Sample records for control diverse aspects

  1. Software diversity in computerized control systems

    SciTech Connect

    Voges, U.

    1988-01-01

    This book deals with the most important aspects of software diversity and its use in computerized control systems, including theoretical background, experiments, and industrial realizations (railway, flight and nuclear applications). Researchers describe their experiments with software diversity and explain their results, including benefits and drawbacks. Practitioners explain their use of it in real systems: why they use this means of fault-tolerance, and how they incorporate it into their systems. In addition to the papers the book contains a rather complete list of publications giving an overview on references about software diversity from its beginning until today.

  2. Resource availability controls fungal diversity across a plant diversity gradient

    E-print Network

    Weiblen, George D

    LETTER Resource availability controls fungal diversity across a plant diversity gradient Mark P concerning the factors regulating fungal diversity in soil. The first states that higher levels of plant fungal diversity. Alternatively, greater plant diversity increases the range of organic substrates

  3. Informational Aspects of Isotopic Diversity in Biology and Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezin, Alexander A.

    2004-10-01

    Use of stable and radioactive isotopes in biology and medicine is intensive, yet informational aspects of isotopes as such are largely neglected (A.A.Berezin, J.Theor.Biol.,1992). Classical distinguishability (``labelability'') of isotopes allows for pattern generation dynamics. Quantum mechanically advantages of isotopicity (diversity of stable isotopes) arise from (almost perfect) degeneracy of various isotopic configurations; this in turn allows for isotopic sweeps (hoppings) by resonance neutron tunneling (Eccles mechanism). Isotopic variations of de Broglie wavelength affect quantum tunneling, diffusivity, magnetic interactions (e.g. by Lorentz force), etc. Ergodicity principle (all isoenergetic states are eventually accessed) implies possibility of fast scanning of library of morphogenetic patterns (cf metaphors of universal ``Platonic'' Library of Patterns: e.g. J.L.Borges, R.Sheldrake) with subsequent Darwinian reinforcement (e.g. by targeted mutations) of evolutionary advantageous patterns and structures. Isotopic shifts in organisms, from viruses and protozoa to mammalians, (e.g. DNA with enriched or depleted C-13) are tools to elucidate possible informational (e.g. Shannon entropy) role of isotopicity in genetic (e.g. evolutionary and morphological), dynamical (e.g. physiological and neurological) as well as medical (e.g. carcinogenesis, aging) aspects of biology and medicine.

  4. Novel aspects of plasma control in ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphreys, D.; Ambrosino, G.; de Vries, P.; Felici, F.; Kim, S. H.; Jackson, G.; Kallenbach, A.; Kolemen, E.; Lister, J.; Moreau, D.; Pironti, A.; Raupp, G.; Sauter, O.; Schuster, E.; Snipes, J.; Treutterer, W.; Walker, M.; Welander, A.; Winter, A.; Zabeo, L.

    2015-02-01

    ITER plasma control design solutions and performance requirements are strongly driven by its nuclear mission, aggressive commissioning constraints, and limited number of operational discharges. In addition, high plasma energy content, heat fluxes, neutron fluxes, and very long pulse operation place novel demands on control performance in many areas ranging from plasma boundary and divertor regulation to plasma kinetics and stability control. Both commissioning and experimental operations schedules provide limited time for tuning of control algorithms relative to operating devices. Although many aspects of the control solutions required by ITER have been well-demonstrated in present devices and even designed satisfactorily for ITER application, many elements unique to ITER including various crucial integration issues are presently under development. We describe selected novel aspects of plasma control in ITER, identifying unique parts of the control problem and highlighting some key areas of research remaining. Novel control areas described include control physics understanding (e.g., current profile regulation, tearing mode (TM) suppression), control mathematics (e.g., algorithmic and simulation approaches to high confidence robust performance), and integration solutions (e.g., methods for management of highly subscribed control resources). We identify unique aspects of the ITER TM suppression scheme, which will pulse gyrotrons to drive current within a magnetic island, and turn the drive off following suppression in order to minimize use of auxiliary power and maximize fusion gain. The potential role of active current profile control and approaches to design in ITER are discussed. Issues and approaches to fault handling algorithms are described, along with novel aspects of actuator sharing in ITER.

  5. Applying Design Diversity to Aspects of System Architectures and Deployment Configurations to Enhance System Dependability

    E-print Network

    Perry, Dewayne E.

    @ece.utexas.edu Abstract Design diversity has been proposed as a strategy for reducing the number of co-occurring faults frameworks, even though these aspects of system design can negatively impact dependability. We propose

  6. High aspect ratio, remote controlled pumping assembly

    DOEpatents

    Brown, S.B.; Milanovich, F.P.

    1995-11-14

    A miniature dual syringe-type pump assembly is described which has a high aspect ratio and which is remotely controlled, for use such as in a small diameter penetrometer cone or well packer used in water contamination applications. The pump assembly may be used to supply and remove a reagent to a water contamination sensor, for example, and includes a motor, gearhead and motor encoder assembly for turning a drive screw for an actuator which provides pushing on one syringe and pulling on the other syringe for injecting new reagent and withdrawing used reagent from an associated sensor. 4 figs.

  7. Resource availability controls fungal diversity across a plant diversity gradient

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waldrop, M.P.; Zak, D.R.; Blackwood, C.B.; Curtis, C.D.; Tilman, D.

    2006-01-01

    Despite decades of research, the ecological determinants of microbial diversity remain poorly understood. Here, we test two alternative hypotheses concerning the factors regulating fungal diversity in soil. The first states that higher levels of plant detritus production increase the supply of limiting resources (i.e. organic substrates) thereby increasing fungal diversity. Alternatively, greater plant diversity increases the range of organic substrates entering soil, thereby increasing the number of niches to be filled by a greater array of heterotrophic fungi. These two hypotheses were simultaneously examined in experimental plant communities consisting of one to 16 species that have been maintained for a decade. We used ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA), in combination with cloning and sequencing, to quantify fungal community composition and diversity within the experimental plant communities. We used soil microbial biomass as a temporally integrated measure of resource supply. Plant diversity was unrelated to fungal diversity, but fungal diversity was a unimodal function of resource supply. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) indicated that plant diversity showed a relationship to fungal community composition, although the occurrence of RISA bands and operational taxonomic units (OTUs) did not differ among the treatments. The relationship between fungal diversity and resource availability parallels similar relationships reported for grasslands, tropical forests, coral reefs, and other biotic communities, strongly suggesting that the same underlying mechanisms determine the diversity of organisms at multiple scales. ?? 2006 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  8. FISH DIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION ASPECTS IN AN AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM IN NORTHEASTERN INDIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Devashish Kar; A. V. Nagarathna; T. V. Ramachandra; S. C. Dey

    2006-01-01

    Biodiversity and its conservation are regarded as one of the major issues of enabling sustainable use of natural resources. This contribution focuses on the diversity of fish population and their conservation aspects in the biggest freshwater tectonic Lake Sone (3458.12ha) in Assam, India. The study revealed the occurrence of 69 species of fishes in the lake belonging to 49 genera,

  9. Human Factors Aspects of Advanced Process Control

    E-print Network

    Shaw, J. A.

    chemical and related processes use advanced control systems. Many of the more advanced process control strategies and algorithms can cause operator confusion, leading to incorrect operator actions and negating the advantages of the advanced control.... Ifthe operator makes a mistake and upsets the process, or fails to respond correctly to a process upset, the loss can exceed the possible savings of the advanced control. Further, the experience can result in the operator not using the control...

  10. Consumer versus resource control of species diversity and ecosystem functioning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boris Worm; Heike K. Lotze; Helmut Hillebrand; Ulrich Sommer

    2002-01-01

    A key question in ecology is which factors control species diversity in a community. Two largely separate groups of ecologists have emphasized the importance of productivity or resource supply, and consumers or physical disturbance, respectively. These variables show unimodal relationships with diversity when manipulated in isolation. Recent multivariate models, however, predict that these factors interact, such that the disturbance-diversity relationship

  11. LETTER Plant diversity controls arthropod biomass and temporal stability

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    LETTER Plant diversity controls arthropod biomass and temporal stability Elizabeth T. Borer,* Eric extent, consumers, relationships among plant and consumer diversity, productiv- ity, and temporal in a long-term experiment manipulating plant diversity and enumerating the arthropod community response. We

  12. Guidelines on ergonomic aspects of control rooms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, C. M.; Bocast, A. K.; Stewart, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    The anthropometry, workstation design, and environmental design of control rooms are outlined. The automated interface and VDTs and displays and various modes of communication between the system and the human operator using VDTs are discussed. The man in the loop is examined, the single controller single task framework and multiple controller multiple tasks issues are considered.

  13. Genetic diversity and disease control in rice.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y; Chen, H; Fan, J; Wang, Y; Li, Y; Chen, J; Fan, J; Yang, S; Hu, L; Leung, H; Mew, T W; Teng, P S; Wang, Z; Mundt, C C

    2000-08-17

    Crop heterogeneity is a possible solution to the vulnerability of monocultured crops to disease. Both theory and observation indicate that genetic heterogeneity provides greater disease suppression when used over large areas, though experimental data are lacking. Here we report a unique cooperation among farmers, researchers and extension personnel in Yunnan Province, China--genetically diversified rice crops were planted in all the rice fields in five townships in 1998 and ten townships in 1999. Control plots of monocultured crops allowed us to calculate the effect of diversity on the severity of rice blast, the major disease of rice. Disease-susceptible rice varieties planted in mixtures with resistant varieties had 89% greater yield and blast was 94% less severe than when they were grown in monoculture. The experiment was so successful that fungicidal sprays were no longer applied by the end of the two-year programme. Our results support the view that intraspecific crop diversification provides an ecological approach to disease control that can be highly effective over a large area and contribute to the sustainability of crop production. PMID:10963595

  14. Dynamic aspects of segmented mirror position control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaercher, Hans J.

    2006-02-01

    Extreme large optical telescopes will operate in an open environment and may be excited by wind effects. The position control of the mirror segments may need fast control, and the position actuators and the related control loops may be separated in a conventional slow, iso-static and a fast reaction-mass type system. There exists some experience with wind excitations of airborne telescopes, e.g. the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy SOFIA. The pointing control system of that telescope is equipped with several dedicated design features, as a vibration isolations system, a flexible body control system and an active mass damper system to handle excitations in different frequency ranges. These features may be transferred to the position control systems of segmented mirrors. The paper will give some system engi-neers recommendations for designing those systems.

  15. Engineering aspects of water pollution control systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. G. Dalbke; A. J. Turk

    1967-01-01

    The importance of proper engineering when providing pollution control systems is emphasized. Organization of engineering projects is described in detail. Included are discussions of: (1) collection and evaluation of available data; (2) establishment of survey and test program; (3) integration and evaluation of findings; (4) establishment of pollution control and water utilization systems; and (5) specification and detailed design preparation.

  16. Manual Control Aspects of Orbital Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brody, Adam R. (editor); Ellis, Stephen R. (editor)

    1990-01-01

    A brief description of several laboratories' current research in the general area of manual control of orbital flight is presented. With an operational-space-station era (and its increased traffic levels) approaching, now is an opportune time to investigate issues such as docking and rendezvous profiles and course-planning aids. The tremendous increase in the capabilities of computers and computer graphics has made extensive study possible and economical. It is time to study these areas, from a human factors and manual control perspective in order to preclude the occurrence of problems analogous to those that occurred in the airline and other related industries.

  17. Control of microgrids: Aspects and prospects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Salehi Dobakhshari; S. Azizi; A. M. Ranjbar

    2011-01-01

    A microgrid is a controllable component of the smart grid defined as a part of distribution network capable of supplying its own local load even in the case of disconnection from the upstream network. Microgrids incorporate large amount of renewable and non-renewable distributed generation (DG) that are connected to the system either directly or by power electronics (PE) interface. The

  18. The Leap-Frog Algorithm and Optimal Control: Theoretical Aspects

    E-print Network

    Noakes, Lyle

    The Leap-Frog Algorithm and Optimal Control: Theoretical Aspects C. Yal#24;c#16;n Kaya School@maths.uwa.edu.au Abstract The Leap-Frog Algorithm was originally devised to #12;nd geodesics in connected complete with generalizing the mathematical rigour of the leap-frog algorithm to a class of optimal control problems

  19. Notional Examples and Benchmark Aspects Of a Resilient Control System

    SciTech Connect

    Craig. G. Rieger

    2010-08-01

    Digital control system technology has pervaded most industries, leading to improvements in the efficiency and reliability of the associated operations. However, the ease of distributing and connecting related control systems for the purposes of increasing performance has resulted in interdependencies that can lead to unexpected conditions. Even with less complex designs, operators and engineers alike are often left with competing goals that are difficult to resolve. A fundamental reason for this dichotomy is that responsibilities lie with different disciplines, and operations are hosted on separate control systems. In addition, with the rising awareness of cyber security and diverse human interactions with control systems, an understanding of human actions from a malicious and benevolent standpoint is necessary. Resilience considers the multiple facets of requirements that drive the performance of control systems in a holistic fashion, whether they are security or stability, stability or efficiency, human interactions or complex interdependencies. As will be shown by example, current research philosophies lack the depth or the focus on the control system application to satisfy these requirements, such as graceful degradation of hierarchical control while under cyber attack. A resilient control system promises to purposefully consider these diverse requirements, developing an adaptive capacity to complex events that can lead to failure of traditional control system designs.

  20. Control Aspects of the Tacoma Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage Project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. Hauer; H. J. Boenig

    1987-01-01

    On February 16, 1983, a 10 MW\\/30 MJ superconducting magnetic energy storage unit was energized at the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) substation in Tacoma, Washington. The unit was retired a year later, after extensive tests directed toward its experimental use as a small-signal stabilizer for the Pacific AC Intertie. This paper addresses the control aspects of the project. These include

  1. Slope control on the aspect ratio of river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelltort, S.; Simpson, G.; Darrioulat, A.

    2009-04-01

    River networks and their drainage basins have attracted a large attention due to their remarkable statistical properties (1-5). For example, although fluvial networks patterns seem to be influenced by diverse geological and climatic processes, the river basins that enclose them appear to mirror each other faithfully. Basin area A and length L of rivers from around the world consistently scale following L=cAexp(h) (2) with h often close to 0.5 (and c a constant) suggesting that river basins are self-similar (1, 6). Likewise, the main river basins that drain linear mountain ranges consistently manifest similar length-width aspect ratios between 1 and 5 (7). These observations question how the interplay between climate and tectonics is reflected in landscapes, and they highlight the challenge of inverting modern landscape records to reveal previous climates and tectonics. The invariance of river basins aspect-ratio is puzzling when compared against observations at smaller spatial scales (<10 km). In analogue experiments, numerical simulations and outcrops, the form of stream networks is influenced by surface slope (8-11). Steep surfaces develop narrow elongate basins with near-parallel rills, whereas flatter surfaces produce wider basins. Initial surface geometry is also important in setting rivers paths and certain landscape properties such as the slope-area relationship (12). Here we thus investigate the form of river basins developed on surfaces longer than 10 kilometres showing limited dissection such that the initial surface slopes can be measured. We find that, as for small scale basins, the form of large scale river basins is controlled by surface slope, with steep slopes developing narrower basins. This observation is interpreted to originate from the nature of water flow over rough surfaces, with steeper slopes causing less flow convergence and longer-narrower basins. We derive an empirical relationship that can be used to infer the slope of a surface on which a river basin acquired its geometry based solely on a measure of its basin form. This relation provides a unique means of inferring the relative chronology of river basin development with respect to surface tilting and therefore provides a direct link between river basin morphology and tectonics. Instead of viewing river basins as largely invariant, this work highlights the differences between basins that bear important information about tectonics and climate. 1.P. S. Dodds, D. H. Rothman, Ann. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 28, 571 (2000). 2.J. T. Hack, US Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap. 294-B, (1957). 3.R. E. Horton, Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 56, 275 (1945). 4.J. W. Kirchner, Geology 21, 591 (1993). 5.I. Rodriguez-Iturbe, A. Rinaldo, Fractal river basins: chance and self-organization. (1997). 6.D. R. Montgomery, W. E. Dietrich, Science 255, 826 (1992). 7.N. Hovius, Basin Res. 8, 29 (1996). 8.R. S. Parker, Hydrology Papers, Colorado State University 90, 58 (1977). 9.J. D. Pelletier, Geomorphology 53, 183 (2003). 10.Schumm, The Fluvial System. (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1977), pp. 338. 11.G. D. H. Simpson, F. Schlunegger, J. Geophys. Res 108, 2300 (2003). 12.N. Schorghofer, D. H. Rothman, Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 1633 (2002).

  2. 3. DOWNSTREAM AERIAL VIEW OF THE DIVERSION CHANNEL AND CONTROL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. DOWNSTREAM AERIAL VIEW OF THE DIVERSION CHANNEL AND CONTROL WORKS. THE OUTLET CONTROL TOWER AND THE PIER FOR THE SERVICE BRIDGE ARE SHOWN COMPLETED.... Volume XVIII, No. 11, January 18, 1940. - Prado Dam, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  3. Ethical and legal aspects of global tobacco control.

    PubMed

    Novotny, T E; Carlin, D

    2005-08-01

    On 28 February 2005, the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control came into force as a result of at least 40 countries becoming State Parties through ratification of this first ever health treaty sponsored by the World Health Organization. This article discusses the bioethical, trade, and legal aspects of global tobacco control. Special emphasis is given to globalisation of tobacco use and the challenges it poses to sovereign nations. It also advocates a bioethical basis in the pursuit of global solutions to expanding tobacco use. PMID:16046698

  4. Ethical and legal aspects of global tobacco control

    PubMed Central

    Novotny, T; Carlin, D

    2005-01-01

    On 28 February 2005, the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control came into force as a result of at least 40 countries becoming State Parties through ratification of this first ever health treaty sponsored by the World Health Organization. This article discusses the bioethical, trade, and legal aspects of global tobacco control. Special emphasis is given to globalisation of tobacco use and the challenges it poses to sovereign nations. It also advocates a bioethical basis in the pursuit of global solutions to expanding tobacco use. PMID:16046698

  5. Review on design and control aspects of ankle rehabilitation robots.

    PubMed

    Jamwal, Prashant K; Hussain, Shahid; Xie, Sheng Q

    2015-03-01

    Abstract Ankle rehabilitation robots can play an important role in improving outcomes of the rehabilitation treatment by assisting therapists and patients in number of ways. Consequently, few robot designs have been proposed by researchers which fall under either of the two categories, namely, wearable robots or platform-based robots. This paper presents a review of both kinds of ankle robots along with a brief analysis of their design, actuation and control approaches. While reviewing these designs it was observed that most of them are undesirably inspired by industrial robot designs. Taking note of the design concerns of current ankle robots, few improvements in the ankle robot designs have also been suggested. Conventional position control or force control approaches, being used in the existing ankle robots, have been reviewed. Apparently, opportunities of improvement also exist in the actuation as well as control of ankle robots. Subsequently, a discussion on most recent research in the development of novel actuators and advanced controllers based on appropriate physical and cognitive human-robot interaction has also been included in this review. Implications for Rehabilitation Ankle joint functions are restricted/impaired as a consequence of stroke or injury during sports or otherwise. Robots can help in reinstating functions faster and can also work as tool for recording rehabilitation data useful for further analysis. Evolution of ankle robots with respect to their design and control aspects has been discussed in the present paper and a novel design with futuristic control approach has been proposed. PMID:24320195

  6. Herbivores and nutrients control grassland plant diversity via light limitation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borer, Elizabeth T.; Seabloom, Eric W.; Gruner, Daniel S.; Harpole, W. Stanley; Hillebrand, Helmut; Lind, Eric M.; Alder, Peter B.; Alberti, Juan; Anderson, T. Michael; Bakker, Jonathan D.; Biederman, Lori; Blumenthal, Dana; Brown, Cynthia S.; Brudvig, Lars A.; Buckley, Yvonne M.; Cadotte, Marc; Chu, Cheng-Jin; Cleland, Elsa E.; Crawley, Michael J.; Daleo, Pedro; Damschen, Ellen I.; Davies, Kendi F.; DeCrappeo, Nicole M.; Du, Guozhen; Firn, Jennifer; Hautier, Yann; Heckman, Robert W.; Hector, Andy; HilleRisLambers, Janneke; Iribarne, Oscar; Klein, Julia A.; Knops, Johannes M.H.; La Pierre, Kimberly J.; Leakey, Andrew D.B.; Li, Wei; MacDougall, Andrew S.; McCulley, Rebecca L.; Melbourne, Brett A.; Mitchell, Charles E.; Moore, Joslin L.; Mortensen, Brent; O'Halloran, Lydia R.; Orrock, John L.; Pascual, Jesús; Prober, Suzanne M.; Pyke, David A.; Risch, Anita C.; Schuetz, Martin; Smith, Melinda D.; Stevens, Carly J.; Sullivan, Lauren L.; Williams, Ryan J.; Wragg, Peter D.; Wright, Justin P.; Yang, Louie H.

    2014-01-01

    Human alterations to nutrient cycles and herbivore communities are affecting global biodiversity dramatically. Ecological theory predicts these changes should be strongly counteractive: nutrient addition drives plant species loss through intensified competition for light, whereas herbivores prevent competitive exclusion by increasing ground-level light, particularly in productive systems. Here we use experimental data spanning a globally relevant range of conditions to test the hypothesis that herbaceous plant species losses caused by eutrophication may be offset by increased light availability due to herbivory. This experiment, replicated in 40 grasslands on 6 continents, demonstrates that nutrients and herbivores can serve as counteracting forces to control local plant diversity through light limitation, independent of site productivity, soil nitrogen, herbivore type and climate. Nutrient addition consistently reduced local diversity through light limitation, and herbivory rescued diversity at sites where it alleviated light limitation. Thus, species loss from anthropogenic eutrophication can be ameliorated in grasslands where herbivory increases ground-level light.

  7. Herbivores and nutrients control grassland plant diversity via light limitation.

    PubMed

    Borer, Elizabeth T; Seabloom, Eric W; Gruner, Daniel S; Harpole, W Stanley; Hillebrand, Helmut; Lind, Eric M; Adler, Peter B; Alberti, Juan; Anderson, T Michael; Bakker, Jonathan D; Biederman, Lori; Blumenthal, Dana; Brown, Cynthia S; Brudvig, Lars A; Buckley, Yvonne M; Cadotte, Marc; Chu, Chengjin; Cleland, Elsa E; Crawley, Michael J; Daleo, Pedro; Damschen, Ellen I; Davies, Kendi F; DeCrappeo, Nicole M; Du, Guozhen; Firn, Jennifer; Hautier, Yann; Heckman, Robert W; Hector, Andy; HilleRisLambers, Janneke; Iribarne, Oscar; Klein, Julia A; Knops, Johannes M H; La Pierre, Kimberly J; Leakey, Andrew D B; Li, Wei; MacDougall, Andrew S; McCulley, Rebecca L; Melbourne, Brett A; Mitchell, Charles E; Moore, Joslin L; Mortensen, Brent; O'Halloran, Lydia R; Orrock, John L; Pascual, Jesús; Prober, Suzanne M; Pyke, David A; Risch, Anita C; Schuetz, Martin; Smith, Melinda D; Stevens, Carly J; Sullivan, Lauren L; Williams, Ryan J; Wragg, Peter D; Wright, Justin P; Yang, Louie H

    2014-04-24

    Human alterations to nutrient cycles and herbivore communities are affecting global biodiversity dramatically. Ecological theory predicts these changes should be strongly counteractive: nutrient addition drives plant species loss through intensified competition for light, whereas herbivores prevent competitive exclusion by increasing ground-level light, particularly in productive systems. Here we use experimental data spanning a globally relevant range of conditions to test the hypothesis that herbaceous plant species losses caused by eutrophication may be offset by increased light availability due to herbivory. This experiment, replicated in 40 grasslands on 6 continents, demonstrates that nutrients and herbivores can serve as counteracting forces to control local plant diversity through light limitation, independent of site productivity, soil nitrogen, herbivore type and climate. Nutrient addition consistently reduced local diversity through light limitation, and herbivory rescued diversity at sites where it alleviated light limitation. Thus, species loss from anthropogenic eutrophication can be ameliorated in grasslands where herbivory increases ground-level light. PMID:24670649

  8. Science aspects of a remotely controlled Mars surface roving vehicle.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choate, R.; Jaffe, L. D.

    1973-01-01

    Particular attention is given to aspects pertinent to teleoperation, remote control, onboard control, and man-machine relationships in carrying out scientific operations with such a vehicle. It is assumed that landed operations would comprise one Martian year and that the traverse would extend across an area approximately 500 km wide. The mission is assumed to be planned for the early 1980s. Its objective is to obtain data which will aid in answering a number of questions regarding the history of the solar system, the formation of Mars, and the evolution of life on Mars. A series of candidate rover payloads is proposed to meet the requirements. The smallest payload includes a TV camera, a general-purpose manipulator arm, a crusher and siever, an X-ray diffractometer-spectrometer, a gravimeter, a magnetometer, meteorological instruments, and a radio transponder.

  9. Cross-CZO Contrasts: Aspect Controls and Critical Zone Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, B. A.; Kirby, E.; Burbank, D. W.; West, N.

    2013-12-01

    We investigate aspect controls on Critical Zone (CZ) architecture, mobile regolith transport, and landscape morphology, based on a cross-CZO comparison of 1) Niwot Ridge, Boulder Creek CZO (BcCZO), a high alpine site with minimal soil/veg cover, characterized by steep S-facing and shallow N-facing hillslopes and 2) Shale Hills CZO (SSHCZO), a temperate, densely-forested, soil-mantled site with steep N-facing slopes and shallow S-facing slopes. We use high-resolution 2D seismic tomography of P- and S-wave velocities (Vp, Vs) to characterize CZ architecture and constrain depths of weathering fronts, as well as the thickness, character, and transport efficiency of mobile regolith layers. The 2D imagery allows assessment of changes in material properties both lateral and vertical (depth), thus mapping variability in CZ structures along the survey profile. The combination of Vp and Vs are used to better quantify material properties, (i.e., elastics moduli, density, fractures porosity), rock-mass strength, and weathering intensity - and when applied to the very shallow subsurface can help constrain the transport efficiency (strength or erodibility) of mobile regolith layers On Niwot Ridge, the depth of the weathering front and thickness of mobile regolith are substantially greater on shallower N-facing slopes, consistent with frost/freeze driven processes. However, the depth of the weathering front far exceeds modeled extents of frost-cracking depth (for past or present climates), suggesting additional processes also influence deep weathering. Mobile regolith is considerably thicker on shallow N-facing aspects and composed of large, disintegrated cobbles, however, velocity-based estimates of transport efficiency are higher on S-facing slopes composed of small talus blocks and thin soil/veg cover. Although, thin mobile regolith on S-facing slopes may be weak (slow V), the lower gradient of N-facing slopes and southward asymmetry of the ridge divide, suggests that transport efficiency is greatest on N-facing slopes. This may be explained by the dominance of frost/freeze process, which can readily lift or break, and provide a remarkably efficient process to transport the thick mobile regolith layer of large cobbles. At SSHCZO, depths of weathering fronts are invariant with slope aspect, suggesting that aspect control is not a predominant mechanism driving regolith production. Mobile regolith thickness, however, is more than 2-fold greater on N-facing slopes. Additionally, the mobile regolith on both slope aspects is primarily composed of well-developed soils. N-facing soils are thicker with greater cohesion, moisture, and inclusion of rock fragments. This is consistent with velocity-based estimates of lower transport efficiency on N-facing slopes relative to the thin, dry, fine grained soils on S-facing slopes. These results suggest fundamental differences in CZ architecture, weathering processes, and the influence of slope aspect between BcCZO and SSHCZO

  10. Fundamental Aspects of Crossbreeding of Sheep: Use of Breed Diversity to Improve Efficiency of Meat Production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. A. Leymaster

    Summary Breed diversity is a valuable resource of the sheep industry. Crossbreeding systems use breed diversity to increase productivity relative to purebred flocks. Crossbreeding systems vary in managerial complexity and in use of beneficial effects due to crossbred ewes and lambs. Efficiency of meat production is maximized in terminal crossbreeding systems by use of specialized sire breeds to complement characteristics

  11. Optimal control of flood diversion in watershed using nonlinear optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yan; Wang, Sam S. Y.

    2012-08-01

    This study aims to develop a simulation-based optimization model applicable to mitigate hazardous floods in storm events in a watershed which consists of a complex channel network and irregular topography. A well-established model, CCHE1D, is used as the simulation model to predict water stages and discharges of unsteady flood flows in a channel network, in which irregular (i.e. non-rectangular and non-prismatic) cross-sections are taken into account. Based on the variational principle, the adjoint equations are derived from the nonlinear hydrodynamic equations of CCHE1D, which are to establish a unique relationship between flood control variables and hydrodynamic variables. The internal conditions at the confluence in channel network for solving the adjoint equations in a watershed are obtained. An implicit numerical scheme (i.e. Preissman's scheme) is implemented for discretizing and solving the adjoint equations with the derived internal conditions and boundary conditions. The applicability of this integrated optimization model is demonstrated by searching for the optimal diversion hydrographs for withdrawing flood waters through a single floodgate and multiple floodgates into detention basins. Numerical optimization results show that this integrated model is efficient and robust. It is found that the single-floodgate control leads to an unfavorable speed-up in river flow which may create extra erosions in the channel bed; and multiple-floodgates diversion control diverts less flood waters, therefore can be a cost-effective control action. This simulation-based optimization model is capable of determining the optimal schedules of diversion discharge, optimal floodgate locations, minimum capacities of flood water detention basins in rivers and watersheds.

  12. Herbivores and nutrients control grassland plant diversity via light limitation.

    SciTech Connect

    Borer, Elizabeth T. [Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior, University of Minnesota; et al, et al

    2014-01-01

    Human alterations to nutrient cycles1,2 and herbivore communities3–7 are affecting global biodiversity dramatically2. Ecological theory predicts these changes should be strongly counteractive: nutrient addition drives plant species loss through intensified competition for light, whereas herbivores prevent competitive exclusion by increasing ground-level light, particularly in productive systems8,9. Here we use experimental data spanning a globally relevant range of conditions to test the hypothesis that herbaceous plant species losses caused by eutrophication may be offset by increased light availability due to herbivory. This experiment, replicated in 40 grasslands on 6 continents, demonstrates that nutrients and herbivores can serve as counteracting forces to control local plant diversity through light limitation, independent of site productivity, soil nitrogen, herbivore type and climate. Nutrient addition consistently reduced local diversity through light limitation, and herbivory rescued diversity at sites where it alleviated light limitation. Thus, species loss from anthropogenic eutrophication can be ameliorated in grasslands where herbivory increases ground-level light.

  13. Controls on development and diversity of Early Archean stromatolites

    PubMed Central

    Allwood, Abigail C.; Grotzinger, John P.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Burch, Ian W.; Anderson, Mark S.; Coleman, Max L.; Kanik, Isik

    2009-01-01

    The ?3,450-million-year-old Strelley Pool Formation in Western Australia contains a reef-like assembly of laminated sedimentary accretion structures (stromatolites) that have macroscale characteristics suggestive of biological influence. However, direct microscale evidence of biology—namely, organic microbial remains or biosedimentary fabrics—has to date eluded discovery in the extensively-recrystallized rocks. Recently-identified outcrops with relatively good textural preservation record microscale evidence of primary sedimentary processes, including some that indicate probable microbial mat formation. Furthermore, we find relict fabrics and organic layers that covary with stromatolite morphology, linking morphologic diversity to changes in sedimentation, seafloor mineral precipitation, and inferred microbial mat development. Thus, the most direct and compelling signatures of life in the Strelley Pool Formation are those observed at the microscopic scale. By examining spatiotemporal changes in microscale characteristics it is possible not only to recognize the presence of probable microbial mats during stromatolite development, but also to infer aspects of the biological inputs to stromatolite morphogenesis. The persistence of an inferred biological signal through changing environmental circumstances and stromatolite types indicates that benthic microbial populations adapted to shifting environmental conditions in early oceans. PMID:19515817

  14. The Great Diversion: Danube Delta under Human Control (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giosan, L.

    2009-12-01

    Many deltas around the world are suffering from sediment deficits that render them unstable to current and predicted rates of sea level rise. One solution proposed to alleviate the complete or partial drowning of such deltas is the use of river diversions to increase the quantity of sediment supplied to the delta plain to support marsh accretion. We examine the results of a half century old program of diversion in the Danube delta that led to the creation of an extensive diversion channel network akin in scope and size to a natural deltaic network. Danube’s importance as a shipping route increased after the Crimean War in the 1850s; the European Danube Commission was charged with maintaining the Sulina distributary as a shipping channel until 1940s. In the same period, several canals were dug to aid fishing in lakes and bring freshwater to brackish lagoons. After World War II, Communist authorities dramatically increased the number of canals for fishing, fish-farming and reed harvesting. New data on sedimentation rates and estimates of sediment fluxes suggest that the intensive canalization in the second half of the 20th Century led to increased sediment deposition that compensated the decreasing sediment discharge linked to damming within the internal fluvial part of the delta; however, the external marine delta has become increasingly sediment starved during the same interval. We emphasize the similarities and contrasts between the “human-controlled” and natural deltaic channel networks of the Danube delta and discuss the sustainability of the delta as a sediment budget problem within a sea level rise context.

  15. Multiple replication origins with diverse control mechanisms in Haloarcula hispanica

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhenfang; Liu, Jingfang; Yang, Haibo; Liu, Hailong; Xiang, Hua

    2014-01-01

    The use of multiple replication origins in archaea is not well understood. In particular, little is known about their specific control mechanisms. Here, we investigated the active replication origins in the three replicons of a halophilic archaeon, Haloarcula hispanica, by extensive gene deletion, DNA mutation and genome-wide marker frequency analyses. We revealed that individual origins are specifically dependent on their co-located cdc6 genes, and a single active origin/cdc6 pairing is essential and sufficient for each replicon. Notably, we demonstrated that the activities of oriC1 and oriC2, the two origins on the main chromosome, are differently controlled. A G-rich inverted repeat located in the internal region between the two inverted origin recognition boxes (ORBs) plays as an enhancer for oriC1, whereas the replication initiation at oriC2 is negatively regulated by an ORB-rich region located downstream of oriC2-cdc6E, likely via Cdc6E-titrating. The oriC2 placed on a plasmid is incompatible with the wild-type (but not the ?oriC2) host strain, further indicating that strict control of the oriC2 activity is important for the cell. This is the first report revealing diverse control mechanisms of origins in haloarchaea, which has provided novel insights into the use and coordination of multiple replication origins in the domain of Archaea. PMID:24271389

  16. Molecular aspects of transport in thin films of controlled architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Work was done in two principal areas: characterization of diffusion in swollen polymer films both with and without a barrier layer, and initial investigations of molecular aspects of swelling using enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

  17. Investigating the Genome Diversity of B. cereus and Evolutionary Aspects of B. anthracis Emergence

    PubMed Central

    Papazisi, Leka; Rasko, David A.; Ratnayake, Shashikala; Bock, Geoff R.; Remortel, Brian G.; Appalla, Lakshmi; Liu, Jia; Dracheva, Tatiana; Braisted, John C.; Shallom, Shamira; Jarrahi, Benham; Snesrud, Erik; Ahn, Susie; Sun, Qiang; Rilstone, Jenifer; Økstad, Ole Andreas; Kolstø, Anne-Brit; Fleischmann, Robert D.; Peterson, Scott N.

    2011-01-01

    Here we report the use of a multi-genome DNA microarray to investigate the genome diversity of Bacillus cereus group members and elucidate the events associated with the emergence of B. anthracis the causative agent of anthrax–a lethal zoonotic disease. We initially performed directed genome sequencing of seven diverse B. cereus strains to identify novel sequences encoded in those genomes. The novel genes identified, combined with those publicly available, allowed the design of a “species” DNA microarray. Comparative genomic hybridization analyses of 41 strains indicates that substantial heterogeneity exists with respect to the genes comprising functional role categories. While the acquisition of the plasmid-encoded pathogenicity island (pXO1) and capsule genes (pXO2) represent a crucial landmark dictating the emergence of B. anthracis, the evolution of this species and its close relatives was associated with an overall a shift in the fraction of genes devoted to energy metabolism, cellular processes, transport, as well as virulence. PMID:21447378

  18. Personal and Ideological Aspects of Internal and External Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurin, Patricia; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Factor analysis of Rotter's Internal-External Locus of Control Scale using a national sample replicated the distinction between personal control and control ideology. Personal control, but not control ideology, was related to higher socioeconomic status and mastery efforts over personal environment. External control ideology was related to greater…

  19. Physical, consumer, and social aspects of measuring the food environment among diverse low-income populations.

    PubMed

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Sharma, Sangita

    2009-04-01

    Obesity and other diet-related chronic diseases are directly related to the food environment. We describe how to better assess the food environment in specific ethnic minority settings for designing and implementing interventions, based on a review of our previous work on the food environment in American Indian reservations, Canadian First Nations reserves, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and inner-city Baltimore. The types of food stores available within each setting and the range of healthy foods available varied greatly across these geographic regions. In all settings, proximity to food stores/supermarkets, cost, and limited availability of healthful foods were common features, which limited access to health-promoting food options. Features specific to each population should be considered in an assessment of the food environment, including physical (e.g., openness of stores, mix of types of food sources); consumer (e.g., adequacy of the food supply, seasonal factors); and social (e.g., inter-household food sharing, perceptions of food quality, language differences) aspects. The food environments common in low-income ethnic subpopulations require special focus and consideration due to the vulnerability of the populations and to specific and unique aspects of each setting. PMID:19285208

  20. Aspects of Benthic Decapod Diversity and Distribution from Rocky Nearshore Habitat at Geographically Widely Dispersed Sites

    PubMed Central

    Pohle, Gerhard; Iken, Katrin; Clarke, K. Robert; Trott, Thomas; Konar, Brenda; Cruz-Motta, Juan José; Wong, Melisa; Benedetti-Cecchi, Lisandro; Mead, Angela; Miloslavich, Patricia; Mieszkowska, Nova; Milne, Rebecca; Tamburello, Laura; Knowlton, Ann; Kimani, Edward; Shirayama, Yoshihisa

    2011-01-01

    Relationships of diversity, distribution and abundance of benthic decapods in intertidal and shallow subtidal waters to 10 m depth are explored based on data obtained using a standardized protocol of globally-distributed samples. Results indicate that decapod species richness overall is low within the nearshore, typically ranging from one to six taxa per site (mean?=?4.5). Regionally the Gulf of Alaska decapod crustacean community structure was distinguishable by depth, multivariate analysis indicating increasing change with depth, where assemblages of the high and mid tide, low tide and 1 m, and 5 and 10 m strata formed three distinct groups. Univariate analysis showed species richness increasing from the high intertidal zone to 1 m subtidally, with distinct depth preferences among the 23 species. A similar depth trend but with peak richness at 5 m was observed when all global data were combined. Analysis of latitudinal trends, confined by data limitations, was equivocal on a global scale. While significant latitudinal differences existed in community structure among ecoregions, a semi-linear trend in changing community structure from the Arctic to lower latitudes did not hold when including tropical results. Among boreal regions the Canadian Atlantic was relatively species poor compared to the Gulf of Alaska, whereas the Caribbean and Sea of Japan appeared to be species hot spots. While species poor, samples from the Canadian Atlantic were the most diverse at the higher infraordinal level. Linking 11 environmental variables available for all sites to the best fit family-based biotic pattern showed a significant relationship, with the single best explanatory variable being the level of organic pollution and the best combination overall being organic pollution and primary productivity. While data limitations restrict conclusions in a global context, results are seen as a first-cut contribution useful in generating discussion and more in-depth work in the still poorly understood field of biodiversity distribution. PMID:21533220

  1. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF STRIGA AND IMPLICATIONS FOR CONTROL AND MODELING FUTURE DISTRIBUTIONS

    E-print Network

    Hammerton, James

    , and represents several generations of plant parasites.5 In addition crop breeders must cope with the diversityCHAPTER 6 GENETIC DIVERSITY OF STRIGA AND IMPLICATIONS FOR CONTROL AND MODELING FUTURE of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, USA. The current knowledge of genetic diversity of Striga asiatica, S. hermonthica

  2. Temporal Patterns of Ant Diversity across a Mountain with Climatically Contrasting Aspects in the Tropics of Africa

    PubMed Central

    Munyai, Thinandavha Caswell; Foord, Stefan Hendrik

    2015-01-01

    Factors that drive species richness over space and time are still poorly understood and are often context specific. Identifying these drivers for ant diversity has become particularly relevant within the context of contemporary global change events. We report on a long-term bi-annual (wet and dry seasons), standardized sampling of epigeal ants over a five year period on the mesic and arid aspects of an inselberg (Soutpansberg Mountain Range) in the tropics of Africa. We detail seasonal, annual and long-term trends of species density, test the relative contribution of geometric constraints, energy, available area, climate, local environmental variables, time, and space in explaining ant species density patterns through Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMM) where replicates were included as random factors to account for temporal pseudo-replication. Seasonal patterns were very variable and we found evidence of decreased seasonal variation in species density with increased elevation. The extent and significance of a decrease in species density with increased elevation varied with season. Annual patterns point to an increase in ant diversity over time. Ant density patterns were positively correlated with mean monthly temperature but geometric constraints dominated model performance while soil characteristics were minor correlates. These drivers and correlates accounted for all the spatio-temporal variability in the database. Ant diversity was therefore mainly determined by geometric constraints and temperature while soil characteristics (clay and carbon content) accounted for smaller but significant amounts of variation. This study documents the role of season, elevation and their interaction in affecting ant species densities while highlighting the importance of neutral processes and temperature in driving these patterns. PMID:25774670

  3. Weaving the Fabric of the Control Loop through Aspects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robrecht Haesevoets; Eddy Truyen; Tom Holvoet; Wouter Joosen

    2009-01-01

    \\u000a Self-adaptive systems are systems that are able to autonomously adapt to changing circumstances without human intervention.\\u000a A number of frameworks exist that can ease the design and development of such systems by providing a generic architecture\\u000a that can be reused across multiple application domains. In this paper, we study the applicability of aspect-oriented programming\\u000a (AOP) to see where and how

  4. Semiotic aspects of control and modeling relations in complex systems

    SciTech Connect

    Joslyn, C.

    1996-08-01

    A conceptual analysis of the semiotic nature of control is provided with the goal of elucidating its nature in complex systems. Control is identified as a canonical form of semiotic relation of a system to its environment. As a form of constraint between a system and its environment, its necessary and sufficient conditions are established, and the stabilities resulting from control are distinguished from other forms of stability. These result from the presence of semantic coding relations, and thus the class of control systems is hypothesized to be equivalent to that of semiotic systems. Control systems are contrasted with models, which, while they have the same measurement functions as control systems, do not necessarily require semantic relations because of the lack of the requirement of an interpreter. A hybrid construction of models in control systems is detailed. Towards the goal of considering the nature of control in complex systems, the possible relations among collections of control systems are considered. Powers arguments on conflict among control systems and the possible nature of control in social systems are reviewed, and reconsidered based on our observations about hierarchical control. Finally, we discuss the necessary semantic functions which must be present in complex systems for control in this sense to be present at all.

  5. Analysis of Anoxybacillus Genomes from the Aspects of Lifestyle Adaptations, Prophage Diversity, and Carbohydrate Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Kian Mau; Gan, Han Ming; Chan, Kok-Gan; Chan, Giek Far; Shahar, Saleha; Chong, Chun Shiong; Kahar, Ummirul Mukminin; Chai, Kian Piaw

    2014-01-01

    Species of Anoxybacillus are widespread in geothermal springs, manure, and milk-processing plants. The genus is composed of 22 species and two subspecies, but the relationship between its lifestyle and genome is little understood. In this study, two high-quality draft genomes were generated from Anoxybacillus spp. SK3-4 and DT3-1, isolated from Malaysian hot springs. De novo assembly and annotation were performed, followed by comparative genome analysis with the complete genome of Anoxybacillus flavithermus WK1 and two additional draft genomes, of A. flavithermus TNO-09.006 and A. kamchatkensis G10. The genomes of Anoxybacillus spp. are among the smaller of the family Bacillaceae. Despite having smaller genomes, their essential genes related to lifestyle adaptations at elevated temperature, extreme pH, and protection against ultraviolet are complete. Due to the presence of various competence proteins, Anoxybacillus spp. SK3-4 and DT3-1 are able to take up foreign DNA fragments, and some of these transferred genes are important for the survival of the cells. The analysis of intact putative prophage genomes shows that they are highly diversified. Based on the genome analysis using SEED, many of the annotated sequences are involved in carbohydrate metabolism. The presence of glycosyl hydrolases among the Anoxybacillus spp. was compared, and the potential applications of these unexplored enzymes are suggested here. This is the first study that compares Anoxybacillus genomes from the aspect of lifestyle adaptations, the capacity for horizontal gene transfer, and carbohydrate metabolism. PMID:24603481

  6. Analysis of anoxybacillus genomes from the aspects of lifestyle adaptations, prophage diversity, and carbohydrate metabolism.

    PubMed

    Goh, Kian Mau; Gan, Han Ming; Chan, Kok-Gan; Chan, Giek Far; Shahar, Saleha; Chong, Chun Shiong; Kahar, Ummirul Mukminin; Chai, Kian Piaw

    2014-01-01

    Species of Anoxybacillus are widespread in geothermal springs, manure, and milk-processing plants. The genus is composed of 22 species and two subspecies, but the relationship between its lifestyle and genome is little understood. In this study, two high-quality draft genomes were generated from Anoxybacillus spp. SK3-4 and DT3-1, isolated from Malaysian hot springs. De novo assembly and annotation were performed, followed by comparative genome analysis with the complete genome of Anoxybacillus flavithermus WK1 and two additional draft genomes, of A. flavithermus TNO-09.006 and A. kamchatkensis G10. The genomes of Anoxybacillus spp. are among the smaller of the family Bacillaceae. Despite having smaller genomes, their essential genes related to lifestyle adaptations at elevated temperature, extreme pH, and protection against ultraviolet are complete. Due to the presence of various competence proteins, Anoxybacillus spp. SK3-4 and DT3-1 are able to take up foreign DNA fragments, and some of these transferred genes are important for the survival of the cells. The analysis of intact putative prophage genomes shows that they are highly diversified. Based on the genome analysis using SEED, many of the annotated sequences are involved in carbohydrate metabolism. The presence of glycosyl hydrolases among the Anoxybacillus spp. was compared, and the potential applications of these unexplored enzymes are suggested here. This is the first study that compares Anoxybacillus genomes from the aspect of lifestyle adaptations, the capacity for horizontal gene transfer, and carbohydrate metabolism. PMID:24603481

  7. Self-Esteem, Locus of Control and Various Aspects of Psychopathology of Adults with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Paralikas, Theodosis; Barouti, Marialena; Chronopoulou, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The exploratory study presented in this article looks into the possible differences in psychosocial aspects (self-esteem and locus of control) and aspects of psychopathology (depression, anxiety, melancholia, asthenia, and mania) amongst sighted adults and adults with visual impairments. Moreover, the study aims to examine the possible…

  8. Pasture Condition Score Indicators: Controls on Plant and Forage Diversity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-NRCS Pasture Condition Score (PCS) system was developed for evaluating pastures and making management recommendations. Four of the ten rating criteria relate to plant species diversity and composition: percent desirable plants, plant cover, plant diversity, and percent legume. Baseline data...

  9. Quality control of nuclear fuels — technical and economic aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strasser, A. A.

    1982-04-01

    The qualification and resolution of questions relating to the cost benefit of quality control are based on the interaction of a broad range of technologies and economics. This paper discusses examples of current areas of interest in quality control, and their relationship to the fuel cycle costs.

  10. Control aspects of a compressor station for gas lift

    SciTech Connect

    Saadawi, H.

    1983-01-01

    The type and characteristics of the control system to be used for a centrifugal compressor station depend on several factors such as the compressor driver, process requirements, and the conditions under which the compressor will be operated. Designing a compressor control system for gas lift applications present different types of problems than those of conventional pipeline applications. This paper describes the control philosophy of a compressor station used for lifting water in a closed-rotative gas lift installation in Bu Hasa field, Abu Dhabi.

  11. Controls on development and diversity of Early Archean stromatolites

    E-print Network

    Grotzinger, John P.

    that covary with stromatolite morphology, linking morphologic diversity to changes in sedimentation, sea adapted to shifting environmental conditions in early oceans. microbe paleontology biosignature carbonate.43-Ga Strelley Pool For- mation, based on their morphology (1), morphological associations

  12. Some Aspects of the Probability Sampling Technique of Controlled Selection

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Irene; Srikantan, K. S.

    1966-01-01

    Data for the 1961 universe of nonfederal, short-term general medical hospitals in the United States are used to illustrate application of estimation and variance formulas for controlled selection, the probability sampling technique developed by Goodman and Kish. Some advantages of this sampling technique are discussed, and a controlled selection model is described. Comparisons are made between the variances of multiple stratification and those of controlled selection; the variances of the latter are seen to have two components, a between pattern and a within pattern component, where a pattern may be regarded as a first stage sample specifying the number of units to be drawn from each control cell. Three strategies for approximating the sampling variance are investigated. Each is seen to overestimate the per hospital estimate of bed capacity, admissions, and inpatient days, but to underestimate slightly the variance of average length of stay. The report that follows is believed to describe the first experience in programming controlled selection for an electronic computer. Steps in the preparatory work, whether for the manual or for the computer operation, are outlined. Some suggestions for continued program development are made. PMID:5915336

  13. The diversity donut: enabling participant control over the diversity of recommended responses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Wong; Siamak Faridani; Ephrat Bitton; Björn Hartmann; Kenneth Y. Goldberg

    2011-01-01

    Most online discussion interfaces organize textual responses using linear lists. Such lists do not scale to the number of responses and cannot convey the diversity of the participants who have contributed. The Opinion Space system is designed to address these issues. In this paper, we augment Opinion Space with two features. The first is a new user interface tool and

  14. Some aspects of doping and medication control in equine sports.

    PubMed

    Houghton, Ed; Maynard, Steve

    2010-01-01

    This chapter reviews drug and medication control in equestrian sports and addresses the rules of racing, the technological advances that have been made in drug detection and the importance of metabolism studies in the development of effective drug surveillance programmes. Typical approaches to screening and confirmatory analysis are discussed, as are the quality processes that underpin these procedures. The chapter also addresses four specific topics relevant to equestrian sports: substances controlled by threshold values, the approach adopted recently by European racing authorities to control some therapeutic substances, anabolic steroids in the horse and LC-MS analysis in drug testing in animal sports and metabolism studies. The purpose of discussing these specific topics is to emphasise the importance of research and development and collaboration to further global harmonisation and the development and support of international rules. PMID:20020374

  15. On the control aspect of laser frequency stabilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zia, Omar

    1991-01-01

    Realization of frequency stable lasers is viewed as key to progress in many areas of research; therefore, the search for more effective techniques of frequency stabilization has intensified significantly in recent years. Investigating and validating the fundamental linewidth and frequency stability limits of a Nd:YAG laser oscillator, locked to a high finesse reference cavity in the microgravity and vibration-free environment of space, is the objective of a NASA project called SUNLITE at LaRC. The objective of this paper is to further investigate the application of feedback control theory in active frequency control as a frequency stabilization technique and determine the most appropriate control strategy to be used in general and particularly in the SUNLITE Project.

  16. Molecular Aspects of Transport in Thin Films of Controlled Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Paul W. Bohn

    2009-04-16

    Our laboratory focuses on developing spatially localized chemistries which can produce structures of controlled architecture on the supermolecular length scale -- structures which allow us to control the motion of molecular species with high spatial resolution, ultimately on nanometer length scales. Specifically, nanocapillary array membranes (NCAMs) contain an array of nanometer diameter pores connecting vertically separated microfluidic channels. NCAMs can manipulate samples with sub-femtoliter characteristic volumes and attomole sample amounts and are opening the field of chemical analysis of mass-limited samples, because they are capable of digital control of fluid switching down to sub-attoliter volumes; extension of analytical “unit operations” down to sub-femtomole sample sizes; and exerting spatiotemporal control over fluid mixing to enable studies of reaction dynamics. Digital flow switching mediated by nanocapillary array membranes can be controlled by bias, ionic strength, or pore diameter and is being studied by observing the temporal characteristics of transport across a single nanopore in thin PMMA membranes. The control of flow via nanopore surface characteristics, charge density and functional group presentation, is being studied by coupled conductivity and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) measurements. Reactive mixing experiments previously established low millisecond mixing times for NCAM-mediated fluid transfer, and this has been exploited to demonstrate capture of mass-limited target species by Au colloids. Voltage and thermally-activated polymer switches have been developed for active control of transport in NCAMs. Thermally-switchable and size-selective transport was achieved by grafting poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) brushes onto the exterior surface of a Au-coated polycarbonate track-etched membrane, while the voltage-gated properties of poly(hydroxyethylmethacrylate) were characterized dynamically. Electrophoretic separations have been coupled to analyte sampling both by LIF and mass spectrometry. Detection of electrophoresis separation products by electrospray mass spectrometry was achieved through direct interfacing to an electrospray mass spectrometer. Pb(II) interactions with the DNAzyme have been realized in an NCAM-coupled integrated microfluidic structure allowing cation separations to be coupled to molecular beacon detection motifs for the determination of Pb(II) in an electroplating sludge reference material. By changing the DNAzyme to select for other compounds of interest, it is possible to incorporate multiple sensing systems within a single device, thereby achieving great flexibility.

  17. Control aspects of quantum computing using pure and mixed states

    PubMed Central

    Schulte-Herbrüggen, Thomas; Marx, Raimund; Fahmy, Amr; Kauffman, Louis; Lomonaco, Samuel; Khaneja, Navin; Glaser, Steffen J.

    2012-01-01

    Steering quantum dynamics such that the target states solve classically hard problems is paramount to quantum simulation and computation. And beyond, quantum control is also essential to pave the way to quantum technologies. Here, important control techniques are reviewed and presented in a unified frame covering quantum computational gate synthesis and spectroscopic state transfer alike. We emphasize that it does not matter whether the quantum states of interest are pure or not. While pure states underly the design of quantum circuits, ensemble mixtures of quantum states can be exploited in a more recent class of algorithms: it is illustrated by characterizing the Jones polynomial in order to distinguish between different (classes of) knots. Further applications include Josephson elements, cavity grids, ion traps and nitrogen vacancy centres in scenarios of closed as well as open quantum systems. PMID:22946034

  18. Aspects of droplet and particle size control in miniemulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saygi-Arslan, Oznur

    Miniemulsion polymerization has become increasingly popular among researchers since it can provide significant advantages over conventional emulsion polymerization in certain cases, such as production of high-solids, low-viscosity latexes with better stability and polymerization of highly water-insoluble monomers. Miniemulsions are relatively stable oil (e.g., monomer) droplets, which can range in size from 50 to 500 nm, and are normally dispersed in an aqueous phase with the aid of a surfactant and a costabilizer. These droplets are the primary locus of the initiation of the polymerization reaction. Since particle formation takes place in the monomer droplets, theoretically, in miniemulsion systems the final particle size can be controlled by the initial droplet size. The miniemulsion preparation process typically generates broad droplet size distributions and there is no complete treatment in the literature regarding the control of the mean droplet size or size distribution. This research aims to control the miniemulsion droplet size and its distribution. In situ emulsification, where the surfactant is synthesized spontaneously at the oil/water interface, has been put forth as a simpler method for the preparation of miniemulsions-like systems. Using the in situ method of preparation, emulsion stability and droplet and particle sizes were monitored and compared with conventional emulsions and miniemulsions. Styrene emulsions prepared by the in situ method do not demonstrate the stability of a comparable miniemulsion. Upon polymerization, the final particle size generated from the in situ emulsion did not differ significantly from the comparable conventional emulsion polymerization; the reaction mechanism for in situ emulsions is more like conventional emulsion polymerization rather than miniemulsion polymerization. Similar results were found when the in situ method was applied to controlled free radical polymerizations (CFRP), which have been advanced as a potential application of the method. Molecular weight control was found to be achieved via diffusion of the CFRP agents through the aqueous phase owing to limited water solubilities. The effects of adsorption rate and energy on the droplet size and size distribution of miniemulsions using different surfactants (sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS), Dowfax 2A1, Aerosol OT-75PG, sodium n-octyl sulfate (SOS), and sodium n-hexadecyl sulfate (SHS)) were analyzed. For this purpose, first, the dynamics of surfactant adsorption at an oil/water interface were examined over a range of surfactant concentrations by the drop volume method and then adsorption rates of the different surfactants were determined for the early stages of adsorption. The results do not show a direct relationship between adsorption rate and miniemulsion droplet size and size distribution. Adsorption energies of these surfactants were also calculated by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm equation and no correlation between adsorption energy and miniemulsion droplet size was found. In order to understand the mechanism of miniemulsification process, the effects of breakage and coalescence processes on droplet size distributions were observed at different surfactant concentrations, monomer ratios, and homogenization conditions. A coalescence and breakup mechanism for miniemulsification is proposed to explain the size distribution of droplets. The multimodal droplet size distribution of ODMA miniemulsions was controlled by the breakage mechanism. The results also showed that, at a surfactant concentration when 100% surface coverage was obtained, the droplet size distribution became unimodal.

  19. Diversity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Albion Middle School Library--Mrs. Bates

    2007-01-25

    Look at the following resources to find information about diversity. Use your information to complete the assignment for your class. CIVIL RIGHTS Civil Rights Era Civil Rights Timeline JIM CROW LAWS AND SEGREGATION The Rise and Fall of Jim Crow Jim Crow and Segregation MARTIN LUTHER KING Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Biography Dr. Martin Luther King: I Have a Dream ROSA PARKS Rosa Parks: The Woman Who Changed a Nation Rosa Parks Biography EMMETT TILL The Murder of Emmett Till About African American History: The Biography of Emmett Till THE LITTLE ROCK 9 Little Rock 9 The 1957-1958 School Year School Integration in Little Rock, Arkansas MONTGOMERY BUS BOYCOTT Montgomery Bus Boycott They Changed the World: The Story of the Montgomery Bus Boycott Montgomery Bus Boycott FREEDOM RIDES Freedom Rides SNCC: Freedom Rides WOMEN'S RIGHTS Women s Rights Movement in the US--Timeline Women s Rights: National Historic Park History of the Equal Rights Amendment JAPANESE INTERNMENT Topaz Museum Japanese Relocation Photographs TRAIL OF TEARS Trail of Tears Trail of Tears Era HOLOCAUST Holocaust Encyclopedia The History Place: Holocaust Timeline Holocaust History Project ...

  20. [Patient-controlled analgesia in cancer pain: practical aspects].

    PubMed

    Lakdja, F; Parienté, F; Cros, P; Dutin, V; Lobera, A; Monnin, D; Roubault, N; Thonnier, C

    1995-01-01

    Allowing a suffering patient with cancer to control his pain is a challenge that numerous medical teams intend to take up. Although the best treatment is the etiologic one, in many situations the symptomatic and adjuvant therapies are both indispensable. Among them, the patient controlled analgesia (PCA) is a concept referring to the management of the pain, but also to the administration of some analgesic drugs. Even with genuine advantages the limits of the PCA do exist and need to be well known. PCA is not limited to palliative treatment; it can be used in many circonstances during each evolutionary step of the cancer, temporarily or for longer periods, at the hospital and at home as well. All patients disposing of such an equiment could determine their own best level of analgesia, at the good time, depending upon the temporal variability of the pain and its previsibility or not. The availability and the pedagogic concern of the members of the team, the link between the patient and his family, the involvement of both the regular general practioner and the "algologic" team are essential to maintain the best effects of this method. PMID:8745652

  1. Prokaryotic Diversity-Magnitude, Dynamics, and Controlling Factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vigdis Torsvik; Lise Øvreås; Tron Frede Thingstad

    2002-01-01

    There are probably millions of species in the microorganismal domains Bacteria and Archaea (the prokaryotes), and we are only just beginning to work out the basic principles governing their distribution and abundance in natural environments. One characteristic that has become clear is that prokaryote diversity in aquatic environments is orders of magnitude less than in sediments and soils. Hypotheses and

  2. Angiogenesis: new aspects relating to its initiation and control.

    PubMed

    Norrby, K

    1997-06-01

    Angiogenesis, the formation of new microvessels from parent microvessels, involves remodeling the basement membrane and interstitial extracellular matrix (ECM) using degrading proteases produced by the endothelial cells (ECs) and other adjacent cells, and the synthesis of ECM molecules by these cells. Degraded ECM releases previously bound heparin-binding cytokines (and growth factors) which are able to act as ligands to high-affinity receptors on various target cells, including ECs. The EC carries receptors for a number of cytokines which are produced by neighboring cells or released from the ECM and which can either induce or suppress the angiogenic phenotype of the EC. ECs are able to synthesize and secrete cytokines with auto- and paracrine effects. Angiogenesis, which virtually never occurs physiologically in adult tissues (except in the ovary, the endometrium and the placenta), is essential in wound healing and inflammation. Angiogenesis is, in fact, strictly controlled by a redundancy of pro- and anti-angiogenic paracrine peptide molecules, some of which have recently been described. The expression and synthesis of two distinct anti-angiogenic factors is, for example, controlled by the p53 tumor suppressor gene. In certain hypoxic conditions, chronic inflammatory diseases and syndromes, angiogenesis is of pathogenic and prognostic significance. Angiogenesis is, moreover, essential for the growth and metastatic spread of solid tumors. This indicates the potential for developing new therapeutic strategies not only for tumors but also in diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, liver cirrhosis and diabetic retinopathy. Moreover, the therapeutic induction of angiogenesis in ischemic tissues using recombinant cytokines is also promising for clinical application. In fact, the first successful human gene therapy for stimulating angiogenesis has recently been reported. PMID:9236859

  3. Community Diversity: Controls and Patterns What is biodiversity and why is it important?

    E-print Network

    Hansen, Andrew J.

    ... variables in 82 of 85 cases", Hawkins et al. 2003. Factors Influencing Biodiversity Ecosystem Energy #12;Net Influencing Biodiversity Ecosystem Energy #12;FactorCommunity Diversity: Controls and Patterns Topics · What is biodiversity and why is it important

  4. Algorithmic aspects of topology control problems for ad hoc networks

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, R. (Rui); Lloyd, E. L. (Errol L.); Marathe, M. V. (Madhav V.); Ramanathan, R. (Ram); Ravi, S. S.

    2002-01-01

    Topology control problems are concerned with the assignment of power values to nodes of an ad hoc network so that the power assignment leads to a graph topology satisfying some specified properties. This paper considers such problems under several optimization objectives, including minimizing the maximum power and minimizing the total power. A general approach leading to a polynomial algorithm is presented for minimizing maximum power for a class of graph properties, called monotone properties. The difficulty of generalizing the approach to properties that are not monoione is pointed out. Problems involving the minimization of total power are known to be NP-complete even for simple graph properties. A general approach that leads to an approximation algorithm for minimizing the total power for some monotone properties is presented. Using this approach, a new approximation algorithm for the problem of minimizing the total power for obtaining a 2-node-connected graph is obtained. It is shown that this algorithm provides a constant performance guarantee. Experimental results from an implementation of the approximation algorithm are also presented.

  5. APPETITE CONTROL: METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE EVALUATION OF FOODS

    PubMed Central

    Blundell, John; de Graaf, Cees; Hulshof, Toine; Jebb, Susan; Livingstone, Barbara; Lluch, Anne; Mela, David; Salah, Samir; Schuring, Ewoud; van der Knaap, Henk; Westerterp, Margriet

    2013-01-01

    This report describes a set of scientific procedures used to assess the impact of foods and food ingredients on the expression of appetite (psychological and behavioural). An overarching priority has been to enable potential evaluators of health claims about foods to identify justified claims, and to exclude claims that are not supported by scientific evidence for the effect cited. This priority follows precisely from the principles set down in the PASSCLAIM report. (4) The report allows the evaluation of the strength of health claims, about the effects of foods on appetite, which can be sustained on the basis of the commonly used scientific designs and experimental procedures. The report includes different designs for assessing effects on satiation as opposed to satiety,detailed coverage of the extent to which a change in hunger can stand-alone as a measure of appetite control, and an extensive discussion of the statistical procedures appropriate for handling data in this field of research. Since research in this area is continually evolving, new improved methodologies may emerge over time and will need to be incorporated into the framework. One main objective of the report has been to produce guidance on good practice in carrying out appetite research, and not to set down a series of commandments that must be followed. PMID:20122136

  6. Phytoplankton species diversity control through competitive exclusion and physical disturbances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. David Hambright; Tamar Zohary

    2000-01-01

    Abstract Competitive exclusion theory suggests that phytoplankton,species number,in an assemblage,at equilibrium will be limited to the number of simultaneously limiting resources, generally three or fewer. However, natural phyto- plankton assemblages usually exhibit high species diversity, hence the concept of Hutchinson’s ‘‘paradox of the plankton.’’ Recent works,have suggested,that this apparent,paradox,is a result of disturbances intermediate in frequency,relative to the time period

  7. biologists is to separate the normative aspect of their work (preventing extinction and conserving diversity) from the

    E-print Network

    Harms, Kyle E.

    ­1547 � 2011 by the Ecological Society of America Tropical rain forest ecology Ghazoul, Jaboury, and Douglas Sheil. 2010. Tropical rain forest ecology, diversity, and conservation. Oxford University Press://www.ots.ac.cr). Tropical rain forest ecology, diversity, and conservation is just the book that the students who take

  8. Humboldt's spa: microbial diversity is controlled by temperature in geothermal environments.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Christine E; Brady, Allyson L; Sharp, Glen H; Grasby, Stephen E; Stott, Matthew B; Dunfield, Peter F

    2014-06-01

    Over 200 years ago Alexander von Humboldt (1808) observed that plant and animal diversity peaks at tropical latitudes and decreases toward the poles, a trend he attributed to more favorable temperatures in the tropics. Studies to date suggest that this temperature-diversity gradient is weak or nonexistent for Bacteria and Archaea. To test the impacts of temperature as well as pH on bacterial and archaeal diversity, we performed pyrotag sequencing of 16S rRNA genes retrieved from 165 soil, sediment and biomat samples of 36 geothermal areas in Canada and New Zealand, covering a temperature range of 7.5-99?°C and a pH range of 1.8-9.0. This represents the widest ranges of temperature and pH yet examined in a single microbial diversity study. Species richness and diversity indices were strongly correlated to temperature, with R(2) values up to 0.62 for neutral-alkaline springs. The distributions were unimodal, with peak diversity at 24?°C and decreasing diversity at higher and lower temperature extremes. There was also a significant pH effect on diversity; however, in contrast to previous studies of soil microbial diversity, pH explained less of the variability (13-20%) than temperature in the geothermal samples. No correlation was observed between diversity values and latitude from the equator, and we therefore infer a direct temperature effect in our data set. These results demonstrate that temperature exerts a strong control on microbial diversity when considered over most of the temperature range within which life is possible. PMID:24430481

  9. Oceanographic controls on the diversity and extinction of planktonic foraminifera.

    PubMed

    Peters, Shanan E; Kelly, Daniel C; Fraass, Andrew J

    2013-01-17

    Understanding the links between long-term biological evolution, the ocean-atmosphere system and plate tectonics is a central goal of Earth science. Although environmental perturbations of many different kinds are known to have affected long-term biological evolution, particularly during major mass extinction events, the relative importance of physical environmental factors versus biological interactions in governing rates of extinction and origination through geological time remains unknown. Here we use macrostratigraphic data from the Atlantic Ocean basin to show that changes in global species diversity and rates of extinction among planktonic foraminifera have been linked to tectonically and climatically forced changes in ocean circulation and chemistry from the Jurassic period to the present. Transient environmental perturbations, such as those that occurred after the asteroid impact at the end of the Cretaceous period approximately 66 million years ago, and the Eocene/Oligocene greenhouse-icehouse transition approximately 34 million years ago, are superimposed on this general long-term relationship. Rates of species origination, by contrast, are not correlated with corresponding macrostratigraphic quantities, indicating that physiochemical changes in the ocean-atmosphere system affect evolution principally by driving the synchronous extinction of lineages that originated owing to more protracted and complex interactions between biological and environmental factors. PMID:23302802

  10. Initial Performance of the Attitude Control and Aspect Determination Subsystems on the Chandra Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, R.; Aldcroft, T.; Podgorski, W. A.; Freeman, M. D.

    2000-01-01

    The aspect determination system of the Chandra X-ray Observatory plays a key role in realizing the full potential of Chandra's X-ray optics and detectors. We review the performance of the spacecraft hardware components and sub-systems, which provide information for both real time control of the attitude and attitude stability of the Chandra Observatory and also for more accurate post-facto attitude reconstruction. These flight components are comprised of the aspect camera (star tracker) and inertial reference units (gyros), plus the fiducial lights and fiducial transfer optics which provide an alignment null reference system for the science instruments and X-ray optics, together with associated thermal and structural components. Key performance measures will be presented for aspect camera focal plane data, gyro performance both during stable pointing and during maneuvers, alignment stability and mechanism repeatability.

  11. Activity-Dependent Signaling Pathways Controlling Muscle Diversity and Plasticity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Marco Sandri (Venetian Institute of Molecular Medicine)

    2007-08-01

    A variety of fiber types with different contractile and metabolic properties is present in mammalian skeletal muscle. The fiber-type profile is controlled by nerve activity via specific signaling pathways, whose identification may provide potential therapeutic targets for the prevention and treatment of metabolic and neuromuscular diseases.

  12. Hierarchical controls on patterns of habitat and species diversity in river networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Beechie; G. Pess

    2007-01-01

    Patterns of habitat heterogeneity and species diversity in river networks are constrained by a nested hierarchy of physical controls. Large-scale, long-term controls set bounds for habitat and biological expression, whereas short-term and smaller-scale processes determine conditions at a point in time. At the river basin scale, geologic and topographic controls constrain reach attributes such as channel slope and channel confinement,

  13. Self-Adaptation Mechanism to Control the Diversity of the Population in Genetic Algorithm

    E-print Network

    Jassadapakorn, Chaiwat; 10.5121/ijcsit.2011.3409

    2011-01-01

    One of the problems in applying Genetic Algorithm is that there is some situation where the evolutionary process converges too fast to a solution which causes it to be trapped in local optima. To overcome this problem, a proper diversity in the candidate solutions must be determined. Most existing diversity-maintenance mechanisms require a problem specific knowledge to setup parameters properly. This work proposes a method to control diversity of the population without explicit parameter setting. A self-adaptation mechanism is proposed based on the competition of preference characteristic in mating. It can adapt the population toward proper diversity for the problems. The experiments are carried out to measure the effectiveness of the proposed method based on nine well-known test problems. The performance of the adaptive method is comparable to traditional Genetic Algorithm with the best parameter setting.

  14. Biodiversity in riverbank techniques for erosion control: assessment of animal and plant species diversity along a natural gradient.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    : assessment of animal and plant species diversity along a naturality gradient. 7th SER European Conference and ecological succession processes. We compared plant species diversity and animal taxonomic diversity aboveBiodiversity in riverbank techniques for erosion control: assessment of animal and plant species

  15. Snail coordinately regulates downstream pathways to control multiple aspects of mammalian neural precursor development.

    PubMed

    Zander, Mark A; Burns, Sarah E; Yang, Guang; Kaplan, David R; Miller, Freda D

    2014-04-01

    The Snail transcription factor plays a key role in regulating diverse developmental processes but is not thought to play a role in mammalian neural precursors. Here, we have examined radial glial precursor cells of the embryonic murine cortex and demonstrate that Snail regulates their survival, self-renewal, and differentiation into intermediate progenitors and neurons via two distinct and separable target pathways. First, Snail promotes cell survival by antagonizing a p53-dependent death pathway because coincident p53 knockdown rescues survival deficits caused by Snail knockdown. Second, we show that the cell cycle phosphatase Cdc25b is regulated by Snail in radial precursors and that Cdc25b coexpression is sufficient to rescue the decreased radial precursor proliferation and differentiation observed upon Snail knockdown. Thus, Snail acts via p53 and Cdc25b to coordinately regulate multiple aspects of mammalian embryonic neural precursor biology. PMID:24719096

  16. Snail Coordinately Regulates Downstream Pathways to Control Multiple Aspects of Mammalian Neural Precursor Development

    PubMed Central

    Zander, Mark A.; Burns, Sarah E.; Yang, Guang; Kaplan, David R.

    2014-01-01

    The Snail transcription factor plays a key role in regulating diverse developmental processes but is not thought to play a role in mammalian neural precursors. Here, we have examined radial glial precursor cells of the embryonic murine cortex and demonstrate that Snail regulates their survival, self-renewal, and differentiation into intermediate progenitors and neurons via two distinct and separable target pathways. First, Snail promotes cell survival by antagonizing a p53-dependent death pathway because coincident p53 knockdown rescues survival deficits caused by Snail knockdown. Second, we show that the cell cycle phosphatase Cdc25b is regulated by Snail in radial precursors and that Cdc25b coexpression is sufficient to rescue the decreased radial precursor proliferation and differentiation observed upon Snail knockdown. Thus, Snail acts via p53 and Cdc25b to coordinately regulate multiple aspects of mammalian embryonic neural precursor biology. PMID:24719096

  17. Nutritional and cultural aspects of plant species selection for a controlled ecological life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoff, J. E.; Howe, J. M.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of using higher plants in a controlled ecological life support system is discussed. Aspects of this system considered important in the use of higher plants include: limited energy, space, and mass, and problems relating to cultivation and management of plants, food processing, the psychological impact of vegetarian diets, and plant propagation. A total of 115 higher plant species are compared based on 21 selection criteria.

  18. Operational and research aspects of a radio-controlled model flight test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budd, Gerald D.; Gilman, Ronald L.; Eichstedt, David

    1993-01-01

    The operational and research aspects of a subscale, radio-controlled model flight test program are presented. By using low-cost free-flying models, an approach was developed for obtaining research-quality vehicle performance and aerodynamic information. The advantages and limitations learned by applying this approach to a specific flight test program are described. The research quality of the data acquired shows that model flight testing is practical for obtaining consistent and repeatable flight data.

  19. Aspects of pathogen genomics, diversity, epidemiology, vector dynamics and disease management for a newly emerged disease of potato: Zebra Chip

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An overview is provided for the aspects of history, biology, genomics, genetics and epidemiology of zebra chip (ZC), a destructive disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) that represents a major threat to potato industries in the US as well as other potato production regions in the world. The dise...

  20. Host and parasite diversity jointly control disease risk in complex communities

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Pieter

    Host and parasite diversity jointly control disease risk in complex communities Pieter T. J, Berkeley, CA, and approved September 10, 2013 (received for review June 3, 2013) Host­parasite interactions parasites. To date, however, surprisingly few studies have explored the joint effects of host and parasite

  1. Explicit Control of Diversity and Effective Variation Distance in Linear Genetic Programming

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    algorithms like evolution strategies (ES), genetic programming (GP) may fulfill the principle of strongExplicit Control of Diversity and Effective Variation Distance in Linear Genetic Programming Markus distance metrics for linear genetic pro- grams. Causal connections between changes of the genotype

  2. Treg Cells, Life History, and Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Benoist, Christophe; Mathis, Diane

    2012-01-01

    Regulatory T cells expressing the FoxP3 transcription factor have a profound and nonredundant role in several aspects of immunological tolerance. We will review here the specification of this lineage, its population dynamics, and the diversity of subphenotypes that correlate with their diverse roles in controlling inflammation in a variety of settings. PMID:22952391

  3. Evolution and diversity of subduction zones controlled by slab width.

    PubMed

    Schellart, W P; Freeman, J; Stegman, D R; Moresi, L; May, D

    2007-03-15

    Subducting slabs provide the main driving force for plate motion and flow in the Earth's mantle, and geodynamic, seismic and geochemical studies offer insight into slab dynamics and subduction-induced flow. Most previous geodynamic studies treat subduction zones as either infinite in trench-parallel extent (that is, two-dimensional) or finite in width but fixed in space. Subduction zones and their associated slabs are, however, limited in lateral extent (250-7,400 km) and their three-dimensional geometry evolves over time. Here we show that slab width controls two first-order features of plate tectonics-the curvature of subduction zones and their tendency to retreat backwards with time. Using three-dimensional numerical simulations of free subduction, we show that trench migration rate is inversely related to slab width and depends on proximity to a lateral slab edge. These results are consistent with retreat velocities observed globally, with maximum velocities (6-16 cm yr(-1)) only observed close to slab edges (<1,200 km), whereas far from edges (>2,000 km) retreat velocities are always slow (<2.0 cm yr(-1)). Models with narrow slabs (< or =1,500 km) retreat fast and develop a curved geometry, concave towards the mantle wedge side. Models with slabs intermediate in width ( approximately 2,000-3,000 km) are sublinear and retreat more slowly. Models with wide slabs (> or =4,000 km) are nearly stationary in the centre and develop a convex geometry, whereas trench retreat increases towards concave-shaped edges. Additionally, we identify periods (5-10 Myr) of slow trench advance at the centre of wide slabs. Such wide-slab behaviour may explain mountain building in the central Andes, as being a consequence of its tectonic setting, far from slab edges. PMID:17361181

  4. The importance of control populations for the identification and management of genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Bouzat, J L

    2000-01-01

    A fundamental criterion for recognizing species or populations as potentially endangered is the presence/absence of genetic diversity. However, the lack of control populations in many studies of natural systems deprives one from unambiguous criteria for evaluating the genetic effects of small population size and its potential effects on fitness. In this study, I present an example of how the lack of adequate controls may lead to erroneous conclusions for understanding the role that population size may play in the preservation of genetic diversity and fitness of natural populations. The genetic analysis of a population of greater prairie chickens from Illinois, USA, between two time periods (1974-1987 and 1988-1993) in which the studied population experienced a substantial reduction in size and fitness showed no apparent associations between population size and genetic diversity. However, genetic analysis of museum specimens from early this century indicated that Illinois prairie chickens had originally higher levels of genetic diversity, which suggest the Illinois population was already bottlenecked by the 1970s. This study emphasizes the importance of using historical controls to evaluate the temporal dynamics of genetic variability in natural populations. The large number of museum collections worldwide may provide a valuable source of genetic information from past populations, particularly in species currently endangered as a result of human activities. PMID:11678501

  5. Active Flow Control on Low-Aspect Ratio, Low-Reynolds Number Airfoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munson, Matthew; Kim, Daegyoum; Dickson, William; Gharib, Morteza

    2008-11-01

    Insect flight observations show high-lift mechanisms that rely on leading-edge vortex stabilization. These processes are intimately coupled to the flapping motion of the insect wing. In fixed wing applications, suitable for micro-air vehicles, active flow control may be capable of providing similar influence over vortex formation and stabilization. Steady and pulsed mass injection strategies are used to explore the open-loop response of both the evolution of the flow structures and the forces experienced by the wing. Flow structures will be quantitatively visualized using Defocused Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (DDPIV) and forces measured via a six-axis balance. Insect flight typically occurs at Reynolds numbers of 10^2 to 10^4, and aspect ratios near three. For this investigation, Reynolds numbers are approximately 10^3. The airfoil models are NACA 0012 profiles with aspect ratio two.

  6. The Influence of Positive Mood on Different Aspects of Cognitive Control

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Elizabeth A.; Kerns, John G.

    2010-01-01

    Some evidence suggests that positive mood influences cognitive control. The current research investigated whether positive mood has differential effects on two aspects of cognitive control, working memory and prepotent response inhibition. In Study 1, following either a positive or neutral mood induction, participants completed the Running Memory Span (RMS), a measure primarily of working memory storage capacity, and the Stroop task, a measure of prepotent response inhibition. Results were that the positive mood group performed worse on the RMS task but not on the Stroop task. In Study 2, participants completed the RMS and another measure of prepotent response inhibition, the Flanker task. Results were that when in a positive mood state participants performed worse on the RMS but not on the Flanker task. Overall, this research suggests that positive mood has differential effects on cognitive control, impairing working memory but having no effect on prepotent response inhibition. PMID:21399720

  7. Legal aspects of public health: difficulties in controlling vector-borne and zoonotic diseases in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Marcílio S; de Moraes, Josué

    2014-11-01

    In recent years, vector-borne and zoonotic diseases have become a major challenge for public health. Dengue fever and leptospirosis are the most important communicable diseases in Brazil based on their prevalence and the healthy life years lost from disability. The primary strategy for preventing human exposure to these diseases is effective insect and rodent control in and around the home. However, health authorities have difficulties in controlling vector-borne and zoonotic diseases because residents often refuse access to their homes. This study discusses aspects related to the activities performed by Brazilian health authorities to combat vector-borne and zoonotic diseases, particularly difficulties in relation to the legal aspect, which often impede the quick and effective actions of these professionals. How might it be possible to reconcile the need to preserve public health and the rule on the inviolability of the home, especially in the case of abandoned properties or illegal residents and the refusal of residents to allow the health authority access? Do residents have the right to hinder the performance of health workers even in the face of a significant and visible focus of disease transmission? This paper argues that a comprehensive legal plan aimed at the control of invasive vector-borne and zoonotic diseases including synanthropic animals of public health importance should be considered. In addition, this paper aims to bridge the gap between lawyers and public health professionals and to facilitate communication between them. PMID:25051187

  8. Post-Doc en contr^ole applique `a la biologie : aspects theorique et numerique

    E-print Network

    d'Orléans, Université

    Post-Doc en contr^ole appliqu´e `a la biologie : aspects th´eorique et num´erique L'objet de ce post-doc est l'´etude th´eorique et num´erique de syst`emes de r´eaction-diffusion qui interviennent'impl´ementer des m´ethodes d'approximation de ces syst`emes contr^ol´es. Ce post-doc s'effectuera dans le cadre du

  9. Control Aspects of the Brushless Doubly-Fed Machine : Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Lauw, Hian K.; Krishnan, Sheela

    1990-09-01

    This report covers the investigations into the control aspects of a variable-speed generation (VSG) system using a brushless double-fed generator excited by a series-resonant converter. The brushless double-fed machine comprises two sets of stator 3-phase systems which are designed with common windings. The rotor is a cage rotor resembling the low-cost and robust squirrel cage of a conventional induction machine. The system was actually designed and set up in the Energy Laboratory of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Oregon State University. The series-resonant converter designed to achieve effective control for variable-speed generation with the brushless doubly-fed generator was adequate in terms of required time response and regulation as well as in providing for adequate power quality. The three elements of the VSG controller, i.e., voltage or reactive power controller, the efficiency maximizer and the stabilizer, could be designed using conventional microprocessor elements with a processing time well within the time period required for sampling the variables involved with executing the control tasks. The report treats in detail the stability problem encountered in running the machine at certain speed regions, even if requirements for steady-state stability are satisfied. In this unstable region, shut down of the VSG system is necessary unless proper stabilization controls are provided for. The associated measures to be taken are presented. 10 refs., 24 figs.

  10. Optical communication through the turbulent atmosphere with transmitter and receiver diversity, wavefront control, and coherent detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puryear, Andrew L.; Chan, Vincent W. S.

    2009-08-01

    Net-centric warfare in todays dynamically changing military environments and the need for low-cost gigabit intra-city communication present severe challenges for current free-space optical systems. Enabled by high-speed electronics and advances in wavefront control, we develop an architecture that provides free-space coherent optical links with information capacity, security, network robustness and power management performance that exceed the current state-of-the-art, including commercially deployed systems, R&D test-beds, and alternative theoretical architectures proposed. The deleterious effects of the turbulent atmosphere are mitigated with several diversity transmitters and receivers. We allow the phase and the amplitude of each transmitter to be controlled independently and assume, through coherent detection, that the phase and amplitude of the received wave is measured. Thus we can optimally allocate transmit power into the diffraction modes with the smallest propagation losses to increase channel capacity and mitigate turbulence-induced outages. Additionally, spatial mode modulation and rejection provides robust communication in the presence of denial of service via interference by adversaries with a priori knowledge of the system architecture. Some possible implementations of this system are described. New results, including asymptotic singular value distribution, expected bit error rate, interference performance, and performance in the presence of inhomogeneous turbulence, are given. Finally, performance of this system is compared with the performance of optical diversity systems without wavefront control and optical systems without diversity, both current state-of-the-art systems.

  11. Predator diversity stabilizes and strengthens trophic control of a keystone grazer

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, John N.; Silliman, Brian R.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the global vulnerability of predators to extinction, and the critical functional role they play in many ecosystems, there have been few realistic tests of the consequences of predator species deletion (conversely, predator diversity) in natural ecosystems. We performed a four-month field experiment in a southeastern United States salt marsh to test the role of predatory crab diversity in regulating populations of a keystone grazer that can decimate marsh vegetation at high densities. Our results revealed that a combination of this system's two resident predator species, in comparison to individual species, both stabilize and strengthen predation rates on the potent grazer. Monthly monitoring of predation rates from intense, hot summer months into the cooler autumn indicate this diversity benefit arises from predators responding differentially to changing environmental conditions across seasons. This study provides some of the first experimental field support for the insurance hypothesis from marine ecosystems, suggests that predator temporal complementarity may be more common than currently perceived, and argues for conservation of predator diversity to ensure reliable and effective control of potentially habitat-destroying grazers. PMID:20739314

  12. Microbial mat controls on infaunal abundance and diversity in modern marine microbialites.

    PubMed

    Tarhan, L G; Planavsky, N J; Laumer, C E; Stolz, J F; Reid, R P

    2013-09-01

    Microbialites are the most abundant macrofossils of the Precambrian. Decline in microbialite abundance and diversity during the terminal Proterozoic and early Phanerozoic has historically been attributed to the concurrent radiation of complex metazoans. Similarly, the apparent resurgence of microbialites in the wake of Paleozoic and Mesozoic mass extinctions is frequently linked to drastic declines in metazoan diversity and abundance. However, it has become increasing clear that microbialites are relatively common in certain modern shallow, normal marine carbonate environments-foremost the Bahamas. For the first time, we present data, collected from the Exuma Cays, the Bahamas, systematically characterizing the relationship between framework-building cyanobacteria, microbialite fabrics, and microbialite-associated metazoan abundance and diversity. We document the coexistence of diverse microbialite and infaunal metazoan communities and demonstrate that the predominant control upon both microbialite fabric and metazoan community structure is microbial mat type. These findings necessitate that we rethink prevalent interpretations of microbialite-metazoan interactions and imply that microbialites are not passive recipients of metazoan-mediated alteration. Additionally, this work provides support for the theory that certain Precambrian microbialites may have been havens of early complex metazoan life, rather than bereft of metazoans, as has been traditionally envisaged. PMID:23889904

  13. Genetic diversity analysis of Arius manillensis (Siluriformes: Ariidae) using the mitochondrial control region.

    PubMed

    Santos, Brian S; Quilang, Jonas P

    2012-04-01

    Arius manillensis is a Philippine endemic species and is an economically important fishery resource in Laguna de Bay, the largest lake in the country. Drastic reduction in population sizes of A. manillensis has been recorded in the past, which may have resulted in genetic bottleneck. In this study, the genetic diversity and population structure of A. manillensis in Laguna de Bay were assessed using the mitochondrial DNA control region. Specimens were obtained from three localities along Laguna de Bay, namely Binangonan (n = 27), Tanay (n = 29), and Calamba (n = 30). Of the 86 DNA sequences generated, 22 distinct haplotypes were observed. There were four unique haplotypes for Binangonan, six for Calamba, and five for Tanay. There were two haplotypes common to the three sites. The maximum likelihood tree and median-joining network showed little geographic separation among the haplotypes. Chi-square test showed no significant differentiation in A. manillensis from the three sites. The overall computed F(ST) was 0.0144, indicating small genetic differentiation in A. manillensis from the three localities sampled. Likewise, analysis of molecular variance showed a greater percentage of variation within population (98.62%) than variation among populations (1.38%; P = 0.21). Total haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity among the specimens from the three sites were 0.775 and 0.013, respectively. The high haplotype diversity coupled with low nucleotide diversity observed in this study confirms that genetic bottleneck occurred in A. manillensis which was followed by population expansion. This is also supported by the non-significant values for both Tajima's D and Fu's F. Furthermore, multimodal mismatch distribution plots were generated, which is consistent with the model of spatial range expansion followed by demographic expansion. PMID:22409748

  14. Evaluating controls on the aspect dependence of earthflows in the central California Coast Ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nereson, A. L.; Finnegan, N. J.; Booth, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    Earthflows are an important mass-wasting process in many mountainous landscapes. In addition to radically changing the fabric of the landscape and damaging man-made infrastructure, earthflows deliver, for their area, a disproportionately large sediment load to rivers. In California, earthflows are typically restricted to clay-rich and mechanically-weak lithologies, such as the Franciscan mélange. In addition, several studies have observed that earthflows in California favor south-facing slopes, even in settings with spatially-uniform lithology. This fundamental observation remains largely unexplained under the current understanding of earthflow behavior. Here, we evaluate the controls on the aspect dependence of earthflows in the Alameda Creek watershed near Fremont, California, where many large, but relatively inactive earthflows are observed in the Franciscan mélange. We first apply spectral analysis to LiDAR-derived digital elevation models to objectively map the topographic signature of landslides and determine the degree of aspect dependence. We then explore several hypotheses that can explain our observation that earthflows tend to form on south-facing slopes, including: (1) lack of dense vegetation and trees with slope-stabilizing root systems on south-facing slopes; (2) higher pore fluid pressures due to relatively lower rates of evapotranspiration on sparsely vegetated south-facing slopes; (3) increased dessication and/or deformation cracking on south-facing earthflow surfaces, creating fast-flow pathways into the interior of landslides.

  15. Cyber-physical geographical information service-enabled control of diverse in-situ sensors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nengcheng; Xiao, Changjiang; Pu, Fangling; Wang, Xiaolei; Wang, Chao; Wang, Zhili; Gong, Jianya

    2015-01-01

    Realization of open online control of diverse in-situ sensors is a challenge. This paper proposes a Cyber-Physical Geographical Information Service-enabled method for control of diverse in-situ sensors, based on location-based instant sensing of sensors, which provides closed-loop feedbacks. The method adopts the concepts and technologies of newly developed cyber-physical systems (CPSs) to combine control with sensing, communication, and computation, takes advantage of geographical information service such as services provided by the Tianditu which is a basic geographic information service platform in China and Sensor Web services to establish geo-sensor applications, and builds well-designed human-machine interfaces (HMIs) to support online and open interactions between human beings and physical sensors through cyberspace. The method was tested with experiments carried out in two geographically distributed scientific experimental fields, Baoxie Sensor Web Experimental Field in Wuhan city and Yemaomian Landslide Monitoring Station in Three Gorges, with three typical sensors chosen as representatives using the prototype system Geospatial Sensor Web Common Service Platform. The results show that the proposed method is an open, online, closed-loop means of control. PMID:25625906

  16. Design aspects of long range supersonic LFC airplanes with highly swept wings. [laminar flow control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfenninger, W.; Vemuru, C. S.

    1990-01-01

    Studies on supersonic long-range LFC (laminar flow control) aircraft were performed with the aim of maximizing L/D and alleviating sonic boom during supersonic cruise. It is found that configurations with highly swept LFC wings of very high structural aspect ratio, with the sweep increasing toward the wing root and braced externally by wide chord laminarized struts, appear especially promising. In the supersonic cruise design condition the wing upper surface isobars are swept such that the flow in the direction normal to them is transonic with embedded supersonic zones and practically shock-free over most of the span, with M-perpendicular equal to the two-dimensional design values of advanced SC LFC airfoils, e.g., of the X-787 or X-6 type.

  17. FundamentalAspects of Ripple CorrelationControl of Electric Machinery J. R. Wells, P. L. Chapman, P. T. Krein

    E-print Network

    Chapman, Patrick

    FundamentalAspects of Ripple CorrelationControl of Electric Machinery J. R. Wells, P. L. Chapman, P machinery. The dynamics of machines often makes direct application of RCC not possible or not practical machinery. Specifically, the paper presents a steady state error analysis of several practical RCC control

  18. Cellulosic fibers with high aspect ratio from cornhusks via controlled swelling and alkaline penetration.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhuanzhuan; Pan, Gangwei; Xu, Helan; Huang, Yiling; Yang, Yiqi

    2015-06-25

    Cellulosic fibers with high aspect ratio have been firstly obtained from cornhusks via controlled swelling in organic solvent and simultaneous tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAOH) post treatment within restricted depth. Cornhusks, with around 42% cellulose content, are a copious and inexpensive source for natural fibers. However, cornhusk fibers at 20tex obtained via small-molecule alkaline extraction were too coarse for textile applications. Continuous NaOH treatment would result in fine fibers but with length of about 0.5-1.5mm, too short for textile use. In this research, post treatment using TMAOH and under controlled swelling significantly reduced fineness of cornhusk fibers from 21.3±2.88 to 5.72±0.21tex. Fiber length was reduced from 105.47±10.03 to47.2±27.4mm. The cornhusk fibers had more oriented microstructures and cellulose content increased to 84.47%. Besides, cornhusk fibers had similar tenacity, longer elongation, and lower modulus compared to cotton and linen, which endowed them with durability and flexibility. PMID:25839793

  19. Passive control of roll oscillations of low-aspect-ratio wings using bleed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, T.; Wang, Z.; Gursul, I.

    2014-06-01

    A passive flow control method, which uses bleed from a slot near the wing tip, has been shown to attenuate self-excited roll oscillations of a low-aspect-ratio (AR = 2) rectangular flat plate wing. This method was found to be successful across the whole range of angle of attack and better than previous active flow control methods. The effectiveness of the slot strongly depends on its location and width. For effective slot geometries, the tip vortex becomes less coherent, almost eliminating the roll oscillations. Nonlinear interactions between the shear layers shed from the tip and the slot, as well as between the shear layer and the counter-rotating vortex may act as excitation, which can modify the response of the self-sustained oscillator. When the slot is located too close to the tip, there is rapid merging of the shear layers and less interaction, and the slot loses its effectiveness. Also, when the slot is narrow, there is insufficient bleed, resulting in less effective attenuation. Force measurements revealed that this technique can be used as an effective method to suppress roll oscillations without sacrificing and possibly improving aerodynamic performance.

  20. The CERN antiproton source: Controls aspects of the additional collector ring and fast sampling devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chohan, V.

    1990-08-01

    The upgrade of the CERN antiproton source, meant to gain an order of magnitude in antiproton flux, required the construction of an additional ring to complement the existing antiproton accumulator (AA) and an entire rebuild of the target zone. The AA also needed major modifications to handle the increased flux and perform purely as an accumulator, preceded by collection in the collector ring (AC). The upgrade, known as the ACOL (antiproton collector) project, was approved under strict time and budgetary constraints and the existing AA control system, based on the Proton Synchrotron (PS) Divisional norms of CAMAC and Norsk-Data computers, had to be extended in the light of this. The limited (9 months) installation period for the whole upgrade meant that substantial preparatory and planning activities had to be carried out during the normal running of the AA. Advantage was taken of the upgrade to improve and consolidate the AA. Some aspects of the control system related to this upgrade are discussed together with the integration of new applications and instrumentation. The overall machine installation and running-in was carried out within the defined milestones and the project has now achieved the physics design goals.

  1. Adaptive AFM scan speed control for high aspect ratio fast structure tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, Ahmad; Schuh, Andreas; Rangelow, Ivo W. [Department of Microelectronic and Nanoelectronic Systems, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology Ilmenau University of Technology, Gustav-Kirchhoffstr. 1, 98684 Ilmenau (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Improved imaging rates in Atomic Force Microscopes (AFM) are of high interest for disciplines such as life sciences and failure analysis of semiconductor wafers, where the sample topology shows high aspect ratios. Also, fast imaging is necessary to cover a large surface under investigation in reasonable times. Since AFMs are composed of mechanical components, they are associated with comparably low resonance frequencies that undermine the effort to increase the acquisition rates. In particular, high and steep structures are difficult to follow, which causes the cantilever to temporarily loose contact to or crash into the sample. Here, we report on a novel approach that does not affect the scanner dynamics, but adapts the lateral scanning speed of the scanner. The controller monitors the control error signal and, only when necessary, decreases the scan speed to allow the z-piezo more time to react to changes in the sample's topography. In this case, the overall imaging rate can be significantly increased, because a general scan speed trade-off decision is not needed and smooth areas are scanned fast. In contrast to methods trying to increase the z-piezo bandwidth, our method is a comparably simple approach that can be easily adapted to standard systems.

  2. Unity and diversity of tonic and phasic executive control components in episodic and working memory.

    PubMed

    Marklund, P; Fransson, P; Cabeza, R; Larsson, A; Ingvar, M; Nyberg, L

    2007-07-15

    The present study aimed to delineate the extent to which unitary executive functions might be shared across the separate domains of episodic and working memory. A mixed blocked/event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) design was employed to assess sustained (tonic control) and transient (phasic control) brain responses arising from incrementing executive demand (source versus item episodic memory - vis-à-vis - two-back versus one-back working memory) using load-dependent activation overlaps as indices of common components. Although an extensive portion of the regional load effects constituted differential control modulations in both sustained and transient responses, commonalities were also found implicating a subset of executive core mechanisms consistent with unitary or domain general control. 'Unitary' control modulations were temporally dissociated into (1) shared tonic components involving medial and lateral prefrontal cortex, striatum, cerebellum and superior parietal cortex, assumed to govern enhanced top-down context processing, monitoring and sustained attention throughout task periods and (2) stimulus-synchronous phasic components encompassing posterior intraparietal sulcus, hypothesized to support dynamic shifting of the 'focus of attention' among internal representations. Taken together, these results converge with theoretical models advocating both unity and diversity among executive control processes. PMID:17524668

  3. Diversity of stability, localization, interaction and control of downstream gene activity in the Maize Aux/IAA protein family.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Yvonne; Berendzen, Kenneth W; Xu, Changzheng; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Hochholdinger, Frank

    2014-01-01

    AUXIN/INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID (Aux/IAA) proteins are central regulators of auxin signal transduction. They control many aspects of plant development, share a conserved domain structure and are localized in the nucleus. In the present study, five maize Aux/IAA proteins (ZmIAA2, ZmIAA11, ZmIAA15, ZmIAA20 and ZmIAA33) representing the evolutionary, phylogenetic and expression diversity of this gene family were characterized. Subcellular localization studies revealed that ZmIAA2, ZmIAA11 and ZmIAA15 are confined to the nucleus while ZmIAA20 and ZmIAA33 are localized in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Introduction of specific point mutations in the degron sequence (VGWPPV) of domain II by substituting the first proline by serine or the second proline by leucine stabilized the Aux/IAA proteins. While protein half-life times between ?11 min (ZmIAA2) to ?120 min (ZmIAA15) were observed in wild-type proteins, the mutated forms of all five proteins were almost as stable as GFP control proteins. Moreover, all five maize Aux/IAA proteins repressed downstream gene expression in luciferase assays to different degrees. In addition, bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) analyses demonstrated interaction of all five Aux/IAA proteins with RUM1 (ROOTLESS WITH UNDETECTABLE MERISTEM 1, ZmIAA10) while only ZmIAA15 and ZmIAA33 interacted with the RUM1 paralog RUL1 (RUM-LIKE 1, ZmIAA29). Moreover, ZmIAA11, ZmIAA15 ZmIAA33 displayed homotypic interaction. Hence, despite their conserved domain structure, maize Aux/IAA proteins display a significant variability in their molecular characteristics which is likely associated with the wide spectrum of their developmental functions. PMID:25203637

  4. Controlled Substances Office of Diversion Control U.S. Dept of Justice

    E-print Network

    Barrash, Warren

    accepted medical use in treatment in the United States, and there is a lack of accepted safety for use of the drug or other substance under medical supervision. Some examples of substances listed in schedule I are: heroin, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), marijuana (cannabis), peyote, ecstasy. Schedule II Controlled

  5. RHOA and PRKCZ control different aspects of cell motility in pancreatic cancer metastatic clones

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Our understanding of the mechanism regulating pancreatic cancer metastatic phenotype is limited. We analyzed the role of RHOA and PRKCZ in the motility attitude of two subclones of the pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line SUIT-2 (S2), with different in vivo metastatic potential in nude mice: S2-m with a low metastatic potential and highly metastatic S2-CP9 using RHOA and PRKCZ cell-permeable inhibitory peptides. Methods Adhesion assays, cell permeable peptides, RHOA activity assay, western blotting Results When used in combination cell-permeable inhibitory peptides partially inhibited cell adhesion by about 50% in clone S2-CP9. In clone S2-m, the effect was limited to 15% inhibition. In a wound healing assay, S2-CP9 was sensitive only to treatment with the combination of both RHOA and PRKCZ inhibitory peptides. Conversely, S2-m was unable to migrate toward both ends of the wound in basal conditions. Migration of cells through a membrane with 8 ?m pores was completely abolished in both clones by individual treatment with RHOA and PRKCZ inhibitory peptides. Conclusion Herein, we demonstrate a critical role for RHOA and PRKCZ in the regulation of different aspects of cell motility of pancreatic adenocarcinoma and demonstrate the need to inhibit both pathways to obtain a functionally relevant effect in most assays. These results indicate that RHOA and PRKCZ, and their downstream effectors, can represent important pharmacological targets that could potentially control the highly metastatic attitude of PDAC. PMID:20236512

  6. Different Aspects of Kidney Function in Well-Controlled Congenital Hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Gheissari, Alaleh; Hashemipour, Mahin; Khosravi, Pooya; Adibi, Atoosa

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) increases the prevalence of kidney and urogenital malformations. There are limited studies considering different aspects of kidney function in well-controlled CH patients. We evaluated some features of kidney function in euthyroid children with CH who have been receiving thyroxine hormone since early life. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Isfahan, Iran, on 74 children aged 2-15 years old (36 CH patients and 38 healthy children). Inclusion criteria for CH patients were euthyroidism at the time of the survey and initiation of replacement therapy during the early neonatal period. Kidney ultrasound evaluation was performed in all participants. Serum biochemistry included urea, creatinine, sodium (Na), potassium (K), magnesium, calcium, and cystatin C levels. Urine electrolytes, fraction excretion (FE) of electrolytes and microalbumin, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were also determined. Results: The male/female ratio was 0.8/1 and 1.5/1 in the patient and control groups, respectively. Mean age and height did not differ significantly between the two groups. Ultrasound evaluation of the kidney revealed that the anteroposterior diameter of the right kidney was significantly higher in CH patients as compared to healthy subjects. No significant difference was observed between GFRs in patients with CH and healthy children. The mean values for FENa and FEK were significantly higher in the patient group. Conclusions: Increased FENa and FEK may be a manifestation of impaired tubular maturation in CH. More longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate kidney function in CH patients. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:23261862

  7. Environmental control aspects for fabrication, reprocessing and waste disposal of alternative LWR and LMFBR fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, A.M.; Lewallen, M.A.; McNair, G.W.

    1979-11-01

    Environmental control aspects of alternative fuel cycles have been analyzed by evaluating fabrication, reprocessing, and waste disposal operations. Various indices have been used to assess potential environmental control requirements. For the fabrication and reprocessing operations, 50-year dose commitments were used. Waste disposal was evaluated by comparing projected nuclide concentrations in ground water at various time periods with maximum permissible concentrations (MPCs). Three different fabrication plants were analyzed: a fuel fabrication plant (FFP) to produce low-activity uranium and uranium-thorium fuel rods; a plutonium fuel refabrication plant (PFRFP) to produce plutonium-uranium and plutonium-thorium fuel rods; and a uranium fuel refabrication plant (UFRFP) to produce fuel rods containing the high-activity isotopes /sup 232/U and /sup 233/U. Each plant's dose commitments are discussed separately. Source terms for the analysis of effluents from the fuel reprocessing plant (FRP) were calculated using the fuel burnup codes LEOPARD, CINDER and ORIGEN. Effluent quantities are estimated for each fuel type. Bedded salt was chosen for the waste repository analysis. The repository site is modeled on the Waste Isolation Pilot Program site in New Mexico. Wastes assumed to be stored in the repository include high-level vitrified waste from the FRP, packaged fuel residue from the FRP, and transuranic (TRU) contaminated wastes from the FFP, PFRFP, and UFRFP. The potential environmental significance was determined by estimating the ground-water concentrations of the various nuclides over a time span of a million years. The MPC for each nuclide was used along with the estimated ground-water concentration to generate a biohazard index for the comparison among fuel compositions.

  8. Aspects of black-fly control and entomology in the New World in relation to the Simulium problem in Nigeria*

    PubMed Central

    Crosskey, R. W.

    1959-01-01

    A general account is given of insecticidal control of black-flies in North and Central America, and the problems are contrasted with those arising in the control of Simulium damnosum Theo. in Nigeria. Some recent biological observations on Canadian black-flies are described, and it is emphasized that these have materially contributed to successful control. It is pointed out that S. damnosum control is being practised in the absence of much fundamental biological knowledge of this pest. Entomological aspects of onchocerciasis in Mexico and Guatemala are discussed, and compared with S. damnosum and its relationship to onchocerciasis in Nigeria. PMID:13813021

  9. 1000 Islands Fluid Mechanics Meeting, 2009 CONTROL OF UNSTEADY VORTICES AROUND LOW-ASPECT-RATIO WINGS

    E-print Network

    -ASPECT-RATIO WINGS K. Taira & C. W. Rowley Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Princeton University environments or inside of buildings. These miniature airplanes are referred to as the micro air vehicles (MAVs that are mainly concerned with high- aspect-ratio wings and high Reynolds numbers. In the present work, we

  10. Using Guard Predicates for Generalized Control of Aspect Instantiation and Activation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephan Herrmann; Christine Hundt; Katharina Mehner; Jan Wloka

    2005-01-01

    Many aspect-oriented programming languages employ static transformations in order to produce the executable system. Some aspects, however, should only be eective if certain conditions are fulfilled that can only be evaluated at run- time. The na¨ive approach of using conditionals within the advice code easily leads to scattering and tangling regarding these conditionals, suggesting that they should be separated from

  11. Mineralogical Controls on Microbial Diversity in a Sulfuric Acid Karst System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. A.; Bennett, P.

    2011-12-01

    The role mineralogy plays on microbial community distribution, composition, niche differentiation, and accumulation is a complex and nebulous association. Microbial phylogenetic diversity and bacterial composition of communities obtained from Lower Kane Cave (LKC), WY, USA, were studied using next generation bacterial 16S rRNA sequencing techniques. The microbial consortium found within LKC was found to be primarily composed of neutrophilic sulfur-oxidizing members of the gamma- and epsilon-proteobacteria . The microbial population within LKC has been instigated in previous studies to have a significant role in the processes of sulfuric acid speleogenesis. Using a LKC biomat as the inoculant in a series of 3 nutrient limited laboratory reactor experiments, and a pure culture of Thiothrix unzii (ATCC type strain 49747) in a parallel experiment, we found that both limestone and dolostone substratum consistently had higher biomass accumulation than silicate minerals in the same reactor. At the Class level, the carbonate substratum (Calcite, Limestone, and Dolostone) had ~84% - 88.7% of phylotypes in common. Aside from Basalt (Simpson's Index, D of 0.53), the carbonate substratum produced the least diverse phylotype distributions. Feldspar and quartz were colonized by the most diverse communities with Simpson's Index values of 0.16 and 0.31. Evaluation of metabolic guild distribution shows that potential neutrophilic sulfur-oxidizers have an affinity for acid neutralizing carbonate substrata over silicate substrata. These potential sulfur-oxidizing guilds compose ~28%-38% of the total microbial community. For feldspar and chert substratum, potential sulfur-oxidizing metabolic guilds composed merely ~5% of the total microbial community. The quartz substratum, in contrast, was uniquely populated by potential acidophilic sulfur-oxidizers Acidithiobacillus and Acidithiomicrobium; composing ~19% of the total community. A quartz substratum may offer these acidophiles a competitive advantage over other microbial communities that do not tolerate an acidic habitat, while optimizing the local microenvironment to better facilitate their metabolic pathway. The basalt substratum community was ~67% Thiothrix spp., a sulfur-oxidizing genus commonly associated with Deep-sea hydrothermal vents. This dominance of Thiothrix spp. on basalt may be due to an advantageous ability to extract, and take advantage of, mineral bound nutrients (P, Fe) in basalt. These results provide substantial evidence to support the hypothesis that mineralogy influences microbial distribution, composition, niche differentiation, and accumulation in a nutrient limited system. Specific microbial populations which have evolved to take advantage of specific mineral substrata and exert highly localized control of biogeochemical conditions. Mineralogy, therefore, plays an active part in the development of subsurface microbial ecology and diversity by exerting selective pressures on the subsurface microbial environment.

  12. Woody plant phylogenetic diversity mediates bottom-up control of arthropod biomass in species-rich forests.

    PubMed

    Schuldt, Andreas; Baruffol, Martin; Bruelheide, Helge; Chen, Simon; Chi, Xiulian; Wall, Marcus; Assmann, Thorsten

    2014-09-01

    Global change is predicted to cause non-random species loss in plant communities, with consequences for ecosystem functioning. However, beyond the simple effects of plant species richness, little is known about how plant diversity and its loss influence higher trophic levels, which are crucial to the functioning of many species-rich ecosystems. We analyzed to what extent woody plant phylogenetic diversity and species richness contribute to explaining the biomass and abundance of herbivorous and predatory arthropods in a species-rich forest in subtropical China. The biomass and abundance of leaf-chewing herbivores, and the biomass dispersion of herbivores within plots, increased with woody plant phylogenetic diversity. Woody plant species richness had much weaker effects on arthropods, but interacted with plant phylogenetic diversity to negatively affect the ratio of predator to herbivore biomass. Overall, our results point to a strong bottom-up control of functionally important herbivores mediated particularly by plant phylogenetic diversity, but do not support the general expectation that top-down predator effects increase with plant diversity. The observed effects appear to be driven primarily by increasing resource diversity rather than diversity-dependent primary productivity, as the latter did not affect arthropods. The strong effects of plant phylogenetic diversity and the overall weaker effects of plant species richness show that the diversity-dependence of ecosystem processes and interactions across trophic levels can depend fundamentally on non-random species associations. This has important implications for the regulation of ecosystem functions via trophic interaction pathways and for the way species loss may impact these pathways in species-rich forests. PMID:25004869

  13. Maternal and perinatal aspects of birth defects: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Nhoncanse, Geiza César; Germano, Carla Maria R.; de Avó, Lucimar Retto da S.; Melo, Débora Gusmão

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence of congenital defects and to investigate their maternal and perinatal associated aspects by reviewing Birth Certificates. Methods: Among all born alive infants from January 2003 to December 2007 in Maternidade da Santa Casa de Misericórdia of São Carlos, Southeast Brazil (12,199 infants), cases were identified as the newborns whose Birth Certificates registered any congenital defect. The same sex neonate born immediately after the case was chosen as a control. In total, 13 variables were analyzed: six were maternal related, three represented labor and delivery conditions and four were linked to fetal status. The chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used to compare the variables, being significant p<0.05. Results: The prevalence of congenital defects was 0.38% and the association of two or more defects represented 32% of all cases. The number of mothers whose education level was equal or less than eight years was significantly higher among the group with birth defects (p=0.047). A higher frequency of prematurity (p<0.001) and cesarean delivery (p=0.004) was observed among children with birth defects. This group also showed lower birth weight and Apgar scores in the 1st and the 5th minute (p<0.001). Conclusions: The prevalence of congenital defect of 0.38% is possibly due to underreporting. The defects notified in the Birth Certificates were only the most visible ones, regardless of their severity. There is a need of adequate epidemiological monitoring of birth defects in order to create and expand prevention and treatment programs. PMID:24676186

  14. Anaplasma marginale major surface protein 1a: A marker of strain diversity with implications for control of bovine anaplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; de la Fuente, José

    2015-04-01

    Classification of bacteria is challenging due to the lack of a theory-based framework. In addition, the adaptation of bacteria to ecological niches often results in selection of strains with diverse virulence, pathogenicity and transmission characteristics. Bacterial strain diversity presents challenges for taxonomic classification, which in turn impacts the ability to develop accurate diagnostics and effective vaccines. Over the past decade, the worldwide diversity of Anaplasma marginale, an economically important tick-borne pathogen of cattle, has become apparent. The extent of A. marginale strain diversity, formerly underappreciated, has contributed to the challenges of classification which, in turn, likely impacts the design and development of improved vaccines. Notably, the A. marginale surface protein 1a (MSP1a) is a model molecule for these studies because it serves as a marker for strain identity, is both an adhesin necessary for infection of cells and an immuno-reactive protein and is also an indicator of the evolution of strain diversity. Herein, we discuss a molecular taxonomic approach for classification of A. marginale strain diversity. Taxonomic analysis of this important molecule provides the opportunity to understand A. marginale strain diversity as it relates geographic and ecological factors and to the development of effective vaccines for control of bovine anaplasmosis worldwide. PMID:25802034

  15. PLANT SPECIES DIVERSITY IN NATIVE AND RESTORED TALLGRASS PRAIRIES: PATTERNS AND CONTROLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One goal of ecological restoration is to restore diversity of native vegetation, but mechanisms responsible for diversity in targeted communities often are poorly understood. We measured diversity (Simpson's index, 1/D) of plant species and functional groups of species in replicated 0.5-m2 plots wi...

  16. Behavioral and technological interventions targeting glycemic control in a racially/ethnically diverse population: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetes self-care by patients has been shown to assist in the reduction of disease severity and associated medical costs. We compared the effectiveness of two different diabetes self-care interventions on glycemic control in a racially/ethnically diverse population. We also explored whether reductions in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) will be more marked in minority persons. Methods We conducted an open-label randomized controlled trial of 376 patients with type 2 diabetes aged ?18 years and whose last measured HbA1c was ?7.5% (?58 mmol/mol). Participants were randomized to: 1) a Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP; n = 101); 2) a diabetes self-care software on a personal digital assistant (PDA; n = 81); 3) a combination of interventions (CDSMP + PDA; n = 99); or 4) usual care (control; n = 95). Enrollment occurred January 2009-June 2011 at seven regional clinics of a university-affiliated multi-specialty group practice. The primary outcome was change in HbA1c from randomization to 12 months. Data were analyzed using a multilevel statistical model. Results Average baseline HbA1c in the CDSMP, PDA, CDSMP + PDA, and control arms were 9.4%, 9.3%, 9.2%, and 9.2%, respectively. HbA1c reductions at 12 months for the groups averaged 1.1%, 0.7%, 1.1%, and 0.7%, respectively and did not differ significantly from baseline based on the model (P = .771). Besides the participants in the PDA group reporting eating more high-fat foods compared to their counterparts (P < .004), no other significant differences were observed in participants’ diabetes self-care activities. Exploratory sub-analysis did not reveal any marked reductions in HbA1c for minority persons but rather modest reductions for all racial/ethnic groups. Conclusions Although behavioral and technological interventions can result in some modest improvements in glycemic control, these interventions did not fare significantly better than usual care in achieving glycemic control. More research is needed to understand how these interventions can be most effective in clinical practice. The reduction in HbA1c levels found in our control group that received usual care also suggests that good routine care in an integrated healthcare system can lead to better glycemic control. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01221090. PMID:24450992

  17. Rates and environmental controls of sediment N and S cycles in diverse aquatic ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, C.; Pallud, C. E.

    2010-12-01

    Chuanhui Gu and Celine Pallud Recent studies of coupled NO3- driven SO42- production found chemolithoautotrophic bacterial metabolism may remove NO3- by coupling its reduction with the oxidation of reduced S to SO42-. The objectives of this study were to investigate the magnitude and interaction of NO3- and SO42- metabolic rates (e.g. nitrate reduction rate, ammonium production rate, sulfate production rate, and sulfate reduction rate, etc) across diverse freshwater, saline, and hypersaline water systems. Metabolic rates of major N and S cycles were measured on intact sediment cores using flow through reactors. Single TEA (i.e.NO3- or SO42-) addition and simultaneous TEAs addition caused a variety of responses in the N and S metabolic rates. We used a multivariate statistics tool, redundancy analysis, to access how environmental factors might control the variability of these metabolic rates. Our analysis showed pH, overlying water SO42- concentration, and salinity were three dominant environmental factors that control the N and S metabolic rates. The three factors combined explained 62% of variance of the metabolic rates. When NO3- and SO42- were both present, however, sediment As content, grain size, and N content determined the variability of the metabolic rates. These three factors together accounted for 58% of total variance of the metabolic rates. The different sets of environmental controls over the N and S metabolic rates under single TEA vs. two TEA conditions indicate the interior coupling between N and S cycles. These results showed there is no single set of environmental variables that can be used to predict the spatial variability of N and S metabolic rates, and controls on N processing in landscape subject to S and N pollution are more complex than previously appreciated.

  18. Microbial Diversity in Sediments of Saline Qinghia Lake, China:Linking Geochemical Controls to Microbial Ecoloby

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Hailiang; Zhang, Gengxin; Jiang, Hongchen; Yu, Bingsong; Chapman, Leah R.; Lucas, Courtney R.; Fields, Matthew W.

    2007-03-30

    Saline lakes at high altitudes represent an important andextreme microbial ecosystem, yet little is known about microbialdiversity in such environments. The objective of this study was toexamine the change of microbial diversity from the bottom of the lake tosediments of 40 cm in depth in a core from Qinghai Lake. The lake issaline (12.5 g/L salinity) and alkaline (pH 9.4) and is located on theQinghai-Tibetan Plateau at an altitude of 3196 m above sea level. Porewater chemistry of the core revealed low concentrations of sulfate andiron (<1 mM), but high concentrations of acetate (40-70 mM) anddissolved organic carbon (1596-5443 mg/L). Total organic carbon and totalnitrogen contents in the sediments were approximately 2 and<0.5percent, respectively. Acridine orange direct count data indicated thatcell numbers decreased from 4 x 10(9) cells/g at the water-sedimentinterface to 6 x 10(7) cells/g wet sediment at the 40-cm depth. Thischange in biomass was positively correlated with acetate concentration inpore water. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) community structure analysesdetermined decrease in the proportion of the Proteobacteria and increasein the Firmicutes with increased depth. Characterization of small subunit(SSU) rRNA genes amplified from the sediments indicated a shift in thebacterial community with depth. Whereas the alpha-, beta-, andgamma-Proteobacteria and the Cytophaga/Flavobacterium/Bacteroides (CFB)were dominant at the water-sediment interface, low G + C gram-positivebacteria (a subgroup of Firmicutes) became the predominant group in theanoxic sediments. Both PLFA and the sequence data showed similar trend.The Proteobacteria, CFB, and gram-positive bacteria are present in othersaline lakes, but the presence of Actinobacteria andAcidobacteria/Holophaga in significant proportions in the Qinghai Lakesediments appears to be unique. The archaeal diversity was much lower,and clone sequences could be grouped in the Euryarchaeota andCrenarchaeota domains. The archaeal clones were not related to any knowncultures but to sequences previously found in methane-rich sediments.Acetate-utilizing methanogens were isolated from sediment incubations,and alpha- and gamma-proteobacterial isolates were obtained from a watersample from the lake-bottom (23 m). Our data collectively showed that theobserved diversity and shift in the community structure with depth wascorrelated with geochemical parameters (the redox state and availabilityof electron acceptor and donor). Heterotrophic methanogenesis is possiblyadominant metabolic process in the Qinghai Lake sediments. These resultsreinforce the importance of geochemical controls on microbial ecology insaline and alkaline lake environments.

  19. Improving Area Control Error Diversity Interchange (ADI) Program by Incorporating Congestion Constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Ning; Etingov, Pavel V.; Makarov, Yuri V.; Guttromson, Ross T.; McManus, Bart

    2010-04-30

    The area control error (ACE) determines how much a balancing authority (BA) needs to move its regulating units to meet mandatory control performance standard requirements. Regulation is an expensive resource that could cost several hundred million dollars a year for a BA. The amount of regulation needed in a system is increasing with more intermittent generation resources added to the system. The ACE diversity interchange (ADI) program provides a tool for reducing the regulation requirement by combining ACEs from several participating BAs followed by sharing the total ACE among all participating balancing areas. The effect is achieved as a result of the low statistical correlation between the original ACEs of participating BAs. A rule-based ADI approach has already been put into practice in the US Western Interconnection. The degree of actual ACE sharing is artificially limited because of the unknown redistribution of power flows and possible system congestion (these factors are not monitored in the existing ADI). This paper proposes a two-step linear programming (LP) ADI approach that incorporates congestion constraints. In the first step of the proposed LP ADI, the line transmission limits are enforced by setting up corresponding constraints. In the second step, the business fairness is pursued. Simulation is performed to compare the properties of the proposed LP ADI and the existing rule-based ADI. Favorable features, such as avoiding line limit violations and increasing the degree of possible ACE sharing, are observed for the proposed LP ADI.

  20. Evaluation of Diversity and Power Control Techniques for Satellite Communication Systems in Tropical and Equatorial Rain Climates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qing Wei Pan; Jeremy E. Allnutt; Charles Tsui

    2008-01-01

    Satellite communication systems operating at frequencies above 10 GHz in tropical climates are subjected to many fade occurrences due to heavy rain. Service providers need to consider the use of appropriate forward error correction codes, the choice of modulations, diversity techniques, and the range of uplink\\/downlink power controls to use during severe rain fade periods in the overall design of

  1. Proceedings of the Workshop on Computational Aspects in the Control of Flexible Systems, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Lawrence W., Jr. (compiler)

    1989-01-01

    The Control/Structures Integration Program, a survey of available software for control of flexible structures, computational efficiency and capability, modeling and parameter estimation, and control synthesis and optimization software are discussed.

  2. Control aspects of the Schuchuli Village stand-alone photovoltaic power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groumpos, P. P.; Culler, J. E.; Delombard, R.

    1984-01-01

    A photovoltaic power system in an Arizona Indian village was installed. The control subsystem of this photovoltaic power system was analyzed. The four major functions of the control subsystem are: (1) voltage regulation; (2) load management; (3) water pump control; and (4) system protection. The control subsystem functions flowcharts for the control subsystem operation, and a computer program that models the control subsystem are presented.

  3. Hydrographic controls on marine organic matter fate and microbial diversity in the western Irish Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Reilly, Shane; Szpak, Michal; Monteys, Xavier; Flanagan, Paul; Allen, Christopher; Kelleher, Brian

    2014-05-01

    Cycling of organic matter (OM) is the key biological process in the marine environment1 and knowledge of the sources and the reactivity of OM, in addition to factors controlling its distribution in estuarine, coastal and shelf sediments are of key importance for understanding global biogeochemical cycles2. With recent advances in cultivation-independent molecular approaches to microbial ecology, the key role of prokaryotes in global biogeochemical cycling in marine ecosystems has been emphasised3,4. However, spatial studies combining the distribution and fate of OM with microbial community abundance and diversity remain rare. Here, a combined spatial lipid biomarker and 16S rRNA tagged pyrosequencing study was conducted in surface sediments and particulate matter across hydrographically distinct zones associated with the seasonal western Irish Sea gyre. The aim was to assess the spatial variation of, and factors controlling, marine organic cycling and sedimentary microbial communities across these distinct zones. The distribution of phospholipid fatty acids, source-specific sterols, wax esters and C25 highly branched isoprenoids indicate that diatoms, dinoflagellates and green algae were the major contributors of marine organic matter, while the distribution of cholesterol, wax esters and C20 and C22 polyunsaturated fatty acids have highlighted the importance of copepod grazing for mineralizing organic matter in the water column5. This marine OM production and mineralisation was greatest in well-mixed waters compared to offshore stratified waters. Lipid analysis and 16S rRNA PCR-DGGE profiling also suggests that sedimentary bacterial abundance increases while community diversity decreases in offshore stratified waters. The major bacterial classes are the Deltaproteobacteria, Clostridia, Flavobacteriia, Gammaproteobactera and Bacteroiidia. At the family/genus level most groups appear to be associated with organoheterotrophic processing of sedimentary OM, ranging from degradation of complex organic matter (e.g. Tepidibacter sp.) to sulfur-dependent utilisation of simple organic molecules (e.g. Desulfobulbaceae and Desulfuromonadaceae. 1. Hedges and Keil (1995) Mar Chem 49, 81-115. 2. Baldock et al., (2004) Mar Chem 92, 39-64. 3. Deming and Baross, (1993) Plenum Press, NY. 4. 4. Gooday, (2002) J Oceanogr 58, 305-332. 5. O'Reilly et al., (2013) Estuar, Coast & Shelf Sci. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2013.11.002

  4. Mechanisms Controlling Carbon Turnover from Diverse Microbial Groups in Temperate and Tropical Forest Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Throckmorton, H.; Dane, L.; Bird, J. A.; Firestone, M. K.; Horwath, W. R.

    2010-12-01

    Microorganisms represent an important intermediate along the pathway of plant litter decomposition to the formation of soil organic matter (SOM); yet little is known of the fate and stability of microbial C in soils and the importance of microbial biochemistry as a factor influencing SOM dynamics. This research investigates mechanisms controlling microbial C stabilization in a temperate forest in the Sierra Nevada of California (CA) and a tropical forest in Puerto Rico (PR). Biochemically diverse microbial groups (fungi, actinomycetes, bacteria gram (+), and bacteria gram (-)) were isolated from both sites, grown in the laboratory with C13 media, killed, and nonliving residues were added back to soils as a reciprocal transplant of microbial groups. The native microbial community in CA is dominated by fungi and in PR is dominated by bacteria, which provides an opportunity to asses the metabolic response of distinct microbial communities to the diverse microbial additions. CA and PR soils were sampled five times over a 3 and 2 year period, respectively. In CA there was no significant difference in the mean residence time (MRT) of diverse C13 microbial treatments; whereas in PR there were significant differences, whereby temperate fungi, temperate Gram (+) bacteria, and tropical actinomycetes exhibited a significantly longer MRT as compared with tropical fungi and temperate Gram (-). These results suggest that a bacterial dominated microbial community discriminates more amongst diverse substrates than a fungal-dominated community. MRT for labeled-C in CA was 5.21 ± 1.11 years, and in PR was 2.22 ± 0.45. Despite substantial differences in MRT between sites, physical fractionation of soils into light (LF), aggregated-occluded (OF), and mineral-associated (MF) fractions provided evidence that accelerated decomposition in PR (presumably due to climate) operated primarily on labeled-C unassociated with the mineral matrix (LF); labeled-C occluded within aggregates (OF) or bound to the mineral matrix (MF) exhibited similar turnover dynamics for the two sites. Py-GC-MS-IRMS examined the fate of labeled temperate fungal residues at the molecular level in CA (30 days) and in PR (17 days) in whole soils and soil fractions. Results showed notably high enrichment of two polysaccharide biomarkers at both sites (2-furancarboxaldehyde, 5-methyl; and levoglucosanone); as well as an enol compound. These compounds did not occur in high abundance in the original fungal residues, suggesting selective preservation or secondary formation of these compounds in both CA and PR soils. Two additional lipid biomarkers exhibited notably high enrichment in CA but not PR soils, suggesting some distinct pathways of humification may be occurring at each site. Physical fractionation combined with molecular analysis suggests that protection by aggregate-occlusion (OF) and chemical complexation with soil mineral surfaces (MF) represent distinct protection mechanisms that operate on different microbial compounds.

  5. Subsonic and transonic pressure measurements on a high-aspect-ratio supercritical-wing model with oscillating control surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandford, M. C.; Ricketts, R. H.; Watson, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    A high aspect ratio supercritical wing with oscillating control surfaces is described. The semispan wing model was instrumented with 252 static orifices and 164 in situ dynamic pressure gases for studying the effects of control surface position and sinusoidal motion on steady and unsteady pressures. Data from the present test (this is the second in a series of tests on this model) were obtained in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at Mach numbers of 0.60 and 0.78 and are presented in tabular form.

  6. Bottom-up control of carabid beetle communities in early successional wetlands: mediated by vegetation structure or plant diversity?

    PubMed

    Brose, U

    2003-05-01

    Two hypotheses of bottom-up control that predict that the species richness of Carabidae will depend either on the taxonomic diversity of plants ("taxonomic diversity hypothesis") or on the structural heterogeneity of the vegetation ("structural heterogeneity hypothesis") were tested. Plant species were classified into nine plant structural groups through cluster analysis of morphological traits (e.g. total height) at 30 early successional temporary wetlands in the east-German agricultural landscape. In a linear regression analysis, the heterogeneity of vegetation structures explained 55% of the variation in carabid beetle diversity. According to a partial correlation analysis, plant taxonomic diversity did not have a significant effect, consistent with the "structural heterogeneity hypothesis," and contradicting previous studies which concluded that plant taxonomic diversity would be the most important factor in early successional habitats. An experimental study was used to test hypotheses on the processes underlying this bottom-up control by vegetation structure: the "hunting efficiency hypothesis," the "enemy-free space hypothesis," and the "microhabitat specialization hypothesis." The composition of plant structural groups in 15 vegetation plots (1 m(2)) was manipulated, creating a gradient from dense vegetation to open plots. Subsequent pitfall catches revealed significant differences in the activity-abundances of the carabid species. Large species preferred dense vegetation plots, consistent with the enemy-free space hypothesis that large species are more vulnerable to predation on the open plots and prefer dense vegetation to escape from natural enemies. The results indicate that bottom-up control is not mediated only by plant taxonomic or functional group diversity and that vegetation structures may be more important than previously suggested. PMID:12721831

  7. Transcription Control Pathways Decode Patterned Synaptic Inputs into Diverse mRNA Expression Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Pragati; Bhalla, Upinder S.

    2014-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity requires transcription and translation to establish long-term changes that form the basis for long term memory. Diverse stimuli, such as synaptic activity and growth factors, trigger synthesis of mRNA to regulate changes at the synapse. The palette of possible mRNAs is vast, and a key question is how the cell selects which mRNAs to synthesize. To address this molecular decision-making, we have developed a biochemically detailed model of synaptic-activity triggered mRNA synthesis. We find that there are distinct time-courses and amplitudes of different branches of the mRNA regulatory signaling pathways, which carry out pattern-selective combinatorial decoding of stimulus patterns into distinct mRNA subtypes. Distinct, simultaneously arriving input patterns that impinge on the transcriptional control network interact nonlinearly to generate novel mRNA combinations. Our model combines major regulatory pathways and their interactions connecting synaptic input to mRNA synthesis. We parameterized and validated the model by incorporating data from multiple published experiments. The model replicates outcomes of knockout experiments. We suggest that the pattern-selectivity mechanisms analyzed in this model may act in many cell types to confer the capability to decode temporal patterns into combinatorial mRNA expression. PMID:24787753

  8. Mitochondrial DNA control region diversity in a population from Espirito Santo state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sanches, Naiara M; Paneto, Greiciane G; Figueiredo, Raquel F; de Mello, Aline O; Cicarelli, Regina M B

    2014-10-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis has proved to be useful for forensic identification, especially in cases which nuclear DNA markers fail, as in degraded samples or in cases where the biological material has few traces or no nuclear DNA. Moreover, it can be applied in population genetics, inferring the origin of a population. In this work, the entire mtDNA control region of 97 individuals from the state of Espirito Santo, Brazil, was analyzed. We have found 94 different haplotypes yielding a high haplotype diversity of 0.9994 ± 0.0016. The probability of a random match calculated was 1.09. Haplogroup distribution analysis confirmed a highly admixed Latin American population: African lineages (43.3 %), European lineages (32.0 %), Native American lineages (23.7 %) and Asian lineages (1.0 %). We have concluded that this type of tool can be used both in forensic genetics to the study of different human populations, such as highly admixed populations, and in the study of migration's history and colonization of different states and countries of the world. PMID:24996288

  9. Landscape-level controls on dissolved carbon flux from diverse catchments of the circumboreal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tank, Suzanne; Frey, Karen E.; Striegl, Robert G.; Raymond, Peter A.; Holmes, R. Max; McClelland, James W.; Peterson, Bruce J.

    2012-01-01

    While much of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) within rivers is destined for mineralization to CO2, a substantial fraction of riverine bicarbonate (HCO3-) flux represents a CO2 sink, as a result of weathering processes that sequester CO2 as HCO3-. We explored landscape-level controls on DOC and HCO3- flux in subcatchments of the boreal, with a specific focus on the effect of permafrost on riverine dissolved C flux. To do this, we undertook a multivariate analysis that partitioned the variance attributable to known, key regulators of dissolved C flux (runoff, lithology, and vegetation) prior to examining the effect of permafrost, using riverine biogeochemistry data from a suite of subcatchments drawn from the Mackenzie, Yukon, East, and West Siberian regions of the circumboreal. Across the diverse catchments that we study, controls on HCO3- flux were near-universal: runoff and an increased carbonate rock contribution to weathering (assessed as riverwater Ca:Na) increased HCO3- yields, while increasing permafrost extent was associated with decreases in HCO3-. In contrast, permafrost had contrasting and region-specific effects on DOC yield, even after the variation caused by other key drivers of its flux had been accounted for. We used ionic ratios and SO4 yields to calculate the potential range of CO2 sequestered via weathering across these boreal subcatchments, and show that decreasing permafrost extent is associated with increases in weathering-mediated CO2 fixation across broad spatial scales, an effect that could counterbalance some of the organic C mineralization that is predicted with declining permafrost.

  10. Landscape-level controls on dissolved carbon flux from diverse catchments of the circumboreal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tank, Suzanne E.; Frey, Karen E.; Striegl, Robert G.; Raymond, Peter A.; Holmes, Robert M.; McClelland, James W.; Peterson, Bruce J.

    2012-09-01

    While much of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) within rivers is destined for mineralization to CO2, a substantial fraction of riverine bicarbonate (HCO3-) flux represents a CO2 sink, as a result of weathering processes that sequester CO2 as HCO3-. We explored landscape-level controls on DOC and HCO3- flux in subcatchments of the boreal, with a specific focus on the effect of permafrost on riverine dissolved C flux. To do this, we undertook a multivariate analysis that partitioned the variance attributable to known, key regulators of dissolved C flux (runoff, lithology, and vegetation) prior to examining the effect of permafrost, using riverine biogeochemistry data from a suite of subcatchments drawn from the Mackenzie, Yukon, East, and West Siberian regions of the circumboreal. Across the diverse catchments that we study, controls on HCO3-flux were near-universal: runoff and an increased carbonate rock contribution to weathering (assessed as riverwater Ca:Na) increased HCO3- yields, while increasing permafrost extent was associated with decreases in HCO3-. In contrast, permafrost had contrasting and region-specific effects on DOC yield, even after the variation caused by other key drivers of its flux had been accounted for. We used ionic ratios and SO4 yields to calculate the potential range of CO2sequestered via weathering across these boreal subcatchments, and show that decreasing permafrost extent is associated with increases in weathering-mediated CO2 fixation across broad spatial scales, an effect that could counterbalance some of the organic C mineralization that is predicted with declining permafrost.

  11. Mitochondrial DNA diversity of Cleruchoides noackae (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae): a potential biological control

    E-print Network

    Mitochondrial DNA diversity of Cleruchoides noackae (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae): a potential: Thaumastocoridae) is a native Australian Eucalyptus sap-feeding insect that has become invasive and seriously. Mito- chondrial DNA (mtDNA; cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, COI) sequence diversity amongst 104

  12. Environmental and developmental controls of morphological diversity in a thermal spring gastropod from Coahuila, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roopnarine, P. D.; Tang, C. M.

    2001-12-01

    Isolated thermal springs and associated aquatic environments near Cuatro Ciénegas, in north-central Mexico provide an opportunity to study patterns of evolutionary diversification under extreme conditions. Significant differences in temperature, seasonality, pH, and salinities among other variables may allow for high levels of differentiation and endemism. Biological studies of the unique faunas in this type of environment may serve as analogues for extreme and/or evaporitic environments as targeted by astrobiological research. The endemic hydrobiid gastropod \\textit{Mexipyrgus} is widely distributed in a variety of aquatic environments within the Cuatro Cienégas basin. Original description of this genus by Taylor listed six distinct species reflecting shell and anatomical features. Later revision by Hershler suggests that this diversity be reduced to one single, highly-variable species, based mainly on the morphology of reproductive structures. The systematic conflict emphasizes the need to understand the bases of morphological variation at small scales and in environmentally unusual settings. Shells of \\textit{Mexipyrgus} were collected from six localities and the following species were identified based on Taylor's classification: \\textit{M. carranzae}, \\textit{M. escobedae}, \\textit{M. multilineatus}, and specimens intermediate in character between \\textit{M. carranzae}, \\textit{M. lugoi} and \\textit{M. mojarralis}. All specimens consisted of 4-6 whorls. Shell shape was archived by the digitization of geometrically homologous landmarks on the spire (apex, whorl sutures in apertural view) and aperture. Shell size was calculated as Centroid Size. Data were analyzed using uniform and principal warp analysis of raw landmark coordinates, followed by relative warp analysis of uniform and partial warp scores. Three separate analyses were performed for 4, 5 and 6 whorled specimens. Results indicate two different levels of variation based on individual age. Variation among 4 whorled specimens is dominated by locality: each locality is distinct from all others, regardless of individual species composition. Analysis of 5-whorled specimens reveals some locality-based differentiation, but also taxonomic (and possibly gender) differentiation. Finally, by the 6-whorled stage, the pattern of differentiation is based solely on taxonomy, with Taylor's morphospecies forming distinct and discrete groups. Another analysis conducted on the first four whorls of all specimens supports the hypothesis that location and local environmental factors are the largest influence on morphology earlier in development. In summary, environment seems to exert a significant influence on morphology during shell development, but terminal adult morphology is largely under intrinsic (genetic) control. Resolution of the systematics and true diversity of \\textit{Mexipyrgus} will ultimately rely upon further quantitative morphological studies in addition to future population genetic studies of this genus in a variety of microhabitats.

  13. Proceedings of the Workshop on Computational Aspects in the Control of Flexible Systems, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Lawrence W., Jr. (compiler)

    1989-01-01

    Control/Structures Integration program software needs, computer aided control engineering for flexible spacecraft, computer aided design, computational efficiency and capability, modeling and parameter estimation, and control synthesis and optimization software for flexible structures and robots are among the topics discussed.

  14. Size and Aspect Ratio Control of Pd2Sn Nanorods and Their Water Denitration Properties.

    PubMed

    Luo, ZhiShan; Ibáñez, Maria; Antolín, Ana M; Genç, Aziz; Shavel, Alexey; Contreras, Sandra; Medina, Francesc; Arbiol, Jordi; Cabot, Andreu

    2015-04-01

    Monodisperse Pd2Sn nanorods with tuned size and aspect ratio were prepared by co-reduction of metal salts in the presence of trioctylphosphine, amine, and chloride ions. Asymmetric Pd2Sn nanostructures were achieved by the selective desorption of a surfactant mediated by chlorine ions. A preliminary evaluation of the geometry influence on catalytic properties evidenced Pd2Sn nanorods to have improved catalytic performance. In view of these results, Pd2Sn nanorods were also evaluated for water denitration. PMID:25751745

  15. Nanometer scale high-aspect-ratio trench etching at controllable angles using ballistic reactive ion etching

    SciTech Connect

    Cybart, Shane; Roediger, Peter; Ulin-Avila, Erick; Wu, Stephen; Wong, Travis; Dynes, Robert

    2012-11-30

    We demonstrate a low pressure reactive ion etching process capable of patterning nanometer scale angled sidewalls and three dimensional structures in photoresist. At low pressure the plasma has a large dark space region where the etchant ions have very large highly-directional mean free paths. Mounting the sample entirely within this dark space allows for etching at angles relative to the cathode with minimal undercutting, resulting in high-aspect ratio nanometer scale angled features. By reversing the initial angle and performing a second etch we create three-dimensional mask profiles.

  16. FlowR: aspect oriented programming for information flow control in ruby

    E-print Network

    Pasquier, Thomas F. J.-M.; Bacon, Jean; Shand, Brian

    2014-04-22

    , such as Java [23], C++ [44] or JavaScript [55]. AOP has advantages over our earlier approach: IFC label tracking and enforcement can be applied to any object and/or method invocation; programmers need have minimal con- cern about the underlying implementation... on, pages 418–427, 2000. [29] F. Marchand de Kerchove, J. Noyé, and M. Südholt. Aspectizing javascript security. In Proceedings of the 3rd Workshop on Modularity in Systems Software, MISS ’13, pages 7–12, New York, NY, USA, 2013. ACM. [30] H. Masuhara...

  17. Separating sustained from transient aspects of cognitive control during thought suppression.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jason P; Heatherton, Todd F; Kelley, William M; Wyland, Carrie L; Wegner, Daniel M; Neil Macrae, C

    2007-04-01

    Cognitive theories of how people regulate their thoughts have suggested the involvement of two control processes that occur over different time courses. These cognitive accounts parallel recent neural models of executive control, which suggest that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) mediates sustained changes in the allocation of control processes, whereas the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) relays a transient need for additional control. Combining these cognitive and neural models of control, we used recently developed analysis techniques to distinguish transient from sustained changes in brain activation while subjects attempted to suppress an unwanted thought. Results were consistent with both models: Dorsolateral PFC demonstrated sustained increases in activation during attempts at thought suppression, whereas bilateral ACC demonstrated transient increases associated with occurrences of unwanted thoughts. These data support proposals regarding the different contributions made by the PFC and ACC to executive control and provide initial neuroimaging support for dual-process models of how individuals regulate their thoughts. PMID:17470250

  18. Materials for Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms: Molecular Pharmaceutics and Controlled Release Drug Delivery Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Mansour, Heidi M.; Sohn, MinJi; Al-Ghananeem, Abeer; DeLuca, Patrick P.

    2010-01-01

    Controlled release delivery is available for many routes of administration and offers many advantages (as microparticles and nanoparticles) over immediate release delivery. These advantages include reduced dosing frequency, better therapeutic control, fewer side effects, and, consequently, these dosage forms are well accepted by patients. Advances in polymer material science, particle engineering design, manufacture, and nanotechnology have led the way to the introduction of several marketed controlled release products and several more are in pre-clinical and clinical development. PMID:20957095

  19. Electrical Engineering is a diverse discipline encompassing computer and information systems, controls, lasers,

    E-print Network

    Rohs, Remo

    70 ELECTRICAL Electrical Engineering is a diverse discipline encompassing computer and information environmental engineering and manufacturing to semiconductors and telecommunications. The Electrical Engineering Technology and the Signal and Image Processing institute. PROGRAMS AVAILABLE · Electrical Engineering

  20. Electrical Engineering (EE) is a diverse discipline encompassing computer and information systems, controls,

    E-print Network

    Rohs, Remo

    70 ELECTRICAL Electrical Engineering (EE) is a diverse discipline encompassing computer, photonics, and quantum information processing. MAJORS & AREAS OF EMPHASIS · ElectricalEngineering · ComputerEngineering)Algorithmsandcomputationalmeth- odsforefficientsolutionofengineeringproblems. Introductiontoengineeringsoftwaretools. EE 200L Foundations of Electrical Engineer- ing Systems

  1. Host and parasite diversity jointly control disease risk in complex communities

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Pieter T. J.; Preston, Daniel L.; Hoverman, Jason T.; LaFonte, Bryan E.

    2013-01-01

    Host–parasite interactions are embedded within complex communities composed of multiple host species and a cryptic assemblage of other parasites. To date, however, surprisingly few studies have explored the joint effects of host and parasite richness on disease risk, despite growing interest in the diversity–disease relationship. Here, we combined field surveys and mechanistic experiments to test how transmission of the virulent trematode Ribeiroia ondatrae was affected by the diversity of both amphibian hosts and coinfecting parasites. Within natural wetlands, host and parasite species richness correlated positively, consistent with theoretical predictions. Among sites that supported Ribeiroia, however, host and parasite richness interacted to negatively affect Ribeiroia transmission between its snail and amphibian hosts, particularly in species-poor assemblages. In laboratory and outdoor experiments designed to decouple the relative contributions of host and parasite diversity, increases in host richness decreased Ribeiroia infection by 11–65%. Host richness also tended to decrease total infections by other parasite species (four of six instances), such that more diverse host assemblages exhibited ?40% fewer infections overall. Importantly, parasite richness further reduced both per capita and total Ribeiroia infection by 15–20%, possibly owing to intrahost competition among coinfecting species. These findings provide evidence that parasitic and free-living diversity jointly regulate disease risk, help to resolve apparent contradictions in the diversity–disease relationship, and emphasize the challenges of integrating research on coinfection and host heterogeneity to develop a community ecology-based approach to infectious diseases. PMID:24082092

  2. Host and parasite diversity jointly control disease risk in complex communities.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Pieter T J; Preston, Daniel L; Hoverman, Jason T; LaFonte, Bryan E

    2013-10-15

    Host-parasite interactions are embedded within complex communities composed of multiple host species and a cryptic assemblage of other parasites. To date, however, surprisingly few studies have explored the joint effects of host and parasite richness on disease risk, despite growing interest in the diversity-disease relationship. Here, we combined field surveys and mechanistic experiments to test how transmission of the virulent trematode Ribeiroia ondatrae was affected by the diversity of both amphibian hosts and coinfecting parasites. Within natural wetlands, host and parasite species richness correlated positively, consistent with theoretical predictions. Among sites that supported Ribeiroia, however, host and parasite richness interacted to negatively affect Ribeiroia transmission between its snail and amphibian hosts, particularly in species-poor assemblages. In laboratory and outdoor experiments designed to decouple the relative contributions of host and parasite diversity, increases in host richness decreased Ribeiroia infection by 11-65%. Host richness also tended to decrease total infections by other parasite species (four of six instances), such that more diverse host assemblages exhibited ?40% fewer infections overall. Importantly, parasite richness further reduced both per capita and total Ribeiroia infection by 15-20%, possibly owing to intrahost competition among coinfecting species. These findings provide evidence that parasitic and free-living diversity jointly regulate disease risk, help to resolve apparent contradictions in the diversity-disease relationship, and emphasize the challenges of integrating research on coinfection and host heterogeneity to develop a community ecology-based approach to infectious diseases. PMID:24082092

  3. Some Aspects of Peltier-Cooler Optimization Applied for the Glove Box Air Temperature Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evgeny Kotlyarov; Peter de Crom; Raoul Voeten

    2006-01-01

    Peltier cooler usage for air temperature control in space and medical engineering is considered in this paper. The Bradford experience of Peltier unit application in cooling devices integrated in Glove Boxes is generalized. Examples of already existing for space applications designed devices, which use thermo-electrical principle for thermal control, are shown. Simplified engineering methods, which have been proven to be

  4. Diversity Strategies to Mitigate Postulated Common Cause Failure Vulnerabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Richard Thomas [ORNL] [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to establish effective mitigating strategies that can resolve potential common-cause failure (CCF) vulnerabilities in instrumentation and control (I&C) systems at nuclear power plants. A particular objective in the development of these strategies, which consist of combinations of diversity attributes and their associated criteria, is to address the unique characteristics of digital technology that can contribute to CCF concerns. The research approach employed to establish diversity strategies involves investigation of available documentation on diversity usage and experience from nuclear power and non-nuclear industries, capture of expert knowledge and lessons learned, determination of common practices, and assessment of the nature of CCFs and compensating diversity attributes. The resulting diversity strategies address considerations such as the effect of technology choices, the nature of CCF vulnerabilities, and the prospective impact of each diversity type. In particular, the impact of each attribute and criterion on the purpose, process, product, and performance aspects of diverse systems are considered.

  5. Control, monitoring and safety aspects of power distribution in the ATLAS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwanski, W.

    2012-02-01

    In this document will be presented examples of different approaches to implement electrical distribution. Ways to achieve the expected level of control will be demonstrated, statistics presenting usage of the control system will be given. Applications developed to enrich monitoring of the electrical infrastructure including also quality of the powering network will be shown. Characteristics of applications focused on safety of the Atlas rack's supply will be demonstrated.

  6. Improvement in the control aspect of laser frequency stabilization for SUNLITE project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zia, Omar

    1992-01-01

    Flight Electronics Division of Langley Research Center is developing a spaceflight experiment called the Stanford University and NASA Laser In-Space Technology (SUNLITE). The objective of the project is to explore the fundamental limits on frequency stability using an FM laser locking technique on a Nd:YAG non-planar ring (free-running linewidth of 5 KHz) oscillator in the vibration free, microgravity environment of space. Compact and automated actively stabilized terahertz laser oscillators will operate in space with an expected linewidth of less than 3 Hz. To implement and verify this experiment, NASA engineers have designed and built a state of the art, space qualified high speed data acquisition system for measuring the linewidth and stability limits of a laser oscillator. In order to achieve greater stability and better performance, an active frequency control scheme requiring the use of a feedback control loop has been applied. In the summer of 1991, the application of control theory in active frequency control as a frequency stabilization technique was investigated. The results and findings were presented in 1992 at the American Control Conference in Chicago, and have been published in Conference Proceedings. The main focus was to seek further improvement in the overall performance of the system by replacing the analogue controller by a digital algorithm.

  7. Assessing genetic diversity of wild and hatchery samples of the Chinese sucker (Myxocyprinus asiaticus) by the mitochondrial DNA control region.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiayun; Wu, Bo; Hou, Feixia; Chen, Yongbai; Li, Chong; Song, Zhaobin

    2014-09-22

    Abstract To restore the natural populations of Chinese sucker (Myxocyprinus asiaticus), a hatchery release program has been underway for nearly 10 years. Using DNA sequences of the mitochondrial control region, we assessed the genetic diversity and genetic structure among samples collected from three sites of the wild population as well as from three hatcheries. The haplotype diversity of the wild samples (h?=?0.899-0.975) was significantly higher than that of the hatchery ones (h?=?0.296-0.666), but the nucleotide diversity was almost identical between them (??=?0.0170-0.0280). Relatively high gene flow was detected between the hatchery and wild samples. Analysis of effective population size indicated that M. asiaticus living in the Yangtze River has been expanding following a bottleneck in the recent past. Our results suggest the hatchery release programs for M. asiaticus have not reduced the genetic diversity, but have influenced the genetic structure of the species in the upper Yangtze River. PMID:25242190

  8. Temperature control of CMS Barrel ECAL (EB) : computational thermo-hydraulic model for dynamic behaviour, control aspects

    E-print Network

    Wertelaers, P

    2010-01-01

    The current design foresees a central heat exchanger followed by a controlled post heater, for all ECAL. We discuss the scheme and try to assess its performance, from a Barrel viewpoint. This is based on computational work. The coolant transfer pipes play an essential role in building a dynamical model. After some studies on the behaviour of the cooling circuit itself, a strong yet simple controller is proposed. Then, the system with feedback control is scrutinized, with emphasis on disturbance rejection. The most relevant disturbances are cooling ripple, pipe heat attack, and electronics’ switching.

  9. Comparing temporal aspects of visual, tactile, and microstimulation feedback for motor control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godlove, Jason M.; Whaite, Erin O.; Batista, Aaron P.

    2014-08-01

    Objectives. Current brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) rely on visual feedback, requiring sustained visual attention to use the device. Improvements to BCIs may stem from the development of an effective way to provide quick feedback independent of vision. Tactile stimuli, either delivered on the skin surface, or directly to the brain via microstimulation in somatosensory cortex, could serve that purpose. We examined the effectiveness of vibrotactile stimuli and microstimulation as a means of non-visual feedback by using a fundamental element of feedback: the ability to react to a stimulus while already in motion. Approach. Human and monkey subjects performed a center-out reach task which was, on occasion, interrupted with a stimulus cue that instructed a change in reach target. Main results. Subjects generally responded faster to tactile cues than to visual cues. However, when we delivered cues via microstimuation in a monkey, its response was slower on average than for both tactile and visual cues. Significance. Tactile and microstimulation feedback can be used to rapidly adjust movements mid-flight. The relatively slow speed of microstimulation is surprising and warrants further investigation. Overall, these results highlight the importance of considering temporal aspects of feedback when designing alternative forms of feedback for BCIs.

  10. Aspect and soil water repellency controlling water erosion in dry Mediterranean environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabarron-Galeote, Miguel A.; Martínez-Murillo, Juan F.; Quesada, Miguel A.; Ruiz-Sinoga, José D.

    2014-05-01

    Soil hydrological response in Mediterranean areas is usually highly complex due to the strong spatial variability. This fact is amplified by the marked seasonality of precipitations, which provokes dramatic changes in vegetation cover and soil properties, such as soil water content or soil water repellency (SWR). The goal of this study is to shed light on the relations between SWR, aspect and vegetation, determining the soil hydrological and erosive response throughout the rainy period in different microenvironments. Erosion plots were set up in the north- and the south-facing hillslope, in shrub-covered as well in inter-shrub patches, and rainfall, runoff, sediments and SWR were monitored. Soils showed water repellency at the end of the dry season in both microenvironments of the north-facing hillslope but only in covered patches of the south-facing one. With the onset of the wet season, SWR disappeared and runoff coefficients decrease dramatically in the north-facing hillslope, revealing the importance of SWR in the hydrological response. In the south-facing hillslope seasonal changes were less important and the hydrological behaviour was mainly modulated by the vegetation pattern. Sediment losses were also affected by SWR and it decreased in the wet season when repellency disappeared. Regarding precipitation, the main factor determining the hydrological and erosive response was rainfall intensity, regardless of the rainfall depth of the event.

  11. The MCAO systems within LINC-NIRVANA: control aspects beyond wavefront correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertram, T.; Arcidiacono, C.; Berwein, J.; Bizenberger, P.; Briegel, F.; Diolaiti, E.; Farinato, J.; Gässler, W.; Herbst, T. M.; Hofferbert, R.; Kittmann, F.; Kürster, M.; Ragazzoni, R.; Schreiber, L.; Trowitzsch, J.; Viotto, V.

    2010-07-01

    LINC-NIRVANA is the near-infrared homothetic imaging camera for the Large Binocular Telescope. Once operational, it will provide an unprecedented combination of angular resolution, sensitivity and field of view. Its layer-oriented MCAO systems (one for each arm of the interferometer) are conjugated to the ground layer and an additional layer in the upper atmosphere. In this contribution MCAO wavefront control is discussed in the context of the overall control scheme for LINC-NIRVANA. Special attention is paid to a set of auxiliary control tasks which are mandatory for MCAO operation: The Fields of View of each wavefront sensor in the instrument have to be derotated independent from each other and independently from the science field. Any wavefront information obtained by the sensors has to be matched to the time invariant modes of the deformable mirrors in the system. The tip/tilt control scheme is outlined, in which atmospheric, but also instrumental tip/tilt corrections are sensed with the high layer wavefront sensor and corrected by the adaptive secondary mirror of the LBT. Slow image motion effects on the science detector have to be considered, which are caused by flexure in the non-common path between AO and the science camera, atmospheric differential refraction, and alignment tolerances of the derotators. Last but not least: The sensor optics (pyramids) have to be accurately positioned at the images of natural reference stars.

  12. The aspect of vector control using the asynchronous traction motor in locomotives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lionginas Liudvinavi?ius; Leonas Povilas Lingaitis; Stasys Dailydka; Virgilijus Jastremskas

    2009-01-01

    The article examines curves controlling asynchronous traction motors increasingly used in locomotive electric drives the main task of which is to create a tractive effort?speed curve of an ideal locomotive Fk = f(v), including a hyperbolic area the curve of which will create conditions showing that energy created by the diesel engine of diesel locomotives (electric locomotives and in case

  13. Sediment Transport and Control of Keelung River - From Watershed Management Aspect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, K.-L.; Ho, C.-C.; Lin, J.-Y.; Tsao, H.-S.

    2012-04-01

    Keelung River flows through mountainous area across New Taipei City and Taipei City. The total length is more than 60km. The average rainfall in this watershed ranges from 2000 mm to 5000 mm (1971~2011). Landslide and erosion occurred with heavy rainfall and typhoon events, which is 3~4 in average per year. Flooding occurred in Hsichih area with heavy rainfall and high tide. In order to control flooding, three major engineering control projects were held before 1998 to 2005. The engineering control methods including reshape of river line, normal embankment and ecological embankment, and a new constructed flow path in order to let overflow flood passes through tunnel to another watershed directly to the sea. The section profile of river depth was measured every year since 1960s. This data provides high quality for sediment transportation. Remote sensed data was adopted to digitize land use condition along the river to discuss temporal existence of flood lands, landslides, and green coverage, which including trees and grass lands. The discussion of erosion-deposition relationship in each convergence of river, major engineering treatments is discussed in this research. Moreover, the contribution of land usage change, green coverage and landslide to sediment is discussed and hopefully can provide suggestions to engineering control method and watershed management.

  14. Molecular and genetic aspects of controlling the soilborne necrotrophic pathogens Rhizoctonia and Pythium.

    PubMed

    Okubara, Patricia A; Dickman, Martin B; Blechl, Ann E

    2014-11-01

    The soilborne necrotrophic pathogens Rhizoctonia and Pythium infect a wide range of crops in the US and worldwide. These pathogens pose challenges to growers because the diseases they cause are not adequately controlled by fungicides, rotation or, for many hosts, natural genetic resistance. Although a combination of management practices are likely to be required for control of Rhizoctonia and Pythium, genetic resistance remains a key missing component. This review discusses the recent deployment of introduced genes and genome-based information for control of Rhizoctonia, with emphasis on three pathosystems: Rhizoctonia solani AG8 and wheat, R. solani AG1-IA and rice, and R. solani AG3 or AG4 and potato. Molecular mechanisms underlying disease suppression will be addressed, if appropriate. Although less is known about genes and factors suppressive to Pythium, pathogen genomics and biological control studies are providing useful leads to effectors and antifungal factors. Prospects for resistance to Rhizoctonia and Pythium spp. will continue to improve with growing knowledge of pathogenicity strategies, host defense gene action relative to the pathogen infection process, and the role of environmental factors on pathogen-host interactions. PMID:25438786

  15. Agronomic aspects of strip intercropping lettuce with alyssum for biological control of aphids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic growers in California typically devote 5 to 10% of the area in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) fields to insectary strips of alyssum (Lobularia maritime (L.) Desv.) to attract syrphid flies (Syrphidae) whose larvae provide biological control of aphids. A 2-year study with organic romaine lettuc...

  16. Association aspects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kouhei Sakurai; Hidehiko Masuharat; Naoyasu Ubayashi; Saeko Matsuura; Seiichi Komiya

    2004-01-01

    We propose a linguistic mechanism for AspectJ-like languages that concisely associates aspect instances to object groups. The mechanism, which supports association aspects, extends the per-object aspects in AspectJ by allowing an aspect instance to be associated to a group of objects, and by providing a new pointcut primitive to specify aspect instances as execution contexts of advice. With association aspects,

  17. Consensus Paper: Roles of the Cerebellum in Motor Control—The Diversity of Ideas on Cerebellar Involvement in Movement

    PubMed Central

    Bower, James M.; Conforto, Adriana Bastos; Delgado-García, José M.; da Guarda, Suzete Nascimento Farias; Gerwig, Marcus; Habas, Christophe; Hagura, Nobuhiro; Ivry, Richard B.; Mariën, Peter; Molinari, Marco; Naito, Eiichi; Nowak, Dennis A.; Ben Taib, Nordeyn Oulad; Pelisson, Denis; Tesche, Claudia D.; Tilikete, Caroline; Timmann, Dagmar

    2015-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in developing models of cerebellar function in sensorimotor control, as well as in identifying key problems that are the focus of current investigation. In this consensus paper, we discuss the literature on the role of the cerebellar circuitry in motor control, bringing together a range of different viewpoints. The following topics are covered: oculomotor control, classical conditioning (evidence in animals and in humans), cerebellar control of motor speech, control of grip forces, control of voluntary limb movements, timing, sensorimotor synchronization, control of corticomotor excitability, control of movement-related sensory data acquisition, cerebro-cerebellar interaction in visuokinesthetic perception of hand movement, functional neuroimaging studies, and magnetoencephalographic mapping of cortico-cerebellar dynamics. While the field has yet to reach a consensus on the precise role played by the cerebellum in movement control, the literature has witnessed the emergence of broad proposals that address cerebellar function at multiple levels of analysis. This paper highlights the diversity of current opinion, providing a framework for debate and discussion on the role of this quintessential vertebrate structure. PMID:22161499

  18. Consensus paper: roles of the cerebellum in motor control--the diversity of ideas on cerebellar involvement in movement.

    PubMed

    Manto, Mario; Bower, James M; Conforto, Adriana Bastos; Delgado-García, José M; da Guarda, Suzete Nascimento Farias; Gerwig, Marcus; Habas, Christophe; Hagura, Nobuhiro; Ivry, Richard B; Mariën, Peter; Molinari, Marco; Naito, Eiichi; Nowak, Dennis A; Oulad Ben Taib, Nordeyn; Pelisson, Denis; Tesche, Claudia D; Tilikete, Caroline; Timmann, Dagmar

    2012-06-01

    Considerable progress has been made in developing models of cerebellar function in sensorimotor control, as well as in identifying key problems that are the focus of current investigation. In this consensus paper, we discuss the literature on the role of the cerebellar circuitry in motor control, bringing together a range of different viewpoints. The following topics are covered: oculomotor control, classical conditioning (evidence in animals and in humans), cerebellar control of motor speech, control of grip forces, control of voluntary limb movements, timing, sensorimotor synchronization, control of corticomotor excitability, control of movement-related sensory data acquisition, cerebro-cerebellar interaction in visuokinesthetic perception of hand movement, functional neuroimaging studies, and magnetoencephalographic mapping of cortico-cerebellar dynamics. While the field has yet to reach a consensus on the precise role played by the cerebellum in movement control, the literature has witnessed the emergence of broad proposals that address cerebellar function at multiple levels of analysis. This paper highlights the diversity of current opinion, providing a framework for debate and discussion on the role of this quintessential vertebrate structure. PMID:22161499

  19. Electrical Engineering (EE) is a diverse discipline encompassing computer and information systems, controls,

    E-print Network

    Rohs, Remo

    70 electrical Electrical Engineering (EE) is a diverse discipline encompassing computer information processing. ProgrAmS AVAilAble · ElectricalEngineering Bachelor of Science 131 units · ComputerEngineeringand Computer Science Bachelor of Science (see page 69) 132 units · ElectricalEngineering(Computers) degree

  20. Electrical Engineering (EE) is a diverse discipline encompassing computer and information systems, controls,

    E-print Network

    Rohs, Remo

    70 electrical Electrical Engineering (EE) is a diverse discipline encompassing computer information processing. mAjorS & AreAS of emPhASiS · ElectricalEngineering · ComputerEngineering& Computer Science (see page 69) · ElectricalEngineering Emphasis in Computers See pages 76-77 for the curriculum

  1. Chemical Control of Fish and Fish Eggs in the Garrison Diversion Unit, North Dakota

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. L. Marking; T. D. Bills; J. J. Rach; S. J. Grabowski

    1983-01-01

    The Garrison Diversion Unit involves the proposed transfer of Missouri River water to a large part of eastern North Dakota for agricultural and industrial uses. Some of the water would flow into Canada through the Red River of the North. Canadian officials are concerned that some nonindigenous species might be introduced to their waters; namely, gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum), rainbow

  2. Comparison of nematode communities in Baltic and North Sea sublittoral, permeable sands Diversity and environmental control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban-Malinga, Barbara; Hedtkamp, Stefanie I. C.; van Beusekom, Justus E. E.; Wiktor, Józef; W?s?awski, Jan Marcin

    2006-10-01

    The structure of free-living nematode communities was investigated seasonally at two sandy locations representing typical shallow sublittoral, permeable environments of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. At the Baltic study site the chlorophyll and organic carbon concentrations in the sediment were, on average, four times lower than at the North Sea. Highest nematode densities (1674-4100 ind. 10 cm -2) and a higher number of free-living nematode genera (66) were recorded in the North Sea (Baltic: 206-1227 ind. 10 cm -2, 30 genera). Despite lower salinity and lower food availability the less dense and less diverse Baltic nematode community was similar in generic composition to the North Sea community. At the North Sea site, all trophic groups according to Wieser's classification were present with omnivores/predators, dominated by Viscosia, prevailing and followed by epistrate-feeders. In the food-limited Baltic community, non-selective deposit feeders (mainly Ascolaimus, Axonolaimus and Daptonema) and omnivores/predators dominated by Enoplolaimus were the most abundant trophic groups while selective deposit feeders were absent or their contribution was negligible. An analysis of the vertical generic distribution revealed highest diversity of the Baltic community in deeper sediment layers, below the sediment surface affected by ripple migration and near the interface of oxic and anoxic conditions. The diversity pattern in the North Sea sediment was more variable but generally showed high diversity in the upper centimetre of the sediment. These observations suggest that food supply and sediment oxygenation are the most important factors influencing the vertical pattern of nematode generic diversity in sublittoral, permeable sands.

  3. FGF-receptor signalling controls neural cell diversity in the zebrafish hindbrain by regulating olig2 and sox9

    PubMed Central

    Esain, Virginie; Postlethwait, John H.; Charnay, Patrick; Ghislain, Julien

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the generation of neural cell diversity are the subject of intense investigation, which has highlighted the involvement of different signalling molecules including Shh, BMP and Wnt. By contrast, relatively little is known about FGF in this process. In this report we identify an FGF-receptor-dependent pathway in zebrafish hindbrain neural progenitors that give rise to somatic motoneurons, oligodendrocyte progenitors and differentiating astroglia. Using a combination of chemical and genetic approaches to conditionally inactivate FGF-receptor signalling, we investigate the role of this pathway. We show that FGF-receptor signalling is not essential for the survival or maintenance of hindbrain neural progenitors but controls their fate by coordinately regulating key transcription factors. First, by cooperating with Shh, FGF-receptor signalling controls the expression of olig2, a patterning gene essential for the specification of somatic motoneurons and oligodendrocytes. Second, FGF-receptor signalling controls the development of both oligodendrocyte progenitors and astroglia through the regulation of sox9, a gliogenic transcription factor the function of which we show to be conserved in the zebrafish hindbrain. Overall, for the first time in vivo, our results reveal a mechanism of FGF in the control of neural cell diversity. PMID:20023158

  4. The rock fracture experiment with a drive control: A spatial aspect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuksenko, V.; Tomilin, N.; Chmel, A.

    2007-02-01

    The statistical analysis of the space-time distributions of acoustical signals emitted from the compressed samples of Westerly granite is presented. The samples were uniaxially loaded in two regimes, one of which included a feedback loop controlled by the current acoustical emission (AE) activity. The distribution of distances between newly-appeared hypocenters follows the power law with the exponent that does not depend on the mode of loading. In both regimes, a transient period of the decorrelated accumulation of damaged sites was revealed between the initial and focal stages of the fracture process. The Hurst analysis indicates a more pronounced trend to planar organization of final damage structure in the case of AE-controlled loading.

  5. Authentic and Hubristic Pride: Differential Relations to Aspects of Goal Regulation, Affect, and Self-Control

    PubMed Central

    Carver, Charles S.; Johnson, Sheri L.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the relationships of trait-like tendencies towards authentic and hubristic pride (Tracy & Robins, 2004) with goal-regulation tendencies, affective tendencies, and impulsive traits. Undergraduates (n = 936) completed the 14-item measure of authentic and hubristic pride (Tracy & Robins, 2007b) and a battery of other self-report measures. The two types of pride correlated with distinct profiles of goal regulation tendencies, affective tendencies, and self-control. Authentic pride correlated with measures of self-control, whereas hubristic pride was related to measures of impulsivity and aggression. Overall, the differential pattern of correlations fits with a model in which authentic pride is tied to adaptive achievement and goal engagement, whereas hubristic pride is tied to extrinsic values of public recognition and social dominance. PMID:21769159

  6. Authentic and Hubristic Pride: Differential Relations to Aspects of Goal Regulation, Affect, and Self-Control.

    PubMed

    Carver, Charles S; Johnson, Sheri L

    2010-12-01

    This study examines the relationships of trait-like tendencies towards authentic and hubristic pride (Tracy & Robins, 2004) with goal-regulation tendencies, affective tendencies, and impulsive traits. Undergraduates (n = 936) completed the 14-item measure of authentic and hubristic pride (Tracy & Robins, 2007b) and a battery of other self-report measures. The two types of pride correlated with distinct profiles of goal regulation tendencies, affective tendencies, and self-control. Authentic pride correlated with measures of self-control, whereas hubristic pride was related to measures of impulsivity and aggression. Overall, the differential pattern of correlations fits with a model in which authentic pride is tied to adaptive achievement and goal engagement, whereas hubristic pride is tied to extrinsic values of public recognition and social dominance. PMID:21769159

  7. Adapting plans in progress in distributed supervisory work: aspects of complexity, coupling, and control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom Kontogiannis

    2010-01-01

    Distributed supervisory control systems often rely on complex and centralized plans to cope with a variety of unanticipated\\u000a situations. Replanning requires practitioners to forgo standard procedures in favor of making simple plans without simplifying,\\u000a managing task coupling, and anticipating team needs to provide decentralized and elaborate plans. This article proposes a\\u000a plan classification scheme to study what features of plans

  8. River Diversions and Shoaling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph V. Letter; Nolan K. Raphelt

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: This Coastal and Hydraulics Engineering Technical Note describes the current knowledge of the potential impacts of river diversions on channel morphology, especially induced sedimentation in the river channel. Processes considered in this note are those most pertinent to riverine, as opposed to estuarine, aspects of diversions. In particular, this note provides general guidance on the physical process issues, outlines

  9. Controllable fabrication of periodic arrays of high-aspect-ratio micro-nano hierarchical structures and their superhydrophobicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zhibo; Jiang, Chengyu; Li, Xiangming; Ye, Fang; Yuan, Weizheng

    2013-09-01

    This paper demonstrates a flexible and controllable fabrication of vertically aligned and high-aspect-ratio (HAR) micro-nano hierarchical structures using conventional micro-technologies. We first masked the nanopatterns on a photoresist mold by shifting the same photomask, which could be performed using conventional contact microlithography. Thereby replicating nanopatterns onto an aluminium mold and successfully fabricating silicon nanopillar arrays about 300 nm in diameter and 5 µm in height via the deep reactive etching (DRIE) process. We also fabricated micro-nano hierarchical structures with variable aspect ratios using the proposed nanopattern technology and DRIE process without using any special nanopatterning equipment or techniques. The proposed method not only simplified the fabrication process but also produced HAR (higher than 15) structures. We also investigate the replica molding steps from the fabricated silicon stamp to a UV-curable polymer replica using a PDMS mold and conventional nano-imprinting, where each nanopillar diameter was 320 nm with 95% fidelity. As a result, the hierarchical structure arrays show stable superhydrophobic surface properties with a contact angle of approximately 160°. Owing to the cost efficiency of mass production and the fidelity of the strategy, the methodology could provide a general approach for fabricating complex three-dimensional periodic hierarchical structures onto a single chip and can be applied to various fields of multifunctional applications.

  10. Temporal patterns of diversity: Assessing the biotic and abiotic controls on ant assemblages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunn, R.R.; Parker, C.R.; Sanders, N.J.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we use 12 months of data from 11 ant assemblages to test whether seasonal variation in ant diversity is governed by either the structuring influences of interspecific competition or environmental conditions. Because the importance of competition might vary along environmental gradients, we also test whether the signature of competition depends on elevation. We find little evidence that competition structures the seasonal patterns of activity in the ant assemblages considered, but find support for the effects of temperature on seasonal patterns of diversity, especially at low-elevation sites. Although, in general, both competition and the environment interact to structure ant assemblages, our results suggest that environmental conditions are the primary force structuring the seasonal activity of the ant assemblages studied here. ?? 2007 The Linnean Society of London.

  11. Soil, biomass, and management of semi-natural vegetation – Part II. Factors controlling species diversity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    André P. Schaffers

    2002-01-01

    Using a wide range of conditions and plant community types, species diversity was investigated in relation to edaphic and non-edaphic site conditions, management, and biomass characteristics. Both standing biomass and aboveground production were investigated, and their effects compared. Three taxonomic assemblages were studied: (1) vascular plants only, (2) bryophytes also included, (3) terrestrial lichens included as well. Using a multivariate approach, both species

  12. Source, significance, and control of indoor microbial aerosols: human health aspects.

    PubMed Central

    Spendlove, J C; Fannin, K F

    1983-01-01

    The usual profile of indoor microbial aerosols probably has little meaning to healthy people. However, hazardous microbial aerosols can penetrate buildings or be generated within them; in either case, they can have significant adverse effects on human health. These aerosols can be controlled to some extent by eliminating or reducing their sources. In this regard, careful consideration should be given in building construction to the design of ventilation and air-conditioning systems and to the flooring material, so that these systems and the flooring material will not act as microbial reservoirs. It is evident that in spite of the considerable body of data available on indoor microbial aerosols, little is known of their true significance to human health except in terms of overt epidemic disease. Continued research is needed in this area, particularly in respect to situations of high risk in such locations as hospitals and schools for young children. PMID:6867255

  13. Contamination control aspects of attaching waste drums to the WIPP Waste Characterization Chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Rubick, L.M.; Burke, L.L.

    1998-12-31

    Argonne National Laboratory West (ANL-W) is verifying the characterization and repackaging of contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) mixed waste in support of the Waste Isolation Pilot Program (WIPP) project located in Carlsbad, New Mexico. The WIPP Waste Characterization Chamber (WCC) was designed to allow opening of transuranic waste drums for this process. The WCC became operational in March of 1994 and has characterized approximately 240 drums of transuranic waste. The waste drums are internally contaminated with high levels of transuranic radionuclides. Attaching and detaching drums to the glove box posed serious contamination control problems. Prior to characterizing waste, several drum attachment techniques and materials were evaluated. An inexpensive HEPA filter molded into the bagging material helps with venting during detachment. The current techniques and procedures used to attach and detach transuranic waste drums to the WCC are described.

  14. Coupling Temperature Control with Electrochemically Modulated Liquid Chromatography: Fundamental Aspects and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lisa M. Ponton

    2004-12-19

    The primary focus of the doctoral research presented herein has been the integration of temperature control into electrochemically modulated liquid chromatography (EMLC). The combination of temperature control and the tunable characteristics of carbonaceous EMLC stationary phases have been invaluable in deciphering the subtleties of the retention mechanism. The effects of temperature and E{sub app} on the retention of several naphthalene disulfonates were therefore examined by the van' Hoff relationship. The results indicate that while the retention of both compounds is exothermic at levels comparable to that in many reversed-phase separations, the potential dependence of the separation is actually entropically affected in a manner paralleling that of several classical ion exchange systems. Furthermore, the retention of small inorganic anions at constant temperature also showed evidence of an ion exchange type of mechanism. While a more complete mechanistic description will come from examining the thermodynamics of retention for a wider variety of analytes, this research has laid the groundwork for full exploitation of temperature as a tool to develop retention rules for EMLC. Operating EMLC at elevated temperature and flow conditions has decreased analysis time and has enabled the separation of analytes not normally achievable on a carbon stationary phase. The separation of several aromatic sulfonates was achieved in less than 1 min, a reduction of analysis time by more than a factor of 20 as compared to room temperature separations. The use of higher operating temperatures also facilitated the separation of this mixture with an entirely aqueous mobile phase in less than 2 min. This methodology was extended to the difficult separation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on PGC. This study also brought to light the mechanistic implications of the unique retention behavior of these analytes through variations of the mobile phase composition.

  15. Clinical Aspects of the Control of Plasma Volume at Microgravity and During Return to One Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    1995-01-01

    Plasma volume is reduced by 10%-20% within 24 to 48 h of exposure to simulated or actual microgravity. The clinical importance of microgravity-induced hypovolemia is manifested by its relationship with orthostatic intolerance and reduced VO2max after return to one gravity (1G). Since there is no evidence to suggest plasma volume reduction during microgravity is associated with thirst or renal dysfunctions, a diuresis induced by an immediate blood volume shift to the central circulation appears responsible for microgravity-induced hypovolemia. Since most astronauts choose to restrict their fluid intake before a space mission, absence of increased urine output during actual spaceflight may be explained by low central venous pressure (CVP) which accompanies dehydration. Compelling evidence suggests that prolonged reduction in CVP during exposure to microgravity reflects a 'resetting' to a lower operating point which acts to limit plasma volume expansion during attempts to increase fluid intake. In groudbase and spaceflight experiments, successful restoration and maintenance of plasma volume prior to returning to an upright posture may depend upon development of treatments that can return CVP to its baseline 10 operating point. Fluid-loading and LBNP have not proved completely effective in restoring plasma volume, suggesting that they may not provide the stimulus to elevate the CVP operating point. On the other, exercise, which can chronically increase CVP, has been effective in expanding plasma volume when combined with adequate dietary intake of fluid and electrolytes. The success of designing experiments to understand the physiological mechanisms of and development of effective countermeasures for the control of plasma volume in microgravity and during return to one gravity will depend upon testing that can be conducted under standardized controlled baseline condi

  16. Clinical aspects of the control of plasma volume at microgravity and during return to one gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.

    1996-01-01

    Plasma volume is reduced by 10-20% within 24-48 h of exposure to simulated or actual microgravity. The clinical importance of microgravity induced hypovolemia is manifested by its relationship with orthostatic intolerance and reduced maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) after return to one gravity (1G). Since there is no evidence to suggest that plasma volume reduction during microgravity is associated with thirst or renal dysfunctions, a diuresis induced by an immediate blood volume shift to the central circulation appears responsible for microgravity-induced hypovolemia. Since most astronauts choose to restrict their fluid intake before a space mission, absence of increased urine output during actual space flight may be explained by low central venous pressure (CVP) which accompanies dehydration. Compelling evidence suggests that prolonged reduction in CVP during exposure to microgravity reflects a "resetting" to a lower operating point, which acts to limit plasma volume expansion during attempts to increase fluid intake. In ground based and space flight experiments, successful restoration and maintenance of plasma volume prior to returning to an upright posture may depend upon development of treatments that can return CVP to its baseline IG operating point. Fluid-loading and lower body negative pressure (LBNP) have not proved completely effective in restoring plasma volume, suggesting that they may not provide the stimulus to elevate the CVP operating point. On the other hand, exercise, which can chronically increase CVP, has been effective in expanding plasma volume when combined with adequate dietary intake of fluid and electrolytes. The success of designing experiments to understand the physiological mechanisms of and development of effective counter measures for the control of plasma volume in microgravity and during return to IG will depend upon testing that can be conducted under standardized controlled baseline conditions during both ground-based and space flight investigations.

  17. In-line filtration minimizes organ dysfunction: New aspects from a prospective, randomized, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Infused particles induce thrombogenesis, impair microcirculation and modulate immune response. We have previously shown in critically ill children, that particle-retentive in-line filtration reduced the overall complication rate of severe events, length of stay and duration of mechanical ventilation. We now evaluated the influence of in-line filtration on different organ function and thereby elucidated the potential underlying pathophysiological effects of particle infusion. Methods In this single-centre, prospective, randomized controlled trial 807 critically ill children were assigned to either control (n?=?406) or filter group (n?=?401), the latter receiving in-line filtration for complete infusion therapy. Both groups were compared regarding the differences of incidence rates and its 95% confidence interval (CI) of different organ dysfunction as defined by the International Pediatric Sepsis Consensus Conference 2005. Results The incidence rates of respiratory (?5.06%; 95% CI, ?9.52 to ?0.59%), renal (?3.87%; 95% CI, ?7.58 to ?0.15%) and hematologic (?3.89%; 95% CI, ?7.26 to ?0.51%) dysfunction were decreased in the filter group. No difference was demonstrated for the occurrence rates of cardiovascular, hepatic, or neurologic dysfunction between both groups. Conclusions In-line filtration has beneficial effects on the preservation of hematologic, renal and respiratory function in critically ill patients. The presented clinical data further support our hypothesis regarding potential harmful effects of particles. In critically ill patients infused particles may lead to further deterioration of the microcirculation, induce a systemic hypercoagulability and inflammation with consecutive negative effects on organ function. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov number; NCT00209768 PMID:23384207

  18. Benthic control freaks: Effects of the tubiculous amphipod Haploops nirae on the specific diversity and functional structure of benthic communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigolet, Carinne; Dubois, Stanislas F.; Thiébaut, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Haploops nirae is a gregarious tubiculous amphipod which extended its habitat over thousands of hectares in shallow waters of South Brittany bays (Bay of Biscay, Atlantic) over the last decades and created uniquely large and dense tube mats. In the bay of Concarneau, we investigated the specific diversity (i.e. species richness and species composition) and the functional structure (using biological traits) of the macrofauna associated with this Haploops community as a comparison with several surrounding soft-sediment communities to determine the effect of this engineer species on ecosystem functions. We showed that the occurrence of Haploops tubes and individuals significantly modifies sediment features (e.g. change in sediment grain size, increase in C and N organic content) but also largely affect species diversity and benthic composition. The species richness was significantly higher in Haploops community but the species assemblage associated with Haploops habitat was very homogeneous compared to the neighboring habitats and unique with 33% of all species exclusively found in this community. Multivariate analysis (dbRDA) revealed that Haploops density was by far the factor explaining the variation in species composition of benthic communities. No differences in species diversity and assemblage were detected in relationship to Haploops density. A biological trait analysis performed on the whole ecosystem (Haploops included) revealed that Haploops largely dominates the functional structure of the Haploops community by its own functional traits. When performed on selected traits of the associated fauna only (Haploops excluded) the functional structure of the Haploops community was characterized by a greatly reduced proportion of small to medium long lived, sensitive to disturbance, free living or burrowing/tube-building filter-feeding species. H. nirae appears to be a bioengineer and a foundation species that largely modifies its hydro-sedimentary features, controlling diversity and abundances of associated species, and creating a complex set of positive and negative interactions so that a unique benthic assemblage is found in sediments they colonized.

  19. Afferent and Efferent Aspects of Mandibular Sensorimotor Control in Adults who Stutter

    PubMed Central

    Daliri, Ayoub; Prokopenko, Roman A.; Max, Ludo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Individuals who stutter show sensorimotor deficiencies in speech and nonspeech movements. For the mandibular system, we dissociated the sense of kinesthesia from the efferent control component to examine whether kinesthetic integrity itself is compromised in stuttering or whether deficiencies occur only when generating motor commands. Method We investigated 11 stuttering and 11 nonstuttering adults’ kinesthetic sensitivity threshold and kinesthetic accuracy for passive jaw movements as well as their minimal displacement threshold and positioning accuracy for active jaw movements. We also investigated the correlation with an anatomical index of jaw size. Results The groups showed no statistically significant differences on sensory measures for passive jaw movements. Although some stuttering individuals performed more poorly than any nonstuttering participants on the active movement tasks, between-group differences for active movements were also not statistically significant. Unlike fluent speakers, however, the stuttering group showed a statistically significant correlation between mandibular size and performance in the active and passive near-threshold tasks. Conclusions Previously reported minimal movement differences were not replicated. Instead, stuttering individuals’ performance varied with anatomical properties. These correlational results are consistent with the hypothesis that stuttering participants generate and perceive movements based on less accurate internal models of the involved neuromechanical systems. PMID:23816664

  20. Control of the temporal aspect when considering risk factors for acute otitis media.

    PubMed

    Alho, O P; Kilkku, O; Oja, H; Koivu, M; Sorri, M

    1993-04-01

    A random sample of 2512 children was monitored to age 2 years to study the biologic effects of various risk variables on acute otitis media using a new dynamic modeling that controls both the confounding effects and time dependency. Dynamic modeling proved to be superior to conventional approaches, both the random and systematic error being much smaller and the effect estimates being biologically interpretable. The major risk factors were the existence of a previous episode of acute otitis media in general (odds ratio, 2.03; 95% confidence interval [Cl], 1.81 to 2.25) or particularly during the preceding 3 months (odds ratio, 3.74; 95% Cl, 3.40 to 4.10) and attending a day nursery (odds radio, 2.06; 95% Cl, 1.81 to 2.34). As the form of day care is the only modifiable risk variable of significant importance and previous episodes entail a risk of future ones, infants should be cared for at home, particularly after they have already experienced an episode of acute otitis media. PMID:8457307

  1. Visceral leishmaniasis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: eco-epidemiological aspects and control.

    PubMed

    Marzochi, Mauro Celio de Almeida; Fagundes, Aline; Andrade, Moacir Vieira de; Souza, Marcos Barbosa de; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Mouta-Confort, Eliame; Schubach, Armando de Oliveira; Marzochi, Keyla Belizia Feldman

    2009-01-01

    From 1977 (index case) to 2006, 87 cases of visceral leishmaniasis were confirmed in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in periurban areas on the continental and coastal slopes of the Pedra Branca massif and the continental slopes of the Gericinó massif. The majority (65.5%) of the patients were more than five years old, predominantly males (61.5%), but without any difference between the sexes below the age of 14 years. The overall fatality rate was 10.4%. Two cases of visceral leishmaniasis/human immunodeficiency virus coinfection were detected. Leishmania chagasi was isolated from human and canine cases. The associations between the presence of phlebotomines and human and canine migrations, disorderly occupation involving degradation of environmental preservation areas and poor socioeconomic conditions may have created a favorable setting for the establishment and propagation of the disease. Close epidemiological surveillance associated with traditional control measures and others (active case researches, land clearing and health education), reduced the incidence of human cases from 2.8 per 100,000 inhabitants in 1981 to less than 0.01 per 100,000 since 1997. The canine infection rates decreased from 4.6% in 1984 to 1.6% in 2008. Lutzomyia longipalpis was not detected in some locations where human and canine cases occurred. In the years 2007 and 2008, no new human cases were reported, but there is a persistent and worrisome residual canine seroprevalence. PMID:19967242

  2. Performance Analysis of Fully Joint Diversity Combining, Adaptive Modulation, and Power Control Schemes

    E-print Network

    Bouida, Zied

    2010-01-14

    Sup?erieure des Communications de Tunis Co?Chairs of Advisory Committee: Dr. Khalid A. Qaraqe Dr. Jean-Francois Chamberland Adaptive modulation and diversity combining represent very important adap- tive solutions for future generations of wireless... of this thesis. First, I would like to express my gratitude to Dr. Khalid Qaraqe, Dr. Mohamed-Slim Alouini, and Dr. Jean-Francois Chamberland, whom I was fortunate enough to have as advisors. I would like to thank Dr. M-S. Alouini and Dr. K. Qaraqe for giving me...

  3. Aerodynamic and heat transfer aspects of tip and casing treatments used for turbine tip leakage control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumusel, Baris

    Axial flow turbine stages are usually designed with a gap between the tips of the rotating blades and a stationary outer casing. The presence of a strong pressure gradient across this gap drives flow from the pressure side of the blade to the suction side. This leakage flow creates a significant amount of energy loss of working fluid in the turbine stage. In a modern gas turbine engine the outer casing of the high-pressure turbine is also exposed to a combination of high flow temperatures and heat transfer coefficients. The casing is consequently subjected to high levels of convective heat transfer, a situation that is aggravated by flow unsteadiness caused by periodic blade-passing events. An experimental investigation of the aerodynamic and heat transfer effect of tip and casing treatments used in turbine tip leakage control was conducted in a large scale, low speed, rotating research turbine facility. The effects of casing treatments were investigated by measuring the total pressure field at the exit of the rotor using a high frequency response total pressure probe. A smooth wall as a baseline case was also investigated. The test cases presented include results of casing treatments with varying dimensions for tip gap height of t/h=2.5%. The results of the rotor exit total pressure indicate that the casing treatment significantly reduced the leakage mass flow rate and the momentum deficit in the core of the tip vortex. The reductions obtained in the tip vortex size and strength influenced the tip-side passage vortex and other typical core flow characteristics in the passage. Casing treatments with the highest ridge height was the most effective in reducing the total pressure loss in the leakage flow of the test blades. This was observed at a radius near the core of the tip vortex. It appears that casing treatments with the highest ridge height is also the most effective from a global point of view, as shown by the passage averaged pressure coefficient obtained in the last 20% of the blade height. The effect of the new blade tip concept, inclined squealer tip, on tip leakage flow with and without casing treatments is also investigated. The results of the rotor exit total pressure indicate that the inclined squealer tip arrangement has significant effects on both passage core flow and the interaction between the leakage vortex and the tip side passage vortex. A steady-state method of measuring convective heat transfer coefficient on the casing of an axial flow turbine is also developed for the comparison of various casing surface and tip designs used for turbine performance improvements. The free-stream reference temperature, especially in the tip gap region of the casing varies monotonically from the rotor inlet to rotor exit due to work extraction in the stage. In a heat transfer problem of this nature, the definition of the free-stream temperature is not as straight forward as constant free-stream temperature type problems. The accurate determination of the convective heat transfer coefficient depends on the magnitude of the local freestream reference temperature varying in axial direction, from the rotor inlet to exit. The current investigation explains a strategy for the simultaneous determination of the steadystate heat transfer coefficient and free-stream reference temperature on the smooth casing of a single stage rotating turbine facility. The heat transfer approach is also applicable to casing surfaces that have surface treatments for tip leakage control. The overall uncertainty of the method developed is between 5% and 8% of the convective heat transfer coefficient. The test cases presented show that the casing heat transfer is affected by the tip gap height. The heat transfer coefficient increases as the tip gap increases for both with and without casing treatments. It is also shown that the effect of ridge height on heat transfer coefficient is negligible for tip gap height of t/h=0.9%.

  4. Does Intraspecific Size Variation in a Predator Affect Its Diet Diversity and Top-Down Control of Prey?

    PubMed Central

    Ingram, Travis; Stutz, William E.; Bolnick, Daniel I.

    2011-01-01

    It has long been known that intraspecific variation impacts evolutionary processes, but only recently have its potential ecological effects received much attention. Theoretical models predict that genetic or phenotypic variance within species can alter interspecific interactions, and experiments have shown that genotypic diversity in clonal species can impact a wide range of ecological processes. To extend these studies to quantitative trait variation within populations, we experimentally manipulated the variance in body size of threespine stickleback in enclosures in a natural lake environment. We found that body size of stickleback in the lake is correlated with prey size and (to a lesser extent) composition, and that stickleback can exert top-down control on their benthic prey in enclosures. However, a six-fold contrast in body size variance had no effect on the degree of diet variation among individuals, or on the abundance or composition of benthic or pelagic prey. Interestingly, post-hoc analyses revealed suggestive correlations between the degree of diet variation and the strength of top-down control by stickleback. Our negative results indicate that, unless the correlation between morphology and diet is very strong, ecological variation among individuals may be largely decoupled from morphological variance. Consequently we should be cautious in our interpretation both of theoretical models that assume perfect correlations between morphology and diet, and of empirical studies that use morphological variation as a proxy for resource use diversity. PMID:21687670

  5. Plant traits mediate consumer and nutrient control on plant community productivity and diversity.

    PubMed

    Eskelinen, Anu; Harrison, Susan; Tuomi, Maria

    2012-12-01

    The interactive effects of consumers and nutrients on terrestrial plant communities, and the role of plant functional traits in mediating these responses, are poorly known. We carried out a six-year full-factorial field experiment using mammalian herbivore exclusion and fertilization in two habitat types (fertile and infertile alpine tundra heaths) that differed in plant functional traits related to resource acquisition and palatability. Infertile habitats were dominated by species with traits indicative of a slow-growing strategy: high C:N ratio, low specific leaf area, and high condensed tannins. We found that herbivory counteracted the effect of fertilization on biomass, and that this response differed between the two habitats and was correlated with plant functional traits. Live biomass dominated the treatment responses in infertile habitats, whereas litter accumulation dominated the treatment responses in fertile habitats and was strongly negatively associated with resident community tannin concentration. Species richness declined under herbivore exclusion and fertilization in fertile habitats, where litter accumulation was greatest. Community means of plant C:N ratio predicted treatment effects on diversity: fertilization decreased and herbivory increased dominance in communities originally dominated by plants with high C:N, while fertilization increased and herbivory diminished dominance in communities where low C:N species were abundant. Our results highlight the close interdependence between consumer effects, soil nutrients, and plant functional traits and suggest that plant traits may provide an improved understanding of how consumers and nutrients influence plant community productivity and diversity. PMID:23431600

  6. Modeling urban storm rainfall runoff from diverse underlying surfaces and application for control design in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Wei; Guo, Bobo; Hao, Fanghua; Huang, Haobo; Li, Junqi; Gong, Yongwei

    2012-12-30

    Managing storm rainfall runoff is paramount in semi-arid regions with urban development. In Beijing, pollution prevention in urban storm runoff and storm water utilization has been identified as the primary strategy for urban water management. In this paper, we sampled runoff during storm rainfall events and analyzed the concentration of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS) and total phosphorus (TP) in the runoff. Furthermore, the first flush effect of storm rainfall from diverse underlying surfaces was also analyzed. With the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM), the different impervious rates of underlying surfaces during the storm runoff process were expressed. The removal rates of three typical pollutants and their interactions with precipitation and underlying surfaces were identified. From these rates, the scenarios regarding the urban storm runoff pollution loading from different designs of underlying previous rates were assessed with the SWMM. First flush effect analysis showed that the first 20% of the storm runoff should be discarded, which can help in utilizing the storm water resource. The results of this study suggest that the SWMM can express in detail the storm water pollution patterns from diverse underlying surfaces in Beijing, which significantly affected water quality. The scenario analysis demonstrated that impervious rate adjustment has the potential to reduce runoff peak and decrease pollution loading. PMID:23122620

  7. Practical and analytic aspects of using friend controls in case-control studies: experience from a case-control study of childhood cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bunin, Greta R; Vardhanabhuti, Saran; Lin, Agueda; Anschuetz, Greta L; Mitra, Nandita

    2012-01-01

    Summary The authors report empirical data on the use of friend controls, specifically response rates, case-control concordance, and analytic approaches. The data derive from a North American multi-institutional study of childhood cancer that was conducted in 2002–2007 and that focused on paternal exposures. Case parents nominated friends as potential controls; up to 3 controls participated per case. For 137 (69%) of the 199 case families, at least 1 control participated. Of 374 potential controls contacted, 247 (66%) participated. Case fathers with controls were markedly more likely to be non-Hispanic white, college graduates, and non-smokers compared to case fathers without controls. Odds ratios adjusted for demographic characteristics were generally similar but occasionally differed between analyses that included only members of matched sets and those that included all participants, i.e. controls and cases with and without controls. For demographic characteristics, simulations demonstrated that the observed concordance of cases and controls within matched sets exceeded that expected under random ascertainment, indicating probable overmatching. However, the observed concordance of smoking and other exposures was similar to the expectation under random ascertainment suggesting little overmatching on exposures. Although not ideal, friend controls were convenient, had a reasonably high response rate, and provided controls closely matched on race/ethnicity, education, and age. PMID:21819422

  8. Arabidopsis Ovate Family Proteins, a Novel Transcriptional Repressor Family, Control Multiple Aspects of Plant Growth and Development

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jianjun; Zeng, Qingning; Ellis, Brian E.; Chen, Jin-Gui

    2011-01-01

    Background The Arabidopsis genome contains 18 genes that are predicted to encode Ovate Family Proteins (AtOFPs), a protein family characterized by a conserved OVATE domain, an approximately 70-amino acid domain that was originally found in tomato OVATE protein. Among AtOFP family members, AtOFP1 has been shown to suppress cell elongation, in part, by suppressing the expression of AtGA20ox1, AtOFP4 has been shown to regulate secondary cell wall formation by interact with KNOTTED1-LIKE HOMEODOMAIN PROTEIN 7 (KNAT7), and AtOFP5 has been shown to regulate the activity of a BEL1-LIKEHOMEODOMAIN 1(BLH1)-KNAT3 complex during early embryo sac development, but little is known about the function of other AtOFPs. Methodology/Principal Findings We demonstrated here that AtOFP proteins could function as effective transcriptional repressors in the Arabidopsis protoplast transient expression system. The analysis of loss-of-function alleles of AtOFPs suggested AtOFP genes may have overlapping function in regulating plant growth and development, because none of the single mutants identified, including T-DNA insertion mutants in AtOFP1, AtOFP4, AtOFP8, AtOFP10, AtOFP15 and AtOFP16, displayed any apparent morphological defects. Further, Atofp1 Atofp4 and Atofp15 Atofp16 double mutants still did not differ significantly from wild-type. On the other hand, plants overexpressing AtOFP genes displayed a number of abnormal phenotypes, which could be categorized into three distinct classes, suggesting that AtOFP genes may also have diverse functions in regulating plant growth and development. Further analysis suggested that AtOFP1 regulates cotyledon development in a postembryonic manner, and global transcript profiling revealed that it suppress the expression of many other genes. Conclusions/Significance Our results showed that AtOFPs function as transcriptional repressors and they regulate multiple aspects of plant growth and development. These results provided the first overview of a previously unknown transcriptional repressor family, and revealed their possible roles in plant growth and development. PMID:21886836

  9. Low Diversity and Biased Substitution Patterns in the Mitochondrial DNA Control Region of Sperm Whales: Implications for Estimates of Time Since

    E-print Network

    Leimar, Olof

    Low Diversity and Biased Substitution Patterns in the Mitochondrial DNA Control Region of Sperm Center, Uppsala University The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region was sequenced in 37 sperm whales for, a range of about l,OOO- 100,~ years was obtained. - Introduction Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has

  10. Lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis prevention, treatment, and control costs across diverse settings: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Keating, Joseph; Yukich, Joshua O; Mollenkopf, Sarah; Tediosi, Fabrizio

    2014-07-01

    The control and eventual elimination of neglected tropical disease (NTD) requires the expansion of interventions such as mass drug administration (MDA), vector control, diagnostic testing, and effective treatment. The purpose of this paper is to present the evidence base for decision-makers on the cost and cost-effectiveness of lymphatic filariasis (LF) and onchocerciasis prevention, treatment, and control. A systematic review of the published literature was conducted. All studies that contained primary or secondary data on costs or cost-effectiveness of prevention and control were considered. A total of 52 papers were included for LF and 24 papers were included for onchocerciasis. Large research gaps exist on the synergies and cost of integrating NTD prevention and control programs, as well as research on the role of health information systems, human resource systems, service delivery, and essential medicines and technology for elimination. The literature available on costs and cost-effectiveness of interventions is also generally older, extremely focal geographically and of limited usefulness for developing estimates of the global economic burden of these diseases and prioritizing among various intervention options. Up to date information on the costs and cost-effectiveness of interventions for LF and onchocerciasis prevention are needed given the vastly expanded funding base for the control and elimination of these diseases. PMID:24699086

  11. Changes in structural aspects of mood during 39-66 h of sleep loss using matched controls.

    PubMed

    Paterson, J L; Dorrian, J; Ferguson, S A; Jay, S M; Lamond, N; Murphy, P J; Campbell, S S; Dawson, D

    2011-01-01

    A number of studies have described mood change during sleep loss in the laboratory, however, an understanding of fluctuations in structural aspects of mood under such conditions is lacking. Sixty-two healthy young adults completed one of three possible conditions: one (n = 20) or two (n = 23) nights of sleep loss or the control condition which consisted of one (n = 9) or two (n = 10) nights of 9 h time in bed. The Mood Scale II was completed every two waking hours and data were analysed in terms of the frequency and intensity of mood reports. Overall, sleep loss conditions were associated with significantly less frequent happiness and activation and more frequent fatigue reports (p < 0.001). Intensity was also significantly reduced for activation and happiness, and increased for depression, anger and fatigue (p < 0.05). Interestingly, there were no significant differences in anger following two nights in the laboratory with or without sleep. Further, two nights in the lab with normal sleep was associated with significant increases in depression intensity (p < 0.05). Findings support the hypothesis of a mood regulatory function of sleep and highlight the relative independence of frequency and intensity and of positive and negative mood dimensions. Findings also suggest that the laboratory environment, in the absence of sleep loss, may have a significant negative impact on mood. PMID:20659729

  12. Novel aspect in grain size control of nanocrystalline diamond film for thin film waveguide mode resonance sensor application.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hak-Joo; Lee, Kyeong-Seok; Cho, Jung-Min; Lee, Taek-Sung; Kim, Inho; Jeong, Doo Seok; Lee, Wook-Seong

    2013-11-27

    Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) thin film growth was systematically investigated for application for the thin film waveguide mode resonance sensor. The NCD thin film was grown on the Si wafer or on the SiO2-coated sapphire substrate using the hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD). The structural/optical properties of the samples were characterized by the high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy. The waveguide modes of the NCD layer were studied by prism coupler technique using laser (wavelength: 632.8 nm) with varying incident angle. A novel aspect was disclosed in the grain size dependence on the growth temperature at the relatively low methane concentration in the precursor gas, which was important for optical property: the grain size increased with decreasing growth temperature, which was contrary to the conventional knowledge prevailing in the microcrystalline diamond (MCD) domain. We have provided discussions to reconcile such observation. An optical waveguide mode resonance was demonstrated in the visible region using the microstructure-controlled transparent NCD thin film waveguide, which provided a strong potential for the waveguide mode resonance sensor applications. PMID:24195713

  13. Technical evaluation of the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the low temperature overpressure protection system for the Yankee Rowe nuclear power plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. R. Latorre; B. G. Mayn

    1979-01-01

    This report documents the technical evaluation of the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects for the low temperature overpressure protection system of the Yankee Rowe nuclear power plant. Design basis criteria used to evaluate the acceptability of the system included operator action, system testability, single failure criterion, and seismic Category I and IEEE Std-279-1971 criteria.

  14. Technical evaluation of the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects of the low temperature overpressure protection system for the Beaver Valley Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1

    SciTech Connect

    Latorre, V.R.

    1980-06-01

    This report documents the technical evaluation of the electrical, instrumentation, and control design aspects for the low temperature overpressure protection system of the Beaver Valley Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1. Design basis criteria used to evaluate the acceptability of the system included operator action, system testability, single failure criterion, and seismic Category I and IEEE Std-279-1971 criteria. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Integration of Signals along Orthogonal Axes of the Vertebrate Neural Tube Controls Progenitor Competence and Increases Cell Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Sasai, Noriaki; Kutejova, Eva; Briscoe, James

    2014-01-01

    A relatively small number of signals are responsible for the variety and pattern of cell types generated in developing embryos. In part this is achieved by exploiting differences in the concentration or duration of signaling to increase cellular diversity. In addition, however, changes in cellular competence—temporal shifts in the response of cells to a signal—contribute to the array of cell types generated. Here we investigate how these two mechanisms are combined in the vertebrate neural tube to increase the range of cell types and deliver spatial control over their location. We provide evidence that FGF signaling emanating from the posterior of the embryo controls a change in competence of neural progenitors to Shh and BMP, the two morphogens that are responsible for patterning the ventral and dorsal regions of the neural tube, respectively. Newly generated neural progenitors are exposed to FGF signaling, and this maintains the expression of the Nk1-class transcription factor Nkx1.2. Ventrally, this acts in combination with the Shh-induced transcription factor FoxA2 to specify floor plate cells and dorsally in combination with BMP signaling to induce neural crest cells. As development progresses, the intersection of FGF with BMP and Shh signals is interrupted by axis elongation, resulting in the loss of Nkx1.2 expression and allowing the induction of ventral and dorsal interneuron progenitors by Shh and BMP signaling to supervene. Hence a similar mechanism increases cell type diversity at both dorsal and ventral poles of the neural tube. Together these data reveal that tissue morphogenesis produces changes in the coincidence of signals acting along orthogonal axes of the neural tube and this is used to define spatial and temporal transitions in the competence of cells to interpret morphogen signaling. PMID:25026549

  16. Meta-analytic evidence for a superordinate cognitive control network subserving diverse executive functions

    PubMed Central

    Laird, Angela R.; Ray, Kimberly L.; Dean, Y. Monica; Glahn, David C.; Carter, Cameron S.

    2013-01-01

    Classic cognitive theory conceptualizes executive functions as involving multiple specific domains, including initiation, inhibition, working memory, flexibility, planning, and vigilance. Lesion and neuroimaging experiments over the past two decades have suggested that both common and unique processes contribute to executive functions during higher cognition. It has been suggested that a superordinate fronto–cingulo–parietal network supporting cognitive control may also underlie a range of distinct executive functions. To test this hypothesis in the largest sample to date, we used quantitative meta-analytic methods to analyze 193 functional neuroimaging studies of 2,832 healthy individuals, ages 18–60, in which performance on executive function measures was contrasted with an active control condition. A common pattern of activation was observed in the prefrontal, dorsal anterior cingulate, and parietal cortices across executive function domains, supporting the idea that executive functions are supported by a superordinate cognitive control network. However, domain-specific analyses showed some variation in the recruitment of anterior prefrontal cortex, anterior and midcingulate regions, and unique subcortical regions such as the basal ganglia and cerebellum. These results are consistent with the existence of a superordinate cognitive control network in the brain, involving dorsolateral prefrontal, anterior cingulate, and parietal cortices, that supports a broad range of executive functions. PMID:22282036

  17. Consumer versus resource control of producer diversity depends on ecosystem type and

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    by herbi- vores (top-down processes) (5). These two forms of local control affect rates of extinction pro- ductivity and producer evenness determine the direction and magnitude of top-down and bottom-scale processes. Two local factors are often especially important: the ability to exploit or tolerate spatial

  18. Tobacco Control Policy Advocacy Attitudes and Self-Efficacy among Ethnically Diverse High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Amelie G.; Velez, Luis F.; Chalela, Patricia; Grussendorf, Jeannie; McAlister, Alfred L.

    2006-01-01

    This study applied self-efficacy theory to assess empowerment to advocate on behalf of tobacco control policies. The Youth Tobacco Survey with added policy advocacy self-efficacy, attitudes, and outcome expectations scales was given to 9,177 high school students in Texas. Asians showed the lowest prevalence of experimentation and current smoking,…

  19. Decreased Functional Diversity and Biological Pest Control in Conventional Compared to Organic Crop Fields

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jochen Krauss; Iris Gallenberger; Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter

    2011-01-01

    Organic farming is one of the most successful agri-environmental schemes, as humans benefit from high quality food, farmers from higher prices for their products and it often successfully protects biodiversity. However there is little knowledge if organic farming also increases ecosystem services like pest control. We assessed 30 triticale fields (15 organic vs. 15 conventional) and recorded vascular plants, pollinators,

  20. Discovering Traits Controlling Winter-hardiness and Spring Regrowth in Diverse Switchgrass Germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a perennial bioenergy plant that needs to survive both repeated harvests and harsh winters experienced in the Central and Northern USA. The plant traits that control winter-hardiness are not known, but will be critical to the future development of cold-tolerant,...

  1. Genetic diversity of Aphthona flea beetles introduced into North America for biological control of leafy spurge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five species of Aphthona flea beetles from Europe (Aphthona flava, Aphthona cyparissiae, Aphthona nigriscutis, Aphthona czwalinae, and Aphthona lacertosa) have been introduced and become established in North America for the purpose of controlling the noxious weed, leafy spurge. Within species gene...

  2. Decreased functional diversity and biological pest control in conventional compared to organic crop fields.

    PubMed

    Krauss, Jochen; Gallenberger, Iris; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2011-01-01

    Organic farming is one of the most successful agri-environmental schemes, as humans benefit from high quality food, farmers from higher prices for their products and it often successfully protects biodiversity. However there is little knowledge if organic farming also increases ecosystem services like pest control. We assessed 30 triticale fields (15 organic vs. 15 conventional) and recorded vascular plants, pollinators, aphids and their predators. Further, five conventional fields which were treated with insecticides were compared with 10 non-treated conventional fields. Organic fields had five times higher plant species richness and about twenty times higher pollinator species richness compared to conventional fields. Abundance of pollinators was even more than one-hundred times higher on organic fields. In contrast, the abundance of cereal aphids was five times lower in organic fields, while predator abundances were three times higher and predator-prey ratios twenty times higher in organic fields, indicating a significantly higher potential for biological pest control in organic fields. Insecticide treatment in conventional fields had only a short-term effect on aphid densities while later in the season aphid abundances were even higher and predator abundances lower in treated compared to untreated conventional fields. Our data indicate that insecticide treatment kept aphid predators at low abundances throughout the season, thereby significantly reducing top-down control of aphid populations. Plant and pollinator species richness as well as predator abundances and predator-prey ratios were higher at field edges compared to field centres, highlighting the importance of field edges for ecosystem services. In conclusion organic farming increases biodiversity, including important functional groups like plants, pollinators and predators which enhance natural pest control. Preventative insecticide application in conventional fields has only short-term effects on aphid densities but long-term negative effects on biological pest control. Therefore conventional farmers should restrict insecticide applications to situations where thresholds for pest densities are reached. PMID:21611171

  3. Important helminth infections in Southeast Asia diversity, potential for control and prospects for elimination.

    PubMed

    Utzinger, Jürg; Bergquist, Robert; Olveda, Remigio; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2010-01-01

    Besides the 'big three'-HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis-there are a host of diseases that, by comparison, are truly neglected. These so-called neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), many of which caused by helminths, are intimately linked with poverty and are rampant where housing is poor; access to clean water and adequate sanitation is lacking; hygiene and nutrition is substandard and populations are marginalized and vulnerable. More than a billion people are affected by NTDs, mainly in remote rural and deprived urban settings of the developing world. An overview of papers published in two special thematic volumes of the Advances in Parasitology is provided here under the umbrella of current status of research and control of important helminth infections. A total of 25 comprehensive reviews are presented, which summarise the latest available data pertaining to the diagnosis, epidemiology, pathogenesis, prevention, treatment, control and eventual elimination of NTDs in Southeast Asia and neighbourhood countries. The focus of the first volume provides the current regional status of schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis, food-borne trematodiases, echinococcosis and cysticercosis/taeniasis, less common parasitic diseases that can cause epidemic outbreaks and helminth infections affecting the central nervous system. The second volume deals with the tools and strategies for control, including diagnostics, drugs, vaccines and cutting-edge basic research (e.g. the '-omics' sciences). Moreover, cross-cutting themes such as multiparasitism, social sciences, capacity strengthening, geospatial health technologies, health metrics and modelling the potential impact of climate change on helminthic diseases are discussed. Hopefully, these two volumes will become useful for researchers and, most importantly, disease control managers for integrated and sustainable control, rigorous monitoring and eventual elimination of NTDs in Southeast Asia and elsewhere. PMID:20624526

  4. Decreased Functional Diversity and Biological Pest Control in Conventional Compared to Organic Crop Fields

    PubMed Central

    Krauss, Jochen; Gallenberger, Iris; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2011-01-01

    Organic farming is one of the most successful agri-environmental schemes, as humans benefit from high quality food, farmers from higher prices for their products and it often successfully protects biodiversity. However there is little knowledge if organic farming also increases ecosystem services like pest control. We assessed 30 triticale fields (15 organic vs. 15 conventional) and recorded vascular plants, pollinators, aphids and their predators. Further, five conventional fields which were treated with insecticides were compared with 10 non-treated conventional fields. Organic fields had five times higher plant species richness and about twenty times higher pollinator species richness compared to conventional fields. Abundance of pollinators was even more than one-hundred times higher on organic fields. In contrast, the abundance of cereal aphids was five times lower in organic fields, while predator abundances were three times higher and predator-prey ratios twenty times higher in organic fields, indicating a significantly higher potential for biological pest control in organic fields. Insecticide treatment in conventional fields had only a short-term effect on aphid densities while later in the season aphid abundances were even higher and predator abundances lower in treated compared to untreated conventional fields. Our data indicate that insecticide treatment kept aphid predators at low abundances throughout the season, thereby significantly reducing top-down control of aphid populations. Plant and pollinator species richness as well as predator abundances and predator-prey ratios were higher at field edges compared to field centres, highlighting the importance of field edges for ecosystem services. In conclusion organic farming increases biodiversity, including important functional groups like plants, pollinators and predators which enhance natural pest control. Preventative insecticide application in conventional fields has only short-term effects on aphid densities but long-term negative effects on biological pest control. Therefore conventional farmers should restrict insecticide applications to situations where thresholds for pest densities are reached. PMID:21611171

  5. The ‘diverse, dynamic new world of global tobacco control’? An analysis of participation in the Conference of the Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control

    PubMed Central

    Plotnikova, Evgeniya; Hill, Sarah E; Collin, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The increasingly inequitable impacts of tobacco use highlight the importance of ensuring developing countries’ ongoing participation in global tobacco control. The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) has been widely regarded as reflecting the high engagement and effective influence of developing countries. Methods We examined participation in FCTC governance based on records from the first four meetings of the Conference of the Parties (COP), comparing representation and delegate diversity across income levels and WHO regions. Results While attendance at the COP sessions is high, there are substantial disparities in the relative representation of different income levels and regions, with lower middle and low income countries contributing only 18% and 10% of total meeting delegates, respectively. In regional terms, Europe provided the single largest share of delegates at all except the Durban (2008) meeting. Thirty-nine percent of low income countries and 27% of those from Africa were only ever represented by a single person delegation compared with 10% for high income countries and 11% for Europe. Rotation of the COP meeting location outside of Europe is associated with better representation of other regions and a stronger presence of delegates from national ministries of health and focal points for tobacco control. Conclusions Developing countries face particular barriers to participating in the COP process, and their engagement in global tobacco control is likely to diminish in the absence of specific measures to support their effective participation. PMID:23152101

  6. Addressing Diversity in Teacher Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentin, Sylvia

    2006-01-01

    Different aspects of diversity have been explored in order to assess whether preservice teachers are being prepared to meet the needs of their diverse student population. Diversity continues to be examined in a fragmented way by looking at issues separately. It seems necessary that prior to assessing preservice teachers' competence in diversity,…

  7. Merging metagenomics and geochemistry reveals environmental controls on biological diversity and evolution

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The metabolic strategies employed by microbes inhabiting natural systems are, in large part, dictated by the physical and geochemical properties of the environment. This study sheds light onto the complex relationship between biology and environmental geochemistry using forty-three metagenomes collected from geochemically diverse and globally distributed natural systems. It is widely hypothesized that many uncommonly measured geochemical parameters affect community dynamics and this study leverages the development and application of multidimensional biogeochemical metrics to study correlations between geochemistry and microbial ecology. Analysis techniques such as a Markov cluster-based measure of the evolutionary distance between whole communities and a principal component analysis (PCA) of the geochemical gradients between environments allows for the determination of correlations between microbial community dynamics and environmental geochemistry and provides insight into which geochemical parameters most strongly influence microbial biodiversity. Results By progressively building from samples taken along well defined geochemical gradients to samples widely dispersed in geochemical space this study reveals strong links between the extent of taxonomic and functional diversification of resident communities and environmental geochemistry and reveals temperature and pH as the primary factors that have shaped the evolution of these communities. Moreover, the inclusion of extensive geochemical data into analyses reveals new links between geochemical parameters (e.g. oxygen and trace element availability) and the distribution and taxonomic diversification of communities at the functional level. Further, an overall geochemical gradient (from multivariate analyses) between natural systems provides one of the most complete predictions of microbial taxonomic and functional composition. Conclusions Clustering based on the frequency in which orthologous proteins occur among metagenomes facilitated accurate prediction of the ordering of community functional composition along geochemical gradients, despite a lack of geochemical input. The consistency in the results obtained from the application of Markov clustering and multivariate methods to distinct natural systems underscore their utility in predicting the functional potential of microbial communities within a natural system based on system geochemistry alone, allowing geochemical measurements to be used to predict purely biological metrics such as microbial community composition and metabolism. PMID:24886397

  8. Molecular aspects of transport in thin films of controlled architecture. [Annual] technical summary, July 1, 1992--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    Work has progressed in two principal areas during the past year: diffusion in swollen polymer films with and without a barrier layer, and molecular aspects of swelling using enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

  9. Molecular aspects of transport in thin films of controlled architecture. Technical summary, July 1, 1991--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    Work was done in two principal areas: characterization of diffusion in swollen polymer films both with and without a barrier layer, and initial investigations of molecular aspects of swelling using enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

  10. A theoretical analysis of how strain-specific viruses can control microbial species diversity

    PubMed Central

    Thingstad, T. Frede; Våge, Selina; Storesund, Julia E.; Sandaa, Ruth-Anne; Giske, Jarl

    2014-01-01

    Pelagic prokaryote communities are often dominated by the SAR11 clade. The recent discovery of viruses infecting this clade led to the suggestion that such dominance could not be explained by assuming SAR11 to be a defense specialist and that the explanation therefore should be sought in its competitive abilities. The issue is complicated by the fact that prokaryotes may develop strains differing in their balance between competition and viral defense, a situation not really captured by present idealized models that operate only with virus-controlled “host groups.” We here develop a theoretical framework where abundance within species emerges as the sum over virus-controlled strains and show that high abundance then is likely to occur for species able to use defense mechanisms with a low trade-off between competition and defense, rather than by extreme investment in one strategy or the other. The J-shaped activity–abundance community distribution derived from this analysis explains the high proportion low-active prokaryotes as a consequence of extreme defense as an alternative to explanations based on dormancy or death due to nutrient starvation. PMID:24825894

  11. Comparison of analytical and experimental subsonic steady and unsteady pressure distributions for a high-aspect-ratio-supercritical wing model with oscillating control surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccain, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    The results of a comparative study using the unsteady aerodynamic lifting surface theory, known as the Doublet Lattice method, and experimental subsonic steady- and unsteady-pressure measurements, are presented for a high-aspect-ratio supercritical wing model. Comparisons of pressure distributions due to wing angle of attack and control-surface deflections were made. In general, good correlation existed between experimental and theoretical data over most of the wing planform. The more significant deviations found between experimental and theoretical data were in the vicinity of control surfaces for both static and oscillatory control-surface deflections.

  12. Intensive diabetes management and goal setting are key aspects of improving metabolic control in children and young people with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Soni, Astha; Ng, Sze May

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes control in children remains poor in spite of advances in treatment for last 10 years. The aim of this review was to look at various aspects of intensive therapy in the management of type 1 diabetes such as insulin regimes, role of target setting, psycho-educational approaches and self-management. To achieve good metabolic control, clear goal setting with adequate support for self-management are essential. Psycho-educational and behavioural interventions aimed at specific areas of management have shown significant improvement in quality of life and diabetes control. PMID:25512790

  13. Functional diversity of phytochrome family in the control of light and gibberellin-mediated germination in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Arana, M V; Sánchez-Lamas, M; Strasser, B; Ibarra, S E; Cerdán, P D; Botto, J F; Sánchez, R A

    2014-09-01

    In several species, seed germination is regulated by light in a way that restricts seedling emergence to the environmental conditions that are likely to be favourable for the success of the new individual, and therefore, this behaviour is recognized to have adaptive value. The phytochromes are one of the most relevant photoreceptors involved in light perception by plants. We explored the redundancy and diversity functions of the phytochrome family in the control of seed responsiveness to light and gibberellins (GA) by using a set of phytochrome mutants of Arabidopsis. Our data show that, in addition to the well-known role of phyB in the promotion of germination in response to high red to far-red ratios (R/FR), phyE and phyD stimulate germination at very low R/FR ratios, probably by promoting the action of phyA. Further, we show that phyC regulates negatively the seed responsiveness to light, unravelling unexpected functions for phyC in seed germination. Finally, we find that seed responsiveness to GA is mainly controlled by phyB, with phyC, phyD and phyE having relevant roles when acting in a phyB-deficient background. Our results indicate that phytochromes have multiple and complex roles during germination depending on the active photoreceptor background. PMID:24471455

  14. Somatic deletions implicated in functional diversity of brain cells of individuals with schizophrenia and unaffected controls

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Junho; Shin, Jong-Yeon; Kim, Jong-Il; Seo, Jeong-Sun; Webster, Maree J.; Lee, Doheon; Kim, Sanghyeon

    2014-01-01

    While somatic DNA copy number variations (CNVs) have been identified in multiple tissues from normal people, they have not been well studied in brain tissues from individuals with psychiatric disorders. With ultrahigh depth sequencing data, we developed an integrated pipeline for calling somatic deletions using data from multiple tissues of the same individual or a single tissue type taken from multiple individuals. Using the pipelines, we identified 106 somatic deletions in DNA from prefrontal cortex (PFC) and/or cerebellum of two normal controls subjects and/or three individuals with schizophrenia. We then validated somatic deletions in 18 genic and in 1 intergenic region. Somatic deletions in BOD1 and CBX3 were reconfirmed using DNA isolated from non-pyramidal neurons and from cells in white matter using laser capture microdissection (LCM). Our results suggest that somatic deletions may affect metabolic processes and brain development in a region specific manner. PMID:24448323

  15. Diversity of bacterial communities that colonize the filter units used for controlling plant pathogens in soilless cultures.

    PubMed

    Renault, David; Vallance, Jessica; Déniel, Franck; Wery, Nathalie; Godon, Jean Jacques; Barbier, Georges; Rey, Patrice

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, increasing the level of suppressiveness by the addition of antagonistic bacteria in slow filters has become a promising strategy to control plant pathogens in the recycled solutions used in soilless cultures. However, knowledge about the microflora that colonize the filtering columns is still limited. In order to get information on this issue, the present study was carried out over a 4-year period and includes filters inoculated or not with suppressive bacteria at the start of the filtering process (two or three filters were used each year). After 9 months of filtration, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-single strand conformation polymorphism analyses point out that, for the same year of experiment, the bacterial communities from control filters were relatively similar but that they were significantly different between the bacteria-amended and control filters. To characterize the changes in bacterial communities within the filters, this microflora was studied by quantitative PCR, community-level physiological profiles, and sequencing 16SrRNA clone libraries (filters used in year 1). Quantitative PCR evidenced a denser bacterial colonization of the P-filter (amended with Pseudomonas putida strains) than control and B-filter (amended with Bacillus cereus strains). Functional analysis focused on the cultivable bacterial communities pointed out that bacteria from the control filter metabolized more carbohydrates than those from the amended filters whose trophic behaviors were more targeted towards carboxylic acids and amino acids. The bacterial communities in P- and B-filters both exhibited significantly more phylotype diversity and markedly distinct phylogenetic compositions than those in the C-filter. Although there were far fewer Proteobacteria in B- and P-filters than in the C-filter (22% and 22% rather than 69% of sequences, respectively), the percentages of Firmicutes was much higher (44% and 55% against 9%, respectively). Many Pseudomonas species were also found in the bacterial communities of the control filter. The persistence of the amended suppressive-bacteria in the filters is discussed with regards to the management of suppressive microflora in soilless culture. PMID:22015683

  16. Mechanistic controls on diverse fates of terrestrial organic components in the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chun; Wagner, Thomas; Talbot, Helen M.; Weijers, Johan W. H.; Pan, Jian-Ming; Pancost, Richard D.

    2013-09-01

    Terrestrial carbon transferred from the land to sea is a critical component of the global carbon cycle. A range of geochemical proxies has been developed to fingerprint the fate of terrestrial organic matter (TOM) in marine sediments. However, discrepancies among different proxies limit our ability to quantify and interpret the terrestrial signals in marine sediments, with consequences for the investigation of both the modern carbon cycle and past environmental change. To mechanistically understand these discrepancies, we examined the distributions of a range of terrestrial proxies and their aquatic counterparts (i.e. marine proxies) in the Yangtze river-East China Sea (YR-ECS) shelf system, where TOM experiences extensive modification during transport and burial. TOM proxies in the YR-ECS system collectively fit a power-law model but with distinct attenuation rates (the a? values) for individual molecular proxy groups. Among a range of TOM proxies, the modeled a? values decrease in the order: soil-marker BHPs > triterpenols > lignin > HMW n-alkanols > branched GDGTs > HMW n-alkanes for biomarkers; and Rsoil > BIT > %TOMiso for proxies tracing %TOM. Rapid loss of TOM components through dissociation in the narrow estuary, followed by oxidation over the wide open shelf, are best described by power curves. Inherent chemical reactivity (i.e. the number of functional groups), responses to hydraulic sorting, and in situ production regulate the individual attenuation rates. Of them, chemical reactivity plays the most important role on proxy behavior, supported by a strong correlation between a? values and standard molal Gibbs energies. Both, physical protection and chemical reactivity fundamentally control the overall behavior of TOM components, with the relative importance being setting-dependant: The former is relatively important in the estuary, whereas the later is the primary control over the open shelf. Moreover, regional variation of different marine-counterparts is also significant over the river-ECS shelf system, seemingly regulated by regional nutrient distributions. Therefore, for %TOM estimates using molecular ratio approaches, the specific behavior of individual terrestrial components and marine-counterparts and the physical, biological and chemical characteristics of depositional settings all need to be considered.

  17. Exploiting the genetic diversity of Beauveria bassiana for improving the biological control of the coffee berry borer through the use of strain mixtures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lina P. Cruz; Alvaro L. Gaitan; Carmenza E. Gongora

    2006-01-01

    Beauveria bassiana is an entomopathogen widely used to control the coffee berry borer in Colombia, as part of an Integrated Pest Management strategy. Traditionally, the development of fungal insect pathogens as biocontrol agents in crop pests has been oriented towards the selection and formulation of elite clonal strains. Instead, we explored the potential application of genetic diversity in B. bassiana

  18. Controlling and culturing diversity: Experimental zoology before World War II and Vienna's Biologische Versuchsanstalt.

    PubMed

    Logan, Cheryl A; Brauckmann, Sabine

    2015-04-01

    Founded in Vienna in 1903, the Institute for Experimental Biology pioneered the application of experimental methods to living organisms maintained for sustained periods in captivity. Its Director, the zoologist Hans Przibram, oversaw until 1938, the attempt to integrate ontogeny with studies of inheritance using precise and controlled measurements of the impact of environmental influences on the emergence of form and function. In the early years, these efforts paralleled and even fostered the emergence of experimental biology in America. But fate intervened. Though the Institute served an international community, most of its resident scientists and staff were of Jewish ancestry. Well before the Nazis entered Austria in 1938, these men and women were being fired and driven out; some, including Przibram, were eventually killed. We describe the unprecedented facilities built and the topics addressed by the several departments that made up this Institute, stressing those most relevant to the establishment and success of the Journal of Experimental Zoology, which was founded just a year later. The Institute's diaspora left an important legacy in North America, perhaps best embodied by the career of the developmental neuroscientist Paul Weiss. J. Exp. Zool. 323A: 211-226, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25857375

  19. Endemic predators, invasive prey and native diversity

    PubMed Central

    Wanger, Thomas C.; Wielgoss, Arno C.; Motzke, Iris; Clough, Yann; Brook, Barry W.; Sodhi, Navjot S.; Tscharntke, Teja

    2011-01-01

    Interactions between native diversity and invasive species can be more complex than is currently understood. Invasive ant species often substantially reduce diversity in the native ants diversity that act as natural control agents for pest insects. In Indonesia (on the island of Sulawesi), the third largest cacao producer worldwide, we show that a predatory endemic toad (Ingerophrynus celebensis) controls invasive ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes) abundance, and positively affects native ant diversity. We call this the invasive-naivety effect (an opposite of enemy release), whereby alien species may not harbour anti-predatory defences against a novel native predator. A positive effect of the toads on native ants may facilitate their predation on insect vectors of cacao diseases. Hence, toads may increase crop yield, but further research is needed on this aspect. Ironically, amphibians are globally the most threatened vertebrate class and are strongly impacted by the conversion of rainforest to cacao plantations in Sulawesi. It is, therefore, crucial to manage cacao plantations to maintain these endemic toads, as they may provide critical ecosystem services, such as invasion resistance and preservation of native insect diversity. PMID:20826488

  20. Endemic predators, invasive prey and native diversity.

    PubMed

    Wanger, Thomas C; Wielgoss, Arno C; Motzke, Iris; Clough, Yann; Brook, Barry W; Sodhi, Navjot S; Tscharntke, Teja

    2011-03-01

    Interactions between native diversity and invasive species can be more complex than is currently understood. Invasive ant species often substantially reduce diversity in the native ants diversity that act as natural control agents for pest insects. In Indonesia (on the island of Sulawesi), the third largest cacao producer worldwide, we show that a predatory endemic toad (Ingerophrynus celebensis) controls invasive ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes) abundance, and positively affects native ant diversity. We call this the invasive-naivety effect (an opposite of enemy release), whereby alien species may not harbour anti-predatory defences against a novel native predator. A positive effect of the toads on native ants may facilitate their predation on insect vectors of cacao diseases. Hence, toads may increase crop yield, but further research is needed on this aspect. Ironically, amphibians are globally the most threatened vertebrate class and are strongly impacted by the conversion of rainforest to cacao plantations in Sulawesi. It is, therefore, crucial to manage cacao plantations to maintain these endemic toads, as they may provide critical ecosystem services, such as invasion resistance and preservation of native insect diversity. PMID:20826488

  1. Single-pulse femtosecond laser Bessel beams drilling of high-aspect-ratio microholes based on electron dynamics control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Weiwei; Li, Xiaowei; Xia, Bo; Yan, Xueliang; Han, Weina; Lu, Yongfeng; Jiang, Lan

    2014-11-01

    Microholes drilling has attracted extensive research efforts for its broad applications in photonics, microfluidics, optical fibers and many other fields. A femtosecond (fs) laser is a promising tool for high-precision materials processing with reduced recast/microcracks and minimized heat affected zones. But there remain many challenges in hole drilling using conventional fs laser with Gaussian beams, such as low aspect ratio and taper effects. We report small-diameter and high-aspect-ratio microholes with taper free drilling in PMMA (polymethyl methacrylate) using single-pulse fs laser Bessel beams. Axicon is used to transform Gaussian beams into Bessel beams, which then irradiate in the sample by a telescope consisting of plano-convex lens and microscope objective. Using this technique, we enhance the aspect ratio of microholes by 55 times as compared with Gaussian beams. We attribute this high aspect ratio and high quality microholes formation to the unique spatial intensity distribution and propagation stability of Bessel beams, which can effectively adjust the transient localized electron density distribution leading to a long and uniform localized-interacted zone. By using the optimized pulse energy and focal depth position, the microholes diameter ranges between 1.4-2.1 ?m and the aspect ratio can exceed 460. This efficient technique is of great potentials for fabrication of microphotonics devices and microfluidics.

  2. Mutuality as an Aspect of Family Functioning in Predicting Eating Disorder Symptoms in College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanftner, Jennifer L.; Cameron, Rebecca P.; Tantillo, Mary; Heigel, Caron P.; Martin, David Myron; Sippel-Silowash, Julie Ann; Taggart, Jane M.

    2006-01-01

    We examined mutuality, an aspect of Relational Cultural Theory, in an ethnically diverse sample of 397 college women from Midwestern and Western universities. We hypothesized that mutuality would predict scores on an eating disorder scale after controlling for traditional family variables, such as expressed emotion. As predicted, mutuality, as…

  3. Diversity in smartphone usage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hossein Falaki; Ratul Mahajan; Srikanth Kandula; Dimitrios Lymberopoulos; Ramesh Govindan; Deborah Estrin

    2010-01-01

    Using detailed traces from 255 users, we con- duct a comprehensive study of smartphone use. We char- acterize intentional user activities - interactions with the device and the applications used - and the impact of those activities on network and energy usage. We find immense diversity among users. Along all aspects that we study, users differ by one or more

  4. The COPE healthy lifestyles TEEN randomized controlled trial with culturally diverse high school adolescents: Baseline characteristics and methods

    PubMed Central

    Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek; Kelly, Stephanie; Jacobson, Diana; Belyea, Michael; Shaibi, Gabriel; Small, Leigh; O’Haver, Judith; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and mental health disorders remain significant public health problems in adolescents. Substantial health disparities exist with minority youth experiencing higher rates of these problems. Schools are an outstanding venue to provide teens with skills needed to improve their physical and mental health, and academic performance. In this paper, the authors describe the design, intervention, methods and baseline data for a randomized controlled trial with 779 culturally diverse high-school adolescents in the southwest United States. Aims for this prevention study include testing the efficacy of the COPE TEEN program versus an attention control program on the adolescents’ healthy lifestyle behaviors, Body Mass Index (BMI) and BMI%, mental health, social skills and academic performance immediately following the intervention programs, and at six and 12 months post interventions. Baseline findings indicate that greater than 40% of the sample is either overweight (n = 148, 19.00%) or obese (n = 182, 23.36%). The predominant ethnicity represented is Hispanic (n = 526, 67.52%). At baseline, 15.79%(n = 123) of the students had above average scores on the Beck Youth Inventory Depression subscale indicating mildly (n = 52, 6.68%), moderately (n = 47, 6.03%), or extremely (n = 24, 3.08%) elevated scores (see 1). Anxiety scores were slightly higher with 21.56% (n = 168) reporting responses suggesting mildly (n = 81, 10.40%), moderately (n = 58, 7.45%) or extremely (n = 29, 3.72%) elevated scores. If the efficacy of the COPE TEEN program is supported, it will offer schools a curriculum that can be easily incorporated into high school health courses to improve adolescent healthy lifestyle behaviors, psychosocial outcomes and academic performance. PMID:23748156

  5. The COPE healthy lifestyles TEEN randomized controlled trial with culturally diverse high school adolescents: baseline characteristics and methods.

    PubMed

    Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek; Kelly, Stephanie; Jacobson, Diana; Belyea, Michael; Shaibi, Gabriel; Small, Leigh; O'Haver, Judith; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco

    2013-09-01

    Obesity and mental health disorders remain significant public health problems in adolescents. Substantial health disparities exist with minority youth experiencing higher rates of these problems. Schools are an outstanding venue to provide teens with skills needed to improve their physical and mental health, and academic performance. In this paper, the authors describe the design, intervention, methods and baseline data for a randomized controlled trial with 779 culturally diverse high-school adolescents in the southwest United States. Aims for this prevention study include testing the efficacy of the COPE TEEN program versus an attention control program on the adolescents' healthy lifestyle behaviors, Body Mass Index (BMI) and BMI%, mental health, social skills and academic performance immediately following the intervention programs, and at six and 12 months post interventions. Baseline findings indicate that greater than 40% of the sample is either overweight (n = 148, 19.00%) or obese (n = 182, 23.36%). The predominant ethnicity represented is Hispanic (n = 526, 67.52%). At baseline, 15.79% (n = 123) of the students had above average scores on the Beck Youth Inventory Depression subscale indicating mildly (n = 52, 6.68%), moderately (n = 47, 6.03%), or extremely (n = 24, 3.08%) elevated scores (see Table 1). Anxiety scores were slightly higher with 21.56% (n = 168) reporting responses suggesting mildly (n = 81, 10.40%), moderately (n = 58, 7.45%) or extremely (n = 29, 3.72%) elevated scores. If the efficacy of the COPE TEEN program is supported, it will offer schools a curriculum that can be easily incorporated into high school health courses to improve adolescent healthy lifestyle behaviors, psychosocial outcomes and academic performance. PMID:23748156

  6. Institutionalising campus diversity in South African higher education: Review of diversity scholarship and diversity education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Cross

    2004-01-01

    Increasingly the social, educational, cultural,linguistic, religious and racial diversity ofSouth African society is finding expressionwithin South African institutions of highereducation. Consequently, ``diversity'',``diversity issues'' and ``diversification'', havebecome part of the education debate and policy,and pose new challenges to South Africantertiary institutions. Most institutions areattempting to respond to these challengeswithin the context of a transformation processwhich impacts on every aspect of academic

  7. Bacterial Diversity in Oral Samples of Children in Niger with Acute Noma, Acute Necrotizing Gingivitis, and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Stadelmann, Benoît; Baratti-Mayer, Denise; Gizard, Yann; Mombelli, Andrea; Pittet, Didier; Schrenzel, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Background Noma is a gangrenous disease that leads to severe disfigurement of the face with high morbidity and mortality, but its etiology remains unknown. Young children in developing countries are almost exclusively affected. The purpose of the study was to record and compare bacterial diversity in oral samples from children with or without acute noma or acute necrotizing gingivitis from a defined geographical region in Niger by culture-independent molecular methods. Methods and Principal Findings Gingival samples from 23 healthy children, nine children with acute necrotizing gingivitis, and 23 children with acute noma (both healthy and diseased oral sites) were amplified using “universal” PCR primers for the 16 S rRNA gene and pooled according to category (noma, healthy, or acute necrotizing gingivitis), gender, and site status (diseased or control site). Seven libraries were generated. A total of 1237 partial 16 S rRNA sequences representing 339 bacterial species or phylotypes at a 98–99% identity level were obtained. Analysis of bacterial composition and frequency showed that diseased (noma or acute necrotizing gingivitis) and healthy site bacterial communities are composed of similar bacteria, but differ in the prevalence of a limited group of phylotypes. Large increases in counts of Prevotella intermedia and members of the Peptostreptococcus genus are associated with disease. In contrast, no clear-cut differences were found between noma and non-noma libraries. Conclusions Similarities between acute necrotizing gingivitis and noma samples support the hypothesis that the disease could evolve from acute necrotizing gingivitis in certain children for reasons still to be elucidated. This study revealed oral microbiological patterns associated with noma and acute necrotizing gingivitis, but no evidence was found for a specific infection-triggering agent. PMID:22413030

  8. From disk to ring: Aspect ratio control of the magnetoplasmonic response in Au/Co/Au nanostructures fabricated by hole-mask colloidal lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Hua Yu; Luo, Feng; Meneses-Rodríguez, David; Armelles, Gaspar; Cebollada, Alfonso

    2015-02-01

    Morphology tuning of a series of Au/Co/Au nanostructures which gradually evolve from disk to ring allows controlling their optical and magneto-optical spectral responses in the visible and near infrared ranges. This is achieved by the combined use of hole mask colloidal lithography with off-normal deposition and substrate rotation. The morphological parameters responsible for this control, the disk/ring outer diameter and height, are determined by the off-normal deposition angle and the amount of deposited material, respectively. The single dipolar symmetric resonance mode in nanodisk splits into two characteristics, low (symmetric) and high energy (antisymmetric) ring modes. The ring's high energy mode, determined by the rings' section, is basically independent of the deposition angle, while the low energy symmetric mode is basically controlled by the outer diameter/height aspect ratio for both disk-like and ring structures, and therefore allowing a fine tuning of the wavelength position of this resonance.

  9. Controlled Evaluation of the IDI-MRSA Assay for Detection of Colonization by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Diverse Mucocutaneous Specimens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nour de San; Olivier Denis; Marie-Fabrice Gasasira; Ricardo De Mendonca; Claire Nonhoff; Marc J. Struelens

    2007-01-01

    Rapid and reliable detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriers is crucial for the effective control of MRSA transmission in healthcare facilities. The aim of this study was to verify the performance of the IDI-MRSA real-time PCR assay for direct MRSA detection in diverse mucocutaneous swabs from hospitalized patients. Swabs from nares (n 522) and skin or other superficial sites

  10. Dynamic Aspects and Controllability of the MELiSSA Project: A Bioregenerative System to Provide Life Support in Space

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bérangère Farges; Laurent Poughon; Catherine Creuly; Jean-François Cornet; Claude-Gilles Dussap; Christophe Lasseur

    2008-01-01

    Manmade ecosystems differ from their prototype biosphere by the principle of control. The Earth Biosphere is sustainable by\\u000a stochastic control and very large time constants. By contrast, in a closed ecosystem such as the micro-ecological life support\\u000a system alternative (MELiSSA system) developed by the European Space Agency for space exploration, a deterministic control\\u000a is a prerequisite of sustainable existence. MELiSSA

  11. Controllable synthesis of high aspect ratio Mg2B2O5 nanowires and their applications in reinforced polyhydroxyalkanoate composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Zhao-Jun; Chen, Jin-Peng; Lin, Jing; Fan, Ying; Liang, Chun-Yong; Wang, Hong-Shui; Xu, Xue-Wen; Hu, Long; Tang, Cheng-Chun

    2014-05-01

    Highly pure magnesium borate (Mg2B2O5) nanowires with an average diameter of ~ 30 nm, an average length of ~ 15 ?m, and a high aspect ratio of ~ 500 have been synthesized on a large scale via a two-step method. MgBO2(OH) nanowires with high aspect ratios were first prepared via a PVP-assisted hydrothermal technique. Using these nanowires as precursors, single crystalline Mg2B2O5 nanowires were synthesized by post-annealing treatment at a relatively low temperature of 700 °C. The important effect of the MgBO2(OH)—Mg2B2O5 conversion process on the morphology of the Mg2B2O5 nanowires was investigated and it was indicated that the recrystallization process plays an important role in the protection of the one-dimensional (1D) nanostructure. Moreover, the rigidity and the toughness of the Mg2B2O5 nanowire-reinforced PHA composites were tremendously improved compared to those of the pure PHA. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of Mg2B2O5 nanowires for reinforcement applications in polymer composites.

  12. Design aspects of a high-speed sensorless brushless dc motor using third harmonic back-emf for sensorless control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kai; Shen, Jianxin; Zhou, Fengzheng; Fei, Weizhong

    2008-04-01

    There is increasing interest in high-speed permanent magnet (PM) brushless dc motors for a wide range of applications. Back-emf is often utilized for sensorless operation of permanent magnet brushless dc motors, by detecting the emf zero crossings. However, in high-speed motors, the free-wheeling diode conduction can last more than 30edeg. This can obscure the zero crossings of the phase EMF; therefore, it is preferable to utilize the third harmonic emf instead of the phase emf. In this paper, some design aspects related to this high-speed sensorless operation are presented, including a special nonoverlapping winding arrangement and magnet segmenting technique. Finally, the experimental results confirmed the validity of the proposed design method.

  13. Rethinking Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    These three papers were presented at a symposium on rethinking diversity in human resource development (HRD) moderated by Neal Chalofsky at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development. "Diversity: A Double-Edged Sword" (Sally F. Angus) presents the notion of work force diversity through two differing perspectives in order to…

  14. Design verification and fabrication of active control systems for the DAST ARW-2 high aspect ratio wing, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgehee, C. R.

    1986-01-01

    A study was conducted under Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) program to accomplish the final design and hardware fabrication for four active control systems compatible with and ready for installation in the NASA Aeroelastic Research Wing No. 2 (ARW-2) and Firebee II drone flight test vehicle. The wing structure was designed so that Active Control Systems (ACS) are required in the normal flight envelope by integrating control system design with aerodynamics and structure technologies. The DAST ARW-2 configuration uses flutter suppression, relaxed static stability, and gust and maneuver load alleviation ACS systems, and an automatic flight control system. Performance goals and criteria were applied to individual systems and the systems collectively to assure that vehicle stability margins, flutter margins, flying qualities and load reductions are achieved.

  15. Research on energy-saving optimal control of trains in a following operation under a fixed four-aspect autoblock system based on multi-dimension parallel GA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Qiheng; Feng, Xiaoyun

    2013-03-01

    After analyzing the working principle of the four-aspect fixed autoblock system, an energy-saving control model was created based on the dynamics equations of the trains in order to study the energy-saving optimal control strategy of trains in a following operation. Besides the safety and punctuality, the main aims of the model were the energy consumption and the time error. Based on this model, the static and dynamic speed restraints under a four-aspect fixed autoblock system were put forward. The multi-dimension parallel genetic algorithm (GA) and the external punishment function were adopted to solve this problem. By using the real number coding and the strategy of ramps divided into three parts, the convergence of GA was speeded up and the length of chromosomes was shortened. A vector of Gaussian random disturbance with zero mean was superposed to the mutation operator. The simulation result showed that the method could reduce the energy consumption effectively based on safety and punctuality.

  16. Trypanosoma evansi and Surra: A Review and Perspectives on Transmission, Epidemiology and Control, Impact, and Zoonotic Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Desquesnes, Marc; Dargantes, Alan; Lai, De-Hua; Lun, Zhao-Rong; Holzmuller, Philippe; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the transmission modes of Trypanosoma evansi. Its worldwide distribution is attributed to mechanical transmission. While the role of tabanids is clear, we raise questions on the relative role of Haematobia sp. and the possible role of Stomoxys sp. in delayed transmission. A review of the available trypanocidal drugs and their efficacy in various host species is useful for understanding how they interact in disease epidemiology, which is complex. Although there are similarities with other mechanically transmitted trypanosomes, T. evansi has a more complex epidemiology due to the diversity of its hosts and vectors. The impact of clinical and subclinical disease is difficult to establish. A model was developed for buffaloes in the Philippines, which could be transferred to other places and livestock systems. Since Trypanosoma evansi was reported in humans, further research is required to investigate its zoonotic potential. Surra remains a potentially emerging disease that is a threat to Australia, Spain, and France. A number of questions about the disease have yet to be resolved. This brief review of the basic knowledge of T. evansi suggests that there is renewed interest in the parasite, which is spreading and has a major economic impact. PMID:24151595

  17. nAture methods | VOL.9 NO.2 | FEBRUARY2012 | 159 diverse optogenetic tools have allowed versatile control over

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    AnAlysis nAture methods | VOL.9 NO.2 | FEBRUARY2012 | 159 diverse optogenetic tools have allowed for the conduct, design and interpretation of experiments involving optogenetic techniques. Optogenetics1 of optogenetics has been facilitated by the emergence of single-component (that is, with no exogenous cofactor

  18. Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter, a nonstationary control law for complex AO systems on ELTs: theoretical aspects and first simulations results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, M.; Le Roux, B.

    2012-07-01

    Optimal control laws for new Adaptive Optics (AO) concepts in astronomy require the implementation of techniques intended for real time identification of the atmospheric turbulence. Contrary to the Optimized Modal Gain Integrator (OMGI), it has been proved that the Kalman Filter (KF) based optimal control law enables estimation and prediction of the turbulent phase from the measurements and corrects efficiently the different modes of this phase in the case of a wide field tomographic AO system. But using such kind of processes, for any Extremely Large Telescope (ELT), will be extremely difficult because of the numerical complexity of the computations involved in the matrices calculations as well as the recording of large covariance matrices. A new control law is proposed, based on the Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter (ETKF) and its efficient variation, Local ETKF (recently developed for geophysics applications), allowing to dramatically reduce the computation burden for an ELT implementation and also to deal with non stationary behaviors of the turbulence.

  19. Clostridium leptum group bacteria abundance and diversity in the fecal microbiota of patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a case–control study in India

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Alterations in the fecal bacterial flora occur in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We examined the abundance and diversity of Clostridium leptum group, an important group of carbohydrate-fermenting bacteria, in the feces of patients with IBD and compared them with healthy controls. Methods Seventeen healthy controls (HC), 20 patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) and 22 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) participated in the study. DNA extracted from fecal samples was amplified by PCR targeting 16S rRNA gene sequences specific to C. leptum group. The PCR product was subjected to temporal temperature gradient electrophoresis (TTGE) and the number and position of individual bands were noted and diversity was estimated. The identity of bands at different positions was confirmed by cloning and sequencing. Real time quantitative PCR with Mesa Green, targeted at specific 16S rRNA gene sequences, was used to quantitate C. leptum group and its most prominent constituent, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Results Twenty five different operational taxonomic units (OTUs, equivalent to species) were identified constituting the C. leptum group in these participants. Their sequences were deposited in GenBank [accession numbers GQ465348 to GQ465370]. OTU number was significantly reduced in CD (7.7±3.7, mean±SD) and UC (9.0±3.0) compared to HC (11.9±2.2) (P=0.0005). The Simpson D index of alpha diversity was not significantly different between the three groups. Total numbers of C. leptum group bacteria and F. prausnitzii were reduced in both CD and UC compared to HC (P=0.0036 and P<0.0001 respectively). Disease activity did not influence numbers of C. leptum or F. prausnitzii in patients with CD or UC. Conclusion C. leptum numbers and diversity were significantly reduced in both CD and UC suggesting that alterations noted were not specific to one disease. This could contribute to reduced short chain fatty acid production in IBD. PMID:23351032

  20. Abdominal organ donation: surgical aspects and recommended practice guidelines for controlled donation of brain-dead donor.

    PubMed

    Matevossian, E; Kordzaia, D; Chkhaidze, Z; Khodeli, N; Partsakhashvili, J; Khachiperadze, Z; Doll, D; Lobzhanidze, G

    2015-02-01

    The shortage of organ donors along with the increased number of waiting recipients have created the need for new strategies to expand the organ pool from donations after brain death. Organ procurement from brain-dead deceased donors is a complex task. Multiple, complicated operations are performed simultaneously. Very often, this involves numerous physicians and transplant coordinators. An extensive coordination between the thoracic and abdominal surgical teams is crucial for the successful procurement of all suitable organs. The quality of donor organs and the successful recovery therefore depends on a good communication. Organ procurement for transplantation should generally be performed in a calm and dignified atmosphere. The last wishes of the organ donor itself or the relatives must be respected unconditionally. In general, a dignified and respectful treatment of the organ donor is a condition sine qua non for each person involved in the process of organ procurement. The purpose of this article was to focus on the surgical aspects of organ donation after brain death. The proposed recommendations, in cases where they are applicable, are acceptable, however, one should never forget the importance of the ethical side of the issue with respect to the doctor-donating side relationship. PMID:25802455

  1. The emerging role of telemedicine in managing glycemic control and psychobehavioral aspects of pregnancy complicated by diabetes.

    PubMed

    Chilelli, Nino Cristiano; Dalfrà, Maria Grazia; Lapolla, Annunziata

    2014-01-01

    There is a gradual decline in concern of specialists who follow up the care of pregnant women with diabetes. In addition, due to the dwindling economic resources allocated to health services, access to specialized healthcare facilities is becoming more difficult. Telemedicine, or medicine practiced at a distance, is inserted in this context with applications differing for type of interaction (real-time or deferred, i.e., videoconferencing versus store-and-forward data transmission), type of monitoring (automatic versus requesting cooperation from the patient), and type of devices used (web connections and use of mobile phones or smartphones). Telemedicine can cope with the current lack of ability to ensure these patients frequent direct contact with their caregivers. This approach may have an impact not only on the classical maternal-fetal outcome, but also on some underestimated aspects of patients with diabetes in pregnancy, in this case their quality of life, the perception of "diabetes self-efficacy," and the glycemic variability. In this paper, we will analyze the current evidence regarding the use of telemedicine in pregnancies complicated by diabetes, trying to highlight the main limitations of these studies and possible strategies to overcome them in order to improve the effectiveness of future clinical interventions with these medical applications. PMID:25295059

  2. The Emerging Role of Telemedicine in Managing Glycemic Control and Psychobehavioral Aspects of Pregnancy Complicated by Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Chilelli, Nino Cristiano; Dalfrà, Maria Grazia; Lapolla, Annunziata

    2014-01-01

    There is a gradual decline in concern of specialists who follow up the care of pregnant women with diabetes. In addition, due to the dwindling economic resources allocated to health services, access to specialized healthcare facilities is becoming more difficult. Telemedicine, or medicine practiced at a distance, is inserted in this context with applications differing for type of interaction (real-time or deferred, i.e., videoconferencing versus store-and-forward data transmission), type of monitoring (automatic versus requesting cooperation from the patient), and type of devices used (web connections and use of mobile phones or smartphones). Telemedicine can cope with the current lack of ability to ensure these patients frequent direct contact with their caregivers. This approach may have an impact not only on the classical maternal-fetal outcome, but also on some underestimated aspects of patients with diabetes in pregnancy, in this case their quality of life, the perception of “diabetes self-efficacy,” and the glycemic variability. In this paper, we will analyze the current evidence regarding the use of telemedicine in pregnancies complicated by diabetes, trying to highlight the main limitations of these studies and possible strategies to overcome them in order to improve the effectiveness of future clinical interventions with these medical applications. PMID:25295059

  3. Brain training with non-action video games enhances aspects of cognition in older adults: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Prieto, Antonio; Mayas, Julia; Toril, Pilar; Pita, Carmen; Ponce de León, Laura; Reales, José M.; Waterworth, John

    2014-01-01

    Age-related cognitive and brain declines can result in functional deterioration in many cognitive domains, dependency, and dementia. A major goal of aging research is to investigate methods that help to maintain brain health, cognition, independent living and wellbeing in older adults. This randomized controlled study investigated the effects of 20 1-h non-action video game training sessions with games selected from a commercially available package (Lumosity) on a series of age-declined cognitive functions and subjective wellbeing. Two groups of healthy older adults participated in the study, the experimental group who received the training and the control group who attended three meetings with the research team along the study. Groups were similar at baseline on demographics, vocabulary, global cognition, and depression status. All participants were assessed individually before and after the intervention, or a similar period of time, using neuropsychological tests and laboratory tasks to investigate possible transfer effects. The results showed significant improvements in the trained group, and no variation in the control group, in processing speed (choice reaction time), attention (reduction of distraction and increase of alertness), immediate and delayed visual recognition memory, as well as a trend to improve in Affection and Assertivity, two dimensions of the Wellbeing Scale. Visuospatial working memory (WM) and executive control (shifting strategy) did not improve. Overall, the current results support the idea that training healthy older adults with non-action video games will enhance some cognitive abilities but not others. PMID:25352805

  4. Experimental Tests of Effects of Plant Productivity and Diversity on Grassland Arthropod Diversity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evan Siemann

    1998-01-01

    Because the quantity, quality, and heterogeneity of resources should affect the diversity of consumers, plant productivity, plant composition, and plant diversity may influence the diversity of trophic levels higher up the food chain (''bottom-up'' control of diversity). Increasing plant productivity may increase herbivore diversity by: increasing the abundance of rare resources (''resource rarity hypothesis''), increasing herbivore abun- dance and local

  5. Metacontrast masking and the cortical representation of surface color: dynamical aspects of edge integration and contrast gain control

    PubMed Central

    Rudd, Michael E.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews recent theoretical and experimental work supporting the idea that brightness is computed in a series of neural stages involving edge integration and contrast gain control. It is proposed here that metacontrast and paracontrast masking occur as byproducts of the dynamical properties of these neural mechanisms. The brightness computation model assumes, more specifically, that early visual neurons in the retina, and cortical areas V1 and V2, encode local edge signals whose magnitudes are proportional to the logarithms of the luminance ratios at luminance edges within the retinal image. These local edge signals give rise to secondary neural lightness and darkness spatial induction signals, which are summed at a later stage of cortical processing to produce a neural representation of surface color, or achromatic color, in the case of the chromatically neutral stimuli considered here. Prior to the spatial summation of these edge-based induction signals, the weights assigned to local edge contrast are adjusted by cortical gain mechanisms involving both lateral interactions between neural edge detectors and top-down attentional control. We have previously constructed and computer-simulated a neural model of achromatic color perception based on these principles and have shown that our model gives a good quantitative account of the results of several brightness matching experiments. Adding to this model the realistic dynamical assumptions that 1) the neurons that encode local contrast exhibit transient firing rate enhancement at the onset of an edge, and 2) that the effects of contrast gain control take time to spread between edges, results in a dynamic model of brightness computation that predicts the existence Broca-Sulzer transient brightness enhancement of the target, Type B metacontrast masking, and a form of paracontrast masking in which the target brightness is enhanced when the mask precedes the target in time. PMID:20517518

  6. Sapogenin content variation in Medicago inter-specific hybrid derivatives highlights some aspects of saponin synthesis and control.

    PubMed

    Carelli, Maria; Biazzi, Elisa; Tava, Aldo; Losini, Ilaria; Abbruscato, Pamela; Depedro, Claudia; Scotti, Carla

    2015-04-01

    In the Medicago genus, saponins are a complex mixture of triterpene glycosides showing a broad spectrum of biological properties. Here we analyzed the variation in the sapogenin content and composition of inter-specific hybrid Medicago sativa × Medicago arborea derivatives to highlight the pattern of this variation in plant organs (leaves/roots) and the possible mechanisms underlying it. In Sativa Arborea Cross (SAC) leaves and roots, saponins and sapogenins were evaluated using chromatographic methods. Phenotypic correlations between sapogenin content and bio-agronomic traits were examined. Expression studies on ?-amyrin synthase and four cytochromes P450 (CYPs) involved in sapogenin biosynthesis and sequence analysis of the key gene of the hemolytic sapogenin pathway (CYP716A12) were performed. Chromatographic analyses revealed a different pattern of among-family variation for hemolytic and nonhemolytic sapogenins and saponins and for the two organs/tissues. Different correlation patterns of gene expression in roots and leaves were found. Diachronic analysis revealed a relationship between sapogenin content and gene transcriptional levels in the early stages of the productive cycle. The results suggest that there are different control mechanisms acting on sapogenin biosynthesis for leaves and roots, which are discussed. A key role for medicagenic acid in the control of sapogenin content in both the tissues is proposed and discussed. PMID:25406544

  7. Biological control of spider mites on grape by phytoseiid mites (Acari: Tetranychidae, Phytoseiidae): emphasis on regional aspects.

    PubMed

    Prischmann, D A; Croft, B A; Luh, H K

    2002-04-01

    Leaf samples were taken from 34 (1998) and 10 (1999) vineyards in five valleys in western Oregon to assess spider mite pests and biological control by predaceous phytoseiid mites. A leaf at a coordinate of every 10 m of border, 5 m into a vineyard, was taken to minimize edge effects; 20 leaves were taken at regular intervals from vineyard centers. Variables recorded at each site included grape variety and plant age, chemicals used, and vegetation next to vineyards. Sites were rated as occurring in agricultural versus riparian settings based on surrounding vegetation types. Multiple linear regressions and a computer genetic algorithm with an information content criterion were used to assess variables that may explain mite abundances. Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten was the dominant phytoseiid mite species and Tetranychus urticae Koch the dominant tetranychid mite species. High levels of T. urticae occurred when phytoseiid levels were low, and low levels of T. urticae were present when phytoseiid levels were high to moderate. T. urticae densities were higher in vineyards surrounded by agriculture, but phytoseiid levels did not differ between agricultural and riparian sites. Phytoseiids had higher densities on vineyard edges; T. urticae densities were higher in centers. Biological control success of pest mites was rated excellent in 11 of 44 vineyards, good in 27, and poor in only six sites. Predaceous mites appeared to be the principal agents regulating spider mites at low levels in sites where pesticides nontoxic to predators were used. Effects of surrounding vegetation, grape variety, growing region, and other factors on mites are discussed. PMID:12020011

  8. High-order myopic coronagraphic phase diversity (COFFEE) for wave-front control in high-contrast imaging systems

    E-print Network

    Paul, B; Sauvage, J -F; Dohlen, K

    2013-01-01

    The estimation and compensation of quasi-static aberrations is mandatory to reach the ultimate performance of high-contrast imaging systems. COFFEE is a focal plane wave-front sensing method that consists in the extension of phase diversity to high-contrast imaging systems. Based on a Bayesian approach, it estimates the quasi-static aberrations from two focal plane images recorded from the scientific camera itself. In this paper, we present COFFEE's extension which allows an estimation of low and high order aberrations with nanometric precision for any coronagraphic device. The performance is evaluated by realistic simulations, performed in the SPHERE instrument framework. We develop a myopic estimation that allows us to take into account an imperfect knowledge on the used diversity phase. Lastly, we evaluate COFFEE's performance in a compensation process, to optimize the contrast on the detector, and show it allows one to reach the 10^-6 contrast required by SPHERE at a few resolution elements from the star....

  9. High-order myopic coronagraphic phase diversity (COFFEE) for wave-front control in high-contrast imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, B.; Mugnier, L. M.; Sauvage, J.-F.; Ferrari, M.; Dohlen, K.

    2013-12-01

    The estimation and compensation of quasi-static aberrations is mandatory to reach the ultimate performance of high-contrast imaging systems. COFFEE is a focal plane wave-front sensing method that consists in the extension of phase diversity to high-contrast imaging systems. Based on a Bayesian approach, it estimates the quasi-static aberrations from two focal plane images recorded from the scientific camera itself. In this paper, we present COFFEE's extension which allows an estimation of low and high order aberrations with nanometric precision for any coronagraphic device. The performance is evaluated by realistic simulations, performed in the SPHERE instrument framework. We develop a myopic estimation that allows us to take into account an imperfect knowledge on the used diversity phase. Lastly, we evaluate COFFEE's performance in a compensation process, to optimize the contrast on the detector, and show it allows one to reach the 10^-6 contrast required by SPHERE at a few resolution elements from the star. Notably, we present a non-linear energy minimization method which can be used to reach very high contrast levels (better than 10^-7 in a SPHERE-like context)

  10. D. Moreau IEA W59 Shape and Aspect Ratio Optimization for High Beta, Steady-State Tokamaks, San Diego, February 2005 PLASMA SHAPE, PROFILES AND FLUX CONTROL

    E-print Network

    D. Moreau IEA W59 Shape and Aspect Ratio Optimization for High Beta, Steady-State Tokamaks, San JET-EFDA Contributors D. Moreau #12;D. Moreau IEA W59 Shape and Aspect Ratio Optimization for High · Conclusion #12;D. Moreau IEA W59 Shape and Aspect Ratio Optimization for High Beta, Steady-State Tokamaks

  11. FGF-mediated aspects of skeletal muscle growth and differentiation are controlled by a high affinity receptor, FGFR1.

    PubMed

    Templeton, T J; Hauschka, S D

    1992-11-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and FGF receptors (FGFRs) play major roles in vertebrate embryogenesis, including control of skeletal muscle growth and differentiation. Understanding their roles requires delineating the specific FGF and FGFR isoforms involved. This study analyzes the FGFR transcripts found in a model mouse skeletal myoblast cell line (MM14) during growth and terminal differentiation. MM14 cells express transcripts for FGFR1 (flg) but not FGFR2 (bek). The predominate FGFR1 transcript contains three immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domains in the extracellular ligand binding region. Approximately one-fourth of the three Ig-like domain transcripts possess a 6-nt deletion between the first and second Ig-like domains which after translation would result in deletion of an Arg-Arg pair. Cloning of mouse genomic DNA surrounding the region of the FGFR1 6-nt deletion indicates that the deletion is derived by alternative splicing of FGFR1 transcripts. Transcripts containing two Ig-like domains account for less than 5% of total FGFR1 mRNA in MM14 cells. A survey of RNA from mouse tissues indicated that two Ig-like domain FGFR1 transcripts are rare in all tissues except in lung, in which the two Ig-like domain form accounts for roughly 70% of the lung FGFR1 mRNA. PCR RACE cloning studies disclosed 162 nt of additional FGFR1 5'-flanking RNA which was highly GC-rich. FGFR1 transcripts decline 8- to 10-fold during low serum, (-)FGF-mediated differentiation of MM14 cultures. The kinetics of the FGFR1 mRNA decline is similar to the previously described differentiation-dependent decrease in cell surface FGF receptors. PMID:1426624

  12. Unity through Diversity: Fostering Cultural Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Richard B.; Vuong, Trang K.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the program "Unity through Diversity" and outlines the planning procedure used in its implementation. Discusses major program aspects, including the four assembly programs and the supplementary curricular materials. Students perceived the program to be educational and entertaining. (RJM)

  13. Inhibitory Control in Preschool Predicts Early Math Skills in First Grade: Evidence from an Ethnically Diverse Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Florrie Fei-Yin; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Sze, Irene Nga-Lam

    2015-01-01

    Preschoolers' inhibitory control and early math skills were concurrently and longitudinally examined in 255 Chinese, African American, Dominican, and Mexican 4-year-olds in the United States. Inhibitory control at age 4, assessed with a peg-tapping task, was associated with early math skills at age 4 and predicted growth in such skills from…

  14. Instructional Diversity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bob Samples

    2000-01-01

    Teachers who successfully use diverse learning modes in their instructional approaches accomplish several remarkable things. First, they create a climate where the ways of knowing central to the different modalities are all seen as legitimate, acceptable,

  15. Discovering Diversity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Barbara M. Manner

    2000-03-01

    Multicultural education seeks to "affirm cultural pluralism within a culturally diverse society and in an interdependent world" (Bennett, 1999). Therefore, the authors helped a group of preservice teachers develop an awareness for and an appreciation of a

  16. Driver choice compared to controlled diversion for a freeway double on-ramp in the framework of three-phase traffic theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, L. C.

    2008-11-01

    Two diversion schemes that apportion demand between two on-ramps to reduce congestion and improve throughput on a freeway are analyzed. In the first scheme, drivers choose to merge or to divert to a downstream on-ramp based on information about average travel times for the two routes: (1) merge and travel on the freeway or (2) divert and travel on a surface street with merging downstream. The flow, rate of merging at the ramps, and the travel times oscillate strongly, but irregularly, due to delayed feedback. In the second scheme, diversion is controlled by the average mainline velocities just upstream of the on-ramps. Driver choice is not involved. If the average upstream velocity on the mainline drops below a predetermined value (20 m/s) vehicles are diverted to the downstream ramp. When the average mainline velocity downstream becomes too low, diversion is no longer permitted. The resultant oscillations in this scheme are nearly periodic. The period is dominated by the response time of the mainline to interruption of merging rather than delayed feedback, which contributes only a minor component linear in the distance separating the on-ramps. In general the second scheme produces more effective congestion reduction and greater throughput. Also the travel times for on-ramp drivers are less than that obtained by drivers who attempt to minimize their own travel times (first scheme). The simulations are done using the Kerner-Klenov stochastic three-phase theory of traffic [B.S. Kerner, S.L. Klenov, Phys. Rev. E 68 (2003) 036130].

  17. Hybridization effects and genetic diversity of the common and black-tufted marmoset (Callithrix jacchus and Callithrix penicillata) mitochondrial control region.

    PubMed

    Malukiewicz, Joanna; Boere, Vanner; Fuzessy, Lisieux F; Grativol, Adriana D; French, Jeffrey A; de Oliveira e Silva, Ita; Pereira, Luiz C M; Ruiz-Miranda, Carlos R; Valença, Yuri M; Stone, Anne C

    2014-12-01

    Hybridization is continually documented in primates, but effects of natural and anthropogenic hybridization on biodiversity are still unclear and differentiating between these contexts remains challenging in regards to primate evolution and conservation. Here, we examine hybridization effects on the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region of Callithrix marmosets, which provide a unique glimpse into interspecific mating under distinct anthropogenic and natural conditions. DNA was sampled from 40 marmosets along a 50-km transect from a previously uncharacterized hybrid zone in NE Brazil between the ranges of Callithrix jacchus and Callithrix penicillata. DNA was also collected from 46 marmosets along a 30-km transect in a hybrid zone in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, where exotic marmosets appeared in the 1980s. Combining Callithrix DNA sampled inside and outside of these hybrid zones, phylogenetic and network analyses show C. jacchus and C. penicillata being parental species to sampled hybrids. We expand limited Callithrix population genetics work by describing mtDNA diversity and demographic history of these parental species. We show ancient population expansion in C. jacchus and historically constant population size in C. penicillata, with the latter being more genetically diverse than the former. The natural hybrid zone contained higher genetic diversity relative to the anthropogenic zone. While our data suggest hybrid swarm formation within the anthropogenic zone due to removed physical reproductive barriers, this pattern is not seen in the natural hybrid zone. These results suggest different genetic dynamics within natural and anthropogenic hybridization contexts that carry important implications for primate evolution and conservation. PMID:25186076

  18. Comparative studies on the effects of Bt-transgenic and nontransgenic cotton on arthropod diversity, seedcotton yield and bollworms control.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, M K; Sharma, H C

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of commercial Bt-cotton in pest management, influence on arthropod diversity, natural enemies, and toxin flow in the insect fauna under field conditions were studied keeping in view the need to assess bioefficacy and biosafety of Bt-transgenic cotton. There were no significant differences in oviposition by Helicoverpa armigera on Bt-transgenic and non-transgenic cottons (9.2 versus 9.6 eggs plants(-100)), while the numbers of H. armigera larvae were significantly more on non-transgenic than on Bt-transgenic (10.4 versus 4.0 larvae plants(-100)) cotton. The Bt-cotton had significantly more number of mature opened bolls (9.6 versus 4.4 bolls plant(-1)), lower bollworm damage (12.8 versus 40.2% bolls damaged), and higher seedcotton yield (667.7 versus 231.7 kg ha 1). Population of cotton leafhopper, Amrasca biguttula biguttula was lower (582.2 versus 732.2 leafhoppers plants(-100)), while that of whitefly, Bemisia tabaci was higher on Bt-transgenic (65.2 versus 45.6 whiteflies plants(-100)) than on non-transgenic cotton. There was no significant influence of Bt-transgenic cotton on abundance of natural enemies of crop pests - chrysopids (9.6 versus 8.4 chrysopids plants(-100), ladybird beetles (16.0 versus 10.8 ladybirds plants(-100)), and spiders (128.4 versus 142.8 spiders plants(-100)). There were no significant differences in H. ormigera egg (19.8 versus 20.9%), larval (7.4 versus 9.6%), and larval-pupal (1.3 versus 2.9%) parasitism on Bt-transgenic and non-transgenic cottons in the farmer's fields. The parasitism in larvae of H. armigera was far lower than that of the eggs, which might be because of early mortality of H. armigera prior to parasitoid development in the host larvae. Although, Cry1Ac Bt toxin was detected in Cheilomenes sexmoculatus, chrysopids, A. bigutulla bigutulla, Thrips taboci, Myllocerus sp., Oxycarenus laetus, Dysdercus koenigii, spiders, bugs, and grasshoppers, no significant differences were observed in their abundance on Bt-transgenic and non-transgenic cottons, suggesting that there were no adverse effects of Bt-cotton on the arthropod diversity under field conditions. PMID:24006809

  19. Exploiting the genetic diversity of Beauveria bassiana for improving the biological control of the coffee berry borer through the use of strain mixtures.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Lina P; Gaitan, Alvaro L; Gongora, Carmenza E

    2006-08-01

    Beauveria bassiana is an entomopathogen widely used to control the coffee berry borer in Colombia, as part of an Integrated Pest Management strategy. Traditionally, the development of fungal insect pathogens as biocontrol agents in crop pests has been oriented towards the selection and formulation of elite clonal strains. Instead, we explored the potential application of genetic diversity in B. bassiana by determining the effect of strain mixtures on coffee berry borer mortality compared to clonal isolates. Genomic DNA from 11 strains was characterized using internal transcribed spacers and beta-tubulin sequences as well as amplified fragment length polymorphism markers. Cluster analysis produced three genetic groups and confirmed the low but significant intraspecific genetic diversity present among the strains. Single strain virulence towards the coffee berry borer under laboratory conditions, using 1x10(6) conidia ml(-1), ranged between 89.9 and 57.5%. All the inoculations with mixtures resulted in coinfection events. Combinations of genetically similar strains showed no significant differences when their virulences were compared. However, mixtures of genetically different strains led to both antagonism and synergism. The lowest virulence percentage (57%) was obtained by putting together the most virulent strain of each group, contrary to the highest virulence percentage (93%) that resulted from mixing the three least virulent strains. The results indicate the promising potential of designing strain mixtures as an alternative for the biocontrol of Hypothenemus hampei and other pests and provide tools for the understanding of the ecological dynamics of entomopathogen populations under natural conditions. PMID:16362818

  20. Mitochondrial DNA control region diversity and population structure of Pacific herring ( Clupea pallasii) in the Yellow Sea and the Sea of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ming; Gao, Tianxia; Sakurai, Yasunori; Jia, Ning; Zhao, Linlin; Du, Xiao; Jiang, Qun; Lu, Zhichuan

    2011-03-01

    To investigate the genetic variation and population structure of Pacific herring in the Yellow Sea and the genetic differentiation between the Yellow Sea and the Sea of Japan, fragments of 479-bp mitochondrial DNA control region were sequenced for 110 individuals collected from three different periods in the Yellow Sea and one locality in the Sea of Japan. High haplotype diversity and moderate nucleotide diversity were observed in Pacific herring. AMOVA and exact test of population differentiation showed no significant genetic differentiations among the three populations of the Yellow Sea and suggested the populations can be treated as a single panmictic stock in the Yellow Sea. However, a large and significant genetic differentiation ( ? ST=0.11; P=0.00) was detected between the populations in the Yellow Sea and the Sea of Japan. The high sea water temperature in the Tsushima Strait was thought a barrier to block the gene exchange between populations of the two sea areas. The neutrality tests and mismatch distribution indicated recent population expansion in Pacific herring.

  1. Genetic and antigenic diversity of Theileria parva in cattle in Eastern and Southern zones of Tanzania. A study to support control of East Coast fever.

    PubMed

    Elisa, Mwega; Hasan, Salih Dia; Moses, Njahira; Elpidius, Rukambile; Skilton, Robert; Gwakisa, Paul

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the genetic and antigenic diversity of Theileria parva in cattle from the Eastern and Southern zones of Tanzania. Thirty-nine (62%) positive samples were genotyped using 14 mini- and microsatellite markers with coverage of all four T. parva chromosomes. Wright's F index (F ST = 0 × 094) indicated a high level of panmixis. Linkage equilibrium was observed in the two zones studied, suggesting existence of a panmyctic population. In addition, sequence analysis of CD8+ T-cell target antigen genes Tp1 revealed a single protein sequence in all samples analysed, which is also present in the T. parva Muguga strain, which is a component of the FAO1 vaccine. All Tp2 epitope sequences were identical to those in the T. parva Muguga strain, except for one variant of a Tp2 epitope, which is found in T. parva Kiambu 5 strain, also a component the FAO1 vaccine. Neighbour joining tree of the nucleotide sequences of Tp2 showed clustering according to geographical origin. Our results show low genetic and antigenic diversity of T. parva within the populations analysed. This has very important implications for the development of sustainable control measures for T. parva in Eastern and Southern zones of Tanzania, where East Coast fever is endemic. PMID:25417727

  2. Cycles in fossil diversity

    SciTech Connect

    Rohde, Robert A.; Muller, Richard A.

    2004-10-20

    It is well-known that the diversity of life appears to fluctuate during the course the Phanerozoic, the eon during which hard shells and skeletons left abundant fossils (0-542 Ma). Using Sepkoski's compendium of the first and last stratigraphic appearances of 36380 marine genera, we report a strong 62 {+-} 3 Myr cycle, which is particularly strong in the shorter-lived genera. The five great extinctions enumerated by Raup and Sepkoski may be an aspect of this cycle. Because of the high statistical significance, we also consider contributing environmental factors and possible causes.

  3. Genetic diversity and origin of Gayal and cattle in Yunnan revealed by mtDNA control region and SRY gene sequence variation.

    PubMed

    Gou, X; Wang, Y; Yang, S; Deng, W; Mao, H

    2010-04-01

    There are hump, humpless cattle and gayal distributed in Yunnan province, south-west China, but their genetic background remains unclear. To determine the origin and genetic diversity of Yunnan gayal and cattle (Diqing, Nujiang and Wenshan cattle), we analysed mtDNA control region sequences of 71 samples and SRY gene sequences of 39 samples, together with the available sequences in GenBank. The neighbour-joining phylogeny and the reduced median network analysis showed that Yunnan gayal originated from the hybridization between male Bos frontalis and female Bos taurus or Bos indicus, and that Yunnan cattle mostly originated from B. indicus, also containing some hybrids of male B. indicus and female B. taurus. The phylogenetic pattern of Yunnan cattle was consistent with the recently described cattle matrilineal pool from China and indicated more contribution to the Yunnan cattle from B. indicus than from B. taurus. PMID:20433524

  4. The Academy for Future Science Faculty: randomized controlled trial of theory-driven coaching to shape development and diversity of early-career scientists

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Approaches to training biomedical scientists have created a talented research community. However, they have failed to create a professional workforce that includes many racial and ethnic minorities and women in proportion to their representation in the population or in PhD training. This is particularly true at the faculty level. Explanations for the absence of diversity in faculty ranks can be found in social science theories that reveal processes by which individuals develop identities, experiences, and skills required to be seen as legitimate within the profession. Methods/Design Using the social science theories of Communities of Practice, Social Cognitive Career Theory, identity formation, and cultural capital, we have developed and are testing a novel coaching-based model to address some of the limitations of previous diversity approaches. This coaching intervention (The Academy for Future Science Faculty) includes annual in-person meetings of students and trained faculty Career Coaches, along with ongoing virtual coaching, group meetings and communication. The model is being tested as a randomized controlled trial with two cohorts of biomedical PhD students from across the U.S., one recruited at the start of their PhDs and one nearing completion. Stratification into the experimental and control groups, and to coaching groups within the experimental arms, achieved equal numbers of students by race, ethnicity and gender to the extent possible. A fundamental design element of the Academy is to teach and make visible the social science principles which highly influence scientific advancement, as well as acknowledging the extra challenges faced by underrepresented groups working to be seen as legitimate within the scientific communities. Discussion The strategy being tested is based upon a novel application of the well-established principles of deploying highly skilled coaches, selected and trained for their ability to develop talents of others. This coaching model is intended to be a complement, rather than a substitute, for traditional mentoring in biomedical research training, and is being tested as such. PMID:25084625

  5. Beneficial effects of short-term combination exercise training on diverse cognitive functions in healthy older people: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Results of previous studies have shown that exercise training can improve cognitive functions in healthy older people. Some studies have demonstrated that long-term combination exercise training can facilitate memory function improvement better than either aerobic or strength exercise training alone. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether short-term combination exercise training can improve diverse cognitive functions in healthy older people or not. We investigate the effects of four weeks of short-term combination exercise training on various cognitive functions (executive functions, episodic memory, short-term memory, working memory, attention, reading ability, and processing speed) of healthy older people. Methods A single-blinded intervention with two parallel groups (combination exercise training; waiting list control) is used. Testers are blind to the study hypothesis and the participants’ group membership. Through an advertisement in a local newspaper, 64 healthy older adults are recruited and then assigned randomly to a combination exercise training group or a waiting list control group. Participants in the combination exercise training group must participate in the short-term combination exercise training (aerobic and strength exercise training) three days per week during the four weeks (12 workouts in total). The waiting list group does not participate in the combination exercise training. The primary outcome measure is the Stroop test score: a measure of executive function. Secondary outcome measures are assessments including the Verbal Fluency Task, Logical Memory, First and Second Names, Digit Span Forward, Digit span backward, Japanese Reading Test, Digit Cancellation Task, Digit Symbol Coding, and Symbol Search. We assess these outcome measures before and after the intervention. Discussion This report is the first of a study that investigates the beneficial effects of short-term combination exercise training on diverse cognitive functions of older people. Our study is expected to provide sufficient evidence of short-term combination exercise’s effectiveness. Trial registration This trial was registered in The University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry (Number UMIN000007828). PMID:23107038

  6. What Makes Racial Diversity Work in Higher Education: Academic Leaders Present Successful Policies and Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Frank W., Jr., Ed.

    The essays in this collection establish the case for racial diversity , outline the challenges diversity offers the academic community, presents examples of how some institutions have developed successful models of diversity, and discusses how the history of racial diversity has influenced aspects of diversity today. Following a foreword,…

  7. Diversity in Control and Management Techniques for Cactoblastis cactorum and Its Response in its Adventive North American Range

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The South American cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is celebrated for its role as a biological control agent for weedy Opuntia spp. However, multiple unintentional arrivals of C. cactorum in North America represent an economical and ecological threat to native Opun...

  8. Bioengineering applied to erosion and stability control in the North Apennines (Emilia-Romagna Region, Italy): a check about critical aspects of the works.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selli, Lavinia; Cavazza, Claudio; Pavanelli, Donatella

    2013-04-01

    Because of its geological structure, in the Emilia-Romagna Region over 32,000 landslides have been identified. Several works have been made in order to control mass movement's dynamics and to secure of Reno and Lamone Mountain Basin Rivers, the road network and near by villages and towns. Most of the control works dealt with bioengineering practices: palisades piles, geotextiles, seedings, surface flow control works, dikes within main drainage ditches. In order to check about critical aspects related to the use of these techniques in the Apennines, a survey in this basins was designed with specific interest in the several kinds of works realised, in which plant species were mostly used and in the factors that affected the success or failure of the works. Territory encompasses steep slopes covered with woods to low reliefs covered with grasslands. It is characterized by prevailing clays, inducing instability, and arenaceous lithology with impermeable soils; drainage density is quite high and hillsides suffer extensive and severe erosion and slope stability problems. Chestnut woods mainly represent land use at higher altitudes, while coppice, pastures and crops are present on milder hillsides. The remaining part of the basin is covered by vineyards, orchards, ponds and urban areas, which are basically located in the valley floor. Precipitation events mainly consist of rainfall ranging between 950-1015 mm per year; few snowfalls occur during winter and a long dry season lasts from June until September. We have analyzed 187 works designed mainly for the consolidation of slope instabilities through a widespread enhancement of the vegetation cover. The surveyed works are classified as a function of their building features: it can be seen that cribwalls and palisades are by far the most common types, being the 24% and the 34% respectively of the works. As far as the most adopted plant species, they were silver willow (Salix alba), Spanish Broom (Spartium Junceum) and purple willow (Salix purpurea). Only the 25% of the interventions was accomplished by the use of secondary plant species, as tamarisk (Tamarix spp.,) blackthorn (Prunus spinosa) , whitethorn (Crataegus spp.), sea-buckthorn (Hipphopae rhamnoides), wild pear (Pyrus pyraster), cottonwood (Populus nigra), eglantine (Rosa spp.), goat-willow (Salix caprea) and cornel (Cornus sanguinea). Better results were achieved with Spanish Broom, a very rural plant that can effectively colonise even poor soils like badlands; as a matter of fact, more than the 75% of the interventions had positive outcomes The efficacy of the consolidation work by the presence of living structures point out an increase of the stability of those interventions older than 4 years, with taking root species present from 54% to 78%. So far, the construction and the reliability of the works have been monitored, in order to capture critical aspects for the success of works and to build a geo-referenced data base of the existing works and their status.

  9. Program analysis environment for writing COBOL aspects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hideaki Shinomi; Yasuhisa Ichimori

    2010-01-01

    COBOL is still an important language for building mission critical enterprise systems, and there is huge amount of existing COBOL programs. We have been developing an aspect-oriented COBOL and its development environment. We are applying aspect orientation to strengthening internal control in enterprise information systems. Understanding existing COBOL programs is critical for applying aspect orientation to them, because programmers are

  10. Expanding the forensic German mitochondrial DNA control region database: genetic diversity as a function of sample size and microgeography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Pfeiffer; B. Brinkmann; J. Hühne; B. Rolf; A. A. Morris; R. Steighner; M. M. Holland; P. Forster

    1999-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA control region sequences were determined in 109 unrelated German Caucasoid individuals from north west\\u000a Germany for both hypervariable regions 1 (HV1) and 2 (HV2) and 100 polymorphic nucleotide positions (nps) were found, 63 in\\u000a HV1 and 37 in HV2. A total of 100 different mtDNA lineages was revealed, of which 7 were shared by 2 individuals and 1

  11. Factors Controlling Soil Microbial Biomass and Bacterial Diversity and Community Composition in a Cold Desert Ecosystem: Role of Geographic Scale

    PubMed Central

    Van Horn, David J.; Van Horn, M. Lee; Barrett, John E.; Gooseff, Michael N.; Altrichter, Adam E.; Geyer, Kevin M.; Zeglin, Lydia H.; Takacs-Vesbach, Cristina D.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding controls over the distribution of soil bacteria is a fundamental step toward describing soil ecosystems, understanding their functional capabilities, and predicting their responses to environmental change. This study investigated the controls on the biomass, species richness, and community structure and composition of soil bacterial communities in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, at local and regional scales. The goals of the study were to describe the relationships between abiotic characteristics and soil bacteria in this unique, microbially dominated environment, and to test the scale dependence of these relationships in a low complexity ecosystem. Samples were collected from dry mineral soils associated with snow patches, which are a significant source of water in this desert environment, at six sites located in the major basins of the Taylor and Wright Valleys. Samples were analyzed for a suite of characteristics including soil moisture, pH, electrical conductivity, soil organic matter, major nutrients and ions, microbial biomass, 16 S rRNA gene richness, and bacterial community structure and composition. Snow patches created local biogeochemical gradients while inter-basin comparisons encompassed landscape scale gradients enabling comparisons of microbial controls at two distinct spatial scales. At the organic carbon rich, mesic, low elevation sites Acidobacteria and Actinobacteria were prevalent, while Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were dominant at the high elevation, low moisture and biomass sites. Microbial parameters were significantly related with soil water content and edaphic characteristics including soil pH, organic matter, and sulfate. However, the magnitude and even the direction of these relationships varied across basins and the application of mixed effects models revealed evidence of significant contextual effects at local and regional scales. The results highlight the importance of the geographic scale of sampling when determining the controls on soil microbial community characteristics. PMID:23824063

  12. Factors Controlling Soil Microbial Biomass and Bacterial Diversity and Community Composition in a Cold Desert Ecosystem: Role of Geographic Scale.

    PubMed

    Van Horn, David J; Van Horn, M Lee; Barrett, John E; Gooseff, Michael N; Altrichter, Adam E; Geyer, Kevin M; Zeglin, Lydia H; Takacs-Vesbach, Cristina D

    2013-01-01

    Understanding controls over the distribution of soil bacteria is a fundamental step toward describing soil ecosystems, understanding their functional capabilities, and predicting their responses to environmental change. This study investigated the controls on the biomass, species richness, and community structure and composition of soil bacterial communities in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, at local and regional scales. The goals of the study were to describe the relationships between abiotic characteristics and soil bacteria in this unique, microbially dominated environment, and to test the scale dependence of these relationships in a low complexity ecosystem. Samples were collected from dry mineral soils associated with snow patches, which are a significant source of water in this desert environment, at six sites located in the major basins of the Taylor and Wright Valleys. Samples were analyzed for a suite of characteristics including soil moisture, pH, electrical conductivity, soil organic matter, major nutrients and ions, microbial biomass, 16 S rRNA gene richness, and bacterial community structure and composition. Snow patches created local biogeochemical gradients while inter-basin comparisons encompassed landscape scale gradients enabling comparisons of microbial controls at two distinct spatial scales. At the organic carbon rich, mesic, low elevation sites Acidobacteria and Actinobacteria were prevalent, while Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were dominant at the high elevation, low moisture and biomass sites. Microbial parameters were significantly related with soil water content and edaphic characteristics including soil pH, organic matter, and sulfate. However, the magnitude and even the direction of these relationships varied across basins and the application of mixed effects models revealed evidence of significant contextual effects at local and regional scales. The results highlight the importance of the geographic scale of sampling when determining the controls on soil microbial community characteristics. PMID:23824063

  13. Tree regeneration and plant species diversity responses to vegetation control following a major windthrow in mixed broadleaved stands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marine Dodet; Catherine Collet; Henri Frochot; Léon Wehrlen

    2011-01-01

    By increasing resource availability, canopy opening enhances tree recruitment as well as the development of neighbouring vegetation.\\u000a The proliferation of early successional and highly competitive vegetation may have dramatic consequences on seedling establishment.\\u000a However, differences in competitive abilities have been shown among the plant growth forms commonly encountered in forests.\\u000a We may thus expect that vegetation management leading to control

  14. Human rotavirus vaccine Rotarix™ provides protection against diverse circulating rotavirus strains in African infants: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Rotaviruses are the most important cause of severe acute gastroenteritis worldwide in children <5?years of age. The human, G1P[8] rotavirus vaccine Rotarix™ significantly reduced severe rotavirus gastroenteritis episodes in a Phase III clinical trial conducted in infants in South Africa and Malawi. This paper examines rotavirus vaccine efficacy in preventing severe rotavirus gastroenteritis, during infancy, caused by the various G and P rotavirus types encountered during the first rotavirus-season. Methods Healthy infants aged 5–10?weeks were enrolled and randomized into three groups to receive either two (10 and 14?weeks) or three doses of Rotarix™ (together forming the pooled Rotarix™ group) or three doses of placebo at a 6,10,14-week schedule. Weekly home visits were conducted to identify gastroenteritis episodes. Rotaviruses were detected by ELISA and genotyped by RT-PCR and nucleotide sequencing. The percentage of infants with severe rotavirus gastroenteritis caused by the circulating G and P types from 2?weeks post-last dose until one year of age and the corresponding vaccine efficacy was calculated with 95% CI. Results Overall, 4939 infants were vaccinated and 4417 (pooled Rotarix™?=?2974; placebo?=?1443) were included in the per protocol efficacy cohort. G1 wild-type was detected in 23 (1.6%) severe rotavirus gastroenteritis episodes from the placebo group. This was followed in order of detection by G12 (15 [1%] in placebo) and G8 types (15 [1%] in placebo). Vaccine efficacy against G1 wild-type, G12 and G8 types were 64.1% (95% CI: 29.9%; 82%), 51.5% (95% CI:-6.5%; 77.9%) and 64.4% (95% CI: 17.1%; 85.2%), respectively. Genotype P[8] was the predominant circulating P type and was detected in 38 (2.6%) severe rotavirus gastroenteritis cases in placebo group. The remaining circulating P types comprised of P[4] (20 [1.4%] in placebo) and P[6] (13 [0.9%] in placebo). Vaccine efficacy against P[8] was 59.1% (95% CI: 32.8%; 75.3%), P[4] was 70.9% (95% CI: 37.5%; 87.0%) and P[6] was 55.2% (95% CI: -6.5%; 81.3%) Conclusions Rotarix™ vaccine demonstrated efficacy against severe gastroenteritis caused by diverse circulating rotavirus types. These data add to a growing body of evidence supporting heterotypic protection provided by Rotarix™. Trial registration number NCT00241644 PMID:22974466

  15. Discovering Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manner, Barbara M.; Hattler, Jean Anne

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a preservice teacher field trip to the rain forests and coastal areas. This experience develops an awareness for different cultures among preservice teachers by experiencing biological and cultural diversity in Costa Rica. Presents students' own ideas on this experience. (YDS)

  16. Animal Diversity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lawrence Hall of Science

    1982-01-01

    In this outdoor activity, learners find, count and compare as many different kinds of animals as they can find in two different areas: a managed lawn and a weedy area. Learners compare their animal finds, and also examine which plants in the different areas attracted the most animals. Learners consider how people have affected the diversity of animals in the lawn.

  17. Diversity Trailblazer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Reginald

    2012-01-01

    When Dr. Kumea Shorter-Gooden took on her newly created job this month at the University of Maryland's flagship College Park campus, she assumed a challenge at the school with a lot riding on her shoulders--helping the University of Maryland strengthen its diversity efforts and, thus, its relevance to the state in the future and standing among the…

  18. PLANT DIVERSITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Habitat change statistics and species-area curves were used to estimate the effects of alternative future scenarios for agriculture on plant diversity in Iowa farmlands. Study areas were two watersheds in central Iowa of about 50 and 90 square kilometers, respectively. Future s...

  19. Controls on the Entrainment of Juvenile Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) into Large Water Diversions and Estimates of Population-Level Loss

    PubMed Central

    Zeug, Steven C.; Cavallo, Bradley J.

    2014-01-01

    Diversion of freshwater can cause significant changes in hydrologic dynamics and this can have negative consequences for fish populations. Additionally, fishes can be directly entrained into diversion infrastructure (e.g. canals, reservoirs, pumps) where they may become lost to the population. However, the effect of diversion losses on fish population dynamics remains unclear. We used 15 years of release and recovery data from coded-wire-tagged juvenile Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) to model the physical, hydrological and biological predictors of salvage at two large water diversions in the San Francisco Estuary. Additionally, entrainment rates were combined with estimates of mortality during migration to quantify the proportion of total mortality that could be attributed to diversions. Statistical modeling revealed a strong positive relationship between diversion rate and fish entrainment at both diversions and all release locations. Other significant relationships were specific to the rivers where the fish were released, and the specific diversion facility. Although significant relationships were identified in statistical models, entrainment loss and the mean contribution of entrainment to total migration mortality were low. The greatest entrainment mortality occurred for fish released along routes that passed closest to the diversions and certain runs of Chinook Salmon released in the Sacramento River suffered greater mortality but only at the highest diversion rates observed during the study. These results suggest losses at diversions should be put into a population context in order to best inform effective management of Chinook Salmon populations. PMID:25019205

  20. Controls on the entrainment of juvenile Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) into large water diversions and estimates of population-level loss.

    PubMed

    Zeug, Steven C; Cavallo, Bradley J

    2014-01-01

    Diversion of freshwater can cause significant changes in hydrologic dynamics and this can have negative consequences for fish populations. Additionally, fishes can be directly entrained into diversion infrastructure (e.g. canals, reservoirs, pumps) where they may become lost to the population. However, the effect of diversion losses on fish population dynamics remains unclear. We used 15 years of release and recovery data from coded-wire-tagged juvenile Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) to model the physical, hydrological and biological predictors of salvage at two large water diversions in the San Francisco Estuary. Additionally, entrainment rates were combined with estimates of mortality during migration to quantify the proportion of total mortality that could be attributed to diversions. Statistical modeling revealed a strong positive relationship between diversion rate and fish entrainment at both diversions and all release locations. Other significant relationships were specific to the rivers where the fish were released, and the specific diversion facility. Although significant relationships were identified in statistical models, entrainment loss and the mean contribution of entrainment to total migration mortality were low. The greatest entrainment mortality occurred for fish released along routes that passed closest to the diversions and certain runs of Chinook Salmon released in the Sacramento River suffered greater mortality but only at the highest diversion rates observed during the study. These results suggest losses at diversions should be put into a population context in order to best inform effective management of Chinook Salmon populations. PMID:25019205

  1. SAD1, an RNA polymerase I subunit A34.5 of rice, interacts with Mediator and controls various aspects of plant development.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiqiang; Yoshida, Akiko; Takahashi, Megumu; Maekawa, Masahiko; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Kyozuka, Junko

    2015-01-01

    The DWARF14 (D14) gene of rice functions within the signaling pathway of strigolactones, a group of plant hormones that inhibits shoot branching. We isolated a recessive mutant named super apical dormant (sad1-1) from a suppressor screen of d14-1. The growth of tillers (vegetative shoot branches) is suppressed in both the d14-1 sad1-1 double mutant and the sad1-1 single mutant. In addition, the sad1-1 mutant shows pleiotropic defects throughout development. SAD1 encodes an ortholog of RPA34.5, a subunit of RNA polymerase I (Pol I). Consequently, the level of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is severely reduced in the sad1-1 mutant. These results indicate that proper ribosome function is a prerequisite for normal development in plants. The Arabidopsis ortholog of SAD1 was previously isolated as a Mediator-interacting protein. Here we show that SAD1 interacts physically with the Mediator complex through direct binding with OsMED4, a component of the middle module of the Mediator complex in rice. It is known that Mediator interacts with Pol II, which transcribes mRNAs and functions as a central regulator of transcription. This study indicates a novel aspect of Mediator function in Pol I-controlled rRNA transcription. TFIIF2 and RPC53 are the counterparts of RPA34.5 in Pol II and Pol III, respectively. We demonstrate that the rice orthologs of these proteins also interact with OsMED4. Our results suggest that interaction with MED4 in the Mediator complex is a common feature of the three types of RNA polymerases. PMID:25404280

  2. Diversity of bacteriophages infecting Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae in paddy fields and its potential to control bacterial leaf blight of rice.

    PubMed

    Chae, Jong-Chan; Hung, Nguyen Bao; Yu, Sang-Mi; Lee, Ha Kyung; Lee, Yong Hoon

    2014-06-28

    Bacterial leaf blight (BLB) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is a very serious disease in rice-growing regions of the world. In spite of their economic importance, there are no effective ways of protecting rice plants from this disease. Bacteriophages infecting Xoo affect the population dynamics of the pathogen and consequently the occurrence of the disease. In this study, we investigated the diversity, host range, and infectivity of Xoo phages, and their use as a bicontrol agent on BLB was tested. Among the 34 phages that were isolated from floodwater in paddy fields, 29 belonged to the Myoviridae family, which suggests that the dominant phage in the ecosystem was Myoviridae. The isolated phages were classified into two groups based on plaque size produced on the lawn of Xoo. In general, there was a negative relationship between plaque size and host range, and interestingly the phages having a narrow host range had low efficiency of infectivity. The deduced protein sequence analysis of htf genes indicated that the gene was not a determinant of host specificity. Although the difference in host range and infectivity depending on morphotype needs to be addressed, the results revealed deeper understanding of the interaction between the phages and Xoo strains in floodwater and damp soil environments. The phage mixtures reduced the occurrence of BLB when they were treated with skim milk. The results indicate that the Xoo phages could be used as an alternative control method to increase the control efficacy and reduce the use of agrochemicals. PMID:24651644

  3. Supporting Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Betty, Ed.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This newsletter feature issue focuses on services for persons with developmental disabilities that support the whole person by acknowledging, respecting, and incorporating aspects of identity such as race, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, gender, age, and class. Articles include: (1) "Serving the Whole Person: The Journey to Embracing…

  4. ON DIVERSITY i ON DIVERSITY

    E-print Network

    , scholarship, civic leadership, and service? To what degree do diverse perspectives and experiences currently, peer, and national data. In addition to exploring well-documented demographic categories such as gender orientation, and socioeconomic status can flourish equally; in which all parts of society are both well

  5. Subsoil heterogeneities controlling porewater contaminant mass and microbial diversity at a site with a complex pollution history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puigserver, Diana; Carmona, José M.; Cortés, Amparo; Viladevall, Manuel; Nieto, José M.; Grifoll, Magdalena; Vila, Joaquim; Parker, Beth L.

    2013-01-01

    This study seeks to improve our understanding of the conceptual model of pollutant transport and fate in cases of DNAPL contamination at sites with a complex contamination history. The study was carried out in an unconfined aquifer of alluvial fans in the Tarragona Petrochemical Complex (Spain). Two boreholes were drilled and continuous cores were recovered in order to carry out a detailed core description at centimeter scale and a comprehensive sampling of borehole cores. The biogeochemical heterogeneity at these sites is controlled by the conjunction of lithological, hydrochemical and microbiological heterogeneities. Biodegradation processes of contaminant compounds take place not only at the level of the dissolved fraction in the aquifer but also at the level of the fraction retained in the fine, less conductive materials as shown by the biodegradation haloes of parent and metabolite compounds. Sampling the low-conductivity levels also allowed us to identify compounds, e.g. BTEX, that are the remaining traces of the passage of old contaminant plumes whose sources no longer exist. This enabled us to describe past biogeochemical processes and to partially account for the processes occurring today. Transition zones, characterized by numerous textural changes, constitute ecotones whose biostimulation could be effective in promoting the acceleration of the remediation of the multiple pollution at these sites.

  6. Subsoil heterogeneities controlling porewater contaminant mass and microbial diversity at a site with a complex pollution history.

    PubMed

    Puigserver, Diana; Carmona, José M; Cortés, Amparo; Viladevall, Manuel; Nieto, José M; Grifoll, Magdalena; Vila, Joaquim; Parker, Beth L

    2013-01-01

    This study seeks to improve our understanding of the conceptual model of pollutant transport and fate in cases of DNAPL contamination at sites with a complex contamination history. The study was carried out in an unconfined aquifer of alluvial fans in the Tarragona Petrochemical Complex (Spain). Two boreholes were drilled and continuous cores were recovered in order to carry out a detailed core description at centimeter scale and a comprehensive sampling of borehole cores. The biogeochemical heterogeneity at these sites is controlled by the conjunction of lithological, hydrochemical and microbiological heterogeneities. Biodegradation processes of contaminant compounds take place not only at the level of the dissolved fraction in the aquifer but also at the level of the fraction retained in the fine, less conductive materials as shown by the biodegradation haloes of parent and metabolite compounds. Sampling the low-conductivity levels also allowed us to identify compounds, e.g. BTEX, that are the remaining traces of the passage of old contaminant plumes whose sources no longer exist. This enabled us to describe past biogeochemical processes and to partially account for the processes occurring today. Transition zones, characterized by numerous textural changes, constitute ecotones whose biostimulation could be effective in promoting the acceleration of the remediation of the multiple pollution at these sites. PMID:23149156

  7. Invertebrate Diversity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jennifer Doherty

    In this introduction to invertebrate diversity, students compare the external anatomy and locomotion of earthworms, mealworms, crickets and crayfish, all of which can be purchased at low cost from local pet stores. Discussion questions help students understand the evolutionary basis of observed similarities and differences. This activity can be used as an introduction to the Annelid and Arthropod phyla and the principle that form matches function.

  8. Plant diversity predicts beta but not alpha diversity of soil microbes across grasslands worldwide.

    PubMed

    Prober, Suzanne M; Leff, Jonathan W; Bates, Scott T; Borer, Elizabeth T; Firn, Jennifer; Harpole, W Stanley; Lind, Eric M; Seabloom, Eric W; Adler, Peter B; Bakker, Jonathan D; Cleland, Elsa E; DeCrappeo, Nicole M; DeLorenze, Elizabeth; Hagenah, Nicole; Hautier, Yann; Hofmockel, Kirsten S; Kirkman, Kevin P; Knops, Johannes M H; La Pierre, Kimberly J; MacDougall, Andrew S; McCulley, Rebecca L; Mitchell, Charles E; Risch, Anita C; Schuetz, Martin; Stevens, Carly J; Williams, Ryan J; Fierer, Noah

    2015-01-01

    Aboveground-belowground interactions exert critical controls on the composition and function of terrestrial ecosystems, yet the fundamental relationships between plant diversity and soil microbial diversity remain elusive. Theory predicts predominantly positive associations but tests within single sites have shown variable relationships, and associations between plant and microbial diversity across broad spatial scales remain largely unexplored. We compared the diversity of plant, bacterial, archaeal and fungal communities in one hundred and forty-five 1 m(2) plots across 25 temperate grassland sites from four continents. Across sites, the plant alpha diversity patterns were poorly related to those observed for any soil microbial group. However, plant beta diversity (compositional dissimilarity between sites) was significantly correlated with the beta diversity of bacterial and fungal communities, even after controlling for environmental factors. Thus, across a global range of temperate grasslands, plant diversity can predict patterns in the composition of soil microbial communities, but not patterns in alpha diversity. PMID:25430889

  9. Plant diversity predicts beta but not alpha diversity of soil microbes across grasslands worldwide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prober, Suzanne M.; Leff, Jonathan W.; Bates, Scott T.; Borer, Elizabeth T.; Firn, Jennifer; Harpole, W. Stanley; Lind, Eric M.; Seabloom, Eric W.; Adler, Peter B.; Bakker, Jonathan D.; Cleland, Elsa E.; DeCrappeo, Nicole; DeLorenze, Elizabeth; Hagenah, Nicole; Hautier, Yann; Hofmockel, Kirsten S.; Kirkman, Kevin P.; Knops, Johannes M. H.; La Pierre, Kimberly J.; MacDougall, Andrew S.; McCulley, Rebecca L.; Mitchell, Charles E.; Risch, Anita C.; Schuetz, Martin; Stevens, Carly J.; Williams, Ryan J.; Fierer, Noah

    2015-01-01

    Aboveground–belowground interactions exert critical controls on the composition and function of terrestrial ecosystems, yet the fundamental relationships between plant diversity and soil microbial diversity remain elusive. Theory predicts predominantly positive associations but tests within single sites have shown variable relationships, and associations between plant and microbial diversity across broad spatial scales remain largely unexplored. We compared the diversity of plant, bacterial, archaeal and fungal communities in one hundred and forty-five 1 m2 plots across 25 temperate grassland sites from four continents. Across sites, the plant alpha diversity patterns were poorly related to those observed for any soil microbial group. However, plant beta diversity (compositional dissimilarity between sites) was significantly correlated with the beta diversity of bacterial and fungal communities, even after controlling for environmental factors. Thus, across a global range of temperate grasslands, plant diversity can predict patterns in the composition of soil microbial communities, but not patterns in alpha diversity.

  10. In Journal of Intelligent and Robotic Systems: Theory and Applications. Special Issue on Com putational Aspects of Robot Kinematics, Dynamics, and Control Vol. 9, pp. 121148, 1994.

    E-print Network

    ­ plementing and evaluating a wide variety of force control strategies. First, a review of both explicit force each strategy. In this paper we first review the wide spectrum force control strategies that we have force control and impedance control [38, 7, 23]. The explicit force control strategies are typically

  11. Valuing Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Fryer, Roland G.; Loury, Glenn C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the economics of diversity-enhancing policies. A model is proposed in which heterogeneous agents, distinguished by skill level and social identity, purchase productive opportunities in a competitive market. We analyze policies designed to raise the status of a disadvantaged identity group. When agent identity is contractible, efficient policy grants preferred access to slots but offers no direct assistance for acquiring skills. When identity is not contractible, efficient policy provides universal subsidies to skill development when the fraction of the disadvantaged group at the skill development margin is larger than their share at the slot assignment margin. PMID:25525280

  12. Conquering aspects with Caesar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mira Mezini; Klaus Ostermann

    2003-01-01

    Join point interception (JPI), is considered an important cornerstone of aspect-oriented languages. However, we claim that JPI alone does not suffice for a modular structuring of aspects. We propose CAESAR, a model for aspect-oriented programming with a higher-level module concept on top of JPI, which enables reuse and componentization of aspects, allows us to use aspects polymorphically, and introduces a

  13. The Quest for Diversity in Christian Higher Education: Building Institutional Governance Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nussbaum, Kathleen B.; Chang, Heewon

    2013-01-01

    Social justice pertaining to diversity issues in higher education grips the nation, yet Christian higher education (CHE) has moved slowly to address the diversity in our institutions and society. Christian higher education faces the same challenges with growing diversity as secular higher education. Diversity impacts every aspect of institutional…

  14. BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUS ANTIGENIC DIVERSITY: IMPACT ON DISEASE AND VACCINATION PROGRAMS (DETECTING AND CONTROLLING BVDV INFECTIONS, 4/4-5/02, AMES, IA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections in cattle are associated with a variety or "diverse" clinical forms. These include digestive tract disease, respiratory disease, fetal diseases (varied, dependent on fetal age), systemic disease such as mucosal disease, immunosuppression, hemorrhagic di...

  15. A Brief Overview of Population Diversity Measures in Genetic Programming

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    A Brief Overview of Population Diversity Measures in Genetic Programming Nguyen Thi Hien1, Nguyen a diversity measurement and controls this quantitative metric to maintain genetically diverse populations in a population. In Genetic Programming (GP), population diversity has been long considered as an important

  16. Exploiting Multiuser Diversity with Capture in Wireless Communication Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Justin Foo; Defeng Huang; G. Mercankosk

    2007-01-01

    Multiuser diversity refers to the inherent diversity in channel quality across several mobile users in a wireless communication network. Multiuser diversity can be exploited through rate adaptation to increase system goodput, however the overhead incurred in polling channel state information in large networks can overshadow the multiuser diversity gain. In this paper, we propose a novel wireless medium access control

  17. Detecting diversity: emerging methods to estimate species diversity.

    PubMed

    Iknayan, Kelly J; Tingley, Morgan W; Furnas, Brett J; Beissinger, Steven R

    2014-02-01

    Estimates of species richness and diversity are central to community and macroecology and are frequently used in conservation planning. Commonly used diversity metrics account for undetected species primarily by controlling for sampling effort. Yet the probability of detecting an individual can vary among species, observers, survey methods, and sites. We review emerging methods to estimate alpha, beta, gamma, and metacommunity diversity through hierarchical multispecies occupancy models (MSOMs) and multispecies abundance models (MSAMs) that explicitly incorporate observation error in the detection process for species or individuals. We examine advantages, limitations, and assumptions of these detection-based hierarchical models for estimating species diversity. Accounting for imperfect detection using these approaches has influenced conclusions of comparative community studies and creates new opportunities for testing theory. PMID:24315534

  18. Personalized medicine and human genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yi-Fan; Goldstein, David B; Angrist, Misha; Cavalleri, Gianpiero

    2014-09-01

    Human genetic diversity has long been studied both to understand how genetic variation influences risk of disease and infer aspects of human evolutionary history. In this article, we review historical and contemporary views of human genetic diversity, the rare and common mutations implicated in human disease susceptibility, and the relevance of genetic diversity to personalized medicine. First, we describe the development of thought about diversity through the 20th century and through more modern studies including genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and next-generation sequencing. We introduce several examples, such as sickle cell anemia and Tay-Sachs disease that are caused by rare mutations and are more frequent in certain geographical populations, and common treatment responses that are caused by common variants, such as hepatitis C infection. We conclude with comments about the continued relevance of human genetic diversity in medical genetics and personalized medicine more generally. PMID:25059740

  19. Socioeconomics drive urban plant diversity

    PubMed Central

    Hope, Diane; Gries, Corinna; Zhu, Weixing; Fagan, William F.; Redman, Charles L.; Grimm, Nancy B.; Nelson, Amy L.; Martin, Chris; Kinzig, Ann

    2003-01-01

    Spatial variation in plant diversity has been attributed to heterogeneity in resource availability for many ecosystems. However, urbanization has resulted in entire landscapes that are now occupied by plant communities wholly created by humans, in which diversity may reflect social, economic, and cultural influences in addition to those recognized by traditional ecological theory. Here we use data from a probability-based survey to explore the variation in plant diversity across a large metropolitan area using spatial statistical analyses that incorporate biotic, abiotic, and human variables. Our prediction for the city was that land use, along with distance from urban center, would replace the dominantly geomorphic controls on spatial variation in plant diversity in the surrounding undeveloped Sonoran desert. However, in addition to elevation and current and former land use, family income and housing age best explained the observed variation in plant diversity across the city. We conclude that a functional relationship, which we term the “luxury effect,” may link human resource abundance (wealth) and plant diversity in urban ecosystems. This connection may be influenced by education, institutional control, and culture, and merits further study. PMID:12847293

  20. Binding of dietary polyphenols to cellulose: structural and nutritional aspects.

    PubMed

    Phan, Anh Dao T; Netzel, Gabriele; Wang, Dongjie; Flanagan, Bernadine M; D'Arcy, Bruce R; Gidley, Michael J

    2015-03-15

    The interactions between polyphenols and plant fibres play an important role in controlling the release of phenolic compounds from food matrices for absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. This study probed the molecular interactions of diverse polyphenols with cellulose fibres by using a pure cellulose-producing bacterial model. Alkali treatment of bacterial cellulose was an effective method for obtaining a high purity cellulose model for study of polyphenol binding. Representatives of different polyphenol classes all bound to cellulose spontaneously, rapidly, and to comparable extents (up to 60% w/w of cellulose). Langmuir binding isotherms were applied to determine quantitative aspects of the adsorption at equilibrium. The study indicated that binding was similar on a molar basis for ferulic acid, gallic acid, catechin and cyanidin-3-glucoside (but lower for chlorogenic acid), with the native charge of polyphenols a secondary factor in the interactions between polyphenols and cellulose. PMID:25308685

  1. The diverse roles of Rac signaling in tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Lluva, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    Rac is a member of the Rho family of small GTPases, which act as molecular switches to control a wide array of cellular functions. In particular, Rac signaling has been implicated in the control of cell-cell adhesions, cell-matrix adhesions, cell migration, cell cycle progression and cellular transformation. As a result of its functional diversity, Rac signaling can influence several aspects of tumorigenesis. Consistent with this, in vivo evidence that Rac signaling contributes to tumorigenesis is continuously emerging. Additionally, our understanding of the mechanisms by which Rac signaling is regulated is rapidly expanding and consequently adds to the complexity of how Rac signaling could be modulated during tumorigenesis. Here we review the numerous biological functions and regulatory mechanisms of Rac signaling and discuss how they could influence the different stages of tumorigenesis. PMID:21478669

  2. Future aspects of bioprocess monitoring.

    PubMed

    Becker, Thomas; Hitzmann, Bernd; Muffler, K; Pörtner, Ralf; Reardon, Kenneth F; Stahl, Frank; Ulber, Roland

    2007-01-01

    Nature has the impressive ability to efficiently and precisely control biological processes by applying highly evolved principles and using minimal space and relatively simple building blocks. The challenge is to transfer these principles into technically applicable and precise analytical systems that can be used for many applications. This article summarizes some of the new approaches in sensor technology and control strategies for different bioprocesses such as fermentations, biotransformations, and downstream processes. It focuses on bio- and chemosensors, optical sensors, DNA and protein chip technology, software sensors, and modern aspects of data evaluation for improved process monitoring and control. PMID:17408086

  3. Relationships between arthropod richness, evenness, and diversity are altered by complementarity among plant genotypes.

    PubMed

    McArt, Scott H; Cook-Patton, Susan C; Thaler, Jennifer S

    2012-04-01

    Biodiversity is quantified via richness (e.g., the number of species), evenness (the relative abundance distribution of those species), or proportional diversity (a combination of richness and evenness, such as the Shannon index, H'). While empirical studies show no consistent relationship between these aspects of biodiversity within communities, the mechanisms leading to inconsistent relationships have received little attention. Here, using common evening primrose (Oenothera biennis) and its associated arthropod community, we show that relationships between arthropod richness, evenness, and proportional diversity are altered by plant genotypic richness. Arthropod richness increased with O. biennis genotypic richness due to an abundance-driven accumulation of species in response to greater plant biomass. Arthropod evenness and proportional diversity decreased with plant genotypic richness due to a nonadditive increase in abundance of a dominant arthropod, the generalist florivore/omnivore Plagiognathas politus (Miridae). The greater quantity of flowers and buds produced in polycultures-which resulted from positive complementarity among O. biennis genotypes-increased the abundance of this dominant insect. Using choice bioassays, we show that floral quality did not change in plant genotypic mixtures. These results elucidate mechanisms for how plant genotypic richness can modify relationships between arthropod richness, evenness, and proportional diversity. More broadly, our results suggest that trophic interactions may be a previously underappreciated factor controlling relationships between these different aspects of biodiversity. PMID:22002039

  4. Diversity management : Dialogue, dialectics and diversion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Astrid Kersten

    2000-01-01

    This paper uses Habermas’ model of dialogue and the public sphere to provide a critical examination of organizational diversity management. The paper argues that, in spite of the dialogic and inclusive claims made by the diversity movement, its basic framework and methods serve to limit and repress productive dialogue on race rather than produce effective organizational change. The diversity movement

  5. Controlling effective aspect ratio and packing of clay with pH for improved gas barrier in nanobrick wall thin films.

    PubMed

    Hagen, David A; Saucier, Lauren; Grunlan, Jaime C

    2014-12-24

    Polymer-clay thin films constructed via layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly, with a nanobrick wall structure (i.e., clay nanoplatelets as bricks surrounded by a polyelectrolyte mortar), are known to exhibit a high oxygen barrier. Further barrier improvement can be achieved by lowering the pH of the clay suspension in the polyethylenimine (PEI) and montmorillonite (MMT) system. In this case, the charge of the deposited PEI layer is increased in the clay suspension environment, which causes more clay to be deposited. At pH 4, MMT platelets deposit with near perfect ordering, observed with transmission electron microscopy, enabling a 5× improvement in the gas barrier for a 10 PEI/MMT bilayer thin film (85 nm) relative to the same film made with pH 10 MMT. This improved gas barrier approaches that achieved with much higher aspect ratio vermiculite clay. In essence, lower pH is generating a higher effective aspect ratio for MMT due to greater induced surface charge in the PEI layers, which causes heavier clay deposition. These flexible, transparent nanocoatings have a wide range of possible applications, from food and electronics packaging to pressurized bladders. PMID:25474229

  6. New Heights Community Diversion Model Understanding Diversion: Why it Works

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    's offices or health human service agencies. Diversion programs are designed to benefit offenders by allowing primarily with first-time low-risk offenders. Typically it is struggling high school adolescents who have an experimental group of diverted youth and a control group which received regular handling by the juvenile

  7. Driver choice compared to controlled diversion for a freeway double on-ramp in the framework of three-phase traffic theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. C. Davis

    2008-01-01

    Two diversion schemes that apportion demand between two on-ramps to reduce congestion and improve throughput on a freeway are analyzed. In the first scheme, drivers choose to merge or to divert to a downstream on-ramp based on information about average travel times for the two routes: (1) merge and travel on the freeway or (2) divert and travel on a

  8. Angiosperm ovules: diversity, development, evolution

    PubMed Central

    Endress, Peter K.

    2011-01-01

    Background Ovules as developmental precursors of seeds are organs of central importance in angiosperm flowers and can be traced back in evolution to the earliest seed plants. Angiosperm ovules are diverse in their position in the ovary, nucellus thickness, number and thickness of integuments, degree and direction of curvature, and histological differentiations. There is a large body of literature on this diversity, and various views on its evolution have been proposed over the course of time. Most recently evo–devo studies have been concentrated on molecular developmental genetics in ovules of model plants. Scope The present review provides a synthetic treatment of several aspects of the sporophytic part of ovule diversity, development and evolution, based on extensive research on the vast original literature and on experience from my own comparative studies in a broad range of angiosperm clades. Conclusions In angiosperms the presence of an outer integument appears to be instrumental for ovule curvature, as indicated from studies on ovule diversity through the major clades of angiosperms, molecular developmental genetics in model species, abnormal ovules in a broad range of angiosperms, and comparison with gymnosperms with curved ovules. Lobation of integuments is not an atavism indicating evolution from telomes, but simply a morphogenetic constraint from the necessity of closure of the micropyle. Ovule shape is partly dependent on locule architecture, which is especially indicated by the occurrence of orthotropous ovules. Some ovule features are even more conservative than earlier assumed and thus of special interest in angiosperm macrosystematics. PMID:21606056

  9. Wind-tunnel investigation of longitudinal and lateral-directional stability and control characteristics of a 0.237-scale model of a remotely piloted research vehicle with a thick, high-aspect-ratio supercritical wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrdsong, T. A.; Brooks, C. W., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A 0.237-scale model of a remotely piloted research vehicle equipped with a thick, high-aspect-ratio supercritical wing was tested in the Langley 8-foot transonic tunnel to provide experimental data for a prediction of the static stability and control characteristics of the research vehicle as well as to provide an estimate of vehicle flight characteristics for a computer simulation program used in the planning and execution of specific flight-research mission. Data were obtained at a Reynolds number of 16.5 x 10 to the 6th power per meter for Mach numbers up to 0.92. The results indicate regions of longitudinal instability; however, an adequate margin of longitudinal stability exists at a selected cruise condition. Satisfactory effectiveness of pitch, roll, and yaw control was also demonstrated.

  10. Frequency diversity and its applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Carassa; G. Tartara; E. Matricciani

    1988-01-01

    Adaptive shared resource methods may be the only available effective countermeasures to rain-induced attenuation in satellite communication systems above 20 GHz. Two of these methods, frequency diversity (FDV) and burst length control (BLC) are examined and compared by using a unified approach. The fundamental statistical relationships between unassisted and assisted conditions are derived, and optimum values are identified. It is

  11. Aspects for Trace Monitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pavel Avgustinov; Eric Bodden; Elnar Hajiyev; Laurie J. Hendren; Ondrej Lhoták; Oege De Moor; Neil Ongkingco; Damien Sereni; Ganesh Sittampalam; Julian Tibble; Mathieu Verbaere

    2006-01-01

    A trace monitorobserves the sequence of events in a system, and takes appropriate action when a given pattern occurs in that sequence. Aspect-oriented programming provides a convenient framework for writing such trace monitors. We provide a brief introduction to aspect-oriented programming in AspectJ. As- pectJ only provides support for triggering extra code with single events, and we present a new

  12. 75 FR 56516 - Federal Advisory Committee; Military Leadership Diversity Commission (MLDC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ...Federal Advisory Committee; Military Leadership Diversity Commission (MLDC) AGENCY...Defense announces that the Military Leadership Diversity Commission (MLDC) will meet...beyond the control of the Military Leadership Diversity Commission or its...

  13. Practical and quality-control aspects of multi-element analysis with quadrupole ICP–MS with special attention to urine and whole blood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan L. M. de Boer; Rob Ritsema; Sjoerd Piso; Hans van Staden; Wilbert van den Beld

    2004-01-01

    Two screening methods were developed for rapid analysis of a great number of urine and blood samples within the framework of an exposure check of the population after a firework explosion. A total of 56 elements was measured including major elements. Sample preparation consisted of simple dilution. Extensive quality controls were applied including element addition and the use of certified

  14. Local ensemble transform Kalman filter, a fast non-stationary control law for adaptive optics on ELTs: theoretical aspects and first simulation results.

    PubMed

    Gray, Morgan; Petit, Cyril; Rodionov, Sergey; Bocquet, Marc; Bertino, Laurent; Ferrari, Marc; Fusco, Thierry

    2014-08-25

    We propose a new algorithm for an adaptive optics system control law, based on the Linear Quadratic Gaussian approach and a Kalman Filter adaptation with localizations. It allows to handle non-stationary behaviors, to obtain performance close to the optimality defined with the residual phase variance minimization criterion, and to reduce the computational burden with an intrinsically parallel implementation on the Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs). PMID:25321291

  15. Biomechanical aspects of segmented arch mechanics combined with power arm for controlled anterior tooth movement: A three-dimensional finite element study

    PubMed Central

    Ozaki, Hiroya; Tominaga, Jun-ya; Hamanaka, Ryo; Sumi, Mayumi; Chiang, Pao-Chang; Tanaka, Motohiro; Koga, Yoshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    The porpose of this study was to determine the optimal length of power arms for achieving controlled anterior tooth movement in segmented arch mechanics combined with power arm. A three-dimensional finite element method was applied for the simulation of en masse anterior tooth retraction in segmented power arm mechanics. The type of tooth movement, namely, the location of center of rotation of the maxillary central incisor in association with power arm length, was calculated after the retraction force was applied. When a 0.017?×?0.022-in archwire was inserted into the 0.018-in slot bracket, bodily movement was obtained at 9.1?mm length of power arm, namely, at the level of 1.8?mm above the center of resistance. In case a 0.018?×?0.025-in full-size archwire was used, bodily movement of the tooth was produced at the power arm length of 7.0?mm, namely, at the level of 0.3?mm below the center of resistance. Segmented arch mechanics required shorter length of power arms for achieving any type of controlled anterior tooth movement as compared to sliding mechanics. Therefore, this space closing mechanics could be widely applied even for the patients whose gingivobuccal fold is shallow. The segmented arch mechanics combined with power arm could provide higher amount of moment-to-force ratio sufficient for controlled anterior tooth movement without generating friction, and vertical forces when applying retraction force parallel to the occlusal plane. It is, therefore, considered that the segmented power arm mechanics has a simple appliance design and allows more efficient and controllable tooth movement. PMID:25610497

  16. Local ensemble transform Kalman filter, a fast non-stationary control law for adaptive optics on ELTs: theoretical aspects and first simulation results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Morgan; Petit, Cyril; Rodionov, Sergey; Bocquet, Marc; Bertino, Laurent; Ferrari, Marc; Fusco, Thierry

    2014-08-01

    We propose a new algorithm for an adaptive optics system control law, based on the Linear Quadratic Gaussian approach and a Kalman Filter adaptation with localizations. It allows to handle non-stationary behaviors, to obtain performance close to the optimality defined with the residual phase variance minimization criterion, and to reduce the computational burden with an intrinsically parallel implementation on the Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs).

  17. How does pedogenesis drive plant diversity?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laliberté, Etienne; Grace, James B.; Huston, Michael A.; Lambers, Hans; Teste, François P.; Turner, Benjamin L.; Wardle, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Some of the most species-rich plant communities occur on ancient, strongly weathered soils, whereas those on recently developed soils tend to be less diverse. Mechanisms underlying this well-known pattern, however, remain unresolved. Here, we present a conceptual model describing alternative mechanisms by which pedogenesis (the process of soil formation) might drive plant diversity. We suggest that long-term soil chronosequences offer great, yet largely untapped, potential as 'natural experiments' to determine edaphic controls over plant diversity. Finally, we discuss how our conceptual model can be evaluated quantitatively using structural equation modeling to advance multivariate theories about the determinants of local plant diversity. This should help us to understand broader-scale diversity patterns, such as the latitudinal gradient of plant diversity.

  18. The impact of muirburning on lichen diversity 

    E-print Network

    Davies, G. Matt

    2001-01-01

    . Lichen diversity is largely controlled by the life cycle of C. vulgaris. The process of burning interrupts the natural life cycle of Calluna preventing it moving into the mature and degenerate phases. From the early building phase onwards Calluna begins...

  19. Menagerie of Viruses: Diverse Chemical Sequences or Simple Electrostatics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthukumar, M.

    2008-03-01

    The genome packing in hundreds of viruses is investigated by analyzing the chemical sequences of the genomes and the corresponding capsid proteins, in combination with experimental facts on the structures of the packaged genomes. Based on statistical mechanics arguments and computer simulations, we have derived a universal model, based simply on non-specific electrostatic interactions. Our model is able to predict the essential aspects of genome packing in diversely different viruses, such as the genome size and its density distribution. Our result is in contrast to the long-held view that specific interactions between the sequenced amino acid residues and the nucleotides of the genome control the genome packing. Implications of this finding in the evolution and biotechnology will be discussed.

  20. Capturing the Diversity in Lexical Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Scott

    2013-01-01

    The range, variety, or diversity of words found in learners' language use is believed to reflect the complexity of their vocabulary knowledge as well as the level of their language proficiency. Many indices of lexical diversity have been proposed, most of which involve statistical relationships between types and tokens, and which ultimately…

  1. Diversity, diversity indices and tropical cockroaches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henk Wolda

    1983-01-01

    The diversity of samples of cockroaches (Blattaria) taken with light-traps in six localities in Panama is described. As a diversity index a of the log series is found to be more satisfactory than either N2 or N1 of Hills's series or Hurlbert's Sm, even if the distribution of the relative abundances is significantly different from a log series. However, even

  2. Phenomenological aspects of quasi-stationary controlled and uncontrolled three-dimensional flow separations. [in relation to aircraft design considerations and swept wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peake, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    Quasi-steady three dimensional separated flows about bodies of large fineness ratio operating at large angles of incidence or yaw are discussed. The general character of the three dimensional attached boundary layer, the concept of limiting streamlines, and the physics of three dimensional separation and reattachment are among the factors considered. Specific examples are given. The advantages of swept, sharp edges that generate controlled (or fixed) three dimensional flow separations on a vehicle, due to the qualitatively unchanging flow field developed throughout the range of flight conditions, are emphasized.

  3. [Montérégie Comprehensive Cancer Care Centre: integrating nurse navigators in Montérégie's oncology teams: one aspect of implementing the Cancer Control Program--Part 1].

    PubMed

    Plante, Anne; Joannette, Sonia

    2009-01-01

    The oncology patient navigator role was developed to ensure both continuity and consultation in the delivery of care to cancer patients and their families. In Québec, this role is filled by a nurse. This first article in a series of two, aims to explain why nurses were selected as patient navigators and to describe how this new role has been integrated in the Montérégie Region. The Québec Cancer Control Program, the definition established for the oncology nurse navigator role and the implementation of an integrated care network based on the Montérégie experience will be discussed. PMID:19530475

  4. Certain aspects of inventory control as one of the management tools for the retail lumber and building material dealer of Texas

    E-print Network

    Amason, Robert Daniel

    1958-01-01

    are the same although the conditions under which they are applied do vary. " ?I An inventory control system has as its primary ob)ective a balanced stock which will permit the maintenance of the minimum in- ventory consistent with sound operations... desires to use a minimum- Brown and Davidson, ~o . cit. , p. 268. Ib j. d. 16 uaxissas systen for the uaintenanca of a uuodal stock. " In order te knew how to distribute purchase requirsuents and allotuents a uong different uaterials and styles, a...

  5. Current status of management, control, complications and psychosocial aspects of patients with diabetes in India: Results from the DiabCare India 2011 Study

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Viswanathan; Shah, Siddharth N.; Joshi, Shashank R.; Seshiah, V.; Sahay, Binode Kumar; Banerjee, Samar; Wangnoo, Subhash Kumar; Kumar, Ajay; Kalra, Sanjay; Unnikrishnan, A. G.; Sharma, Surendra Kumar; Rao, P. V.; Akhtar, Shahid; Shetty, Raman V.; Das, Ashok Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: DiabCare India 2011 was a cross-sectional study in patients with diabetes mellitus, undertaken to investigate the relationship between diabetes control, management and complications in a subset of urban Indian diabetes patients treated at referral diabetes care centres in India. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional, multicentre (330 centres) survey in 6168 diabetes patients treated at general hospitals, diabetes clinics and referral clinics across India. Patient data, including medical and clinical examination reports during the past year were collected during their routine visit. The patients’ and physicians’ perceptions about diabetes management were recorded using a questionnaire. Results: A total of 6168 subjects with diabetes (95.8% type 2), mean age 51.9 ± 12.4 years and mean duration of diabetes, 6.9 ± 6.4 years were included. Mean HbA1c was 8.9 ± 2.1% and the mean fasting (FPG), post prandial (PPG) and random (RBG) plasma glucose levels were 148 ± 50 mg/dl 205 ± 66 mg/dl and 193 ± 68mg/dl respectively. Neuropathy was the most common complication (41.4%); other complications were: Foot (32.7%), eye (19.7%), cardiovascular (6.8%) and nephropathy (6.2%). The number of diabetic complications increased with mean duration of diabetes. Most (93.2%) of the patients were on oral anti-diabetic drugs (OADs) and 35.2% were on insulin (±OADs). More than 15% physicians felt that the greatest barrier to insulin therapy from patient's perspective were pain and fear of using injectable modality; 5.2% felt that the greatest barrier to insulin therapy from physician's perspective was the treatment cost; 4.8% felt that the major barriers to achieve optimum diabetic care in practice was loss to follow-up followed by lack of counselling (3.9%) and treatment compliance (3.6%). Conclusion: DiabCare India 2011 has shown that type 2 diabetes sets in early in Indians and glycaemic control is often sub-optimal in these patients. These results indicate a need for more structured intervention at an early stage of the disease and need for increased awareness on benefits of good glycaemic control. It cannot be overemphasized that the status of diabetes care in India needs to be further improved. (ClinTrials.gov identifier: NCT01351922) PMID:24944934

  6. [Atopic dermatitis in children : New aspects].

    PubMed

    Schnopp, C; Mempel, M

    2015-04-01

    Atopic dermatitis in childhood is controlled by adaequate topical treatment in the majority of cases. Severe manifestations, recurrent superinfections, associated food allergy and psychosocial aspects of a chronic disease in childhood need special consideration. Furthermore, prevention is an important issue in this age group. The following article focuses on new aspects with repercussions on the management of childhood atopic dermatitis and possible implications for the future. PMID:25833206

  7. CRCHD Diversity Training

    Cancer.gov

    The Center to Reduce Cancer Health Disparities (CRCHD) Diversity Training Branch (DTB) leads NCI's efforts to fund training for students and investigators from diverse populations to become the next generation of competitive researchers in cancer and cancer health disparities research.

  8. Diverse Motions and Character Shapes for Simulated Skills

    E-print Network

    Panne, M. van de

    --shuoshen--van@cs.ubc.ca target. It can allow animators to reduce the amount of manual iteration required to design a motion diverse set of motion styles or, alternatively, motions that are adapted to a diverse range of character Animation, Motion Control, Diversity Optimization. ! 1 INTRODUCTION PHYSICS-BASED motions are difficult

  9. Performance Analysis of Multiuser Diversity with Capture for Wireless Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Justin Foo; Defeng Huang

    2008-01-01

    With the aid of rate adaptation, multiuser diversity can be exploited in wireless networks by allowing the mobile user with the best channel to use the channel. However, polling mobile stations to obtain channel state information in large networks can result in large overhead, outweighing the multiuser diversity gain. Multiuser Diversity with Capture (MDC) is a wireless medium access control

  10. Semantic diversity accounts for the "missing" word frequency effect in stroke aphasia: insights using a novel method to quantify contextual variability in meaning.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Paul; Rogers, Timothy T; Ralph, Matthew A Lambon

    2011-09-01

    Word frequency is a powerful predictor of language processing efficiency in healthy individuals and in computational models. Puzzlingly, frequency effects are often absent in stroke aphasia, challenging the assumption that word frequency influences the behavior of any computational system. To address this conundrum, we investigated divergent effects of frequency in two comprehension-impaired patient groups. Patients with semantic dementia have degraded conceptual knowledge as a consequence of anterior temporal lobe atrophy and show strong frequency effects. Patients with multimodal semantic impairments following stroke (semantic aphasia [SA]), in contrast, show little or no frequency effect. Their deficits arise from impaired control processes that bias activation toward task-relevant aspects of knowledge. We hypothesized that high-frequency words exert greater demands on cognitive control because they are more semantically diverse--they tend to appear in a broader range of linguistic contexts and have more variable meanings. Using latent semantic analysis, we developed a new measure of semantic diversity that reflected the variability of a word's meaning across different context. Frequency, but not diversity, was a significant predictor of comprehension in semantic dementia, whereas diversity was the best predictor of performance in SA. Most importantly, SA patients did show typical frequency effects but only when the influence of diversity was taken into account. These results are consistent with the view that higher-frequency words place higher demands on control processes, so that when control processes are damaged the intrinsic processing advantages associated with higher-frequency words are masked. PMID:21254804

  11. Insights on Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Carol, Ed.; And Others

    This state-of-the-art report presents a series of essays on the topic of diversity. Essays include: (1) "Committing to Diversity" (George L. Mehaffy); (2) "Serving the Community by Serving Our Members" (Michael P. Wolfe); (3) "How Diversity Matters" (Asa G. Hilliard, III); (4) "A Prerequisite to Teaching Multiculturally" (Mary Louise Gomez); (5)…

  12. BioDiversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, E. O., Ed.; Peter, Frances M., Ed.

    The diversity of life forms is one of the greatest wonders of the planet earth. The biosphere is an intricate tapestry of interwoven life forms. This book offers an overall view of this biological diversity and carries an urgent warning about the rapid alteration and destruction of the environments that have fostered the diversity of life forms…

  13. Developmental thermography: multiple aspect thermography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akinori Nagasawa; Kazuichi Katoh

    1993-01-01

    Multiple aspect thermography (MAT) is a kind of developmental thermography. MAT was designed in order to supplement the shortage of the number of coverage aspects in triple aspect thermography (TAT). TAT allows simultaneous display of numbers of thermograms on various selected aspects of the subject in CRT frame. This paper reports on MAT methodology and discusses some aspects of the

  14. Design Aspects of a Case-Control Clinical Investigation of the Effect of HIV on Oral and Gastrointestinal Soluble Innate Factors and Microbes

    PubMed Central

    Phelan, Joan A.; Abrams, William R.; Norman, Robert G.; Li, Yihong; Laverty, Maura; Corby, Patricia M.; Nembhard, Jason; Neri, Dinah; Barber, Cheryl A.; Aberg, Judith A.; Fisch, Gene S.; Poles, Michael A.; Malamud, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The impaired host defense system in HIV infection impacts the oral and gastrointestinal microbiota and associated opportunistic infections. Antiretroviral treatment is predicted to partially restore host defenses and decrease the oral manifestation of HIV/AIDS. Well-designed longitudinal studies are needed to better understand the interactions of soluble host defense proteins with bacteria and virus in HIV/AIDS. “Crosstalk” was designed as a longitudinal study of host responses along the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and interactions between defense molecules and bacteria in HIV infection and subsequent therapy. Purpose The clinical core formed the infrastructure for the study of the interactions between the proteome, microbiome and innate immune system. The core recruited and retained study subjects, scheduled visits, obtained demographic and medical data, assessed oral health status, collected samples, and guided analysis of the hypotheses. This manuscript presents a well-designed clinical core that may serve as a model for studies that combine clinical and laboratory data. Methods Crosstalk was a case-control longitudinal clinical study an initial planned enrollment of 170 subjects. HIV+ antiretroviral naïve subjects were followed for 9 visits over 96 weeks and HIV uninfected subjects for 3 visits over 24 weeks. Clinical prevalence of oral mucosal lesions, dental caries and periodontal disease were assessed. Results During the study, 116 subjects (47 HIV+, 69 HIV-) were enrolled. Cohorts of HIV+ and HIV- were demographically similar except for a larger proportion of women in the HIV- group. The most prevalent oral mucosal lesions were oral candidiasis and hairy leukoplakia in the HIV+ group. Discussion The clinical core was essential to enable the links between clinical and laboratory data. The study aims to determine specific differences between oral and GI tissues that account for unique patterns of opportunistic infections and to delineate the differences in their susceptibility to infection by HIV and their responses post-HAART. PMID:25409430

  15. Aspects of Three Dimensional Transport for ELM Control Experiments in ITER-Similar Shape Plasmas at Low Collisionality in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitz, O. [Forschungszentrum Julich, Julich, Germany; Evans, T. E. [General Atomics, San Diego; Fenstermacher, M. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Frerichs, H. [Forschungszentrum Julich, Julich, Germany; Jakubowski, M. W. [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany; Schaffer, M. J. [General Atomics, San Diego; Wingen, A. [University of Dusseldorf, Germany; West, W. P. [General Atomics, San Diego; Brooks, N. H. [General Atomics, San Diego; Burrell, K. H. [General Atomics; DeGrassie, J. S. [General Atomics, San Diego; Feng, Y. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Garching, Germany; Finken, K. H. [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany; Gohil, P. [General Atomics; Groth, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Joseph, I. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Lasnier, C. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Lehnen, M. [Forschungszentrum Julich, Julich, Germany; Leonard, A. W. [General Atomics; Mordijck, S. [University of California, San Diego; Moyer, R.A. [University of California, San Diego; Nicolai, A. [Forschungszentrum Julich, Julich, Germany; Osborne, T. H. [General Atomics; Reiter, D. [Forschungszentrum Julich, Julich, Germany; Samm, U. [Forschungszentrum Julich, Julich, Germany; Spatschek, K. H. [University of Dusseldorf, Germany; Stoschus, H. [EURATOM / FZ-Juelich, Germany; Unterberg, B. [Forschungszentrum Julich, Julich, Germany; Unterberg, Ezekial A [ORNL; Watkins, J. G. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Wolf, R. C. [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Greifswald, Germany

    2008-01-01

    A study of three-dimensional (3D) perturbed magnetic field structures and transport for edge localized mode control experiments with resonant magnetic perturbations at DIII-D is presented. We focus on ITER-Similar Shape plasmas at ITER relevant electron pedestal collisionalities. nu(e)* similar to 0.2. This study is performed in comparison with results from TEXTOR-Dynamic Ergodic Divertor circular limiter plasmas. For both experiments the magnetic field structure is analyzed in the vacuum paradigm-superimposing the external RMP field on the unperturbed equilibrium. For TEXTOR L-mode plasmas this description holds for normalized poloidal flux Psi(N) > 0.7 without tearing modes driven by the RMP field. For DIII-D H-mode plasmas the validity of this approach still needs to be established. In this paper a method is discussed to diagnose the degree of edge stochastization based on a comparison between modeled magnetic footprints on the divertor targets and experimental data. Clear evidence is presented for the existence of a generic separatrix perturbation causing striation of target particle fluxes. However, heat fluxes into these striations are small. This observation can be explained by accounting for the different heat and particle source locations and the 3D trajectories of the open, perturbed field lines toward the divertor target. Analysis of the transport characteristics filling the perturbed separatrix lobes based on initial EMC3/EIRENE modeling suggests the existence of open field lines connecting the stochastic edge to the target pattern. However, the width and inward most extent of the actual stochastic layer cannot yet be quantified.

  16. Exposing malaria in-host diversity and estimating population diversity by capture-recapture using

    E-print Network

    Read, Andrew

    Exposing malaria in-host diversity and estimating population diversity by capture-recapture using, Blantyre 3, Malawi; d The National Center for Parasitology, Entomology and Malaria Control, Phnom Penh, MD, and approved October 12, 2010 (received for review May 20, 2010) Malaria infections commonly

  17. Diversity Outlook, October 2012

    E-print Network

    2012-10-01

    THE NEWSLET TER OF CAMPUS DIVERSITY Fred Rodriguez, Vice Provost for Diversity & Equity • Diversity Talks invitation • Colleague Spotlight • Women’s suffrage centennial • Upcoming events & more OCTOBER 2012VOL. 4 • ISSUE 3 A WORD FROM...! Ph ot o: © KU M ar ke tin g Co m m un ic at io ns DIVERSITY OUTLOOK • THE NEWSLETTER OF CAMPUS DIVERSITY OCTOBER 2012VOL. 4 • ISSUE 3 on the centennial of women’s suffrage in Kansas Only a century ago women fought vigorously for rights we now take...

  18. Diversity in Diversity: Changing the Paradigm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rowena Fong

    2007-01-01

    This essay discusses the growing complex diversity in client populations, emphasizes the need to support all legal statuses of clients, and advocates for a paradigm shift in culturally competent social work practice.

  19. Separating Functional Behaviour and Performance Constraints: Aspect Oriented Specification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lynne Blair; Gordon Blair; Anders Andersen

    This paper addresses the relationship between functional (qualita tive) behaviour and the more quantitative nature of performance constraints. We p ropose an approach based on aspect-oriented specification, which exploits the diversity and power of existing formal specification languages. Importantly, we illustrate our approach by specifying an example of an adaptive algorithm. The chos en example is characteristic of QoS management

  20. Why psychology? Every aspect of human experience, as well as

    E-print Network

    Sussex, University of

    Psychology Why psychology? Every aspect of human experience, as well as behaviours in non-human species, falls within the scope of psychology. Psychologists explore topics as diverse as individual as more recently established fields such as cognitive science and artificial intelligence. Psychology

  1. THE NECESSITY OF DESIGN RESEARCH INTO CULTURAL ASPECTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. H. C. M. Christiaans; J. C. Diehl

    This paper discusses the necessity of design research into the aspect of cultural diversity. Existing cultural models do not provide extensive information about how knowledge about cultural differences in a meaningful way can be applied to human product interaction and hence to the design of products. Thus far, studies on the impact of culture on product design show a rather

  2. Multilingual Aspects of Fluency Disorders. Communication Disorders across Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Peter; Van Borsel, John

    2011-01-01

    This book contains contributions by scholars working on diverse aspects of speech who bring their findings to bear on the practical issue of how to treat stuttering in different language groups and in multilingual speakers. The book considers classic issues in speech production research, as well as whether regions of the brain that are affected in…

  3. Why psychology? Every aspect of human experience, as well as

    E-print Network

    Sussex, University of

    -human species, falls within the scope of psychology. Psychologists explore topics as diverse as individualPsychology Why psychology? Every aspect of human experience, as well as behaviours in non Courses BSc (Hons) in Psychology BSc (Hons) in Psychology with Cognitive Science BSc (Hons) in Psychology

  4. Embracing "Soft Skill" Diversity in the Workplace (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, T.

    2010-12-01

    Embracing "Soft Skill" Diversity in the Workplace Terri Thomas, Sr. Director Global Customer Support ShoreTel INRODUCTION Truly successful diversity programs go beyond gender, age, ethnicity, race, sexual orientation and spiritual practice. They include diversity of thought, style, leadership and communication styles, the so called “soft skills”. The increasing need for global workforces is stronger than ever and high performance teams have fully embraced, successfully harnessed and put into practice robust diversity programs than include a “soft skill” focus. Managing diversity presents significant organizational challenges, and is not an easy task, particularly in organizations that are heavily weighted with highly technical professionals such as engineers, accountants etc.. The focus of this presentation is on leveraging the “Soft Skills” diversity in technical work environments to create high performance and highly productive teams. WHY DIVERSITY and WHY NOW? Due to increasing changes in the U.S. population, in order to stay competitive, companies need to focus on diversity and look for ways to become inclusive organizations because diversity has the potential of yielding greater productivity and competitive advantages . Managing and valuing diversity is a key component of effective people management, which can improve workplace productivity (Black Enterprise, 2001). Changing demographics, from organizational restructuring, women in the workplace, equal opportunity legislation and other legal issues, are forcing organizations to become more aggressive in implementing robust diversity practices. However, YOU do not need to wait for your organization to introduce a formal “Diversity” program. There are steps you can take to introduce diversity into your own workgroups. There is no “one single answer” to solve this issue, however this discussion will provide thought provoking ideas, examples of success and failure and a starting point for you to implement “soft skill” diversity practices in your work environment. Most workplaces are made up of many aspects of diversity already so why not embrace it and use it to your competitive advantage.

  5. Selenium. Nutritional, toxicologic, and clinical aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, A.M.; Kizer, K.W. (California Department of Health Services, Berkeley (USA))

    1990-08-01

    Despite the recent findings of environmental contamination, selenium toxicosis in humans is exceedingly rare in the United States, with the few known cases resulting from industrial accidents and an episode involving the ingestion of superpotent selenium supplements. Chronic selenosis is essentially unheard of in this country because of the typical diversity of the American diet. Nonetheless, because of the growing public interest in selenium as a dietary supplement and the occurrence of environmental selenium contamination, medical practitioners should be familiar with the nutritional, toxicologic, and clinical aspects of this trace element. 53 references.

  6. Selenium. Nutritional, toxicologic, and clinical aspects.

    PubMed Central

    Fan, A. M.; Kizer, K. W.

    1990-01-01

    Despite the recent findings of environmental contamination, selenium toxicosis in humans is exceedingly rare in the United States, with the few known cases resulting from industrial accidents and an episode involving the ingestion of superpotent selenium supplements. Chronic selenosis is essentially unheard of in this country because of the typical diversity of the American diet. Nonetheless, because of the growing public interest in selenium as a dietary supplement and the occurrence of environmental selenium contamination, medical practitioners should be familiar with the nutritional, toxicologic, and clinical aspects of this trace element. PMID:2219873

  7. Cognitive aspects of color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derefeldt, Gunilla A. M.; Menu, Jean-Pierre; Swartling, Tiina

    1995-04-01

    This report surveys cognitive aspects of color in terms of behavioral, neuropsychological, and neurophysiological data. Color is usually defined as psychophysical color or as perceived color. Behavioral data on categorical color perception, absolute judgement of colors, color coding, visual search, and visual awareness refer to the more cognitive aspects of color. These are of major importance in visual synthesis and spatial organization, as already shown by the Gestalt psychologists. Neuropsychological and neurophysiological findings provide evidence for an interrelation between cognitive color and spatial organization. Color also enhances planning strategies, as has been shown by studies on color and eye movements. Memory colors and the color- language connections in the brain also belong among the cognitive aspects of color.

  8. Fundamental aspects of combustion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Linan; F. A. Williams

    1993-01-01

    This book is addressed to readers who have not specialized in combustion. Chapter 1 provides introductory information on combustion. Premixed flames and diffusion flames are the main topics of chapters 2 and 3, emphasizing the important roles played by asymptotic analysis and the diversity arising from chemical kinetics in flames. In an attempt to emphasize their common features, the subjects

  9. Organisational aspects of care.

    PubMed

    Bloomfield, Jacqueline; Pegram, Anne

    2015-03-01

    Organisational aspects of care, the second essential skills cluster, identifies the need for registered nurses to systematically assess, plan and provide holistic patient care in accordance with individual needs. Safeguarding, supporting and protecting adults and children in vulnerable situations; leading, co-ordinating and managing care; functioning as an effective and confident member of the multidisciplinary team; and managing risk while maintaining a safe environment for patients and colleagues, are vital aspects of this cluster. This article discusses the roles and responsibilities of the newly registered graduate nurse. Throughout their education, nursing students work towards attaining this knowledge and these skills in preparation for their future roles as nurses. PMID:25736672

  10. Aspects of bamboo agronomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Volker Kleinhenz; David J. Midmore

    2001-01-01

    Various aspects of the growth and development of bamboo are reviewed,includ- ing growth cycles of plant parts,effects of aging on important plant tissues,uptake of water and nutrients,photosynthesis,storage and translocation of photosynthates and nutrients,and accumulation and partitioning of biomass and nutrients.Also discussed are how these aspects can be manipulated with agronomic techniques, such as management of standing-culm density,culm-age structure,leaf area,and leaf-age

  11. [Benzodiazepines and forensic aspects].

    PubMed

    Michel, L; Lang, J-P

    2003-01-01

    Adverse effects of benzodiazepines are well known since the first one was used in 1958 (chlordiazepoxide). The literature collects study-cases or rarely controlled studies concerning side effects or paradoxical reactions to benzodiazepines. They mostly described drowsiness and behavioral disinhibition, including increased well-being feeling but also hostility, rage access with feeling of invulnerability, serious crimes and sometimes homicides. Delusional, manic, confusional or depressive states are also pointed out. Rate for aggressive behaviour is 0.3 to 0.7% but distinction should be done between accidental or "idiosyncratic" reaction and voluntary sought disinhibition, clearly more frequent. No benzodiazepine has any specificity for these adverse effects but pharmacology, doses, associated drugs (or alcohol) and psychopathology interact to produce hazardous psychic states. Pharmacology: GABA induces a decrease in serotonin compound and vigilance. Pharmacokinetic: first dose effect or over-dose effect, short half-life, lipophily, affinity, digestive absorption, active metabolites interact. Psychopathology: age, alcohol association, psychological status (high initial level of hostility, impulsivity, frustration, personality disorder and depressive status). External conditions: chronic illness, affective and professional frustrations, physical or psychic exhaustion contribute also. Some benzodiazepines (flunitrazepam, diazepam, clorazepate, triazolam, alprazolam, lorazepam, for example) are more often concerned for pharmacokinetics characteristics but also prescription habits. Forensic aspects should be considered in case of homicide. Especially, reality of benzodiazepines consumption and awareness of the potential paradoxical reaction should be precisely evaluated. Special focus on voluntary induced disinhibition has to be done for forensic considerations. Relationship but also crime facilitations are sometimes consciously sought. Some benzodiazepines have already been identified for this use: flunitrazepam, clorazepate but also triazolam and temazepam in UK, alprazolam in USA. Flunitrazepam is prohibited in USA and considered as narcotics in France. A Swedish study showed that violent acts were more frequent and serious in juvenile offenders taking flunitrazepam/alcohol than other young offenders staying in the same correctional institution. They recommended classification of flunitrazepam as narcotic. A study from Belgium with drug addicts concluded in the same way and asked for an increased information of professionals and a more efficient control of the delivery. Before concluding to idiosyncratic effect, and then possibly to penal irresponsibility, the forensic approach should consider: firstly the reality of the benzodiazepines absorption and implication in committing violence (urine test, chronology, amnesia); secondly, the association of unusual behaviour and converging circumstances (pharmacological, pharmacokinetic, psychopathology, external conditions); thirdly the consumer's knowledge of the disinhibition effect. In our prison practice, we have to be particularly cautious as population frequently associates personality disorder, drug addiction and high level of frustration related to penitential context. Special information should be given to inmates when benzodiazepines are prescribed, but more extensively, a preventive strategy should be adopted in general population. PMID:15029082

  12. Diversity and unity of modularity.

    PubMed

    Seok, Bongrae

    2006-03-01

    Since the publication of Fodor's (1983) The Modularity of Mind, there have been quite a few discussions of cognitive modularity among cognitive scientists. Generally, in those discussions, modularity means a property of specialized cognitive processes or a domain-specific body of information. In actuality, scholars understand modularity in many different ways. Different characterizations of modularity and modules were proposed and discussed, but they created misunderstanding and confusion. In this article, I classified and analyzed different approaches to modularity and argued for the unity of modularity. Modularity is a multidimensional property consisting of features from several dimensions specifying different aspects of cognition. Among those, there are core features of modularity, and these core features form a cross-dimensional unity. Despite the diverse and liberal characterizations, modularity contributes to cognitive science because of the unity of the core features. PMID:21702818

  13. Diversity and Teacher Education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denise Zinn; André Keet

    \\u000a The concept of diversity has been foregrounded in educational discourse, since inequalities, including educational inequalities,\\u000a are constitutive of and are, in turn constituted by diversities. This is the starting point of the argument in this chapter,\\u000a en route to presenting new ways of thinking about diversity, social justice, difference and solidarity in the context of teacher\\u000a education. It takes issue

  14. AspectLTL: an aspect language for LTL specifications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shahar Maoz; Yaniv Sa'ar

    2011-01-01

    We present AspectLTL, a temporal-logic based language for the specification and implementation of crosscutting concerns. AspectLTL enables the modular declarative specification of expressive concerns, covering the addition of new behaviors, as well as the specification of safety and liveness properties. Moreover, given an AspectLTL specification, consisting of a base system and a set of aspects, we provide AspectLTL with a

  15. A Randomized Controlled Trial of the First Step to Success Early Intervention: Demonstration of Program Efficacy Outcomes in a Diverse, Urban School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Hill M.; Seeley, John R.; Small, Jason; Severson, Herbert H.; Graham, Bethany A.; Feil, Edward G.; Serna, Loretta; Golly, Annemieke M.; Forness, Steven R.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on a randomized controlled trial of the First Step to Success early intervention that was conducted over a 4-year period in Albuquerque Public Schools. First Step is a selected intervention for students in Grades 1 through 3 with externalizing behavior problems, and it addresses secondary prevention goals and objectives. It…

  16. A Randomized Controlled Trial of the First Step to Success Early InterventionDemonstration of Program Efficacy Outcomes in a Diverse, Urban School District

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hill M. Walker; John R. Seeley; Jason Small; Herbert H. Severson; Bethany A. Graham; Edward G. Feil; Loretta Serna; Annemieke M. Golly; Steven R. Forness

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on a randomized controlled trial of the First Step to Success early intervention that was conducted over a 4-year period in Albuquerque Public Schools. First Step is a selected intervention for students in Grades 1 through 3 with externalizing behavior problems, and it addresses secondary prevention goals and objectives. It consists of three modular components (screening, school

  17. Self-help for Binge Eating Disorder in Primary Care: A Randomized Controlled Trial with Ethnically and Racially Diverse Obese Patients

    PubMed Central

    Grilo, Carlos M.; White, Marney A.; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Barnes, Rachel D.; Masheb, Robin M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective was to examine the effectiveness of a self-help treatment as a first line primary care intervention for binge eating disorder (BED) in obese patients. This study compared the effectiveness of a usual care plus self-help version of cognitive behavioral therapy (shCBT) to usual care (UC) only in ethnically/racially diverse obese patients with BED in primary care settings in an urban center. Method 48 obese patients with BED were randomly assigned to either shCBT (N=24) or UC (N=24) for four months. Independent assessments were performed monthly throughout treatment and at post-treatment. Results Binge-eating remission rates did not differ significantly between shCBT (25%) and UC (8.3%) at post-treatment. Mixed models of binge eating frequency determined using the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) revealed significant decreases for both conditions but that shCBT and UC did not differ. Mixed models of binge eating frequency from repeated monthly EDE-questionnaire assessments revealed a significant treatment-by-time interaction indicating that shCBT had significant reductions whereas UC did not during the four-month treatments. Mixed models revealed no differences between groups on associated eating disorder psychopathology or depression. No weight loss was observed in either condition. Conclusions Our findings suggest that pure self-help CBT did not show effectiveness relative to usual care for treating BED in obese patients in primary care. Thus, self-help CBT may not have utility as a front-line intervention for BED for obese patients in primary care and future studies should test guided-self-help methods for delivering CBT in primary care generalist settings. PMID:24189569

  18. CLIMATE VARIABILITY Nonlinear Aspects

    E-print Network

    Ghil, Michael

    CLIMATE VARIABILITY Nonlinear Aspects M Ghil, University of California­Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA cold regions, where water is heavier and sinks, and warm regions, where it is lighter and rises. The effect of temperature on the density and, hence the motion, of the water masses is in competition

  19. Aspects of Broad Folksonomies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mathias Lux; Michael Granitzer; Roman Kern

    2007-01-01

    Folksonomies, collaboratively created sets of metadata, are becoming more and more important for organising information and knowledge of communites in the Web. While for a single user the difference to keyword assignment is marginal, the power of folksonomies emerges from the collaborative aspects. Folksonomies are already issue of research. Within this publication we analyse underlying statistical properties of broad folksonomies

  20. Medical Aspects of Surfing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renneker, Mark

    1987-01-01

    The medical aspects of surfing include ear and eye injuries and sprains and strains of the lower back and neck, as well as skin cancer from exposure to the sun. Treatment, rehabilitation, and prevention of these problems are discussed. Surfing is recommended as part of an exercise program for reasonably healthy people. (Author/MT)

  1. [Cultural diversity reflexive learning].

    PubMed

    Pomarede, Ma José Morera; Caparà, Núria Roca

    2007-10-01

    Recent international migration trends contribute to set up new social scenarios where an increasing cultural diversity becomes self-evident. From a global diversity on a planetary scale, we enter into a local diversity comprised by persons, groups and emerging cultures with whom we share our daily life experiences. In this context, social relationships are not always easy and we may note difficulties due to the ethnocentrism each group has and due to a lack of knowledge, or distrust or prejudices among persons or groups having diverse cultural origins. PMID:18274398

  2. p53 Controls Global Nucleotide Excision Repair of Low Levels of Structurally Diverse Benzo(g)chrysene-DNA Adducts in Human Fibroblasts1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel R. Lloyd; Philip C. Hanawalt

    Benzo(g)chrysene is a widespread environmental contaminant and po- tent carcinogen. We have measured the formation and nucleotide excision repair of covalent DNA adducts formed by the DNA-reactive metabolite of this compound in human fibroblasts, in which expression of the p53 tumor suppressor gene could be controlled by a tetracycline-inducible promoter. Cells were exposed fo r1ht o0.01, 0.1, or 1.2 M

  3. A new index to measure healthy food diversity better reflects a healthy diet than traditional measures.

    PubMed

    Drescher, Larissa S; Thiele, Silke; Mensink, Gert B M

    2007-03-01

    The recommendation to eat diverse types of foodstuffs is an internationally accepted recommendation for a healthy diet. The importance of dietary variety is based on several studies that have shown that diverse diets are accompanied by positive health outcomes. However, the definition and measurement of healthy food diversity are often criticized in the literature. Nutritional studies generally use count indices to quantify food diversity. As these measures have considerable disadvantages, several nutritionists have called for a precise definition and measurement of food diversity. This study aimed to develop a new healthy food diversity indicator. This index is based on a distribution measure mainly applied in economic and ecological studies. It considers 3 aspects important for healthy food diversity: number, distribution, and health value of consumed foods. We have validated the new index using energy-adjusted correlations with diet quality indicators. A comparison with selected traditional diversity indices revealed that the new indicator more appropriately reflected healthy food diversity. PMID:17311954

  4. Differential changes in self-reported aspects of interoceptive awareness through 3 months of contemplative training

    PubMed Central

    Bornemann, Boris; Herbert, Beate M.; Mehling, Wolf E.; Singer, Tania

    2015-01-01

    Interoceptive body awareness (IA) is crucial for psychological well-being and plays an important role in many contemplative traditions. However, until recently, standardized self-report measures of IA were scarce, not comprehensive, and the effects of interoceptive training on such measures were largely unknown. The Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA) questionnaire measures IA with eight different scales. In the current study, we investigated whether and how these different aspects of IA are influenced by a 3-months contemplative intervention in the context of the ReSource project, in which 148 subjects engaged in daily practices of “Body Scan” and “Breath Meditation.” We developed a German version of the MAIA and tested it in a large and diverse sample (n = 1,076). Internal consistencies were similar to the English version (0.56–0.89), retest reliability was high (rs: 0.66–0.79), and the MAIA showed good convergent and discriminant validity. Importantly, interoceptive training improved five out of eight aspects of IA, compared to a retest control group. Participants with low IA scores at baseline showed the biggest changes. Whereas practice duration only weakly predicted individual differences in change, self-reported liking of the practices and degree of integration into daily life predicted changes on most scales. Interestingly, the magnitude of observed changes varied across scales. The strongest changes were observed for the regulatory aspects of IA, that is, how the body is used for self-regulation in daily life. No significant changes were observed for the Noticing aspect (becoming aware of bodily changes), which is the aspect that is predominantly assessed in other IA measures. This differential pattern underscores the importance to assess IA multi-dimensionally, particularly when interested in enhancement of IA through contemplative practice or other mind–body interventions. PMID:25610410

  5. Beyond the Diversity Crisis Model: Decentralized Diversity Planning and Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Damon A.

    2008-01-01

    This article critiques the diversity crises model of diversity planning in higher education and presents a decentralized diversity planning model. The model is based on interviews with the nation's leading diversity officers, a review of the literature and the authors own experiences leading diversity change initiatives in higher education. The…

  6. Equality, Innovation and Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Janet

    1999-01-01

    Offers some ideas concerning promotion of gender equality and diversity within European Union-funded programs and activities. Reviews efforts since the 1970s to foster equal access in European schools and universities, examines some principles of innovation and entrepreneurship, and considers stages in diversity policy development. (DB)

  7. Voices for Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Future Teacher, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Prominent Americans were asked to reflect on the diversity challenge facing America's teacher workforce. The following leaders from several fields voiced their support of teachers and their beliefs America needs more diverse and culturally responsive teachers: (1) Mary Hatwood Futrell, President of Education International; (2) Carol Moseley-Braun,…

  8. GENETIC DIVERSITY IN AVOCADO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. Knight

    1999-01-01

    People working on avocado germplasm improvement are more fortunate than those work- ing with some other crops (mango for one important example) in that Persea americana in its many genotypes presents a wide variety of genetic diversity. This is probably because avocados evolved in a part of North and Central America characterized itself by consider- able diversity in climates, related

  9. Global Diversity and Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Art

    2003-01-01

    Argues that global diversity has become a business imperative in today's business climate. Global diversity is of core importance even for companies that are considered domestic. Suggests community colleges need help in understanding their customer base and their shifting values in order to meet their needs and win customer loyalty. (NB)

  10. Pasture diversity and management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the economic importance of pastures in the northeastern United States, not much is known about their ecology, including taxonomic and functional diversity. This factsheet presents results from a 1998-2005 survey of pastures on 44 farms from Maine to Maryland. Pastures are quite diverse; the ...

  11. Evolution & Diversity in Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Lorentz C.

    1988-01-01

    Summarizes recent findings that help in understanding how evolution has brought about the diversity of plant life that presently exists. Discusses basic concepts of evolution, diversity and classification, the three-line hypothesis of plant evolution, the origin of fungi, and the geologic time table. Included are 31 references. (CW)

  12. A Diversity Visionary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Today's chief diversity officer could be tomorrow's university president, says Dr. Damon Williams. The author profiles Damon Williams who shines as sought-after expert on issues surrounding higher education inclusion. As head of a diversity division with an eight-figure budget at Wisconsin's flagship state university, Williams oversees four…

  13. Advancing Diversity in STEM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Paul L.; Shaw, Rose A.; Taylor, Jan R.; Hallar, Brittan L.

    2011-01-01

    Although progress has been made, greater efforts are needed to promote faculty diversity at the college and university levels, especially in STEM fields. Thus, it is important to elucidate best practices both for increasing awareness of diversity issues pertaining to higher education and for implementing change. This article focuses on the…

  14. Diversity and Social Cohesion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagani, Camilla

    2014-01-01

    The issue of diversity, in its broadest sense, is discussed here in its relation to social cohesion, cross-cultural relations, ingroup-outgroup relations and educational interventions. The main thesis of the paper is that real social cohesion in an ingroup rests on the acknowledgment of and the dialog with the diversities of the members of the…

  15. Issue Brief on Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Division on Developmental Disabilities, Council for Exceptional Children (NJ1), 2013

    2013-01-01

    During the past year, the Diversity Committee of the Division of Developmental Disabilities (DDD) Board worked with the Board and the Issues Committee Chair to develop an issue brief addressing diversity, its impact on the membership and the wider community that is served by the work of DDD, resulting in recommendations that will influence policy…

  16. 2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, overview, diversion weir center foreground, headworks overflow weir to center left, view to east - Salmon Creek Diversion Dam, Salmon Creek, Okanogan, Okanogan County, WA

  17. [New data on the phylogeography and genetic diversity of the brown bear Ursus arctos Linnaeus, 1758 of northeastern Eurasia (mtDNA control region polymorphism analysis)].

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of polymorphism of the fragment of the control region of mitochondrial DNA of 53 tissue samples of the brown bear Ursus arctos from several regions of the eastern part of Russia was carried out. It was found that most of the described haplotypes belong to cluster 3a, the most common in Eurasia, and do not form regionally specific haplogroups. However, among the bears from Western and Eastern Siberia, as well as the island of Kunashir, three haplotypes were identified, which are close to the haplogroup typical of Eastern Hokkaido bears. The assumption was made of the existence in Siberia and the Far East of one or more Pleistocene refugia. PMID:25735154

  18. Investigating Accommodation in Language Proficiency Interviews Using a New Measure of Lexical Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malvern, David; Richards, Brian

    2002-01-01

    In a study of teenage learners of French, the aspect of teachers' language that was found to be most responsive to the ability of their students was lexical diversity. Focuses on this finding using a new measure. (Author/VWL)

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF AQUATIC MODELS FOR TESTING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GENETIC DIVERSITY AND POPULATION EXTINCTION RISK

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relationship between population adaptive potential and extinction risk in a changing environment is not well understood. Although the expectation is that genetic diversity is directly related to the capacity of populations to adapt, the statistical and predictive aspects of ...

  20. Diversity history of Cenozoic marine siliceous plankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarus, David; Renaudie, Johan

    2014-05-01

    Marine planktonic diatoms and polycystine radiolarians, both with shells of opaline silica, make up a large part of the deep-sea sediment fossil record. Diatom export of organic material to the deep ocean and sediments strongly affects the global carbon cycle; while both groups compete for, and are regulated by the availability of, dissolved silica derived from global weathering. Diatoms and radiolarians also both have a relatively (compared to foraminifera or coccolithophores) complex biogeography, with diverse, endemic polar and tropical assemblages. Changes in past diatom and radiolarian diversity can be used to understand how the ocean's biologic pump has evolved, how co-evolution between groups occurs, and how nutrient availability controls evolutionary change. Lazarus et al. (2014) recently showed that diatom diversity increased by a factor of ca 3.5X over the Cenozoic, with a temporary peak in the latest Eocene, a late Oligocene-early Miocene low interval, very strong diversification in the late Miocene-early Pliocene, and minor decline in the late Pliocene-Recent. Only Phanerozoic scale radiolarian diversity estimates have been available until now, and these are strongly biased by sample size. We employed similar data (NSB database) and methods (1 my bins, 'sqs' subsampling, outlier removal using Pacman trims) as Lazarus et al. (2014) to calculate, for the first time, a detailed estimate of radiolarian diversity history, and origination and extinction rates over the last 50 my, the period for which sufficient NSB data is available. Radiolarian diversity increases almost monotonically by a factor of 5, with relatively rapid increases in the mid Eocene (high relative origination) and early Miocene (due to low extinction rates), and a moderate decline in the Plio-Pleistocene due to high extinction rates. Combined high rates of both extinction and origination, with little diversity change, are seen at the Eocene-Oligocene boundary. Most of these events can be related to changing global paleoceanographic conditions. Radiolarians show a major decrease in Cenozoic silica usage, apparently due to the rise of diatoms and consequent reduction of surface water silica concentrations (Lazarus et al. 2009). This inference based on diatom diversity has been confirmed (Renaudie et al., this meeting) with new estimates showing Cenozoic increasing rates of global diatom silica deposition. Our new radiolarian results show this did not negatively impact radiolarian diversity. Presumably increasing diversity from increasing faunal provinciality dominated Cenozoic radiolarian diversity dynamics, similar to the diversity controls on diatoms (Lazarus et al. 2014). Lazarus et al. (2009). PNAS 106:9333-9338. Lazarus et al. (2014). PLOS One (in press).

  1. Extending UML with Aspects: Aspect Support in the Design Phase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junichi Suzuki; Yoshikazu Yamamoto

    1999-01-01

    Aspect-Oriented Programming (AOP) has been considered a promising abstraction principle to reduce the problem of code tangling and make software structure clean and configurable. This paper addresses the aspect support in the design level while it has been focused mainly in the implementation\\/coding phase. We propose an extension to Unified Modeling Language (UML) to support aspects properly without breaking the

  2. Latent Aspect Rating Analysis without Aspect Keyword Supervision

    E-print Network

    Zhai, ChengXiang

    on topical aspects (e.g., location, service of a hotel) and the relative weights reviewers have placed generative model for LARA, which does not need pre-specified aspect keywords and simultaneously mines 1 that the proposed model can effectively perform the Latent Aspect Rating Analysis task without the supervision

  3. The Aspect Markup Language and its Support of Aspect Plugins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cristina Videira Lopes; Trung Chi Ngo

    We describe the Aspect Markup Language (AML), an XML- based AOP language for programming aspects. AML separates the binding instructions, written in XML, from the executable aspect code, written in a regular programming language. This separation by itself has some advantages, namely for testing. But the main goal of AML is to provide a highly extensible AOP platform, with which

  4. Relationship between plant diversity andRelationship between plant diversity and AMF diversity in grassland ecosystems

    E-print Network

    Bruns, Tom

    Relationship between plant diversity andRelationship between plant diversity and AMF diversity on composition of AMF community #12;Relationship between plant richness and AMF diversity complete;Relationship between plant richness and AMF diversity 18 AMF partial removal 10 12 14 16 hness of A 0

  5. Diversity and factors controlling widespread occurrence of syn-rift Ladinian microbialites in the western Tethys (Triassic Catalan Basin, NE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercedes-Martín, Ramon; Arenas, Concha; Salas, Ramon

    2014-11-01

    The fault-block carbonate ramps of the Ladinian (Middle Triassic) Catalan Basin hosted a wide variety of microbial deposits which formed during a syn-rift stage. Stratigraphical and sedimentological analyses of these microbialites allow us to reconstruct two depositional models for such microbial deposits. Moreover new insights into the interplay between the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that controlled the widespread development of these microbialites are provided. Stromatolites, ooidal-muddy microbial laminites and thrombolites were analyzed on the basis of their geometry, lamination and textural attributes. These microbialites are distributed over two Transgressive-Regressive sequences and coexisted during the Fassanian (Early Ladinian) regressive stage. Later, stromatolites and ooidal-muddy microbial laminites developed during the Longobardian (Late Ladinian) transgressive stage. Three types of lamina couplets reflect distinct accretion processes linked to water chemistry, sediment supply and hydrodynamic conditions. Thrombolite textures were produced by accretionary, binding and encrusting processes (microbially mediated) and pervasive cementation. The widespread occurrence of microbial deposits is explained as a consequence of a biogeochemical cascade of events (e.g., anoxic/dysoxic seawater conditions, volcanic activity, upwelling of alkaline waters, nutrient concentrations, and microbial blooms), which promoted favorable conditions for microbial growth in the Tethys during the Ladinian. Furthermore, in the Catalan Basin, syn-rift fault induced subsidence and local water energy gradients exerted an essential role in the distribution of the three types of microbialites through space and time. Thrombolites were prone to grow in the hanging wall block of a half-graben (subtidal conditions), whereas stromatolites and ooidal-muddy microbial laminites flourished preferably in a foot wall block setting (intertidal-shallow subtidal conditions). However, the fact that thrombolites exhibit abundant botryoidal and isopachous fibrous marine cements, corrosion and significant microbial evidence allow us to hypothesize about the relationship between thrombolite occurrence and hydrothermal fault-controlled fluid circulation during the Triassic rifting. The two depositional models here proposed constitute a step forward the understanding of the platform-to-basin microbialite heterogeneity during the Ladinian. Furthermore this work sheds new light on the mechanisms that likely promoted microbialite development during a period of major ecological restructuration and complex oceanographic conditions.

  6. Aspects of Insider Threats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Probst, Christian W.; Hunker, Jeffrey; Gollmann, Dieter; Bishop, Matt

    The insider threat has received considerable attention, and is often cited as the most serious security problem. It is also considered the most difficult problem to deal with, because an "insider" has information and capabilities not known to external attackers. The difficulty in handling the insider threat is reasonable under those circumstances; if one cannot define a problem precisely, how can one approach a solution, let alone know when the problem is solved? This chapter presents some aspects of insider threats, collected at an inter-disciplinary workshop in 2008.

  7. A hierarchical perspective of plant diversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sarr, Daniel; Hibbs, D.E.; Huston, M.

    2005-01-01

    Predictive models of plant diversity have typically focused on either a landscapea??s capacity for richness (equilibrium models), or on the processes that regulate competitive exclusion, and thus allow species to coexist (nonequilibrium models). Here, we review the concepts and purposes of a hierarchical, multiscale model of the controls of plant diversity that incorporates the equilibrium model of climatic favorability at macroscales, nonequilibrium models of competition at microscales, and a mixed model emphasizing environmental heterogeneity at mesoscales. We evaluate the conceptual model using published data from three spatially nested datasets: (1) a macroscale analysis of ecoregions in the continental and western U.S.; (2) a mesoscale study in California; and (3) a microscale study in the Siskiyou Mountains of Oregon and California. At the macroscale (areas from 3889 km2 to 638,300 km2), climate (actual evaporation) was a strong predictor of tree diversity (R2 = 0.80), as predicted by the conceptual model, but area was a better predictor for vascular plant diversity overall (R2 = 0.38), which suggests different types of plants differ in their sensitivity to climatic controls. At mesoscales (areas from 1111 km2 to 15,833 km2 ), climate was still an important predictor of richness (R2 = 0.52), but, as expected, topographic heterogeneity explained an important share of the variance (R2 = 0.19), showed positive correlations with diversity of trees, shrubs, and annual and perennial herbs, and was the primary predictor of shrub and annual plant species richness. At microscales (0.1 ha plots), spatial patterns of diversity showed a clear unimodal pattern along a climatea??driven productivity gradient and a negative relationship with soil fertility. The strong decline in understory and total diversity at the most productive sites suggests that competitive controls, as predicted, can override climatic controls at this scale. We conclude that this hierarchical, multiscale model provides a sound basis to understand and analyze plant species diversity. Specifically, future research should employ the principles in this paper to explore climatic controls on species richness of different life forms, better quantify environmental heterogeneity in landscapes, and analyze how these largea??scale factors interact with local nonequilibrium dynamics to maintain plant diversity.

  8. GCS plan for software aspects of certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shagnea, Anita M.; Lowman, Douglas S.; Withers, B. Edward

    1990-01-01

    As part of the Guidance and Control Software (GCS) research project being sponsored by NASA to evaluate the failure processes of software, standard industry software development procedures are being employed. To ensure that these procedures are authentic, the guidelines outlined in the Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA/DO-178A document entitled, software considerations in airborne systems and equipment certification, were adopted. A major aspect of these guidelines is proper documentation. As such, this report, the plan for software aspects of certification, was produced in accordance with DO-178A. An overview is given of the GCS research project, including the goals of the project, project organization, and project schedules. It also specifies the plans for all aspects of the project which relate to the certification of the GCS implementations developed under a NASA contract. These plans include decisions made regarding the software specification, accuracy requirements, configuration management, implementation development and verification, and the development of the GCS simulator.

  9. UNIVERSITY RANKINGS: DIVERSITY, EXCELLENCE

    E-print Network

    Zürich, Universität

    UNIVERSITY RANKINGS: DIVERSITY, EXCELLENCE AND THE EUROPEAN INITIATIVE GEOFFREY BOULTON (senior policy officer). #12;3 Summary · International rankings of universities influence the perceptions of high ranking as a strategic imperative. · However, their value and benefit is questionable

  10. Blood and Diversity

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Type O-negative blood, in particular, is the universal type needed for emergency transfusions. Minority and diverse ... levels. “I was deferred from giving blood 10 times or more.” However, in October 2005 Rosalyn’s iron ...

  11. Diversity Resources Faculty Resources

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Yaoqi

    for minorities o Coalition to Diversify Computing o Institute for AfricanAmerican ECulture includes several with Student Diversity in Mind: http://www.teaching.iub.edu/finder/wrapper.php?inc_id=s3_2_divers_01

  12. Diversity Team | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    The Employee Diversity Team (EDT) is looking for bright, talented, and committed Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNL) employees—both government and contractor—who want to share in the team’s mission.

  13. Modeling Diverse Communities of

    E-print Network

    Follows, Mick

    within functional groups. Seeded with diverse populations spanning prescribed regions of trait space on a regional and seasonal basis. Likewise, the depth at which organic matter is respired is, in part, regulated

  14. Immigration and the New Racial Diversity in Rural America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichter, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This article highlights the new racial and ethnic diversity in rural America, which may be the most important but least anticipated population shift in recent demographic history. Ethnoracial change is central to virtually every aspect of rural America over the foreseeable future: agro-food systems, community life, labor force change, economic…

  15. The Loss of Genetic Diversity: An Impending Global Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, James P.

    Definitions of biosphere and ecosystem are provided as the basis for understanding a problem that threatens to become (or already is) a global issue, namely, human activity which results in reducing the diversity of life forms present in the biosphere as an ecosystem. Two aspects of this problem are: (1) the growth of human populations worldwide…

  16. International Workshop International Diversity in Patent Cultures a historical perspective

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    International Workshop « International Diversity in Patent Cultures ­ a historical perspective me more curious about the international aspects of patent systems. It is true, indeed, that the Paris to manage the heterogeneity of patent systems and we have to ask what kind of heterogeneity the actors faced

  17. Gender and Cultural Diversity Bias in Developmental Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conti, Nancy E.; Kimmel, Ellen B.

    This paper reports the results of a content-analysis for the treatment of gender and diversity in the 11 top-selling lifespan developmental textbooks. The purposes were to measure the amount of information provided on aspects of development specific to Caucasian females and females of Color and to evaluate qualitatively the incorporation of the…

  18. Aspect and Tense in Russian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terras, V.

    1960-01-01

    Accepting the perfective aspect as the "marked" correlative of a true morphological correlation in the opposition of perfective:imperfective in Russian verb study, the author disregards non-systemic facts in order to concentrate on the aspect relations as they appear in "linear pairs". The author proceeds to describe the functions of the aspect

  19. Aspects of Gond astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahia, M. N.; Halkare, Ganesh

    2013-03-01

    The Gond community is considered to be one of the most ancient tribes of India with a continuing history of several thousand years. They are also known for their largely isolated history which they have retained through the millennia. Several of their intellectual traditions therefore are a record of parallel aspects of human intellectual growth, and still preserve their original flavour and have not been homogenised by the later traditions of India. In view of this, the Gonds provide a special window to the different currents that constitute contemporary India. In the present study, we summarise their mythology, genetics and script. We then investigate their astronomical traditions and try to understand this community through a survey of 15 Gond villages spread over Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. We show that they have a distinctly different view of the sky from the conventional astronomical ideas encountered elsewhere in India, which is both interesting and informative. We briefly comment on other aspects of their life as culled from our encounters with different members of the Gond community.

  20. Leadership in diversity.

    PubMed

    Hunt, P L

    1994-12-01

    As principal change agents, healthcare leaders are well positioned to integrate diversity into their institutions' organizational structure. Thus healthcare leaders must be competent in handling diversity issues. Diversity refers to any characteristic that helps shape a person's attitudes, behaviors, perspective, and interpretation of what is "normal." In the healthcare ministry, diversity encompasses the cultural differences that can be found across functions or among organizations when they merge or partner. Managers and supervisors will have to be familiar with the nuances of diversity if they are to be effective. Those managers who are not adept at incorporating diversity into human resource management may incorrectly evaluate subordinates' capabilities and provide inappropriate training or supervision. As a result, some employees may be underutilized. Others may resist needed direction, overlook instructions, or hide problems such as a language barrier. If executives, marketers, and strategic planners are to develop relevant healthcare services that take into account the needs of their constituencies, they will need to determine how different groups understand and access healthcare. Healthcare leaders who know how to uncover cultural dynamics and challenge cultural assumptions will go far in enabling their staff and managers to confront personal attitudes about community residents. Ultimately, quality of service delivery will be improved. PMID:10138586

  1. TERRITORIAL AND LANDSCAPE DIVERSITY AND THEIR RELATION TO THE URBAN OCCUPATION PATTERNS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathas SILVA; Magalhães Pereira; Vera Regina

    We believe Brazil has a great territorial and landscape diversity which results in different formal patterns of built and non-built urban environments and differenciated morphological structures. However, the diverse urban forms are a direct consequence of the natural, social, economical and cultural aspects and that the understanding of regional characteristics and social contradictions is possible through the analysis of the

  2. Social Dating Goals in Female College Students: Failure to Replicate in a Diverse Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killeya-Jones, Ley A.

    2004-01-01

    This article reports a failure to replicate aspects of the Social Dating Goals Scale (SDGS; Sanderson & Cantor, 1995) with an ethnically diverse group of female college students. The SDGS was developed and validated with predominantly White samples. In the present study, a diverse sample of 82 Asian, Black, Hispanic and White female college…

  3. Adaptive Optics by Sequential Diversity Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonsalves, Robert A.

    An adaptive optics (AO) system includes a wavefront sensor which measures the distortion introduced by a time-varying optical medium. Diversity Imaging has been proposed to perform wavefront sensing. Typically, diversity is introduced by observations at several wavelengths or in several focal planes, as is the case of Curvature Sensing. It is now in use as a post-processing method in solar observatories, it was used to help determine the flaw in the Hubble Space Telescope, and it is under consideration for calibration of the Next Generation Space Telescope. In this paper we review the phase diversity concept and show how it can be applied to video images. The video sequence, itself, is the measurement set and the sequence of AO changes is the diversity. No separate wavefront sensor is needed; no separate measurements need be made. We derive recursive equations for control of the AO, show a block diagram of the processor, and show computer simulations of the technique. Important parameters of the method are the time constant, t1, of the time-varying medium and the time constant, t2, of the AO control loop. When t1 was about 8 times larger than t2 (a slowly varying medium), our computer simulations produced a ten-fold improvement in image sharpness. When t1 was small, momentarily, the processor was unable to keep up with the rapidly changing medium. When t2 got large again, the process recovered. Is was self-correcting. The technique presented here could make diversity imaging the preferred method for AO control. It also has an obvious commercial application: any consumer video camera which uses an AO could use sequential diversity imaging to control the AO. It might produce eagle-eye-sharp images.

  4. The Biological Origin of Linguistic Diversity

    E-print Network

    Baronchelli, Andrea; Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo; Christiansen, Morten H; 10.1371/journal.pone.0048029

    2013-01-01

    In contrast with animal communication systems, diversity is characteristic of almost every aspect of human language. Languages variously employ tones, clicks, or manual signs to signal differences in meaning; some languages lack the noun-verb distinction (e.g., Straits Salish), whereas others have a proliferation of fine-grained syntactic categories (e.g., Tzeltal); and some languages do without morphology (e.g., Mandarin), while others pack a whole sentence into a single word (e.g., Cayuga). A challenge for evolutionary biology is to reconcile the diversity of languages with the high degree of biological uniformity of their speakers. Here, we model processes of language change and geographical dispersion and find a consistent pressure for flexible learning, irrespective of the language being spoken. This pressure arises because flexible learners can best cope with the observed high rates of linguistic change associated with divergent cultural evolution following human migration. Thus, rather than genetic ada...

  5. Diversion of Drugs Within Health Care Facilities, a Multiple-Victim Crime: Patterns of Diversion, Scope, Consequences, Detection, and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Berge, Keith H.; Dillon, Kevin R.; Sikkink, Karen M.; Taylor, Timothy K.; Lanier, William L.

    2012-01-01

    Mayo Clinic has been involved in an ongoing effort to prevent the diversion of controlled substances from the workplace and to rapidly identify and respond when such diversion is detected. These efforts have found that diversion of controlled substances is not uncommon and can result in substantial risk not only to the individual who is diverting the drugs but also to patients, co-workers, and employers. We believe that all health care facilities should have systems in place to deter controlled substance diversion and to promptly identify diversion and intervene when it is occurring. Such systems are multifaceted and require close cooperation between multiple stakeholders including, but not limited to, departments of pharmacy, safety and security, anesthesiology, nursing, legal counsel, and human resources. Ideally, there should be a broad-based appreciation of the dangers that diversion creates not only for patients but also for all employees of health care facilities, because diversion can occur at any point along a long supply chain. All health care workers must be vigilant for signs of possible diversion and must be aware of how to engage a preexisting group with expertise in investigating possible diversions. In addition, clear policies and procedures should be in place for dealing with such investigations and for managing the many possible outcomes of a confirmed diversion. This article provides an overview of the multiple types of risk that result from drug diversion from health care facilities. Further, we describe a system developed at Mayo Clinic for evaluating episodes of potential drug diversion and for taking action once diversion is confirmed. PMID:22766087

  6. Functional cell surface display and controlled secretion of diverse Agarolytic enzymes by Escherichia coli with a novel ligation-independent cloning vector based on the autotransporter YfaL.

    PubMed

    Ko, Hyeok-Jin; Park, Eunhye; Song, Joseph; Yang, Taek Ho; Lee, Hee Jong; Kim, Kyoung Heon; Choi, In-Geol

    2012-05-01

    Autotransporters have been employed as the anchoring scaffold for cell surface display by replacing their passenger domains with heterologous proteins to be displayed. We adopted an autotransporter (YfaL) of Escherichia coli for the cell surface display system. The critical regions in YfaL for surface display were identified for the construction of a ligation-independent cloning (LIC)-based display system. The designed system showed no detrimental effect on either the growth of the host cell or overexpressing heterologous proteins on the cell surface. We functionally displayed monomeric red fluorescent protein (mRFP1) as a reporter protein and diverse agarolytic enzymes from Saccharophagus degradans 2-40, including Aga86C and Aga86E, which previously had failed to be functional expressed. The system could display different sizes of proteins ranging from 25.3 to 143 kDa. We also attempted controlled release of the displayed proteins by incorporating a tobacco etch virus protease cleavage site into the C termini of the displayed proteins. The maximum level of the displayed protein was 6.1 × 10(4) molecules per a single cell, which corresponds to 5.6% of the entire cell surface of actively growing E. coli. PMID:22344647

  7. Effects of herbivores on grassland plant diversity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Han Olff; Mark E. Ritchie

    1998-01-01

    The role of herbivores in controlling plant species richness is a critical issue in the conservation and management of grassland biodiversity. Numerous field experiments in grassland plant communities show that herbivores often, but not always, increase plant diversity. Recent work suggests that the mechanisms of these effects involve alteration of local colonization of species from regional species pools or local

  8. Aspects of Color Superconductivity

    E-print Network

    Deog Ki Hong

    2001-01-03

    I discuss some aspects of recent developments in color superconductivity in high density quark matter. I calculate the Cooper pair gap and the critical points at high density, where magnetic gluons are not screened. The ground state of high density QCD with three light flavors is shown to be a color-flavor locking state, which can be mapped into the low-density hadronic phase. The meson mass at the CFL superconductor is also calculated. The CFL color superconductor is bosonized, where the Fermi sea is identified as a $Q$-matter and the gapped quarks as topological excitations, called superqualitons, of mesons. Finally, as an application of color supercoductivity, I discuss the neutrino interactions in the CFL color superconductor.

  9. Aspects of Plant Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    TREWAVAS, ANTHONY

    2003-01-01

    Intelligence is not a term commonly used when plants are discussed. However, I believe that this is an omission based not on a true assessment of the ability of plants to compute complex aspects of their environment, but solely a reflection of a sessile lifestyle. This article, which is admittedly controversial, attempts to raise many issues that surround this area. To commence use of the term intelligence with regard to plant behaviour will lead to a better understanding of the complexity of plant signal transduction and the discrimination and sensitivity with which plants construct images of their environment, and raises critical questions concerning how plants compute responses at the whole?plant level. Approaches to investigating learning and memory in plants will also be considered. PMID:12740212

  10. Aspects, Wrappers and Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on Object Infrastructure Framework (OIF), an Aspect-Oriented Programming (AOP) system. The presentation begins with an introduction to the difficulties and requirements of distributed computing, including functional and non-functional requirements (ilities). The architecture of Distributed Object Technology includes stubs, proxies for implementation objects, and skeletons, proxies for client applications. The key OIF ideas (injecting behavior, annotated communications, thread contexts, and pragma) are discussed. OIF is an AOP mechanism; AOP is centered on: 1) Separate expression of crosscutting concerns; 2) Mechanisms to weave the separate expressions into a unified system. AOP is software engineering technology for separately expressing systematic properties while nevertheless producing running systems that embody these properties.

  11. Turbulence management: Application aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschel, E. H.; Thiede, P.; Monnoyer, F.

    1989-04-01

    Turbulence management for the reduction of turbulent friction drag is an important topic. Numerous research programs in this field have demonstrated that valuable net drag reduction is obtainable by techniques which do not involve substantial, expensive modifications or redesign of existing aircraft. Hence, large projects aiming at short term introduction of turbulence management technology into airline service are presently under development. The various points that have to be investigated for this purpose are presented. Both design and operational aspects are considered, the first dealing with optimizing of turbulence management techniques at operating conditions, and the latter defining the technical problems involved by application of turbulence management to in-service aircraft. The cooperative activities of Airbus Industrie and its partners are cited as an example.

  12. Aspects of Gond Astronomy

    E-print Network

    Vahia, M N

    2013-01-01

    The Gond community is considered to be one of the most ancient tribes of India with a continuing history of several thousand years. They are also known for their largely isolated history which they have retained through the millennia. Several of their intellectual traditions therefore are a record of parallel aspects of human intellectual growth, and still preserve their original flavour and have not been homogenised by the later traditions of India. In view of this, the Gonds provide a special window to the different currents that constitute contemporary India. In the present study, we summarise their mythology, genetics and script. We then investigate their astronomical traditions and try to understand this community through a survey of 15 Gond villages spread over Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. We show that they have a distinctly different view of the sky from the conventional astronomical ideas encountered elsewhere in India, which is both interesting and informative. We briefly comment o...

  13. Dark aspects of cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Naresh

    This thesis investigates aspects of dark matter and dark energy and constraints that can be imposed on them from current and future observations. Specifically, we first study the idea that the observed acceleration of the Universe could be due to the gravitational backreaction of perturbations on superhorizon scales. We show that this does not work for the case of a cosmological model containing baryonic matter, cold dark matter and a scalar field. Next, assuming the presence of dark energy and dark matter, we study the gravitational lensing effects of large scale structures on luminosity distances of sources. Standard candle sources such as supernovae have been used to measure the dark energy content of the Universe, and gravitational lensing is a source of systematic error in these measurements. We investigate the effects of large scale structures like voids and smaller halos using Monte Carlo simulations.

  14. Aspects of spinorial geometry

    E-print Network

    U. Gran; J. Gutowski; G. Papadopoulos; D. Roest

    2006-12-14

    We review some aspects of the spinorial geometry approach to the classification of supersymmetric solutions of supergravity theories. In particular, we explain how spinorial geometry can be used to express the Killing spinor equations in terms of a linear system for the fluxes and the geometry of spacetime. The solutions of this linear system express some of the fluxes in terms of the spacetime geometry and determine the conditions on the spacetime geometry imposed by supersymmetry. We also present some of the recent applications like the classification of maximally supersymmetric G-backgrounds in IIB, this includes the most general pp-wave solution preserving 1/2 supersymmetry, and the classification of N=31 backgrounds in ten and eleven dimensions.

  15. Phylum Cnidaria Origin of Diversity

    E-print Network

    Cochran-Stafira, D. Liane

    1 Phylum Cnidaria Origin of Diversity How has so much diversity been possible in the Phylum Cnidaria 1. Polyp and medusa forms ­ Provide the basic diversity by offering two different ways of life diversity been possible in the Phylum Cnidaria 2. Colony formation ­ Most common results of budding ability

  16. [Syphilis: clinical, biological and therapeutical aspects].

    PubMed

    Janier, Michel

    2004-02-29

    Syphilis is a STI. The present epidemic is related to the relapse into unsafe sexual behaviour. HIV has not modified clinical aspects and the great simulator implies to perform TPHA and VDRL in various circumstances. Treatment is simple and consensual in early syphilis. Treatment of late syphilis is dependent upon indications of CSF control, to be discussed by specialists, particularly in HIV+ patients. PMID:15109171

  17. [Recovery Room. Organization and clinical aspects].

    PubMed

    Leykin, Y; Costa, N; Gullo, A

    2001-01-01

    Correct administration in the early postoperative phase is decisive in the final outcome of surgery and the presence of the Recovery Room (RR) contributes significantly to a reduction in the post-operative risk rate. The objectives of the RR are: removal of the pharmacological effect of general anaesthesia; stabilization of vital parameters (circulation and ventilation); stabilization of body temperature; control of the hydro-electrolytic balance; intensive intervention in the case of an acute complication; prescribing a suitable postoperative analgesia; recovering movement in the case of loco-regional anesthesia. Organization of RR must take into consideration: 1) aspect of environment and location; 2) transport of the patient from the operating room to the RR; 3) definition of the equipment necessary for the RR; 4) definition of the role and qualification of the medical and nursing staff; 5) definition of regulations of assistance and the clinical file; 6) definition of criteria for discharge and transfer; 7) definition of means of adjournment, improvement and comparison with other similar structures. RR is administered by an Anesthetist with clinical, therapeutic and decision-making responsibility for the discharge of patients, while the supervision and assistance patients is entrusted to specialised professional nurses. From a clinical point of view the following data are monitored and recorded: the vital signs (passage of air-ways, cardiac and respiratory frequency, arterial pressure, saturation of O2, EtCO2 (in patient with air-way support), body temperature and the state of consciousness, instrumental monitoring of the patient (at pre-established time intervals), control of the skin, the peripheral circulation, surgical wounds, drainage and catheters. The percentage of incidence of complications in RR varies from 6-7 to 30% depending on various studies, probably in relation to the diversity of criteria in defining the complication. The principal complications which can be found in RR, reported in several studies are: respiratory (obstruction of the air-way, hypoxemia, hypoventilation, inhalation), cardio-circulatory (hypotension, hypertension, arrhythmia, myocardial ischemia), postoperative nausea and vomiting, hypothermia and hyperthermia, delayed re-awakening, disorientation and hyper-excitability, postoperative shivering. As long as the patient can be discharged from the RR the following requisites must be satisfied: return of a state of consciousness, stable cardio-circulatory parameters, absence of respiratory depression, absence of bleeding, absence of nausea and vomiting, good analgesia and recovery of movement in the case of loco-regional anesthesia (on this last point not all authors agree). What has been said until now shows the function, usefulness and importance of RRs which must not replace the Intensive Therapy Units. In fact, they are places where the cure must be concluded, in which the Anesthetist is responsible for the whole process. This cure must begin in the preoperative period, continue in the intraoperative period and it is compulsory to proceed in the immediate postoperative period until such a time that, because of the anesthesia administered, the clinical situation of the patient ceases to be considered a potential medical-surgical urgency-emergency . PMID:11602873

  18. Diversity of Poissonian populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo I.; Sokolov, Igor M.

    2010-01-01

    Populations represented by collections of points scattered randomly on the real line are ubiquitous in science and engineering. The statistical modeling of such populations leads naturally to Poissonian populations—Poisson processes on the real line with a distinguished maximal point. Poissonian populations are infinite objects underlying key issues in statistical physics, probability theory, and random fractals. Due to their infiniteness, measuring the diversity of Poissonian populations depends on the lower-bound cut-off applied. This research characterizes the classes of Poissonian populations whose diversities are invariant with respect to the cut-off level applied and establishes an elemental connection between these classes and extreme-value theory. The measures of diversity considered are variance and dispersion, Simpson’s index and inverse participation ratio, Shannon’s entropy and Rényi’s entropy, and Gini’s index.

  19. Bioenergetic Aspects of Halophilism

    PubMed Central

    Oren, Aharon

    1999-01-01

    Examinination of microbial diversity in environments of increasing salt concentrations indicates that certain types of dissimilatory metabolism do not occur at the highest salinities. Examples are methanogenesis for H2 + CO2 or from acetate, dissimilatory sulfate reduction with oxidation of acetate, and autotrophic nitrification. Occurrence of the different metabolic types is correlated with the free-energy change associated with the dissimilatory reactions. Life at high salt concentrations is energetically expensive. Most bacteria and also the methanogenic archaea produce high intracellular concentrations of organic osmotic solutes at a high energetic cost. All halophilic microorganisms expend large amounts of energy to maintain steep gradients of NA+ and K+ concentrations across their cytoplasmic membrane. The energetic cost of salt adaptation probably dictates what types of metabolism can support life at the highest salt concentrations. Use of KCl as an intracellular solute, while requiring far-reaching adaptations of the intracellular machinery, is energetically more favorable than production of organic-compatible solutes. This may explain why the anaerobic halophilic fermentative bacteria (order Haloanaerobiales) use this strategy and also why halophilic homoacetogenic bacteria that produce acetate from H2 + CO2 exist whereas methanogens that use the same substrates in a reaction with a similar free-energy yield do not. PMID:10357854

  20. Predator Diversity and Abundance Provide Little Support for the Enemies Hypothesis in Forests of High Tree Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Schuldt, Andreas; Both, Sabine; Bruelheide, Helge; Härdtle, Werner; Schmid, Bernhard; Zhou, Hongzhang; Assmann, Thorsten

    2011-01-01

    Predatory arthropods can exert strong top-down control on ecosystem functions. However, despite extensive theory and experimental manipulations of predator diversity, our knowledge about relationships between plant and predator diversity—and thus information on the relevance of experimental findings—for species-rich, natural ecosystems is limited. We studied activity abundance and species richness of epigeic spiders in a highly diverse forest ecosystem in subtropical China across 27 forest stands which formed a gradient in tree diversity of 25–69 species per plot. The enemies hypothesis predicts higher predator abundance and diversity, and concomitantly more effective top-down control of food webs, with increasing plant diversity. However, in our study, activity abundance and observed species richness of spiders decreased with increasing tree species richness. There was only a weak, non-significant relationship with tree richness when spider richness was rarefied, i.e. corrected for different total abundances of spiders. Only foraging guild richness (i.e. the diversity of hunting modes) of spiders was positively related to tree species richness. Plant species richness in the herb layer had no significant effects on spiders. Our results thus provide little support for the enemies hypothesis—derived from studies in less diverse ecosystems—of a positive relationship between predator and plant diversity. Our findings for an important group of generalist predators question whether stronger top-down control of food webs can be expected in the more plant diverse stands of our forest ecosystem. Biotic interactions could play important roles in mediating the observed relationships between spider and plant diversity, but further testing is required for a more detailed mechanistic understanding. Our findings have implications for evaluating the way in which theoretical predictions and experimental findings of functional predator effects apply to species-rich forest ecosystems, in which trophic interactions are often considered to be of crucial importance for the maintenance of high plant diversity. PMID:21829551

  1. The biology of hair diversity.

    PubMed

    Westgate, Gillian E; Botchkareva, Natalia V; Tobin, Desmond J

    2013-08-01

    Hair diversity, its style, colour, shape and growth pattern is one of our most defining characteristics. The natural versus temporary style is influenced by what happens to our hair during our lifetime, such as genetic hair loss, sudden hair shedding, greying and pathological hair loss in the various forms of alopecia because of genetics, illness or medication. Despite the size and global value of the hair care market, our knowledge of what controls the innate and within-lifetime characteristics of hair diversity remains poorly understood. In the last decade, drivers of knowledge have moved into the arena of genetics where hair traits are obvious and measurable and genetic polymorphisms are being found that raise valuable questions about the biology of hair growth. The recent discovery that the gene for trichohyalin contributes to hair shape comes as no surprise to the hair biologists who have believed for 100 years that hair shape is linked to the structure and function of the inner root sheath. Further conundrums awaiting elucidation include the polymorphisms in the androgen receptor (AR) described in male pattern alopecia whose location on the X chromosome places this genetic contributor into the female line. The genetics of female hair loss is less clear with polymorphisms in the AR not associated with female pattern hair loss. Lifestyle choices are also implicated in hair diversity. Greying, which also has a strong genetic component, is often suggested to have a lifestyle (stress) influence and hair follicle melanocytes show declining antioxidant protection with age and lowered resistance to stress. It is likely that hair research will undergo a renaissance on the back of the rising information from genetic studies as well as the latest contributions from the field of epigenetics. PMID:23363384

  2. Psychosocial aspects of abortion

    PubMed Central

    Illsley, Raymond; Hall, Marion H.

    1976-01-01

    The literature on psychosocial aspects of abortion is confusing. Individual publications must be interpreted in the context of cultural, religious, and legal constraints obtaining in a particular society at a given time, with due attention to the status and availability of alternatives to abortion that might be chosen by a woman with an “unwanted” pregnancy. A review of the literature shows that, where careful pre- and post-abortion assessments are made, the evidence is that psychological benefit commonly results, and serious adverse emotional sequelae are rare. The outcome of refused abortion seems less satisfactory, with regrets and distress frequently occurring. Research on the administration of abortion services suggests that counselling is often of value, that distress is frequently caused by delays in deciding upon and in carrying out abortions, and by unsympathetic attitudes of service providers. The phenomenon of repeated abortion seeking should be seen in the context of the availability and cost of contraception and sterilization. The place of sterilization with abortion requires careful study. A recommendation is made for observational descriptive research on populations of women with potentially unwanted pregnancies in different cultures, with comparisons of management systems and an evaluation of their impact on service users. PMID:1085671

  3. Anatomical Aspects of Abscission

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Barbara D.

    1968-01-01

    Anatomical aspects of abscission are reviewed mainly on the basis of experimental studies on Coleus, Gossypium, and Phaseolus. In Phaseolus histological studies of explants show that petiolar abscission is correlated with the formation of tyloses in the vessels proximal to the zone of separation, and that the abscission zone is much less well demarcated than in Coleus or Gossypium. Radioautographic studies of Phaseolus petiole explants indicate little initial difference in the distribution of nucleolar RNA and in nuclear and cytoplasmic protein in cells distal (toward the blade) or proximal (toward the stem) to the region of separation. However, in ethylene-treated explants an increase in nucleolar RNA and in nuclear and cytoplasmic protein is evident in cortical cells immediately proximal to the abscission zone, and binucleate cells commonly occur. Abscission occurs by dissolution of newly formed cell walls and disruption of the mother cell walls in the zone of recently divided cells. It is suggested that the experimental results can be explained on the basis of changes induced in levels of ethylene in the petiole, the experimental application of ethylene becoming effective in expediting abscission only after the endogenous ethylene level in explants has declined. Images PMID:16657017

  4. Gastric cancer: basic aspects.

    PubMed

    Resende, Carlos; Thiel, Alexandra; Machado, José C; Ristimäki, Ari

    2011-09-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is a world health burden, ranging as the second cause of cancer death worldwide. Etiologically, GC arises not only from the combined effects of environmental factors and susceptible genetic variants but also from the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations. In the last years, molecular oncobiology studies brought to light a number of genes that are implicated in gastric carcinogenesis. This review is intended to focus on the recently described basic aspects that play key roles in the process of gastric carcinogenesis. Genetic variants of the genes IL-10, IL-17, MUC1, MUC6, DNMT3B, SMAD4, and SERPINE1 have been reported to modify the risk of developing GC. Several genes have been newly associated with gastric carcinogenesis, both through oncogenic activation (GSK3?, CD133, DSC2, P-Cadherin, CDH17, CD168, CD44, metalloproteinases MMP7 and MMP11, and a subset of miRNAs) and through tumor suppressor gene inactivation mechanisms (TFF1, PDX1, BCL2L10, XRCC, psiTPTE-HERV, HAI-2, GRIK2, and RUNX3). It also addressed the role of the inflammatory mediator cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the process of gastric carcinogenesis and its importance as a potential molecular target for therapy. PMID:21896084

  5. Aspect-Oriented Workflow Languages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anis Charfiand; Mira Mezini

    2006-01-01

    \\u000a Most available aspect-oriented languages today are extensions to programming languages. However, aspect-orientation, which\\u000a is a paradigm for decomposition and modularization, is not only applicable in that context. In this paper, we introduce aspect-oriented\\u000a software development concepts to workflow languages in order to improve the modularity of workflow process specifications\\u000a with respect to crosscutting concerns and crosscutting changes. In fact, crosscutting

  6. The influence of contextual diversity on eye movements in reading

    PubMed Central

    Plummer, Patrick; Perea, Manuel; Rayner, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has shown contextual diversity (i.e., the number of passages in which a given word appears) to be a reliable predictor of word processing difficulty. It has also been demonstrated that word-frequency has little or no effect on word recognition speed when accounting for contextual diversity in isolated word processing tasks. An eye-movement experiment was conducted wherein the effects of word-frequency and contextual diversity were directly contrasted in a normal sentence reading scenario. Subjects read sentences with embedded target words which varied in word frequency and contextual diversity. All first-pass and later reading times were significantly longer for words with lower contextual diversity compared to words with higher contextual diversity when controlling for word-frequency and other important lexical properties. Furthermore, there was no difference in reading times for higher frequency and lower frequency words when controlling for contextual diversity. The results confirm prior findings regarding contextual diversity and word-frequency effects and demonstrate that contextual diversity is a more accurate predictor of word processing speed than word-frequency within a normal reading task. PMID:23937235

  7. Adaptive optics and phase diversity imaging for responsive space applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Mark William; Wick, David Victor

    2004-11-01

    The combination of phase diversity and adaptive optics offers great flexibility. Phase diverse images can be used to diagnose aberrations and then provide feedback control to the optics to correct the aberrations. Alternatively, phase diversity can be used to partially compensate for aberrations during post-detection image processing. The adaptive optic can produce simple defocus or more complex types of phase diversity. This report presents an analysis, based on numerical simulations, of the efficiency of different modes of phase diversity with respect to compensating for specific aberrations during post-processing. It also comments on the efficiency of post-processing versus direct aberration correction. The construction of a bench top optical system that uses a membrane mirror as an active optic is described. The results of characterization tests performed on the bench top optical system are presented. The work described in this report was conducted to explore the use of adaptive optics and phase diversity imaging for responsive space applications.

  8. Neuroendocrine aspects of catamenial epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Samba Reddy, Doodipala

    2012-01-01

    This review describes the neuroendocrinological aspects of catamenial epilepsy, a menstrual cycle-related seizure disorder in women with epilepsy. Catamenial epilepsy is a multifaceted neuroendocrine condition in which seizures are clustered around specific points in the menstrual cycle, most often around perimenstrual or periovulatory period. Three types of catamenial seizures (perimenstrual, periovulatory and inadequate luteal) have been identified. The molecular pathophysiology of catamenial epilepsy remains unclear. Cyclical changes in the circulating levels of estrogens and progesterone (P) play a central role in the development of catamenial epilepsy. Endogenous neurosteroids such as allopregnanolone (AP) and allotetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone (THDOC) that modulate seizure susceptibility could play a critical role in catamenial epilepsy. In addition, plasticity in GABA-A receptor subunits could play a role in the enhanced seizure susceptibility in catamenial epilepsy. P-derived neurosteroids such as AP and THDOC potentiate synaptic GABA-A receptor function and also activate extrasynaptic GABA-A receptors in the hippocampus and thus may represent endogenous regulators of catamenial seizure susceptibility. Experimental studies have shown that neurosteroids confer greater seizure protection in animal models of catamenial epilepsy, especially without evident tolerance to their actions during chronic therapy. In the recently completed NIH-sponsored, placebo controlled Phase 3 clinical trial, P therapy proved to be beneficial only in women with perimenstrual catamenial epilepsy but not in non-catamenial subjects. Neurosteroid analogs with favorable profile may be useful in the treatment of catamenial epilepsy. PMID:22579656

  9. Psychiatric aspects of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Grover, Sandeep; Somaiya, Mansi; Kumar, Santhosh; Avasthi, Ajit

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is essentially characterized by the motor symptoms in the form of resting tremor, rigidity and bradykinesia. However, over the years it has been recognized that motor symptoms are just the "tip of the iceberg" of clinical manifestations of PD. Besides motor symptoms, PD characterized by many non-motor symptoms, which include cognitive decline, psychiatric disturbances (depression, psychosis and impulse control), sleep difficulties, autonomic failures (gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, urinary, thermoregulation) and pain syndrome. This review evaluates the various aspects of psychiatric disorders including cognitive decline and sleep disturbances in patients with PD. The prevalence rate of various psychiatric disorders is high in patients with PD. In terms of risk factors, various demographic, clinical and treatment-related variables have been shown to be associated with higher risk of development of psychiatric morbidity. Evidence also suggests that the presence of psychiatric morbidity is associated with poorer outcome. Randomized controlled trials, evaluating the various pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for management of psychiatric morbidity in patients with PD are meager. Available evidence suggests that tricyclic antidepressants like desipramine and nortriptyline are efficacious for management of depression. Among the antipsychotics, clozapine is considered to be the best choice for management of psychosis in patients with PD. Among the various cognitive enhancers, evidence suggest efficacy of rivastigmine in management of dementia in patients with PD. To conclude, this review suggests that psychiatric morbidity is highly prevalent in patients with PD. Hence, a multidisciplinary approach must be followed to improve the overall outcome of PD. Further studies are required to evaluate the efficacy of various other measures for management of psychiatric morbidity in patients with PD. PMID:25552854

  10. Psychiatric aspects of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Sandeep; Somaiya, Mansi; Kumar, Santhosh; Avasthi, Ajit

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is essentially characterized by the motor symptoms in the form of resting tremor, rigidity and bradykinesia. However, over the years it has been recognized that motor symptoms are just the “tip of the iceberg” of clinical manifestations of PD. Besides motor symptoms, PD characterized by many non-motor symptoms, which include cognitive decline, psychiatric disturbances (depression, psychosis and impulse control), sleep difficulties, autonomic failures (gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, urinary, thermoregulation) and pain syndrome. This review evaluates the various aspects of psychiatric disorders including cognitive decline and sleep disturbances in patients with PD. The prevalence rate of various psychiatric disorders is high in patients with PD. In terms of risk factors, various demographic, clinical and treatment-related variables have been shown to be associated with higher risk of development of psychiatric morbidity. Evidence also suggests that the presence of psychiatric morbidity is associated with poorer outcome. Randomized controlled trials, evaluating the various pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for management of psychiatric morbidity in patients with PD are meager. Available evidence suggests that tricyclic antidepressants like desipramine and nortriptyline are efficacious for management of depression. Among the antipsychotics, clozapine is considered to be the best choice for management of psychosis in patients with PD. Among the various cognitive enhancers, evidence suggest efficacy of rivastigmine in management of dementia in patients with PD. To conclude, this review suggests that psychiatric morbidity is highly prevalent in patients with PD. Hence, a multidisciplinary approach must be followed to improve the overall outcome of PD. Further studies are required to evaluate the efficacy of various other measures for management of psychiatric morbidity in patients with PD. PMID:25552854

  11. Modeling Antibody Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William P.; Moore, Cathy Ronstadt

    1998-01-01

    Understanding antibody structure and function is difficult for many students. The rearrangement of constant and variable regions during antibody differentiation can be effectively simulated using a paper model. Describes a hands-on laboratory exercise which allows students to model antibody diversity using readily available resources. (PVD)

  12. Diversity in Ocean Sciences

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    COSEE-SE provides resources and links to help improve diversity in ocean sciences. Included resources are coastal legacy resources for elementary and middle school teachers, Coastal Legacy traveling curriculum kit, documents from the Multicultural Pathways for Ocean Science Education workshop, and university and marine laboratory programs.

  13. DIVERSITY PLANS: AN ANALYSIS

    E-print Network

    that remains most underrepresented in all areas is the Native American population. · The message of diversity Valerie B. Lee, Chair Carole Anderson, ex-officio Deborah Ballam Jane Case-Smith Jose Castro Olga Esquivel Peterson Matthew Platz john a. powell, J.D. Mac Stewart Ming Trammel Rebecca Nelson Ijeoma Emenike June 8

  14. Continent urinary diversion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fiona C. Burkhard; Thomas M. Kessler; Rob Mills; Urs E. Studer

    2006-01-01

    During the last decade continent urinary diversion, especially orthotopic bladder substitution has become increasingly popular following radical cystectomy for bladder cancer. In general, if sphincter sparing surgery is possible, orthotopic bladder substitution is performed, if not then continent catheterisable reservoirs are a viable option. Strict patient selection criteria and improved surgical technique have had a positive influence on outcome, not

  15. Diversity and International.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Justice, Madeline, Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on diversity and international issues in technology and teacher education: (1) "'At-Risk' Learners and the 'Digital Divide': Exploring the Equity in Access Issue" (Jeanne M. Foster and Sharla L. Snider); (2) "Integrating Standards-Based Instructional Technology" (Nicole M. Snow); (3) "Technology and the…

  16. Diversity in the spotlight

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrian McDougall

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to address the problems that diversity, by its nature, throws up for training professionals, and to highlight the various ways in which drama, as a learning tool, offers solutions to those problems. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The theory of experiential learning forms the back-bone of the arguments proposed by the paper, and has many applications in the

  17. Academies and School Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This article considers the implications of Academies for the diversity of schooling in England. It seeks to establish the extent to which Academies are distinctive compared to other types of state secondary schools and whether this has been affected by a number of recent reforms. Different types of Academies are also be examined. Previous work in…

  18. Re: Soviet river diversions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jas O. Robertson

    1982-01-01

    The paper on `Soviet River Diversions' by Phil Micklin (Eos, 62(19), May 12, 1981) has just come to hand.Referring to the map on page 489, I was interested to see the estimates of river flows for the Amu and Syr Darya, which clearly show the effect of irrigation on inflows to the Aral Sea. Recently, I was passing over the

  19. Banking on Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Few organizations have as racially and culturally diverse a work force as the organizations that make up the World Bank Group. Of its 13,000 employees, nearly 60 percent of whom are located in downtown Washington, D.C., and the rest scattered across 160 offices around the globe, nearly every nation in the world is represented in the World Bank…

  20. Diversity of eukaryotic algae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Andersen

    1992-01-01

    Algae are ubiquitous. They are the primary producers for all the oceans and seas, an area that covers 71% of the Earth's surface. Algae also occur in freshwater lakes, ponds and streams as well as on and in soil, rocks, ice, snow, plants and animals. In total, 40% of global photosynthesis is contributed by algae. The algae are tremendously diverse.

  1. Organising for cultural diversity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geert Hofstede

    1989-01-01

    Corporations operating across national borders and diversified into different types of business are bound to host considerable cultural diversity within their ranks. For an effective coordination of their various activities, cultural considerations should enter into the design of their corporate structure. This demands a cultural awareness on their management's side which does not belong to the classic selection criteria for

  2. Diversity on the Docket

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    School leaders attest to educational and social benefits from diversity. They argue that local housing patterns historically tend to separate families of different races and may lead to schools that are racially homogeneous if the districts do not counter them with assignment policies that consider race. This article discusses race in education…

  3. Tapping into microbial diversity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Keller; Karsten Zengler

    2004-01-01

    Even though significant advances have been made in understanding microbial diversity, most microorganisms are still only characterized by 'molecular fingerprints' and have resisted cultivation. Many different approaches have been developed to overcome the problems associated with cultivation of microorganisms because one obvious benefit would be the opportunity to investigate the previously inaccessible resources that these microorganisms potentially harbour.

  4. Supply and Demand Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galuszka, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Public universities in Virginia, as in many states, have generally not paid much attention to diversity among their suppliers. For years, state expenditures for outside contracts went to the usual suspects--White contractors from well-established companies. Four years ago, former Governor Mark Warner, a progressive Democrat from the high…

  5. Equality and Diversity Strategy

    E-print Network

    and woodlands and increase their value to society and the environment. The Forestry Commission is a Great, with dignity and respect, regardless of race, disability, gender, age, sexual orientation and religion the overarching objective: `We want to better reflect the society we serve as a Government department. Diversity

  6. Diversity Team | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI at Frederick Employee Diversity Team (EDT) has prepared a new display that features a sample of the foreign films from the team’s collection in the Scientific Library. “Foreign films really help stimulate an awareness of different cultures and countries.

  7. DIVERSITY PROGRESS REPORT INTRODUCTION

    E-print Network

    Hayes, Jane E.

    , when making personnel and policy decisions. The University is committed to periodically evaluating students, staff, faculty and citizens. The Board of Trustees recently provided a definition of diversity of an optimal education and workplace. The University maintains a firm conviction that it must strengthen

  8. Diversity of animal immune receptors and the origins of recognition complexity in the deuterostomes.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Katherine M; Rast, Jonathan P

    2015-03-01

    Invertebrate animals are characterized by extraordinary diversity in terms of body plan, life history and life span. The past impression that invertebrate immune responses are controlled by relatively simple innate systems is increasingly contradicted by genomic analyses that reveal significant evolutionary novelty and complexity. One accessible measure of this complexity is the multiplicity of genes encoding homologs of pattern recognition receptors. These multigene families vary significantly in size, and their sequence character suggests that they vary in function. At the same time, certain aspects of downstream signaling appear to be conserved. Here, we analyze five major classes of immune recognition receptors from newly available animal genome sequences. These include the Toll-like receptors (TLR), Nod-like receptors (NLR), SRCR domain scavenger receptors, peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRP), and Gram negative binding proteins (GNBP). We discuss innate immune complexity in the invertebrate deuterostomes, which was first recognized in sea urchins, within the wider context of emerging genomic information across animal phyla. PMID:25450907

  9. Court diversion in perspective.

    PubMed

    James, David V

    2006-01-01

    Court diversion schemes have been running for a decade in New Zealand and are increasing in number in Australia. This paper aims to give an international and historical context to these developments, by reference to psychiatric initiatives at courts in the US and in England and Wales. From a review of the specialist literature, an account is given of three forms of psychiatric intervention in courts over the last 90 years: court psychiatric clinics and mental health courts in the US, and court diversion schemes in England and Wales. High levels of psychiatric morbidity among prisoners, coupled with a continuing increase in prisoner numbers, demonstrate the need for systems for dealing with mentally ill people who come before the courts. Court diversion in England and Wales developed as part of a system where the mentally ill who are found guilty are sent to hospital in lieu of any other sentence. Its focus is on a form of psychiatric triage, and its ethos is the health of the patient. Court psychiatric clinics in the US grew up as an alternative to assessment in prison. Their focus has been on full psychiatric evaluation in an insanity and incompetence jurisdiction. The ethos has been that of serving the court. Mental health courts are heavily influenced by ideas of therapeutic jurisprudence, and their emphasis has been on a judge holding minor offenders in community care through the threat of judicial sanction. Experience in England and Wales has shown that court diversion can be a powerful and effective intervention. In order for it to function properly, those running court schemes need direct admission rights to psychiatric beds, both open and locked. Court diversion schemes are best as part of a spectrum of services to police stations, courts and prisons, which involved both general and forensic psychiatrists. PMID:16756577

  10. Reinforcing aspects of androgens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruth I. Wood

    2004-01-01

    Are androgens reinforcing? Androgenic–anabolic steroids (AAS) are drugs of abuse. They are taken in large quantities by athletes and others to increase performance, often with negative long-term health consequences. As a result, in 1991, testosterone was declared a controlled substance. Recently, Brower [K.J. Brower, Anabolic steroid abuse and dependence. Curr. Psychiatry Rep. 4 (2002) 377–387.] proposed a two-stage model of

  11. Diversity within the Profession. Part Two: Initiatives Promoting Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spafford, Marlee M.; Sharma, Neepun; Nygaard, Vicki L.; Kahlou, Christina

    2002-01-01

    Examines the literature on minority experiences in optometry and other health professions, describing programs geared either toward increasing diversity or facilitating acceptance of diversity within the optometric profession, including affirmative action and other institutional support structures. (EV)

  12. Uniform Genericity for Aspect Languages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tobias Rho; Günter Kniesel

    Aspect-oriented programming languages promise to provide better modularity than pure object-oriented decomposition. A typical benefit of increased modularity is ease of maintenance, evo- lution and reuse. However, it has been noted by various researchers that many of the first generation aspect languages do not provide the degree of reusability initially hoped for. In this paper, we argue that the problem

  13. Robots in Space -Psychological Aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sipes, Walter E.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the psychological aspects of developing robots to perform routine operations associated with monitoring, inspection, maintenance and repair in space is shown. The topics include: 1) Purpose; 2) Vision; 3) Current Robots in Space; 4) Ground Based Robots; 5) AERCam; 6) Rotating Bladder Robot (ROBLR); 7) DART; 8) Robonaut; 9) Full Immersion Telepresence Testbed; 10) ERA; and 11) Psychological Aspects

  14. Increase diversity in student Identify diverse students who may be

    E-print Network

    Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

    Increase diversity in student leadership Identify diverse students who may be encouraged to serve in leadership positions in student clubs Jun-11 Faculty & Incumbent student leaders Each student club will have one leader who meets the UT definition of diversity SIS had one gay student as a student leader

  15. Benefits of Conservation of Plant Genetic Diversity to Arthropod Diversity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RANDY K. BANGERT; RICHARD J. TUREK; GREGORY D. MARTINSEN; GINA M. WIMP; JOSEPH K. BAILEY; THOMAS G. WHITHAM

    2005-01-01

    We argue that the genetic diversity of a dominant plant is important to the associated dependent community because dependent species such as herbivores are restricted to a subset of genotypes in the host- plant population. For plants that function as habitat, we predicted that greater genetic diversity in the plant population would be associated with greater diversity in the dependent

  16. ROADLESS HABITATS AS REFUGES FOR NATIVE GRASSLANDS: INTERACTIONS WITH SOIL, ASPECT, AND GRAZING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan L. Gelbard; Susan Harrison

    2003-01-01

    The idea that roadless habitats act as refuges for native-plant diversity against exotic-plant invasion has seldom been tested. We examined the effect of distance from roads and its interactions with soil type, aspect, and livestock grazing on native- and exotic- plant diversity in a 130 000-ha inland California (USA) foothill grassland landscape. During spring 2000 and 2001, we measured the

  17. Compromising Baltic salmon genetic diversity -

    E-print Network

    Compromising Baltic salmon genetic diversity - conservation genetic risks associated with compensatory releases of salmon in the Baltic Sea Havs- och vattenmyndighetens rapport 2012:18 #12;Compromising Baltic salmon genetic diversity - conservation genetic risks associated with compensatory releases

  18. Aspects of Voyager photogrammetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Sherman S. C.; Schafer, Francis J.; Jordan, Raymond; Howington, Annie-Elpis

    1987-01-01

    In January 1986, Voyager 2 took a series of pictures of Uranus and its satellites with the Imaging Science System (ISS) on board the spacecraft. Based on six stereo images from the ISS narrow-angle camera, a topographic map was compiled of the Southern Hemisphere of Miranda, one of Uranus' moons. Assuming a spherical figure, a 20-km surface relief is shown on the map. With three additional images from the ISS wide-angle camera, a control network of Miranda's Southern Hemisphere was established by analytical photogrammetry, producing 88 ground points for the control of multiple-model compilation on the AS-11AM analytical stereoplotter. Digital terrain data from the topographic map of Miranda have also been produced. By combining these data and the image data from the Voyager 2 mission, perspective views or even a movie of the mapped area can be made. The application of these newly developed techniques to Voyager 1 imagery, which includes a few overlapping pictures of Io and Ganymede, permits the compilation of contour maps or topographic profiles of these bodies on the analytical stereoplotters.

  19. Design of an ultrasmall aspect ratio concentrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Ying; Fang, Fengzhou; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2014-11-01

    The concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) can be employed to improve the efficiency of solar cells and reduce the system cost of power generation, which is the primary part of the CPV system. Based on the demands for the concentrators to have an ultrathin and ultralight design, a design of ultrasmall aspect ratio concentrators is proposed. The concentrator is formed by a lens array and a freeform reflector to precisely control the light. The solar cell is placed at the side of the concentrator, which greatly reduces the overall thickness of the concentrator. The design can reduce the aspect ratio of concentrator by a considerable amount. The freeform reflector can shape the light beam and achieve a uniform distribution of light energy.

  20. DEVELOPMENTAL DIVERSITY OF AMPHIBIANS

    PubMed Central

    Elinson, Richard P.; del Pino, Eugenia M.

    2011-01-01

    The current model amphibian, Xenopus laevis, develops rapidly in water to a tadpole which metamorphoses into a frog. Many amphibians deviate from the X. laevis developmental pattern. Among other adaptations, their embryos develop in foam nests on land or in pouches on their mother’s back or on a leaf guarded by a parent. The diversity of developmental patterns includes multinucleated oogenesis, lack of RNA localization, huge non-pigmented eggs, and asynchronous, irregular early cleavages. Variations in patterns of gastrulation highlight the modularity of this critical developmental period. Many species have eliminated the larva or tadpole and directly develop to the adult. The wealth of developmental diversity among amphibians coupled with the wealth of mechanistic information from X. laevis permit comparisons that provide deeper insights into developmental processes. PMID:22662314

  1. Convention on Biological Diversity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Convened after the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, the Convention on Biological Diversity has three primary goals: the conservation of biological diversity, the sustainable use of its components, and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits from the use of genetic resources. The main body of the organization's home page is dedicated to disseminating information about upcoming meetings, news, and events, such as the expert meeting on the global strategy for plant conservation and the various constituent groups that make up the Convention. The number of online documents available here is quite prodigious, and is divided into groups that include quarterly reports, global biodiversity outlook reports, and case-study documents. Users may elect to browse through these collections, or choose to use the search engine.

  2. Continent cutaneous diversion.

    PubMed

    Fisch, Margit; Thüroff, Joachim W

    2008-11-01

    Continent urinary diversion requires the creation of a reservoir, ureteric implantation and establishment of a continence mechanism in the efferent segment. This review is a short overview on the history of different techniques in current use. Reservoirs with high volume and low pressure can be fashioned by antimesenteric opening and spherical reconfiguration of the bowel. Previously, techniques for ureteric implantation were simply transferred to continent urinary diversion. Currently the need for antirefluxive ureteric implantation techniques is questioned and there is a trend towards refluxive implantation. To create a continence mechanism, simple and reproducible procedures. e.g. the incorporation of the efferent segment into the pouch wall (e.g. appendix stoma, flap valve T mechanism, serosal-lined extramural tunnel) have been developed. Long-term data for different surgical techniques show excellent continence and acceptable complication rates. PMID:19035898

  3. Nelson Diversity Surveys

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site provides results of and information about our diversity surveys, which determined demographics of tenured / tenure track faculty at pertinent departments of the "top 50" universities, ranked by NSF (National Science Foundation) according to research expenditures in that discipline. These are the first published data, disaggregated by gender, by race, and by rank, on faculty at the top 50 research universities in each of 14 science and engineering disciplines. These surveys were conducted under the auspices of the University of Oklahoma and the Diversity in Science Association. Data were collected by surveying department chairs; each department chair provided faculty data, disaggregated by gender, by race/ethnicity, and by rank. Fifty universities (chairs) were surveyed in each of the 14 disciplines studied. Target Audience: 2-4 Year College Faculty/Administrators, Engineers, Industry Personnel, Government Personnel, Scientists,Technicians, General Public

  4. Animal Diversity Web

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The University of Michigan Museum of Zoology provides the searchable Animal Diversity Web database, with species accounts (images and text) of some of the world's mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles, sharks, bony fishes, mollusks, arthropods and echinoderms. The database is searchable by common or scientific name. For each species account, information includes scientific and common name, classification (Phylum through Genus), and color photographs (many beauties). Some accounts supply additional information, such as geographic range, physical characteristics, natural history (food habits, reproduction, behavior, conservation, and habitat), other comments, and references. Although the list of species is by no means complete, these simple but effective accounts are interesting to read and will be helpful as supplemental resources in a biological diversity/ ecology course.

  5. Diverse Galaxies Lithograph

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Hubble Space Telescope image shows the diversity of galaxies in the universe. A huge elliptical galaxy, designated ESO 325-G004, dominates the image. In addition to many elliptical and spiral galaxies, the image contains a few small irregular galaxies, and red, yellow, and blue foreground stars. The accompanying classroom activity is a current support tool designed for use as an introductory inquiry activity. It can be incorporated into a unit that has a scientific inquiry and/or a galaxy classification theme. During the classroom activity, In Search of ...Galaxy Types, students use the lithograph images and text to generate questions about the diverse collection of galaxies on the front of the lithograph. They conduct research to answer their questions, identify patterns, and/or compare and contrast galaxy characteristics, depending on the teacher’s objectives. Students will organize their material and present a report, providing supporting evidence from their research.

  6. Diversity Outlook, February 2013

    E-print Network

    2013-02-01

    Symposium on the Scholarship of Diversity is March 28th. This half-day symposium features national presenters whose talks are complemented by KU faculty and staff offering current research in breakout sessions. I am pleased to announce that this year..., faculty, staff and graduate students; please pre-register here. We continue to build and strengthen our partnerships with the Kauffman Founda- tion and KU Kauffman Scholars, with Haskell Indian Nations University, and most recently Knowledge is Power...

  7. Microbial Diversity - student worksheet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Joanna Verran

    This is a downloadable Microsoft Word document containing a 13-question student assessment worksheet to accompany the Microbial Diversity video segment of the Unseen Life on Earth series from Annenberg Media. The questions mirror language used in the video and focus on clearly stated facts. Thus, the worksheet assesses listening skills more than concept comprehension. This assessment would be appropriate for the secondary or introductory undergraduate level.

  8. DiversityRx

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    DiversityRx is a program that aims to provide culturally and linguistically sensitive health care services to "minority, immigrant, and indigenous communities." An iteration of the program began in the mid-1990s, and resulted in the creation of the Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services in Health Care (CLAS) standards, which is supported by various government agencies. DiversityRx's website gives visitors plenty of opportunities to learn about cultural competence, from the "Topics" tab in the menu across the top of the page. The "Cultural Competence 101" link lists all the material on the website related to cultural competence. Visitors should not miss the blog entry entitled "Diversity Training vs. Cultural Competency Training", a video entitled "Faces of Disparity Video", and "'I Speak' Language Identification Cards". The "Resources" tab has a link to the "Resource Database", which can be searched or browsed. Once a visitor becomes a member - it's free to join- they can add to, comment on and mark as a favorite, any of the resources in the database.

  9. Understanding plant reproductive diversity

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Spencer C. H.

    2010-01-01

    Flowering plants display spectacular floral diversity and a bewildering array of reproductive adaptations that promote mating, particularly outbreeding. A striking feature of this diversity is that related species often differ in pollination and mating systems, and intraspecific variation in sexual traits is not unusual, especially among herbaceous plants. This variation provides opportunities for evolutionary biologists to link micro-evolutionary processes to the macro-evolutionary patterns that are evident within lineages. Here, I provide some personal reflections on recent progress in our understanding of the ecology and evolution of plant reproductive diversity. I begin with a brief historical sketch of the major developments in this field and then focus on three of the most significant evolutionary transitions in the reproductive biology of flowering plants: the pathway from outcrossing to predominant self-fertilization, the origin of separate sexes (females and males) from hermaphroditism and the shift from animal pollination to wind pollination. For each evolutionary transition, I consider what we have discovered and some of the problems that still remain unsolved. I conclude by discussing how new approaches might influence future research in plant reproductive biology. PMID:20008389

  10. Diversity-Generating Retroelements

    PubMed Central

    Medhekar, Bob; Miller, Jeff F

    2009-01-01

    Summary Parasite adaptation to dynamic host characteristics is a recurrent theme in biology. Diversity-generating retroelements (DGRs) are a newly discovered family of genetic elements that function to diversify DNA sequences and the proteins they encode. The prototype DGR was identified in a temperate bacteriophage, BPP-1, on the basis of its ability to generate variability in a gene that specifies tropism for receptor molecules on host Bordetella species. Tropism switching is a template-dependent, reverse transcriptase mediated process that introduces nucleotide substitutions at defined locations within a target gene. This cassette-based mechanism is theoretically capable of generating trillions of different amino acid sequences in a distal tail fiber protein, providing a vast repertoire of potential ligand-receptor interactions. Variable residues are displayed in the context of a specialized C-type lectin fold, which has evolved a unique solution for balancing protein diversity against structural stability. Homologous DGRs have been identified in the chromosomes of diverse bacterial species. These unique genetic elements have the potential to confer powerful selective advantages to their hosts, and their ability to generate novel binding specificities and dynamic antimicrobial agents suggests numerous applications. “Human subtlety will never devise an invention more beautiful, more simple or more direct than does Nature, because in her inventions, nothing is lacking and nothing is superfluous.”- Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) PMID:17703991

  11. Diversity: The Business Case?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, B.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding perceptions and managing expectations are learnable skills that do not necessarily come with project funding. Finding life balance as one moves through a STEM career path poses unique challenges that require a certain skill set that is not always intuitive. Some of those challenges include: selecting grad or post doc positions; balancing work and family commitments; and dealing with employer/advisor perceptions and expectations. As in nature, the STEM enterprise requires multiple perspectives to flourish (necessity of peer review), and in a changing environment (e.g., budget, generations, technology, etc.), embracing diversity in thought and application may help drive the evolution of STEM in the U.S. Many Agencies and organizations have ';workforce development' programs that focus on preparing the next generation of scientists and engineers at the graduate and undergraduate level that focus on preparing students in the diverse disciplines that are unique to those Agency and organizational missions. While financial support certainly is critical to assist students in Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) and other fields, professional development is just as important to equip students with a balanced arsenal of tactics to be successful professionals in the STEM workforce of today. Success in these efforts requires an honest look at the issue of inequality in the STEM ecosystem... meaning, what initiatives have been successful in addressing the imbalance in sources of thought and application, therefore promoting the importance of diversity.

  12. Genetic diversity in Gossypium genus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The overall objectives of this paper are to report on cotton germplasm resources, morphobiological and agronomic diversity of Gossypium genus and review efforts on molecular genetic diversity of cotton gene pools as well as on the challenges and perspectives of exploiting genetic diversity in cotton...

  13. Diversity and Learning in Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driver, Michaela

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of 1,475 transcripts of online discussions among 7 student learning groups (n=38) with diverse learning styles indicated that most groups seem to respond to diversity by accommodation or elaboration rather than transformation. Few groups seem to invest the resources needed to capitalize on cognitive diversity and engage in nonroutine…

  14. Rutgers University Libraries Diversity Plan

    E-print Network

    Hanson, Stephen José

    Rutgers University Libraries Diversity Plan 20092010 The Rutgers University Libraries formed of diversity. The overall goal of the library diversity program is to assure that all library personnel and library users feel welcomed, valued, and respected and to assure that library personnel, services

  15. Managing Diversity within Cooperative Extension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewert, D. Merrill; Rice, Jennifer A. King

    1994-01-01

    Six focus groups analyzed findings of a literature review on cultural diversity's effects on productivity and effectiveness. Action steps for Cooperative Extension were outlined: implementing affirmative action, valuing diversity, managing diversity, creating new management structures, and establishing a more supportive environment. (SK)

  16. Religious Diversity in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michel, George J.; Smith, William Gause; Vickers, Dianne Koenig; Brown, Elsie

    This document contains four papers that address constitutional issues of religious diversity in the schools. The first paper, "Religious Diversity in the Schools--The Overview" (George J. Michel), provides an overview of religious diversity in American public schools, with a focus on the long history of cooperation with Christian churches. It…

  17. 2008-09 Diversity Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada System of Higher Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Pursuant to Board of Regents' policy, the Nevada System of Higher Education (NSHE) prepares a diversity report intended to provide an overview of the current status of enrollment and employment of members of diverse groups across the System. The information presented in this report follows the NSHE "2007-08 Diversity Report" that was presented to…

  18. When Does Diversity Erode Trust? Neighborhood Diversity, Interpersonal Trust and the Mediating Effect of Social Interactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dietlind Stolle; Stuart Soroka; Richard Johnston

    2008-01-01

    This article contributes to the debate about the effects of ethnic diversity on social cohesion, particularly generalized trust. The analysis relies on data from both the 'Citizenship, Involvement, Democracy' (CID) survey in the US and the 'Equality, Security and Community Survey' (ESCS) in Canada. Our analysis, one of the first controlled cross-national comparisons of small-unit contextual variation, confirms recent findings

  19. [Pharmacological aspects of immunostimulants].

    PubMed

    Eichelberg, D; Schmutzler, W

    1983-06-01

    Immunostimulants are chemical substances capable of increasing the overall activity of a normal immune system as well as normalizing the function of an impaired immune system (immune restauration). This review is concerned with substances of microbial or chemical origin and excludes the so-called physiological inductors or regulators, e.g. thymic factors, interferon etc. During the last decade considerable progress has been achieved with respect to the isolation of effective compounds and the elucidation of their chemical structure. However, the knowledge of their mechanism of action and their effects in the living organism is still poor because of the complexity of the immune system, lack of appropriate standardization methods, lack of internationally agreed test conditions or diseases in intact animals or conditions for controlled clinical trials in man. PMID:6085319

  20. ITER physics design guidelines at high aspect ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Uckan, N.A.

    1991-01-01

    The physics requirements for ITER design are formulated in a set of physics design guidelines. These guidelines, established by the ITER Physics Group during the Conceptual Design Activity (CDA, 1988--90), were based on credible extrapolations of the tokamak physics database as assessed during the CDA, and defined a class of tokamak designs (with plasma current I {approximately}20 MA and aspect ratio A {approximately}2.5--3.5) that meet the ITER objectives. Recent US studies have indicated that there may be significant benefits if the ITER-CDA design point is moved from the low aspect ratio, high current baseline (A = 2.79, I = 22 MA) to a high aspect ratio machine at A {approximately}4, I {approximately}15 MA, especially regarding steady-state, technology-testing performance. To adequately assess the physics and technology testing capability of higher aspect ratio design options, several changes are proposed to the original ITER guidelines to reflect the latest (although limited) developments in physics understanding at higher aspect ratios. The critical issues for higher aspect ratio design options are the uncertainty in scaling of confinement with aspect ratio, the variation of vertical stability with elongation and aspect ratio, plasma shaping requirements, ability to control and maintain plasma current and q-profiles for MHD stability (and volt-second consumption), access for current drive, restrictions on field ripple and divertor plate incident angles, etc. 5 refs., 1 tab.

  1. Institutionalising Campus Diversity in South African Higher Education: Review of Diversity Scholarship and Diversity Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Increasingly the social, educational, cultural, linguistic, religious and racial diversity of South African society is finding expression within South African institutions of higher education. Consequently, "diversity'', "diversity issues'' and "diversification'', have become part of the education debate and policy,and pose new challenges to South…

  2. Aspects of Vitamin A

    PubMed Central

    Hedley-Whyte, John; Milamed, Debra R

    2009-01-01

    Musgrave Park Hospital in 1942 was the site of an Anglo-American Vitamin A caper. A threatened court-martial was pre-empted. Subsequently the Queen's lecturer in Anatomy, JW Millen, who was the other lecturer to the first editor of this journal, RH Hunter, did much distinguished work. The neurological effects of Vitamin A were elucidated. Further work on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), placenta, thalidomide and poliomyelitis led to the pre-eminence in applied anatomy and teratology of now Reader James Wilson Millen and Professors JD Boyd and WJ Hamilton, all Queen's Medical School graduates. Training of RH Hunter, JH Biggart and JD Boyd at Johns Hopkins University profoundly influenced these seminal discoveries. The Garretts, a family of Lisburn, County Down origin, saved Johns Hopkins Hospital and Medical School from financial disaster. The Garretts founded a commercial and mercantile empire that took control of the Baltimore and Ohio (B and O) Railroad and enabled the Garretts to dictate that women should be admitted to the Hopkins Medical School and Hospital on exactly the same terms as men. All women and men should already be university honours graduates. Winston S Churchill on his progress up and down the B and O main line in March 1946, recounted to President Harry S Truman and Harry Hopkins his mother's tales of the Garrett boys' adventures. PMID:19907684

  3. Topological Aspects of Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egghe, Leo; Rousseau, Ronald

    1998-01-01

    Discusses topological aspects of theoretical information retrieval, including retrieval topology; similarity topology; pseudo-metric topology; document spaces as topological spaces; Boolean information retrieval as a subsystem of any topological system; and proofs of theorems. (LRW)

  4. [Psychosomatic aspects of stress].

    PubMed

    Okuse, S; Anzai, T

    1992-03-01

    We established the Bromocriptine test for the dopaminergic function of the hypothalamopituitary gland. The secretion patterns of plasma GH and PRL to 2.5 mg Bromocriptine, a dopamine receptor agonist, were classified into two types; a response type and a non-response type. The former showed an increase in plasma GH levels and suppression of PRL secretion; the latter showed no change in GH after Bromocriptine administration. The response type cases corresponded to psychosocial stress by neurotic and maladaptive behavior. The non-response type cases corresponded to psychosocial stress by alexithymic and over adaptive behaviors. Case Presentation 1. Essential Hypertension: a. 56-year old male, response type, blood pressure elevated by stress in daily life. Psychosomatic treatment: advice about blood pressure measurement at his home, brief psychotherapy and drug therapy. b. 53-year-old male, non-response type, type A behavior. Psychosomatic treatment: advice to increase awareness of body-mind relationships of his disorder, self-control training and drug therapy. 2. Gastric ulcers: a. 40-year-old male, response type, CMI IV region (Neurotic tendencies). Psychosomatic treatment: autogenic training and drug therapy. b. 28-year-old male, non-response type, high JAS scores(Over adaptative behavior). Psychosomatic treatment: advice to increase awareness of body-mind relationships of occurrence of his ulcers, to induce change in his perceptions of way of life, to encourage taking rest. 3. Technostress syndrome: a. 23-year-old female, response type, technoanxiety. Psychosomatic treatment: advice to make her take rest, and change in arrangements at her working place. b. 27-year-old male, non-response type, technodependent. Psychosomatic treatment: Fasting therapy. This therapy changed the non-response pattern to normal. PMID:1518173

  5. Brittle diabetes: psychopathological aspects.

    PubMed

    Pelizza, Lorenzo; Bonazzi, Federica; Scaltriti, Sara; Milli, Bruna; Giuseppina, Chierici

    2014-01-01

    Background. The term "brittle" is used to described an uncommon subgroup of type I diabetics whose lives are disrupted by severe glycaemic instability with repeated and prolonged hospitalization. Psychosocial problems are the major perceived underlying causes of brittle behaviour. Aim of this study is a systematic psychopathological assessement of brittleness using specific parameters of general psychopathology and personality traits following the multiaxial format (axis I and II) of the current DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for mental disorders. Methods. Patients comprised 21 brittle type I diabetics and a case-control group of 21 stable diabetics, matched for age, gender, years of education, and diabetes duration. General psychopathology and the DSM-IV-TR personality traits/disorders were assessed using the Syptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R) and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III). Results. The comparison for SCL-90-R parameters exclusively revealed higher scores in "Phobic Anxiety" subscale in brittle diabetics. No differences in all the other SCL-90-R primary symptom dimensions and in the three SCL-90-R global distress indices were observed between the two diabetic groups, as well as in the all MCMI-III clinical syndrome categories corresponding to DSM-IV-TR specific psychiatric disorders. However, brittle patients presented lower scores in MCMI-III compulsive personality traits and higher scores in paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal, antisocial, borderline, narcissistic, avoidant, dependent, depressive, and passive-aggressive personality traits. Conclusions. In this study, brittle diabetics show no differencies in terms of global severity of psychopathological distress and axis I specific DSM-IV-TR diagnoses in comparison with non-brittle subjects (except for phobic anxiety). Differently, brittle diabetics are characterized from less functional and maladaptive personality features and suffer more frequently and intensively from specific pathological personality traits of all DSM-IV-TR clusters. PMID:24897966

  6. Developmental thermography: multiple aspect thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagasawa, Akinori; Katoh, Kazuichi

    1993-09-01

    Multiple aspect thermography (MAT) is a kind of developmental thermography. MAT was designed in order to supplement the shortage of the number of coverage aspects in triple aspect thermography (TAT). TAT allows simultaneous display of numbers of thermograms on various selected aspects of the subject in CRT frame. This paper reports on MAT methodology and discusses some aspects of the problems and the special points of this technique. The data on the thermal images on the entire subject can be recorded in one revolution of the subject. After the measurement is completed all over the subject, thermograms of any selected aspects is composed in a CRT frame in multiple image arrangement by recalling the recorded thermal data using the multi-video processor. Strictly speaking, based on the thermography on the moving target in MAT, distortion and smoothing of the thermal pattern in MAT are essentially unavoidable. The shorter the frame time of the thermocamera is, the less the problems in MAT can be reduced. However, the problems in MAT are negligible under the usual condition for clinical application of MAT.

  7. Performance limits of coded diversity methods for transmitter antenna arrays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aradhana Narula; Mitchell D. Trott; Gregory W. Wornell

    1999-01-01

    Several aspects of the design and optimization of coded multiple-antenna transmission diversity methods for slowly time-varying channels are explored from an information-theoretic perspective. Both optimized vector-coded systems, which can achieve the maximum possible performance, and suboptimal scalar-coded systems, which reduce complexity by exploiting suitably designed linear precoding, are investigated. The achiev- able rates and associated outage characteristics of these spatial

  8. Structural diversity in social contagion

    PubMed Central

    Ugander, Johan; Backstrom, Lars; Marlow, Cameron; Kleinberg, Jon

    2012-01-01

    The concept of contagion has steadily expanded from its original grounding in epidemic disease to describe a vast array of processes that spread across networks, notably social phenomena such as fads, political opinions, the adoption of new technologies, and financial decisions. Traditional models of social contagion have been based on physical analogies with biological contagion, in which the probability that an individual is affected by the contagion grows monotonically with the size of his or her “contact neighborhood”—the number of affected individuals with whom he or she is in contact. Whereas this contact neighborhood hypothesis has formed the underpinning of essentially all current models, it has been challenging to evaluate it due to the difficulty in obtaining detailed data on individual network neighborhoods during the course of a large-scale contagion process. Here we study this question by analyzing the growth of Facebook, a rare example of a social process with genuinely global adoption. We find that the probability of contagion is tightly controlled by the number of connected components in an individual's contact neighborhood, rather than by the actual size of the neighborhood. Surprisingly, once this “structural diversity” is controlled for, the size of the contact neighborhood is in fact generally a negative predictor of contagion. More broadly, our analysis shows how data at the size and resolution of the Facebook network make possible the identification of subtle structural signals that go undetected at smaller scales yet hold pivotal predictive roles for the outcomes of social processes. PMID:22474360

  9. BEHAVIOR ECOLOGY Consumer Choice Resource Diversity

    E-print Network

    Caraco, Thomas

    -rich grassland Plant spp lost from plots (reduced resource diversity) Few dominant plant spp. excluded others plant diversity Milton (1947): Sheep in Wales Overgrazed habitats Only unpalatable spp. left; diversityBEHAVIOR ECOLOGY Consumer Choice Resource Diversity Consumer: Predator, Herbivore

  10. Statistical aspects of food safety sampling.

    PubMed

    Jongenburger, I; den Besten, H M W; Zwietering, M H

    2015-01-01

    In food safety management, sampling is an important tool for verifying control. Sampling by nature is a stochastic process. However, uncertainty regarding results is made even greater by the uneven distribution of microorganisms in a batch of food. This article reviews statistical aspects of sampling and describes the impact of distributions on the sampling results. Five different batch contamination scenarios are illustrated: a homogeneous batch, a heterogeneous batch with high- or low-level contamination, and a batch with localized high- or low-level contamination. These batch contamination scenarios showed that sampling results have to be interpreted carefully, especially when heterogeneous and localized contamination in food products is expected. PMID:25747233

  11. Diverse Rock Named Squash

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image from the Sojourner rover's right front camera was taken on Sol 27. The Pathfinder lander is seen at middle left. The large rock at right, nicknamed 'Squash', exhibits a diversity of textures. It looks very similar to a conglomerate, a type of rock found on Earth that forms from sedimentary processes.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and managed the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  12. Animal Diversity Web - Insects

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    0000-00-00

    Part of the University of Michigan Museum of Zoology's Animal Diversity Web, this site gives a general overview of the class Insecta targeted at college students. The site is organized into five tabs: Information, Pictures, Specimens, Sounds and Classification. Resources include images of live insects and pinned specimens, and sound recordings. Some pictures are only labeled with scientific genus and species names, making it difficult for novice users to understand what Order they are looking at, but many also have common names. Photos and sound bytes are good quality and easy to view and download. A very good resource for teachers needing lecture materials.

  13. In Praise of Diversity

    E-print Network

    Levine, Stuart

    1979-01-01

    IN PRAISE OF DIVERSITY STUART LEVINE Editor, American Studies University of Kansas THE BIBLIOGRAPHY COMMITTEE 'S QUESTIONS ABOUT THE IMPACT, significance and prospects of our " m o v e m e n t " put in my mind the articles on similar topics... at Kansas offered just the A .B . , he and I used to pretend that it was our elegant teaching which brought in the Woodrow Wilson (remember them?) and other major fellowships, but we both knew first, that the reputation of the major and its unusual nature...

  14. Relations between selected geomorphology features and tree species diversity of forest ecosystems and interpolation on a regional level

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Mergani?; H.-D. Quednau; Š. Šmelko

    2004-01-01

    The presented paper analyses the relations between four features of geomorphology, i.e. aspect, slope, elevation and type of terrain, and tree layer diversity of forest ecosystems. The forest stand diversity is quantified by nine species diversity indices ( N0, R1, R2, H', N1, N2, E1, E3, E5). The data used in this study come from the regional forest inventory of

  15. Endless forms: human behavioural diversity and evolved universals

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Eric Alden

    2011-01-01

    Human populations have extraordinary capabilities for generating behavioural diversity without corresponding genetic diversity or change. These capabilities and their consequences can be grouped into three categories: strategic (or cognitive), ecological and cultural-evolutionary. Strategic aspects include: (i) a propensity to employ complex conditional strategies, some certainly genetically evolved but others owing to directed invention or to cultural evolution; (ii) situations in which fitness payoffs (or utilities) are frequency-dependent, so that there is no one best strategy; and (iii) the prevalence of multiple equilibria, with history or minor variations in starting conditions (path dependence) playing a crucial role. Ecological aspects refer to the fact that social behaviour and cultural institutions evolve in diverse niches, producing various adaptive radiations and local adaptations. Although environmental change can drive behavioural change, in humans, it is common for behavioural change (especially technological innovation) to drive environmental change (i.e. niche construction). Evolutionary aspects refer to the fact that human capacities for innovation and cultural transmission lead to diversification and cumulative cultural evolution; critical here is institutional design, in which relatively small shifts in incentive structure can produce very different aggregate outcomes. In effect, institutional design can reshape strategic games, bringing us full circle. PMID:21199837

  16. Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems: Natural and Artificial Ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macelroy, Robert D. (editor); Thompson, Brad G. (editor); Tibbitts, Theodore W. (editor); Volk, Tyler (editor)

    1989-01-01

    The scientists supported by the NASA sponsored Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) program have played a major role in creating a Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) section devoted to the development of bioregenerative life support for use in space. The series of 22 papers were sponsored by Subcommission F.4. The papers deal with many of the diverse aspects of life support, and with outgrowth technologies that may have commercial applications in fields such as biotechnology and bioengineering. Papers from researchers in France, Canada, Japan and the USSR are also presented.

  17. Inflight replanning for diversions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Current procedures for handling flight plan diversions can require too much of the crew's resources. This increases workload and may compromise safety and cause delays in modifying the flight plan. The goal of NASA Langley Research Center's Diverter research program is to develop guidelines for a prototype pilot decision aid for diversions that will reduce cognitive workload, improve safety, increase capacity and traffic flow, and increase aircraft efficiency. The Diverter program has been partitioned into five phases, the first three of which were performed under contract by Lockheed Aeronautical Systems Company, Marietta, GA. In the first two phases, which have been completed, the system requirements and desired functions were defined and a prototype decision-making aid was implemented and demonstrated on a workstation. In phase three, which is currently under way, the pilot/vehicle interface is being defined and the capability of the prototype is being improved. In the last two phases, which will be performed at NASA Langley Research Center, the interface will be implemented, tied into the prototype aiding software, and installed in an advanced simulation facility for testing. In addition, significant implementation issues may be addressed through flight testing on NASA research aircraft. Information is given in viewgraph form.

  18. Genotypic, phenotypic and functional aspects of haematoporesis

    SciTech Connect

    Grignani, F.; Martelli, M.F. (Perugia Univ. (Italy)); Mason, D.Y. (Oxford Univ. (UK))

    1987-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings on genotypic pheontypic and functional aspects of haematoporesis. Topic covered include: Molecular cellular and functional aspects of myeboid cell differentiation; Development and function of immunocompetent cells; and Biological and immunohistological aspects of malignant lymphomas.

  19. Recruiting a Diverse Faculty Diversity is an Opportunity

    E-print Network

    Duddleston, Khrys

    , ethnicity, race, sexual orientation, disability, age, and socioeconomic status. We celebrate diversity Good Faith Efforts #12;Significant Demographic Trends · According to a Recent ACE Report, 57% of Asian

  20. 2011 Diversity Conference Why Diversity? Friday, April 29, 2011

    E-print Network

    Goldman, Steven A.

    in science, technology, engineering, and math fields, and faculty diversity. In addition to numerous articles and inclusive community through improved communications, sharing of best practices, and encouraging innovations