries which can produce structures of controlled architecture on the supermolecular length scale -- structures which allow us to control the motion of molecular species with high spatial resolution, ultimately on nanometer length scales. Specifically, nanocapillary array membranes (NCAMs) contain an array of nanometer diameter pores connecting vertically separated microfluidic channels. NCAMs can manipulate samples with sub-femtoliter characteristic volumes and attomole sample amounts and are opening the field of chemical analysis of mass-limited samples, because they are capable of digital control of fluid switching down to sub-attoliter volumes; extension of analytical “unit operations” down to sub-femtomole sample sizes; and exerting spatiotemporal control over fluid mixing to enable studies of reaction dynamics. Digital flow switching mediated by nanocapillary array membranes can be controlled by bias, ionic strength, or pore diameter and is being studied by observing the temporal characteristics of transport across a single nanopore in thin PMMA membranes. The control of flow via nanopore surface characteristics, charge density and functional group presentation, is being studied by coupled conductivity and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) measurements. Reactive mixing experiments previously established low millisecond mixing times for NCAM-mediated fluid transfer, and this has been exploited to demonstrate capture of mass-limited target species by Au colloids. Voltage and thermally-activated polymer switches have been developed for active control of transport in NCAMs. Thermally-switchable and size-selective transport was achieved by grafting poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) brushes onto the exterior surface of a Au-coated polycarbonate track-etched membrane, while the voltage-gated properties of poly(hydroxyethylmethacrylate) were characterized dynamically. Electrophoretic separations have been coupled to analyte sampling both by LIF and mass spectrometry. Detection of electrophoresis separation products by electrospray mass spectrometry was achieved through direct interfacing to an electrospray mass spectrometer. Pb(II) interactions with the DNAzyme have been realized in an NCAM-coupled integrated microfluidic structure allowing cation separations to be coupled to molecular beacon detection motifs for the determination of Pb(II) in an electroplating sludge reference material. By changing the DNAzyme to select for other compounds of interest, it is possible to incorporate multiple sensing systems within a single device, thereby achieving great flexibility.

Paul W. Bohn

2009-04-16

61

Numerical aspects of optimal control of penicillin production.  

PubMed

Since their discovery, fermentation processes have gone along not only with the industrial beverages production and breweries, but since the times of Alexander Fleming, they have become a crucial part of the health care due to antibiotics production. However, complicated dynamics and strong nonlinearities cause that the production with the use of linear control methods achieves only suboptimal yields. From the variety of nonlinear approaches, gradient method has proved the ability to handle these issues-nevertheless, its potential in the field of fermentation processes has not been revealed completely. This paper describes constant vaporization control strategy based on a double-input optimization approach with a successful reduction to a single-input optimization task. To accomplish this, model structure used in the previous work is modified so that it corresponds with the new optimization strategy. Furthermore, choice of search step is explored and various alternatives are evaluated and compared. PMID:23512245

P?olka, Matej; Celikovský, Sergej

2013-03-20

62

Feeling of difficulty: An aspect of monitoring that influences control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed at delimiting possible relations of feeling of difficulty (FOD) with control ideas pertaining to a particular\\u000a task. Participants were 274 students of 7th, 8th, and 9th grade. They were tested with two mathematical tasks; they were also\\u000a asked to give ratings of the feeling of difficulty at 4 phases: In advance of problem solving, during planning of

Anastasia Efklides; Akilina Samara; Marina Petropoulou

1999-01-01

63

Some Aspects of Doping and Medication Control in Equine Sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter reviews drug and medication control in equestrian sports and addresses the rules of racing, the technological\\u000a advances that have been made in drug detection and the importance of metabolism studies in the development of effective drug\\u000a surveillance programmes. Typical approaches to screening and confirmatory analysis are discussed, as are the quality processes\\u000a that underpin these procedures. The chapter

Ed Houghton; Steve Maynard

64

Economic and Ethical Aspects of Controlling Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controlling infectious diseases is expensive and decisions have to be made on how to spend the money. Cost effectiveness analysis\\u000a provides a rational basis for making these decisions, even if the present state of the art in this domain does not escape\\u000a criticism. A presentation of the methods currently available, of the results they have produced, and of the criticisms

Joseph Brunet-Jailly

65

Integration and control of metabolic systems: Pure and applied aspects  

SciTech Connect

This volume brings together recent findings in many growing areas of biochemical research including molecular mechanisms of disease, drug design, gene structure and function, chemical signaling, metabolic control mechanisms, neurochemistry, immunology, the molecular biology of plants, marine biochemistry, oncogenes, growth factors, membrane functions, novel enzymes, applied biochemistry, and molecular engineering. It also contains contributions on powerful research techniques such as pulsed field gel electrophoresis, automated DNA sequencing, photoaffinity labeling, recent advances in plant cell culture, and high performance liquid chromatography.

Wong, P.T.H.; Kon, O.L.; Chung, M.C.M.; Hwang, P.L.H.; Leong, S.F.; Loke, K.H.; Thiyagarajah, P.

1987-01-01

66

Consumers Control Diversity and Functioning of a Natural Marine Ecosystem  

PubMed Central

Background Our understanding of the functional consequences of changes in biodiversity has been hampered by several limitations of previous work, including limited attention to trophic interactions, a focus on species richness rather than evenness, and the use of artificially assembled communities. Methodology and Principal Findings In this study, we manipulated the density of an herbivorous snail in natural tide pools and allowed seaweed communities to assemble in an ecologically relevant and non-random manner. Seaweed species evenness and biomass-specific primary productivity (mg O2 h?1 g?1) were higher in tide pools with snails because snails preferentially consumed an otherwise dominant seaweed species that can reduce biomass-specific productivity rates of algal assemblages. Although snails reduced overall seaweed biomass in tide pools, they did not affect gross primary productivity at the scale of tide pools (mg O2 h?1 pool?1 or mg O2 h?1 m?2) because of the enhanced biomass-specific productivity associated with grazer-mediated increases in algal evenness. Significance Our results suggest that increased attention to trophic interactions, diversity measures other than richness, and particularly the effects of consumers on evenness and primary productivity, will improve our understanding of the relationship between diversity and ecosystem functioning and allow more effective links between experimental results and real-world changes in biodiversity.

Altieri, Andrew H.; Trussell, Geoffrey C.; Ewanchuk, Patrick J.; Bernatchez, Genevieve; Bracken, Matthew E. S.

2009-01-01

67

Control aspects of hydride/Be moderated thermionic space reactors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characteristics of small, moderated, incore thermionic space reactors have been investigated. Results are given for fuel Doppler, emitter Doppler, and collector Doppler. Reactivity coefficients have been calculated for moderator temperature, coolant temperature and core density effects. It is found that for a 44 kWe moderated system the moderator and coolant temperature coefficients can be made to be zero in magnitude, while fuel coefficients are slightly negative. This results in a system that, from any operating condition, can be scrammed to cold shutdown with only 1 or 2 of the 12 control-safety drums.

Gunther, Norman G.; Davis, Monte V.; Bhattacharyya, Samit K.; Hanan, Nelson A.

1992-01-01

68

APPETITE CONTROL: METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE EVALUATION OF FOODS  

PubMed Central

This report describes a set of scientific procedures used to assess the impact of foods and food ingredients on the expression of appetite (psychological and behavioural). An overarching priority has been to enable potential evaluators of health claims about foods to identify justified claims, and to exclude claims that are not supported by scientific evidence for the effect cited. This priority follows precisely from the principles set down in the PASSCLAIM report. (4) The report allows the evaluation of the strength of health claims, about the effects of foods on appetite, which can be sustained on the basis of the commonly used scientific designs and experimental procedures. The report includes different designs for assessing effects on satiation as opposed to satiety,detailed coverage of the extent to which a change in hunger can stand-alone as a measure of appetite control, and an extensive discussion of the statistical procedures appropriate for handling data in this field of research. Since research in this area is continually evolving, new improved methodologies may emerge over time and will need to be incorporated into the framework. One main objective of the report has been to produce guidance on good practice in carrying out appetite research, and not to set down a series of commandments that must be followed.

Blundell, John; de Graaf, Cees; Hulshof, Toine; Jebb, Susan; Livingstone, Barbara; Lluch, Anne; Mela, David; Salah, Samir; Schuring, Ewoud; van der Knaap, Henk; Westerterp, Margriet

2013-01-01

69

Snoezelen or controlled multisensory stimulation. Treatment aspects from Israel.  

PubMed

In Israel today, with a total population of over 6 million persons, the Division for Mental Retardation (DMR) provides services to 23,000 persons with intellectual disability (ID). Of the 23,000, residential services are provided to more than 6,000 in close to 60 residential centers, another 2,000 are provided residential care in hostels or group homes in the community in about 50 locations, while the rest are served with day-care kindergarten, day-treatment centers, sheltered workshops, or integrated care in the community. The first Snoezelen room (controlled multisensory stimulation) in the DMR was established at the Bnei Zion residential care center in 1995. The Snoezelen method is now used in Israel in more than 30 residential care centers and 3 community settings. Since the year 2000, a physiotherapist has been employed in order to supervise the treatment and development of the method nationally. Professional staff meetings take place every 4 months. A certification course has been established on a national basis for individuals from different professions (occupational therapists, physiotherapists, teachers, music therapists, nurses, speech therapists, or caregivers). Snoezelen has proved to be an important instrument and a powerful therapeutic tool among the various treatment modules employed in Israel for persons with ID. This paper presents the concept illustrated with two case stories. PMID:15167944

Merrick, Joav; Cahana, Carmit; Lotan, Meir; Kandel, Isack; Carmeli, Eli

2004-05-11

70

Novel aspects of the molecular mechanisms controlling insulin secretion  

PubMed Central

Pancreatic ?-cells secrete insulin by Ca2+-dependent exocytosis of secretory granules. ?-cell exocytosis involves SNARE (soluble NSF-attachment protein receptor) proteins similar to those controlling neurotransmitter release and depends on the close association of L-type Ca2+ channels and granules. In most cases, the secretory granules fuse individually but there is ultrastructural and biophysical evidence of multivesicular exocytosis. Estimates of the secretory rate in ?-cells in intact islets indicate a release rate of ?15 granules per ?-cell per second, 100-fold higher than that observed in biochemical assays. Single-vesicle capacitance measurements reveal that the diameter of the fusion pore connecting the granule lumen with the exterior is ?1.4 nm. This is considerably smaller than the size of insulin and membrane fusion is therefore not obligatorily associated with release of the cargo, a feature that may contribute to the different rates of secretion detected by the biochemical and biophysical measurements. However, small molecules like ATP and GABA, which are stored together with insulin in the granules, are small enough to be released via the narrow fusion pore, which accordingly functions as a molecular sieve. We finally consider the possibility that defective fusion pore expansion accounts for the decrease in insulin secretion observed in pathophysiological states including long-term exposure to lipids.

Eliasson, Lena; Abdulkader, Fernando; Braun, Matthias; Galvanovskis, Juris; Hoppa, Michael B; Rorsman, Patrik

2008-01-01

71

Algorithmic aspects of topology control problems for ad hoc networks  

SciTech Connect

Topology control problems are concerned with the assignment of power values to nodes of an ad hoc network so that the power assignment leads to a graph topology satisfying some specified properties. This paper considers such problems under several optimization objectives, including minimizing the maximum power and minimizing the total power. A general approach leading to a polynomial algorithm is presented for minimizing maximum power for a class of graph properties, called monotone properties. The difficulty of generalizing the approach to properties that are not monoione is pointed out. Problems involving the minimization of total power are known to be NP-complete even for simple graph properties. A general approach that leads to an approximation algorithm for minimizing the total power for some monotone properties is presented. Using this approach, a new approximation algorithm for the problem of minimizing the total power for obtaining a 2-node-connected graph is obtained. It is shown that this algorithm provides a constant performance guarantee. Experimental results from an implementation of the approximation algorithm are also presented.

Liu, R. (Rui); Lloyd, E. L. (Errol L.); Marathe, M. V. (Madhav V.); Ramanathan, R. (Ram); Ravi, S. S.

2002-01-01

72

Pilot diversity channel estimation in power-controlled CDMA systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we consider a channel estimator in code-division multiple-access (CDMA) systems, where both the common pilot channel (CPICH), which is not power controlled, and the dedicated physical channel (DPCH), which is power controlled, exist. The proposed channel estimator estimates the channel gain by combining the common pilot symbols in CPICH symbols and the dedicated pilot symbols, which are

Tao Luo; Young-Chai Ko

2004-01-01

73

Oceanographic controls on the diversity and extinction of planktonic foraminifera.  

PubMed

Understanding the links between long-term biological evolution, the ocean-atmosphere system and plate tectonics is a central goal of Earth science. Although environmental perturbations of many different kinds are known to have affected long-term biological evolution, particularly during major mass extinction events, the relative importance of physical environmental factors versus biological interactions in governing rates of extinction and origination through geological time remains unknown. Here we use macrostratigraphic data from the Atlantic Ocean basin to show that changes in global species diversity and rates of extinction among planktonic foraminifera have been linked to tectonically and climatically forced changes in ocean circulation and chemistry from the Jurassic period to the present. Transient environmental perturbations, such as those that occurred after the asteroid impact at the end of the Cretaceous period approximately 66 million years ago, and the Eocene/Oligocene greenhouse-icehouse transition approximately 34 million years ago, are superimposed on this general long-term relationship. Rates of species origination, by contrast, are not correlated with corresponding macrostratigraphic quantities, indicating that physiochemical changes in the ocean-atmosphere system affect evolution principally by driving the synchronous extinction of lineages that originated owing to more protracted and complex interactions between biological and environmental factors. PMID:23302802

Peters, Shanan E; Kelly, Daniel C; Fraass, Andrew J

2013-01-09

74

Coverage Performance of Common/Shared Control Signals Using Transmit Diversity in Evolved UTRA Downlink  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the best transmit diversity schemes for three types of common/shared control signals from the viewpoint of the block error rate (BLER) performance in the Evolved UTRA downlink employing OFDM radio access. This paper also presents the coverage performance of the common/shared control signals using transmit diversity with respect to the outage probability that satisfies the required BLER performance, which is a major factor determining the cell configuration. Simulation results clarify that Space-Frequency Block Code (SFBC) and the combination of SFBC and Frequency Switched Transmit Diversity (FSTD) are the best transmit diversity schemes among the open-loop type transmit diversity candidates for two-antenna and four-antenna transmission cases, respectively. Furthermore, we show through system-level simulations that SFBC is very effective in reducing the outage probability at the required BLER for the physical broadcast channel (PBCH), for the common control signal with resource block (RB)-level assignment such as the dynamic broadcast channel (D-BCH) and paging channel (PCH), and in increasing the number of accommodated L1/L2 control signals over one transmission time interval duration, using mini-control channel element (CCE)-level assignment.

Taoka, Hidekazu; Morimoto, Akihito; Kawai, Hiroyuki; Higuchi, Kenichi; Sawahashi, Mamoru

75

Simulation study on congestion control in diverse complex network models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The studies of the complex network have opened out the internal essence of many phenomena in real world. With the expansion of Internet application, the factors to influence Internet QoS are more and more concerned. In paper, based on the theories of complex network, the congestion control how to affect the network QoS is studied. By analyzing the models of

Yang Hong-yong; Yan Xiao-quan; Lu Lan

2008-01-01

76

Activity-Dependent Signaling Pathways Controlling Muscle Diversity and Plasticity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A variety of fiber types with different contractile and metabolic properties is present in mammalian skeletal muscle. The fiber-type profile is controlled by nerve activity via specific signaling pathways, whose identification may provide potential therapeutic targets for the prevention and treatment of metabolic and neuromuscular diseases.

Marco Sandri (Venetian Institute of Molecular Medicine)

2007-08-01

77

Top-down control of marine phytoplankton diversity in a global ecosystem model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential of marine ecosystems to adapt to ongoing environmental change is largely unknown, making prediction of consequences for nutrient and carbon cycles particularly challenging. Realizing that biodiversity might influence the adaptation potential, recent model approaches have identified bottom-up controls on patterns of phytoplankton diversity regulated by nutrient availability and seasonality. Top-down control of biodiversity, however, has not been considered in depth in such models. Here we demonstrate how zooplankton predation with prey-ratio based food preferences can enhance phytoplankton diversity in a ecosystem-circulation model with self-assembling community structure. Simulated diversity increases more than threefold under preferential grazing relative to standard density-dependent predation, and yields better agreement with observed distributions of phytoplankton diversity. The variable grazing pressure creates refuges for less competitive phytoplankton types, which reduces exclusion and improves the representation of seasonal phytoplankton succession during blooms. The type of grazing parameterization also has a significant impact on primary and net community production. Our results demonstrate how a simple parameterization of a zooplankton community response affects simulated phytoplankton community structure, diversity and dynamics, and motivates development of more detailed representations of top-down processes essential for investigating the role of diversity in marine ecosystems.

Prowe, A. E. Friederike; Pahlow, Markus; Dutkiewicz, Stephanie; Follows, Michael; Oschlies, Andreas

2012-08-01

78

Control of Inference: Role of Some Aspects of Discourse Structure-Centering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this communication is to exam­ ine one particular aspect of discourse structure, namely, a discourse construct called center of a sentence (utterance) in discourse and its relation to the larger issue of control of inference. We have described very briefly the notion of center(s) of a sentence in discourse and discussed how the centering phenomenon might be

Aravind K. Joshi; Scott Weinstein

1981-01-01

79

Hot and Cool Aspects of Cognitive Control in Children with ADHD: Decision-Making and Inhibition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated hot and cool aspects of cognitive control in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The study aimed to: (1) replicate the postulated response inhibition deficit of children with ADHD; (2) explore whether children with ADHD choose disadvantageously in a decision-making task and to explore the mechanisms underlying the expected response pattern; and (3) study whether performance

Hilde M. Geurts; Saskia van der Oord; Eveline A. Crone

2006-01-01

80

Educational aspects of mechatronic control course design for collaborative remote laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses educational aspects of a distance learning mechatronic control course, which is one of the 18 courses that compound an international collaborative remote laboratory designed for students of electrical engineering. The work is undertaken in the frame of European Leonardo da Vinci project EDIPE ldquoE-learning distance interactive practical educationrdquo with a goal to offer Web based experimental courses

Andreja Rojko; Darko Hercog; Karel Jezernik

2008-01-01

81

Evolution and diversity of subduction zones controlled by slab width.  

PubMed

Subducting slabs provide the main driving force for plate motion and flow in the Earth's mantle, and geodynamic, seismic and geochemical studies offer insight into slab dynamics and subduction-induced flow. Most previous geodynamic studies treat subduction zones as either infinite in trench-parallel extent (that is, two-dimensional) or finite in width but fixed in space. Subduction zones and their associated slabs are, however, limited in lateral extent (250-7,400 km) and their three-dimensional geometry evolves over time. Here we show that slab width controls two first-order features of plate tectonics-the curvature of subduction zones and their tendency to retreat backwards with time. Using three-dimensional numerical simulations of free subduction, we show that trench migration rate is inversely related to slab width and depends on proximity to a lateral slab edge. These results are consistent with retreat velocities observed globally, with maximum velocities (6-16 cm yr(-1)) only observed close to slab edges (<1,200 km), whereas far from edges (>2,000 km) retreat velocities are always slow (<2.0 cm yr(-1)). Models with narrow slabs (< or =1,500 km) retreat fast and develop a curved geometry, concave towards the mantle wedge side. Models with slabs intermediate in width ( approximately 2,000-3,000 km) are sublinear and retreat more slowly. Models with wide slabs (> or =4,000 km) are nearly stationary in the centre and develop a convex geometry, whereas trench retreat increases towards concave-shaped edges. Additionally, we identify periods (5-10 Myr) of slow trench advance at the centre of wide slabs. Such wide-slab behaviour may explain mountain building in the central Andes, as being a consequence of its tectonic setting, far from slab edges. PMID:17361181

Schellart, W P; Freeman, J; Stegman, D R; Moresi, L; May, D

2007-03-15

82

A Diversity Controlled Genetic Algorithm for Optimization of FRM Digital Filters over DBNS Multiplier Coefficient Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel diversity controlled (DC) genetic algorithm (GA) for the optimization of frequency-response masking (FRM) FIR digital filters over the double base number system (DBNS) multiplier coefficient space. The use of DBNS multiplier coefficients reduces the complexity and power consumption in the hardware implementation of the resulting FRM FIR digital filters. A direct application of GAs to

Sai Mohan Kilambi; Behrouz Nowrouzian

2007-01-01

83

LOCAL PUBLIC GOODS AND ETHNIC DIVERSITY: EVIDENCE FROM THE IMMIGRATION REFORM AND CONTROL ACT  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses county-level data from California to test whether ethnic fragmentation and other measures of diversity and social capital are systematically related to spending on productive local public goods that affect rural quality of life. The specific focus of this paper is the impact of the Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) of 1986, which brought about 400,000 new

David L. Sunding; Alix Peterson Zwane

2004-01-01

84

Semi-active flutter control of a high-aspect-ratio wing using multiple MR dampers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a semi-active flutter control strategy for a high-aspect-ratio (HAR) wing using multiple magnetorheological (MR) dampers. In this paper, the aeroelastic behavior of the system is first investigated by establishing the aeroelastic equations of a HAR wing-aileron system. The strip theory is employed for calculating the unsteady aerodynamic loads. Then the semi-active aeroelastic control system with multiple MR dampers is modeled. The clipped-optimal control algorithm is performed for controlling the MR dampers to suppressing the flutter of the aeroelastic system. A passive flutter control of the system is also performed for the purpose of comparison. Numerical simulation results show that the semi-active control strategy based on multiple MR dampers holds promise in suppressing the flutter of the HAR wing-aileron system.

Hu, Jia-liang; Zhou, Li

2007-05-01

85

Soviet Diversion of United States Technology: The Circumvention of Cocom and the United States Reexport Controls, and Proposed Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Note examines the Soviet diversions of United States technology and suggests possible countermeasures. Part I examines diversions and their impact on United States national security. Parts II and III review present United States and Western export and reexport controls and the problems with these controls. Parts IV and V introduct and evaluate proposals offered to modify Western export policy

James Plousadis

1983-01-01

86

Etch profile control of high-aspect ratio deep submicrometer ?-Si gate etch  

Microsoft Academic Search

The well-acknowledged etch profile drift problem in chip production was investigated with a more accurate meads of measuring actual etch thickness to monitor and correct this drift. Using a high-aspect ratio, 0.1-?m ?-Si gate structure, the investigation was specifically focused on the control of transition timing in the critical interval from main etch (ME) to over etch (OE). This required

Hyun-Mog Park; Dennis S. Grimard; Jessy W. Grizzle

2001-01-01

87

Aspect orientation and object orientation of control application code for distributed control systems in TORERO  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of distributed control systems is one of the main trends in current automation. Here, besides the programming of the control application code and its functional allocation to specific devices, an important point is the implementation of communication related code to exploit the underlying communication platform and realise the collaboration of the distributed control application code. Due to the

Marcus Tangermann; Christian Schwab; Arndt Lüder

2005-01-01

88

Safety aspects of handling and using fecal material from urine-diversion toilets--a field investigation.  

PubMed

The most advantageous approach to pathogen destruction in a urine-diversion toilet vault is to maximize the effects of various environmental factors (i.e., pH, temperature, moisture content, type of bulking agent, and storage time). To quantify these effects, a field experiment was set up, consisting of 6 urine-diversion toilet vaults, each with a different combination of feces and bulking agent (soil, ash, wood shavings, sodium hydroxide, or straw) and ventilation (ventpipe/no ventpipe). The pH of the mixes varied from 6.37 to 10.09. Temperature probes, which were connected to a data logger, were inserted to the heaps, and the logger monitored over a period of nearly 10 months. Mean heap temperatures ranged from 16.8 degrees C in winter to 27.6 degrees C in summer. In addition, samples were taken at intervals from the various heaps in the vaults and also from an open heap exposed to the elements. The samples were subjected to microbiological testing to quantify the pathogen dieoff over time. In the vaults, there was a 3log10 (99.9%) reduction of total coliform between 130 and 250 days, fecal coliform between 100 and 250 days, and fecal streptococci from 125 days and longer. In the open heap, these times varied, from 115 days for both total and fecal coliform, to 140 days for fecal streptococci. Viable Ascaris ova were reduced to zero between 44 and 174 days in the vaults and by 44 days in the open heap. The results of this research showed that ventilation of the vault by means of a ventpipe does not result in any meaningful difference in the vault temperature or the rate of pathogen dieoff. While the type of bulking agent used does not significantly affect the temperature of the heap, it does have an effect on the rate of pathogen dieoff. The ordinary soil mix was seen to give the best results, and this was ascribed to the effect of competing microorganisms in the soil itself. It is concluded that, for safety, vaults of urine-diversion toilets should be sized for a storage period of 9 to 12 months from the last use. PMID:18536481

Austin, L M; Cloete, T E

2008-04-01

89

SOX6 controls dorsal-ventral progenitor parcellation and interneuron diversity during neocortical development  

PubMed Central

Summary The extraordinary neuronal diversity of the central nervous system emerges largely from controlled spatial and temporal segregation of cell type-specific molecular regulators. Here, we report that the transcription factor SOX6 controls the molecular segregation of dorsal (pallial) from ventral (subpallial) telencephalic progenitors, and the differentiation of cortical interneurons, regulating forebrain progenitor and interneuron heterogeneity. During corticogenesis in mice, SOX6 and highly related SOX5 expression is largely mutually exclusive in pallial and subpallial progenitors, respectively, and remains mutually exclusive in a reverse pattern in postmitotic neuronal progeny. Loss of SOX6 from pallial progenitors causes their inappropriate expression of normally subpallium-restricted developmental controls, conferring mixed dorsal-ventral identity. In postmitotic cortical interneurons, loss of SOX6 dramatically disrupts the differentiation and diversity of cortical interneuron subtypes, analogous to SOX5 control over cortical projection neuron development. These data reveal SOX6 as a novel transcription factor regulator of both progenitor and cortical interneuron diversity during neocortical development.

Azim, Eiman; Jabaudon, Denis; Fame, Ryann; Macklis, Jeffrey D.

2010-01-01

90

Flutter suppression of a high aspect-ratio wing with multiple control surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a systematic study on active flutter suppression of a high aspect-ratio wing with multiple control surfaces distributed throughout the span. The dynamic characterization of the wing structure is done by the finite element method. Doublet lattice method is used to model unsteady aerodynamic loads acting on the lifting surface with leading-edge and trailing-edge control surfaces. The open-loop aeroelastic equations with input delays are established by the modal transformation of the structural equations and the minimum state approximation of the aerodynamic influence coefficient matrix. To suppress flutter of the time-delayed system, a dynamic controller is synthesized in H? control theory framework. The delay-dependent stability of the closed-loop system is analyzed by tracing the rightmost eigenvalues of the system. Numerical simulations are made to demonstrate the effectiveness of all the above approaches.

Zhao, Y. H.

2009-07-01

91

The Influence of Positive Mood on Different Aspects of Cognitive Control  

PubMed Central

Some evidence suggests that positive mood influences cognitive control. The current research investigated whether positive mood has differential effects on two aspects of cognitive control, working memory and prepotent response inhibition. In Study 1, following either a positive or neutral mood induction, participants completed the Running Memory Span (RMS), a measure primarily of working memory storage capacity, and the Stroop task, a measure of prepotent response inhibition. Results were that the positive mood group performed worse on the RMS task but not on the Stroop task. In Study 2, participants completed the RMS and another measure of prepotent response inhibition, the Flanker task. Results were that when in a positive mood state participants performed worse on the RMS but not on the Flanker task. Overall, this research suggests that positive mood has differential effects on cognitive control, impairing working memory but having no effect on prepotent response inhibition.

Martin, Elizabeth A.; Kerns, John G.

2010-01-01

92

Active aeroelastic control aspects of an aircraft wing by using synthetic jet actuators: modeling, simulations, experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses modeling, simulations and experimental aspects of active aeroelastic control on aircraft wings by using Synthetic Jet Actuators (SJAs). SJAs, a particular class of zero-net mass-flux actuators, have shown very promising results in numerous aeronautical applications, such as boundary layer control and delay of flow separation. A less recognized effect resulting from the SJAs is a momentum exchange that occurs with the flow, leading to a rearrangement of the streamlines around the airfoil modifying the aerodynamic loads. Discussions pertinent to the use of SJAs for flow and aeroelastic control and how these devices can be exploited for flutter suppression and for aerodynamic performances improvement are presented and conclusions are outlined.

O'Donnell, K.; Schober, S.; Stolk, M.; Marzocca, P.; De Breuker, R.; Abdalla, M.; Nicolini, E.; Gürdal, Z.

2007-04-01

93

Genetic diversity analysis of Arius manillensis (Siluriformes: Ariidae) using the mitochondrial control region.  

PubMed

Arius manillensis is a Philippine endemic species and is an economically important fishery resource in Laguna de Bay, the largest lake in the country. Drastic reduction in population sizes of A. manillensis has been recorded in the past, which may have resulted in genetic bottleneck. In this study, the genetic diversity and population structure of A. manillensis in Laguna de Bay were assessed using the mitochondrial DNA control region. Specimens were obtained from three localities along Laguna de Bay, namely Binangonan (n = 27), Tanay (n = 29), and Calamba (n = 30). Of the 86 DNA sequences generated, 22 distinct haplotypes were observed. There were four unique haplotypes for Binangonan, six for Calamba, and five for Tanay. There were two haplotypes common to the three sites. The maximum likelihood tree and median-joining network showed little geographic separation among the haplotypes. Chi-square test showed no significant differentiation in A. manillensis from the three sites. The overall computed F(ST) was 0.0144, indicating small genetic differentiation in A. manillensis from the three localities sampled. Likewise, analysis of molecular variance showed a greater percentage of variation within population (98.62%) than variation among populations (1.38%; P = 0.21). Total haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity among the specimens from the three sites were 0.775 and 0.013, respectively. The high haplotype diversity coupled with low nucleotide diversity observed in this study confirms that genetic bottleneck occurred in A. manillensis which was followed by population expansion. This is also supported by the non-significant values for both Tajima's D and Fu's F. Furthermore, multimodal mismatch distribution plots were generated, which is consistent with the model of spatial range expansion followed by demographic expansion. PMID:22409748

Santos, Brian S; Quilang, Jonas P

2012-03-13

94

Radiation control aspects of the civil construction for a high power free electron laser (FEL) facility  

SciTech Connect

The paper discusses some of the assumptions and methods employed for the control of ionizing radiation in the specifications for the civil construction of a planned free electron laser facility based on a 200 MeV, 5 mA superconducting recirculation electron accelerator. Consideration is given firstly to the way in which the underlying building configuration and siting aspects were optimized on the basis of the early assumptions of beam loss and radiation goals. The various design requirements for radiation protection are then considered, and how they were folded into an aesthetically pleasing and functional building.

Dunn, T.; Neil, G.; Stapleton, G.

1996-12-31

95

A simple method for improving control area performance: area control error (ACE) diversity interchange ADI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power system control areas within three major (and essentially separate) areas of North America are interconnected electrically, thus enjoying vastly improved reliability and economy of operation compared to operating in isolation. Each must continually balance load, interchange and generation to minimize adverse influence on neighboring control areas and interconnection frequency. This requires investment in control systems and the sacrifice of

A. R. Oneal

1995-01-01

96

Tunable, high aspect ratio pillars on diverse substrates using copolymer micelle lithography: an interesting platform for applications.  

PubMed

We demonstrate the use of copolymer micelle lithography using polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine) reverse micelle thin films in their as-coated form to create nanopillars with tunable dimensions and spacing, on different substrates such as silicon, silicon oxide, silicon nitride and quartz. The promise of the approach as a versatile application oriented platform is highlighted by demonstrating its utility for creating super-hydrophobic surfaces, fabrication of nanoporous polymeric membranes, and controlling the areal density of physical vapor deposition derived titanium nitride nanostructures. PMID:21828729

Krishnamoorthy, S; Gerbig, Y; Hibert, C; Pugin, R; Hinderling, C; Brugger, J; Heinzelmann, H

2008-06-02

97

Control Aspects of the Brushless Doubly-Fed Machine : Final Report.  

SciTech Connect

This report covers the investigations into the control aspects of a variable-speed generation (VSG) system using a brushless double-fed generator excited by a series-resonant converter. The brushless double-fed machine comprises two sets of stator 3-phase systems which are designed with common windings. The rotor is a cage rotor resembling the low-cost and robust squirrel cage of a conventional induction machine. The system was actually designed and set up in the Energy Laboratory of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Oregon State University. The series-resonant converter designed to achieve effective control for variable-speed generation with the brushless doubly-fed generator was adequate in terms of required time response and regulation as well as in providing for adequate power quality. The three elements of the VSG controller, i.e., voltage or reactive power controller, the efficiency maximizer and the stabilizer, could be designed using conventional microprocessor elements with a processing time well within the time period required for sampling the variables involved with executing the control tasks. The report treats in detail the stability problem encountered in running the machine at certain speed regions, even if requirements for steady-state stability are satisfied. In this unstable region, shut down of the VSG system is necessary unless proper stabilization controls are provided for. The associated measures to be taken are presented. 10 refs., 24 figs.

Lauw, Hian K.; Krishnan, Sheela

1990-09-01

98

Human factors aspects of the major upgrade to the control systems at the LANL plutonium facility  

SciTech Connect

The Plutonium Facility (TA-55) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has been in operation for almost 20 years. The Operations Center of TA-55 is the nerve center of the facility where operators are on duty around the clock and monitor several thousand data points using the Facility Control System (FCS). The FCS monitors, displays, alarms, and provides some limited control of several systems, including: HVAC, fire detection and suppression, radiation detection, and electrical. The FCS was failing and needed to be replaced expeditiously. This paper will discuss the human factors aspects of the design, installation, and testing of the new FCS within the above noted constraints. Particular items to be discussed include the functional requirements definition, operating experience review, screen designs, test program, operator training, and phased activation of the new circuits in an operational facility.

Higgins, J.C. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Pope, N. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1997-04-01

99

Overview of environmental control aspects for the gas-cooled fast reactor  

SciTech Connect

Environmental control aspects relating to release of radionuclides have been analyzed for the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR). Information on environmental control systems was obtained for the most recent GCFR designs, and was used to evaluate the adequacy of these systems. The GCFR has been designed by the General Atomic Company as an alternative to other fast breeder reactor designs, such as the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR). The GCFR design includes mixed oxide fuel and helium coolant. The environmental impact of expected radionuclide releases from normal operation of the GCFR was evaluated using estimated collective dose equivalent commitments resulting from 1 year of plant operation. The results were compared to equivalent estimates for the Light Water Reactor (LWR) and High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR). A discussion of uncertainties in system performances, tritium production rates, and radiation quality factors for tritium is included.

Nolan, A.M.

1981-05-01

100

Clonally Diverse T Cell Homeostasis Is Maintained by a Common Program of Cell-Cycle Control  

PubMed Central

Lymphopenia induces T cells to undergo cell divisions as part of a homeostatic response mechanism. The clonal response to lymphopenia is extremely diverse, and it is unknown whether this heterogeneity represents distinct mechanisms of cell-cycle control or whether a common mechanism can account for the diversity. We addressed this question by combining in vivo and mathematical modeling of lymphopenia-induced proliferation (LIP) of two distinct T cell clonotypes. OT-I T cells undergo rapid LIP accompanied by differentiation that superficially resembles Ag-induced proliferation, whereas F5 T cells divide slowly and remain naive. Both F5 and OT-I LIP responses were most accurately described by a single stochastic division model where the rate of cell division was exponentially decreased with increasing cell numbers. The model successfully identified key biological parameters of the response and accurately predicted the homeostatic set point of each clone. Significantly, the model was successful in predicting interclonal competition between OT-I and F5 T cells, consistent with competition for the same resource(s) required for homeostatic proliferation. Our results show that diverse and heterogenous clonal T cell responses can be accounted for by a single common model of homeostasis.

Hogan, Thea; Shuvaev, Andrey; Commenges, Daniel; Yates, Andrew; Callard, Robin

2013-01-01

101

Active control of resistive wall modes in the large-aspect-ratio tokamak  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The large-aspect-ratio model for current-driven external kinks is applied to study control of non-axisymmetric resistive wall modes in tokamaks. Comparison with toroidal computations indicates that the cylindrical instabilities react in similar ways to feedback as the pressure-driven toroidal modes, when the feedback and sensor coils are placed on the low-field side of the torus. However, higher gain is required in the cylindrical case. The cylindrical model is used to gain insights into design issues concerning a feedback system for ITER, with a double wall and superconducting coils. Good control performance and acceptable coil voltages are found in an initial value problem, where the initial conditions correspond to expected noise levels, when sensors for the poloidal field are placed inside the first wall. This can be accomplished with a PI (proportional plus integral) controller from the voltages of the sensor loops to the voltage over the active coils. The two-wall structure of ITER makes control somewhat more demanding than for tokamaks with a single wall. Adequate control can be achieved also when poloidal sensors are placed outside a single wall, but this requires additional derivative action (PID) and the resulting voltages are significantly higher.

Bondeson, A.; Liu, Yueqiang; Gregoratto, D.; Gribov, Y.; Pustovitov, V. D.

2002-06-01

102

Parasitoid diversity reduces the variability in pest control services across time on farms  

PubMed Central

Recent declines in biodiversity have increased interest in the link between biodiversity and the provision and sustainability of ecosystem services across space and time. We mapped the complex network of interactions between herbivores and parasitoids to examine the relationship between parasitoid species richness, functional group diversity and the provision of natural pest control services. Quantitative food webs were constructed for 10 organic and 10 conventional farms. Parasitoid species richness varied from 26 to 58 species and we found a significant positive relationship between parasitoid species richness and temporal stability in parasitism rates. Higher species richness was associated with lower variation in parasitism rate. A functional group analysis showed significantly greater parasitoid species complementarity on organic farms, with on average more species in each functional group. We simulated parasitoid removal to predict whether organic farms experienced greater robustness of parasitism in the face of local extinctions. This analysis showed no consistent differences between the organic and conventional farm pairs in terms of loss of pest control service. Finally, it was found that the different habitats that make up each farm do not contribute equally to parasitoid species diversity, and that hedgerows produced more parasitoid species, significantly more so on organic farms.

Macfadyen, Sarina; Craze, Paul G.; Polaszek, Andrew; van Achterberg, Kees; Memmott, Jane

2011-01-01

103

Parasitoid diversity reduces the variability in pest control services across time on farms.  

PubMed

Recent declines in biodiversity have increased interest in the link between biodiversity and the provision and sustainability of ecosystem services across space and time. We mapped the complex network of interactions between herbivores and parasitoids to examine the relationship between parasitoid species richness, functional group diversity and the provision of natural pest control services. Quantitative food webs were constructed for 10 organic and 10 conventional farms. Parasitoid species richness varied from 26 to 58 species and we found a significant positive relationship between parasitoid species richness and temporal stability in parasitism rates. Higher species richness was associated with lower variation in parasitism rate. A functional group analysis showed significantly greater parasitoid species complementarity on organic farms, with on average more species in each functional group. We simulated parasitoid removal to predict whether organic farms experienced greater robustness of parasitism in the face of local extinctions. This analysis showed no consistent differences between the organic and conventional farm pairs in terms of loss of pest control service. Finally, it was found that the different habitats that make up each farm do not contribute equally to parasitoid species diversity, and that hedgerows produced more parasitoid species, significantly more so on organic farms. PMID:21450736

Macfadyen, Sarina; Craze, Paul G; Polaszek, Andrew; van Achterberg, Kees; Memmott, Jane

2011-03-30

104

Impaired and preserved aspects of independent finger control in patients with cerebellar damage.  

PubMed

The influence of the cerebellum on independent finger control has rarely been investigated. We examined multidigit control in 22 patients with cerebellar degeneration, 20 patients with cerebellar stroke, and 21 patients with surgical lesions after cerebellar tumor removal. In the first task, either the index finger or the middle finger was actively lifted from an object during static holding. Both controls and cerebellar patients increased the forces of the nearby digits in synchrony with lift-off to maintain the total finger force. Patients used increased finger forces but showed no significant deficits in the pattern and timing of rearrangement of finger forces. In the second task, subjects had to press and release one finger against a force-sensitive keypad with the other fingers being inactive. All patient groups showed increased force production of the noninstructed (enslaved) fingers compared with controls. Lesion-symptom mapping in the focal patients revealed that lesions of the superior hand area were related to abnormal levels of enslaving. Increased finger forces in the finger-lifting task likely reflect an unspecific safety strategy. Increased effects of enslaving in the individuated key-press task, however, may be explained by a deterioration of cerebellar contribution to feedforward commands necessary to suppress activity in noninstructed fingers or by increased spread of the motor command intended for the instructed finger. Despite the large and diverse patient sample, surprisingly few abnormalities were observed. Both holding an object and finger typing are overlearned, automatized motor tasks, which may not or little depend on the integrity of the cerebellum. PMID:22114161

Brandauer, B; Hermsdörfer, J; Geissendörfer, T; Schoch, B; Gizewski, E R; Timmann, D

2011-11-23

105

Legal Aspects of Globalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The legal aspects of globalization necessarily focus on achieving uniform corporate standards in an increasingly diverse world. This discussion will be divided into two parts: (1) resolving the tension between uniformity and diversity and (2) a legal analysis of certain practical examples of resolving the tension between uniformity and diversity.

Thomas F. McCaffery

1993-01-01

106

Mitigating land loss in coastal Louisiana by controlled diversion of Mississippi River sand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After the 1927 flood of record on the Mississippi River, the Bonnet Carré Spillway in Louisiana was constructed as a flood control operation. When it is opened, the spillway diverts floodwaters from the Mississippi River to Lake Pontchartrain, to reduce the water discharge flowing past New Orleans. During the 2011 Mississippi River flood, which had the highest peak discharge since 1927, the Bonnet Carré Spillway was opened for 42 days, from 9May to 20 June. During this period, the average spillway discharge of 6,010m3s-1 amounted to 10-20% of the total river flood discharge. Here we present measurements of the areal extent and thickness of new sediments in the floodway, following the 2011 Mississippi flood. Only the upper 10-15% of the river water column was skimmed into the floodway. Yet, we conservatively estimate that 31-46% of the total sand load carried by the Mississippi River during the period of spillway opening was diverted. We find that local river conditions led to increased concentrations of suspended sand in the upper water column and thus led to diversion of sand from the river into the spillway. We conclude that an appropriate design of engineered river diversions in Louisiana can help mitigate coastal wetland loss.

Nittrouer, Jeffrey A.; Best, James L.; Brantley, Christopher; Cash, Ronald W.; Czapiga, Matthew; Kumar, Praveen; Parker, Gary

2012-08-01

107

Genetic diversity in the mtDNA control region and population structure in the small yellow croaker Larimichthys polyactis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic diversity and population genetic structure of the small yellow croaker (Larimichthys polyactis) were investigated. One hundred and fourteen individuals were sampled from 8 localities of the Yellow Sea and the northern\\u000a East China Sea. Genetic variation in DNA sequences were examined from the first hypervariable region (HVR-1) of the mitochondrial\\u000a DNA control region. High levels of haplotype diversity

Yongshuang Xiao; Yan Zhang; Tianxiang Gao; Takashi Yanagimoto; Mamoru Yabe; Yasunori Sakurai

2009-01-01

108

Environmental controls on dominance and diversity of woody plant species in a Madrean, Sky Island ecosystem, Arizona, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sky Island archipelagos of the Sierra Madre Occidental contain diverse, highly endemic, and topographically complex ecosystems,\\u000a yet the local and landscape-scale controls on woody plant dominance and diversity patterns are poorly understood. This study\\u000a examines variation in woody plant species composition in relation to a suite of environmental variables (i.e., elevation,\\u000a potential soil moisture, soil type, geologic substrate, and

Helen M. Poulos; Alan H. Taylor; R. Matthew Beaty

2007-01-01

109

Mineralogical Controls on Microbial Diversity in a Sulfuric Acid Karst System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role mineralogy plays on microbial community distribution, composition, niche differentiation, and accumulation is a complex and nebulous association. Microbial phylogenetic diversity and bacterial composition of communities obtained from Lower Kane Cave (LKC), WY, USA, were studied using next generation bacterial 16S rRNA sequencing techniques. The microbial consortium found within LKC was found to be primarily composed of neutrophilic sulfur-oxidizing members of the gamma- and epsilon-proteobacteria . The microbial population within LKC has been instigated in previous studies to have a significant role in the processes of sulfuric acid speleogenesis. Using a LKC biomat as the inoculant in a series of 3 nutrient limited laboratory reactor experiments, and a pure culture of Thiothrix unzii (ATCC type strain 49747) in a parallel experiment, we found that both limestone and dolostone substratum consistently had higher biomass accumulation than silicate minerals in the same reactor. At the Class level, the carbonate substratum (Calcite, Limestone, and Dolostone) had ~84% - 88.7% of phylotypes in common. Aside from Basalt (Simpson's Index, D of 0.53), the carbonate substratum produced the least diverse phylotype distributions. Feldspar and quartz were colonized by the most diverse communities with Simpson's Index values of 0.16 and 0.31. Evaluation of metabolic guild distribution shows that potential neutrophilic sulfur-oxidizers have an affinity for acid neutralizing carbonate substrata over silicate substrata. These potential sulfur-oxidizing guilds compose ~28%-38% of the total microbial community. For feldspar and chert substratum, potential sulfur-oxidizing metabolic guilds composed merely ~5% of the total microbial community. The quartz substratum, in contrast, was uniquely populated by potential acidophilic sulfur-oxidizers Acidithiobacillus and Acidithiomicrobium; composing ~19% of the total community. A quartz substratum may offer these acidophiles a competitive advantage over other microbial communities that do not tolerate an acidic habitat, while optimizing the local microenvironment to better facilitate their metabolic pathway. The basalt substratum community was ~67% Thiothrix spp., a sulfur-oxidizing genus commonly associated with Deep-sea hydrothermal vents. This dominance of Thiothrix spp. on basalt may be due to an advantageous ability to extract, and take advantage of, mineral bound nutrients (P, Fe) in basalt. These results provide substantial evidence to support the hypothesis that mineralogy influences microbial distribution, composition, niche differentiation, and accumulation in a nutrient limited system. Specific microbial populations which have evolved to take advantage of specific mineral substrata and exert highly localized control of biogeochemical conditions. Mineralogy, therefore, plays an active part in the development of subsurface microbial ecology and diversity by exerting selective pressures on the subsurface microbial environment.

Jones, A. A.; Bennett, P.

2011-12-01

110

A layman's guide to constitutional aspects of international arms control agreements involving the United States  

SciTech Connect

An initial assessment has been conducted to examine the legal implications and complexities that must be understood and evaluated should the facilities and contractors of the US Department of Energy (DOE) not be exempted from on-site inspections (OSIs) conducted by the Soviet Union under the pending Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START) Treaty or under future arms control treaties. The assessment looks at the Fourth Amendment rights (right to be secure from unreasonable searches and seizures) of parties at government-owned; government-owned, contractor-operated (GOCO); and private sector facilities that are candidates for Soviet suspect site inspections (SSIs). In particular, the assessment examines the legal consequences of putting at risk classified information designated as either National Security Information (NSI), as cited in relevant executive orders, and/or Restricted Data (RD), which is defined in the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 as amended. Given the potential risk of inadvertent losses of RD and other classified information at DOE sites during OSIs, the Division of Policy and Technical Analysis of DOE's Office of Arms Control (OAC) commissioned this study to aid in understanding some of the legal aspects that must be considered to prepare DOE facilities for possible future OSIs.

Scheinman, L.

1988-12-01

111

Genetic Diversity in RNA Virus Quasispecies Is Controlled by Host-Virus Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many RNA viruses have genetically diverse populations known as quasispecies. Important biological char- acteristics may be related to the levels of diversity in the quasispecies (quasispecies cloud size), including adaptability and host range. Previous work using Tobacco mosaic virus and Cucumber mosaic virus indicated that evolutionarily related viruses have very different levels of diversity in a common host. The quasispecies

WILLIAM L. SCHNEIDER; MARILYN J. ROOSSINCK

2001-01-01

112

Diversity in Post-Transcriptional Control of Neutrophil Chemoattractant Cytokine Gene Expression  

PubMed Central

Regulation of neutrophil chemokine gene expression represents an important feature in tissue inflammation. While chemokine gene transcription through the action of NF?B is recognized as an essential component of this process, it is now clear that post-transcriptional mechanisms, particularly the rates of decay of mature cytoplasmic mRNA, provides an essential component of this control. Chemokine and other cytokine mRNA half-life is known to be controlled via adenine-uridine rich sequence motifs localized within 3? untranslated regions (UTRs), the most common of which contains contains one or more copies of the pentameric AUUUA sequence. In myeloid cells AUUUA sequences confer instability through the action of RNA binding proteins such as tristetraprolin (TTP). The resulting instability can be regulated in response to extracellular stimuli including Toll like receptor ligands that signal to control the function of TTP through pathways involving the activation of p38 MAP kinases. Recent findings indicate that substantial mechanistic diversity is operative in non-myeloid cells in response to alternate pro-inflammatory stimuli such as IL-17. These pathways target distinct instability sequences that do not contain the AUUUA pentamer motif, do not signal through p38 MAPK, and function independently of TTP.

Hamilton, Thomas; Novotny, Michael; Pavicic, Paul J.; Herjan, Tomasz; Hartupee, Justin; Sun, Dongxu; Zhao, Chenyang; Datta, Shyamasree

2010-01-01

113

Self?concepts, locus of control, and Machiavellianism of ethnically diverse middle school students who are gifted  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the self?concepts, locus of control, and machi?avellianism of 169 ethnically diverse middle grade students identified as gifted. Subjects consisted of 90 African?American (31 boys, 18 girls). Self?concept, locus of control, and machiavellianism were assessed by Me: A Self?Concept Scale for Gifted Children (Feldhusen & Kolloff, 1981), the Nowicki?Strickland Locus of Control Scale

Fung Lan Yong

1994-01-01

114

Bacterial Community Structure of Acid-Impacted Lakes: What Controls Diversity?? †  

PubMed Central

Although it is recognized that acidification of freshwater systems results in decreased overall species richness of plants and animals, little is known about the response of aquatic microbial communities to acidification. In this study we examined bacterioplankton community diversity and structure in 18 lakes located in the Adirondack Park (in the state of New York in the United States) that were affected to various degrees by acidic deposition and assessed correlations with 31 physical and chemical parameters. The pH of these lakes ranged from 4.9 to 7.8. These studies were conducted as a component of the Adirondack Effects Assessment Program supported by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Thirty-one independent 16S rRNA gene libraries consisting of 2,135 clones were constructed from epilimnion and hypolimnion water samples. Bacterioplankton community composition was determined by sequencing and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis of the clone libraries. Nineteen bacterial classes representing 95 subclasses were observed, but clone libraries were dominated by representatives of the Actinobacteria and Betaproteobacteria classes. Although the diversity and richness of bacterioplankton communities were positively correlated with pH, the overall community composition assessed by principal component analysis was not. The strongest correlations were observed between bacterioplankton communities and lake depth, hydraulic retention time, dissolved inorganic carbon, and nonlabile monomeric aluminum concentrations. While there was not an overall correlation between bacterioplankton community structure and pH, several bacterial classes, including the Alphaproteobacteria, were directly correlated with acidity. These results indicate that unlike more identifiable correlations between acidity and species richness for higher trophic levels, controls on bacterioplankton community structure are likely more complex, involving both direct and indirect processes.

Percent, Sascha F.; Frischer, Marc E.; Vescio, Paul A.; Duffy, Ellen B.; Milano, Vincenzo; McLellan, Maggie; Stevens, Brett M.; Boylen, Charles W.; Nierzwicki-Bauer, Sandra A.

2008-01-01

115

Rates and environmental controls of sediment N and S cycles in diverse aquatic ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chuanhui Gu and Celine Pallud Recent studies of coupled NO3- driven SO42- production found chemolithoautotrophic bacterial metabolism may remove NO3- by coupling its reduction with the oxidation of reduced S to SO42-. The objectives of this study were to investigate the magnitude and interaction of NO3- and SO42- metabolic rates (e.g. nitrate reduction rate, ammonium production rate, sulfate production rate, and sulfate reduction rate, etc) across diverse freshwater, saline, and hypersaline water systems. Metabolic rates of major N and S cycles were measured on intact sediment cores using flow through reactors. Single TEA (i.e.NO3- or SO42-) addition and simultaneous TEAs addition caused a variety of responses in the N and S metabolic rates. We used a multivariate statistics tool, redundancy analysis, to access how environmental factors might control the variability of these metabolic rates. Our analysis showed pH, overlying water SO42- concentration, and salinity were three dominant environmental factors that control the N and S metabolic rates. The three factors combined explained 62% of variance of the metabolic rates. When NO3- and SO42- were both present, however, sediment As content, grain size, and N content determined the variability of the metabolic rates. These three factors together accounted for 58% of total variance of the metabolic rates. The different sets of environmental controls over the N and S metabolic rates under single TEA vs. two TEA conditions indicate the interior coupling between N and S cycles. These results showed there is no single set of environmental variables that can be used to predict the spatial variability of N and S metabolic rates, and controls on N processing in landscape subject to S and N pollution are more complex than previously appreciated.

Gu, C.; Pallud, C. E.

2010-12-01

116

Mechanisms Controlling Carbon Turnover from Diverse Microbial Groups in Temperate and Tropical Forest Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microorganisms represent an important intermediate along the pathway of plant litter decomposition to the formation of soil organic matter (SOM); yet little is known of the fate and stability of microbial C in soils and the importance of microbial biochemistry as a factor influencing SOM dynamics. This research investigates mechanisms controlling microbial C stabilization in a temperate forest in the Sierra Nevada of California (CA) and a tropical forest in Puerto Rico (PR). Biochemically diverse microbial groups (fungi, actinomycetes, bacteria gram (+), and bacteria gram (-)) were isolated from both sites, grown in the laboratory with C13 media, killed, and nonliving residues were added back to soils as a reciprocal transplant of microbial groups. The native microbial community in CA is dominated by fungi and in PR is dominated by bacteria, which provides an opportunity to asses the metabolic response of distinct microbial communities to the diverse microbial additions. CA and PR soils were sampled five times over a 3 and 2 year period, respectively. In CA there was no significant difference in the mean residence time (MRT) of diverse C13 microbial treatments; whereas in PR there were significant differences, whereby temperate fungi, temperate Gram (+) bacteria, and tropical actinomycetes exhibited a significantly longer MRT as compared with tropical fungi and temperate Gram (-). These results suggest that a bacterial dominated microbial community discriminates more amongst diverse substrates than a fungal-dominated community. MRT for labeled-C in CA was 5.21 ± 1.11 years, and in PR was 2.22 ± 0.45. Despite substantial differences in MRT between sites, physical fractionation of soils into light (LF), aggregated-occluded (OF), and mineral-associated (MF) fractions provided evidence that accelerated decomposition in PR (presumably due to climate) operated primarily on labeled-C unassociated with the mineral matrix (LF); labeled-C occluded within aggregates (OF) or bound to the mineral matrix (MF) exhibited similar turnover dynamics for the two sites. Py-GC-MS-IRMS examined the fate of labeled temperate fungal residues at the molecular level in CA (30 days) and in PR (17 days) in whole soils and soil fractions. Results showed notably high enrichment of two polysaccharide biomarkers at both sites (2-furancarboxaldehyde, 5-methyl; and levoglucosanone); as well as an enol compound. These compounds did not occur in high abundance in the original fungal residues, suggesting selective preservation or secondary formation of these compounds in both CA and PR soils. Two additional lipid biomarkers exhibited notably high enrichment in CA but not PR soils, suggesting some distinct pathways of humification may be occurring at each site. Physical fractionation combined with molecular analysis suggests that protection by aggregate-occlusion (OF) and chemical complexation with soil mineral surfaces (MF) represent distinct protection mechanisms that operate on different microbial compounds.

Throckmorton, H.; Dane, L.; Bird, J. A.; Firestone, M. K.; Horwath, W. R.

2010-12-01

117

Deep Reactive Ion Etch (DRIE) Control for High-Aspect Ratio Silicon Structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) of Si, also referred to as the Bosch process, has opened new areas of application in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and mixed technology integration. A fully integrated microsystem could include biological or chemical sensors, mechanical gears and actuators, control electronics, micro-fluidics, and optics in a variety of material systems on a single chip or in a single package. As the device designs become more complicated or monolithic integration becomes necessary, the requirements for DRIE of Si become more difficult. For example, anisotropic etch profiles, smooth etch morphology, high etch selectivity to form freestanding membrane structures, and the fabrication of multi-level etched features becomes critical to device performance. The DRIE process relies on the formation of a sidewall etch inhibitor to prevent lateral etching of the Si thus resulting in highly anisotropic etch profiles at reasonably high etch rates. In this presentation we will report on the use of the DRIE platform to fabricate deep, high-aspect ratio Si features 100 microns wide, 400 microns deep with 25 microns walls. Optimization of the DRIE process by varying process parameters including reactive gas flow, pressure, and ion energy will be discussed. The use of parameter ramping as well as multi-level masking processes to meet the challenges of advanced micro-sensor designs will also be discussed. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

Shul, Randy

2003-10-01

118

Evaluation of Diversity and Power Control Techniques for Satellite Communication Systems in Tropical and Equatorial Rain Climates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Satellite communication systems operating at frequencies above 10 GHz in tropical climates are subjected to many fade occurrences due to heavy rain. Service providers need to consider the use of appropriate forward error correction codes, the choice of modulations, diversity techniques, and the range of uplink\\/downlink power controls to use during severe rain fade periods in the overall design of

Qing Wei Pan; Jeremy E. Allnutt; Charles Tsui

2008-01-01

119

Heme: a versatile signaling molecule controlling the activities of diverse regulators ranging from transcription factors to MAP kinases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heme (iron protoporphyrin IX) is an essential molecule for numerous living organisms. Not only does it serve as a prosthetic group in enzymes, it also acts as a signaling molecule that controls diverse molecular and cellular processes ranging from signal transduction to protein complex assembly. Deficient heme synthesis or function impacts the hematopoietic, hepatic and nervous systems in humans. Recent

Sarah M Mense; Li Zhang

2006-01-01

120

Automatic calibration of a phase diversity wavefront sensing and control testbed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper will report on efforts to automatically calibrate in situ a phase-diversity (PD) wavefront sensing and control (WFS&C) system, the results of which are demonstrated on the General Dynamics Advanced Information System's (GDAIS') QuickStar testbed1, a dual deformable mirror (DM) system which operates at 100Hz sampling rate. The iterative automatic calibration (AutoCal) process includes both coarse and fine calibration modes, initial closed-loop flattening of the commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) DMs, estimation of the system's static wavefront - including DM print-through, determination of PD-derived actuator influence functions, formulating the resulting system matrix and the resulting forward-model parameters. Analyses of the system after the calibration routines shows low-order WFS accuracy of ~0.005? RMS and closed-loop residual wavefront measurement of ~0.002?. All of these results were accomplished with a software package that takes on the order of one hour to operate.

Georges, James A., III; Dorrance, Pam; Gleichman, Kurt; Jonik, Julie; Liskow, Dean; Lapprich, Harold; Naik, Vipul; Parker, Stuart; Paxman, Rick; Warmuth, Matt; Wilson, Aaron; Zaugg, Tom

2007-10-01

121

Bottom-up control of carabid beetle communities in early successional wetlands: mediated by vegetation structure or plant diversity?  

PubMed

Two hypotheses of bottom-up control that predict that the species richness of Carabidae will depend either on the taxonomic diversity of plants ("taxonomic diversity hypothesis") or on the structural heterogeneity of the vegetation ("structural heterogeneity hypothesis") were tested. Plant species were classified into nine plant structural groups through cluster analysis of morphological traits (e.g. total height) at 30 early successional temporary wetlands in the east-German agricultural landscape. In a linear regression analysis, the heterogeneity of vegetation structures explained 55% of the variation in carabid beetle diversity. According to a partial correlation analysis, plant taxonomic diversity did not have a significant effect, consistent with the "structural heterogeneity hypothesis," and contradicting previous studies which concluded that plant taxonomic diversity would be the most important factor in early successional habitats. An experimental study was used to test hypotheses on the processes underlying this bottom-up control by vegetation structure: the "hunting efficiency hypothesis," the "enemy-free space hypothesis," and the "microhabitat specialization hypothesis." The composition of plant structural groups in 15 vegetation plots (1 m(2)) was manipulated, creating a gradient from dense vegetation to open plots. Subsequent pitfall catches revealed significant differences in the activity-abundances of the carabid species. Large species preferred dense vegetation plots, consistent with the enemy-free space hypothesis that large species are more vulnerable to predation on the open plots and prefer dense vegetation to escape from natural enemies. The results indicate that bottom-up control is not mediated only by plant taxonomic or functional group diversity and that vegetation structures may be more important than previously suggested. PMID:12721831

Brose, U

2003-03-20

122

Landscape-level controls on dissolved carbon flux from diverse catchments of the circumboreal  

USGS Publications Warehouse

While much of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) within rivers is destined for mineralization to CO2, a substantial fraction of riverine bicarbonate (HCO3-) flux represents a CO2 sink, as a result of weathering processes that sequester CO2 as HCO3-. We explored landscape-level controls on DOC and HCO3- flux in subcatchments of the boreal, with a specific focus on the effect of permafrost on riverine dissolved C flux. To do this, we undertook a multivariate analysis that partitioned the variance attributable to known, key regulators of dissolved C flux (runoff, lithology, and vegetation) prior to examining the effect of permafrost, using riverine biogeochemistry data from a suite of subcatchments drawn from the Mackenzie, Yukon, East, and West Siberian regions of the circumboreal. Across the diverse catchments that we study, controls on HCO3- flux were near-universal: runoff and an increased carbonate rock contribution to weathering (assessed as riverwater Ca:Na) increased HCO3- yields, while increasing permafrost extent was associated with decreases in HCO3-. In contrast, permafrost had contrasting and region-specific effects on DOC yield, even after the variation caused by other key drivers of its flux had been accounted for. We used ionic ratios and SO4 yields to calculate the potential range of CO2 sequestered via weathering across these boreal subcatchments, and show that decreasing permafrost extent is associated with increases in weathering-mediated CO2 fixation across broad spatial scales, an effect that could counterbalance some of the organic C mineralization that is predicted with declining permafrost.

Tank, Suzanne; Frey, Karen E.; Striegl, Robert G.; Raymond, Peter A.; Holmes, R. Max; McClelland, James W.; Peterson, Bruce J.

2012-01-01

123

Landscape-level controls on dissolved carbon flux from diverse catchments of the circumboreal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While much of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) within rivers is destined for mineralization to CO2, a substantial fraction of riverine bicarbonate (HCO3-) flux represents a CO2 sink, as a result of weathering processes that sequester CO2 as HCO3-. We explored landscape-level controls on DOC and HCO3- flux in subcatchments of the boreal, with a specific focus on the effect of permafrost on riverine dissolved C flux. To do this, we undertook a multivariate analysis that partitioned the variance attributable to known, key regulators of dissolved C flux (runoff, lithology, and vegetation) prior to examining the effect of permafrost, using riverine biogeochemistry data from a suite of subcatchments drawn from the Mackenzie, Yukon, East, and West Siberian regions of the circumboreal. Across the diverse catchments that we study, controls on HCO3-flux were near-universal: runoff and an increased carbonate rock contribution to weathering (assessed as riverwater Ca:Na) increased HCO3- yields, while increasing permafrost extent was associated with decreases in HCO3-. In contrast, permafrost had contrasting and region-specific effects on DOC yield, even after the variation caused by other key drivers of its flux had been accounted for. We used ionic ratios and SO4 yields to calculate the potential range of CO2sequestered via weathering across these boreal subcatchments, and show that decreasing permafrost extent is associated with increases in weathering-mediated CO2 fixation across broad spatial scales, an effect that could counterbalance some of the organic C mineralization that is predicted with declining permafrost.

Tank, Suzanne E.; Frey, Karen E.; Striegl, Robert G.; Raymond, Peter A.; Holmes, Robert M.; McClelland, James W.; Peterson, Bruce J.

2012-09-01

124

A Conserved Supergene Locus Controls Colour Pattern Diversity in Heliconius Butterflies  

PubMed Central

We studied whether similar developmental genetic mechanisms are involved in both convergent and divergent evolution. Mimetic insects are known for their diversity of patterns as well as their remarkable evolutionary convergence, and they have played an important role in controversies over the respective roles of selection and constraints in adaptive evolution. Here we contrast three butterfly species, all classic examples of Müllerian mimicry. We used a genetic linkage map to show that a locus, Yb, which controls the presence of a yellow band in geographic races of Heliconius melpomene, maps precisely to the same location as the locus Cr, which has very similar phenotypic effects in its co-mimic H. erato. Furthermore, the same genomic location acts as a “supergene”, determining multiple sympatric morphs in a third species, H. numata. H. numata is a species with a very different phenotypic appearance, whose many forms mimic different unrelated ithomiine butterflies in the genus Melinaea. Other unlinked colour pattern loci map to a homologous linkage group in the co-mimics H. melpomene and H. erato, but they are not involved in mimetic polymorphism in H. numata. Hence, a single region from the multilocus colour pattern architecture of H. melpomene and H. erato appears to have gained control of the entire wing-pattern variability in H. numata, presumably as a result of selection for mimetic “supergene” polymorphism without intermediates. Although we cannot at this stage confirm the homology of the loci segregating in the three species, our results imply that a conserved yet relatively unconstrained mechanism underlying pattern switching can affect mimicry in radically different ways. We also show that adaptive evolution, both convergent and diversifying, can occur by the repeated involvement of the same genomic regions.

Joron, Mathieu; Papa, Riccardo; Beltran, Margarita; Chamberlain, Nicola; Mavarez, Jesus; Baxter, Simon; Abanto, Moises; Bermingham, Eldredge; Humphray, Sean J; Rogers, Jane; Beasley, Helen; Barlow, Karen; H. ffrench-Constant, Richard; Mallet, James; McMillan, W. Owen; Jiggins, Chris D

2006-01-01

125

A conserved supergene locus controls colour pattern diversity in Heliconius butterflies.  

PubMed

We studied whether similar developmental genetic mechanisms are involved in both convergent and divergent evolution. Mimetic insects are known for their diversity of patterns as well as their remarkable evolutionary convergence, and they have played an important role in controversies over the respective roles of selection and constraints in adaptive evolution. Here we contrast three butterfly species, all classic examples of Müllerian mimicry. We used a genetic linkage map to show that a locus, Yb, which controls the presence of a yellow band in geographic races of Heliconius melpomene, maps precisely to the same location as the locus Cr, which has very similar phenotypic effects in its co-mimic H. erato. Furthermore, the same genomic location acts as a "supergene", determining multiple sympatric morphs in a third species, H. numata. H. numata is a species with a very different phenotypic appearance, whose many forms mimic different unrelated ithomiine butterflies in the genus Melinaea. Other unlinked colour pattern loci map to a homologous linkage group in the co-mimics H. melpomene and H. erato, but they are not involved in mimetic polymorphism in H. numata. Hence, a single region from the multilocus colour pattern architecture of H. melpomene and H. erato appears to have gained control of the entire wing-pattern variability in H. numata, presumably as a result of selection for mimetic "supergene" polymorphism without intermediates. Although we cannot at this stage confirm the homology of the loci segregating in the three species, our results imply that a conserved yet relatively unconstrained mechanism underlying pattern switching can affect mimicry in radically different ways. We also show that adaptive evolution, both convergent and diversifying, can occur by the repeated involvement of the same genomic regions. PMID:17002517

Joron, Mathieu; Papa, Riccardo; Beltrán, Margarita; Chamberlain, Nicola; Mavárez, Jesús; Baxter, Simon; Abanto, Moisés; Bermingham, Eldredge; Humphray, Sean J; Rogers, Jane; Beasley, Helen; Barlow, Karen; ffrench-Constant, Richard H; Mallet, James; McMillan, W Owen; Jiggins, Chris D

2006-10-01

126

Note: Axially pull-up electrochemical etching method for fabricating tungsten nanoprobes with controllable aspect ratio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A mathematical model representing the relation between pulling up speed, time and aspect ratio is reported, accordingly the axially pull-up electrochemical etching method for fabricating nanoprobes is proposed. The tungsten probes with predetermined shape and aspect ratio according to the model were successfully produced with this method. Then the probes were installed inside a micromanipulation system to manipulate the carbon nanotubes and measure their current-voltage (I-V) characteristics. The probe fabrication and application experiments demonstrated the reasonability and reliability of the model and method developed in this note.

Li, Chao-Ling; Fang, Dong-Yu; Li, Xuan; Xue, Tao; Yao, Pei

2012-10-01

127

Low Diversity and Biased Substitution Patterns in the Mitochondrial DNA Control Region of Sperm Whales: Implications for Estimates of Time Since Common Ancestry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region was sequenced in 37 sperm whales from a large part of the global range of the species. Nucleotide diversity was several-fold lower than that reported for control regions of abundant and outbred mammals, but similar to that for populations known to have experienced bottlenecks. Relative rate tests did not suggest that the low diversity

Thomas Lyrholm; Olaf Leimar; Ulf Gyllenstent

1996-01-01

128

Host and parasite diversity jointly control disease risk in complex communities.  

PubMed

Host-parasite interactions are embedded within complex communities composed of multiple host species and a cryptic assemblage of other parasites. To date, however, surprisingly few studies have explored the joint effects of host and parasite richness on disease risk, despite growing interest in the diversity-disease relationship. Here, we combined field surveys and mechanistic experiments to test how transmission of the virulent trematode Ribeiroia ondatrae was affected by the diversity of both amphibian hosts and coinfecting parasites. Within natural wetlands, host and parasite species richness correlated positively, consistent with theoretical predictions. Among sites that supported Ribeiroia, however, host and parasite richness interacted to negatively affect Ribeiroia transmission between its snail and amphibian hosts, particularly in species-poor assemblages. In laboratory and outdoor experiments designed to decouple the relative contributions of host and parasite diversity, increases in host richness decreased Ribeiroia infection by 11-65%. Host richness also tended to decrease total infections by other parasite species (four of six instances), such that more diverse host assemblages exhibited ?40% fewer infections overall. Importantly, parasite richness further reduced both per capita and total Ribeiroia infection by 15-20%, possibly owing to intrahost competition among coinfecting species. These findings provide evidence that parasitic and free-living diversity jointly regulate disease risk, help to resolve apparent contradictions in the diversity-disease relationship, and emphasize the challenges of integrating research on coinfection and host heterogeneity to develop a community ecology-based approach to infectious diseases. PMID:24082092

Johnson, Pieter T J; Preston, Daniel L; Hoverman, Jason T; Lafonte, Bryan E

2013-09-30

129

Bone remodeling: new aspects of a key process that controls skeletal maintenance and repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone remodeling is the concerted interplay of two cellular activities: osteoclastic bone resorption and osteoblastic bone formation. Bone remodeling is the physiologic process that maintains bone mass, skeletal integrity and skeletal function. A molecular understanding of this process is therefore of paramount importance for almost all aspects of skeletal physiology and many facets of bone diseases. Based on the morphological

Pia Pogoda; Matthias Priemel; Johannes M. Rueger; Michael Amling

2005-01-01

130

Microwave hyperthermia controlled by microwave radiometry: technical aspects and first clinical results.  

PubMed

Microwave systems combining microwave heating generators (434, 915 or 2450 MHz) with microwave radiometers (1-2 GHz or 2-4 GHz) have been used for two years in hyperthermia therapy. Technical aspects (generator, radiometer, applicator), experiments and first clinical results are detailed. PMID:6570132

Chivé, M; Plancot, M; Giaux, G; Prevost, B

1984-12-01

131

Molecular aspects of the E. coli nucleoid protein, H-NS: a central controller of gene regulatory networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nucleoid-associated protein H-NS has a central role in the structuring and control of the enteric bacterial chromosome. This protein has been demonstrated to contribute to the regulation of expression for approximately thirty genes. In this article, the molecular aspects of H-NS structure and function are briefly reviewed. H-NS contains at least two independent structural domains: a C-terminal domain, involved

Roy M. Williams; Sylvie Rimsky

1997-01-01

132

Facilitating Controlled Tests of Website Design Changes Using Aspect-Oriented Software Development and Software Product Lines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Controlled online experiments in which envisaged changes to a website are first tested live with a small subset of site visitors have proven to predict the effects of these changes quite accurately. However, these experiments often require expensive infrastructure and are costly in terms of development effort. This paper advocates a systematic approach to the design and implementation of such experiments in order to overcome the aforementioned drawbacks by making use of Aspect-Oriented Software Development and Software Product Lines.

Cámara, Javier; Kobsa, Alfred

133

Simulation and Flight Test Assessment of Safety Benefits and Certification Aspects of Advanced Flight Control Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An adaptive inverse controller for customized fight control systems for general aviation aircraft is presented. The purpose of the system is to render a general aviation aircraft easier to fly via decoupling its flight control system. Artificial neural ne...

J. E. Steck K. Rokhsaz U. J. Pesonen S. Bruner N. Duerksen

2003-01-01

134

Redefinition of hypervariable region I in mitochondrial DNA control region and comparing its diversity among various ethnic groups.  

PubMed

The hypervariable region I (HVR-I) of the mitochondrial DNA control region described in the literature is variable in its 5'and 3' ends as well as in its length, causing a problem when data from different ethnic groups are to be compared. To redefine HVR-I, which should be highly polymorphic yet relatively short in length, we analyzed 1437 reported sequences distributed among 11 geographic areas in the world. The results showed that the 237-bp (nts 16126-16362) redefined HVR-I (rHVR-I) had a global genetic diversity of 0.9905 and the 154-bp (nts 16209-16362) short HVR-I (sHVR-I) had a global diversity of 0.9735. Being flanked by a stretch of highly conservative sequences, both rHVR-I and sHVR-I can be produced by PCR, even if extracted from badly degraded specimens. Comparing the genetic diversity among 3870 sequences from 25 countries, we found that the genetic diversity of rHVR-I was 0.9869+/-0.0133 in Asian countries, 0.9685+/-0.0193 in African countries, 0.9299+/-0.0664 in European countries, and 0.8477+/-0.1857 in American countries, whereas that of sHVR-I was 0.9689+/-0.0284 in Asian countries, 0.9504+/-0.0334 in African countries, 0.8721+/-0.0911 in European countries, and 0.8230+/-0.1693 in American countries. The difference in genetic diversity among these countries is consistent with the notion that genetic diversity roughly reflects the genetic history of a given ethnic group. Our results indicate that a polymorphic, short, and PCR-producible HVR-I can be defined, making the comparison among various ethnic groups possible. PMID:18248776

Tzen, Jessica M; Hsu, Hsiu-Jun; Wang, Man-Ning

2007-12-07

135

Control of the visual and tactile aspects of poultry food according to the poultry food behavior by image analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study tries to connect the poultry food behavior to the visual and tactile characteristics of the food. The aim of the work is to make it possible to control the visual and tactile aspects of food (food pellets), by means of image analysis. These aspects are often suspected to explain the undesirable behavior of the poultries, which can reject a food, showing however optimal nutritional characteristics. These incidents involve important negative consequences as well for the animal as for the poultry breeder, with a major degradation of the technical and economic performances. Many zootechnical studies and observations in breeding testify to the sensitivity of the poultries to the visual and tactile aspects of food, but measurements classically used to characterize them do not allow explaining this phenomenon. Color, texture and shape features extracted from images of pellets will constitute effective and practical measures to describe their visual and tactile aspects. We show that a pellets classification based on visual features and supervised by a set of poultry food behavior labels allows to select a set of discriminating features.

Hachemi, R.; Vincent, N.; Lomenie, N.

2007-05-01

136

Some Aspects Related to Control of Nuclear Materials – Internal and Transfrontier Cases – in Romania  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The paper is focused mainly on aspects related to the activity of the National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering\\u000a ‘Horia Hulubei’ (NIPNE– HH), the main and oldest nuclear research centre in Romania (founded in 1956). NIPNE -HH has the first\\u000a research nuclear reactor in Eastern Europe – Russian type VVRS (1956), shut down in 1998 and in the last

Bogdan Constantinescu; Horia Hulubei

137

Relationships Between Alcohol-related Informal Social Control, Parental Monitoring and Adolescent Problem Behaviors Among Racially Diverse Urban Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study is to investigate the relationships between alcohol-related informal social control and parental\\u000a monitoring on alcohol use, behavior and intentions; violent behavior; and delinquent behavior in a racially diverse population\\u000a of young urban adolescents. Baseline surveys were administered to 6th grade male and female students in 61 urban Chicago schools\\u000a as part of Project Northland

Jayne A. Fulkerson; Keryn E. Pasch; Cheryl L. Perry; Kelli Komro

2008-01-01

138

Do new Access and Benefit Sharing procedures under the Convention on Biological Diversity threaten the future of biological control?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) countries have sovereign rights over their genetic resources. Agreements\\u000a governing the access to these resources and the sharing of the benefits arising from their use need to be established between\\u000a involved parties [i.e. Access and Benefit Sharing (ABS)]. This also applies to species collected for potential use in biological\\u000a control. Recent applications of

Matthew J. W. Cock; Joop C. van Lenteren; Jacques Brodeur; Barbara I. P. Barratt; Franz Bigler; Karel Bolckmans; Fernando L. Cônsoli; Fabian Haas; Peter G. Mason; José Roberto P. Parra

2010-01-01

139

A Conserved Supergene Locus Controls Colour Pattern Diversity in Heliconius Butterflies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied whether similar developmental genetic mechanisms are involved in both convergent and divergent evolution. Mimetic insects are known for their diversity of patterns as well as their remarkable evolutionary convergence, and they have played an important role in controversies over the respective roles of selection and constraints in adaptive evolution. Here we contrast three butterfly species, all classic examples

Mathieu Joron; Riccardo Papa; Margarita Beltrán; Nicola Chamberlain; Jesús Mavárez; Simon Baxter; Moisés Abanto; Eldredge Bermingham; Sean J. Humphray; Jane Rogers; Helen Beasley; Karen Barlow; Richard H. ffrench-Constant; James Mallet; W. Owen McMillan; Chris D. Jiggins

2006-01-01

140

Safety Aspects on the Asea-Atom BWR 75 Control Room Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The control room is an integrated part of the total plant layout and is located in a special building, known as the control building. The problems of designing a control room meeting all safety requirements and at the same time allowing for modifications ...

P. van Gemst T. Pedersen

1978-01-01

141

Diversity Strategies to Mitigate Postulated Common Cause Failure Vulnerabilities  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes an approach to establish effective mitigating strategies that can resolve potential common-cause failure (CCF) vulnerabilities in instrumentation and control (I&C) systems at nuclear power plants. A particular objective in the development of these strategies, which consist of combinations of diversity attributes and their associated criteria, is to address the unique characteristics of digital technology that can contribute to CCF concerns. The research approach employed to establish diversity strategies involves investigation of available documentation on diversity usage and experience from nuclear power and non-nuclear industries, capture of expert knowledge and lessons learned, determination of common practices, and assessment of the nature of CCFs and compensating diversity attributes. The resulting diversity strategies address considerations such as the effect of technology choices, the nature of CCF vulnerabilities, and the prospective impact of each diversity type. In particular, the impact of each attribute and criterion on the purpose, process, product, and performance aspects of diverse systems are considered.

Wood, Richard Thomas [ORNL

2010-01-01

142

Geometrical control of the magnetization direction in high aspect-ratio PdNi ferromagnetic nanoelectrodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a study of electron-beam evaporated Pd0.4Ni0.6 alloy thin films by means of ferromagnetic resonance measurements on extended films of varying thickness and anisotropic magnetoresistance measurements of lithographically patterned high aspect-ratio ferromagnetic electrodes, respectively. The results reveal that the direction of the magnetization strongly depends on the electrode lateral dimensions, transitioning from in-plane magnetization for extended films to out-of-the-plane magnetization for electrode widths below 2-3 microns, reaching ˜58° off plane for 100 nm-wide nanoelectrodes.

Gonzalez-Pons, J. C.; Henderson, J. J.; Del Barco, E.; Ozyilmaz, B.

2008-07-01

143

Software control and characterization aspects for image derotator of the AO188 system at Subaru  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The image derotator is an integral part of the AO188 System at Subaru Telescope. In this article software control, characterization and integration issues of the image derotator for AO188 System presented. Physical limitations of the current hardware reviewed. Image derotator synchronization, tracking accuracy, and problem solving strategies to achieve requirements presented. It's use in different observation modes for various instruments and interaction with the telescope control system provides status and control functionality. We describe available observation modes along with integration issues. Technical solutions with results of the image derotator performance presented. Further improvements and control software for on-sky observations discussed based on the results obtained during engineering observations. An overview of the requirements, the final control method, and the structure of its control software is shown. Control limitations and accepted solutions that might be useful for development of other instrument's image derotators presented.

Golota, Taras; Oya, Shin; Egner, Sebastian; Watanabe, Makoto; Eldred, Michael; Minowa, Yosuke; Takami, Hideki; Cook, David; Hayano, Yutaka; Saito, Yoshihiko; Hattori, Masayuki; Garrel, Vincent; Ito, Meguru

2010-07-01

144

Biological control aspects of biological control—with special reference to arthropods, protozoans and helminths of domesticated animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological control describes situations in which a living antagonist (a predator, parasite, parasitoid or a pathogen) is distributed by man to lower pest (parasite) populations to acceptable sub-clinical densities or to keep the population at a non-harmful level. Ideally, biological control has no negative effects on the environment, whereas chemical control is not always so harmless. Laboratory and field observations

J. Grønvold; S. Aa. Henriksen; M. Larsen; P. Nansen; J. Wolstrup

1996-01-01

145

Which Aspects of Postural Control Differentiate between Patients with Parkinson's Disease with and without Freezing of Gait?  

PubMed Central

This exploratory study aimed to identify which aspects of postural control are able to distinguish between subgroups of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and controls. Balance was tested using static and dynamic posturography. Freezers (n = 9), nonfreezers (n = 10), and controls (n = 10) stood on a movable force platform and performed 3 randomly assigned tests: (1) sensory organization test (SOT) to evaluate the effective use of sensory information, (2) motor control test (MCT) to assess automatic postural reactions in response to platform perturbations, and (3) rhythmic weight shift test (RWS) to evaluate the ability to voluntarily move the center of gravity (COG) mediolaterally and anterior-posteriorly (AP). The respective outcome measures were equilibrium and postural strategy scores, response strength and amplitude of weight shift. Patients were in the “on” phase of the medication cycle. In general, freezers performed similarly on SOT and MCT compared to nonfreezers. Freezers showed an intact postural strategy during sensory manipulations and an appropriate response to external perturbations. However, during voluntary weight shifting, freezers showed poorer directional control compared to nonfreezers and controls. This suggests that freezers have adequate automatic postural control and sensory integration abilities in quiet stance, but show specific directional control deficits when weight shifting is voluntary.

Heremans, Elke; Vercruysse, Sarah

2013-01-01

146

Which Aspects of Postural Control Differentiate between Patients with Parkinson's Disease with and without Freezing of Gait?  

PubMed

This exploratory study aimed to identify which aspects of postural control are able to distinguish between subgroups of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and controls. Balance was tested using static and dynamic posturography. Freezers (n = 9), nonfreezers (n = 10), and controls (n = 10) stood on a movable force platform and performed 3 randomly assigned tests: (1) sensory organization test (SOT) to evaluate the effective use of sensory information, (2) motor control test (MCT) to assess automatic postural reactions in response to platform perturbations, and (3) rhythmic weight shift test (RWS) to evaluate the ability to voluntarily move the center of gravity (COG) mediolaterally and anterior-posteriorly (AP). The respective outcome measures were equilibrium and postural strategy scores, response strength and amplitude of weight shift. Patients were in the "on" phase of the medication cycle. In general, freezers performed similarly on SOT and MCT compared to nonfreezers. Freezers showed an intact postural strategy during sensory manipulations and an appropriate response to external perturbations. However, during voluntary weight shifting, freezers showed poorer directional control compared to nonfreezers and controls. This suggests that freezers have adequate automatic postural control and sensory integration abilities in quiet stance, but show specific directional control deficits when weight shifting is voluntary. PMID:23936729

Vervoort, Griet; Nackaerts, Evelien; Mohammadi, Farshid; Heremans, Elke; Verschueren, Sabine; Nieuwboer, Alice; Vercruysse, Sarah

2013-06-27

147

Evaluating Sand Transport Through Two Spillway Diversions on the Lower Mississippi River During the Flood of 2011: Implications for Land Management Via Controlled Diversions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mississippi River flood of 2011 necessitated operation of both the Bonnet Carré and Morganza spillways, so that up to 25% of the lower river-water discharge plus associated sediment was diverted into Lake Pontchartrain and Atchafalaya River basin, respectively. The design of each spillway is quite different, and here we present data used to analyze the sand transport capacity of both structures. The Morganza Floodway is set several kilometers from a Mississippi River bend reach, is buffered by a wooded floodplain and has a long, contained forebay. This site location and design inhibits movement of sand from the river through the spillway. In contrast, the Bonnet Carré Spillway is positioned adjacent to the river channel and just downstream of two bend reaches; enhanced secondary flow and turbulence associated with this planform contributes to sand suspension, promoting extensive sediment transport through the spillway. Interestingly, despite the depth of the weir separating the Mississippi River channel and the Bonnet Carré Spillway (approximately the upper 10% of the thalweg depth), the spillway captured a significant proportion of channel-bed sand, based on our data for grain-size distribution of sand on the river-channel bed compared to deposits in the spillway. These results indicate that planform controls and sediment transport dynamics can be used to predict the optimal placement of diversion structures intended to distribute water and sediment from the lower Mississippi River to surrounding wetlands, thereby helping prevent coastal erosion and degradation of infrastructure.

Czapiga, M. J.; Nittrouer, J. A.; Brantley, C.; Cash, R. W.; Parker, G.; Best, J. L.

2011-12-01

148

Diversity in the Workplace.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document contains three papers presented at a symposium on diversity in the workplace moderated by Sandra Johnson at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD). "Diversity and Development: An Assessment of Equal Opportunities and the Role of HRD in the Police Service" (Rashmi Biswas, Penny Dick) examines aspects

1996

149

River Diversions and Shoaling  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: This Coastal and Hydraulics Engineering Technical Note describes the current knowledge of the potential impacts of river diversions on channel morphology, especially induced sedimentation in the river channel. Processes considered in this note are those most pertinent to riverine, as opposed to estuarine, aspects of diversions. In particular, this note provides general guidance on the physical process issues, outlines

Joseph V. Letter; Nolan K. Raphelt

2008-01-01

150

Control of an indoor autonomous mobile communications relay via antenna diversity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Presented here is a motion planning scheme for enabling a quadrotor to serve as an autonomous communications relay in indoor/GPS-denied environments. Using antenna selection diversity, the quadrotor is able to optimize its location in the communication chain so as to maximize the link throughput. Measurements of the communications field drive a gradient descent algorithm that moves the quadrotor to an optimal location while avoiding obstacles, all without the use of positioning data.

Griffin, Brian; Fierro, Rafael; Palunko, Ivana

2010-04-01

151

Controlling the indirect effects of flow diversions on water quality in an Australian reservoir  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water quality effects of a planned diversion to a water treatment plant of the main inflow to Prospect Reservoir in Australia are predicted with a coupled hydrodynamic-ecological model (DYRESM Water Quality). The model combines a one-dimensional, process-based hydrodynamic model (DYRESM) with numerical descriptions of phytoplankton production, nutrient cycling, and oxygen dynamics. The hydrodynamic component is free from calibration, which

I. H. Fisher; Geoffrey Schladow

1995-01-01

152

Formulation aspects in the development of osmotically controlled oral drug delivery systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osmotically controlled oral drug delivery systems utilize osmotic pressure for controlled delivery of active agent(s). Drug delivery from these systems, to a large extent, is independent of the physiological factors of the gastrointestinal tract and these systems can be utilized for systemic as well as targeted delivery of drugs. The release of drug(s) from osmotic systems is governed by various

Rajan K Verma; Divi Murali Krishna; Sanjay Garg

2002-01-01

153

Control Aspects of Underground Coal Gasification: LLL Investigations of Ground-Water and Subsidence Effects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Our investigations are designed to evaluate some of the environmental implications of in situ coal gasification, and to identify appropriate environmental controls. Changes in ground-water quality and the possible effects of subsidence and ground movement...

S. W. Mead F. T. Wang H. C. Ganow

1978-01-01

154

Economic and Institutional Aspects of Risk and Liability in the Control of Groundwater Pollution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two alternative means of controlling negative externalities (pollution), namely the use of ex ante regulation and the use of ex post liability, are compared. Alternative forms of liability, in particular strict liability and negligence, are discussed. The...

T. D. Rojas K. Segerson

1987-01-01

155

Some Aspects of Glucose Metabolism of Chromium-Deficient Rats Raised in a Strictly Controlled Environment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Intravenous glucose tolerance and glucose oxidation in vitro was measured in chromium-deficient rats raised under conditions which allowed strict control of trace element contaminations. A severe impairment of glucose removal rates was observed in all ani...

W. Mertz E. E. Roginski H. A. Schroeder

1964-01-01

156

A system for standardized evaluation of patient-controlled analgesia devices: Design, construction, and engineering aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. Our objective was to design, construct, and assess an automated system to perform standardized evaluation of patient-controlled\\u000a analgesia (PCA) devices.Methods. We developed a computer-controlled test station. The computer activates the PCA device under test through a purpose-built\\u000a serial interface device. The dose delivered is weighed on an electronic balance; then, at a predetermined interval, the computer\\u000a interrogates the balance

Anthony H. Ilsley; Harry Owen; John L. Plummer; Nolan A. Mackey; D. R. Digby Roberts

1994-01-01

157

Improvement in the control aspect of laser frequency stabilization for SUNLITE project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flight Electronics Division of Langley Research Center is developing a spaceflight experiment called the Stanford University and NASA Laser In-Space Technology (SUNLITE). The objective of the project is to explore the fundamental limits on frequency stability using an FM laser locking technique on a Nd:YAG non-planar ring (free-running linewidth of 5 KHz) oscillator in the vibration free, microgravity environment of space. Compact and automated actively stabilized terahertz laser oscillators will operate in space with an expected linewidth of less than 3 Hz. To implement and verify this experiment, NASA engineers have designed and built a state of the art, space qualified high speed data acquisition system for measuring the linewidth and stability limits of a laser oscillator. In order to achieve greater stability and better performance, an active frequency control scheme requiring the use of a feedback control loop has been applied. In the summer of 1991, the application of control theory in active frequency control as a frequency stabilization technique was investigated. The results and findings were presented in 1992 at the American Control Conference in Chicago, and have been published in Conference Proceedings. The main focus was to seek further improvement in the overall performance of the system by replacing the analogue controller by a digital algorithm.

Zia, Omar

1992-09-01

158

Further aspects on the control of photodissociation in light-induced potentials.  

PubMed

In this work we show how to control the photodissociation of a diatomic molecule in the frame of light-induced potentials for different shapes of the transition dipole moments. A sequence of a half-cycle or control pulse and a delayed pump pulse is used for achieving state-selective photodissociation with high yields. The effect of the control is to shift the photodissociation bands to higher frequencies. It is also possible to dissociate the molecule in a superposition of electronic states of the fragments, even when the photodissociation bands corresponding to the different electronic states of the products are largely separated. In this case one needs to engineer the sequence delaying the half-cycle pulse after the pump pulse and additionally turning off rapidly the control pulse. Depending on the shape of the dipole functions the duration of the pulses in the sequence must be constrained to shorter times as well. Finally we show that the control scheme affects the velocity of the fragments. Although broad kinetic energy distributions are always obtained when the half-cycle pulse is short, if the Stark effect implies a blueshifting in the energy of the electronic states, the distribution of the relative speed of the fragments will be redshifted. PMID:19947687

Chang, Bo Y; Shin, Seokmin; Sola, Ignacio R

2009-11-28

159

Modeling urban storm rainfall runoff from diverse underlying surfaces and application for control design in Beijing.  

PubMed

Managing storm rainfall runoff is paramount in semi-arid regions with urban development. In Beijing, pollution prevention in urban storm runoff and storm water utilization has been identified as the primary strategy for urban water management. In this paper, we sampled runoff during storm rainfall events and analyzed the concentration of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS) and total phosphorus (TP) in the runoff. Furthermore, the first flush effect of storm rainfall from diverse underlying surfaces was also analyzed. With the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM), the different impervious rates of underlying surfaces during the storm runoff process were expressed. The removal rates of three typical pollutants and their interactions with precipitation and underlying surfaces were identified. From these rates, the scenarios regarding the urban storm runoff pollution loading from different designs of underlying previous rates were assessed with the SWMM. First flush effect analysis showed that the first 20% of the storm runoff should be discarded, which can help in utilizing the storm water resource. The results of this study suggest that the SWMM can express in detail the storm water pollution patterns from diverse underlying surfaces in Beijing, which significantly affected water quality. The scenario analysis demonstrated that impervious rate adjustment has the potential to reduce runoff peak and decrease pollution loading. PMID:23122620

Ouyang, Wei; Guo, Bobo; Hao, Fanghua; Huang, Haobo; Li, Junqi; Gong, Yongwei

2012-11-02

160

The Mechanical Diversity of Stomata and Its Significance in Gas-Exchange Control[OA  

PubMed Central

Given that stomatal movement is ultimately a mechanical process and that stomata are morphologically and mechanically diverse, we explored the influence of stomatal mechanical diversity on leaf gas exchange and considered some of the constraints. Mechanical measurements were conducted on the guard cells of four different species exhibiting different stomatal morphologies, including three variants on the classical “kidney” form and one “dumb-bell” type; this information, together with gas-exchange measurements, was used to model and compare their respective operational characteristics. Based on evidence from scanning electron microscope images of cryo-sectioned leaves that were sampled under full sun and high humidity and from pressure probe measurements of the stomatal aperture versus guard cell turgor relationship at maximum and zero epidermal turgor, it was concluded that maximum stomatal apertures (and maximum leaf diffusive conductance) could not be obtained in at least one of the species (the grass Triticum aestivum) without a substantial reduction in subsidiary cell osmotic (and hence turgor) pressure during stomatal opening to overcome the large mechanical advantage of subsidiary cells. A mechanism for this is proposed, with a corollary being greatly accelerated stomatal opening and closure. Gas-exchange measurements on T. aestivum revealed the capability of very rapid stomatal movements, which may be explained by the unique morphology and mechanics of its dumb-bell-shaped stomata coupled with “see-sawing” of osmotic and turgor pressure between guard and subsidiary cells during stomatal opening or closure. Such properties might underlie the success of grasses.

Franks, Peter J.; Farquhar, Graham D.

2007-01-01

161

The mechanical diversity of stomata and its significance in gas-exchange control.  

PubMed

Given that stomatal movement is ultimately a mechanical process and that stomata are morphologically and mechanically diverse, we explored the influence of stomatal mechanical diversity on leaf gas exchange and considered some of the constraints. Mechanical measurements were conducted on the guard cells of four different species exhibiting different stomatal morphologies, including three variants on the classical "kidney" form and one "dumb-bell" type; this information, together with gas-exchange measurements, was used to model and compare their respective operational characteristics. Based on evidence from scanning electron microscope images of cryo-sectioned leaves that were sampled under full sun and high humidity and from pressure probe measurements of the stomatal aperture versus guard cell turgor relationship at maximum and zero epidermal turgor, it was concluded that maximum stomatal apertures (and maximum leaf diffusive conductance) could not be obtained in at least one of the species (the grass Triticum aestivum) without a substantial reduction in subsidiary cell osmotic (and hence turgor) pressure during stomatal opening to overcome the large mechanical advantage of subsidiary cells. A mechanism for this is proposed, with a corollary being greatly accelerated stomatal opening and closure. Gas-exchange measurements on T. aestivum revealed the capability of very rapid stomatal movements, which may be explained by the unique morphology and mechanics of its dumb-bell-shaped stomata coupled with "see-sawing" of osmotic and turgor pressure between guard and subsidiary cells during stomatal opening or closure. Such properties might underlie the success of grasses. PMID:17114276

Franks, Peter J; Farquhar, Graham D

2006-11-17

162

Fungal diversity controls the temperature sensitivity of soil organic matter decomposition under drought stress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil respiration, the production, transport and efflux of CO2 in soils, is typically the main source of CO2 in terrestrial ecosystems. Microbial-mediated decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) ultimately makes a considerable contribution to soil respiration and it is strongly sensitive to climate. Despite the central role of microbes in decomposition of SOM, few studies have been conducted on how microbial community ecology may affect this large CO2 flux. This lack of research rests on the belief that the high degree of functional redundancy in soils compensates for any given change in microbial community composition. Here we show that fungal community was more resilient to 10 years of severe drought than bacterial community and that fungal diversity was the best predictor of the sensitivity of SOM decomposition to temperature (Q10). The results highlight the important role of fungi in decomposition of terrestrial SOM, especially under the harsh environmental conditions of Mediterranean ecosystems, where models predict even drier future conditions. Our results also hold up the hypotheses that diversified communities may make a better use of available resources. Fungal biomass and diversity need therefore to be extensively and intensively explored in order to understand soil CO2 emissions from the different types of ecosystems, especially in the frame of current human-driven alteration of the carbon cycle and the resulting climate change.

Curiel Yuste, Jorge

2010-05-01

163

Plant traits mediate consumer and nutrient control on plant community productivity and diversity.  

PubMed

The interactive effects of consumers and nutrients on terrestrial plant communities, and the role of plant functional traits in mediating these responses, are poorly known. We carried out a six-year full-factorial field experiment using mammalian herbivore exclusion and fertilization in two habitat types (fertile and infertile alpine tundra heaths) that differed in plant functional traits related to resource acquisition and palatability. Infertile habitats were dominated by species with traits indicative of a slow-growing strategy: high C:N ratio, low specific leaf area, and high condensed tannins. We found that herbivory counteracted the effect of fertilization on biomass, and that this response differed between the two habitats and was correlated with plant functional traits. Live biomass dominated the treatment responses in infertile habitats, whereas litter accumulation dominated the treatment responses in fertile habitats and was strongly negatively associated with resident community tannin concentration. Species richness declined under herbivore exclusion and fertilization in fertile habitats, where litter accumulation was greatest. Community means of plant C:N ratio predicted treatment effects on diversity: fertilization decreased and herbivory increased dominance in communities originally dominated by plants with high C:N, while fertilization increased and herbivory diminished dominance in communities where low C:N species were abundant. Our results highlight the close interdependence between consumer effects, soil nutrients, and plant functional traits and suggest that plant traits may provide an improved understanding of how consumers and nutrients influence plant community productivity and diversity. PMID:23431600

Eskelinen, Anu; Harrison, Susan; Tuomi, Maria

2012-12-01

164

Design Aspects of the Attitude Control System for the SOHO Spacecraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Solar Helispherical Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft is to be placed in a halo orbit around the first Lagrangian point L1 of the Sun-Earth system. The orbit is inherently unstable and consequently requires tight control of delta-V magnitude and direction...

T. D. Wood C. D. James

1991-01-01

165

The aspect of vector control using the asynchronous traction motor in locomotives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article examines curves controlling asynchronous traction motors increasingly used in locomotive electric drives the main task of which is to create a tractive effort?speed curve of an ideal locomotive Fk = f(v), including a hyperbolic area the curve of which will create conditions showing that energy created by the diesel engine of diesel locomotives (electric locomotives and in case

Lionginas Liudvinavi?ius; Leonas Povilas Lingaitis; Stasys Dailydka; Virgilijus Jastremskas

2009-01-01

166

[Treatment of hepatic trauma by hepatotomy with selective vasculo-biliary control. Technical aspects and outcomes].  

PubMed

Severe hemorrhage from liver parenchyma in hepatic trauma remains a formidable challenge even for the most experienced trauma surgeons. One therapeutic option when dealing with such hemorrhage is hepatotomy with selective vasculo-biliary control. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of hepatotomy with selective vasculo-biliary control for hepatic trauma. We used this technique in 27 patients with deep hepatic lacerations secondary to trauma. There were 19 penetrating and 8 blunt injuries. The lesions were graded as grade III--19 lesions, grade IV--6 lesions and grade V--2 lesions. The Pringle maneuver was applied in all cases (mean time 26 min). Hepatotomy was performed in all cases using a finger fracture technique; the average for this part of the procedure was 11.2 min. The resulting defect was treated by insertion of a viable omental pack in 11 patients and by hepatorrhaphy in 10 cases. There were 4 post-operative complications (14.8%) directed related to hepatic trauma--2 hemorrhages, one hepatic abscess and one biliary fistula. We recorded two deaths (7.4%), one by exsanguination and one by multiple organ failure. The low rates of morbidity and mortality, the wide range of application (grade III to V, penetrating and blunt) and the speed of execution suggest that hepatotomy with selective vasculo-biliary control is a safe and efficient technique for controlling hemorrhage from deep lacerations. PMID:15675287

Lunc?, S; Romedea, N S

167

Control and operational aspects of the Mascot 4 force feedback servomanipulator of JET  

Microsoft Academic Search

The telemanipulator developed for maintenance of the JET (Joint European Torus) tokamak (Mascot 4) is a microprocessor-controlled unit based on bilateral position servosystems. The main objective of this type of force-feedback servomanipulator is to give the operator, as nearly as possible, the tactile sensations of actually doing the job. Servomanipulator sensitivity, stiffness, time response and low reflected inertia characteristics are

L. Galbiati; T. Raimondi; P. Garetti; G. Costi

1991-01-01

168

A layman's guide to constitutional aspects of international arms control agreements involving the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

An initial assessment has been conducted to examine the legal implications and complexities that must be understood and evaluated should the facilities and contractors of the US Department of Energy (DOE) not be exempted from on-site inspections (OSIs) conducted by the Soviet Union under the pending Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START) Treaty or under future arms control treaties. The assessment

Scheinman

1988-01-01

169

Authentic and Hubristic Pride: Differential Relations to Aspects of Goal Regulation, Affect, and Self-Control  

PubMed Central

This study examines the relationships of trait-like tendencies towards authentic and hubristic pride (Tracy & Robins, 2004) with goal-regulation tendencies, affective tendencies, and impulsive traits. Undergraduates (n = 936) completed the 14-item measure of authentic and hubristic pride (Tracy & Robins, 2007b) and a battery of other self-report measures. The two types of pride correlated with distinct profiles of goal regulation tendencies, affective tendencies, and self-control. Authentic pride correlated with measures of self-control, whereas hubristic pride was related to measures of impulsivity and aggression. Overall, the differential pattern of correlations fits with a model in which authentic pride is tied to adaptive achievement and goal engagement, whereas hubristic pride is tied to extrinsic values of public recognition and social dominance.

Carver, Charles S.; Johnson, Sheri L.

2010-01-01

170

Adapting plans in progress in distributed supervisory work: aspects of complexity, coupling, and control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed supervisory control systems often rely on complex and centralized plans to cope with a variety of unanticipated\\u000a situations. Replanning requires practitioners to forgo standard procedures in favor of making simple plans without simplifying,\\u000a managing task coupling, and anticipating team needs to provide decentralized and elaborate plans. This article proposes a\\u000a plan classification scheme to study what features of plans

Tom Kontogiannis

2010-01-01

171

Aspects of satellite imagery exploration in GIS-based command and control real-time technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tremendous increase in satellite imagery resolution and accuracy has made it reasonable to exploit such imagery in GIS-based command and control, fusing data streams from UAV\\/UGV and satellite sensors for C4ISR systems. To fuse imagery from satellite and tactical sensors in real time, the authors apply probabilistic analysis, polyquadrically interpolating evidential reasoning about non-numeric tactical factors and superimposing them

Eugene Levin; Tomasz P. Jannson; Andrew A. Kostrzewski

2002-01-01

172

Active Flow Control on Low-Aspect Ratio, Low-Reynolds Number Airfoils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insect flight observations show high-lift mechanisms that rely on leading-edge vortex stabilization. These processes are intimately coupled to the flapping motion of the insect wing. In fixed wing applications, suitable for micro-air vehicles, active flow control may be capable of providing similar influence over vortex formation and stabilization. Steady and pulsed mass injection strategies are used to explore the open-loop

Matthew Munson; Daegyoum Kim; William Dickson; Morteza Gharib

2008-01-01

173

CYFIP dependent Actin Remodeling controls specific aspects of Drosophila eye morphogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell rearrangements shape organs and organisms using molecular pathways and cellular processes that are still poorly understood. Here we investigate the role of the Actin cytoskeleton in the formation of the Drosophila compound eye, which requires extensive remodeling and coordination between different cell types. We show that CYFIP\\/Sra-1, a member of the WAVE\\/SCAR complex and regulator of Actin remodeling, controls

Anne Galy; Annette Schenck; H. Bahar Sahin; Abrar Qurashi; José-Alain Sahel; Céline Diebold; Angela Giangrande

2011-01-01

174

Dynamical aspects of motor and perceptual processes in schizophrenic patients and healthy controls.  

PubMed

The present study examined the temporal stationarity of the performance of 16 schizophrenic patients and 16 controls matched for age and sex in a bimanual coordination task and a perceptual task. In the motor task, rhythmic finger oscillations (alternating activity of homologue muscle groups) at increasing speed levels resulted in two measures, the preferred oscillation frequency and the critical frequency at which phase transitions (change towards simultaneous activity of homologue muscle groups) occurred. A measure of local dimensional complexity (pointwise D2 or PD2), which is a measure of non-linear dynamics, was determined for the acceleration profiles of the subjects' movements. Schizophrenics exhibited less stable movement dynamics than controls in horizontal finger cycling, indicated by a lower ratio critical/preferred frequency (critical ratio) and by higher means and standard deviations of the pointwise D2. In vertical cycling, the critical ratio did not differentiate between groups, while PD2 means and standard deviations did. Groups also differed specifically in perception of two ambiguous figures (Schroeder stairs and Rubin vase). Schizophrenics showed significantly higher reversal rates for the Rubin vase and a differential perceptive in comparison to controls in the perception of the Schroeder stairs. Measures of perceptual and motor stability were unrelated, which suggests that perceptual and motor processes are not influenced by a common underlying mechanism. PMID:9789909

Keil, A; Elbert, T; Rockstroh, B; Ray, W J

1998-10-01

175

Combinatorial control of diverse metabolic and physiological functions by transcriptional regulators of the yeast sulfur assimilation pathway.  

PubMed

Methionine abundance affects diverse cellular functions, including cell division, redox homeostasis, survival under starvation, and oxidative stress response. Regulation of the methionine biosynthetic pathway involves three DNA-binding proteins-Met31p, Met32p, and Cbf1p. We hypothesized that there exists a "division of labor" among these proteins that facilitates coordination of methionine biosynthesis with diverse biological processes. To explore combinatorial control in this regulatory circuit, we deleted CBF1, MET31, and MET32 individually and in combination in a strain lacking methionine synthase. We followed genome-wide gene expression as these strains were starved for methionine. Using a combination of bioinformatic methods, we found that these regulators control genes involved in biological processes downstream of sulfur assimilation; many of these processes had not previously been documented as methionine dependent. We also found that the different factors have overlapping but distinct functions. In particular, Met31p and Met32p are important in regulating methionine metabolism, whereas p functions as a "generalist" transcription factor that is not specific to methionine metabolism. In addition, Met31p and Met32p appear to regulate iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis through direct and indirect mechanisms and have distinguishable target specificities. Finally, CBF1 deletion sometimes has the opposite effect on gene expression from MET31 and MET32 deletion. PMID:22696679

Petti, Allegra A; McIsaac, R Scott; Ho-Shing, Olivia; Bussemaker, Harmen J; Botstein, David

2012-06-13

176

Aspects of latex particle size control for improved water blush resistance.  

PubMed

Latex films have a tendency to "blush" when exposed to water. The swelling of trapped hydrophilic material, which results in pockets with different refractive indices, is proposed as a possible model for blushing. A pressure-sensitive latex was developed on the basis of this model. The blush was improved by the choice of the surfactant and control of the particle diameter. The resulting latex has an unusual particle growth behavior during polymerization. The particle size distribution (PSD) was characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), electron microscopy (SEM/TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The data are in a good agreement with our proposed growth model. PMID:18241039

Starostin, Natasha; Harvey, Scott; Carlson, Gary

177

Aspects of satellite imagery exploration in GIS-based command and control real-time technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tremendous increase in satellite imagery resolution and accuracy has made it reasonable to exploit such imagery in GIS-based command and control, fusing data streams from UAV/UGV and satellite sensors for C4ISR systems. To fuse imagery from satellite and tactical sensors in real time, the authors apply probabilistic analysis, polyquadrically interpolating evidential reasoning about non-numeric tactical factors and superimposing them on Digital Terrain Models and satellite imagery. Doing this in real time for C4ISR requires highly parallel computation, implemented on Video/Imagery Super-Parallel and Supercomputer-Path (VISP) hardware. Another approach is integrated view analysis for purposes of command decision making missions, making use of GIS environments, Dynamic Time Multiplexed Holographic (DTMH) screens, and 3-D projection for precise visualization of accurate GIS-based imagery. This technology incorporates non-numeric real-time information into the command and control processes with simultaneous integrated 3-D views. Theory and experiment both indicate that the methods and algorithms described here are feasible.

Levin, Eugene; Jannson, Tomasz P.; Kostrzewski, Andrew A.

2002-08-01

178

Source, significance, and control of indoor microbial aerosols: human health aspects.  

PubMed Central

The usual profile of indoor microbial aerosols probably has little meaning to healthy people. However, hazardous microbial aerosols can penetrate buildings or be generated within them; in either case, they can have significant adverse effects on human health. These aerosols can be controlled to some extent by eliminating or reducing their sources. In this regard, careful consideration should be given in building construction to the design of ventilation and air-conditioning systems and to the flooring material, so that these systems and the flooring material will not act as microbial reservoirs. It is evident that in spite of the considerable body of data available on indoor microbial aerosols, little is known of their true significance to human health except in terms of overt epidemic disease. Continued research is needed in this area, particularly in respect to situations of high risk in such locations as hospitals and schools for young children.

Spendlove, J C; Fannin, K F

1983-01-01

179

Contamination control aspects of attaching waste drums to the WIPP Waste Characterization Chamber  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National Laboratory West (ANL-W) is verifying the characterization and repackaging of contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) mixed waste in support of the Waste Isolation Pilot Program (WIPP) project located in Carlsbad, New Mexico. The WIPP Waste Characterization Chamber (WCC) was designed to allow opening of transuranic waste drums for this process. The WCC became operational in March of 1994 and has characterized approximately 240 drums of transuranic waste. The waste drums are internally contaminated with high levels of transuranic radionuclides. Attaching and detaching drums to the glove box posed serious contamination control problems. Prior to characterizing waste, several drum attachment techniques and materials were evaluated. An inexpensive HEPA filter molded into the bagging material helps with venting during detachment. The current techniques and procedures used to attach and detach transuranic waste drums to the WCC are described.

Rubick, L.M.; Burke, L.L.

1998-12-31

180

Coupling Temperature Control with Electrochemically Modulated Liquid Chromatography: Fundamental Aspects and Applications  

SciTech Connect

The primary focus of the doctoral research presented herein has been the integration of temperature control into electrochemically modulated liquid chromatography (EMLC). The combination of temperature control and the tunable characteristics of carbonaceous EMLC stationary phases have been invaluable in deciphering the subtleties of the retention mechanism. The effects of temperature and E{sub app} on the retention of several naphthalene disulfonates were therefore examined by the van' Hoff relationship. The results indicate that while the retention of both compounds is exothermic at levels comparable to that in many reversed-phase separations, the potential dependence of the separation is actually entropically affected in a manner paralleling that of several classical ion exchange systems. Furthermore, the retention of small inorganic anions at constant temperature also showed evidence of an ion exchange type of mechanism. While a more complete mechanistic description will come from examining the thermodynamics of retention for a wider variety of analytes, this research has laid the groundwork for full exploitation of temperature as a tool to develop retention rules for EMLC. Operating EMLC at elevated temperature and flow conditions has decreased analysis time and has enabled the separation of analytes not normally achievable on a carbon stationary phase. The separation of several aromatic sulfonates was achieved in less than 1 min, a reduction of analysis time by more than a factor of 20 as compared to room temperature separations. The use of higher operating temperatures also facilitated the separation of this mixture with an entirely aqueous mobile phase in less than 2 min. This methodology was extended to the difficult separation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on PGC. This study also brought to light the mechanistic implications of the unique retention behavior of these analytes through variations of the mobile phase composition.

Lisa M. Ponton

2004-12-19

181

In-line filtration minimizes organ dysfunction: New aspects from a prospective, randomized, controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Infused particles induce thrombogenesis, impair microcirculation and modulate immune response. We have previously shown in critically ill children, that particle-retentive in-line filtration reduced the overall complication rate of severe events, length of stay and duration of mechanical ventilation. We now evaluated the influence of in-line filtration on different organ function and thereby elucidated the potential underlying pathophysiological effects of particle infusion. Methods In this single-centre, prospective, randomized controlled trial 807 critically ill children were assigned to either control (n?=?406) or filter group (n?=?401), the latter receiving in-line filtration for complete infusion therapy. Both groups were compared regarding the differences of incidence rates and its 95% confidence interval (CI) of different organ dysfunction as defined by the International Pediatric Sepsis Consensus Conference 2005. Results The incidence rates of respiratory (?5.06%; 95% CI, ?9.52 to ?0.59%), renal (?3.87%; 95% CI, ?7.58 to ?0.15%) and hematologic (?3.89%; 95% CI, ?7.26 to ?0.51%) dysfunction were decreased in the filter group. No difference was demonstrated for the occurrence rates of cardiovascular, hepatic, or neurologic dysfunction between both groups. Conclusions In-line filtration has beneficial effects on the preservation of hematologic, renal and respiratory function in critically ill patients. The presented clinical data further support our hypothesis regarding potential harmful effects of particles. In critically ill patients infused particles may lead to further deterioration of the microcirculation, induce a systemic hypercoagulability and inflammation with consecutive negative effects on organ function. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov number; NCT00209768

2013-01-01

182

Transcriptional control of flavonoid biosynthesis: a complex network of conserved regulators involved in multiple aspects of differentiation in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Secondary metabolism is not only a protective mechanism against biotic and abiotic stresses but also part of the molecular programs that contribute to normal plant growth and development. In this context, secondary metabolism is intimately linked with other aspects of plant differentiation in which transcription factors play a key coordinating role. Recent findings illustrate the complexity of regulatory networks that control flavonoid biosynthesis in Arabidopsis and other species. They also underline the close relationship between secondary metabolism and epidermal and seed differentiation in Arabidopsis, and the central role played by conserved WD40 domain proteins in regulating these processes. This review highlights recent advances in this field and describes how they help our understanding of the molecular regulation of plant secondary metabolism. PMID:15860424

Broun, Pierre

2005-06-01

183

Immunoprocedures for detecting human chorionic gonadotropin: clinical aspects and doping control.  

PubMed

The pregnancy hormone human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is also present at low concentrations in plasma and urine of men and nonpregnant women. hCG immunoreactivity occurs in various molecular forms: Besides the intact hCG heterodimer, considerable amounts of proteolytically cleaved forms, free subunits, and fragments are found in plasma and urine. Especially in urine, proteolytic fragments constitute a major part of the hCG immunoreactivity. The different forms of hCG cross-react to various degrees in immunoassays and constitute a problem for standardization of specific hCG determinations. After injection of hCG (10,000 IU of Pregnyl; Organon), above-normal concentrations of hCG can be detected in serum and urine for 7-11 days. Most immunoassays for hCG also measure hCG beta. Quantitative hCG determinations are mainly performed on serum samples, and very few commercial hCG determinations have been validated for determination of urine samples. Considerable care must therefore be exercised when utilizing such assays to analyze urines for doping control. PMID:9216477

Stenman, U H; Unkila-Kallio, L; Korhonen, J; Alfthan, H

1997-07-01

184

[Serotoninergic system morphofunctional aspects in control of postural and locomotion function].  

PubMed

Different mediator systems including serotoninergic one can influence animal's locomotor behavior. It has been shown that the spinal cord in the absence of supraspinal control is able to induce the locomotor activity in hindlimbs and afferent system can activate this mechanism. In behavioral studies on the rats with complete transection of the spinal cord it has been demonstrated that the pharmacological blocking of serotoninergic system results in depression of motor activity mediated by activation of support reactions. Histological studies did not reveal any effects of activation of support reactions on the safety of neurons as well as on the distribution of synaptic contacts within L2-L4 spinal segments. At the same time it has been shown that blockade of the serotoninergic system results in alterations of cells located in 1-3 laminae of dorsal horns, and in 7 Rexed's lamina as well as in redistribution of synaptic contacts in 1-4 Rexed laminae of the spinal cord dorsal horns. PMID:23461203

Gerasimenko, Iu P; Moshonkina, T R; Pavlova, N V; Tomilovskaia, E S; Kozlovskaia, I B

2012-12-01

185

Control of the temporal aspect when considering risk factors for acute otitis media.  

PubMed

A random sample of 2512 children was monitored to age 2 years to study the biologic effects of various risk variables on acute otitis media using a new dynamic modeling that controls both the confounding effects and time dependency. Dynamic modeling proved to be superior to conventional approaches, both the random and systematic error being much smaller and the effect estimates being biologically interpretable. The major risk factors were the existence of a previous episode of acute otitis media in general (odds ratio, 2.03; 95% confidence interval [Cl], 1.81 to 2.25) or particularly during the preceding 3 months (odds ratio, 3.74; 95% Cl, 3.40 to 4.10) and attending a day nursery (odds radio, 2.06; 95% Cl, 1.81 to 2.34). As the form of day care is the only modifiable risk variable of significant importance and previous episodes entail a risk of future ones, infants should be cared for at home, particularly after they have already experienced an episode of acute otitis media. PMID:8457307

Alho, O P; Kilkku, O; Oja, H; Koivu, M; Sorri, M

1993-04-01

186

Manipulation of metal-insulator transition characteristics in aspect ratio-controlled VO2 micro-scale thin films on TiO2 (001) substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We manipulated the metal-insulator transition characteristics of VO2 thin films on TiO2 (001) substrates by changing their micro-scaled metallic domain configurations through size- and aspect ratio-control. A very steep resistance drop at 294 K was demonstrated for a 1D parallel domain configuration in a low aspect ratio sample, whereas a multi-level resistance change was exhibited for a 1D series domain configuration in a high aspect ratio sample. This difference was explained using simple resistor models. The results illustrate the importance of spatially distributed metallic domain positions in tuning electrical transport properties.

Ueda, Hiroki; Kanki, Teruo; Tanaka, Hidekazu

2013-04-01

187

[Genetic diversity of Swan goose (Anser cygnoides l.) in Russia: analysis of the mitochondrial DNA control region polymorphism].  

PubMed

Using to analysis of hypervariable fragment polymorphism in the control region of mitochondrial DNA (268 bp), the genetic variability of Swan goose Anser cygnoides L., included in the first category of endangered species in the Russian Red Book, has been investigated. Samples from the two main groups nesting in Russia-the Far Eastern group (Khabarovsk krai, n = 38) and the Dauric group (Chita region, n = 10) were examined. Eleven haplotypes were described. The genetic diversity of Swan geese was low comparable with that observed in some other globally endangered Eurasian goose species. Nucleotide and haplotype diversity of goose from Khabarovsk krai was 0.0031 and 0.65, respectively; in those from Chita region, 0.0041 and 0.80; and for in total group, 0.0074 and 0.77, respectively. No identical haplotypes in Swan goose from Far Eastern and Daurical groups have been demonstrated. However, the small sample size does not allow us to make final conclusions on the degree of genetic differentiation between these groups. PMID:20536028

Poiarkov, N D; Klenova, A V; Kholodova, M V

2010-04-01

188

Key Residues Controlling Binding of Diverse Ligands to Human Cytochrome P450 2A Enzymes  

PubMed Central

Although the human lung cytochrome P450 2A13 (CYP2A13) and its liver counterpart cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) are 94% identical in amino acid sequence, they metabolize a number of substrates with substantially different efficiencies. To determine differences in binding for a diverse set of cytochrome P450 2A ligands, we have measured the spectral binding affinities (KD) for nicotine, phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), coumarin, 2?-methoxyacetophenone (MAP), and 8-methoxypsoralen. The differences in the KD values for CYP2A6 versus CYP2A13 ranged from 74-fold for 2?-methoxyacetophenone to 1.1-fold for coumarin, with CYP2A13 demonstrating the higher affinity. To identify active site amino acids responsible for the differences in binding of MAP, PEITC, and coumarin, 10 CYP2A13 mutant proteins were generated in which individual amino acids from the CYP2A6 active site were substituted into CYP2A13 at the corresponding position. Titrations revealed that substitutions at positions 208, 300, and 301 individually had the largest effects on ligand binding. The collective relevance of these amino acids to differential ligand selectivity was verified by evaluating binding to CYP2A6 mutant enzymes that incorporate several of the CYP2A13 amino acids at these positions. Inclusion of four CYP2A13 amino acids resulted in a CYP2A6 mutant protein (I208S/I300F/G301A/S369G) with binding affinities for MAP and PEITC much more similar to those observed for CYP2A13 than to those for CYP2A6 without altering coumarin binding. The structure-based quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis using COMBINE successfully modeled the observed mutant-ligand trends and emphasized steric roles for active site residues including four substituted amino acids and an adjacent conserved Leu370.

DeVore, N. M.; Smith, B. D.; Wang, J. L.; Lushington, G. H.; Scott, E. E.

2009-01-01

189

Genetic diversity studies of Brazilian garlic cultivars and quality control of garlic-clover production.  

PubMed

The garlic cultivars grown in Brazil evolved from somatic mutations and clone selection by breeding programs and by the introduction of germplasm from other countries. Morphological characters have been used to differentiate these cultivars. Two hundred and six random amplified polymorphic DNA markers were utilized for a diversity analysis of the 17 most planted garlic cultivars in Brazil. Bootstrap analysis showed that the number of markers was efficient and sufficient to obtain a coefficient of variation of 10%. Similarity varied between 16 and 98% and cluster analysis showed that, in general, genetic similarities correlate with morphological characters of the cultivars and production cycle variation. High bootstrap values at most of the nodes supported the dendrogram stability. The grouping of most varieties agreed well with previous reports based on morphological characters. As a vegetative-propagated species, viral diseases are a key problem regarding production and quality of the bulbs, causing gradual loss of yield and decrease in storage capacity. To improve the health quality of garlic seed, a virus-free stock of garlic cloves of the Amarante cultivar was obtained. The ability to distinguish garlic cultivars to detect varietal mixing after in vitro multiplication is extremely important, since correct identification is not possible until bulbs are produced. Random amplified polymorphic DNA markers were also used to differentiate cultivars while they are in vitro and not amenable to morphological discrimination. No difference was identified between the fingerprints of the virus-free or of the infected bulks of Amarante, showing that there was no clove mixing in the handling of material in the clonal multiplication phase. PMID:18752178

Buso, G S C; Paiva, M R; Torres, A C; Resende, F V; Ferreira, M A; Buso, J A; Dusi, A N

2008-06-17

190

Tobacco Control Policy Advocacy Attitudes and Self-Efficacy among Ethnically Diverse High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study applied self-efficacy theory to assess empowerment to advocate on behalf of tobacco control policies. The Youth Tobacco Survey with added policy advocacy self-efficacy, attitudes, and outcome expectations scales was given to 9,177 high school students in Texas. Asians showed the lowest prevalence of experimentation and current smoking,…

Ramirez, Amelie G.; Velez, Luis F.; Chalela, Patricia; Grussendorf, Jeannie; McAlister, Alfred L.

2006-01-01

191

Bloat Control Operators and Diversity in Genetic Programming: A Comparative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports a comparison of several bloat control methods and also evaluates a recent proposal for limiting the size of the individuals: a genetic operator called prune and plant. The aim of this work is to test the adequacy of this method. Since a preliminary study of the method has already shown promising results, we have performed a thorough

Eva Alfaro-Cid; Juan Julián Merelo Guervós; Francisco Fernández de Vega; Anna Isabel Esparcia-Alcázar; Ken Sharman

2010-01-01

192

Decreased Functional Diversity and Biological Pest Control in Conventional Compared to Organic Crop Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic farming is one of the most successful agri-environmental schemes, as humans benefit from high quality food, farmers from higher prices for their products and it often successfully protects biodiversity. However there is little knowledge if organic farming also increases ecosystem services like pest control. We assessed 30 triticale fields (15 organic vs. 15 conventional) and recorded vascular plants, pollinators,

Jochen Krauss; Iris Gallenberger; Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter

2011-01-01

193

Meta-analytic evidence for a superordinate cognitive control network subserving diverse executive functions.  

PubMed

Classic cognitive theory conceptualizes executive functions as involving multiple specific domains, including initiation, inhibition, working memory, flexibility, planning, and vigilance. Lesion and neuroimaging experiments over the past two decades have suggested that both common and unique processes contribute to executive functions during higher cognition. It has been suggested that a superordinate fronto-cingulo-parietal network supporting cognitive control may also underlie a range of distinct executive functions. To test this hypothesis in the largest sample to date, we used quantitative meta-analytic methods to analyze 193 functional neuroimaging studies of 2,832 healthy individuals, ages 18-60, in which performance on executive function measures was contrasted with an active control condition. A common pattern of activation was observed in the prefrontal, dorsal anterior cingulate, and parietal cortices across executive function domains, supporting the idea that executive functions are supported by a superordinate cognitive control network. However, domain-specific analyses showed some variation in the recruitment of anterior prefrontal cortex, anterior and midcingulate regions, and unique subcortical regions such as the basal ganglia and cerebellum. These results are consistent with the existence of a superordinate cognitive control network in the brain, involving dorsolateral prefrontal, anterior cingulate, and parietal cortices, that supports a broad range of executive functions. PMID:22282036

Niendam, Tara A; Laird, Angela R; Ray, Kimberly L; Dean, Y Monica; Glahn, David C; Carter, Cameron S

2012-06-01

194

Diversity of regulatory CD4+T cells controlling distinct organ-specific autoimmune diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depletion of selected regulatory CD4+ T cell subsets induces the spontaneous onset of various immune or autoimmune disorders. It is not clear, however, whether a given subset, notably CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells, protects from a wide spectrum of immune disorders, or whether specialized subsets of regulatory T cells control each given disease or group of diseases. We report here, using

Marie-Alexandra Alyanakian; Sylvaine You; Diane Damotte; Christine Gouarin; Anne Esling; Corinne Garcia; Séverine Havouis; Lucienne Chatenoud; Jean-François Bach

2003-01-01

195

Credentialing, diversity, and professional recognition-foundations for an Australian infection control career path  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There are no regulatory, legislative, or professional criteria stipulating minimum qualifications or experience that a health care worker must meet to be capable of coordinating an Australian infection control (IC) program. Measurement of IC competence is important to protect the public and for the ongoing credibility and growth of the profession. Method: Our study group was all 1078 nonmedical

Cathryn L Murphy; M.-L McLaws

1999-01-01

196

Moisture control over atmospheric CH 4 consumption and CO 2 production in diverse Alaskan soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moisture is an important control on atmospheric CH4 consumption and CO2 production in soil. Wet conditions limit these microbial activities by restricting CH4 and O2 diffusion and dry conditions limit microbial activity due to physiological water stress. We examined the relationship between soil moisture and these biogeochemical activities in five Alaskan soils with varying physical properties. Three expressions of soil

Jay Gulledge; Joshua P Schimel

1998-01-01

197

Important helminth infections in Southeast Asia diversity, potential for control and prospects for elimination.  

PubMed

Besides the 'big three'-HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis-there are a host of diseases that, by comparison, are truly neglected. These so-called neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), many of which caused by helminths, are intimately linked with poverty and are rampant where housing is poor; access to clean water and adequate sanitation is lacking; hygiene and nutrition is substandard and populations are marginalized and vulnerable. More than a billion people are affected by NTDs, mainly in remote rural and deprived urban settings of the developing world. An overview of papers published in two special thematic volumes of the Advances in Parasitology is provided here under the umbrella of current status of research and control of important helminth infections. A total of 25 comprehensive reviews are presented, which summarise the latest available data pertaining to the diagnosis, epidemiology, pathogenesis, prevention, treatment, control and eventual elimination of NTDs in Southeast Asia and neighbourhood countries. The focus of the first volume provides the current regional status of schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis, food-borne trematodiases, echinococcosis and cysticercosis/taeniasis, less common parasitic diseases that can cause epidemic outbreaks and helminth infections affecting the central nervous system. The second volume deals with the tools and strategies for control, including diagnostics, drugs, vaccines and cutting-edge basic research (e.g. the '-omics' sciences). Moreover, cross-cutting themes such as multiparasitism, social sciences, capacity strengthening, geospatial health technologies, health metrics and modelling the potential impact of climate change on helminthic diseases are discussed. Hopefully, these two volumes will become useful for researchers and, most importantly, disease control managers for integrated and sustainable control, rigorous monitoring and eventual elimination of NTDs in Southeast Asia and elsewhere. PMID:20624526

Utzinger, Jürg; Bergquist, Robert; Olveda, Remigio; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

2010-01-01

198

Decreased functional diversity and biological pest control in conventional compared to organic crop fields.  

PubMed

Organic farming is one of the most successful agri-environmental schemes, as humans benefit from high quality food, farmers from higher prices for their products and it often successfully protects biodiversity. However there is little knowledge if organic farming also increases ecosystem services like pest control. We assessed 30 triticale fields (15 organic vs. 15 conventional) and recorded vascular plants, pollinators, aphids and their predators. Further, five conventional fields which were treated with insecticides were compared with 10 non-treated conventional fields. Organic fields had five times higher plant species richness and about twenty times higher pollinator species richness compared to conventional fields. Abundance of pollinators was even more than one-hundred times higher on organic fields. In contrast, the abundance of cereal aphids was five times lower in organic fields, while predator abundances were three times higher and predator-prey ratios twenty times higher in organic fields, indicating a significantly higher potential for biological pest control in organic fields. Insecticide treatment in conventional fields had only a short-term effect on aphid densities while later in the season aphid abundances were even higher and predator abundances lower in treated compared to untreated conventional fields. Our data indicate that insecticide treatment kept aphid predators at low abundances throughout the season, thereby significantly reducing top-down control of aphid populations. Plant and pollinator species richness as well as predator abundances and predator-prey ratios were higher at field edges compared to field centres, highlighting the importance of field edges for ecosystem services. In conclusion organic farming increases biodiversity, including important functional groups like plants, pollinators and predators which enhance natural pest control. Preventative insecticide application in conventional fields has only short-term effects on aphid densities but long-term negative effects on biological pest control. Therefore conventional farmers should restrict insecticide applications to situations where thresholds for pest densities are reached. PMID:21611171

Krauss, Jochen; Gallenberger, Iris; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

2011-05-18

199

Structure, organization and nucleotide diversity of the mitochondrial control region and cytochrome b of southern water vole (Arvicola sapidus).  

PubMed

The southern water vole (Arvicola sapidus Miller, 1908) is an endangered rodent whose conservation guidelines should preserve the current genetic variability. We analyze the structure and organization of the mitochondrial control region (CR) in A. sapidus. The CR of this species is characterized by a low guanine-cytosine content, the absence of any repetitive motif within the two hypervariable regions, and the presence of the two extended termination-associated sequences and conserved sequence blocks. Nucleotide diversity comparisons between A. sapidus and the European water vole (Arvicola terrestris) revealed differences in the distribution of genetic variation. Furthermore, we provide primers for the amplification of short and highly polymorphic fragments of CR and cytochrome b especially designed for degraded materials. These markers offer molecular tools to assist in the establishment of future conservation and management guidelines, and will also facilitate studies at different spatial and evolutionary scales of this species. PMID:20334495

Centeno-Cuadros, Alejandro; Godoy, José A

2010-04-01

200

Arabidopsis Ovate Family Proteins, a Novel Transcriptional Repressor Family, Control Multiple Aspects of Plant Growth and Development  

SciTech Connect

BACKGROUND: The Arabidopsis genome contains 18 genes that are predicted to encode Ovate Family Proteins (AtOFPs), a protein family characterized by a conserved OVATE domain, an approximately 70-amino acid domain that was originally found in tomato OVATE protein. Among AtOFP family members, AtOFP1 has been shown to suppress cell elongation, in part, by suppressing the expression of AtGA20ox1, AtOFP4 has been shown to regulate secondary cell wall formation by interact with KNOTTED1-LIKE HOMEODOMAIN PROTEIN 7 (KNAT7), and AtOFP5 has been shown to regulate the activity of a BEL1-LIKEHOMEODOMAIN 1(BLH1)-KNAT3 complex during early embryo sac development, but little is known about the function of other AtOFPs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We demonstrated here that AtOFP proteins could function as effective transcriptional repressors in the Arabidopsis protoplast transient expression system. The analysis of loss-of-function alleles of AtOFPs suggested AtOFP genes may have overlapping function in regulating plant growth and development, because none of the single mutants identified, including T-DNA insertion mutants in AtOFP1, AtOFP4, AtOFP8, AtOFP10, AtOFP15 and AtOFP16, displayed any apparent morphological defects. Further, Atofp1 Atofp4 and Atofp15 Atofp16 double mutants still did not differ significantly from wild-type. On the other hand, plants overexpressing AtOFP genes displayed a number of abnormal phenotypes, which could be categorized into three distinct classes, suggesting that AtOFP genes may also have diverse functions in regulating plant growth and development. Further analysis suggested that AtOFP1 regulates cotyledon development in a postembryonic manner, and global transcript profiling revealed that it suppress the expression of many other genes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results showed that AtOFPs function as transcriptional repressors and they regulate multiple aspects of plant growth and development. These results provided the first overview of a previously unknown transcriptional repressor family, and revealed their possible roles in plant growth and development.

Wang, Shucai [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Chang, Ying [Northeast Agricultural University; Guo, Jianjun [Harvard University; Zeng, Qingning [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Ellis, Brian [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Chen, Jay [ORNL

2011-01-01

201

Arabidopsis Ovate Family Proteins, a Novel Transcriptional Repressor Family, Control Multiple Aspects of Plant Growth and Development  

PubMed Central

Background The Arabidopsis genome contains 18 genes that are predicted to encode Ovate Family Proteins (AtOFPs), a protein family characterized by a conserved OVATE domain, an approximately 70-amino acid domain that was originally found in tomato OVATE protein. Among AtOFP family members, AtOFP1 has been shown to suppress cell elongation, in part, by suppressing the expression of AtGA20ox1, AtOFP4 has been shown to regulate secondary cell wall formation by interact with KNOTTED1-LIKE HOMEODOMAIN PROTEIN 7 (KNAT7), and AtOFP5 has been shown to regulate the activity of a BEL1-LIKEHOMEODOMAIN 1(BLH1)-KNAT3 complex during early embryo sac development, but little is known about the function of other AtOFPs. Methodology/Principal Findings We demonstrated here that AtOFP proteins could function as effective transcriptional repressors in the Arabidopsis protoplast transient expression system. The analysis of loss-of-function alleles of AtOFPs suggested AtOFP genes may have overlapping function in regulating plant growth and development, because none of the single mutants identified, including T-DNA insertion mutants in AtOFP1, AtOFP4, AtOFP8, AtOFP10, AtOFP15 and AtOFP16, displayed any apparent morphological defects. Further, Atofp1 Atofp4 and Atofp15 Atofp16 double mutants still did not differ significantly from wild-type. On the other hand, plants overexpressing AtOFP genes displayed a number of abnormal phenotypes, which could be categorized into three distinct classes, suggesting that AtOFP genes may also have diverse functions in regulating plant growth and development. Further analysis suggested that AtOFP1 regulates cotyledon development in a postembryonic manner, and global transcript profiling revealed that it suppress the expression of many other genes. Conclusions/Significance Our results showed that AtOFPs function as transcriptional repressors and they regulate multiple aspects of plant growth and development. These results provided the first overview of a previously unknown transcriptional repressor family, and revealed their possible roles in plant growth and development.

Guo, Jianjun; Zeng, Qingning; Ellis, Brian E.; Chen, Jin-Gui

2011-01-01

202

Practical and analytic aspects of using friend controls in case-control studies: experience from a case-control study of childhood cancer  

PubMed Central

Summary The authors report empirical data on the use of friend controls, specifically response rates, case-control concordance, and analytic approaches. The data derive from a North American multi-institutional study of childhood cancer that was conducted in 2002–2007 and that focused on paternal exposures. Case parents nominated friends as potential controls; up to 3 controls participated per case. For 137 (69%) of the 199 case families, at least 1 control participated. Of 374 potential controls contacted, 247 (66%) participated. Case fathers with controls were markedly more likely to be non-Hispanic white, college graduates, and non-smokers compared to case fathers without controls. Odds ratios adjusted for demographic characteristics were generally similar but occasionally differed between analyses that included only members of matched sets and those that included all participants, i.e. controls and cases with and without controls. For demographic characteristics, simulations demonstrated that the observed concordance of cases and controls within matched sets exceeded that expected under random ascertainment, indicating probable overmatching. However, the observed concordance of smoking and other exposures was similar to the expectation under random ascertainment suggesting little overmatching on exposures. Although not ideal, friend controls were convenient, had a reasonably high response rate, and provided controls closely matched on race/ethnicity, education, and age.

Bunin, Greta R; Vardhanabhuti, Saran; Lin, Agueda; Anschuetz, Greta L; Mitra, Nandita

2012-01-01

203

Local Versus Landscape Control of Leaf Litter Chemistry on a Diverse Tropical Island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in remote sensing technologies offer the opportunity to map terrestrial landscapes to broad physiognomic classes. A question that arises is whether additional local or landscape-scale information is needed to describe and model ecosystem properties at large, regional scales. Soils exhibit biogeochemical heterogeneity at multiple scales. Many soil nutrients are likely under more regional scale control due to gradients in climate and lithology, while others under more local control due to effects of species composition and topographic position. To examine some of these processes, we analyzed 11 elements in O horizon leaf litter from 147 Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plots systematically located across the island of Puerto Rico. We then asked whether there were differences according to 1: Holdridge life zone, 2: forest cover type (primarily evergreen vs. drought deciduous broadleaf), derived from remotely sensed vegetation data in 2000 combined with coarse-scale geology (karst vs. non-karst), and 3: forest assemblages, based on tree survey data from the FIA plots. Three elements (C, Ca, and Mn) differed by Holdridge life zone, 2 elements (C, Ca) by 2000 forest cover type, 6 by geology (C, P, Ca, Mn, Al, and Fe), and 10 (including N) by groups of forest assemblages. As well, across and within several forest assemblages, leaf litter N and P were positively related to the basal area of putatively N-fixing tree legumes. These findings confirm the role of species in contributing to the spatial heterogeneity of N and P and suggest that without detailed data on vegetation composition, scaling up to landscapes may be problematic for some elements.

Erickson, H. E.; Helmer, E. H.; Brandeis, T. J.; Lugo, A. E.

2008-12-01

204

Role of vegetation and edaphic factors in controlling diversity and use of different carbon sources in semi-arid ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbially-mediated soil carbon cycling is closely linked to soil moisture and temperature. Climate change is predicted to increase intra-annual precipitation variability (i.e. less frequent yet more intense precipitation events) and alter biogeochemical processes due to shifts in soil moisture dynamics and inputs of carbon. However, the responses of soil biology and chemistry to predicted climate change, and their concomitant feedbacks on ecosystem productivity and biogeochemical processes are poorly understood. We collected soils at three different elevations in the Santa Catalina Mountains, AZ and quantified carbon utilization during pre-monsoon precipitation conditions. Contrasting parent materials (schist and granite) were paired at each elevation. We expected climate to determine the overall activity of soil fungal and bacterial communities and diversity of soil C utilization, and differences in parent material to modify these responses through controls on soil physical properties. We used EcoPlateTM C utilization assays to determine the relative abundance of soil bacterial and fungal populations and rate and diversity of carbon utilization. Additional plates were incubated with inhibitors selective to fungal or bacterial activity to assess relative contribution of these microbial groups to overall C utilization. We analyzed soils for soil organic matter, total C and N, particle size analysis and soil moisture content via both gravimetric and volumetric methods to assess the influences of soil physical and chemical properties on the measured biological responses. Consistent with our expectations, overall microbial activity was highest at the uppermost conifer elevation sites compared to the middle and lower elevation sites. In contrast to our expectations, however, overall activity was lower at the mid elevation oak woodland sites compared to the low elevation desert sites. Also consistent with our expectations was the observation that overall activities were consistently higher in schist parent material compared to granite. Though differences between canopy and intercanopy carbon utilization were subtle, the diversity of carbon utilization differed, suggesting a potential role of root exudates in governing C utilization in these semiarid soils. Findings from this study suggest that soil physical properties due to parent material have primary impacts in constraining microbial growth and carbon utilization under changing climate conditions.

Lohse, K. A.; McLain, J. E.; Harman, C. J.; Sivapalan, M.; Troch, P. A.

2010-12-01

205

Mechanistic controls on diverse fates of terrestrial organic components in the East China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial carbon transferred from the land to sea is a critical component of the global carbon cycle. A range of geochemical proxies has been developed to fingerprint the fate of terrestrial organic matter (TOM) in marine sediments. However, discrepancies among different proxies limit our ability to quantify and interpret the terrestrial signals in marine sediments, with consequences for the investigation of both the modern carbon cycle and past environmental change. To mechanistically understand these discrepancies, we examined the distributions of a range of terrestrial proxies and their aquatic counterparts (i.e. marine proxies) in the Yangtze river-East China Sea (YR-ECS) shelf system, where TOM experiences extensive modification during transport and burial. TOM proxies in the YR-ECS system collectively fit a power-law model but with distinct attenuation rates (the a? values) for individual molecular proxy groups. Among a range of TOM proxies, the modeled a? values decrease in the order: soil-marker BHPs > triterpenols > lignin > HMW n-alkanols > branched GDGTs > HMW n-alkanes for biomarkers; and Rsoil > BIT > %TOMiso for proxies tracing %TOM. Rapid loss of TOM components through dissociation in the narrow estuary, followed by oxidation over the wide open shelf, are best described by power curves. Inherent chemical reactivity (i.e. the number of functional groups), responses to hydraulic sorting, and in situ production regulate the individual attenuation rates. Of them, chemical reactivity plays the most important role on proxy behavior, supported by a strong correlation between a? values and standard molal Gibbs energies. Both, physical protection and chemical reactivity fundamentally control the overall behavior of TOM components, with the relative importance being setting-dependant: The former is relatively important in the estuary, whereas the later is the primary control over the open shelf. Moreover, regional variation of different marine-counterparts is also significant over the river-ECS shelf system, seemingly regulated by regional nutrient distributions. Therefore, for %TOM estimates using molecular ratio approaches, the specific behavior of individual terrestrial components and marine-counterparts and the physical, biological and chemical characteristics of depositional settings all need to be considered.

Zhu, Chun; Wagner, Thomas; Talbot, Helen M.; Weijers, Johan W. H.; Pan, Jian-Ming; Pancost, Richard D.

2013-09-01

206

Human factors aspects of the major upgrade to control systems at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Plutonium Facility (TA-55) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has been in operation for over 15 years. It handles projects such as: stockpile maintenance, surveillance, and dismantlement; pit rebuild; plutonium power source fabrication for long duration spacecraft missions (e.g., Cassini); nuclear materials technology research; nuclear materials storage; and remediation of nuclear waste. The Operations Center of TA-55 is the nerve center of the facility where operators are on duty around the clock and monitor several thousand data points using the Facility Control System (FCS). The FCS monitors, displays, alarms, and provides some limited control of the following systems; HVAC, fire detection and suppression, radiation detection, electrical, and other miscellaneous systems. The FCS was originally based on late 1970s digital technology, which is not longer supported by the vendors. Additionally, the equipment failure rates increased notably in the 1990s. Thus, plans were put into place to upgrade and replace the FCS hardware, software, and display components with modernized equipment. The process was complicated by the facts that: the facility was operational and could not be totally closed for the modifications; complete documentation was not available for the existing system; the Safety Analyses for the facility were in the process of being upgraded at the same time; and of course limited time and budgets. This paper will discuss the human factors aspects of the design, installation, and testing of the new FCS within the above noted constraints. Particular items to be discussed include the functional requirements definition, operating experience review, screen designs, test program, operator training, and phased activation of the new circuits in an operational facility.

Higgins, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Pope, N. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1997-06-01

207

Ground Control Aspects of Coal Mine Design. Proceedings: Bureau of Mines Technology Transfer Seminar: Held at Lexington, Ky, on March 6, 1973.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains the papers presented at the Technology Transfer Seminar on Ground Control Aspects of Coal Mine Design held by the Bureau of Mines on March 6, 1973, Lexington, Ky. Seminar attendance consisted of representatives from the coal mining in...

1974-01-01

208

Stratgies for Diversity Usage to Mitigate Postulated Common Cause Failure Vulnerabilities  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes an approach to establish effective mitigating strategies that can resolve potential common-cause failure (CCF) vulnerabilities in instrumentation and control systems at nuclear power plants. A particular objective in the development of these strategies, which consist of combinations of diversity attributes and their associated criteria, is to address the unique characteristics of digital technology that can contribute to CCF concerns. The research approach employed to establish diversity strategies involves investigation of available documentation on diversity usage and experience from nuclear power and non-nuclear industries, capture of expert knowledge and lessons learned, determination of common practices, and assessment of the nature of CCFs and compensating diversity attributes. The resulting diversity strategies address considerations such as the effect of technology choices, the nature of CCF vulnerabilities, and the prospective impact of each diversity type. In particular, the impact of each attribute and criterion on the purpose, process, product, and performance aspects of diverse systems are considered.

Wood, Richard Thomas [ORNL; Waterman, Michael E. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

2011-01-01

209

Beauveria bassiana for the control of Sunn Pest (Eurygaster integriceps) (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae) and aspects of the insect's daily activity relevant to a mycoinsecticide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of investigations was carried out at ICARDA during April–June 2004 and May–June 2005 to investigate the use of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana to control Eurygaster integriceps and to determine aspects of the insect's biology that could be relevant to control with the fungus. Application in 2004 of an oil-based formulation of B. bassiana showed distribution of the

Steve Edgington; Dave Moore; Mustapha El Bouhssini; Ziad Sayyadi

2007-01-01

210

Food hiding and weight control behaviors among ethnically diverse, overweight adolescents. Associations with parental food restriction, food monitoring, and dissatisfaction with adolescent body shape  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aims to extend previous research conducted with children by examining associations between parental behaviors (food restriction, food monitoring) and parental perceptions (dissatisfaction with adolescent body shape) with adolescent behaviors (food hiding and weight control behaviors) among an ethnically diverse sample of overweight adolescents. Survey data were collected from overweight adolescents and their parents\\/guardians (n=116 dyads) at an

DenYelle Baete Kenyon; Jayne A. Fulkerson; Harsohena Kaur

2009-01-01

211

Endemic predators, invasive prey and native diversity  

PubMed Central

Interactions between native diversity and invasive species can be more complex than is currently understood. Invasive ant species often substantially reduce diversity in the native ants diversity that act as natural control agents for pest insects. In Indonesia (on the island of Sulawesi), the third largest cacao producer worldwide, we show that a predatory endemic toad (Ingerophrynus celebensis) controls invasive ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes) abundance, and positively affects native ant diversity. We call this the invasive-naivety effect (an opposite of enemy release), whereby alien species may not harbour anti-predatory defences against a novel native predator. A positive effect of the toads on native ants may facilitate their predation on insect vectors of cacao diseases. Hence, toads may increase crop yield, but further research is needed on this aspect. Ironically, amphibians are globally the most threatened vertebrate class and are strongly impacted by the conversion of rainforest to cacao plantations in Sulawesi. It is, therefore, crucial to manage cacao plantations to maintain these endemic toads, as they may provide critical ecosystem services, such as invasion resistance and preservation of native insect diversity.

Wanger, Thomas C.; Wielgoss, Arno C.; Motzke, Iris; Clough, Yann; Brook, Barry W.; Sodhi, Navjot S.; Tscharntke, Teja

2011-01-01

212

The COPE healthy lifestyles TEEN randomized controlled trial with culturally diverse high school adolescents: baseline characteristics and methods.  

PubMed

Obesity and mental health disorders remain significant public health problems in adolescents. Substantial health disparities exist with minority youth experiencing higher rates of these problems. Schools are an outstanding venue to provide teens with skills needed to improve their physical and mental health, and academic performance. In this paper, the authors describe the design, intervention, methods and baseline data for a randomized controlled trial with 779 culturally diverse high-school adolescents in the southwest United States. Aims for this prevention study include testing the efficacy of the COPE TEEN program versus an attention control program on the adolescents' healthy lifestyle behaviors, Body Mass Index (BMI) and BMI%, mental health, social skills and academic performance immediately following the intervention programs, and at six and 12 months post interventions. Baseline findings indicate that greater than 40% of the sample is either overweight (n = 148, 19.00%) or obese (n = 182, 23.36%). The predominant ethnicity represented is Hispanic (n = 526, 67.52%). At baseline, 15.79% (n = 123) of the students had above average scores on the Beck Youth Inventory Depression subscale indicating mildly (n = 52, 6.68%), moderately (n = 47, 6.03%), or extremely (n = 24, 3.08%) elevated scores (see Table 1). Anxiety scores were slightly higher with 21.56% (n = 168) reporting responses suggesting mildly (n = 81, 10.40%), moderately (n = 58, 7.45%) or extremely (n = 29, 3.72%) elevated scores. If the efficacy of the COPE TEEN program is supported, it will offer schools a curriculum that can be easily incorporated into high school health courses to improve adolescent healthy lifestyle behaviors, psychosocial outcomes and academic performance. PMID:23748156

Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek; Kelly, Stephanie; Jacobson, Diana; Belyea, Michael; Shaibi, Gabriel; Small, Leigh; O'Haver, Judith; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco

2013-06-05

213

The influence of phytoplankton productivity, temperature and environmental stability on the control of copepod diversity in the North East Atlantic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The patterns of copepod species richness (S) and their relationship with phytoplankton productivity, temperature and environmental stability were investigated at climatological, seasonal and year-to-year time scales as well as scales along latitudinal and oceanic-neritic gradients using monthly time series of the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) Survey collected in the North East Atlantic between 1958 and 2006. Time series analyses confirmed previously described geographic patterns. Equatorward and towards neritic environments, the climatological average of S increases and the variance explained by the seasonal cycle decreases. The bi-modal character of seasonality increases equatorward and the timing of the seasonal cycle takes place progressive earlier equatorward and towards neritic environments. In the long-term, the climatological average of S decreased significantly (p < 0.001) between 1958 and 2006 in the Bay of Biscay and North Iberian shelf at a rate of ca. 0.04 year-1, and increased at the same rate between 1991 and 2006 in the northernmost oceanic location. The climatological averages of S correlate positively with those of the index of seasonality of phytoplankton productivity (ratio between the minimum and maximum monthly values of surface chlorophyll) and sea surface temperature, and negatively with those of the proxy for environmental stability (monthly frequency of occurrence of daily averaged wind speed exceeding 10 m s-1). The seasonal cycles of S and phytoplankton productivity (surface chlorophyll as proxy) exhibit similar features in terms of shape, timing and explained variance, but the relationship between the climatological averages of both variables is non-significant. From year-to-year, the annual averages of S correlate negatively with those of phytoplankton productivity and positively with those of sea surface temperature along the latitudinal gradient, and negatively with those of environmental stability along the oceanic-neritic gradient. The annual anomalies of S (i.e. factoring out geographic variation) show a unimodal relationship with those of sea surface temperature and environmental stability, with S peaking at intermediate values of the anomalies of these variables. The results evidence the role of seasonality of phytoplankton productivity on the control of copepod species richness at seasonal and climatological scales, giving support to the species richness-productivity hypothesis. Although sea surface temperature (SST) is indeed a good predictor of richness along the latitudinal gradient, it is unable to predict the increase of richness form oceanic to neritic environments, thus lessening the generality of the species richness-energy hypothesis. Meteo-hydrographic disturbances (i.e. SST and wind speed anomalies as proxies), presumably through its role on mixed layer depth dynamics and turbulence and hence productivity, maximise local diversity when occurring at intermediate frequency and or intensity, thus providing support to the intermediate disturbance hypothesis on the control of copepod diversity.

Nogueira, Enrique; González-Nuevo, Gonzalo; Valdés, Luis

2012-05-01

214

Relationship between bacterial diversity and function under biotic control: the soil pesticide degraders as a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In soil, the way biotic parameters impact the relationship between bacterial diversity and function is still unknown. To understand these interactions better, we used RNA-based stable-isotope probing to study the diversity of active atrazine-degrading bacteria in relation to atrazine degradation and to explore the impact of earthworm-soil engineering with respect to this relationship. Bulk soil, burrow linings and earthworm casts

Cécile Monard; Philippe Vandenkoornhuyse; Barbara Le Bot; Françoise Binet

2011-01-01

215

Bacterial Diversity in Oral Samples of Children in Niger with Acute Noma, Acute Necrotizing Gingivitis, and Healthy Controls  

PubMed Central

Background Noma is a gangrenous disease that leads to severe disfigurement of the face with high morbidity and mortality, but its etiology remains unknown. Young children in developing countries are almost exclusively affected. The purpose of the study was to record and compare bacterial diversity in oral samples from children with or without acute noma or acute necrotizing gingivitis from a defined geographical region in Niger by culture-independent molecular methods. Methods and Principal Findings Gingival samples from 23 healthy children, nine children with acute necrotizing gingivitis, and 23 children with acute noma (both healthy and diseased oral sites) were amplified using “universal” PCR primers for the 16 S rRNA gene and pooled according to category (noma, healthy, or acute necrotizing gingivitis), gender, and site status (diseased or control site). Seven libraries were generated. A total of 1237 partial 16 S rRNA sequences representing 339 bacterial species or phylotypes at a 98–99% identity level were obtained. Analysis of bacterial composition and frequency showed that diseased (noma or acute necrotizing gingivitis) and healthy site bacterial communities are composed of similar bacteria, but differ in the prevalence of a limited group of phylotypes. Large increases in counts of Prevotella intermedia and members of the Peptostreptococcus genus are associated with disease. In contrast, no clear-cut differences were found between noma and non-noma libraries. Conclusions Similarities between acute necrotizing gingivitis and noma samples support the hypothesis that the disease could evolve from acute necrotizing gingivitis in certain children for reasons still to be elucidated. This study revealed oral microbiological patterns associated with noma and acute necrotizing gingivitis, but no evidence was found for a specific infection-triggering agent.

Stadelmann, Benoit; Baratti-Mayer, Denise; Gizard, Yann; Mombelli, Andrea; Pittet, Didier; Schrenzel, Jacques

2012-01-01

216

Instructional Diversity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains how learning occurs in the brain, specifically in the limbic system. Compares traditional teaching methods and diverse learning modes. Describes the characteristics of diverse instructional approaches. First published in 1994. (YDS)

Samples, Bob

2000-01-01

217

Instructional Diversity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explains how learning occurs in the brain, specifically in the limbic system. Compares traditional teaching methods and diverse learning modes. Describes the characteristics of diverse instructional approaches. First published in 1994. (YDS)|

Samples, Bob

2000-01-01

218

Symptom Control May Improve Food Intake, Body Composition, and Aspects of Quality of Life After Gastrectomy in Cancer Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

That severe malnutrition affects body function and psychological well-being is well documented. We addressed the question of whether quality of life relates to changes in variables such as food intake, body composition, and gastrointestinal symptomatology after gastrectomy for gastric cancer. Thirty-two patients undergoing gastric resection had their dietary intake, body composition, and specific and general aspects of quality of life

B. Liedman; J. Svedlund; M. Sullivan; L. Larsson; L. Lundell

2001-01-01

219

Regulatory aspects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At this time, there is no US legislation that is specifically aimed at regulating the environmental release of genetically engineered organisms or their modified components, either during the research and development stage or during application. There are some statutes, administered by several federal agencies, whose language is broad enough to allow the extension of intended coverage to include certain aspects of biotechnology. The one possible exception is FIFRA, which has already brought about the registration of several natural microbial pesticides but which also has provision for requiring the registration of “strain improved” microbial pesticides. Nevertheless, there may be gaps in coverage even if all pertinent statutes were to be actively applied to the control of environmental release of genetically modified substances. The decision to regulate biotechnology under TSCA was justified, in part, on the basis of its intended role as a gap-filling piece of environmental legislation. The advantage of regulating biotechnology under TSCA is that this statute, unlike others, is concerned with all media of exposure (air, water, soil, sediment, biota) that may pose health and environmental hazards. Experience may show that extending existing legislation to regulate biotechnology is a poor compromise compared to the promulgation of new legislation specifically designed for this purpose. It appears that many other countries are ultimately going to take the latter course to regulate biotechnology.

Stern, Arthur M.

1986-07-01

220

Dye-sensitized solar cells based on ZnO nanowire array/TiO2 nanoparticle composite photoelectrodes with controllable nanowire aspect ratio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ZnO nanowire (NW) array/TiO2 nanoparticle (NP) composite photoelectrode with controllable NW aspect ratio has been grown from aqueous solutions for the fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), which combines the advantages of the rapid electron transport in ZnO NW array and the high surface area of TiO2 NPs. The results indicate that the composite photoelectrode achieves higher overall photoelectrical conversion efficiency ( ?) than the ZnO NW alone. As a result, DSSCs based on the ZnO NW array/TiO2 NP composite photoelectrodes get the enhanced photoelectrical conversion efficiency, and the highest ? is also achieved by rational tuning the aspect ratio of ZnO NWs. With the proper aspect ratio (ca. 6) of ZnO NW, the ZnO NW array/TiO2 NP composite DSSC exhibits the highest conversion efficiency (5.5 %). It is elucidated by the dye adsorption amount and interfacial electron transport of DSSCs with the ZnO NW array/TiO2 NP composite photoelectrode, which is quantitatively characterized using the UV-Vis absorption spectra and electrochemical impedance spectra. It is evident that the DSSC with the proper aspect ratio of ZnO NW displays the high dye adsorption amount and fastest interfacial electron transfer.

Qi, Lihong; Yu, Hailong; Lei, Zhenyu; Wang, Qingshan; Ouyang, Qiuyun; Li, Chunyan; Chen, Yujin

2013-04-01

221

Multidimensional display controller for displaying to a user an aspect of a multidimensional space visible from a base viewing location along a desired viewing orientation  

DOEpatents

A display controller allows a user to control a base viewing location, a base viewing orientation, and a relative viewing orientation. The base viewing orientation and relative viewing orientation are combined to determine a desired viewing orientation. An aspect of a multidimensional space visible from the base viewing location along the desired viewing orientation is displayed to the user. The user can change the base viewing location, base viewing orientation, and relative viewing orientation by changing the location or other properties of input objects.

Davidson, George S. (Albuquerque, NM); Anderson, Thomas G. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01

222

Vertical Profile Control in Ultrahigh-Aspect-Ratio Contact Hole Etching with 0.05-µm-Diameter Range  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertical processing of 0.05-µm-class SiO2 holes with an aspect ratio around 20 was realized using a dipole-ring-type magnetron reactive-ion-etching system in a mixture of C4F8\\/O2\\/Ar gas. Secondary ion mass spectrometric study of the F and C concentration profiles of the polymer deposited inside the holes in the depth direction revealed that a very small amount of polymer deposition occurred in

Naokatsu Ikegami; Atsushi Yabata; Guo Lin Liu; Hidetsugu Uchida; Norio Hirashita; Jun Kanamori

1998-01-01

223

Ionic-strength induced control of the shape and the aspect ratio of ZnO nano-structures prepared by using the hydrothermal process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Control of the morphology and the aspect ratio of zinc oxide nanostructures by varying mainly the anionic and cationic strengths of the mother solution in the hydrothermal process is reported. This is studied by choosing five different cationic ([Zn2+]) concentrations in two different anionic ([OH-]) concentrations each, giving totally ten combinations. A change in the concentration of the mother solution greatly altered the size and the aspect ratio of the nanostructures, as seen in the scanning electron microscopy images of the nanostructures. Changing the ionic strength directly influenced the growth parameters such as the interfacial energy and the formation of nuclei, which resulted in different nanostructures. By using an X-ray diffraction analysis, we confirmed the produced nanostructures to be wurtzite-structured hexagonal zinc oxide in all cases. A characteristic predominant growth along the polar planes with angular tips was also observed by using transmission electron microscopy.

Gopal Ram, S. D.; Kang, T. W.; Ravi, G.

2013-07-01

224

Neuroendocrine aspects of primary endogenous depression XV: mathematical modeling of nocturnal melatonin secretion in major depressives and normal controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

We previously reported a trend toward a higher mean nocturnal serum melatonin (MEL) concentration, based on 30-min blood sampling over 24 h, in 23 female definite endogenous depressives compared to 23 matched normal female control subjects, and no significant difference in 15 male depressives compared to their controls (Rubin et al., 1992). In both groups of patients vs. their controls,

L. Kathleen Sekula; Joseph F. Lucke; E. Kevin Heist; R. Kenneth Czambel; Robert T. Rubin

1997-01-01

225

Engaging adolescent girls from linguistically diverse and low income backgrounds in school sport: A pilot randomised controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility, acceptability, and potential efficacy of a school-based physical activity program delivered during school sport time among adolescent girls from low income predominately linguistically diverse backgrounds in New South Wales, Australia. Using a 3-month, 2-arm, parallel-group pilot RCT design, 38 adolescent girls (Year 11) were recruited to participate in the program

Dean A. Dudley; Anthony D. Okely; Philip Pearson; Jennifer Peat

2010-01-01

226

Foundry quality control aspects and prospects to reduce scrap rework and rejection in metal casting manufacturing industries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metal casting industries are actively involved to reduce the scrap rejection and rework during the manufacturing process of the components. To achieve this, the production concerns must follow the quality control procedures correctly and perfectly without any negligence. Timely implementation of the modified techniques based on the quality control research is a must to avoid defects in the products. In

T. R. Vijayaram; S. Sulaiman; A. M. S. Hamouda; M. H. M. Ahmad

2006-01-01

227

The Drosophila L1CAM homolog Neuroglian signals through distinct pathways to control different aspects of mushroom body axon development  

PubMed Central

The spatiotemporal integration of adhesion and signaling during neuritogenesis is an important prerequisite for the establishment of neuronal networks in the developing brain. In this study, we describe the role of the L1-type CAM Neuroglian protein (NRG) in different steps of Drosophila mushroom body (MB) neuron axonogenesis. Selective axon bundling in the peduncle requires both the extracellular and the intracellular domain of NRG. We uncover a novel role for the ZO-1 homolog Polychaetoid (PYD) in axon branching and in sister branch outgrowth and guidance downstream of the neuron-specific isoform NRG-180. Furthermore, genetic analyses show that the role of NRG in different aspects of MB axonal development not only involves PYD, but also TRIO, SEMA-1A and RAC1.

Goossens, Tim; Kang, Yuan Y.; Wuytens, Gunther; Zimmermann, Pascale; Callaerts-Vegh, Zsuzsanna; Pollarolo, Giulia; Islam, Rafique; Hortsch, Michael; Callaerts, Patrick

2011-01-01

228

Design aspects of a high-speed sensorless brushless dc motor using third harmonic back-emf for sensorless control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is increasing interest in high-speed permanent magnet (PM) brushless dc motors for a wide range of applications. Back-emf is often utilized for sensorless operation of permanent magnet brushless dc motors, by detecting the emf zero crossings. However, in high-speed motors, the free-wheeling diode conduction can last more than 30 e deg. This can obscure the zero crossings of the phase EMF; therefore, it is preferable to utilize the third harmonic emf instead of the phase emf. In this paper, some design aspects related to this high-speed sensorless operation are presented, including a special nonoverlapping winding arrangement and magnet segmenting technique. Finally, the experimental results confirmed the validity of the proposed design method.

Wang, Kai; Shen, Jianxin; Zhou, Fengzheng; Fei, Weizhong

2008-04-01

229

Redefining Diversity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shows how the need for diversity programs is escalating. Describes corporate practices such as affinity groups, redefinition of corporate values, forms of bias, steps for effective programs, and ways in which the events of September 11, 2001 affect diversity training. (SK)

Koonce, Richard

2001-01-01

230

Aspects of Modeling Pitch Perception  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is hardly any topic of psychoacoustics the approaches to which have been as diverse and controversial as the topic of modeling pitch perception. In the present contribution a number of basic aspects of this problem are discussed, and a framework for its solution is outlined.

Terhardt, Ernst

231

Trypanosoma evansi and Surra: A Review and Perspectives on Transmission, Epidemiology and Control, Impact, and Zoonotic Aspects  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews the transmission modes of Trypanosoma evansi. Its worldwide distribution is attributed to mechanical transmission. While the role of tabanids is clear, we raise questions on the relative role of Haematobia sp. and the possible role of Stomoxys sp. in delayed transmission. A review of the available trypanocidal drugs and their efficacy in various host species is useful for understanding how they interact in disease epidemiology, which is complex. Although there are similarities with other mechanically transmitted trypanosomes, T. evansi has a more complex epidemiology due to the diversity of its hosts and vectors. The impact of clinical and subclinical disease is difficult to establish. A model was developed for buffaloes in the Philippines, which could be transferred to other places and livestock systems. Since Trypanosoma evansi was reported in humans, further research is required to investigate its zoonotic potential. Surra remains a potentially emerging disease that is a threat to Australia, Spain, and France. A number of questions about the disease have yet to be resolved. This brief review of the basic knowledge of T. evansi suggests that there is renewed interest in the parasite, which is spreading and has a major economic impact.

Desquesnes, Marc; Dargantes, Alan; Lai, De-Hua; Lun, Zhao-Rong; Holzmuller, Philippe; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn

2013-01-01

232

Spatial aspects of pollution control when pollutants have synergistic effects: Evidence from a differential game with asymmetric information  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   An asymmetric information differential game is utilized to explore the normative issue: should environmental regulations\\u000a be carried out locally or centrally? Modeling localities as having superior information, or more leniency to adopt new environmental\\u000a regulations, results from simulations indicate that local control Pareto dominates central control when enough synergism occurs between pollutants. In contrast to predictions made by those

John A. List; Charles F. Mason

1999-01-01

233

Controlled growth mode of high-aspect-ratio GaN nanorods by Ni/In/Ga catalyst  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gallium nitride nanorods (GaN NRs) were grown by employing a low melting point Ni/In/Ga alloy via metalorganic chemical vapour deposition. A small growth temperature window was observed in the range of 720–765 °C, which is lower than typical temperatures used for the growth of GaN NRs assisted by metal catalyst. Tapered GaN NRs with triangular cross-section were produced at 750 °C by vapour–solid (VS) growth mechanism. A slight increase of temperature to 765 °C was able to change the growth mode to vapour–liquid–solid (VLS) and quasi-aligned GaN NRs with high aspect ratio were produced. Photoluminescence of both GaN NR morphologies measured at 10 K revealed only near band edge emission centred at 3.48 eV, which was blue-shifted from that of the bulk GaN estimated at 3.46 eV. Micro-Raman spectroscopy performed at 300 K exhibited that GaN NRs grown either by VS or VLS growth mechanisms are relatively free of strain.

Ebaid, Mohamed; Kang, Jin-Ho; Key Lee, June; Ryu, Sang-Wan

2013-09-01

234

Behavioural aspects and their possible uses in the control of dracontiasis (guinea-worm) in Igwun river basin area of Imo State, Nigeria.  

PubMed

Individuals suffering from dracontiasis from Igwun river basin area of Imo State Nigeria were randomly chosen, examined and interviewed between December 1988 and March 1989 with a view to ascertain some of the behavioural aspects that could be of help in the control/eradication of this disease as well as to ascertain whether local medication was of any chemotherapeutic significance. Of 100 guinea-worm patients males were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in number (63.0%). In the age-related distribution, children less than 10 years old and the members of the villages more than 60 years old accounted for only 5.0% of the patients whilst those in their productive years (10-60 year old) accounted for 95.0%. Only 10.5% of the respondents associated guinea-worm infection with the drinking of "polluted" water while most believed it was a familial trait (36.8%) or implicated their enemies (35.1%). As a result medications against the disease were mainly directed towards consulting the oracle and herbalists, and appeasing the gods. Most (98.0%) of them kept their dressing dry by refraining from immersing them in water. The concomitant behavioural aspects of these results are discussed in relation to their uses in the control/eradication of guinea-worm. PMID:1456464

Nwoke, B E

1992-11-01

235

Control aspects of underground coal gasification: LLL investigations of ground-water and subsidence effects. [Hoe Creek I and II  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our investigations are designed to evaluate some of the environmental implications of in situ coal gasification, and to identify appropriate environmental controls. Changes in ground-water quality and the possible effects of subsidence and ground movement induced by the underground gasification cavity represent significant environmental concerns associated with the in situ gasification process. We have measured these effects at the site

S. W. Mead; F. T. Wang; H. C. Ganow

1978-01-01

236

Physical and theoretical aspects of a new vacuum arc control technology-self arc diffusion by electrode: SADE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our new vacuum arc control technology: SADE doubles the high current interruption capability of our conventional AMF technology. First, we describe the vacuum arc motion behavior recorded by a high speed CCD video camera. This arc behavior is closely related to axial magnetic field intensity. In particular, it depends on the profile of the externally generated axial magnetic field. The

M. Homma; H. Somei; Y. Niwa; K. Yokokura; I. Ohshima

1998-01-01

237

Physical and theoretical aspects of a new vacuum arc control technology-self arc diffusion by electrode: SADE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our new vacuum arc control technology SADE doubles the high current interruption capability of our conventional axial magnetic field technology. First, we describe the vacuum arc motion behavior recorded by a high speed charge-coupled device video camera. This arc behavior is closely related to axial magnetic field intensity. In particular, it depends on the profile of the externally generated axial

Mitsutaka Homma; H. Somei; Y. Niwa; K. Yokokura; I. Ohshima

1999-01-01

238

ECONOMIC ASPECTS OP THE BIOLOGY AND CONTROL OP THE ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH, GRAPHOLITHA MOLESTA BUSCK, IN THE UNITED STATES1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oriental fruit moth has caused considerable damage to fruit crops in the United States since its introduction from Japan about 1913. The greatest damage occurred dur- ing the period between 1930 and 1950, when fruit moth larvae damaged the tender shoots and fruit of peach and quince. Biological control, in the form of widespread releases of fruit-moth parasites imported

ROY W. RINGS

239

Instructional Diversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teachers who successfully use diverse learning modes in their instructional approaches accomplish several remarkable things. First, they create a climate where the ways of knowing central to the different modalities are all seen as legitimate, acceptable,

Samples, Bob

2000-01-01

240

Discovering Diversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Multicultural education seeks to "affirm cultural pluralism within a culturally diverse society and in an interdependent world" (Bennett, 1999). Therefore, the authors helped a group of preservice teachers develop an awareness for and an appreciation of a

Manner, Barbara M.; Hattler, Jean A.

2000-03-01

241

Diversion Colitis  

MedlinePLUS

... IBD) Overview of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Crohn's Disease Ulcerative Colitis Collagenous Colitis and Lymphocytic Colitis Diversion Colitis Merck ... be performed to treat diseases such as cancer, ulcerative colitis, and diverticulitis or to treat damage to the ...

242

Economic and institutional aspects of risk and liability in the control of ground-water pollution. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

Two alternative means of controlling negative externalities (pollution), namely the use of ex ante regulation and the use of ex post liability, are compared. Alternative forms of liability, in particular strict liability and negligence, are discussed. The different approaches are first compared using theoretical models of externalities to determine when one might be theoretically preferred to another. The results of the theoretical analysis suggest that, because no single alternative is a perfect control mechanism, the joint use of regulation, and some form of liability is perhaps best. The results are used as background information in an analysis of two case studies of groundwater pollution. The first is contamination from the Kohler Company landfill in Sheboygan County, Wisconsin. The second is contamination from a municipally owned landfill in Onalaska, Wisconsin.

Rojas, T.D.; Segerson, K.

1987-01-01

243

Practical aspects of the control of cardiovascular risk in type 2 diabetes mellitus and the metabolic syndrome  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular disease is unanimously recognized as the major burden in type 2 diabetes, in terms of both mortality and morbidity. There is an extensive evidence coming from epidemiological studies that supports this statement. The presence of the metabolic syndrome confers a higher risk of long-term death, and dysglycemia appears to be responsible for the most of the excess risk. The metabolic syndrome also has an essential role in the modern concept of cardiovascular prevention. Global cardiovascular risk represents the action and consequences of all risk factors that simultaneously or sequentially act on the body, leading to atherogenesis/atherosclerosis. In daily practice, a stepwise approach to control cardiovascular risk in people with type 2 diabetes has been proposed. This algorithm comprises three steps: identification of cardiovascular risk factors, interpretation of global cardiovascular risk, and intervention for all identified risk factors and diseases. In the past decades, the whole concept of diabetes and the metabolic syndrome care has undergone a radical change. From here the concept of modern management of those diseases emerged: early, multi-factorial and intensive control. This concept emphasized early and aggressive interventions for all cardiovascular risk factors in the long-term management. The model of multiple cardiovascular risk factor intervention ought to be implemented in daily practice as much as possible. This offers a unique opportunity to reduce the devastating cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in people with type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome.

Cerghizan, Anca; Bala, Cornelia; Nita, Cristina; Hancu, Nicolae

2007-01-01

244

Social and cultural aspects of 'malaria' and its control in central C?te d'Ivoire  

PubMed Central

Background A sound local understanding of preventive measures and health-seeking behaviour is important for the effective control of malaria. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes, practices and beliefs of 'malaria' and its control in two rural communities of central Côte d'Ivoire, and to examine associations between 'malaria' and the households' socioeconomic status. Methods A cross-sectional household survey was carried out, using a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods. People's socioeconomic status was estimated, employing a household asset-based approach. Results Malaria was identified as djèkouadjo, the local folk name of the disease. Although people were aware of malaria-related symptoms and their association with mosquitoes, folk perceptions were common. In terms of treatment, a wide array of modern and traditional remedies was employed, often in combination. Individuals with a sound knowledge of the causes and symptoms of malaria continued to use traditional treatments and only a few people sleep under bed nets, whereas folk beliefs did not necessarily translate into refusal of modern treatments. Perceived causes of malaria were linked to the household's socioeconomic status with wealthier individuals reporting mosquitoes more frequently than poorer households. Bed nets were more frequently used in wealthier social strata, whereas other protective measures – perceived to be cheaper – were more prominent among the poorest. Conclusion Equitable access to resources at household, community and health system levels are essential in order to enable community members to prevent and treat malaria. There is a need for community-based approaches that match health care services with poor people's needs and resources.

Esse, Clemence; Utzinger, Jurg; Tschannen, Andres B; Raso, Giovanna; Pfeiffer, Constanze; Granado, Stefanie; Koudou, Benjamin G; N'Goran, Eliezer K; Cisse, Gueladio; Girardin, Olivier; Tanner, Marcel; Obrist, Brigit

2008-01-01

245

A genome-to-genome analysis of associations between human genetic variation, HIV-1 sequence diversity, and viral control.  

PubMed

HIV-1 sequence diversity is affected by selection pressures arising from host genomic factors. Using paired human and viral data from 1071 individuals, we ran >3000 genome-wide scans, testing for associations between host DNA polymorphisms, HIV-1 sequence variation and plasma viral load (VL), while considering human and viral population structure. We observed significant human SNP associations to a total of 48 HIV-1 amino acid variants (p<2.4 × 10(-12)). All associated SNPs mapped to the HLA class I region. Clinical relevance of host and pathogen variation was assessed using VL results. We identified two critical advantages to the use of viral variation for identifying host factors: (1) association signals are much stronger for HIV-1 sequence variants than VL, reflecting the 'intermediate phenotype' nature of viral variation; (2) association testing can be run without any clinical data. The proposed genome-to-genome approach highlights sites of genomic conflict and is a strategy generally applicable to studies of host-pathogen interaction. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01123.001. PMID:24171102

Bartha, István; Carlson, Jonathan M; Brumme, Chanson J; McLaren, Paul J; Brumme, Zabrina L; John, Mina; Haas, David W; Martinez-Picado, Javier; Dalmau, Judith; López-Galíndez, Cecilio; Casado, Concepción; Rauch, Andri; Günthard, Huldrych F; Bernasconi, Enos; Vernazza, Pietro; Klimkait, Thomas; Yerly, Sabine; O'Brien, Stephen J; Listgarten, Jennifer; Pfeifer, Nico; Lippert, Christoph; Fusi, Nicolo; Kutalik, Zoltán; Allen, Todd M; Müller, Viktor; Harrigan, P Richard; Heckerman, David; Telenti, Amalio; Fellay, Jacques

2013-10-29

246

A genome-to-genome analysis of associations between human genetic variation, HIV-1 sequence diversity, and viral control  

PubMed Central

HIV-1 sequence diversity is affected by selection pressures arising from host genomic factors. Using paired human and viral data from 1071 individuals, we ran >3000 genome-wide scans, testing for associations between host DNA polymorphisms, HIV-1 sequence variation and plasma viral load (VL), while considering human and viral population structure. We observed significant human SNP associations to a total of 48 HIV-1 amino acid variants (p<2.4 × 10?12). All associated SNPs mapped to the HLA class I region. Clinical relevance of host and pathogen variation was assessed using VL results. We identified two critical advantages to the use of viral variation for identifying host factors: (1) association signals are much stronger for HIV-1 sequence variants than VL, reflecting the ‘intermediate phenotype’ nature of viral variation; (2) association testing can be run without any clinical data. The proposed genome-to-genome approach highlights sites of genomic conflict and is a strategy generally applicable to studies of host–pathogen interaction. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01123.001

Bartha, Istvan; Carlson, Jonathan M; Brumme, Chanson J; McLaren, Paul J; Brumme, Zabrina L; John, Mina; Haas, David W; Martinez-Picado, Javier; Dalmau, Judith; Lopez-Galindez, Cecilio; Casado, Concepcion; Rauch, Andri; Gunthard, Huldrych F; Bernasconi, Enos; Vernazza, Pietro; Klimkait, Thomas; Yerly, Sabine; O'Brien, Stephen J; Listgarten, Jennifer; Pfeifer, Nico; Lippert, Christoph; Fusi, Nicolo; Kutalik, Zoltan; Allen, Todd M; Muller, Viktor; Harrigan, P Richard; Heckerman, David; Telenti, Amalio; Fellay, Jacques

2013-01-01

247

Diverse Sensitivity of RHA\\/Verh and RLA\\/Verh Rats to Emotional and Spatial Aspects of a Novel Environment as a Result of a Distinct Pattern of Neuronal Activation in the Fear\\/Anxiety Circuit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychogenetically selected Roman high (RHA\\/Verh) and Roman low (RLA\\/Verh) avoidance rats constitute a well-recognized model\\u000a of diverse emotional reactivity. The two Swiss lines display marked behavioral and endocrine differences in reaction to a\\u000a novel environment. In our study we found that these differences are accompanied by a distinct, line-specific pattern of neuronal\\u000a activation within the fear\\/anxiety circuit. We have compared

Ksenia Z. Meyza; Pawel M. Boguszewski; Evgeni Nikolaev; Jolanta Zagrodzka

2009-01-01

248

Leadership and Diversity: Theory and Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Diversity has become a ubiquitous term within education, often harnessed with a second concept, that of inclusion. Despite heightened interest, theorists in education leadership have remained relatively uninterested in multiple aspects of identity and diversity. This article explores the epistemological and methodological implications of moving…

Lumby, Jacky; Morrison, Marlene

2010-01-01

249

[Chagas disease Control Program in the State of São Paulo, Brazil: seroepidemiological aspects of homogeneous geographic microregions].  

PubMed

Between the years 1976 and 1980, the American trypanosomiasis was searched for among residents in two geographic microregions of the State of São Paulo: Campos de Itapetininga, in the region of Sorocaba, and Encosta Ocidental da Mantiqueira Paulista, in the region of Campinas. Both areas have in the past been colonized by Triatoma infestans. Campos de Itapetininga remained, until the beginning of the 1970s as a stronghold of this species in the State of São Paulo. Panstrongylus megistus has currently colonized in these areas, now classified as having serological titer profiles characteristic of low endemicity. Transmission of Chagas disease was interrupted earlier in the Encosta Ocidental. Intense exposure to the vector in Campos de Itapetininga can explain the seroreactivity frequencies observed in people born before 1956, aged more than 20 years. Among the residents in this region born between 1972 and 1977, a low positivity rate remains, which might also include cases of congenital transmission. The mean age of seroreagents resident in the Encosta indicates that they must have been born in the 1930s; positivity levels here vary in different municipalities according to their growth in capital goods. After 1984 new criteria were adopted for the use of serology in the Program for the Control of Chagas disease, the detection of seroreagents has not been statistically associated to notification of the occurrence of domestic triatomines in these regions. PMID:21584362

Carvalho, Maria Esther de; Silva, Rubens Antonio da; Wanderley, Dalva Marli Valério; Barata, José Maria Soares

2011-01-01

250

Topologies and solid electric conductivities of two diverse silver 4-sulfobenzoate coordination polymers controlled by uncoordination and coordination 4-aminopyridine ligands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two new diverse silver 4-sulfobenzoate coordination polymers, {[Ag(4-sb)]·(4-apyH)}n (1) and [Ag2(4-apy)(4-sb)]n (2) where 4-sb is 4-sulfobenzoate dianion and 4-apy is 4-aminopyridine, were prepared by the strategy of different ratio of starting materials and characterized by single-crystal X-ray analysis, elemental analysis, IR spectra, TG analysis, fluorescence spectra and electric conductivity. The molecular structure of 1 is made up of alternating 2-D anionic {[Ag(4-sb)]-}n layers and 4-apyH cations. Complex 2 is a 3-D structure. Both of the molecular structures are pillared architectures. To assess the relationship between structures and properties, the detail topologies of two diverse coordination polymers were analyzed. Complex 1 possesses a 3,6,6-c 3-nodal net with kgd topological layers, while 2 shows a new 4,4,8-c network. The room-temperature solid conductivity of 1 is lower than that of 2, which is controlled by the weak interactions.

Zheng, Xiao-Feng; Zhu, Long-Guan

2013-05-01

251

Non-specific DNA Binding of Genome Regulating Proteins as a Biological Control Mechanism: 1. The lac Operon: Equilibrium Aspects  

PubMed Central

The regulatory system of the lactose operon has been “modeled” by a set of mass action equations and conservation constraints which describe the system at equilibrium. A “base-set” of values of binding constants and total component concentrations has been assembled from the available experimental data, and the simultaneous equations solved by computer procedures, to yield equilibrium concentrations of all the relevant molecular species. Considering the operator-repressor-inducer system alone, it is shown that the in vivo basal and induced (derepressed) levels of lac enzyme synthesis in both wild-type and certain mutant Escherichia coli can be accounted for only if binding of repressor and repressor-inducer complexes to non-specific DNA sites is included in the calculations as an integral component of the ovrall control system. A similar approach was applied to the RNA polymerase-promoter system to show that sigma factor may modulate the general level of transcription in the cell by “inducing” polymerase off non-specific DNA binding sites, thus making it available to promoters. Competitive and non-competitive models for the interaction of repressor and polymerase at the lac operon can, in principle, be distinguished by these computational procedures, though data sufficient to permit unambiguous differentiation between the models are not available at this time. However, for any competitive binding model the results show that repression in the entire (operator-repressor-RNA polymerase-lac promoter) system can occur only because non-specific binding of the regulatory proteins reduces the concentration of free polymerase, relative to that of repressor, to appropriate levels.

Hippel, Peter H. Von; Revzin, Arnold; Gross, Carol A.; Wang, Amy C.

1974-01-01

252

Program to improve colorectal cancer screening in a low-income, racially diverse population: a randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

PURPOSE More effective strategies are needed to improve rates of colorectal cancer screening, particularly among the poor, racial and ethnic minorities, and individuals with limited English proficiency. We examined whether the direct mailing of fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) kits to patients overdue for such screening is an effective way to improve screening in this population. METHODS All adults aged 50 to 80 years who did not have documentation of being up to date with colorectal cancer screening as of December 31, 2009, and who had had at least 2 visits to the community health center in the prior 18 months were randomized to the outreach intervention or usual care. Patients in the outreach group were mailed a colorectal cancer fact sheet and FOBT kit. Patients in the usual care group could be referred for screening during usual clinician visits. The primary outcome was completion of colorectal cancer screening (by FOBT, sigmoidoscopy, or colonoscopy) 4 months after initiation of the outreach protocol. Outcome measures were compared using the Fisher exact test. RESULTS Analyses were based on 104 patients assigned to the outreach intervention and 98 patients assigned to usual care. In all, 30% of patients in the outreach group completed colorectal cancer screening during the study period, compared with 5% of patients in the usual care group (P <.001). Nearly all of the screenings were by FOBT. The groups did not differ significantly with respect to the percentage of patients making a clinician visit or the percentage for whom a clinician placed an order for a screening test. CONCLUSIONS The mailing of FOBT kits directly to patients was efficacious for promoting colorectal cancer screening among a population with high levels of poverty, limited English proficiency, and racial and ethnic diversity. Non-visit-based outreach to patients may be an important strategy to address suboptimal rates of colorectal cancer screening among populations most at risk for not being screened. PMID:22966104

Jean-Jacques, Muriel; Kaleba, Erin O; Gatta, John L; Gracia, Gabriela; Ryan, Elizabeth R; Choucair, Bechara N

253

Program to Improve Colorectal Cancer Screening in a Low-Income, Racially Diverse Population: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE More effective strategies are needed to improve rates of colorectal cancer screening, particularly among the poor, racial and ethnic minorities, and individuals with limited English proficiency. We examined whether the direct mailing of fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) kits to patients overdue for such screening is an effective way to improve screening in this population. METHODS All adults aged 50 to 80 years who did not have documentation of being up to date with colorectal cancer screening as of December 31, 2009, and who had had at least 2 visits to the community health center in the prior 18 months were randomized to the outreach intervention or usual care. Patients in the outreach group were mailed a colorectal cancer fact sheet and FOBT kit. Patients in the usual care group could be referred for screening during usual clinician visits. The primary outcome was completion of colorectal cancer screening (by FOBT, sigmoidoscopy, or colonoscopy) 4 months after initiation of the outreach protocol. Outcome measures were compared using the Fisher exact test. RESULTS Analyses were based on 104 patients assigned to the outreach intervention and 98 patients assigned to usual care. In all, 30% of patients in the outreach group completed colorectal cancer screening during the study period, compared with 5% of patients in the usual care group (P <.001). Nearly all of the screenings were by FOBT. The groups did not differ significantly with respect to the percentage of patients making a clinician visit or the percentage for whom a clinician placed an order for a screening test. CONCLUSIONS The mailing of FOBT kits directly to patients was efficacious for promoting colorectal cancer screening among a population with high levels of poverty, limited English proficiency, and racial and ethnic diversity. Non–visit-based outreach to patients may be an important strategy to address suboptimal rates of colorectal cancer screening among populations most at risk for not being screened.

Jean-Jacques, Muriel; Kaleba, Erin O.; Gatta, John L.; Gracia, Gabriela; Ryan, Elizabeth R.; Choucair, Bechara N.

2012-01-01

254

Diversity's Calling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article discusses how a Harvard-educated scholar of English and poetry, Dr. M. Lee Pelton puts a prominent face on changes that are underway at Boston's Emerson College. Faced with a public controversy over its limited faculty diversity, Emerson College has responded with a spate of hirings and promotions of minorities, capped by the…

Cooper, Kenneth J.

2011-01-01

255

Discovering Diversity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces a preservice teacher field trip to the rain forests and coastal areas. This experience develops an awareness for different cultures among preservice teachers by experiencing biological and cultural diversity in Costa Rica. Presents students' own ideas on this experience. (YDS)

Manner, Barbara M.; Hattler, Jean Anne

2000-01-01

256

Discovering Diversity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Introduces a preservice teacher field trip to the rain forests and coastal areas. This experience develops an awareness for different cultures among preservice teachers by experiencing biological and cultural diversity in Costa Rica. Presents students' own ideas on this experience. (YDS)|

Manner, Barbara M.; Hattler, Jean Anne

2000-01-01

257

PLANT DIVERSITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Habitat change statistics and species-area curves were used to estimate the effects of alternative future scenarios for agriculture on plant diversity in Iowa farmlands. Study areas were two watersheds in central Iowa of about 50 and 90 square kilometers, respectively. Future s...

258

Circling the Wagons: Agriculturalists and Conservation Biologists Must Cooperate to Protect Endemic Hawaiian Invertebrate Diversity and Control Invasive Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conservation of native Hawaiian insects and suppression of invasive spe- cies are intrinsically connected propositions. The isolation of the Hawaiian Islands has produced a large endemic insect fauna that is ill equipped to compete with the onslaught of species that have been intentionally or inadvertently unleashed. However, most of the data needed to effectively preserve natives and control invasive species

Daniel Rubinoff

2007-01-01

259

Genetic diversity and origin of Gayal and cattle in Yunnan revealed by mtDNA control region and SRY gene sequence variation.  

PubMed

There are hump, humpless cattle and gayal distributed in Yunnan province, south-west China, but their genetic background remains unclear. To determine the origin and genetic diversity of Yunnan gayal and cattle (Diqing, Nujiang and Wenshan cattle), we analysed mtDNA control region sequences of 71 samples and SRY gene sequences of 39 samples, together with the available sequences in GenBank. The neighbour-joining phylogeny and the reduced median network analysis showed that Yunnan gayal originated from the hybridization between male Bos frontalis and female Bos taurus or Bos indicus, and that Yunnan cattle mostly originated from B. indicus, also containing some hybrids of male B. indicus and female B. taurus. The phylogenetic pattern of Yunnan cattle was consistent with the recently described cattle matrilineal pool from China and indicated more contribution to the Yunnan cattle from B. indicus than from B. taurus. PMID:20433524

Gou, X; Wang, Y; Yang, S; Deng, W; Mao, H

2010-04-01

260

Beneficial effects of short-term combination exercise training on diverse cognitive functions in healthy older people: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Results of previous studies have shown that exercise training can improve cognitive functions in healthy older people. Some studies have demonstrated that long-term combination exercise training can facilitate memory function improvement better than either aerobic or strength exercise training alone. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether short-term combination exercise training can improve diverse cognitive functions in healthy older people or not. We investigate the effects of four weeks of short-term combination exercise training on various cognitive functions (executive functions, episodic memory, short-term memory, working memory, attention, reading ability, and processing speed) of healthy older people. Methods A single-blinded intervention with two parallel groups (combination exercise training; waiting list control) is used. Testers are blind to the study hypothesis and the participants’ group membership. Through an advertisement in a local newspaper, 64 healthy older adults are recruited and then assigned randomly to a combination exercise training group or a waiting list control group. Participants in the combination exercise training group must participate in the short-term combination exercise training (aerobic and strength exercise training) three days per week during the four weeks (12 workouts in total). The waiting list group does not participate in the combination exercise training. The primary outcome measure is the Stroop test score: a measure of executive function. Secondary outcome measures are assessments including the Verbal Fluency Task, Logical Memory, First and Second Names, Digit Span Forward, Digit span backward, Japanese Reading Test, Digit Cancellation Task, Digit Symbol Coding, and Symbol Search. We assess these outcome measures before and after the intervention. Discussion This report is the first of a study that investigates the beneficial effects of short-term combination exercise training on diverse cognitive functions of older people. Our study is expected to provide sufficient evidence of short-term combination exercise’s effectiveness. Trial registration This trial was registered in The University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry (Number UMIN000007828).

2012-01-01

261

Diversion Path Analysis Handbook. Volume I. Methodology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Diversion Path Analysis (DPA) is a procedure for analyzing internal controls of a facility in order to identify vulnerabilities to successful diversion of material by an adversary. The internal covert threat is addressed but the results are also applicabl...

M. D. K. Maltese K. E. Goodwin J. C. Schleter

1976-01-01

262

Genetic diversity of swan goose ( Anser cygnoides L.) in Russia: Analysis of the mitochondrial DNA control region polymorphism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using to analysis of hypervariable fragment polymorphism in the control region of mitochondrial DNA(268 bp), the genetic variability\\u000a of Swan goose Anser cygnoides L., included in the first category of endangered species in the Russian Red Book, has been investigated. Samples from the\\u000a two main groups nesting in Russia—the Far Eastern group (Khabarovsk krai, n = 38) and the Dauric

N. D. Poyarkov; A. V. Klenova; M. V. Kholodova

2010-01-01

263

Tree regeneration and plant species diversity responses to vegetation control following a major windthrow in mixed broadleaved stands  

Microsoft Academic Search

By increasing resource availability, canopy opening enhances tree recruitment as well as the development of neighbouring vegetation.\\u000a The proliferation of early successional and highly competitive vegetation may have dramatic consequences on seedling establishment.\\u000a However, differences in competitive abilities have been shown among the plant growth forms commonly encountered in forests.\\u000a We may thus expect that vegetation management leading to control

Marine Dodet; Catherine Collet; Henri Frochot; Léon Wehrlen

2011-01-01

264

Unexpected Diversity of Cellular Immune Responses against Nef and Vif in HIV-1-Infected Patients Who Spontaneously Control Viral Replication  

PubMed Central

Background HIV-1-infected individuals who spontaneously control viral replication represent an example of successful containment of the AIDS virus. Understanding the anti-viral immune responses in these individuals may help in vaccine design. However, immune responses against HIV-1 are normally analyzed using HIV-1 consensus B 15-mers that overlap by 11 amino acids. Unfortunately, this method may underestimate the real breadth of the cellular immune responses against the autologous sequence of the infecting virus. Methodology and Principal Findings Here we compared cellular immune responses against nef and vif-encoded consensus B 15-mer peptides to responses against HLA class I-predicted minimal optimal epitopes from consensus B and autologous sequences in six patients who have controlled HIV-1 replication. Interestingly, our analysis revealed that three of our patients had broader cellular immune responses against HLA class I-predicted minimal optimal epitopes from either autologous viruses or from the HIV-1 consensus B sequence, when compared to responses against the 15-mer HIV-1 type B consensus peptides. Conclusion and Significance This suggests that the cellular immune responses against HIV-1 in controller patients may be broader than we had previously anticipated.

Tarosso, Leandro F.; Sauer, Mariana M.; Sanabani, Sabri; Giret, Maria Teresa; Tomiyama, Helena I.; Sidney, John; Piaskowski, Shari M.; Diaz, Ricardo S.; Sabino, Ester C.; Sette, Alessandro; Kalil-Filho, Jorge; Watkins, David I.; Kallas, Esper G.

2010-01-01

265

Supporting Diversity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This newsletter feature issue focuses on services for persons with developmental disabilities that support the whole person by acknowledging, respecting, and incorporating aspects of identity such as race, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, gender, age, and class. Articles include: (1) "Serving the Whole Person: The Journey to Embracing…

Horton, Betty, Ed.; And Others

1996-01-01

266

Lack of association of the HMGA1 IVS5-13insC variant with type 2 diabetes in an ethnically diverse hypertensive case control cohort  

PubMed Central

Background Recently, the high-mobility group A1 gene (HMGA1) variant IVS5-13insC has been associated with type 2 diabetes, but reported associations are inconsistent and data are lacking in Hispanic and African American populations. We sought to investigate the HMGA1-diabetes association and to characterize IVS5-13insC allele frequencies and linkage disequilibrium (LD) in 3,070 Caucasian, Hispanic, and African American patients from the INternational VErapamil SR-Trandolapril STudy (INVEST). Methods INVEST was a randomized, multicenter trial comparing two antihypertensive treatment strategies in an ethnically diverse cohort of hypertensive, coronary artery disease patients. Controls, who were diabetes-free throughout the study, and type 2 diabetes cases, either prevalent or incident, were genotyped for IVS5-13insC using Taqman®, confirmed with Pyrosequencing and Sanger sequencing. For LD analysis, genotyping for eight additional HMGA1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was performed using the Illumina® HumanCVD BeadChip. We used logistic regression to test association of the HMGA1 IVS5-13insC and diabetes, adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, and percentage European, African, and Native American ancestry. Results We observed IVS5-13insC minor allele frequencies consistent with previous literature in Caucasians and African Americans (0.03 in cases and 0.04 in controls for both race/ethnic groups), and higher frequencies in Hispanics (0.07 in cases and 0.07 in controls). The IVS5-13insC was not associated with type 2 diabetes overall (odds ratio 0.98 [0.76-1.26], p=0.88) or in any race/ethnic group. Pairwise LD (r2) of IVS5-13insC and rs9394200, a SNP previously used as a tag SNP for IVS5-13insC, was low (r2=0.47 in Caucasians, r2=0.25 in Hispanics, and r2=0.06 in African Americans). Furthermore, in silico analysis suggested a lack of functional consequences for the IVS5-13insC variant. Conclusions Our results suggest that IVS5-13insC is not a functional variant and not associated with type 2 diabetes in an ethnically diverse, hypertensive, coronary artery disease population. Larger, more adequately powered studies need to be performed to confirm our findings. Trial registration clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00133692)

2013-01-01

267

Development and Psychometric Properties of the Organizational Diversity Inventory (ODI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A newly developed 20-item Organizational Diversity Inventory (ODI) is described. A battery of 200 statements dealing with various aspects of diversity was evaluated as to the statements' relevancy by a diverse group of 40 middle managers. Thirty-five items were selected for further exploration. Four hundred and fifty managerial employees from 27 organizations completed this 35-item inventory. Relying on half of

W. Harvey Hegarty; Dan R. Dalton

1995-01-01

268

Environmental heterogeneity and disturbance by humans control much of the tree species diversity of Atlantic montane forest fragments in SE Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of human impact and environmental heterogeneity on the tree species diversity were assessed in 20 fragments of\\u000a tropical montane seasonal forest in southeastern Brazil. Previous surveys of the tree community, soils and topography of the\\u000a fragments provided the bulk of the data. The diversity parameters used were the means of species richness, Shannon diversity\\u000a (H?), and Pielou evenness

José Aldo A. Pereira; Ary T. Oliveira-Filho; José P. Lemos-Filho

2007-01-01

269

Environmental heterogeneity and disturbance by humans control much of the tree species diversity of Atlantic montane forest fragments in SE Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of human impact and environmental heterogeneity on the tree species diversity were assessed in 20 fragments of\\u000a tropical montane seasonal forest in southeastern Brazil. Previous surveys of the tree community, soils and topography of the\\u000a fragments provided the bulk of the data. The diversity parameters used were the means of species richness, Shannon diversity\\u000a (H?), and Pielou evenness

José Aldo A. Pereira; Ary T. Oliveira-Filho; José P. Lemos-Filho

270

The effect of regular walks on various health aspects in older people with dementia: protocol of a randomized-controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Physical activity has proven to be beneficial for physical functioning, cognition, depression, anxiety, rest-activity rhythm, quality of life (QoL), activities of daily living (ADL) and pain in older people. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of walking regularly on physical functioning, the progressive cognitive decline, level of depression, anxiety, rest-activity rhythm, QoL, ADL and pain in older people with dementia. Methods/design This study is a longitudinal randomized controlled, single blind study. Ambulatory older people with dementia, who are regular visitors of daily care or living in a home for the elderly or nursing home in the Netherlands, will be randomly allocated to the experimental or control condition. Participants of the experimental group make supervised walks of 30 minutes a day, 5 days a week, as part of their daily nursing care. Participants of the control group will come together three times a week for tea or other sedentary activities to control for possible positive effects of social interaction. All dependent variables will be assessed at baseline and after 6 weeks, and 3, 6, 9, 12 and 18 months of intervention. The dependent variables include neuropsychological tests to assess cognition, physical tests to determine physical functioning, questionnaires to assess ADL, QoL, level of depression and anxiety, actigraphy to assess rest-activity rhythm and pain scales to determine pain levels. Potential moderating variables at baseline are: socio-demographic characteristics, body mass index, subtype of dementia, apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotype, medication use and comorbidities. Discussion This study evaluates the effect of regular walking as a treatment for older people with dementia. The strength of this study is that 1) it has a longitudinal design with multiple repeated measurements, 2) we assess many different health aspects, 3) the intervention is not performed by research staff, but by nursing staff which enables it to become a routine in usual care. Possible limitations of the study are that 1) only active minded institutions are willing to participate creating a selection bias, 2) the drop-out rate will be high in this population, 3) not all participants will be able to perform/understand all tests. Trial registration NTR1482

2011-01-01

271

Diversion path analysis handbook. Volume I. Methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diversion Path Analysis (DPA) is a procedure for analyzing internal controls of a facility in order to identify vulnerabilities to successful diversion of material by an adversary. The internal covert threat is addressed but the results are also applicable to the external overt threat. The diversion paths are identified. Complexity parameters include records alteration or falsification, multiple removals of sub-threshold

M. D. K. Maltese; K. E. Goodwin; J. C. Schleter

1976-01-01

272

Technical evaluation of the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the override of containment purge valve isolation and other engineered safety feature signals for the Point Beach Nuclear Power Station, Units 1 and 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report documents the technical evaluation of the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the override of containment purge valve isolation and other engineered safety feature signals for the Point Beach Nuclear Power Station, Units 1 and 2. The review criteria are based on IEEE Std-279-1971 requirements for the safety signals to all purge and ventilation isolation valves. This

Hackett

1979-01-01

273

Technical evaluation of the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the override of containment purge valve isolation and other engineered safety feature signals for the Fort Calhoun Nuclear Power Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report documents the technical evaluation of the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the override of containment purge valve isolation and other engineered safety feature signals for the Fort Calhoun nuclear power plant. The review criteria are based on IEEE Std-279-1971 requirements for the safety signals to all purge and ventilation isolation valves. This report is supplied as

Hackett

1980-01-01

274

Diversity of Guenon Positional Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

I assess the positional diversity characterizing the guenons and examine the correlation between locomotion and posture with\\u000a other aspects of guenon biology including diet, body size and limb length. I discuss data from three field studies on six\\u000a species representing most guenon species groups. Additional data on ground dwelling were culled from the literature. Results\\u000a indicate that terrestriality varies widely

W. Scott McGraw

275

p53 controls prostate-derived factor/macrophage inhibitory cytokine/NSAID-activated gene expression in response to cell density, DNA damage and hypoxia through diverse mechanisms.  

PubMed

The p53 tumor suppressor modulates cellular response to stress through both transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. Elucidation of the downstream targets of p53 following cell stress will aid in our understanding of the pathways involved in cellular adaptation to stressful stimuli. Here, we demonstrate that the TGF-beta superfamily member, and putative tumor suppressor, prostate-derived factor (PDF)/NSAID-activated gene (NAG)-1/macrophage inhibitory cytokine (MIC)-1 is induced in LNCaP human prostate cancer cells following treatment with the DNA-damaging agent, doxorubicin, culture under hypoxic conditions and by the hypoxia mimetic, cobalt chloride. Additionally, PDF expression was induced by increasing cell density. Expression of dominant negative p53 in LNCaP cells blocked induction of PDF mRNA and protein demonstrating the requirement for functional p53 in PDF induction by these stimuli. DNA damage and hypoxia resulted in increased p53 protein accumulation indicating that PDF expression may be controlled by cellular levels of p53. We also show the requirement for de novo protein synthesis in PDF induction by hypoxia and DNA damage. Increased PDF mRNA stability in response to hypoxia and cobalt chloride, but not doxorubicin, indicates that p53-dependent induction of PDF expression occurs via diverse mechanisms. Thus, PDF may represent a novel target of p53 in response to cell stress. PMID:19100681

Kelly, Julie A; Lucia, M Scott; Lambert, James R

2008-12-18

276

Weathering, Water, and Slope Aspect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspect controls solar radiation to hillslopes: north facing slopes are more shaded (in the northern hemisphere), while south facing slopes are not. Here we explore how this simple topographic control on energy balance plays out in the architecture of the Critical Zone of a subwatershed in the Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory. Gordon Gulch catchment is within the upper montane

S. P. Anderson; A. Blum; J. Lee; R. M. Cowie; M. W. Williams; Z. A. Frederick

2009-01-01

277

Genetic diversity and population structure of yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco from five lakes in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, China, based on mitochondrial DNA control region.  

PubMed

Genetic diversity and population structure of yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco were examined by using mitochondrial DNA control region sequences in 143 specimens sampled from five lakes in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, China; 151 polymorphic sites defined 72 distinct haplotypes. Haplotype diversity indices (0.903-0.953) and nucleotide diversity indices (0.00378-0.00970) demonstrated low genetic diversity of the yellow catfish populations in the five lakes. The analysis of molecular variance and the fixation index ([Formula: see text] = 0.0896) revealed insignificant genetic difference between samples from different lakes. In addition, neutral tests and analysis of mismatch distribution suggested that yellow catfish might have undergone a population expansion. Neighbor-joining tree indicated a correlation between these population genetic differences and geographic distance. This study revealed the extant population genetic diversity and structure of the yellow catfish and was in favor of the related fishery management issues including fishery stock identification, conservation, and artificial breeding. PMID:23463981

Zhong, Liqiang; Song, Chao; Wang, Minghua; Chen, Youming; Qin, Qin; Pan, Jianlin; Chen, Xiaohui

2013-03-06

278

Cell wall evolution and diversity  

PubMed Central

Plant cell walls display a considerable degree of diversity in their compositions and molecular architectures. In some cases the functional significance of a particular cell wall type appears to be easy to discern: secondary cells walls are often reinforced with lignin that provides durability; the thin cell walls of pollen tubes have particular compositions that enable their tip growth; lupin seed cell walls are characteristically thickened with galactan used as a storage polysaccharide. However, more frequently the evolutionary mechanisms and selection pressures that underpin cell wall diversity and evolution are unclear. For diverse green plants (chlorophytes and streptophytes) the rapidly increasing availability of transcriptome and genome data sets, the development of methods for cell wall analyses which require less material for analysis, and expansion of molecular probe sets, are providing new insights into the diversity and occurrence of cell wall polysaccharides and associated biosynthetic genes. Such research is important for refining our understanding of some of the fundamental processes that enabled plants to colonize land and to subsequently radiate so comprehensively. The study of cell wall structural diversity is also an important aspect of the industrial utilization of global polysaccharide bio-resources.

Fangel, Jonatan U.; Ulvskov, Peter; Knox, J. P.; Mikkelsen, Maria D.; Harholt, Jesper; Popper, Zoe A.; Willats, William G.T.

2012-01-01

279

Lawful prescribing and the prevention of diversion.  

PubMed

Concern about controlled substance diversion and overview of prescribers by legal and regulatory officials is growing. The article is designed to increase health professionals' awareness of the methods of diversion and to provide guidance on how diversion can be foiled. This paper also should help healthcare practitioners to better understand the regulations governing prescribing of controlled substances. Examples of unlawful prescribing of controlled substances are presented. Some behaviors of persons illegitimately seeking controlled substances from prescribers are described. Strategies to lessen the possibility of prescriptions being altered are discussed. Federal and state laws and regulations pertaining to controlled substances are described. PMID:14640336

Gibbs, Landon S; Haddox, J David

2003-01-01

280

Conquering aspects with Caesar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Join point interception (JPI), is considered an important cornerstone of aspect-oriented languages. However, we claim that JPI alone does not suffice for a modular structuring of aspects. We propose CAESAR, a model for aspect-oriented programming with a higher-level module concept on top of JPI, which enables reuse and componentization of aspects, allows us to use aspects polymorphically, and introduces a

Mira Mezini; Klaus Ostermann

2003-01-01

281

Cultural Diversity and Conflict in Multicultural Cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

India has been known as the land of many cultures. Gujarat, an Indian state, has reflected this special aspect for over a millennium. In addition to the people of different religious faith like Hindu, Muslim, Jain, Christian and Zorastrian, various caste groups within the Hindus and migrant workers ensured a diversity of culture and lifestyle. This is especially true in

Alaknanda Patel

2003-01-01

282

Diversity and Leadership in a Changing World  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Scholars of leadership have infrequently addressed the diversity of leaders and followers in terms of culture, gender, race and ethnicity, or sexual orientation. This omission has weakened the ability of research and theory to address some of the most provocative aspects of contemporary leadership, including (a) the limited access of individuals…

Eagly, Alice H.; Chin, Jean Lau

2010-01-01

283

Capacity of the Diversion Channel Below the Flood-Control Dam on the Big Lost River at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Stage-discharge relations were computed for two selected cross sections of a diversion channel at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for discharges between 2000 and 7200 cubic feet per second. The channel diverts water from the Big Lost River into ...

C. M. Bennett

1986-01-01

284

Angiosperm ovules: diversity, development, evolution  

PubMed Central

Background Ovules as developmental precursors of seeds are organs of central importance in angiosperm flowers and can be traced back in evolution to the earliest seed plants. Angiosperm ovules are diverse in their position in the ovary, nucellus thickness, number and thickness of integuments, degree and direction of curvature, and histological differentiations. There is a large body of literature on this diversity, and various views on its evolution have been proposed over the course of time. Most recently evo–devo studies have been concentrated on molecular developmental genetics in ovules of model plants. Scope The present review provides a synthetic treatment of several aspects of the sporophytic part of ovule diversity, development and evolution, based on extensive research on the vast original literature and on experience from my own comparative studies in a broad range of angiosperm clades. Conclusions In angiosperms the presence of an outer integument appears to be instrumental for ovule curvature, as indicated from studies on ovule diversity through the major clades of angiosperms, molecular developmental genetics in model species, abnormal ovules in a broad range of angiosperms, and comparison with gymnosperms with curved ovules. Lobation of integuments is not an atavism indicating evolution from telomes, but simply a morphogenetic constraint from the necessity of closure of the micropyle. Ovule shape is partly dependent on locule architecture, which is especially indicated by the occurrence of orthotropous ovules. Some ovule features are even more conservative than earlier assumed and thus of special interest in angiosperm macrosystematics.

Endress, Peter K.

2011-01-01

285

10 Diversity Champions II  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Introducing the "Champions of Diversity" in the Academic Kickoff issue proved a timely reminder of the mission of Diverse during the lead up to the 25th anniversary of Cox, Matthews and Associates, the founder of the former Black Issues in Higher Education and publisher of Diverse. In this edition, the editors at Diverse unveil its second slate…

Nealy, Michelle J.; Pluviose, David; Roach, Ronald

2008-01-01

286

Teaching for Diversity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book focuses on how to teach students from diverse cultures and how to teach students to live in a diverse society. Chapter 1, "Democracy, Diversity, and Universal Education," discusses "The Nature of a Free Society,""The Role of Universal Education," and "Schools as Communities." Chapter 2, "Identifying and Understanding Diversity Issues,"…

Garcia, Ricardo L.

287

Temporal Aspects as Security Automata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspect-oriented programming (AOP) has been touted as a promising paradigm for managing complex software- security concerns. Roughly, AOP allows the secu- rity-sensitive events in a system to be specified separately from core functionality. The events of interest are spec- ified in a pointcut. When a pointcut triggers, control is redirected to advice, which intercepts the event, poten- tially redirecting it

Peter Hui; James Riely

288

BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A discussion is provided of various aspects of nuclear weapon testing ; and the resultant fallout, nature of fission products and extent of contamination ; of the biosphere, acute and longierm biologic effects of radiation, and rneans of ; controlling and reducing the hazards of fallout to man. The question as to ; whether diet or food technology should be

Comar

1962-01-01

289

Method and apparatus for highlighting diverse aspects in a document  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The disclosure generally relates to document summarization. Given a document, summarization can be defined as picking k sentences from the original document D such that the constructed summary exhibits two key properties: coverage and orthogonality. In one embodiment of the disclosure, the two requirements are captured in a combinatorial formulation of the problem and presented as an algorithms.

Grandison; Tyrone Wilberforce Andre (San Jose, CA); Liu; Kun (San Jose, CA); Terzi; Evimaria (Palo Alto, CA)

2013-01-22

290

Molecular and Historical Aspects of Corn Belt Dent Diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Troyer, 2000). The Southern Dents, dominant during colonial times in the southeastern USA, were intro- Tens-of-thousands of open-pollinated cultivars of corn (Zea mays duced from Mexican sources via Cuba by Spanish Con- L.) are being maintained in germplasm banks. Knowledge of the amount and distribution of genetic variation within and among acces- quistadors during the 1500s (Doebley et al., 1988;

Joanne A. Labate; Kendall R. Lamkey; Sharon E. Mitchell; Stephen Kresovich; Hillary Sullivan; John S. C. Smith

2003-01-01

291

Regional diversity in some aspects of Indian demography.  

PubMed

Regional variations in the demography of India are explored using official data for the period 1971-1981. Socioeconomic and cultural determinants of such differentials, particularly female education and economic diversification, are addressed. PMID:12179035

Goyal, R S

292

Autopodial skeletal diversity in hystricognath rodents: Functional and phylogenetic aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metapodials and phalanges of the second to fourth digital ray were measured for the hands and feet of 214 specimens belonging to 45 extant species of hystricognath rodents, encompassing members of all major clades of the radiation. Principal components analysis (PCA), the phalangeal index of the third digital ray in the hands and feet, and the relationship between second and

Vera Weisbecker; Simone Schmid

2007-01-01

293

Their Share: Diversity and Disparity in IP Traffic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need to service populations of high diversity in the face of high disparity aects all aspects of network operation: planning, rout- ing, engineering, security, and accounting. We analyze diversity\\/disparity from the perspective of selecting a boundary between mice and elephants in IP trac aggregated by route, e.g., destination AS. Our goal is to nd a concise quantier of size

Andre Broido; Young Hyun; Ruomei Gao; Kimberly C. Claffy

2004-01-01

294

Market change and diversity in the Korean movie market  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the relationships among the different, measurable aspects of media diversity (source, content and exposure) were examined. The aim was to look at how changes in the market environment affect the diversity of movies that are exhibited. The Korean movie market since the late 1980s provides a fruitful example of how an increased exhibition outlet affects the source,

Sora Park

2011-01-01

295

Universal-Diverse Orientation: Linking Social Attitudes with Wellness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The current study focused on examining the relationships of positive social attitudes with aspects of well-functioning. "Universal-diverse orientation" (UDO), a social attitude characterized by awareness and acceptance of both the similarities and differences among people, was measured with the Miville-Guzman Universality-Diversity Scale, Short…

Miville, Marie L.; Romans, John S. C.; Johnson, Daniel; Lone, Robert

2004-01-01

296

Celebrating Diversity and Denying Disparities: A Critical Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past, researchers concerned with educational achievement gaps sought to identify underlying causes of those gaps by examining deficiencies of students’ home backgrounds. In reaction against this “blame the victim” approach, scholars have moved toward focusing on positive aspects of diversity. This article raises critical questions about the tradeoffs of framing all diversity as positive. The author contends that

Sarah Theule Lubienski

2003-01-01

297

Teaching Diverse Students: How to Avoid Marginalizing Difference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Diversity is defined as differences in groups of people and individuals based on ethnicity, race, language, socioeconomic status, gender, sexual orientation, exceptionalities, and religion. Each of these aspects of diversity is a "culture" in and of itself. The goal of physical education teachers is to become "culturally responsive teachers" and…

Cruz, Luz M.; Petersen, Susan C.

2011-01-01

298

Relationships between arthropod richness, evenness, and diversity are altered by complementarity among plant genotypes.  

PubMed

Biodiversity is quantified via richness (e.g., the number of species), evenness (the relative abundance distribution of those species), or proportional diversity (a combination of richness and evenness, such as the Shannon index, H'). While empirical studies show no consistent relationship between these aspects of biodiversity within communities, the mechanisms leading to inconsistent relationships have received little attention. Here, using common evening primrose (Oenothera biennis) and its associated arthropod community, we show that relationships between arthropod richness, evenness, and proportional diversity are altered by plant genotypic richness. Arthropod richness increased with O. biennis genotypic richness due to an abundance-driven accumulation of species in response to greater plant biomass. Arthropod evenness and proportional diversity decreased with plant genotypic richness due to a nonadditive increase in abundance of a dominant arthropod, the generalist florivore/omnivore Plagiognathas politus (Miridae). The greater quantity of flowers and buds produced in polycultures-which resulted from positive complementarity among O. biennis genotypes-increased the abundance of this dominant insect. Using choice bioassays, we show that floral quality did not change in plant genotypic mixtures. These results elucidate mechanisms for how plant genotypic richness can modify relationships between arthropod richness, evenness, and proportional diversity. More broadly, our results suggest that trophic interactions may be a previously underappreciated factor controlling relationships between these different aspects of biodiversity. PMID:22002039

McArt, Scott H; Cook-Patton, Susan C; Thaler, Jennifer S

2011-10-15

299

Materials Science: Biological Aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

iological aspects of dental materials have received scientific interest ever since they were used in patients. However, during the first half of the last century, these aspects were apparently not considered to be very important; e.g., standards (specifications) for dental materials developed in the 1920s to guarantee their quality covered only technical properties, not biological aspects. The same was apparently

Gottfried Schmalz

300

Optimising aspectJ  

Microsoft Academic Search

AspectJ, an aspect-oriented extension of Java, is becoming increasingly popular. However, not much work has been directed at optimising compilers for AspectJ. Optimising AOP languages provides many new and interesting challenges for compiler writers, and this paper identifies and addresses three such challenges.First, compiling 1.2.1.

Pavel Avgustinov; Aske Simon Christensen; Laurie J. Hendren; Sascha Kuzins; Jennifer Lhoták; Ondrej Lhoták; Oege de Moor; Damien Sereni; Ganesh Sittampalam; Julian Tibble

2005-01-01

301

Cultural Diversity in Military Teams: Which Factors Influence Effectiveness.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To investigate whether cultural diversity in military teams enhances or decreases team effectiveness, taking into account different measures of cultural diversity, and controlling for team factors such as leadership, involvement and social support. Milita...

D. A. Van Hemert I. M. Wetzer

2008-01-01

302

[Proper use of pest control products and liability in their use in urban environments, in relation to public health and safety aspects].  

PubMed

Pest control in urban settings is a public health issue that is often overlooked and left to the discretion of those who participate in pest control operations. In this article the authors aim to analyse and provide guidelines regarding liability in the use of pesticides and safety standards that must be adopted during pest control operations in confined areas or open spaces in urban or domestic settings. PMID:22033164

Dutto, Moreno; Rubbiani, Maristella

303

Diversity, diversity indices and tropical cockroaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diversity of samples of cockroaches (Blattaria) taken with light-traps in six localities in Panama is described. As a diversity index a of the log series is found to be more satisfactory than either N2 or N1 of Hills's series or Hurlbert's Sm, even if the distribution of the relative abundances is significantly different from a log series. However, even

Henk Wolda

1983-01-01

304

Preliminary Aspects of Language Course Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Program and /or course evaluation is a process in which different types of data are collected systematically in order to study the virtues and weaknesses of a language instruction program. Program evaluation is, in fact, one of the essential aspects of any curriculum. It is a kind of quality control in which various aspects of an instructional…

Zohrabi, Mohammad

2012-01-01

305

How does pedogenesis drive plant diversity?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Some of the most species-rich plant communities occur on ancient, strongly weathered soils, whereas those on recently developed soils tend to be less diverse. Mechanisms underlying this well-known pattern, however, remain unresolved. Here, we present a conceptual model describing alternative mechanisms by which pedogenesis (the process of soil formation) might drive plant diversity. We suggest that long-term soil chronosequences offer great, yet largely untapped, potential as 'natural experiments' to determine edaphic controls over plant diversity. Finally, we discuss how our conceptual model can be evaluated quantitatively using structural equation modeling to advance multivariate theories about the determinants of local plant diversity. This should help us to understand broader-scale diversity patterns, such as the latitudinal gradient of plant diversity.

Laliberté, Etienne; Grace, James B.; Huston, Michael A.; Lambers, Hans; Teste, François P.; Turner, Benjamin L.; Wardle, David A.

2013-01-01

306

Controllable fabrication of iron oxide/oxyhydroxide with diverse nanostructures and their excellent performance in visible light induced photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B.  

PubMed

Alpha-FeOOH and alpha-Fe2O3 with diverse morphologies (sea hedgehog-like, array-like, nanorod-like and nanoparticle-like) were synthesized through a simple and facile solvent-mediated method. The products with different morphologies can be prepared by adjusting the concentration of ferrous ions, reaction temperature and the pH value of the reaction solution in the rationally designed synthesis routes. All the products had a high BET surface area and exhibited an excellent catalytic ability in visible light induced degradation of rhodamine B. PMID:22754998

Li, Hui; Wang, Taishan; Zhang, Yanjun; Jiang, Li; Shu, Chunying; Wang, Chunru

2012-03-01

307

Phylogenetic diversity and nature conservation: where are we?  

PubMed

To date, there is little evidence that phylogenetic diversity has contributed to nature conservation. Here, we discuss the scientific justification of using phylogenetic diversity in conservation and the reasons for its neglect. We show that, apart from valuing the rarity and richness aspect, commonly quoted justifications based on the usage of phylogenetic diversity as a proxy for functional diversity or evolutionary potential are still based on uncertainties. We discuss how a missing guideline through the variety of phylogenetic diversity metrics and their relevance for conservation might be responsible for the hesitation to include phylogenetic diversity in conservation practice. We outline research routes that can help to ease uncertainties and bridge gaps between research and conservation with respect to phylogenetic diversity. PMID:23218499

Winter, Marten; Devictor, Vincent; Schweiger, Oliver

2012-12-04

308

78 FR 41971 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Electronic Diversity Visa Entry Form  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proposed Information Collection: Electronic Diversity Visa Entry Form ACTION: Notice of request...of Information Collection: Electronic Diversity Visa Entry Form. OMB Control Number... Respondents: Aliens entering the Diversity Visa Lottery. Estimated Number...

2013-07-12

309

77 FR 65439 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Supplemental Registration for the Diversity...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Collection: Supplemental Registration for the Diversity Immigrant Visa Program ACTION: Notice...Collection: Supplemental Registration for the Diversity Immigrant Visa Program. OMB Control...Number: DSP-0122. Respondents: Diversity Visa Applicants. Estimated...

2012-10-26

310

78 FR 12132 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Electronic Diversity Visa Entry Form  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Proposed Information Collection: Electronic Diversity Visa Entry Form ACTION: Notice of request...of Information Collection: Electronic Diversity Visa Entry Form. OMB Control Number... Respondents: Aliens entering the Diversity Visa Lottery. Estimated Number...

2013-02-21

311

77 FR 30045 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Supplemental Registration for the Diversity...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Collection: Supplemental Registration for the Diversity Immigrant Visa Program ACTION: Notice...Collection: Supplemental Registration for the Diversity Immigrant Visa Program. OMB Control...Number: DSP-0122. Respondents: Diversity Visa applicants. Estimated...

2012-05-21

312

Linear diversity combining techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides analyses of three types of diversity combining systems in practical use. These are: selection diversity, maximal-ratio diversity, and equal-gain diversity systems. Quantitative measures of the relative performance (under realistic conditions) of the three systems are provided. The effects of various departures from ideal conditions, such as non-Rayleigh fading and partially coherent signal or noise voltages, are considered.

D. G. Brennan

2003-01-01

313

Linear Diversity Combining Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides analyses of three types of diversity combining systems in practical use. These are: selection diversity, maximal-ratio diversity, and equal-gain diversity systems. Quantitative measures of the relative performance (under realistic conditions) of the three systems are provided. The effects of various departures from ideal conditions, such as non-Rayleigh fading and partially coherent signal or noise voltages, are considered.

D. G. Brennan

1959-01-01

314

Multilevel and Diverse Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The benefits and advantages of classroom practices incorporating unity-in-diversity and diversity-in-unity are what "Multilevel and Diverse Classrooms" is all about. Multilevel classrooms--also known as mixed-ability or heterogeneous classrooms--are a fact of life in ESOL programs around the world. These classrooms are often not only multilevel…

Baurain, Bradley, Ed.; Ha, Phan Le, Ed.

2010-01-01

315

Bacterial diversity in agroecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

All life forms rely on bacterial processes for their survival. Bacterial diversity is greater than the diversity of any other group of organisms. Bacteria are responsible for diverse metabolic functions that affect soil and plant health. Nutrient cycling, organic matter formation and decomposition, soil structure formation, and plant growth promotion are among the beneficial functions that bacteria perform. Deleterious effects

A. C. Kennedy

1999-01-01

316

Leadership and Diversity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of the special edition recognizing the 40th anniversary of "Educational Management Administration & Leadership" this article reviews the coverage of leadership and diversity issues in the journal. The majority of articles concerning diversity have focused on gender, with attention turning to the wider concept of diversity since the year…

Coleman, Marianne

2012-01-01

317

75 FR 4901 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-5501, Electronic Diversity Visa Entry Form...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Information Collection: DS-5501, Electronic Diversity Visa Entry Form, OMB Control Number...of Information Collection: Electronic Diversity Visa Entry Form. OMB Control Number... Respondents: Aliens entering the Diversity Visa Lottery. Estimated Number...

2010-01-29

318

75 FR 25024 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-5501, Electronic Diversity Visa Entry Form...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Information Collection: DS-5501, Electronic Diversity Visa Entry Form, OMB Control Number...of Information Collection: Electronic Diversity Visa Entry Form. OMB Control Number... Respondents: Aliens entering the Diversity Visa Lottery. Estimated Number...

2010-05-06

319

Aspects of three dimensional transport for ELM control experiments in ITER-similar shape plasmas at low collisionality in DIII-D  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study of three-dimensional (3D) perturbed magnetic field structures and transport for edge localized mode control experiments with resonant magnetic perturbations at DIII-D is presented. We focus on ITER-Similar Shape plasmas at ITER relevant electron pedestal collisionalities \

Schmitz, O.; Evans, T. E.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Frerichs, H.; Jakubowski, M. W.; Schaffer, M. J.; Wingen, A.; West, W. P.; Brooks, N. H.; Burrell, K. H.; de Grassie, J. S.; Feng, Y.; Finken, K. H.; Gohil, P.; Groth, M.; Joseph, I.; Lasnier, C. J.; Lehnen, M.; Leonard, A. W.; Mordijck, S.; Moyer, R. A.; Nicolai, A.; Osborne, T. H.; Reiter, D.; Samm, U.; Spatschek, K. H.; Stoschus, H.; Unterberg, B.; Unterberg, E. A.; Watkins, J. G.; Wolf, R.; DIII-D, the; TEXTOR Teams

2008-12-01

320

Tracking the ends: a dynamic protein network controls the fate of microtubule tips  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microtubule plus-end tracking proteins (+TIPs) are a diverse group of evolutionarily conserved cellular factors that accumulate at the ends of growing microtubules. They form dynamic networks through the interaction of a limited set of protein modules, repeat sequences and linear motifs that bind to each other with moderate affinities. +TIPs regulate different aspects of cell architecture by controlling microtubule dynamics,

Anna Akhmanova; Michel O. Steinmetz

2008-01-01

321

Oral aspects of osteopetrosis.  

PubMed

The characteristic feature of osteopetrosis is a lack of osteoclastic activity, leading to a series of somatic problems for afflicted persons. The life span of osteopetrotic patients has increased in recent years, thereby making oral aspects of the disease more evident. Four children with malignant osteopetrosis, born between 1967 and 1975, were examined. In all patients the anterior teeth were of normal shape, and erupted on schedule. Primary molars and all permanent teeth were greatly distorted, and remained totally or partly embedded in basal bone. Vertical growth of alveolar ridge was very limited. Where a fenestration of overlaying mucosa had occurred, a localized progressive osteitis developed, leading to soft tissue inflammation and, in two cases, extraoral mandibular fistulas. Peridontal attachment was very poor, spontaneous exfoliation had occurred in all patients. In two children tooth germs and necrotic bone were surgically removed. No beneficial effect of the treatment was observed. Large doses of antibiotics were needed to control recurring infections. No means of curing progressive osseous destruction of mandibular bone has been found. The general prognosis is poor. PMID:295483

Bjorvatn, K; Gilhuus-Moe, O; Aarskog, D

1979-08-01

322

Plant diversity and the stability of foodwebs.  

PubMed

Insect outbreaks in forest and agriculture monocultures led Charles Elton to propose, a half-century ago, that higher plant diversity stabilized animal foodweb dynamics in natural ecosystems. We tested this hypothesis by studying arthropod community dynamics in a long-term experimental manipulation of grassland plant species diversity. Over the course of a decade, we found that higher plant diversity increased the stability (i.e. lowered year-to-year variability) of a diverse (>700 species) arthropod community across trophic levels. As the number of plant species increased, the stability of both herbivore and predator species richness and of total herbivore abundance increased. The underlying mechanisms driving these diversity-stability relationships were plant diversity, via effects on primary productivity and plant community stability, and portfolio effects. Taken together, our results show that higher plant diversity provides more temporally consistent food and habitat resources to arthropod foodwebs. Consequently, actively managing for high plant diversity may have stronger than expected benefits for increasing animal diversity and controlling pest outbreaks. PMID:21070559

Haddad, Nick M; Crutsinger, Gregory M; Gross, Kevin; Haarstad, John; Tilman, David

2010-11-12

323

Program refactoring using functional aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

A functional aspect is an aspect that has the semantics of a trans- formation; it is a function that maps a program to an advised pro- gram. Functional aspects are composed by function composition. In this paper, we explore functional aspects in the context of aspect- oriented refactoring. We show that refactoring legacy applications using functional aspects is just as

Sven Apel; Christian Kästner; Don S. Batory

2008-01-01

324

Targeting biological control across diverse landscapes: the release, establishment, and early success of two insects on mesquite ( Prosopis spp.) insects in Australian rangelands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological control agents are frequently expected to perform over a wide geographic and climatic range, or to target high priority regions with specific climates. Biological control of mesquite (Leguminosae: Prosopis spp.) in Australia is one such example. Mesquite is widely distributed across Australia, but is currently a more serious weed in some areas than others. We document the mass-rearing, release,

Rieks D van Klinken; Gio Fichera; Hugo Cordo

2003-01-01

325

Cultural aspects of cancer genetics: setting a research agenda  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—Anecdotal evidence suggests that people from non-Anglo-Celtic backgrounds are under-represented at familial cancer clinics in the UK, the USA, and Australia. This article discusses cultural beliefs as a potential key barrier to access, reviews previous empirical research on cultural aspects of cancer genetics, draws implications from findings, and sets a research agenda on the inter-relationships between culture, cancer genetics, and kinship.?METHODS—The CD-ROM databases MEDLINE, PsychLIT, CINAHL, and Sociological Abstracts were searched from 1980 onwards.?RESULTS—Cultural aspects of cancer genetics is the focus of an emerging body of publications. Almost all studies assessed African-American women with a family history of breast cancer and few studies included more diverse samples, such as Americans of Ashkenazi Jewish background or Hawaiian- and Japanese-Americans. Our analysis of published reports suggests several directions for future research. First, an increased focus on various Asian societies appears warranted. Research outside North America could explore the extent to which findings can be replicated in other multicultural settings. In addition, control group designs are likely to benefit from systematically assessing culture based beliefs and cultural identity in the "majority culture" group used for comparative purposes.?CONCLUSION—More data on which to base the provision of culturally appropriate familial cancer clinic services to ethnically diverse societies are needed. Empirical data will assist with culturally appropriate categorisation of people from other cultures into risk groups based on their family histories and provide the basis for the development of culturally appropriate patient education strategies and materials.???Keywords: hereditary cancer; kinship; culture; family history; cultural competence

Meiser, B.; Eisenbruch, M.; Barlow-Stewart, K.; Tucker, K.; Steel, Z.; Goldstein, D.

2001-01-01

326

BK and Kv3.1 potassium channels control different aspects of deep cerebellar nuclear neurons action potentials and spiking activity.  

PubMed

Deep cerebellar nuclear neurons (DCNs) display characteristic electrical properties, including spontaneous spiking and the ability to discharge narrow spikes at high frequency. These properties are thought to be relevant to processing inhibitory Purkinje cell input and transferring well-timed signals to cerebellar targets. Yet, the underlying ionic mechanisms are not completely understood. BK and Kv3.1 potassium channels subserve similar functions in spike repolarization and fast firing in many neurons and are both highly expressed in DCNs. Here, their role in the abovementioned spiking characteristics was addressed using whole-cell recordings of large and small putative-glutamatergic DCNs. Selective BK channel block depolarized DCNs of both groups and increased spontaneous firing rate but scarcely affected evoked activity. After adjusting the membrane potential to control levels, the spike waveforms under BK channel block were indistinguishable from control ones, indicating no significant BK channel involvement in spike repolarization. The increased firing rate suggests that lack of DCN-BK channels may have contributed to the ataxic phenotype previously found in BK channel-deficient mice. On the other hand, block of Kv3.1 channels with low doses of 4-aminopyridine (20 ?M) hindered spike repolarization and severely depressed evoked fast firing. Therefore, I propose that despite similar characteristics of BK and Kv3.1 channels, they play different roles in DCNs: BK channels control almost exclusively spontaneous firing rate, whereas DCN-Kv3.1 channels dominate the spike repolarization and enable fast firing. Interestingly, after Kv3.1 channel block, BK channels gained a role in spike repolarization, demonstrating how the different function of each of the two channels is determined in part by their co-expression and interplay. PMID:21750937

Pedroarena, Christine M

2011-12-01

327

Ste6p Mutants Defective in Exit from the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Reveal Aspects of an ER Quality Control Pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

We are studying the intracellular trafficking of the multispanning membrane protein Ste6p, the a-factor transporter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a member of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily of proteins. In the present study, we have used Ste6p as model for studying the process of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) quality control, about which relatively little is known in yeast. We have identified three mutant forms of Ste6p that are aberrantly ER retained, as determined by immunofluorescence and subcellular fractionation. By pulse-chase metabolic labeling, we demonstrate that these mutants define two distinct classes. The single member of Class I, Ste6–166p, is highly unstable. We show that its degradation involves the ubiquitin–proteasome system, as indicated by its in vivo stabilization in certain ubiquitin–proteasome mutants or when cells are treated with the proteasome inhibitor drug MG132. The two Class II mutant proteins, Ste6–13p and Ste6–90p, are hyperstable relative to wild-type Ste6p and accumulate in the ER membrane. This represents the first report of a single protein in yeast for which distinct mutant forms can be channeled to different outcomes by the ER quality control system. We propose that these two classes of ER-retained Ste6p mutants may define distinct checkpoint steps in a linear pathway of ER quality control in yeast. In addition, a screen for high-copy suppressors of the mating defect of one of the ER-retained ste6 mutants has identified a proteasome subunit, Hrd2p/p97, previously implicated in the regulated degradation of wild-type hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase in the ER membrane.

Loayza, Diego; Tam, Amy; Schmidt, Walter K.; Michaelis, Susan

1998-01-01

328

Does productivity drive diversity or vice versa? A test of the multivariate productivity–diversity hypothesis in streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The idea that productivity regulates species diversity is deeply ingrained in the field of ecology. Yet, over the past few decades, an increasing number of experiments have shown that species diversity controls, rather than simply responds to, biomass production. These contrasting perspectives have led to a seeming paradox: Is diversity the cause or the consequence of biological production? Here we

Bradley J. Cardinale; Danuta M. Bennett; Craig E. Nelson; Kevin Gross

2009-01-01

329

Teaching to Diversity: Creating Compassionate Learning Communities for Diverse Elementary School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Emotional and behavioral outcomes of the Respecting Diversity (RD) program, a social and emotional learning (SEL) intervention to develop self-awareness, self-respect and respect for diverse others, were investigated with 218 students in Grades four to seven and their teachers. Intervention and control groups were assessed pre and post…

Katz, Jennifer; Porath, Marion

2011-01-01

330

[Chagas disease Control Program in the State of São Paulo, Brazil: serological and entomological aspects of primary school-children surveys].  

PubMed

Two serological surveys were carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of measures put into effect in the State of São Paulo (Brazil) to control Chagas disease vectors. The first one, during the period from 1968 to 1970; the complement fixation reaction was performed on serum samples from school-children resident in all municipalities of the State of São Paulo, with the exception of the Greater São Paulo. The second one, annually, from 1973 to 1983, involving school-children resident in municipalities with high trypanosomiasis prevalence values; the indirect immuno-fluorescence test was performed on filter paper total blood eluates. Data on the occurrence of triatomines and their infection with Trypanosoma cruzi in each municipality formed the basis of insight into the epidemiological situation associated with the school-children's dates of birth. Most positive serological results, as well as the highest proportion of autochthonous cases associated with Triatoma infestans were observed in the region of Sorocaba until the early 1970s, while the proportions of both autochthonous and imported cases were kept in equilibrium elsewhere. It has been inferred that as recently as 1974, vectorial transmission of Chagas disease could still be observed in the State of São Paulo. We emphasize that, even rather lacking in coverage, no seropositive cases have been observed in people inhabiting the regions included in the Control Program for the State of São Paulo and now aged less than 15 years. PMID:21584363

Carvalho, Maria Esther de; Silva, Rubens Antonio da; Wanderley, Dalva Marli Valério; Barata, José Maria Soares

2011-01-01

331

Diversity and Teacher Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The concept of diversity has been foregrounded in educational discourse, since inequalities, including educational inequalities,\\u000a are constitutive of and are, in turn constituted by diversities. This is the starting point of the argument in this chapter,\\u000a en route to presenting new ways of thinking about diversity, social justice, difference and solidarity in the context of teacher\\u000a education. It takes issue

Denise Zinn; André Keet

332

Gender and Diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a What is the importance of thinking through gender in relation to diversity issues? In most contexts in which gender equality\\u000a is seen as an integral part of contemporary diversity policies and aim of diversity politics, the case seems very clearcut\\u000a at first sight: women should be on an equal footing with men. Yet, how selfevident and ‘natural’ is the binarism

Kira Kosnick

333

Advancing Diversity in STEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although progress has been made, greater efforts are needed to promote faculty diversity at the college and university levels,\\u000a especially in STEM fields. Thus, it is important to elucidate best practices both for increasing awareness of diversity issues\\u000a pertaining to higher education and for implementing change. This article focuses on the outcomes of a diversity workshop for\\u000a college and university

Paul L. Hill; Rose A. Shaw; Jan R. Taylor; Brittan L. Hallar

2011-01-01

334

Diversity and leadership in a changing world.  

PubMed

Scholars of leadership have infrequently addressed the diversity of leaders and followers in terms of culture, gender, race and ethnicity, or sexual orientation. This omission has weakened the ability of research and theory to address some of the most provocative aspects of contemporary leadership, including (a) the limited access of individuals from diverse identity groups to leadership roles; (b) the shaping of leaders' behavior by their dual identities as leaders and members of gender, racial, ethnic, or other identity groups; and (c) the potential of individuals from groups formerly excluded from leadership roles to provide excellent leadership because of their differences from traditional leaders. In addressing such issues, we argue that the joining of the two bodies of theory and research--one pertaining to leadership and the other to diversity--enriches both domains of knowledge and provides guidelines for optimizing leadership in contemporary organizations and nations. PMID:20350020

Eagly, Alice H; Chin, Jean Lau

2010-04-01

335

On the effect of environment-triggered population diversity compensation methods for memory enhanced UMDA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the effect of population diversity to environment identification-based memory scheme (EI-MMS) which heuristically compensates population diversity through the storage and retrieving process of historic information. We introduced several diversity compensation measures and combined them with EI-MMS based univariate marginal distribution algorithm (UMDA) from two aspects. First, a basic diversity compensation measure was used to fight against

Xingguang Peng; Demin Xu; Fubin Zhang

2011-01-01

336

[The diversity of aging models].  

PubMed

Most of the signalling pathways involved in aging regulation have been recently found well conserved at various levels throughout the evolution. Taking this into account, a diversity of model organisms, including worms, rodents, and lemurs as well, allows to address different questions: how to understand the interactions between genetic and environmental factors while challenging theories of aging, to preserve hearing integrity, to fight against senescence of neural stem cells, or to explore brain fitness from gene expression to cognitive and social behavior? Here are the main issues that can be considered, stressing the complementarities of the models. The differentiation of aging physiological aspects from those induced by age-related pathologies will also be specified. By emphasizing recent ability of technologies to promote new aging insights, we discuss towards a better understanding of mechanisms governing aging. PMID:22480654

Galas, Simon; Château, Marie-Thérèse; Pomiès, Pascal; Wang, Jing; Menardo, Julien; Puel, Jean-Luc; Hugnot, Jean-Philippe; Verdier, Jean-Michel; Devau, Gina

2012-04-06

337

Myelomeningocele: neglected aspects  

PubMed Central

The commonest cause of neurogenic bladder in children is myelomeningocele. Survival of children is much improved in the Western world, but by 35 years old, about 50% will have died. In adults, the commonest causes of death are lung and heart diseases. All physical aspects deteriorate with age, especially in those with thoracic lesions. Those who walk in childhood have a 20–50% chance of becoming wheelchair dependent as adults. Immobility, poor respiratory reserve, obesity, latex allergy and worsening kyphoscoliosis contribute to the increased risks of surgery. It is essential that safe and manageable urine drainage is established in childhood: the bladder never improves with time, and surgical reconstruction becomes progressively more difficult. Independence in adult life will only be possible with intense preparation in childhood. Children must be allowed to join in with family chores and events. Education, both academic and practical, must be encouraged. Skills such as driving, shopping and birth control must be taught. However, even with the best support, less than 40% will have gainful employment. Children who are continent and have lesions below L2 are likely to have normal sexual function. Sexual activity in adolescents, especially in those with hydrocephalus, is limited (but not absent). However, by adult life, about two thirds will have established a regular partnership. All females and those males who are naturally potent are likely to be fertile. There is a high risk of neural tube defects in their offspring unless the female partner takes prophylactic folic acid for 3 months before pregnancy and for first trimester.

2008-01-01

338

Dietary Aspects of Carcinogenesis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Cancergram deals with all aspects of the relationship of diet to occurrence of cancer in man. The scope includes natural carcinogens in foods or beverages, potential carcinogens introduced by contamination or processing, role of essential nutrients in...

1977-01-01

339

Dietary Aspects of Carcinogenesis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Cancergram deals with all aspects of the relationship of diet to occurrence of cancer in man. The scope includes natural carcinogens in foods or beverages, potential carcinogens introduced by contamination or processing, role of essential nutrients in...

1978-01-01

340

Aspects of Raman Scattering.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Aspects of stimulated Raman scattering are investigated to better understand the propagation of intense light beams through the atmosphere. In addition, a new unstable resonator cavities was developed for the long pulse excimer laser used in the Raman bea...

D. G. Cooper J. L. Dexter R. Mahon

1989-01-01

341

Jumping Aspects Revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose an extension of the JAsCo aspect- oriented programming language for declaratively specifying a protocol fragment pointcut. The proposed pointcut lan- guage is equivalent to a finite state machine. Advices are attached to every transition specified in the pointcut pro- tocol. We claim that stateful aspects benefit from run-time weaving and therefore introduce the JAsCo run-time

Bruno De Fraine; Wim Vanderperren; Johan Brichau

342

A Randomized Controlled Trial of the First Step to Success Early Intervention: Demonstration of Program Efficacy Outcomes in a Diverse, Urban School District  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on a randomized controlled trial of the First Step to Success early intervention that was conducted over a 4-year period in Albuquerque Public Schools. First Step is a selected intervention for students in Grades 1 through 3 with externalizing behavior problems, and it addresses secondary prevention goals and objectives. It…

Walker, Hill M.; Seeley, John R.; Small, Jason; Severson, Herbert H.; Graham, Bethany A.; Feil, Edward G.; Serna, Loretta; Golly, Annemieke M.; Forness, Steven R.

2009-01-01

343

Diversity makes good business  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a world where every competitive advantage must be fully exploited, productive diversity – utilising Australia’s linguistic and cultural diversity to economic benefit – offers a practical resource, which no organisation, including government, can afford to ignore. Astute employers have begun to tap this resource – people who speak the language, understand the culture and often maintain business and personal

Meena Chavan

2005-01-01

344

Dissecting Diversity Part II  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents "Dissecting Diversity, Part II," the conclusion of a wide-ranging two-part roundtable discussion on diversity in higher education. The participants were as follows: Lezli Baskerville, J.D., President and CEO of the National Association for Equal Opportunity (NAFEO); Dr. Gerald E. Gipp, Executive Director of the American…

Matthews, Frank

2005-01-01

345

Assessing Diverse Populations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This keynote address begins with examples that underscore how profoundly the issues of multiculturalism and diversity impact the consciousness of society at the end of the 20th century. Changes in assessment that can lead to assessment for change in a culturally diverse society are based on the ideas that "assessment as a process must be…

Lee, Courtland C.

346

Advancing Diversity in STEM  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although progress has been made, greater efforts are needed to promote faculty diversity at the college and university levels, especially in STEM fields. Thus, it is important to elucidate best practices both for increasing awareness of diversity issues pertaining to higher education and for implementing change. This article focuses on the…

Hill, Paul L.; Shaw, Rose A.; Taylor, Jan R.; Hallar, Brittan L.

2011-01-01

347

Voices for Diversity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Prominent Americans were asked to reflect on the diversity challenge facing America's teacher workforce. The following leaders from several fields voiced their support of teachers and their beliefs America needs more diverse and culturally responsive teachers: (1) Mary Hatwood Futrell, President of Education International; (2) Carol…

Future Teacher, 1995

1995-01-01

348

Diversity and Its Contradictions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Emphasizing the value of difference may protect affirmative action while reinforcing inequalities. While education shows great concern for multiple perspectives, it uses diversity to preserve affirmative action. Though research indicates diversity has educational value, its use of prevailing academic practices reinforces the status quo. The main…

Baez, Benjamin

2000-01-01

349

Reconsidering the Diversity Rationale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The concept of diversity has come a long way in U.S. higher education, and its impact has been far reaching. Over the last three and a half decades, diversity and its related interventions have evolved to encompass a broad set of purposes, issues, and initiatives on college campuses. The earliest initiatives to increase minority access on…

Chang, Mitchell J.

2005-01-01

350

A Diversity Visionary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Today's chief diversity officer could be tomorrow's university president, says Dr. Damon Williams. The author profiles Damon Williams who shines as sought-after expert on issues surrounding higher education inclusion. As head of a diversity division with an eight-figure budget at Wisconsin's flagship state university, Williams oversees four…

Smith, Susan

2012-01-01

351

GENETIC DIVERSITY IN AVOCADO  

Microsoft Academic Search

People working on avocado germplasm improvement are more fortunate than those work- ing with some other crops (mango for one important example) in that Persea americana in its many genotypes presents a wide variety of genetic diversity. This is probably because avocados evolved in a part of North and Central America characterized itself by consider- able diversity in climates, related

Robert J. Knight

1999-01-01

352

Issue Brief on Diversity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the past year, the Diversity Committee of the Division of Developmental Disabilities (DDD) Board worked with the Board and the Issues Committee Chair to develop an issue brief addressing diversity, its impact on the membership and the wider community that is served by the work of DDD, resulting in recommendations that will influence policy…

Division on Developmental Disabilities, Council for Exceptional Children (NJ1), 2013

2013-01-01

353

Rotation and polarization diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we propose and study the performance of a new transmit diversity technique called rotation and polarization diversity. In this technique, in-phase and quadrature components of the rotated symbols are transmitted over two different polarizations of polarized transmitted antenna. By this way, in-phase and quadrature components are affected by different fading coefficients. Error performance of the proposed technique

Ahmet Yilmaz; Oguz Kucur

2011-01-01

354

Evolution & Diversity in Plants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes recent findings that help in understanding how evolution has brought about the diversity of plant life that presently exists. Discusses basic concepts of evolution, diversity and classification, the three-line hypothesis of plant evolution, the origin of fungi, and the geologic time table. Included are 31 references. (CW)

Pearson, Lorentz C.

1988-01-01

355

Dissociable contribution of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors in the medial prefrontal cortex to different aspects of executive control such as impulsivity and compulsive perseveration in rats.  

PubMed

Serotonin (5-HT) receptors are increasingly recognized as major targets for cognitive enhancement in schizophrenia. Several lines of evidence suggest a pathophysiological role for glutamate NMDA receptors in the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia and associated disorders in attention and executive functioning. We investigated how the interactions between 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A and glutamate NMDA receptor mechanisms in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) contribute to the control of different aspects of attentional performance. Rats were trained on a five-choice serial reaction time (5-CSRT) task, which provides indices of attentional functioning (percentage of correct responses), executive control (measured by anticipatory and perseverative responses), and speed. The competitive NMDA receptor antagonist CPP (50 ng/side) was infused directly into the mPFC 5 min after infusion of either 8-OH-DPAT (30 and 100 ng/side) or M100907 (100 and 300 ng/side) into the same brain area. Impairments in attentional functioning induced by CPP were completely abolished by both doses of 8-OH-DPAT or M100907. In addition, M100907 abolished the CPP-induced anticipatory responding but had no effects on perseverative over-responding, while 8-OH-DPAT reduced the perseverative over-responding but had no effects on anticipatory responding induced by CPP. The selective 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist WAY100635 (30 ng/side) antagonized the effects of 8-OH-DPAT (100 ng/side). 8-OH-DPAT at 30 ng/side reduced the latency of correct responses in controls and CPP-injected rats and lowered the percentage of omissions in CPP-injected rats. The data show that 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors in the mPFC exert opposing actions on attentional functioning and demonstrate a dissociable contribution of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors in the mPFC to different aspects of executive control such as impulsivity and compulsive perseveration. PMID:16192987

Carli, Mirjana; Baviera, Marta; Invernizzi, Roberto W; Balducci, Claudia

2006-04-01

356

Embracing cultural diversity.  

PubMed

Healthcare providers from all backgrounds are taught the Western medicine approach with little consideration given to cultural-specific care. Yet, today it is difficult to ignore that approximately 33 percent of Americans originate from ethnically diverse groups. As our population continues to become more diversified, it is imperative that healthcare professionals become more sensitive to cultural differences. Effectively managing cultural diversity in the workplace requires a complex set of skills as well as an understanding of the concept. Communication skills will be challenged in a complex and diverse work environment. Managers must learn to listen. Embracing cultural diversity is a two-step process. The first step begins with personal self-interest and self-examination. The second step in the process is the "awakening." Tomorrow's successful managers will take an active role today in creating an environment that views diversity as an asset to the work force. PMID:11302066

Casady, W M

357

Genetic diversity of resistance genes controlling fusarium head blight with simple sequence repeat markers in thirty-six wheat accessions from east asian origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a serious disease of wheat worldwide that may cause substantial yield and quality losses. Breeding\\u000a for FHB-resistant cultivars is the most cost-effective approach to control FHB. The objective of the present study was to\\u000a determine the relationship of resistance between new resistant sources and Sumai 3 using five simple sequence repeat (SSR)\\u000a markers closely linked

Zhuping Yang; Jeannie Gilbert; J. Douglas Procunier

2006-01-01

358

Randomized, controlled evaluation of short- and long-term benefits of heart failure disease management within a diverse provider network. The SPAN-CHF trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Several trials support the usefulness of disease management (DM) for improving clinical outcomes in heart failure (HF). Most of these studies are limited by small sample size; absence of concurrent, randomized controls; limited follow-up; restriction to urban academic centers; and low baseline use of effective medications. Methods and Results—We performed a prospective, randomized assessment of the effectiveness of HF DM

Carey Kimmelstiel; Daniel Levine; Kathleen Perry

2005-01-01

359

p53 Controls Global Nucleotide Excision Repair of Low Levels of Structurally Diverse Benzo(g)chrysene-DNA Adducts in Human Fibroblasts1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benzo(g)chrysene is a widespread environmental contaminant and po- tent carcinogen. We have measured the formation and nucleotide excision repair of covalent DNA adducts formed by the DNA-reactive metabolite of this compound in human fibroblasts, in which expression of the p53 tumor suppressor gene could be controlled by a tetracycline-inducible promoter. Cells were exposed fo r1ht o0.01, 0.1, or 1.2 M

Daniel R. Lloyd; Philip C. Hanawalt

360

Dinosaur diversity and the rock record  

PubMed Central

Palaeobiodiversity analysis underpins macroevolutionary investigations, allowing identification of mass extinctions and adaptive radiations. However, recent large-scale studies on marine invertebrates indicate that geological factors play a central role in moulding the shape of diversity curves and imply that many features of such curves represent sampling artefacts, rather than genuine evolutionary events. In order to test whether similar biases affect diversity estimates for terrestrial taxa, we compiled genus-richness estimates for three Mesozoic dinosaur clades (Ornithischia, Sauropodomorpha and Theropoda). Linear models of expected genus richness were constructed for each clade, using the number of dinosaur-bearing formations available through time as a proxy for the amount of fossiliferous rock outcrop. Modelled diversity estimates were then compared with observed patterns. Strong statistically robust correlations demonstrate that almost all aspects of ornithischian and theropod diversity curves can be explained by geological megabiases, whereas the sauropodomorph record diverges from modelled predictions and may be a stronger contender for identifying evolutionary signals. In contrast to other recent studies, we identify a marked decline in dinosaur genus richness during the closing stages of the Cretaceous Period, indicating that the clade decreased in diversity for several million years prior to the final extinction of non-avian dinosaurs at the Cretaceous–Palaeocene boundary.

Barrett, Paul M.; McGowan, Alistair J.; Page, Victoria

2009-01-01

361

Dinosaur diversity and the rock record.  

PubMed

Palaeobiodiversity analysis underpins macroevolutionary investigations, allowing identification of mass extinctions and adaptive radiations. However, recent large-scale studies on marine invertebrates indicate that geological factors play a central role in moulding the shape of diversity curves and imply that many features of such curves represent sampling artefacts, rather than genuine evolutionary events. In order to test whether similar biases affect diversity estimates for terrestrial taxa, we compiled genus-richness estimates for three Mesozoic dinosaur clades (Ornithischia, Sauropodomorpha and Theropoda). Linear models of expected genus richness were constructed for each clade, using the number of dinosaur-bearing formations available through time as a proxy for the amount of fossiliferous rock outcrop. Modelled diversity estimates were then compared with observed patterns. Strong statistically robust correlations demonstrate that almost all aspects of ornithischian and theropod diversity curves can be explained by geological megabiases, whereas the sauropodomorph record diverges from modelled predictions and may be a stronger contender for identifying evolutionary signals. In contrast to other recent studies, we identify a marked decline in dinosaur genus richness during the closing stages of the Cretaceous Period, indicating that the clade decreased in diversity for several million years prior to the final extinction of non-avian dinosaurs at the Cretaceous-Palaeocene boundary. PMID:19403535

Barrett, Paul M; McGowan, Alistair J; Page, Victoria

2009-04-29

362

A Software Diversity Model for Embedded Safety-critical System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embedded safety-critical systems are emerging with increasing complexity and software-intensive, the use of diversity in software is helpful to increase safety and reliability. In this paper, a software diversity model from practice of Zone Controller in communications-based train control application is presented. Firstly, we discuss software architecture and safety tactics of embedded systems, and then construct a software diversity model

Haifeng Wang; Nan Liang

2009-01-01

363

Molecular aspects of tumour hypoxia.  

PubMed

Hypoxia is an important feature of the microenvironment of a wide range of solid tumours. Its critical role in radio- and chemoresistance and its significance as an adverse prognostic factor have been well established over the last decades. On a cellular level, hypoxia evokes a complex molecular response with a central role for the HIF-1 pathway. The cellular processes under control of HIF-1 contain important prognostic information and comprise potential candidates for directing hypoxia-modifying therapies. This review will provide an overview of the current knowledge on the molecular aspects of tumour hypoxia and the link to clinical practice. PMID:19383328

Rademakers, Saskia E; Span, Paul N; Kaanders, Johannes H A M; Sweep, Fred C G J; van der Kogel, Albert J; Bussink, Johan

2008-03-27

364

"No. 190. Grand Valley Diversion Dam. Diversion gates, water flowing ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

"No. 190. Grand Valley Diversion Dam. Diversion gates, water flowing into high line. June, 1917. R.B.D." - Grand Valley Diversion Dam, Half a mile north of intersection of I-70 & Colorado State Route 65, Cameo, Mesa County, CO

365

Climate, energy and diversity  

PubMed Central

In recent years, a number of species–energy hypotheses have been developed to explain global patterns in plant and animal diversity. These hypotheses frequently fail to distinguish between fundamentally different forms of energy which influence diversity in dissimilar ways. Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) can be utilized only by plants, though their abundance and growth rate is also greatly influenced by water. The Gibbs free energy (chemical energy) retained in the reduced organic compounds of tissue can be utilized by all heterotrophic organisms. Neither PAR nor chemical energy influences diversity directly. Both, however, influence biomass and/or abundance; diversity may then increase as a result of secondary population dynamic or evolutionary processes. Temperature is not a form of energy, though it is often used loosely by ecologists as a proxy for energy; it does, however, influence the rate of utilization of chemical energy by organisms. It may also influence diversity by allowing a greater range of energetic lifestyles at warmer temperatures (the metabolic niche hypothesis). We conclude that there is no single species/energy mechanism; fundamentally different processes link energy to abundance in plants and animals, and diversity is affected secondarily. If we are to make progress in elucidating these mechanisms, it is important to distinguish climatic effects on species' distribution and abundance from processes linking energy supply to plant and animal diversity.

Clarke, Andrew; Gaston, Kevin J

2006-01-01

366

Multilingual Aspects of Fluency Disorders. Communication Disorders across Languages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains contributions by scholars working on diverse aspects of speech who bring their findings to bear on the practical issue of how to treat stuttering in different language groups and in multilingual speakers. The book considers classic issues in speech production research, as well as whether regions of the brain that are affected in…

Howell, Peter; Van Borsel, John

2011-01-01

367

Multilingual Aspects of Fluency Disorders. Communication Disorders across Languages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book contains contributions by scholars working on diverse aspects of speech who bring their findings to bear on the practical issue of how to treat stuttering in different language groups and in multilingual speakers. The book considers classic issues in speech production research, as well as whether regions of the brain that are affected…

Howell, Peter; Van Borsel, John

2011-01-01

368

Everyday Spirituality: An Aspect of the Holistic Curriculum in Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Early childhood education in Aotearoa New Zealand includes different philosophical perspectives, may be part of the public or private sector and aims to be inclusive and holistic. The early childhood curriculum, Te Whariki, supports these aims. Aspects of the curriculum that are holistic may be conceptualized in diverse ways and this qualitative…

Bone, Jane; Cullen, Joy; Loveridge, Judith

2007-01-01

369

Legal and institutional aspects of coastal zone management in Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Indonesian coastal zone harbours a rich and diverse resource base. It is, however, threatened by the great centres of coastal population and their economic activities. In 1982, to meet the challenge of protecting and preserving the marine environment, Indonesia adopted the Environmental Management Act (EMA), an umbrella law to cover all aspects of environmental management. The EMA lays down

Mochtar Kusuma-Atmadja; Tommy H Purwaka

1996-01-01

370

The Uniformity and Diversity of Language: Evidence from Sign Language  

PubMed Central

Evidence from sign language strongly supports three positions: (1) language is a coherent system with universal properties; (2) sign languages diverge from spoken languages in some aspects of their structure; and (3) domain-external factors can be identified that account for some crucial aspects of language structure -- uniform and diverse -- in both modalities. Assuming that any of these positions excludes the others defeats the purpose of the enterprise.

Sandler, Wendy

2010-01-01

371

Diversity of endophytic fungal community of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) and biological control of Crinipellis perniciosa, causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease  

PubMed Central

The basidiomycete fungus Crinipellis perniciosa (Stahel) Singer is the causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease of Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) which is the main factor limiting cacao production in the Americas. Pod losses of up to 90% are experienced in affected areas as evidenced by the 50% drop in production in Bahia province, Brazil following the arrival of the C. perniciosa in the area in 1989. The disease has proven particularly difficult to control and many farmers in affected areas have given up cacao cultivation. In order to evaluate the potential of endophytes as a biological control agent of this phytopathogen, the endophytic fungal community of resistant and susceptible cacao plants as well as affected branches was studied between 2001 and 2002. The fungal community was identified by morphological traits and rDNA sequencing as belonging to the genera Acremonium, Blastomyces, Botryosphaeria, Cladosporium, Colletotrichum, Cordyceps, Diaporthe, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Gibberella, Gliocladium, Lasiodiplodia, Monilochoetes, Nectria, Pestalotiopsis, Phomopsis, Pleurotus, Pseudofusarium, Rhizopycnis, Syncephalastrum, Trichoderma, Verticillium and Xylaria. These fungi were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo by their ability to inhibit C. perniciosa. Among these, some were identified as potential antagonists, but only one fungus (Gliocladium catenulatum) reduced the incidence of Witches' Broom Disease in cacao seedlings to 70%.

2005-01-01

372

Diversity of endophytic fungal community of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) and biological control of Crinipellis perniciosa, causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease.  

PubMed

The basidiomycete fungus Crinipellis perniciosa (Stahel) Singer is the causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease of Cacao (Theobromacacao L.) which is the main factor limiting cacao production in the Americas. Pod losses of up to 90% are experienced in affected areas as evidenced by the 50% drop in production in Bahia province, Brazil following the arrival of the C. perniciosa in the area in 1989. The disease has proven particularly difficult to control and many farmers in affected areas have given up cacao cultivation. In order to evaluate the potential of endophytes as a biological control agent of this phytopathogen, the endophytic fungal community of resistant and susceptible cacao plants as well as affected branches was studied between 2001 and 2002. The fungal community was identified by morphological traits and rDNA sequencing as belonging to the genera Acremonium, Blastomyces, Botryosphaeria, Cladosporium, Colletotrichum, Cordyceps, Diaporthe, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Gibberella, Gliocladium, Lasiodiplodia, Monilochoetes, Nectria, Pestalotiopsis, Phomopsis, Pleurotus, Pseudofusarium, Rhizopycnis, Syncephalastrum, Trichoderma, Verticillium and Xylaria. These fungi were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo by their ability to inhibit C. perniciosa. Among these, some were identified as potential antagonists, but only one fungus (Gliocladium catenulatum) reduced the incidence of Witches' Broom Disease in cacao seedlings to 70%. PMID:15951847

Rubini, Marciano R; Silva-Ribeiro, Rute T; Pomella, Alan W V; Maki, Cristina S; Araújo, Welington L; Dos Santos, Deise R; Azevedo, João L

2005-02-01

373

[Medical aspects of fasting].  

PubMed

Fasting (arabic-savm) was proclaimed through islam, and thus it is an obligation for Holly Prophet Muhammad s.a.v.s.-Peace be to Him-in the second year after Hijra (in 624 after Milad-born of Isa a.s.). There is a month of fasting-Ramadan-each lunar (hijra) year. So, it was 1415th fasting this year. Former Prophets have brought obligative messages on fasting to their people; so there are also certain forms of fasting with other religions i.e. with Catholics, Jews, Orthodox. These kinds of fasting above differ from muslim fasting, but they also appear obligative. All revelations have brought fasting as obligative. From medical point of view, fasting has two basical components: psychical and physical. Psychical sphere correlate closely with its fundamental ideological message. Allah dz.s. says in Quran: "... Fasting is obligative for you, as it was obligative to your precedents, as to avoid sins; during very few days (II, II, 183 & 184)." Will strength, control of passions, effort and self-discipline makes a pure faithfull person, who purify its mind and body through fasting. Thinking about The Creator is more intensive, character is more solid; and spirit and will get stronger. We will mention the hadith saying: "Essaihune humus saimun!" That means: "Travellers at the Earth are fasters (of my ummet)." The commentary of this hadith, in the Collection of 1001 hadiths (Bin bir hadis), number 485, says: "There are no travelling dervishs or monks in islam; thus there is no such a kind of relligousity in islam. In stead, it is changed by fasting and constant attending of mosque. That was proclaimed as obligation, although there were few cases of travelling in the name of relligousity, like travelling dervishs and sheichs." In this paper, the author discusses medical aspects of fasting and its positive characteristics in the respect of healthy life style and prevention of many sicks. The author mentions positive influence of fasting to certain system and organs of human body. According the author, o basic messages of fasting could be a Roman poet's saying:" Mens sana in corpora sanum." PMID:9324567

Gavrankapetanovi?, F

1997-01-01

374

Family adversity and inhibitory control for economically disadvantaged children: preschool relations and associations with school readiness.  

PubMed

This study examined longitudinal relations linking aspects of family adversity to inhibitory control and school readiness for 120 economically disadvantaged children attending a Head Start preschool. The aspects of family adversity included income-to-needs ratios and an adversity index representing family instability and family chaos. The results showed that the adversity index but not the income ratios contributed to explaining diversity in the development of inhibitory control over the course of the preschool year. Additionally, the adversity index predicted school readiness at the end of the year, and the results suggested that inhibitory control mediated this effect. The implications concern understanding family sources of diversity in inhibitory control for economically disadvantaged preschool children. PMID:23750526

Brown, Eleanor D; Ackerman, Brian P; Moore, Charlee A

2013-06-01

375

Aspects of bamboo agronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various aspects of the growth and development of bamboo are reviewed,includ- ing growth cycles of plant parts,effects of aging on important plant tissues,uptake of water and nutrients,photosynthesis,storage and translocation of photosynthates and nutrients,and accumulation and partitioning of biomass and nutrients.Also discussed are how these aspects can be manipulated with agronomic techniques, such as management of standing-culm density,culm-age structure,leaf area,and leaf-age

Volker Kleinhenz; David J. Midmore

2001-01-01

376

OPERATION MODES AND CONTROLS ASPECTS OF FAIR  

Microsoft Academic Search

An international accelerator Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) has been proposed by GSI in 2001. This facility will provide the whole range of particle beams from protons and antiprotons to ion beams of all chemical elements up to uranium as well as beams of short-lived (rare isotope) beams. The proposed facility consists of a double-ring synchrotron and a

P. Schütt; U. Krause; R. Bär; B. Franczak; G. Fröhlich; L. Hechler; A. Redelbach; S. Richter; V. Schaa; W. Schiebel

377

Diversity of Chlamydomonas Channelrhodopsins  

PubMed Central

Channelrhodopsins act as photoreceptors for control of motility behavior in flagellates and are widely used as genetically targeted tools to optically manipulate the membrane potential of specific cell populations (“optogenetics”). The first two channelrhodopsins were obtained from the model organism Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (CrChR1 and CrChR2). By homology cloning we identified three new channelrhodopsin sequences from the same genus, CaChR1, CyChR1 and CraChR2, from C. augustae, C. yellowstonensis and C. raudensis, respectively. CaChR1 and CyChR1 were functionally expressed in HEK293 cells, where they acted as light-gated ion channels similar to CrChR1. However, both, which are similar to each other, differed from CrChR1 in current kinetics, inactivation, light intensity dependence, spectral sensitivity, and dependence on the external pH. These results show that extensive channelrhodopsin diversity exists even within the same genus, Chlamydomonas. The maximal spectral sensitivity of CaChR1 was at 520 nm at pH 7.4, about 40 nm red-shifted as compared to that of CrChR1 under the same conditions. CaChR1 was successfully expressed in Pichia pastoris and exhibited an absorption spectrum identical to the action spectrum of CaChR1-generated photocurrents. The red-shifted spectra and the lack of fast inactivation in CaChR1- and CyChR1-generated currents are features desirable for optogenetics applications.

Hou, Sing-Yi; Govorunova, Elena G.; Ntefidou, Maria; Lane, C. Elizabeth; Spudich, Elena N.; Sineshchekov, Oleg A.; Spudich, John L.

2011-01-01

378

[Benzodiazepines and forensic aspects].  

PubMed

Adverse effects of benzodiazepines are well known since the first one was used in 1958 (chlordiazepoxide). The literature collects study-cases or rarely controlled studies concerning side effects or paradoxical reactions to benzodiazepines. They mostly described drowsiness and behavioral disinhibition, including increased well-being feeling but also hostility, rage access with feeling of invulnerability, serious crimes and sometimes homicides. Delusional, manic, confusional or depressive states are also pointed out. Rate for aggressive behaviour is 0.3 to 0.7% but distinction should be done between accidental or "idiosyncratic" reaction and voluntary sought disinhibition, clearly more frequent. No benzodiazepine has any specificity for these adverse effects but pharmacology, doses, associated drugs (or alcohol) and psychopathology interact to produce hazardous psychic states. Pharmacology: GABA induces a decrease in serotonin compound and vigilance. Pharmacokinetic: first dose effect or over-dose effect, short half-life, lipophily, affinity, digestive absorption, active metabolites interact. Psychopathology: age, alcohol association, psychological status (high initial level of hostility, impulsivity, frustration, personality disorder and depressive status). External conditions: chronic illness, affective and professional frustrations, physical or psychic exhaustion contribute also. Some benzodiazepines (flunitrazepam, diazepam, clorazepate, triazolam, alprazolam, lorazepam, for example) are more often concerned for pharmacokinetics characteristics but also prescription habits. Forensic aspects should be considered in case of homicide. Especially, reality of benzodiazepines consumption and awareness of the potential paradoxical reaction should be precisely evaluated. Special focus on voluntary induced disinhibition has to be done for forensic considerations. Relationship but also crime facilitations are sometimes consciously sought. Some benzodiazepines have already been identified for this use: flunitrazepam, clorazepate but also triazolam and temazepam in UK, alprazolam in USA. Flunitrazepam is prohibited in USA and considered as narcotics in France. A Swedish study showed that violent acts were more frequent and serious in juvenile offenders taking flunitrazepam/alcohol than other young offenders staying in the same correctional institution. They recommended classification of flunitrazepam as narcotic. A study from Belgium with drug addicts concluded in the same way and asked for an increased information of professionals and a more efficient control of the delivery. Before concluding to idiosyncratic effect, and then possibly to penal irresponsibility, the forensic approach should consider: firstly the reality of the benzodiazepines absorption and implication in committing violence (urine test, chronology, amnesia); secondly, the association of unusual behaviour and converging circumstances (pharmacological, pharmacokinetic, psychopathology, external conditions); thirdly the consumer's knowledge of the disinhibition effect. In our prison practice, we have to be particularly cautious as population frequently associates personality disorder, drug addiction and high level of frustration related to penitential context. Special information should be given to inmates when benzodiazepines are prescribed, but more extensively, a preventive strategy should be adopted in general population. PMID:15029082

Michel, L; Lang, J-P

379

Sustainable mining in the European Union: the legislative aspect.  

PubMed

This paper is a review of the community legislation of the European Union ("acquis communautaire") with regard to the mineral extractive industry. It highlights the existing inconsistencies of the acquis, which require correction. Historically, the mining industry has received privileged treatment within the European Community. The treaties declare the promotion of a policy of using natural resources prudently and rationally to avoid their unconsidered exhaustion. However, mining is excluded from the scope of major environmental directives or reserves a certain freedom for interpretation. This has led to an increasing number of related cases at the European Court of Justice. The regulatory tools of the environmental acquis are rather diverse in controlling the emission sources, the pollution pathways, and the impacted receptor media through administrative measures or assigning environmental quality targets. A combined approach is needed for controlling the environmental impacts of the extractive industries. The amendment of the Seveso II Directive, the elaboration of a reference document on best available techniques and the preparation of a widescope directive on mining waste management might provide a frame for the elimination of the above discrepancies. In addition, a coherent European Community policy based on the balanced consideration of economic, environmental, and social aspects could ensure a sustainable development of the mining industry. PMID:15285402

Hámor, Tamás

2004-02-01

380

Aspects of Marine Ecology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is designed for use in standard science curricula to develop oceanologic manifestations of certain science topics. Included are teacher guides, student activities, and demonstrations to impart ocean science understanding, specifically, aspects of marine ecology, to high school students. The course objectives include the ability of…

Awkerman, Gary L.

381

Medical Aspects of Neglect.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This live satellite broadcast and Webcast will provide an in-depth look at elder abuse and neglect, focusing on the medical and evidentiary aspects of an abuse/neglect investigation. Topics will include red flags for abuse, bruising, and a look at where a...

2005-01-01

382

Aspects of Marine Ecology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication is designed for use in standard science curricula to develop oceanologic manifestations of certain science topics. Included are teacher guides, student activities, and demonstrations to impart ocean science understanding, specifically, aspects of marine ecology, to high school students. The course objectives include the ability…

Awkerman, Gary L.

383

Aspect and Deviation Angle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, an attempt is made to define aspect angle and deviation angle in a logical and acceptable manner; second, a graphical calculator is supplied in the hope that it will make the calculation of these angles so simp...

T. A. Croft

1964-01-01

384

Medical Aspects of Surfing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The medical aspects of surfing include ear and eye injuries and sprains and strains of the lower back and neck, as well as skin cancer from exposure to the sun. Treatment, rehabilitation, and prevention of these problems are discussed. Surfing is recommended as part of an exercise program for reasonably healthy people. (Author/MT)|

Renneker, Mark

1987-01-01

385

Aspects and Modules Combined  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overly regular module interfaces in object-oriented languages hamper modularization of complex applications. Aspect- oriented programming tackles this problem by allowing mod- ule boundaries to span and partition classes in a ?exible manner. However, not without a cost. In order to achieve this ?exibility, common modularity mechanisms, such as en- capsulation and external composition, are lost. The ability to separately compile

Johan Ovlinger; Karl Lieberherr; David H. Lorenz

386

Sociological Aspects of Rhinoplasty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the psychological aspect of the rhino- plasty operation has been a subject of interest for a long time, with the exception of a few studies, sociological factors have been almost totally ignored. In this prospective study the personality characteristics and socioeconomic back- grounds of 216 rhinoplasty patients were evaluated. Be- tween 1994 and 2000, a questionnaire and the Minnesota

Orhan Babuccu; Osman Latifoglu; Kenan Atabay; Nursen Oral; Behcet Cosan

2003-01-01

387

Subduction modelling with ASPECT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ASPECT (Advanced Solver for Problems in Earth's ConvecTion) is a promising new code designed for modelling thermal convection in the mantle (Kronbichler et al. 2012). The code uses state-of-the-art numerical methods, such as high performance solvers and adaptive mesh refinement. It builds on tried-and-well-tested libraries and works with plug-ins allowing easy extension to fine-tune it to the user's specific needs. We make use of the promising features of ASPECT, especially Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR), for modelling lithosphere subduction in 2D and 3D geometries. The AMR allows for mesh refinement where needed and mesh coarsening in regions less important to the parameters under investigation. In the context of subduction, this amounts to having very small grid cells at material interfaces and larger cells in more uniform mantle regions. As lithosphere subduction modelling is not standard to ASPECT, we explore the necessary adaptive grid refinement and test ASPECT with widely accepted benchmarks. We showcase examples of mechanical and thermo-mechanical oceanic subduction in which we vary the number of materials making up the overriding and subducting plates as well as the rheology (from linear viscous to more complicated rheologies). Both 2D and 3D geometries are used, as ASPECT easily extends to three dimensions (Kronbichler et al. 2012). Based on these models, we discuss the advection of compositional fields coupled to material properties and the ability of AMR to trace the slab's path through the mantle. Kronbichler, M., T. Heister and W. Bangerth (2012), High Accuracy Mantle Convection Simulation through Modern Numerical Methods, Geophysical Journal International, 191, 12-29.

Glerum, Anne; Thieulot, Cédric; Spakman, Wim; Quinquis, Matthieu; Buiter, Susanne

2013-04-01

388

DEVELOPMENT OF AQUATIC MODELS FOR TESTING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GENETIC DIVERSITY AND POPULATION EXTINCTION RISK  

EPA Science Inventory

The relationship between population adaptive potential and extinction risk in a changing environment is not well understood. Although the expectation is that genetic diversity is directly related to the capacity of populations to adapt, the statistical and predictive aspects of ...

389

Scuticociliatosis and its recent prophylactic measures in aquaculture with special reference to South Korea Taxonomy, diversity and diagnosis of scuticociliatosis: Part I Control strategies of scuticociliatosis: Part II.  

PubMed

Scuticociliatosis caused by about 20 species belonging to the Phylum Ciliophora has been recognized as an emerging problem inflicting significant economic loss in aquaculture industry in the world. Among these Philasterides dicentrarchi, Miamiensis avidus, and Uronema marinum are the three species responsible for scuticociliatosis in olive flounder farms of South Korea. Some of the parasites living or scavenger ciliates also have become parasites of aquaculture fish. The major clinico-pathological manifestations of scuticociliatosis infected fishes are anemia, weight loss, dark coloration, enteritis, excessive body mucus, yellowish intestinal mucus, loss of scales, hemorrhagic and/or bleached spots on the skin, and dermal necrotic lesions that finally destroy tissues lead to high mortalities. Affected fish exhibit organ-specific pathological changes in the brain, eyes, muscle, gills, liver, kidney, intestine, and stomach that lead to severe mortality. At present, farmers in South Korea manage scuticociliatosis by using therapeutic measures, such as application of antibiotics like oxytetracycline, gentamycine, tetracycline, amoxycililin, and cefazolin and chemicals, such as formalin, hydrogen peroxide, malachite green, and jenoclean at a concentration of 350 +/- 150 ppm. However till date, no systematic scientific study has been conducted under field condition on the efficacy of these management measures. Under laboratory condition the ciliate can be effectively controlled with the antibiotics and chemicals while on the host, but on entering the host no systemic chemotherapeutic treatment has been yet proven effective. Furthermore the indiscriminate uses of harmful chemicals in aquaculture are increasingly becoming a cause of concern. Recently formalin and malachite green, the most widely used chemicals have been banned in food fish production by FDA as not consumer friendly and being carcinogenic respectively. Vaccines and immunostimulants can induce good immune response and protect against scuticociliatosis as it has been proved in the case of freshwater Ich. Now a days a number of probiotics and herbal formulations are in use against freshwater bacterial and fungal diseases, while, little information is available regarding the different prophylactic measures against marine scuticociliatosis. This review attempts to provide information on the various prophylaxic measures practiced against scuticociliatosis with special reference to olive flounder farms in South Korea. PMID:20211263

Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Balasundaram, Chellam; Heo, Moon-Soo

2010-03-06

390

Nucleotide diversity in gorillas.  

PubMed Central

Comparison of the levels of nucleotide diversity in humans and apes may provide valuable information for inferring the demographic history of these species, the effect of social structure on genetic diversity, patterns of past migration, and signatures of past selection events. Previous DNA sequence data from both the mitochondrial and the nuclear genomes suggested a much higher level of nucleotide diversity in the African apes than in humans. Noting that the nuclear DNA data from the apes were very limited, we previously conducted a DNA polymorphism study in humans and another in chimpanzees and bonobos, using 50 DNA segments randomly chosen from the noncoding, nonrepetitive parts of the human genome. The data revealed that the nucleotide diversity (pi) in bonobos (0.077%) is actually lower than that in humans (0.087%) and that pi in chimpanzees (0.134%) is only 50% higher than that in humans. In the present study we sequenced the same 50 segments in 15 western lowland gorillas and estimated pi to be 0.158%. This is the highest value among the African apes but is only about two times higher than that in humans. Interestingly, available mtDNA sequence data also suggest a twofold higher nucleotide diversity in gorillas than in humans, but suggest a threefold higher nucleotide diversity in chimpanzees than in humans. The higher mtDNA diversity in chimpanzees might be due to the unique pattern in the evolution of chimpanzee mtDNA. From the nuclear DNA pi values, we estimated that the long-term effective population sizes of humans, bonobos, chimpanzees, and gorillas are, respectively, 10,400, 12,300, 21,300, and 25,200.

Yu, Ning; Jensen-Seaman, Michael I; Chemnick, Leona; Ryder, Oliver; Li, Wen-Hsiung

2004-01-01

391

The Loss of Genetic Diversity: An Impending Global Issue.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Definitions of biosphere and ecosystem are provided as the basis for understanding a problem that threatens to become (or already is) a global issue, namely, human activity which results in reducing the diversity of life forms present in the biosphere as an ecosystem. Two aspects of this problem are: (1) the growth of human populations worldwide…

Pierce, James P.

392

Cultural diversity online: student engagement with learning technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this research is to focus on how students from different cultural and linguistic backgrounds encounter online learning environments, and to assess the extent to which cultural factors impact on learners' engagement with online learning. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The study explores how a culturally diverse cohort of students engage with the organisational, technological and pedagogical aspects of

John Hannon; Brian DNetto

2007-01-01

393

Immigration and the New Racial Diversity in Rural America  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article highlights the new racial and ethnic diversity in rural America, which may be the most important but least anticipated population shift in recent demographic history. Ethnoracial change is central to virtually every aspect of rural America over the foreseeable future: agro-food systems, community life, labor force change, economic…

Lichter, Daniel T.

2012-01-01

394

Immigration and the New Racial Diversity in Rural America  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article highlights the new racial and ethnic diversity in rural America, which may be the most important but least anticipated population shift in recent demographic history. Ethnoracial change is central to virtually every aspect of rural America over the foreseeable future: agro-food systems, community life, labor force change, economic…

Lichter, Daniel T.

2012-01-01

395

Genetic aspects of mitochondrial genome evolution.  

PubMed

Many years of extensive studies of metazoan mitochondrial genomes have established differences in gene arrangements and genetic codes as valuable phylogenetic markers. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of replication, transcription and the role of the control regions which cause e.g. different gene orders is important to assess the phylogenetic signal of such events. This review summarises and discusses, for the Metazoa, the general aspects of mitochondrial transcription and replication with respect to control regions as well as several proposed models of gene rearrangements. As whole genome sequencing projects accumulate, more and more observations about mitochondrial gene transfer to the nucleus are reported. Thus occurrence and phylogenetic aspects concerning nuclear mitochondrial-like sequences (NUMTS) is another aspect of this review. PMID:23142697

Bernt, Matthias; Braband, Anke; Schierwater, Bernd; Stadler, Peter F

2012-11-07

396

Aspects of the Phantom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract In this thesis we investigate aspects of the phantom,energy,defined by having an equation of state parameter w < ?1, which recently has at- tained interest from cosmologists,since WMAP probe measurements,have shown,that the dark energy of the Universe may,be of this kind. We begin by making,a survey over fundamental,principles of comsology and general relativity. Then we investigate the evolution of

Jens Persson

397

Aspects of Airship Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to present both an update of airship design, by introducing the element of the digital computer, and the structural design of the cabin of airship CAS-1.\\u000aVarious aspects of the preliminary design of an airship were subjected to refinement by use of the airship static bending moment, performance characteristics such as drag, and also

Hans J Kleiner

1974-01-01

398

Aspects of B physics  

SciTech Connect

Various aspects of weak decays are commented on. Probing of the standard model and of phenomena beyond the standard model are discussed, followed by a theoretical view of B mesons and some experimental observations on B mesons. The point is made that any data on B decay would be interesting in that it would provide powerful new constraints in analyses of the standard model and extensions thereof. (LEW)

Gaillard, M.K.

1987-10-14

399

Aspects of startling noises  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a pilot study, aspects of startling noises were investigated. For a typical synthetic broadband sound, i.e. uniform exciting noise, the influence of the following stimulus parameters on startling reactions were studied: (1) Magnitude of a level increase (5...40 dB, 10ms rise time) above a pedestal of 45 dB (2) Level increase of 30 dB for pedestals between 40 and

Hugo Fastl; Stefan Kerber; Nikolaus Guzsvány

400

Further aspects of supercosmology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Further aspects of the cosmological consequences of supersymmetric GUTs are studied. Special emphasis is placed on the nature of the phase transition and the dynamical creation of matter-antimatter asymmetry. We envisage that the inclusion of an SU(5) singlet(s) can in principle lead to paths with small [O(1010 GeV)4] barrier heights. SU(5) singlets will also lead invariably to the desired bary

Dimitri V Nanopoulos; Keith A Olive; Kyriakos Tamvakis

1982-01-01

401

Myelomeningocele: neglected aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The commonest cause of neurogenic bladder in children is myelomeningocele. Survival of children is much improved in the Western\\u000a world, but by 35 years old, about 50% will have died. In adults, the commonest causes of death are lung and heart diseases.\\u000a All physical aspects deteriorate with age, especially in those with thoracic lesions. Those who walk in childhood have a

Christopher R. J. Woodhouse

2008-01-01

402

Philosophical Aspects of Astrobiology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent developments in biology, geology, planetary science, and astrophysics have brought excitement in the potential for life elsewhere to a high level. One of the less-often-discussed aspects of the resulting search concerns why we are interested in the potential for life elsewhere, what the philosophical issues are that drive us to search, and what it would mean to find (or to not find) convincing evidence for extraterrestrial life. That such a large fraction of the public is interested in the issues and that much of the research in the planetary and astrophysical aspects of astrobiology has few practical applications, yet enjoys widespread support regardless, underscores the deep meaning of the results. This likely connects up to the value of exploration in our society, to the desire to understand our origins and how we as a species and as a society fit into the world around us. That is, it connects to understanding what the nature of humanity is and what it means to be human. We as a society have been exploring the world around us for more than 2000 years, and, in fact, that exploration arguably is the hallmark of civilization. These issues will be discussed, along with the connections between science in general and society and the religious aspects of extraterrestrial life.

Jakosky, Bruce

403

Wherefore art thou, homeo(stasis)? Functional diversity in homeostatic synaptic plasticity.  

PubMed

Homeostatic plasticity has emerged as a fundamental regulatory principle that strives to maintain neuronal activity within optimal ranges by altering diverse aspects of neuronal function. Adaptation to network activity is often viewed as an essential negative feedback restraint that prevents runaway excitation or inhibition. However, the precise importance of these homeostatic functions is often theoretical rather than empirically derived. Moreover, a remarkable multiplicity of homeostatic adaptations has been observed. To clarify these issues, it may prove useful to ask: why do homeostatic mechanisms exist, what advantages do these adaptive responses confer on a given cell population, and why are there so many seemingly divergent effects? Here, we approach these questions by applying the principles of control theory to homeostatic synaptic plasticity of mammalian neurons and suggest that the varied responses observed may represent distinct functional classes of control mechanisms directed toward disparate physiological goals. PMID:22685679

Queenan, Bridget N; Lee, Kea Joo; Pak, Daniel T S

2012-05-17

404

Addressing Diversity in the Decade of Behavior: Focus on Women of Color.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the lives of women of color, illustrating diversity-minded feminist principles that may inform research and program development related to other aspects of diversity. Notes perspectives and priorities of women of color in psychology. Considers why implementing feminist psychology's inclusive vision for research is a continuing struggle,…

Russo, Nancy Felipe; Vaz, Kim

2001-01-01

405

Social Dating Goals in Female College Students: Failure to Replicate in a Diverse Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article reports a failure to replicate aspects of the Social Dating Goals Scale (SDGS; Sanderson & Cantor, 1995) with an ethnically diverse group of female college students. The SDGS was developed and validated with predominantly White samples. In the present study, a diverse sample of 82 Asian, Black, Hispanic and White female college…

Killeya-Jones, Ley A.

2004-01-01

406

Thinking Differently about Cultural Diversity: Using Postcolonial Theory to (Re)Read Science Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper makes use of postcolonial theory to think differently about aspects of cultural diversity within science education. It briefly reviews some of the increasing scholarship on cultural diversity, and then describes the genealogy and selected key themes of postcolonial theory. Postcolonial theory as oppositional or deconstructive reading…

Carter, Lyn

2004-01-01

407

Pathophysiological aspects of transient ischemic attacks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current views of the pathophysiology of transient ischemic attacks (TIA) are based on the concept of focal cerebral ischemic brain lesions [1?6]. Many aspects of transient focal cerebral ischemia have been studied both in carefully controlled experimental conditions and in clinical studies. At the same time, detailed pathophysiological characterization of reversible focal ischemic brain lesions represents a very complex problem.

N. N. Belyavskii; S. A. Likhachev

2011-01-01

408

Functional cell surface display and controlled secretion of diverse Agarolytic enzymes by Escherichia coli with a novel ligation-independent cloning vector based on the autotransporter YfaL.  

PubMed

Autotransporters have been employed as the anchoring scaffold for cell surface display by replacing their passenger domains with heterologous proteins to be displayed. We adopted an autotransporter (YfaL) of Escherichia coli for the cell surface display system. The critical regions in YfaL for surface display were identified for the construction of a ligation-independent cloning (LIC)-based display system. The designed system showed no detrimental effect on either the growth of the host cell or overexpressing heterologous proteins on the cell surface. We functionally displayed monomeric red fluorescent protein (mRFP1) as a reporter protein and diverse agarolytic enzymes from Saccharophagus degradans 2-40, including Aga86C and Aga86E, which previously had failed to be functional expressed. The system could display different sizes of proteins ranging from 25.3 to 143 kDa. We also attempted controlled release of the displayed proteins by incorporating a tobacco etch virus protease cleavage site into the C termini of the displayed proteins. The maximum level of the displayed protein was 6.1 × 10(4) molecules per a single cell, which corresponds to 5.6% of the entire cell surface of actively growing E. coli. PMID:22344647

Ko, Hyeok-Jin; Park, Eunhye; Song, Joseph; Yang, Taek Ho; Lee, Hee Jong; Kim, Kyoung Heon; Choi, In-Geol

2012-02-17

409

Functional Cell Surface Display and Controlled Secretion of Diverse Agarolytic Enzymes by Escherichia coli with a Novel Ligation-Independent Cloning Vector Based on the Autotransporter YfaL  

PubMed Central

Autotransporters have been employed as the anchoring scaffold for cell surface display by replacing their passenger domains with heterologous proteins to be displayed. We adopted an autotransporter (YfaL) of Escherichia coli for the cell surface display system. The critical regions in YfaL for surface display were identified for the construction of a ligation-independent cloning (LIC)-based display system. The designed system showed no detrimental effect on either the growth of the host cell or overexpressing heterologous proteins on the cell surface. We functionally displayed monomeric red fluorescent protein (mRFP1) as a reporter protein and diverse agarolytic enzymes from Saccharophagus degradans 2-40, including Aga86C and Aga86E, which previously had failed to be functional expressed. The system could display different sizes of proteins ranging from 25.3 to 143 kDa. We also attempted controlled release of the displayed proteins by incorporating a tobacco etch virus protease cleavage site into the C termini of the displayed proteins. The maximum level of the displayed protein was 6.1 × 104 molecules per a single cell, which corresponds to 5.6% of the entire cell surface of actively growing E. coli.

Ko, Hyeok-Jin; Park, Eunhye; Song, Joseph; Yang, Taek Ho; Lee, Hee Jong; Kim, Kyoung Heon

2012-01-01

410

Longitudinal patterns in species richness and genetic diversity in European oaks and oak gallwasps  

Microsoft Academic Search

While latitudinal patterns of genetic diversity are well known for many taxa in Europe, there has been little analysis of\\u000a longitudinal patterns across Pleistocene glacial refugia. Here we analyze longitudinal patterns in two aspects of diversity\\u000a (species richness and intraspecific genetic diversity) for two trophically related groups of organisms – oaks (Fagaceae, genus\\u000a Quercus) and their associated gallwasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae)

Rachel J. Atkinson; Antonis Rokas; Graham N. Stone

411

What is an Aspect in Aspect-oriented Requirements Engineering?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Addressing the issue of crosscutting concerns with in a software sys- tem, the notion of an aspect has been introduced, first for so-called Aspect- Oriented Programming (AOP) and then, more generally, for Aspect-Oriented Software Development (AOSD). Unfortunately, this notion is used with two different meanings: one as a synonym for \\

Hermann Kaindl

412

Tapping into microbial diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even though significant advances have been made in understanding microbial diversity, most microorganisms are still only characterized by 'molecular fingerprints' and have resisted cultivation. Many different approaches have been developed to overcome the problems associated with cultivation of microorganisms because one obvious benefit would be the opportunity to investigate the previously inaccessible resources that these microorganisms potentially harbour.

Martin Keller; Karsten Zengler

2004-01-01

413

Marine Protistan Diversity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Protists have fascinated microbiologists since their discovery nearly 350 years ago. These single-celled, eukaryotic species span an incredible range of sizes, forms, and functions and, despite their generally diminutive size, constitute much of the genetic diversity within the domain Eukarya. Protists in marine ecosystems play fundamental ecological roles as primary producers, consumers, decomposers, and trophic links in aquatic food webs. Much of our knowledge regarding the diversity and ecological activities of these species has been obtained during the past half century, and only within the past few decades have hypotheses depicting the evolutionary relationships among the major clades of protists attained some degree of consensus. This recent progress is attributable to the development of genetic approaches, which have revealed an unexpectedly large diversity of protists, including cryptic species and previously undescribed clades of protists. New genetic tools now exist for identifying protistan species of interest and for reexamining long-standing debates regarding the biogeography of protists. Studies of protistan diversity provide insight regarding how species richness and community composition contribute to ecosystem function. These activities support the development of predictive models that describe how microbial communities will respond to natural or anthropogenically mediated changes in environmental conditions.

Caron, David A.; Countway, Peter D.; Jones, Adriane C.; Kim, Diane Y.; Schnetzer, Astrid

2012-01-01

414

Diversity in Ocean Sciences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

COSEE-SE provides resources and links to help improve diversity in ocean sciences. Included resources are coastal legacy resources for elementary and middle school teachers, Coastal Legacy traveling curriculum kit, documents from the Multicultural Pathways for Ocean Science Education workshop, and university and marine laboratory programs.

415

Mentoring and Diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the forces which determine how diversity at a firm evolves over time. We consider a dynamic model o a single firm with two levels of employees, the entry level and the upper level. In each period, the firm selects a subset of the entry-level workers for promotion to the upper level. The members of the entry-level worker

Susan Athey; Christopher Avery; Peter B. Zemsky

1998-01-01

416

Marine protistan diversity.  

PubMed

Protists have fascinated microbiologists since their discovery nearly 350 years ago. These single-celled, eukaryotic species span an incredible range of sizes, forms, and functions and, despite their generally diminutive size, constitute much of the genetic diversity within the domain Eukarya. Protists in marine ecosystems play fundamental ecological roles as primary producers, consumers, decomposers, and trophic links in aquatic food webs. Much of our knowledge regarding the diversity and ecological activities of these species has been obtained during the past half century, and only within the past few decades have hypotheses depicting the evolutionary relationships among the major clades of protists attained some degree of consensus. This recent progress is attributable to the development of genetic approaches, which have revealed an unexpectedly large diversity of protists, including cryptic species and previously undescribed clades of protists. New genetic tools now exist for identifying protistan species of interest and for reexamining long-standing debates regarding the biogeography of protists. Studies of protistan diversity provide insight regarding how species richness and community composition contribute to ecosystem function. These activities support the development of predictive models that describe how microbial communities will respond to natural or anthropogenically mediated changes in environmental conditions. PMID:22457984

Caron, David A; Countway, Peter D; Jones, Adriane C; Kim, Diane Y; Schnetzer, Astrid

2012-01-01

417

Diversity and Privilege  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Efforts to diversify university faculties began almost forty years ago. Since then, the number of white women faculty and faculty of color on U.S. campuses has grown slowly but steadily. At the same time, the explanatory framework for this shift--what they call the "terms of inclusion"--has changed profoundly. "Diversity" and "excellence" were…

Maher, Frances A.; Tetreault, Mary Kay

2009-01-01

418

Continent Urinary Diversion  

PubMed Central

Recently, various forms of continent urinary diversion have developed to allow patients to be dry without an external collection device. There is no ideal form that is appropriate for all patients. Selection depends upon patient age, body image, and manual dexterity, as well as renal function, concomitant bowel disease, and the underlying urologic disease.

MacNeily, A.E.

1991-01-01

419

Differentiating for Diversity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes "differentiation plus": time and instructional differentiation to meet the needs of a diverse group of potentially at-risk students such as those who are developmentally or chronologically young or who are learning English as a second language. Differentiation plus includes differentiating what students learn, how students learn, and…

Grant, Jim

2003-01-01

420

Academies and School Diversity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article considers the implications of Academies for the diversity of schooling in England. It seeks to establish the extent to which Academies are distinctive compared to other types of state secondary schools and whether this has been affected by a number of recent reforms. Different types of Academies are also be examined. Previous work in…

Curtis, Andrew

2009-01-01

421

Re: Soviet river diversions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper on `Soviet River Diversions' by Phil Micklin (Eos, 62(19), May 12, 1981) has just come to hand.Referring to the map on page 489, I was interested to see the estimates of river flows for the Amu and Syr Darya, which clearly show the effect of irrigation on inflows to the Aral Sea. Recently, I was passing over the

Jas O. Robertson

1982-01-01

422

How Symbiosis Creates Diversity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Diversity in habitats on Earth is astounding--whether on land or in the sea--and this is in part due to symbiosis. The lesson described in this article helps students understand how symbiosis affects different organisms through a fun and engaging game where they match hosts and symbionts based on their respective needs. This 45-minute lesson is…

Lord, Joshua

2010-01-01

423

Diversity in Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we address the importance of understanding diversity as a multidimensional lens and not as a dichotomous fact. Families are more than white or black, privileged or poor, insiders or outsiders. Further, we address the significance of understanding the feminization of poverty, as we explore the multiple ways that gender affects the reality of women's, men's, and children's

Kate Conway-Turner; Seongeun Kim; Bahira Sherif; Tara Woolfolk

2001-01-01

424

Altitudinal terrestrial isopod diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have assessed the diversity of terrestrial isopods across an elevational and habitat gradient on Mt. Panachaiko (NW Peloponnisos, Greece). Previous knowledge on the biodiversity of this mountain was restricted to very few records of individual species, and no systematic sampling had ever been applied for any animal taxon. We selected the most representative habitat types within an altitudinal range

Spyros Sfenthourakis; Ioannis Anastasiou; Theodora Strutenschi

2005-01-01

425

Banking on Diversity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Few organizations have as racially and culturally diverse a work force as the organizations that make up the World Bank Group. Of its 13,000 employees, nearly 60 percent of whom are located in downtown Washington, D.C., and the rest scattered across 160 offices around the globe, nearly every nation in the world is represented in the World Bank…

Roach, Ronald

2010-01-01

426

Introduction: Diversity Within Unity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Provides an introduction to the Clinical Psychology section of the current issue of Professional Psychology This issue, as a whole, focuses on the future of professional psychology. This section, in particular, reflects the diversity of practitioners as well as their clients, describes a few settings in which clinical psychology is practiced, presents some of the external and internal conflicts and

Stephen C. McConnell

1982-01-01

427

GENETIC DIVERSITY OF GARLIC  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is valued for its culinary and neutraceutical qualities. Farmers grow hundreds of differently named garlic accessions in the United States. A genetic analysis was performed to determine the extent of duplication and diversity across these garlic accessions. Phenotypically ...

428

Supply and Demand Diversity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Public universities in Virginia, as in many states, have generally not paid much attention to diversity among their suppliers. For years, state expenditures for outside contracts went to the usual suspects--White contractors from well-established companies. Four years ago, former Governor Mark Warner, a progressive Democrat from the high…

Galuszka, Peter

2007-01-01

429

Organising for cultural diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Corporations operating across national borders and diversified into different types of business are bound to host considerable cultural diversity within their ranks. For an effective coordination of their various activities, cultural considerations should enter into the design of their corporate structure. This demands a cultural awareness on their management's side which does not belong to the classic selection criteria for

Geert Hofstede

1989-01-01

430

Court diversion in perspective.  

PubMed

Court diversion schemes have been running for a decade in New Zealand and are increasing in number in Australia. This paper aims to give an international and historical context to these developments, by reference to psychiatric initiatives at courts in the US and in England and Wales. From a review of the specialist literature, an account is given of three forms of psychiatric intervention in courts over the last 90 years: court psychiatric clinics and mental health courts in the US, and court diversion schemes in England and Wales. High levels of psychiatric morbidity among prisoners, coupled with a continuing increase in prisoner numbers, demonstrate the need for systems for dealing with mentally ill people who come before the courts. Court diversion in England and Wales developed as part of a system where the mentally ill who are found guilty are sent to hospital in lieu of any other sentence. Its focus is on a form of psychiatric triage, and its ethos is the health of the patient. Court psychiatric clinics in the US grew up as an alternative to assessment in prison. Their focus has been on full psychiatric evaluation in an insanity and incompetence jurisdiction. The ethos has been that of serving the court. Mental health courts are heavily influenced by ideas of therapeutic jurisprudence, and their emphasis has been on a judge holding minor offenders in community care through the threat of judicial sanction. Experience in England and Wales has shown that court diversion can be a powerful and effective intervention. In order for it to function properly, those running court schemes need direct admission rights to psychiatric beds, both open and locked. Court diversion schemes are best as part of a spectrum of services to police stations, courts and prisons, which involved both general and forensic psychiatrists. PMID:16756577

James, David V

431

The biology of hair diversity.  

PubMed

Hair diversity, its style, colour, shape and growth pattern is one of our most defining characteristics. The natural versus temporary style is influenced by what happens to our hair during our lifetime, such as genetic hair loss, sudden hair shedding, greying and pathological hair loss in the various forms of alopecia because of genetics, illness or medication. Despite the size and global value of the hair care market, our knowledge of what controls the innate and within-lifetime characteristics of hair diversity remains poorly understood. In the last decade, drivers of knowledge have moved into the arena of genetics where hair traits are obvious and measurable and genetic polymorphisms are being found that raise valuable questions about the biology of hair growth. The recent discovery that the gene for trichohyalin contributes to hair shape comes as no surprise to the hair biologists who have believed for 100 years that hair shape is linked to the structure and function of the inner root sheath. Further conundrums awaiting elucidation include the polymorphisms in the androgen receptor (AR) described in male pattern alopecia whose location on the X chromosome places this genetic contributor into the female line. The genetics of female hair loss is less clear with polymorphisms in the AR not associated with female pattern hair loss. Lifestyle choices are also implicated in hair diversity. Greying, which also has a strong genetic component, is often suggested to have a lifestyle (stress) influence and hair follicle melanocytes show declining antioxidant protection with age and lowered resistance to stress. It is likely that hair research will undergo a renaissance on the back of the rising information from genetic studies as well as the latest contributions from the field of epigenetics. PMID:23363384

Westgate, Gillian E; Botchkareva, Natalia V; Tobin, Desmond J

2013-03-06

432

Aspects of two corrosion processes relevant to military hardware  

SciTech Connect

Corrosion is a leading material degradation mode observed in many military systems. This report contains a description of a small project that was performed to allow some of the important electrochemical aspects of two distinct and potentially relevant degradation modes to be better understood: environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) of aluminum alloys and corrosion in moist salt. Two specific and respective tasks were completed: (A) the characterization of the effect of aluminum microstructural variability on its susceptibility to EAC, and (B) the development of experimental and analytical techniques that can be used to identify the factors and processes that influence the corrosivity of moist salt mixtures. The resultant information constitutes part of the basis needed to ultimately predict component reliability and/or possibly to identify techniques that could be used to control corrosion in critical components. In Task A, a physical model and related understanding for the relevant degradation processes were formulated. The primary result from Task B included the identification and qualitative validation of a methodology for determining the corrosivity of salt mixtures. A detailed compilation of the results obtained from each of these two diverse tasks is presented separately in the body of this report.

Braithwaite, J.W.; Buchheit, R.G.

1997-11-01

433

Improved viability of populations with diverse life-history portfolios.  

PubMed

A principle shared by both economists and ecologists is that a diversified portfolio spreads risk, but this idea has little empirical support in the field of population biology. We found that population growth rates (recruits per spawner) and life-history diversity as measured by variation in freshwater and ocean residency were negatively correlated across short time periods (one to two generations), but positively correlated at longer time periods, in nine Bristol Bay sockeye salmon populations. Further, the relationship between variation in growth rate and life-history diversity was consistently negative. These findings strongly suggest that life-history diversity can both increase production and buffer population fluctuations, particularly over long time periods. Our findings provide new insights into the importance of biocomplexity beyond spatio-temporal aspects of populations, and suggest that maintaining diverse life-history portfolios of populations may be crucial for their resilience to unfavourable conditions like habitat loss and climate change. PMID:20007162

Greene, Correigh M; Hall, Jason E; Guilbault, Kimberly R; Quinn, Thomas P

2009-12-09

434

Improved viability of populations with diverse life-history portfolios  

PubMed Central

A principle shared by both economists and ecologists is that a diversified portfolio spreads risk, but this idea has little empirical support in the field of population biology. We found that population growth rates (recruits per spawner) and life-history diversity as measured by variation in freshwater and ocean residency were negatively correlated across short time periods (one to two generations), but positively correlated at longer time periods, in nine Bristol Bay sockeye salmon populations. Further, the relationship between variation in growth rate and life-history diversity was consistently negative. These findings strongly suggest that life-history diversity can both increase production and buffer population fluctuations, particularly over long time periods. Our findings provide new insights into the importance of biocomplexity beyond spatio-temporal aspects of populations, and suggest that maintaining diverse life-history portfolios of populations may be crucial for their resilience to unfavourable conditions like habitat loss and climate change.

Greene, Correigh M.; Hall, Jason E.; Guilbault, Kimberly R.; Quinn, Thomas P.

2010-01-01

435

Mitochondrial diversity and phylogeographic structure of Chinese domestic goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

China has numerous native domestic goat breeds, but so far there has been no extensive study on genetic diversity, population demographic history, and origin of Chinese goats. Here, we examined the genetic diversity and phylogeographic structure of Chinese domestic goats by determining a 481-bp fragment of the first hypervariable region of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region from 368 individuals representing

Shan-Yuan Chen; Yan-Hua Su; Shi-Fang Wu; Tao Sha; Ya-Ping Zhang

2005-01-01

436

Genetic diversity among five T4-like bacteriophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Bacteriophages are an important repository of genetic diversity. As one of the major constituents of terrestrial biomass, they exert profound effects on the earth's ecology and microbial evolution by mediating horizontal gene transfer between bacteria and controlling their growth. Only limited genomic sequence data are currently available for phages but even this reveals an overwhelming diversity in their gene

James M Nolan; Vasiliy Petrov; Claire Bertrand; Henry M Krisch; Jim D Karam

2006-01-01

437

Aspects of Gond astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gond community is considered to be one of the most ancient tribes of India with a continuing history of several thousand years. They are also known for their largely isolated history which they have retained through the millennia. Several of their intellectual traditions therefore are a record of parallel aspects of human intellectual growth, and still preserve their original flavour and have not been homogenised by the later traditions of India. In view of this, the Gonds provide a special window to the different currents that constitute contemporary India. In the present study, we summarise their mythology, genetics and script. We then investigate their astronomical traditions and try to understand this community through a survey of 15 Gond villages spread over Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. We show that they have a distinctly different view of the sky from the conventional astronomical ideas encountered elsewhere in India, which is both interesting and informative. We briefly comment on other aspects of their life as culled from our encounters with different members of the Gond community.

Vahia, M. N.; Halkare, Ganesh

2013-03-01

438

Spatial Representation with Aspect Maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the aspect map approach to model the processing of geographic maps. Geographic maps are described as spatial representation media which play an important role in many processes of human spatial cognition. We focus on the aspectuality of representation and therefore deal with aspect maps: spatial organization structures in which one or more aspects of geographic entities are

Bettina Berendt; Thomas Barkowsky; Christian Freksa; Stephanie Kelter

1998-01-01

439

Correlation of anisotropic cell behaviors with topographic aspect ratio.  

PubMed

In this study, we have used nanoimprinting to create a range of micro- and nanoscale gratings, or their combination, in bulk polystyrene plates to investigate anisotropic cell behaviors of human dermal fibroblasts with respect to the aspect ratio (depth/width) of gratings. The depth and width of the polystyrene gratings both show strong effects individually on cell alignment and elongation that are qualitatively similar to the results of other studies. However, consistent quantitative comparison of these individual parameters with different studies is complicated by the diversity of combinations of width and depth that have been tested. Instead, the aspect ratio of the gratings as a unified description of grating topography is a more consistent parameter to interpret topographic dependence of cell morphology. Both cell alignment and elongation increase with increasing aspect ratio, and even a shallow grating (aspect ratio of approximately 0.05) is sufficient to induce 80% cell alignment. Re-plotting data recently published by other groups vs. aspect ratio shows a similar dependence, despite differences in cell types and surface structures. This consistency indicates that aspect ratio is a general factor to characterize cell behaviors. The relationship of cell elongation and alignment with topographic aspect ratio is interpreted in terms of the theory of contact guidance. This model provides simplicity and flexibility in geometry design for devices and materials that interface with cells. PMID:19118891

Crouch, Adam S; Miller, D; Luebke, Kevin J; Hu, W

2008-12-31

440

Differentiating Diversities: Moral Diversity Is Not Like Other Kinds1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diversity is widely celebrated and pursued in parts of American society, particularly within academe. Diversity is clearly associated with moral goods, such as justice, and with practical goods, such as the variety and quality of ideas. But from a social psychological point of view, diversity ought to cause a number of problems, such as divisiveness and conflict. A resolution of

Jonathan Haidt; Evan Rosenberg; Holly Hom

2003-01-01

441

Realising the diversity dividend: population diversity and urban economic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper critically examines the increasing use of population diversity as a source of competitive advantage and distinctiveness within policies promoting urban economic development. Rising levels of population diversity are a characteristic feature of many urban areas and this has led to increased policy attempts to realise a so-called ‘diversity dividend’. Yet much of this policy thinking demonstrates a restricted

Stephen Syrett; Leandro Sepulveda

2011-01-01

442

Nelson Diversity Surveys  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides results of and information about our diversity surveys, which determined demographics of tenured / tenure track faculty at pertinent departments of the "top 50" universities, ranked by NSF (National Science Foundation) according to research expenditures in that discipline. These are the first published data, disaggregated by gender, by race, and by rank, on faculty at the top 50 research universities in each of 14 science and engineering disciplines. These surveys were conducted under the auspices of the University of Oklahoma and the Diversity in Science Association. Data were collected by surveying department chairs; each department chair provided faculty data, disaggregated by gender, by race/ethnicity, and by rank. Fifty universities (chairs) were surveyed in each of the 14 disciplines studied. Target Audience: 2-4 Year College Faculty/Administrators, Engineers, Industry Personnel, Government Personnel, Scientists,Technicians, General Public

2009-11-23

443

DEVELOPMENTAL DIVERSITY OF AMPHIBIANS  

PubMed Central

The current model amphibian, Xenopus laevis, develops rapidly in water to a tadpole which metamorphoses into a frog. Many amphibians deviate from the X. laevis developmental pattern. Among other adaptations, their embryos develop in foam nests on land or in pouches on their mother’s back or on a leaf guarded by a parent. The diversity of developmental patterns includes multinucleated oogenesis, lack of RNA localization, huge non-pigmented eggs, and asynchronous, irregular early cleavages. Variations in patterns of gastrulation highlight the modularity of this critical developmental period. Many species have eliminated the larva or tadpole and directly develop to the adult. The wealth of developmental diversity among amphibians coupled with the wealth of mechanistic information from X. laevis permit comparisons that provide deeper insights into developmental processes.

Elinson, Richard P.; del Pino, Eugenia M.

2011-01-01

444

Convention on Biological Diversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Convened after the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, the Convention on Biological Diversity has three primary goals: the conservation of biological diversity, the sustainable use of its components, and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits from the use of genetic resources. The main body of the organization's home page is dedicated to disseminating information about upcoming meetings, news, and events, such as the expert meeting on the global strategy for plant conservation and the various constituent groups that make up the Convention. The number of online documents available here is quite prodigious, and is divided into groups that include quarterly reports, global biodiversity outlook reports, and case-study documents. Users may elect to browse through these collections, or choose to use the search engine.

445

Peroxisome diversity and evolution  

PubMed Central

Peroxisomes are organelles bounded by a single membrane that can be found in all major groups of eukaryotes. A single evolutionary origin of this cellular compartment is supported by the presence, in diverse organisms, of a common set of proteins implicated in peroxisome biogenesis and maintenance. Their enzymatic content, however, can vary substantially across species, indicating a high level of evolutionary plasticity. Proteomic analyses have greatly expanded our knowledge on peroxisomes in some model organisms, including plants, mammals and yeasts. However, we still have a limited knowledge about the distribution and functionalities of peroxisomes in the vast majority of groups of microbial eukaryotes. Here, I review recent advances in our understanding of peroxisome diversity and evolution, with a special emphasis on peroxisomes in microbial eukaryotes.

Gabaldon, Toni

2010-01-01

446

Animal Diversity Web  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Michigan Museum of Zoology provides the searchable Animal Diversity Web database, with species accounts (images and text) of some of the world's mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles, sharks, bony fishes, mollusks, arthropods and echinoderms. The database is searchable by common or scientific name. For each species account, information includes scientific and common name, classification (Phylum through Genus), and color photographs (many beauties). Some accounts supply additional information, such as geographic range, physical characteristics, natural history (food habits, reproduction, behavior, conservation, and habitat), other comments, and references. Although the list of species is by no means complete, these simple but effective accounts are interesting to read and will be helpful as supplemental resources in a biological diversity/ ecology course.

447

Viral diversity in asthma  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Asthma exacerbations are precipitated primarily by respiratory virus infection and frequently require immediate medical intervention. Studies of childhood and adult asthma have implicated a wide variety of respiratory viruses in exacerbations. By focusing on both RNA and DNA respiratory viruses and some newly identified viruses, this review illustrates the diversity and highlights some of the uncertainties that exist in our understanding of virus-related asthma exacerbations.

McErlean, Peter; Greiman, Alyssa; Favoreto, Silvio; Avila, Pedro C.

2010-01-01

448

Lemur Diversity in Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

A basic understanding of the taxonomy, diversity, and distributions of primates is essential for their conservation. This\\u000a review of the status of the taxonomy of lemurs is based on a 5-d workshop entitled “Primate Taxonomy for the New Millennium,”\\u000a held at the Disney Institute, Orlando, Florida, in February 2000. The aim is not to present a taxonomic revision, but to

Russell A. Mittermeier; Jörg U. Ganzhorn; William R. Konstant; Kenneth Glander; Ian Tattersall; Colin P. Groves; Anthony B. Rylands; Andreas Hapke; Jonah Ratsimbazafy; Mireya I. Mayor; Edward E. Louis Jr; Yves Rumpler; Christoph Schwitzer; Rodin M. Rasoloarison

2008-01-01

449

Activities for Exploring Cultural Diversity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents topics for parents to use when discussing cultural diversity with their children (basic needs, cultural attitudes, body language, the arts, and language). Activities for exploring cultural diversity are suggested, and a list of multicultural resources is included. (SM)

Perry, Susan K.

1992-01-01

450

Turbulence management: Application aspects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Turbulence management for the reduction of turbulent friction drag is an important topic. Numerous research programs in this field have demonstrated that valuable net drag reduction is obtainable by techniques which do not involve substantial, expensive modifications or redesign of existing aircraft. Hence, large projects aiming at short term introduction of turbulence management technology into airline service are presently under development. The various points that have to be investigated for this purpose are presented. Both design and operational aspects are considered, the first dealing with optimizing of turbulence management techniques at operating conditions, and the latter defining the technical problems involved by application of turbulence management to in-service aircraft. The cooperative activities of Airbus Industrie and its partners are cited as an example.

Hirschel, E. H.; Thiede, P.; Monnoyer, F.

1989-04-01

451

Various aspects of gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis summarizes research projects that I have been involved in during my graduate studies at Vanderbilt University. My research spanned different areas of theoretical high energy physics with gravity as a common denominator. I explore both fundamental and phenomenological aspects of: (i) mathematical physics where I have studied relations between partition functions of certain class of conformal field theories and Fischer-Griess Monster group; (ii) cosmology, where I performed a numerical study of a horizon size modes of scalar field; (iii) a black hole physics project involving possible extensions of the non-hair theorem in a presence of exotic types of scalar field; and (iv) a study of phenomenological space-time foam models and their relation to Planck scale physics.

Jankiewicz, Marcin

452

Understanding plant reproductive diversity  

PubMed Central

Flowering plants display spectacular floral diversity and a bewildering array of reproductive adaptations that promote mating, particularly outbreeding. A striking feature of this diversity is that related species often differ in pollination and mating systems, and intraspecific variation in sexual traits is not unusual, especially among herbaceous plants. This variation provides opportunities for evolutionary biologists to link micro-evolutionary processes to the macro-evolutionary patterns that are evident within lineages. Here, I provide some personal reflections on recent progress in our understanding of the ecology and evolution of plant reproductive diversity. I begin with a brief historical sketch of the major developments in this field and then focus on three of the most significant evolutionary transitions in the reproductive biology of flowering plants: the pathway from outcrossing to predominant self-fertilization, the origin of separate sexes (females and males) from hermaphroditism and the shift from animal pollination to wind pollination. For each evolutionary transition, I consider what we have discovered and some of the problems that still remain unsolved. I conclude by discussing how new approaches might influence future research in plant reproductive biology.

Barrett, Spencer C. H.

2010-01-01

453

Diversity-Generating Retroelements  

PubMed Central

Summary Parasite adaptation to dynamic host characteristics is a recurrent theme in biology. Diversity-generating retroelements (DGRs) are a newly discovered family of genetic elements that function to diversify DNA sequences and the proteins they encode. The prototype DGR was identified in a temperate bacteriophage, BPP-1, on the basis of its ability to generate variability in a gene that specifies tropism for receptor molecules on host Bordetella species. Tropism switching is a template-dependent, reverse transcriptase mediated process that introduces nucleotide substitutions at defined locations within a target gene. This cassette-based mechanism is theoretically capable of generating trillions of different amino acid sequences in a distal tail fiber protein, providing a vast repertoire of potential ligand-receptor interactions. Variable residues are displayed in the context of a specialized C-type lectin fold, which has evolved a unique solution for balancing protein diversity against structural stability. Homologous DGRs have been identified in the chromosomes of diverse bacterial species. These unique genetic elements have the potential to confer powerful selective advantages to their hosts, and their ability to generate novel binding specificities and dynamic antimicrobial agents suggests numerous applications. “Human subtlety will never devise an invention more beautiful, more simple or more direct than does Nature, because in her inventions, nothing is lacking and nothing is superfluous.”- Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519)

Medhekar, Bob; Miller, Jeff F

2009-01-01

454

DiversityRx  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DiversityRx is a program that aims to provide culturally and linguistically sensitive health care services to "minority, immigrant, and indigenous communities." An iteration of the program began in the mid-1990s, and resulted in the creation of the Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services in Health Care (CLAS) standards, which is supported by various government agencies. DiversityRx's website gives visitors plenty of opportunities to learn about cultural competence, from the "Topics" tab in the menu across the top of the page. The "Cultural Competence 101" link lists all the material on the website related to cultural competence. Visitors should not miss the blog entry entitled "Diversity Training vs. Cultural Competency Training", a video entitled "Faces of Disparity Video", and "'I Speak' Language Identification Cards". The "Resources" tab has a link to the "Resource Database", which can be searched or browsed. Once a visitor becomes a member - it's free to join- they can add to, comment on and mark as a favorite, any of the resources in the database.

2011-02-11

455

Competing signals drive telencephalon diversity.  

PubMed

The telencephalon is the most complex brain region, controlling communication, emotion, movement and memory. Its adult derivatives develop from the dorsal pallium and ventral subpallium. Despite knowledge of genes required in these territories, we do not understand how evolution has shaped telencephalon diversity. Here, using rock- and sand-dwelling cichlid fishes from Lake Malawi, we demonstrate that differences in strength and timing of opposing Hedgehog and Wingless signals establish evolutionary divergence in dorsal-ventral telencephalon patterning. Rock dwellers exhibit early, extensive Hedgehog activity in the ventral forebrain resulting in expression of foxg1 before dorsal Wingless signals, and a larger subpallium. Sand dwellers show rapid deployment of Wingless, later foxg1 expression and a larger pallium. Manipulation of the Hedgehog and Wingless pathways in cichlid and zebrafish embryos is sufficient to mimic differences between rock- versus sand-dweller brains. Our data suggest that competing ventral Hedgehog and dorsal Wingless signals mediate evolutionary diversification of the telencephalon. PMID:23612286

Sylvester, J B; Rich, C A; Yi, C; Peres, J N; Houart, C; Streelman, J T

2013-01-01

456

Resisting HRD's Resistance to Diversity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to empirically illustrate how human resource development (HRD) resists and omits issues of diversity in academic programs, textbooks, and research; analyze the research on HRD and diversity over a ten-year period; discuss HRD's resistance to diversity; and offer some recommendations for a more authentic…

Bierema, Laura L.

2010-01-01

457

Clinical Supervision: Dialogues on Diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integration of diversity issues into supervision training and research has been sorely neglected, in spite of the recognition that diversity is a core component of psychological training. Several barriers to this integration are described. The author suggests that these barriers can be surmounted by implementing pedagogy developed for diverse and underserved populations. The author suggests that the supervisor works within

Ann S. Yabusaki

2010-01-01

458

Religious Diversity in the Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document contains four papers that address constitutional issues of religious diversity in the schools. The first paper, "Religious Diversity in the Schools--The Overview" (George J. Michel), provides an overview of religious diversity in American public schools, with a focus on the long history of cooperation with Christian churches. It…

Michel, George J.; Smith, William Gause; Vickers, Dianne Koenig; Brown, Elsie

459

Establishing sexual dimorphism: conservation amidst diversity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molecular mechanisms that control sexual dimorphism are very different in distantly related animals. Did sex determination arise several times with different regulatory mechanisms, or is it an ancient process with little surviving evidence of ancestral genes? The recent identification of related sexual regulators in different phyla indicates that some aspects of sexual regulation might be ancient. Studies of sex-determining

David Zarkower

2001-01-01

460

Sirtuins regulate key aspects of lipid metabolism.  

PubMed

Members of the sirtuin family of NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylases are important regulators of longevity