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Sample records for control diverse aspects

  1. Fgf signalling controls diverse aspects of fin regeneration.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Eri; Yokota, Yuki; Horita, Natsumi; Kudo, Akira; Abe, Gembu; Kawakami, Koichi; Kawakami, Atsushi

    2016-08-15

    Studies have shown that fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) signalling is necessary for appendage regeneration, but its exact function and the ligands involved during regeneration have not yet been elucidated. Here, we performed comprehensive expression analyses and identified fgf20a and fgf3/10a as major Fgf ligands in the wound epidermis and blastema, respectively. To reveal the target cells and processes of Fgf signalling, we performed a transplantation experiment of mesenchymal cells that express the dominant-negative Fgf receptor 1 (dnfgfr1) under control of the heat-shock promoter. This mosaic knockdown analysis suggested that Fgf signalling is directly required for fin ray mesenchyme to form the blastema at the early pre-blastema stage and to activate the regenerative cell proliferation at a later post-blastema stage. These results raised the possibility that the early epidermal Fgf20a and the later blastemal Fgf3/10a could be responsible for these respective processes. We demonstrated by gain-of-function analyses that Fgf20a induces the expression of distal blastema marker junbl, and that Fgf3 promotes blastema cell proliferation. Our study highlights that Fgfs in the wound epidermis and blastema have distinct functions to regulate fin regeneration cooperatively. PMID:27402707

  2. Fibrinogen-Related Proteins in Tissue Repair: How a Unique Domain with a Common Structure Controls Diverse Aspects of Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Zuliani-Alvarez, Lorena; Midwood, Kim S.

    2015-01-01

    Significance: Fibrinogen-related proteins (FRePs) comprise an intriguing collection of extracellular molecules, each containing a conserved fibrinogen-like globe (FBG). This group includes the eponymous fibrinogen as well as the tenascin, angiopoietin, and ficolin families. Many of these proteins are upregulated during tissue repair and exhibit diverse roles during wound healing. Recent Advances: An increasing body of evidence highlights the specific expression of a number of FRePs following tissue injury and infection. Upon induction, each FReP uses its FBG domain to mediate quite distinct effects that contribute to different stages of tissue repair, such as driving coagulation, pathogen detection, inflammation, angiogenesis, and tissue remodeling. Critical Issues: Despite a high degree of homology among FRePs, each contains unique sequences that enable their diversification of function. Comparative analysis of the structure and function of FRePs and precise mapping of regions that interact with a variety of ligands has started to reveal the underlying molecular mechanisms by which these proteins play very different roles using their common domain. Future Directions: Fibrinogen has long been used in the clinic as a synthetic matrix serving as a scaffold or a delivery system to aid tissue repair. Novel therapeutic strategies are now emerging that harness the use of other FRePs to improve wound healing outcomes. As we learn more about the underlying mechanisms by which each FReP contributes to the repair response, specific blockade, or indeed potentiation, of their function offers real potential to enable regulation of distinct processes during pathological wound healing. PMID:26005593

  3. Informational Aspects of Isotopic Diversity in Biology and Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezin, Alexander A.

    2004-10-01

    Use of stable and radioactive isotopes in biology and medicine is intensive, yet informational aspects of isotopes as such are largely neglected (A.A.Berezin, J.Theor.Biol.,1992). Classical distinguishability (``labelability'') of isotopes allows for pattern generation dynamics. Quantum mechanically advantages of isotopicity (diversity of stable isotopes) arise from (almost perfect) degeneracy of various isotopic configurations; this in turn allows for isotopic sweeps (hoppings) by resonance neutron tunneling (Eccles mechanism). Isotopic variations of de Broglie wavelength affect quantum tunneling, diffusivity, magnetic interactions (e.g. by Lorentz force), etc. Ergodicity principle (all isoenergetic states are eventually accessed) implies possibility of fast scanning of library of morphogenetic patterns (cf metaphors of universal ``Platonic'' Library of Patterns: e.g. J.L.Borges, R.Sheldrake) with subsequent Darwinian reinforcement (e.g. by targeted mutations) of evolutionary advantageous patterns and structures. Isotopic shifts in organisms, from viruses and protozoa to mammalians, (e.g. DNA with enriched or depleted C-13) are tools to elucidate possible informational (e.g. Shannon entropy) role of isotopicity in genetic (e.g. evolutionary and morphological), dynamical (e.g. physiological and neurological) as well as medical (e.g. carcinogenesis, aging) aspects of biology and medicine.

  4. Novel aspects of plasma control in ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys, D.; Jackson, G.; Walker, M.; Welander, A.; Ambrosino, G.; Pironti, A.; Felici, F.; Kallenbach, A.; Raupp, G.; Treutterer, W.; Kolemen, E.; Lister, J.; Sauter, O.; Moreau, D.; Schuster, E.

    2015-02-15

    ITER plasma control design solutions and performance requirements are strongly driven by its nuclear mission, aggressive commissioning constraints, and limited number of operational discharges. In addition, high plasma energy content, heat fluxes, neutron fluxes, and very long pulse operation place novel demands on control performance in many areas ranging from plasma boundary and divertor regulation to plasma kinetics and stability control. Both commissioning and experimental operations schedules provide limited time for tuning of control algorithms relative to operating devices. Although many aspects of the control solutions required by ITER have been well-demonstrated in present devices and even designed satisfactorily for ITER application, many elements unique to ITER including various crucial integration issues are presently under development. We describe selected novel aspects of plasma control in ITER, identifying unique parts of the control problem and highlighting some key areas of research remaining. Novel control areas described include control physics understanding (e.g., current profile regulation, tearing mode (TM) suppression), control mathematics (e.g., algorithmic and simulation approaches to high confidence robust performance), and integration solutions (e.g., methods for management of highly subscribed control resources). We identify unique aspects of the ITER TM suppression scheme, which will pulse gyrotrons to drive current within a magnetic island, and turn the drive off following suppression in order to minimize use of auxiliary power and maximize fusion gain. The potential role of active current profile control and approaches to design in ITER are discussed. Issues and approaches to fault handling algorithms are described, along with novel aspects of actuator sharing in ITER.

  5. Novel aspects of plasma control in ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphreys, D.; Ambrosino, G.; de Vries, P.; Felici, F.; Kim, S. H.; Jackson, G.; Kallenbach, A.; Kolemen, E.; Lister, J.; Moreau, D.; Pironti, A.; Raupp, G.; Sauter, O.; Schuster, E.; Snipes, J.; Treutterer, W.; Walker, M.; Welander, A.; Winter, A.; Zabeo, L.

    2015-02-01

    ITER plasma control design solutions and performance requirements are strongly driven by its nuclear mission, aggressive commissioning constraints, and limited number of operational discharges. In addition, high plasma energy content, heat fluxes, neutron fluxes, and very long pulse operation place novel demands on control performance in many areas ranging from plasma boundary and divertor regulation to plasma kinetics and stability control. Both commissioning and experimental operations schedules provide limited time for tuning of control algorithms relative to operating devices. Although many aspects of the control solutions required by ITER have been well-demonstrated in present devices and even designed satisfactorily for ITER application, many elements unique to ITER including various crucial integration issues are presently under development. We describe selected novel aspects of plasma control in ITER, identifying unique parts of the control problem and highlighting some key areas of research remaining. Novel control areas described include control physics understanding (e.g., current profile regulation, tearing mode (TM) suppression), control mathematics (e.g., algorithmic and simulation approaches to high confidence robust performance), and integration solutions (e.g., methods for management of highly subscribed control resources). We identify unique aspects of the ITER TM suppression scheme, which will pulse gyrotrons to drive current within a magnetic island, and turn the drive off following suppression in order to minimize use of auxiliary power and maximize fusion gain. The potential role of active current profile control and approaches to design in ITER are discussed. Issues and approaches to fault handling algorithms are described, along with novel aspects of actuator sharing in ITER.

  6. High aspect ratio, remote controlled pumping assembly

    DOEpatents

    Brown, S.B.; Milanovich, F.P.

    1995-11-14

    A miniature dual syringe-type pump assembly is described which has a high aspect ratio and which is remotely controlled, for use such as in a small diameter penetrometer cone or well packer used in water contamination applications. The pump assembly may be used to supply and remove a reagent to a water contamination sensor, for example, and includes a motor, gearhead and motor encoder assembly for turning a drive screw for an actuator which provides pushing on one syringe and pulling on the other syringe for injecting new reagent and withdrawing used reagent from an associated sensor. 4 figs.

  7. High aspect ratio, remote controlled pumping assembly

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Steve B.; Milanovich, Fred P.

    1995-01-01

    A miniature dual syringe-type pump assembly which has a high aspect ratio and which is remotely controlled, for use such as in a small diameter penetrometer cone or well packer used in water contamination applications. The pump assembly may be used to supply and remove a reagent to a water contamination sensor, for example, and includes a motor, gearhead and motor encoder assembly for turning a drive screw for an actuator which provides pushing on one syringe and pulling on the other syringe for injecting new reagent and withdrawing used reagent from an associated sensor.

  8. Resource availability controls fungal diversity across a plant diversity gradient

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waldrop, M.P.; Zak, D.R.; Blackwood, C.B.; Curtis, C.D.; Tilman, D.

    2006-01-01

    Despite decades of research, the ecological determinants of microbial diversity remain poorly understood. Here, we test two alternative hypotheses concerning the factors regulating fungal diversity in soil. The first states that higher levels of plant detritus production increase the supply of limiting resources (i.e. organic substrates) thereby increasing fungal diversity. Alternatively, greater plant diversity increases the range of organic substrates entering soil, thereby increasing the number of niches to be filled by a greater array of heterotrophic fungi. These two hypotheses were simultaneously examined in experimental plant communities consisting of one to 16 species that have been maintained for a decade. We used ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA), in combination with cloning and sequencing, to quantify fungal community composition and diversity within the experimental plant communities. We used soil microbial biomass as a temporally integrated measure of resource supply. Plant diversity was unrelated to fungal diversity, but fungal diversity was a unimodal function of resource supply. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) indicated that plant diversity showed a relationship to fungal community composition, although the occurrence of RISA bands and operational taxonomic units (OTUs) did not differ among the treatments. The relationship between fungal diversity and resource availability parallels similar relationships reported for grasslands, tropical forests, coral reefs, and other biotic communities, strongly suggesting that the same underlying mechanisms determine the diversity of organisms at multiple scales. ?? 2006 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  9. Guidelines on ergonomic aspects of control rooms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, C. M.; Bocast, A. K.; Stewart, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    The anthropometry, workstation design, and environmental design of control rooms are outlined. The automated interface and VDTs and displays and various modes of communication between the system and the human operator using VDTs are discussed. The man in the loop is examined, the single controller single task framework and multiple controller multiple tasks issues are considered.

  10. Ethical aspects of malaria control and research.

    PubMed

    Jamrozik, Euzebiusz; de la Fuente-Núñez, Vânia; Reis, Andreas; Ringwald, Pascal; Selgelid, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Malaria currently causes more harm to human beings than any other parasitic disease, and disproportionally affects low-income populations. The ethical issues raised by efforts to control or eliminate malaria have received little explicit analysis, in comparison with other major diseases of poverty. While some ethical issues associated with malaria are similar to those that have been the subject of debate in the context of other infectious diseases, malaria also raises distinct ethical issues in virtue of its unique history, epidemiology, and biology. This paper provides preliminary ethical analyses of the especially salient issues of: (i) global health justice, (ii) universal access to malaria control initiatives, (iii) multidrug resistance, including artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) resistance, (iv) mandatory screening, (v) mass drug administration, (vi) benefits and risks of primaquine, and (vii) malaria in the context of blood donation and transfusion. Several ethical issues are also raised by past, present and future malaria research initiatives, in particular: (i) controlled infection studies, (ii) human landing catches, (iii) transmission-blocking vaccines, and (iv) genetically-modified mosquitoes. This article maps the terrain of these major ethical issues surrounding malaria control and elimination. Its objective is to motivate further research and discussion of ethical issues associated with malaria--and to assist health workers, researchers, and policy makers in pursuit of ethically sound malaria control practice and policy. PMID:26693920

  11. Innovative Aspects of the SDL Control System

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, W.S.; Feng, S.K.; Pearson, P.S.; Smith, J.D.

    1997-12-31

    The Source Development Lab at BNL consists of a 230 MeV electron linac and 10m long wiggler for short wavelength FEL development. The control system is based on that in use at the NSLS. Two new extensions of the control system using VXI equipment are described. The first extension is the replacement of patch panels and lab oscilloscopes to monitor RF equipment. Instead, the RF waveforms are fed through a multiplexor into VXI digitizers. The waveforms can then be monitored remotely on any control console. The second extension is the replacement of the analog RF hardware needed to process beam position monitor signals. A digital system based on very fast (sub-nanosecond) VXI waveform digitizers is under development. The difficult operations requiring precise time alignment are then done in software.

  12. Manual Control Aspects of Orbital Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brody, Adam R. (Editor); Ellis, Stephen R. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    A brief description of several laboratories' current research in the general area of manual control of orbital flight is presented. With an operational-space-station era (and its increased traffic levels) approaching, now is an opportune time to investigate issues such as docking and rendezvous profiles and course-planning aids. The tremendous increase in the capabilities of computers and computer graphics has made extensive study possible and economical. It is time to study these areas, from a human factors and manual control perspective in order to preclude the occurrence of problems analogous to those that occurred in the airline and other related industries.

  13. Placebo controls: historical, methodological and general aspects

    PubMed Central

    Walach, Harald

    2011-01-01

    Control conditions were introduced through the trial of Mesmerism in Paris. Placebo controls became codified standard in 1946. Although seemingly unchallenged, there are various problems with this received view. The notion of a placebo is only defined from the negative. A positive notion proposed that placebo effects are effects owing to the meaning an intervention has for an individual. Thus, placebo effects are individualized, whereas standard research paradigms reveal only grossly averaged behaviour. Also, placebo effects are context sensitive, dependent on psychological factors such as expectancy, relief of stress and anxiety, and hence can generate strong and long-lasting treatment effects. These, however, are not predictable. Such a situation can lead to the efficacy paradox: sometimes, sham interventions can be more powerful than proved, evidence-based treatments. This situation has methodological consequences. Placebo-controlled randomized trials reveal only part of the answer, whether an intervention is effective. This is valuable information for regulators, but not necessarily also for patients and of limited value for providers. Hence, I have argued that we need to complement the hierarchical model of evidence by a circular one, in which various methods are employed on equal footing to answer different questions. PMID:21576144

  14. Aspects of adiabatic population transfer and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirplak, Mustafa

    This thesis explores two different questions. The first question we answer is how to restore a given population transfer scenario given that it works efficiently in the adiabatic limit but fails because of lack of intensity and/or short duration. We derive a very simple algorithm to do this and apply it to both toy and realistic models. Two results emerge from this study. While the mathematical existence of the programme is certain it might not always be physically desirable. The restoration of adiabaticity is phase sensitive. The second question that is answered in this thesis is not how to invent new control paradigms, but rather what would happen to them in the presence of stochastic perturbers. We first use a phenomenological model to study the effect of stochastic dephasing on population transfer by stimulated Raman adiabatic passage. The results of this Monte Carlo calculation are qualitatively explained with a perturbation theoretical result in the dressed state basis. The reliability of our phenomenological model is questioned through a more rigorous hybrid quantal-classical simulation of controlled population transfer in HCl in Ar.

  15. Hierarchical controls on patterns of habitat and species diversity in river networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beechie, T.; Pess, G.

    2007-12-01

    Patterns of habitat heterogeneity and species diversity in river networks are constrained by a nested hierarchy of physical controls. Large-scale, long-term controls set bounds for habitat and biological expression, whereas short-term and smaller-scale processes determine conditions at a point in time. At the river basin scale, geologic and topographic controls constrain reach attributes such as channel slope and channel confinement, which in turn constrains finer scale habitat structure. Overlain on this geologic template are down-valley trends in relative sediment supply that cause a systematic shift in channel-floodplain dynamics. At the reach-scale, channel slope is a primary control on habitat types (e.g., pools, riffles, ponds) in single thread channels, but local bed load and wood supply influence local habitat diversity. In floodplain reaches, diversity of habitat types is controlled mainly by the rate of lateral channel movement and floodplain turnover, which decrease down-valley with decreasing bed load supply. These controls drive two important aspects of environmental complexity, which in turn drive biological diversity in river networks: diversity of patch ages, and diversity of patch types. Ecological theory suggests that floodplain forest communities will be most diverse in floodplain reaches with intermediate rates of floodplain turnover, and reach-level aquatic communities will be most diverse in mid-network where habitat heterogeneity is highest.

  16. Chosen aspects of modeling and control of quadrotor platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawiski, Radosław; Błachuta, Marian

    2012-11-01

    This article is presenting the extended model of quadrotor platform together with a bespoken control system based on optimal approach. It highlights particular aspects of the derived model, such as inclusion of rotor gyroscopic effects and thrust generation based on momentum theory. The controller's behavior is tested by simulations. Comparisons with literature-available solutions to the problem of full quadrotor optimal control are made and important differences exposed. Conclusions are drawn and future work proposed.

  17. Subjective Aspects of Cognitive Control at Different Stages of Processing

    PubMed Central

    Morsella, Ezequiel; Wilson, Lilian E.; Berger, Christopher C.; Honhongva, Mikaela; Gazzaley, Adam; Bargh, John A.

    2009-01-01

    While research on cognitive control has addressed the effects that different forms of cognitive interference have on behavior and the activities of certain brain regions, until recently scientific approaches have been silent regarding the effects of interference on subjective experience. We demonstrate that, at the level of the individual trial, participants can reliably introspect the subjective aspects (e.g., perceptions of difficulty, competition, and control) of responding in interference paradigms. Similar subjective effects were obtained for both expressed and unexpressed (subvocalized) actions. Few participants discerned the source of these effects. These basic findings illuminate aspects of cognitive control and cognitive effort. In addition, these data have implications for the study of response interference in affect and self-control, and they begin to address theories regarding the function of consciousness. PMID:19933564

  18. The primary control on ancient land plant diversity is climate

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, A. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    Reproductive strategy and competition have been proposed as determinants of ancient land plant diversity. However climate is the primary control on modern plant productivity and diversity and may be the primary control on ancient diversity. For Silurian through Mid-Carboniferous land plants, the most profound diversity collapse and the greatest diversity increase occurred during times of global climate change. In the middle to late Frasnian, land plant diversity fell precipitously and remained low through the middle Famennian. Global warming probably triggered this event. Climate models suggest global warming at the end of Frasnian; the cosmopolitan faunas and floras of the Famennian indicate a uniform global climate. The diverse floras of the late Givetian and early Frasnian show pronounced latitudinal differentiation which disappeared after the diversity collapse. The depauperate floras of the late Frasnian--middle Famennian fall into two or three biogeographic units, each of which spans a large paleolatitudinal range. Land plant diversity remained constant during the Early Carboniferous and rose dramatically at the Mid-Carboniferous boundary at the onset of, and perhaps in response to, Southern Hemisphere glaciation. Polar glaciation contributes to ever wet, ever warm tropical climate because polar high pressure zones confine the intertropical convergence zone to a narrow latitudinal belt near the equator. As land plant diversity rose, the paleoequatorial coal belt of the Late Carboniferous became established, suggesting a correlation between increases in land plant diversity and tropical precipitation.

  19. Notional Examples and Benchmark Aspects Of a Resilient Control System

    SciTech Connect

    Craig. G. Rieger

    2010-08-01

    Digital control system technology has pervaded most industries, leading to improvements in the efficiency and reliability of the associated operations. However, the ease of distributing and connecting related control systems for the purposes of increasing performance has resulted in interdependencies that can lead to unexpected conditions. Even with less complex designs, operators and engineers alike are often left with competing goals that are difficult to resolve. A fundamental reason for this dichotomy is that responsibilities lie with different disciplines, and operations are hosted on separate control systems. In addition, with the rising awareness of cyber security and diverse human interactions with control systems, an understanding of human actions from a malicious and benevolent standpoint is necessary. Resilience considers the multiple facets of requirements that drive the performance of control systems in a holistic fashion, whether they are security or stability, stability or efficiency, human interactions or complex interdependencies. As will be shown by example, current research philosophies lack the depth or the focus on the control system application to satisfy these requirements, such as graceful degradation of hierarchical control while under cyber attack. A resilient control system promises to purposefully consider these diverse requirements, developing an adaptive capacity to complex events that can lead to failure of traditional control system designs.

  20. Large area UV casting using diverse polyacrylates of microchannels separated by high aspect ratio microwalls.

    PubMed

    Zhou, W X; Chan-Park, Mary B

    2005-05-01

    Large area molding of long and deep microchannels separated by high aspect ratio microwalls is important for high sensitivity and high throughput microfluidic devices. Ultraviolet (UV) casting is a feasible, economical and convenient method of replication of such microstructures in plastics. It is shown that a wide variety of polyacrylates with diverse properties such as those made from epoxy (EP), polyurethane (UR), polyester (ES), poly (ethylene glycol) (EG) and poly(propylene glycol) (PG) can be used for the high aspect ratio (7-9) UV casting of such linear microstructures over a 100 mm diameter, enlarging the range of applications of the replicated microstructures. Some challenges arise. With the EG formulation, wavy microstructures were observed; this can be overcome by stress relaxation. With non-polar PG formulation, poor adhesion between the polyester substrate and resin can lead to delamination of the casting from the substrate during demolding; this can be overcome by pre-coating a partially cured same resin on the polyester substrate. An optimum UV irradiation time was important for cure at the deepest end of the microstructure without excessive crosslinking leading to much increased demolding forces. The viscosity and wetting capability of the formulations were found to affect replication fidelity. PMID:15856087

  1. Transitions in Dynamo Modes Controlled by the Domain Aspect Ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goudard, L.; Dormy, E.

    2007-12-01

    Magnetic fields of internal origin are observed on many planets in the solar system. The Sun itself acts as a dynamo. While these natural objects are very different in their composition, when it comes to dynamo modeling the governing equations are remarkably similar. One of the controlling parameters to distinguish between these objects is the aspect ratio of the convecting domain. Comparing the Sun to the Earth raises the issue of the nature of reversals. A challenging issue is to determine why the geomagnetic field reverses polarity on an irregular basis, whereas the Sun --which is a much larger object, governed by stronger nonlinearities-- reverses its magnetic polarity on a quasi-periodic timescale of 11 yrs. We use a three-dimensional Boussinesq model (the Parody code) to investigate the transition between these two types of behavior. We show that the aspect ratio of the convecting domain controls the nature of the dynamo field. We report a butterfly-like diagram at large aspect ratio, with magnetic activity near 30° of latitudes, which migrates with time toward the equator. We trace the existence of the dynamo wave solution at various aspect ratio and suggest possible consequences for the geomagnetic secular variation.

  2. Caspar Controls Resistance to Plasmodium falciparum in Diverse Anopheline Species

    PubMed Central

    Garver, Lindsey S.; Dong, Yuemei; Dimopoulos, George

    2009-01-01

    . falciparum in Anopheline species. Further, this study addresses aspects of the molecular, evolutionary, and physiological consequences of the observed phenotype. These findings have implications for malaria control since broad-spectrum immune activation in diverse anopheline species offers a viable and strategic approach to develop novel malaria control methods worldwide. PMID:19282971

  3. Ethical and legal aspects of global tobacco control

    PubMed Central

    Novotny, T; Carlin, D

    2005-01-01

    On 28 February 2005, the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control came into force as a result of at least 40 countries becoming State Parties through ratification of this first ever health treaty sponsored by the World Health Organization. This article discusses the bioethical, trade, and legal aspects of global tobacco control. Special emphasis is given to globalisation of tobacco use and the challenges it poses to sovereign nations. It also advocates a bioethical basis in the pursuit of global solutions to expanding tobacco use. PMID:16046698

  4. Review on design and control aspects of ankle rehabilitation robots.

    PubMed

    Jamwal, Prashant K; Hussain, Shahid; Xie, Sheng Q

    2015-03-01

    Ankle rehabilitation robots can play an important role in improving outcomes of the rehabilitation treatment by assisting therapists and patients in number of ways. Consequently, few robot designs have been proposed by researchers which fall under either of the two categories, namely, wearable robots or platform-based robots. This paper presents a review of both kinds of ankle robots along with a brief analysis of their design, actuation and control approaches. While reviewing these designs it was observed that most of them are undesirably inspired by industrial robot designs. Taking note of the design concerns of current ankle robots, few improvements in the ankle robot designs have also been suggested. Conventional position control or force control approaches, being used in the existing ankle robots, have been reviewed. Apparently, opportunities of improvement also exist in the actuation as well as control of ankle robots. Subsequently, a discussion on most recent research in the development of novel actuators and advanced controllers based on appropriate physical and cognitive human-robot interaction has also been included in this review. Implications for Rehabilitation Ankle joint functions are restricted/impaired as a consequence of stroke or injury during sports or otherwise. Robots can help in reinstating functions faster and can also work as tool for recording rehabilitation data useful for further analysis. Evolution of ankle robots with respect to their design and control aspects has been discussed in the present paper and a novel design with futuristic control approach has been proposed. PMID:24320195

  5. 3. DOWNSTREAM AERIAL VIEW OF THE DIVERSION CHANNEL AND CONTROL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. DOWNSTREAM AERIAL VIEW OF THE DIVERSION CHANNEL AND CONTROL WORKS. THE OUTLET CONTROL TOWER AND THE PIER FOR THE SERVICE BRIDGE ARE SHOWN COMPLETED.... Volume XVIII, No. 11, January 18, 1940. - Prado Dam, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  6. Generation of diversity in a reaction-diffusion-based controller.

    PubMed

    Zahadat, Payam; Schmickl, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    A controller of biological or artificial organism (e.g., in bio-inspired cellular robots) consists of a number of processes that drive its dynamics. For a system of processes to perform as a successful controller, different properties can be mentioned. One of the desirable properties of such a system is the capability of generating sufficiently diverse patterns of outputs and behaviors. A system with such a capability is potentially adaptable to perform complicated tasks with proper parameterizations and may successfully reach the solution space of behaviors from the point of view of search and evolutionary algorithms. This article aims to take an early step toward exploring this capability at the levels of individuals and populations by introducing measures of diversity generation and by evaluating the influence of different types of processes on diversity generation. A reaction-diffusion-based controller called the artificial homeostatic hormone system (AHHS) is studied as a system consisting of different processes with various domains of functioning (e.g., internal or external to the control unit). Various combinations of these processes are investigated in terms of diversity generation at levels of both individuals and populations, and the effects of the processes are discussed representing different influences for the processes. A case study of evolving a multimodular AHHS controller with all the various process combinations is also investigated, representing the relevance of the diversity generation measures and practical scenarios. PMID:24730765

  7. Control aspects of the brushless doubly-fed machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauw, H. K.; Krishnan, S.

    1990-09-01

    This report covers the investigations into the control aspects of a variable-speed generation (VSG) system using a brushless double-fed generator excited by a series-resonant converter. The brushless double-fed machine comprises two sets of stator 3-phase systems which are designed with common windings. The rotor is a cage rotor resembling the low-cost and robust squirrel cage of a conventional induction machine. The system was actually designed and set up in the Energy Laboratory of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Oregon State University. The series-resonant converter designed to achieve effective control for variable-speed generation with the brushless doubly-fed generator was adequate in terms of required time response and regulation as well as in providing for adequate power quality. The three elements of the VSG controller, i.e., voltage or reactive power controller, the efficiency maximizer and the stabilizer, could be designed using conventional microprocessor elements with a processing time well within the time period required for sampling the variables involved with executing the control tasks. The report treats in detail the stability problem encountered in running the machine at certain speed regions, even if requirements for steady-state stability are satisfied. In this unstable region, shut down of the VSG system is necessary unless proper stabilization controls are provided for. The associated measures to be taken are presented.

  8. Manual control aspects of Space Station docking maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brody, Adam R.; Ellis, Stephen R.

    1990-01-01

    Due to an increase in spacecraft traffic forecasted for the Space Station era, researchers are investigating manual control and other aspects of docking operations with hopes of increasing safety, productivity, and likelihood of success while decreasing cost. Experiments have been performed which revealed the effect of approach velocity, in-flight anomalies, and control mode. Displays have been designed to enable flight planners to more easily overcome the difficulties presented by orbital mechanics. Improved understanding of human factors in the docking mission and other orbital maneuvers will play a significant role in design tradeoffs concerning thruster size, docking fixture style and mass, and on-board trajectory planning displays. Incorporating both empirical and analytic results into current and future planning of missions occurring not only in earth orbit, but also for missions in lunar and Mars orbit, will expand the performance envelopes of the astronauts who participate in these missions.

  9. Herbivores and nutrients control grassland plant diversity via light limitation.

    PubMed

    Borer, Elizabeth T; Seabloom, Eric W; Gruner, Daniel S; Harpole, W Stanley; Hillebrand, Helmut; Lind, Eric M; Adler, Peter B; Alberti, Juan; Anderson, T Michael; Bakker, Jonathan D; Biederman, Lori; Blumenthal, Dana; Brown, Cynthia S; Brudvig, Lars A; Buckley, Yvonne M; Cadotte, Marc; Chu, Chengjin; Cleland, Elsa E; Crawley, Michael J; Daleo, Pedro; Damschen, Ellen I; Davies, Kendi F; DeCrappeo, Nicole M; Du, Guozhen; Firn, Jennifer; Hautier, Yann; Heckman, Robert W; Hector, Andy; HilleRisLambers, Janneke; Iribarne, Oscar; Klein, Julia A; Knops, Johannes M H; La Pierre, Kimberly J; Leakey, Andrew D B; Li, Wei; MacDougall, Andrew S; McCulley, Rebecca L; Melbourne, Brett A; Mitchell, Charles E; Moore, Joslin L; Mortensen, Brent; O'Halloran, Lydia R; Orrock, John L; Pascual, Jesús; Prober, Suzanne M; Pyke, David A; Risch, Anita C; Schuetz, Martin; Smith, Melinda D; Stevens, Carly J; Sullivan, Lauren L; Williams, Ryan J; Wragg, Peter D; Wright, Justin P; Yang, Louie H

    2014-04-24

    Human alterations to nutrient cycles and herbivore communities are affecting global biodiversity dramatically. Ecological theory predicts these changes should be strongly counteractive: nutrient addition drives plant species loss through intensified competition for light, whereas herbivores prevent competitive exclusion by increasing ground-level light, particularly in productive systems. Here we use experimental data spanning a globally relevant range of conditions to test the hypothesis that herbaceous plant species losses caused by eutrophication may be offset by increased light availability due to herbivory. This experiment, replicated in 40 grasslands on 6 continents, demonstrates that nutrients and herbivores can serve as counteracting forces to control local plant diversity through light limitation, independent of site productivity, soil nitrogen, herbivore type and climate. Nutrient addition consistently reduced local diversity through light limitation, and herbivory rescued diversity at sites where it alleviated light limitation. Thus, species loss from anthropogenic eutrophication can be ameliorated in grasslands where herbivory increases ground-level light. PMID:24670649

  10. Herbivores and nutrients control grassland plant diversity via light limitation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borer, Elizabeth T.; Seabloom, Eric W.; Gruner, Daniel S.; Harpole, W. Stanley; Hillebrand, Helmut; Lind, Eric M.; Alder, Peter B.; Alberti, Juan; Anderson, T. Michael; Bakker, Jonathan D.; Biederman, Lori; Blumenthal, Dana; Brown, Cynthia S.; Brudvig, Lars A.; Buckley, Yvonne M.; Cadotte, Marc; Chu, Cheng-Jin; Cleland, Elsa E.; Crawley, Michael J.; Daleo, Pedro; Damschen, Ellen Ingman; Davies, Kendi F.; DeCrappeo, Nicole M.; Du, Guozhen; Firn, Jennifer; Hautier, Yann; Heckman, Robert W.; Hector, Andy; HilleRisLambers, Janneke; Iribarne, Oscar; Klein, Julia A.; Knops, Johannes M.H.; La Pierre, Kimberly J.; Leakey, Andrew D.B.; Li, Wei; MacDougall, Andrew S.; McCulley, Rebecca L.; Melbourne, Brett A.; Mitchell, Charles E.; Moore, Joslin L.; Mortensen, Brent; O'Halloran, Lydia R.; Orrock, John L.; Pascual, Jesús; Prober, Suzanne M.; Pyke, David A.; Risch, Anita C.; Schuetz, Martin; Smith, Melinda D.; Stevens, Carly J.; Sullivan, Lauren L.; Williams, Ryan J.; Wragg, Peter D.; Wright, Justin P.; Yang, Louie H.

    2014-01-01

    Human alterations to nutrient cycles and herbivore communities are affecting global biodiversity dramatically. Ecological theory predicts these changes should be strongly counteractive: nutrient addition drives plant species loss through intensified competition for light, whereas herbivores prevent competitive exclusion by increasing ground-level light, particularly in productive systems. Here we use experimental data spanning a globally relevant range of conditions to test the hypothesis that herbaceous plant species losses caused by eutrophication may be offset by increased light availability due to herbivory. This experiment, replicated in 40 grasslands on 6 continents, demonstrates that nutrients and herbivores can serve as counteracting forces to control local plant diversity through light limitation, independent of site productivity, soil nitrogen, herbivore type and climate. Nutrient addition consistently reduced local diversity through light limitation, and herbivory rescued diversity at sites where it alleviated light limitation. Thus, species loss from anthropogenic eutrophication can be ameliorated in grasslands where herbivory increases ground-level light.

  11. Herbivores and nutrients control grassland plant diversity via light limitation.

    SciTech Connect

    Borer, Elizabeth T.; et al, et al

    2014-01-01

    Human alterations to nutrient cycles1,2 and herbivore communities3–7 are affecting global biodiversity dramatically2. Ecological theory predicts these changes should be strongly counteractive: nutrient addition drives plant species loss through intensified competition for light, whereas herbivores prevent competitive exclusion by increasing ground-level light, particularly in productive systems8,9. Here we use experimental data spanning a globally relevant range of conditions to test the hypothesis that herbaceous plant species losses caused by eutrophication may be offset by increased light availability due to herbivory. This experiment, replicated in 40 grasslands on 6 continents, demonstrates that nutrients and herbivores can serve as counteracting forces to control local plant diversity through light limitation, independent of site productivity, soil nitrogen, herbivore type and climate. Nutrient addition consistently reduced local diversity through light limitation, and herbivory rescued diversity at sites where it alleviated light limitation. Thus, species loss from anthropogenic eutrophication can be ameliorated in grasslands where herbivory increases ground-level light.

  12. Genetic diversity and some aspects of antimicrobial activity of lactic acid bacteria isolated from goat milk.

    PubMed

    Cavicchioli, Valéria Quintana; Dornellas, Wesley Dos Santos; Perin, Luana Martins; Pieri, Fábio Alessandro; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo; Todorov, Svetoslav Dimitrov; Nero, Luís Augusto

    2015-03-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB, n = 57) were previously obtained from raw goat milk, identified as Lactococcus spp. (n = 24) and Enterococcus spp. (n = 33), and characterized as bacteriocinogenic. Fingerprinting by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) demonstrated high genetic diversity, and 30 strains were selected and exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against 46 target strains (LAB, spoilage, and foodborne pathogens). Six strains (Lactococcus lactis: GLc03 and GLc05; and Enterococcus durans: GEn09, GEn12, GEn14, and GEn17) were selected to characterize their bacteriocinogenic features, using Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 as the target. The six strains produced bacteriocins at higher titer when incubated in MRS at 37 °C up to 12 h, when compared to growth at 25 and 30 °C. The produced bacteriocins kept their antimicrobial activity after exposure to 100 °C for 2 h and 121 °C for 20 min; the antimicrobial activity was also observed after treatment at pH 2.0 to 10.0, except for GLc03. L. monocytogenes populations were reduced approximately two logs after treatment with cell-free supernatants from the selected strains. These data show that goat milk can contain a diverse microbiota able to inhibit L. monocytogenes, a common pathogen found in dairy products, and can be potentially employed in biopreservation of food produced under different processing conditions. PMID:25637509

  13. Bioremediation of petroleum pollutants: Diversity and environmental aspects of hydrocarbon biodegradation

    SciTech Connect

    Atlas, R.M.; Cerniglia, C.E.

    1995-05-01

    The manufacture, transportation, and distribution of petroleum and chemical products during the last century has resulted in hydrocarbon-contamination becoming a major environmental problem. Most of the environmental inputs of petroleum are accommodated largely due to the capacities of microorganisms to biodegrade hydrocarbons. Bioremediation has gained significant political support among competing technologies for in situ cleanup of pollutants. In addition to its potential for local cleanup of contaminated water and soil, bioremediation may have a future role in solving problems on a global scale, including removal of greenhouse gases from the atmosphere. This article examines in detail the following topics: bacterial and fungal metabolism of hydrocarbons; bioremediation of marine oil spills; site remediation; performance and regulatory oversight. In summary diverse microorganisms using diverse metabolic pathways have the capacities for degrading a wide spectrum of hydrocarbon structures in petroleum. Some pathways lead to detoxification and destruction of the pollutants whereas others activate potentially harmful compounds. In most cases of detoxification, environmental modification is used to stimulate the biodegradative activities of indigenous organisms. Biodegradation is emerging as an important cost-effective treatment for marine oil spills and contaminated sites. 13 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Physical, consumer, and social aspects of measuring the food environment among diverse low-income populations.

    PubMed

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Sharma, Sangita

    2009-04-01

    Obesity and other diet-related chronic diseases are directly related to the food environment. We describe how to better assess the food environment in specific ethnic minority settings for designing and implementing interventions, based on a review of our previous work on the food environment in American Indian reservations, Canadian First Nations reserves, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and inner-city Baltimore. The types of food stores available within each setting and the range of healthy foods available varied greatly across these geographic regions. In all settings, proximity to food stores/supermarkets, cost, and limited availability of healthful foods were common features, which limited access to health-promoting food options. Features specific to each population should be considered in an assessment of the food environment, including physical (e.g., openness of stores, mix of types of food sources); consumer (e.g., adequacy of the food supply, seasonal factors); and social (e.g., inter-household food sharing, perceptions of food quality, language differences) aspects. The food environments common in low-income ethnic subpopulations require special focus and consideration due to the vulnerability of the populations and to specific and unique aspects of each setting. PMID:19285208

  15. Aspects of Benthic Decapod Diversity and Distribution from Rocky Nearshore Habitat at Geographically Widely Dispersed Sites

    PubMed Central

    Pohle, Gerhard; Iken, Katrin; Clarke, K. Robert; Trott, Thomas; Konar, Brenda; Cruz-Motta, Juan José; Wong, Melisa; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro; Mead, Angela; Miloslavich, Patricia; Mieszkowska, Nova; Milne, Rebecca; Tamburello, Laura; Knowlton, Ann; Kimani, Edward; Shirayama, Yoshihisa

    2011-01-01

    Relationships of diversity, distribution and abundance of benthic decapods in intertidal and shallow subtidal waters to 10 m depth are explored based on data obtained using a standardized protocol of globally-distributed samples. Results indicate that decapod species richness overall is low within the nearshore, typically ranging from one to six taxa per site (mean = 4.5). Regionally the Gulf of Alaska decapod crustacean community structure was distinguishable by depth, multivariate analysis indicating increasing change with depth, where assemblages of the high and mid tide, low tide and 1 m, and 5 and 10 m strata formed three distinct groups. Univariate analysis showed species richness increasing from the high intertidal zone to 1 m subtidally, with distinct depth preferences among the 23 species. A similar depth trend but with peak richness at 5 m was observed when all global data were combined. Analysis of latitudinal trends, confined by data limitations, was equivocal on a global scale. While significant latitudinal differences existed in community structure among ecoregions, a semi-linear trend in changing community structure from the Arctic to lower latitudes did not hold when including tropical results. Among boreal regions the Canadian Atlantic was relatively species poor compared to the Gulf of Alaska, whereas the Caribbean and Sea of Japan appeared to be species hot spots. While species poor, samples from the Canadian Atlantic were the most diverse at the higher infraordinal level. Linking 11 environmental variables available for all sites to the best fit family-based biotic pattern showed a significant relationship, with the single best explanatory variable being the level of organic pollution and the best combination overall being organic pollution and primary productivity. While data limitations restrict conclusions in a global context, results are seen as a first-cut contribution useful in generating discussion and more in-depth work in the still

  16. Aspects of benthic decapod diversity and distribution from rocky nearshore habitat at geographically widely dispersed sites.

    PubMed

    Pohle, Gerhard; Iken, Katrin; Clarke, K Robert; Trott, Thomas; Konar, Brenda; Cruz-Motta, Juan José; Wong, Melisa; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro; Mead, Angela; Miloslavich, Patricia; Mieszkowska, Nova; Milne, Rebecca; Tamburello, Laura; Knowlton, Ann; Kimani, Edward; Shirayama, Yoshihisa

    2011-01-01

    Relationships of diversity, distribution and abundance of benthic decapods in intertidal and shallow subtidal waters to 10 m depth are explored based on data obtained using a standardized protocol of globally-distributed samples. Results indicate that decapod species richness overall is low within the nearshore, typically ranging from one to six taxa per site (mean = 4.5). Regionally the Gulf of Alaska decapod crustacean community structure was distinguishable by depth, multivariate analysis indicating increasing change with depth, where assemblages of the high and mid tide, low tide and 1 m, and 5 and 10 m strata formed three distinct groups. Univariate analysis showed species richness increasing from the high intertidal zone to 1 m subtidally, with distinct depth preferences among the 23 species. A similar depth trend but with peak richness at 5 m was observed when all global data were combined. Analysis of latitudinal trends, confined by data limitations, was equivocal on a global scale. While significant latitudinal differences existed in community structure among ecoregions, a semi-linear trend in changing community structure from the Arctic to lower latitudes did not hold when including tropical results. Among boreal regions the Canadian Atlantic was relatively species poor compared to the Gulf of Alaska, whereas the Caribbean and Sea of Japan appeared to be species hot spots. While species poor, samples from the Canadian Atlantic were the most diverse at the higher infraordinal level. Linking 11 environmental variables available for all sites to the best fit family-based biotic pattern showed a significant relationship, with the single best explanatory variable being the level of organic pollution and the best combination overall being organic pollution and primary productivity. While data limitations restrict conclusions in a global context, results are seen as a first-cut contribution useful in generating discussion and more in-depth work in the still

  17. MYC Cofactors: Molecular Switches Controlling Diverse Biological Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Hann, Stephen R.

    2014-01-01

    The transcription factor MYC has fundamental roles in proliferation, apoptosis, tumorigenesis, and stem cell pluripotency. Over the last 30 years extensive information has been gathered on the numerous cofactors that interact with MYC and the target genes that are regulated by MYC as a means of understanding the molecular mechanisms controlling its diverse roles. Despite significant advances and perhaps because the amount of information learned about MYC is overwhelming, there has been little consensus on the molecular functions of MYC that mediate its critical biological roles. In this perspective, the major MYC cofactors that regulate the various transcriptional activities of MYC, including canonical and noncanonical transactivation and transcriptional repression, will be reviewed and a model of how these transcriptional mechanisms control MYC-mediated proliferation, apoptosis, and tumorigenesis will be presented. The basis of the model is that a variety of cofactors form dynamic MYC transcriptional complexes that can switch the molecular and biological functions of MYC to yield a diverse range of outcomes in a cell-type- and context-dependent fashion. PMID:24939054

  18. Adaptive Fuzzy Control of a Direct Drive Motor: Experimental Aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medina, E.; Akbarzadeh-T, M.-R.; Kim, Y. T.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a state feedback adaptive control method for position and velocity control of a direct drive motor. The proposed control scheme allows for integrating heuristic knowledge with mathematical knowledge of a system. It performs well even when mathematical model of the system is poorly understood. The controller consists of an adaptive fuzzy controller and a supervisory controller. The supervisory controller requires only knowledge of the upper bound and lower bound of the system parameters. The fuzzy controller is based on fuzzy basis functions and states of the system. The adaptation law is derived based on the Lyapunov function which ensures that the state of the system asymptotically approaches zero. The proposed controller is applied to a direct drive motor with payload and parameter uncertainty, and the effectiveness is experimentally verified. The real-time performance is compared with simulation results.

  19. Semiotic aspects of control and modeling relations in complex systems

    SciTech Connect

    Joslyn, C.

    1996-08-01

    A conceptual analysis of the semiotic nature of control is provided with the goal of elucidating its nature in complex systems. Control is identified as a canonical form of semiotic relation of a system to its environment. As a form of constraint between a system and its environment, its necessary and sufficient conditions are established, and the stabilities resulting from control are distinguished from other forms of stability. These result from the presence of semantic coding relations, and thus the class of control systems is hypothesized to be equivalent to that of semiotic systems. Control systems are contrasted with models, which, while they have the same measurement functions as control systems, do not necessarily require semantic relations because of the lack of the requirement of an interpreter. A hybrid construction of models in control systems is detailed. Towards the goal of considering the nature of control in complex systems, the possible relations among collections of control systems are considered. Powers arguments on conflict among control systems and the possible nature of control in social systems are reviewed, and reconsidered based on our observations about hierarchical control. Finally, we discuss the necessary semantic functions which must be present in complex systems for control in this sense to be present at all.

  20. Compensatory Aspects of Allele Diversity at Immunoglobulin Loci: Gene Correlations in Rabbit Populations Devoid of Light Chain Diversity (Oryctolagus Cuniculus L.; Kerguelen Islands)

    PubMed Central

    van-der-Loo, W.; Bousses, P.; Arthur, C. P.; Chapuis, J. L.

    1996-01-01

    Is there a selective advantage of increased diversity at one immunoglobulin locus when diversity at another locus is low? A previous paper demonstrated excess heterozygosity at the rabbit light chain b locus when heterozygosity was low at the heavy chain constant region e locus. Here we consider the reverse situation by analyzing allele distributions at heavy chain loci in populations fixed for the light chain b locus. We analyzed the a locus that encodes the predominantly expressed heavy chain variable region, and the d and e loci that control different parts of the Ig gamma class constant region. While there was excess heterozygosity, genetic differentiation between localities was extensive and was most pronounced for females. This was in marked contrast with observations in areas where b-locus diversity was important and confirms a negative correlation between e- and b-locus heterozygosity. Trigenic disequilibria corresponded to a significant negative correlation between e- and a-locus heterozygosity due mainly to strong variation among localities within the context of pronounced (digenic) linkage disequilibria. Although substantial, the average increase in a/e-locus single heterozygosity implemented by higher order disequilibria within localities was not significant. PMID:8913759

  1. Controls on development and diversity of Early Archean stromatolites

    PubMed Central

    Allwood, Abigail C.; Grotzinger, John P.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Burch, Ian W.; Anderson, Mark S.; Coleman, Max L.; Kanik, Isik

    2009-01-01

    The ≈3,450-million-year-old Strelley Pool Formation in Western Australia contains a reef-like assembly of laminated sedimentary accretion structures (stromatolites) that have macroscale characteristics suggestive of biological influence. However, direct microscale evidence of biology—namely, organic microbial remains or biosedimentary fabrics—has to date eluded discovery in the extensively-recrystallized rocks. Recently-identified outcrops with relatively good textural preservation record microscale evidence of primary sedimentary processes, including some that indicate probable microbial mat formation. Furthermore, we find relict fabrics and organic layers that covary with stromatolite morphology, linking morphologic diversity to changes in sedimentation, seafloor mineral precipitation, and inferred microbial mat development. Thus, the most direct and compelling signatures of life in the Strelley Pool Formation are those observed at the microscopic scale. By examining spatiotemporal changes in microscale characteristics it is possible not only to recognize the presence of probable microbial mats during stromatolite development, but also to infer aspects of the biological inputs to stromatolite morphogenesis. The persistence of an inferred biological signal through changing environmental circumstances and stromatolite types indicates that benthic microbial populations adapted to shifting environmental conditions in early oceans. PMID:19515817

  2. Multiple replication origins with diverse control mechanisms in Haloarcula hispanica

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhenfang; Liu, Jingfang; Yang, Haibo; Liu, Hailong; Xiang, Hua

    2014-01-01

    The use of multiple replication origins in archaea is not well understood. In particular, little is known about their specific control mechanisms. Here, we investigated the active replication origins in the three replicons of a halophilic archaeon, Haloarcula hispanica, by extensive gene deletion, DNA mutation and genome-wide marker frequency analyses. We revealed that individual origins are specifically dependent on their co-located cdc6 genes, and a single active origin/cdc6 pairing is essential and sufficient for each replicon. Notably, we demonstrated that the activities of oriC1 and oriC2, the two origins on the main chromosome, are differently controlled. A G-rich inverted repeat located in the internal region between the two inverted origin recognition boxes (ORBs) plays as an enhancer for oriC1, whereas the replication initiation at oriC2 is negatively regulated by an ORB-rich region located downstream of oriC2-cdc6E, likely via Cdc6E-titrating. The oriC2 placed on a plasmid is incompatible with the wild-type (but not the ΔoriC2) host strain, further indicating that strict control of the oriC2 activity is important for the cell. This is the first report revealing diverse control mechanisms of origins in haloarchaea, which has provided novel insights into the use and coordination of multiple replication origins in the domain of Archaea. PMID:24271389

  3. Analysis of Anoxybacillus Genomes from the Aspects of Lifestyle Adaptations, Prophage Diversity, and Carbohydrate Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Kian Mau; Gan, Han Ming; Chan, Kok-Gan; Chan, Giek Far; Shahar, Saleha; Chong, Chun Shiong; Kahar, Ummirul Mukminin; Chai, Kian Piaw

    2014-01-01

    Species of Anoxybacillus are widespread in geothermal springs, manure, and milk-processing plants. The genus is composed of 22 species and two subspecies, but the relationship between its lifestyle and genome is little understood. In this study, two high-quality draft genomes were generated from Anoxybacillus spp. SK3-4 and DT3-1, isolated from Malaysian hot springs. De novo assembly and annotation were performed, followed by comparative genome analysis with the complete genome of Anoxybacillus flavithermus WK1 and two additional draft genomes, of A. flavithermus TNO-09.006 and A. kamchatkensis G10. The genomes of Anoxybacillus spp. are among the smaller of the family Bacillaceae. Despite having smaller genomes, their essential genes related to lifestyle adaptations at elevated temperature, extreme pH, and protection against ultraviolet are complete. Due to the presence of various competence proteins, Anoxybacillus spp. SK3-4 and DT3-1 are able to take up foreign DNA fragments, and some of these transferred genes are important for the survival of the cells. The analysis of intact putative prophage genomes shows that they are highly diversified. Based on the genome analysis using SEED, many of the annotated sequences are involved in carbohydrate metabolism. The presence of glycosyl hydrolases among the Anoxybacillus spp. was compared, and the potential applications of these unexplored enzymes are suggested here. This is the first study that compares Anoxybacillus genomes from the aspect of lifestyle adaptations, the capacity for horizontal gene transfer, and carbohydrate metabolism. PMID:24603481

  4. Efficiency aspects of vector control applied to synchronous reluctance motors

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, J.E.; Williams, B.W.; Green, T.C.

    1995-12-31

    Core losses in a synchronous reluctance machine are modeled. The empirical model obtained is used to implement a control scheme to compensate for equivalent core loss currents. This enables accurate control of the magnetizing currents, hence torque. Efficiency over the base speed operating range of the machine is compared for two different vector control schemes. Methods of triplen series injection for vector controllers are discussed and a new method proposed. The new technique has advantages in terms of overall triplen content and computational requirements. Inductance ripple in the machine is estimated using direct torque ripple measurements and incorporated in a machine model valid for low speed operation.

  5. Mechanisms Controlling the Plant Diversity Effect on Soil Microbial Community Composition and Soil Microbial Diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellado Vázquez, P. G.; Lange, M.; Griffiths, R.; Malik, A.; Ravenek, J.; Strecker, T.; Eisenhauer, N.; Gleixner, G.

    2015-12-01

    Soil microorganisms are the main drivers of soil organic matter cycling. Organic matter input by living plants is the major energy and matter source for soil microorganisms, higher organic matter inputs are found in highly diverse plant communities. It is therefore relevant to understand how plant diversity alters the soil microbial community and soil organic matter. In a general sense, microbial biomass and microbial diversity increase with increasing plant diversity, however the mechanisms driving these interactions are not fully explored. Working with soils from a long-term biodiversity experiment (The Jena Experiment), we investigated how changes in the soil microbial dynamics related to plant diversity were explained by biotic and abiotic factors. Microbial biomass quantification and differentiation of bacterial and fungal groups was done by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis; terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism was used to determine the bacterial diversity. Gram negative (G-) bacteria predominated in high plant diversity; Gram positive (G+) bacteria were more abundant in low plant diversity and saprotrophic fungi were independent from plant diversity. The separation between G- and G+ bacteria in relation to plant diversity was governed by a difference in carbon-input related factors (e.g. root biomass and soil moisture) between plant diversity levels. Moreover, the bacterial diversity increased with plant diversity and the evenness of the PLFA markers decreased. Our results showed that higher plant diversity favors carbon-input related factors and this in turn favors the development of microbial communities specialized in utilizing new carbon inputs (i.e. G- bacteria), which are contributing to the export of new C from plants to soils.

  6. [Control of industrial waste consumption residues: ecological and hygienic aspects].

    PubMed

    Rusakov, N V; Korotkova, G I; Orlov, A Iu; Solov'eva, A V; Shemiakina, Iu V

    2007-01-01

    The problem in the provision of safe handling of industrial waste and consumption residues is relatively current. According with the United Nations Organization's data, 25 to 33% of the world's notified diseases are directly associated with the low quality of the human environment. Up to now, a list of chemicals encountered in the waste and residues is unavailable in Russia and foreign countries. By keeping in mind the ubiquitous spread of industrial waste and consumption resides due to human vital activity, their huge formations and their very wide diversity in composition, type, and pattern of a possible dangerous effect, it is important to consider the problem associated with waste handling, by evaluating their environmental and hygienic hazard. PMID:18159741

  7. On Social and Material Aspects of Technological Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herfel, William E.

    1999-01-01

    Suggests that Hugh Lacey's example of a clear-cut distinction between material and social constraints or possibilities in the Green Revolution is misleading. Proposes a material analysis of the control situation placed within the material framework of the social structure within which the control system is employed. (Author/WRM)

  8. Temporal Patterns of Ant Diversity across a Mountain with Climatically Contrasting Aspects in the Tropics of Africa

    PubMed Central

    Munyai, Thinandavha Caswell; Foord, Stefan Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    Factors that drive species richness over space and time are still poorly understood and are often context specific. Identifying these drivers for ant diversity has become particularly relevant within the context of contemporary global change events. We report on a long-term bi-annual (wet and dry seasons), standardized sampling of epigeal ants over a five year period on the mesic and arid aspects of an inselberg (Soutpansberg Mountain Range) in the tropics of Africa. We detail seasonal, annual and long-term trends of species density, test the relative contribution of geometric constraints, energy, available area, climate, local environmental variables, time, and space in explaining ant species density patterns through Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMM) where replicates were included as random factors to account for temporal pseudo-replication. Seasonal patterns were very variable and we found evidence of decreased seasonal variation in species density with increased elevation. The extent and significance of a decrease in species density with increased elevation varied with season. Annual patterns point to an increase in ant diversity over time. Ant density patterns were positively correlated with mean monthly temperature but geometric constraints dominated model performance while soil characteristics were minor correlates. These drivers and correlates accounted for all the spatio-temporal variability in the database. Ant diversity was therefore mainly determined by geometric constraints and temperature while soil characteristics (clay and carbon content) accounted for smaller but significant amounts of variation. This study documents the role of season, elevation and their interaction in affecting ant species densities while highlighting the importance of neutral processes and temperature in driving these patterns. PMID:25774670

  9. Selected aspects of tobacco control in Bulgaria: policy review.

    PubMed

    Loubeau, Patricia R

    2012-03-01

    This paper seeks to outline the challenges of tobacco consumption control in the transitional economy of Bulgaria. It focuses on issues of taxation, high unemployment, and smuggling while attempting to meet European Union (EU) requirements for tobacco control legislation that reduces smoking consumption. The issue of tobacco control is not a simple one and requires a multi-pronged approach. While Bulgaria has made some progress in adopting legislation, it needs to strengthen its efforts in terms of enforcement, stronger legislation and increased taxation of cigarettes. PMID:22571023

  10. Spared and Impaired Aspects of Motivated Cognitive Control in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Claire L.; Footer, Owen; Chung, Yu Sun; Driscoll, Lori L.; Barch, Deanna M.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to upregulate cognitive control in motivationally salient situations was examined in individuals with schizophrenia (patients) and healthy controls. Fifty-four patients and thirty-nine healthy controls were recruited. A computerized monetary response conflict task required participants to identity a picture, over which was printed a matching (congruent), neutral, or incongruent word. This baseline condition was followed by an incentive condition, in which participants were given the opportunity to win money on reward-cued trials. These reward-cued trials were interleaved with non-reward cued trials. Reaction times (RT) were examined for both incentive context effects (difference in RT between baseline and non-reward cue trials in the incentive condition) and incentive cue effects (difference in RT between non-reward and reward cue trials in the incentive condition). Compared to baseline, controls showed a speeding of responses during both the non-reward (incentive context effect) and reward cued (incentive cue effect) trials during the incentive condition, but with a larger incentive context than incentive cue effect, suggesting a reliance on proactive control strategies. Although patients also showed a speeding of responses to both non-reward and reward cued trials, they showed a significantly smaller incentive context effect than controls, suggesting a reduction in the use of proactive control and a greater reliance on the use of “just-in-time,” reactive control strategies. These results are discussed in light of the relationship between motivation and cognitive impairments in schizophrenia, and the potential role of impairments in prefrontally mediated active maintenance mechanisms. PMID:23834064

  11. Control aspects of motor neural prosthesis: sensory interface.

    PubMed

    Popović, Dejan B; Dosen, Strahinja; Popović, Mirjana B; Stefanović, Filip; Kojović, Jovana

    2007-01-01

    A neural prosthesis (NP) has two applications: permanent assistance of function, and temporary assistance that contributes to long-term recovery of function. Here, we address control issues for a therapeutic NP which uses surface electrodes. We suggest that the effective NP for therapy needs to implement rule-based control. Rule-based control relies on the triggering of preprogrammed sequences of electrical stimulation by the sensory signals. The sensory system in the therapeutic NP needs to be simple for installation, allow self-calibration, it must be robust, and sufficiently redundant in order to guarantee safe operation. The sensory signals need to generate control signals; hence, sensory fusion is needed. MEMS technology today provides sensors that fulfill the technical requirements (accelerometers, gyroscopes, force sensing resistors). Therefore, the task was to design a sensory signal processing method from the mentioned solid state sensors that would recognize phases during the gait cycle. This is necessary for the control of multi channel electrical stimulation. The sensory fusion consists of the following two phases: 1) estimation of vertical and horizontal components of the ground reaction force, center of pressure, and joint angles from the solid-state sensors, and 2) fusion of the estimated signals into a sequence of command signals. The first phase was realized by the use of artificial neural networks and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems, while the second by the use of inductive learning described in our earlier work [1]. PMID:18002969

  12. Nursing aspects of infection control in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Sobayo, E I

    1991-06-01

    The quality of the infection control programme in developing countries is determined by the resource allocation to the health sector and the health care delivery system. These depend to a great extent on the socio-economic development of the country. Morbidity and mortality from communicable infections, such as diarrhoeal diseases and malaria are high. There is often an irregular water and electricity supply. Essential material resources, e.g. paper towels, gowns, gloves, masks and disinfectants may not be available and some disposable materials have to be re-used. Most hospitals have no infection control programme due to the lack of awareness of the problem or absence of trained personnel in infection control practices. Developing countries differ in many ways from each other, often having dissimilar cultures and languages and state of socio-economic development. Solutions will emerge only if there is co-operation between countries and provision of assistance, where appropriate, from wealthier countries. PMID:1679805

  13. Acoustic Aspects of Active-Twist Rotor Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, Earl R., Jr.; Wilbur, Matthew L.

    2002-01-01

    The use of an Active Twist Rotor system to provide both vibration reduction and performance enhancement has been explored in recent analytical and experimental studies. Effects of active-twist control on rotor noise, however, had not been determined. During a recent wind tunnel test of an active-twist rotor system, a set of acoustic measurements were obtained to assess the effects of active-twist control on noise produced by the rotor, especially blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise. It was found that for rotor operating conditions where BVI noise is dominant, active-twist control provided a reduction in BVI noise level. This BVI noise reduction was almost, but not quite, as large as that obtained in a similar test using HHC. However, vibration levels were usually adversely affected at operating conditions favoring minimum BVI noise. Conversely, operating conditions favoring minimum vibration levels affected BVI noise levels, but not always adversely.

  14. Some aspects of robotics calibration, design and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tawfik, Hazem

    1990-01-01

    The main objective is to introduce techniques in the areas of testing and calibration, design, and control of robotic systems. A statistical technique is described that analyzes a robot's performance and provides quantitative three-dimensional evaluation of its repeatability, accuracy, and linearity. Based on this analysis, a corrective action should be taken to compensate for any existing errors and enhance the robot's overall accuracy and performance. A comparison between robotics simulation software packages that were commercially available (SILMA, IGRIP) and that of Kennedy Space Center (ROBSIM) is also included. These computer codes simulate the kinematics and dynamics patterns of various robot arm geometries to help the design engineer in sizing and building the robot manipulator and control system. A brief discussion on an adaptive control algorithm is provided.

  15. Aspects of Numerical Simulation of Circulation Control Airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, R. C.; Rumsey, C. L.; Anders, S. G.

    2005-01-01

    The mass-averaged compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved for circulation control airfoils. Numerical solutions are computed with a multigrid method that uses an implicit approximate factorization smoother. The effects of flow conditions (e.g., free-stream Mach number, angle of attack, momentum coefficient) and mesh on the prediction of circulation control airfoil flows are considered. In addition, the impact of turbulence modeling, including curvature effects and modifications to reduce eddy viscosity levels in the wall jet (i.e., Coanda flow), is discussed. Computed pressure distributions are compared with available experimental data.

  16. Geometric Aspects of Force Controllability for a Swimming Model

    SciTech Connect

    Khapalov, A. Y.

    2008-02-15

    We study controllability properties (swimming capabilities) of a mathematical model of an abstract object which 'swims' in the 2-D Stokes fluid. Our goal is to investigate how the geometric shape of this object affects the forces acting upon it. Such problems are of interest in biology and engineering applications dealing with propulsion systems in fluids.

  17. Molecular Aspects of Transport in Thin Films of Controlled Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Paul W. Bohn

    2009-04-16

    Our laboratory focuses on developing spatially localized chemistries which can produce structures of controlled architecture on the supermolecular length scale -- structures which allow us to control the motion of molecular species with high spatial resolution, ultimately on nanometer length scales. Specifically, nanocapillary array membranes (NCAMs) contain an array of nanometer diameter pores connecting vertically separated microfluidic channels. NCAMs can manipulate samples with sub-femtoliter characteristic volumes and attomole sample amounts and are opening the field of chemical analysis of mass-limited samples, because they are capable of digital control of fluid switching down to sub-attoliter volumes; extension of analytical “unit operations” down to sub-femtomole sample sizes; and exerting spatiotemporal control over fluid mixing to enable studies of reaction dynamics. Digital flow switching mediated by nanocapillary array membranes can be controlled by bias, ionic strength, or pore diameter and is being studied by observing the temporal characteristics of transport across a single nanopore in thin PMMA membranes. The control of flow via nanopore surface characteristics, charge density and functional group presentation, is being studied by coupled conductivity and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) measurements. Reactive mixing experiments previously established low millisecond mixing times for NCAM-mediated fluid transfer, and this has been exploited to demonstrate capture of mass-limited target species by Au colloids. Voltage and thermally-activated polymer switches have been developed for active control of transport in NCAMs. Thermally-switchable and size-selective transport was achieved by grafting poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) brushes onto the exterior surface of a Au-coated polycarbonate track-etched membrane, while the voltage-gated properties of poly(hydroxyethylmethacrylate) were characterized dynamically. Electrophoretic separations have been

  18. Self-Esteem, Locus of Control and Various Aspects of Psychopathology of Adults with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Paralikas, Theodosis; Barouti, Marialena; Chronopoulou, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The exploratory study presented in this article looks into the possible differences in psychosocial aspects (self-esteem and locus of control) and aspects of psychopathology (depression, anxiety, melancholia, asthenia, and mania) amongst sighted adults and adults with visual impairments. Moreover, the study aims to examine the possible…

  19. Control aspects of quantum computing using pure and mixed states

    PubMed Central

    Schulte-Herbrüggen, Thomas; Marx, Raimund; Fahmy, Amr; Kauffman, Louis; Lomonaco, Samuel; Khaneja, Navin; Glaser, Steffen J.

    2012-01-01

    Steering quantum dynamics such that the target states solve classically hard problems is paramount to quantum simulation and computation. And beyond, quantum control is also essential to pave the way to quantum technologies. Here, important control techniques are reviewed and presented in a unified frame covering quantum computational gate synthesis and spectroscopic state transfer alike. We emphasize that it does not matter whether the quantum states of interest are pure or not. While pure states underly the design of quantum circuits, ensemble mixtures of quantum states can be exploited in a more recent class of algorithms: it is illustrated by characterizing the Jones polynomial in order to distinguish between different (classes of) knots. Further applications include Josephson elements, cavity grids, ion traps and nitrogen vacancy centres in scenarios of closed as well as open quantum systems. PMID:22946034

  20. Aspects of droplet and particle size control in miniemulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saygi-Arslan, Oznur

    Miniemulsion polymerization has become increasingly popular among researchers since it can provide significant advantages over conventional emulsion polymerization in certain cases, such as production of high-solids, low-viscosity latexes with better stability and polymerization of highly water-insoluble monomers. Miniemulsions are relatively stable oil (e.g., monomer) droplets, which can range in size from 50 to 500 nm, and are normally dispersed in an aqueous phase with the aid of a surfactant and a costabilizer. These droplets are the primary locus of the initiation of the polymerization reaction. Since particle formation takes place in the monomer droplets, theoretically, in miniemulsion systems the final particle size can be controlled by the initial droplet size. The miniemulsion preparation process typically generates broad droplet size distributions and there is no complete treatment in the literature regarding the control of the mean droplet size or size distribution. This research aims to control the miniemulsion droplet size and its distribution. In situ emulsification, where the surfactant is synthesized spontaneously at the oil/water interface, has been put forth as a simpler method for the preparation of miniemulsions-like systems. Using the in situ method of preparation, emulsion stability and droplet and particle sizes were monitored and compared with conventional emulsions and miniemulsions. Styrene emulsions prepared by the in situ method do not demonstrate the stability of a comparable miniemulsion. Upon polymerization, the final particle size generated from the in situ emulsion did not differ significantly from the comparable conventional emulsion polymerization; the reaction mechanism for in situ emulsions is more like conventional emulsion polymerization rather than miniemulsion polymerization. Similar results were found when the in situ method was applied to controlled free radical polymerizations (CFRP), which have been advanced as a

  1. Diversity Strategies for Nuclear Power Plant Instrumentation and Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Richard Thomas; Belles, Randy; Cetiner, Mustafa Sacit; Holcomb, David Eugene; Korsah, Kofi; Loebl, Andy; Mays, Gary T; Muhlheim, Michael David; Mullens, James Allen; Poore III, Willis P; Qualls, A L; Wilson, Thomas L; Waterman, Michael E.

    2010-02-01

    This report presents the technical basis for establishing acceptable mitigating strategies that resolve diversity and defense-in-depth (D3) assessment findings and conform to U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements. The research approach employed to establish appropriate diversity strategies involves investigation of available documentation on D3 methods and experience from nuclear power and nonnuclear industries, capture of expert knowledge and lessons learned, determination of best practices, and assessment of the nature of common-cause failures (CCFs) and compensating diversity attributes. The research described in this report does not provide guidance on how to determine the need for diversity in a safety system to mitigate the consequences of potential CCFs. Rather, the scope of this report provides guidance to the staff and nuclear industry after a licensee or applicant has performed a D3 assessment per NUREG/CR-6303 and determined that diversity in a safety system is needed for mitigating the consequences of potential CCFs identified in the evaluation of the safety system design features. Succinctly, the purpose of the research described in this report was to answer the question, 'If diversity is required in a safety system to mitigate the consequences of potential CCFs, how much diversity is enough?' The principal results of this research effort have identified and developed diversity strategies, which consist of combinations of diversity attributes and their associated criteria. Technology, which corresponds to design diversity, is chosen as the principal system characteristic by which diversity criteria are grouped to form strategies. The rationale for this classification framework involves consideration of the profound impact that technology-focused design diversity provides. Consequently, the diversity usage classification scheme involves three families of strategies: (1) different technologies, (2) different approaches within the same

  2. Special aspects of corrosion control in the Arctic and Subarctic

    SciTech Connect

    Talkington, J.P.; Perrigo, L.D.

    1994-12-31

    Many engineers and scientists believe that corrosion control in the Arctic and Subarctic is easier or less demanding than control work done in more temperate parts of the world. Although temperatures lower reaction rates, there are many circumstances where other variables play overriding roles in determining what occurs with operating equipment and facilities. This paper uses examples from Alaska and other northern areas to describe some of these effects and the special arrangements necessary to combat or avoid problems. The interplay of climatic, geographic, and marine variables often create conditions that are very corrosive. Cold water oxygen concentrations may be as great as 13.5 ppm. Significant amounts of glacial silt are often found in estuarine waters leading to erosive conditions. Fluctuations of 9.5+m (30+ feet) between high and low tides significantly change external conditions twice each day. The proper use, as well as the misapplication, of vapor barriers often create more humid conditions inside structures. These conditions can lead to corroded electrical wires, contacts, and fixtures. The application of deicing chemicals may affect rebar corrosion and structural integrity. The improper seating of fasteners used in holding metal siding can lead to accelerated corrosion in windy, foggy, marine atmospheres. What occurs during the transportation of materials to Northern sites, the conditions under which those items are stored before use, and construction practice often play important roles in the subsequent performance of equipment and facilities. Remedial action that may be employed to avoid or reduce corrosion effects include common countermeasures such as cathodic protection, coatings and linings, alternation of internal/external environmental effects, and the use of anticorrosion design principles in a Northern context.

  3. APPETITE CONTROL: METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE EVALUATION OF FOODS

    PubMed Central

    Blundell, John; de Graaf, Cees; Hulshof, Toine; Jebb, Susan; Livingstone, Barbara; Lluch, Anne; Mela, David; Salah, Samir; Schuring, Ewoud; van der Knaap, Henk; Westerterp, Margriet

    2013-01-01

    This report describes a set of scientific procedures used to assess the impact of foods and food ingredients on the expression of appetite (psychological and behavioural). An overarching priority has been to enable potential evaluators of health claims about foods to identify justified claims, and to exclude claims that are not supported by scientific evidence for the effect cited. This priority follows precisely from the principles set down in the PASSCLAIM report. (4) The report allows the evaluation of the strength of health claims, about the effects of foods on appetite, which can be sustained on the basis of the commonly used scientific designs and experimental procedures. The report includes different designs for assessing effects on satiation as opposed to satiety,detailed coverage of the extent to which a change in hunger can stand-alone as a measure of appetite control, and an extensive discussion of the statistical procedures appropriate for handling data in this field of research. Since research in this area is continually evolving, new improved methodologies may emerge over time and will need to be incorporated into the framework. One main objective of the report has been to produce guidance on good practice in carrying out appetite research, and not to set down a series of commandments that must be followed. PMID:20122136

  4. Algorithmic aspects of topology control problems for ad hoc networks

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, R.; Lloyd, E. L.; Marathe, M. V.; Ramanathan, R.; Ravi, S. S.

    2002-01-01

    Topology control problems are concerned with the assignment of power values to nodes of an ad hoc network so that the power assignment leads to a graph topology satisfying some specified properties. This paper considers such problems under several optimization objectives, including minimizing the maximum power and minimizing the total power. A general approach leading to a polynomial algorithm is presented for minimizing maximum power for a class of graph properties, called monotone properties. The difficulty of generalizing the approach to properties that are not monoione is pointed out. Problems involving the minimization of total power are known to be NP-complete even for simple graph properties. A general approach that leads to an approximation algorithm for minimizing the total power for some monotone properties is presented. Using this approach, a new approximation algorithm for the problem of minimizing the total power for obtaining a 2-node-connected graph is obtained. It is shown that this algorithm provides a constant performance guarantee. Experimental results from an implementation of the approximation algorithm are also presented.

  5. Integrated Luminal and Cytosolic Aspects of the Calcium Release Control

    PubMed Central

    Baran, Irina

    2003-01-01

    We propose here a unitary approach to the luminal and cytosolic control of calcium release. A minimal number of model elements that realistically describe different data sets are combined and adapted to correctly respond to various physiological constraints. We couple the kinetic properties of the inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate receptor/calcium channel with the dynamics of Ca2+ and K+ in both the lumen and cytosol, and by using a detailed simulation approach, we propose that local (on a radial distance ∼2 μm) calcium oscillations in permeabilized cells are driven by the slow inactivation of channels organized in discrete clusters composed of between six and 15 channels. Moreover, the character of these oscillations is found to be extremely sensitive to K+, so that the cytosolic and luminal calcium variations are in or out of phase if the store at equilibrium has tens or hundreds μM Ca2+, respectively, depending on the K+ gradient across the reticulum membrane. Different patterns of calcium signals can be reproduced through variation of only a few parameters. PMID:12609854

  6. Snoezelen or controlled multisensory stimulation. Treatment aspects from Israel.

    PubMed

    Merrick, Joav; Cahana, Carmit; Lotan, Meir; Kandel, Isack; Carmeli, Eli

    2004-05-11

    In Israel today, with a total population of over 6 million persons, the Division for Mental Retardation (DMR) provides services to 23,000 persons with intellectual disability (ID). Of the 23,000, residential services are provided to more than 6,000 in close to 60 residential centers, another 2,000 are provided residential care in hostels or group homes in the community in about 50 locations, while the rest are served with day-care kindergarten, day-treatment centers, sheltered workshops, or integrated care in the community. The first Snoezelen room (controlled multisensory stimulation) in the DMR was established at the Bnei Zion residential care center in 1995. The Snoezelen method is now used in Israel in more than 30 residential care centers and 3 community settings. Since the year 2000, a physiotherapist has been employed in order to supervise the treatment and development of the method nationally. Professional staff meetings take place every 4 months. A certification course has been established on a national basis for individuals from different professions (occupational therapists, physiotherapists, teachers, music therapists, nurses, speech therapists, or caregivers). Snoezelen has proved to be an important instrument and a powerful therapeutic tool among the various treatment modules employed in Israel for persons with ID. This paper presents the concept illustrated with two case stories. PMID:15167944

  7. Technological aspects of corrosion control in metallic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Matthew Logan

    Three corrosion control technologies were investigated, including the effect of nitrogen on the passivity of chromium in sulfate solutions, possible issues associated with the use of amines in steam turbine environments and the microstructure of naval advanced amorphous coatings. Nitrogen (N) is a minor alloying element commonly used to increase the strength of steels by stabilizing the austenite phase. Physical vapor deposited chromium + nitrogen (0, 6.8 and 8.9 at.%N) coatings were investigated as a model system, to test the model. Because Cr passive films have been observed to be generally n-type semiconductors, an impedance function containing a n-type Faradaic impedance was constructed and optimized to electrochemical impedance spectra for the model system at pH 4,7 and 10 1M sulfate solution at 30°C. An apparent deviation from theory was observed, however. The n-type model predicted steady state currents which were independent of potential, while the observed current densities had a positive correlation with potential. Mott-Schottky analysis revealed that the test potentials were within the n-p transition and p-type potential range, which resolves the apparent deviation. Despite this difficulty, however, the impedance model produced reasonably accurate results, calculating current densities to within one order of magnitude of the measured steady state currents where anodic currents were available and passive film thicknesses on the order of 1-2 nm. Various amines are commonly used to inhibit corrosion in thermal power generation systems, including steam turbines, by increasing the pH. However, during the shutdown phase of the power plant, it is possible for these inhibitors to concentrate and cause corrosion of the turbine rotor. The effect of two ammine inhibitors (monoethanolamine and dimethylamine) on the passivity of ASTM A470/471 steel is investigated in a simulated turbine environment at pH 7, and temperatures of 95°C and at 175°C. Potentiodynamic

  8. Aspect ratio control and sensing applications for a slot waveguide with a multimode stub

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zhihui; Peng, Yongyi; Li, Boxun; Chen, Zhiquan; Xu, Hui; Zheng, Mingfei; Li, Hongjian

    2016-07-01

    We report the aspect ratio control and sensing applications for metal–dielectric–metal (MDM) slot waveguides with a multimode stub. By adjusting the aspect ratio r = h/w of the stub, five types of optical evolutions in various aspect ratio r ranges are defined. We can realize a single or double plasmon-induced transparency (PIT) as well as Fano resonances. In addition, the figure of merit (FOM), which can describe the sensing performance of structures, is discussed in our paper. We can find up to three FOM peaks in our proposed structure. These findings provide guidance for the fundamental research of integrated plasmonic sensors.

  9. Preventing Large-Scale Controlled Substance Diversion From Within the Pharmacy

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Emory S.; Dzierba, Steven H.; Jones, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale diversion of controlled substances (CS) from within a hospital or heath system pharmacy is a rare but growing problem. It is the responsibility of pharmacy leadership to scrutinize control processes to expose weaknesses. This article reviews examples of large-scale diversion incidents and diversion techniques and provides practical strategies to stimulate enhanced CS security within the pharmacy staff. Large-scale diversion from within a pharmacy department can be averted by a pharmacist-in-charge who is informed and proactive in taking effective countermeasures. PMID:24421497

  10. Aspects of pathogen genomics, diversity, epidemiology, vector dynamics, and disease management for a newly emerged disease of potato: zebra chip.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hong; Gudmestad, Neil C

    2013-06-01

    An overview is provided for the aspects of history, biology, genomics, genetics, and epidemiology of zebra chip (ZC), a destructive disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum) that represents a major threat to the potato industries in the United States as well as other potato-production regions in the world. The disease is associated with a gram-negative, phloem-limited, insect-vectored, unculturable prokaryote, 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum', that belongs to the Rhizobiaceae family of α-Proteobacteria. The closest cultivated relatives of 'Ca. L. solanacearum' are members of the group of bacteria known as the α-2 subgroup. In spite of the fact that Koch's postulates sensu stricto have not been fulfilled, a great deal of progress has been made in understanding the ZC disease complex since discovery of the disease. Nevertheless, more research is needed to better understand vector biology, disease mechanisms, host response, and epidemiology in the context of vector-pathogen-plant interactions. Current ZC management strategies focus primarily on psyllid control. The ultimate control of ZC likely relies on host resistance. Unfortunately, all commercial potato cultivars are susceptible to ZC. Elucidation of the 'Ca. L. solanacearum' genome sequence has provided insights into the genetic basis of virulence and physiological and metabolic capability of this organism. Finally, the most effective, sustainable management of ZC is likely to be based on integrated strategies, including removal or reduction of vectors or inocula, improvement of host resistance to the presumptive pathogen and psyllid vectors, and novel gene-based therapeutic treatment. PMID:23268582

  11. The shifting nature of vegetation controls on peak snowpack with varying slope and aspect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biederman, J. A.; Harpold, A. A.; Broxton, P. D.; Brooks, P. D.

    2012-12-01

    The controls on peak seasonal snowpack are known to shift between forested and open environments as well as with slope and aspect. Peak snowpack is predicted well by interception models under uniformly dense canopy, while topography, wind and radiation are strong predictors in open areas. However, many basins have complex mosaics of forest canopy and small gaps, where snowpack controls involve complex interactions among climate, topography and forest structure. In this presentation we use a new fully distributed tree-scale model to investigate vegetation controls on snowpack for a range of slope and aspect, and we evaluate the energy balance in forest canopy and gap environments. The model is informed by airborne LiDAR and ground-based observations of climate, vegetation and snowpack. It represents interception, snow distribution by wind, latent and sensible heat fluxes, and radiative fluxes above and below the canopy at a grid scale of 1 m square on an hourly time step. First, the model is minimally calibrated using continuous records of snow depth and snow water equivalent (SWE). Next, the model is evaluated using distributed observations at peak accumulation. Finally, the domain is synthetically altered to introduce ranges of slope and aspect. Northerly aspects accumulate greater peak SWE than southerly aspects (e.g. 275 mm vs. 250 mm at a slope of 28 %) but show lower spatial variability (e. g. CV = 0.14 vs. CV = 0.17 at slope of 28 %). On northerly aspects, most of the snowpack remains shaded by vegetation, whereas on southerly aspects the northern portions of gaps and southern forest edges receive direct insolation during late winter. This difference in net radiation makes peak SWE in forest gaps and adjacent forest edges more sensitive to topography than SWE in areas under dense canopy. Tree-scale modeling of snow dynamics over synthetic terrain offers extensive possibilities to test interactions among vegetation and topographic controls.

  12. The Great Diversion: Danube Delta under Human Control (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giosan, L.

    2009-12-01

    Many deltas around the world are suffering from sediment deficits that render them unstable to current and predicted rates of sea level rise. One solution proposed to alleviate the complete or partial drowning of such deltas is the use of river diversions to increase the quantity of sediment supplied to the delta plain to support marsh accretion. We examine the results of a half century old program of diversion in the Danube delta that led to the creation of an extensive diversion channel network akin in scope and size to a natural deltaic network. Danube’s importance as a shipping route increased after the Crimean War in the 1850s; the European Danube Commission was charged with maintaining the Sulina distributary as a shipping channel until 1940s. In the same period, several canals were dug to aid fishing in lakes and bring freshwater to brackish lagoons. After World War II, Communist authorities dramatically increased the number of canals for fishing, fish-farming and reed harvesting. New data on sedimentation rates and estimates of sediment fluxes suggest that the intensive canalization in the second half of the 20th Century led to increased sediment deposition that compensated the decreasing sediment discharge linked to damming within the internal fluvial part of the delta; however, the external marine delta has become increasingly sediment starved during the same interval. We emphasize the similarities and contrasts between the “human-controlled” and natural deltaic channel networks of the Danube delta and discuss the sustainability of the delta as a sediment budget problem within a sea level rise context.

  13. Learning of Temporal and Spatial Movement Aspects: A Comparison of Four Types of Haptic Control and Concurrent Visual Feedback.

    PubMed

    Rauter, Georg; Sigrist, Roland; Riener, Robert; Wolf, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In literature, the effectiveness of haptics for motor learning is controversially discussed. Haptics is believed to be effective for motor learning in general; however, different types of haptic control enhance different movement aspects. Thus, in dependence on the movement aspects of interest, one type of haptic control may be effective whereas another one is not. Therefore, in the current work, it was investigated if and how different types of haptic controllers affect learning of spatial and temporal movement aspects. In particular, haptic controllers that enforce active participation of the participants were expected to improve spatial aspects. Only haptic controllers that provide feedback about the task's velocity profile were expected to improve temporal aspects. In a study on learning a complex trunk-arm rowing task, the effect of training with four different types of haptic control was investigated: position control, path control, adaptive path control, and reactive path control. A fifth group (control) trained with visual concurrent augmented feedback. As hypothesized, the position controller was most effective for learning of temporal movement aspects, while the path controller was most effective in teaching spatial movement aspects of the rowing task. Visual feedback was also effective for learning temporal and spatial movement aspects. PMID:25974949

  14. Genetic diversity analysis of mitochondrial DNA control region in artificially propagated Chinese sucker Myxocyprinus asiaticus.

    PubMed

    Wan, Yuan; Zhou, Chun-Hua; Ouyang, Shan; Huang, Xiao-Chen; Zhan, Yang; Zhou, Ping; Rong, Jun; Wu, Xiao-Ping

    2015-08-01

    The genetic diversity of the three major artificially propagated populations of Chinese sucker, an endangered freshwater fish species, was investigated using the sequences of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control regions. Among the 89 individuals tested, 66 variable sites (7.26%) and 10 haplotypes were detected (Haplotype diversity Hd = 0.805, Nucleotide diversity π = 0.0287). In general, genetic diversity was lower in artificially propagated populations than in wild populations. This reduction in genetic diversity may be due to population bottlenecks, genetic drift and human selection. A stepping-stone pattern of gene flow was detected in the populations studied, showing much higher gene flow between neighbouring populations. To increase the genetic diversity, wild lineages should be introduced, and more lineages should be shared among artificially propagated populations. PMID:24409897

  15. Mineralogical Control on Microbial Diversity in a Weathered Granite?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleeson, D.; Clipson, N.; McDermott, F.

    2003-12-01

    Mineral transformation reactions and the behaviour of metals in rock and soils are affected not only by physicochemical parameters but also by biological factors, particularly by microbial activity. Microbes inhabit a wide range of niches in surface and subsurface environments, with mineral-microbe interactions being generally poorly understood. The focus of this study is to elucidate the role of microbial activity in the weathering of common silicate minerals in granitic rocks. A site in the Wicklow Mountains (Ireland) has been identified that consists of an outcrop surface of Caledonian (ca. 400 million years old) pegmatitic granite from which large intact crystals of variably weathered muscovite, plagioclase, K-feldspar and quartz were sampled, together with whole-rock granite. Culture-based microbial approaches have been widely used to profile microbial communities, particularly from copiotrophic environments, but it is now well established that for oligotrophic environments such as those that would be expected on weathering faces, perhaps less than 1% of microbial diversity can be profiled by cultural means. A number of culture-independent molecular based approaches have been developed to profile microbial diversity and community structure. These rely on successfully isolating environmental DNA from a given environment, followed by the use of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify the typically small quantities of extracted DNA. Amplified DNA can then be analysed using cloning based approaches as well as community fingerprinting systems such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) and ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA). Community DNA was extracted and the intergenic spacer region (ITS) between small (16S) and large (23S) bacterial subunit rRNA genes was amplified. RISA fragments were then electrophoresed on a non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel. Banding patterns suggest that

  16. Snail Coordinately Regulates Downstream Pathways to Control Multiple Aspects of Mammalian Neural Precursor Development

    PubMed Central

    Zander, Mark A.; Burns, Sarah E.; Yang, Guang; Kaplan, David R.

    2014-01-01

    The Snail transcription factor plays a key role in regulating diverse developmental processes but is not thought to play a role in mammalian neural precursors. Here, we have examined radial glial precursor cells of the embryonic murine cortex and demonstrate that Snail regulates their survival, self-renewal, and differentiation into intermediate progenitors and neurons via two distinct and separable target pathways. First, Snail promotes cell survival by antagonizing a p53-dependent death pathway because coincident p53 knockdown rescues survival deficits caused by Snail knockdown. Second, we show that the cell cycle phosphatase Cdc25b is regulated by Snail in radial precursors and that Cdc25b coexpression is sufficient to rescue the decreased radial precursor proliferation and differentiation observed upon Snail knockdown. Thus, Snail acts via p53 and Cdc25b to coordinately regulate multiple aspects of mammalian embryonic neural precursor biology. PMID:24719096

  17. Oceanographic controls on the diversity and extinction of planktonic foraminifera.

    PubMed

    Peters, Shanan E; Kelly, Daniel C; Fraass, Andrew J

    2013-01-17

    Understanding the links between long-term biological evolution, the ocean-atmosphere system and plate tectonics is a central goal of Earth science. Although environmental perturbations of many different kinds are known to have affected long-term biological evolution, particularly during major mass extinction events, the relative importance of physical environmental factors versus biological interactions in governing rates of extinction and origination through geological time remains unknown. Here we use macrostratigraphic data from the Atlantic Ocean basin to show that changes in global species diversity and rates of extinction among planktonic foraminifera have been linked to tectonically and climatically forced changes in ocean circulation and chemistry from the Jurassic period to the present. Transient environmental perturbations, such as those that occurred after the asteroid impact at the end of the Cretaceous period approximately 66 million years ago, and the Eocene/Oligocene greenhouse-icehouse transition approximately 34 million years ago, are superimposed on this general long-term relationship. Rates of species origination, by contrast, are not correlated with corresponding macrostratigraphic quantities, indicating that physiochemical changes in the ocean-atmosphere system affect evolution principally by driving the synchronous extinction of lineages that originated owing to more protracted and complex interactions between biological and environmental factors. PMID:23302802

  18. Operational and research aspects of a radio-controlled model flight test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budd, Gerald D.; Gilman, Ronald L.; Eichstedt, David

    1993-01-01

    The operational and research aspects of a subscale, radio-controlled model flight test program are presented. By using low-cost free-flying models, an approach was developed for obtaining research-quality vehicle performance and aerodynamic information. The advantages and limitations learned by applying this approach to a specific flight test program are described. The research quality of the data acquired shows that model flight testing is practical for obtaining consistent repeatable flight data.

  19. Operational and research aspects of a radio-controlled model flight test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budd, Gerald D.; Gilman, Ronald L.; Eichstedt, David

    1993-01-01

    The operational and research aspects of a subscale, radio-controlled model flight test program are presented. By using low-cost free-flying models, an approach was developed for obtaining research-quality vehicle performance and aerodynamic information. The advantages and limitations learned by applying this approach to a specific flight test program are described. The research quality of the data acquired shows that model flight testing is practical for obtaining consistent and repeatable flight data.

  20. Nutritional and cultural aspects of plant species selection for a controlled ecological life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoff, J. E.; Howe, J. M.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of using higher plants in a controlled ecological life support system is discussed. Aspects of this system considered important in the use of higher plants include: limited energy, space, and mass, and problems relating to cultivation and management of plants, food processing, the psychological impact of vegetarian diets, and plant propagation. A total of 115 higher plant species are compared based on 21 selection criteria.

  1. Effect of Aspect Ratio on the Low-Speed Lateral Control Characteristics of Untapered Low-Aspect-Ratio Wings Equipped with Flap and with Retractable Ailerons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischel, Jack; Naeseth, Rodger L; Hagerman, John R; O'Hare, William M

    1952-01-01

    A low-speed wind-tunnel investigation was made to determine the lateral control characteristics of a series of untapered low-aspect-ratio wings. Sealed flap ailerons of various spans and spanwise locations were investigated on unswept wings of aspect ratios 1.13, 1.13, 4.13, and 6.13; and various projections of 0.60-semispan retractable ailerons were investigated on the unsweptback wings of aspect ratios 1.13, 2.13, and 4.13 and on a 45 degree sweptback wing. The retractable ailerons investigated on the unswept wings spanned the outboard stations of each wing; whereas the plain and stepped retractable ailerons investigated on the sweptback wing were located at various spanwise stations. Design charts based on experimental results are presented for estimating the flap aileron effectiveness for low-aspect-ratio, untapered, unswept.

  2. Corticothalamic Projection Neuron Development beyond Subtype Specification: Fog2 and Intersectional Controls Regulate Intraclass Neuronal Diversity.

    PubMed

    Galazo, Maria J; Emsley, Jason G; Macklis, Jeffrey D

    2016-07-01

    Corticothalamic projection neurons (CThPN) are a diverse set of neurons, critical for function of the neocortex. CThPN development and diversity need to be precisely regulated, but little is known about molecular controls over their differentiation and functional specialization, critically limiting understanding of cortical development and complexity. We report the identification of a set of genes that both define CThPN and likely control their differentiation, diversity, and function. We selected the CThPN-specific transcriptional coregulator Fog2 for functional analysis. We identify that Fog2 controls CThPN molecular differentiation, axonal targeting, and diversity, in part by regulating the expression level of Ctip2 by CThPN, via combinatorial interactions with other molecular controls. Loss of Fog2 specifically disrupts differentiation of subsets of CThPN specialized in motor function, indicating that Fog2 coordinates subtype and functional-area differentiation. These results confirm that we identified key controls over CThPN development and identify Fog2 as a critical control over CThPN diversity. PMID:27321927

  3. Preschool Sleep Problems and Differential Associations With Specific Aspects of Executive Control in Early Elementary School.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Timothy D; Nelson, Jennifer Mize; Kidwell, Katherine M; James, Tiffany D; Espy, Kimberly Andrews

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the differential associations between parent-reported child sleep problems in preschool and specific aspects of executive control in early elementary school in a large sample of typically developing children (N = 215). Consistent with expectations, sleep problems were negatively associated with performance on tasks assessing working memory and interference suppression inhibition, even after controlling for general cognitive abilities, but not with flexible shifting or response inhibition. The findings add to the literature on cognitive impairments associated with pediatric sleep loss and highlight the need for early intervention for children with sleep problems to promote healthy cognitive development. PMID:26151614

  4. Aspects of pathogen genomics, diversity, epidemiology, vector dynamics and disease management for a newly emerged disease of potato: Zebra Chip

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An overview is provided for the aspects of history, biology, genomics, genetics and epidemiology of zebra chip (ZC), a destructive disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) that represents a major threat to potato industries in the US as well as other potato production regions in the world. The dise...

  5. Humboldt's spa: microbial diversity is controlled by temperature in geothermal environments.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Christine E; Brady, Allyson L; Sharp, Glen H; Grasby, Stephen E; Stott, Matthew B; Dunfield, Peter F

    2014-06-01

    Over 200 years ago Alexander von Humboldt (1808) observed that plant and animal diversity peaks at tropical latitudes and decreases toward the poles, a trend he attributed to more favorable temperatures in the tropics. Studies to date suggest that this temperature-diversity gradient is weak or nonexistent for Bacteria and Archaea. To test the impacts of temperature as well as pH on bacterial and archaeal diversity, we performed pyrotag sequencing of 16S rRNA genes retrieved from 165 soil, sediment and biomat samples of 36 geothermal areas in Canada and New Zealand, covering a temperature range of 7.5-99 °C and a pH range of 1.8-9.0. This represents the widest ranges of temperature and pH yet examined in a single microbial diversity study. Species richness and diversity indices were strongly correlated to temperature, with R(2) values up to 0.62 for neutral-alkaline springs. The distributions were unimodal, with peak diversity at 24 °C and decreasing diversity at higher and lower temperature extremes. There was also a significant pH effect on diversity; however, in contrast to previous studies of soil microbial diversity, pH explained less of the variability (13-20%) than temperature in the geothermal samples. No correlation was observed between diversity values and latitude from the equator, and we therefore infer a direct temperature effect in our data set. These results demonstrate that temperature exerts a strong control on microbial diversity when considered over most of the temperature range within which life is possible. PMID:24430481

  6. Humboldt's spa: microbial diversity is controlled by temperature in geothermal environments

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Christine E; Brady, Allyson L; Sharp, Glen H; Grasby, Stephen E; Stott, Matthew B; Dunfield, Peter F

    2014-01-01

    Over 200 years ago Alexander von Humboldt (1808) observed that plant and animal diversity peaks at tropical latitudes and decreases toward the poles, a trend he attributed to more favorable temperatures in the tropics. Studies to date suggest that this temperature–diversity gradient is weak or nonexistent for Bacteria and Archaea. To test the impacts of temperature as well as pH on bacterial and archaeal diversity, we performed pyrotag sequencing of 16S rRNA genes retrieved from 165 soil, sediment and biomat samples of 36 geothermal areas in Canada and New Zealand, covering a temperature range of 7.5–99 °C and a pH range of 1.8–9.0. This represents the widest ranges of temperature and pH yet examined in a single microbial diversity study. Species richness and diversity indices were strongly correlated to temperature, with R2 values up to 0.62 for neutral–alkaline springs. The distributions were unimodal, with peak diversity at 24 °C and decreasing diversity at higher and lower temperature extremes. There was also a significant pH effect on diversity; however, in contrast to previous studies of soil microbial diversity, pH explained less of the variability (13–20%) than temperature in the geothermal samples. No correlation was observed between diversity values and latitude from the equator, and we therefore infer a direct temperature effect in our data set. These results demonstrate that temperature exerts a strong control on microbial diversity when considered over most of the temperature range within which life is possible. PMID:24430481

  7. Mutualistic fungi control crop diversity in fungus-growing ants.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Michael; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2005-02-01

    Leaf-cutting ants rear clonal fungi for food and transmit the fungi from mother to daughter colonies so that symbiont mixing and conflict, which result from competition between genetically different clones, are avoided. Here we show that despite millions of years of predominantly vertical transmission, the domesticated fungi actively reject mycelial fragments from neighboring colonies, and that the strength of these reactions are in proportion to the overall genetic difference between these symbionts. Fungal incompatibility compounds remain intact during ant digestion, so that fecal droplets, which are used for manuring newly grown fungus, elicit similar hostile reactions when applied to symbionts from other colonies. Symbiont control over new mycelial growth by manurial imprinting prevents the rearing of multiple crops in fungus gardens belonging to the same colony. PMID:15692054

  8. The Influence of Positive Mood on Different Aspects of Cognitive Control

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Elizabeth A.; Kerns, John G.

    2010-01-01

    Some evidence suggests that positive mood influences cognitive control. The current research investigated whether positive mood has differential effects on two aspects of cognitive control, working memory and prepotent response inhibition. In Study 1, following either a positive or neutral mood induction, participants completed the Running Memory Span (RMS), a measure primarily of working memory storage capacity, and the Stroop task, a measure of prepotent response inhibition. Results were that the positive mood group performed worse on the RMS task but not on the Stroop task. In Study 2, participants completed the RMS and another measure of prepotent response inhibition, the Flanker task. Results were that when in a positive mood state participants performed worse on the RMS but not on the Flanker task. Overall, this research suggests that positive mood has differential effects on cognitive control, impairing working memory but having no effect on prepotent response inhibition. PMID:21399720

  9. Evolution and diversity of subduction zones controlled by slab width.

    PubMed

    Schellart, W P; Freeman, J; Stegman, D R; Moresi, L; May, D

    2007-03-15

    Subducting slabs provide the main driving force for plate motion and flow in the Earth's mantle, and geodynamic, seismic and geochemical studies offer insight into slab dynamics and subduction-induced flow. Most previous geodynamic studies treat subduction zones as either infinite in trench-parallel extent (that is, two-dimensional) or finite in width but fixed in space. Subduction zones and their associated slabs are, however, limited in lateral extent (250-7,400 km) and their three-dimensional geometry evolves over time. Here we show that slab width controls two first-order features of plate tectonics-the curvature of subduction zones and their tendency to retreat backwards with time. Using three-dimensional numerical simulations of free subduction, we show that trench migration rate is inversely related to slab width and depends on proximity to a lateral slab edge. These results are consistent with retreat velocities observed globally, with maximum velocities (6-16 cm yr(-1)) only observed close to slab edges (<1,200 km), whereas far from edges (>2,000 km) retreat velocities are always slow (<2.0 cm yr(-1)). Models with narrow slabs (< or =1,500 km) retreat fast and develop a curved geometry, concave towards the mantle wedge side. Models with slabs intermediate in width ( approximately 2,000-3,000 km) are sublinear and retreat more slowly. Models with wide slabs (> or =4,000 km) are nearly stationary in the centre and develop a convex geometry, whereas trench retreat increases towards concave-shaped edges. Additionally, we identify periods (5-10 Myr) of slow trench advance at the centre of wide slabs. Such wide-slab behaviour may explain mountain building in the central Andes, as being a consequence of its tectonic setting, far from slab edges. PMID:17361181

  10. Legal aspects of public health: difficulties in controlling vector-borne and zoonotic diseases in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Marcílio S; de Moraes, Josué

    2014-11-01

    In recent years, vector-borne and zoonotic diseases have become a major challenge for public health. Dengue fever and leptospirosis are the most important communicable diseases in Brazil based on their prevalence and the healthy life years lost from disability. The primary strategy for preventing human exposure to these diseases is effective insect and rodent control in and around the home. However, health authorities have difficulties in controlling vector-borne and zoonotic diseases because residents often refuse access to their homes. This study discusses aspects related to the activities performed by Brazilian health authorities to combat vector-borne and zoonotic diseases, particularly difficulties in relation to the legal aspect, which often impede the quick and effective actions of these professionals. How might it be possible to reconcile the need to preserve public health and the rule on the inviolability of the home, especially in the case of abandoned properties or illegal residents and the refusal of residents to allow the health authority access? Do residents have the right to hinder the performance of health workers even in the face of a significant and visible focus of disease transmission? This paper argues that a comprehensive legal plan aimed at the control of invasive vector-borne and zoonotic diseases including synanthropic animals of public health importance should be considered. In addition, this paper aims to bridge the gap between lawyers and public health professionals and to facilitate communication between them. PMID:25051187

  11. Radiation control aspects of the civil construction for a high power free electron laser (FEL) facility

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, T.; Neil, G.; Stapleton, G.

    1996-12-31

    The paper discusses some of the assumptions and methods employed for the control of ionizing radiation in the specifications for the civil construction of a planned free electron laser facility based on a 200 MeV, 5 mA superconducting recirculation electron accelerator. Consideration is given firstly to the way in which the underlying building configuration and siting aspects were optimized on the basis of the early assumptions of beam loss and radiation goals. The various design requirements for radiation protection are then considered, and how they were folded into an aesthetically pleasing and functional building.

  12. Welfare aspects of vertebrate pest control and culling: ranking control techniques for humaneness.

    PubMed

    Littin, K; Fisher, P; Beausoleil, N J; Sharp, T

    2014-04-01

    The management of vertebrate pests depends on the use of traps, pesticides, repellents and other methods, each of which can cause varying levels of pain and other negative experiences to animals. Vertebrate pest control is essential for managing the impacts of unwanted or over-abundant animals on human and animal health, ecological balance and economic interests. As the need for this management is unlikely to diminish over time, a framework has been developed for assessing the humaneness of each technique by considering their negative impacts on animal welfare so that these can be included in decision-making about the selection of techniques for a specific control operation. This information can also support evidence-based regulations directed at managing such animal welfare impacts. In this paper, the authors discuss this assessment framework, briefly review two assessments conducted using the framework and discuss ways in which Competent Authorities and others can use it and other means to improve animal welfare in vertebrate pest management. PMID:25000801

  13. The monitoring of trade in and control of psychotropic substances to guard against their diversion.

    PubMed

    Bayer, I

    1983-01-01

    The establishment of international control of opiates has been an important achievement of the international community; this is substantiated by the fact that, at the beginning of this century, legally manufactured morphine and heroin were the principal sources of illicit supply, whereas at present the illicit traffic in these drugs is supplied from illicit sources. The poppy straw process has helped to promote measures to control opium poppy cultivation in a number of European countries; Turkey has been a successful example of such control. The present large-scale illicit traffic in cannabis resin and cocaine is the consequence of the lack of the implementation of provisions of the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961, to control the cannabis plant and the coca bush at the national level. The provisions of the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances, being largely a result of international compromise, are not designed in the best possible way to prevent the diversion of psychotropic substances from legal sources to illicit channels. There are no appropriate provisions for the control and monitoring of international transactions. There is a discrepancy between the rather limited scope of international control of substances listed in schedules III and IV of the 1971 Convention and the much larger scope of control of hypnotics, sedatives and tranquillizers at national levels. The provisions of the 1971 Convention, however, constitute a legal basis for bilateral and multilateral actions for the detection of suspected diversion cases, and offer possibilities of promoting the prevention of diversion of psychotropic substances. At present, the relationship between the control of psychotropic drugs, including the prevention of diversion and the organization of the national drug supply system, as well as the efficacy of national control over pharmaceutical products, has not been fully recognized by the international community. PMID:6563923

  14. Ecological prevalence, genetic diversity, and epidemiological aspects of Salmonella isolated from tomato agricultural regions of the Virginia Eastern Shore

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Rebecca L.; Zheng, Jie; Burrows, Erik; Allard, Sarah; Wang, Charles Y.; Keys, Christine E.; Melka, David C.; Strain, Errol; Luo, Yan; Allard, Marc W.; Rideout, Steven; Brown, Eric W.

    2015-01-01

    Virginia is the third largest producer of fresh-market tomatoes in the United States. Tomatoes grown along the eastern shore of Virginia are implicated almost yearly in Salmonella illnesses. Traceback implicates contamination occurring in the pre-harvest environment. To get a better understanding of the ecological niches of Salmonella in the tomato agricultural environment, a 2-year study was undertaken at a regional agricultural research farm in Virginia. Environmental samples, including tomato (fruit, blossoms, and leaves), irrigation water, surface water and sediment, were collected over the growing season. These samples were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella using modified FDA-BAM methods. Molecular assays were used to screen the samples. Over 1500 samples were tested. Seventy-five samples tested positive for Salmonella yielding over 230 isolates. The most commonly isolated serovars were S. Newport and S. Javiana with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis yielding 39 different patterns. Genetic diversity was further underscored among many other serotypes, which showed multiple PFGE subtypes. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) of several S. Newport isolates collected in 2010 compared to clinical isolates associated with tomato consumption showed very few single nucleotide differences between environmental isolates and clinical isolates suggesting a source link to Salmonella contaminated tomatoes. Nearly all isolates collected during two growing seasons of surveillance were obtained from surface water and sediment sources pointing to these sites as long-term reservoirs for persistent and endemic contamination of this environment. PMID:25999938

  15. Evaluating controls on the aspect dependence of earthflows in the central California Coast Ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nereson, A. L.; Finnegan, N. J.; Booth, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    Earthflows are an important mass-wasting process in many mountainous landscapes. In addition to radically changing the fabric of the landscape and damaging man-made infrastructure, earthflows deliver, for their area, a disproportionately large sediment load to rivers. In California, earthflows are typically restricted to clay-rich and mechanically-weak lithologies, such as the Franciscan mélange. In addition, several studies have observed that earthflows in California favor south-facing slopes, even in settings with spatially-uniform lithology. This fundamental observation remains largely unexplained under the current understanding of earthflow behavior. Here, we evaluate the controls on the aspect dependence of earthflows in the Alameda Creek watershed near Fremont, California, where many large, but relatively inactive earthflows are observed in the Franciscan mélange. We first apply spectral analysis to LiDAR-derived digital elevation models to objectively map the topographic signature of landslides and determine the degree of aspect dependence. We then explore several hypotheses that can explain our observation that earthflows tend to form on south-facing slopes, including: (1) lack of dense vegetation and trees with slope-stabilizing root systems on south-facing slopes; (2) higher pore fluid pressures due to relatively lower rates of evapotranspiration on sparsely vegetated south-facing slopes; (3) increased dessication and/or deformation cracking on south-facing earthflow surfaces, creating fast-flow pathways into the interior of landslides.

  16. Plant diversity effects on ecosystem evapotranspiration and carbon uptake: a controlled environment (Ecotron) and modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milcu, Alexandru; Roy, Jacques

    2016-04-01

    Effects of species and functional diversity of plants on ecosystem evapotranspiration and carbon fluxes have been rarely assessed simultaneously. Here we present the results from an experiment that combined a lysimeter setup in a controlled environment facility (Ecotron) with large ecosystem samples/ monoliths originating from a long-term biodiversity experiment ("The Jena Experiment") and a modelling approach. We aimed at (1) quantifying the impact of plant species richness (4 vs. 16 species) on day- and night-time ecosystem water vapor fluxes and carbon uptake, (2) partitioning ecosystem evapotranspiration into evaporation and plant transpiration using the Shuttleworth and Wallace (SW) energy partitioning model, and (3) identifying the most parsimonious predictors of water vapor vapor and CO2 fluxes using plant functional trait-based metrics such as functional diversity and community weighted means. The SW model indicated that at low plant species richness, a higher proportion of the available energy was diverted to evaporation (a non-productive flux), while at higher species richness the proportion of ecosystem transpiration (a production-related water flux) increased. This led to an increased carbon gain per amount of water vapor loss (i.e. increased water use efficiency). While the LAI controlled the carbon and water fluxes, we also found that the diversity of plant functional traits, and in particular of leaf nitrogen concentration are potential important predictors of ecosystem transpiration and carbon uptake and consequently significantly contributed to increase in water use efficiency in communities with higher plant diversity.

  17. Aspects regarding at 13C isotope separation column control using Petri nets system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boca, M. L.; Ciortea, M. E.

    2015-11-01

    This paper is intended to show that Petri nets can be also applicable in the chemical industry. It used linear programming, modeling underlying Petri nets, especially discrete event systems for isotopic separation, the purpose of considering and control events in real-time through graphical representations. In this paper it is simulate the control of 13C Isotope Separation column using Petri nets. The major problem with 13C comes from the difficulty of obtaining it and raising its natural fraction. Carbon isotopes can be obtained using many methods, one of them being the cryogenic distillation of carbon monoxide. Some few aspects regarding operating conditions and the construction of such cryogenic plants are known today, and even less information are available as far as the separation process modeling and control are concerned. In fact, the efficient control of the carbon monoxide distillation process represents a necessity for large-scale 13C production. Referring to a classic distillation process, some models for carbon isotope separation have been proposed, some based on mass, component and energy balance equations, some on the nonlinear wave theory or the Cohen equations. For modeling the system it was used Petri nets because in this case it is deal with discrete event systems. In use of the non-timed and with auxiliary times Petri model, the transport stream was divided into sections and these sections will be analyzed successively. Because of the complexity of the system and the large amount of calculations required it was not possible to analyze the system as a unitary whole. A first attempt to model the system as a unitary whole led to the blocking of the model during simulation, because of the large processing times.

  18. Solid and Aqueous Geochemical Controls on Phylogenetic Diversity and Abundance of Microbial Biofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. A.; Bennett, P. C.

    2015-12-01

    In the subsurface, the vast majority of microorganisms are found in biofilms attached to mineral surfaces. The fickle nature of these environments (chemically and physically) likely causes dynamic ecological shifts in these microbial communities. We used laboratory biofilm reactors (inoculated with a diverse subsurface community) to explore the role of mineralogy as part of a microbe-mineral-water ecosystem under variable pressures (mineralogy, pH, carbon, phosphate). Following multivariate analyses, pH was identified as the key physicochemical property associated with variation in both phylogenetic and taxonomic diversity as well as overall community structure (P<0.05). In particular, the ability of minerals, media, or a combination of the two to buffer metabolically generated acidity impacted community structure under oligotrophic and eutrophic conditions. Additionally, we found that media phosphate limitations were significantly correlated to greater biofilm accumulation (P<0.002), but lower species richness (P<0.001) and Shannon diversity (P<0.001); while mineral-bound phosphate limitations were significantly correlated to lesser biofilm accumulation (P<0.05) but not to species richness or diversity. Carbon (as acetate, lactate, or formate) added to the media was correlated with a significant increase in biofilm accumulation (P<0.04), and overall Shannon diversity (P<0.006), but not significantly correlated with overall species richness. Although variable in magnitude, the effect of surface chemistry on microbial diversity (both phylogenetic and taxonomic) was statistically significant, in all reactors, regardless of environmental pressures. Phylogenetically, surface type (carbonate, silicate, or Al-silicate) controlled ~70-90%, meaning that organisms attached to similar surfaces were significantly more genetically similar. Taxonomy and proportional abundance was significantly sensitive to variations in media chemistry with consistent patterns emerging among

  19. Cellulosic fibers with high aspect ratio from cornhusks via controlled swelling and alkaline penetration.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhuanzhuan; Pan, Gangwei; Xu, Helan; Huang, Yiling; Yang, Yiqi

    2015-06-25

    Cellulosic fibers with high aspect ratio have been firstly obtained from cornhusks via controlled swelling in organic solvent and simultaneous tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAOH) post treatment within restricted depth. Cornhusks, with around 42% cellulose content, are a copious and inexpensive source for natural fibers. However, cornhusk fibers at 20tex obtained via small-molecule alkaline extraction were too coarse for textile applications. Continuous NaOH treatment would result in fine fibers but with length of about 0.5-1.5mm, too short for textile use. In this research, post treatment using TMAOH and under controlled swelling significantly reduced fineness of cornhusk fibers from 21.3±2.88 to 5.72±0.21tex. Fiber length was reduced from 105.47±10.03 to47.2±27.4mm. The cornhusk fibers had more oriented microstructures and cellulose content increased to 84.47%. Besides, cornhusk fibers had similar tenacity, longer elongation, and lower modulus compared to cotton and linen, which endowed them with durability and flexibility. PMID:25839793

  20. Adaptive AFM scan speed control for high aspect ratio fast structure tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, Ahmad; Schuh, Andreas; Rangelow, Ivo W.

    2014-10-15

    Improved imaging rates in Atomic Force Microscopes (AFM) are of high interest for disciplines such as life sciences and failure analysis of semiconductor wafers, where the sample topology shows high aspect ratios. Also, fast imaging is necessary to cover a large surface under investigation in reasonable times. Since AFMs are composed of mechanical components, they are associated with comparably low resonance frequencies that undermine the effort to increase the acquisition rates. In particular, high and steep structures are difficult to follow, which causes the cantilever to temporarily loose contact to or crash into the sample. Here, we report on a novel approach that does not affect the scanner dynamics, but adapts the lateral scanning speed of the scanner. The controller monitors the control error signal and, only when necessary, decreases the scan speed to allow the z-piezo more time to react to changes in the sample's topography. In this case, the overall imaging rate can be significantly increased, because a general scan speed trade-off decision is not needed and smooth areas are scanned fast. In contrast to methods trying to increase the z-piezo bandwidth, our method is a comparably simple approach that can be easily adapted to standard systems.

  1. The CERN antiproton source: Controls aspects of the additional collector ring and fast sampling devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chohan, V.

    1990-08-01

    The upgrade of the CERN antiproton source, meant to gain an order of magnitude in antiproton flux, required the construction of an additional ring to complement the existing antiproton accumulator (AA) and an entire rebuild of the target zone. The AA also needed major modifications to handle the increased flux and perform purely as an accumulator, preceded by collection in the collector ring (AC). The upgrade, known as the ACOL (antiproton collector) project, was approved under strict time and budgetary constraints and the existing AA control system, based on the Proton Synchrotron (PS) Divisional norms of CAMAC and Norsk-Data computers, had to be extended in the light of this. The limited (9 months) installation period for the whole upgrade meant that substantial preparatory and planning activities had to be carried out during the normal running of the AA. Advantage was taken of the upgrade to improve and consolidate the AA. Some aspects of the control system related to this upgrade are discussed together with the integration of new applications and instrumentation. The overall machine installation and running-in was carried out within the defined milestones and the project has now achieved the physics design goals.

  2. Using Opposing Slope Aspects to Understand Water and Energy Flow Controls on Critical Zone Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, S. P.; Barnhart, K. R.; Kelly, P. K.; Foster, M. A.; Langston, A. L.

    2014-12-01

    A long-standing problem is to understand how climate controls the structure of the critical zone, including the depth of weathering, thickness and character of soils, and morphology of hillslopes. We exploit microclimates on opposing aspects in a watershed in the Boulder Creek CZO to investigate the role of water and energy fluxes on development of critical zone architectures. The 2.6 km2 Gordon Gulch, located at ~2500 m a.s.l. at 40°N latitude, is elongated east-west, and consequently is predominantly composed of north and south-facing soil-mantled slopes, dotted with tors, developed on Precambrian gneiss. The depth to fresh rock ranges from about 8 to 12 m, and is up to 2 m deeper on north-facing slopes. In addition to greater thickness, weathered rock is measurably lower in tensile strength on north-facing slopes. While characteristics of weathered rock vary with aspect, the overlying mobile regolith is relatively uniform in thickness at ~0.5 m across the catchment, and its mineralogy shows only minor chemical alteration from parent rock. These features of the critical zone architecture arise in the face of systematic differences in energy and water delivery by aspect. About 40-50% of the ~500 mm annual precipitation is delivered as snow. During spring, the south-facing slopes receive up to 50% greater direct solar radiation than the north-facing slopes. Consequently, snow cover is ephemeral in the open Ponderosa forests on south-facing slopes, and soil wetting and drying events are frequent. Frost penetration is shallow, and short lived. On north-facing slopes, less direct radiation and a dense Lodgepole pine forest cover leads to snowpack retention. Soils are colder and soil moisture stays elevated for long periods in spring on these slopes. We postulate that deeper and more sustained frost penetration on north-facing slopes enhances the damage rate by frost cracking. Deeper water delivery further aids this process, and supports chemical alteration processes

  3. Farm management, not soil microbial diversity, controls nutrient loss from smallholder tropical agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Stephen A.; Almaraz, Maya; Bradford, Mark A.; McGuire, Krista L.; Naeem, Shahid; Neill, Christopher; Palm, Cheryl A.; Tully, Katherine L.; Zhou, Jizhong

    2015-01-01

    Tropical smallholder agriculture is undergoing rapid transformation in nutrient cycling pathways as international development efforts strongly promote greater use of mineral fertilizers to increase crop yields. These changes in nutrient availability may alter the composition of microbial communities with consequences for rates of biogeochemical processes that control nutrient losses to the environment. Ecological theory suggests that altered microbial diversity will strongly influence processes performed by relatively few microbial taxa, such as denitrification and hence nitrogen losses as nitrous oxide, a powerful greenhouse gas. Whether this theory helps predict nutrient losses from agriculture depends on the relative effects of microbial community change and increased nutrient availability on ecosystem processes. We find that mineral and organic nutrient addition to smallholder farms in Kenya alters the taxonomic and functional diversity of soil microbes. However, we find that the direct effects of farm management on both denitrification and carbon mineralization are greater than indirect effects through changes in the taxonomic and functional diversity of microbial communities. Changes in functional diversity are strongly coupled to changes in specific functional genes involved in denitrification, suggesting that it is the expression, rather than abundance, of key functional genes that can serve as an indicator of ecosystem process rates. Our results thus suggest that widely used broad summary statistics of microbial diversity based on DNA may be inappropriate for linking microbial communities to ecosystem processes in certain applied settings. Our results also raise doubts about the relative control of microbial composition compared to direct effects of management on nutrient losses in applied settings such as tropical agriculture. PMID:25926815

  4. Farm management, not soil microbial diversity, controls nutrient loss from smallholder tropical agriculture.

    PubMed

    Wood, Stephen A; Almaraz, Maya; Bradford, Mark A; McGuire, Krista L; Naeem, Shahid; Neill, Christopher; Palm, Cheryl A; Tully, Katherine L; Zhou, Jizhong

    2015-01-01

    Tropical smallholder agriculture is undergoing rapid transformation in nutrient cycling pathways as international development efforts strongly promote greater use of mineral fertilizers to increase crop yields. These changes in nutrient availability may alter the composition of microbial communities with consequences for rates of biogeochemical processes that control nutrient losses to the environment. Ecological theory suggests that altered microbial diversity will strongly influence processes performed by relatively few microbial taxa, such as denitrification and hence nitrogen losses as nitrous oxide, a powerful greenhouse gas. Whether this theory helps predict nutrient losses from agriculture depends on the relative effects of microbial community change and increased nutrient availability on ecosystem processes. We find that mineral and organic nutrient addition to smallholder farms in Kenya alters the taxonomic and functional diversity of soil microbes. However, we find that the direct effects of farm management on both denitrification and carbon mineralization are greater than indirect effects through changes in the taxonomic and functional diversity of microbial communities. Changes in functional diversity are strongly coupled to changes in specific functional genes involved in denitrification, suggesting that it is the expression, rather than abundance, of key functional genes that can serve as an indicator of ecosystem process rates. Our results thus suggest that widely used broad summary statistics of microbial diversity based on DNA may be inappropriate for linking microbial communities to ecosystem processes in certain applied settings. Our results also raise doubts about the relative control of microbial composition compared to direct effects of management on nutrient losses in applied settings such as tropical agriculture. PMID:25926815

  5. Treg Cells, Life History, and Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Benoist, Christophe; Mathis, Diane

    2012-01-01

    Regulatory T cells expressing the FoxP3 transcription factor have a profound and nonredundant role in several aspects of immunological tolerance. We will review here the specification of this lineage, its population dynamics, and the diversity of subphenotypes that correlate with their diverse roles in controlling inflammation in a variety of settings. PMID:22952391

  6. Structure of mitochondrial DNA control region and genetic diversity of Moschus berezovskii populations in Shaanxi Province.

    PubMed

    Feng, H; Feng, C L; Huang, Y; Tang, J

    2016-01-01

    In China, Moschus berezovskii (forest musk deer), a first-class national protected animal, was earlier widely distributed. However, wild populations of the forest musk deer have declined because of human activity and habitat loss. In order to gather useful information for its conservation and management, we investigated the genetic diversity and population structure of this species by analyzing a 632-bp fragment of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region in three wild populations in Shaanxi Province, China. The average A+T content (64.1%) of mtDNA was higher than that of G+C (35.9%). A total of 178 variable sites (about 28.03% of the total nucleotides in the sequence) were detected in 71 individuals. The nucleotide diversity (PI) in the 71 individuals was 0.04688, and the average nucleotide differences (K) were 21.238. The 71 individuals belonged to 33 haplotypes according to the determined sequences. The average genetic distance (P) among the haplotypes of the species was 0.169. The phylogenetic tree constructed using the neighbor-joining method revealed that these individuals were clustered into three groups, but the individual distribution in those groups was disordered. These data indicated the variation and rich genetic diversity in the three populations of M. berezovskii. Compared to the wild population in Longxian, those in Liuba and Fengxian had a close kinship. The present results indicated no signs of inbreeding or a decline in genetic diversity in the wild M. berezovskii population. PMID:27173215

  7. Predator diversity stabilizes and strengthens trophic control of a keystone grazer.

    PubMed

    Griffin, John N; Silliman, Brian R

    2011-02-23

    Despite the global vulnerability of predators to extinction, and the critical functional role they play in many ecosystems, there have been few realistic tests of the consequences of predator species deletion (conversely, predator diversity) in natural ecosystems. We performed a four-month field experiment in a southeastern United States salt marsh to test the role of predatory crab diversity in regulating populations of a keystone grazer that can decimate marsh vegetation at high densities. Our results revealed that a combination of this system's two resident predator species, in comparison to individual species, both stabilize and strengthen predation rates on the potent grazer. Monthly monitoring of predation rates from intense, hot summer months into the cooler autumn indicate this diversity benefit arises from predators responding differentially to changing environmental conditions across seasons. This study provides some of the first experimental field support for the insurance hypothesis from marine ecosystems, suggests that predator temporal complementarity may be more common than currently perceived, and argues for conservation of predator diversity to ensure reliable and effective control of potentially habitat-destroying grazers. PMID:20739314

  8. Microbial mat controls on infaunal abundance and diversity in modern marine microbialites.

    PubMed

    Tarhan, L G; Planavsky, N J; Laumer, C E; Stolz, J F; Reid, R P

    2013-09-01

    Microbialites are the most abundant macrofossils of the Precambrian. Decline in microbialite abundance and diversity during the terminal Proterozoic and early Phanerozoic has historically been attributed to the concurrent radiation of complex metazoans. Similarly, the apparent resurgence of microbialites in the wake of Paleozoic and Mesozoic mass extinctions is frequently linked to drastic declines in metazoan diversity and abundance. However, it has become increasing clear that microbialites are relatively common in certain modern shallow, normal marine carbonate environments-foremost the Bahamas. For the first time, we present data, collected from the Exuma Cays, the Bahamas, systematically characterizing the relationship between framework-building cyanobacteria, microbialite fabrics, and microbialite-associated metazoan abundance and diversity. We document the coexistence of diverse microbialite and infaunal metazoan communities and demonstrate that the predominant control upon both microbialite fabric and metazoan community structure is microbial mat type. These findings necessitate that we rethink prevalent interpretations of microbialite-metazoan interactions and imply that microbialites are not passive recipients of metazoan-mediated alteration. Additionally, this work provides support for the theory that certain Precambrian microbialites may have been havens of early complex metazoan life, rather than bereft of metazoans, as has been traditionally envisaged. PMID:23889904

  9. Increasing zooplankton size diversity enhances the strength of top-down control on phytoplankton through diet niche partitioning.

    PubMed

    Ye, Lin; Chang, Chun-Yi; García-Comas, Carmen; Gong, Gwo-Ching; Hsieh, Chih-Hao

    2013-09-01

    1. The biodiversity-ecosystem functioning debate is a central topic in ecology. Recently, there has been a growing interest in size diversity because body size is sensitive to environmental changes and is one of the fundamental characteristics of organisms linking many ecosystem properties. However, how size diversity affects ecosystem functioning is an important yet unclear issue. 2. To fill the gap, with large-scale field data from the East China Sea, we tested the novel hypothesis that increasing zooplankton size diversity enhances top-down control on phytoplankton (H1) and compared it with five conventional hypotheses explaining the top-down control: flatter zooplankton size spectrum enhances the strength of top-down control (H2); nutrient enrichment lessens the strength of top-down control (H3); increasing zooplankton taxonomic diversity enhances the strength of top-down control (H4); increasing fish predation decreases the strength of top-down control of zooplankton on phytoplankton through trophic cascade (H5); increasing temperature intensifies the strength of top-down control (H6). 3. The results of univariate analyses support the hypotheses based on zooplankton size diversity (H1), zooplankton size spectrum (H2), nutrient (H3) and zooplankton taxonomic diversity (H4), but not the hypotheses based on fish predation (H5) and temperature (H6). More in-depth analyses indicate that zooplankton size diversity is the most important factor in determining the strength of top-down control on phytoplankton in the East China Sea. 4. Our results suggest a new potential mechanism that increasing predator size diversity enhances the strength of top-down control on prey through diet niche partitioning. This mechanism can be explained by the optimal predator-prey body-mass ratio concept. Suppose each size group of zooplankton predators has its own optimal phytoplankton prey size, increasing size diversity of zooplankton would promote diet niche partitioning of predators

  10. Physicochemical control of bacterial and protist community composition and diversity in Antarctic sea ice.

    PubMed

    Torstensson, Anders; Dinasquet, Julie; Chierici, Melissa; Fransson, Agneta; Riemann, Lasse; Wulff, Angela

    2015-10-01

    Due to climate change, sea ice experiences changes in terms of extent and physical properties. In order to understand how sea ice microbial communities are affected by changes in physicochemical properties of the ice, we used 454-sequencing of 16S and 18S rRNA genes to examine environmental control of microbial diversity and composition in Antarctic sea ice. We observed a high diversity and richness of bacteria, which were strongly negatively correlated with temperature and positively with brine salinity. We suggest that bacterial diversity in sea ice is mainly controlled by physicochemical properties of the ice, such as temperature and salinity, and that sea ice bacterial communities are sensitive to seasonal and environmental changes. For the first time in Antarctic interior sea ice, we observed a strong eukaryotic dominance of the dinoflagellate phylotype SL163A10, comprising 63% of the total sequences. This phylotype is known to be kleptoplastic and could be a significant primary producer in sea ice. We conclude that mixotrophic flagellates may play a greater role in the sea ice microbial ecosystem than previously believed, and not only during the polar night but also during summer when potential food sources are abundant. PMID:25845501

  11. RHOA and PRKCZ control different aspects of cell motility in pancreatic cancer metastatic clones

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Our understanding of the mechanism regulating pancreatic cancer metastatic phenotype is limited. We analyzed the role of RHOA and PRKCZ in the motility attitude of two subclones of the pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line SUIT-2 (S2), with different in vivo metastatic potential in nude mice: S2-m with a low metastatic potential and highly metastatic S2-CP9 using RHOA and PRKCZ cell-permeable inhibitory peptides. Methods Adhesion assays, cell permeable peptides, RHOA activity assay, western blotting Results When used in combination cell-permeable inhibitory peptides partially inhibited cell adhesion by about 50% in clone S2-CP9. In clone S2-m, the effect was limited to 15% inhibition. In a wound healing assay, S2-CP9 was sensitive only to treatment with the combination of both RHOA and PRKCZ inhibitory peptides. Conversely, S2-m was unable to migrate toward both ends of the wound in basal conditions. Migration of cells through a membrane with 8 μm pores was completely abolished in both clones by individual treatment with RHOA and PRKCZ inhibitory peptides. Conclusion Herein, we demonstrate a critical role for RHOA and PRKCZ in the regulation of different aspects of cell motility of pancreatic adenocarcinoma and demonstrate the need to inhibit both pathways to obtain a functionally relevant effect in most assays. These results indicate that RHOA and PRKCZ, and their downstream effectors, can represent important pharmacological targets that could potentially control the highly metastatic attitude of PDAC. PMID:20236512

  12. Psychological aspects and coping in haemophilic patients: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Canclini, M; Saviolo-Negrin, N; Zanon, E; Bertoletti, R; Girolami, A; Pagnan, A

    2003-09-01

    Although enormous progress has been made in recent years in the field of haemophilia, some problems still await solution, such as the risk of sudden haemorrhage, the sequelae of haemophilic arthropathy and social activities. We, therefore, carried out a case-control study in which some psychological dimensions (social expectations, tendency to depression, state of anxiety and self-esteem) were evaluated in a group of 60 haemophiliacs. A control group was formed of 78 healthy subjects matched for age, socio-economic class and level of education. The methodology used was the administration of self-assessment questionnaires which investigate and provide a quantitative measure of psychological dimensions. The results can be subjected to statistical analysis. Three self-assessment questionnaires were used: (i) the Marlowe-Crowne scale, (ii) the Beck Inventory version modified by Cusinato and (iii) the S.T.A.I.-form. Our aim was to evaluate: (i) whether there are significant differences in the considered psychological aspects between haemophiliacs and healthy subjects; (ii) whether there is a significant correlation between the psychological dimensions considered in the haemophiliacs and in the healthy subjects. The results showed that the haemophiliacs have a good psychological adaptation to their disease with the exception of their greater tendency to have less self-esteem than do the healthy subjects. As far as concerns the second aim, we found than self-esteem correlated with all the psychological variables investigated. This information could indicate the enormous importance that the psychological variable 'self-esteem' plays in haemophiliacs with respect to whether or not they develop depressive disorders and/or anxiety states. PMID:14511304

  13. Modular riboswitch toolsets for synthetic genetic control in diverse bacterial species.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Christopher J; Vincent, Helen A; Wu, Ming-Cheng; Lowe, Phillip T; Dunstan, Mark S; Leys, David; Micklefield, Jason

    2014-07-30

    Ligand-dependent control of gene expression is essential for gene functional analysis, target validation, protein production, and metabolic engineering. However, the expression tools currently available are difficult to transfer between species and exhibit limited mechanistic diversity. Here we demonstrate how the modular architecture of purine riboswitches can be exploited to develop orthogonal and chimeric switches that are transferable across diverse bacterial species, modulating either transcription or translation, to provide tunable activation or repression of target gene expression, in response to synthetic non-natural effector molecules. Our novel riboswitch-ligand pairings are shown to regulate physiologically important genes required for bacterial motility in Escherichia coli and cell morphology in Bacillus subtilis. These findings are relevant for future gene function studies and antimicrobial target validation, while providing new modular and orthogonal regulatory components for deployment in synthetic biology regimes. PMID:24971878

  14. Cyber-physical geographical information service-enabled control of diverse in-situ sensors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nengcheng; Xiao, Changjiang; Pu, Fangling; Wang, Xiaolei; Wang, Chao; Wang, Zhili; Gong, Jianya

    2015-01-01

    Realization of open online control of diverse in-situ sensors is a challenge. This paper proposes a Cyber-Physical Geographical Information Service-enabled method for control of diverse in-situ sensors, based on location-based instant sensing of sensors, which provides closed-loop feedbacks. The method adopts the concepts and technologies of newly developed cyber-physical systems (CPSs) to combine control with sensing, communication, and computation, takes advantage of geographical information service such as services provided by the Tianditu which is a basic geographic information service platform in China and Sensor Web services to establish geo-sensor applications, and builds well-designed human-machine interfaces (HMIs) to support online and open interactions between human beings and physical sensors through cyberspace. The method was tested with experiments carried out in two geographically distributed scientific experimental fields, Baoxie Sensor Web Experimental Field in Wuhan city and Yemaomian Landslide Monitoring Station in Three Gorges, with three typical sensors chosen as representatives using the prototype system Geospatial Sensor Web Common Service Platform. The results show that the proposed method is an open, online, closed-loop means of control. PMID:25625906

  15. Cyber-Physical Geographical Information Service-Enabled Control of Diverse In-Situ Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Nengcheng; Xiao, Changjiang; Pu, Fangling; Wang, Xiaolei; Wang, Chao; Wang, Zhili; Gong, Jianya

    2015-01-01

    Realization of open online control of diverse in-situ sensors is a challenge. This paper proposes a Cyber-Physical Geographical Information Service-enabled method for control of diverse in-situ sensors, based on location-based instant sensing of sensors, which provides closed-loop feedbacks. The method adopts the concepts and technologies of newly developed cyber-physical systems (CPSs) to combine control with sensing, communication, and computation, takes advantage of geographical information service such as services provided by the Tianditu which is a basic geographic information service platform in China and Sensor Web services to establish geo-sensor applications, and builds well-designed human-machine interfaces (HMIs) to support online and open interactions between human beings and physical sensors through cyberspace. The method was tested with experiments carried out in two geographically distributed scientific experimental fields, Baoxie Sensor Web Experimental Field in Wuhan city and Yemaomian Landslide Monitoring Station in Three Gorges, with three typical sensors chosen as representatives using the prototype system Geospatial Sensor Web Common Service Platform. The results show that the proposed method is an open, online, closed-loop means of control. PMID:25625906

  16. Bloat control operators and diversity in genetic programming: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Alfaro-Cid, E; Merelo, J J; Fernández de Vega, F; Esparcia-Alcázar, A I; Sharman, K

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a comparison of several bloat control methods and also evaluates a recent proposal for limiting the size of the individuals: a genetic operator called prune and plant. The aim of this work is to test the adequacy of this method. Since a preliminary study of the method has already shown promising results, we have performed a thorough study in a set of benchmark problems aiming at demonstrating the utility of the new approach. Prune and plant has obtained results that maintain the quality of the final solutions in terms of fitness while achieving a substantial reduction of the mean tree size in all four problem domains considered. In addition, in one of these problem domains, prune and plant has demonstrated to be better in terms of fitness, size reduction, and time consumption than any of the other bloat control techniques under comparison. The experimental part of the study presents a comparison of performance in terms of phenotypic and genotypic diversity. This comparison study can provide the practitioner with some relevant clues as to which bloat control method is better suited to a particular problem and whether the advantage of a method does or does not derive from its influence on the genetic pool diversity. PMID:20210598

  17. Maternal and perinatal aspects of birth defects: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Nhoncanse, Geiza César; Germano, Carla Maria R.; de Avó, Lucimar Retto da S.; Melo, Débora Gusmão

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence of congenital defects and to investigate their maternal and perinatal associated aspects by reviewing Birth Certificates. Methods: Among all born alive infants from January 2003 to December 2007 in Maternidade da Santa Casa de Misericórdia of São Carlos, Southeast Brazil (12,199 infants), cases were identified as the newborns whose Birth Certificates registered any congenital defect. The same sex neonate born immediately after the case was chosen as a control. In total, 13 variables were analyzed: six were maternal related, three represented labor and delivery conditions and four were linked to fetal status. The chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used to compare the variables, being significant p<0.05. Results: The prevalence of congenital defects was 0.38% and the association of two or more defects represented 32% of all cases. The number of mothers whose education level was equal or less than eight years was significantly higher among the group with birth defects (p=0.047). A higher frequency of prematurity (p<0.001) and cesarean delivery (p=0.004) was observed among children with birth defects. This group also showed lower birth weight and Apgar scores in the 1st and the 5th minute (p<0.001). Conclusions: The prevalence of congenital defect of 0.38% is possibly due to underreporting. The defects notified in the Birth Certificates were only the most visible ones, regardless of their severity. There is a need of adequate epidemiological monitoring of birth defects in order to create and expand prevention and treatment programs. PMID:24676186

  18. Response of pest control by generalist predators to local-scale plant diversity: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Dassou, Anicet Gbèblonoudo; Tixier, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    Disentangling the effects of plant diversity on the control of herbivores is important for understanding agricultural sustainability. Recent studies have investigated the relationships between plant diversity and arthropod communities at the landscape scale, but few have done so at the local scale. We conducted a meta-analysis of 32 papers containing 175 independent measures of the relationship between plant diversity and arthropod communities. We found that generalist predators had a strong positive response to plant diversity, that is, their abundance increased as plant diversity increased. Herbivores, in contrast, had an overall weak and negative response to plant diversity. However, specialist and generalist herbivores differed in their response to plant diversity, that is, the response was negative for specialists and not significant for generalists. While the effects of scale remain unclear, the response to plant diversity tended to increase for specialist herbivores, but decrease for generalist herbivores as the scale increased. There was no clear effect of scale on the response of generalist predators to plant diversity. Our results suggest that the response of herbivores to plant diversity at the local scale is a balance between habitat and trophic effects that vary according to arthropod specialization and habitat type. Synthesis and applications. Positive effects of plant diversity on generalist predators confirm that, at the local scale, plant diversification of agroecosystems is a credible and promising option for increasing pest regulation. Results from our meta-analysis suggest that natural control in plant-diversified systems is more likely to occur for specialist than for generalist herbivores. In terms of pest management, our results indicate that small-scale plant diversification (via the planting of cover crops or intercrops and reduced weed management) is likely to increase the control of specialist herbivores by generalist predators. PMID

  19. Aspects of black-fly control and entomology in the New World in relation to the Simulium problem in Nigeria*

    PubMed Central

    Crosskey, R. W.

    1959-01-01

    A general account is given of insecticidal control of black-flies in North and Central America, and the problems are contrasted with those arising in the control of Simulium damnosum Theo. in Nigeria. Some recent biological observations on Canadian black-flies are described, and it is emphasized that these have materially contributed to successful control. It is pointed out that S. damnosum control is being practised in the absence of much fundamental biological knowledge of this pest. Entomological aspects of onchocerciasis in Mexico and Guatemala are discussed, and compared with S. damnosum and its relationship to onchocerciasis in Nigeria. PMID:13813021

  20. Composition, taxonomy and functional diversity of the oropharynx microbiome in individuals with schizophrenia and controls

    PubMed Central

    Bendall, Matthew L.; Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Sabuncyan, Sarven; Severance, Emily G.; Dickerson, Faith B.; Schroeder, Jennifer R.; Yolken, Robert H.; Crandall, Keith A.

    2015-01-01

    The role of the human microbiome in schizophrenia remains largely unexplored. The microbiome has been shown to alter brain development and modulate behavior and cognition in animals through gut-brain connections, and research in humans suggests that it may be a modulating factor in many disorders. This study reports findings from a shotgun metagenomic analysis of the oropharyngeal microbiome in 16 individuals with schizophrenia and 16 controls. High-level differences were evident at both the phylum and genus levels, with Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria dominating both schizophrenia patients and controls, and Ascomycota being more abundant in schizophrenia patients than controls. Controls were richer in species but less even in their distributions, i.e., dominated by fewer species, as opposed to schizophrenia patients. Lactic acid bacteria were relatively more abundant in schizophrenia, including species of Lactobacilli and Bifidobacterium, which have been shown to modulate chronic inflammation. We also found Eubacterium halii, a lactate-utilizing species. Functionally, the microbiome of schizophrenia patients was characterized by an increased number of metabolic pathways related to metabolite transport systems including siderophores, glutamate, and vitamin B12. In contrast, carbohydrate and lipid pathways and energy metabolism were abundant in controls. These findings suggest that the oropharyngeal microbiome in individuals with schizophrenia is significantly different compared to controls, and that particular microbial species and metabolic pathways differentiate both groups. Confirmation of these findings in larger and more diverse samples, e.g., gut microbiome, will contribute to elucidating potential links between schizophrenia and the human microbiota. PMID:26336637

  1. Composition, taxonomy and functional diversity of the oropharynx microbiome in individuals with schizophrenia and controls.

    PubMed

    Castro-Nallar, Eduardo; Bendall, Matthew L; Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Sabuncyan, Sarven; Severance, Emily G; Dickerson, Faith B; Schroeder, Jennifer R; Yolken, Robert H; Crandall, Keith A

    2015-01-01

    The role of the human microbiome in schizophrenia remains largely unexplored. The microbiome has been shown to alter brain development and modulate behavior and cognition in animals through gut-brain connections, and research in humans suggests that it may be a modulating factor in many disorders. This study reports findings from a shotgun metagenomic analysis of the oropharyngeal microbiome in 16 individuals with schizophrenia and 16 controls. High-level differences were evident at both the phylum and genus levels, with Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria dominating both schizophrenia patients and controls, and Ascomycota being more abundant in schizophrenia patients than controls. Controls were richer in species but less even in their distributions, i.e., dominated by fewer species, as opposed to schizophrenia patients. Lactic acid bacteria were relatively more abundant in schizophrenia, including species of Lactobacilli and Bifidobacterium, which have been shown to modulate chronic inflammation. We also found Eubacterium halii, a lactate-utilizing species. Functionally, the microbiome of schizophrenia patients was characterized by an increased number of metabolic pathways related to metabolite transport systems including siderophores, glutamate, and vitamin B12. In contrast, carbohydrate and lipid pathways and energy metabolism were abundant in controls. These findings suggest that the oropharyngeal microbiome in individuals with schizophrenia is significantly different compared to controls, and that particular microbial species and metabolic pathways differentiate both groups. Confirmation of these findings in larger and more diverse samples, e.g., gut microbiome, will contribute to elucidating potential links between schizophrenia and the human microbiota. PMID:26336637

  2. Single-shot high aspect ratio bulk nanostructuring of fused silica using chirp-controlled ultrafast laser Bessel beams

    SciTech Connect

    Bhuyan, M. K.; Velpula, P. K.; Colombier, J. P.; Olivier, T.; Faure, N.; Stoian, R.

    2014-01-13

    We report single-shot, high aspect ratio nanovoid fabrication in bulk fused silica using zeroth order chirp-controlled ultrafast laser Bessel beams. We identify a unique laser pulse length and energy dependence of the physical characteristics of machined structures over which nanovoids of diameter in the range 200–400 nm and aspect ratios exceeding 1000 can be fabricated. A mechanism based on the axial energy deposition of nonlinear ultrashort Bessel beams and subsequent material densification or rarefaction in fused silica is proposed, intricating the non-diffractive nature with the diffusing character of laser-generated free carriers. Fluid flow through nanochannel is also demonstrated.

  3. Mitochondrial DNA control region of three mackerels, genus Rastrelliger: structure, molecular diversity and phylogenetic relationship.

    PubMed

    Jondeung, Amnuay; Karinthanyakit, Wirangrong

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial control regions (CR) of three mackerels (Rastrelliger spp.) were examined and analyzed. The CR contained three domains, in which three termination-associated sequences (TAS-I, TAS-II and TAS-III), two central conserved sequence blocks (CSB-E, CSB-D), three conserved sequence blocks (CSB-I, CSB-II, and CSB-III) and a putative promoter were detected. Molecular indices analyses of the aligned complete CR sequences showed high level of haplotype diversities and genetic divergences among the three species. The intraspecific divergence among species of this genus ranked from 0.25% to 1.62% and interspecific divergence from 1.90% to 4.30%. The phylogenetic tree shows monophyly with R. brachysoma as a basal species of Rastrelliger. Applying the average divergence rate for fish control regions, the results suggest that the time of separation among Rastrelligers could have occurred in the middle Pleistocene era. PMID:26119119

  4. Higher diversity in fungal species discriminates children with type 1 diabetes mellitus from healthy control

    PubMed Central

    Kowalewska, Beata; Zorena, Katarzyna; Szmigiero-Kawko, Małgorzata; Wąż, Piotr; Myśliwiec, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Objective To conduct qualitative and quantitative assessment of yeast-like fungi in the feces of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) with respect to their metabolic control and duration of the disease. Materials and methods The studied materials included samples of fresh feces collected from 53 children and adolescents with T1DM. Control group included 30 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals. Medical history was taken and physical examination was conducted in the two study arms. Prevalence of the yeast-like fungi in the feces was determined as well as their amounts, species diversity, drug susceptibility, and enzymatic activity. Results The yeast-like fungi were found in the samples of feces from 75.4% of T1DM patients and 70% controls. In the group of T1DM patients, no correlation was found between age (Rs=0.253, P=0.068), duration of diabetes (Rs=−0.038, P=0.787), or body mass index (Rs=0.150, P=0.432) and the amount of the yeast-like fungi isolated in the feces. Moreover, no correlation was seen between the amount of the yeast-like fungi and glycated hemoglobin (Rs=0.0324, P=0.823), systolic blood pressure (Rs=0.102, P=0.483), or diastolic blood pressure (Rs=0.271, P=0.345). Conclusion Our research has shown that children and adolescents with T1DM show higher species diversity of the yeast-like fungi, with Candida albicans being significantly less prevalent versus control subjects. Moreover, fungal species in patients with T1DM turn out to be more resistant to antifungal treatment. PMID:27143864

  5. The immersed boundary projection method and its application to simulation and control of flows around low-aspect-ratio wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taira, Kunihiko

    -dimensional flows can stabilize the flow and also exhibit nonlinear interaction with the shedding vortices. At last, we apply steady blowing to separated flows behind the low-aspect-ratio rectangular wings. The objective of the flow control is to enhance lift at post-stall angles of attack by changing the dynamics of the wake vortices. This controller strengthens the tip vortices by engulfing the trailing-edge vortex sheet to increase the downward thrust and the downward induced velocity onto the leading-edge vortices. The tip vortices that are traditionally considered as an aerodynamic nuisance, have been used favorably to increase lift in post-stall flows for the considered low-aspect-ratio wings.

  6. Biocontrol of fouling pests: Effect of diversity, identity and density of control agents.

    PubMed

    Atalah, Javier; Newcombe, Emma M; Zaiko, Anastasija

    2016-04-01

    Augmentative biocontrol, using native natural enemies, has been suggested as a promising tool to control marine biofouling pests on artificial structures. However, there are still important knowledge gaps to be addressed before biocontrol can be considered as a management tool. In a field experiment on floating marine structures we examined intra- and interspecific consumer interactions among biocontrol agents on different surface orientations. We tested the effect of identity, density and diversity of three invertebrates (the 11-arm seastar Coscinasterias muricata, the sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus and the gastropod Cook's turban Cookia sulcata) to reduce established biofouling and to prevent fouling growth on defouled surfaces. High densities of biocontrol agents were not more effective at fouling control (cover and biomass) than low densities. Nor did multi-species treatments function more effectively than mono-specific ones. However, biocontrol agent identity was important, with the 11-arm seastar and Cook's turban being the most effective at fouling reduction and prevention, respectively. Surface orientation had a strong effect on the effectiveness of control agents, with the best results obtained on vertical compared to diagonal and underside surfaces. This study confirmed the potential of biocontrol as a management tool for marine pest, indicating that identity is more important than richness and density of control agents. It also highlighted the limitations of this approach on diagonal and underside surfaces, where control agents have limited retention ability. PMID:26845376

  7. Diversity of Stability, Localization, Interaction and Control of Downstream Gene Activity in the Maize Aux/IAA Protein Family

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, Yvonne; Berendzen, Kenneth W.; Xu, Changzheng; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2014-01-01

    AUXIN/INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID (Aux/IAA) proteins are central regulators of auxin signal transduction. They control many aspects of plant development, share a conserved domain structure and are localized in the nucleus. In the present study, five maize Aux/IAA proteins (ZmIAA2, ZmIAA11, ZmIAA15, ZmIAA20 and ZmIAA33) representing the evolutionary, phylogenetic and expression diversity of this gene family were characterized. Subcellular localization studies revealed that ZmIAA2, ZmIAA11 and ZmIAA15 are confined to the nucleus while ZmIAA20 and ZmIAA33 are localized in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Introduction of specific point mutations in the degron sequence (VGWPPV) of domain II by substituting the first proline by serine or the second proline by leucine stabilized the Aux/IAA proteins. While protein half-life times between ∼11 min (ZmIAA2) to ∼120 min (ZmIAA15) were observed in wild-type proteins, the mutated forms of all five proteins were almost as stable as GFP control proteins. Moreover, all five maize Aux/IAA proteins repressed downstream gene expression in luciferase assays to different degrees. In addition, bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) analyses demonstrated interaction of all five Aux/IAA proteins with RUM1 (ROOTLESS WITH UNDETECTABLE MERISTEM 1, ZmIAA10) while only ZmIAA15 and ZmIAA33 interacted with the RUM1 paralog RUL1 (RUM-LIKE 1, ZmIAA29). Moreover, ZmIAA11, ZmIAA15 ZmIAA33 displayed homotypic interaction. Hence, despite their conserved domain structure, maize Aux/IAA proteins display a significant variability in their molecular characteristics which is likely associated with the wide spectrum of their developmental functions. PMID:25203637

  8. Proceedings of the Workshop on Computational Aspects in the Control of Flexible Systems, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Lawrence W., Jr. (Compiler)

    1989-01-01

    The Control/Structures Integration Program, a survey of available software for control of flexible structures, computational efficiency and capability, modeling and parameter estimation, and control synthesis and optimization software are discussed.

  9. Some Aspects of Speech Production under Controlled Conditions of Oral Anaesthesia and Auditory Masking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardcastle, W. J.

    1975-01-01

    Reports on the effects of oral anaesthesia and auditory masking on various aspects of speech articulation as objectively quantified by electropalatography and sound spectrography. The results show changes in speech production caused by altered tactile and auditory feedback. (Author/TL)

  10. Synthesis of Hollow Mesoporous Silica Nanorods with Controllable Aspect Ratios for Intracellular Triggered Drug Release in Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xue; He, Dinggeng; He, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Kemin; Tang, Jinlu; Zou, Zhen; He, Xing; Xiong, Jun; Li, Liling; Shangguan, Jingfang

    2016-08-17

    Here, we have reported a straightforward and effective synthetic strategy for synthesis of aspect-ratios-controllable mesoporous silica nanorods with hollow structure (hMSR) and its application for transcription factor (TF)-responsive drug delivery intracellular. Templating by an acid-degradable nickel hydrazine nanorods (NHNT), we have first synthesized the hollow dense silica nanorods and then coated on a mesoporous silica layer. Subsequently, the dense silica layer was removed by the surface-protected etching method and the hollow structure of hMSR was finally formed. The aspect ratios of the hMSR can be conveniently controlled by regulating the aspect ratios of NHNT. Four different hMSR with aspect ratios of ca. 2.5, ca. 5.3, ca. 8.1, and ca. 9.0 has been obtained. It was demonstrated that the as-prepared hMSRs have good stability, high drug loading capacity, and fast cell uptake capability, which makes them to a potential nanocarrier for drug delivery. As the paradigm, hMSR with an aspect ratio of ca. 8.1 was then applied for TF-responsive intracellular anticancer drug controlled release by using a Ag(+)-stabilized molecular switch of triplex DNA (TDNA) as capping agents and probes for TFs recognition. In the presence of TF, the pores of hMSR can be unlocked by the TFs induced disassembly of TDNA, leading to the leakage of DOX. The research in vitro displayed that this system has a TFs-triggered DOX release, and the cytotoxicity in L02 normal cells was lower than that of HeLa cells. We hope that this developed hMSR-based system will promote the development of cancer therapy in related fields. PMID:27411575

  11. Control aspects of the Schuchuli Village stand-alone photovoltaic power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groumpos, P. P.; Culler, J. E.; Delombard, R.

    1984-01-01

    A photovoltaic power system in an Arizona Indian village was installed. The control subsystem of this photovoltaic power system was analyzed. The four major functions of the control subsystem are: (1) voltage regulation; (2) load management; (3) water pump control; and (4) system protection. The control subsystem functions flowcharts for the control subsystem operation, and a computer program that models the control subsystem are presented.

  12. Gastrointestinal nematode species diversity in Soay sheep kept in a natural environment without active parasite control.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Rona; Melville, Lynsey; Sargison, Fiona; Kenyon, Fiona; Nussey, Dan; Watt, Kathryn; Sargison, Neil

    2016-08-30

    Molecular methods based on ITS2 sequence analysis were used to identify strongylid parasites and describe their diversity in a management intervention and anthelmintic drug treatment-free sheep flock. Fourteen different nematode parasite species were identified in the flock and the results showed a greater level of nematode species diversity than is normally reported in managed farmed flocks, with the presence of parasites such as Bunostomum trigonocephalum, Ostertagia leptospicularis, Spiculopteragia houdemeri and Trichostrongylus retortaeformis that are considered to be absent or rare in sheep kept in comparable localities. The implied prevalences of Haemonchus contortus in lambs, and of Trichostrongylus axei in lambs, ewes and rams, were higher than those in farmed sheep kept in similar regions, while those of Teladorsagia circumcincta and Trichostrongylus vitrinus were lower. Comparison of the patterns of nematode parasite infection between the summer and autumn sampling periods showed differences from the scenarios that are commonplace in comparable managed flocks; with T. vitrinus burdens of the lambs being higher in the summer than in the winter, and Oesophagostomum venulosum being the predominant nematode species in the adult sheep during the summer, while more-or-less absent from these groups during the winter. Rams played an important role in the epidemiology of certain parasitic nematode species. The relatively non-pathogenic O. venulosum was the only parasitic nematode species to predominate in any group during the study. This preliminary characterisation of the nematode parasite burdens of sheep extensively grazed on diverse unimproved pastures will aid in the understanding of the parasitological consequences of intensive grazing management and of the manner in which modern agriculture upsets the equilibrium between parasites and their hosts. These factors must be accounted for when defining the concept of sustainable parasite control and informing

  13. Mineralogical Controls on Microbial Diversity in a Sulfuric Acid Karst System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. A.; Bennett, P.

    2011-12-01

    competitive advantage over other microbial communities that do not tolerate an acidic habitat, while optimizing the local microenvironment to better facilitate their metabolic pathway. The basalt substratum community was ~67% Thiothrix spp., a sulfur-oxidizing genus commonly associated with Deep-sea hydrothermal vents. This dominance of Thiothrix spp. on basalt may be due to an advantageous ability to extract, and take advantage of, mineral bound nutrients (P, Fe) in basalt. These results provide substantial evidence to support the hypothesis that mineralogy influences microbial distribution, composition, niche differentiation, and accumulation in a nutrient limited system. Specific microbial populations which have evolved to take advantage of specific mineral substrata and exert highly localized control of biogeochemical conditions. Mineralogy, therefore, plays an active part in the development of subsurface microbial ecology and diversity by exerting selective pressures on the subsurface microbial environment.

  14. Genetic diversity of norovirus in hospitalised diarrhoeic children and asymptomatic controls in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Moyo, Sabrina; Hanevik, Kurt; Blomberg, Bjørn; Kommedal, Oyvind; Vainio, Kirsti; Maselle, Samuel; Langeland, Nina

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated and reports norovirus diarrhoea, genetic diversity and associated clinical symptoms, HIV status and seasonality in a paediatric population of Tanzania. Stool specimens and demographic/clinical information, were prospectively collected from 705 hospitalised children with diarrhoea (cases) and 561 children without diarrhoea (controls) between 2010 and 2011. Norovirus detection was done by real-time RT-PCR. Genotype was determined using Gel-based and real time RT-PCR methods and sequencing targeting the polymerase and the capsid region respectively. Norovirus was detected in 14.3%, 181/1266 children. The prevalence of norovirus was significantly higher in cases (18.3%, 129/705) than in controls, (9.2%, 52/561), P<0.05. Except for one child who had double infection with GI and GII all 129 cases had GII. Among controls, 23.1% had GI and 76.9% had GII. Norovirus GII.4 was significantly more prevalent in cases 87.9% than in controls 56.5%. Other genotypes detected in both cases and controls were GII.21, GII.16 and GII.g. The highest numbers of norovirus were detected in April 2011. The number of norovirus detected was significantly higher during the first than second year of life (109/540, 20.2% vs. 20/165, 12.1%). The prevalence of norovirus in HIV-positive and negative children was (21.2%, 7/33) and (10.3%, 40/390, P=0.05) respectively, regardless of diarrhoea symptoms. No significant difference in gender, parent's level of education or nutritional status with norovirus infection was observed within cases or controls. This study confirms the significant role of norovirus infection, especially GII.4 in diarrhoeic children who need hospitalisation and adds knowledge on norovirus epidemiology in the African region. PMID:24960396

  15. High Yield Synthesis of Aspect Ratio Controlled Graphenic Materials from Anthracite Coal in Supercritical Fluids.

    PubMed

    Sasikala, Suchithra Padmajan; Henry, Lucile; Yesilbag Tonga, Gulen; Huang, Kai; Das, Riddha; Giroire, Baptiste; Marre, Samuel; Rotello, Vincent M; Penicaud, Alain; Poulin, Philippe; Aymonier, Cyril

    2016-05-24

    This paper rationalizes the green and scalable synthesis of graphenic materials of different aspect ratios using anthracite coal as a single source material under different supercritical environments. Single layer, monodisperse graphene oxide quantum dots (GQDs) are obtained at high yield (55 wt %) from anthracite coal in supercritical water. The obtained GQDs are ∼3 nm in lateral size and display a high fluorescence quantum yield of 28%. They show high cell viability and are readily used for imaging cancer cells. In an analogous experiment, high aspect ratio graphenic materials with ribbon-like morphology (GRs) are synthesized from the same source material in supercritical ethanol at a yield of 6.4 wt %. A thin film of GRs with 68% transparency shows a surface resistance of 9.3 kΩ/sq. This is apparently the demonstration of anthracite coal as a source for electrically conductive graphenic materials. PMID:27135862

  16. Targeting CTCF to Control Virus Gene Expression: A Common Theme amongst Diverse DNA Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Pentland, Ieisha; Parish, Joanna L.

    2015-01-01

    All viruses target host cell factors for successful life cycle completion. Transcriptional control of DNA viruses by host cell factors is important in the temporal and spatial regulation of virus gene expression. Many of these factors are recruited to enhance virus gene expression and thereby increase virus production, but host cell factors can also restrict virus gene expression and productivity of infection. CCCTC binding factor (CTCF) is a host cell DNA binding protein important for the regulation of genomic chromatin boundaries, transcriptional control and enhancer element usage. CTCF also functions in RNA polymerase II regulation and in doing so can influence co-transcriptional splicing events. Several DNA viruses, including Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human papillomavirus (HPV) utilize CTCF to control virus gene expression and many studies have highlighted a role for CTCF in the persistence of these diverse oncogenic viruses. CTCF can both enhance and repress virus gene expression and in some cases CTCF increases the complexity of alternatively spliced transcripts. This review article will discuss the function of CTCF in the life cycle of DNA viruses in the context of known host cell CTCF functions. PMID:26154016

  17. Subsonic and transonic pressure measurements on a high-aspect-ratio supercritical-wing model with oscillating control surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandford, M. C.; Ricketts, R. H.; Watson, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    A high aspect ratio supercritical wing with oscillating control surfaces is described. The semispan wing model was instrumented with 252 static orifices and 164 in situ dynamic pressure gases for studying the effects of control surface position and sinusoidal motion on steady and unsteady pressures. Data from the present test (this is the second in a series of tests on this model) were obtained in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at Mach numbers of 0.60 and 0.78 and are presented in tabular form.

  18. Proceedings of the Workshop on Computational Aspects in the Control of Flexible Systems, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Lawrence W., Jr. (Compiler)

    1989-01-01

    Control/Structures Integration program software needs, computer aided control engineering for flexible spacecraft, computer aided design, computational efficiency and capability, modeling and parameter estimation, and control synthesis and optimization software for flexible structures and robots are among the topics discussed.

  19. Control of the visual and tactile aspects of poultry food according to the poultry food behavior by image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachemi, R.; Vincent, N.; Lomenie, N.

    2007-01-01

    This study tries to connect the poultry food behavior to the visual and tactile characteristics of the food. The aim of the work is to make it possible to control the visual and tactile aspects of food (food pellets), by means of image analysis. These aspects are often suspected to explain the undesirable behavior of the poultries, which can reject a food, showing however optimal nutritional characteristics. These incidents involve important negative consequences as well for the animal as for the poultry breeder, with a major degradation of the technical and economic performances. Many zootechnical studies and observations in breeding testify to the sensitivity of the poultries to the visual and tactile aspects of food, but measurements classically used to characterize them do not allow explaining this phenomenon. Color, texture and shape features extracted from images of pellets will constitute effective and practical measures to describe their visual and tactile aspects. We show that a pellets classification based on visual features and supervised by a set of poultry food behavior labels allows to select a set of discriminating features.

  20. Nanometer scale high-aspect-ratio trench etching at controllable angles using ballistic reactive ion etching

    SciTech Connect

    Cybart, Shane; Roediger, Peter; Ulin-Avila, Erick; Wu, Stephen; Wong, Travis; Dynes, Robert

    2012-11-30

    We demonstrate a low pressure reactive ion etching process capable of patterning nanometer scale angled sidewalls and three dimensional structures in photoresist. At low pressure the plasma has a large dark space region where the etchant ions have very large highly-directional mean free paths. Mounting the sample entirely within this dark space allows for etching at angles relative to the cathode with minimal undercutting, resulting in high-aspect ratio nanometer scale angled features. By reversing the initial angle and performing a second etch we create three-dimensional mask profiles.

  1. High-aspect-ratio, high-quality microdrilling by electron density control using a femtosecond laser Bessel beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Qian; Li, Xiaowei; Jiang, Lan; Xia, Bo; Yan, Xueliang; Zhao, Weiwei; Lu, Yongfeng

    2016-02-01

    We propose an efficient microdrilling method of high-aspect-ratio, high-quality microholes in polymethyl methacrylate by controlling localized transient spatial electron density using single-pulse femtosecond laser Bessel beams. The microholes fabricated with diameters of 1.5-2.4 μm are taper-free, which are of much better quality in the entrances and sidewalls, as compared with those fabricated by Gaussian beams. The aspect ratio of the microholes is up to 330:1. It takes 42 min to fabricate a 501 × 501 microhole array (with 251,001 holes in total, about 100 holes per second under a repetition rate of 100 Hz) in a 1 cm × 1 cm area, which is very uniform in size and shape. For single-pulse drilling of a microhole array, the number of ultrahigh-aspect-ratio microholes processed per second is theoretically determined by the repetition rate. The liquid infiltration method and cross-sectional profile tests confirm hollow microhole drillings rather than material modifications. The theoretical simulation of optical intensity distribution and intensified charge-coupled device detection shows that fabricating such thin, long, uniform microholes using Bessel beams is attributed to electron density control by spatially shaping femtosecond laser pulses.

  2. Braiding of submarine channels controlled by aspect ratio similar to rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foreman, Brady Z.; Lai, Steven Y. J.; Komatsu, Yuhei; Paola, Chris

    2015-09-01

    The great majority of submarine channels formed by turbidity and density currents are meandering in planform; they consist of a single, sinuous channel that transports a turbid, dense flow of sediment from submarine canyons to ocean floor environments. Braided turbidite systems consisting of multiple, interconnected channel threads are conspicuously rare. Furthermore, such systems may not represent the spontaneous planform instability of true braiding, but instead result from erosive processes or bathymetric variability. In marked contrast to submarine environments, both meandering and braided planforms are common in fluvial systems. Here we present experiments of subaqueous channel formation conducted at two laboratory facilities. We find that density currents readily produce a braided planform for flow aspect ratios of depth to width that are similar to those that produce river braiding. Moreover, we find that stability model theory for river planform morphology successfully describes submarine channels in both experiments and the field. On the basis of these observations, we propose that the rarity of braided submarine channels is explained by the generally greater flow depths in submarine systems, which necessitate commensurately greater widths to achieve the required aspect ratio, along with feedbacks among flow thickness, suspended sediment concentration and channel relief that induce greater levee deposition rates and limit channel widening.

  3. Microbial Diversity in Sediments of Saline Qinghia Lake, China:Linking Geochemical Controls to Microbial Ecoloby

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Hailiang; Zhang, Gengxin; Jiang, Hongchen; Yu, Bingsong; Chapman, Leah R.; Lucas, Courtney R.; Fields, Matthew W.

    2007-03-30

    archaeal clones were not related to any knowncultures but to sequences previously found in methane-rich sediments.Acetate-utilizing methanogens were isolated from sediment incubations,and alpha- and gamma-proteobacterial isolates were obtained from a watersample from the lake-bottom (23 m). Our data collectively showed that theobserved diversity and shift in the community structure with depth wascorrelated with geochemical parameters (the redox state and availabilityof electron acceptor and donor). Heterotrophic methanogenesis is possiblyadominant metabolic process in the Qinghai Lake sediments. These resultsreinforce the importance of geochemical controls on microbial ecology insaline and alkaline lake environments.

  4. Materials for Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms: Molecular Pharmaceutics and Controlled Release Drug Delivery Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Mansour, Heidi M.; Sohn, MinJi; Al-Ghananeem, Abeer; DeLuca, Patrick P.

    2010-01-01

    Controlled release delivery is available for many routes of administration and offers many advantages (as microparticles and nanoparticles) over immediate release delivery. These advantages include reduced dosing frequency, better therapeutic control, fewer side effects, and, consequently, these dosage forms are well accepted by patients. Advances in polymer material science, particle engineering design, manufacture, and nanotechnology have led the way to the introduction of several marketed controlled release products and several more are in pre-clinical and clinical development. PMID:20957095

  5. Genome-Wide Association Studies of HIV-1 Host Control in Ethnically Diverse Chinese Populations

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Zejun; Liu, Yang; Xu, Heng; Tang, Kun; Wu, Hao; Lu, Lin; Wang, Zhe; Chen, Zhengjie; Xu, Junjie; Zhu, Yufei; Hu, Landian; Shang, Hong; Zhao, Guoping; Kong, Xiangyin

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have revealed several genetic loci associated with HIV-1 outcome following infection (e.g., HLA-C at 6p21.33) in multi-ethnic populations with genetic heterogeneity and racial/ethnic differences among Caucasians, African-Americans, and Hispanics. To systematically investigate the inherited predisposition to modulate HIV-1 infection in Chinese populations, we performed GWASs in three ethnically diverse HIV-infected patients groups (i.e., HAN, YUN, and XIN, N = 538). The reported loci at 6p21.33 was validated in HAN (e.g., rs9264942, P = 0.0018). An independent association signal (rs2442719, P = 7.85 × 10−7, HAN group) in the same region was observed. Imputation results suggest that haplotype HLA-B*13:02/C*06:02, which can partially account for the GWAS signal, is associated with lower viral load in Han Chinese. Moreover, several novel loci were identified using GWAS approach including the top association signals at 6q13 (KCNQ5, rs947612, P = 2.15 × 10−6), 6p24.1 (PHACTR1, rs202072, P = 3.8 × 10−6), and 11q12.3 (SCGB1D4, rs11231017, P = 7.39 × 10−7) in HAN, YUN, and XIN groups, respectively. Our findings imply shared or specific mechanisms for host control of HIV-1 in ethnically diverse Chinese populations, which may shed new light on individualized HIV/AIDS therapy in China. PMID:26039976

  6. Bacterial Community Structure of Acid-Impacted Lakes: What Controls Diversity?▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Percent, Sascha F.; Frischer, Marc E.; Vescio, Paul A.; Duffy, Ellen B.; Milano, Vincenzo; McLellan, Maggie; Stevens, Brett M.; Boylen, Charles W.; Nierzwicki-Bauer, Sandra A.

    2008-01-01

    Although it is recognized that acidification of freshwater systems results in decreased overall species richness of plants and animals, little is known about the response of aquatic microbial communities to acidification. In this study we examined bacterioplankton community diversity and structure in 18 lakes located in the Adirondack Park (in the state of New York in the United States) that were affected to various degrees by acidic deposition and assessed correlations with 31 physical and chemical parameters. The pH of these lakes ranged from 4.9 to 7.8. These studies were conducted as a component of the Adirondack Effects Assessment Program supported by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Thirty-one independent 16S rRNA gene libraries consisting of 2,135 clones were constructed from epilimnion and hypolimnion water samples. Bacterioplankton community composition was determined by sequencing and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis of the clone libraries. Nineteen bacterial classes representing 95 subclasses were observed, but clone libraries were dominated by representatives of the Actinobacteria and Betaproteobacteria classes. Although the diversity and richness of bacterioplankton communities were positively correlated with pH, the overall community composition assessed by principal component analysis was not. The strongest correlations were observed between bacterioplankton communities and lake depth, hydraulic retention time, dissolved inorganic carbon, and nonlabile monomeric aluminum concentrations. While there was not an overall correlation between bacterioplankton community structure and pH, several bacterial classes, including the Alphaproteobacteria, were directly correlated with acidity. These results indicate that unlike more identifiable correlations between acidity and species richness for higher trophic levels, controls on bacterioplankton community structure are likely more complex, involving both direct and indirect processes. PMID

  7. Controlling parental feeding practices and child body composition in ethnically and economically diverse preschool children.

    PubMed

    Wehrly, Sarah E; Bonilla, Chantal; Perez, Marisol; Liew, Jeffrey

    2014-02-01

    Controlling parental feeding practices may be associated with childhood overweight, because coercive or intrusive feeding practices may negatively impact children's development of self-regulation of eating. This study examined pressuring or forcing a child (healthy or unhealthy foods) and restricting child from unhealthy or snack foods as two types of controlling feeding practices that explain unique variances in measures of child body composition (BMI, percent body fat, and parental perception of child weight). In an ethnically and economically diverse sample of 243 children aged 4-6years old and their biological parents (89% biological mothers, 8% biological fathers, and 3% step or grand-parent), descriptive statistics indicate ethnic and family income differences in measures of feeding practices and child body composition. Additionally, the two "objective" indices of body composition (BMI and percent body fat) were related to low pressure to eat, whereas the "subjective" index (perceived child weight) was related to restriction. Regression analyses accounting for ethnic and family income influences indicate that pressure to eat and restriction both explained unique variances in the two "objective" indices of body composition, whereas only restriction explained variance in perceived child weight. Findings have implications for helping parents learn about feeding practices that promote children's self-regulation of eating that simultaneously serves as an obesity prevention strategy. PMID:24269508

  8. [Epidemics of Ebola haemorrhagic fever in Gabon (1994-2002). Epidemiologic aspects and considerations on control measures].

    PubMed

    Milleliri, J M; Tévi-Benissan, C; Baize, S; Leroy, E; Georges-Courbot, M C

    2004-08-01

    Based on the description of the four Ebola haemorrhagic fever epidemics (EHF) occurred in Gabon between 1994 and 2002, the authors are considering the cultural and psycho-sociological aspects accounting for the difficulty to implement control measures. On the whole, the result of these raging epidemics came up to 207 cases and 150 dead (lethality: 72%). Analysing precisely the aspects of the third epidemic and pointing up the possible factors explaining its spreading far beyond its epicentre, the authors bring about the limits of measures not always understood by local populations. The discussion will deal with the possibilities of a better surveillance, a quick management of intervention means including a regional permanent pre-alert and taking into account the issue raised by the possible Ebola virus endemic. PMID:15462203

  9. Earthworms and legumes control litter decomposition in a plant diversity gradient.

    PubMed

    Milcu, Alexandru; Partsch, Stephan; Scherber, Christoph; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Scheu, Stefan

    2008-07-01

    The role of species and functional group diversity of primary producers for decomposers and decomposition processes is little understood. We made use of the "Jena Biodiversity Experiment" and tested the hypothesis that increasing plant species (1, 4, and 16 species) and functional group diversity (1, 2, 3, and 4 groups) beneficially affects decomposer density and activity and therefore the decomposition of plant litter material. Furthermore, by manipulating the densities of decomposers (earthworms and springtails) within the plant diversity gradient we investigated how the interactions between plant diversity and decomposer densities affect the decomposition of litter belonging to different plant functional groups (grasses, herbs, and legumes). Positive effects of increasing plant species or functional group diversity on earthworms (biomass and density) and microbial biomass were mainly due to the increased incidence of legumes with increasing diversity. Neither plant species diversity nor functional group diversity affected litter decomposition, However, litter decomposition varied with decomposer and plant functional group identity (of both living plants and plant litter). While springtail removal generally had little effect on decomposition, increased earthworm density accelerated the decomposition of nitrogen-rich legume litter, and this was more pronounced at higher plant diversity. The results suggest that earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris L.) and legumes function as keystone organisms for grassland decomposition processes and presumably contribute to the recorded increase in primary productivity with increasing plant diversity. PMID:18705374

  10. Selected aspects of microelectronics technology and applications: Numerically controlled machine tools. Technology trends series no. 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigurdson, J.; Tagerud, J.

    1986-05-01

    A UNIDO publication about machine tools with automatic control discusses the following: (1) numerical control (NC) machine tool perspectives, definition of NC, flexible manufacturing systems, robots and their industrial application, research and development, and sensors; (2) experience in developing a capability in NC machine tools; (3) policy issues; (4) procedures for retrieval of relevant documentation from data bases. Diagrams, statistics, bibliography are included.

  11. Increasing zooplankton size diversity enhances the strength of top-down control on phytoplankton in the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, L.; Chang, C.; García-Comas, C.; Gong, G.; Hsieh, C.

    2012-12-01

    Body size is one of the fundamental characteristics of organisms linking many ecosystem properties and functions. Recent studies suggest that environmental changes alter the size structure of pelagic food webs; however, ecosystem consequences of such changes remain unclear. Here we tested our main hypothesis that increasing zooplankton size diversity enhances top-down control on phytoplankton in the East China Sea (H1), as well as five conventional hypotheses explaining the top-down control: shallower zooplankton size spectrum enhances the strength of top-down control (H2); nutrient enrichment lessens the strength of top-down control (H3); increasing zooplankton taxonomic diversity enhances the strength of top-down control (H4); increasing fish predation is linked to decreasing the strength of top-down control of zooplankton on phytoplankton (H5); increasing temperature intensifies the strength of top-down control (H6). While the results of our univariate analyses support H1, H2, H3, and H4, more in depth analyses indicate that zooplankton size diversity is the most important factor in determining the strength of top-down control on phytoplankton in East China Sea. Our results suggest a new potential mechanism that increasing predator size diversity enhances the strength of top-down control on prey through diet niche partitioning. This mechanism can be explained by the concept of optimal predator-prey body-mass ratio concept. Suppose each size group of zooplankton predators has its own optimal phytoplankton prey size, increasing size diversity of zooplankton would promote diet niche partitioning of predators and thus elevates the top-down control.Fig. 1 Scatter plots the relationship between zooplankton/phytoplankton biomass ratio versus (A) zooplankton size diversity, (B) slope of zooplankton size spectrum, (C) Zoolankton Shannon diversity, (D) NO3, (E) PO4, (F) SiO3, (G) water temperature, and (H) fish larvae density in the East China Sea. Table 1. Results of the

  12. Long live the alien: is high genetic diversity a pivotal aspect of crested porcupine (Hystrix cristata) long-lasting and successful invasion?

    PubMed

    Trucchi, Emiliano; Facon, Benoit; Gratton, Paolo; Mori, Emiliano; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Jentoft, Sissel

    2016-08-01

    Studying the evolutionary dynamics of an alien species surviving and continuing to expand after several generations can provide fundamental information on the relevant features of clearly successful invasions. Here, we tackle this task by investigating the dynamics of the genetic diversity in invasive crested porcupine (Hystrix cristata) populations, introduced to Italy about 1500 years ago, which are still growing in size, distribution range and ecological niche. Using genome-wide RAD markers, we describe the structure of the genetic diversity and the demographic dynamics of the H. cristata invasive populations and compare their genetic diversity with that of native African populations of both H. cristata and its sister species, H. africaeaustralis. First, we demonstrate that genetic diversity is lower in both the invasive Italian and the North Africa source range relative to other native populations from sub-Saharan and South Africa. Second, we find evidence of multiple introduction events in the invasive range followed by very limited gene flow. Through coalescence-based demographic reconstructions, we also show that the bottleneck at introduction was mild and did not affect the introduced genetic diversity. Finally, we reveal that the current spatial expansion at the northern boundary of the range is following a leading-edge model characterized by a general reduction of genetic diversity towards the edge of the expanding range. We conclude that the level of genome-wide diversity of H. cristata invasive populations is less important in explaining its successful invasion than species-specific life-history traits or the phylogeographic history in the native source range. PMID:27171527

  13. Mechanisms Controlling Carbon Turnover from Diverse Microbial Groups in Temperate and Tropical Forest Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Throckmorton, H.; Dane, L.; Bird, J. A.; Firestone, M. K.; Horwath, W. R.

    2010-12-01

    Microorganisms represent an important intermediate along the pathway of plant litter decomposition to the formation of soil organic matter (SOM); yet little is known of the fate and stability of microbial C in soils and the importance of microbial biochemistry as a factor influencing SOM dynamics. This research investigates mechanisms controlling microbial C stabilization in a temperate forest in the Sierra Nevada of California (CA) and a tropical forest in Puerto Rico (PR). Biochemically diverse microbial groups (fungi, actinomycetes, bacteria gram (+), and bacteria gram (-)) were isolated from both sites, grown in the laboratory with C13 media, killed, and nonliving residues were added back to soils as a reciprocal transplant of microbial groups. The native microbial community in CA is dominated by fungi and in PR is dominated by bacteria, which provides an opportunity to asses the metabolic response of distinct microbial communities to the diverse microbial additions. CA and PR soils were sampled five times over a 3 and 2 year period, respectively. In CA there was no significant difference in the mean residence time (MRT) of diverse C13 microbial treatments; whereas in PR there were significant differences, whereby temperate fungi, temperate Gram (+) bacteria, and tropical actinomycetes exhibited a significantly longer MRT as compared with tropical fungi and temperate Gram (-). These results suggest that a bacterial dominated microbial community discriminates more amongst diverse substrates than a fungal-dominated community. MRT for labeled-C in CA was 5.21 ± 1.11 years, and in PR was 2.22 ± 0.45. Despite substantial differences in MRT between sites, physical fractionation of soils into light (LF), aggregated-occluded (OF), and mineral-associated (MF) fractions provided evidence that accelerated decomposition in PR (presumably due to climate) operated primarily on labeled-C unassociated with the mineral matrix (LF); labeled-C occluded within aggregates (OF) or

  14. Hydrographic controls on marine organic matter fate and microbial diversity in the western Irish Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Reilly, Shane; Szpak, Michal; Monteys, Xavier; Flanagan, Paul; Allen, Christopher; Kelleher, Brian

    2014-05-01

    Cycling of organic matter (OM) is the key biological process in the marine environment1 and knowledge of the sources and the reactivity of OM, in addition to factors controlling its distribution in estuarine, coastal and shelf sediments are of key importance for understanding global biogeochemical cycles2. With recent advances in cultivation-independent molecular approaches to microbial ecology, the key role of prokaryotes in global biogeochemical cycling in marine ecosystems has been emphasised3,4. However, spatial studies combining the distribution and fate of OM with microbial community abundance and diversity remain rare. Here, a combined spatial lipid biomarker and 16S rRNA tagged pyrosequencing study was conducted in surface sediments and particulate matter across hydrographically distinct zones associated with the seasonal western Irish Sea gyre. The aim was to assess the spatial variation of, and factors controlling, marine organic cycling and sedimentary microbial communities across these distinct zones. The distribution of phospholipid fatty acids, source-specific sterols, wax esters and C25 highly branched isoprenoids indicate that diatoms, dinoflagellates and green algae were the major contributors of marine organic matter, while the distribution of cholesterol, wax esters and C20 and C22 polyunsaturated fatty acids have highlighted the importance of copepod grazing for mineralizing organic matter in the water column5. This marine OM production and mineralisation was greatest in well-mixed waters compared to offshore stratified waters. Lipid analysis and 16S rRNA PCR-DGGE profiling also suggests that sedimentary bacterial abundance increases while community diversity decreases in offshore stratified waters. The major bacterial classes are the Deltaproteobacteria, Clostridia, Flavobacteriia, Gammaproteobactera and Bacteroiidia. At the family/genus level most groups appear to be associated with organoheterotrophic processing of sedimentary OM, ranging

  15. Some aspects of control of a large-scale dynamic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aoki, M.

    1975-01-01

    Techniques of predicting and/or controlling the dynamic behavior of large scale systems are discussed in terms of decentralized decision making. Topics discussed include: (1) control of large scale systems by dynamic team with delayed information sharing; (2) dynamic resource allocation problems by a team (hierarchical structure with a coordinator); and (3) some problems related to the construction of a model of reduced dimension.

  16. Improvement in the control aspect of laser frequency stabilization for SUNLITE project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zia, Omar

    1992-01-01

    Flight Electronics Division of Langley Research Center is developing a spaceflight experiment called the Stanford University and NASA Laser In-Space Technology (SUNLITE). The objective of the project is to explore the fundamental limits on frequency stability using an FM laser locking technique on a Nd:YAG non-planar ring (free-running linewidth of 5 KHz) oscillator in the vibration free, microgravity environment of space. Compact and automated actively stabilized terahertz laser oscillators will operate in space with an expected linewidth of less than 3 Hz. To implement and verify this experiment, NASA engineers have designed and built a state of the art, space qualified high speed data acquisition system for measuring the linewidth and stability limits of a laser oscillator. In order to achieve greater stability and better performance, an active frequency control scheme requiring the use of a feedback control loop has been applied. In the summer of 1991, the application of control theory in active frequency control as a frequency stabilization technique was investigated. The results and findings were presented in 1992 at the American Control Conference in Chicago, and have been published in Conference Proceedings. The main focus was to seek further improvement in the overall performance of the system by replacing the analogue controller by a digital algorithm.

  17. Drainage from the critical zone: lithologic, aspect, and vegetation controls on the spatial extent of wetted channels during the summer dry seasons.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovill, S.; Dietrich, W. E.; Hahm, W. J.

    2015-12-01

    In seasonally dry environments the base flow that sustains river ecosystems is supplied by drainage from the critical zone. The extent of wetted channels and the magnitude of flow in these channels are rarely documented; and as yet, no general theory exists that enables the prediction of these key ecosystem properties. In the Eel River Critical Zone Observatory, contrasting lithology, vegetation and aspect produce watersheds with diverse ecology and hydrology. In this study, channel surveys were conducted in five headwater drainage networks (1 to 17 km2) in Mendocino County, California in the early and late summers of 2012, 2014 and 2015. Channel width, depth, velocity, water temperature, air temperature, humidity and water isotope data were collected and revisited at all flow sources and select channel locations. In the Coastal Belt (argillite and inter-bedded sandstone) of the Franciscan Complex, springs, mostly fixed in location, controlled the extent of flow. Identical wetted channel drainage densities (or WCDDs, about 1.94 km/km2 in early summer and 1.44 km/km2 in late summer) were found in adjacent watersheds of different sizes for entire watersheds. These surveys were conducted during a period of sustained, multi-year drought, and, despite this, the drainage from groundwater, perched in the critical zone, sustained stream flow. Aspect, however, significantly influenced WCDDs within a watershed, with south-facing slope WCDDs decreasing 3-fold during the summer, and north-facing WCDDs decreasing by only 23%. Sap-flow data suggest that different tree types on the north (primarily Douglas Firs) and south-facing (hardwood evergreens) slopes likely play a role in this dichotomy. WCDDs in nearby watersheds, underlain by mélange, were much lower than in the argillite; and, by late summer the channel system was nearly entirely dry, suggesting much less seasonal groundwater storage is in this bedrock. Our data suggest that lithology can have a primary control on the

  18. Western Australia's public hospital system: some aspects of finance and control.

    PubMed

    Bell, J

    1988-01-01

    In 1829 the Governor of the Swan River Colony founded a government-controlled and financed hospital for the destitute but, by charging those who could afford to pay, recognised the admission of patients other than the destitute. In the 1850s and 1860s the Colonial Surgeon, without legislative authority, encouraged District Medical Officers (DMOs) to establish small government hospitals in country districts. Thus a pattern of government financed and controlled hospitals was set early in the State's history. From the 1890s to the 1930s successive governments made many attempts to off-load hospital control onto elected committees and the financing of hospitals onto voluntary subscribers and later taxpayers. PMID:10302917

  19. Comparing temporal aspects of visual, tactile, and microstimulation feedback for motor control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godlove, Jason M.; Whaite, Erin O.; Batista, Aaron P.

    2014-08-01

    Objectives. Current brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) rely on visual feedback, requiring sustained visual attention to use the device. Improvements to BCIs may stem from the development of an effective way to provide quick feedback independent of vision. Tactile stimuli, either delivered on the skin surface, or directly to the brain via microstimulation in somatosensory cortex, could serve that purpose. We examined the effectiveness of vibrotactile stimuli and microstimulation as a means of non-visual feedback by using a fundamental element of feedback: the ability to react to a stimulus while already in motion. Approach. Human and monkey subjects performed a center-out reach task which was, on occasion, interrupted with a stimulus cue that instructed a change in reach target. Main results. Subjects generally responded faster to tactile cues than to visual cues. However, when we delivered cues via microstimuation in a monkey, its response was slower on average than for both tactile and visual cues. Significance. Tactile and microstimulation feedback can be used to rapidly adjust movements mid-flight. The relatively slow speed of microstimulation is surprising and warrants further investigation. Overall, these results highlight the importance of considering temporal aspects of feedback when designing alternative forms of feedback for BCIs.

  20. Mitochondrial DNA control region diversity in a population from Espirito Santo state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sanches, Naiara M; Paneto, Greiciane G; Figueiredo, Raquel F; de Mello, Aline O; Cicarelli, Regina M B

    2014-10-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis has proved to be useful for forensic identification, especially in cases which nuclear DNA markers fail, as in degraded samples or in cases where the biological material has few traces or no nuclear DNA. Moreover, it can be applied in population genetics, inferring the origin of a population. In this work, the entire mtDNA control region of 97 individuals from the state of Espirito Santo, Brazil, was analyzed. We have found 94 different haplotypes yielding a high haplotype diversity of 0.9994 ± 0.0016. The probability of a random match calculated was 1.09. Haplogroup distribution analysis confirmed a highly admixed Latin American population: African lineages (43.3 %), European lineages (32.0 %), Native American lineages (23.7 %) and Asian lineages (1.0 %). We have concluded that this type of tool can be used both in forensic genetics to the study of different human populations, such as highly admixed populations, and in the study of migration's history and colonization of different states and countries of the world. PMID:24996288

  1. Stimulo-deterrent diversion: A concept and its possible application to onion maggot control.

    PubMed

    Miller, J R; Cowles, R S

    1990-11-01

    Considerable basic information has been gathered on the interaction between the onion fly (Delia antiqua) and its host plant, the onion (Allium cepa). An attempt is underway to manipulate ovipositional behavior of this pest by treating onion seedlings with chemical deterrents while simultaneously providing deeply planted onion culls on which onion flies prefer to lay. This bipolar strategy of behavioral manipulation, termed "stimulo-deterrent diversion" (SDD), has the advantages of: (1) avoiding severe pest deprival and concomitant overriding of deterrents, (2) combining the effects of "push" and "pull" multiplicatively, and (3) providing opportunities for enhanced biological control in sites where the pest becomes concentrated. The suggestion is made that using SDD along with soil insecticide might relax or even reverse selection for physiological resistance ofD. antiqua to insecticides. As tools of molecular biology open new possibilities for manipulating plants and their allelochemicals, applied chemical ecologists should consider arranging situations where the allelochemicals have clear and adaptive messages for the pest. By combining toxins and deterrents at sites where feeding should be prevented, while simultaneously expediting use of alternative plants or plant parts, it might be possible to guide pest evolution toward paths of less conflict with human interest. PMID:24263303

  2. Legal aspects of public health: how law frames communicable disease control in Greece.

    PubMed

    Hatzianastasiou, Sophia; Pavli, Androula; Maltezou, Helena C

    2011-11-01

    We reviewed Greek law (legislation, historic Royal Decrees, and modern Presidential ones, 1833-2010) pertinent to control of communicable diseases and compared this body of Greek law with the revised International Health Regulations. Greece authorizes and regulates communicable disease control commensurate with public health risks, and integrates the principles of equality, objectivity, and respect for human rights. Despite strength at the level of principles, Greek law lacks coherence, clarity, and systematization. An inadequate body of regulations means legislation falls short of adequate implementing authority and guidelines; public health authorities often cannot find or understand the laws, nor are they certain about allocation of jurisdictional authority. We identified areas for improvement. PMID:21866179

  3. Landscape Diversity and Crop Vigor Influence Biological Control of the Western Grape Leafhopper (E. elegantula Osborn) in Vineyards

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Houston; Miles, Albie F.; Daane, Kent M.; Altieri, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated how the proportional area of natural habitat surrounding a vineyard (i.e. landscape diversity) worked in conjunction with crop vigor, cultivar and rootstock selection to influence biological control of the western grape leafhopper (Erythroneura elegantula Osborn). The key natural enemies of E. elegantula are Anagrus erythroneurae S. Trjapitzin & Chiappini and A. daanei Triapitsyn, both of which are likely impacted by changes in landscape diversity due to their reliance on non-crop habitat to successfully overwinter. Additionally, E. elegantula is sensitive to changes in host plant quality which may influence densities on specific cultivars, rootstocks and/or vines with increased vigor. From 2010–2013, data were collected on natural enemy and leafhopper densities, pest parasitism rates and vine vigor from multiple vineyards that represented a continuum of landscape diversity. Early in the season, vineyards in more diverse landscapes had higher Anagrus spp. densities and lower E. elegantula densities, which led to increased parasitism of E. elegantula. Although late season densities of E. elegantula tended to be lower in vineyards with higher early season parasitism rates and lower total petiole nitrogen content, they were also affected by rootstock and cultivar. While diverse landscapes can support higher natural enemy populations, which can lead to increased biological control, leafhopper densities also appear to be mediated by cultivar, rootstock and vine vigor. PMID:26555074

  4. Landscape Diversity and Crop Vigor Influence Biological Control of the Western Grape Leafhopper (E. elegantula Osborn) in Vineyards.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Houston; Miles, Albie F; Daane, Kent M; Altieri, Miguel A

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated how the proportional area of natural habitat surrounding a vineyard (i.e. landscape diversity) worked in conjunction with crop vigor, cultivar and rootstock selection to influence biological control of the western grape leafhopper (Erythroneura elegantula Osborn). The key natural enemies of E. elegantula are Anagrus erythroneurae S. Trjapitzin & Chiappini and A. daanei Triapitsyn, both of which are likely impacted by changes in landscape diversity due to their reliance on non-crop habitat to successfully overwinter. Additionally, E. elegantula is sensitive to changes in host plant quality which may influence densities on specific cultivars, rootstocks and/or vines with increased vigor. From 2010-2013, data were collected on natural enemy and leafhopper densities, pest parasitism rates and vine vigor from multiple vineyards that represented a continuum of landscape diversity. Early in the season, vineyards in more diverse landscapes had higher Anagrus spp. densities and lower E. elegantula densities, which led to increased parasitism of E. elegantula. Although late season densities of E. elegantula tended to be lower in vineyards with higher early season parasitism rates and lower total petiole nitrogen content, they were also affected by rootstock and cultivar. While diverse landscapes can support higher natural enemy populations, which can lead to increased biological control, leafhopper densities also appear to be mediated by cultivar, rootstock and vine vigor. PMID:26555074

  5. Landscape-level controls on dissolved carbon flux from diverse catchments of the circumboreal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tank, Suzanne; Frey, Karen E.; Striegl, Robert G.; Raymond, Peter A.; Holmes, R. Max; McClelland, James W.; Peterson, Bruce J.

    2012-01-01

    While much of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) within rivers is destined for mineralization to CO2, a substantial fraction of riverine bicarbonate (HCO3-) flux represents a CO2 sink, as a result of weathering processes that sequester CO2 as HCO3-. We explored landscape-level controls on DOC and HCO3- flux in subcatchments of the boreal, with a specific focus on the effect of permafrost on riverine dissolved C flux. To do this, we undertook a multivariate analysis that partitioned the variance attributable to known, key regulators of dissolved C flux (runoff, lithology, and vegetation) prior to examining the effect of permafrost, using riverine biogeochemistry data from a suite of subcatchments drawn from the Mackenzie, Yukon, East, and West Siberian regions of the circumboreal. Across the diverse catchments that we study, controls on HCO3- flux were near-universal: runoff and an increased carbonate rock contribution to weathering (assessed as riverwater Ca:Na) increased HCO3- yields, while increasing permafrost extent was associated with decreases in HCO3-. In contrast, permafrost had contrasting and region-specific effects on DOC yield, even after the variation caused by other key drivers of its flux had been accounted for. We used ionic ratios and SO4 yields to calculate the potential range of CO2 sequestered via weathering across these boreal subcatchments, and show that decreasing permafrost extent is associated with increases in weathering-mediated CO2 fixation across broad spatial scales, an effect that could counterbalance some of the organic C mineralization that is predicted with declining permafrost.

  6. Landscape-level controls on dissolved carbon flux from diverse catchments of the circumboreal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tank, Suzanne E.; Frey, Karen E.; Striegl, Robert G.; Raymond, Peter A.; Holmes, Robert M.; McClelland, James W.; Peterson, Bruce J.

    2012-09-01

    While much of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) within rivers is destined for mineralization to CO2, a substantial fraction of riverine bicarbonate (HCO3-) flux represents a CO2 sink, as a result of weathering processes that sequester CO2 as HCO3-. We explored landscape-level controls on DOC and HCO3- flux in subcatchments of the boreal, with a specific focus on the effect of permafrost on riverine dissolved C flux. To do this, we undertook a multivariate analysis that partitioned the variance attributable to known, key regulators of dissolved C flux (runoff, lithology, and vegetation) prior to examining the effect of permafrost, using riverine biogeochemistry data from a suite of subcatchments drawn from the Mackenzie, Yukon, East, and West Siberian regions of the circumboreal. Across the diverse catchments that we study, controls on HCO3-flux were near-universal: runoff and an increased carbonate rock contribution to weathering (assessed as riverwater Ca:Na) increased HCO3- yields, while increasing permafrost extent was associated with decreases in HCO3-. In contrast, permafrost had contrasting and region-specific effects on DOC yield, even after the variation caused by other key drivers of its flux had been accounted for. We used ionic ratios and SO4 yields to calculate the potential range of CO2sequestered via weathering across these boreal subcatchments, and show that decreasing permafrost extent is associated with increases in weathering-mediated CO2 fixation across broad spatial scales, an effect that could counterbalance some of the organic C mineralization that is predicted with declining permafrost.

  7. Afferent and Efferent Aspects of Mandibular Sensorimotor Control in Adults Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daliri, Ayoub; Prokopenko, Roman A.; Max, Ludo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Individuals who stutter show sensorimotor deficiencies in speech and nonspeech movements. For the mandibular system, the authors dissociated the sense of kinesthesia from the efferent control component to examine whether kinesthetic integrity itself is compromised in stuttering or whether deficiencies occur only when generating motor…

  8. Agronomic aspects of strip intercropping lettuce with alyssum for biological control of aphids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic growers in California typically devote 5 to 10% of the area in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) fields to insectary strips of alyssum (Lobularia maritime (L.) Desv.) to attract syrphid flies (Syrphidae) whose larvae provide biological control of aphids. A 2-year study with organic romaine lettuc...

  9. Molecular and genetic aspects of controlling the soilborne necrotrophic pathogens Rhizoctonia and Pythium.

    PubMed

    Okubara, Patricia A; Dickman, Martin B; Blechl, Ann E

    2014-11-01

    The soilborne necrotrophic pathogens Rhizoctonia and Pythium infect a wide range of crops in the US and worldwide. These pathogens pose challenges to growers because the diseases they cause are not adequately controlled by fungicides, rotation or, for many hosts, natural genetic resistance. Although a combination of management practices are likely to be required for control of Rhizoctonia and Pythium, genetic resistance remains a key missing component. This review discusses the recent deployment of introduced genes and genome-based information for control of Rhizoctonia, with emphasis on three pathosystems: Rhizoctonia solani AG8 and wheat, R. solani AG1-IA and rice, and R. solani AG3 or AG4 and potato. Molecular mechanisms underlying disease suppression will be addressed, if appropriate. Although less is known about genes and factors suppressive to Pythium, pathogen genomics and biological control studies are providing useful leads to effectors and antifungal factors. Prospects for resistance to Rhizoctonia and Pythium spp. will continue to improve with growing knowledge of pathogenicity strategies, host defense gene action relative to the pathogen infection process, and the role of environmental factors on pathogen-host interactions. PMID:25438786

  10. Restoring big sagebrush after controlling encroaching western juniper with fire: aspect and subspecies effects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The need for restoration of shrubs is increasingly recognized around the world. In the western USA, restoration of mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. vaseyana (Rydb.) Beetle) after controlling encroaching conifers is a priority to improve sagebrush-associated wildlife habitat. ...

  11. Aspects of the Acquisition of Object Control and ECM-Type Verbs in European Portuguese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Ana Lúcia; Gonçalves, Anabela; Hyams, Nina

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the acquisition of sentential complementation under causative, perception, and object control verbs in European Portuguese, a language rich in complement types, including the typologically marked inflected infinitives. We tested 58 children between 3 and 5 years of age and 24 adults on a sentence completion task. The results support…

  12. Environmental and developmental controls of morphological diversity in a thermal spring gastropod from Coahuila, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roopnarine, P. D.; Tang, C. M.

    2001-12-01

    . Variation among 4 whorled specimens is dominated by locality: each locality is distinct from all others, regardless of individual species composition. Analysis of 5-whorled specimens reveals some locality-based differentiation, but also taxonomic (and possibly gender) differentiation. Finally, by the 6-whorled stage, the pattern of differentiation is based solely on taxonomy, with Taylor's morphospecies forming distinct and discrete groups. Another analysis conducted on the first four whorls of all specimens supports the hypothesis that location and local environmental factors are the largest influence on morphology earlier in development. In summary, environment seems to exert a significant influence on morphology during shell development, but terminal adult morphology is largely under intrinsic (genetic) control. Resolution of the systematics and true diversity of \\textit{Mexipyrgus} will ultimately rely upon further quantitative morphological studies in addition to future population genetic studies of this genus in a variety of microhabitats.

  13. The Circadian Clock in Murine Chondrocytes Regulates Genes Controlling Key Aspects of Cartilage Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Gossan, Nicole; Zeef, Leo; Hensman, James; Hughes, Alun; Bateman, John F; Rowley, Lynn; Little, Christopher B; Piggins, Hugh D; Rattray, Magnus; Boot-Handford, Raymond P; Meng, Qing-Jun

    2013-01-01

    ObjectiveTo characterize the circadian clock in murine cartilage tissue and identify tissue-specific clock target genes, and to investigate whether the circadian clock changes during aging or during cartilage degeneration using an experimental mouse model of osteoarthritis (OA). MethodsCartilage explants were obtained from aged and young adult mice after transduction with the circadian clock fusion protein reporter PER2::luc, and real-time bioluminescence recordings were used to characterize the properties of the clock. Time-series microarrays were performed on mouse cartilage tissue to identify genes expressed in a circadian manner. Rhythmic genes were confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction using mouse tissue, primary chondrocytes, and a human chondrocyte cell line. Experimental OA was induced in mice by destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM), and articular cartilage samples were microdissected and subjected to microarray analysis. ResultsMouse cartilage tissue and a human chondrocyte cell line were found to contain intrinsic molecular circadian clocks. The cartilage clock could be reset by temperature signals, while the circadian period was temperature compensated. PER2::luc bioluminescence demonstrated that circadian oscillations were significantly lower in amplitude in cartilage from aged mice. Time-series microarray analyses of the mouse tissue identified the first circadian transcriptome in cartilage, revealing that 615 genes (∼3.9% of the expressed genes) displayed a circadian pattern of expression. This included genes involved in cartilage homeostasis and survival, as well as genes with potential importance in the pathogenesis of OA. Several clock genes were disrupted in the early stages of cartilage degeneration in the DMM mouse model of OA. ConclusionThese results reveal an autonomous circadian clock in chondrocytes that can be implicated in key aspects of cartilage biology and pathology. Consequently

  14. Theoretic aspects of the identification of the parameters in the optimal control model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanwijk, R. A.; Kok, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    The identification of the parameters of the optimal control model from input-output data of the human operator is considered. Accepting the basic structure of the model as a cascade of a full-order observer and a feedback law, and suppressing the inherent optimality of the human controller, the parameters to be identified are the feedback matrix, the observer gain matrix, and the intensity matrices of the observation noise and the motor noise. The identification of the parameters is a statistical problem, because the system and output are corrupted by noise, and therefore the solution must be based on the statistics (probability density function) of the input and output data of the human operator. However, based on the statistics of the input-output data of the human operator, no distinction can be made between the observation and the motor noise, which shows that the model suffers from overparameterization.

  15. Cost-efficient and flexible fabrication of rectangular-shaped microlens arrays with controllable aspect ratio and spherical morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yang; Yang, Qing; Chen, Feng; Bian, Hao; Deng, Zefang; Du, Guangqing; Si, Jinhai; Yun, Feng; Hou, Xun

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents a cost-efficient and flexible approach to the development of controllable-shape concave and convex microlens arrays by using femtosecond laser wet etch and replication techniques. Periodic concave rectangular-shaped microlens arrays with different length-width ratios were achieved by firstly introducing periodic microcraters on silica glass using an 800 nm femtosecond laser, and subsequently enlarging the craters into microlens with smooth curved surfaces in hydrofluoric (HF) acid solution. The concave microlens can serve as molds of replication to obtain convex microlenses on polymers. Over 10,000 rectangular-shaped concave and convex microlens with controllable aspect ratio, high fill factor and spherical morphology can be fabricated in 5 h. A simulation result and a projection experiment result verify the optical performance of these rectangular-shaped spherical microlens arrays (MLAs).

  16. The effect of large aspect ratio wing yaw on active separation control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tewes, Philipp; Taubert, Lutz; Wygnanski, Israel

    2014-11-01

    The applicability of the boundary layer independence principle to turbulent boundary layers developing on infinitely yawed wings, suggested that active separation control might be carried out differently to the two presumably independent developing boundary layers. At low incidence or flap deflection the control of the spanwise component of the flow is effective provided the aggregate number of actuators is small. In this case the actuator jets provide jet-curtains that virtually eliminate the spanwise flow component of the flow in their vicinity. At higher incidence or flap deflection, the focus of the active separation control has to shift to the chordwise component that has to overcome a high adverse pressure gradient. The idea was proven experimentally on a flapped wing based on a NACA 0012 airfoil that could be swept back and forward while being suspended from a ceiling of a wind tunnel connected to a six-component balance. The experiments were carried out at Reynolds numbers varying between 300,000 and 500,000. The project was supported in part by a grant from AFOSR.

  17. Analytical and numerical aspects in solving the controlled 3D Gross-Pitaevskii equation

    SciTech Connect

    Fedele, R.; Jovanovic, D.; De Nicola, S.; Eliasson, B.; Shukla, P. K.

    2009-11-10

    The results of recently developed investigations, that have been carried out within the framework of the controlling potential method (CPM), are reviewed. This method allows one to decompose a three dimensional (3D) Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GPE) into the pair of coupled Schroedinger-type equations. Under suitable mathematical conditions, the solutions of the 3D controlled GPE can be constructed from the solutions of a 2D linear Schroedinger equation (the transverse component of the GPE) coupled with a 1D nonlinear Schroedinger equation (the longitudinal component of the GPE). Such decomposition allows one to cast the solutions in the form of the product of the solutions of the transverse and the longitudinal components of the GPE. The coupling between these two equations is the functional of both the transverse and the longitudinal profiles. It is shown that the CPM can be used to obtain a new class of three-dimensional solitary waves solutions of the GPE, which governs the dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensates. By imposing an external controlling potential, the desired time-dependent shape of the localized BECs is obtained. The stability of the exact solutions was checked with direct simulations of the time -dependent, three-dimensional GPE. Our simulations show that the localized condensates are stable with respect to perturbed initial conditions.

  18. Evaluating an ensemble classification approach for crop diversity verification in Danish greening subsidy control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chellasamy, Menaka; Ferré, Ty Paul Andrew; Greve, Mogens Humlekrog

    2016-07-01

    Beginning in 2015, Danish farmers are obliged to meet specific crop diversification rules based on total land area and number of crops cultivated to be eligible for new greening subsidies. Hence, there is a need for the Danish government to extend their subsidy control system to verify farmers' declarations to warrant greening payments under the new crop diversification rules. Remote Sensing (RS) technology has been used since 1992 to control farmers' subsidies in Denmark. However, a proper RS-based approach is yet to be finalised to validate new crop diversity requirements designed for assessing compliance under the recent subsidy scheme (2014-2020); This study uses an ensemble classification approach (proposed by the authors in previous studies) for validating the crop diversity requirements of the new rules. The approach uses a neural network ensemble classification system with bi-temporal (spring and early summer) WorldView-2 imagery (WV2) and includes the following steps: (1) automatic computation of pixel-based prediction probabilities using multiple neural networks; (2) quantification of the classification uncertainty using Endorsement Theory (ET); (3) discrimination of crop pixels and validation of the crop diversification rules at farm level; and (4) identification of farmers who are violating the requirements for greening subsidies. The prediction probabilities are computed by a neural network ensemble supplied with training samples selected automatically using farmers declared parcels (field vectors containing crop information and the field boundary of each crop). Crop discrimination is performed by considering a set of conclusions derived from individual neural networks based on ET. Verification of the diversification rules is performed by incorporating pixel-based classification uncertainty or confidence intervals with the class labels at the farmer level. The proposed approach was tested with WV2 imagery acquired in 2011 for a study area in Vennebjerg

  19. Ethical aspects of HIV/AIDS prevention strategies and control in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Mfutso-Bengo, Joseph-Matthew; Mfutso-Bengo, Eva-Maria; Masiye, Francis

    2008-01-01

    HIV/AIDS prevention campaigns have been overshadowed by conflicting, competing, and contradictory views between those who support condom use as a last resort and those who are against it for fear of promoting sexual immorality. We argue that abstinence and faithfulness to one partner are the best available moral solutions to the HIV/AIDS pandemic. Of course, deontologists may argue that condom use might appear useful and effective in controlling HIV/AIDS; however, not everything that is useful is always good. In principle, all schools of thought and faith seem to agree on the question of faithfulness for married couples and abstinence for those who are not married. But they differ on condom use. On the ground, the situation is far more complex. We simply lack a single, entirely reliable way to resolve all disagreements regarding HIV/AIDS prevention strategies. PMID:19130297

  20. [Practical aspects of implementation quality management system ISO 9001:2000 by hospital infection control team].

    PubMed

    Kuziemski, Arkadiusz; Czerniak, Beata; Frankowska, Krystyna; Gonia, Ewa; Salińska, Teresa; Motuk, Andrzej; Sobociński, Zbigniew

    2009-01-01

    In 2006 the Board of the Jan Biziel Hospital in Bydgoszcz decided to include procedures of health services in the implementation process within the confines of ISO 9001:2000 certification. The hospital infection control team that has operated in the hospital since 1989 performed the analysis of the forms of activities to date and on that basis the team prepared original plan of quality management. In April 2007, this plan was successfully accepted by the certifying team. The aim of this study is to present the aforementioned plan which is the result of 18 years experience of the team. At the same time, I hope that this study will be very helpful for all professionals interested in hospital epidemiology, especially in the context of implementing quality management systems. PMID:19899608

  1. Source, significance, and control of indoor microbial aerosols: human health aspects.

    PubMed Central

    Spendlove, J C; Fannin, K F

    1983-01-01

    The usual profile of indoor microbial aerosols probably has little meaning to healthy people. However, hazardous microbial aerosols can penetrate buildings or be generated within them; in either case, they can have significant adverse effects on human health. These aerosols can be controlled to some extent by eliminating or reducing their sources. In this regard, careful consideration should be given in building construction to the design of ventilation and air-conditioning systems and to the flooring material, so that these systems and the flooring material will not act as microbial reservoirs. It is evident that in spite of the considerable body of data available on indoor microbial aerosols, little is known of their true significance to human health except in terms of overt epidemic disease. Continued research is needed in this area, particularly in respect to situations of high risk in such locations as hospitals and schools for young children. PMID:6867255

  2. The number of limiting resources in the environment controls the temporal diversity patterns in the algal benthos.

    PubMed

    Larson, Chad A; Adumatioge, Larry; Passy, Sophia I

    2016-07-01

    The role of the number of limiting resources (NLR) on species richness has been the subject of much theoretical and experimental work. However, how the NLR controls temporal beta diversity and the processes of community assembly is not well understood. To address this knowledge gap, we initiated a series of laboratory microcosm experiments, exposing periphyton communities to a gradient of NLR from 0 to 3, generated by supplementation with nitrogen, phosphorus, iron, and all their combinations. We hypothesized that similarly to alpha diversity, shown to decrease with the NLR in benthic algae, temporal beta diversity would also decline due to filtering. Additionally, we predicted that the NLR would also affect turnover and community nestedness, which would show opposing responses. Indeed, as the NLR increased, temporal beta diversity decreased; turnover, indicative of competition, decreased; and nestedness, suggestive of complementarity, increased. Finally, the NLR determined the role of deterministic versus stochastic processes in community assembly, showing respectively an increasing and a decreasing trend. These results imply that the NLR has a much greater, yet still unappreciated influence on producer communities, constraining not only alpha diversity but also temporal dynamics and community assembly. PMID:26943146

  3. Clinical aspects of the control of plasma volume at microgravity and during return to one gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.

    1996-01-01

    Plasma volume is reduced by 10-20% within 24-48 h of exposure to simulated or actual microgravity. The clinical importance of microgravity induced hypovolemia is manifested by its relationship with orthostatic intolerance and reduced maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) after return to one gravity (1G). Since there is no evidence to suggest that plasma volume reduction during microgravity is associated with thirst or renal dysfunctions, a diuresis induced by an immediate blood volume shift to the central circulation appears responsible for microgravity-induced hypovolemia. Since most astronauts choose to restrict their fluid intake before a space mission, absence of increased urine output during actual space flight may be explained by low central venous pressure (CVP) which accompanies dehydration. Compelling evidence suggests that prolonged reduction in CVP during exposure to microgravity reflects a "resetting" to a lower operating point, which acts to limit plasma volume expansion during attempts to increase fluid intake. In ground based and space flight experiments, successful restoration and maintenance of plasma volume prior to returning to an upright posture may depend upon development of treatments that can return CVP to its baseline IG operating point. Fluid-loading and lower body negative pressure (LBNP) have not proved completely effective in restoring plasma volume, suggesting that they may not provide the stimulus to elevate the CVP operating point. On the other hand, exercise, which can chronically increase CVP, has been effective in expanding plasma volume when combined with adequate dietary intake of fluid and electrolytes. The success of designing experiments to understand the physiological mechanisms of and development of effective counter measures for the control of plasma volume in microgravity and during return to IG will depend upon testing that can be conducted under standardized controlled baseline conditions during both ground-based and space

  4. Clinical Aspects of the Control of Plasma Volume at Microgravity and During Return to One Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    1995-01-01

    Plasma volume is reduced by 10%-20% within 24 to 48 h of exposure to simulated or actual microgravity. The clinical importance of microgravity-induced hypovolemia is manifested by its relationship with orthostatic intolerance and reduced VO2max after return to one gravity (1G). Since there is no evidence to suggest plasma volume reduction during microgravity is associated with thirst or renal dysfunctions, a diuresis induced by an immediate blood volume shift to the central circulation appears responsible for microgravity-induced hypovolemia. Since most astronauts choose to restrict their fluid intake before a space mission, absence of increased urine output during actual spaceflight may be explained by low central venous pressure (CVP) which accompanies dehydration. Compelling evidence suggests that prolonged reduction in CVP during exposure to microgravity reflects a 'resetting' to a lower operating point which acts to limit plasma volume expansion during attempts to increase fluid intake. In groudbase and spaceflight experiments, successful restoration and maintenance of plasma volume prior to returning to an upright posture may depend upon development of treatments that can return CVP to its baseline 10 operating point. Fluid-loading and LBNP have not proved completely effective in restoring plasma volume, suggesting that they may not provide the stimulus to elevate the CVP operating point. On the other, exercise, which can chronically increase CVP, has been effective in expanding plasma volume when combined with adequate dietary intake of fluid and electrolytes. The success of designing experiments to understand the physiological mechanisms of and development of effective countermeasures for the control of plasma volume in microgravity and during return to one gravity will depend upon testing that can be conducted under standardized controlled baseline condi

  5. Coupling Temperature Control with Electrochemically Modulated Liquid Chromatography: Fundamental Aspects and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lisa M. Ponton

    2004-12-19

    The primary focus of the doctoral research presented herein has been the integration of temperature control into electrochemically modulated liquid chromatography (EMLC). The combination of temperature control and the tunable characteristics of carbonaceous EMLC stationary phases have been invaluable in deciphering the subtleties of the retention mechanism. The effects of temperature and E{sub app} on the retention of several naphthalene disulfonates were therefore examined by the van' Hoff relationship. The results indicate that while the retention of both compounds is exothermic at levels comparable to that in many reversed-phase separations, the potential dependence of the separation is actually entropically affected in a manner paralleling that of several classical ion exchange systems. Furthermore, the retention of small inorganic anions at constant temperature also showed evidence of an ion exchange type of mechanism. While a more complete mechanistic description will come from examining the thermodynamics of retention for a wider variety of analytes, this research has laid the groundwork for full exploitation of temperature as a tool to develop retention rules for EMLC. Operating EMLC at elevated temperature and flow conditions has decreased analysis time and has enabled the separation of analytes not normally achievable on a carbon stationary phase. The separation of several aromatic sulfonates was achieved in less than 1 min, a reduction of analysis time by more than a factor of 20 as compared to room temperature separations. The use of higher operating temperatures also facilitated the separation of this mixture with an entirely aqueous mobile phase in less than 2 min. This methodology was extended to the difficult separation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on PGC. This study also brought to light the mechanistic implications of the unique retention behavior of these analytes through variations of the mobile phase composition.

  6. Dentifrices containing new agents for the control of plaque and gingivitis: microbiological aspects.

    PubMed

    Marsh, P D

    1991-07-01

    Antimicrobial agents have been proposed as playing an important role in controlling plaque and gingivitis. Unfortunately, a large number of potential compounds are unsuitable for use in dentifrices because they lack "substantivity", produce undesirable side-effects, or are incompatible with toothpaste ingredients. New agents that have been successfully incorporated into dentifrices include plant extracts, phenolic compounds and metal salts. Several products are currently being based on the phenol, Triclosan. Triclosan has a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against yeasts and oral bacteria. To enhance its clinical efficacy, Triclosan has been combined either with a co-polymer or with another compatible antimicrobial agent, zinc citrate. The co-polymer acts to increase the oral retention of Triclosan, and has resulted in further reductions in salivary bacterial counts in vivo. Zinc salts also have antimicrobial activity, and at low concentrations, can inhibit glycolysis and bacterial proteases. In mixed culture chemostat studies, Triclosan selectively inhibited Gram-negative periodontopathic bacteria; additive effects were obtained when zinc citrate and Triclosan were combined. In an experimental human gingivitis study, a zinc citrate/Triclosan dentifrice reduced plaque accumulation and gingivitis compared to a placebo paste; the ratio of anaerobic/aerobic bacteria and the proportions of Actinomyces species in plaque were also reduced. The prolonged use of a zinc citrate/Triclosan dentifrice neither significantly altered the ecology of supragingival plaque nor led to the selection of Triclosan-resistant bacteria. The data suggest that dentifrices containing new antimicrobial agents could be of clinical relevance in the prevention and control of plaque and gingivitis. PMID:1890229

  7. Visceral leishmaniasis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: eco-epidemiological aspects and control.

    PubMed

    Marzochi, Mauro Celio de Almeida; Fagundes, Aline; Andrade, Moacir Vieira de; Souza, Marcos Barbosa de; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Mouta-Confort, Eliame; Schubach, Armando de Oliveira; Marzochi, Keyla Belizia Feldman

    2009-01-01

    From 1977 (index case) to 2006, 87 cases of visceral leishmaniasis were confirmed in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in periurban areas on the continental and coastal slopes of the Pedra Branca massif and the continental slopes of the Gericinó massif. The majority (65.5%) of the patients were more than five years old, predominantly males (61.5%), but without any difference between the sexes below the age of 14 years. The overall fatality rate was 10.4%. Two cases of visceral leishmaniasis/human immunodeficiency virus coinfection were detected. Leishmania chagasi was isolated from human and canine cases. The associations between the presence of phlebotomines and human and canine migrations, disorderly occupation involving degradation of environmental preservation areas and poor socioeconomic conditions may have created a favorable setting for the establishment and propagation of the disease. Close epidemiological surveillance associated with traditional control measures and others (active case researches, land clearing and health education), reduced the incidence of human cases from 2.8 per 100,000 inhabitants in 1981 to less than 0.01 per 100,000 since 1997. The canine infection rates decreased from 4.6% in 1984 to 1.6% in 2008. Lutzomyia longipalpis was not detected in some locations where human and canine cases occurred. In the years 2007 and 2008, no new human cases were reported, but there is a persistent and worrisome residual canine seroprevalence. PMID:19967242

  8. Afferent and Efferent Aspects of Mandibular Sensorimotor Control in Adults who Stutter

    PubMed Central

    Daliri, Ayoub; Prokopenko, Roman A.; Max, Ludo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Individuals who stutter show sensorimotor deficiencies in speech and nonspeech movements. For the mandibular system, we dissociated the sense of kinesthesia from the efferent control component to examine whether kinesthetic integrity itself is compromised in stuttering or whether deficiencies occur only when generating motor commands. Method We investigated 11 stuttering and 11 nonstuttering adults’ kinesthetic sensitivity threshold and kinesthetic accuracy for passive jaw movements as well as their minimal displacement threshold and positioning accuracy for active jaw movements. We also investigated the correlation with an anatomical index of jaw size. Results The groups showed no statistically significant differences on sensory measures for passive jaw movements. Although some stuttering individuals performed more poorly than any nonstuttering participants on the active movement tasks, between-group differences for active movements were also not statistically significant. Unlike fluent speakers, however, the stuttering group showed a statistically significant correlation between mandibular size and performance in the active and passive near-threshold tasks. Conclusions Previously reported minimal movement differences were not replicated. Instead, stuttering individuals’ performance varied with anatomical properties. These correlational results are consistent with the hypothesis that stuttering participants generate and perceive movements based on less accurate internal models of the involved neuromechanical systems. PMID:23816664

  9. Economic aspects of the use of impregnated mosquito nets for malaria control.

    PubMed Central

    Brinkmann, U.; Brinkmann, A.

    1995-01-01

    The use of pyrethroids to impregnate mosquito nets has had a good impact on the incidence of morbidity and mortality from malaria. These nets are therefore likely to be used on a large scale as an important strategy of malaria control in the future. Published information on the cost and effectiveness of mosquito nets is presented and analysed. In two examples, from Malawi and Cameroon, the per household expenditure to purchase and use impregnated mosquito nets compares favourably with the costs of malaria. Thus, we expect that the economic losses from malaria would be reduced by 37.3% over a 3-year period in Malawi. Even if the impact of malaria on productivity is not taken into account, the introduction of nets will result in gains, as shown in Cameroon; savings of 9.3% and 11.2% in two places resulted as a consequence of a diminished need for case treatment. The role of government programmes in the promotion of bednets is indirect and concerned mainly with facilitation and the dissemination of information. Much depends on the capability of the private sector and the willingness of the target population to buy the nets for a programme to be effective. Specific studies by health economists on this subject are lacking. PMID:8846491

  10. Low Human Immunodeficiency Virus Envelope Diversity Correlates with Low In Vitro Replication Capacity and Predicts Spontaneous Control of Plasma Viremia after Treatment Interruptions

    PubMed Central

    Joos, Beda; Trkola, Alexandra; Fischer, Marek; Kuster, Herbert; Rusert, Peter; Leemann, Christine; Böni, Jürg; Oxenius, Annette; Price, David A.; Phillips, Rodney E.; Wong, Joseph K.; Hirschel, Bernard; Weber, Rainer; Günthard, Huldrych F.

    2005-01-01

    Genetic diversity of viral isolates in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals varies substantially. However, it remains unclear whether HIV-related disease progresses more rapidly in patients harboring virus swarms with low or high diversity and, in the same context, whether high or low diversity is required to induce potent humoral and cellular immune responses. To explore whether viral diversity predicts virologic control, we studied HIV-infected patients who received antiretroviral therapy (ART) for years before undergoing structured treatment interruptions (STI). Viral diversity before initiation of ART and the ability of the patients to contain viremia after STI and final cessation of treatment was evaluated. Seven out of 21 patients contained plasma viremia at low levels after the final treatment cessation. Clonal sequences encompassing the envelope C2V3C3 domain derived from plasma prior to treatment, exhibited significantly lower diversity in these patients compared to those derived from patients with poor control of viremia. Viral diversity pre-ART correlated with the viral replication capacity of rebounding virus isolates during STI. Neutralizing antibody activity against autologous virus was significantly higher in patients who controlled viremia and was associated with lower pretreatment diversity. No such association was found with binding antibodies directed to gp120. In summary, lower pretreatment viral diversity was associated with spontaneous control of viremia, reduced viral replication capacity and higher neutralizing antibody titers, suggesting a link between viral diversity, replication capacity, and neutralizing antibody activity. PMID:15994796

  11. Socio-economic-political-cultural aspects in malaria control programme implementation in southern India.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, S K; Patil, Rajan R; Tiwari, S N

    2012-01-01

    Objective. A Socio-economic-political-cultural (SEPC) study was undertaken under the Roll Back Malaria (RBM) initiative to understand the process of programme implementation and how far in the changing malaria context, the broader environment has been understood and programme components have undergone changes. Material and Methods. Two studies were carried out; first in four villages under the primary health unit (PHU) Banavaralu in Tiptur Taluka in September 2002 and the second one in April 2003 in four villages in Chitradurga district, namely, Kappagere, Kellodu in Hosadurga Taluka, and Vani Vilas Puram and Kathrikenhally in Hiriyur Taluka. Focus group discussion and key interviews were adopted to collect the qualitative data. Results. Gender discrimination and lack of empowerment of women came out strongly in social analysis. In the rural elected bodies called Panchayats, the concept of health committees was not known. Health committees as one of the important statutory committees under every Panchayat were nonexistent in reality in these villages. Financial difficulties at Grama Panchayat level and also meager budget allocation for health have led to indifferent attitude of Panchayat members towards health. It was observed that there were generally no specific cultural practices in relation to malaria cure. Cultural and traditional practices in malaria-related issues were not predominant in the community except for some sporadic instances. Conclusion and Recommendation. SEPC study is an important indicator in malaria control programme. It is ultimately the community that takes the major decision directly or indirectly and the health authority must guide them in right direction. PMID:22701778

  12. Neocerebellar control of the motor activity: experimental analysis in the rat. Comparative aspects.

    PubMed

    Cicirata, F; Angaut, P; Pantó, M R; Serapide, M F

    1989-01-01

    The results collected by electrical microstimulation of the nucleus lateralis of the cerebellum in anaesthetized rats may be summarized as follows. The stimulations evoked motor effects in head and forelimb principally whereas hindlimb was only occasionally involved. The movements were prevalently segregated to only one joint (simple movements), in a lesser degree they involved two or three segments (complex movements). Simple and complex movements were apparently distributed in the nuclear mass without topographical segregation or preferentiality. The electromyographic records suggest that the neocerebellar movements are of synergistic nature. A somatotopical organization was evidenced within the nucleus lateralis: 3 specific functional regions were identified in the caudorostral nuclear extension. They concern the forelimb (caudally), head (centrally) and hindlimb (rostrally). This somatotopical organization persisted unmodified following elimination of either the cerebral motor cortex alone or in addition to that of the red nucleus. The nuclear subdivisions of the cerebellar nucleus lateralis showed functional differences: (1) the dorsolateral hump of Goodman et al. was principally involved in lip movements; (2) the subnucleus lateralis parvocellularis elicited movements of single vibrissae, neck and medio-distal segments of the forelimb, prevalently; (3) the magnocellular subdivision essentially controlled both limbs with large prevalence for their medio-proximal segments. To identify the functional role of the different descending pathways which relay the neocerebellum to the cord, the motor effects evoked in intact rats were compared with those elicited in rats submitted to cortical ablation and/or to lesion of the red nucleus region. The integrity of the cerebral cortex was essential only for distalmost forelimb motor activities. After lesion of the rubral region (which concomitantly eliminates corticospinal output), the stimulation of the nucleus lateralis

  13. Systems engineering aspects of a preliminary conceptual design of the space station environmental control and life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, C. H.; Meyer, M. S.

    1983-01-01

    The systems engineering aspects of developing a conceptual design of the Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) are discussed. Topics covered include defining system requirements and groundrules for approach, formulating possible cycle closure options, and establishing a system-level mass balance on the essential materials processed in oxygen and water cycles. Consideration is also given to the performance of a system trade-off study to determine the best degree of cycle closure for the ECLSS, and the construction of a conceptual design of the ECLSS with subsystem performance specifications and candidate concepts. For the optimum balance between development costs, technological risks, and resupply penalties, a partially closed cycle ECLSS option is suggested.

  14. Aerodynamic and heat transfer aspects of tip and casing treatments used for turbine tip leakage control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumusel, Baris

    Axial flow turbine stages are usually designed with a gap between the tips of the rotating blades and a stationary outer casing. The presence of a strong pressure gradient across this gap drives flow from the pressure side of the blade to the suction side. This leakage flow creates a significant amount of energy loss of working fluid in the turbine stage. In a modern gas turbine engine the outer casing of the high-pressure turbine is also exposed to a combination of high flow temperatures and heat transfer coefficients. The casing is consequently subjected to high levels of convective heat transfer, a situation that is aggravated by flow unsteadiness caused by periodic blade-passing events. An experimental investigation of the aerodynamic and heat transfer effect of tip and casing treatments used in turbine tip leakage control was conducted in a large scale, low speed, rotating research turbine facility. The effects of casing treatments were investigated by measuring the total pressure field at the exit of the rotor using a high frequency response total pressure probe. A smooth wall as a baseline case was also investigated. The test cases presented include results of casing treatments with varying dimensions for tip gap height of t/h=2.5%. The results of the rotor exit total pressure indicate that the casing treatment significantly reduced the leakage mass flow rate and the momentum deficit in the core of the tip vortex. The reductions obtained in the tip vortex size and strength influenced the tip-side passage vortex and other typical core flow characteristics in the passage. Casing treatments with the highest ridge height was the most effective in reducing the total pressure loss in the leakage flow of the test blades. This was observed at a radius near the core of the tip vortex. It appears that casing treatments with the highest ridge height is also the most effective from a global point of view, as shown by the passage averaged pressure coefficient obtained in

  15. Modeling Elevation and Aspect Controls on Emerging Ecohydrologic Processes and Ecosystem Patterns Using the Component-based Landlab Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nudurupati, S. S.; Istanbulluoglu, E.; Adams, J. M.; Hobley, D. E. J.; Gasparini, N. M.; Tucker, G. E.; Hutton, E. W. H.

    2014-12-01

    Topography plays a commanding role on the organization of ecohydrologic processes and resulting vegetation patterns. In southwestern United States, climate conditions lead to terrain aspect- and elevation-controlled ecosystems, with mesic north-facing and xeric south-facing vegetation types; and changes in biodiversity as a function of elevation from shrublands in low desert elevations, to mixed grass/shrublands in mid elevations, and forests at high elevations and ridge tops. These observed patterns have been attributed to differences in topography-mediated local soil moisture availability, micro-climatology, and life history processes of plants that control chances of plant establishment and survival. While ecohydrologic models represent local vegetation dynamics in sufficient detail up to sub-hourly time scales, plant life history and competition for space and resources has not been adequately represented in models. In this study we develop an ecohydrologic cellular automata model within the Landlab component-based modeling framework. This model couples local vegetation dynamics (biomass production, death) and plant establishment and competition processes for resources and space. This model is used to study the vegetation organization in a semiarid New Mexico catchment where elevation and hillslope aspect play a defining role on plant types. Processes that lead to observed plant types across the landscape are examined by initializing the domain with randomly assigned plant types and systematically changing model parameters that couple plant response with soil moisture dynamics. Climate perturbation experiments are conducted to examine the plant response in space and time. Understanding the inherently transient ecohydrologic systems is critical to improve predictions of climate change impacts on ecosystems.

  16. [Assessing various aspects of the motivation to eat that can affect food intake and body weight control].

    PubMed

    Bellisle, F

    2009-04-01

    Over the last 30 years, several questionnaires have been developed and validated in order to assess many aspects of the motivation to eat that might be susceptible to impair adequate food intake and body weight control. A few of such questionnaires are described here, in particular, the "Three Factor Eating Questionnaire" also called the "Eating Inventory", and the "Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire". Critical aspects of the motivation to eat assessed by these tools are presented, such as dietary restraint, disinhibition, hunger, vulnerability to eat in response to external cues or emotional states, etc. These questionnaires were developed for use in the general population with the aim to identify critical aspects of the motivation to eat that might predispose to weight gain. They have been widely used in many countries and have allowed an improved understanding of the individual characteristics that predispose to body weight gain or resistance to weight loss. Originally, poor body weight control was attributed to a high level of dietary "restraint", or in other words, the tendency to deliberately restrict one's food intake for body weight control purposes. Such dietary restraint was suspected to lead to a number of physical and psychological difficulties, among which poor self-esteem and a paradoxical tendency to gain weight, resulting from the incapacity to maintain strict restraint over time. More recent studies have established that a motivational trait called "Disinhibition" is a strong predictor of body weight gain over time and of poor outcome of dieting. "Disinhibition" corresponds to a tendency to lose control over one's eating behavior and ingest excessively large quantities of food substances, in response to a variety of cues and circumstances. In addition to its untoward effect on weight, disinhibition also predicts various risk factors and pathologies, such as hypertension and diabetes. Other potentially critical dimensions for adequate body weight

  17. Does the habitat structure control the distribution and diversity of the Odonatofauna?

    PubMed

    Souza, A M; Fogaça, F N O; Cunico, A M; Higuti, J

    2015-08-01

    The statement that the habitat complexity and structure govern the abundance and diversity of biological communities has been widely investigated. In this context, we assumed the hypothesis of habitat heterogeneity, that is, the higher habitat complexity leads to greater diversity of Odonata. In addition, we analyzed the influence of habitat structure on the distribution of this community, and evaluated the effects of abiotic variables. Odonata larvae were collected with sieves and by electrofishing in ten neotropical streams belonging to the Pirapó River basin. Forty species of Odonata were registered, which were distributed in eight families, Libellulidae stood out with the highest richness. The high gamma diversity and distribution of Odonata were associated with habitat heterogeneity in these streams. However, the abiotic variables also seem to affect the distribution of Odonata species, in view of the impact of the land use in the vicinity of streams. PMID:26421772

  18. Assessing genetic diversity of wild and hatchery samples of the Chinese sucker (Myxocyprinus asiaticus) by the mitochondrial DNA control region.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiayun; Wu, Bo; Hou, Feixia; Chen, Yongbai; Li, Chong; Song, Zhaobin

    2016-01-01

    To restore the natural populations of Chinese sucker (Myxocyprinus asiaticus), a hatchery release program has been underway for nearly 10 years. Using DNA sequences of the mitochondrial control region, we assessed the genetic diversity and genetic structure among samples collected from three sites of the wild population as well as from three hatcheries. The haplotype diversity of the wild samples (h = 0.899-0.975) was significantly higher than that of the hatchery ones (h = 0.296-0.666), but the nucleotide diversity was almost identical between them (π = 0.0170-0.0280). Relatively high gene flow was detected between the hatchery and wild samples. Analysis of effective population size indicated that M. asiaticus living in the Yangtze River has been expanding following a bottleneck in the recent past. Our results suggest the hatchery release programs for M. asiaticus have not reduced the genetic diversity, but have influenced the genetic structure of the species in the upper Yangtze River. PMID:25242190

  19. Comparison of nematode communities in Baltic and North Sea sublittoral, permeable sands Diversity and environmental control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban-Malinga, Barbara; Hedtkamp, Stefanie I. C.; van Beusekom, Justus E. E.; Wiktor, Józef; Węsławski, Jan Marcin

    2006-10-01

    The structure of free-living nematode communities was investigated seasonally at two sandy locations representing typical shallow sublittoral, permeable environments of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. At the Baltic study site the chlorophyll and organic carbon concentrations in the sediment were, on average, four times lower than at the North Sea. Highest nematode densities (1674-4100 ind. 10 cm -2) and a higher number of free-living nematode genera (66) were recorded in the North Sea (Baltic: 206-1227 ind. 10 cm -2, 30 genera). Despite lower salinity and lower food availability the less dense and less diverse Baltic nematode community was similar in generic composition to the North Sea community. At the North Sea site, all trophic groups according to Wieser's classification were present with omnivores/predators, dominated by Viscosia, prevailing and followed by epistrate-feeders. In the food-limited Baltic community, non-selective deposit feeders (mainly Ascolaimus, Axonolaimus and Daptonema) and omnivores/predators dominated by Enoplolaimus were the most abundant trophic groups while selective deposit feeders were absent or their contribution was negligible. An analysis of the vertical generic distribution revealed highest diversity of the Baltic community in deeper sediment layers, below the sediment surface affected by ripple migration and near the interface of oxic and anoxic conditions. The diversity pattern in the North Sea sediment was more variable but generally showed high diversity in the upper centimetre of the sediment. These observations suggest that food supply and sediment oxygenation are the most important factors influencing the vertical pattern of nematode generic diversity in sublittoral, permeable sands.

  20. In-hospital logistics: what are the key aspects for succeeding in each of the steps of the process of controlled donation after circulatory death?

    PubMed

    Murphy, Paul; Boffa, Catherine; Manara, Alex; Ysebaert, Dirk; de Jongh, Wim

    2016-07-01

    Donation after circulatory death (DCD) donors are becoming an increasingly important population of organ donors in Europe and worldwide. We report the state of the art regarding controlled DCD donation describing the organizational and technical aspects of establishing a controlled DCD programme and provide recommendations regarding the introduction and development of this type of programme. PMID:26497951

  1. Temporal patterns of diversity: Assessing the biotic and abiotic controls on ant assemblages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunn, R.R.; Parker, C.R.; Sanders, N.J.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we use 12 months of data from 11 ant assemblages to test whether seasonal variation in ant diversity is governed by either the structuring influences of interspecific competition or environmental conditions. Because the importance of competition might vary along environmental gradients, we also test whether the signature of competition depends on elevation. We find little evidence that competition structures the seasonal patterns of activity in the ant assemblages considered, but find support for the effects of temperature on seasonal patterns of diversity, especially at low-elevation sites. Although, in general, both competition and the environment interact to structure ant assemblages, our results suggest that environmental conditions are the primary force structuring the seasonal activity of the ant assemblages studied here. ?? 2007 The Linnean Society of London.

  2. Consensus paper: roles of the cerebellum in motor control--the diversity of ideas on cerebellar involvement in movement.

    PubMed

    Manto, Mario; Bower, James M; Conforto, Adriana Bastos; Delgado-García, José M; da Guarda, Suzete Nascimento Farias; Gerwig, Marcus; Habas, Christophe; Hagura, Nobuhiro; Ivry, Richard B; Mariën, Peter; Molinari, Marco; Naito, Eiichi; Nowak, Dennis A; Oulad Ben Taib, Nordeyn; Pelisson, Denis; Tesche, Claudia D; Tilikete, Caroline; Timmann, Dagmar

    2012-06-01

    Considerable progress has been made in developing models of cerebellar function in sensorimotor control, as well as in identifying key problems that are the focus of current investigation. In this consensus paper, we discuss the literature on the role of the cerebellar circuitry in motor control, bringing together a range of different viewpoints. The following topics are covered: oculomotor control, classical conditioning (evidence in animals and in humans), cerebellar control of motor speech, control of grip forces, control of voluntary limb movements, timing, sensorimotor synchronization, control of corticomotor excitability, control of movement-related sensory data acquisition, cerebro-cerebellar interaction in visuokinesthetic perception of hand movement, functional neuroimaging studies, and magnetoencephalographic mapping of cortico-cerebellar dynamics. While the field has yet to reach a consensus on the precise role played by the cerebellum in movement control, the literature has witnessed the emergence of broad proposals that address cerebellar function at multiple levels of analysis. This paper highlights the diversity of current opinion, providing a framework for debate and discussion on the role of this quintessential vertebrate structure. PMID:22161499

  3. The antimicrobial potential of ionic liquids: A source of chemical diversity for infection and biofilm control.

    PubMed

    Pendleton, Jack Norman; Gilmore, Brendan F

    2015-08-01

    Although described almost a century ago, interest in ionic liquids has flourished in the last two decades, with significant advances in the understanding of their chemical, physical and biological property sets driving their widespread application across multiple and diverse research areas. Significant progress has been made through the contributions of numerous research groups detailing novel libraries of ionic liquids, often 'task-specific' designer solvents for application in areas as diverse as separation technology, catalysis and bioremediation. Basic antimicrobial screening has often been included as a surrogate indication of the environmental impact of these compounds widely regarded as 'green' solvents. Obviating the biological properties, specifically toxicity, of these compounds has obstructed their potential application as sophisticated designer biocides. A recent tangent in ionic liquids research now aims to harness tuneable biological properties of these compounds in the design of novel potent antimicrobials, recognising their unparalleled flexibility for chemical diversity in a severely depleted antimicrobial arsenal. This review concentrates primarily on the antimicrobial potential of ionic liquids and aims to consolidate contemporary microbiological background information, assessment protocols and future considerations necessary to advance the field in light of the urgent need for antimicrobial innovation. PMID:25907139

  4. Arabidopsis Ovate Family Proteins, a Novel Transcriptional Repressor Family, Control Multiple Aspects of Plant Growth and Development

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shucai; Chang, Ying; Guo, Jianjun; Zeng, Qingning; Ellis, Brian; Chen, Jay

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Arabidopsis genome contains 18 genes that are predicted to encode Ovate Family Proteins (AtOFPs), a protein family characterized by a conserved OVATE domain, an approximately 70-amino acid domain that was originally found in tomato OVATE protein. Among AtOFP family members, AtOFP1 has been shown to suppress cell elongation, in part, by suppressing the expression of AtGA20ox1, AtOFP4 has been shown to regulate secondary cell wall formation by interact with KNOTTED1-LIKE HOMEODOMAIN PROTEIN 7 (KNAT7), and AtOFP5 has been shown to regulate the activity of a BEL1-LIKEHOMEODOMAIN 1(BLH1)-KNAT3 complex during early embryo sac development, but little is known about the function of other AtOFPs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We demonstrated here that AtOFP proteins could function as effective transcriptional repressors in the Arabidopsis protoplast transient expression system. The analysis of loss-of-function alleles of AtOFPs suggested AtOFP genes may have overlapping function in regulating plant growth and development, because none of the single mutants identified, including T-DNA insertion mutants in AtOFP1, AtOFP4, AtOFP8, AtOFP10, AtOFP15 and AtOFP16, displayed any apparent morphological defects. Further, Atofp1 Atofp4 and Atofp15 Atofp16 double mutants still did not differ significantly from wild-type. On the other hand, plants overexpressing AtOFP genes displayed a number of abnormal phenotypes, which could be categorized into three distinct classes, suggesting that AtOFP genes may also have diverse functions in regulating plant growth and development. Further analysis suggested that AtOFP1 regulates cotyledon development in a postembryonic manner, and global transcript profiling revealed that it suppress the expression of many other genes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results showed that AtOFPs function as transcriptional repressors and they regulate multiple aspects of plant growth and development. These results provided the first overview of a

  5. FGF-receptor signalling controls neural cell diversity in the zebrafish hindbrain by regulating olig2 and sox9.

    PubMed

    Esain, Virginie; Postlethwait, John H; Charnay, Patrick; Ghislain, Julien

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the generation of neural cell diversity are the subject of intense investigation, which has highlighted the involvement of different signalling molecules including Shh, BMP and Wnt. By contrast, relatively little is known about FGF in this process. In this report we identify an FGF-receptor-dependent pathway in zebrafish hindbrain neural progenitors that give rise to somatic motoneurons, oligodendrocyte progenitors and differentiating astroglia. Using a combination of chemical and genetic approaches to conditionally inactivate FGF-receptor signalling, we investigate the role of this pathway. We show that FGF-receptor signalling is not essential for the survival or maintenance of hindbrain neural progenitors but controls their fate by coordinately regulating key transcription factors. First, by cooperating with Shh, FGF-receptor signalling controls the expression of olig2, a patterning gene essential for the specification of somatic motoneurons and oligodendrocytes. Second, FGF-receptor signalling controls the development of both oligodendrocyte progenitors and astroglia through the regulation of sox9, a gliogenic transcription factor the function of which we show to be conserved in the zebrafish hindbrain. Overall, for the first time in vivo, our results reveal a mechanism of FGF in the control of neural cell diversity. PMID:20023158

  6. Interspecific variation in Rx1 expression controls opsin expression and causes visual system diversity in African cichlid fishes.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Jane E; O'Brien, Conor S; Conte, Matthew A; O'Quin, Kelly E; Carleton, Karen L

    2014-09-01

    The mechanisms underlying natural phenotypic diversity are key to understanding evolution and speciation. Cichlid fishes are among the most speciose vertebrates and an ideal model for identifying genes controlling species differences. Cichlids have diverse visual sensitivities that result from species expressing subsets of seven cichlid cone opsin genes. We previously identified a quantitative trait locus (QTL) that tunes visual sensitivity by varying SWS2A (short wavelength sensitive 2A) opsin expression in a genetic cross between two Lake Malawi cichlid species. Here, we identify Rx1 (retinal and anterior neural fold homeobox) as the causative gene for the QTL using fine mapping and RNAseq in retinal transcriptomes. Rx1 is differentially expressed between the parental species and correlated with SWS2A expression in the F2 progeny. Expression of Rx1 and SWS2A is also correlated in a panel of 16 Lake Malawi cichlid species. Association mapping in this panel identified a 413-bp deletion located 2.5-kb upstream of the Rx1 translation start site that is correlated with decreased Rx1 expression. This deletion explains 62% of the variance in SWS2A expression across 53 cichlid species in 29 genera. The deletion occurs in both the sand and rock-dwelling cichlid clades, suggesting that it is an ancestral polymorphism. Our finding supports the hypothesis that mixing and matching of ancestral polymorphisms can explain the diversity of present day cichlid phenotypes. PMID:24859246

  7. A keystone predator controls bacterial diversity in the pitcher-plant (Sarracenia purpurea) microecosystem.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Celeste N; Day, Stephanie; Wolfe, Benjamin E; Ellison, Aaron M; Kolter, Roberto; Pringle, Anne

    2008-09-01

    The community of organisms inhabiting the water-filled leaves of the carnivorous pitcher-plant Sarracenia purpurea includes arthropods, protozoa and bacteria, and serves as a model system for studies of food web dynamics. Despite the wealth of data collected by ecologists and zoologists on this food web, very little is known about the bacterial assemblage in this microecosystem. We used terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis to quantify bacterial diversity within the pitchers as a function of pitcher size, pH of the pitcher fluid and the presence of the keystone predator in this food web, larvae of the pitcher-plant mosquito Wyeomyia smithii. Results were analysed at two spatial scales: within a single bog and across three isolated bogs. Pitchers were sterile before they opened and composition of the bacterial assemblage was more variable between different bogs than within bogs. Measures of bacterial richness and diversity were greater in the presence of W. smithii and increased with increasing pitcher size. Our results suggest that fundamental ecological concepts derived from macroscopic food webs can also be used to predict the bacterial assemblages in pitcher plants. PMID:18479443

  8. Benthic control freaks: Effects of the tubiculous amphipod Haploops nirae on the specific diversity and functional structure of benthic communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigolet, Carinne; Dubois, Stanislas F.; Thiébaut, Eric

    2014-01-01

    , controlling diversity and abundances of associated species, and creating a complex set of positive and negative interactions so that a unique benthic assemblage is found in sediments they colonized.

  9. Diversity Strategies to Mitigate Postulated Common Cause Failure Vulnerabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Richard Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to establish effective mitigating strategies that can resolve potential common-cause failure (CCF) vulnerabilities in instrumentation and control (I&C) systems at nuclear power plants. A particular objective in the development of these strategies, which consist of combinations of diversity attributes and their associated criteria, is to address the unique characteristics of digital technology that can contribute to CCF concerns. The research approach employed to establish diversity strategies involves investigation of available documentation on diversity usage and experience from nuclear power and non-nuclear industries, capture of expert knowledge and lessons learned, determination of common practices, and assessment of the nature of CCFs and compensating diversity attributes. The resulting diversity strategies address considerations such as the effect of technology choices, the nature of CCF vulnerabilities, and the prospective impact of each diversity type. In particular, the impact of each attribute and criterion on the purpose, process, product, and performance aspects of diverse systems are considered.

  10. A facile phosphine-free colloidal synthesis of Cu2SnS3 and Cu2ZnSnS4 nanorods with a controllable aspect ratio.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Jun; Liu, Pai; Ryan, Kevin M

    2015-09-18

    Cu2SnS3 (CTS) nanorods were synthesized with a controllable aspect ratio via a facile phosphine-free colloidal synthesis. This synthesis can be readily extended to obtain Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanorods with tunable Zn content. PMID:26235602

  11. A Randomized, Controlled Pilot Study of a Single-Session Psychoeducation Treatment for Urban, Culturally Diverse, Trauma-Exposed Adults.

    PubMed

    Ghafoori, Bita; Fisher, Dennis; Korosteleva, Olga; Hong, Madelyn

    2016-06-01

    This randomized pilot study aimed to determine whether a single session of psychoeducation improved mental health outcomes, attitudes toward treatment, and service engagement among urban, impoverished, culturally diverse, trauma-exposed adults. Sixty-seven individuals were randomly assigned to a single-session psychoeducation treatment or a delayed treatment comparison control group. The control group was found to be superior to the treatment group at posttest with respect to symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and occupational and family disability. At follow-up, all participants had completed the psychoeducation treatment, and a mixed-effects model indicated significant improvements over time in symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, depression, somatization, and attitudes toward treatment. Ninety-eight percent of the participants reported the psychoeducation was helpful at follow-up. Participants also reported a 19.1% increase in mental health service utilization at follow-up compared with baseline. Implications for treatment and future research are discussed. PMID:27027660

  12. Molecular aspects of transport in thin films of controlled architecture. [Annual] technical summary, July 1, 1992--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    Work has progressed in two principal areas during the past year: diffusion in swollen polymer films with and without a barrier layer, and molecular aspects of swelling using enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

  13. Transonic steady- and unsteady-pressure measurements on a high-aspect-ratio supercritical-wing model with oscillating control surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandford, M. C.; Ricketts, R. H.; Cazier, F. W., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A supercritical wing with an aspect ratio of 10.76 and with two trailing-edge oscillating control surfaces is described. The semispan wing is instrumented with 252 static orifices and 164 in situ dynamic-pressure gages for studying the effects of control-surface position and motion on steady- and unsteady-pressures at transonic speeds. Results from initial tests conducted in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at two Reynolds numbers are presented in tabular form.

  14. Reduced Genetic Diversity and Increased Structure in American Mink on the Swedish Coast following Invasive Species Control.

    PubMed

    Zalewski, Andrzej; Zalewska, Hanna; Lunneryd, Sven-Gunnar; André, Carl; Mikusiński, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Eradication and population reductions are often used to mitigate the negative impacts of non-native invasive species on native biodiversity. However, monitoring the effectiveness of non-native species control programmes is necessary to evaluate the efficacy of these measures. Genetic monitoring could provide valuable insights into temporal changes in demographic, ecological, and evolutionary processes in invasive populations being subject to control programmes. Such programmes should cause a decrease in effective population size and/or in genetic diversity of the targeted non-native species and an increase in population genetic structuring over time. We used microsatellite DNA data from American mink (Neovison vison) to determine whether the removal of this predator on the Koster Islands archipelago and the nearby Swedish mainland affected genetic variation over six consecutive years of mink culling by trappers as part of a population control programme. We found that on Koster Islands allelic richness decreased (from on average 4.53 to 3.55), genetic structuring increased, and effective population size did not change. In contrast, the mink population from the Swedish coast showed no changes in genetic diversity or structure, suggesting the stability of this population over 6 years of culling. Effective population size did not change over time but was higher on the coast than on the islands across all years. Migration rates from the islands to the coast were almost two times higher than from the coast to the islands. Most migrants leaving the coast were localised on the southern edge of the archipelago, as expected from the direction of the sea current between the two sites. Genetic monitoring provided valuable information on temporal changes in the population of American mink suggesting that this approach can be used to evaluate and improve control programmes of invasive vertebrates. PMID:27333328

  15. Reduced Genetic Diversity and Increased Structure in American Mink on the Swedish Coast following Invasive Species Control

    PubMed Central

    Zalewska, Hanna; Lunneryd, Sven-Gunnar; André, Carl; Mikusiński, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Eradication and population reductions are often used to mitigate the negative impacts of non-native invasive species on native biodiversity. However, monitoring the effectiveness of non-native species control programmes is necessary to evaluate the efficacy of these measures. Genetic monitoring could provide valuable insights into temporal changes in demographic, ecological, and evolutionary processes in invasive populations being subject to control programmes. Such programmes should cause a decrease in effective population size and/or in genetic diversity of the targeted non-native species and an increase in population genetic structuring over time. We used microsatellite DNA data from American mink (Neovison vison) to determine whether the removal of this predator on the Koster Islands archipelago and the nearby Swedish mainland affected genetic variation over six consecutive years of mink culling by trappers as part of a population control programme. We found that on Koster Islands allelic richness decreased (from on average 4.53 to 3.55), genetic structuring increased, and effective population size did not change. In contrast, the mink population from the Swedish coast showed no changes in genetic diversity or structure, suggesting the stability of this population over 6 years of culling. Effective population size did not change over time but was higher on the coast than on the islands across all years. Migration rates from the islands to the coast were almost two times higher than from the coast to the islands. Most migrants leaving the coast were localised on the southern edge of the archipelago, as expected from the direction of the sea current between the two sites. Genetic monitoring provided valuable information on temporal changes in the population of American mink suggesting that this approach can be used to evaluate and improve control programmes of invasive vertebrates. PMID:27333328

  16. Genetic control of morphometric diversity in the maize shoot apical meristem

    PubMed Central

    Leiboff, Samuel; Li, Xianran; Hu, Heng-Cheng; Todt, Natalie; Yang, Jinliang; Li, Xiao; Yu, Xiaoqing; Muehlbauer, Gary J.; Timmermans, Marja C. P.; Yu, Jianming; Schnable, Patrick S.; Scanlon, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The maize shoot apical meristem (SAM) comprises a small pool of stem cells that generate all above-ground organs. Although mutational studies have identified genetic networks regulating SAM function, little is known about SAM morphological variation in natural populations. Here we report the use of high-throughput image processing to capture rich SAM size variation within a diverse maize inbred panel. We demonstrate correlations between seedling SAM size and agronomically important adult traits such as flowering time, stem size and leaf node number. Combining SAM phenotypes with 1.2 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) via genome-wide association study reveals unexpected SAM morphology candidate genes. Analyses of candidate genes implicated in hormone transport, cell division and cell size confirm correlations between SAM morphology and trait-associated SNP alleles. Our data illustrate that the microscopic seedling SAM is predictive of adult phenotypes and that SAM morphometric variation is associated with genes not previously predicted to regulate SAM size. PMID:26584889

  17. Genetic control of morphometric diversity in the maize shoot apical meristem.

    PubMed

    Leiboff, Samuel; Li, Xianran; Hu, Heng-Cheng; Todt, Natalie; Yang, Jinliang; Li, Xiao; Yu, Xiaoqing; Muehlbauer, Gary J; Timmermans, Marja C P; Yu, Jianming; Schnable, Patrick S; Scanlon, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    The maize shoot apical meristem (SAM) comprises a small pool of stem cells that generate all above-ground organs. Although mutational studies have identified genetic networks regulating SAM function, little is known about SAM morphological variation in natural populations. Here we report the use of high-throughput image processing to capture rich SAM size variation within a diverse maize inbred panel. We demonstrate correlations between seedling SAM size and agronomically important adult traits such as flowering time, stem size and leaf node number. Combining SAM phenotypes with 1.2 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) via genome-wide association study reveals unexpected SAM morphology candidate genes. Analyses of candidate genes implicated in hormone transport, cell division and cell size confirm correlations between SAM morphology and trait-associated SNP alleles. Our data illustrate that the microscopic seedling SAM is predictive of adult phenotypes and that SAM morphometric variation is associated with genes not previously predicted to regulate SAM size. PMID:26584889

  18. Single-pulse femtosecond laser Bessel beams drilling of high-aspect-ratio microholes based on electron dynamics control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Weiwei; Li, Xiaowei; Xia, Bo; Yan, Xueliang; Han, Weina; Lu, Yongfeng; Jiang, Lan

    2014-11-01

    Microholes drilling has attracted extensive research efforts for its broad applications in photonics, microfluidics, optical fibers and many other fields. A femtosecond (fs) laser is a promising tool for high-precision materials processing with reduced recast/microcracks and minimized heat affected zones. But there remain many challenges in hole drilling using conventional fs laser with Gaussian beams, such as low aspect ratio and taper effects. We report small-diameter and high-aspect-ratio microholes with taper free drilling in PMMA (polymethyl methacrylate) using single-pulse fs laser Bessel beams. Axicon is used to transform Gaussian beams into Bessel beams, which then irradiate in the sample by a telescope consisting of plano-convex lens and microscope objective. Using this technique, we enhance the aspect ratio of microholes by 55 times as compared with Gaussian beams. We attribute this high aspect ratio and high quality microholes formation to the unique spatial intensity distribution and propagation stability of Bessel beams, which can effectively adjust the transient localized electron density distribution leading to a long and uniform localized-interacted zone. By using the optimized pulse energy and focal depth position, the microholes diameter ranges between 1.4-2.1 μm and the aspect ratio can exceed 460. This efficient technique is of great potentials for fabrication of microphotonics devices and microfluidics.

  19. Discovering Traits Controlling Winter-hardiness and Spring Regrowth in Diverse Switchgrass Germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a perennial bioenergy plant that needs to survive both repeated harvests and harsh winters experienced in the Central and Northern USA. The plant traits that control winter-hardiness are not known, but will be critical to the future development of cold-tolerant,...

  20. Tobacco Control Policy Advocacy Attitudes and Self-Efficacy among Ethnically Diverse High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Amelie G.; Velez, Luis F.; Chalela, Patricia; Grussendorf, Jeannie; McAlister, Alfred L.

    2006-01-01

    This study applied self-efficacy theory to assess empowerment to advocate on behalf of tobacco control policies. The Youth Tobacco Survey with added policy advocacy self-efficacy, attitudes, and outcome expectations scales was given to 9,177 high school students in Texas. Asians showed the lowest prevalence of experimentation and current smoking,…

  1. Genetic diversity of Aphthona flea beetles introduced into North America for biological control of leafy spurge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five species of Aphthona flea beetles from Europe (Aphthona flava, Aphthona cyparissiae, Aphthona nigriscutis, Aphthona czwalinae, and Aphthona lacertosa) have been introduced and become established in North America for the purpose of controlling the noxious weed, leafy spurge. Within species gene...

  2. Diverse Thinking about Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Sandra N.

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the concept of diversity in educational decision making. It is noted that the differences that distinguish the needs, interests and abilities are identified by educators. It lists misconceptions resulting from not attending to within-group diversity, and states that a "loss of self" for individual members of…

  3. Decreased Functional Diversity and Biological Pest Control in Conventional Compared to Organic Crop Fields

    PubMed Central

    Krauss, Jochen; Gallenberger, Iris; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2011-01-01

    Organic farming is one of the most successful agri-environmental schemes, as humans benefit from high quality food, farmers from higher prices for their products and it often successfully protects biodiversity. However there is little knowledge if organic farming also increases ecosystem services like pest control. We assessed 30 triticale fields (15 organic vs. 15 conventional) and recorded vascular plants, pollinators, aphids and their predators. Further, five conventional fields which were treated with insecticides were compared with 10 non-treated conventional fields. Organic fields had five times higher plant species richness and about twenty times higher pollinator species richness compared to conventional fields. Abundance of pollinators was even more than one-hundred times higher on organic fields. In contrast, the abundance of cereal aphids was five times lower in organic fields, while predator abundances were three times higher and predator-prey ratios twenty times higher in organic fields, indicating a significantly higher potential for biological pest control in organic fields. Insecticide treatment in conventional fields had only a short-term effect on aphid densities while later in the season aphid abundances were even higher and predator abundances lower in treated compared to untreated conventional fields. Our data indicate that insecticide treatment kept aphid predators at low abundances throughout the season, thereby significantly reducing top-down control of aphid populations. Plant and pollinator species richness as well as predator abundances and predator-prey ratios were higher at field edges compared to field centres, highlighting the importance of field edges for ecosystem services. In conclusion organic farming increases biodiversity, including important functional groups like plants, pollinators and predators which enhance natural pest control. Preventative insecticide application in conventional fields has only short-term effects on aphid

  4. Important helminth infections in Southeast Asia diversity, potential for control and prospects for elimination.

    PubMed

    Utzinger, Jürg; Bergquist, Robert; Olveda, Remigio; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2010-01-01

    Besides the 'big three'-HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis-there are a host of diseases that, by comparison, are truly neglected. These so-called neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), many of which caused by helminths, are intimately linked with poverty and are rampant where housing is poor; access to clean water and adequate sanitation is lacking; hygiene and nutrition is substandard and populations are marginalized and vulnerable. More than a billion people are affected by NTDs, mainly in remote rural and deprived urban settings of the developing world. An overview of papers published in two special thematic volumes of the Advances in Parasitology is provided here under the umbrella of current status of research and control of important helminth infections. A total of 25 comprehensive reviews are presented, which summarise the latest available data pertaining to the diagnosis, epidemiology, pathogenesis, prevention, treatment, control and eventual elimination of NTDs in Southeast Asia and neighbourhood countries. The focus of the first volume provides the current regional status of schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis, food-borne trematodiases, echinococcosis and cysticercosis/taeniasis, less common parasitic diseases that can cause epidemic outbreaks and helminth infections affecting the central nervous system. The second volume deals with the tools and strategies for control, including diagnostics, drugs, vaccines and cutting-edge basic research (e.g. the '-omics' sciences). Moreover, cross-cutting themes such as multiparasitism, social sciences, capacity strengthening, geospatial health technologies, health metrics and modelling the potential impact of climate change on helminthic diseases are discussed. Hopefully, these two volumes will become useful for researchers and, most importantly, disease control managers for integrated and sustainable control, rigorous monitoring and eventual elimination of NTDs in Southeast Asia and elsewhere. PMID:20624526

  5. Evaluation of carbonate pore system under texture control for prediction of microporosity aspect ratio and shear wave velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima Neto, Irineu A.; Misságia, Roseane M.; Ceia, Marco A.; Archilha, Nathaly L.; Hollis, Cathy

    2015-06-01

    This work evaluates a suite of carbonate rocks from Albian age in the Campos Basin - Brazil, complemented by data from the literature, totaling 472 samples with detailed description of diagenetic features, quantitative mineralogy analyses, and P- and S-wave velocities (Vp and Vs) measured at three ranges of effective pressure loading: low (5-7.5 MPa), moderate (20 MPa) and high (40-50 MPa) values. Digital image analysis (DIA) was applied on microtomography (μCT) images to quantitatively describe the macro-mesopore system of the Albian carbonates, and was extended to characterize different textures from literature data to estimate reference values for carbonates. The methodology utilized to predict the aspect ratio of microporosity assumes three pore-space scales in two representative scenarios: 1) measured macro-mesopore aspect ratio from DIA, and 2) predicted microporosity aspect ratio, using Vp measurement as the main input parameter. The differential effective medium model (DEMM) is combined with analytical theories of data analysis to characterize microporosity. Shear modulus and microporosity aspect ratio calibrated by this methodology were used to predict Vs, which was compared to experimental data, resulting in a good match for all samples. Polynomial curves are fitted with a variety of carbonate textures by velocities at effective pressure and bulk porosity crossplots, establishing important relationships for velocity prediction. The effects of effective pressure on the pore system within dry plugs of Albian samples were evaluated by combining triaxial measurements at 0-10 MPa, relative pore volume reduction (RPVR) and microporosity aspect ratio prediction. According to the results, micropores that exhibit low aspect ratio tend to close with stress and cause an increase on Vp and Vs. A wide textural heterogeneity of data base and different digital image analysis and resolutions were employed successfully, combining rock physics methodologies and concepts

  6. Expanding the forensic German mitochondrial DNA control region database: genetic diversity as a function of sample size and microgeography.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, H; Brinkmann, B; Hühne, J; Rolf, B; Morris, A A; Steighner, R; Holland, M M; Forster, P

    1999-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA control region sequences were determined in 109 unrelated German Caucasoid individuals from north west Germany for both hypervariable regions 1 (HV1) and 2 (HV2) and 100 polymorphic nucleotide positions (nps) were found, 63 in HV1 and 37 in HV2. A total of 100 different mtDNA lineages was revealed, of which 7 were shared by 2 individuals and 1 by 3 individuals. The probability of drawing a HV1 sequence match within the north west Germans or within published sets of south Germans and west Austrians is similar (within a factor of 2) to drawing a sequence match between any two of these three population samples. Furthermore, HV1 sequences of 700 male inhabitants of one village in Lower Saxony were generated and these showed a nearly linear increase of the number of different haplotypes with increasing number of individuals, demonstrating that the commonly used haplotype diversity measure (Nei 1987) for population samples tends to underestimate mtDNA diversity in the actual population. PMID:10460419

  7. Comparative genomic analysis reveals new aspects of the biology and secondary metabolism of biological control strains of Pseudomonas spp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To explore the genomic diversity of biocontrol strains of Pseudomonas spp., we derived high quality draft sequences of seven strains that suppress plant disease. The strains were isolated from the phyllosphere of pear (P. fluorescens A506), the rhizosphere of wheat (three strains of P. fluorescens ...

  8. Mitochondrial DNA control region haplotype and haplogroup diversity in South Eastern Turkey.

    PubMed

    Serin, Ayse; Canan, Husniye; Alper, Behnan; Korkut Gulmen, Mete; Zimmermann, Bettina; Parson, Walther

    2016-09-01

    Despite its large geographic and population size only little is known about the mitochondrial (mt)DNA make up of Turkey.orensically relevant data are almost completely absent in the literature. We analyzed the mtDNA control region of 224 volunteers from South Eastern Turkey and compared the data to populations from neighboring countries. The haplotypes will be made available via the EMPOP database (EMP00670) and contribute to the body of forensic mtDNA data. PMID:27479879

  9. Alzheimer's disease: diverse aspects of mitochondrial malfunctioning

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Renato X; Correia, Sónia C; Wang, Xinglong; Perry, George; Smith, Mark A; Moreira, Paula I; Zhu, Xiongwei

    2010-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, either assuming a sporadic, age-associated, late-onset form, or a familial form, with early onset, in a smaller fraction of the cases. Whereas in the familial cases several mutations have been identified in genes encoding proteins related with the pathogenesis of the disease, for the sporadic form several causes have been proposed and are currently under debate. Mitochondrial dysfunction has surfaced as one of the most discussed hypotheses acting as a trigger for the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Mitochondria assume central functions in the cell, including ATP production, calcium homeostasis, reactive oxygen species generation, and apoptotic signaling. Although their role as the cause of the disease may be controversial, there is no doubt that mitochondrial dysfunction, abnormal mitochondrial dynamics and degradation by mitophagy occur during the disease process, contributing to its onset and progression. PMID:20661404

  10. Merging metagenomics and geochemistry reveals environmental controls on biological diversity and evolution

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The metabolic strategies employed by microbes inhabiting natural systems are, in large part, dictated by the physical and geochemical properties of the environment. This study sheds light onto the complex relationship between biology and environmental geochemistry using forty-three metagenomes collected from geochemically diverse and globally distributed natural systems. It is widely hypothesized that many uncommonly measured geochemical parameters affect community dynamics and this study leverages the development and application of multidimensional biogeochemical metrics to study correlations between geochemistry and microbial ecology. Analysis techniques such as a Markov cluster-based measure of the evolutionary distance between whole communities and a principal component analysis (PCA) of the geochemical gradients between environments allows for the determination of correlations between microbial community dynamics and environmental geochemistry and provides insight into which geochemical parameters most strongly influence microbial biodiversity. Results By progressively building from samples taken along well defined geochemical gradients to samples widely dispersed in geochemical space this study reveals strong links between the extent of taxonomic and functional diversification of resident communities and environmental geochemistry and reveals temperature and pH as the primary factors that have shaped the evolution of these communities. Moreover, the inclusion of extensive geochemical data into analyses reveals new links between geochemical parameters (e.g. oxygen and trace element availability) and the distribution and taxonomic diversification of communities at the functional level. Further, an overall geochemical gradient (from multivariate analyses) between natural systems provides one of the most complete predictions of microbial taxonomic and functional composition. Conclusions Clustering based on the frequency in which orthologous proteins

  11. Regulatory aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Arthur M.

    1986-07-01

    At this time, there is no US legislation that is specifically aimed at regulating the environmental release of genetically engineered organisms or their modified components, either during the research and development stage or during application. There are some statutes, administered by several federal agencies, whose language is broad enough to allow the extension of intended coverage to include certain aspects of biotechnology. The one possible exception is FIFRA, which has already brought about the registration of several natural microbial pesticides but which also has provision for requiring the registration of “strain improved” microbial pesticides. Nevertheless, there may be gaps in coverage even if all pertinent statutes were to be actively applied to the control of environmental release of genetically modified substances. The decision to regulate biotechnology under TSCA was justified, in part, on the basis of its intended role as a gap-filling piece of environmental legislation. The advantage of regulating biotechnology under TSCA is that this statute, unlike others, is concerned with all media of exposure (air, water, soil, sediment, biota) that may pose health and environmental hazards. Experience may show that extending existing legislation to regulate biotechnology is a poor compromise compared to the promulgation of new legislation specifically designed for this purpose. It appears that many other countries are ultimately going to take the latter course to regulate biotechnology.

  12. Legal aspects.

    PubMed

    Escher, A

    1975-01-01

    The manufacture, application, use and disposal of fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) may give rise to legal questions relating mainly to environmental protection and the effects on man and animals. In addition to legal aspects, certain commercial aspects such as the law of competition and the obligations of industry, including compensation for damage caused by FWAs, are discussed. PMID:1064546

  13. Diverse ways of perturbing the human arachidonic acid metabolic network to control inflammation.

    PubMed

    Meng, Hu; Liu, Ying; Lai, Luhua

    2015-08-18

    Inflammation and other common disorders including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer are often the result of several molecular abnormalities and are not likely to be resolved by a traditional single-target drug discovery approach. Though inflammation is a normal bodily reaction, uncontrolled and misdirected inflammation can cause inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and asthma. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs including aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, or celecoxib are commonly used to relieve aches and pains, but often these drugs have undesirable and sometimes even fatal side effects. To facilitate safer and more effective anti-inflammatory drug discovery, a balanced treatment strategy should be developed at the biological network level. In this Account, we focus on our recent progress in modeling the inflammation-related arachidonic acid (AA) metabolic network and subsequent multiple drug design. We first constructed a mathematical model of inflammation based on experimental data and then applied the model to simulate the effects of commonly used anti-inflammatory drugs. Our results indicated that the model correctly reproduced the established bleeding and cardiovascular side effects. Multitarget optimal intervention (MTOI), a Monte Carlo simulated annealing based computational scheme, was then developed to identify key targets and optimal solutions for controlling inflammation. A number of optimal multitarget strategies were discovered that were both effective and safe and had minimal associated side effects. Experimental studies were performed to evaluate these multitarget control solutions further using different combinations of inhibitors to perturb the network. Consequently, simultaneous control of cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 and leukotriene A4 hydrolase, as well as 5-lipoxygenase and prostaglandin E2 synthase were found to be among the best solutions. A single compound that can bind multiple targets presents advantages including low

  14. Perception and Sense of Control Over Eating Behaviors Among a Diverse Sample of Adults at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Fukuoka, Yoshimi; Lindgren, Teri G.; Bonnet, Kemberlee; Kamitani, Emiko

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the study was to explore and understand knowledge and attitudes about food, diet, and weight control, focusing on barriers and motivators to reduce risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Methods Six focus groups were conducted in May and June 2010. The groups were stratified by sex. A total of 35 ethnically diverse samples with a high risk for type 2 diabetes participated. The average age was 51 ± 10.6 years, and 57% of the sample represented women. Results Four themes emerged from the focus groups: (1) demonstrated knowledge and source of knowledge, including participants’ basic understanding of “good” and “bad” food and what constitutes a “healthy diet” and trusted sources of information; (2) perceptions of food and diet, encompassing how participants expressed their perception of and interaction with food and diet; (3) sense of control over dietary intake, reflecting participants’ discussion of their perceived ability to control their eating patterns and food choices; and (4) eating behaviors, describing participants’ patterns of eating and perceived barriers to eating a healthy diet. Conclusions Study findings demonstrate that eating healthy requires a complex interaction between individual perceptions of food and sense of control over eating patterns and socio-political and economic structural factors that restrict healthy eating options while promoting unhealthy ones. Programs for long-term eating behavioral change necessary to reduce type 2 diabetes and obesity need to incorporate strategies that address individual-level factors of perception of food and sense of control over eating patterns, as well as structural level factors such as poverty and food insecurity. PMID:24525569

  15. Mechanistic controls on diverse fates of terrestrial organic components in the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chun; Wagner, Thomas; Talbot, Helen M.; Weijers, Johan W. H.; Pan, Jian-Ming; Pancost, Richard D.

    2013-09-01

    Terrestrial carbon transferred from the land to sea is a critical component of the global carbon cycle. A range of geochemical proxies has been developed to fingerprint the fate of terrestrial organic matter (TOM) in marine sediments. However, discrepancies among different proxies limit our ability to quantify and interpret the terrestrial signals in marine sediments, with consequences for the investigation of both the modern carbon cycle and past environmental change. To mechanistically understand these discrepancies, we examined the distributions of a range of terrestrial proxies and their aquatic counterparts (i.e. marine proxies) in the Yangtze river-East China Sea (YR-ECS) shelf system, where TOM experiences extensive modification during transport and burial. TOM proxies in the YR-ECS system collectively fit a power-law model but with distinct attenuation rates (the a∗ values) for individual molecular proxy groups. Among a range of TOM proxies, the modeled a∗ values decrease in the order: soil-marker BHPs > triterpenols > lignin > HMW n-alkanols > branched GDGTs > HMW n-alkanes for biomarkers; and Rsoil > BIT > %TOMiso for proxies tracing %TOM. Rapid loss of TOM components through dissociation in the narrow estuary, followed by oxidation over the wide open shelf, are best described by power curves. Inherent chemical reactivity (i.e. the number of functional groups), responses to hydraulic sorting, and in situ production regulate the individual attenuation rates. Of them, chemical reactivity plays the most important role on proxy behavior, supported by a strong correlation between a∗ values and standard molal Gibbs energies. Both, physical protection and chemical reactivity fundamentally control the overall behavior of TOM components, with the relative importance being setting-dependant: The former is relatively important in the estuary, whereas the later is the primary control over the open shelf. Moreover, regional variation of different marine

  16. The Diversity of the Pollen Tube Pathway in Plants: Toward an Increasing Control by the Sporophyte

    PubMed Central

    Lora, Jorge; Hormaza, José I.; Herrero, María

    2016-01-01

    Plants, unlike animals, alternate multicellular diploid, and haploid generations in their life cycle. While this is widespread all along the plant kingdom, the size and autonomy of the diploid sporophyte and the haploid gametophyte generations vary along evolution. Vascular plants show an evolutionary trend toward a reduction of the gametophyte, reflected both in size and lifespan, together with an increasing dependence from the sporophyte. This has resulted in an overlooking of the importance of the gametophytic phase in the evolution of higher plants. This reliance on the sporophyte is most notorious along the pollen tube journey, where the male gametophytes have to travel a long way inside the sporophyte to reach the female gametophyte. Along evolution, there is a change in the scenery of the pollen tube pathway that favors pollen competition and selection. This trend, toward apparently making complicated what could be simple, appears to be related to an increasing control of the sporophyte over the gametophyte with implications for understanding plant evolution. PMID:26904071

  17. Controlling and culturing diversity: experimental zoology before World War II and Vienna's Biologische Versuchsanstalt.

    PubMed

    Logan, Cheryl A; Brauckmann, Sabine

    2015-04-01

    Founded in Vienna in 1903, the Institute for Experimental Biology pioneered the application of experimental methods to living organisms maintained for sustained periods in captivity. Its Director, the zoologist Hans Przibram, oversaw until 1938, the attempt to integrate ontogeny with studies of inheritance using precise and controlled measurements of the impact of environmental influences on the emergence of form and function. In the early years, these efforts paralleled and even fostered the emergence of experimental biology in America. But fate intervened. Though the Institute served an international community, most of its resident scientists and staff were of Jewish ancestry. Well before the Nazis entered Austria in 1938, these men and women were being fired and driven out; some, including Przibram, were eventually killed. We describe the unprecedented facilities built and the topics addressed by the several departments that made up this Institute, stressing those most relevant to the establishment and success of the Journal of Experimental Zoology, which was founded just a year later. The Institute's diaspora left an important legacy in North America, perhaps best embodied by the career of the developmental neuroscientist Paul Weiss. PMID:25857375

  18. NaGd(MoO4)2 nanocrystals with diverse morphologies: controlled synthesis, growth mechanism, photoluminescence and thermometric properties

    PubMed Central

    Li, Anming; Xu, Dekang; Lin, Hao; Yang, Shenghong; Shao, Yuanzhi; Zhang, Yueli

    2016-01-01

    Pure tetragonal phase, uniform and well-crystallized sodium gadolinium molybdate (NaGd(MoO4)2) nanocrystals with diverse morphologies, e.g. nanocylinders, nanocubes and square nanoplates have been selectively synthesized via oleic acid-mediated hydrothermal method. The phase, structure, morphology and composition of the as-synthesized products are studied. Contents of both sodium molybdate and oleic acid of the precursor solutions are found to affect the morphologies of the products significantly, and oleic acid plays a key role in the morphology-controlled synthesis of NaGd(MoO4)2 nanocrystals with diverse morphologies. Growth mechanism of NaGd(MoO4)2 nanocrystals is proposed based on time-dependent morphology evolution and X-ray diffraction analysis. Morphology-dependent down-shifting photoluminescence properties of NaGd(MoO4)2: Eu3+ nanocrystals, and upconversion photoluminescence properties of NaGd(MoO4)2: Yb3+/Er3+ and Yb3+/Tm3+ nanoplates are investigated in detail. Charge transfer band in the down-shifting excitation spectra shows a slight blue-shift, and the luminescence intensities and lifetimes of Eu3+ are decreased gradually with the morphology of the nanocrystals varying from nanocubes to thin square nanoplates. Upconversion energy transfer mechanisms of NaGd(MoO4)2: Yb3+/Er3+, Yb3+/Tm3+ nanoplates are proposed based on the energy level scheme and power dependence of upconversion emissions. Thermometric properties of NaGd(MoO4)2: Yb3+/Er3+ nanoplates are investigated, and the maximum sensitivity is determined to be 0.01333 K−1 at 285 K. PMID:27506629

  19. NaGd(MoO4)2 nanocrystals with diverse morphologies: controlled synthesis, growth mechanism, photoluminescence and thermometric properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Anming; Xu, Dekang; Lin, Hao; Yang, Shenghong; Shao, Yuanzhi; Zhang, Yueli

    2016-08-01

    Pure tetragonal phase, uniform and well-crystallized sodium gadolinium molybdate (NaGd(MoO4)2) nanocrystals with diverse morphologies, e.g. nanocylinders, nanocubes and square nanoplates have been selectively synthesized via oleic acid-mediated hydrothermal method. The phase, structure, morphology and composition of the as-synthesized products are studied. Contents of both sodium molybdate and oleic acid of the precursor solutions are found to affect the morphologies of the products significantly, and oleic acid plays a key role in the morphology-controlled synthesis of NaGd(MoO4)2 nanocrystals with diverse morphologies. Growth mechanism of NaGd(MoO4)2 nanocrystals is proposed based on time-dependent morphology evolution and X-ray diffraction analysis. Morphology-dependent down-shifting photoluminescence properties of NaGd(MoO4)2: Eu3+ nanocrystals, and upconversion photoluminescence properties of NaGd(MoO4)2: Yb3+/Er3+ and Yb3+/Tm3+ nanoplates are investigated in detail. Charge transfer band in the down-shifting excitation spectra shows a slight blue-shift, and the luminescence intensities and lifetimes of Eu3+ are decreased gradually with the morphology of the nanocrystals varying from nanocubes to thin square nanoplates. Upconversion energy transfer mechanisms of NaGd(MoO4)2: Yb3+/Er3+, Yb3+/Tm3+ nanoplates are proposed based on the energy level scheme and power dependence of upconversion emissions. Thermometric properties of NaGd(MoO4)2: Yb3+/Er3+ nanoplates are investigated, and the maximum sensitivity is determined to be 0.01333 K‑1 at 285 K.

  20. Outbreak Control and Clinical, Pathological, and Epidemiological Aspects and Molecular Characterization of a Bovine Herpesvirus Type 5 on a Feedlot Farm in São Paulo State

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira Vicente, Acácia; Appolinario, Camila Michele; Allendorf, Susan Dora; Gasparini Baraldi, Thaís; Cortez, Adriana; Bryan Heinemann, Marcos; Reinaldo Silva Fonseca, Clovis; Cristina Pelícia, Vanessa; Devidé Ribeiro, Bruna Leticia; Hiromi Okuda, Liria; Pituco, Edviges Maristela

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the control, epidemiological, pathological, and molecular aspects of an outbreak of meningoencephalitis in calves due to bovine herpesvirus 5 at a feedlot with 540 animals in São Paulo State, Brazil. The introduction of new animals and contact between the resident animals and the introduced ones were most likely responsible for virus transmission. Bovine herpesvirus 1 vaccine was used, resulting in the efficacy of the outbreak control, although two bovine herpesvirus 1 positive animals, vaccinated and revaccinated, presented meningoencephalitis, thereby characterizing vaccinal failure. PMID:26090469

  1. Multidimensional display controller for displaying to a user an aspect of a multidimensional space visible from a base viewing location along a desired viewing orientation

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, George S.; Anderson, Thomas G.

    2001-01-01

    A display controller allows a user to control a base viewing location, a base viewing orientation, and a relative viewing orientation. The base viewing orientation and relative viewing orientation are combined to determine a desired viewing orientation. An aspect of a multidimensional space visible from the base viewing location along the desired viewing orientation is displayed to the user. The user can change the base viewing location, base viewing orientation, and relative viewing orientation by changing the location or other properties of input objects.

  2. Politics of Decision Making in Relation to Education in Comparative Perspective, Unity and Diversity as a Problem. Centralization and Decentralization in Decision Making: The Lay Board of Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfnister, Allan O.

    The evolution and role of the lay board of control (trustees, directors) of higher educational institutions and the part the board has played or may play in maintaining diversity in the American system are examined. The evolution of the lay board in the United States and in the United Kingdom is described. The lay board has become "the American…

  3. Single DNA molecules on freestanding and supported cationic lipid bilayers: diverse conformational dynamics controlled by the local bilayer properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herold, Christoph; Schwille, Petra; Petrov, Eugene P.

    2016-02-01

    We present experimental results on the interaction of DNA macromolecules with cationic lipid membranes with different properties, including freestanding membranes in the fluid and gel state, and supported lipid membranes in the fluid state and under conditions of fluid-gel phase coexistence. We observe diverse conformational dynamics of membrane-bound DNA molecules controlled by the local properties of the lipid bilayer. In case of fluid-state freestanding lipid membranes, the behaviour of DNA on the membrane is controlled by the membrane charge density: whereas DNA bound to weakly charged membranes predominantly behaves as a 2D random coil, an increase in the membrane charge density leads to membrane-driven irreversible DNA collapse and formation of subresolution-sized DNA globules. On the other hand, electrostatic binding of DNA macromolecules to gel-state freestanding membranes leads to completely arrested diffusion and conformational dynamics of membrane-adsorbed DNA. A drastically different picture is observed in case of DNA interaction with supported cationic lipid bilayers: When the supported bilayer is in the fluid state, membrane-bound DNA molecules undergo 2D translational Brownian motion and conformational fluctuations, irrespectively of the charge density of the supported bilayer. At the same time, when the supported cationic membrane shows fluid-gel phase coexistence, membrane-bound DNA molecules are strongly attracted to micrometre-sized gel-phase domains enriched with the cationic lipid, which results in 2D compaction of the membrane-bound macromolecules. This DNA compaction, however, is fully reversible, and disappears as soon as the membrane is heated above the fluid-gel coexistence. We also discuss possible biological implications of our experimental findings.

  4. The COPE healthy lifestyles TEEN randomized controlled trial with culturally diverse high school adolescents: baseline characteristics and methods.

    PubMed

    Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek; Kelly, Stephanie; Jacobson, Diana; Belyea, Michael; Shaibi, Gabriel; Small, Leigh; O'Haver, Judith; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco

    2013-09-01

    Obesity and mental health disorders remain significant public health problems in adolescents. Substantial health disparities exist with minority youth experiencing higher rates of these problems. Schools are an outstanding venue to provide teens with skills needed to improve their physical and mental health, and academic performance. In this paper, the authors describe the design, intervention, methods and baseline data for a randomized controlled trial with 779 culturally diverse high-school adolescents in the southwest United States. Aims for this prevention study include testing the efficacy of the COPE TEEN program versus an attention control program on the adolescents' healthy lifestyle behaviors, Body Mass Index (BMI) and BMI%, mental health, social skills and academic performance immediately following the intervention programs, and at six and 12 months post interventions. Baseline findings indicate that greater than 40% of the sample is either overweight (n = 148, 19.00%) or obese (n = 182, 23.36%). The predominant ethnicity represented is Hispanic (n = 526, 67.52%). At baseline, 15.79% (n = 123) of the students had above average scores on the Beck Youth Inventory Depression subscale indicating mildly (n = 52, 6.68%), moderately (n = 47, 6.03%), or extremely (n = 24, 3.08%) elevated scores (see Table 1). Anxiety scores were slightly higher with 21.56% (n = 168) reporting responses suggesting mildly (n = 81, 10.40%), moderately (n = 58, 7.45%) or extremely (n = 29, 3.72%) elevated scores. If the efficacy of the COPE TEEN program is supported, it will offer schools a curriculum that can be easily incorporated into high school health courses to improve adolescent healthy lifestyle behaviors, psychosocial outcomes and academic performance. PMID:23748156

  5. Design verification and fabrication of active control systems for the DAST ARW-2 high aspect ratio wing. Part 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgehee, C. R.

    1986-01-01

    This is Part 2-Appendices of a study conducted under Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) Program to accomplish the final design and hardware fabrication for four active control systems compatible with and ready for installation in the NASA Aeroelastic Research Wing No. 2 (ARW-2) and Firebee II drone flight test vehicle. The wing structure was designed so that Active Control Systems (ACS) are required in the normal flight envelope by integrating control system design with aerodynamics and structure technologies. The DAST ARW-2 configuration uses flutter suppression, relaxed static stability, and gust and maneuver load alleviation ACS systems, and an automatic flight control system. Performance goals and criteria were applied to individual systems and the systems collectively to assure that vehicle stability margins, flutter margins, flying qualities, and load reductions were achieved.

  6. Design verification and fabrication of active control systems for the DAST ARW-2 high aspect ratio wing, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgehee, C. R.

    1986-01-01

    A study was conducted under Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) program to accomplish the final design and hardware fabrication for four active control systems compatible with and ready for installation in the NASA Aeroelastic Research Wing No. 2 (ARW-2) and Firebee II drone flight test vehicle. The wing structure was designed so that Active Control Systems (ACS) are required in the normal flight envelope by integrating control system design with aerodynamics and structure technologies. The DAST ARW-2 configuration uses flutter suppression, relaxed static stability, and gust and maneuver load alleviation ACS systems, and an automatic flight control system. Performance goals and criteria were applied to individual systems and the systems collectively to assure that vehicle stability margins, flutter margins, flying qualities and load reductions are achieved.

  7. Dynamic aspects and controllability of the MELiSSA project: a bioregenerative system to provide life support in space.

    PubMed

    Farges, Bérangère; Poughon, Laurent; Creuly, Catherine; Cornet, Jean-François; Dussap, Claude-Gilles; Lasseur, Christophe

    2008-12-01

    Manmade ecosystems differ from their prototype biosphere by the principle of control. The Earth Biosphere is sustainable by stochastic control and very large time constants. By contrast, in a closed ecosystem such as the micro-ecological life support system alternative (MELiSSA system) developed by the European Space Agency for space exploration, a deterministic control is a prerequisite of sustainable existence. MELiSSA is an integrated sum of interconnected biological subsystems. On one hand, all unit operations in charge of the elementary functions constitutive of the entire life support system are studied until a thorough understanding and mathematical modelling. On the other hand, the systemic approach of complex, highly branched systems with feedback loops is performed. This leads to study in the same perspective, with the same degree of accuracy and with the same language, waste degradation, water recycling, atmosphere revitalisation and food production systems prior to the integration of knowledge-based control models. This paper presents the mathematical modelling of the MELiSSA system and the interface between the control strategy of the entire system and the control of the bioreactors. PMID:18592407

  8. Neuroendocrine aspects of primary endogenous depression. XV: Mathematical modeling of nocturnal melatonin secretion in major depressives and normal controls.

    PubMed

    Sekula, L K; Lucke, J F; Heist, E K; Czambel, R K; Rubin, R T

    1997-03-24

    We previously reported a trend toward a higher mean nocturnal serum melatonin (MEL) concentration, based on 30-min blood sampling over 24 h, in 23 female definite endogenous depressive compared to 23 matched normal female control subjects, and no significant difference in 15 male depressives compared to their controls (Rubin et al., 1992). In both groups of patients vs. their controls, there also were trends toward an earlier MEL rise time, by about 30 min, and a later MEL peak time, by about 90 min. Because the offset of MEL secretion was not estimated in that study, the total duration of MEL secretion could not be determined. To further delineate the nocturnal MEL secretion curve, we modeled the MEL data by a linear-Beta model, a four-parameter adaptation of the Beta function. One parameter accounted-for baseline (diurnal) MEL concentration, two accounted for the shapes of the ascending and descending phases of the nocturnal secretion curve, and the fourth accounted for the area under the curve. The model permitted estimation of the start, peak, and end times of nocturnal MEL secretion. There again was a trend toward a higher mean nocturnal MEL concentration in the female depressives compared to their matched controls. There were no significant patient-control differences in secretion onset or peak times in either the women or the men except for nocturnal MEL offset time: the female patients had a trend toward a later offset time, by about 40 min, than their controls; this difference was not present in the men. With women and men analyzed together, the difference in nocturnal MEL offset time between patients and controls just reached significance (P < 0.05). The linear-Beta model appears to satisfactorily fit the MEL data and provides estimators of the onset, peak, and offset times of the activation phase of MEL secretion. This model may be applicable to more severely skewed 24-h hormone secretion curves, such as ACTH and cortisol. PMID:9109182

  9. Trypanosoma evansi and Surra: A Review and Perspectives on Transmission, Epidemiology and Control, Impact, and Zoonotic Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Desquesnes, Marc; Dargantes, Alan; Lai, De-Hua; Lun, Zhao-Rong; Holzmuller, Philippe; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the transmission modes of Trypanosoma evansi. Its worldwide distribution is attributed to mechanical transmission. While the role of tabanids is clear, we raise questions on the relative role of Haematobia sp. and the possible role of Stomoxys sp. in delayed transmission. A review of the available trypanocidal drugs and their efficacy in various host species is useful for understanding how they interact in disease epidemiology, which is complex. Although there are similarities with other mechanically transmitted trypanosomes, T. evansi has a more complex epidemiology due to the diversity of its hosts and vectors. The impact of clinical and subclinical disease is difficult to establish. A model was developed for buffaloes in the Philippines, which could be transferred to other places and livestock systems. Since Trypanosoma evansi was reported in humans, further research is required to investigate its zoonotic potential. Surra remains a potentially emerging disease that is a threat to Australia, Spain, and France. A number of questions about the disease have yet to be resolved. This brief review of the basic knowledge of T. evansi suggests that there is renewed interest in the parasite, which is spreading and has a major economic impact. PMID:24151595

  10. Tissue growth controlled by geometric boundary conditions: a simple model recapitulating aspects of callus formation and bone healing.

    PubMed

    Fischer, F Dieter; Zickler, Gerald A; Dunlop, John W C; Fratzl, Peter

    2015-06-01

    The shape of tissues arises from a subtle interplay between biochemical driving forces, leading to cell growth, division and extracellular matrix formation, and the physical constraints of the surrounding environment, giving rise to mechanical signals for the cells. Despite the inherent complexity of such systems, much can still be learnt by treating tissues that constantly remodel as simple fluids. In this approach, remodelling relaxes all internal stresses except for the pressure which is counterbalanced by the surface stress. Our model is used to investigate how wettable substrates influence the stability of tissue nodules. It turns out for a growing tissue nodule in free space, the model predicts only two states: either the tissue shrinks and disappears, or it keeps growing indefinitely. However, as soon as the tissue wets a substrate, stable equilibrium configurations become possible. Furthermore, by investigating more complex substrate geometries, such as tissue growing at the end of a hollow cylinder, we see features reminiscent of healing processes in long bones, such as the existence of a critical gap size above which healing does not occur. Despite its simplicity, the model may be useful in describing various aspects related to tissue growth, including biofilm formation and cancer metastases. PMID:26018964

  11. Modifications of a conserved regulatory network involving INDEHISCENT controls multiple aspects of reproductive tissue development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Kay, P; Groszmann, M; Ross, J J; Parish, R W; Swain, S M

    2013-01-01

    Disrupting pollen tube growth and fertilization in Arabidopsis plants leads to reduced seed set and silique size, providing a powerful genetic system with which to identify genes with important roles in plant fertility. A transgenic Arabidopsis line with reduced pollen tube growth, seed set and silique growth was used as the progenitor in a genetic screen to isolate suppressors with increased seed set and silique size. This screen generated a new allele of INDEHISCENT (IND), a gene originally identified by its role in valve margin development and silique dehiscence (pod shatter). IND forms part of a regulatory network that involves several other transcriptional regulators and involves the plant hormones GA and auxin. Using GA and auxin mutants that alter various aspects of reproductive development, we have identified novel roles for IND, its paralogue HECATE3, and the MADS box proteins SHATTERPROOF1/2 in flower and fruit development. These results suggest that modified forms of the regulatory network originally described for the Arabidopsis valve margin, which include these genes and/or their recently evolved paralogs, function in multiple components of GA/auxin-regulated reproductive development. PMID:23126654

  12. Personality traits in established schizophrenia: aspects of usability and differences between patients and controls using the Swedish universities Scales of Personality

    PubMed Central

    Fagerberg, Tomas; Söderman, Erik; Gustavsson, J. Petter; Agartz, Ingrid; Jönsson, Erik G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Personality is considered as an important aspect that can affect symptoms and social function in persons with schizophrenia. The personality questionnaire Swedish universities Scales of Personality (SSP) has not previously been used in psychotic disorder. Aims: To investigate if SSP has a similar internal consistency and factor structure in a psychosis population as among healthy controls and if patients with psychotic disorders differ from non-psychotic individuals in their responses to the SSP. Methods: Patients with psychotic disorders (n = 107) and healthy controls (n = 119) completed SSP. SSP scores were analyzed for internal consistency and case-control differences by Cronbach’s alfa and multiple analysis of covariance, respectively. Results: Internal consistencies among patients were overall similar to that of controls. The patients scored significantly higher in seven (Somatic trait anxiety, Psychic trait anxiety, Stress susceptibility, Lack of assertiveness, Detachment, Embitterment, Mistrust) and lower in three (Physical trait aggression, Verbal trait aggression, Adventure seeking) of the 13 scales of the inventory. In three scales (Impulsiveness, Social desirability and Trait irritability) there was no significant difference between the scoring of patients and healthy controls. Conclusion: The reliability estimates suggest that SSP can be used by patients with psychotic disorders in stable remission. Patients score higher on neuroticism-related scales and lower on aggression-related scales than controls, which is in accordance with earlier studies where other personality inventories were used. PMID:27103375

  13. Brain training with non-action video games enhances aspects of cognition in older adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Prieto, Antonio; Mayas, Julia; Toril, Pilar; Pita, Carmen; Ponce de León, Laura; Reales, José M; Waterworth, John

    2014-01-01

    Age-related cognitive and brain declines can result in functional deterioration in many cognitive domains, dependency, and dementia. A major goal of aging research is to investigate methods that help to maintain brain health, cognition, independent living and wellbeing in older adults. This randomized controlled study investigated the effects of 20 1-h non-action video game training sessions with games selected from a commercially available package (Lumosity) on a series of age-declined cognitive functions and subjective wellbeing. Two groups of healthy older adults participated in the study, the experimental group who received the training and the control group who attended three meetings with the research team along the study. Groups were similar at baseline on demographics, vocabulary, global cognition, and depression status. All participants were assessed individually before and after the intervention, or a similar period of time, using neuropsychological tests and laboratory tasks to investigate possible transfer effects. The results showed significant improvements in the trained group, and no variation in the control group, in processing speed (choice reaction time), attention (reduction of distraction and increase of alertness), immediate and delayed visual recognition memory, as well as a trend to improve in Affection and Assertivity, two dimensions of the Wellbeing Scale. Visuospatial working memory (WM) and executive control (shifting strategy) did not improve. Overall, the current results support the idea that training healthy older adults with non-action video games will enhance some cognitive abilities but not others. PMID:25352805

  14. Brain training with non-action video games enhances aspects of cognition in older adults: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Prieto, Antonio; Mayas, Julia; Toril, Pilar; Pita, Carmen; Ponce de León, Laura; Reales, José M.; Waterworth, John

    2014-01-01

    Age-related cognitive and brain declines can result in functional deterioration in many cognitive domains, dependency, and dementia. A major goal of aging research is to investigate methods that help to maintain brain health, cognition, independent living and wellbeing in older adults. This randomized controlled study investigated the effects of 20 1-h non-action video game training sessions with games selected from a commercially available package (Lumosity) on a series of age-declined cognitive functions and subjective wellbeing. Two groups of healthy older adults participated in the study, the experimental group who received the training and the control group who attended three meetings with the research team along the study. Groups were similar at baseline on demographics, vocabulary, global cognition, and depression status. All participants were assessed individually before and after the intervention, or a similar period of time, using neuropsychological tests and laboratory tasks to investigate possible transfer effects. The results showed significant improvements in the trained group, and no variation in the control group, in processing speed (choice reaction time), attention (reduction of distraction and increase of alertness), immediate and delayed visual recognition memory, as well as a trend to improve in Affection and Assertivity, two dimensions of the Wellbeing Scale. Visuospatial working memory (WM) and executive control (shifting strategy) did not improve. Overall, the current results support the idea that training healthy older adults with non-action video games will enhance some cognitive abilities but not others. PMID:25352805

  15. Mutuality as an Aspect of Family Functioning in Predicting Eating Disorder Symptoms in College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanftner, Jennifer L.; Cameron, Rebecca P.; Tantillo, Mary; Heigel, Caron P.; Martin, David Myron; Sippel-Silowash, Julie Ann; Taggart, Jane M.

    2006-01-01

    We examined mutuality, an aspect of Relational Cultural Theory, in an ethnically diverse sample of 397 college women from Midwestern and Western universities. We hypothesized that mutuality would predict scores on an eating disorder scale after controlling for traditional family variables, such as expressed emotion. As predicted, mutuality, as…

  16. Exploiting natural variation of secondary metabolism identifies a gene controlling the glycosylation diversity of dihydroxybenzoic acids in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Li, Xu; Svedin, Elisabeth; Mo, Huaping; Atwell, Susanna; Dilkes, Brian P; Chapple, Clint

    2014-11-01

    Plant secondary metabolism is an active research area because of the unique and important roles the specialized metabolites have in the interaction of plants with their biotic and abiotic environment, the diversity and complexity of the compounds and their importance to human medicine. Thousands of natural accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana characterized with increasing genomic precision are available, providing new opportunities to explore the biochemical and genetic mechanisms affecting variation in secondary metabolism within this model species. In this study, we focused on four aromatic metabolites that were differentially accumulated among 96 Arabidopsis natural accessions as revealed by leaf metabolic profiling. Using UV, mass spectrometry, and NMR data, we identified these four compounds as different dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) glycosides, namely 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (gentisic acid) 5-O-β-D-glucoside, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid 3-O-β-D-glucoside, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid 5-O-β-D-xyloside, and 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid 3-O-β-D-xyloside. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping using recombinant inbred lines generated from C24 and Col-0 revealed a major-effect QTL controlling the relative proportion of xylosides vs. glucosides. Association mapping identified markers linked to a gene encoding a UDP glycosyltransferase gene. Analysis of Transfer DNA (T-DNA) knockout lines verified that this gene is required for DHBA xylosylation in planta and recombinant protein was able to xylosylate DHBA in vitro. This study demonstrates that exploiting natural variation of secondary metabolism is a powerful approach for gene function discovery. PMID:25173843

  17. Bacterial Diversity in Oral Samples of Children in Niger with Acute Noma, Acute Necrotizing Gingivitis, and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Stadelmann, Benoît; Baratti-Mayer, Denise; Gizard, Yann; Mombelli, Andrea; Pittet, Didier; Schrenzel, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Background Noma is a gangrenous disease that leads to severe disfigurement of the face with high morbidity and mortality, but its etiology remains unknown. Young children in developing countries are almost exclusively affected. The purpose of the study was to record and compare bacterial diversity in oral samples from children with or without acute noma or acute necrotizing gingivitis from a defined geographical region in Niger by culture-independent molecular methods. Methods and Principal Findings Gingival samples from 23 healthy children, nine children with acute necrotizing gingivitis, and 23 children with acute noma (both healthy and diseased oral sites) were amplified using “universal” PCR primers for the 16 S rRNA gene and pooled according to category (noma, healthy, or acute necrotizing gingivitis), gender, and site status (diseased or control site). Seven libraries were generated. A total of 1237 partial 16 S rRNA sequences representing 339 bacterial species or phylotypes at a 98–99% identity level were obtained. Analysis of bacterial composition and frequency showed that diseased (noma or acute necrotizing gingivitis) and healthy site bacterial communities are composed of similar bacteria, but differ in the prevalence of a limited group of phylotypes. Large increases in counts of Prevotella intermedia and members of the Peptostreptococcus genus are associated with disease. In contrast, no clear-cut differences were found between noma and non-noma libraries. Conclusions Similarities between acute necrotizing gingivitis and noma samples support the hypothesis that the disease could evolve from acute necrotizing gingivitis in certain children for reasons still to be elucidated. This study revealed oral microbiological patterns associated with noma and acute necrotizing gingivitis, but no evidence was found for a specific infection-triggering agent. PMID:22413030

  18. Low Genetic Diversity and Strong Geographical Structure of the Critically Endangered White-Headed Langur (Trachypithecus leucocephalus) Inferred from Mitochondrial DNA Control Region Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weiran; Qiao, Yu; Pan, Wenshi; Yao, Meng

    2015-01-01

    Many Asian colobine monkey species are suffering from habitat destruction and population size decline. There is a great need to understand their genetic diversity, population structure and demographic history for effective species conservation. The white-headed langur (Trachypithecus leucocephalus) is a Critically Endangered colobine species endemic to the limestone karst forests in southwestern China. We analyzed the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences of 390 fecal samples from 40 social groups across the main distribution areas, which represented one-third of the total extant population. Only nine haplotypes and 10 polymorphic sites were identified, indicating remarkably low genetic diversity in the species. Using a subset of 77 samples from different individuals, we evaluated genetic variation, population structure, and population demographic history. We found very low values of haplotype diversity (h = 0.570 ± 0.056) and nucleotide diversity (π = 0.00323 ± 0.00044) in the hypervariable region I (HVRI) of the mtDNA control region. Distribution of haplotypes displayed marked geographical pattern, with one population (Chongzuo, CZ) showing a complete lack of genetic diversity (having only one haplotype), whereas the other population (Fusui, FS) having all nine haplotypes. We detected strong population genetic structure among habit patches (ΦST = 0.375, P < 0.001). In addition, the Mantel test showed a significant correlation between the pairwise genetic distances and geographical distances among social groups in FS (correlation coefficient = 0.267, P = 0.003), indicting isolation-by-distance pattern of genetic divergence in the mtDNA sequences. Analyses of demographic history suggested an overall stable historical population size and modest population expansion in the last 2,000 years. Our results indicate different genetic diversity and possibly distinct population history for different local populations, and suggest that CZ and FS should be

  19. Research on energy-saving optimal control of trains in a following operation under a fixed four-aspect autoblock system based on multi-dimension parallel GA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Qiheng; Feng, Xiaoyun

    2013-03-01

    After analyzing the working principle of the four-aspect fixed autoblock system, an energy-saving control model was created based on the dynamics equations of the trains in order to study the energy-saving optimal control strategy of trains in a following operation. Besides the safety and punctuality, the main aims of the model were the energy consumption and the time error. Based on this model, the static and dynamic speed restraints under a four-aspect fixed autoblock system were put forward. The multi-dimension parallel genetic algorithm (GA) and the external punishment function were adopted to solve this problem. By using the real number coding and the strategy of ramps divided into three parts, the convergence of GA was speeded up and the length of chromosomes was shortened. A vector of Gaussian random disturbance with zero mean was superposed to the mutation operator. The simulation result showed that the method could reduce the energy consumption effectively based on safety and punctuality.

  20. Entomological aspects of the first five years of the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in the Volta River Basin.

    PubMed

    Walsh, J F; Davies, J B; Le Berre, R

    1979-09-01

    The history and structure of the WHO Onchocerciasis Control Programme in the Volta River Basin are described. An outline of the vector control operations is given, and the techniques and organisation of the entomological evaluation network are described in detail. During the course of the evaluation and related studies undertaken between November 1974 and October 1978 almost 1.2 million S. damnosum females have been taken in over 52,000 man days of catching, and 674,000 flies were dissected. An assessment based on this effort using Annual Biting Rates and Annual Transmission Potentials shows that the transmission of O. volvulus has been reduced to below a defined maximum permissible level over most of the central part of the Programme Area. The difficulties encountered in the remainder, and at certain problem sites are outlined and relevant data given. The benefits to be expected from extending the area further southwards and the possibilities of later reductions in control activity are discussed. PMID:543001

  1. Psychiatric aspects of pain in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Sedat

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this review is to discuss the psychiatric aspects of pain in cancer patients from a biopsychosocial approach. Pain in cancer patients is considered as a complex reaction causing severe suffering and involves many psychological aspects. It has many dimensions such as personality, affect, cognition and social relations. The pain experience may also be influenced by some psychological factors such as anxiety, depression and the meaning of pain. Therefore, a successful management of cancer pain requires a multidisciplinary approach. Since cancer pain is generally treated medically, the psychological impact of pain is often underestimated. However, cancer pain is usually related to high levels of psychological distress. Culture, as an important factor affecting cancer pain, will also be discussed during this review. It is crucial to understand cultural diversity in the treatment of cancer patients with pain. Research shows that a minority patients of various ethnicities have less control of their pain because of the miscommunication problem within the medical setting. By paying attention to patients' cultural diversities, problems such as miscommunication causing inadequate control of pain can be eliminated. In order to manage pain in cancer patients, cognitive-behavioral interventions may be integrated with pharmacotherapy. The main goal of these strategies is to provide a sense of control and better coping skills to deal with cancer. Patients' maladaptive thoughts or behaviors may cause physical and emotional stress. Main behavioral strategies include biofeedback, relaxation training, and hypnosis. Cognitive strategies include guided imagery, distraction, thought monitoring and problem solving. By discussing all of these aspects of cancer pain, the multidimensional characteristic of pain and the relation between cancer pain and psychiatric factors will be clarified. PMID:20590361

  2. Managing diversity.

    PubMed

    Epting, L A; Glover, S H; Boyd, S D

    1994-06-01

    The U.S. work force is becoming increasingly diverse as the 20th century approaches. Statistics prove that most organizations are experiencing gender, culture, and age diversity within their labor forces. All managers and leaders must accept this diversity and work to handle it effectively. This article examines the current literature concerning management of diversity and its implications for the health care profession. Gender, culture, and age diversity and the potential problems that may arise with each are also addressed. Reasons to manage diversity are offered, as well as methods of managing diversity for both the manager and the chief executive officer. PMID:10134144

  3. Endemic predators, invasive prey and native diversity.

    PubMed

    Wanger, Thomas C; Wielgoss, Arno C; Motzke, Iris; Clough, Yann; Brook, Barry W; Sodhi, Navjot S; Tscharntke, Teja

    2011-03-01

    Interactions between native diversity and invasive species can be more complex than is currently understood. Invasive ant species often substantially reduce diversity in the native ants diversity that act as natural control agents for pest insects. In Indonesia (on the island of Sulawesi), the third largest cacao producer worldwide, we show that a predatory endemic toad (Ingerophrynus celebensis) controls invasive ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes) abundance, and positively affects native ant diversity. We call this the invasive-naivety effect (an opposite of enemy release), whereby alien species may not harbour anti-predatory defences against a novel native predator. A positive effect of the toads on native ants may facilitate their predation on insect vectors of cacao diseases. Hence, toads may increase crop yield, but further research is needed on this aspect. Ironically, amphibians are globally the most threatened vertebrate class and are strongly impacted by the conversion of rainforest to cacao plantations in Sulawesi. It is, therefore, crucial to manage cacao plantations to maintain these endemic toads, as they may provide critical ecosystem services, such as invasion resistance and preservation of native insect diversity. PMID:20826488

  4. Endemic predators, invasive prey and native diversity

    PubMed Central

    Wanger, Thomas C.; Wielgoss, Arno C.; Motzke, Iris; Clough, Yann; Brook, Barry W.; Sodhi, Navjot S.; Tscharntke, Teja

    2011-01-01

    Interactions between native diversity and invasive species can be more complex than is currently understood. Invasive ant species often substantially reduce diversity in the native ants diversity that act as natural control agents for pest insects. In Indonesia (on the island of Sulawesi), the third largest cacao producer worldwide, we show that a predatory endemic toad (Ingerophrynus celebensis) controls invasive ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes) abundance, and positively affects native ant diversity. We call this the invasive-naivety effect (an opposite of enemy release), whereby alien species may not harbour anti-predatory defences against a novel native predator. A positive effect of the toads on native ants may facilitate their predation on insect vectors of cacao diseases. Hence, toads may increase crop yield, but further research is needed on this aspect. Ironically, amphibians are globally the most threatened vertebrate class and are strongly impacted by the conversion of rainforest to cacao plantations in Sulawesi. It is, therefore, crucial to manage cacao plantations to maintain these endemic toads, as they may provide critical ecosystem services, such as invasion resistance and preservation of native insect diversity. PMID:20826488

  5. Stratgies for Diversity Usage to Mitigate Postulated Common Cause Failure Vulnerabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Richard Thomas; Waterman, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to establish effective mitigating strategies that can resolve potential common-cause failure (CCF) vulnerabilities in instrumentation and control systems at nuclear power plants. A particular objective in the development of these strategies, which consist of combinations of diversity attributes and their associated criteria, is to address the unique characteristics of digital technology that can contribute to CCF concerns. The research approach employed to establish diversity strategies involves investigation of available documentation on diversity usage and experience from nuclear power and non-nuclear industries, capture of expert knowledge and lessons learned, determination of common practices, and assessment of the nature of CCFs and compensating diversity attributes. The resulting diversity strategies address considerations such as the effect of technology choices, the nature of CCF vulnerabilities, and the prospective impact of each diversity type. In particular, the impact of each attribute and criterion on the purpose, process, product, and performance aspects of diverse systems are considered.

  6. Sapogenin content variation in Medicago inter-specific hybrid derivatives highlights some aspects of saponin synthesis and control.

    PubMed

    Carelli, Maria; Biazzi, Elisa; Tava, Aldo; Losini, Ilaria; Abbruscato, Pamela; Depedro, Claudia; Scotti, Carla

    2015-04-01

    In the Medicago genus, saponins are a complex mixture of triterpene glycosides showing a broad spectrum of biological properties. Here we analyzed the variation in the sapogenin content and composition of inter-specific hybrid Medicago sativa × Medicago arborea derivatives to highlight the pattern of this variation in plant organs (leaves/roots) and the possible mechanisms underlying it. In Sativa Arborea Cross (SAC) leaves and roots, saponins and sapogenins were evaluated using chromatographic methods. Phenotypic correlations between sapogenin content and bio-agronomic traits were examined. Expression studies on β-amyrin synthase and four cytochromes P450 (CYPs) involved in sapogenin biosynthesis and sequence analysis of the key gene of the hemolytic sapogenin pathway (CYP716A12) were performed. Chromatographic analyses revealed a different pattern of among-family variation for hemolytic and nonhemolytic sapogenins and saponins and for the two organs/tissues. Different correlation patterns of gene expression in roots and leaves were found. Diachronic analysis revealed a relationship between sapogenin content and gene transcriptional levels in the early stages of the productive cycle. The results suggest that there are different control mechanisms acting on sapogenin biosynthesis for leaves and roots, which are discussed. A key role for medicagenic acid in the control of sapogenin content in both the tissues is proposed and discussed. PMID:25406544

  7. Practical aspects of a maximum likelihood estimation method to extract stability and control derivatives from flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, K. W.; Maine, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    A maximum likelihood estimation method was applied to flight data and procedures to facilitate the routine analysis of a large amount of flight data were described. Techniques that can be used to obtain stability and control derivatives from aircraft maneuvers that are less than ideal for this purpose are described. The techniques involve detecting and correcting the effects of dependent or nearly dependent variables, structural vibration, data drift, inadequate instrumentation, and difficulties with the data acquisition system and the mathematical model. The use of uncertainty levels and multiple maneuver analysis also proved to be useful in improving the quality of the estimated coefficients. The procedures used for editing the data and for overall analysis are also discussed.

  8. Biological control of spider mites on grape by phytoseiid mites (Acari: Tetranychidae, Phytoseiidae): emphasis on regional aspects.

    PubMed

    Prischmann, D A; Croft, B A; Luh, H K

    2002-04-01

    Leaf samples were taken from 34 (1998) and 10 (1999) vineyards in five valleys in western Oregon to assess spider mite pests and biological control by predaceous phytoseiid mites. A leaf at a coordinate of every 10 m of border, 5 m into a vineyard, was taken to minimize edge effects; 20 leaves were taken at regular intervals from vineyard centers. Variables recorded at each site included grape variety and plant age, chemicals used, and vegetation next to vineyards. Sites were rated as occurring in agricultural versus riparian settings based on surrounding vegetation types. Multiple linear regressions and a computer genetic algorithm with an information content criterion were used to assess variables that may explain mite abundances. Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten was the dominant phytoseiid mite species and Tetranychus urticae Koch the dominant tetranychid mite species. High levels of T. urticae occurred when phytoseiid levels were low, and low levels of T. urticae were present when phytoseiid levels were high to moderate. T. urticae densities were higher in vineyards surrounded by agriculture, but phytoseiid levels did not differ between agricultural and riparian sites. Phytoseiids had higher densities on vineyard edges; T. urticae densities were higher in centers. Biological control success of pest mites was rated excellent in 11 of 44 vineyards, good in 27, and poor in only six sites. Predaceous mites appeared to be the principal agents regulating spider mites at low levels in sites where pesticides nontoxic to predators were used. Effects of surrounding vegetation, grape variety, growing region, and other factors on mites are discussed. PMID:12020011

  9. LLM-Domain Containing B-GATA Factors Control Different Aspects of Cytokinin-Regulated Development in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Ranftl, Quirin L; Bastakis, Emmanouil; Klermund, Carina; Schwechheimer, Claus

    2016-04-01

    Leu-Leu-Met (LLM)-domain B-GATAs are a subfamily of the 30-membered GATA transcription factor family from Arabidopsis. Only two of the six Arabidopsis LLM-domain B-GATAs, i.e. GATA, NITRATE-INDUCIBLE, CARBON METABOLISM-INVOLVED (GNC) and its paralog GNC-LIKE/CYTOKININ-RESPONSIVE GATA FACTOR1 (GNL), have already been analyzed with regard to their biological function. Together, GNC and GNL control germination, greening, flowering time, and senescence downstream from auxin, cytokinin (CK), gibberellin (GA), and light signaling. Whereas overexpression and complementation analyses suggest a redundant biochemical function between GNC and GNL, nothing is known about the biological role of the four other LLM-domain B-GATAs, GATA15, GATA16, GATA17, and GATA17L (GATA17-LIKE), based on loss-of-function mutant phenotypes. Here, we examine insertion mutants of the six Arabidopsis B-GATA genes and reveal the role of these genes in the control of greening, hypocotyl elongation, phyllotaxy, floral organ initiation, accessory meristem formation, flowering time, and senescence. Several of these phenotypes had previously not been described for the gnc and gnl mutants or were enhanced in the more complex mutants when compared to gnc gnl mutants. Some of the respective responses may be mediated by CK signaling, which activates the expression of all six GATA genes. CK-induced gene expression is partially compromised in LLM-domain B-GATA mutants, suggesting that B-GATA genes play a role in CK responses. We furthermore provide evidence for a transcriptional cross regulation between these GATAs that may, in at least some cases, be at the basis of their apparent functional redundancy. PMID:26829982

  10. Expression of genes controlling fat deposition in two genetically diverse beef cattle breeds fed high or low silage diets

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Both genetic background and finishing system can alter fat deposition, thus indicating their influence on adipogenic and lipogenic factors. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying fat deposition and fatty acid composition in beef cattle are not fully understood. This study aimed to assess the effect of breed and dietary silage level on the expression patterns of key genes controlling lipid metabolism in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle of cattle. To that purpose, forty bulls from two genetically diverse Portuguese bovine breeds with distinct maturity rates, Alentejana and Barrosã, were selected and fed either low (30% maize silage/70% concentrate) or high silage (70% maize silage/30% concentrate) diets. Results The results suggested that enhanced deposition of fatty acids in the SAT from Barrosã bulls, when compared to Alentejana, could be due to higher expression levels of lipogenesis (SCD and LPL) and β-oxidation (CRAT) related genes. Our results also indicated that SREBF1 expression in the SAT is increased by feeding the low silage diet. Together, these results point out to a higher lipid turnover in the SAT of Barrosã bulls when compared to Alentejana. In turn, lipid deposition in the LL muscle is related to the expression of adipogenic (PPARG and FABP4) and lipogenic (ACACA and SCD) genes. The positive correlation between ACACA expression levels and total lipids, as well trans fatty acids, points to ACACA as a major player in intramuscular deposition in ruminants. Moreover, results reinforce the role of FABP4 in intramuscular fat development and the SAT as the major site for lipid metabolism in ruminants. Conclusions Overall, the results showed that SAT and LL muscle fatty acid composition are mostly dependent on the genetic background. In addition, dietary silage level impacted on muscle lipid metabolism to a greater extent than on that of SAT, as evaluated by gene expression levels of adipogenic and

  11. Some aspects of the biology and control using botanicals of the rice moth, Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton), on some pulses.

    PubMed

    Allotey; Azalekor

    2000-07-01

    The life cycle of Corcyra cephalonica was studied under ambient laboratory conditions (temperature range 27.5-30 degrees C and 60-73% r.h.) on groundnut, bambara groundnut and cowpea. The mean developmental period ranged from 33.2+/-0.2 to 45.3+/-1.8 days on whole, broken and powdered forms of the food media. Egg hatchability was found to be 83%, while adult longevity ranged from 1.5+/-0.5 to 11.9+/-1.3 days for males and 1.5+/-0.5 to 16.5+/-1.2 days for females. Sex ratio (male symbol:female symbol) of emerged adults ranged from 1:1 to 1:2.1. Mean fecundities ranged from 128+/-5 to 157+/-8 on the food media. In experiments to assess the insecticidal potential of three plant materials against C. cephalonica, Eichhornia crassipes powder showed a higher efficacy than both Citrus sinensis peel powder and the leaf powder of Chromolaena odorata at dosages of 0.5-2.0 g per 40 g of legume seed. At the higher dosage of 2.5 g, C. sinensis was more effective and reduced the population of C. cephalonica by half when compared to the population in control jars over a period of 1.5 months. PMID:10758262

  12. The late Silurian-Middle Devonian long-term eustatic cycle as a possible control on the global generic diversity dynamics of bivalves and gastropods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruban, Dmitry A.

    2013-09-01

    A long-term eustatic cycle (fall and subsequent rise of the global sea level) embraced the late Silurian-Middle Devonian time interval. Potentially, these sea-level changes could drive global biodiversity. The stratigraphic ranges of 204 bivalve genera and 279 gastropod genera included into the famous Sepkoski database allow reconstructing changes in the total diversity and the number of originations and extinctions of these important groups of marine benthic macro- -invertebrates during this interval. None of the recorded parameters coincided with the long-term global sea-level cycle. It cannot be not excluded, however, that the global sea-level changes did not affect the regions favourable for bivalve and gastropod radiation because of regional tectonic mechanisms; neither can it be excluded that the eustatic control persisted together with many other extrinsic and intrinsic controls. Interestingly, the generic diversity of gastropods increased together with a cooling trend, and vice versa. Additionally, the Ludlow, Eifelian, and Givetian biotic crises affected, probably, both fossil groups under study. There was also a coincidence of the relatively high bivalve generic diversity, initial radiation of gastropods and the entire biota, and the diversification of brachiopods with the Early Devonian global sea-level lowstand, and this may be interpreted as evidence of a certain eustatic control on the marine biodiversity.

  13. Exploring involuntary childlessness in men - a qualitative study assessing quality of life, role aspects and control beliefs in men's perception of the fertility treatment process.

    PubMed

    Schick, Maren; Rösner, Sabine; Toth, Bettina; Strowitzki, Thomas; Wischmann, Tewes

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the experience and perception of men during the diagnosis of infertility and subsequent treatment, and the impact on role concepts, control beliefs, and quality of life on these processes. Furthermore, it aimed to derive improvements in how men should be counselled. A qualitative study was conducted. It consisted of 13 semi-structured individual interviews with men undergoing or about to start fertility treatment at Heidelberg University Hospital. Data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Men emphasized the rare opportunities for being involved in treatment, lack of control and the ambivalence of social support. Furthermore, their experiences differed enormously regarding the cause of infertility and the period for which they were preoccupied with the topic. Dealing with involuntary childlessness is challenging for all men. Nevertheless, participants revealed major differences in dealing with fertility treatment in relation to role concepts, control beliefs, social support and the cause of infertility. The significance of diverse causes of infertility and the need for men to adopt certain roles ought to be more valued and a holistic approach improving quality of life enhanced. PMID:27007070

  14. From Randomized Controlled Trials of Antidepressant Drugs to the Meta-Analytic Synthesis of Evidence: Methodological Aspects Lead to Discrepant Findings

    PubMed Central

    Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N.; McIntyre, Roger S.; Carvalho, André F.

    2015-01-01

    During the last decade, several meta-analytic studies employing different methodological approaches have had inconsistent conclusions regarding antidepressant efficacy. Herein, we aim to comment on methodological aspects that may have contributed to disparate findings. We initially discuss methodological inconsistencies and limitations related to the conduct of individual antidepressant randomized controlled trials (RCTs), including differences in allocated samples, limitations of psychometric scales, possible explanations for the heightened placebo response rates in antidepressant RCTs across the past two decades as well as the reporting of conflicts of interest. In the second part of this article, we briefly describe the various meta-analyses techniques (e.g., simple random effects meta-analysis and network meta-analysis) and the application of these methods to synthesize evidence related to antidepressant efficacy. Recently published antidepressant metaanalyses often provide discrepant results and similar results often lead to different interpretations. Finally, we propose strategies to improve methodology considering real-world clinical scenarios. PMID:26467410

  15. Instructional Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samples, Bob

    2000-01-01

    Explains how learning occurs in the brain, specifically in the limbic system. Compares traditional teaching methods and diverse learning modes. Describes the characteristics of diverse instructional approaches. First published in 1994. (YDS)

  16. Topographic Controls on Spatial Patterns of Soil Texture and Moisture in a Semi-arid Montane Catchment with Aspect-Dependent Vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehman, B. M.; Niemann, J. D.

    2008-12-01

    Soil moisture exerts significant control over the partitioning of latent and sensible energy fluxes, the magnitude of both vertical and lateral water fluxes, the physiological and water-use characteristics of vegetation, and nutrient cycling. Considerable progress has been made in determining how soil characteristics, topography, and vegetation influence spatial patterns of soil moisture in humid environments at the catchment, hillslope, and plant scales. However, understanding of the controls on soil moisture patterns beyond the plant scale in semi-arid environments remains more limited. This study examines the relationships between the spatial patterns of near surface soil moisture (upper 5 cm), terrain indices, and soil properties in a small, semi-arid, montane catchment. The 8 ha catchment, located in the Cache La Poudre River Canyon in north-central Colorado, has a total relief of 115 m and an average elevation of 2193 m. It is characterized by steep slopes and shallow, gravelly/sandy soils with scattered granite outcroppings. Depth to bedrock ranges from 0 m to greater than 1 m. Vegetation in the catchment is highly correlated with topographic aspect. In particular, north-facing hillslopes are predominately vegetated by ponderosa pines, while south-facing slopes are mostly vegetated by several shrub species. Soil samples were collected at a 30 m resolution to characterize soil texture and bulk density, and several datasets consisting of more than 300 point measurements of soil moisture were collected using time domain reflectometry (TDR) between Fall 2007 and Summer 2008 at a 15 m resolution. Results from soil textural analysis performed with sieving and the ASTM standard hydrometer method show that soil texture is finer on the north-facing hillslope than on the south-facing hillslope. Cos(aspect) is the best univariate predictor of silts, while slope is the best predictor of coarser fractions up to fine gravel. Bulk density increases with depth but shows no

  17. Rethinking Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Jack

    1992-01-01

    Managing diversity is about coping with unassimilated differences, about building systems and a culture that unite different people in a common pursuit without undermining their diversity. The goal of diversity training is a high performance organization rather than a climate in which no one's feathers are ruffled. (SK)

  18. The interplay of diversity training and diversity beliefs on team creativity in nationality diverse teams.

    PubMed

    Homan, Astrid C; Buengeler, Claudia; Eckhoff, Robert A; van Ginkel, Wendy P; Voelpel, Sven C

    2015-09-01

    Attaining value from nationality diversity requires active diversity management, which organizations often employ in the form of diversity training programs. Interestingly, however, the previously reported effects of diversity training are often weak and, sometimes, even negative. This situation calls for research on the conditions under which diversity training helps or harms teams. We propose that diversity training can increase team creativity, but only for teams with less positive pretraining diversity beliefs (i.e., teams with a greater need for such training) and that are sufficiently diverse in nationality. Comparing the creativity of teams that attended nationality diversity training versus control training, we found that for teams with less positive diversity beliefs, diversity training increased creative performance when the team's nationality diversity was high, but undermined creativity when the team's nationality diversity was low. Diversity training had less impact on teams with more positive diversity beliefs, and training effects were not contingent upon these teams' diversity. Speaking to the underlying process, we showed that these interactive effects were driven by the experienced team efficacy of the team members. We discuss theoretical and practical implications for nationality diversity management. PMID:25688641

  19. Industrial noise control: architectural and environmental aspects. January, 1975-August, 1981 (citations from the International Information Service for the Physics and Engineering Communities Data Base). Report for Jan 75-Aug 81

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-08-01

    The architectural and environmental aspects of noise control are discussed in terms of the effect of building standards as well as the proper installation of equipment to reduce vibration of air control equipment. (Contains 114 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  20. High-order myopic coronagraphic phase diversity (COFFEE) for wave-front control in high-contrast imaging systems.

    PubMed

    Paul, B; Mugnier, L M; Sauvage, J-F; Dohlen, K; Ferrari, M

    2013-12-30

    The estimation and compensation of quasi-static aberrations is mandatory to reach the ultimate performance of high-contrast imaging systems. COFFEE is a focal plane wave-front sensing method that consists in the extension of phase diversity to high-contrast imaging systems. Based on a Bayesian approach, it estimates the quasi-static aberrations from two focal plane images recorded from the scientific camera itself. In this paper, we present COFFEE's extension which allows an estimation of low and high order aberrations with nanometric precision for any coronagraphic device. The performance is evaluated by realistic simulations, performed in the SPHERE instrument framework. We develop a myopic estimation that allows us to take into account an imperfect knowledge on the used diversity phase. Lastly, we evaluate COFFEE's performance in a compensation process, to optimize the contrast on the detector, and show it allows one to reach the 10(-6) contrast required by SPHERE at a few resolution elements from the star. Notably, we present a non-linear energy minimization method which can be used to reach very high contrast levels (better than 10(7) in a SPHERE-like context). PMID:24514771

  1. High aspect ratio nanoimprinted grooves of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) control the length and direction of retraction fibers during fibroblast cell division.

    PubMed

    Su, Yi-Hsuan; Chiang, Po-Chieh; Cheng, Li-Jing; Lee, Chau-Hwang; Swami, Nathan S; Chou, Chia-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Retraction fibers (RFs) determine orientation of the cell division axis and guide the spreading of daughter cells. Long and unidirectional RFs, which are especially apparent during mitosis of cells in three-dimensional (3D) environments, enable improved control over cell fate, following division. However, 3D gel environments lack the cues necessary for predetermining the orientation of RFs to direct tissue architecture. While patterning of focal adhesion regions by microcontact printing can determine orientation of the RFs through enhancing focal adhesion numbers along particular directions, the RFs remain short due to the two-dimensional culture environment. Herein, the authors demonstrate that nanoimprinted grooves of polylactic acid glycolic acid (PLGA) with a high aspect ratio (A.R. of 2.0) can provide the cues necessary to control the direction of RFs, as well as enable the maintenance of long and unidirectional RFs as observed within 3D cultures, while the same is not possible with PLGA grooves of lower A.R. (1.0 or lower). Based on enhanced levels of contact guidance of premitotic fibroblast protrusions at high A.R. grooves and deeper levels of focal adhesion due to filopodia extensions into these grooves, it is suggested that submicron (800 nm width) PLGA grooves with A.R. of 2 are capable of supporting mechanical forces from cell protrusions to a greater depth, thereby enabling the maintenance of the protrusions as long and unidirectional RFs during cell division. Given the scalability and versatility of nanoimprint techniques, the authors envision a platform for designing nanostructures to direct tissue regeneration and developmental biology. PMID:26652706

  2. Embracing Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roeck, Kathryn T.

    2009-01-01

    The high school art unit "Embracing Diversity" was the author's principal work towards the completion of a Masters thesis. The objective was to learn whether or not teaching an art unit that focused on sexual diversity could have a positive impact on the current culture one finds in high schools. The unit was found to have a positive impact on…

  3. Inhibitory Control in Preschool Predicts Early Math Skills in First Grade: Evidence from an Ethnically Diverse Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Florrie Fei-Yin; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Sze, Irene Nga-Lam

    2015-01-01

    Preschoolers' inhibitory control and early math skills were concurrently and longitudinally examined in 255 Chinese, African American, Dominican, and Mexican 4-year-olds in the United States. Inhibitory control at age 4, assessed with a peg-tapping task, was associated with early math skills at age 4 and predicted growth in such skills from…

  4. Bioengineering applied to erosion and stability control in the North Apennines (Emilia-Romagna Region, Italy): a check about critical aspects of the works.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selli, Lavinia; Cavazza, Claudio; Pavanelli, Donatella

    2013-04-01

    Because of its geological structure, in the Emilia-Romagna Region over 32,000 landslides have been identified. Several works have been made in order to control mass movement's dynamics and to secure of Reno and Lamone Mountain Basin Rivers, the road network and near by villages and towns. Most of the control works dealt with bioengineering practices: palisades piles, geotextiles, seedings, surface flow control works, dikes within main drainage ditches. In order to check about critical aspects related to the use of these techniques in the Apennines, a survey in this basins was designed with specific interest in the several kinds of works realised, in which plant species were mostly used and in the factors that affected the success or failure of the works. Territory encompasses steep slopes covered with woods to low reliefs covered with grasslands. It is characterized by prevailing clays, inducing instability, and arenaceous lithology with impermeable soils; drainage density is quite high and hillsides suffer extensive and severe erosion and slope stability problems. Chestnut woods mainly represent land use at higher altitudes, while coppice, pastures and crops are present on milder hillsides. The remaining part of the basin is covered by vineyards, orchards, ponds and urban areas, which are basically located in the valley floor. Precipitation events mainly consist of rainfall ranging between 950-1015 mm per year; few snowfalls occur during winter and a long dry season lasts from June until September. We have analyzed 187 works designed mainly for the consolidation of slope instabilities through a widespread enhancement of the vegetation cover. The surveyed works are classified as a function of their building features: it can be seen that cribwalls and palisades are by far the most common types, being the 24% and the 34% respectively of the works. As far as the most adopted plant species, they were silver willow (Salix alba), Spanish Broom (Spartium Junceum) and

  5. Comparative studies on the effects of Bt-transgenic and nontransgenic cotton on arthropod diversity, seedcotton yield and bollworms control.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, M K; Sharma, H C

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of commercial Bt-cotton in pest management, influence on arthropod diversity, natural enemies, and toxin flow in the insect fauna under field conditions were studied keeping in view the need to assess bioefficacy and biosafety of Bt-transgenic cotton. There were no significant differences in oviposition by Helicoverpa armigera on Bt-transgenic and non-transgenic cottons (9.2 versus 9.6 eggs plants(-100)), while the numbers of H. armigera larvae were significantly more on non-transgenic than on Bt-transgenic (10.4 versus 4.0 larvae plants(-100)) cotton. The Bt-cotton had significantly more number of mature opened bolls (9.6 versus 4.4 bolls plant(-1)), lower bollworm damage (12.8 versus 40.2% bolls damaged), and higher seedcotton yield (667.7 versus 231.7 kg ha 1). Population of cotton leafhopper, Amrasca biguttula biguttula was lower (582.2 versus 732.2 leafhoppers plants(-100)), while that of whitefly, Bemisia tabaci was higher on Bt-transgenic (65.2 versus 45.6 whiteflies plants(-100)) than on non-transgenic cotton. There was no significant influence of Bt-transgenic cotton on abundance of natural enemies of crop pests - chrysopids (9.6 versus 8.4 chrysopids plants(-100), ladybird beetles (16.0 versus 10.8 ladybirds plants(-100)), and spiders (128.4 versus 142.8 spiders plants(-100)). There were no significant differences in H. ormigera egg (19.8 versus 20.9%), larval (7.4 versus 9.6%), and larval-pupal (1.3 versus 2.9%) parasitism on Bt-transgenic and non-transgenic cottons in the farmer's fields. The parasitism in larvae of H. armigera was far lower than that of the eggs, which might be because of early mortality of H. armigera prior to parasitoid development in the host larvae. Although, Cry1Ac Bt toxin was detected in Cheilomenes sexmoculatus, chrysopids, A. bigutulla bigutulla, Thrips taboci, Myllocerus sp., Oxycarenus laetus, Dysdercus koenigii, spiders, bugs, and grasshoppers, no significant differences were observed in their abundance on

  6. Environmental controls on the distribution and diversity of lentic Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) across an altitudinal gradient in tropical South America.

    PubMed

    Matthews-Bird, Frazer; Gosling, William D; Coe, Angela L; Bush, Mark; Mayle, Francis E; Axford, Yarrow; Brooks, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    To predict the response of aquatic ecosystems to future global climate change, data on the ecology and distribution of keystone groups in freshwater ecosystems are needed. In contrast to mid- and high-latitude zones, such data are scarce across tropical South America (Neotropics). We present the distribution and diversity of chironomid species using surface sediments of 59 lakes from the Andes to the Amazon (0.1-17°S and 64-78°W) within the Neotropics. We assess the spatial variation in community assemblages and identify the key variables influencing the distributional patterns. The relationships between environmental variables (pH, conductivity, depth, and sediment organic content), climatic data, and chironomid assemblages were assessed using multivariate statistics (detrended correspondence analysis and canonical correspondence analysis). Climatic parameters (temperature and precipitation) were most significant in describing the variance in chironomid assemblages. Temperature and precipitation are both predicted to change under future climate change scenarios in the tropical Andes. Our findings suggest taxa of Orthocladiinae, which show a preference to cold high-elevation oligotrophic lakes, will likely see range contraction under future anthropogenic-induced climate change. Taxa abundant in areas of high precipitation, such as Micropsectra and Phaenopsectra, will likely become restricted to the inner tropical Andes, as the outer tropical Andes become drier. The sensitivity of chironomids to climate parameters makes them important bio-indicators of regional climate change in the Neotropics. Furthermore, the distribution of chironomid taxa presented here is a vital first step toward providing urgently needed autecological data for interpreting fossil chironomid records of past ecological and climate change from the tropical Andes. PMID:26811777

  7. The Diversity of Attention Deficits in ADHD: The Prevalence of Four Cognitive Factors in ADHD Versus Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsal, Yehoshua; Shalev, Lilach; Mevorach, Carmel

    2005-01-01

    The performance of participants with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) relative to control participants was measured on four tasks uniquely assessing the functions of selective attention, executive attention, sustained attention, and orienting of attention. The results showed that deficits in sustained attention were the most…

  8. Diversity in Control and Management Techniques for Cactoblastis cactorum and Its Response in its Adventive North American Range

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The South American cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is celebrated for its role as a biological control agent for weedy Opuntia spp. However, multiple unintentional arrivals of C. cactorum in North America represent an economical and ecological threat to native Opun...

  9. Genetic and antigenic diversity of Theileria parva in cattle in Eastern and Southern zones of Tanzania. A study to support control of East Coast fever.

    PubMed

    Elisa, Mwega; Hasan, Salih Dia; Moses, Njahira; Elpidius, Rukambile; Skilton, Robert; Gwakisa, Paul

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the genetic and antigenic diversity of Theileria parva in cattle from the Eastern and Southern zones of Tanzania. Thirty-nine (62%) positive samples were genotyped using 14 mini- and microsatellite markers with coverage of all four T. parva chromosomes. Wright's F index (F(ST) = 0 × 094) indicated a high level of panmixis. Linkage equilibrium was observed in the two zones studied, suggesting existence of a panmyctic population. In addition, sequence analysis of CD8+ T-cell target antigen genes Tp1 revealed a single protein sequence in all samples analysed, which is also present in the T. parva Muguga strain, which is a component of the FAO1 vaccine. All Tp2 epitope sequences were identical to those in the T. parva Muguga strain, except for one variant of a Tp2 epitope, which is found in T. parva Kiambu 5 strain, also a component the FAO1 vaccine. Neighbour joining tree of the nucleotide sequences of Tp2 showed clustering according to geographical origin. Our results show low genetic and antigenic diversity of T. parva within the populations analysed. This has very important implications for the development of sustainable control measures for T. parva in Eastern and Southern zones of Tanzania, where East Coast fever is endemic. PMID:25417727

  10. Population genetic diversity of the northern snakehead (Channa argus) in China based on the mitochondrial DNA control region and adjacent regions sequences.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Aiguo; Zhuo, Xiaolei; Zou, Qing; Chen, Jintao; Zou, Jixing

    2015-06-01

    Genetic variation and population structure of northern snakehead (Channa argus) from eight locations in China were investigated using mitochondrial DNA control region and adjacent regions sequences. Sequence analysis showed that there were 105 haplotypes in 260 individuals, 48 unique haplotypes and 57 shared haplotypes, but no common haplotype shared by all populations. As a whole, the haplotype diversity was high (h=0.989), while the nucleotide diversity was low (π=0.00482). AMOVA analysis detected significant genetic differentiation among all eight populations (FST=0.328, p<0.01) and 66.17% of the total variance was resulted from intra-population differentiation. UPGMA analysis indicated that the eight populations could be divided into four major clusters, which was consistent with that the eight sampled locations were belonged to four isolated river systems. The neutrality and mismatch distribution tests suggested that the eight populations of C. argus in the sampling locations underwent recent population expansion. Among the eight populations, the Erhai Lake population may represent a unique genetic resource and therefore needs to be conserved. PMID:24724976

  11. Control of diverse subcellular processes by a single multi-functional lipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2].

    PubMed

    Kolay, Sourav; Basu, Urbashi; Raghu, Padinjat

    2016-06-15

    Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] is a multi-functional lipid that regulates several essential subcellular processes in eukaryotic cells. In addition to its well-established function as a substrate for receptor-activated signalling at the plasma membrane (PM), it is now recognized that distinct PI(4,5)P2 pools are present at other organelle membranes. However, a long-standing question that remains unresolved is the mechanism by which a single lipid species, with an invariant functional head group, delivers numerous functions without loss of fidelity. In the present review, we summarize studies that have examined the molecular processes that shape the repertoire of PI(4,5)P2 pools in diverse eukaryotes. Collectively, these studies indicate a conserved role for lipid kinase isoforms in generating functionally distinct pools of PI(4,5)P2 in diverse metazoan species. The sophistication underlying the regulation of multiple functions by PI(4,5)P2 is also shaped by mechanisms that regulate its availability to enzymes involved in its metabolism as well as molecular processes that control its diffusion at nanoscales in the PM. Collectively, these mechanisms ensure the specificity of PI(4,5)P2 mediated signalling at eukaryotic membranes. PMID:27288030

  12. Factors Controlling Soil Microbial Biomass and Bacterial Diversity and Community Composition in a Cold Desert Ecosystem: Role of Geographic Scale

    PubMed Central

    Van Horn, David J.; Van Horn, M. Lee; Barrett, John E.; Gooseff, Michael N.; Altrichter, Adam E.; Geyer, Kevin M.; Zeglin, Lydia H.; Takacs-Vesbach, Cristina D.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding controls over the distribution of soil bacteria is a fundamental step toward describing soil ecosystems, understanding their functional capabilities, and predicting their responses to environmental change. This study investigated the controls on the biomass, species richness, and community structure and composition of soil bacterial communities in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, at local and regional scales. The goals of the study were to describe the relationships between abiotic characteristics and soil bacteria in this unique, microbially dominated environment, and to test the scale dependence of these relationships in a low complexity ecosystem. Samples were collected from dry mineral soils associated with snow patches, which are a significant source of water in this desert environment, at six sites located in the major basins of the Taylor and Wright Valleys. Samples were analyzed for a suite of characteristics including soil moisture, pH, electrical conductivity, soil organic matter, major nutrients and ions, microbial biomass, 16 S rRNA gene richness, and bacterial community structure and composition. Snow patches created local biogeochemical gradients while inter-basin comparisons encompassed landscape scale gradients enabling comparisons of microbial controls at two distinct spatial scales. At the organic carbon rich, mesic, low elevation sites Acidobacteria and Actinobacteria were prevalent, while Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were dominant at the high elevation, low moisture and biomass sites. Microbial parameters were significantly related with soil water content and edaphic characteristics including soil pH, organic matter, and sulfate. However, the magnitude and even the direction of these relationships varied across basins and the application of mixed effects models revealed evidence of significant contextual effects at local and regional scales. The results highlight the importance of the geographic scale of sampling when

  13. A Locus on Chromosome 8 Controlling Tumor Regionality -- a New Type of Tumor Diversity in the Mouse Lung

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Lei; Hutson, Alan; Demant, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Regional specificity of lung tumor formation has rarely been studied in mouse or human. By using crosses of strains semi-congenic for lung cancer susceptibility locus Sluc20, we have analyzed the genetic influences of Sluc20 and five other loci on tumor regionality in the mouse lung. We have mapped Sluc20 to a 27.92MB proximal region of chromosome 8 and found that it controls the number and load of only those tumors that surround or are directly adjacent to the bronchi or bronchioli (peribronchial tumors). These tumors lie outside the bronchial basement membrane and tend to reach a larger size than the tumors at other locations in the lung. Similarly to tumors of alveolar lineage at other locations, peribronchial tumors stain with SP-C but not CC-10 antibody. The effects of Sluc20 alleles are additive as the number of peribronchial tumors in heterozygotes is intermediate. These findings reveal that tumor regionality in the mouse lung, which represents a novel level of lung tumor heterogeneity, is under specific genetic control. The identification of genes controlling lung tumor regionality will provide novel insights into biology of lung tumors and potentially improve the possibilities of individualized prognosis and treatment in human lung cancer. PMID:19847808

  14. The Academy for Future Science Faculty: randomized controlled trial of theory-driven coaching to shape development and diversity of early-career scientists

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Approaches to training biomedical scientists have created a talented research community. However, they have failed to create a professional workforce that includes many racial and ethnic minorities and women in proportion to their representation in the population or in PhD training. This is particularly true at the faculty level. Explanations for the absence of diversity in faculty ranks can be found in social science theories that reveal processes by which individuals develop identities, experiences, and skills required to be seen as legitimate within the profession. Methods/Design Using the social science theories of Communities of Practice, Social Cognitive Career Theory, identity formation, and cultural capital, we have developed and are testing a novel coaching-based model to address some of the limitations of previous diversity approaches. This coaching intervention (The Academy for Future Science Faculty) includes annual in-person meetings of students and trained faculty Career Coaches, along with ongoing virtual coaching, group meetings and communication. The model is being tested as a randomized controlled trial with two cohorts of biomedical PhD students from across the U.S., one recruited at the start of their PhDs and one nearing completion. Stratification into the experimental and control groups, and to coaching groups within the experimental arms, achieved equal numbers of students by race, ethnicity and gender to the extent possible. A fundamental design element of the Academy is to teach and make visible the social science principles which highly influence scientific advancement, as well as acknowledging the extra challenges faced by underrepresented groups working to be seen as legitimate within the scientific communities. Discussion The strategy being tested is based upon a novel application of the well-established principles of deploying highly skilled coaches, selected and trained for their ability to develop talents of others. This

  15. Beneficial effects of short-term combination exercise training on diverse cognitive functions in healthy older people: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Results of previous studies have shown that exercise training can improve cognitive functions in healthy older people. Some studies have demonstrated that long-term combination exercise training can facilitate memory function improvement better than either aerobic or strength exercise training alone. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether short-term combination exercise training can improve diverse cognitive functions in healthy older people or not. We investigate the effects of four weeks of short-term combination exercise training on various cognitive functions (executive functions, episodic memory, short-term memory, working memory, attention, reading ability, and processing speed) of healthy older people. Methods A single-blinded intervention with two parallel groups (combination exercise training; waiting list control) is used. Testers are blind to the study hypothesis and the participants’ group membership. Through an advertisement in a local newspaper, 64 healthy older adults are recruited and then assigned randomly to a combination exercise training group or a waiting list control group. Participants in the combination exercise training group must participate in the short-term combination exercise training (aerobic and strength exercise training) three days per week during the four weeks (12 workouts in total). The waiting list group does not participate in the combination exercise training. The primary outcome measure is the Stroop test score: a measure of executive function. Secondary outcome measures are assessments including the Verbal Fluency Task, Logical Memory, First and Second Names, Digit Span Forward, Digit span backward, Japanese Reading Test, Digit Cancellation Task, Digit Symbol Coding, and Symbol Search. We assess these outcome measures before and after the intervention. Discussion This report is the first of a study that investigates the beneficial effects of short-term combination exercise training on diverse cognitive

  16. HelioScan: a software framework for controlling in vivo microscopy setups with high hardware flexibility, functional diversity and extendibility.

    PubMed

    Langer, Dominik; van 't Hoff, Marcel; Keller, Andreas J; Nagaraja, Chetan; Pfäffli, Oliver A; Göldi, Maurice; Kasper, Hansjörg; Helmchen, Fritjof

    2013-04-30

    Intravital microscopy such as in vivo imaging of brain dynamics is often performed with custom-built microscope setups controlled by custom-written software to meet specific requirements. Continuous technological advancement in the field has created a need for new control software that is flexible enough to support the biological researcher with innovative imaging techniques and provide the developer with a solid platform for quickly and easily implementing new extensions. Here, we introduce HelioScan, a software package written in LabVIEW, as a platform serving this dual role. HelioScan is designed as a collection of components that can be flexibly assembled into microscope control software tailored to the particular hardware and functionality requirements. Moreover, HelioScan provides a software framework, within which new functionality can be implemented in a quick and structured manner. A specific HelioScan application assembles at run-time from individual software components, based on user-definable configuration files. Due to its component-based architecture, HelioScan can exploit synergies of multiple developers working in parallel on different components in a community effort. We exemplify the capabilities and versatility of HelioScan by demonstrating several in vivo brain imaging modes, including camera-based intrinsic optical signal imaging for functional mapping of cortical areas, standard two-photon laser-scanning microscopy using galvanometric mirrors, and high-speed in vivo two-photon calcium imaging using either acousto-optic deflectors or a resonant scanner. We recommend HelioScan as a convenient software framework for the in vivo imaging community. PMID:23416135

  17. Applying the European protocol for the quality control of the physical and technical aspects of mammography screening threshold contrast visibility assessment to digital systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Metter, Richard; Heath, Michael; Fletcher-Heath, Lynn

    2006-03-01

    The need to assure the image quality of digital systems for mammography screening applications is now widely recognized. One approach is embodied in Part B of the European Protocol for the Quality Control of the Physical and Technical Aspects of Mammography Screening (EPQCM), which prescribes criteria for several interconnected image quality metrics. The focus of this study is on the "threshold contrast visibility" (TCV) protocol (section 2.4.1 of the EPQCM), in which human observers score images of a CDMAM or similar 4-AFC phantom. This section of the EPQCM currently omits many critical experimental details, which must be gleaned from ancillary documents. Given these, the purpose of this study is to quantify the effects of several remaining experimental variables, including phantom design, and the methods used for scoring and analysis, on the measured results. Preliminary studies of two CDMAM version 3.4 (CDMAM 3.4) phantoms have revealed a 17% difference in TCV when averaged over all target diameters from 0.1 to 2.0 mm. This indicates phantom variability may affect results at some sites. More importantly, we have shown that the current CDMAM phantom design, methods for scoring, and analysis, substantially limit the ability to measure system performance accurately and precisely. An improved phantom design has been shown to avoid these limitations. Viewing environment and presentation context affect the performance and efficiency of visual scoring of phantom images. An automated display tool has been developed that isolates individual 4-AFC targets of CDMAM phantom images, automatically optimizes window/level, and automatically records observers' scores. While not substantially changing TCV, the tool has increased scoring efficiency while mitigating several of the limitations associated with unassisted visual scoring. For example, learning bias and navigational issues are completely avoided. Ultimately, software-based ideal observer scoring will likely prove to be

  18. Drug diversion

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Prescription drug diversion has significant health, legal and social implications. Deaths from misuse of prescription drugs account for a significant proportion of overdose deaths. The drugs most commonly involved are analgesics, particularly opioids, and psychoactive drugs, particularly benzodiazepines. Diverted drugs are most often sourced from a family member or friend, but are also sourced from overseas pharmacies or laboratories, or bought from drug dealers. Drug diversion can be mitigated by good prescribing practices. Systems for monitoring the prescribing and dispensing of medicines are being instituted across Australia. PMID:26648654

  19. Cycles in fossil diversity

    SciTech Connect

    Rohde, Robert A.; Muller, Richard A.

    2004-10-20

    It is well-known that the diversity of life appears to fluctuate during the course the Phanerozoic, the eon during which hard shells and skeletons left abundant fossils (0-542 Ma). Using Sepkoski's compendium of the first and last stratigraphic appearances of 36380 marine genera, we report a strong 62 {+-} 3 Myr cycle, which is particularly strong in the shorter-lived genera. The five great extinctions enumerated by Raup and Sepkoski may be an aspect of this cycle. Because of the high statistical significance, we also consider contributing environmental factors and possible causes.

  20. A personalized and control systems engineering conceptual approach to target childhood anxiety in the contexts of cultural diversity.

    PubMed

    Pina, Armando A; Holly, Lindsay E; Zerr, Argero A; Rivera, Daniel E

    2014-01-01

    In the child and adolescent anxiety area, some progress has been made to develop evidence-based prevention protocols, but less is known about how to best target these problems in children and families of color. In general, data show differential program effects with some minority children benefiting significantly less. Our preliminary data, however, show promise and suggest cultural parameters to consider in the tailoring process beyond language and cultural symbols. It appears that a more focused approach to culture might help activate intervention components and its intended effects by focusing, for example, on the various facets of familismo when working with some Mexican parents. However, testing the effects and nuances of cultural adaption vis-à-vis a focused personalized approach is methodologically challenging. For this reason, we identify control systems engineering design methods and provide example scenarios relevant to our data and recent intervention work. PMID:24702279

  1. A Personalized and Control Systems Engineering Conceptual Approach to Target Childhood Anxiety in the Contexts of Cultural Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Pina, Armando A.; Holly, Lindsay E.; Zerr, Argero A.; Rivera, Daniel E.

    2014-01-01

    In the child and adolescent anxiety area, some progress has been made to develop evidence-based prevention protocols but less is known about how to best target these problems in children and families of color. In general, data show differential program effects with some minority children benefiting significantly less. Our preliminary data, however, show promise and suggest cultural parameters to consider in the tailoring process beyond language and cultural symbols. It appears that a more focused approach to culture might help activate intervention components and its intended effects by focusing, for example, on the various facets of familismo when working with some Mexican parents. However, testing the effects and nuances of cultural adaption vis-à-vis a focused personalized approach is methodologically challenging. For this reason, we identify control systems engineering design methods and provide example scenarios relevant to our data and recent intervention work. PMID:24702279

  2. Comprehensive Definition of the SigH Regulon of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Reveals Transcriptional Control of Diverse Stress Responses.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Jared D; Singh, Atul K; Park, Sang Tae; Lyubetskaya, Anna; Peterson, Matthew W; Gomes, Antonio L C; Potluri, Lakshmi-Prasad; Raman, Sahadevan; Galagan, James E; Husson, Robert N

    2016-01-01

    Expression of SigH, one of 12 Mycobacterium tuberculosis alternative sigma factors, is induced by heat, oxidative and nitric oxide stresses. SigH activation has been shown to increase expression of several genes, including genes involved in maintaining redox equilibrium and in protein degradation. However, few of these are known to be directly regulated by SigH. The goal of this project is to comprehensively define the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genes and operons that are directly controlled by SigH in order to gain insight into the role of SigH in regulating M. tuberculosis physiology. We used ChIP-Seq to identify in vivo SigH binding sites throughout the M. tuberculosis genome, followed by quantification of SigH-dependent expression of genes linked to these sites and identification of SigH-regulated promoters. We identified 69 SigH binding sites, which are located both in intergenic regions and within annotated coding sequences in the annotated M. tuberculosis genome. 41 binding sites were linked to genes that showed greater expression following heat stress in a SigH-dependent manner. We identified several genes not previously known to be regulated by SigH, including genes involved in DNA repair, cysteine biosynthesis, translation, and genes of unknown function. Experimental and computational analysis of SigH-regulated promoter sequences within these binding sites identified strong consensus -35 and -10 promoter sequences, but with tolerance for non-consensus bases at specific positions. This comprehensive identification and validation of SigH-regulated genes demonstrates an extended SigH regulon that controls an unexpectedly broad range of stress response functions. PMID:27003599

  3. Discovering Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manner, Barbara M.; Hattler, Jean Anne

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a preservice teacher field trip to the rain forests and coastal areas. This experience develops an awareness for different cultures among preservice teachers by experiencing biological and cultural diversity in Costa Rica. Presents students' own ideas on this experience. (YDS)

  4. PLANT DIVERSITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Habitat change statistics and species-area curves were used to estimate the effects of alternative future scenarios for agriculture on plant diversity in Iowa farmlands. Study areas were two watersheds in central Iowa of about 50 and 90 square kilometers, respectively. Future s...

  5. Generational diversity.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Linda W

    2010-01-01

    Generational diversity has proven challenges for nurse leaders, and generational values may influence ideas about work and career planning. This article discusses generational gaps, influencing factors and support, and the various generational groups present in today's workplace as well as the consequences of need addressing these issues. The article ends with a discussion of possible solutions. PMID:20395729

  6. Diversity Trailblazer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Reginald

    2012-01-01

    When Dr. Kumea Shorter-Gooden took on her newly created job this month at the University of Maryland's flagship College Park campus, she assumed a challenge at the school with a lot riding on her shoulders--helping the University of Maryland strengthen its diversity efforts and, thus, its relevance to the state in the future and standing among the…

  7. Controls on the Entrainment of Juvenile Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) into Large Water Diversions and Estimates of Population-Level Loss

    PubMed Central

    Zeug, Steven C.; Cavallo, Bradley J.

    2014-01-01

    Diversion of freshwater can cause significant changes in hydrologic dynamics and this can have negative consequences for fish populations. Additionally, fishes can be directly entrained into diversion infrastructure (e.g. canals, reservoirs, pumps) where they may become lost to the population. However, the effect of diversion losses on fish population dynamics remains unclear. We used 15 years of release and recovery data from coded-wire-tagged juvenile Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) to model the physical, hydrological and biological predictors of salvage at two large water diversions in the San Francisco Estuary. Additionally, entrainment rates were combined with estimates of mortality during migration to quantify the proportion of total mortality that could be attributed to diversions. Statistical modeling revealed a strong positive relationship between diversion rate and fish entrainment at both diversions and all release locations. Other significant relationships were specific to the rivers where the fish were released, and the specific diversion facility. Although significant relationships were identified in statistical models, entrainment loss and the mean contribution of entrainment to total migration mortality were low. The greatest entrainment mortality occurred for fish released along routes that passed closest to the diversions and certain runs of Chinook Salmon released in the Sacramento River suffered greater mortality but only at the highest diversion rates observed during the study. These results suggest losses at diversions should be put into a population context in order to best inform effective management of Chinook Salmon populations. PMID:25019205

  8. Leadership and Diversity: Theory and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumby, Jacky; Morrison, Marlene

    2010-01-01

    Diversity has become a ubiquitous term within education, often harnessed with a second concept, that of inclusion. Despite heightened interest, theorists in education leadership have remained relatively uninterested in multiple aspects of identity and diversity. This article explores the epistemological and methodological implications of moving…

  9. Subsoil heterogeneities controlling porewater contaminant mass and microbial diversity at a site with a complex pollution history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puigserver, Diana; Carmona, José M.; Cortés, Amparo; Viladevall, Manuel; Nieto, José M.; Grifoll, Magdalena; Vila, Joaquim; Parker, Beth L.

    2013-01-01

    This study seeks to improve our understanding of the conceptual model of pollutant transport and fate in cases of DNAPL contamination at sites with a complex contamination history. The study was carried out in an unconfined aquifer of alluvial fans in the Tarragona Petrochemical Complex (Spain). Two boreholes were drilled and continuous cores were recovered in order to carry out a detailed core description at centimeter scale and a comprehensive sampling of borehole cores. The biogeochemical heterogeneity at these sites is controlled by the conjunction of lithological, hydrochemical and microbiological heterogeneities. Biodegradation processes of contaminant compounds take place not only at the level of the dissolved fraction in the aquifer but also at the level of the fraction retained in the fine, less conductive materials as shown by the biodegradation haloes of parent and metabolite compounds. Sampling the low-conductivity levels also allowed us to identify compounds, e.g. BTEX, that are the remaining traces of the passage of old contaminant plumes whose sources no longer exist. This enabled us to describe past biogeochemical processes and to partially account for the processes occurring today. Transition zones, characterized by numerous textural changes, constitute ecotones whose biostimulation could be effective in promoting the acceleration of the remediation of the multiple pollution at these sites.

  10. Conformational diversity of flexible ligand in metal-organic frameworks controlled by size-matching mixed ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Xiu-Ni; Qin, Lan; Yan, Xiao-Zhi; Yu, Lei; Xie, Yi-Xin; Han, Lei

    2015-12-01

    Hydrothermal reactions of N-auxiliary flexible exo-bidentate ligand 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane (bpp) and carboxylates ligands naphthalene-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (2,6-H2ndc) or 4,4‧-(hydroxymethylene)dibenzoic acid (H2hmdb), in the presence of cadmium(II) salts have given rise to two novel metal-organic frameworks based on flexible ligands (FL-MOFs), namely, [Cd2(2,6-ndc)2(bpp)(DMF)]·2DMF (1) and [Cd3(hmdb)3(bpp)]·2DMF·2EtOH (2) (DMF=N,N-Dimethylformamide). Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses revealed that compound 1 exhibits a three-dimensional self-penetrating 6-connected framework based on dinuclear cluster second building unit. Compound 2 displays an infinite three-dimensional 'Lucky Clover' shape (2,10)-connected network based on the trinuclear cluster and V-shaped organic linkers. The flexible bpp ligand displays different conformations in 1 and 2, which are successfully controlled by size-matching mixed ligands during the self-assembly process.

  11. Subsoil heterogeneities controlling porewater contaminant mass and microbial diversity at a site with a complex pollution history.

    PubMed

    Puigserver, Diana; Carmona, José M; Cortés, Amparo; Viladevall, Manuel; Nieto, José M; Grifoll, Magdalena; Vila, Joaquim; Parker, Beth L

    2013-01-01

    This study seeks to improve our understanding of the conceptual model of pollutant transport and fate in cases of DNAPL contamination at sites with a complex contamination history. The study was carried out in an unconfined aquifer of alluvial fans in the Tarragona Petrochemical Complex (Spain). Two boreholes were drilled and continuous cores were recovered in order to carry out a detailed core description at centimeter scale and a comprehensive sampling of borehole cores. The biogeochemical heterogeneity at these sites is controlled by the conjunction of lithological, hydrochemical and microbiological heterogeneities. Biodegradation processes of contaminant compounds take place not only at the level of the dissolved fraction in the aquifer but also at the level of the fraction retained in the fine, less conductive materials as shown by the biodegradation haloes of parent and metabolite compounds. Sampling the low-conductivity levels also allowed us to identify compounds, e.g. BTEX, that are the remaining traces of the passage of old contaminant plumes whose sources no longer exist. This enabled us to describe past biogeochemical processes and to partially account for the processes occurring today. Transition zones, characterized by numerous textural changes, constitute ecotones whose biostimulation could be effective in promoting the acceleration of the remediation of the multiple pollution at these sites. PMID:23149156

  12. Treatment of Binge Eating Disorder in Racially and Ethnically Diverse Obese Patients in Primary Care: Randomized Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial of Self-Help and Medication

    PubMed Central

    Grilo, Carlos M.; Masheb, Robin M.; White, Marney A.; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Barnes, Rachel D.; Walsh, B. Timothy; McKenzie, Katherine C.; Genao, Inginia; Garcia, Rina

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective was to determine whether treatments with demonstrated efficacy for binge eating disorder (BED) in specialist treatment centers can be delivered effectively in primary care settings to racially/ethnically diverse obese patients with BED. This study compared the effectiveness of self-help cognitive-behavioral therapy (shCBT) and an anti-obesity medication (sibutramine), alone and in combination, and it is only the second placebo-controlled trial of any medication for BED to evaluate longer-term effects after treatment discontinuation. Method 104 obese patients with BED (73% female, 55% non-white) were randomly assigned to one of four 16-week treatments (balanced 2-by-2 factorial design): sibutramine (N=26), placebo (N=27), shCBT+sibutramine (N=26), or shCBT+placebo (N=25). Medications were administered in double-blind fashion. Independent assessments were performed monthly throughout treatment, post-treatment, and at 6- and 12-month follow-ups (16 months after randomization). Results Mixed-models analyses revealed significant time and medication-by-time interaction effects for percent weight loss, with sibutramine but not placebo associated with significant change over time. Percent weight loss differed significantly between sibutramine and placebo by the third month of treatment and at post-treatment. After the medication was discontinued at post-treatment, weight re-gain occurred in sibutramine groups and percent weight loss no longer differed among the four treatments at 6- and 12-month follow-ups. For binge-eating, mixed-models revealed significant time and shCBT-by-time interaction effects: shCBT had significantly lower binge-eating frequency at 6-month follow-up but the treatments did not differ significantly at any other time point. Demographic factors did not significantly predict or moderate clinical outcomes. Discussion Our findings suggest that pure self-help CBT and sibutramine did not show long-term effectiveness relative to

  13. Effects of N-glycan precursor length diversity on quality control of protein folding and on protein glycosylation

    PubMed Central

    Samuelson, John; Robbins, Phillips W.

    2014-01-01

    Asparagine-linked glycans (N-glycans) of medically important protists have much to tell us about the evolution of N-glycosylation and of N-glycan-dependent quality control (N-glycan QC) of protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum. While host N-glycans are built upon a dolichol-pyrophosphate-linked precursor with 14 sugars (Glc3Man9GlcNAc2), protist N-glycan precursors vary from Glc3Man9GlcNAc2 (Acanthamoeba) to Man9GlcNAc2 (Trypanosoma) to Glc3Man5GlcNAc2 (Toxoplasma) to Man5GlcNAc2 (Entamoeba, Trichomonas, and Eimeria) to GlcNAc2 (Plasmodium and Giardia) to zero (Theileria). As related organisms have differing N-glycan lengths (e.g. Toxoplasma, Eimeria, Plasmodium, and Theileria), the present N-glycan variation is based upon secondary loss of Alg genes, which encode enzymes that add sugars to the N-glycan precursor. An N-glycan precursor with Man5GlcNAc2 is necessary but not sufficient for N-glycan QC, which is predicted by the presence of the UDP-glucose:glucosyltransferase (UGGT) plus calreticulin and/or calnexin. As many parasites lack glucose in their N-glycan precursor, UGGT product may be identified by inhibition of glucosidase II. The presence of an armless calnexin in Toxoplasma suggests secondary loss of N-glycan QC from coccidia. Positive selection for N-glycan sites occurs in secreted proteins of organisms with NG-QC and is based upon an increased likelihood of threonine but not serine in the second position versus asparagine. In contrast, there appears to be selection against N-glycan length in Plasmodium and N-glycan site density in Toxoplasma. Finally, there is suggestive evidence for N-glycan-dependent ERAD in Trichomonas, which glycosylates and degrades the exogenous reporter mutant carboxypeptidase Y (CPY*). PMID:25475176

  14. Supporting Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Betty, Ed.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This newsletter feature issue focuses on services for persons with developmental disabilities that support the whole person by acknowledging, respecting, and incorporating aspects of identity such as race, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, gender, age, and class. Articles include: (1) "Serving the Whole Person: The Journey to Embracing…

  15. Experimental Manipulation of Grassland Plant Diversity Induces Complex Shifts in Aboveground Arthropod Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Hertzog, Lionel R.; Meyer, Sebastian T.; Weisser, Wolfgang W.; Ebeling, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Changes in producer diversity cause multiple changes in consumer communities through various mechanisms. However, past analyses investigating the relationship between plant diversity and arthropod consumers focused only on few aspects of arthropod diversity, e.g. species richness and abundance. Yet, shifts in understudied facets of arthropod diversity like relative abundances or species dominance may have strong effects on arthropod-mediated ecosystem functions. Here we analyze the relationship between plant species richness and arthropod diversity using four complementary diversity indices, namely: abundance, species richness, evenness (equitability of the abundance distribution) and dominance (relative abundance of the dominant species). Along an experimental gradient of plant species richness (1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 60 plant species), we sampled herbivorous and carnivorous arthropods using pitfall traps and suction sampling during a whole vegetation period. We tested whether plant species richness affects consumer diversity directly (i), or indirectly through increased productivity (ii). Further, we tested the impact of plant community composition on arthropod diversity by testing for the effects of plant functional groups (iii). Abundance and species richness of both herbivores and carnivores increased with increasing plant species richness, but the underlying mechanisms differed between the two trophic groups. While higher species richness in herbivores was caused by an increase in resource diversity, carnivore richness was driven by plant productivity. Evenness of herbivore communities did not change along the gradient in plant species richness, whereas evenness of carnivores declined. The abundance of dominant herbivore species showed no response to changes in plant species richness, but the dominant carnivores were more abundant in species-rich plant communities. The functional composition of plant communities had small impacts on herbivore communities, whereas

  16. Experimental Manipulation of Grassland Plant Diversity Induces Complex Shifts in Aboveground Arthropod Diversity.

    PubMed

    Hertzog, Lionel R; Meyer, Sebastian T; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Ebeling, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Changes in producer diversity cause multiple changes in consumer communities through various mechanisms. However, past analyses investigating the relationship between plant diversity and arthropod consumers focused only on few aspects of arthropod diversity, e.g. species richness and abundance. Yet, shifts in understudied facets of arthropod diversity like relative abundances or species dominance may have strong effects on arthropod-mediated ecosystem functions. Here we analyze the relationship between plant species richness and arthropod diversity using four complementary diversity indices, namely: abundance, species richness, evenness (equitability of the abundance distribution) and dominance (relative abundance of the dominant species). Along an experimental gradient of plant species richness (1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 60 plant species), we sampled herbivorous and carnivorous arthropods using pitfall traps and suction sampling during a whole vegetation period. We tested whether plant species richness affects consumer diversity directly (i), or indirectly through increased productivity (ii). Further, we tested the impact of plant community composition on arthropod diversity by testing for the effects of plant functional groups (iii). Abundance and species richness of both herbivores and carnivores increased with increasing plant species richness, but the underlying mechanisms differed between the two trophic groups. While higher species richness in herbivores was caused by an increase in resource diversity, carnivore richness was driven by plant productivity. Evenness of herbivore communities did not change along the gradient in plant species richness, whereas evenness of carnivores declined. The abundance of dominant herbivore species showed no response to changes in plant species richness, but the dominant carnivores were more abundant in species-rich plant communities. The functional composition of plant communities had small impacts on herbivore communities, whereas

  17. Opening the gender diversity black box: causality of perceived gender equity and locus of control and mediation of work engagement in employee well-being

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Radha R.; Sharma, Neha P.

    2015-01-01

    The study is aimed at assessing the role of perceived gender equity and locus of control in employee well-being at the workplace and ascertaining if work engagement mediates between perceived gender equity, locus of control, and employee well-being (measured through optimism, general satisfaction with life and work, and executive burnout). Adopting a personal survey method data was collected from 373 managers (both males and females) from the public and private sectors representing manufacturing and service industry in India. The study bridges the knowledge gap by operationalizing the construct of perceived gender equity and studying its role in the work engagement and employee well-being. Conceptualization of the well-being in an unconventional way covering both the positive and the negative aspects extends the understanding of the emerging concept of well-being. It has practical implications for talent management and work engagement besides promoting gender equity at the workplace for employee well-being. It opens vistas for the gender based theory and cross cultural research on gender equity. PMID:26500566

  18. Opening the gender diversity black box: causality of perceived gender equity and locus of control and mediation of work engagement in employee well-being.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Radha R; Sharma, Neha P

    2015-01-01

    The study is aimed at assessing the role of perceived gender equity and locus of control in employee well-being at the workplace and ascertaining if work engagement mediates between perceived gender equity, locus of control, and employee well-being (measured through optimism, general satisfaction with life and work, and executive burnout). Adopting a personal survey method data was collected from 373 managers (both males and females) from the public and private sectors representing manufacturing and service industry in India. The study bridges the knowledge gap by operationalizing the construct of perceived gender equity and studying its role in the work engagement and employee well-being. Conceptualization of the well-being in an unconventional way covering both the positive and the negative aspects extends the understanding of the emerging concept of well-being. It has practical implications for talent management and work engagement besides promoting gender equity at the workplace for employee well-being. It opens vistas for the gender based theory and cross cultural research on gender equity. PMID:26500566

  19. Supersonic aerodynamic characteristics of a low-aspect-ratio missile model with wing and tail controls and with tails in line and interdigitated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, E. B.

    1972-01-01

    A study has been made to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of a low-aspect ratio cruciform missile model with all-movable wings and tails. The configuration was tested at Mach numbers from 1.50 to 4.63 with the wings in the vertical and horizontal planes and with the wings in a 45 deg roll plane with tails in line and interdigitated.

  20. Managing diversity.

    PubMed

    Wagner, M

    1991-09-30

    One look at projections for the U.S. work force through the year 2000 shows why healthcare administrators will be facing some new challenges. With the majority of new workers belonging to minority groups, "managing diversity" has become the newest catch phrase as executives work to reduce tensions resulting from race, gender or culture-based differences among workers, while also learning to understand and value those differences. PMID:10114151

  1. Postmenopausal osteoporosis: microradiographic aspects.

    PubMed

    Dhem, A; Nyssen-Behets, C; Coppens, J

    1998-01-01

    A comparative microradiographic and histologic analysis of undecalcified bone samples was performed in men and women aged 18-98 years. These morphological methods showed that besides usual lamellar bone remodelling, all the so-called inert surfaces, namely both haversian and vascular canals as well as trabecular surfaces, were involved in weathering alterations of the superficial lamellae, resulting in eroded outlines devoid of osteoclast. These aspects, recorded in all pieces of our material, were visible from the earliest adult age and were randomly distributed. Except the grade of osteoporosis at a given age, the microradiographic and histologic aspects were similar in both aged men and women and did not allow sex distinction. These observations were consistent with the hypothesis of a particular destructive process affecting all the quiescent lamellar bone surfaces without osteoclast or cell participation. This kind of erosion, termed delitescence, could be at least partially responsible for the age-related and postmenopausal bone loss. In order to explain the increasing osteoporosis after menopause, it has been suggested that the estrogen deficiency could increase the percentage of dead osteocytes. Thereby the reduced cellular control on the bone surface could impair the remodeling process and fail to adapt the bone structure by repairing the microscopic lesions. PMID:11315966

  2. What Makes Racial Diversity Work in Higher Education: Academic Leaders Present Successful Policies and Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Frank W., Jr., Ed.

    The essays in this collection establish the case for racial diversity , outline the challenges diversity offers the academic community, presents examples of how some institutions have developed successful models of diversity, and discusses how the history of racial diversity has influenced aspects of diversity today. Following a foreword,…

  3. [Diverse sustainability--sustainable diversity].

    PubMed

    Schmeling-Kludas, Christoph; Koch-Gromus, Uwe

    2011-08-01

    In spite of its plenitude, the scientific works of the important German psychologist Ernst August Dölle (1898-1972) are little adapted till today, mostly they are being reduced to his studies about dichotomy and duplicity. But based on his diaries of the year 1968, the authors can verify without doubt, that Dölle far ahead of his time, carried on research about sustainability and diversity. He was the first scientist worldwide to connect these two concepts. PMID:21837611

  4. Valuing Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Fryer, Roland G.; Loury, Glenn C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the economics of diversity-enhancing policies. A model is proposed in which heterogeneous agents, distinguished by skill level and social identity, purchase productive opportunities in a competitive market. We analyze policies designed to raise the status of a disadvantaged identity group. When agent identity is contractible, efficient policy grants preferred access to slots but offers no direct assistance for acquiring skills. When identity is not contractible, efficient policy provides universal subsidies to skill development when the fraction of the disadvantaged group at the skill development margin is larger than their share at the slot assignment margin. PMID:25525280

  5. Controlling effective aspect ratio and packing of clay with pH for improved gas barrier in nanobrick wall thin films.

    PubMed

    Hagen, David A; Saucier, Lauren; Grunlan, Jaime C

    2014-12-24

    Polymer-clay thin films constructed via layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly, with a nanobrick wall structure (i.e., clay nanoplatelets as bricks surrounded by a polyelectrolyte mortar), are known to exhibit a high oxygen barrier. Further barrier improvement can be achieved by lowering the pH of the clay suspension in the polyethylenimine (PEI) and montmorillonite (MMT) system. In this case, the charge of the deposited PEI layer is increased in the clay suspension environment, which causes more clay to be deposited. At pH 4, MMT platelets deposit with near perfect ordering, observed with transmission electron microscopy, enabling a 5× improvement in the gas barrier for a 10 PEI/MMT bilayer thin film (85 nm) relative to the same film made with pH 10 MMT. This improved gas barrier approaches that achieved with much higher aspect ratio vermiculite clay. In essence, lower pH is generating a higher effective aspect ratio for MMT due to greater induced surface charge in the PEI layers, which causes heavier clay deposition. These flexible, transparent nanocoatings have a wide range of possible applications, from food and electronics packaging to pressurized bladders. PMID:25474229

  6. Effectiveness of Housing First with Intensive Case Management in an Ethnically Diverse Sample of Homeless Adults with Mental Illness: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Stergiopoulos, Vicky; Gozdzik, Agnes; Misir, Vachan; Skosireva, Anna; Connelly, Jo; Sarang, Aseefa; Whisler, Adam; Hwang, Stephen W.; O’Campo, Patricia; McKenzie, Kwame

    2015-01-01

    experiencing problems due to alcohol use among foreign-born (vs. Canadian-born) HF participants at 24 months (ratio of rate ratios = 0.19 95% 0.04 to 0.88), relative to baseline. Compared to usual care, HF with ICM can improve housing stability and community functioning and reduce the days of alcohol related problems in an ethnically diverse sample of homeless adults with mental illness within 2-years. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN42520374. PMID:26176621

  7. [Hospital infection--ethical aspects].

    PubMed

    Hossne, W S

    1995-01-01

    The author focuses the question of hospital infection, analysing the background on which the control committees were created. The hospital infection is discussed under bioethical principles and the Medical Ethics Code, examining the aspects related to the government, the Hospital Directorship, the Committee and the Control Service of Hospital Infection, and the assisting physician. A closer integration between the activities of the Program of Control of Hospital Infections and those of the Medical Ethics Committee is proposed, aiming at the patient and at the community, "targets of total medical attention". PMID:7550409

  8. The Oxygen quantum yield in diverse algae and cyanobacteria is controlled by partitioning of flux between linear and cyclic electron flow within photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Ananyev, Gennady; Gates, Colin; Dismukes, G Charles

    2016-09-01

    We have measured flash-induced oxygen quantum yields (O2-QYs) and primary charge separation (Chl variable fluorescence yield, Fv/Fm) in vivo among phylogenetically diverse microalgae and cyanobacteria. Higher O2-QYs can be attained in cells by releasing constraints on charge transfer at the Photosystem II (PSII) acceptor side by adding membrane-permeable benzoquinone (BQ) derivatives that oxidize plastosemiquinone QB(-) and QBH2. This method allows uncoupling PSII turnover from its natural regulation in living cells, without artifacts of isolating PSII complexes. This approach reveals different extents of regulation across species, controlled at the QB(-) acceptor site. Arthrospira maxima is confirmed as the most efficient PSII-WOC (water oxidizing complex) and exhibits the least regulation of flux. Thermosynechococcus elongatus exhibits an O2-QY of 30%, suggesting strong downregulation. WOC cycle simulations with the most accurate model (VZAD) show that a light-driven backward transition (net addition of an electron to the WOC, distinct from recombination) occurs in up to 25% of native PSIIs in the S2 and S3 states, while adding BQ prevents backward transitions and increases the lifetime of S2 and S3 by 10-fold. Backward transitions occur in PSIIs that have plastosemiquinone radicals in the QB site and are postulated to be physiologically regulated pathways for storing light energy as proton gradient through direct PSII-cyclic electron flow (PSII-CEF). PSII-CEF is independent of classical PSI/cyt-b6f-CEF and provides an alternative proton translocation pathway for energy conversion. PSII-CEF enables variable fluxes between linear and cyclic electron pathways, thus accommodating species-dependent needs for redox and ion-gradient energy sources powered by a single photosystem. PMID:27117512

  9. BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUS ANTIGENIC DIVERSITY: IMPACT ON DISEASE AND VACCINATION PROGRAMS (DETECTING AND CONTROLLING BVDV INFECTIONS, 4/4-5/02, AMES, IA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections in cattle are associated with a variety or "diverse" clinical forms. These include digestive tract disease, respiratory disease, fetal diseases (varied, dependent on fetal age), systemic disease such as mucosal disease, immunosuppression, hemorrhagic di...

  10. Lampreys as Diverse Model Organisms in the Genomics Era

    PubMed Central

    McCauley, David W.; Docker, Margaret F.; Whyard, Steve; Li, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    Lampreys, one of the two surviving groups of ancient vertebrates, have become important models for study in diverse fields of biology. Lampreys (of which there are approximately 40 species) are being studied, for example, (a) to control pest sea lamprey in the North American Great Lakes and to restore declining populations of native species elsewhere; (b) in biomedical research, focusing particularly on the regenerative capability of lampreys; and (c) by developmental biologists studying the evolution of key vertebrate characters. Although a lack of genetic resources has hindered research on the mechanisms regulating many aspects of lamprey life history and development, formerly intractable questions are now amenable to investigation following the recent publication of the sea lamprey genome. Here, we provide an overview of the ways in which genomic tools are currently being deployed to tackle diverse research questions and suggest several areas that may benefit from the availability of the sea lamprey genome. PMID:26951616

  11. 49 CFR 236.703 - Aspect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aspect. 236.703 Section 236.703 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.703 Aspect....

  12. 49 CFR 236.703 - Aspect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aspect. 236.703 Section 236.703 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.703 Aspect....

  13. 49 CFR 236.703 - Aspect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aspect. 236.703 Section 236.703 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.703 Aspect....

  14. 49 CFR 236.703 - Aspect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aspect. 236.703 Section 236.703 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.703 Aspect....

  15. 49 CFR 236.703 - Aspect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aspect. 236.703 Section 236.703 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.703 Aspect....

  16. Vehicle and positive control values from the in vivo rodent comet assay and biomonitoring studies using human lymphocytes: historical database and influence of technical aspects.

    PubMed

    Pant, Kamala; Springer, S; Bruce, S; Lawlor, T; Hewitt, N; Aardema, M J

    2014-10-01

    There is increased interest in the in vivo comet assay in rodents as a follow-up approach for determining the biological relevance of chemicals that are genotoxic in in vitro assays. This is partly because, unlike other assays, DNA damage can be assessed in this assay in virtually any tissue. Since background levels of DNA damage can vary with the species, tissue, and cell processing method, a robust historical control database covering multiple tissues is essential. We describe extensive vehicle and positive control data for multiple tissues from rats and mice. In addition, we report historical data from control and genotoxin-treated human blood. Technical issues impacting comet results are described, including the method of cell preparation and freezing. Cell preparation by scraping (stomach and other GI tract organs) resulted in higher % tail DNA than mincing (liver, spleen, kidney etc) or direct collection (blood or bone marrow). Treatment with the positive control genotoxicant, ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) in rats and methyl methanesulfonate in mice, resulted in statistically significant increases in % tail DNA. Background DNA damage was not markedly increased when cell suspensions were stored frozen prior to preparing slides, and the outcome of the assay was unchanged (EMS was always positive). In conclusion, historical data from our laboratory for the in vivo comet assay for multiple tissues from rats and mice, as well as human blood show very good reproducibility. These data and recommendations provided are aimed at contributing to the design and proper interpretation of results from comet assays. PMID:24957907

  17. Plant diversity predicts beta but not alpha diversity of soil microbes across grasslands worldwide.

    PubMed

    Prober, Suzanne M; Leff, Jonathan W; Bates, Scott T; Borer, Elizabeth T; Firn, Jennifer; Harpole, W Stanley; Lind, Eric M; Seabloom, Eric W; Adler, Peter B; Bakker, Jonathan D; Cleland, Elsa E; DeCrappeo, Nicole M; DeLorenze, Elizabeth; Hagenah, Nicole; Hautier, Yann; Hofmockel, Kirsten S; Kirkman, Kevin P; Knops, Johannes M H; La Pierre, Kimberly J; MacDougall, Andrew S; McCulley, Rebecca L; Mitchell, Charles E; Risch, Anita C; Schuetz, Martin; Stevens, Carly J; Williams, Ryan J; Fierer, Noah

    2015-01-01

    Aboveground-belowground interactions exert critical controls on the composition and function of terrestrial ecosystems, yet the fundamental relationships between plant diversity and soil microbial diversity remain elusive. Theory predicts predominantly positive associations but tests within single sites have shown variable relationships, and associations between plant and microbial diversity across broad spatial scales remain largely unexplored. We compared the diversity of plant, bacterial, archaeal and fungal communities in one hundred and forty-five 1 m(2) plots across 25 temperate grassland sites from four continents. Across sites, the plant alpha diversity patterns were poorly related to those observed for any soil microbial group. However, plant beta diversity (compositional dissimilarity between sites) was significantly correlated with the beta diversity of bacterial and fungal communities, even after controlling for environmental factors. Thus, across a global range of temperate grasslands, plant diversity can predict patterns in the composition of soil microbial communities, but not patterns in alpha diversity. PMID:25430889

  18. Plant diversity predicts beta but not alpha diversity of soil microbes across grasslands worldwide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prober, Suzanne M.; Leff, Jonathan W.; Bates, Scott T.; Borer, Elizabeth T.; Firn, Jennifer; Harpole, W. Stanley; Lind, Eric M.; Seabloom, Eric W.; Adler, Peter B.; Bakker, Jonathan D.; Cleland, Elsa E.; DeCrappeo, Nicole; DeLorenze, Elizabeth; Hagenah, Nicole; Hautier, Yann; Hofmockel, Kirsten S.; Kirkman, Kevin P.; Knops, Johannes M. H.; La Pierre, Kimberly J.; MacDougall, Andrew S.; McCulley, Rebecca L.; Mitchell, Charles E.; Risch, Anita C.; Schuetz, Martin; Stevens, Carly J.; Williams, Ryan J.; Fierer, Noah

    2015-01-01

    Aboveground–belowground interactions exert critical controls on the composition and function of terrestrial ecosystems, yet the fundamental relationships between plant diversity and soil microbial diversity remain elusive. Theory predicts predominantly positive associations but tests within single sites have shown variable relationships, and associations between plant and microbial diversity across broad spatial scales remain largely unexplored. We compared the diversity of plant, bacterial, archaeal and fungal communities in one hundred and forty-five 1 m2 plots across 25 temperate grassland sites from four continents. Across sites, the plant alpha diversity patterns were poorly related to those observed for any soil microbial group. However, plant beta diversity (compositional dissimilarity between sites) was significantly correlated with the beta diversity of bacterial and fungal communities, even after controlling for environmental factors. Thus, across a global range of temperate grasslands, plant diversity can predict patterns in the composition of soil microbial communities, but not patterns in alpha diversity.

  19. Diverse Classrooms, Diverse Curriculum, Diverse Complications: Three Teacher Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungemah, Lori D.

    2015-01-01

    Racial, ethnic, linguistic, and religious diversity continues to increase in classrooms. Many call for a more diverse curriculum, but curricular diversity brings its own challenges to both teachers and students. These three vignettes are drawn from my ethnographic data at Atlantic High School in Brooklyn, New York, where I worked for ten years as…

  20. Stability and control characteristics of an airplane model having a 45.1 degree swept-back wing with aspect ratio 2.50 and taper ratio 0.42 and a 42.8 degree swept-back horizontal tail with aspect ratio 3.87 and taper ratio 0.49

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuldenfrei, Marvin; Comisarow, Paul; Goodson, Kenneth W

    1947-01-01

    Tests were made of an airplane model having a 45.1 degree swept-back wing with aspect ratio 2.50 and taper ratio 0.42 and a 42.8 degree swept-back horizontal tail with aspect ratio 3.87 and taper ratio 0.49 to determine its low-speed stability and control characteristics. The test Reynolds number was 2.87 x 10(6) based on a mean aerodynamic chord of 2.47 feet except for some of the aileron tests which were made at a Reynolds number of 2.05 x 10(6). With the horizontal tail located near the fuselage juncture on the vertical tail, model results indicated static longitudinal instability above a lift coefficient that was 0.15 below the lift coefficient at which stall occurred. Static longitudinal stability, however, was manifested throughout the life range with the horizontal tail located near the top of the vertical tail. The use of 10 degrees negative dihedral on the wing had little effect on the static longitudinal stability characteristics. Preliminary tests of the complete model revealed an undesirable flat spot in the yawing-moment curves at low angles of attack, the directional stability being neutral for yaw angles of plus-or-minus 2 degrees. This undesirable characteristic was improved by replacing the thick original vertical tail with a thin vertical tail and by flattening the top of the dorsal fairing.

  1. Local ensemble transform Kalman filter, a fast non-stationary control law for adaptive optics on ELTs: theoretical aspects and first simulation results.

    PubMed

    Gray, Morgan; Petit, Cyril; Rodionov, Sergey; Bocquet, Marc; Bertino, Laurent; Ferrari, Marc; Fusco, Thierry

    2014-08-25

    We propose a new algorithm for an adaptive optics system control law, based on the Linear Quadratic Gaussian approach and a Kalman Filter adaptation with localizations. It allows to handle non-stationary behaviors, to obtain performance close to the optimality defined with the residual phase variance minimization criterion, and to reduce the computational burden with an intrinsically parallel implementation on the Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs). PMID:25321291

  2. Biomechanical aspects of segmented arch mechanics combined with power arm for controlled anterior tooth movement: A three-dimensional finite element study

    PubMed Central

    Ozaki, Hiroya; Tominaga, Jun-ya; Hamanaka, Ryo; Sumi, Mayumi; Chiang, Pao-Chang; Tanaka, Motohiro; Koga, Yoshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    The porpose of this study was to determine the optimal length of power arms for achieving controlled anterior tooth movement in segmented arch mechanics combined with power arm. A three-dimensional finite element method was applied for the simulation of en masse anterior tooth retraction in segmented power arm mechanics. The type of tooth movement, namely, the location of center of rotation of the maxillary central incisor in association with power arm length, was calculated after the retraction force was applied. When a 0.017 × 0.022-in archwire was inserted into the 0.018-in slot bracket, bodily movement was obtained at 9.1 mm length of power arm, namely, at the level of 1.8 mm above the center of resistance. In case a 0.018 × 0.025-in full-size archwire was used, bodily movement of the tooth was produced at the power arm length of 7.0 mm, namely, at the level of 0.3 mm below the center of resistance. Segmented arch mechanics required shorter length of power arms for achieving any type of controlled anterior tooth movement as compared to sliding mechanics. Therefore, this space closing mechanics could be widely applied even for the patients whose gingivobuccal fold is shallow. The segmented arch mechanics combined with power arm could provide higher amount of moment-to-force ratio sufficient for controlled anterior tooth movement without generating friction, and vertical forces when applying retraction force parallel to the occlusal plane. It is, therefore, considered that the segmented power arm mechanics has a simple appliance design and allows more efficient and controllable tooth movement. PMID:25610497

  3. A single-center, randomized, parallel controlled study comparing the efficacy and safety aspects of three anthracycline-based regimens as neoadjuvant chemotherapy in primary breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yijun; Ouyang, Tao; Xie, Yuntao; Wang, Tianfeng; Fan, Zhaoqing; He, Yingjian; Lu, Aiping; Liu, Yiqiang; Li, Jinfeng

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety aspects of three anthracycline-based regimens as neoadjuvant chemotherapy in primary breast cancer. Five-hundred and one patients with clinical stage I-III invasive breast cancer were randomly assigned to receive four cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy with either CEFci arm (5-Fu 200 mg/m(2) daily by 24-h continuous infusion and epirubicin 100 mg/m(2) and cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m(2) intravenous bolus on day 1), CEF arm (cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m(2), epirubicin 100 mg/m(2), and 5-Fu 600 mg/m(2) i.v. on day 1), or EC arm (epirubicin 100 mg/m(2) and cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m(2) i.v. on day 1). The pathologic responses to chemotherapy were assessed according to the Miller and Payne grading system (MP). A total of 485 patients were included in the intent-to-treat population. Breast pathologic complete response (pCR) rate was 18.9 % (31/164) in CEFci arm, 15.0 % (24/160) in CEF arm, and 12.4 % (20/161) in EC arm (P = 0.266). MP grading system 4/5 response rate was significantly higher in CEFci arm than that in CEF arm and EC arm (44.5, 31.3 and 27.3 %, respectively, P = 0.003). There was no significant difference on grade III/IV neutropenia among three arms (P = 0.538), but thrombocytopenia, decreased hemoglobin, and elevated aminotransferase appeared to be observed more in CEFci arm (P = 0.040, 0.059, and 0.073, respectively). CEFci did not reach a higher pCR rate compared with CEF or EC in patients with primary breast cancer. The potential advantage of CEFci in improving pathologic response still requires further research. The accompanied hematologic and biochemical toxicities, and the catheter-related complications should also be noted. PMID:27250001

  4. The Chief Diversity Officer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Damon; Wade-Golden, Katrina

    2007-01-01

    Numerous institutions are moving toward the chief diversity officer model of leading and managing diversity in higher education. These officers carry formal administrative titles and ranks that range from vice president for institutional diversity to associate vice chancellor for diversity and climate and dean of diversity and academic engagement.…

  5. LLM-Domain Containing B-GATA Factors Control Different Aspects of Cytokinin-Regulated Development in Arabidopsis thaliana1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Ranftl, Quirin L.; Bastakis, Emmanouil; Klermund, Carina

    2016-01-01

    Leu-Leu-Met (LLM)-domain B-GATAs are a subfamily of the 30-membered GATA transcription factor family from Arabidopsis. Only two of the six Arabidopsis LLM-domain B-GATAs, i.e. GATA, NITRATE-INDUCIBLE, CARBON METABOLISM-INVOLVED (GNC) and its paralog GNC-LIKE/CYTOKININ-RESPONSIVE GATA FACTOR1 (GNL), have already been analyzed with regard to their biological function. Together, GNC and GNL control germination, greening, flowering time, and senescence downstream from auxin, cytokinin (CK), gibberellin (GA), and light signaling. Whereas overexpression and complementation analyses suggest a redundant biochemical function between GNC and GNL, nothing is known about the biological role of the four other LLM-domain B-GATAs, GATA15, GATA16, GATA17, and GATA17L (GATA17-LIKE), based on loss-of-function mutant phenotypes. Here, we examine insertion mutants of the six Arabidopsis B-GATA genes and reveal the role of these genes in the control of greening, hypocotyl elongation, phyllotaxy, floral organ initiation, accessory meristem formation, flowering time, and senescence. Several of these phenotypes had previously not been described for the gnc and gnl mutants or were enhanced in the more complex mutants when compared to gnc gnl mutants. Some of the respective responses may be mediated by CK signaling, which activates the expression of all six GATA genes. CK-induced gene expression is partially compromised in LLM-domain B-GATA mutants, suggesting that B-GATA genes play a role in CK responses. We furthermore provide evidence for a transcriptional cross regulation between these GATAs that may, in at least some cases, be at the basis of their apparent functional redundancy. PMID:26829982

  6. Detecting diversity: emerging methods to estimate species diversity.

    PubMed

    Iknayan, Kelly J; Tingley, Morgan W; Furnas, Brett J; Beissinger, Steven R

    2014-02-01

    Estimates of species richness and diversity are central to community and macroecology and are frequently used in conservation planning. Commonly used diversity metrics account for undetected species primarily by controlling for sampling effort. Yet the probability of detecting an individual can vary among species, observers, survey methods, and sites. We review emerging methods to estimate alpha, beta, gamma, and metacommunity diversity through hierarchical multispecies occupancy models (MSOMs) and multispecies abundance models (MSAMs) that explicitly incorporate observation error in the detection process for species or individuals. We examine advantages, limitations, and assumptions of these detection-based hierarchical models for estimating species diversity. Accounting for imperfect detection using these approaches has influenced conclusions of comparative community studies and creates new opportunities for testing theory. PMID:24315534

  7. The Quest for Diversity in Christian Higher Education: Building Institutional Governance Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nussbaum, Kathleen B.; Chang, Heewon

    2013-01-01

    Social justice pertaining to diversity issues in higher education grips the nation, yet Christian higher education (CHE) has moved slowly to address the diversity in our institutions and society. Christian higher education faces the same challenges with growing diversity as secular higher education. Diversity impacts every aspect of institutional…

  8. Socioeconomics drive urban plant diversity

    PubMed Central

    Hope, Diane; Gries, Corinna; Zhu, Weixing; Fagan, William F.; Redman, Charles L.; Grimm, Nancy B.; Nelson, Amy L.; Martin, Chris; Kinzig, Ann

    2003-01-01

    Spatial variation in plant diversity has been attributed to heterogeneity in resource availability for many ecosystems. However, urbanization has resulted in entire landscapes that are now occupied by plant communities wholly created by humans, in which diversity may reflect social, economic, and cultural influences in addition to those recognized by traditional ecological theory. Here we use data from a probability-based survey to explore the variation in plant diversity across a large metropolitan area using spatial statistical analyses that incorporate biotic, abiotic, and human variables. Our prediction for the city was that land use, along with distance from urban center, would replace the dominantly geomorphic controls on spatial variation in plant diversity in the surrounding undeveloped Sonoran desert. However, in addition to elevation and current and former land use, family income and housing age best explained the observed variation in plant diversity across the city. We conclude that a functional relationship, which we term the “luxury effect,” may link human resource abundance (wealth) and plant diversity in urban ecosystems. This connection may be influenced by education, institutional control, and culture, and merits further study. PMID:12847293

  9. [Ecological and epidemiologic aspects of the attacks by vampire bats and paralytic rabies in Argentina and analysis of the proposals carried out for their control].

    PubMed

    Delpietro, H A; Russo, R G

    1996-09-01

    The authors describe the ecology of attacks by vampire bats and the epidemiology of rabies (paralytic rabies) transmitted by these bats in Argentina, based on data obtained from an epidemiological vigilance programme conducted between 1984 and 1993. It was found that rabies spread rapidly among vampire bats, causing high mortality (over 50%); subsequently, the population recovered slowly due to the low reproductive rate. This explains the features of paralytic rabies, such as high mortality among affected populations, brief duration and subsequent recurrence. Paralytic rabies occurs throughout the year without evidence of seasonal occurrence and with no relationship to rainfall. This is because vampire bats remain active within their habitat, neither hibernating nor migrating. The problem created by vampire bats depends on the ecosystem of their habitat. In the livestock ecosystem, the bats are synanthropic and their population is abundant. They feed almost exclusively on livestock and attacks on human beings are sporadic. In this ecosystem, paralytic rabies is a serious economic problem because of its frequency and readiness to spread (41 separate outbreaks were recorded in addition to an epidemic). On the contrary, in the scarcely populated livestock ecosystem, the vampire but population is much smaller; they feed on various species of animals, and attacks on human beings are more common, but paralytic rabies occurs only sporadically (one isolated outbreak). For overall control of paralytic rabies, the authors recommend reduction of the vampire bat population to a safe level, in order to break the chain of rabies transmission and diminish attacks by bats. PMID:9376648

  10. Personality aspects in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Diana, R; Grosz, A; Mancini, E

    1985-12-01

    To test the claim that peculiar personality bias is detectable in multiple sclerosis (MS) we used the Szondi test to investigate the psychodynamic aspects of 110 MS patients in comparison with 200 healthy subjects. MS patients appeared to have a greater need for love in a passive form than normal people, rigid defense mechanisms, difficulty in resolving their inner conflicts either by sublimation or by internalization of satisfactory new emotional experiences, feelings of autoaggressiveness, and many symptoms of depression. Some of these aspects correlate with the severity of the disease, others seem to date back to early childhood as peculiar personality patterns. An investigation of childhood events in 110 controls confirmed that MS patients had had many more unhappy experiences in childhood than might commonly be expected. Further, the oft-reported psychiatric troubles preceding MS clinical onset suggest that at least in some MS patients there are specific gaps in personality structure dating back to early phases of their development. PMID:4086262

  11. High Aspect Ratio Wrinkles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Crosby, Alfred

    2015-03-01

    Buckling-induced surface undulations are widely found in living creatures, for instance, gut villi and the surface of flower petal cells. These undulations provide unique functionalities with their extremely high aspect ratios. For the synthetic systems, sinusoidal wrinkles that are induced by buckling a thin film attached on a soft substrate have been proposed to many applications. However, the impact of the synthetic wrinkles have been restricted by limited aspect ratios, ranging from 0 to 0.35. Within this range, wrinkle aspect ratio is known to increase with increasing compressive strain until a critical strain is reached, at which point wrinkles transition to localizations, such as folds or period doublings. Inspired by the living creatures, we propose that wrinkles can be stabilized in high aspect ratio by manipulating the strain energy in the substrate. We experimentally demonstrate this idea by forming a secondary crosslinking network in the wrinkled surface and successfully achieve aspect ratio as large as 0.8. This work not only provides insights for the mechanism of high aspect ratio structures seen in living creatures, but also demonstrates significant promise for future wrinkle-based applications.

  12. Personalized medicine and human genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yi-Fan; Goldstein, David B; Angrist, Misha; Cavalleri, Gianpiero

    2014-09-01

    Human genetic diversity has long been studied both to understand how genetic variation influences risk of disease and infer aspects of human evolutionary history. In this article, we review historical and contemporary views of human genetic diversity, the rare and common mutations implicated in human disease susceptibility, and the relevance of genetic diversity to personalized medicine. First, we describe the development of thought about diversity through the 20th century and through more modern studies including genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and next-generation sequencing. We introduce several examples, such as sickle cell anemia and Tay-Sachs disease that are caused by rare mutations and are more frequent in certain geographical populations, and common treatment responses that are caused by common variants, such as hepatitis C infection. We conclude with comments about the continued relevance of human genetic diversity in medical genetics and personalized medicine more generally. PMID:25059740

  13. Personalized Medicine and Human Genetic Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yi-Fan; Goldstein, David B.; Angrist, Misha; Cavalleri, Gianpiero

    2014-01-01

    Human genetic diversity has long been studied both to understand how genetic variation influences risk of disease and infer aspects of human evolutionary history. In this article, we review historical and contemporary views of human genetic diversity, the rare and common mutations implicated in human disease susceptibility, and the relevance of genetic diversity to personalized medicine. First, we describe the development of thought about diversity through the 20th century and through more modern studies including genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and next-generation sequencing. We introduce several examples, such as sickle cell anemia and Tay–Sachs disease that are caused by rare mutations and are more frequent in certain geographical populations, and common treatment responses that are caused by common variants, such as hepatitis C infection. We conclude with comments about the continued relevance of human genetic diversity in medical genetics and personalized medicine more generally. PMID:25059740

  14. Design Aspects of a Case-Control Clinical Investigation of the Effect of HIV on Oral and Gastrointestinal Soluble Innate Factors and Microbes

    PubMed Central

    Phelan, Joan A.; Abrams, William R.; Norman, Robert G.; Li, Yihong; Laverty, Maura; Corby, Patricia M.; Nembhard, Jason; Neri, Dinah; Barber, Cheryl A.; Aberg, Judith A.; Fisch, Gene S.; Poles, Michael A.; Malamud, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The impaired host defense system in HIV infection impacts the oral and gastrointestinal microbiota and associated opportunistic infections. Antiretroviral treatment is predicted to partially restore host defenses and decrease the oral manifestation of HIV/AIDS. Well-designed longitudinal studies are needed to better understand the interactions of soluble host defense proteins with bacteria and virus in HIV/AIDS. “Crosstalk” was designed as a longitudinal study of host responses along the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and interactions between defense molecules and bacteria in HIV infection and subsequent therapy. Purpose The clinical core formed the infrastructure for the study of the interactions between the proteome, microbiome and innate immune system. The core recruited and retained study subjects, scheduled visits, obtained demographic and medical data, assessed oral health status, collected samples, and guided analysis of the hypotheses. This manuscript presents a well-designed clinical core that may serve as a model for studies that combine clinical and laboratory data. Methods Crosstalk was a case-control longitudinal clinical study an initial planned enrollment of 170 subjects. HIV+ antiretroviral naïve subjects were followed for 9 visits over 96 weeks and HIV uninfected subjects for 3 visits over 24 weeks. Clinical prevalence of oral mucosal lesions, dental caries and periodontal disease were assessed. Results During the study, 116 subjects (47 HIV+, 69 HIV-) were enrolled. Cohorts of HIV+ and HIV- were demographically similar except for a larger proportion of women in the HIV- group. The most prevalent oral mucosal lesions were oral candidiasis and hairy leukoplakia in the HIV+ group. Discussion The clinical core was essential to enable the links between clinical and laboratory data. The study aims to determine specific differences between oral and GI tissues that account for unique patterns of opportunistic infections and to delineate the

  15. Diversity and Leadership in a Changing World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagly, Alice H.; Chin, Jean Lau

    2010-01-01

    Scholars of leadership have infrequently addressed the diversity of leaders and followers in terms of culture, gender, race and ethnicity, or sexual orientation. This omission has weakened the ability of research and theory to address some of the most provocative aspects of contemporary leadership, including (a) the limited access of individuals…

  16. Angiosperm ovules: diversity, development, evolution

    PubMed Central

    Endress, Peter K.

    2011-01-01

    Background Ovules as developmental precursors of seeds are organs of central importance in angiosperm flowers and can be traced back in evolution to the earliest seed plants. Angiosperm ovules are diverse in their position in the ovary, nucellus thickness, number and thickness of integuments, degree and direction of curvature, and histological differentiations. There is a large body of literature on this diversity, and various views on its evolution have been proposed over the course of time. Most recently evo–devo studies have been concentrated on molecular developmental genetics in ovules of model plants. Scope The present review provides a synthetic treatment of several aspects of the sporophytic part of ovule diversity, development and evolution, based on extensive research on the vast original literature and on experience from my own comparative studies in a broad range of angiosperm clades. Conclusions In angiosperms the presence of an outer integument appears to be instrumental for ovule curvature, as indicated from studies on ovule diversity through the major clades of angiosperms, molecular developmental genetics in model species, abnormal ovules in a broad range of angiosperms, and comparison with gymnosperms with curved ovules. Lobation of integuments is not an atavism indicating evolution from telomes, but simply a morphogenetic constraint from the necessity of closure of the micropyle. Ovule shape is partly dependent on locule architecture, which is especially indicated by the occurrence of orthotropous ovules. Some ovule features are even more conservative than earlier assumed and thus of special interest in angiosperm macrosystematics. PMID:21606056

  17. Teaching for Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Ricardo L.

    This book focuses on how to teach students from diverse cultures and how to teach students to live in a diverse society. Chapter 1, "Democracy, Diversity, and Universal Education," discusses "The Nature of a Free Society,""The Role of Universal Education," and "Schools as Communities." Chapter 2, "Identifying and Understanding Diversity Issues,"…

  18. 10 Diversity Champions II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nealy, Michelle J.; Pluviose, David; Roach, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    Introducing the "Champions of Diversity" in the Academic Kickoff issue proved a timely reminder of the mission of Diverse during the lead up to the 25th anniversary of Cox, Matthews and Associates, the founder of the former Black Issues in Higher Education and publisher of Diverse. In this edition, the editors at Diverse unveil its second slate of…

  19. Cenozoic plant diversity in the neotropics.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Carlos; Rueda, Milton J; Mora, Germán

    2006-03-31

    Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the high levels of plant diversity in the Neotropics today, but little is known about diversification patterns of Neotropical floras through geological time. Here, we present the longest time series compiled for palynological plant diversity of the Neotropics (15 stratigraphic sections, 1530 samples, 1411 morphospecies, and 287,736 occurrences) from the Paleocene to the early Miocene (65 to 20 million years ago) in central Colombia and western Venezuela. The record shows a low-diversity Paleocene flora, a significantly more diverse early to middle Eocene flora exceeding Holocene levels, and a decline in diversity at the end of the Eocene and early Oligocene. A good correlation between diversity fluctuations and changes in global temperature was found, suggesting that tropical climate change may be directly driving the observed diversity pattern. Alternatively, the good correspondence may result from the control that climate exerts on the area available for tropical plants to grow. PMID:16574860

  20. [Medical aspects of fasting].

    PubMed

    Gavrankapetanović, F

    1997-01-01

    Fasting (arabic-savm) was proclaimed through islam, and thus it is an obligation for Holly Prophet Muhammad s.a.v.s.-Peace be to Him-in the second year after Hijra (in 624 after Milad-born of Isa a.s.). There is a month of fasting-Ramadan-each lunar (hijra) year. So, it was 1415th fasting this year. Former Prophets have brought obligative messages on fasting to their people; so there are also certain forms of fasting with other religions i.e. with Catholics, Jews, Orthodox. These kinds of fasting above differ from muslim fasting, but they also appear obligative. All revelations have brought fasting as obligative. From medical point of view, fasting has two basical components: psychical and physical. Psychical sphere correlate closely with its fundamental ideological message. Allah dz.s. says in Quran: "... Fasting is obligative for you, as it was obligative to your precedents, as to avoid sins; during very few days (II, II, 183 & 184)." Will strength, control of passions, effort and self-discipline makes a pure faithfull person, who purify its mind and body through fasting. Thinking about The Creator is more intensive, character is more solid; and spirit and will get stronger. We will mention the hadith saying: "Essaihune humus saimun!" That means: "Travellers at the Earth are fasters (of my ummet)." The commentary of this hadith, in the Collection of 1001 hadiths (Bin bir hadis), number 485, says: "There are no travelling dervishs or monks in islam; thus there is no such a kind of relligousity in islam. In stead, it is changed by fasting and constant attending of mosque. That was proclaimed as obligation, although there were few cases of travelling in the name of relligousity, like travelling dervishs and sheichs." In this paper, the author discusses medical aspects of fasting and its positive characteristics in the respect of healthy life style and prevention of many sicks. The author mentions positive influence of fasting to certain system and organs of human

  1. Cognitive aspects of color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derefeldt, Gunilla A. M.; Menu, Jean-Pierre; Swartling, Tiina

    1995-04-01

    This report surveys cognitive aspects of color in terms of behavioral, neuropsychological, and neurophysiological data. Color is usually defined as psychophysical color or as perceived color. Behavioral data on categorical color perception, absolute judgement of colors, color coding, visual search, and visual awareness refer to the more cognitive aspects of color. These are of major importance in visual synthesis and spatial organization, as already shown by the Gestalt psychologists. Neuropsychological and neurophysiological findings provide evidence for an interrelation between cognitive color and spatial organization. Color also enhances planning strategies, as has been shown by studies on color and eye movements. Memory colors and the color- language connections in the brain also belong among the cognitive aspects of color.

  2. Current Perspectives on Cognitive Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Andrea; Beller, Sieghard

    2016-01-01

    To what extent is cognition influenced by a person’s cultural background? This question has remained controversial in large fields of the cognitive sciences, including cognitive psychology, and is also underexplored in anthropology. In this perspective article, findings from a recent wave of cross-cultural studies will be outlined with respect to three aspects of cognition: perception and categorization, number representation and counting, and explanatory frameworks and beliefs. Identifying similarities and differences between these domains allows for general conclusions regarding cognitive diversity and helps to highlight the importance of culturally shaped content for a comprehensive understanding of cognition. PMID:27148118

  3. Current Perspectives on Cognitive Diversity.

    PubMed

    Bender, Andrea; Beller, Sieghard

    2016-01-01

    To what extent is cognition influenced by a person's cultural background? This question has remained controversial in large fields of the cognitive sciences, including cognitive psychology, and is also underexplored in anthropology. In this perspective article, findings from a recent wave of cross-cultural studies will be outlined with respect to three aspects of cognition: perception and categorization, number representation and counting, and explanatory frameworks and beliefs. Identifying similarities and differences between these domains allows for general conclusions regarding cognitive diversity and helps to highlight the importance of culturally shaped content for a comprehensive understanding of cognition. PMID:27148118

  4. [Pulmonary Echinococcosis: Surgical Aspects].

    PubMed

    Eichhorn, M E; Hoffmann, H; Dienemann, H

    2015-10-01

    Pulmonary cystic echinococcosis is a very rare disease in Germany. It is caused by the larvae of the dog tapeworm (echinococcus granulosus). The liver is the most affected organ, followed by the lungs. Surgery remains the main therapeutic approach for pulmonary CE. Whenever possible, parenchyma-preserving lung surgery should be preferred over anatomic lung resections. To ensure best therapeutic results, surgery needs to be performed under precise consideration of important infectiological aspects and patients should be treated in specialised centres based on interdisciplinary consensus. In addition to surgical aspects, this review summarises special infectiological features of this disease, which are crucial to the surgical approach. PMID:26351761

  5. Long-term nutrient addition differentially alters community composition and diversity of genes that control nitrous oxide flux from salt marsh sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kearns, Patrick J.; Angell, John H.; Feinman, Sarah G.; Bowen, Jennifer L.

    2015-03-01

    Enrichment of natural waters, soils, and sediments by inorganic nutrients, including nitrogen, is occurring at an increasing rate and has fundamentally altered global biogeochemical cycles. Salt marshes are critical for the removal of land-derived nitrogen before it enters coastal waters. This is accomplished via multiple microbially mediated pathways, including denitrification. Many of these pathways, however, are also a source of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). We used clone libraries and quantative PCR (qPCR) to examine the effect of fertilization on the diversity and abundance of two functional genes associated with denitrification and N2O production (norB and nosZ) in experimental plots at the Great Sippewissett Salt Marsh (Falmouth, MA, USA) that have been enriched with nutrients for over 40 years. Our data showed distinct nosZ and norB community structures at different nitrogen loads, especially at the highest level of fertilization. Furthermore, calculations of the Shannon Diversity Index and Chao1 Richness Estimator indicated that nosZ gene diversity and richness increased with increased nitrogen supply, however no such relationship existed with regard to richness and diversity of the norB gene. Results from qPCR demonstrated that nosZ gene abundance was an order of magnitude lower in the extra-highly fertilized plots compared to the other plots, but the abundance of norB was not affected by fertilization. The majority of sequences obtained from the marsh plots had no close cultured relatives and they were divergent from previously sequenced norB and nosZ fragments. Despite their divergence from any cultured representatives, most of the norB and nosZ sequences appeared to be from members of the Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria, suggesting that these classes are particularly important in salt marsh nitrogen cycling. Our results suggest that both norB and nosZ containing microbes are affected by fertilization and that the Great Sippewissett Marsh may

  6. Accumulation of genetic diversity in the US Potato Genebank

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Efficient management of ex-situ collections includes understanding how conservation technologies impact the genetic diversity and integrity of these collections. For over 60 years, research at the US Potato Genebank has produced helpful scientific insights on diverse aspects of potato conservation. ...

  7. Teaching Diverse Students: How to Avoid Marginalizing Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruz, Luz M.; Petersen, Susan C.

    2011-01-01

    Diversity is defined as differences in groups of people and individuals based on ethnicity, race, language, socioeconomic status, gender, sexual orientation, exceptionalities, and religion. Each of these aspects of diversity is a "culture" in and of itself. The goal of physical education teachers is to become "culturally responsive teachers" and…

  8. Teacher Education's Responsibility to Address Diversity Issues: Enhancing Institutional Capacity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melnick, Susan L.; Zeichner, Kenneth M.

    1998-01-01

    Preservice teachers must be prepared to address substantial student diversity and to educate all students to higher levels of understanding and competence. Many teacher educators are not competent to prepare new teachers in this area. Several approaches to handling institutional aspects of teacher education for diversity are discussed, noting…

  9. Medical Aspects of Surfing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renneker, Mark

    1987-01-01

    The medical aspects of surfing include ear and eye injuries and sprains and strains of the lower back and neck, as well as skin cancer from exposure to the sun. Treatment, rehabilitation, and prevention of these problems are discussed. Surfing is recommended as part of an exercise program for reasonably healthy people. (Author/MT)

  10. Sociological Aspects of Deafness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Federation of the Deaf, Rome (Italy).

    Nine conference papers treat the sociological aspects of deafness. Included are "Individuals Being Deaf and Blind and Living with a Well Hearing Society" by A. Marx (German Federal Republic), "A Deaf Man's Experiences in a Hearing World" by A. B. Simon(U.S.A.), "Problem of Text Books and School Appliances for Vocational Education of Deaf Adults"…

  11. Aspects of Marine Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awkerman, Gary L.

    This publication is designed for use in standard science curricula to develop oceanologic manifestations of certain science topics. Included are teacher guides, student activities, and demonstrations to impart ocean science understanding, specifically, aspects of marine ecology, to high school students. The course objectives include the ability of…

  12. Aspects of Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolinger, Dwight

    A survey of the substance of linguistics and of the activities of linguists is presented in an attempt to acquaint ordinary readers with the various aspects of la"guage. A discussion of the human tendency toward speech, of the traits of language, and of phonetic elements prepares the way for an analysis of the structure of languag e in terms of…

  13. Psychological Aspects of Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooney, Craig M.

    1980-01-01

    Psychological aspects of aging, based on gerontological hypotheses and research, are presented under three headings: intellectual abilities; emotional capacities; and motor capabilities. Consequences are discussed. Well-being throughout life depends on fulfillment of fundamental human needs; existential needs for nourishment, stimulation, rest,…

  14. Diversity Statements: How Faculty Applicants Address Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmaling, Karen B.; Trevino, Amira Y.; Lind, Justin R.; Blume, Arthur W.; Baker, Dana L.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine application materials for assistant professor positions in 3 academic disciplines. Applicants were asked to write a diversity statement describing how they would advance diversity through their research, teaching, and service. The sample included application materials submitted by 191 candidates for…

  15. Capturing the Diversity in Lexical Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Scott

    2013-01-01

    The range, variety, or diversity of words found in learners' language use is believed to reflect the complexity of their vocabulary knowledge as well as the level of their language proficiency. Many indices of lexical diversity have been proposed, most of which involve statistical relationships between types and tokens, and which ultimately…

  16. Does Staff Diversity Imply Openness to Diversity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauring, Jakob; Selmer, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Post-secondary educational organizations are currently some of the most diverse settings to be found. However, few educational studies have dealt with staff diversity and hardly any has looked outside the USA. The purpose of this paper is to present a study of members of international university departments in Denmark. The authors set out…

  17. Sensory aspects of movement disorders

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Neepa; Jankovic, Joseph; Hallett, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Movement disorders, which include disorders such as Parkinson’s disease, dystonia, Tourette’s syndrome, restless legs syndrome, and akathisia, have traditionally been considered to be disorders of impaired motor control resulting predominantly from dysfunction of the basal ganglia. This notion has been revised largely because of increasing recognition of associated behavioural, psychiatric, autonomic, and other non-motor symptoms. The sensory aspects of movement disorders include intrinsic sensory abnormalities and the effects of external sensory input on the underlying motor abnormality. The basal ganglia, cerebellum, thalamus, and their connections, coupled with altered sensory input, seem to play a key part in abnormal sensorimotor integration. However, more investigation into the phenomenology and physiological basis of sensory abnormalities, and about the role of the basal ganglia, cerebellum, and related structures in somatosensory processing, and its effect on motor control, is needed. PMID:24331796

  18. Quality Control Analysis of Selected Aspects of Programs Administered by the Bureau of Student Financial Assistance. Error-Prone Model Derived from 1978-1979 Quality Control Study. Data Report. [Task 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saavedra, Pedro; Kuchak, JoAnn

    An error-prone model (EPM) to predict financial aid applicants who are likely to misreport on Basic Educational Opportunity Grant (BEOG) applications was developed, based on interviews conducted with a quality control sample of 1,791 students during 1978-1979. The model was designed to identify corrective methods appropriate for different types of…

  19. Effects of controlled interruption of the enterohepatic circulation of bile salts by biliary diversion and by ileal resection on bile salt secretion, synthesis, and pool size in the rhesus monkey

    PubMed Central

    Dowling, R. Hermon; Mack, Eberhard; Small, Donald M.

    1970-01-01

    The effects of controlled interruption of the enterohepatic circulation (EHC) of bile salts by biliary diversion on bile volume, bile salt secretion and synthesis rates, bile salt pool size, and the relationship to fecal fat excretion were studied in 16 rhesus monkeys. Bile from a chronic bile fistula was returned to the intestine through an electronic stream-splitter which, by diverting different percentages of bile to a collecting system, provided graded and controlled interruption of the EHC. The increase in hepatic bile salt synthesis in response to interruption of the EHC was limited and reached a maximum rate at 20% interruption of the EHC. Up to this level of biliary diversion, the increased hepatic synthesis compensated for bile salt loss so that bile salt secretion and pool size were maintained at normal levels. With diversion of 33% or more, there was no further increase in hepatic bile salt synthesis to compensate for external loss, and as a result there was diminished bile salt secretion, a reduction in bile salt pool size, and steatorrhea was observed. The effects of interruption of the EHC by the streamsplitter were compared with those produced by resection of the distal one-third or two-thirds of small bowel. While ileal resection appreciably reduced bile salt secretion, the EHC was by no means abolished. Bile salt reabsorption from the residual intestine was greater after one-third than after two-thirds small bowel resection. These observations suggest that jejunal reabsorption of bile salts occurs and may well contribute to the normal EHC. PMID:4983661

  20. Psychosocial Aspects of Obesity.

    PubMed

    Beck, Amy R

    2016-01-01

    This article is the sixth in a series of the comorbidities of childhood obesity and reviews psychosocial aspects with a focus on weight-based victimization and discrimination stemming from weight bias and stigma. Outcomes from these bullying and discriminatory experiences are pervasive and impact youth across all settings, including school. Lastly, this article provides recommendations on how to reduce bias and stigma to better serve these students in the school environment. PMID:26739931

  1. Aspects of B physics

    SciTech Connect

    Gaillard, M.K.

    1987-10-14

    Various aspects of weak decays are commented on. Probing of the standard model and of phenomena beyond the standard model are discussed, followed by a theoretical view of B mesons and some experimental observations on B mesons. The point is made that any data on B decay would be interesting in that it would provide powerful new constraints in analyses of the standard model and extensions thereof. (LEW)

  2. Selenium. Nutritional, toxicologic, and clinical aspects.

    PubMed Central

    Fan, A. M.; Kizer, K. W.

    1990-01-01

    Despite the recent findings of environmental contamination, selenium toxicosis in humans is exceedingly rare in the United States, with the few known cases resulting from industrial accidents and an episode involving the ingestion of superpotent selenium supplements. Chronic selenosis is essentially unheard of in this country because of the typical diversity of the American diet. Nonetheless, because of the growing public interest in selenium as a dietary supplement and the occurrence of environmental selenium contamination, medical practitioners should be familiar with the nutritional, toxicologic, and clinical aspects of this trace element. PMID:2219873

  3. Teaching Culturally Diverse Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correa, Vivian; Tulbert, Beth

    1991-01-01

    Characteristics of culturally diverse students are discussed in terms of language, culture, and socioeconomic factors. Meeting the educational needs of culturally diverse students can involve interactive teaming of professionals; parent involvement; and providing appropriate services, assessment, curriculum, and instruction. (JDD)

  4. How does pedogenesis drive plant diversity?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laliberté, Etienne; Grace, James B.; Huston, Michael A.; Lambers, Hans; Teste, François P.; Turner, Benjamin L.; Wardle, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Some of the most species-rich plant communities occur on ancient, strongly weathered soils, whereas those on recently developed soils tend to be less diverse. Mechanisms underlying this well-known pattern, however, remain unresolved. Here, we present a conceptual model describing alternative mechanisms by which pedogenesis (the process of soil formation) might drive plant diversity. We suggest that long-term soil chronosequences offer great, yet largely untapped, potential as 'natural experiments' to determine edaphic controls over plant diversity. Finally, we discuss how our conceptual model can be evaluated quantitatively using structural equation modeling to advance multivariate theories about the determinants of local plant diversity. This should help us to understand broader-scale diversity patterns, such as the latitudinal gradient of plant diversity.

  5. Insights on Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Carol, Ed.; And Others

    This state-of-the-art report presents a series of essays on the topic of diversity. Essays include: (1) "Committing to Diversity" (George L. Mehaffy); (2) "Serving the Community by Serving Our Members" (Michael P. Wolfe); (3) "How Diversity Matters" (Asa G. Hilliard, III); (4) "A Prerequisite to Teaching Multiculturally" (Mary Louise Gomez); (5)…

  6. BioDiversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, E. O., Ed.; Peter, Frances M., Ed.

    The diversity of life forms is one of the greatest wonders of the planet earth. The biosphere is an intricate tapestry of interwoven life forms. This book offers an overall view of this biological diversity and carries an urgent warning about the rapid alteration and destruction of the environments that have fostered the diversity of life forms…

  7. The State of Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josey, E. J.

    1994-01-01

    Examines what is being done to implement cultural diversity in libraries. Topics addressed include affirmative action; defining cultural diversity, including the significance of ethnicity, race, and race relations in the workplace; problems in implementing cultural diversity; and examples of successful implementation programs. (Contains three…

  8. Leadership and Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    As part of the special edition recognizing the 40th anniversary of "Educational Management Administration & Leadership" this article reviews the coverage of leadership and diversity issues in the journal. The majority of articles concerning diversity have focused on gender, with attention turning to the wider concept of diversity since the year…

  9. Thinking about Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, James A.

    1993-01-01

    Before companies attempt to increase the diversity in their management ranks, it is necessary for them to learn to manage diversity. Managers should have a plan; focus on individual learning, human-relations, motivational, and communication styles; examine organizational culture; and offer diversity training. (JOW)

  10. Managing Generational Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donovan, Eamonn

    2009-01-01

    Many school leaders have explored the issue of diversity when it comes to students, teachers and staff. Their focus typically has been on gender and ethnicity. However, generational diversity, an area of diversity that warrants serious consideration, has received less attention. Generational intelligence is important today for two reasons. First…

  11. Take action: influence diversity.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Norma J

    2013-01-01

    Increased diversity brings strength to nursing and ANNA. Being a more diverse association will require all of us working together. There is an old proverb that says: "one hand cannot cover the sky; it takes many hands." ANNA needs every one of its members to be a part of the diversity initiative. PMID:24579394

  12. Multilevel and Diverse Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baurain, Bradley, Ed.; Ha, Phan Le, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The benefits and advantages of classroom practices incorporating unity-in-diversity and diversity-in-unity are what "Multilevel and Diverse Classrooms" is all about. Multilevel classrooms--also known as mixed-ability or heterogeneous classrooms--are a fact of life in ESOL programs around the world. These classrooms are often not only multilevel…

  13. Wind-Tunnel Investigation at Subsonic and Supersonic Speeds of a Fighter Model Employing a Low-Aspect-Ratio Unswept Wing and a Horizontal Tail Mounted Well Above the Wing Plane - Longitudinal Stability and Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Williard G.

    1954-01-01

    Experimental results showing the static longitudinal-stability and control characteristics of a model of a fighter airplane employing a low-aspect-ratio unswept wing and an all-movable horizontal tail are presented. The investigation was made over a Mach number range from 0.60 to 0.90 and from 1.35 to 1.90 at a constant Reynolds number of 2.40 million, based on the wing mean aerodynamic chord. Because of the location of the horizontal tail at the tip of the vertical tail, interference was noted between the vertical tail and the horizontal tail and between the wing and the horizontal tail. This interference produced a positive pitching-moment coefficient at zero lift throughout the Mach number range of the tests, reduced the change in stability with increasing lift coefficient of the wing at moderate lift coefficients in the subsonic speed range, and reduced the stability at low lift coefficients at high supersonic speeds. The lift and pitching-moment effectiveness of the all movable tail was unaffected by the interference effects and was constant throughout the lift-coefficient range of the tests at each Mach number except 1.90.

  14. 77 FR 65439 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Supplemental Registration for the Diversity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Supplemental Registration for the Diversity Immigrant Visa... Information Collection: Supplemental Registration for the Diversity Immigrant Visa Program. OMB Control Number.... Respondents: Diversity Visa Applicants. Estimated Number of Respondents: 60,000. Estimated Number of...

  15. Multilingual Aspects of Fluency Disorders. Communication Disorders across Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Peter; Van Borsel, John

    2011-01-01

    This book contains contributions by scholars working on diverse aspects of speech who bring their findings to bear on the practical issue of how to treat stuttering in different language groups and in multilingual speakers. The book considers classic issues in speech production research, as well as whether regions of the brain that are affected in…

  16. Everyday Spirituality: An Aspect of the Holistic Curriculum in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bone, Jane; Cullen, Joy; Loveridge, Judith

    2007-01-01

    Early childhood education in Aotearoa New Zealand includes different philosophical perspectives, may be part of the public or private sector and aims to be inclusive and holistic. The early childhood curriculum, Te Whariki, supports these aims. Aspects of the curriculum that are holistic may be conceptualized in diverse ways and this qualitative…

  17. Circadian Control of Global Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shujing; Zhang, Luoying

    2015-01-01

    Circadian rhythms exist in most if not all organisms on the Earth and manifest in various aspects of physiology and behavior. These rhythmic processes are believed to be driven by endogenous molecular clocks that regulate rhythmic expression of clock-controlled genes (CCGs). CCGs consist of a significant portion of the genome and are involved in diverse biological pathways. The transcription of CCGs is tuned by rhythmic actions of transcription factors and circadian alterations in chromatin. Here, we review the circadian control of CCG transcription in five model organisms that are widely used, including cyanobacterium, fungus, plant, fruit fly, and mouse. Comparing the similarity and differences in the five organisms could help us better understand the function of the circadian clock, as well as its output mechanisms adapted to meet the demands of diverse environmental conditions. PMID:26682214

  18. Diversity of bacterial endophytes in 3 and 15 year-old grapevines of Vitis vinifera cv. Corvina and their potential for plant growth promotion and phytopathogen control.

    PubMed

    Andreolli, Marco; Lampis, Silvia; Zapparoli, Giacomo; Angelini, Elisa; Vallini, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    This study represents the first investigation on ecology of endophytic bacteria isolated from 3 and 15 year-old vine stems of Vitis vinifera cv. Corvina. The analysis was performed by means of culture-dependent techniques. The obtained results showed that new grapevine endophytic genera are being discovered. Moreover, Bacilli and Actinobacteria are frequently isolated from 3 year-old plants, whereas Alpha- and Gamma- Proteobacteria classes are more prevalent in the 15 year-old plants. Shannon-Wiener (H) index and analysis of rarefaction curves revealed greater genus richness in young grapevine plants. Furthermore, results evidenced an increase of genotypic group number within specific genera (e.g., Rhizobium and Pantoea). Among isolated strains from 3 and 15 year-old stems, respectively, 34 and 39% produce siderophores; 22 and 15% secrete ammonia; 22 and 21% produce indole-3-acetic acid; 8.7 and 41% solubilize phosphate. Besides, two strains isolated from 15 year-old grapevines showed 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity. Antifungal activity analysis evidenced that two Bacillus strains possess growth antagonistic effect toward all the tested fungal strains. Therefore, the present study extends our knowledge of the diversity of the endophytic bacteria by providing new insights into the complexity of the grapevine microbiome. PMID:26805617

  19. Genome-Wide Association Mapping in the Global Diversity Set Reveals New QTL Controlling Root System and Related Shoot Variation in Barley

    PubMed Central

    Reinert, Stephan; Kortz, Annika; Léon, Jens; Naz, Ali A.

    2016-01-01

    The fibrous root system is a visible sign of ecological adaptation among barley natural populations. In the present study, we utilized rich barley diversity to dissect the genetic basis of root system variation and its link with shoot attributes under well-water and drought conditions. Genome-wide association mapping of phenotype data using a dense genetic map (5892 SNP markers) revealed 17 putative QTL for root and shoot traits. Among these, at 14 loci the preeminence of exotic QTL alleles resulted in trait improvements. The most promising QTL were quantified using haplotype analysis at local and global genome levels. The strongest QTL was found on chromosome 1H which accounted for root dry weight and tiller number simultaneously. Candidate gene analysis across the targeted region detected a crucial amino acid substitution mutation in the conserved domain of a WRKY29 transcription factor among genotypes bearing major and minor QTL alleles. Similarly, the drought inducible QTL QRdw.5H (5H, 95.0 cM) seems to underlie 37 amino acid deletion and substitution mutations in the conserved domain of two related genes CBF10B and CBF10A, respectively. The identification and further characterization of these candidate genes will be essential to decipher genetics behind developmental and natural adaptation mechanisms of barley. PMID:27486472

  20. Genome-Wide Association Mapping in the Global Diversity Set Reveals New QTL Controlling Root System and Related Shoot Variation in Barley.

    PubMed

    Reinert, Stephan; Kortz, Annika; Léon, Jens; Naz, Ali A

    2016-01-01

    The fibrous root system is a visible sign of ecological adaptation among barley natural populations. In the present study, we utilized rich barley diversity to dissect the genetic basis of root system variation and its link with shoot attributes under well-water and drought conditions. Genome-wide association mapping of phenotype data using a dense genetic map (5892 SNP markers) revealed 17 putative QTL for root and shoot traits. Among these, at 14 loci the preeminence of exotic QTL alleles resulted in trait improvements. The most promising QTL were quantified using haplotype analysis at local and global genome levels. The strongest QTL was found on chromosome 1H which accounted for root dry weight and tiller number simultaneously. Candidate gene analysis across the targeted region detected a crucial amino acid substitution mutation in the conserved domain of a WRKY29 transcription factor among genotypes bearing major and minor QTL alleles. Similarly, the drought inducible QTL QRdw.5H (5H, 95.0 cM) seems to underlie 37 amino acid deletion and substitution mutations in the conserved domain of two related genes CBF10B and CBF10A, respectively. The identification and further characterization of these candidate genes will be essential to decipher genetics behind developmental and natural adaptation mechanisms of barley. PMID:27486472

  1. Aspects of emergent symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Pedro R. S.

    2016-03-01

    These are intended to be review notes on emergent symmetries, i.e. symmetries which manifest themselves in specific sectors of energy in many systems. The emphasis is on the physical aspects rather than computation methods. We include some background material and go through more recent problems in field theory, statistical mechanics and condensed matter. These problems illustrate how some important symmetries, such as Lorentz invariance and supersymmetry, usually believed to be fundamental, can arise naturally in low-energy regimes of systems involving a large number of degrees of freedom. The aim is to discuss how these examples could help us to face other complex and fundamental problems.

  2. Ceramics with decorative aspect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voica, Cezara

    2009-08-01

    The last decades brought the development of bone china techniques used for producing the decorative articles. These products can be glazed with a transparent and thin glaze layer, even with more special (decorative) ones which gives new aesthetic aspect. The present article presents the results obtained after the studies performed for matte glazes for decorative bone china. As microcrystalization agent were used zinc oxide; the content of this oxide bring some changes of the basic glaze thus the chemical composition must be adjusted as the fluxes would present the desired properties after the heating process.

  3. Regulatory aspects on nanomedicines.

    PubMed

    Sainz, Vanessa; Conniot, João; Matos, Ana I; Peres, Carina; Zupancic, Eva; Moura, Liane; Silva, Liana C; Florindo, Helena F; Gaspar, Rogério S

    2015-12-18

    Nanomedicines have been in the forefront of pharmaceutical research in the last decades, creating new challenges for research community, industry, and regulators. There is a strong demand for the fast development of scientific and technological tools to address unmet medical needs, thus improving human health care and life quality. Tremendous advances in the biomaterials and nanotechnology fields have prompted their use as promising tools to overcome important drawbacks, mostly associated to the non-specific effects of conventional therapeutic approaches. However, the wide range of application of nanomedicines demands a profound knowledge and characterization of these complex products. Their properties need to be extensively understood to avoid unpredicted effects on patients, such as potential immune reactivity. Research policy and alliances have been bringing together scientists, regulators, industry, and, more frequently in recent years, patient representatives and patient advocacy institutions. In order to successfully enhance the development of new technologies, improved strategies for research-based corporate organizations, more integrated research tools dealing with appropriate translational requirements aiming at clinical development, and proactive regulatory policies are essential in the near future. This review focuses on the most important aspects currently recognized as key factors for the regulation of nanomedicines, discussing the efforts under development by industry and regulatory agencies to promote their translation into the market. Regulatory Science aspects driving a faster and safer development of nanomedicines will be a central issue for the next years. PMID:26260323

  4. Aspects of Gond astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahia, M. N.; Halkare, Ganesh

    2013-03-01

    The Gond community is considered to be one of the most ancient tribes of India with a continuing history of several thousand years. They are also known for their largely isolated history which they have retained through the millennia. Several of their intellectual traditions therefore are a record of parallel aspects of human intellectual growth, and still preserve their original flavour and have not been homogenised by the later traditions of India. In view of this, the Gonds provide a special window to the different currents that constitute contemporary India. In the present study, we summarise their mythology, genetics and script. We then investigate their astronomical traditions and try to understand this community through a survey of 15 Gond villages spread over Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. We show that they have a distinctly different view of the sky from the conventional astronomical ideas encountered elsewhere in India, which is both interesting and informative. We briefly comment on other aspects of their life as culled from our encounters with different members of the Gond community.

  5. Self-help for Binge Eating Disorder in Primary Care: A Randomized Controlled Trial with Ethnically and Racially Diverse Obese Patients

    PubMed Central

    Grilo, Carlos M.; White, Marney A.; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Barnes, Rachel D.; Masheb, Robin M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective was to examine the effectiveness of a self-help treatment as a first line primary care intervention for binge eating disorder (BED) in obese patients. This study compared the effectiveness of a usual care plus self-help version of cognitive behavioral therapy (shCBT) to usual care (UC) only in ethnically/racially diverse obese patients with BED in primary care settings in an urban center. Method 48 obese patients with BED were randomly assigned to either shCBT (N=24) or UC (N=24) for four months. Independent assessments were performed monthly throughout treatment and at post-treatment. Results Binge-eating remission rates did not differ significantly between shCBT (25%) and UC (8.3%) at post-treatment. Mixed models of binge eating frequency determined using the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) revealed significant decreases for both conditions but that shCBT and UC did not differ. Mixed models of binge eating frequency from repeated monthly EDE-questionnaire assessments revealed a significant treatment-by-time interaction indicating that shCBT had significant reductions whereas UC did not during the four-month treatments. Mixed models revealed no differences between groups on associated eating disorder psychopathology or depression. No weight loss was observed in either condition. Conclusions Our findings suggest that pure self-help CBT did not show effectiveness relative to usual care for treating BED in obese patients in primary care. Thus, self-help CBT may not have utility as a front-line intervention for BED for obese patients in primary care and future studies should test guided-self-help methods for delivering CBT in primary care generalist settings. PMID:24189569

  6. The Trojan Female Technique for pest control: a candidate mitochondrial mutation confers low male fertility across diverse nuclear backgrounds in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Dowling, Damian K; Tompkins, Daniel M; Gemmell, Neil J

    2015-01-01

    Pest species represent a major ongoing threat to global biodiversity. Effective management approaches are required that regulate pest numbers, while minimizing collateral damage to nontarget species. The Trojan Female Technique (TFT) was recently proposed as a prospective approach to biological pest control. The TFT draws on the evolutionary hypothesis that maternally inherited mitochondrial genomes are prone to the accumulation of male, but not female, harming mutations. These mutations could be harnessed to provide trans-generational fertility-based control of pest species. A candidate TFT mutation was recently described in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, which confers male-only sterility in the specific isogenic nuclear background in which it is maintained. However, applicability of the TFT relies on mitochondrial mutations whose male-sterilizing effects are general across nuclear genomic contexts. We test this assumption, expressing the candidate TFT-mutation bearing haplotype alongside a range of nuclear backgrounds and comparing its fertility in males, relative to that of control haplotypes. We document consistently lower fertility for males harbouring the TFT mutation, in both competitive and noncompetitive mating contexts, across all nuclear backgrounds screened. This indicates that TFT mutations conferring reduced male fertility can segregate within populations and could be harnessed to facilitate this novel form of pest control. PMID:26495040

  7. Pyrrole-Terminated Ionic Liquid Surfactant: One Molecule with Multiple Functions for Controlled Synthesis of Diverse Multispecies Co-Doped Porous Hollow Carbon Spheres.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Zhu, Wei; Ji, Jingwei; Wang, Peng; Lan, Yue; Gao, Ning; Yin, Xianpeng; Wang, Hui; Li, Guangtao

    2016-05-01

    Rationally and efficiently controlling chemical composition, microstructure, and morphology of carbon nanomaterials plays a crucial role in significantly enhancing their functional properties and expending their applications. In this work, a novel strategy for simultaneously controlling these structural parameters was developed on the base of a multifunctional precursor approach, in which the precursor not only serves as carbon source and structure-directing agent, but also contains two heteroatom doping sites. As exemplified by using pyrrole-terminated ionic liquid surfactant as such precursor, in conjunction with sol-gel chemistry this strategy allows for efficiently producing well-defined hollow carbon spheres with controlled microstructure and chemical compositions. Remarkably, the dual-doping sites in confined silica channels provide an exciting opportunity and flexibility to access various doped carbons through simply anion exchange or altering the used oxidative polymerization agent, especially the multispecies codoped materials by combination of the two doping modes. All the results indicate that the described strategy may open up a new avenue for efficiently synthesizing functional carbon materials with highly controllable capability. PMID:27093191

  8. Towards a Better Understanding of the Relationship between Executive Control and Theory of Mind: An Intra-Cultural Comparison of Three Diverse Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahaeian, Ameneh; Henry, Julie D.; Razmjoee, Maryam; Teymoori, Ali; Wang, Cen

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has consistently indicated that theory of mind (ToM) is associated with executive control in the preschool years. However, interpretation of this literature is limited by the fact that most studies have focused exclusively on urbanized Western cultural samples. Consequently, it is not clear whether the association between ToM and…

  9. A Randomized Controlled Trial of the First Step to Success Early Intervention: Demonstration of Program Efficacy Outcomes in a Diverse, Urban School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Hill M.; Seeley, John R.; Small, Jason; Severson, Herbert H.; Graham, Bethany A.; Feil, Edward G.; Serna, Loretta; Golly, Annemieke M.; Forness, Steven R.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on a randomized controlled trial of the First Step to Success early intervention that was conducted over a 4-year period in Albuquerque Public Schools. First Step is a selected intervention for students in Grades 1 through 3 with externalizing behavior problems, and it addresses secondary prevention goals and objectives. It…

  10. Aspects of Plant Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    TREWAVAS, ANTHONY

    2003-01-01

    Intelligence is not a term commonly used when plants are discussed. However, I believe that this is an omission based not on a true assessment of the ability of plants to compute complex aspects of their environment, but solely a reflection of a sessile lifestyle. This article, which is admittedly controversial, attempts to raise many issues that surround this area. To commence use of the term intelligence with regard to plant behaviour will lead to a better understanding of the complexity of plant signal transduction and the discrimination and sensitivity with which plants construct images of their environment, and raises critical questions concerning how plants compute responses at the whole‐plant level. Approaches to investigating learning and memory in plants will also be considered. PMID:12740212

  11. Immunotherapy in all aspects.

    PubMed

    Hanci, Deniz; Şahin, Ethem; Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Cingi, Cemal

    2016-06-01

    Allergen immunotherapy is a form of long-term treatment that decreases symptoms for many people with allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma, conjunctivitis (eye allergy) or stinging insect allergy. In this review, we presented the important topics in immunotherapy. The important aspects of immunotherapy are considered to be "Immunologıcal responses to immunotherapy"; "The principal types of immunotherapy"; "Effectiveness"; "Indications"; "Contraindications"; "Allergen immunotherapy in children"; "Safety"; and "Anaphylactic reactions after immunotherapy". The principal types of immunotherapy are subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) and sublingual immunotherapy. Both of them can be used in indicated cases. When using SCIT, physicians must be more careful because of reported rare fatal cases. The risks and benefits of continuing allergen immunotherapy in patients who have experienced severe systemic reactions should be carefully considered. PMID:25673026

  12. Various aspects of gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jankiewicz, Marcin

    2007-12-01

    This thesis summarizes research projects that I have been involved in during my graduate studies at Vanderbilt University. My research spanned different areas of theoretical high energy physics with gravity as a common denominator. I explore both fundamental and phenomenological aspects of: (i) mathematical physics where I have studied relations between partition functions of certain class of conformal field theories and Fischer-Griess Monster group; (ii) cosmology, where I performed a numerical study of a horizon size modes of scalar field; (iii) a black hole physics project involving possible extensions of the non-hair theorem in a presence of exotic types of scalar field; and (iv) a study of phenomenological space-time foam models and their relation to Planck scale physics.

  13. Aspects, Wrappers and Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on Object Infrastructure Framework (OIF), an Aspect-Oriented Programming (AOP) system. The presentation begins with an introduction to the difficulties and requirements of distributed computing, including functional and non-functional requirements (ilities). The architecture of Distributed Object Technology includes stubs, proxies for implementation objects, and skeletons, proxies for client applications. The key OIF ideas (injecting behavior, annotated communications, thread contexts, and pragma) are discussed. OIF is an AOP mechanism; AOP is centered on: 1) Separate expression of crosscutting concerns; 2) Mechanisms to weave the separate expressions into a unified system. AOP is software engineering technology for separately expressing systematic properties while nevertheless producing running systems that embody these properties.

  14. Geometrical aspects of entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Leinaas, Jon Magne; Myrheim, Jan; Ovrum, Eirik

    2006-07-15

    We study geometrical aspects of entanglement, with the Hilbert-Schmidt norm defining the metric on the set of density matrices. We focus first on the simplest case of two two-level systems and show that a 'relativistic' formulation leads to a complete analysis of the question of separability. Our approach is based on Schmidt decomposition of density matrices for a composite system and nonunitary transformations to a standard form. The positivity of the density matrices is crucial for the method to work. A similar approach works to some extent in higher dimensions, but is a less powerful tool. We further present a numerical method for examining separability and illustrate the method by a numerical study of bound entanglement in a composite system of two three-level systems.

  15. Teaching to Diversity: Creating Compassionate Learning Communities for Diverse Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Jennifer; Porath, Marion

    2011-01-01

    Emotional and behavioral outcomes of the Respecting Diversity (RD) program, a social and emotional learning (SEL) intervention to develop self-awareness, self-respect and respect for diverse others, were investigated with 218 students in Grades four to seven and their teachers. Intervention and control groups were assessed pre and post…

  16. [Cultural diversity reflexive learning].

    PubMed

    Pomarede, Ma José Morera; Caparà, Núria Roca

    2007-10-01

    Recent international migration trends contribute to set up new social scenarios where an increasing cultural diversity becomes self-evident. From a global diversity on a planetary scale, we enter into a local diversity comprised by persons, groups and emerging cultures with whom we share our daily life experiences. In this context, social relationships are not always easy and we may note difficulties due to the ethnocentrism each group has and due to a lack of knowledge, or distrust or prejudices among persons or groups having diverse cultural origins. PMID:18274398

  17. Diversity and leadership in a changing world.

    PubMed

    Eagly, Alice H; Chin, Jean Lau

    2010-04-01

    Scholars of leadership have infrequently addressed the diversity of leaders and followers in terms of culture, gender, race and ethnicity, or sexual orientation. This omission has weakened the ability of research and theory to address some of the most provocative aspects of contemporary leadership, including (a) the limited access of individuals from diverse identity groups to leadership roles; (b) the shaping of leaders' behavior by their dual identities as leaders and members of gender, racial, ethnic, or other identity groups; and (c) the potential of individuals from groups formerly excluded from leadership roles to provide excellent leadership because of their differences from traditional leaders. In addressing such issues, we argue that the joining of the two bodies of theory and research--one pertaining to leadership and the other to diversity--enriches both domains of knowledge and provides guidelines for optimizing leadership in contemporary organizations and nations. PMID:20350020

  18. Bioenergetic Aspects of Halophilism

    PubMed Central

    Oren, Aharon

    1999-01-01

    Examinination of microbial diversity in environments of increasing salt concentrations indicates that certain types of dissimilatory metabolism do not occur at the highest salinities. Examples are methanogenesis for H2 + CO2 or from acetate, dissimilatory sulfate reduction with oxidation of acetate, and autotrophic nitrification. Occurrence of the different metabolic types is correlated with the free-energy change associated with the dissimilatory reactions. Life at high salt concentrations is energetically expensive. Most bacteria and also the methanogenic archaea produce high intracellular concentrations of organic osmotic solutes at a high energetic cost. All halophilic microorganisms expend large amounts of energy to maintain steep gradients of NA+ and K+ concentrations across their cytoplasmic membrane. The energetic cost of salt adaptation probably dictates what types of metabolism can support life at the highest salt concentrations. Use of KCl as an intracellular solute, while requiring far-reaching adaptations of the intracellular machinery, is energetically more favorable than production of organic-compatible solutes. This may explain why the anaerobic halophilic fermentative bacteria (order Haloanaerobiales) use this strategy and also why halophilic homoacetogenic bacteria that produce acetate from H2 + CO2 exist whereas methanogens that use the same substrates in a reaction with a similar free-energy yield do not. PMID:10357854

  19. GCS plan for software aspects of certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shagnea, Anita M.; Lowman, Douglas S.; Withers, B. Edward

    1990-01-01

    As part of the Guidance and Control Software (GCS) research project being sponsored by NASA to evaluate the failure processes of software, standard industry software development procedures are being employed. To ensure that these procedures are authentic, the guidelines outlined in the Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA/DO-178A document entitled, software considerations in airborne systems and equipment certification, were adopted. A major aspect of these guidelines is proper documentation. As such, this report, the plan for software aspects of certification, was produced in accordance with DO-178A. An overview is given of the GCS research project, including the goals of the project, project organization, and project schedules. It also specifies the plans for all aspects of the project which relate to the certification of the GCS implementations developed under a NASA contract. These plans include decisions made regarding the software specification, accuracy requirements, configuration management, implementation development and verification, and the development of the GCS simulator.

  20. Psychosocial aspects of abortion

    PubMed Central

    Illsley, Raymond; Hall, Marion H.

    1976-01-01

    The literature on psychosocial aspects of abortion is confusing. Individual publications must be interpreted in the context of cultural, religious, and legal constraints obtaining in a particular society at a given time, with due attention to the status and availability of alternatives to abortion that might be chosen by a woman with an “unwanted” pregnancy. A review of the literature shows that, where careful pre- and post-abortion assessments are made, the evidence is that psychological benefit commonly results, and serious adverse emotional sequelae are rare. The outcome of refused abortion seems less satisfactory, with regrets and distress frequently occurring. Research on the administration of abortion services suggests that counselling is often of value, that distress is frequently caused by delays in deciding upon and in carrying out abortions, and by unsympathetic attitudes of service providers. The phenomenon of repeated abortion seeking should be seen in the context of the availability and cost of contraception and sterilization. The place of sterilization with abortion requires careful study. A recommendation is made for observational descriptive research on populations of women with potentially unwanted pregnancies in different cultures, with comparisons of management systems and an evaluation of their impact on service users. PMID:1085671

  1. Strategic Aspects of Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagen, Edward; Hammerstein, Peter; Hess, Nicole

    Rarely do human behavioral scientists and scholars study language, music, and other forms of communication as strategies—a means to some end. Some even deny that communication is the primary function of these phenomena. Here we draw upon selections of our earlier work to briefly define the strategy concept and sketch how decision theory, developed to explain the behavior of rational actors, is applied to evolved agents. Communication can then be interpreted as a strategy that advances the "fitness interests" of such agents. When this perspective is applied to agents with conflicts of interest, deception emerges as an important aspect of communication. We briefly review costly signaling, one solution to the problem of honest communication among agents with conflicts of interest. We also explore the subversion of cooperative signals by parasites and by plants defending themselves against herbivores, and we touch on biases in human gossip. Experiments with artificial embodied and communicating agents confirm that when there are conflicts of interest among agents, deception readily evolves. Finally, we consider signaling among super-organisms and the possible implications for understanding human music and language.

  2. Electrical aspects of rainout

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenkilde, C.E.

    1981-11-23

    Rainout commonly denotes the aggregate of phenomena associated with precipitation scavenging of radioactivity from a cloud of nuclear debris that is within a natural rain cloud. (In contrast, the term, washout, is applicable when the nuclear cloud is below the rain cloud and the term, fallout, commonly denotes the direct gravitational settling of contaminated solid material from a nuclear cloud.) Nuclear debris aerosols may be scavenged within natural clouds by a variety of different physical processes which may involve diffusion, convection, impaction, nucleation, phoresis, turbulence, and/or electricity among others. Processes which involve electrical aspects are scrutinized for their susceptibility to the intimate presence of the radioactive-cloud environment. This particular choice of electrical processes is not accidental. Nearly all of the listed processes were examined earlier by Williams. His rough estimates suggested that electrical effects, and to a lesser extent turbulence, could enhance the scavenging of those submicron aerosols which reside in the size-range that bridges the minimum in the scavenging rate coefficient which is commonly called the Greenfield gap. This minimum in the scavenging-rate coefficient is created by the simultaneous reduction of scavenging via diffusion and the reduction of scavenging via inertial impaction. However, Williams omitted the specific influence of a radioactive environment. This report aims to remedy this omission.

  3. Diversity Enhances NPP, N Retention, and Soil Microbial Diversity in Experimental Urban Grassland Assemblages

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Grant L.; Kao-Kniffin, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Urban grasslands, landscapes dominated by turfgrasses for aesthetic or recreational groundcovers, are rapidly expanding in the United States and globally. These managed ecosystems are often less diverse than the natural or agricultural lands they replace, leading to potential losses in ecosystem functioning. Research in non-urban systems has provided evidence for increases in multiple ecosystem functions associated with greater plant diversity. To test if biodiversity-ecosystem function findings are applicable to urban grasslands, we examined the effect of plant species and genotypic diversity on three ecosystem functions, using grassland assemblages of increasing diversity that were grown within a controlled environment facility. We found positive effects of plant diversity on reduced nitrate leaching and plant productivity. Soil microbial diversity (Mean Shannon Diversity, H’) of bacteria and fungi were also enhanced in multi-species plantings, suggesting that moderate increments in plant diversity influence the composition of soil biota. The results from this study indicate that plant diversity impacts multiple functions that are important in urban ecosystems; therefore, further tests of urban grassland biodiversity should be examined in situ to determine the feasibility of manipulating plant diversity as an explicit landscape design and function trait. PMID:27243768

  4. Diversity and factors controlling widespread occurrence of syn-rift Ladinian microbialites in the western Tethys (Triassic Catalan Basin, NE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercedes-Martín, Ramon; Arenas, Concha; Salas, Ramon

    2014-11-01

    The fault-block carbonate ramps of the Ladinian (Middle Triassic) Catalan Basin hosted a wide variety of microbial deposits which formed during a syn-rift stage. Stratigraphical and sedimentological analyses of these microbialites allow us to reconstruct two depositional models for such microbial deposits. Moreover new insights into the interplay between the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that controlled the widespread development of these microbialites are provided. Stromatolites, ooidal-muddy microbial laminites and thrombolites were analyzed on the basis of their geometry, lamination and textural attributes. These microbialites are distributed over two Transgressive-Regressive sequences and coexisted during the Fassanian (Early Ladinian) regressive stage. Later, stromatolites and ooidal-muddy microbial laminites developed during the Longobardian (Late Ladinian) transgressive stage. Three types of lamina couplets reflect distinct accretion processes linked to water chemistry, sediment supply and hydrodynamic conditions. Thrombolite textures were produced by accretionary, binding and encrusting processes (microbially mediated) and pervasive cementation. The widespread occurrence of microbial deposits is explained as a consequence of a biogeochemical cascade of events (e.g., anoxic/dysoxic seawater conditions, volcanic activity, upwelling of alkaline waters, nutrient concentrations, and microbial blooms), which promoted favorable conditions for microbial growth in the Tethys during the Ladinian. Furthermore, in the Catalan Basin, syn-rift fault induced subsidence and local water energy gradients exerted an essential role in the distribution of the three types of microbialites through space and time. Thrombolites were prone to grow in the hanging wall block of a half-graben (subtidal conditions), whereas stromatolites and ooidal-muddy microbial laminites flourished preferably in a foot wall block setting (intertidal-shallow subtidal conditions). However, the fact

  5. Diversity at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabo, Sandra R.

    2000-01-01

    Diversity in the workplace goes beyond racial, ethnic, and cultural backgrounds. It extends to those with disabilities of all types and older workers. Students must be able to acknowledge and appreciate peoples' differences and educators must integrate diversity into the classroom. (JOW)

  6. Voices for Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Future Teacher, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Prominent Americans were asked to reflect on the diversity challenge facing America's teacher workforce. The following leaders from several fields voiced their support of teachers and their beliefs America needs more diverse and culturally responsive teachers: (1) Mary Hatwood Futrell, President of Education International; (2) Carol Moseley-Braun,…

  7. Global Diversity and Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Art

    2003-01-01

    Argues that global diversity has become a business imperative in today's business climate. Global diversity is of core importance even for companies that are considered domestic. Suggests community colleges need help in understanding their customer base and their shifting values in order to meet their needs and win customer loyalty. (NB)

  8. Evolution & Diversity in Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Lorentz C.

    1988-01-01

    Summarizes recent findings that help in understanding how evolution has brought about the diversity of plant life that presently exists. Discusses basic concepts of evolution, diversity and classification, the three-line hypothesis of plant evolution, the origin of fungi, and the geologic time table. Included are 31 references. (CW)

  9. Issue Brief on Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Division on Developmental Disabilities, Council for Exceptional Children (NJ1), 2013

    2013-01-01

    During the past year, the Diversity Committee of the Division of Developmental Disabilities (DDD) Board worked with the Board and the Issues Committee Chair to develop an issue brief addressing diversity, its impact on the membership and the wider community that is served by the work of DDD, resulting in recommendations that will influence policy…

  10. Diversity and Social Cohesion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagani, Camilla

    2014-01-01

    The issue of diversity, in its broadest sense, is discussed here in its relation to social cohesion, cross-cultural relations, ingroup-outgroup relations and educational interventions. The main thesis of the paper is that real social cohesion in an ingroup rests on the acknowledgment of and the dialog with the diversities of the members of the…

  11. Pasture diversity and management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the economic importance of pastures in the northeastern United States, not much is known about their ecology, including taxonomic and functional diversity. This factsheet presents results from a 1998-2005 survey of pastures on 44 farms from Maine to Maryland. Pastures are quite diverse; the ...

  12. Assessing Diverse Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Courtland C.

    This keynote address begins with examples that underscore how profoundly the issues of multiculturalism and diversity impact the consciousness of society at the end of the 20th century. Changes in assessment that can lead to assessment for change in a culturally diverse society are based on the ideas that "assessment as a process must be…

  13. Diversity in Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beer, Janet

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a lecture given at the 17th Annual Lecture of the Association of University Administrators (AUA). The subject of the lecture is equality and diversity in higher education (HE) leadership, or possibly the absence of equality and diversity. The author focuses on what can be done to ensure that capable women enter HE leadership…

  14. Diversity in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    This document contains three papers presented at a symposium on diversity in the workplace moderated by Sandra Johnson at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD). "Diversity and Development: An Assessment of Equal Opportunities and the Role of HRD in the Police Service" (Rashmi Biswas, Penny Dick) examines aspects…

  15. Equality, Innovation and Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Janet

    1999-01-01

    Offers some ideas concerning promotion of gender equality and diversity within European Union-funded programs and activities. Reviews efforts since the 1970s to foster equal access in European schools and universities, examines some principles of innovation and entrepreneurship, and considers stages in diversity policy development. (DB)

  16. Dissecting Diversity Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Frank

    2005-01-01

    This article presents "Dissecting Diversity, Part II," the conclusion of a wide-ranging two-part roundtable discussion on diversity in higher education. The participants were as follows: Lezli Baskerville, J.D., President and CEO of the National Association for Equal Opportunity (NAFEO); Dr. Gerald E. Gipp, Executive Director of the American…

  17. Soybean Molecular Genetic Diversity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A history of the various DNA marker types used in the assessment of molecular genetic diversity in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is followed by a description of a number of studies on the assessment of genetic diversity. These studies include a review of reports on 1) the quantification and comp...

  18. A Diversity Visionary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Today's chief diversity officer could be tomorrow's university president, says Dr. Damon Williams. The author profiles Damon Williams who shines as sought-after expert on issues surrounding higher education inclusion. As head of a diversity division with an eight-figure budget at Wisconsin's flagship state university, Williams oversees four…

  19. Past Planktonic Diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rufino, M. M.; Salgueiro, E.; Voelker, A. H. L.; Abrantes, F. F. G.

    2014-12-01

    Planktonic organisms have been extensively used in paleoceanographic studies as proxies for most marine environmental variables (temperature, salinity, currents, frontal zones, upwelling, etc.), both directly by species occurrences and indirectly through particular chemical components produced (e.g. Mg/Ca, stable isotopes, alkanones). In 1965 Stehli pioneered by suggesting the use of planktonic organisms diversity to decipher ancient oceanic circulation, instead of the traditional approaches based on particular indicator species or assemblages composition (transfer functions). The use of species diversity has two main advantages. First, it is not restricted to a temporal epoch where the species existed and second, it does not assume that the species ecology is the same as in the present. In the current work, we compare planktonic organisms diversity on the Atlantic Ocean, obtained from surface samples, with the main satellite measured oceanographic variables, i.e. SST (Sea Surface Temperature), CHL (as an indicator of primary productivity) and the main currents in the area. Three indices were used to quantify diversity: Shannon-Weaver diversity (H), specific richness (S) and Hulbert's probability of interspecific encounter index of species evenness (PIE). Diversity was then modelled spatially using geostatistical tools at two scales: Atlantic Ocean oceanographic scale and the Iberian margin regional scale. The main conclusions will then be used to interpret measured down core diversity, on a paleo perspective. This work will understand how did diversity reacted to major climatic events, and how long it took to recover - system resilience.

  20. Differential changes in self-reported aspects of interoceptive awareness through 3 months of contemplative training

    PubMed Central

    Bornemann, Boris; Herbert, Beate M.; Mehling, Wolf E.; Singer, Tania

    2015-01-01

    Interoceptive body awareness (IA) is crucial for psychological well-being and plays an important role in many contemplative traditions. However, until recently, standardized self-report measures of IA were scarce, not comprehensive, and the effects of interoceptive training on such measures were largely unknown. The Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA) questionnaire measures IA with eight different scales. In the current study, we investigated whether and how these different aspects of IA are influenced by a 3-months contemplative intervention in the context of the ReSource project, in which 148 subjects engaged in daily practices of “Body Scan” and “Breath Meditation.” We developed a German version of the MAIA and tested it in a large and diverse sample (n = 1,076). Internal consistencies were similar to the English version (0.56–0.89), retest reliability was high (rs: 0.66–0.79), and the MAIA showed good convergent and discriminant validity. Importantly, interoceptive training improved five out of eight aspects of IA, compared to a retest control group. Participants with low IA scores at baseline showed the biggest changes. Whereas practice duration only weakly predicted individual differences in change, self-reported liking of the practices and degree of integration into daily life predicted changes on most scales. Interestingly, the magnitude of observed changes varied across scales. The strongest changes were observed for the regulatory aspects of IA, that is, how the body is used for self-regulation in daily life. No significant changes were observed for the Noticing aspect (becoming aware of bodily changes), which is the aspect that is predominantly assessed in other IA measures. This differential pattern underscores the importance to assess IA multi-dimensionally, particularly when interested in enhancement of IA through contemplative practice or other mind–body interventions. PMID:25610410

  1. Determinants of genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Ellegren, Hans; Galtier, Nicolas

    2016-07-01

    Genetic polymorphism varies among species and within genomes, and has important implications for the evolution and conservation of species. The determinants of this variation have been poorly understood, but population genomic data from a wide range of organisms now make it possible to delineate the underlying evolutionary processes, notably how variation in the effective population size (Ne) governs genetic diversity. Comparative population genomics is on its way to providing a solution to 'Lewontin's paradox' - the discrepancy between the many orders of magnitude of variation in population size and the much narrower distribution of diversity levels. It seems that linked selection plays an important part both in the overall genetic diversity of a species and in the variation in diversity within the genome. Genetic diversity also seems to be predictable from the life history of a species. PMID:27265362

  2. Embracing cultural diversity.

    PubMed

    Casady, W M

    2001-01-01

    Healthcare providers from all backgrounds are taught the Western medicine approach with little consideration given to cultural-specific care. Yet, today it is difficult to ignore that approximately 33 percent of Americans originate from ethnically diverse groups. As our population continues to become more diversified, it is imperative that healthcare professionals become more sensitive to cultural differences. Effectively managing cultural diversity in the workplace requires a complex set of skills as well as an understanding of the concept. Communication skills will be challenged in a complex and diverse work environment. Managers must learn to listen. Embracing cultural diversity is a two-step process. The first step begins with personal self-interest and self-examination. The second step in the process is the "awakening." Tomorrow's successful managers will take an active role today in creating an environment that views diversity as an asset to the work force. PMID:11302066

  3. "I have to constantly prove to myself, to people, that I fit the bill": Perspectives on weight and shape control behaviors among low-income, ethnically diverse young transgender women.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Allegra R; Austin, S Bryn; Krieger, Nancy; White Hughto, Jaclyn M; Reisner, Sari L

    2016-09-01

    The impact of societal femininity ideals on disordered eating behaviors in non-transgender women has been well described, but scant research has explored these processes among transgender women. The present study explored weight and shape control behaviors among low-income, ethnically diverse young transgender women at high risk for HIV or living with HIV in a Northeastern metropolitan area. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 21 participants (ages 18-31 years; mean annual income <$10,000; ethnic identity: Multiracial [n = 8], Black [n = 4], Latina [n = 4], White [n = 4], Asian [n = 1]). Interviews were transcribed and double-coded using a template organizing method, guided by ecosocial theory and a gender affirmation framework. Of 21 participants, 16 reported engaging in past-year disordered eating or weight and shape control behaviors, including binge eating, fasting, vomiting, and laxative use. Study participants described using a variety of strategies to address body image concerns in the context of gender-related and other discriminatory experiences, which shaped participants' access to social and material resources as well as stress and coping behaviors. Disordered weight and shape control behaviors were discussed in relation to four emergent themes: (1) gender socialization and the development of femininity ideals, (2) experiences of stigma and discrimination, (3) biological processes, and (4) multi-level sources of strength and resilience. This formative study provides insight into disordered eating and weight and shape control behaviors among at-risk transgender women, illuminating avenues for future research, treatment, and public health intervention. PMID:27518756

  4. Assessment of Immune Interference, Antagonism and Diversion following Human Immunization with Bi-Allelic Blood-Stage Malaria Viral Vectored Vaccines and Controlled Malaria Infection

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Sean C.; Collins, Katharine A.; Halstead, Fenella D.; Choudhary, Prateek; Bliss, Carly M.; Ewer, Katie J.; Sheehy, Susanne H.; Duncan, Christopher J. A.; Biswas, Sumi; Hill, Adrian V. S.; Draper, Simon J.

    2012-01-01

    Overcoming antigenic variation is one of the major challenges in the development of an effective vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum, a causative agent of human malaria. Inclusion of multiple antigen variants in subunit vaccine candidates is one strategy that has aimed to overcome this problem for the leading blood-stage malaria vaccine targets, merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1) and apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1). However previous studies, utilizing malaria antigens, have concluded that inclusion of multiple allelic variants, encoding altered peptide ligands (APL), in such a vaccine may be detrimental to both the priming and in vivo re-stimulation of antigen-experienced T cells. Here we analyze the T cell responses to two alleles of MSP1 and AMA1 induced by vaccination of malaria-naïve adult volunteers with bi-valent viral vectored vaccine candidates. We show a significant bias to the 3D7/MAD20 allele compared to the Wellcome allele for the 33kDa region of MSP1, but not for the 19kDa fragment or the AMA1 antigen. Whilst this bias could be caused by ‘immune interference’ at priming, the data don’t support a significant role for ‘immune antagonism’ during memory T cell re-stimulation, despite observation of the latter at a minimal epitope level in vitro. A lack of class I HLA epitopes in the Wellcome allele that are recognized by vaccinated volunteers may in fact contribute to the observed bias. We also show that controlled infection with 3D7 strain P. falciparum parasites neither boosts existing 3D7-specific T cell responses nor appears to ‘immune divert’ cellular responses towards the Wellcome allele. PMID:23293353

  5. Aspects of two corrosion processes relevant to military hardware

    SciTech Connect

    Braithwaite, J.W.; Buchheit, R.G.

    1997-11-01

    Corrosion is a leading material degradation mode observed in many military systems. This report contains a description of a small project that was performed to allow some of the important electrochemical aspects of two distinct and potentially relevant degradation modes to be better understood: environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) of aluminum alloys and corrosion in moist salt. Two specific and respective tasks were completed: (A) the characterization of the effect of aluminum microstructural variability on its susceptibility to EAC, and (B) the development of experimental and analytical techniques that can be used to identify the factors and processes that influence the corrosivity of moist salt mixtures. The resultant information constitutes part of the basis needed to ultimately predict component reliability and/or possibly to identify techniques that could be used to control corrosion in critical components. In Task A, a physical model and related understanding for the relevant degradation processes were formulated. The primary result from Task B included the identification and qualitative validation of a methodology for determining the corrosivity of salt mixtures. A detailed compilation of the results obtained from each of these two diverse tasks is presented separately in the body of this report.

  6. Cultural aspects of suicide.

    PubMed

    Maharajh, Hari D; Abdool, Petal S

    2005-09-01

    Undefined cultural factors cannot be dismissed and significantly contribute to the worldwide incidence of death by suicide. Culture is an all embracing term and defines the relationship of an individual to his environment. This study seeks to investigate the effect of culture on suicide both regionally and internationally. Culture-bound syndrome with suicidal behaviours specific to a particular culture or geographical region are discussed. Opinions are divided as to the status of religious martyrs. The law itself is silent on many aspects of suicidal behaviour and despite decriminalization of suicide as self-murder, the latter remains on the statutes of many developing countries. The Caribbean region is of concern due to its steady rise in mean suicide rate, especially in Trinidad and Tobago where socio-cultural factors are instrumental in influencing suicidal behaviour. These include transgenerational cultural conflicts, psycho-social problems, media exposure, unemployment, social distress, religion and family structure. The methods used are attributed to accessibility and lethality. Ingestion of poisonous substances is most popular followed by hanging. The gender differences seen with regard to suicidality can also be attributed to gender related psychopathology and psychosocial differences in help-seeking behaviour. These are influenced by the cultural environment to which the individual is exposed. Culture provides coping strategies to individuals; as civilization advances many of these coping mechanisms are lost unclothing the genetic predisposition of vulnerable groups. In the management of suicidal behaviour, a system of therapeutic re-culturation is needed with an emphasis on relevant culture- based therapies. PMID:16155688

  7. [Psychosomatic aspects of endometriosis].

    PubMed

    Lütje, W; Brandenburg, U

    2003-01-01

    Endometriosis is a varied and unspecific disorder, which can be detected by way of subtle diagnostics in almost every woman. In one case it is a minor accidental finding, in another case it is a cancer-like, mostly incurable, chronic painful a disease, which often has sterility and aggressive therapies as subsequence. For the origin of endometriosis many causes are discussed. The theory of retrograde menstruation through an hyperperistaltic-dystocic uterus presents on one hand an organic explanation-concept. From the psychosomatic point of view this unphysiological menstruation could also be seen as the result of an unsolved conflict, which might be connected with the gender-role or personal, familiar and social attitudes about menstruation. The exo- and endogenic supply with hormones in a time with less pregnancies and therefore more menstruation is also a contributing factor to the origin and development of this disturbance. Beside the theory of endometriosis as an autoimmune disease also implicates psychosomatic thoughts. Though there is always a repeatedly talk the "cancer of the career-woman", there are however very few psychosomatic research projects regarding endometriosis. Therefore it is a characteristic of this disease, that finding and feeling are very often controversial. This emphasizes the importance of psychosomatic, psychosexual, social and biographical aspects in connection with endometriosis. This point of view makes a relative plausible and comfortable explanation for the CPPS and sterility uncertain. Without question diagnosis and therapy of endometriosis followed on one hand by stigmatization and on the other hand by often restriction of quality of life leads to a lot of subsequent psychosocial problems. PMID:14505264

  8. p53 controls global nucleotide excision repair of low levels of structurally diverse benzo(g)chrysene-DNA adducts in human fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Daniel R; Hanawalt, Philip C

    2002-09-15

    Benzo(g)chrysene is a widespread environmental contaminant and potent carcinogen. We have measured the formation and nucleotide excision repair of covalent DNA adducts formed by the DNA-reactive metabolite of this compound in human fibroblasts, in which expression of the p53 tumor suppressor gene could be controlled by a tetracycline-inducible promoter. Cells were exposed for 1 h to 0.01, 0.1, or 1.2 microM (+/-)-anti-benzo(g)chrysene diol-epoxide, and DNA adducts were assessed at various post-treatment times by subjecting isolated DNA to (32)P-postlabeling analysis. Four major DNA adducts were detected, corresponding to the reaction of either the (+)- or (-)-anti-benzo(g)chrysene diol-epoxide stereoisomer with adenine or guanine. Treatment with 1.2 microM resulted in a level of 1100 total adducts/10(8) nucleotides for both p53-proficient and -deficient cells; removal of adducts was not observed in either case. In cells treated with 0.1 microM, the maximum level of total adducts at 24 h was 150/10(8) nucleotides in p53-proficient cells and 210 adducts/10(8) nucleotides in p53-deficient cells. A concentration of 0.01 microM resulted in a maximum of 20 adducts/10(8) nucleotides in p53-proficient cells at 4 h, but 40 adducts/10(8) nucleotides persisted in p53-deficient cells at 24 h. Whereas there were clear differences in the time course of adduct levels in p53-proficient compared with p53-deficient cells treated with 0.1 microM or 0.01 microM, these levels did not decrease extensively over 3 days. This is likely because of the stabilization of the diol-epoxide in cells, and consequent exposure and formation of adducts for many hours after the initial treatment. Furthermore, despite minor quantitative differences, all 4 of the adducts behaved similarly with respect to the effect of p53 expression on their removal. p53 appears to minimize the appearance of benzo(g)chrysene adducts in human cells by up-regulating global nucleotide excision repair and reducing the

  9. Cognitive aspects of performance.

    PubMed Central

    Kane, J. E.

    1978-01-01

    The study of cognitive structures and processes in the control of skilled performance is considered and reviewed with special reference to a proposed hierarchical system incorporating levels of motor integration. Cognitive styles and dispositions of general behaviour are suggested as factors which may determine performance levels. The relative importance of these personal factors and stronger personality traits in accounting for variance in performance is considered in the light of a critique of the current interactional controversy. PMID:444808

  10. Cognitive aspects of performance.

    PubMed

    Kane, J E

    1978-12-01

    The study of cognitive structures and processes in the control of skilled performance is considered and reviewed with special reference to a proposed hierarchical system incorporating levels of motor integration. Cognitive styles and dispositions of general behaviour are suggested as factors which may determine performance levels. The relative importance of these personal factors and stronger personality traits in accounting for variance in performance is considered in the light of a critique of the current interactional controversy. PMID:444808

  11. Isocoumarins, miraculous natural products blessed with diverse pharmacological activities.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Aamer

    2016-06-30

    Isocoumarins are lactonic natural products abundant in microbes and higher plants. These are considered an amazing scaffold consecrated with more or less all types of pharmacological applications. This review is complementary to the earlier reviews and aims to focus the overlooked aspects of their fascinating chemistry with special emphasis on their classification and diverse biological activities with some SAR conclusions. The most recent available literature on the structural diversity and biological activity of these natural products has been reviewed. PMID:27155563

  12. Dinosaur diversity and the rock record

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Paul M.; McGowan, Alistair J.; Page, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    Palaeobiodiversity analysis underpins macroevolutionary investigations, allowing identification of mass extinctions and adaptive radiations. However, recent large-scale studies on marine invertebrates indicate that geological factors play a central role in moulding the shape of diversity curves and imply that many features of such curves represent sampling artefacts, rather than genuine evolutionary events. In order to test whether similar biases affect diversity estimates for terrestrial taxa, we compiled genus-richness estimates for three Mesozoic dinosaur clades (Ornithischia, Sauropodomorpha and Theropoda). Linear models of expected genus richness were constructed for each clade, using the number of dinosaur-bearing formations available through time as a proxy for the amount of fossiliferous rock outcrop. Modelled diversity estimates were then compared with observed patterns. Strong statistically robust correlations demonstrate that almost all aspects of ornithischian and theropod diversity curves can be explained by geological megabiases, whereas the sauropodomorph record diverges from modelled predictions and may be a stronger contender for identifying evolutionary signals. In contrast to other recent studies, we identify a marked decline in dinosaur genus richness during the closing stages of the Cretaceous Period, indicating that the clade decreased in diversity for several million years prior to the final extinction of non-avian dinosaurs at the Cretaceous–Palaeocene boundary. PMID:19403535

  13. Aspects of flux compactification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tao

    In this thesis, we study three main aspects of flux compactifications: (1) classify supergravity solutions from flux compactification; (2) construct flux-deformed geometry and 4D low-energy theory to describe these flux vacua; and (3) study 4D particle phenomenology and cosmology of flux vacua. In the first part, we review G-structure, the basic tool to study supersymmetric flux solutions, and some typical solutions obtained in heterotic, type IIA and type IIB string theories. Then we present a comprehensive classification of supersymmetric vacua of M-theory compactification on 7D manifolds with general four-form fluxes. We analyze the cases where the resulting four-dimensional vacua have N = 1, 2, 3, 4 supersymmetry and the internal space allows for SU(2)-, SU(3)- or G 2-structures. In particular, we find for N = 2 supersymmetry, that the external space-time is Minkowski and the base manifold of the internal space is conformally Kahler for SU(2) structures, while for SU(3) structures the internal space has to be Einstein-Sasaki and no internal fluxes are allowed. Moreover, we provide a new vacuum with N = 1 supersymmetry and SU(3) structure, where all fluxes are non-zero and the first order differential equations are solved. In the second part, we simply review the methods used to construct one subclass of fluxed-deformed geometry or the so-called "twisted manifold", and the associated 4D effective theory describing these flux vacua. Then by employing (generalized) Scherk-Schwarz reduction, we construct the geometric twisting for Calabi-Yau manifolds of Voisin-Borcea type (K 3 x T2)/ Z2 and study the superpotential in a type IIA orientifold based on this geometry. The twists modify the direct product by fibering the K 3 over T2 while preserving the Z2 involution. As an important application, the Voisin-Borcea class contains T6/( Z2 x Z2 ), the usual setting for intersecting D6 brane model building. Past work in this context considered only those twists inherited

  14. Embracing "Soft Skill" Diversity in the Workplace (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, T.

    2010-12-01

    to implement “soft skill” diversity practices in your work environment. Most workplaces are made up of many aspects of diversity already so why not embrace it and use it to your competitive advantage.

  15. Question 7: new aspects of interactions among vesicles.

    PubMed

    Stano, Pasquale

    2007-10-01

    In this short article I discuss the relevance of two aspects of vesicle reactivity that are germane to understand the role of compartments in the origin of early cells. Studies of vesicle self-reproduction indicate that simple vesicles can grow and divide, maintaining inside most of their content and giving rise to a simple autopoietic system. New aspects of vesicle reactivity are also introduced, such as selection and competition processes within vesicle populations, emphasizing the concepts of vesicle diversity, inter-vesicles and vesicles-environment interactions, intended as synthetic analogs of primitive 'ecological' processes. PMID:17610045

  16. "No. 190. Grand Valley Diversion Dam. Diversion gates, water flowing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    "No. 190. Grand Valley Diversion Dam. Diversion gates, water flowing into high line. June, 1917. R.B.D." - Grand Valley Diversion Dam, Half a mile north of intersection of I-70 & Colorado State Route 65, Cameo, Mesa County, CO

  17. 2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, headworks overflow weir to center left, view to east - Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, Salmon Creek, Okanogan, Okanogan County, WA

  18. Analytical aspects of hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Engen, John R.; Wales, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    The analytical aspects of measuring hydrogen exchange by mass spectrometry are reviewed. The nature of analytical selectivity in hydrogen exchange is described followed by review of the analytical tools required to accomplish fragmentation, separation, and the mass spectrometry measurements under restrictive exchange quench conditions. In contrast to analytical quantitation that relies on measurements of peak intensity or area, quantitation in hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry depends on measuring a mass change with respect to an undeuterated or deuterated control, resulting in a value between zero and the maximum amount of deuterium that could be incorporated. Reliable quantitation is a function of experimental fidelity and to achieve high measurement reproducibility, a large number of experimental variables must be controlled during sample preparation and analysis. The method also reports on important qualitative aspects of the sample, including conformational heterogeneity and population dynamics. PMID:26048552

  19. NEUROLOGICAL ASPECTS OF HUMAN GLYCOSYLATION DISORDERS

    PubMed Central

    Freeze, Hudson H.; Eklund, Erik A.; Ng, Bobby G.; Patterson, Marc C.

    2016-01-01

    This review will present principles of glycosylation, describe the relevant glycosylation pathways and their related disorders, and highlight some of the neurological aspects and issues that continue to challenge researchers. Over 100 rare human genetic disorders that result from deficiencies in the different glycosylation pathways are known today. Most of these disorders impact the central and/or peripheral nervous systems. Patients typically have developmental delay/intellectual disability, hypotonia, seizures, neuropathy, and metabolic abnormalities in multiple organ systems. Between these disorders there is great clinical diversity because all cell types differentially glycosylate proteins and lipids. The patients have hundreds of mis-glycosylated products afflicting a myriad of processes including cell signaling, cell-cell interaction and cell migration. This vast complexity in glycan composition and function, along with limited analytic tools has impeded the identification of key glycosylated molecules that cause pathologies, and to date few critical target proteins have been pinpointed. PMID:25840006

  20. Emerging therapeutic aspects in oncology

    PubMed Central

    MacEwan, David J

    2013-01-01

    Cancer remains a peculiarly stubborn disease to treat. Some forms of cancer have seen tremendous advances in the effectiveness of their treatments, whereas other forms have remained resistant to pharmacological control. This lack of hope for success is in part due to the types of drugs that are used in the clinic, and the targeted biological system being based purely on cellular growth rates. However, recent drugs designed to affect specific signalling pathways or proteins have been showing much success. Thanks to the ingenuity of pharmacologists in understanding and targeting these processes, there have been real improvements in treatment. Here we are presented with some of the research into such critical systems that have to be understood, so that they can be conquered. We will also look at the challenges facing cancer pharmacologists and what the field may present to us all in the future. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Emerging Therapeutic Aspects in Oncology. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2013.169.issue-8 PMID:23889318

  1. Electrical Aspects of Impinging Flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, Yu-Chien

    This dissertation examines the use of electric fields as one mechanism for controlling combustion as flames are partially extinguished when impinging on nearby surfaces. Electrical aspects of flames, specifically, the production of chemi-ions in hydrocarbon flames and the use of convective flows driven by these ions, have been investigated in a wide range of applications in prior work but despite this fairly comprehensive effort to study electrical aspects of combustion, relatively little research has focused on electrical phenomena near flame extinguishment, nor for flames near impingement surfaces. Electrical impinging flames have complex properties under global influences of ion-driven winds and flow field disturbances from the impingement surface. Challenges of measurements when an electric field is applied in the system have limited an understanding of changes to the flame behavior and species concentrations caused by the field. This research initially characterizes the ability of high voltage power supplies to respond on sufficiently short time scales to permit real time electrical flame actuation. The study then characterizes the influence of an electric field on the impinging flame shape, ion current and flow field of the thermal plume associated with the flame. The more significant further examinations can be separated into two parts: 1) the potential for using electric fields to control the release of carbon monoxide (CO) from surface-impinging flames, and 2) an investigation of controlling electrically the heat transfer to a plate on which the flame impinges. Carbon monoxide (CO) results from the incomplete oxidation of hydrocarbon fuels and, while CO can be desirable in some syngas processes, it is usually a dangerous emission from forest fires, gas heaters, gas stoves, or furnaces where insufficient oxygen in the core reaction does not fully oxidize the fuel to carbon dioxide and water. Determining how carbon monoxide is released and how heat transfer

  2. The Uniformity and Diversity of Language: Evidence from Sign Language

    PubMed Central

    Sandler, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    Evidence from sign language strongly supports three positions: (1) language is a coherent system with universal properties; (2) sign languages diverge from spoken languages in some aspects of their structure; and (3) domain-external factors can be identified that account for some crucial aspects of language structure -- uniform and diverse -- in both modalities. Assuming that any of these positions excludes the others defeats the purpose of the enterprise. PMID:21076645

  3. Psychiatric aspects of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Sandeep; Somaiya, Mansi; Kumar, Santhosh; Avasthi, Ajit

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is essentially characterized by the motor symptoms in the form of resting tremor, rigidity and bradykinesia. However, over the years it has been recognized that motor symptoms are just the “tip of the iceberg” of clinical manifestations of PD. Besides motor symptoms, PD characterized by many non-motor symptoms, which include cognitive decline, psychiatric disturbances (depression, psychosis and impulse control), sleep difficulties, autonomic failures (gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, urinary, thermoregulation) and pain syndrome. This review evaluates the various aspects of psychiatric disorders including cognitive decline and sleep disturbances in patients with PD. The prevalence rate of various psychiatric disorders is high in patients with PD. In terms of risk factors, various demographic, clinical and treatment-related variables have been shown to be associated with higher risk of development of psychiatric morbidity. Evidence also suggests that the presence of psychiatric morbidity is associated with poorer outcome. Randomized controlled trials, evaluating the various pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for management of psychiatric morbidity in patients with PD are meager. Available evidence suggests that tricyclic antidepressants like desipramine and nortriptyline are efficacious for management of depression. Among the antipsychotics, clozapine is considered to be the best choice for management of psychosis in patients with PD. Among the various cognitive enhancers, evidence suggest efficacy of rivastigmine in management of dementia in patients with PD. To conclude, this review suggests that psychiatric morbidity is highly prevalent in patients with PD. Hence, a multidisciplinary approach must be followed to improve the overall outcome of PD. Further studies are required to evaluate the efficacy of various other measures for management of psychiatric morbidity in patients with PD. PMID:25552854

  4. Psychiatric aspects of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Grover, Sandeep; Somaiya, Mansi; Kumar, Santhosh; Avasthi, Ajit

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is essentially characterized by the motor symptoms in the form of resting tremor, rigidity and bradykinesia. However, over the years it has been recognized that motor symptoms are just the "tip of the iceberg" of clinical manifestations of PD. Besides motor symptoms, PD characterized by many non-motor symptoms, which include cognitive decline, psychiatric disturbances (depression, psychosis and impulse control), sleep difficulties, autonomic failures (gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, urinary, thermoregulation) and pain syndrome. This review evaluates the various aspects of psychiatric disorders including cognitive decline and sleep disturbances in patients with PD. The prevalence rate of various psychiatric disorders is high in patients with PD. In terms of risk factors, various demographic, clinical and treatment-related variables have been shown to be associated with higher risk of development of psychiatric morbidity. Evidence also suggests that the presence of psychiatric morbidity is associated with poorer outcome. Randomized controlled trials, evaluating the various pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for management of psychiatric morbidity in patients with PD are meager. Available evidence suggests that tricyclic antidepressants like desipramine and nortriptyline are efficacious for management of depression. Among the antipsychotics, clozapine is considered to be the best choice for management of psychosis in patients with PD. Among the various cognitive enhancers, evidence suggest efficacy of rivastigmine in management of dementia in patients with PD. To conclude, this review suggests that psychiatric morbidity is highly prevalent in patients with PD. Hence, a multidisciplinary approach must be followed to improve the overall outcome of PD. Further studies are required to evaluate the efficacy of various other measures for management of psychiatric morbidity in patients with PD. PMID:25552854

  5. Aspects of Voyager photogrammetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Sherman S. C.; Schafer, Francis J.; Jordan, Raymond; Howington, Annie-Elpis

    1987-01-01

    In January 1986, Voyager 2 took a series of pictures of Uranus and its satellites with the Imaging Science System (ISS) on board the spacecraft. Based on six stereo images from the ISS narrow-angle camera, a topographic map was compiled of the Southern Hemisphere of Miranda, one of Uranus' moons. Assuming a spherical figure, a 20-km surface relief is shown on the map. With three additional images from the ISS wide-angle camera, a control network of Miranda's Southern Hemisphere was established by analytical photogrammetry, producing 88 ground points for the control of multiple-model compilation on the AS-11AM analytical stereoplotter. Digital terrain data from the topographic map of Miranda have also been produced. By combining these data and the image data from the Voyager 2 mission, perspective views or even a movie of the mapped area can be made. The application of these newly developed techniques to Voyager 1 imagery, which includes a few overlapping pictures of Io and Ganymede, permits the compilation of contour maps or topographic profiles of these bodies on the analytical stereoplotters.

  6. Nutritional aspects of selenium

    SciTech Connect

    Choe, M.

    1987-01-01

    The overall objective of this project was to investigate the effect of protein and/or dietary fiber supplementation on selenium absorption and metabolism. These relationships might be of importance in determining either minimum selenium nutritional requirements or levels of intake at which this mineral becomes toxic. Three studies compose the project. The first study involved the controlled feeding of fifteen young adults mice. Subjects were fed a laboratory-controlled diet with and without supplements of selenium or selenium plus guar gum. Selenium supplementation resulted in increased selenium excretion in urine and feces. Supplementation of guar gum, as a dietary fiber, tended to increase fecal selenium excretion and to decrease selenium balance and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity regardless of dietary selenium levels. In study II, seventy two weanling mice were fed varied levels of dietary selenium and protein. Numerically, urinary selenium excretion increased and fecal selenium excretion and selenium balance decreased with increased dietary protein level within the same level of dietary selenium; however, selenium absorption rate tended to decrease with increased dietary protein level. Whole blood and brain tissue glutathione peroxidase activities were higher in animals fed moderate protein level than those fed the other two protein levels. In study III, a survey was conducted to investigate the correlation between dietary fiber or protein intake and urinary selenium excretion. There was a negative correlation between dietary fiber and urinary selenium excretion levels while dietary protein and urinary selenium excretion were positively correlated.

  7. Genetic aspects of plant mineral nutrition

    SciTech Connect

    Gabelman, W.H.; Loughman, B.C.

    1987-01-01

    This volume which is partly a reprint represents the papers on the Genetic Aspects of Plant Mineral Nutrition. The mechanisms by which plants acquire, transport and utilize essential mineral nutrients are highly complex. The means by which plants either exclude or tolerate ions of metals toxic to them are equally complex. This book has papers on genetic and breeding research. It also includes biotic interactions under genetic control that either enhanced or impeded ion uptake, e.g., mycorrhizae and nitrogen fixing bacteria.

  8. Diverse Bacterial Microcompartment Organelles

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Chiranjit; Sinha, Sharmistha; Chun, Sunny; Yeates, Todd O.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Bacterial microcompartments (MCPs) are sophisticated protein-based organelles used to optimize metabolic pathways. They consist of metabolic enzymes encapsulated within a protein shell, which creates an ideal environment for catalysis and facilitates the channeling of toxic/volatile intermediates to downstream enzymes. The metabolic processes that require MCPs are diverse and widely distributed and play important roles in global carbon fixation and bacterial pathogenesis. The protein shells of MCPs are thought to selectively control the movement of enzyme cofactors, substrates, and products (including toxic or volatile intermediates) between the MCP interior and the cytoplasm of the cell using both passive electrostatic/steric and dynamic gated mechanisms. Evidence suggests that specialized shell proteins conduct electrons between the cytoplasm and the lumen of the MCP and/or help rebuild damaged iron-sulfur centers in the encapsulated enzymes. The MCP shell is elaborated through a family of small proteins whose structural core is known as a bacterial microcompartment (BMC) domain. BMC domain proteins oligomerize into flat, hexagonally shaped tiles, which assemble into extended protein sheets that form the facets of the shell. Shape complementarity along the edges allows different types of BMC domain proteins to form mixed sheets, while sequence variation provides functional diversification. Recent studies have also revealed targeting sequences that mediate protein encapsulation within MCPs, scaffolding proteins that organize lumen enzymes and the use of private cofactor pools (NAD/H and coenzyme A [HS-CoA]) to facilitate cofactor homeostasis. Although much remains to be learned, our growing understanding of MCPs is providing a basis for bioengineering of protein-based containers for the production of chemicals/pharmaceuticals and for use as molecular delivery vehicles. PMID:25184561

  9. Managing biological diversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samson, Fred B.; Knopf, Fritz L.

    1993-01-01

    Biological diversity is the variety of life and accompanying ecological processes (Off. Technol. Assess. 1987, Wilcove and Samson 1987, Keystone 1991). Conservation of biological diversity is a major environmental issue (Wilson 1988, Counc. Environ. Quality 1991). The health and future of the earth's ecological systems (Lubchenco et al. 1991), global climate change (Botkin 1990), and an ever-increasing rate in loss of species, communities, and ecological systems (Myers 1990) are among issues drawing biological diversity to the mainstream of conservation worldwide (Int. Union Conserv. Nat. and Nat. Resour. [IUCN] et al. 1991). The legal mandate for conserving biological diversity is now in place (Carlson 1988, Doremus 1991). More than 19 federal laws govern the use of biological resources in the United States (Rein 1991). The proposed National Biological Diversity Conservation and Environmental Research Act (H.R. 585 and S.58) notes the need for a national biological diversity policy, would create a national center for biological diversity research, and recommends a federal interagency strategy for ecosystem conservation. There are, however, hard choices ahead for the conservation of biological diversity, and biologists are grappling with how to set priorities in research and management (Roberts 1988). We sense disillusion among field biologists and managers relative to how to operationally approach the seemingly overwhelming charge of conserving biological diversity. Biologists also need to respond to critics like Hunt (1991) who suggest a tree farm has more biological diversity than an equal area of old-growth forest. At present, science has played only a minor role in the conservation of biological diversity (Weston 1992) with no unified approach available to evaluate strategies and programs that address the quality and quantity of biological diversity (Murphy 1990, Erwin 1992). Although actions to conserve biological diversity need to be clearly defined by

  10. The Cultivation of Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastasi, Anne

    1972-01-01

    Presidential address at the American Psychological Association meeting, Honolulu, Hawaii, September 1972. Examines some implications of diversity with regard to psychology in relation to other disciplines, as well as within psychology itself. (DM)

  11. Blood and Diversity

    MedlinePlus

    ... type O negative blood, in particular, is the universal type needed for emergency transfusions. Minority and diverse ... levels. “I was deferred from giving blood 10 times or more.” However, in October 2005 Rosalyn’s iron ...

  12. Diversity in vascular surgery.

    PubMed

    Woo, Karen; Kalata, Emily A; Hingorani, Anil P

    2012-12-01

    A growing body of literature in vascular surgery demonstrates disparities in the type of health care that racial/ethnic minorities receive in the United States. Numerous recommendations, including those of the Institute of Medicine, have been set forth, which identify increasing the number of minority health professionals as a key strategy to eliminating health disparities. The purpose of this study is to compare the racial/ethnic distribution of the Society for Vascular Surgery (SVS) membership, the SVS leadership, vascular surgery trainees, and medical students. The results demonstrate that the racial/ethnic distribution of the SVS membership reflects a considerable lack of diversity with a paucity of diversity among the SVS leadership. An increasing rate of racial/ethnic diversity among vascular surgery trainees may indicate that the SVS will see an improvement in diversity in the future. PMID:23182481

  13. Robots in Space -Psychological Aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sipes, Walter E.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the psychological aspects of developing robots to perform routine operations associated with monitoring, inspection, maintenance and repair in space is shown. The topics include: 1) Purpose; 2) Vision; 3) Current Robots in Space; 4) Ground Based Robots; 5) AERCam; 6) Rotating Bladder Robot (ROBLR); 7) DART; 8) Robonaut; 9) Full Immersion Telepresence Testbed; 10) ERA; and 11) Psychological Aspects

  14. How to Make Diversity Pay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Faye

    1994-01-01

    Companies that manage diversity successfully have common characteristics: chief executives' commitment, diversity as a business objective, fair compensation and career tracking, careful diversity training, consistent focus during downsizing, and plans that address the concerns of white males. (SK)

  15. [Acne vulgaris: endocrine aspects].

    PubMed

    Dekkers, O M; Thio, B H; Romijn, J A; Smit, J W A

    2006-06-10

    Androgens play an important part in the development of acne vulgaris. Androgen levels in patients with acne are higher than those in controls and people with the androgen insensitivity syndrome do not develop acne. Local factors other than androgen plasma levels, also play a part in the development of acne. The skin contains enzymes that convert precursor hormones to the more potent androgens such as testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. Androgen synthesis can therefore be regulated locally. The effects of androgens on the skin are the result of circulating androgens and enzyme activity in local tissues and androgen receptors. Acne is a clinical manifestation of some endocrine diseases. The polycystic ovary syndrome has the highest prevalence. In women with acne that persists after puberty, in 10-200% of cases polycystic ovary syndrome is later diagnosed. The mechanism of hormonal anti-acne therapy may work by blocking the androgen-production (oestrogens) or by blocking the androgen receptor (cyproterone, spironolactone). PMID:16821451

  16. Leadership in diversity.

    PubMed

    Hunt, P L

    1994-12-01

    As principal change agents, healthcare leaders are well positioned to integrate diversity into their institutions' organizational structure. Thus healthcare leaders must be competent in handling diversity issues. Diversity refers to any characteristic that helps shape a person's attitudes, behaviors, perspective, and interpretation of what is "normal." In the healthcare ministry, diversity encompasses the cultural differences that can be found across functions or among organizations when they merge or partner. Managers and supervisors will have to be familiar with the nuances of diversity if they are to be effective. Those managers who are not adept at incorporating diversity into human resource management may incorrectly evaluate subordinates' capabilities and provide inappropriate training or supervision. As a result, some employees may be underutilized. Others may resist needed direction, overlook instructions, or hide problems such as a language barrier. If executives, marketers, and strategic planners are to develop relevant healthcare services that take into account the needs of their constituencies, they will need to determine how different groups understand and access healthcare. Healthcare leaders who know how to uncover cultural dynamics and challenge cultural assumptions will go far in enabling their staff and managers to confront personal attitudes about community residents. Ultimately, quality of service delivery will be improved. PMID:10138586

  17. Diversity history of Cenozoic marine siliceous plankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarus, David; Renaudie, Johan

    2014-05-01

    Marine planktonic diatoms and polycystine radiolarians, both with shells of opaline silica, make up a large part of the deep-sea sediment fossil record. Diatom export of organic material to the deep ocean and sediments strongly affects the global carbon cycle; while both groups compete for, and are regulated by the availability of, dissolved silica derived from global weathering. Diatoms and radiolarians also both have a relatively (compared to foraminifera or coccolithophores) complex biogeography, with diverse, endemic polar and tropical assemblages. Changes in past diatom and radiolarian diversity can be used to understand how the ocean's biologic pump has evolved, how co-evolution between groups occurs, and how nutrient availability controls evolutionary change. Lazarus et al. (2014) recently showed that diatom diversity increased by a factor of ca 3.5X over the Cenozoic, with a temporary peak in the latest Eocene, a late Oligocene-early Miocene low interval, very strong diversification in the late Miocene-early Pliocene, and minor decline in the late Pliocene-Recent. Only Phanerozoic scale radiolarian diversity estimates have been available until now, and these are strongly biased by sample size. We employed similar data (NSB database) and methods (1 my bins, 'sqs' subsampling, outlier removal using Pacman trims) as Lazarus et al. (2014) to calculate, for the first time, a detailed estimate of radiolarian diversity history, and origination and extinction rates over the last 50 my, the period for which sufficient NSB data is available. Radiolarian diversity increases almost monotonically by a factor of 5, with relatively rapid increases in the mid Eocene (high relative origination) and early Miocene (due to low extinction rates), and a moderate decline in the Plio-Pleistocene due to high extinction rates. Combined high rates of both extinction and origination, with little diversity change, are seen at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary. Most of these events can be

  18. The biological origin of linguistic diversity.

    PubMed

    Baronchelli, Andrea; Chater, Nick; Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo; Christiansen, Morten H

    2012-01-01

    In contrast with animal communication systems, diversity is characteristic of almost every aspect of human language. Languages variously employ tones, clicks, or manual signs to signal differences in meaning; some languages lack the noun-verb distinction (e.g., Straits Salish), whereas others have a proliferation of fine-grained syntactic categories (e.g., Tzeltal); and some languages do without morphology (e.g., Mandarin), while others pack a whole sentence into a single word (e.g., Cayuga). A challenge for evolutionary biology is to reconcile the diversity of languages with the high degree of biological uniformity of their speakers. Here, we model processes of language change and geographical dispersion and find a consistent pressure for flexible learning, irrespective of the language being spoken. This pressure arises because flexible learners can best cope with the observed high rates of linguistic change associated with divergent cultural evolution following human migration. Thus, rather than genetic adaptations for specific aspects of language, such as recursion, the coevolution of genes and fast-changing linguistic structure provides the biological basis for linguistic diversity. Only biological adaptations for flexible learning combined with cultural evolution can explain how each child has the potential to learn any human language. PMID:23118922

  19. Current aspects of occupational chemical carcinogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lassiter, D.

    1975-01-01

    The history of measures to control occupational exposure to carcinogenic substances is reviewed. Health hazards associated with exposure to a certain chemical substance must be considered not only from the aspects of its acute or chronic toxicity, but also from its potential to produce tumors (latent effect). There can be no clear distinction between classic toxicity and oncogenesis until the mechanisms of both are completely understood for a given chemical substance. The assessment of carcinogenic potential for a specific substance must include the consideration of published information, monitoring and control data from the affected industry, and the in-depth epidemiologic experience of affected employees.

  20. Diversity, Pathogenicity And Control of Verticillium Species.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Verticillium is a cosmopolitan group of ascomycetous fungi, encompassing phytopathogenic species that cause vascular wilts of plants. Two of these species, V. dahliae and V. albo-atrum, cause billions of dollars in annual crop losses worldwide. The soil habitat of these species, the exte...

  1. Emergence of diversity in a model ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Mitarai, Namiko; Mathiesen, Joachim; Sneppen, Kim

    2012-07-01

    The biological requirements for an ecosystem to develop and maintain species diversity are in general unknown. Here we consider a model ecosystem of sessile and mutually excluding organisms competing for space [Mathiesen et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 188101 (2011)]. Competition is controlled by an interaction network with fixed links chosen by a Bernoulli process. New species are introduced in the system at a predefined rate. In the limit of small introduction rates, the system becomes bistable and can undergo a phase transition from a state of low diversity to high diversity. We suggest that isolated patches of metapopulations formed by the collapse of cyclic relations are essential for the transition to the state of high diversity. PMID:23005473

  2. Functional Cell Surface Display and Controlled Secretion of Diverse Agarolytic Enzymes by Escherichia coli with a Novel Ligation-Independent Cloning Vector Based on the Autotransporter YfaL

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Hyeok-Jin; Park, Eunhye; Song, Joseph; Yang, Taek Ho; Lee, Hee Jong; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2012-01-01

    Autotransporters have been employed as the anchoring scaffold for cell surface display by replacing their passenger domains with heterologous proteins to be displayed. We adopted an autotransporter (YfaL) of Escherichia coli for the cell surface display system. The critical regions in YfaL for surface display were identified for the construction of a ligation-independent cloning (LIC)-based display system. The designed system showed no detrimental effect on either the growth of the host cell or overexpressing heterologous proteins on the cell surface. We functionally displayed monomeric red fluorescent protein (mRFP1) as a reporter protein and diverse agarolytic enzymes from Saccharophagus degradans 2-40, including Aga86C and Aga86E, which previously had failed to be functional expressed. The system could display different sizes of proteins ranging from 25.3 to 143 kDa. We also attempted controlled release of the displayed proteins by incorporating a tobacco etch virus protease cleavage site into the C termini of the displayed proteins. The maximum level of the displayed protein was 6.1 × 104 molecules per a single cell, which corresponds to 5.6% of the entire cell surface of actively growing E. coli. PMID:22344647

  3. Documenting and comparing plant species diversity by using numerical and parametric methods in Khaje Kalat, NE Iran.

    PubMed

    Ejtehadi, H; Soltani, R; Zahedi Pour, H

    2007-10-15

    The aim was to examine and document several aspects of numerical diversity such as species richness, species diversity and evenness and to compare diversity in different slope aspects of the area by using numerical and parametric methods. About 193 quadrats of 4 m2 were located according to the nature of vegetation. Species composition and their abundance were recorded in a two-year period (2005 to 2006). The result of field investigation was collecting and identifying of the total 225 plant species belonging to 154 genera and 37 families. The abundance data were subjected to analyses by specific diversity packages to characterize and obtain numerical indices (Shannon, Simpson, Brillouin, McIntosh, etc.,) and parametric families of species diversity. Numerical indices were calculated and documented for monitoring purposes. The results of diversity in main slope aspects (N, S, E, W) showed higher species richness and species diversity indices in the north aspect than in the others but it was not true with evenness indices. About 30 species such as Acanthophyllum glandulosum, Acroptilon repens, Alcea tiliacea, Bromus sericeous, Astragalus turbinatus, Centaurea balsamita etc., were detected exclusively in the north aspect. This can be important in reducing the evenness. Diversity comparing by using rank-abundance plot as well as diversity ordering of Hill, Renyi and Patil and Taillie confirmed high species diversity in the north yet the result of ANOVA showed no significant differences in the four aspects. The result of diversity based on the models revealed that the whole area, the south and the west aspects follow lognormal distribution, north aspect follows logarithmic whereas the east follows both lognormal and logarithmic distribution. In other word, a shift from being lognormal to logarithmic model was observed in the east aspect. PMID:19093482

  4. Aspects of Vitamin A

    PubMed Central

    Hedley-Whyte, John; Milamed, Debra R

    2009-01-01

    Musgrave Park Hospital in 1942 was the site of an Anglo-American Vitamin A caper. A threatened court-martial was pre-empted. Subsequently the Queen's lecturer in Anatomy, JW Millen, who was the other lecturer to the first editor of this journal, RH Hunter, did much distinguished work. The neurological effects of Vitamin A were elucidated. Further work on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), placenta, thalidomide and poliomyelitis led to the pre-eminence in applied anatomy and teratology of now Reader James Wilson Millen and Professors JD Boyd and WJ Hamilton, all Queen's Medical School graduates. Training of RH Hunter, JH Biggart and JD Boyd at Johns Hopkins University profoundly influenced these seminal discoveries. The Garretts, a family of Lisburn, County Down origin, saved Johns Hopkins Hospital and Medical School from financial disaster. The Garretts founded a commercial and mercantile empire that took control of the Baltimore and Ohio (B and O) Railroad and enabled the Garretts to dictate that women should be admitted to the Hopkins Medical School and Hospital on exactly the same terms as men. All women and men should already be university honours graduates. Winston S Churchill on his progress up and down the B and O main line in March 1946, recounted to President Harry S Truman and Harry Hopkins his mother's tales of the Garrett boys' adventures. PMID:19907684

  5. Capturing nature's diversity.

    PubMed

    Pascolutti, Mauro; Campitelli, Marc; Nguyen, Bao; Pham, Ngoc; Gorse, Alain-Dominique; Quinn, Ronald J

    2015-01-01

    Natural products are universally recognized to contribute valuable chemical diversity to the design of molecular screening libraries. The analysis undertaken in this work, provides a foundation for the generation of fragment screening libraries that capture the diverse range of molecular recognition building blocks embedded within natural products. Physicochemical properties were used to select fragment-sized natural products from a database of known natural products (Dictionary of Natural Products). PCA analysis was used to illustrate the positioning of the fragment subset within the property space of the non-fragment sized natural products in the dataset. Structural diversity was analysed by three distinct methods: atom function analysis, using pharmacophore fingerprints, atom type analysis, using radial fingerprints, and scaffold analysis. Small pharmacophore triplets, representing the range of chemical features present in natural products that are capable of engaging in molecular interactions with small, contiguous areas of protein binding surfaces, were analysed. We demonstrate that fragment-sized natural products capture more than half of the small pharmacophore triplet diversity observed in non fragment-sized natural product datasets. Atom type analysis using radial fingerprints was represented by a self-organizing map. We examined the structural diversity of non-flat fragment-sized natural product scaffolds, rich in sp3 configured centres. From these results we demonstrate that 2-ring fragment-sized natural products effectively balance the opposing characteristics of minimal complexity and broad structural diversity when compared to the larger, more complex fragment-like natural products. These naturally-derived fragments could be used as the starting point for the generation of a highly diverse library with the scope for further medicinal chemistry elaboration due to their minimal structural complexity. This study highlights the possibility to capture a

  6. The marine diversity spectrum.

    PubMed

    Reuman, Daniel C; Gislason, Henrik; Barnes, Carolyn; Mélin, Frédéric; Jennings, Simon

    2014-07-01

    Distributions of species body sizes within a taxonomic group, for example, mammals, are widely studied and important because they help illuminate the evolutionary processes that produced these distributions. Distributions of the sizes of species within an assemblage delineated by geography instead of taxonomy (all the species in a region regardless of clade) are much less studied but are equally important and will illuminate a different set of ecological and evolutionary processes. We develop and test a mechanistic model of how diversity varies with body mass in marine ecosystems. The model predicts the form of the 'diversity spectrum', which quantifies the distribution of species' asymptotic body masses, is a species analogue of the classic size spectrum of individuals, and which we have found to be a new and widely applicable description of diversity patterns. The marine diversity spectrum is predicted to be approximately linear across an asymptotic mass range spanning seven orders of magnitude. Slope -0.5 is predicted for the global marine diversity spectrum for all combined pelagic zones of continental shelf seas, and slopes for large regions are predicted to lie between -0.5 and -0.1. Slopes of -0.5 and -0.1 represent markedly different communities: a slope of -0.5 depicts a 10-fold reduction in diversity for every 100-fold increase in asymptotic mass; a slope of -0.1 depicts a 1.6-fold reduction. Steeper slopes are predicted for larger or colder regions, meaning fewer large species per small species for such regions. Predictions were largely validated by a global empirical analysis. Results explain for the first time a new and widespread phenomenon of biodiversity. Results have implications for estimating numbers of species of small asymptotic mass, where taxonomic inventories are far from complete. Results show that the relationship between diversity and body mass can be explained from the dependence of predation behaviour, dispersal, and life history on

  7. Nucleotide diversity in gorillas.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ning; Jensen-Seaman, Michael I; Chemnick, Leona; Ryder, Oliver; Li, Wen-Hsiung

    2004-01-01

    Comparison of the levels of nucleotide diversity in humans and apes may provide valuable information for inferring the demographic history of these species, the effect of social structure on genetic diversity, patterns of past migration, and signatures of past selection events. Previous DNA sequence data from both the mitochondrial and the nuclear genomes suggested a much higher level of nucleotide diversity in the African apes than in humans. Noting that the nuclear DNA data from the apes were very limited, we previously conducted a DNA polymorphism study in humans and another in chimpanzees and bonobos, using 50 DNA segments randomly chosen from the noncoding, nonrepetitive parts of the human genome. The data revealed that the nucleotide diversity (pi) in bonobos (0.077%) is actually lower than that in humans (0.087%) and that pi in chimpanzees (0.134%) is only 50% higher than that in humans. In the present study we sequenced the same 50 segments in 15 western lowland gorillas and estimated pi to be 0.158%. This is the highest value among the African apes but is only about two times higher than that in humans. Interestingly, available mtDNA sequence data also suggest a twofold higher nucleotide diversity in gorillas than in humans, but suggest a threefold higher nucleotide diversity in chimpanzees than in humans. The higher mtDNA diversity in chimpanzees might be due to the unique pattern in the evolution of chimpanzee mtDNA. From the nuclear DNA pi values, we estimated that the long-term effective population sizes of humans, bonobos, chimpanzees, and gorillas are, respectively, 10,400, 12,300, 21,300, and 25,200. PMID:15082556

  8. Capturing Nature's Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Pascolutti, Mauro; Campitelli, Marc; Nguyen, Bao; Pham, Ngoc; Gorse, Alain-Dominique; Quinn, Ronald J.

    2015-01-01

    Natural products are universally recognized to contribute valuable chemical diversity to the design of molecular screening libraries. The analysis undertaken in this work, provides a foundation for the generation of fragment screening libraries that capture the diverse range of molecular recognition building blocks embedded within natural products. Physicochemical properties were used to select fragment-sized natural products from a database of known natural products (Dictionary of Natural Products). PCA analysis was used to illustrate the positioning of the fragment subset within the property space of the non-fragment sized natural products in the dataset. Structural diversity was analysed by three distinct methods: atom function analysis, using pharmacophore fingerprints, atom type analysis, using radial fingerprints, and scaffold analysis. Small pharmacophore triplets, representing the range of chemical features present in natural products that are capable of engaging in molecular interactions with small, contiguous areas of protein binding surfaces, were analysed. We demonstrate that fragment-sized natural products capture more than half of the small pharmacophore triplet diversity observed in non fragment-sized natural product datasets. Atom type analysis using radial fingerprints was represented by a self-organizing map. We examined the structural diversity of non-flat fragment-sized natural product scaffolds, rich in sp3 configured centres. From these results we demonstrate that 2-ring fragment-sized natural products effectively balance the opposing characteristics of minimal complexity and broad structural diversity when compared to the larger, more complex fragment-like natural products. These naturally-derived fragments could be used as the starting point for the generation of a highly diverse library with the scope for further medicinal chemistry elaboration due to their minimal structural complexity. This study highlights the possibility to capture a

  9. Nutritional aspects of depression.

    PubMed

    Lang, Undine E; Beglinger, Christoph; Schweinfurth, Nina; Walter, Marc; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Several nutrition, food and dietary compounds have been suggested to be involved in the onset and maintenance of depressive disorders and in the severity of depressive symptoms. Nutritional compounds might modulate depression associated biomarkers and parallel the development of depression, obesity and diabetes. In this context, recent studies revealed new mediators of both energy homeostasis and mood changes (i.e. IGF-1, NPY, BDNF, ghrelin, leptin, CCK, GLP-1, AGE, glucose metabolism and microbiota) acting in gut brain circuits. In this context several healthy foods such as olive oil, fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, poultry, dairy and unprocessed meat have been inversely associated with depression risk and even have been postulated to improve depressive symptoms. In contrast, unhealthy western dietary patterns including the consumption of sweetened beverage, refined food, fried food, processed meat, refined grain, and high fat diary, biscuits, snacking and pastries have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of depression in longitudinal studies. However, it is always difficult to conclude a real prospective causal relationship from these mostly retrospective studies as depressed individuals might also change their eating habits secondarily to their depression. Additionally specific selected nutritional compounds, e.g. calcium, chromium, folate, PUFAs, vitamin D, B12, zinc, magnesium and D-serine have been postulated to be used as ad-on strategies in antidepressant treatment. In this context, dietary and lifestyle interventions may be a desirable, effective, pragmatical and non-stigmatizing prevention and treatment strategy for depression. At last, several medications (pioglitazone, metformin, exenatide, atorvastatin, gram-negative antibiotics), which have traditionally been used to treat metabolic disorders showed a certain potential to treat depression in first randomized controlled clinical trials. PMID:26402520

  10. Brittle diabetes: psychopathological aspects.

    PubMed

    Pelizza, Lorenzo; Bonazzi, Federica; Scaltriti, Sara; Milli, Bruna; Giuseppina, Chierici

    2014-01-01

    Background. The term "brittle" is used to described an uncommon subgroup of type I diabetics whose lives are disrupted by severe glycaemic instability with repeated and prolonged hospitalization. Psychosocial problems are the major perceived underlying causes of brittle behaviour. Aim of this study is a systematic psychopathological assessement of brittleness using specific parameters of general psychopathology and personality traits following the multiaxial format (axis I and II) of the current DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for mental disorders. Methods. Patients comprised 21 brittle type I diabetics and a case-control group of 21 stable diabetics, matched for age, gender, years of education, and diabetes duration. General psychopathology and the DSM-IV-TR personality traits/disorders were assessed using the Syptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R) and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III). Results. The comparison for SCL-90-R parameters exclusively revealed higher scores in "Phobic Anxiety" subscale in brittle diabetics. No differences in all the other SCL-90-R primary symptom dimensions and in the three SCL-90-R global distress indices were observed between the two diabetic groups, as well as in the all MCMI-III clinical syndrome categories corresponding to DSM-IV-TR specific psychiatric disorders. However, brittle patients presented lower scores in MCMI-III compulsive personality traits and higher scores in paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal, antisocial, borderline, narcissistic, avoidant, dependent, depressive, and passive-aggressive personality traits. Conclusions. In this study, brittle diabetics show no differencies in terms of global severity of psychopathological distress and axis I specific DSM-IV-TR diagnoses in comparison with non-brittle subjects (except for phobic anxiety). Differently, brittle diabetics are characterized from less functional and maladaptive personality features and suffer more frequently and intensively from specific

  11. Teaching for Diversity: Addressing Diversity Issues in Responsive ESL Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Student diversity has become a typical phenomenon in American public schools. The impact of increasing diversity on literacy instruction is unchallenged. Teachers reinforce this message by often citing ESL student diversity as a barrier for literacy teaching. In order to better understand the complexity of diversity issues, I explored two ESL…

  12. NASFAA Diversity and Inclusion: Recommendations of the Professional Diversity Caucus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators, 2015

    2015-01-01

    NASFAA's Diversity and Inclusion Report emphasizes the importance of diversity and inclusivity to NASFAA. Included in this report is a diversity statement developed by NASFAA's Professional Diversity Caucus, and approved by NASFAA's Board in March of 2015. The Caucus convened in the summer of 2014 to better understand issues related to diversity…

  13. Aspect-Oriented Design with Reusable Aspect Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kienzle, Jörg; Al Abed, Wisam; Fleurey, Franck; Jézéquel, Jean-Marc; Klein, Jacques

    The idea behind Aspect-Oriented Modeling (AOM) is to apply aspect-oriented techniques to (software) models with the aim of modularizing crosscutting concerns. This can be done within different modeling notations, at different levels of abstraction, and at different moments during the software development process. This paper demonstrates the applicability of AOM during the software design phase by presenting parts of an aspect-oriented design of a crisis management system. The design solution proposed in this paper is based on the Reusable Aspect Models (RAM) approach, which allows a modeler to express the structure and behavior of a complex system using class, state and sequence diagrams encapsulated in several aspect models. The paper describes how the model of the "create mission" functionality of the server backend can be decomposed into 23 inter-dependent aspect models. The presentation of the design is followed by a discussion on the lessons learned from the case study. Next, RAM is compared to 8 other AOM approaches according to 6 criteria: language, concern composition, asymmetric and symmetric composition, maturity, and tool support. To conclude the paper, a discussion section points out the features of RAM that specifically support reuse.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF AQUATIC MODELS FOR TESTING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GENETIC DIVERSITY AND POPULATION EXTINCTION RISK

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relationship between population adaptive potential and extinction risk in a changing environment is not well understood. Although the expectation is that genetic diversity is directly related to the capacity of populations to adapt, the statistical and predictive aspects of ...

  15. A hierarchical perspective of plant diversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sarr, Daniel; Hibbs, D.E.; Huston, M.

    2005-01-01

    Predictive models of plant diversity have typically focused on either a landscapea??s capacity for richness (equilibrium models), or on the processes that regulate competitive exclusion, and thus allow species to coexist (nonequilibrium models). Here, we review the concepts and purposes of a hierarchical, multiscale model of the controls of plant diversity that incorporates the equilibrium model of climatic favorability at macroscales, nonequilibrium models of competition at microscales, and a mixed model emphasizing environmental heterogeneity at mesoscales. We evaluate the conceptual model using published data from three spatially nested datasets: (1) a macroscale analysis of ecoregions in the continental and western U.S.; (2) a mesoscale study in California; and (3) a microscale study in the Siskiyou Mountains of Oregon and California. At the macroscale (areas from 3889 km2 to 638,300 km2), climate (actual evaporation) was a strong predictor of tree diversity (R2 = 0.80), as predicted by the conceptual model, but area was a better predictor for vascular plant diversity overall (R2 = 0.38), which suggests different types of plants differ in their sensitivity to climatic controls. At mesoscales (areas from 1111 km2 to 15,833 km2 ), climate was still an important predictor of richness (R2 = 0.52), but, as expected, topographic heterogeneity explained an important share of the variance (R2 = 0.19), showed positive correlations with diversity of trees, shrubs, and annual and perennial herbs, and was the primary predictor of shrub and annual plant species richness. At microscales (0.1 ha plots), spatial patterns of diversity showed a clear unimodal pattern along a climatea??driven productivity gradient and a negative relationship with soil fertility. The strong decline in understory and total diversity at the most productive sites suggests that competitive controls, as predicted, can override climatic controls at this scale. We conclude that this hierarchical

  16. A hierarchical perspective of plant diversity.

    PubMed

    Sarr, Daniel A; Hibbs, David E; Huston, Michael A

    2005-06-01

    Predictive models of plant diversity have typically focused on either a landscape's capacity for richness (equilibrium models), or on the processes that regulate competitive exclusion, and thus allow species to coexist (nonequilibrium models). Here, we review the concepts and purposes of a hierarchical, multiscale model of the controls of plant diversity that incorporates the equilibrium model of climatic favorability at macroscales, nonequilibrium models of competition at microscales, and a mixed model emphasizing environmental heterogeneity at mesoscales. We evaluate the conceptual model using published data from three spatially nested datasets: (1) a macroscale analysis of ecoregions in the continental and western U.S.; (2) a mesoscale study in California; and (3) a microscale study in the Siskiyou Mountains of Oregon and California. At the macroscale (areas from 3889 km2 to 638,300 km2), climate (actual evaporation) was a strong predictor of tree diversity (R2 = 0.80), as predicted by the conceptual model, but area was a better predictor for vascular plant diversity overall (R2 = 0.38), which suggests different types of plants differ in their sensitivity to climatic controls. At mesoscales (areas from 1111 km2 to 15,833 km2), climate was still an important predictor of richness (R2 = 0.52), but, as expected, topographic heterogeneity explained an important share of the variance (R2 = 0.19) showed positive correlations with diversity of trees, shrubs, and annual and perennial herbs, and was the primary predictor of shrub and annual plant species richness. At microscales (0.1 ha plots), spatial patterns of diversity showed a clear unimodal pattern along a climate-driven productivity gradient and a negative relationship with soil fertility. The strong decline in understory and total diversity at the most productive sites suggests that competitive controls, as predicted, can override climatic controls at this scale. We conclude that this hierarchical, multiscale

  17. Reshaping Antibody Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feng; Ekiert, Damian C.; Ahmad, Insha; Yu, Wenli; Zhang, Yong; Bazirgan, Omar; Torkamani, Ali; Raudsepp, Terje; Mwangi, Waithaka; Criscitiello, Michael F.; Wilson, Ian A.; Schultz, Peter G.; Smider, Vaughn V.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Unlike humans or mice, some species have limited genome encoded combinatorial diversity potential, yet mount a robust antibody response. Cows are unusual in having exceptionally long CDR H3 loops and few V-regions, but the mechanism for creating diversity is not understood. Deep sequencing revealed that ultralong CDR H3s contain a remarkable complexity of cysteines, suggesting that disulfide-bonded mini-domains may arise during repertoire development. Indeed, crystal structures of two cow antibodies reveal that these CDR H3s form a very unusual architecture composed of a β-strand “stalk” that supports a structurally diverse, disulfide-bonded, “knob” domain. Sequence analysis suggests that diversity arises from somatic hypermutation of an ultralong DH with a severe codon bias towards mutation to cysteine. These unusual antibodies can be elicited to recognize defined antigens through the knob domain. Thus, the bovine immune system produces an antibody repertoire composed of CDR H3s of unprecedented length that fold into a diversity of mini-domains generated through combinations of somatically generated disulfides. PMID:23746848

  18. [Fundamental aspects of extreme aging].

    PubMed

    Tréton, J

    2002-07-01

    Major developments in molecular biology in invertebrates have recently shown the determining effect of genetics on aging. The first finding was that artificial selection can highlight the genetic aspect of the aging process, demonstrating the polygenetic property of longevity. Another finding showed that certain gene transfers can modulate the lifespan of an organism. Recent progress has been made in three fields: genetic markers of aging, biological basis of cell maintenance, and hereditary factors contributing to late onset genetic disease. These new developments open new avenues of research in clinical biology. In regard to genetic markers of aging, it has been demonstrated that the ends of the chromosomes, telomeres, play a role in cell senescence. Telomeres can be viewed as markers of aging. Shortened telomeres are associated with replicative senescence and antitumor action. DNA anomalies are also more frequent: simple or double breaks, additions and base substitutions. Data on the biological basis of cell maintenance obtained in invertebrates show the polygenetic property of aging involving four significant mechanisms, control of metabolism, resistance to stress, chromatin-dependent gene regulation of genetic homeostasis. Finally, recent studies have shown that late onset hereditary diseases would be linked with particular genes, some of which have been identified. Two non-exclusive mechanisms could be involved: an adaptive mechanism involving gene selection during the evolutionary process, for example in obesity; and non-adaptive accumulation of gene expression during the post-reproductive phase, for example in Alzheimer's disease. These findings open a new era for the biology of aging. PMID:12596689

  19. Teacher Turnover: An Issue of Workgroup Racial Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sohn, Kitae

    2009-01-01

    One neglected aspect of the teacher labor supply is a recent increase in the proportion of minority teachers. Using the Schools and Staffing Survey and the Teacher Follow-up Survey, one can estimate the relationship between workgroup racial diversity and the turnover of White teachers. This approach finds that young White teachers are more likely…

  20. Teachers' Dispositions and Beliefs about Cultural and Linguistic Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vázquez-Montilla, Elia; Just, Megan; Triscari, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Teachers' beliefs towards their students' cultural backgrounds and languages affect all aspects of learning. Critical consciousness of attitudes and beliefs about the increasing culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) student population is necessary for aligning individual beliefs with effective teaching practices. Rethinking how to work with…