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Sample records for control environmental health

  1. Randomized Controlled Trials in Environmental Health Research: Ethical Issues

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.

    2009-01-01

    Background Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are becoming increasingly common in environmental health research. Like all studies involving human subjects, environmental health RCTs raise many different ethical issues, ranging from obtaining informed consent, to minimizing risks, to protecting privacy and confidentiality. One of the most important issues raised by these studies is whether it is ethical to withhold effective environmental health interventions from research subjects in order to satisfy scientific objectives. Although environmental health investigators usually do not have professional obligations to provide medical care to research subjects, they have ethical obligations to avoid exploiting them. Withholding interventions from research subjects can be ethical, provided that it does not lead to exploitation of individuals or groups. To avoid exploiting individuals or groups, investigators should ensure that research subjects and study populations receive a fair share of the benefits of research. PMID:18236934

  2. Environment, health, socioeconomics and environmental control technology. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Layton, D.W.

    1980-10-01

    This report summarizes the important findings of a two-volume report that deals with the potential impacts and environmental controls associated with the operation of geothermal power plants in California's Imperial Valley. The valley contains nearly a third of the nation's total energy potential for identified hot-water resources. Possible impacts of developing those resources include violation of air quality standards if emissions of hydrogen sulfide are not abated, negative ecological effects resulting from increased in the salinity of the Salton Sea, and damage to irrigation systems caused by land subsidence induced by the extraction of geothermal fluids. Other minor impacts concern occupational health and safety, socioeconomics, and hazardous wastes. Analyses of environmental impacts and the control measures for minimizing negative impacts are based primarily on a projected production of 3000 MW of electrical power by the year 2010.

  3. Environmental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Some environmental risks are a part of the natural world, like radon in the soil. Others are the result of human activities, like lead poisoning from paint, or exposure to asbestos or mercury from mining or industrial use. NIH: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences

  4. Environmental Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane; James, John; Russo, Dane; Limero, Thomas; Beck, Steve; Groves, Theron

    1999-01-01

    The Environmental Health activity for the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) was formed to develop an overall strategy for safeguarding crew members from potential airborne hazards anticipated on missions of extended duration. These efforts were necessary because of major modifications to the air revitalization system of the U.S. Space Shuttle and an increased potential for environmental health risks associated with longer space flights. Degradation of air quality in the Shuttle during a space flight mission has the potential to affect the performance of the crew not only during piloting, landing, or egress, but also during space flight. It was anticipated that the risk of significant deterioration in air quality would increase with extended mission lengths and could result from: (1) a major chemical contamination incident, such as a thermodegradation event or toxic leak, (2) continual accumulation of volatile organic compounds to unacceptable levels, (3) excessive levels of airborne particles, (4) excessive levels of microorganisms, or (5) accumulation of airborne pathogens.

  5. Health and environmental sanitation in India: Issues for prioritizing control strategies

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ganesh S; Kar, Sitanshu Sekhar; Jain, Animesh

    2011-01-01

    Environmental sanitation is a major public health issue in India. Recent interventional studies on environmental sanitation in India highlighted the importance of prioritizing control strategies. Research related to the appropriate cost-effective intervention strategies and their implementation in Indian context is a big challenge. This paper discusses various intervention strategies related to environmental sanitation in India and emphasizes to prioritize it according to the need of country. PMID:22412284

  6. Health and environmental sanitation in India: Issues for prioritizing control strategies.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ganesh S; Kar, Sitanshu Sekhar; Jain, Animesh

    2011-09-01

    Environmental sanitation is a major public health issue in India. Recent interventional studies on environmental sanitation in India highlighted the importance of prioritizing control strategies. Research related to the appropriate cost-effective intervention strategies and their implementation in Indian context is a big challenge. This paper discusses various intervention strategies related to environmental sanitation in India and emphasizes to prioritize it according to the need of country. PMID:22412284

  7. Continuing Environmental Health Education for Environmental Health Personnel, Lesson Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Environmental Health, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Presents the sixth and final lesson on general environmental health, appearing since January, 1977 in this journal. Twenty-five multiple choice questions appear dealing with environmental health topics such as food sanitation, milk sanitation, vector control, public health housing, institutional environmental health, waste disposal, air pollution,…

  8. Smoking behaviours and attitudes toward tobacco control among assistant environmental health officer trainees.

    PubMed

    Tee, G H; Gurpreet, K; Hairi, N N; Zarihah, Z; Fadzilah, K

    2013-12-01

    Assistant environmental health officers (AEHO) are health care providers (HCPs) who act as enforcers, educators and trusted role models for the public. This is the first study to explore smoking behaviour and attitudes toward tobacco control among future HCPs. Almost 30% of AEHO trainees did not know the role of AEHOs in counselling smokers to stop smoking, but 91% agreed they should not smoke before advising others not to do so. The majority agreed that tobacco control regulations may be used as a means of reducing the prevalence of smoking. Future AEHOs had positive attitudes toward tobacco regulations but lacked understanding of their responsibility in tobacco control measures. PMID:24200284

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Are you healthy? Is your environment healthy for you? What does it mean to be healthy? Does it mean you're not achy, or that you are not visibly sick? The World Health Organization defines health broadly as a state of physical, mental, and social well-being. This means that bei...

  10. Environmental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water ... manmade. Learn More Air Pollution Chemicals Climate Change Water Pollution Next Previous Interested in a trailer of our ...

  11. Environmental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the environment, like the air, water, or soil become polluted, it can lead to health problems. ... of the natural world, like radon in the soil. Others are the result of human activities, like ...

  12. Environmental Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneiderman, Helen, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental control units, or ECUs, are devices or systems which allow for alternate access to electronic or electrical devices and those objects, like draperies and doors, which may be adapted for use with electricity. Such devices offer the person with a mobility limitation the opportunity to control his or her environment, thus enhancing the…

  13. E-Alerts: Environmental pollution and control (environmental health and safety). E-mail newsletter

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    Topics of discussion include the following: Effects of pollution on public health and safety; Toxicology; Industrial health; Physiology; Psychology; Clinical medicine; Radiobiology; Animals used as research experimental models.

  14. Environmental Health Promotion: Bridging Traditional Environmental Health and Health Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howze, Elizabeth H.; Baldwin, Grant T.; Kegler, Michelle Crozier

    2004-01-01

    This article highlights the juncture between environmental health and health promotion and underscores the need for health promotion involvement in environmental health practice. It begins with a synopsis of current issues in environmental public health and deficiencies in environmental public health practice that could be partly ameliorated by an…

  15. Environmental health program in NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marrazzo, R. M.

    1969-01-01

    The NASA policy on environmental health uses medical and environmental concepts to: (1) Determine the health status of employees; (2) prevent illness and promote good health among employees; and (3) identify and control factors that affect the health of personnel and quality of environment. Evaluation and control of physical, chemical, radiological and biological factors surrounding personnel and which represent physiological and psychological stresses and impairment are considered.

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH INDICATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Public Health Indicators (EPHIs), quantitative measures of health factors and environmental influences tracked over time, can be used to identify specific areas and populations for intervention and prevention efforts and to evaluate the outcomes of implemented polic...

  17. [The federal politics of basic sanitation and the initiatives of participation, mobilization, social control, health and environmental education].

    PubMed

    Moisés, Márcia; Kligerman, Débora Cynamon; Cohen, Simone Cynamon; Monteiro, Sandra Conceição Ferreira

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to accomplish a critical analysis of two governmental important programs in health and environmental education - Health Education and Social Mobilization Program (PESMS) and Environmental Education and Sanitation Social Mobilization Program (PEAMSS), aiming at stimulate participative educational actions and social mobilization in sanitation projects. The methodology was based on reading and analysis of documents and observation in Workshops, Meetings, Seminars, Conventions, Congresses and Interviews. The authors describe the process of Program creation - PESMS and PEAMSS. They promoted a reflection and thought about Participation, Mobilization, Social Control, Health Education and Environmental Education. They also made considerations about the difficulties, facilities, advances and challenges in the implantation and implementation of PESMS and PEAMSS in the fundament for the realization of the public services of basic sanitation. They conclude that the creation of conditions by means of initiatives of Participation, Mobilization, Social Control, Health Education and Environmental Education become necessary for the development of Federal Policies of Basic Sanitation. PMID:20802890

  18. Distributed multisensor processing, decision making, and control under constrained resources for remote health and environmental monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talukder, Ashit; Sheikh, Tanwir; Chandramouli, Lavanya

    2004-04-01

    Previous field-deployable distributed sensing systems for health/biomedical applications and environmental sensing have been designed for data collection and data transmission at pre-set intervals, rather than for on-board processing These previous sensing systems lack autonomous capabilities, and have limited lifespans. We propose the use of an integrated machine learning architecture, with automated planning-scheduling and resource management capabilities that can be used for a variety of autonomous sensing applications with very limited computing, power, and bandwidth resources. We lay out general solutions for efficient processing in a multi-tiered (three-tier) machine learning framework that is suited for remote, mobile sensing systems. Novel dimensionality reduction techniques that are designed for classification are used to compress each individual sensor data and pass only relevant information to the mobile multisensor fusion module (second-tier). Statistical classifiers that are capable of handling missing/partial sensory data due to sensor failure or power loss are used to detect critical events and pass the information to the third tier (central server) for manual analysis and/or analysis by advanced pattern recognition techniques. Genetic optimisation algorithms are used to control the system in the presence of dynamic events, and also ensure that system requirements (i.e. minimum life of the system) are met. This tight integration of control optimisation and machine learning algorithms results in a highly efficient sensor network with intelligent decision making capabilities. The applicability of our technology in remote health monitoring and environmental monitoring is shown. Other uses of our solution are also discussed.

  19. Correlates of Sense of Control among Older Korean-American Immigrants: Financial Status, Physical Health Constraints, and Environmental Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Yuri; Kim, Giyeon; Chiriboga, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Responding to the need for more research on minority older populations, the present study assessed sense of control among older Korean-American immigrants. The association of sense of control with financial status, physical health constraints, and environmental challenges was examined with a sample of 230 older Korean-Americans (M[age] = 69.8,…

  20. Environmental Health Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Alan; Smith, Robert

    1975-01-01

    Describes an environmental health science technology curriculum designed to provide technicians in the areas of air, water and wastewater analyses, treatment plant operators, public health enforcement officers, and pollution inspectors. (GS)

  1. Continuing Environmental Health Education: A Course for Environmental Health Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mill, Raymond A.; Walter, William G.

    1979-01-01

    This lesson is the third of a series of six lessons on general environmental health. The series of multiple choice tests covers administration, food sanitation, vector control, housing, radiation, accident prevention, water supplies, waste disposal, air pollution, noise pollution, occupational health, recreation facilities, and water pollution.…

  2. Lessons Learned from the Crew Health Care System (CHeCS) Rack 1 Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper will provide an overview of the International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) design of the Crew Health Care System (CHeCS) Rack 1 and it will document some of the lessons that have been learned to date for the ECLS equipment in this rack.

  3. 2013 environmental health legislation.

    PubMed

    Farquhar, Doug; Ellis, Amy C

    2013-10-01

    The NEHA Government Affairs program has a long and productive association with the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). The organizations have worked together on any number of legislative and policy areas that directly impact the environmental health profession. One of the keys to the successes of the NEHA/NCSL collaboration has been the recognition of the fact that often some of the most significant legislation and policy initiatives related to environmental public health occur in state legislatures. The states have, in a very real sense, been the innovators in developing new programs and practices. In recognition of this fact, we have asked NCSL to provide occasional overviews of state environmental public health legislative activity, covering topics that are of the most pressing public concern. Doug Farquhar, program director for NCSI's Environmental Health Program, has worked with NCSL since 1990. Mr. Farquhar directs development, management, and research for the Environmental Health Program. These projects encompass consultation and policy analysis of state and federal policies and statutes, regulations, and programs regarding environmental and related topics for state legislatures and administrative programs. Amy Ellis is a law clerk for NCSL within the Environment, Energy, and Transportation Group. As a law clerk she has researched a wide variety of environmental health policies. She is expected to obtain her JD from the University of Colorado Law School in 2015. PMID:24288852

  4. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), "Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities-Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015", we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  5. Pediatric environmental health.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Bailus

    2005-01-01

    The links between environmental agents, environmental conditions, and disease and disability among children are receiving increasing attention. Evidence abounds that children are more susceptible than adults to the damaging effects of environmental agents and conditions. This evidence is illuminated by the much-publicized and expanding research agenda on the prevention, recognition, diagnosis and treatment of environmentally related disease in the pediatric population. Encouragingly, advances in molecular biology and other sciences are providing important tools to aid pediatricians and other healthcare professionals in meeting the environmental health needs of children. PMID:15712790

  6. Kennedy Space Center Environmental Health Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Joanne W.

    1997-01-01

    Topic considered include: environmental health services; health physics; ionizing radiation; pollution control; contamination investigations; natural resources; surface water; health hazard evaluations; combustion gas; launch support; asbestos; hazardous noise; and ventilation.

  7. Environmental Health Organisations against Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Mulcahy, Maurice; Evans, David S.; Lahiffe, Blaithin; Goggin, Deirdre; Smyth, Colm; Hastings, Gerard; Byrne, Miriam

    2009-01-01

    Implementing the World Health Organisation (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) relies heavily on enforcement. Little is known of the way different enforcement agencies operate, prioritise or network. A questionnaire was sent to representatives of the International Federation of Environmental Health (IFEH) in 36 countries. Tobacco control was given low priority. Almost two thirds did not have any tobacco control policy. A third reported their organisation had worked with other agencies on tobacco control. Obstacles to addressing tobacco control included a lack of resources (61%) and absence of a coherent strategy (39%). PMID:19440528

  8. Environmental sanitation conditions and health impact: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Heller, Léo; Colosimo, Enrico Antonio; Antunes, Carlos Mauricio de Figueiredo

    2003-01-01

    This epidemiological investigation examines the impact of several environmental sanitation conditions and hygiene practices on diarrhea occurrence among children under five years of age living in an urban area. The case-control design was employed; 997 cases and 999 controls were included in the investigation. Cases were defined as children with diarrhea and controls were randomly selected among children under five years of age. After logistic regression adjustment, the following variables were found to be significantly associated with diarrhea: washing and purifying fruit and vegetables; presence of wastewater in the street; refuse storage, collection and disposal; domestic water reservoir conditions; feces disposal from swaddles; presence of vectors in the house and flooding in the lot. The estimates of the relative risks reached values up to 2.87. The present study revealed the feasibility of developing and implementing an adequate model to establish intervention priorities in the field of environmental sanitation. PMID:12715062

  9. Environmental health in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Wagida A

    2003-08-01

    Egypt shares most of the environmental problems of developing countries. One of the most important health and environmental problems is air pollution resulting from using fuel, burning operations, and the increase of automobile exhaust in cities. Moreover, the deficiency of efficient sanitation services and water pollution caused by the breaking down of old and consumed water networks, as well as the various problems in construction, designing and maintenance of sewage system resulted in the appearance and prevalence of communicable and non-communicable diseases. There are several examples of exposure to chemical genotoxicants, and lifestyle exposures in the population, which create unique combinations of environmental risk factors for diseases such as cancer. Environmental factors may interact with infection and lead to enhancement of carcinogenicity processes. Currently, there is a growing interest in environmental mutagenicity and carcinogenicity research. The use of different biomarkers and genetic susceptibility testing can contribute effectively to risk assessment. The Government of Egypt recognizes and deals seriously with these problems. The State Ministry of Environment has initiated new policies that include risk minimization, law enforcement, treatment of pollution at source, mitigation procedures and inter-sectorial collaboration. The Ministry of Health and Population recognized the link between economic development, environment and health. It elaborated a national environment health strategy in accordance with the format of the regional and global environmental health policy. This strategy identified priority areas, which requires further action to be taken and to be implemented. Environmental health was included as one of the four main objectives of the strategic Healthy Egyptians 2010 Initiative. Specific objectives and plans for the initiative are presented. PMID:12971689

  10. An Assessment of Environmental Health Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macatangay, Ariel V.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental health fundamentally addresses the physical, chemical, and biological risks external to the human body that can impact the health of a person by assessing and controlling these risks in order to generate and maintain a health-supportive environment. In manned spacecraft, environmental health risks are mitigated by a multi-disciplinary effort, employing several measures including active and passive controls, by establishing environmental standards (SMACs, SWEGs, microbial and acoustics limits), and through environmental monitoring. Human Health and Performance (HHP) scientists and Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) engineers consider environmental monitoring a vital component to an environmental health management strategy for maintaining a healthy crew and achieving mission success. ECLS engineers use environmental monitoring data to monitor and confirm the health of ECLS systems, whereas HHP scientists use the data to manage the health of the human system. Because risks can vary between missions and change over time, environmental monitoring is critical. Crew health risks associated with the environment were reviewed by agency experts with the goal of determining risk-based environmental monitoring needs for future NASA manned missions. Once determined, gaps in environmental health knowledge and technology, required to address those risks, were identified for various types of exploration missions. This agency-wide assessment of environmental health needs will help guide the activities/hardware development efforts to close those gaps and advance the knowledge required to meet NASA manned space exploration objectives. Details of the roadmap development and findings are presented in this paper.

  11. Environmental health--champions of One Health.

    PubMed

    Eddy, Christopher; Stull, Paul A; Balster, Erik

    2013-01-01

    The authors find overwhelming evidence among environmental health practitioners that One Health disease reporting concepts are essential to the early detection of, and expedient recovery from, pandemic disease events. The authors also find, however, extraordinary evidence that local public health is not prepared, and potentially unaware of their responsibility, to be the initiator of the zoonotic infectious disease information intelligence necessary to make such early event mitigation possible. The authors propose that NEHA take an affirmative step towards the development of local public health-initiated biosurveillance systems by organizing and leading a tabletop study group that includes the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, American Veterinary Medical Association, American Medical Association, Food and Drug Administration, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Institute of Medicine, and a robust panel of NEHA state affiliates. This study group should discuss the infrastructure necessary for local public health-the frontline against community-acquired infectious disease-to be the initiators of environmental health, veterinary, and medical One Health biosurveillance systems. The need to establish a community-focused, integrated disease prevention strategy that cautions people about the risks associated with food, water, animal, and contaminated environmental media, both prior to and during epidemic and pandemic events is equally important. PMID:23947288

  12. National Center for Environmental Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... U V W X Y Z # Environmental Health Topics Emergency and Environmental Health Services Chemical Weapons Elimination Environmental Health Services Healthy Homes Healthy Places – Community Design Lead Poisoning Prevention Vessel Sanitation Environmental Hazards and Health Effects Air Pollution ...

  13. An Operating Environmental Health Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipana, J. G.; Masters, R. L.; Winter, W. R.

    1971-01-01

    Some concepts of an operational program for medical and environmental health are outlined. Medical services of this program are primarily concerned with emergency care, laboratory examinations, advice to private physician with patient permission, medical monitoring activities, and suggestions for treatment or control of the malfunction.

  14. Environmental integrity, racism, health.

    PubMed

    Westra, L

    1996-05-17

    Environmental degradation seriously affects human health. Thus, a close relationship exists between the protection of ecosystem integrity and wilderness on one hand, and human health on the other. However, there is an overarching, holistic perspective in laws and regulations--as well as morality--to to maintain a healthy relationship between the two. Problem areas focused on in this paper are: (a) climate change and global warming; (b) food production; and (c) global equity. This paper argues for the principle of integrity, which provides an holistic perspective, suggested as a better approach than that of current regulations to mitigate against associated threats to human health. PMID:8693347

  15. Environmental Health Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Health Service (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    Aimed at a society which is forced to make decisions relative to their total environment, this pamphlet discusses a few of the problems associated with restoring and maintaining an environmental relationship conducive to the health and well-being of man. The topics covered include: air pollution, noise, solid waste, the urban environment, drinking…

  16. Environmental Health: Health Care Reform's Missing Pieces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fadope, Cece Modupe; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A series of articles that examine environmental health and discuss health care reform; connections between chlorine, chlorinated pesticides, and dioxins and reproductive disorders and cancers; the rise in asthma; connections between poverty and environmental health problems; and organizations for health care professionals who want to address…

  17. Educating Future Environmental Health Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Knechtges, Paul L; Kelley, Timothy R

    2015-01-01

    Future environmental health problems will require a new generation of educated and trained professionals. Efforts to enhance the environmental public health workforce have been promoted by several organizations. While progress has been measured by these organizations, many environmental health academic programs are experiencing budget reductions and lower enrollments. One of the reasons for this trend is the so-called higher education crisis. We argue that training is not equivalent to education in the environmental health sciences, albeit the two terms are often used interchangeably. Organizations involved with the education, training, and credentialing of environmental health professionals must work together to ensure the viability and effectiveness of environmental health academic programs. PMID:26617460

  18. Environmental and health benefits from designating the Marmara Sea and the Turkish Straits as an emission control area (ECA).

    PubMed

    Viana, M; Fann, N; Tobías, A; Querol, X; Rojas-Rueda, D; Plaza, A; Aynos, G; Conde, J A; Fernández, L; Fernández, C

    2015-03-17

    Ship emissions degrade air quality and affect human health, and are increasingly becoming a matter of concern. Sulfur emission control areas (ECA), specific coastal regions where only low-sulfur fuels may be consumed by ocean-going ships, have proven to be useful tools to reduce ship-sourced air pollution along the North American, Canadian, and European North and Baltic Sea coastlines. The present work assesses the environmental and health benefits which would derive from designating an ECA in the Marmara Sea and the Turkish Straits (50 000 ships/year; 23 million inhabitants). Results show evidence that implementing an ECA would be technically viable and that it would reduce ship-sourced PM10 and PM2.5 ambient concentrations in Istanbul by 67%, and SO2 by 90%. The reduction of the air pollution burden on health was quantified as 210 hospital admissions from exposure to PM10, 290 hospital admissions from exposure to SO2, and up to 30 premature deaths annually due to ECA emission controls. Consequently, the designation of an ECA in the Marmara Sea and the Turkish Straits is evaluated as a positive, technically viable and real-world measure to reduce air pollution from ships in Turkey. PMID:25700153

  19. Kennedy Space Center environmental health program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marmaro, G. M.; Cardinale, M. A.; Summerfield, B. R.; Tipton, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center's environmental health organization is responsible for programs which assure its employees a healthful workplace under diverse and varied working conditions. These programs encompass the disciplines of industrial hygiene, radiation protection (health physics), and environmental sanitation/pollution control. Activities range from the routine, such as normal office work, to the highly specialized, such as the processing of highly toxic and hazardous materials.

  20. SNTP environmental, safety, and health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, Charles D.

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs on space nuclear thermal propulsion (SNTP) environmental, safety, and health are presented. Topics covered include: program safety policy; program safety policies; and DEIS public hearing comments.

  1. Environmental health and Hispanic children.

    PubMed Central

    Metzger, R; Delgado, J L; Herrell, R

    1995-01-01

    There are numerous indicators that Hispanics face a disproportionate risk of exposure to environmental hazards. Ambient air pollution, worker exposure to chemicals, indoor air pollution, and drinking water quality are among the top four threats to human health and are all areas in which indicators point to elevated risk for Hispanic populations. These data, juxtaposed with data on the health status of Hispanics, tell us that the environmental health status of Hispanics and their children is poor. At the same time, significant inadequacies in the collection of data on Hispanics make it difficult to make improving Hispanic environmental health status a priority. These inadequacies include the failure to use Hispanic identifiers in data collection and failure to collect sample sizes large enough to allow for breakouts of data by Hispanic subgroup. In addressing environmental justice issues, the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) and the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) should prioritize improving the quantifiability of environmental exposures and risk based on race or ethnicity. However, improving data should not be the prerequisite to significant, affirmative steps by DHHS and U.S. EPA to address environmental and environmental health problems facing Hispanic communities. In particular, a health-based approach to environmental justice should be the priority. PMID:8549482

  2. Environmental health education in schools as strategy for rodent control: an experience in a shantytown of Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Hancke, Diego; Suárez, Olga Virginia

    2014-01-01

    The general aim of this study was to assess the possibility of including elements of environmental health education within the curriculum of a school located in a shantytown of Buenos Aires city, Argentina. An environmental health education campaign was designed to introduce school-aged children to the problems posed by the lack of environmental sanitation, by using rodents as indicators of environmental disorder. The methodology implemented consisted of a lecture and two practical activities where the participating children were the evaluators of their neighborhood environment, recording the environmental factors that indicate direct or indirect presence of rodents and carrying out a survey about rodents among their neighbors. To assess the impact of the activities, an anonymous questionnaire was performed with the students before and after the campaign. The results showed that students were able to identify the man-made factors which favor the presence of rodents and were encouraged to propose strategies related to environmental sanitation to reduce rodent proliferation and the transmission of their parasites. This study demonstrated the feasibility of performing environmental health education campaigns in school-aged children by using practical activities to stimulate observation, participation, and comprehensive understanding of the problems posed by urban pests. PMID:24136385

  3. Trends in Environmental Health Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    Reviews the trends in environmental health engineering and describes programs in environmental engineering technology and the associated environmental engineering courses at Western Kentucky University (four-year program), Wytheville Community College (two-year program), and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (four-year program). (PR)

  4. Communication models in environmental health.

    PubMed

    Guidotti, Tee L

    2013-01-01

    Communication models common in environmental health are not well represented in the literature on health communication. Risk communication is a systematic approach to conveying essential information about a specific environmental issue and a framework for thinking about community risk and the alternatives for dealing with it. Crisis communication is intended to provide essential information to people facing an emergency in order to mitigate its effects and to enable them to make appropriate decisions, and it is primarily used in emergency management. Corporate communication is intended to achieve a change in attitude or perception of an organization, and its role in environmental health is usually public relations or to rehabilitate a damaged reputation. Environmental health education is a more didactic approach to science education with respect to health and the environment. Social marketing uses conventional marketing methods to achieve a socially desirable purpose but is more heavily used in health promotion generally. Communication models and styles in environmental health are specialized to serve the needs of the field in communicating with the community. They are highly structured and executed in different ways but have in common a relative lack of emphasis on changing personal or lifestyle behavior compared with health promotion and public health in general and a tendency to emphasize content on specific environmental issues and decision frameworks for protecting oneself or the community through collective action. PMID:23898914

  5. OREGON ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PROFILE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In response to Executive Order 12898: Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority and Low Income Populations, and in accordance with Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, this project will profile the state of Oregon to identify environmental justice communi...

  6. Taking Environmental Health Education Seriously.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Pauline M.

    2000-01-01

    Describes how a nursing school developed innovative relationships with government and community agencies to integrate environmental health in the curriculum. Provides suggestions for curriculum development and student and faculty involvement; lists resources. (SK)

  7. Coal hydrogenation and environmental health.

    PubMed Central

    Wadden, R A

    1976-01-01

    Planning of coal hydrogenation processes, such as liquifaction and gasification, requires consideration of public health implications. Commercial plants will require coal quantities greater than or equal to 20,000 tons/day and the large size of these plants calls for careful consideration of the potential health hazards from the wastes and products of such processes. Analysis of pollution potential can roughly be divided into three categories: raw material structure and constituents, process design, and mode of plant operation. Identifiable pollutants include hydrogen cyanide, phenols, cresols, carbonyl and hydrogen sulfides, ammonia, mercaptans, thiocyanides, aniline, arsenic, trace metals and various polycyclic hydrocarbons. One study of workers in a hydrogenation process has revealed an incidence of skin cancer 16-37 times that expected in the chemical industry. In addition, a number of high boiling point liquid products were identified as being carcinogenic, and air concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene up to 18,000 mug/1000 m3 were reported. Health statistics on occupational groups in other coal conversion industries have shown significantly higher lung cancer rates, relative to groups without such occupational exposures. These data suggest that coal hydrogenation plants must be carefully planned and controlled to avoid harm to environmentally and occupationally exposed populations. PMID:789066

  8. A Guide for Environmental Health Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Gene M.

    1972-01-01

    Outlines objectives and resources to be assessed in a community environmental health plan. Considers: water; liquid waste disposal; housing maintenance; solid waste disposal; air pollution; food and food protection; rodent control; insect control; migrant labor camps; recreation sites; mobile homes - trailer parks; schools, institutions - public…

  9. Environmental health program activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergtholdt, C. P.

    1969-01-01

    Activities reported include studies on toxic air contaminants, excessive noise, poor lighting, food sanitation, water pollution, and exposure to nonionizing radiation as health hazards. Formulations for a radiological health manual provide guidance to personnel in the procurement and safe handling of radiation producing equipment and Apollo mission planning. A literature search and development of a water analysis laboratory are outlined to obtain information regarding microbiological problems involving potable water, waste management, and personal hygiene.

  10. Environmental Lead and Children's Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Marie

    This paper discusses the threat to children's health posed by environmental exposure to lead, focusing on public policy issues surrounding lead exposure in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. In Australia, the current blood lead level at which there is a health concern is at or above 25 micrograms per deciliter (ug/dl) of blood for infants and…

  11. Epigenomics in Environmental Health

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Brock C.; Marsit, Carmen J.

    2011-01-01

    This review considers the emerging relationships between environmental factors and epigenetic alterations and the application of genome-wide assessments to better define these relationships. First we will briefly cover epigenetic programming in development, one-carbon metabolism, and exposures that may disrupt normal developmental programming of epigenetic states. In addition, because a large portion of epigenetic research has focused on cancer, we discuss exposures associated with carcinogenesis including asbestos, alcohol, radiation, arsenic, and air pollution. Research on other exposures that may affect epigenetic states such as endocrine disruptors is also described, and we also review the evidence for epigenetic alterations associated with aging that may reflect cumulative effects of exposures. From this evidence, we posit potential mechanisms by which exposures modify epigenetic states, noting that understanding the true effect of environmental exposures on the human epigenome will require additional research with appropriate epidemiologic studies and application of novel technologies. With a more comprehensive understanding of the affects of exposures on the epigenome, including consideration of genetic background, the prediction of the toxic potential of new compounds may be more readily achieved, and may lead to the development of more personalized disease prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:22303378

  12. Urban Environmental Health Hazards and Health Equity

    PubMed Central

    Friel, Sharon; Dixon, Jane; Corvalan, Carlos; Rehfuess, Eva; Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid; Gore, Fiona; Bartram, Jamie

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines briefly how the living environment can affect health. It explains the links between social and environmental determinants of health in urban settings. Interventions to improve health equity through the environment include actions and policies that deal with proximal risk factors in deprived urban areas, such as safe drinking water supply, reduced air pollution from household cooking and heating as well as from vehicles and industry, reduced traffic injury hazards and noise, improved working environment, and reduced heat stress because of global climate change. The urban environment involves health hazards with an inequitable distribution of exposures and vulnerabilities, but it also involves opportunities for implementing interventions for health equity. The high population density in many poor urban areas means that interventions at a small scale level can assist many people, and existing infrastructure can sometimes be upgraded to meet health demands. Interventions at higher policy levels that will create more sustainable and equitable living conditions and environments include improved city planning and policies that take health aspects into account in every sector. Health equity also implies policies and actions that improve the global living environment, for instance, limiting greenhouse gas emissions. In a global equity perspective, improving the living environment and health of the poor in developing country cities requires actions to be taken in the most affluent urban areas of the world. This includes making financial and technical resources available from high-income countries to be applied in low-income countries for urgent interventions for health equity. This is an abbreviated version of a paper on “Improving the living environment” prepared for the World Health Organization Commission on Social Determinants of Health, Knowledge Network on Urban Settings. PMID:17450427

  13. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR QUINOLINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for quinoline was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response to support listings of hazardous constit...

  14. Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Formaldehyde

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for formaldehyde was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response to support listings of hazardous cons...

  15. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR ACRYLONITRILE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for acrylonitrile was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response to support listings of hazardous con...

  16. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR ANILINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for aniline was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinatti, OH for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response to support listings of hazardous constitue...

  17. Integrated Environmental Control Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1999-09-03

    IECM is a powerful multimedia engineering software program for simulating an integrated coal-fired power plant. It provides a capability to model various conventional and advanced processes for controlling air pollutant emissions from coal-fired power plants before, during, or after combustion. The principal purpose of the model is to calculate the performance, emissions, and cost of power plant configurations employing alternative environmental control methods. The model consists of various control technology modules, which may be integratedmore » into a complete utility plant in any desired combination. In contrast to conventional deterministic models, the IECM offers the unique capability to assign probabilistic values to all model input parameters, and to obtain probabilistic outputs in the form of cumulative distribution functions indicating the likelihood of dofferent costs and performance results. A Graphical Use Interface (GUI) facilitates the configuration of the technologies, entry of data, and retrieval of results.« less

  18. [Environmental microbiological control].

    PubMed

    Martín Salas, Carmen; Tordoya Titichoca, Igberto J; Ezpeleta Baquedano, Carmen

    2016-07-01

    The environmental microbiological control is necessary to prevent infections associated with certain procedures that are performed at the hospital. In this review the procedures for control of water and dialysis fluids, and air in operating rooms and immunocompromised units are addressed. The dialysis quality management guidelines define the highest levels of chemical, microbiological and endotoxin in purified water and dialysis fluids based on the recommendations of scientific societies. The microbiological control of water and dialysis fluids should include detection of microorganisms and endotoxin levels. Regarding the microbiological air sampling of operating rooms and immunocompromised units the types of clean rooms in which is recommended to perform microbiological air monitoring; the sample collection methods; culture media; incubation conditions; the most common microorganisms, and permissible levels depending on the type of surgery are described. PMID:27474243

  19. Health Effects of Environmental Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This booklet notes that for a long time the American people were willing to pay any price for progress. Now may refuse to accept an environment that menaces their health and lowers their enjoyment of life. They are embracing a new environmental consciousness, a broader vision of reality, a more profound sense of their place in nature. Among the…

  20. Environmental carbon dioxide control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onischak, M.; Baker, B.; Gidaspow, D.

    1974-01-01

    A study of environmental carbon dioxide control for NASA EVA missions found solid potassium carbonate to be an effective regenerable absorbent in maintaining low carbon dioxide levels. The supported sorbent was capable of repeated regeneration below 150 C without appreciable degradation. Optimum structures in the form of thin pliable sheets of carbonate, inert support and binder were developed. Interpretation of a new solid-gas pore closing model helped predict the optimum sorbent and analysis of individual sorbent sheet performance in a thin rectangular channel sorber can predict packed bed performance.

  1. Environmental Health Disparities in Housing

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The physical infrastructure and housing make human interaction possible and provide shelter. How well that infrastructure performs and which groups it serves have important implications for social equity and health. Populations in inadequate housing are more likely to have environmental diseases and injuries. Substantial disparities in housing have remained largely unchanged. Approximately 2.6 million (7.5%) non-Hispanic Blacks and 5.9 million Whites (2.8%) live in substandard housing. Segregation, lack of housing mobility, and homelessness are all associated with adverse health outcomes. Yet the experience with childhood lead poisoning in the United States has shown that housing-related disparities can be reduced. Effective interventions should be implemented to reduce environmental health disparities related to housing. PMID:21551378

  2. Biomarkers and pediatric environmental health.

    PubMed

    Lubin, B; Lewis, R

    1995-09-01

    It is now possible to identify biochemical and/or cellular changes in humans due to exposure to an environmental toxin. These changes are called biomarkers and are currently used in research studies to identify individuals exposed to specific toxic substances. Advances in the field of biomarker technology may have important implications for the detection, prevention, and treatment of certain diseases in children. This technology may enable physicians to screen children who have no clinically detectable illness for evidence of exposure to specific toxins. Such information could lead to implementation of preventive measures and development of new therapeutic strategies. However, several important issues, including potential adverse consequences resulting from the widespread use of this technology, must be considered prior to its utilization within a clinical setting. Leaders of the pediatric and public health communities should recognize the paucity of scientific data in the pediatric environmental health area, and new approaches to this important aspect of child health should be developed. This article will address several of the issues involved in pediatric environmental health and consider questions that should be answered as the potential for technology transfer becomes a reality. PMID:8549501

  3. Environmental health and African Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, B

    1991-01-01

    As environmental health has taken on immensely increased significance in the prevention of disease, dysfunction, and premature death, its boundaries have been anything but stable. This instability, along with a multitude of demographic, social, and economic currents, have brought into stark relief the increasing demand for scientists who have the skills and knowledge to perform environmental risk assessment and implement effective risk management policies and services. Despite this demand far too few African Americans want, or are prepared, to pursue careers in sciences. This paper describes efforts to address this problem and suggests why such initiatives may not yield the desired results. PMID:1951793

  4. Environmental Control Technology

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-10

    Operations and maintenance continued this month at the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI's) Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC). Testing for the Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP) study was conducted using the Carbon Injection System (the 4.0 MW Spray Dryer Absorber and the Pulse-Jet Fabric Filter). Testing also continued across the B&W/CHX Heat Exchanger this month as the effects of increased particulate loading are being studied. The 1.0 MW Cold-Side Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) unit and the 4.0 MW Pilot Wet Scrubber remained idle this month in a cold-standby mode and were inspected regularly. On September 13, 1996, the ECTC completed an independent test block for a third-party company, Air Purification Inc. (API). For this testing, the ECTC's staff (O&M and Testing) were contracted to conduct performance and validation testing across a new, integrated emissions control device, the Rotorfilter{trademark}. This testing was conducted for a thirty (30) day period simultaneously with the B&W/CHX test block. The HAP testing resumed as this third-party test block was completed. Testing in September at the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI's) Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC) included tests from the Pilot Trace Elements Removal (TER) test block as part of EPRI's overall program to develop control technology options for reduction of trace element emissions. This experimental program investigates mercury removal and mercury speciation under different operating conditions. The 1996 program is being performed on the 4.0 MW wet FGD pilot unit and the spray dryer/pulse jet fabric filter (SDA/PJFF) pilot units. The 1996 Trace Elements Removal (TER) test block is a continuation of the 1995 TER test block and will focus on up to five research areas, depending on experimental results. These areas are: (1) Mercury speciation methods; (2) Effect of FGD system operating variables on mercury removal; (3) Novel methods for elemental mercury

  5. Reducing Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure of Preschool Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Class-Based Health Education and Smoking Cessation Counseling for Caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yun; Huang, Zhiqiang; Yang, Mei; Wang, Fuzhi; Xiao, Shuiyuan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess counseling to caregivers and classroom health education interventions to reduce environmental tobacco smoke exposure of children aged 5–6 years in China. Methods: In a randomized controlled trial in two preschools in Changsha, China, 65 children aged 5–6 years old and their smoker caregivers (65) were randomly assigned to intervention (n = 33) and control (no intervention) groups (n = 32). In the intervention group, caregivers received self-help materials and smoking cessation counseling from a trained counselor, while their children were given classroom-based participatory health education. Children’s urinary cotinine level and the point prevalence of caregiver quitting were measured at baseline and after 6 months. Results: At the 6-month follow-up, children’s urinary cotinine was significantly lower (Z = –3.136; p = 0.002) and caregivers’ 7-day quit rate was significantly higher (34.4% versus 0%) (p < 0.001; adjusted OR = 1.13; 95% CI: 1.02–1.26) in the intervention than control group. Conclusions: Helping caregivers quitting smoke combined with classroom-based health education was effective in reducing children’s environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Larger-scale trials are warranted. PMID:25590146

  6. Environmental pollution, chromosomes, and health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    In mid-May, 1980, President Carter declared a state of emergency at the Love Canal area, near Niagara Falls, New York. The reason for this was for the U.S. to underwrite the relocation costs ($3-5 million) of some 2500 residents who, according to a report by the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) may have suffered damaged chromosomes. These injuries were apparently caused by contact with toxic wastes that had been dumped in the area in the years prior to development for housing.That the toxic compounds exist in the Love Canal and Niagara Falls subsurface zones, including public water supplies, appears to be established fact. That the residents of the Love Canal area suffered chromosomal damage may be established fact as well. Whether or not these two findings can be linked to ill health of the residents is another matter. Recently, the EPA report has been described as having ‘close to zero scientific significance,’ and has been ‘discredited’(Science, 208, 123a, 1980). The reasons for this disparity go beyond differences of opinion, beyond possible inadequacies of the EPA study, and even beyond problems that probably will arise from future studies, including those now in the planning stages. The problem is that even if victims have easily recognizable injuries from toxic substances (injury that apparently has not occurred to Love Canal residents), medical science usually cannot show a causal relationship. Even chromosomal damage is, at best, difficult to interpret. In ideal studies of significant populations and control groups, the association of toxic chemical to chromosome damage and to cancer and birth defects is indirect and, up to now, has been shown to have little or no significance to an individual member of the exposed population.

  7. Promoting environmentally responsible health care.

    PubMed

    Gaudry, Jacqueline; Skiehar, Kimberly

    2007-01-01

    Dioxins, polyvinyl chloride and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate are the three main toxins interfering with the goal to maintain a healthy environment, according to the international organization Health Care Without Harm (2004). Exposure to these chemicals has been linked to cancer, as well as reproductive, cardiac, hepatic and developmental disorders (Tickner, Schettler, Guidotti, McCally, and Rossi, 2001). Health-care clients are potentially exposed to these toxins every day: polyvinyl chloride equipment, such as i.v. bags and tubing, is widely used in hospitals, and medical incineration practices emit dioxins into the air (Chlorine Chemistry Council, 2006). Nurses are uniquely positioned to play an active role in environmentally responsible health care through education, advocacy and the implementation of measures to reduce medical wastage and exposure to these chemical toxins (Canadian Nurses Association, 2005). PMID:17269580

  8. An overview of the Space Station Freedom environmental health system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richard, Elizabeth E.; Russo, Dane

    1989-01-01

    The proposed environmental health system (EHS) designed for the closed environment of the Space Station is examined. The internal contamination control and environmental health considerations for the Space Station are discussed. The microbiology, toxicology, water quality, radiological health, vibroacoustics, and barothermal physiology subsystems of the EHS are described. Proposed capabilities of the EHS are: the environmental sample collection, processing, and analysis of the breathing atmosphere, potable and hygiene water, and internal surfaces.

  9. CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH FOR HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Materials for building capacity in the health sector of developing countries on children's environmental health. includes a trainer's guide and harmonized guidance materials on assessing environmental exposure & risk as well as prevention, diagnosis and treatment.

  10. Environmental conditions and reproductive health outcomes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental exposures range across multiple domains to affect human health. In an effort to learn how environmental factors combine to contribute to health outcomes we constructed a multiple environmental domain index (MEDI) for use in health research. We used principal compone...

  11. 20 CFR 638.804 - Environmental health.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Environmental health. 638.804 Section 638.804... TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Administrative Provisions § 638.804 Environmental health. The Job Corps Director shall provide guidelines for proper environmental health conditions....

  12. 20 CFR 638.804 - Environmental health.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental health. 638.804 Section 638.804... TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Administrative Provisions § 638.804 Environmental health. The Job Corps Director shall provide guidelines for proper environmental health conditions....

  13. 20 CFR 638.804 - Environmental health.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Environmental health. 638.804 Section 638.804... TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Administrative Provisions § 638.804 Environmental health. The Job Corps Director shall provide guidelines for proper environmental health conditions....

  14. UMTRA Project environmental, health, and safety plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    The basic health and safety requirements established in this plan are designed to provide guidelines to be applied at all Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites. Specific restrictions are given where necessary. However, an attempt has been made to provide guidelines which are generic in nature, and will allow for evaluation of site-specific conditions. Health and safety personnel are expected to exercise professional judgment when interpreting these guidelines to ensure the health and safety of project personnel and the general population. This UMTRA Project Environmental, Health, and Safety (EH S) Plan specifies the basic Federal health and safety standards and special DOE requirements applicable to this program. In addition, responsibilities in carrying out this plan are delineated. Some guidance on program requirements and radiation control and monitoring is also included. An Environmental, Health, and Safety Plan shall be developed as part of the remedial action plan for each mill site and associated disposal site. Special conditions at the site which may present potential health hazards will be described, and special areas that should should be addressed by the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC) will be indicated. Site-specific EH S concerns will be addressed by special contract conditions in RAC subcontracts. 2 tabs.

  15. Public Health Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Univ., Tucson. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This manual supplies information helpful to individuals wishing to become certified in public health pest control. It is designed as a technical reference for vector control workers and as preparatory material for structural applicators of restricted use pesticides to meet the General Standards of Competency required of commercial applicators. The…

  16. Environmental Health Data in Europe: Current Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elias, A. W., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    These papers presented at a World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe (WHO/EURO) Consultation explore current approaches to environmental health data in Europe. Topics discussed include unified environmental health databases, the use of national hospital registers, health statistics in small areas, expert systems, chemical databases,…

  17. Environmental Health Topics from A to Z

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Lead Mercury Mold Nanomaterials Ozone Perfluorinated Chemicals Pesticides Radon Soy Infant Formula Styrene Water Pollution Environmental ... Occupational Health Ozone Parkinson's Disease Perfluorinated Chemicals (PFCs) Pesticides Radon Reproductive Health Soy Infant Formula Styrene Toxicology ...

  18. RELATING AIR QUALITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH TRACKING DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Initiated in February 2004, the Public Health Air Surveillance Evaluation (PHASE) Project is a multi-disciplinary collaboration between the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the U.S Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and three Environmental Public Health Track...

  19. Healthful School Living: Environmental Health in the School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Daryl E.

    1987-01-01

    Environmental health, as it relates to schools, is defined. Site, chemical, biological, and physical health hazards are identified. Recommendations and precautions to help achieve optimal health, safety, and comfort are presented. Resources are noted. (Author/MT)

  20. An Assessment of Environmental Health Needs for Manned Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macatangay, Ariel V.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental health fundamentally addresses the physical, chemical, and biological risks external to the human body that can impact the health of a person by assessing and controlling these risks in order to generate and maintain a health-supportive environment. Environmental monitoring coupled with other measures including active and passive controls and the implementation of environmental standards (SMACs, SWEGs, microbial and acoustics limits) are used to ensure environmental health in manned spacecraft. NASA scientists and engineers consider environmental monitoring a vital component to an environmental health management strategy for maintaining a healthy crew and achieving mission success. Environmental monitoring data confirms the health of ECLS systems, in addition to contributing to the management of the health of human systems. Crew health risks associated with the environment were reviewed by agency experts with the goal of determining risk-based environmental monitoring needs for future NASA manned missions. Once determined, gaps in knowledge and technology, required to address those risks, were identified for various types of Exploration missions. This agency-wide assessment of environmental health needs will help guide the activities/hardware development efforts to close those gaps and advance the knowledge required to meet NASA manned space exploration objectives. Details of this assessment and findings are presented in this paper.

  1. Strand IV Environmental and Community Health, Environmental and Public Health, Grades K-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Elementary Curriculum Development.

    An awareness of the environment and its relationship to human health and efficiency are the focal points of this prototype curriculum for grades K-3. Assuming responsibility for creating and maintaining safe and healthy surroundings is urged. Specific curriculum content studies: (1) environmental factors (existing environment and effects, control,…

  2. Environmental, health and safety assessment of photovoltaics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, E. C.

    1983-01-01

    The environmental, health, and safety (E, H and S) concerns associated with the fabrication, deployment, and decommissioning of photovoltaic (PV) systems in terrestial applications are identified and assessed. Discussion is limited to crystalline silicon technologies. The primary E, H, and S concerns that arise during collector fabrication are associated with occupational exposure to materials of undetermined toxicity or to materials that are known to be hazardous, but for which process control technology may be inadequate. Stricter exposure standards are anticipated for some materials and may indicate a need for further control technology development. Minimizing electric shock hazards is a significant concern during system construction, operation and maintenance, and decommissioning.

  3. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR CARBOFURAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for carbofurans was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range...

  4. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR ATRAZINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for atrazine was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of...

  5. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR CYCLOATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for cycloate was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of...

  6. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR TEMEPHOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Temephos was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of...

  7. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR TCMTB

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for TCMTB was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of wa...

  8. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR AMETRYN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for ametryn was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of ...

  9. Social Science Collaboration with Environmental Health

    PubMed Central

    Hoover, Elizabeth; Renauld, Mia; Edelstein, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Social science research has been central in documenting and analyzing community discovery of environmental exposure and consequential processes. Collaboration with environmental health science through team projects has advanced and improved our understanding of environmental health and justice. Objective We sought to identify diverse methods and topics in which social scientists have expanded environmental health understandings at multiple levels, to examine how transdisciplinary environmental health research fosters better science, and to learn how these partnerships have been able to flourish because of the support from National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS). Methods We analyzed various types of social science research to investigate how social science contributes to environmental health. We also examined NIEHS programs that foster social science. In addition, we developed a case study of a community-based participation research project in Akwesasne in order to demonstrate how social science has enhanced environmental health science. Results Social science has informed environmental health science through ethnographic studies of contaminated communities, analysis of spatial distribution of environmental injustice, psychological experience of contamination, social construction of risk and risk perception, and social impacts of disasters. Social science–environmental health team science has altered the way scientists traditionally explore exposure by pressing for cumulative exposure approaches and providing research data for policy applications. Conclusions A transdisciplinary approach for environmental health practice has emerged that engages the social sciences to paint a full picture of the consequences of contamination so that policy makers, regulators, public health officials, and other stakeholders can better ameliorate impacts and prevent future exposure. Citation Hoover E, Renauld M, Edelstein MR, Brown P. 2015. Social

  10. CAPSULE REPORT: ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROLS AT A SECONDARY LEAD SMELTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Protection Agency and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health have sponsored a study of environmental and workplace controls at a domestic secondary lead smelter. The study was intended primarily to develop information important to the effectiv...

  11. International environmental law and global public health.

    PubMed Central

    Schirnding, Yasmin von; Onzivu, William; Adede, Andronico O.

    2002-01-01

    The environment continues to be a source of ill-health for many people, particularly in developing countries. International environmental law offers a viable strategy for enhancing public health through the promotion of increased awareness of the linkages between health and environment, mobilization of technical and financial resources, strengthening of research and monitoring, enforcement of health-related standards, and promotion of global cooperation. An enhanced capacity to utilize international environmental law could lead to significant worldwide gains in public health. PMID:12571726

  12. E-Alerts: Environmental pollution and control. E-mail newsletter

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    Topics of discussion the following: Air Pollution and Control; Noise Pollution and Control; Solid Wastes Pollution and Control; Water Pollution and Control; Pesticides Pollution and Control; Radiation Pollution and Control; Environmental Health and Safety; Environmental Impact Statements.

  13. Environmental health discipline science plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this plan is to provide a conceptual strategy for NASA's Life Sciences Division research and development activities in environmental health. It covers the significant research areas critical to NASA's programmatic requirements for the Extended Duration Orbiter, Space Station Freedom, and exploration mission science activities. These science activities include ground-based and flight; basic, applied, and operational; animal and human subjects; and research and development. This document summarizes the history and current status of the program elements, outlines available knowledge, establishes goals and objectives, identifies scientific priorities, and defines critical questions in the three disciplines: (1) Barophysiology, (2) Toxicology, and (3) Microbiology. This document contains a general plan that will be used by both NASA Headquarters Program Officers and the field centers to review and plan basic, applied, and operational research and development activities, both intramural and extramural, in this area. The document is divided into sections addressing these three disciplines.

  14. Social Determinants of Health: Implications for Environmental Health Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Amy; Northridge, Mary E.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors draw on the disciplines of sociology and environmental and social epidemiology to further understanding of mechanisms through which social factors contribute to disparate environmental exposures and health inequalities. They propose a conceptual framework for environmental health promotion that considers dynamic social…

  15. Application of Health Promotion Theories and Models for Environmental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Edith A.; Baldwin, Grant T.; Israel, Barbara; Salinas, Maria A.

    2004-01-01

    The field of environmental health promotion gained new prominence in recent years as awareness of physical environmental stressors and exposures increased in communities across the country and the world. Although many theories and conceptual models are used routinely to guide health promotion and health education interventions, they are rarely…

  16. Environmental Health Practice: Statistically Based Performance Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Enander, Richard T.; Gagnon, Ronald N.; Hanumara, R. Choudary; Park, Eugene; Armstrong, Thomas; Gute, David M.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. State environmental and health protection agencies have traditionally relied on a facility-by-facility inspection-enforcement paradigm to achieve compliance with government regulations. We evaluated the effectiveness of a new approach that uses a self-certification random sampling design. Methods. Comprehensive environmental and occupational health data from a 3-year statewide industry self-certification initiative were collected from representative automotive refinishing facilities located in Rhode Island. Statistical comparisons between baseline and postintervention data facilitated a quantitative evaluation of statewide performance. Results. The analysis of field data collected from 82 randomly selected automotive refinishing facilities showed statistically significant improvements (P<.05, Fisher exact test) in 4 major performance categories: occupational health and safety, air pollution control, hazardous waste management, and wastewater discharge. Statistical significance was also shown when a modified Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons was performed. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that the new self-certification approach to environmental and worker protection is effective and can be used as an adjunct to further enhance state and federal enforcement programs. PMID:17267709

  17. Environmental and Community Health. Health Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krantzler, Nora J.; Miner, Kathleen R.

    The 10-volume "Health Facts" series is intended to supplement health education curricula and provide a handy reference for individuals who would like additional background information on particular health topics. The emphasis is placed on topics and examples relevant to youth of middle and high school age. This book is divided into two parts: Part…

  18. Environmental Control Unit Harness Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J.

    2014-01-01

    Testing four new Environmental Control Unit Harnesses for improved user comfort during SCAPE operations. Phase I, testing in a lab environment, Phase II will continue testing the best candidates in a field environment.

  19. Wildlife disease and environmental health in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Hemert, Caroline; Pearce, John; Oakley, Karen; Whalen, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Environmental health is defined by connections between the physical environment, ecological health, and human health. Current research within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recognizes the importance of this integrated research philosophy, which includes study of disease and pollutants as they pertain to wildlife and humans. Due to its key geographic location and significant wildlife resources, Alaska is a critical area for future study of environmental health.

  20. Sensors for Environmental Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Under a Kennedy Space Center Small Business Innovation Research contract, GEO-CENTERS, Inc. developed a sensing element or 'optrode,' which NASA needed for space life support research to measure a hydroponic culture's pH factor. The company then commercialized the technology in the PC Based pH Monitoring System. The system employs the optrode to enable long term continuous monitoring of the pH level of fluids in standing and flowing conditions, an optoelectronic board with light sensors and detectors that fits into a desktop computer, and a fiber optic cable that connects the two. The system is effective in monitoring the pH output of industries to maintain ranges acceptable to the Environmental Protection Agency.

  1. Water Quality and Sustainable Environmental Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setegn, S. G.

    2014-12-01

    Lack of adequate safe water, the pollution of the aquatic environment and the mismanagement of resources are major causes of ill-health and mortality, particularly in the developing countries. In order to accommodate more growth, sustainable fresh water resource management will need to be included in future development plans. One of the major environmental issues of concern to policy-makers is the increased vulnerability of ground water quality. The main challenge for the sustainability of water resources is the control of water pollution. To understand the sustainability of the water resources, one needs to understand the impact of future land use and climate changes on the natural resources. Providing safe water and basic sanitation to meet the Millennium Development Goals will require substantial economic resources, sustainable technological solutions and courageous political will. A balanced approach to water resources exploitation for development, on the one hand, and controls for the protection of health, on the other, is required if the benefits of both are to be realized without avoidable detrimental effects manifesting themselves. Meeting the millennium development goals for water and sanitation in the next decade will require substantial economic resources, sustainable technological solutions and courageous political will. In addition to providing "improved" water and "basic" sanitation services, we must ensure that these services provide: safe drinking water, adequate quantities of water for health, hygiene, agriculture and development and sustainable sanitation approaches to protect health and the environment.

  2. Environmental control medical support team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crump, William J.; Kilgore, Melvin V., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The activities conducted in support of the Environmental Control and Life Support Team during December 7, 1987 through September 30, 1988 are summarized. The majority of the ongoing support has focused on the ECLSS area. Through a series of initial meetings with the ECLSS team and technical literature review, an initial list of critical topics was developed. Subtasks were then identified or additional related tasks received as action items from the ECLSS group meetings. Although most of the efforts focused on providing MSFC personnel with information regarding specific questions and problems related to ECLSS issues, other efforts regarding identifying an ECLSS Medical Support Team and constructing data bases of technical information were also initiated and completed. The specific tasks are as follows: (1) Provide support to the mechanical design and integration of test systems as related to microbiological concerns; (2) Assist with design of Human Subjects Test Protocols; (3) Interpretation and recommendations pertaining to air/water quality requirements; (4) Assist in determining the design specifications required as related to the Technical Demonstration Program; (5) Develop a data base of all microorganisms recovered from previous subsystem testing; (6) Estimates of health risk of individual microbes to test subjects; (7) Assist with setting limits for safety of test subjects; (8) Health monitoring of test subjects; (9) Assist in the preparation of test plans; (10) Assist in the development of a QA/QC program to assure the validity, accuracy and precision of the analyses; and (11) Assist in developing test plans required for future man in the loop testing.

  3. Measuring Environmental Health Perception among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratnapradipa, Dhitinut; Brown, Stephen L.; Middleton, Wendi K.; Wodika, Alicia B.

    2011-01-01

    One's knowledge, perception, and attitude are fundamental in determining how one behaves regarding environmental hazards. While science has made great strides in promoting environmental health, threats still exist, largely due to individual actions in response to potential health hazards. Undergraduate students (n = 395) enrolled in an…

  4. Environmental Exposures and Children's Health Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landrigan, Philip J.

    2005-01-01

    The author looks at the sharp increase in a number of childhood disorders--including asthma, certain cancers, and learning/behavioral disabilities--and the role environmental toxins may play in this increase. He describes the need to train many more health professionals in prenatal and children's environmental health and the national network of…

  5. Environmental pediatrics and its impact on government health policy.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Lynn; Falk, Henry; Landrigan, Philip J; Balk, Sophie J; Reigart, J Routt; Etzel, Ruth A

    2004-04-01

    Recent public recognition that children are different from adults in their exposures and susceptibilities to environmental contaminants has its roots in work that began >46 years ago, when the American Academy of Pediatrics (APA) established a standing committee to focus on children's radiation exposures. We summarize the history of that important committee, now the AAP Committee on Environmental Health, including its statements and the 1999 publication of the AAP Handbook of Pediatric Environmental Health, and describe the recent emergence of federal and state legislative and executive actions to evaluate explicitly environmental health risks to children. As a result in large part of these efforts, numerous knowledge gaps about children's health and the environment are currently being addressed. Government efforts began in the 1970s to reduce childhood lead poisoning and to monitor birth defects and cancer. In the 1990s, federal efforts accelerated with the Food Quality Protection Act, an executive order on children's environmental health, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry/Environmental Protection Agency Pediatric Environmental Health Specialty Units, and National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences/Environmental Protection Agency Centers of Excellence in Research in Children's Environmental Health. In this decade, the Children's Environmental Health Act authorized the National Children's Study, which has the potential to address a number of critical questions about children's exposure and health. The federal government has expanded efforts in control and prevention of childhood asthma and in tracking of asthma, birth defects, and other diseases that are linked to the environment. Efforts continue on familiar problems such as the eradication of lead poisoning, but new issues, such as prevention of childhood exposure to carcinogens and neurotoxins other than lead, and emerging issues, such as endocrine disruptors and pediatric drug

  6. [Environmental quality: wellfare, confort and health].

    PubMed

    Vargas Marcos, Francisco; Gallego Pulgarín, Isabel

    2005-01-01

    Different ways of interpreting environmental conditions have led to the development of concepts such as the sick building, indoor air quality or indoor environment quality, for understanding the complexity of the pollutants in enclosed environments and the implications thereof on the health. The "Indoor Environment Quality" proposal is an advancement, operative and conceptual, surpassing amply prior ones, given that it orients the actions toward healthy environments without limiting the idea of pollution to the air alone. The aim is identifying the competence to preventing hazards related to exposure to pollutants within the confines of indoor environments and know the legislative framework useful for taking the actions. Optimum conditions within indoor environments must redound in health, well-being and comfort with regard to both working life as well as the environments in which everyday activities outside of work, extracurricular, leisure-time and entertainment activities are carried out. Today's society is demanding safe, clean, well-climatized places, for this is necessary to integrate the inhabitant's perceptions and demands and achieve an optimum balance among social standards, energy use and sustainable development. Legislation is being further expanded upon in the direction of occupational health and safety and the regulation of chemical substances. Environmental Health carries out prevention and control tasks, takes part in the enforcement of international pollution and waste reduction agreements and promotes measures for carrying out the European Environment and Health Strategy. It is considered useful the elaboration of protocols for the evaluation and administration gives the risks associated to the interior pollutants. PMID:15913058

  7. Summary of Selected U.S. Geological Survey Data on Domestic Well Water Quality for the Centers for Disease Control's National Environmental Public Health Tracking Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartholomay, Roy C.; Carter, Janet M.; Qi, Sharon L.; Squillace, Paul J.; Rowe, Gary L.

    2007-01-01

    -quality data in 16 States (grantee States) that were funded by the Environmental Public Health Tracking (EPHT) Program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Only data from domestic-water supplies were used in this summary because samples from these wells are most relevant to human exposure for the targeted population. Using NAWQA data, the concentrations of the 11 contaminants were compared to USEPA human-health benchmarks. Using NAWQA and USGS State data in NWIS, the geographic distribution of the contaminants were mapped for the 16 grantee States. Radon, arsenic, manganese, nitrate, strontium, and uranium had the largest percentages of samples with concentrations greater than their human-health benchmarks. In contrast, organic compounds (pesticides and volatile organic compounds) had the lowest percentages of samples with concentrations greater than human-health benchmarks. Results of data retrievals and spatial analysis were compiled for each of the 16 States and are presented in State summaries for each State. Example summary tables, graphs, and maps based on USGS data for New Jersey are presented to illustrate how USGS water-quality and associated ancillary geospatial data can be used by the CDC to address goals and objectives of the EPHT Program.

  8. Pesticides (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters ...

  9. Ozone (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters ...

  10. Plastics (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters ...

  11. Mercury (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters ...

  12. Statement of National Environmental Health Assocation on Future National Health Legislation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohlit, Nicholas; And Others

    1974-01-01

    This article concerns the need for more preventative health legislation to cutback increasing curative medical costs. Preventative action would provide better nutrition, better housing, and more effective controls on food, water, and solid wastes. Environmental health specialists would play a major role in the staffing of the new health systems.…

  13. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1980 to the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environment. Part 5. Environmental assessment, control, health and safety

    SciTech Connect

    Baalman, R.W.; Hays, I.D.

    1981-02-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL) 1980 annual report to the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environment describes research in environment, health, and safety conducted during fiscal year 1980. Part 5 includes technology assessments for natural gas, enhanced oil recovery, oil shale, uranium mining, magnetic fusion energy, solar energy, uranium enrichment and industrial energy utilization; regional analysis studies of environmental transport and community impacts; environmental and safety engineering for LNG, oil spills, LPG, shale oil waste waters, geothermal liquid waste disposal, compressed air energy storage, and nuclear/fusion fuel cycles; operational and environmental safety studies of decommissioning, environmental monitoring, personnel dosimetry, and analysis of criticality safety; health physics studies; and epidemiological studies. Also included are an author index, organization of PNL charts and distribution lists of the annual report, along with lists of presentations and publications. (DLS)

  14. Environmental Public Health Applications Using Remotely Sensed Data

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Crosson, William L.; Economou, Sigrid A.; Estes, Maurice G.; Estes, Sue M.; Hemmings, Sarah N.; Kent, Shia T.; Puckett, Mark; Quattrochi, Dale A.; Rickman, Douglas L.; Wade, Gina M.; McClure, Leslie A.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a remote sensing and GIS-based study that has three objectives: (1) characterize fine particulate matter (PM2.5), insolation and land surface temperature using NASA satellite observations, EPA ground-level monitor data and North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) data products on a national scale; (2) link these data with public health data from the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) national cohort study to determine whether these environmental risk factors are related to cognitive decline, stroke and other health outcomes; and (3) disseminate the environmental datasets and public health linkage analyses to end users for decision-making through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER) system. This study directly addresses a public health focus of the NASA Applied Sciences Program, utilization of Earth Sciences products, by addressing issues of environmental health to enhance public health decision-making. PMID:24910505

  15. Environmental Public Health Applications Using Remotely Sensed Data.

    PubMed

    Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z; Crosson, William L; Economou, Sigrid A; Estes, Maurice G; Estes, Sue M; Hemmings, Sarah N; Kent, Shia T; Puckett, Mark; Quattrochi, Dale A; Rickman, Douglas L; Wade, Gina M; McClure, Leslie A

    2014-01-01

    We describe a remote sensing and GIS-based study that has three objectives: (1) characterize fine particulate matter (PM2.5), insolation and land surface temperature using NASA satellite observations, EPA ground-level monitor data and North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) data products on a national scale; (2) link these data with public health data from the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) national cohort study to determine whether these environmental risk factors are related to cognitive decline, stroke and other health outcomes; and (3) disseminate the environmental datasets and public health linkage analyses to end users for decision-making through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER) system. This study directly addresses a public health focus of the NASA Applied Sciences Program, utilization of Earth Sciences products, by addressing issues of environmental health to enhance public health decision-making. PMID:24910505

  16. Aquaculture: Environmental, toxicological, and health issues.

    PubMed

    Cole, David W; Cole, Richard; Gaydos, Steven J; Gray, Jon; Hyland, Greg; Jacques, Mark L; Powell-Dunford, Nicole; Sawhney, Charu; Au, William W

    2009-07-01

    Aquaculture is one of the fastest growing food-producing sectors, supplying approximately 40% of the world's fish food. Besides such benefit to the society, the industry does have its problems. There are occupational hazards and safety concerns in the aquaculture industry. Some practices have caused environmental degradation. Public perception to farmed fish is that they are "cleaner" than comparable wild fish. However, some farmed fish have much higher body burden of natural and man-made toxic substances, e.g. antibiotics, pesticides, and persistent organic pollutants, than wild fish. These contaminants in fish can pose health concerns to unsuspecting consumers, in particular pregnant or nursing women. Regulations and international oversight for the aquaculture industry are extremely complex, with several agencies regulating aquaculture practices, including site selection, pollution control, water quality, feed supply, and food safety. Since the toxicological, environmental, and health concerns of aquaculture have not been adequately reviewed recently, we are providing an updated review of the topic. Specifically, concerns and recommendations for improving the aquaculture industry, and for protection of the environment and the consumers will be concisely presented. PMID:18790671

  17. Animal Sentinels for Environmental and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Reif, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Studies of the effects of environmental exposures on domestic and wild animals can corroborate or inform epidemiologic studies in humans. Animals may be sensitive indicators of environmental hazards and provide an early warning system for public health intervention, as exemplified by the iconic canary in the coal mine. This article illustrates the application of animal sentinel research to elucidate the effects of exposure to traditional and emerging contaminants on human health. Focusing on environmental issues at the forefront of current public health research, the article describes exposures to community air pollution, environmental tobacco smoke, and pesticides and associations with cancer, reproductive outcomes, and infectious diseases. Finally, it covers the role of marine mammals in monitoring the health of the oceans and humans. PMID:21563712

  18. Environmental public health tracking: piloting methods for surveillance of environmentally related diseases in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Patrick; Mohammed, Mohammed A

    2009-04-01

    An effective environmental public health tracking system integrates data and intelligence on environmental hazards, exposures, and health outcomes to focus interventions on reducing the impact of environmental contamination on public health. Most work in this area in the UK has focused on assessing data on hazards that are relatively easy to obtain. However, most hazards will present no actual risk and information on exposure is required to make an effective risk assessment. Obtaining exposure data is technically challenging, expensive, and potentially raises ethical concerns. Consequently, the Health Protection Agency is exploring methods for targeting geographical zones for efficient detailed environmental assessment (including exposure assessment). This paper describes and assesses three methods (indirect standardization, statistical process control (SPC) and kernel density contouring) for the surveillance of potentially environmentally related diseases for this purpose. While the evaluation demonstrates the utility of the three methods, particularly SPC, the comparison was limited due to ethical approval issues. PMID:18982414

  19. Considerations Before Establishing an Environmental Health Registry

    PubMed Central

    Antao, Vinicius C.; Muravov, Oleg I.; Sapp, James; Larson, Theodore C.; Pallos, L. Laszlo; Sanchez, Marchelle E.; Williamson, G. David; Horton, D. Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Public health registries can provide valuable information when health consequences of environmental exposures are uncertain or will likely take long to develop. They can also aid research on diseases that may have environmental causes that are not completely well defined. We discuss factors to consider when deciding whether to create an environmental health registry. Those factors include public health significance, purpose and outcomes, duration and scope of data collection and availability of alternative data sources, timeliness, availability of funding and administrative capabilities, and whether the establishment of a registry can adequately address specific health concerns. We also discuss difficulties, limitations, and benefits of exposure and disease registries, based on the experience of the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. PMID:26066912

  20. Environmental health, climate chaos and resilience.

    PubMed

    Middleton, John

    2008-01-01

    The public health movement has a strong tradition of identifying health problems and tackling these through economic, social and environmental improvements and through advocacy for people's rights and entitlements. Since 9/11, and the floods, fuel crisis and foot and mouth disease in 2000-2001, the UK government has introduced the notion of 'resilience' - the requirement for statutory UK bodies to develop their capacity to respond to all major emergency risks from pandemic flu to terrorism. The new threats of environmental and climate change require public health practitioners to acquire new knowledge about ecology and climate change and to become advocates for equality, new economics, and sustainable development. The best efforts to promote health are also likely to be green, promoting and protective of human and environmental health as well. PMID:18771196

  1. HUMAN HEALTH IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENIC CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    HUMAN HEALTH IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENIC CHEMICALS.

    Robert J. Kavlock, Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC USA.

    Over the past several decades a hypothesis has been put forth that a numb...

  2. The EPA Children's Environmental Health Yearbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Children's Health Protection.

    Through their environments, children are exposed to a wide variety of substances that pose a risk to their health. This yearbook provides information to the public on the activities of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to protect children from environmental hazards, including the latest information on the unique threats of environmental…

  3. Effectiveness of a Household Environmental Health Intervention Delivered by Rural Public Health Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Wade; Postma, Julie; Butterfield, Phillip W.; Odom-Maryon, Tamara

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. Parents need meaningful and actionable information if they are to reduce household environmental health risks to their children. To address this issue, we tested the effectiveness of a multi-risk social/cognitive intervention on rural low-income parents' (1) environmental health self-efficacy and (2) stage of environmental health precautionary adoption. Methods. Biomarker (lead, cotinine) and household samples (carbon monoxide, radon, mold/mildew, and drinking water contaminants) were collected from 235 families (399 adults, 441 children) in Montana and Washington states. Families were randomly assigned to intervention or control groups; intervention families received 4 visits from public health nurses who provided tailored information and guidance to parents; controls received usual and customary public health services. Results. At 3 months, the intervention group had significantly higher scores on (1) all 6 risk-specific self-efficacy subscales (P < .01), (2) general environmental health self-efficacy (P < .001), (3) 5 of 6 risk-specific precaution adoption subscales (P < .05), and (4) general environmental health precaution adoption (P < .001). Conclusions. The intervention yielded significant improvements in both outcomes. This evidence supported the need for a policy discussion addressing the added value that broadbased public health nurse interventions might bring to children's environmental health. PMID:21836117

  4. Twelfth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2016-01-01

    During the past century, environmental hazards have become a major concern, not only to public health professionals, but also to the society at large because of their tremendous health, socio-cultural and economic impacts. Various anthropogenic or natural factors have been implicated in the alteration of ecosystem integrity, as well as in the development of a wide variety of acute and/or chronic diseases in humans. It has also been demonstrated that many environmental agents, acting either independently or in combination with other toxins, may induce a wide range of adverse health outcomes. Understanding the role played by the environment in the etiology of human diseases is critical to designing cost-effective control/prevention measures. This special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health includes the proceedings of the Twelfth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research. The Symposium provided an excellent opportunity to discuss the scientific advances in biomedical, environmental, and public health research that addresses global environmental health issues. PMID:27153079

  5. Twelfth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research.

    PubMed

    Tchounwou, Paul B

    2016-01-01

    During the past century, environmental hazards have become a major concern, not only to public health professionals, but also to the society at large because of their tremendous health, socio-cultural and economic impacts. Various anthropogenic or natural factors have been implicated in the alteration of ecosystem integrity, as well as in the development of a wide variety of acute and/or chronic diseases in humans. It has also been demonstrated that many environmental agents, acting either independently or in combination with other toxins, may induce a wide range of adverse health outcomes. Understanding the role played by the environment in the etiology of human diseases is critical to designing cost-effective control/prevention measures. This special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health includes the proceedings of the Twelfth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research. The Symposium provided an excellent opportunity to discuss the scientific advances in biomedical, environmental, and public health research that addresses global environmental health issues. PMID:27153079

  6. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR PYRIDINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Pyridine was prepared to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency actions...

  7. The Environmental Science and Health Effects Program

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Gurevich; Doug Lawson; Joe Mauderly

    2000-04-10

    The goal of the Environmental Science and Health Effect Program is to conduct policy-relevant research that will help us understand atmospheric impacts and potential health effects that may be caused by the use of petroleum-based fuels and alternative transportation fuels from mobile sources.

  8. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR BENZIDINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Benzidine was prepared to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency action...

  9. Health Educators as Environmental Policy Advocates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner, Kimberly J.; Baker, Judith A.

    1993-01-01

    Health educators must complement individual-level change with communitywide policy and legislative initiatives, focusing on environmental issues such as air pollution, ozone layer depletion, and toxic waste disposal. Recent increases in discomfort and disease related to the physical environment call for immediate action from health professionals…

  10. The EPA Children's Environmental Health Yearbook Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Children's Health Protection.

    Through their environments, children are exposed to a wide variety of substances that provide a risk to children's health. This report provides information to the public on the work of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) related to children's health protection, summarizing initiatives undertaken since the publication of "The EPA Children's…

  11. Issues in environmental epidemiological research: the example of environmental lead and health.

    PubMed

    McMichael, A J

    1989-01-01

    Modern environmental epidemiology encompasses the "traditional" area of physico-chemical hazards, along with health hazards in the societal environment (e.g. noise, stress, social organisation), and, increasingly, supranational problems (e.g. ozone depletion, global warming). As governments undertake environmental management, improved quantitative estimates of environmental risks to health are needed. Methodological difficulties of environmental epidemiological research include problems of exposure measurement, of estimating exposure at the level of the individual, and of detecting relatively small effects (particularly at low exposure levels). The health hazards of occupational lead exposure are well documented. The health hazards of environmental exposure to lead, within the general population, remain a focus of continuing epidemiological research. Indeed, the reported adverse effects upon the developing central nervous system of young children are now central to public health debate about environmental lead exposure standards. Recent evidence from cohort studies in several countries indicates adverse effects of environmental lead exposure upon early childhood mental development. In South Australia, a cohort study of children born in a lead smelter community, Port Pirie, has revealed evidence of such an effect. After controlling for many potential confounding factors (social, behavioural, family, and medical), cumulative postnatal lead exposure was found to be weakly associated with an adverse effect upon mental development at age two years and, more strongly, at age four years. The relations between environmental epidemiological research and public health policy are discussed. PMID:2803846

  12. Qualitative methods in environmental health research.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Phil

    2003-01-01

    Public health researchers increasingly turn to qualitative methods either on their own or in combination with quantitative methods. Qualitative methods are especially important to community environmental health research, as they provide a way to produce community narratives that give voice to individuals and characterize the community in a full and complex fashion. This article first traces the legacy of qualitative research in environmental health, then uses a case study of the author's experiences studying the Woburn, Massachusetts, childhood leukemia cluster to provide personal and scholarly insights on qualitative approaches. That material then informs a discussion of important components of qualitative methods in environmental health research, including flexible study design, access, trust, empathy, and personal shifts in the researcher's worldview, bias, and the nature of the researcher's roles. A concluding discussion addresses issues in funding policy and research practices. PMID:14594634

  13. Space Station Freedom Environmental Health Care Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richard, Elizabeth E.; Russo, Dane M.

    1992-01-01

    The paper discusses the environmental planning and monitoring aspects of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Environmental Health Care Program, which encompasses all phases of the SSF assembly and operation from the first element entry at MB-6 through the Permanent Manned Capability and beyond. Environmental planning involves the definition of acceptability limits and monitoring requirements for the radiation dose barothermal parameters and potential contaminants in the SSF air and water and on internal surfaces. Inflight monitoring will be implemented through the Environmental Health System, which consists of five subsystems: Microbiology, Toxicology, Water Quality, Radiation, and Barothermal Physiology. In addition to the environmental data interpretation and analysis conducted after each mission, the new data will be compared to archived data for statistical and long-term trend analysis and determination of risk exposures. Results of these analyses will be used to modify the acceptability limits and monitoring requirements for the future.

  14. Controlling Health Care Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessoff, Alan

    2009-01-01

    This article examines issues on health care costs and describes measures taken by public districts to reduce spending. As in most companies in America, health plan designs in public districts are being changed to reflect higher out-of-pocket costs, such as higher deductibles on visits to providers, hospital stays, and prescription drugs. District…

  15. Environmental and occupational health and human rights.

    PubMed

    Slatin, Craig

    2011-01-01

    Modern environmental- and occupational-related morbidities and mortality are determined by the power relations inherent in our existing capitalist systems of production and consumption. These systems thwart human public health rights because of the priority to maximize profit for the systems' owners rather than to establish ecologically sound and socially just development for all. The international public health community must return to its primary prevention roots and take action to eliminate the potential for population morbidities that result from hazardous substance exposures in work and community environments. The 1988 Adelaide Recommendations on Healthy Public Policy provide us with guidelines that incorporate a human rights approach and build on several decades of international public health declarations and charters. To succeed, public health must work with the labor movement. A human rights approach to environmental public health can help us make a transition to sustainable modes of production and consumption. The environmental justice movement's strategy for an economic greening that sets as a priority "pathways out of poverty" can help to advance environmental public health rights. PMID:21733799

  16. Environmental laws in health care.

    PubMed

    Ruff, G G

    1992-11-01

    Federal and state regulations regarding the management and disposal of medical waste are currently quite extensive and will only become more comprehensive in the future. The public's heightened awareness and concerns over infectious diseases and discoveries of medical waste on beaches in New Jersey, Alabama, and other states, as well as medical waste being found in open trash bins and at public landfills, has brought to the public's attention the need for governmental intervention into this growing area of concern. Because regulations originating from the local, state, and federal levels have the potential to significantly affect hospitals, it is important that a specific person or department within the organization have a clearly designated responsibility to stay informed and follow up on these regulations. The designated person or department must work closely with the hospital's attorney to make sure that he or she stays current on environmental laws and keeps the institution adequately advised of its legal responsibilities. PMID:10121995

  17. Integrating health and environmental impact analysis.

    PubMed

    Reis, S; Morris, G; Fleming, L E; Beck, S; Taylor, T; White, M; Depledge, M H; Steinle, S; Sabel, C E; Cowie, H; Hurley, F; Dick, J McP; Smith, R I; Austen, M

    2015-10-01

    Scientific investigations have progressively refined our understanding of the influence of the environment on human health, and the many adverse impacts that human activities exert on the environment, from the local to the planetary level. Nonetheless, throughout the modern public health era, health has been pursued as though our lives and lifestyles are disconnected from ecosystems and their component organisms. The inadequacy of the societal and public health response to obesity, health inequities, and especially global environmental and climate change now calls for an ecological approach which addresses human activity in all its social, economic and cultural complexity. The new approach must be integral to, and interactive, with the natural environment. We see the continuing failure to truly integrate human health and environmental impact analysis as deeply damaging, and we propose a new conceptual model, the ecosystems-enriched Drivers, Pressures, State, Exposure, Effects, Actions or 'eDPSEEA' model, to address this shortcoming. The model recognizes convergence between the concept of ecosystems services which provides a human health and well-being slant to the value of ecosystems while equally emphasizing the health of the environment, and the growing calls for 'ecological public health' as a response to global environmental concerns now suffusing the discourse in public health. More revolution than evolution, ecological public health will demand new perspectives regarding the interconnections among society, the economy, the environment and our health and well-being. Success must be built on collaborations between the disparate scientific communities of the environmental sciences and public health as well as interactions with social scientists, economists and the legal profession. It will require outreach to political and other stakeholders including a currently largely disengaged general public. The need for an effective and robust science-policy interface has

  18. Environmental health consequences of land mines.

    PubMed

    Newman, R D; Mercer, M A

    2000-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on the environmental effects of anti-personnel land mines globally. Land mines represent an immediate environmental health problem. Between 60 and 70 million land mines are currently in place in over 70 countries. Designed to kill or main humans, including civilians, they injure an estimated 1, 200 persons and kill another 800 every week. Land-mine injuries tend to be serious; an estimated 300,000 persons worldwide have been disabled by them. The problem, politically very controversial, can be resolved only by preventing the further placement of mines, by demining of areas already mined, and by coping with the personal and environmental devastation that they have already caused. Environmental health personnel should be involved in promoting awareness of the problem, in improving services for land-mine victims, and in promoting political efforts to ban further use of land mines. PMID:10926729

  19. USGS Environmental health science strategy: providing environmental health science for a changing world: public review release

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bright, Patricia R.; Buxton, Herbert T.; Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Barber, Larry B.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Cross, Paul C.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Toccalino, Patricia L.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    America has an abundance of natural resources. We have bountiful clean water, fertile soil, and unrivaled national parks, wildlife refuges, and public lands. These resources enrich our lives and preserve our health and wellbeing. These resources have been maintained because of our history of respect for their value and an enduring commitment to their vigilant protection. Awareness of the social, economic, and personal value of the health of our environment is increasing. The emergence of environmentally driven diseases caused by environmental exposure to contaminants and pathogens is a growing concern worldwide. New health threats and patterns of established threats are affected by both natural and anthropogenic changes to the environment. Human activities are key drivers of emerging (new and re-emerging) health threats. Societal demands for land and natural resources, a better quality of life, improved economic prosperity, and the environmental impacts associated with these demands will continue to increase. Natural earth processes, climate trends, and related climatic events will add to the environmental impact of human activities. These environmental drivers will influence exposure to disease agents, including viral, bacterial, prion, and fungal pathogens, parasites, natural earth materials, toxins and other biogenic compounds, and synthetic chemicals and substances. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) defines environmental health science broadly as the interdisciplinary study of relations among the quality of the physical environment, the health of the living environment, and human health. The interactions among these three spheres are driven by human activities, ecological processes, and natural earth processes; the interactions affect exposure to contaminants and pathogens and the severity of environmentally driven diseases in animals and people. This definition provides USGS with a framework for synthesizing natural science information from across the Bureau

  20. Health and environmental effects profile for azobenzene

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-03-01

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for azobenzene was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency actions under Section 101 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Both published literature and information obtained from Agency program office files were evaluated as they pertained to potential human health, aquatic life, and environmental effects of hazardous-waste constituents. Quantitative estimates are presented, provided sufficient data are available. Azobenzene has been evaluated as a carcinogen. The human carcinogen potency factor (ql*) for azobenzene is .108 (mg/kg/day)-1 for oral exposure. The Reportable Quantity (RQ) value of 1, 10, 100, 1000, or 5000 pounds is used to determine the quantity of a hazardous substance for which notification is required in the event of a release as specified by CERCLA based on chronic toxicity. The RQ value for azobenzene is 100.

  1. Health and environmental effects profile for formaldehyde

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-10-01

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for formaldehyde was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency actions under Section 101 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Both published literature and information obtained from Agency program office files were evaluated as they pertained to potential human health, aquatic life, and environmental effects of hazardous-waste constituents. Quantitative estimates are presented, provided sufficient data are available. Existing data are insufficient to determine an Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) or a carcinogenic potency factor for formaldehyde. The Reportable Quantity (RQ) value of 1, 10, 100, 1000, or 5000 pounds is used to determine the quantity of a hazardous substance for which notification is required in the event of a release as specified by CERCLA based on chronic toxicity. The RQ value for formaldehyde is 10.

  2. Health and environmental effects profile for dinitrotoluene

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-06-01

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Dinitrotoluene was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency actions under Section 101 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Both published literature and information obtained from Agency program office files were evaluated as they pertained to potential human health, aquatic life, and environmental effects of hazardous-waste constituents. Quantitative estimates are presented provided sufficient data are available. Dinitrotolene has been evaluated as a carcinogen. The human carcinogen potency factors (q1*) for 2,4-, 2,6- and technical dinitrotoluene was .68, .23, and .23 (mg/kg/day)-1, respectively, for oral exposure. The Reportable Quantity (RQ) value of 1, 10, 100, 1000 or 5000 pounds is used to determine the quantity of a hazardous substance for which notification is required in the event of a release as specified by CERCLA based on chronic toxicity. The RQ value for 2.4-, 2.6- and technical dinitrotoluene is 100. Existing data are insufficient to determine an RQ value for 2.3-, 2.5- and 3.4-dinitrotoluene.

  3. Health and environmental effects profile for aniline

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-01

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for aniline was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinatti, OH for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency actions under Section 101 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Both published literature and information obtained from Agency program office files were evaluated as they pertained to potential human health, aquatic life, and environmental effects of hazardous-waste constituents. Quantitative estimates are presented provided sufficient data are available. Aniline has been evaluated as a carcinogen. The human carcinogen potency factor (q1*) for aniline is .026 (mg/kg/day)-1 for oral exposure. The Reportable Quantity (RQ) value of 1, 10, 100, 1000, or 5000 pounds is used to determine the quantity of a hazardous substance for which notification is required in the event of a release as specified by CERCLA based on chronic toxicity. The RQ value for aniline is 1000.

  4. Management for School Environmental Health in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kitagaki, Kunihiko

    2016-01-01

    Some acts such as the Basic Environment Act are aimed at managing environmental health for a productive living environment in Japan. School is not only a place where lessons for a better future are taught but also an environment in which children spend many hours of their day. Therefore, activities involving regular checks are important to maintain and improve the school environment. Article 5 of the School Health and Safety Act states that schools must make plans and carry out regular checks on school environmental health. Article 6 prescribes that the Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology establish a "school environmental health standard". This standard involves metrics on the classroom environment (quality of air, illumination, and noise levels), quality of drinking/pool water and so on, and their standard values and evaluation methods. Article 23 prescribes that each school except colleges/universities have a school pharmacist. The school pharmacist plays an important role in maintaining and improving the school's environmental health. However, the current actions taken are not adequate. Therefore, prospects for future activities will be discussed based on the current situations and problems. PMID:27252052

  5. Environmental control for confinement livestock housing

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.D.; Friday, W.H.; DeForest, S.S.

    1980-06-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of mechanical ventilation systems for livestock housing are discussed. Various principles involved in environmental control are reviewed. The design, operation, maintenance, and management of the equipment needed for environmental control are discussed. (JGB)

  6. Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Hydrazine and Hydrazine Sulfate

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for hydrazine and hydrazine sulfate was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste to support listings of hazardous constitu...

  7. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR ACETONE CYANOHYDRIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for acetone cyanohydrin was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response to support listings of hazardo...

  8. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR ACRYLAMIDE (Final Report 1985)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for acrylamide was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response to support listings of hazardous consti...

  9. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR VANADIUM PENTOXIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for vanadium pentoxide was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response to support listings of hazardou...

  10. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR METHYL METHACRYLATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for methyl methacrylate was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response to support listings of hazardo...

  11. What does the public know about environmental health? A qualitative approach to refining an environmental health awareness instrument.

    PubMed

    Ratnapradipa, Dhitinut; Middleton, Wendi K; Wodika, Alicia B; Brown, Stephen L; Preihs, Kristin

    2015-04-01

    Despite an increased level of interest in environmental health concerns among the American public, awareness of the risks associated with environmental hazards is generally lacking. Assessing population awareness is typically performed through surveys, yet a comprehensive national environmental health questionnaire is currently unavailable. In 2009, a Delphi study using environmental health experts from federal, state, and local government and academia identified 11 core areas of environmental health (air, water, radiation, food safety, emergency preparedness, healthy housing, infectious disease and vector control, toxicology, injury prevention, waste and sanitation, and weather and climate change) and provided content validity for 443 questions covering 25 specific topics for possible inclusion on a national instrument. The authors' study described in this article used the qualitative approach of focus groups to refine the questions. Questions were divided into four sections and randomly assigned to a focus group location; 32 individuals participated. Results indicated that many perceptions are based on misinformation (or lack of information), which may lead to poor environmental health decision making. PMID:25876262

  12. Environmental Health Planning Guide. Revised 1968.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    This guide to environmental health planning outlines the process and procedures of bringing together certain fundamental data pertaining to various physical aspects of the environment, including data collection, evaluation, usage, and implementation. The components of such planning programs are listed along with study preparation information.…

  13. QUALITY ASSURANCE GUIDELINES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document provides conceptual guidelines for the development, implementation and evaluation of research task quality assurance plans for the staff of the Health Effects Research Laboratory (HERL/RTP) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North C...

  14. Career Ladders in Environmental Health (Supplement).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erie Community Coll., Buffalo, NY.

    This supplementary document contains career ladders that have been designed to enable post secondary students to prepare for entrance into environmental health occupations at a level commensurate with their abilities where they will be capable of meaningful contributions and can obtain advanced standing in employment. Contents are: (1) Food…

  15. Environmental Quality Index and Childhood Mental Health

    EPA Science Inventory

    Childhood mental disorders affect between 13%-20% of children in the United States (US) annually and impact the child, family, and community. Literature suggests associations exist between environmental and children’s mental health such as air pollution with autism and ADHD...

  16. Meeting Report: Development of Environmental Health Indicators in Brazil and Other Countries in the Americas

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Fernando F.; Oliveira, Mara Lúcia C.; Netto, Guilherme F.; Galvão, Luis A.C.; Cancio, Jacira A.; Bonini, Estela M.; Corvalan, Carlos F.

    2006-01-01

    This report summarizes the Brazilian experience on the design and implementation of environmental health, with contributions from Argentina, Canada, and Cuba, presented at the International Symposium on the Development of Indicators for Environmental Health Integrated Management, held in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil, on 17–18 June 2004. The methodology for the development of environmental health indicators has been used as a reference in the implementation of environmental health surveillance in Brazil. This methodology has provided tools and processes to facilitate the understanding and to measure the determinants of risks to environmental health, to help decision makers control those risks. PMID:16966096

  17. Environmental and Occupational Exposures in Immigrant Health

    PubMed Central

    Eamranond, Pracha P.; Hu, Howard

    2008-01-01

    Immigrants comprise vulnerable populations that are frequently exposed to a multitude of environmental and occupational hazards. The historical context behind state and federal legislation has helped to foster an environment that is particularly hostile toward caring for immigrant health. Current hazards include toxic exposures, air and noise pollution, motor vehicle accidents, crowded living and work environments with inadequate ventilation, poor sanitation, mechanical injury, among many others. Immigrants lack the appropriate training, materials, health care access, and other resources to reduce their exposure to preventable environmental and occupational health risks. This dilemma is exacerbated by current anti-immigrant sentiments, miscommunication between native and immigrant populations, and legislation denying immigrants access to publicly funded medical care. Given that current health policy has failed to address immigrant health appropriately and political impetus is lacking, efforts should also focus on alternative solutions, including organized labor. Labor unions that serve to educate workers, survey work environments, and defend worker rights will greatly alleviate and prevent the burden of disease incurred by immigrants. The nation’s health will benefit from improved regulation of living and workplace environments to improve the health of immigrants, regardless of legal status. PMID:21572847

  18. Strand IV: Environmental and Community Health. Environmental and Public Health, Grades 4-6. Special Edition for Evaluation and Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Elementary Curriculum Development.

    This prototypic curriculum is designed to develop awareness of the challenges man faces in his crowded communities to insure clean water, pest control, waste removal, safe food handling and adequate community health facilities. It distinguishes between the prevention of future environmental abuse and compensation for past abuses. Both the gaining…

  19. Remote sensing of environmental factors affecting health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovanovic, Petar

    The purpose of this paper is to present the results of research to identify, by satellite imagery, parameters of the environment affecting health on Earth. Thus, we suggest expanding the application of space technology to preventive medicine, as a new field in the peaceful uses of outer space. The scope of the study includes all parts of the environment, natural and man-made, and all kinds of protection of life: human, animal and vegetation health. The general objective is to consider and classify those factors, detectable from space, that affect or are relevant to health and may be found in the air, water, sea, soil, land, vegetation, as well as those linked to climate, industry, energy production, development works, irrigation systems, and human settlements. The special objective is the classification of environmental factors detectable from space, that are linked to communicable or chronic endemic diseases or health problems. The method of identifying the factors affecting health was the parallel study of environmental epidemiological and biological parameters. The role of environmental factors common to both human and animal populations is discussed. Conclusive findings are formulated and possible applications, both scientific and practical, in other sectors are also discussed.

  20. Metro Nature, Environmental Health, and Economic Value

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, Alicia S.T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Nearly 40 years of research provides an extensive body of evidence about human health, well-being, and improved function benefits associated with experiences of nearby nature in cities. Objectives We demonstrate the numerous opportunities for future research efforts that link metro nature, human health and well-being outcomes, and economic values. Methods We reviewed the literature on urban nature-based health and well-being benefits. In this review, we provide a classification schematic and propose potential economic values associated with metro nature services. Discussion Economic valuation of benefits derived from urban green systems has largely been undertaken in the fields of environmental and natural resource economics, but studies have not typically addressed health outcomes. Urban trees, parks, gardens, open spaces, and other nearby nature elements—collectively termed metro nature—generate many positive externalities that have been largely overlooked in urban economics and policy. Here, we present a range of health benefits, including benefit context and beneficiaries. Although the understanding of these benefits is not yet consistently expressed, and although it is likely that attempts to link urban ecosystem services and economic values will not include all expressions of cultural or social value, the development of new interdisciplinary approaches that integrate environmental health and economic disciplines are greatly needed. Conclusions Metro nature provides diverse and substantial benefits to human populations in cities. In this review, we begin to address the need for development of valuation methodologies and new approaches to understanding the potential economic outcomes of these benefits. Citation Wolf KL, Robbins AS. 2015. Metro nature, environmental health, and economic value. Environ Health Perspect 123:390–398; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408216 PMID:25626137

  1. [Ecological studies in environmental health: Beyond epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Blanco-Becerra, Luis C; Pinzón-Flórez, Carlos E; Idrovo, Álvaro J

    2015-08-01

    Ecological studies provide important and frequent sources of evidence of environmental health, since their unit of analysis is populations. This review summarizes the foundations of ecological studies with the premise that they can be performed using quantitative, qualitative or mixed methods. It presents the logic behind their design, their role in exploring causality, the variables and categories of analysis and the design principles and techniques used to collect data. Examples of ecological studies performed in Latin America are then presented, as well as some common methodological problems and options to address them. Lastly, the relevance of quantitative and qualitative ecological studies to environmental health as a way to overcome the dominance of conceptual and methodological individualism is highlighted, though ecological studies alone do not suffice for studying population health. PMID:26535754

  2. Guidelines for Analysis of Environmental Health Planning in Developing Countries. Volume 2: Environmental Health Planning. International Health Planning Methods Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Renee White; Shani, Hadasa

    Intended to assist Agency for International Development (AID) officers, advisors, and health officials in incorporating health planning into national plans for economic development, this second of ten manuals in the International Health Planning Methods Series deals with assessment, planning, and evaluation in the field of environmental health.…

  3. A Training Model for Using Indigenous Persons in Environmental Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callan, Laurence B.; Franklin, Wilma

    1972-01-01

    To illustrate the potential of indigenous environmental health workers, a hypothetical situation is created looking at the functions of such workers in a rodent control program. Community individuals, it is shown, are aware of unlabeled communication barriers which impede delivery of health services. Recognizing and utilizing this awareness can…

  4. Environmental assessment of stillage control

    SciTech Connect

    Barney, W. K.; Chang, H.

    1980-01-01

    The US government is encouraging increased production and use of gasohol in an effort to make the United States more energy independent. The current national goal is to substitute gasohol for 10% of the unleaded gasoline consumed in the United States by th end of 1980. Increased production of fuel ethanol in the years to come seems certain. In producing fuel ethanol (200 proof) from biomass feedstocks by fermentation, a liquid residue called stillage is produced. The concentration of BOD/sub 5/ in stillage is usually high compared to that in domestic waste, and this residue must go through a waste treatment process before discharge into bodies of water. While stillage has potential uses as an animal feed, soil amendment, and protein source for humans, the liquid remaining after useful stillage components have been extracted must still be treated before discharge to the environment. This paper identifies the types of stillage that are produced as well as their control. The concept of stillage control in the context of this paper includes both the uses and environmental control technology needs of stillage.

  5. International strategies in children's environmental health.

    PubMed

    van den Hazel, P J

    2007-10-01

    In recent years the fact that children need to be protected against environmental stressors has been widely accepted by decision- and policy-makers. However, there is not yet a good or unified strategy to improve children's health by improving their environment. The Policy Interpretation Network on Children's Health and Environment (PINCHE) network suggested a range of recommendations to support the development of a strategy on children's environmental health on different levels of authority: international, national, regional, and local. There clearly are indicated bottlenecks in the thematic network approach. Three main challenges for success have been identified; first is data comparability. PINCHE identified the need for standardisation of environmental assessments, classification of childhood respiratory diseases and symptoms, and a format for defining diagnostic groups and presentation of data. Second, data accessibility must be addressed. Accessibility of the scientific data to the general public, including health professionals and policy makers, is important and requires translation that is often lacking. Third there is a requirement to harmonise definitions and methods to ensure that scientists and authorities speak the same language. Obstacles are the subsidiarity principle, fragmentation of available knowledge or lack of expertise and purpose at various levels, the lack of political commitment or input and economic issues. PMID:17452127

  6. Environmental Health Disparities: A Framework Integrating Psychosocial and Environmental Concepts

    PubMed Central

    Gee, Gilbert C.; Payne-Sturges, Devon C.

    2004-01-01

    Although it is often acknowledged that social and environmental factors interact to produce racial and ethnic environmental health disparities, it is still unclear how this occurs. Despite continued controversy, the environmental justice movement has provided some insight by suggesting that disadvantaged communities face greater likelihood of exposure to ambient hazards. The exposure–disease paradigm has long suggested that differential “vulnerability” may modify the effects of toxicants on biological systems. However, relatively little work has been done to specify whether racial and ethnic minorities may have greater vulnerability than do majority populations and, further, what these vulnerabilities may be. We suggest that psychosocial stress may be the vulnerability factor that links social conditions with environmental hazards. Psychosocial stress can lead to acute and chronic changes in the functioning of body systems (e.g., immune) and also lead directly to illness. In this article we present a multidisciplinary framework integrating these ideas. We also argue that residential segregation leads to differential experiences of community stress, exposure to pollutants, and access to community resources. When not counterbalanced by resources, stressors may lead to heightened vulnerability to environmental hazards. PMID:15579407

  7. Environmental health physics: 50 years of progress.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Dade W

    2005-06-01

    Environmental health physics is an interdisciplinary field, involving study of the release, transport, and fate of radioactive material in the environment. Further, it addresses the interaction of humans with radioactive materials within the ambient (outdoor) environment and with the environments associated with modern technology and lifestyles. It also involves both naturally occurring and artificially produced radionuclides with the former generally being by far the highest source of exposure. In fact, doses from naturally occurring radionuclides are increasingly being used as a benchmark for the establishment of dose rate limits for people. Because of the pioneering work of early environmental health physicists, models exist today that can be used to assess the potential impacts of new nuclear facilities prior to their operation. In fact, these people represent the branch of the health physics profession who conducted environmental monitoring programs and performed the associated research studies that led to the identification of the principal radionuclides of interest, the major pathways and mechanisms through which they expose people, and the doses that may result from radioactive materials in the natural and technologically enhanced environments. One of their most important contributions was the identification and quantification of many of the key parameters that serve as input to such models. Monitoring of nuclear weapons development facilities used during and after World War II was the initial stimulus for the establishment of environmental health physics programs. Thereafter, these programs were expanded both nationally and globally, as a result of the atmospheric weapons testing programs of nations such as France, the People's Republic of China, the former Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Additional stimuli were provided by the development of the commercial nuclear power industry. Current environmental programs, particularly within

  8. Environmental health physics-50 years of progress.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Dade W

    2004-10-01

    Environmental health physics is an interdisciplinary field, involving study of the release, transport, and fate of radioactive material in the environment. Further, it addresses the interaction of humans with radioactive materials within the ambient (outdoor) environment and with the environments associated with modern technology and lifestyles. It also involves both naturally occurring and artificially produced radionuclides with the former generally being by far the highest source of exposure. In fact, doses from naturally occurring radionuclides are increasingly being used as a benchmark for the establishment of dose rate limits for people. Because of the pioneering work of early environmental health physicists, models exist today that can be used to assess the potential impacts of new nuclear facilities prior to their operation. In fact, these people represent the branch of the health physics profession who conducted environmental monitoring programs and performed the associated research studies that led to the identification of the principal radionuclides of interest, the major pathways and mechanisms through which they expose people, and the doses that may result from radioactive materials in the natural and technologically enhanced environments. One of their most important contributions was the identification and quantification of many of the key parameters that serve as input to such models. Monitoring of nuclear weapons development facilities used during and after World War II was the initial stimulus for the establishment of environmental health physics programs. Thereafter, these programs were expanded both nationally and globally, as a result of the atmospheric weapons testing programs of nations such as France, the People's Republic of China, the former Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Additional stimuli were provided by the development of the commercial nuclear power industry. Current environmental programs, particularly within

  9. Intelligent Control and Health Monitoring. Chapter 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Sanjay; Kumar, Aditya; Mathews, H. Kirk; Rosenfeld, Taylor; Rybarik, Pavol; Viassolo, Daniel E.

    2009-01-01

    Advanced model-based control architecture overcomes the limitations state-of-the-art engine control and provides the potential of virtual sensors, for example for thrust and stall margin. "Tracking filters" are used to adapt the control parameters to actual conditions and to individual engines. For health monitoring standalone monitoring units will be used for on-board analysis to determine the general engine health and detect and isolate sudden faults. Adaptive models open up the possibility of adapting the control logic to maintain desired performance in the presence of engine degradation or to accommodate any faults. Improved and new sensors are required to allow sensing at stations within the engine gas path that are currently not instrumented due in part to the harsh conditions including high operating temperatures and to allow additional monitoring of vibration, mass flows and energy properties, exhaust gas composition, and gas path debris. The environmental and performance requirements for these sensors are summarized.

  10. Children's environmental health in agricultural settings.

    PubMed

    Karr, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Children residing in rural settings may encounter environmental hazards derived from agricultural production activities. Health consequences of organic dusts, farm chemicals including pesticides, machinery noise, excess sun exposure, and zoonotic infectious agents have been clearly described among farm-working adults. The author reviews the related evidence base on child health with a life-stage perspective on their differential exposure and vulnerabilities. Methemoglobinemia among infants consuming nitrate-contaminated well water, neurodevelopmental health impacts associated with early life exposure to organophosphate pesticides, and diarrheal disease due to zoonotic infectious agents are well-described pediatric concerns. There is suggestive but more limited evidence for respiratory health consequences from air contaminants associated with confined animal feeding operations and hearing deficits for children exposed to machinery-related noise. Many contaminants of concern for children in these environments remain largely understudied-diesel exhaust, biomass burning, solvents, veterinary antibiotics, and silica-containing particulate matter. Overall, the state of knowledge and programmatic activities on agriculturally derived environmental contaminants and child health is immature and much less complete than for working adults. This overview provides a context for research, policy, and programmatic needs. PMID:22490026

  11. Hendra virus vaccine, a one health approach to protecting horse, human, and environmental health.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Deborah; Pallister, Jackie; Klein, Reuben; Feng, Yan-Ru; Haining, Jessica; Arkinstall, Rachel; Frazer, Leah; Huang, Jin-An; Edwards, Nigel; Wareing, Mark; Elhay, Martin; Hashmi, Zia; Bingham, John; Yamada, Manabu; Johnson, Dayna; White, John; Foord, Adam; Heine, Hans G; Marsh, Glenn A; Broder, Christopher C; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, the emergence of several highly pathogenic zoonotic diseases in humans has led to a renewed emphasis on the interconnectedness of human, animal, and environmental health, otherwise known as One Health. For example, Hendra virus (HeV), a zoonotic paramyxovirus, was discovered in 1994, and since then, infections have occurred in 7 humans, each of whom had a strong epidemiologic link to similarly affected horses. As a consequence of these outbreaks, eradication of bat populations was discussed, despite their crucial environmental roles in pollination and reduction of the insect population. We describe the development and evaluation of a vaccine for horses with the potential for breaking the chain of HeV transmission from bats to horses to humans, thereby protecting horse, human, and environmental health. The HeV vaccine for horses is a key example of a One Health approach to the control of human disease. PMID:24572697

  12. Health and Environmental Research. Summary of Accomplishments

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    1984-04-01

    This is a short account of a 40-year-old health and environmental research program performed in national laboratories, universities, and research institutes. Under the sponsorship of the federal agencies that were consecutively responsible for the national energy mission, this research program has contributed to the understanding of the human health and environmental effects of emergining energy technologies. In so doing, it has also evolved several nuclear techniques for the diagnosis and treatment of human ills. The form of this presentation is through examples of significant, tangible accomplishments in each of these areas at certain times to illustrate the role and impact of the research program. The narrative of this research program concludes with a perspective of its past and a prospectus on its future.

  13. Health and environmental effects profile for chloranil

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-03-01

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Chloranil was prepared to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency actions under Section 101 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Quantitative estimates are presented provided sufficient data are available. Chloranil has been evaluated as a carcinogen. The human carcinogen potency factor for chloranil is 0.0403 (mg/kg/day) for oral exposure. The Reportable Quantity (RQ) value of 1, 10, 100, 1000 or 5000 pounds is used to determine the quantity of a hazardous substance for which notification is required in the event of a release as specified by CERCLA based on chronic toxicity. The RQ value for chloranil is 1000.

  14. Health and environmental effects profile for chlorthiophos

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-04-01

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Chlorthiophos was prepared to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency actions under Section 101 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Chlorthiophos has been determined to be a systemic toxicant. An Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI), for chlorthiophos is 0.8 microgram/kg/day for oral exposure. The Reportable Quantity (RQ) value of 1, 10, 100, 1000 or 500 pounds is used to determine the quantity of a hazardous substance for which notification is required in the event of a release as specified by CERCLA based on chronic toxicity. Existing data are insufficient to determine an RQ value.

  15. Health and environmental effects profile for Carbazole

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-04-01

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Carbazole was prepared for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency actions under Section 101 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Quantitative estimates have been presented provided sufficient data are available. Carbazole has been evaluated as a carcinogen. The human carcinogen potency factor (q1*) for carbazole is .028/(mg/kg/day)-1 for oral exposure. The Reportable Quantity (RQ) value of 1, 10, 100, 1000 or 5000 pounds is used to determine the quantity of a hazardous substance for which notification is required in the event of a release as specified by CERCLA based on chronic toxicity. Existing data are insufficient to determine an RQ value.

  16. Health and environmental effects profile for dimethylphenols

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Dimethylphenols was prepared to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency actions under Section 101 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Dimethylphenols has been determined to be a systemic toxicant. Reference Doses (RfD), for 2,6-dimethylphenol and 3,4-dimethylphenol are 0.042 and 0.098 mg/day, respectively, for oral exposure. The Reportable Quantity (RQ) values for 2,6-dimethylphenol and 3,4-dimethylphenol are 100 and 1000, respectively. Existing data are insufficient to determine an RQ value for 2,3-, 2,4-, 2,5- and 3,5-dimethylphenol.

  17. Health and environmental research. Summary of accomplishments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-04-01

    This is a short account of a 40-year-old health and environmental research program performed in national laboratories, universities, and research institutes. Under the sponsorship of the federal agencies that were consecutively responsible for the national energy mission, this research program has contributed to the understanding of the human health and environmental effects of emergining energy technologies. In so doing, it has also evolved several nuclear techniques for the diagnosis and treatment of human ills. The form of this presentation is through examples of significant, tangible accomplishments in each of these areas at certain times to illustrate the role and impact of the research program. The narrative of this research program concludes with a perspective of its past and a prospectus on its future.

  18. Environmental Volunteering and Health Outcomes over a 20-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Pillemer, Karl; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E.; Reid, M. C.; Wells, Nancy M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study tested the hypothesis that volunteering in environmental organizations in midlife is associated with greater physical activity and improved mental and physical health over a 20-year period.  Design and Methods: The study used data from two waves (1974 and 1994) of the Alameda County Study, a longitudinal study of health and mortality that has followed a cohort of 6,928 adults since 1965. Using logistic and multiple regression models, we examined the prospective association between environmental and other volunteerism and three outcomes (physical activity, self-reported health, and depression), with 1974 volunteerism predicting 1994 outcomes, controlling for a number of relevant covariates.  Results: Midlife environmental volunteering was significantly associated with physical activity, self-reported health, and depressive symptoms.  Implications: This population-based study offers the first epidemiological evidence for a significant positive relationship between environmental volunteering and health and well-being outcomes. Further research, including intervention studies, is needed to confirm and shed additional light on these initial findings. PMID:20172902

  19. Environmental and health risk studies at HHWCFs

    SciTech Connect

    Kehoe, C.

    1995-09-01

    Sanitary Fill Company is proposing to expand San Francisco`s household hazardous waste facility. This paper describes our proposal and discusses the environmental review and public involvement processes that are now required. Planning this expansion has been long and expensive. To my knowledge we are among the first programs to conduct a detailed study of the potential health risks associated with household facilities. I will present a summary of our planning process and compare the process to the outcome.

  20. Health and environmental effects profile for phenol

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-02-01

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Phenol was prepared to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency actions under Section 101 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Both published literature and information obtained from Agency program office files were evaluated as they pertained to potential human-health, aquatic-life and environmental effects of hazardous-waste constituents. Quantitative estimates were presented provided sufficient data are available. Phenol has been determined to be a systemic toxicant. A Reference Dose (RfD), for phenol is 0.04 mg/kg/day for oral exposure. The Reportable Quantity (RQ) value of 1, 10, 100, 1000 or 5000 pounds is used to determine the quantity of a hazardous substance for which notification is required in the event of a release as specified by CERCLA based on chronic toxicity. The RQ value for phenol is 10.

  1. Health and Environmental Effects Profile for benzotrichloride

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-07-01

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for benzotrichloride was prepared to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency actions under Section 101 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Both published literature and information obtained from Agency program office files were evaluated as they pertained to potential human health, aquatic life and environmental effects of hazardous waste constituents. Quantitative estimates are presented provided sufficient data are available. Benzotrichloride has been evaluated as a carcinogen. The human carcinogen potency factor for benzotrichloride is 12.63 (mg/kg/day) for oral exposure. The Reportable Quantity (RQ) value of 1, 10, 100, 1000 or 5000 pounds is used to determine the quantity of a hazardous substance for which notification is required in the event of a release as specified by CERCLA based on chronic toxicity. The RQ value for benzotrichloride is 10.

  2. Lessons from tuberculosis control for public health.

    PubMed

    Frieden, T R

    2009-04-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) control in many ways exemplifies evidence-based public health practice, rigorously implemented, with appropriate emphasis on the central importance of political support for success. With more than 30 million patients treated in the past decade, TB control has important implications for managing both communicable and non-communicable diseases. Simple diagnostic tests, meticulously proven standardized treatment regimens with assured drug supply, supportive case management and a superb information system that tracks the progress of every patient, all facilitate effective program implementation. TB control shows that public health programs, including those that require long-term treatment in the primary care system, can be effective in poor countries; however, TB rates are heavily influenced by the social, environmental and epidemiologic context, emphasizing that treatment is not enough and that socio-economic factors may be more important determinants of epidemiologic trends than treatment programs. TB control is effective when it combines two essential components: a practical, implementable, proven technical package, and political commitment. Political commitment is also essential to implement other interventions that can improve health, including healthier air, water and food, as well as programs to prevent or reduce tobacco smoking, cardiovascular disease, cancer, obesity and other growing public health problems. By implementing evidence-based practices, ensuring operational excellence, using information systems that facilitate accountability and evaluation, and obtaining and maintaining political support, we can address the public health challenges of the twenty-first century. PMID:19335945

  3. CONSIDERATION OF CHILDREN'S DISTINCTIVE SUSCEPTIBILITY IN ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Consideration of children's distinctive susceptibility in environmental health studies.
    Pauline Mendola (US EPA, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711)

    Children are a particularly susceptible subpopulation with ...

  4. RESEARCH ON ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH INTERVENTIONS: ETHICAL PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

    PubMed Central

    RESNIK, DAVID B.; ZELDIN, DARRYL C.; SHARP, RICHARD R.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews a variety of ethical issues one must consider when conducting research on environmental health interventions on human subjects. The paper uses the Kennedy Krieger Institute lead abatement study as well as a hypothetical asthma study to discuss questions concerning benefits and risks, risk minimization, safety monitoring, the duty to warn, the duty to report, the use of control groups, informed consent, equitable subject selection, privacy, conflicts of interest, and community consultation. Research on environmental health interventions can make an important contribution to our understanding of human health and disease prevention, provided it is conducted in a manner that meets prevailing scientific, ethical, and legal standards for research on human subjects. PMID:16220621

  5. Environmental Management of Pediatric Asthma: Guidelines for Health Care Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, James R.; McCurdy, Leyla Erk

    2005-01-01

    These guidelines are the product of a new Pediatric Asthma Initiative aimed at integrating environmental management of asthma into pediatric health care. This document outlines competencies in environmental health relevant to pediatric asthma that should be mastered by primary health care providers, and outlines the environmental interventions…

  6. Environmental exposure to pesticides and respiratory health.

    PubMed

    Mamane, Ali; Raherison, Chantal; Tessier, Jean-François; Baldi, Isabelle; Bouvier, Ghislaine

    2015-09-01

    Respiratory effects of environmental exposure to pesticides are debated. Here we aimed to review epidemiological studies published up until 2013, using the PubMed database. 20 studies dealing with respiratory health and non-occupational pesticide exposure were identified, 14 carried out on children and six on adults. In four out of nine studies in children with biological measurements, mothers' dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) blood levels during pregnancy were associated with asthma and wheezing in young children. An association was also found between permethrin in indoor air during pregnancy and wheezing in children. A significant association between asthma and DDE measured in children's blood (aged 7-10 years) was observed in one study. However, in three studies, no association was found between asthma or respiratory infections in children and pesticide levels in breast milk and/or infant blood. Lastly, in three out of four studies where post-natal pesticide exposure of children was assessed by parental questionnaire an association with respiratory symptoms was found. Results of the fewer studies on pesticide environmental exposure and respiratory health of adults were much less conclusive: indeed, the associations observed were weak and often not significant. In conclusion, further studies are needed to confirm whether there is a respiratory risk associated with environmental exposure to pesticides. PMID:26324808

  7. Objectivity and ethics in environmental health science.

    PubMed Central

    Wing, Steve

    2003-01-01

    During the past several decades, philosophers of science and scientists themselves have become increasingly aware of the complex ways in which scientific knowledge is shaped by its social context. This awareness has called into question traditional notions of objectivity. Working scientists need an understanding of their own practice that avoids the naïve myth that science can become objective by avoiding social influences as well as the reductionist view that its content is determined simply by economic interests. A nuanced perspective on this process can improve research ethics and increase the capacity of science to contribute to equitable public policy, especially in areas such as environmental and occupational health, which have direct implications for profits, regulation, legal responsibility, and social justice. I discuss research into health effects of the 1979 accident at Three Mile Island near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, USA, as an example of how scientific explanations are shaped by social concepts, norms, and preconceptions. I describe how a scientific practice that developed under the influence of medical and nuclear physics interacted with observations made by exposed community members to affect research questions, the interpretation of evidence, inferences about biological mechanisms in disease causation, and the use of evidence in litigation. By considering the history and philosophy of their disciplines, practicing researchers can increase the rigor, objectivity, and social responsibility of environmental health science. PMID:14594636

  8. Health and Environmental Effects Profile for benzidine

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-06-01

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for benzidine was prepared to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency actions under Section 101 of the Comprehensive Enviromental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Both published literature and information obtained from Agency program office files were evaluated as they pertained to potential human health, aquatic life, and environmental effects of hazardous-waste constituents. Quantitative estimates are presented provided sufficient data are available. Benzidine has been evaluated as a carcinogen. The human carcinogen potency factor (q1*) for benzidine is 234.13 (mg/kg/day) for oral exposure. The Reportable Quantity (RQ) value of 1, 10, 100, 1000 or 5000 pounds is used to determine the quantity of a hazardous substance for which notification is required in the event of a release as specified by CERCLA based on chronic toxicity. The RQ value for benzidine 100.

  9. Objectivity and ethics in environmental health science.

    PubMed

    Wing, Steve

    2003-11-01

    During the past several decades, philosophers of science and scientists themselves have become increasingly aware of the complex ways in which scientific knowledge is shaped by its social context. This awareness has called into question traditional notions of objectivity. Working scientists need an understanding of their own practice that avoids the naïve myth that science can become objective by avoiding social influences as well as the reductionist view that its content is determined simply by economic interests. A nuanced perspective on this process can improve research ethics and increase the capacity of science to contribute to equitable public policy, especially in areas such as environmental and occupational health, which have direct implications for profits, regulation, legal responsibility, and social justice. I discuss research into health effects of the 1979 accident at Three Mile Island near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, USA, as an example of how scientific explanations are shaped by social concepts, norms, and preconceptions. I describe how a scientific practice that developed under the influence of medical and nuclear physics interacted with observations made by exposed community members to affect research questions, the interpretation of evidence, inferences about biological mechanisms in disease causation, and the use of evidence in litigation. By considering the history and philosophy of their disciplines, practicing researchers can increase the rigor, objectivity, and social responsibility of environmental health science. PMID:14594636

  10. Oil shale health and environmental risk analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gratt, L.B.

    1983-04-01

    The potential human health and environmental risks of hypothetical one-million-barrels-per-day oil shale industry have been analyzed to serve as an aid in the formulation and management of a program of environmental research. The largest uncertainties for expected fatalities are in the public sector from air pollutants although the occupational sector is estimated to have 60% more expected fatalities than the public sector. Occupational safety and illness have been analyzed for the oil shale fuel cycle from extraction to delivery of products for end use. Pneumoconiosis from the dust environment is the worker disease resulting in the greatest number of fatalities, followed by chronic bronchitis, internal cancer, and skin cancers, respectively. Research recommendations are presented for reducing the uncertainties in the risks analyzed and to fill data gaps to estimate other risks.

  11. Underground storage tanks: The environmental health role

    SciTech Connect

    Henke, S. )

    1994-04-01

    Petroleum contamination of shallow aquifers resulting from antiquated underground petroleum storage systems has had a significant economical, as well as environmental impact on the nation's urban and rural communities. The cost for assessment and clean-up of a service station petroleum leak in Caliente, Nevada (population: 1,111) may go as high as $3 million. Whereas in a more urban area such as Las Vegas, Nevada, 317 petroleum clean-up operations of leaking underground storage tanks (USTs) have been initiated in a three-year period between October 1990 and October 1993. The leaking UST problem, brought to national attention during the late 1970s and early 1980s, has had such an impact that the EPA has enlisted state and local environmental and health agencies to take an important lead role to find, mitigate, and prevent petroleum leaks into the unseen subsurface environment. The 1990s will witness a national amelioration of shallow aquifers.

  12. Nanotechnology and environmental and public health considerations.

    PubMed

    Geiser, Ken

    2004-01-01

    Nanotechnology has arrived on the scene much as did predecessor technologies--hailed for its purpose and accepted with enthusiasm amid bursts of research, funding, and news of creative applications. But the early efforts to consider its environmental aspects have been small even though the implications for environmental and public health are broad. A well-crafted policy framework is needed, one linked to a clearer understanding of the direct and indirect effects, benefits, and risk of nanotechnology. A precautious approach would foster policy interventions to prevent harms by slowing developments where the risks are high and focus scientific effort on dispelling ignorance and uncertainty, especially in those areas where the consequences of being wrong are substantial. This kind of approach also would impose the burden of demonstrating the safety of the technology primarily on its proponents. The process of producing guidelines for other technologies is considered. PMID:17208882

  13. Publications of the environmental health program: 1980-1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace-Robinson, Janice; Hess, Elizabeth; Dickson, Katherine J.

    1992-01-01

    A 10-year cumulative bibliography of publications resulting from research supported by the Environmental Health Program of the Life Sciences Division of NASA is given. The goals of this program are to utilize ground based studies to understand the effects of the spacecraft and EVA environments on humans and other organisms; to specify, measure, and control these environments; and to develop countermeasures, where necessary, to optimize crew health, safety, and productivity. The primary subjects encompassed are barophysiology, toxicology, and microbiology. Principal Investigators whose research tasks resulted in publication are identified.

  14. Public health implications of environmental exposures.

    PubMed Central

    De Rosa, C T; Pohl, H R; Williams, M; Ademoyero, A A; Chou, C H; Jones, D E

    1998-01-01

    The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) is a public health agency with responsibility for assessing the public health implications associated with uncontrolled releases of hazardous substances into the environment. The biological effects of low-level exposures are a primary concern in these assessments. One of the tools used by the agency for this purpose is the risk assessment paradigm originally outlined and described by the National Academy of Science in 1983. Because of its design and inherent concepts, risk assessment has been variously employed by a number of environmental and public health agencies and programs as a means to organize information, as a decision support tool, and as a working hypothesis for biologically based inference and extrapolation. Risk assessment has also been the subject of significant critical review. The ATSDR recognizes the utility of both the qualitative and quantitative conclusions provided by traditional risk assessment, but the agency uses such estimates only in the broader context of professional judgment, internal and external peer review, and extensive public review and comment. This multifaceted approach is consistent with the Council on Environmental Quality's description and use of risk analysis as an organizing construct based on sound biomedical and other scientific judgment in concert with risk assessment to define plausible exposure ranges of concern rather than a single numerical estimate that may convey an artificial sense of precision. In this approach biomedical opinion, host factors, mechanistic interpretation, molecular epidemiology, and actual exposure conditions are all critically important in evaluating the significance of environmental exposure to hazardous substances. As such, the ATSDR risk analysis approach is a multidimensional endeavor encompassing not only the components of risk assessment but also the principles of biomedical judgment, risk management, and risk communication

  15. Risk Analysis for Environmental Health Triage

    SciTech Connect

    Bogen, K T

    2005-11-18

    The Homeland Security Act mandates development of a national, risk-based system to support planning for, response to and recovery from emergency situations involving large-scale toxic exposures. To prepare for and manage consequences effectively, planners and responders need not only to identify zones of potentially elevated individual risk, but also to predict expected casualties. Emergency response support systems now define ''consequences'' by mapping areas in which toxic chemical concentrations do or may exceed Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) or similar guidelines. However, because AEGLs do not estimate expected risks, current unqualified claims that such maps support consequence management are misleading. Intentionally protective, AEGLs incorporate various safety/uncertainty factors depending on scope and quality of chemical-specific toxicity data. Some of these factors are irrelevant, and others need to be modified, whenever resource constraints or exposure-scenario complexities require responders to make critical trade-off (triage) decisions in order to minimize expected casualties. AEGL-exceedance zones cannot consistently be aggregated, compared, or used to calculate expected casualties, and so may seriously misguide emergency response triage decisions. Methods and tools well established and readily available to support environmental health protection are not yet developed for chemically related environmental health triage. Effective triage decisions involving chemical risks require a new assessment approach that focuses on best estimates of likely casualties, rather than on upper plausible bounds of individual risk. If risk-based consequence management is to become a reality, federal agencies tasked with supporting emergency response must actively coordinate to foster new methods that can support effective environmental health triage.

  16. European Birth Cohorts for Environmental Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Casas, Maribel; Bergström, Anna; Carmichael, Amanda; Cordier, Sylvaine; Eggesbø, Merete; Eller, Esben; Fantini, Maria P.; Fernández, Mariana F.; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Gehring, Ulrike; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Hohmann, Cynthia; Karvonen, Anne M.; Keil, Thomas; Kogevinas, Manolis; Koppen, Gudrun; Krämer, Ursula; Kuehni, Claudia E.; Magnus, Per; Majewska, Renata; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Patelarou, Evridiki; Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Pierik, Frank H.; Polanska, Kinga; Porta, Daniela; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Santos, Ana Cristina; Slama, Rémy; Sram, Radim J.; Thijs, Carel; Tischer, Christina; Toft, Gunnar; Trnovec, Tomáš; Vandentorren, Stephanie; Vrijkotte, Tanja G.M.; Wilhelm, Michael; Wright, John; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Background: Many pregnancy and birth cohort studies investigate the health effects of early-life environmental contaminant exposure. An overview of existing studies and their data is needed to improve collaboration, harmonization, and future project planning. Objectives: Our goal was to create a comprehensive overview of European birth cohorts with environmental exposure data. Methods: Birth cohort studies were included if they a) collected data on at least one environmental exposure, b) started enrollment during pregnancy or at birth, c) included at least one follow-up point after birth, d) included at least 200 mother–child pairs, and e) were based in a European country. A questionnaire collected information on basic protocol details and exposure and health outcome assessments, including specific contaminants, methods and samples, timing, and number of subjects. A full inventory can be searched on www.birthcohortsenrieco.net. Results: Questionnaires were completed by 37 cohort studies of > 350,000 mother–child pairs in 19 European countries. Only three cohorts did not participate. All cohorts collected biological specimens of children or parents. Many cohorts collected information on passive smoking (n = 36), maternal occupation (n = 33), outdoor air pollution (n = 27), and allergens/biological organisms (n = 27). Fewer cohorts (n = 12–19) collected information on water contamination, ionizing or nonionizing radiation exposures, noise, metals, persistent organic pollutants, or other pollutants. All cohorts have information on birth outcomes; nearly all on asthma, allergies, childhood growth and obesity; and 26 collected information on child neurodevelopment. Conclusion: Combining forces in this field will yield more efficient and conclusive studies and ultimately improve causal inference. This impressive resource of existing birth cohort data could form the basis for longer-term and worldwide coordination of research on environment and child health. PMID

  17. Using Modules in an Environmental Health Training Program. Module 20. Vocational Education Training in Environmental Health Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consumer Dynamics Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This module, one of 25 on vocational education training for careers in environmental health occupations, is on using modules in an environmental health training program. This informational document describes the prospective student, content and objectives of the modules, and how to select modules for use in an environmental health training…

  18. The Environmental Health of Latino Children

    PubMed Central

    Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Zambrana, Ruth E.; Poppell, Carolyn F.; Logie, Laura A.; Guerrero-Preston, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    Representing 1 in 6 children in the United States, Latino children incur disproportionate exposures to air pollutants, pesticides, and toxic industrial chemicals, as well as lead and mercury from candy, traditional folk remedies, religious practices, and other sources. Latino children also have higher rates of asthma, lead and mercury poisoning, behavioral and developmental disorders, and certain cancers. Concurrent exposure to multiple pollutants, pre-existing disease, poor nutrition, substandard housing, limited access to health care, and other factors related to their lower socioeconomic status increase Latino children's susceptibility to environmental contaminants. Targeted research, education, prevention and intervention efforts, and economic development initiatives are needed. PMID:17825728

  19. Economic Evaluation of Environmental Health Interventions to Support Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Hutton, Guy

    2008-01-01

    Environmental burden of disease represents one quarter of overall disease burden, hence necessitating greater attention from decision makers both inside and outside the health sector. Economic evaluation techniques such as cost-effectiveness analysis and cost-benefit analysis provide key information to health decision makers on the efficiency of environmental health interventions, assisting them in choosing interventions which give the greatest social return on limited public budgets and private resources. The aim of this article is to review economic evaluation studies in three environmental health areas—water, sanitation, hygiene (WSH), vector control, and air pollution—and to critically examine the policy relevance and scientific quality of the studies for selecting and funding public programmers. A keyword search of Medline from 1990–2008 revealed 32 studies, and gathering of articles from other sources revealed a further 18 studies, giving a total of 50 economic evaluation studies (13 WSH interventions, 16 vector control and 21 air pollution). Overall, the economic evidence base on environmental health interventions remains relatively weak—too few studies per intervention, of variable scientific quality and from diverse locations which limits generalisability of findings. Importantly, there still exists a disconnect between economic research, decision making and programmer implementation. This can be explained by the lack of translation of research findings into accessible documentation for policy makers and limited relevance of research findings, and the often low importance of economic evidence in budgeting decisions. These findings underline the importance of involving policy makers in the defining of research agendas and commissioning of research, and improving the awareness of researchers of the policy environment into which their research feeds. PMID:21572840

  20. Plastics and environmental health: the road ahead.

    PubMed

    North, Emily J; Halden, Rolf U

    2013-01-01

    Plastics continue to benefit society in innumerable ways, even though recent public focus on plastics has centered mostly on human health and environmental concerns, including their endocrine-disrupting properties and the long-term pollution they represent. The benefits of plastics are particularly apparent in medicine and public health. Plastics are versatile, cost-effective, require less energy to produce than alternative materials like metal or glass, and can be manufactured to have many different properties. Due to these characteristics, polymers are used in diverse health applications like disposable syringes and intravenous bags, sterile packaging for medical instruments as well as in joint replacements, tissue engineering, etc. However, not all current uses of plastics are prudent and sustainable, as illustrated by the widespread, unwanted human exposure to endocrine-disrupting bisphenol A (BPA) and di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), problems arising from the large quantities of plastic being disposed of, and depletion of non-renewable petroleum resources as a result of the ever-increasing mass production of plastic consumer articles. Using the health-care sector as example, this review concentrates on the benefits and downsides of plastics and identifies opportunities to change the composition and disposal practices of these invaluable polymers for a more sustainable future consumption. It highlights ongoing efforts to phase out DEHP and BPA in the health-care and food industry and discusses biodegradable options for plastic packaging, opportunities for reducing plastic medical waste, and recycling in medical facilities in the quest to reap a maximum of benefits from polymers without compromising human health or the environment in the process. PMID:23337043

  1. [Health and environmental governance for sustainable development].

    PubMed

    Buss, Paulo Marchiori; Machado, Jorge Mesquita Huet; Gallo, Edmundo; Magalhães, Danielly de Paiva; Setti, Andréia Faraoni Freitas; Franco Netto, Francisco de Abreu; Buss, Daniel Forsin

    2012-06-01

    The United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, Rio+20, will address the challenges for sustainable development (SD), 'green economy and poverty eradication' and the 'institutional structure of sustainable development'. Therefore it will address the governance needed to achieve such goals. This paper discusses the structure of global, regional and national governance of and for health and environment in the context of SD. Among other global actions, the Millenium Development Goals were a significant recent political effort, but despite its advances, it fails when ignores the structural causes of production and consumption patterns and the unequal distribution of power, which are responsible for inequities and impede true development. To achieve SD, proposals must avoid reductionism, advancing conceptually and methodologically to face the challenges of the socio-environmental determinants of health through intersectoral action, including social participation and all levels of government. It is paramount to continue the implementation of Agenda 21, to meet the MDGs and to create 'Sustainable Development Goals'. Regarding the health field, Rio+20 Summit must reassure the connection between health and sustainability - as a part of the Social pillar of sustainable development - inspiring politics and actions in multiple levels. PMID:22699639

  2. 77 FR 37678 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Environmental Health/Agency for Toxic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Environmental Health/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry: Notice of Charter... Scientific Counselors, National Center for Environmental Health/Agency for Toxic Substances and...

  3. Summary of the Workshop on Methodologies for Environmental Public Health Tracking of Air Pollution Effects

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) established the Environmental Public Health Tracking (EPHT) program to support state and local projects to compile, link, analyze, and disseminate environmental and health data thereby engaging stakeholders and guiding act...

  4. Report on health and environmental effects of increased coal utilization*

    PubMed Central

    1980-01-01

    The National Energy Plan announced by President Carter on April 29, 1977 proposed a significant increase in the utilization of the vast domestic deposits of coal to replace the dwindling supplies of oil and natural gas, and increasingly expensive oil from foreign sources, to meet national energy needs. At the same time, in recognition of possible adverse health and ecological consequences of increased coal production and use, the President announced that a special committee would be formed to study this aspect of the National Energy Plan. The Committee held a series of public meetings during November and December 1977 to review a number of special papers on particular problems associated with increased coal utilization. These papers, which were prepared by scientists of the US Environmental Protection Agency; the Department of Energy; the HEW National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; New York University; and Vanderbilt University; provided essential background information for the deliberations of the Committee and were published in EHP Vol. 33, pp. 127–314, 1979. One paper by A. P. Altschuler et al. is published in this volume of EHP. The Committee's basic finding was that it is safe to proceed with plans to increase the utilization of coal if the following environmental and safety policies are adhered to: • Compliance with Federal and State air, water, and solid waste regulations • Universal adoption and successful operation of best available control technology on new facilities • Compliance with reclamation standards • Compliance with mine health and safety standards • Judicious siting of coal-fired facilities The Committee concluded that, even with the best mitigation policies, there will be some adverse health and environmental effects from the dramatic increase in coal use. However, these will not impact all regions and individuals uniformly. The Committee identified six

  5. Diesel engines: environmental impact and control.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, A C; Cackette, T A

    2001-06-01

    The diesel engine is the most efficient prime mover commonly available today. Diesel engines move a large portion of the world's goods, power much of the world's equipment, and generate electricity more economically than any other device in their size range. But the diesel is one of the largest contributors to environmental pollution problems worldwide, and will remain so, with large increases expected in vehicle population and vehicle miles traveled (VMT) causing ever-increasing global emissions. Diesel emissions contribute to the development of cancer; cardiovascular and respiratory health effects; pollution of air, water, and soil; soiling; reductions in visibility; and global climate change. Where instituted, control programs have been effective in reducing diesel fleet emissions. Fuel changes, such as reduced sulfur and aromatics content, have resulted in immediate improvements across the entire diesel on- and off-road fleet, and promise more improvements with future control. In the United States, for example, 49-state (non-California) off-road diesel fuel sulfur content is 10 times higher than that of national on-road diesel fuel. Significantly reducing this sulfur content would reduce secondary particulate matter (PM) formation and allow the use of control technologies that have proven effective in the on-road arena. The use of essentially zero-sulfur fuels, such as natural gas, in heavy-duty applications is also expected to continue. Technology changes, such as engine modifications, exhaust gas recirculation, and catalytic aftertreatment, take longer to fully implement, due to slow fleet turnover. However, they eventually result in significant emission reductions and will be continued on an ever-widening basis in the United States and worldwide. New technologies, such as hybrids and fuel cells, show significant promise in reducing emissions from sources currently dominated by diesel use. Lastly, the turnover of trucks and especially off-road equipment is

  6. Navajo Environmental Health Review by the National Environmental Health Association (Window Rock, Arizona, May 24-27, 1976).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navajo Health Authority, Window Rock, AZ.

    The Indian Health Committee met with key staff of the Indian Health Service (IHS) Area Office to review the environmental health services provided on the Navajo Reservation and make recommendations for improvement or expansion of current programs, if needed. Recommendations were made regarding environmental health and institutional personnel,…

  7. Assessing environmental assets for health promotion program planning: a practical framework for health promotion practitioners.

    PubMed

    Springer, Andrew E; Evans, Alexandra E

    2016-01-01

    Conducting a health needs assessment is an important if not essential first step for health promotion planning. This paper explores how health needs assessments may be further strengthened for health promotion planning via an assessment of environmental assets rooted in the multiple environments (policy, information, social and physical environments) that shape health and behavior. Guided by a behavioral-ecological perspective- one that seeks to identify environmental assets that can influence health behavior, and an implementation science perspective- one that seeks to interweave health promotion strategies into existing environmental assets, we present a basic framework for assessing environmental assets and review examples from the literature to illustrate the incorporation of environmental assets into health program design. Health promotion practitioners and researchers implicitly identify and apply environmental assets in the design and implementation of health promotion interventions;this paper provides foundation for greater intentionality in assessing environmental assets for health promotion planning. PMID:27579254

  8. Assessing environmental assets for health promotion program planning: a practical framework for health promotion practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Andrew E.; Evans, Alexandra E.

    2016-01-01

    Conducting a health needs assessment is an important if not essential first step for health promotion planning. This paper explores how health needs assessments may be further strengthened for health promotion planning via an assessment of environmental assets rooted in the multiple environments (policy, information, social and physical environments) that shape health and behavior. Guided by a behavioral-ecological perspective- one that seeks to identify environmental assets that can influence health behavior, and an implementation science perspective- one that seeks to interweave health promotion strategies into existing environmental assets, we present a basic framework for assessing environmental assets and review examples from the literature to illustrate the incorporation of environmental assets into health program design. Health promotion practitioners and researchers implicitly identify and apply environmental assets in the design and implementation of health promotion interventions;this paper provides foundation for greater intentionality in assessing environmental assets for health promotion planning. PMID:27579254

  9. Prioritizing environmental health risks in the UAE.

    PubMed

    Willis, Henry H; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald; Shih, Regina A; Geschwind, Sandra; Olmstead, Sarah; Hu, Jianhui; Curtright, Aimee E; Cecchine, Gary; Moore, Melinda

    2010-12-01

    This article presents the results of a comparative environmental risk-ranking exercise that was conducted in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) to inform a strategic planning process led by the Environment Agency-Abu Dhabi (EAD). It represents the first national-level application of a deliberative method for comparative risk ranking first published in this journal. The deliberative method involves a five-stage process that includes quantitative risk assessment by experts and deliberations by groups of stakeholders. The project reported in this article considered 14 categories of environmental risks to health identified through discussions with EAD staff: ambient and indoor air pollution; drinking water contamination; coastal water pollution; soil and groundwater contamination; contamination of fruits, vegetables, and seafood; ambient noise; stratospheric ozone depletion; electromagnetic fields from power lines; health impacts from climate change; and exposure to hazardous substances in industrial, construction, and agricultural work environments. Results from workshops involving 73 stakeholders who met in five separate groups to rank these risks individually and collaboratively indicated strong consensus that outdoor and indoor air pollution are the highest priorities in the UAE. Each of the five groups rated these as being among the highest risks. All groups rated soil and groundwater contamination as being among the lowest risks. In surveys administered after the ranking exercises, participants indicated that the results of the process represented their concerns and approved of using the ranking results to inform policy decisions. The results ultimately shaped a strategic plan that is now being implemented. PMID:20723144

  10. Health and Environmental Effects Profile for dinitrocresols

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-07-01

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Dinitrocresols was prepared to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency actions under Section 101 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Dinitrocresols has been determined to be a systemic toxicant. An Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI), defined as the amount of a chemical to which humans can be exposed on a daily basis over an extended period of time (usually a lifetime) without suffering a deleterious effect, for 4,6-dinitrocresol is 0.001 mg/kg/day for inhalation exposure. The Reportable Quantity (RQ) value of 1, 10, 100, 1000 or 5000 pounds is used to determine the quantity of a hazardous substance for which notification is required in the event of a release as specified by CERCLA based on chronic toxicity. The RQ value for 4,6-dinitro-o-cresol is 100. Existing data are insufficient to determine an RQ value for 2,6-dinitro-p-cresol.

  11. Health and Environmental Effects Profile for chloroacetaldehyde

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-06-01

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Chloroacetaldehyde was prepared to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency actions under Section 101 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Quantitative estimates are presented provided sufficient data are available. Chloroacetaldehyde has been determined to be a systemic toxicant. An Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI), defined as the amount of a chemical to which humans can be exposed on a daily basis over an extended period of time (usually a lifetime) without suffering a deleterious effect, for chloroacetaldehyde is 0.007 mg/kg/day for oral exposure. The Reportable Quantity (RQ) value of 1, 10, 100, 1000 or 5000 pounds is used to determine the quantity of a hazardous substance for which notification is required in the event of a release as specified by CERCLA based on chronic toxicity. Existing data are insufficient to determine an RQ value.

  12. Male reproductive health and environmental xenoestrogens.

    PubMed Central

    Toppari, J; Larsen, J C; Christiansen, P; Giwercman, A; Grandjean, P; Guillette, L J; Jégou, B; Jensen, T K; Jouannet, P; Keiding, N; Leffers, H; McLachlan, J A; Meyer, O; Müller, J; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Scheike, T; Sharpe, R; Sumpter, J; Skakkebaek, N E

    1996-01-01

    Male reproductive health has deteriorated in many countries during the last few decades. In the 1990s, declining semen quality has been reported from Belgium, Denmark, France, and Great Britain. The incidence of testicular cancer has increased during the same time incidences of hypospadias and cryptorchidism also appear to be increasing. Similar reproductive problems occur in many wildlife species. There are marked geographic differences in the prevalence of male reproductive disorders. While the reasons for these differences are currently unknown, both clinical and laboratory research suggest that the adverse changes may be inter-related and have a common origin in fetal life or childhood. Exposure of the male fetus to supranormal levels of estrogens, such as diethlylstilbestrol, can result in the above-mentioned reproductive defects. The growing number of reports demonstrating that common environmental contaminants and natural factors possess estrogenic activity presents the working hypothesis that the adverse trends in male reproductive health may be, at least in part, associated with exposure to estrogenic or other hormonally active (e.g., antiandrogenic) environmental chemicals during fetal and childhood development. An extensive research program is needed to understand the extent of the problem, its underlying etiology, and the development of a strategy for prevention and intervention. Images Figure 3. A Figure 3. B Figure 3. C Figure 3. D Figure 3. E Figure 3. F PMID:8880001

  13. Skills and abilities needed by environmental health science and protection professionals in the public sector.

    PubMed

    Morrone, Michele

    2003-01-01

    The National Environmental Health Science and Protection Accreditation Council (EHAC) accredits undergraduate academic environmental health science programs in the United States. The guidelines used by EHAC include core and technical courses that students should take in order to graduate with a bachelor of science degree in environmental health science. As part of a review of the accreditation guidelines, the research reported in this paper was undertaken with support from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. To identify the skills and abilities needed by entry-level environmental health professionals in the public sector, the research 1) examined existing environmental health priorities in public-health agencies, 2) reviewed entry-level job postings, and 3) surveyed more than 120 public-health professionals across the country. The results suggest that students who graduate from accredited programs must be skilled interpersonal communicators with a broad base of technical knowledge. PMID:12575636

  14. Environmental and health aspects of lighting: Mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Clear, R.; Berman, S.

    1993-07-01

    Most discharge lamps, including fluorescent lamps, metal halide lamps, and high pressure sodium lamps, contain Mercury, a toxic chemical. Lighting professionals need to be able to respond to questions about the direct hazards of Mercury from accidentally breaking lamps, and the potential environmental hazards of lamp operation and disposal. We calculated the exposures that could occur from an accidental breakage of lamps. Acute poisoning appears almost impossible. Under some circumstances a sealed environment, such as a space station, could be contaminated enough to make it unhealthy for long-term occupation. Mercury becomes a potential environmental hazard after it becomes methylated. Mercury is methylated in aquatic environments, where it may accumulate in fish, eventually rendering them toxic to people and other animals. Lighting causes Mercury to enter the environment directly from lamp disposal, and indirectly from power plant emissions. The environmental tradeoffs between incandescent and discharge lamps depend upon the amounts released by these two sources, their local concentrations, and their probabilities of being methylated. Indirect environmental effects of lighting also include the release of other heavy metals (Cadmium, Lead and Arsenic), and other air pollutants and carbon dioxide that are emitted by fossil fuel power plants. For a given light output, the level of power plant emissions depends upon the efficacy of the light source, and is thus much larger for incandescent lamps than for fluorescent or discharge lamps. As disposal and control technologies change the relative direct and indirect emissions from discharge and incandescent lamps will change.

  15. Health Consequences of Environmental Exposures: Causal Thinking in Global Environmental Epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Sly, Peter D; Carpenter, David O; Van den Berg, Martin; Stein, Renato T; Landrigan, Philip J; Brune-Drisse, Marie-Noel; Suk, William

    2016-01-01

    The 2010 Global Burden of Disease estimates indicate a trend toward increasing years lived with disability from chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Risk factors examined included smoking, diet, alcohol, drug abuse, and physical inactivity. By contrast, little consideration was given to accumulating evidence that exposures to environmental chemicals, psychosocial stress, and malnutrition during fetal development and across the life span also increase risk of NCDs. To address this gap, we undertook a narrative review of early-life environmental contributions to disease. We documented numerous etiologic associations. We propose that future GBD estimates use an expanded approach for assessing etiologic contributions of environmental exposures to recognized disease risk factors. We argue that broadening the definition of environmental disease, together with improved methods of assessing early life exposures and their health outcomes across the life span, will allow better understanding of causal associations and provide the incentives required to support strategies to control avoidable exposures and reduce disease risk. PMID:27325063

  16. 21 CFR 890.3725 - Powered environmental control system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Powered environmental control system. 890.3725 Section 890.3725 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3725...

  17. 21 CFR 890.3725 - Powered environmental control system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Powered environmental control system. 890.3725 Section 890.3725 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3725...

  18. 21 CFR 890.3725 - Powered environmental control system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Powered environmental control system. 890.3725 Section 890.3725 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3725...

  19. 21 CFR 890.3725 - Powered environmental control system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Powered environmental control system. 890.3725 Section 890.3725 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3725...

  20. 21 CFR 890.3725 - Powered environmental control system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Powered environmental control system. 890.3725 Section 890.3725 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3725...

  1. 21 CFR 1271.195 - Environmental control and monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Environmental control and monitoring. 1271.195 Section 1271.195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION HUMAN...

  2. 21 CFR 1271.195 - Environmental control and monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Environmental control and monitoring. 1271.195 Section 1271.195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION HUMAN...

  3. Incorporating Environmental Health into Pediatric Medical and Nursing Education

    PubMed Central

    McCurdy, Leyla Erk; Roberts, James; Rogers, Bonnie; Love, Rebecca; Etzel, Ruth; Paulson, Jerome; Witherspoon, Nsedu Obot; Dearry, Allen

    2004-01-01

    Pediatric medical and nursing education currently lacks the environmental health content necessary to appropriately prepare pediatric health care professionals to prevent, recognize, manage, and treat environmental-exposure–related disease. Leading health institutions have recognized the need for improvements in health professionals’ environmental health education. Parents are seeking answers about the impact of environmental toxicants on their children. Given the biologic, psychological, and social differences between children and adults, there is a need for environmental health education specific to children. The National Environmental Education and Training Foundation, in partnership with the Children’s Environmental Health Network, created two working groups, one with expertise in medical education and one with expertise in nursing education. The working groups reviewed the transition from undergraduate student to professional to assess where in those processes pediatric environmental health could be emphasized. The medical education working group recommended increasing education about children’s environmental health in the medical school curricula, in residency training, and in continuing medical education. The group also recommended the expansion of fellowship training in children’s environmental health. Similarly, the nursing working group recommended increasing children’s environmental health content at the undergraduate, graduate, and continuing nursing education levels. Working groups also identified the key medical and nursing organizations that would be important in leveraging these changes. A concerted effort to prioritize pediatric environmental health by governmental organizations and foundations is essential in providing the resources and expertise to set policy and provide the tools for teaching pediatric environmental health to health care providers. PMID:15579423

  4. Environmental health: an opportunity for health promotion and disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Chalupka, Stephanie

    2005-01-01

    Variance in personal susceptibility to environmental hazards may be attributable to age, gender, previous or concomitant exposure, economic status, race, or genetic endowment. Water pollution sources can be either point sources (a well-defined source, e.g., factory waste water discharge) or non-point sources (more diffuse sources including agricultural, industrial, and urban runoff, domestic lawn care, and air pollution). Pollutants can migrate from disposal sites, underground injection wells, or underground storage systems and contaminate ground and surface drinking water sources. The annual cost of human exposure to outdoor air pollutants from all sources is estimated to be between $40 to $50 billion. The death toll from exposure to particulate air pollution generated by motor vehicles, burning coal, fuel oil, and wood is estimated to be responsible for as many as 100,000 fatalities annually in the United States. Through the identification of individuals and groups at greater risk, occupational and environmental health nurses can use primary and secondary prevention activities to protect susceptible individuals and communities from adverse exposures and environmentally related disease. PMID:15675154

  5. Lessons in environmental health in the twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Gochfeld, M; Goldstein, B D

    1999-01-01

    Environmental health has evolved rapidly in recent decades, drawing largely on new analytic technologies, advanced data acquisition and modeling, mechanistic studies in toxicology, and the conceptual framework of risk assessment. The latter combines toxicologic and epidemiologic data with improved techniques for quantifying exposure, producing estimates of risks from environmental hazards or conditions to selected target populations. The public and governments have become increasingly concerned with environmental health and quality. The major lessons have been (a) environmental-health scientists must participate in policy debates; (b) environmental health problems are exceedingly complex and require interdisciplinary research; and (c) environmental health is a global issue. The globalization of commerce, the untested impact of international trade agreements, increased migration, and especially increased population, have profound impact on the quality as well as availability of air, water, land, and food. Global atmospheric transport of pollutants and the effect on atmosphere and climate are two examples of globalization of environmental health. PMID:10352848

  6. 75 FR 69396 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Arundo donax

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-12

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Arundo donax AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service has prepared an environmental assessment relative...

  7. Using NASA Environmental Data to Enhance Public Health Decision Making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Crosson, William; Economou, Sigrid; Estes, Maurice, Jr.; Estes, Sue; Hemmings, Sarah; Kent, Shia; Puckett, Mark; Quattrochi, Dale; Wade, Gina; McClure, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    The Universities Space Research Association at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center is collaborating with the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) School of Public Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to address issues of environmental health and enhance public health decision making by utilizing NASA remotely sensed data and products. The objectives of this collaboration are to develop high-quality spatial data sets of environmental variables, and deliver the data sets and associated analyses to local, state and federal end-user groups. These data can be linked spatially and temporally to public health data, such as mortality and disease morbidity, for further analysis and decision making. Three daily environmental data sets have been developed for the conterminous U.S. on different spatial resolutions for the time period 2003-2008: (1) spatial surfaces of estimated fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposures on a 10-km grid utilizing the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground observations and NASA s MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data; (2) a 1-km grid of Land Surface Temperature (LST) using MODIS data; and (3) a 12-km grid of daily Solar Insolation (SI) and maximum and minimum air temperature using the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) forcing data. These environmental data sets will be linked with public health data from the UAB REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) national cohort study to determine whether exposures to these environmental risk factors are related to cognitive decline and other health outcomes. These environmental datasets and public health linkage analyses will be made available to public health professionals, researchers and the general public through the CDC Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER) system and through peer reviewed publications. To date, two of the data sets have been released to the public in CDC

  8. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR LEAD ALKYLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for lead alkyls was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response to support listings of hazardous const...

  9. Plastics and Environmental Health: The Road Ahead

    PubMed Central

    North, Emily J.; Halden, Rolf U.

    2013-01-01

    Plastics continue to benefit society in innumerable ways, even though recent public focus on plastics has centered mostly on human health and environmental concerns, including endocrine-disrupting properties and long-term pollution. The benefits of plastics are particularly apparent in medicine and public health. Plastics are versatile, cost-effective, require less energy to produce than alternative materials – such as metal or glass – and can be manufactured to have many different properties. Due to these characteristics, polymers are used in diverse health applications, such as disposable syringes and intravenous bags, sterile packaging for medical instruments as well as in joint replacements, tissue engineering, etc. However, not all current uses of plastics are prudent and sustainable, as illustrated by widespread, unwanted human exposure to endocrine-disrupting bisphenol-A (BPA) and di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), problems arising from the large quantities of plastic being disposed of, and depletion of non-renewable petroleum resources as a result of ever increasing mass-production of plastic consumer articles. By example of the healthcare sector, this review concentrates on benefits and downsides of plastics and identities opportunities to change the composition and disposal practices of these invaluable polymers for a more sustainable future consumption. It highlights ongoing efforts to phase out DEHP and BPA in the healthcare and food industry, and discusses biodegradable options for plastic packaging, opportunities for reducing plastic medical waste, and recycling in medical facilities in the quest to reap a maximum of benefits from polymers without compromising human health or the environment in the process. PMID:23337043

  10. The Council for Health and Environmental Safety of Soils

    SciTech Connect

    Calabrese, E.J.; Kostecki, P.T. )

    1992-12-01

    The Council for Health and Environmental Safety of Soils (CHESS) was organized in 1987 to develop a consensus soil risk assessment methodology to be used as a framework for establishing standards for soil contamination to protect the environment and public health. The wide range of contaminating substances of possible health concern in soil is affecting land use and development, causing excessive economic expenditures, and the regulatory approaches for control are disperse. The International Society of Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology agreed to sponsor the Council and through a Governing Board composed of experienced scientists from the federal government, state departments of public health and environmental protection, academia, and the private sector including industry and environmental organizations. The Board was created to support the goals of CHESS, its mode of operation, and to establish funding policies and directions. A technical council agreed to develop a peer-reviewed consensus methodology to assess public health risks from contaminated soil by technical committees composed of recognized experts in the area of soil contamination and other relevant disciplines. This methodology would then be made available to federal and state agencies, the private sector, and the scientific community at large. After extensive study, a final decision was made to develop a decision-tree framework to be used at the state and local levels for application to all types of soil contamination. Following extensive studies it was agreed the ubiquitous nature of petroleum contamination in soil has direct and immediate public health implications and CHESS therefore directed its first efforts to this area.

  11. HUMAN HEALTH METRICS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL DECISION SUPPORT TOOLS: LESSONS FROM HEALTH ECONOMICS AND DECISION ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Decision makers using environmental decision support tools are often confronted with information that predicts a multitude of different human health effects due to environmental stressors. If these health effects need to be contrasted with costs or compared with alternative scena...

  12. Environmental Control Measures (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... and home improvement stores. continue Controlling pollens and molds Another reason to avoid humidifiers is that high levels of humidity promote mold growth. If you must use a humidifier, change ...

  13. Development of a Two-Year Associate Arts Degree in Environmental Health Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Charles R.

    The field of Environmental Health Technology (EHT) encompasses both the equipment and the trained expertise required to utilize land, water, energy, and minerals in the service of human health and welfare. EHT technicians work in disease control, licensing bureaus, hospitals, nursing homes, hazardous waste agencies, and other health agencies. In…

  14. Can environmental purchasing reduce mercury in U.S. health care?

    PubMed Central

    Eagan, Patrick D; Kaiser, Barb

    2002-01-01

    Environmental purchasing represents an innovative approach to mercury control for the health care sector in the United States. The U.S. health care sector creates significant environmental impacts, including the release of toxic substances such as mercury. Our goal in this study was to provide the health care industry with a method of identifying the environmental impacts associated with the products they use. The Health Care Environmental Purchasing Tool (HCEPT) was developed and tested at nine health care facilities in the Great Lakes region of the United States. As a result, more than 1 kg of mercury was removed from four facilities. The complexity of the supply chain inhibits a direct environmental information exchange between health-care decision makers and suppliers. However, a dialogue is starting within the health care supply chain to address environmental issues. The HCEPT has been shown to assist health care facilities with that dialogue by identifying products that have environmental consequences. This promising tool is now available for further experimentation and modification, to facilitate overall environmental improvement, and to provide a systematic method for environmental assessment of health care products. PMID:12204816

  15. Examples of CDC's role in the health assessment of environmental disasters

    SciTech Connect

    French, J.G.; Falk, H.; Caldwell, G.G.

    1982-01-01

    Several environmental emergencies are described which demonstrate how the Centers for Disease Control works with state and local health departments to assess the human health implications from exposures to chemical and radioactive materials. Events described include Three Mile Island, the Titan II missile explosion, and the Mount St. Helens eruption. The paper also contains general comments on the conduct of health studies of environmental exposures at toxic waste disposal sites. (JMT)

  16. The 2011 Japanese earthquake: an overview of environmental health impacts.

    PubMed

    Ratnapradipa, Dhitinut; Conder, James; Ruffing, Ami; White, Victor

    2012-01-01

    A magnitude 9.0 earthquake rupturing the Earth's crust nearly 130 km off the east coast of Japan on March 11, 2011, triggered a tsunami that reached the Japanese coast approximately 30 minutes later. The combined effects of the earthquake and tsunami (known as the Tohoku event) devastated the area of northeast Japan, resulting in widespread infrastructure destruction, loss of life, and environmental contamination. Perhaps the longest-lasting impact of the Tohoku event will result from the damage to the nuclear power plants along the coast and the subsequent release of radioactive elements into the environment. This article describes the environmental impacts of the disaster and highlights the interconnectedness among the core areas of environmental health including air quality, water quality, weather/climate change, food safety, healthy housing, waste/sanitation, infectious disease/vector control, radiation, injury prevention, emergency preparedness, and toxicology. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the spectrum of the natural disaster and its environmental health impact to the human population. Future scientific analysis may confirm or challenge the information presented here. PMID:22329208

  17. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE WORLD TRADE CENTER DISASTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The attack on the World Trade Center (WTC) created an acute environmental disaster of enormous magnitude. This study characterizes the environmental exposures resulting from destruction of the WTC and assesses their effects on health. Methods include ambient air sampling; analyse...

  18. Creating an Overall Environmental Quality Index to Examine Health Outcomes

    EPA Science Inventory

    The interaction between environmental conditions and human health transpire from complex processes. Environmental exposures tend to cluster and disamenities such as landfills or industrial plants are often located in areas with high a percentage of minority and poor residents. Wh...

  19. Health, safety and environmental requirements for composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hazer, Kathleen A.

    1994-01-01

    The health, safety and environmental requirements for the production of composite materials are discussed. The areas covered include: (1) chemical identification for each chemical; (2) toxicology; (3) industrial hygiene; (4) fire and safety; (5) environmental aspects; and (6) medical concerns.

  20. Children's Environmental Health: 2007 Highlights. Environment, Health, and a Focus on Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was created in 1970 to protect human health and the environment. The year 2007 marks 10 years of concerted Federal effort to address children's environmental health risks as mandated by Executive Order 13045, Protection of Children from Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks. Much of the agency's…

  1. Health and safety inspection of hairdressing and nail salons by local authority environmental health practitioners.

    PubMed

    Harris-Roberts, Joanne; Bowen, Jo; Sumner, Jade; Fishwick, David

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study described in this article was to provide environmental health practitioners (EHPs) with an evaluation of the levels of understanding of, and compliance with, health and safety legislation in hairdressing and nail salons. EHPs carried out a series of inspections of 205 salons in a large British city, consisting of a site assessment and an assessment of employee knowledge of relevant regulations, including those relating to control of exposure to hazardous substances. Two-fifths of senior salon employees understood Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) assessments and could provide evidence of their completion. Most employees had been trained and made aware of the health hazards associated with carrying out their work and took suitable precautions to protect themselves and their clients. The results suggest that senior employees within the salons sampled, have knowledge of the risks to health and have been taking measures to control these risks. Initiatives such as the Health and Safety Executive's (in collaboration with local authorities and the hairdressing industry) "Bad Hand Day?" campaign and sector-specific COSHH essentials guidance help raise awareness levels and aim to support good control practice in salons. PMID:23397656

  2. Health, safety and environmental risk management in laboratory fields

    PubMed Central

    Yarahmadi, Rasoul; Moridi, Parvin; Roumiani, YarAllah

    2016-01-01

    Background: Research project risks are uncertain contingent events or situations that, if transpire, will have positive or negative effects on objectives of a project. The Management of Health and Safety at Work (MHSW) Regulations 1999 require all employers and the self-employed persons to assess the risks from their work on anyone who may be affected by their activities. Risk assessment is the first step in risk-management procedure, and due to its importance, it has been deemed to be a vital process while having a unique place in the researchbased management systems. Methods: In this research, a two-pronged study was carried out. Firstly, health and safety issues were studied and analyzed by means of ISO 14121. Secondly, environmental issues were examined with the aid of Failure Mode and Effect Analysis. Both processes were utilized to determine the risk level independently for each research laboratory and corrective measure priorities in each field (laboratory). Results: Data analysis showed that the total main and inherent risks in laboratory sites reduced by 38% to 86%. Upon comparing the average risk levels before and after implementing the control and protective actions utilizing risk management approaches which were separate from health, safety and environmental aspects, a highly effective significance (p<0.001) was obtained for inherent risk reduction. Analysis of health, safety and environmental control priorities with the purpose of comparing the ratio of the number of engineering measures to the amount of management ones showed a relatively significant increase. Conclusion: The large number of engineering measures was attributed to the employment of a variety of timeworn machinery (old technologies) along with using devices without basic protection components. PMID:27284544

  3. The environmental and health impacts of tobacco agriculture, cigarette manufacture and consumption

    PubMed Central

    Novotny, Thomas E; Bialous, Stella Aguinaga; Burt, Lindsay; Curtis, Clifton; Luiza da Costa, Vera; Iqtidar, Silvae Usman; Liu, Yuchen; Pujari, Sameer

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The health consequences of tobacco use are well known, but less recognized are the significant environmental impacts of tobacco production and use. The environmental impacts of tobacco include tobacco growing and curing; product manufacturing and distribution; product consumption; and post-consumption waste. The World Health Organization’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control addresses environmental concerns in Articles 17 and 18, which primarily apply to tobacco agriculture. Article 5.3 calls for protection from policy interference by the tobacco industry regarding the environmental harms of tobacco production and use. We detail the environmental impacts of the tobacco life-cycle and suggest policy responses. PMID:26668440

  4. Passive environmental temperature control system

    DOEpatents

    Corliss, John M.; Stickford, George H.

    1981-01-01

    Passive environmental heating and cooling systems are described, which utilize heat pipes to transmit heat to or from a thermal reservoir. In a solar heating system, a heat pipe is utilized to carry heat from a solar heat absorber plate that receives sunlight, through a thermal insulation barrier, to a heat storage wall, with the outer end of the pipe which is in contact with the solar absorber being lower than the inner end. The inclining of the heat pipe assures that the portion of working fluid, such as Freon, which is in a liquid phase will fall by gravity to the outer end of the pipe, thereby assuring diode action that prevents the reverse transfer of heat from the reservoir to the outside on cool nights. In a cooling system, the outer end of the pipe which connects to a heat dissipator, is higher than the inner end that is coupled to a cold reservoir, to allow heat transfer only out of the reservoir to the heat dissipator, and not in the reverse direction.

  5. Collaborative Learning Experiences for Nursing Students in Environmental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Dolores J.

    2003-01-01

    An environmental health learning experience involved collaborative activities of graduate public health and undergraduate nursing students. Pre/postcourse measures (n=31) showed increased awareness of issues and competence in interdisciplinary teamwork. (Contains 13 references.) (SK)

  6. DESIGN STRATEGIES FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES OF ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS ON HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The papers describes epidemiologic designs and methods in studies of health effects of air pollution, whose implications, however, can be extended to the detection of health effects of other environmental exposures. Recent advances in measurement technology for the assessment of ...

  7. The integrated environmental control model

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.S.; Berkenpas, M.B.; Kalagnanam, J.R.

    1995-11-01

    The capability to estimate the performance and cost of emission control systems is critical to a variety of planning and analysis requirements faced by utilities, regulators, researchers and analysts in the public and private sectors. The computer model described in this paper has been developed for DOe to provide an up-to-date capability for analyzing a variety of pre-combustion, combustion, and post-combustion options in an integrated framework. A unique capability allows performance and costs to be modeled probabilistically, which allows explicit characterization of uncertainties and risks.

  8. Environmental health science at the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buxton, Herbert T.; Bright, Patricia R.

    2013-01-01

    USGS environmental health science focuses on the environment-health interface. Research characterizes the processes that affect the interaction among the physical environment, the living environment, and people, as well as the factors that affect ecological and human exposure to disease agents and the resulting toxicologic or infectious disease. The mission of USGS in environmental health science is to contribute scientific information to environmental, natural resource, agricultural, and public-health managers, who use that information to support sound decisionmaking. Coordination with partners and stakeholders will enable USGS to focus on the highest priority environmental health issues, to make relevant, timely, and useable contributions, and to become a “partner of first choice” for environmental health science.

  9. Environmental Health Promotion: Progress and Future Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, Shobha; Dearry, Allen

    2004-01-01

    Health promotion seeks to provide practitioners of medicine and public health as well as members of the public with the information, resources, and tools that they can use to improve health and well-being. This goal is consonant with that of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), namely, to improve public health outcomes via research,…

  10. Environmental Control and Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Charles; Adams, Alan

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) for the space station are presented. The ECLSS is divided into six subsystems: temperature and humidity control (THC), atmosphere control and supply (ACS), atmosphere revitalization (AR), fire detection and suppression (FDS), water recovery management (WRM), and waste management (WM). Topics covered include: ECLSS subsystem functions; ECLSS distributed system; ECLSS functional distribution; CO2 removal; CO2 reduction; oxygen generation; urine processor; and potable water recovery.

  11. Environmental risks and children's health: what can PRAMS tell us?

    PubMed

    Korfmacher, Katrina Smith; Suter, Barbara J; Cai, Xueya; Brownson, Susan A; Dozier, Ann M

    2014-07-01

    Environmental exposures during pregnancy have a lasting impact on children's health. We combined environmental and maternal risk factor survey data to inform efforts to protect children's health. We made recommendations for future use of such data. A modified version of the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) mail survey was conducted based on weighted sampling design with low-income and non-low income women in Monroe County, NY (1,022 respondents). A series of environmental questions were included in the questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Chi square tests and Poisson loglinear regression model to identify patterns in environmental health risk and sociodemographic characteristics. We identified women who rented their homes, had lower incomes, and lived in inner city zip codes as "high environmental health risk" (HEHR). HEHR respondents were more likely to report that a health care provider talked with them about lead and on average reported more behaviors to protect their children from lead poisoning. Combining environmental and perinatal risk factor data could yield important recommendations for medical practice, health education, and policy development. However, at present PRAMS gathers only limited and inconsistent environmental data. We found that existing PRAMS environmental questions are insufficient. Further work is needed to develop updated and more comprehensive environmental health survey questions and implement them consistently across the country. PMID:23955384

  12. Evaluating the Environmental Health Work Force. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine Associates, Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This report contains all materials pertinent to an intensive evaluation of the environmental health work force conducted in 1986 and 1987. The materials relate to a workshop that was one of the key tools used in conducting the study to estimate environmental health personnel supply, demand, and need. The report begins with an overview and…

  13. ANIMALS AS SENTINELS OF HUMAN HEALTH HAZARDS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A workshop titled "Using Sentinel Species Data to Address the Potential Human Health Effects of Chemicals in the Environmnet," sponsored by the U.S. Army Center for Environmental Health Research, the National Center for Environmental Assessment of the EPA, and the Agency for Toxi...

  14. European Metadatabase on Environmental and Health Information Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Information Services and Use, 1990

    1990-01-01

    This issue presents selected papers from a World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe (WHO/EURO) consultation (Munich, West Germany, May 8-10, 1989) which explored the creation of a metadatabase for European environmental health information systems (EEHIS). Topics discussed include environmental monitoring programs, environmental…

  15. Development of an Environmental Quality Index to assess environmental public health disparities - What data are available?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessing exposure to environmental insults and human health outcomes is complex. Environmental exposures tend to cluster spatially, with disamenities (e.g., landfills, industrial plants) often located in high-minority and largely poor neighborhoods, while wealthier neighborhoods...

  16. Exploring data availability for the Environmental Quality Index to assess environmental health disparities

    EPA Science Inventory

    The interaction between environmental insults and human health is complex. Environmental exposures tend to cluster, with disamenities (e.g., landfills, industrial plants) often located in high-minority and largely poor neighborhoods, while wealthier neighborhoods contain amenitie...

  17. Pfiesteria: review of the science and identification of research gaps. Report for the National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

    PubMed Central

    Samet, J; Bignami, G S; Feldman, R; Hawkins, W; Neff, J; Smayda, T

    2001-01-01

    In connection with the CDC National Conference on Pfiesteria, a multidisciplinary panel evaluated Pfiesteria-related research. The panel set out what was known and what was not known about adverse effects of the organism on estuarine ecology, fish, and human health; assessed the methods used in Pfiesteria research; and offered suggestions to address data gaps. The panel's expertise covered dinoflagellate ecology; fish pathology and toxicology; laboratory measurement of toxins, epidemiology, and neurology. The panel evaluated peer-reviewed and non-peer-reviewed literature available through June 2000 in a systematic conceptual framework that moved from the source of exposure, through exposure research and dose, to human health effects. Substantial uncertainties remain throughout the conceptual framework the panel used to guide its evaluation. Firm evidence demonstrates that Pfiesteria is toxic to fish, but the specific toxin has not been isolated or characterized. Laboratory and field evidence indicate that the organism has a complex life cycle. The consequences of human exposure to Pfiesteria toxin and the magnitude of the human health problem remain obscure. The patchwork of approaches used in clinical evaluation and surrogate measures of exposure to the toxin are major limitations of this work. To protect public health, the panel suggests that priority be given research that will provide better insight into the effects of Pfiesteria on human health. Key gaps include the identity and mechanism of action of the toxin(s), the incomplete description of effects of exposure in invertebrates, fish, and humans, and the nature and extent of exposures that place people at risk. PMID:11687383

  18. Development of the Space Station Freedom Environmental Health System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richard, Elizabeth E.; Russo, Dane

    1990-01-01

    The Environmental Health System (EHS), a subsystem of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Crew Health Care System, was established to ensure that crewmembers will have a safe and healthy environment in which to live and work. EHS is comprised of six subsystems: Microbiology, Toxicology, Water Quality, Radiological Health, Vibroacoustics, and Barothermal Physiology. Each subsystem contributes to the overall functions of the EHS including environmental planning, environmental monitoring, environmental monitoring, environmental health assessments, and operations support. The EHS will provide hardware for monitoring the air, water, and internal surfaces of Freedom, including capabilities for inflight sample collection, processing, and analysis. The closed environment of SSF, and its dependence on recycled air and water, will necessitate a reliable monitoring system to alert crewmembers if contamination levels exceed the maximum allowable limits established to ensure crew health and safety. This paper describes the functions and hardware design status of the EHS.

  19. 78 FR 32672 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS); Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS... that the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) Division of Extramural Research... Division. Organizing Institute: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. Dates and Times:...

  20. Engaging academia to advance the science and practice of environmental public health tracking

    PubMed Central

    Strosnider, Heather; Zhou, Ying; Balluz, Lina; Qualters, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Public health agencies at the federal, state, and local level are responsible for implementing actions and policies that address health problems related to environmental hazards. These actions and policies can be informed by integrating or linking data on health, exposure, hazards, and population. The mission of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Environmental Public Health Tracking Program (Tracking Program) is to provide information from a nationwide network of integrated health, environmental hazard, and exposure data that drives actions to improve the health of communities. The Tracking Program and federal, state, and local partners collect, integrate, analyze, and disseminate data and information to inform environmental public health actions. However, many challenges exist regarding the availability and quality of data, the application of appropriate methods and tools to link data, and the state of the science needed to link and analyze health and environmental data. The Tracking Program has collaborated with academia to address key challenges in these areas. The collaboration has improved our understanding of the uses and limitations of available data and methods, expanded the use of existing data and methods, and increased our knowledge about the connections between health and environment. Valuable working relationships have been forged in this process, and together we have identified opportunities and improvements for future collaborations to further advance the science and practice of environmental public health tracking. PMID:25038624

  1. Environmental, health, and safety assessment of photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, E.C.

    1983-10-15

    Potential enviornmental, health, and safety (E,H and S) concerns associated with all phases of the photovoltaic (PV) energy system life cycle are identified and assessed. E,H and S concerns affecting the achievement of National PV Program goals or the viability of specific PV technologies are emphasized. The report is limited to near-term manufacturing process alternatives for crystalline silicon PV materials, addresses flat-plate and concentrator collector designs, and reviews system deployment in grid-connected, roof-mounted, residential and ground-mounted central-station applications. The PV life-cycle phases examined include silicon refinement and manufacture of PV collectors, system deployment, and decommissioning. The primary E,H and S concerns that arise during collector fabrication are associated with occupational exposure to materials of undetermined toxicity or to materials that are known to be hazardous, but for which process control technology may be inadequate. Stricter exposure standards are anticipated for some materials and may indicate a need for further control technology development. Minimizing electric shock hazards is a significant concern during system construction, operation and maintenance, and decommissioning.

  2. Investigating Environmental Concerns and Health Issues in Clarksville, Tennessee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rainey, Shirley A.; Jones, Robert Emmet

    2005-01-01

    Environmental degradation is a serious problem for millions of people who are unjustly exposed to environmental conditions that threaten their everyday survival. A growing body of research shows race and class as significant predictors to exposure to environmental hazards and associated health problems. Presented are perceptions of environmental…

  3. Construction of an environmental quality index for public health research

    EPA Science Inventory

    A more comprehensive estimate of environmental quality would improve our understanding of the relationship between environmental conditions and human health. An environmental quality index (EQI) for all counties in the U.S. was developed. The EQI was developed in four parts: doma...

  4. Converging paradigms for environmental health theory and practice.

    PubMed Central

    Parkes, Margot; Panelli, Ruth; Weinstein, Philip

    2003-01-01

    Converging themes from the fields of environmental health, ecology and health, and human ecology highlight opportunities for innovation and advancement in environmental health theory and practice. In this commentary we outline the role of research and applied programs that integrate biophysical and social sciences with environmental health practice in order to address deficiencies in each field when taken on its own. New opportunities for environmental health protection and promotion are outlined based on the three converging themes: integrated approaches to research and policy, methodological acknowledgment of the synergies between the social and biophysical environments, and incorporation of core ecosystem principles into research and practice. These converging themes are discussed in relation to their implications for new types of intervention to achieve health gains across different spatial and temporal scales at the interface between biophysical and social environments. PMID:12727592

  5. Health and environmental impact of mercury: Past and present experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, A. T. F.; Cortes-Maramba, N. P.; Akagi, H.

    2003-05-01

    Mercury exists in various forms including metallic mercury, inorganie and organic mercury compounds. Research studies show that contamination brought about by natural and man-made activities is clearly a growing problem today. In 1956, the first recognized poisoning outbreaks occurred. Minamata Disease is a disorder of the central nervous system caused by the consumption of fish and shellfish contaminated with methylmercury. Clinical manifestation differs from inorganic mercury poisoning in which the kidneys and the renal system are damaged. The toxidrome consists of sensory disorders in the distal portion of the four extremities, cerebral ataxia, bilateral concentric constriction of the visual field. central disorder of ocular movement, central hearing impairment and disequilibrium. Fetal type Minamata Disease bom of mothers being exposed to methylmercury during pregnancy resulted in conditions similar to those associated with “infantile cerebral palsy" were also documented. Measures to control environmental pollution were implemented such as the environmental restoration project, compensation and relief of victims as part of the health and environmental management undertaken by the government. At present, global research studies are focusing on long-term and low-dose inorganic and methyl mercury exposure; and developmental neurobehavioral toxicity including relevant environmental factors influencing mercury transformations, mass balances and partitioning in ecosystems.

  6. Status of health and environmental research relative to coal gasification 1976 to the present

    SciTech Connect

    Wilzbach, K.E.; Reilly, C.A. Jr.

    1982-10-01

    Health and environmental research relative to coal gasification conducted by Argonne National Laboratory, the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory under DOE sponsorship is summarized. The studies have focused on the chemical and toxicological characterization of materials from a range of process streams in five bench-scale, pilot-plant and industrial gasifiers. They also address ecological effects, industrial hygiene, environmental control technology performance, and risk assessment. Following an overview of coal gasification technology and related environmental concerns, integrated summaries of the studies and results in each area are presented and conclusions are drawn. Needed health and environmental research relative to coal gasification is identified.

  7. [Environmental sustainability and health indicators in the Legal Amazonia, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Freitas, Carlos Machado de; Giatti, Leandro Luiz

    2009-06-01

    One of the challenges for public health is to build systems of indicators that allow monitoring current conditions and trends in environmental and health sustainability. This article focuses on the Legal Amazonia macro-region, which has undergone profound socioeconomic, environmental, and health changes since the mid-20th century. The conceptual framework adopted here was the model entitled Driving Forces, Pressures, State, Exposure, Effects, and Action (DPSEEA) proposed by the World Health Organization and adopted for environmental health surveillance by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The results show that numerous motor forces and pressures have contributed to the growth of the economy and the population, as well as to improvements in some traditional health indicators (a reduction in infant mortality and an increase in life expectancy), alongside major social and economic inequalities and heterogeneity in environmental health impacts. This same process has been accompanied by environmental changes that indicate an unsustainable development model for present and future generations, demanding comprehensive action by public health and environmental institutions. PMID:19503956

  8. Environmental health impact assessment of National Aluminum Company, Orissa

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Rajan R.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental Health Impact Assessment of industries is an important tool help decision-makers make choices about alternatives and improvements to prevent disease/injury and to actively promote health around industrial sites. A rapid environmental health hazard and vulnerability assessment of National Aluminum Company was undertaken in the villages in the vicinity plant in Angul region of Orissa. Aluminum smelter plant was known to discharge hundreds of tones of fluoride in to the environment contaminating the ecosystem around the plant. The present Environmental health impact assessment was carried out in 2005-06 at the request of officials from Government of Orissa. The findings showed adverse effects on human, veterinary and ecological health. Human health effects manifestations included dental and skeletal fluorosis. Veternary health effects were manifested through skeletal fluorosis. Ecological adverse effects were manifested by damage to paddy fields and crop yield. PMID:22223954

  9. Environmental health impact assessment of National Aluminum Company, Orissa.

    PubMed

    Patil, Rajan R

    2011-05-01

    Environmental Health Impact Assessment of industries is an important tool help decision-makers make choices about alternatives and improvements to prevent disease/injury and to actively promote health around industrial sites. A rapid environmental health hazard and vulnerability assessment of National Aluminum Company was undertaken in the villages in the vicinity plant in Angul region of Orissa. Aluminum smelter plant was known to discharge hundreds of tones of fluoride in to the environment contaminating the ecosystem around the plant. The present Environmental health impact assessment was carried out in 2005-06 at the request of officials from Government of Orissa. The findings showed adverse effects on human, veterinary and ecological health. Human health effects manifestations included dental and skeletal fluorosis. Veternary health effects were manifested through skeletal fluorosis. Ecological adverse effects were manifested by damage to paddy fields and crop yield. PMID:22223954

  10. Environmental health promotion interventions: considerations for preparation and practice.

    PubMed

    Kegler, Michelle Crozier; Miner, Kathleen

    2004-08-01

    Interventions to address current, future, and potential public health dilemmas, such as air pollution, urban sprawl, brown field reclamation, and threats of intentional toxic exposures would benefit from a synergy between the disciplines of environmental health and health education. A comparison between the Protocol for Assessing Community Excellence in Environmental Health and the PRECEDE-PROCEED model used in health education illustrates some similarities and differences in terminology, assessment procedures, intervention design, and types of evidence used by the two disciplines. Promising intervention strategies draw on the expertise of both fields and include social action, policy and media advocacy, coalition building, organizational change, lay health advisers, risk communication, and tailored educational messages. Appropriate targets of change can range from the equitable distribution of resources to individual behavior change. Significant interdisciplinary evaluation research is necessary to accelerate the identification of successful models for reducing the burden of environmental health problems in communities. PMID:15296632

  11. Unmet health care needs for persons with environmental sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Pamela Reed; Kovach, Shannon; Lupfer, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    Studies of unmet health care needs have shown that women, people with poor health, and people with lower socioeconomic status are more likely to report having unmet health care needs. In this study, we examined the types of and reasons for unmet health care needs in 465 people with environmental sensitivities. A second area of inquiry involved negative reactions to general anesthesia. Results showed that the most common barriers to receiving care were the inability to find a provider who understands environmental sensitivities and a lack of accessibility due to chemical and electromagnetic exposures in health care environments. Lower income and poorer health (longer illness, a worsening or fluctuating course of illness, and a higher level of disability) were significantly correlated with the total number of reported unmet health care needs. Some people with environmental sensitivities reported having negative reactions to anesthesia of long duration; most common were nausea and vomiting, fatigue, and reduced cognitive ability. PMID:25670904

  12. Unmet health care needs for persons with environmental sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Pamela Reed; Kovach, Shannon; Lupfer, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    Studies of unmet health care needs have shown that women, people with poor health, and people with lower socioeconomic status are more likely to report having unmet health care needs. In this study, we examined the types of and reasons for unmet health care needs in 465 people with environmental sensitivities. A second area of inquiry involved negative reactions to general anesthesia. Results showed that the most common barriers to receiving care were the inability to find a provider who understands environmental sensitivities and a lack of accessibility due to chemical and electromagnetic exposures in health care environments. Lower income and poorer health (longer illness, a worsening or fluctuating course of illness, and a higher level of disability) were significantly correlated with the total number of reported unmet health care needs. Some people with environmental sensitivities reported having negative reactions to anesthesia of long duration; most common were nausea and vomiting, fatigue, and reduced cognitive ability. PMID:25670904

  13. Volatile Organic Compunds (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters ...

  14. Indoor Air Pollution (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters ...

  15. Particulate Matter (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters ...

  16. 75 FR 65365 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of...

  17. Environmental Health Promotion Interventions: Considerations for Preparation and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kegler, Michelle Crozier; Miner, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Interventions to address current, future, and potential public health dilemmas, such as air pollution, urban sprawl, brown field reclamation, and threats of intentional toxic exposures would benefit from a synergy between the disciplines of environmental health and health education. A comparison between the Protocol for Assessing Community…

  18. MTBE: THE CURRENT STATUS OF HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will provide an update on recent evaluations of the environmental and health issues surrounding the use of MTBE in gasoline in the United States and elsewhere. Several public health bodies around the world have recently evaluated aspects of the health risks of ...

  19. Advanced instrumentation concepts for environmental control subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, P. Y.; Schubert, F. H.; Gyorki, J. R.; Wynveen, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    Design, evaluation and demonstration of advanced instrumentation concepts for improving performance of manned spacecraft environmental control and life support systems were successfully completed. Concepts to aid maintenance following fault detection and isolation were defined. A computer-guided fault correction instruction program was developed and demonstrated in a packaged unit which also contains the operator/system interface.

  20. Environmental control and life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Charles D.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics covered include: crew generated wastes processing and reclamation; water reclamation - pre- and post-treatment; simplified waste water processing; improved trace contaminant removal; and real time microbial analysis.

  1. The 2009 National Environmental Public Health Conference: one model for planning green and healthy conferences.

    PubMed

    Ruckart, Perri Zeitz; Moore, Cory; Burgin, Deborah; Byrne, Maggie Kelly

    2011-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Environmental Health and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry committed to making their 2009 National Environmental Public Health Conference a model for green and healthy conferences. The conference included increased opportunities for physical activity, both as part of conference events and for transportation to the conference. In addition, conference meals were healthy and sustainably sourced. The conference also implemented intuitive, accessible recycling; online scheduling and evaluation to minimize hard-copy materials; and the purchase of carbon offsets to reduce the unwanted environmental impact of the conference. Public health professionals have an opportunity and obligation to support healthy behaviors at their events and to serve as leaders in this area. Facilitating healthy and sustainable choices is in alignment with goals for both public health and broader social issues-such as environmental quality-that have a direct bearing on public health. PMID:21563713

  2. Functions of environmental epidemiology and surveillance in state health departments.

    PubMed

    Stanbury, Martha; Anderson, Henry; Blackmore, Carina; Fagliano, Jerald; Heumann, Michael; Kass, Daniel; McGeehin, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Public health surveillance and epidemiology are the foundations for disease prevention because they provide the factual basis from which agencies can set priorities, plan programs, and take actions to protect the public's health. Surveillance for noninfectious diseases associated with exposure to agents in the environment like lead and pesticides has been a function of state health departments for more than 3 decades, but many state programs do not have adequate funding or staff for this function. Following the efforts to identify core public health epidemiology functions in chronic diseases, injury, and occupational health and safety, a workgroup of public health environmental epidemiologists operating within the organizational structure of the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists has defined the essential core functions of noninfectious disease environmental epidemiology that should be present in every state health department and additional functions of a comprehensive program. These functions are described in terms of the "10 Essential Environmental Public Health Services" and their associated performance standards. Application of these consensus core and expanded functions should help state and large metropolitan health departments allocate resources and prioritize activities of their environmental epidemiologists, thus improving the delivery of environmental health services to the public. PMID:22836537

  3. Health and Environmental Effects Profile for maleic anhydride

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-07-01

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for maleic anhydride was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency actions under Section 101 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Both published literature and information obtained from Agency program office files were evaluated as they pertained to potential human-health, aquatic-life, and environmental effects of hazardous-waste constituents. Maleic anhydride has been determined to be a systemic toxicant. An Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI), for maleic anhydride is 0.10 mg/kg/day for oral exposure. The Reportable Quantity (RQ) value for maleic anhydride is 100.

  4. The Highland Park Environmental Health Plan: Evaluation and Recommendations for Improving the Urban Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Commerce, Lansing. Community Planning Div.

    The Highland Park environmental health plan includes the following components: Legal and administrative and programmatic relationships, planning studies, residential environment, disease vector control, water and sewage systems, sanitation, air pollution, food protection, industrial and radiological health, and solid waste facilities. (JR)

  5. 76 FR 24031 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Environmental Health/Agency for Toxic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Environmental Health/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (BSC, NCEH/ ATSDR) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the...

  6. 78 FR 32657 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Environmental Health/Agency for Toxic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Environmental Health/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (BSC, NCEH/ ATSDR) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of...

  7. 76 FR 63623 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Environmental Health/Agency for Toxic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Environmental Health/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (BSC, NCEH/ ATSDR) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the...

  8. 77 FR 58557 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Environmental Health/Agency for Toxic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Environmental Health/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (BSC, NCEH/ ATSDR) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the...

  9. Secondary Education Through Health -- environmental health curriculum: A Superfund science literacy outreach project

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, L.R.

    1996-12-31

    Inner-city high school students are disproportionately affected by health problems that stem from environmental conditions. Also, they are not adequately prepared in Science -- especially in the concepts, methods, and procedures of environmental-health science research -- and are generally unaware of the career opportunities in this field. A Superfund program was developed to increase Science literacy and expand career knowledge in environmental health among a cohort of minority high school students from New York City. The year-round program features lectures, laboratory tours, seminars, investigations, and research taught by faculty and Superfund investigators at Mount Sinai`s Environmental Health Sciences Center. The students made remarkable progress in terms of gaining environmental health knowledge, laboratory and scientific research skills, and awareness of environmental health careers.

  10. Health Effects of Climate Change (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters ...

  11. Efficacy of Environmental Health E-Training for Journalists

    PubMed Central

    Parin, Megan L.; Yancey, Elissa; Beidler, Caroline; Haynes, Erin N.

    2015-01-01

    Communities report a low level of trust in environmental health media coverage. In order to support risk communication objectives, the goals of the research study were to identify whether or not there is a gap in environmental reporting training for journalists, to outline journalists’ methods for gathering environmental health news, to observe journalists’ attitudes toward environmental health training and communication, and to determine if electronic training (online/e-training) can effectively train journalists in environmental health topics. The results indicated that environmental journalists have very little to no formal environmental journalism training. In addition, a significant percentage of journalists do not have any formal journalism education. Respondents most preferred to receive continuing environmental journalism training online. Online instruction was also perceived as effective in increasing knowledge and providing necessary reporting tools, even among participants adverse to online instructional methods. Our findings highlight the changing media climate’s need for an increase in electronic journalism education opportunities to support environmental health journalism competencies among working professional journalists. PMID:26998499

  12. Scientific advances provide opportunities to improve pediatric environmental health

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reddy, Michael M.; Reddy, Micaela B.; Reddy, Carol F.

    2004-01-01

    The health consequences of contaminants in the environment, with respect to the health of children and infants, recently have been dramatically brought to public attention by the motion pictures Erin Brockovich and A Civil Action. These productions focused public attention on the potential link between water contaminants and pediatric health, a continuing subject of public concern. As a consequence of the increasing production of new commercial chemicals, many chemicals have appeared in the scientific and public awareness as potential threats to health. These new or novel compounds eventually distribute in the environment and often are termed emerging contaminants. Gitterman and Bearer stated, "Children may serve as unwitting sentinels for society; they are often the youngest exposed to many environmental toxicants and may become the youngest in age to manifest adverse responses." The discipline of pediatric environmental health is still in its adolescence, but it will be increasingly important as new chemicals are generated and as more is learned about the health effects of chemicals already in commerce. Here, we provide an overview of recent advances in biomonitoring and environmental monitoring of environmental contaminants including emerging contaminants. Our purpose in writing this commentary is to make pediatricians aware of the current resources available for learning about pediatric environmental health and of ongoing research initiatives that provide opportunities to improve pediatric environmental health.

  13. HUMAN HEALTH RESEARCH IMPLEMENTATION PLAN, NATIONAL HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS RESEARCH LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL), as part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Office of Research and Development (ORD), is responsible for conducting research to improve the risk assessment of chemicals for potential effects ...

  14. Innovative Approaches to Environmental Health Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mock, Bruce H.

    1974-01-01

    The results of a NSF-supported student project to determine certain environmental problems in Indiana are reported. The project sought to relate the quality of the local environment to human life and concentrated on problems of air pollution, water pollution, solid waste disposal, and environmental attitudes. (LS)

  15. Environmental victims: environmental injustice issues that threaten the health of children living in poverty.

    PubMed

    Cureton, Shava

    2011-01-01

    Children living in poverty are disproportionately at risk from and affected by environmental hazards. According to the National Center for Children in Poverty, 13 million children in America live in poverty. Thus, not only are millions of children living in poverty but are also living in environments that are hazardous to their health. Impoverished children are more likely to live in environments with heavily polluting industries, hazardous waste sites, contaminated water and soil, in old housing with deteriorating lead-based paint, in areas with limited access to healthy food, and more. Poor children residing in these toxic environments are either at risk or suffer from a myriad of health disparities, such as asthma, cancer, lead poisoning, obesity, and hyperactivity. This unfortunate reality is better known as environmental injustice. Environmental injustice recognizes that economically disadvantaged groups are adversely affected by environmental hazards more than other groups. To remedy this dilemma, environmental justice seeks to address these unfair burdens of environmental health hazards on poor communities. The purpose of this article is to (a) examine the environmental living conditions of children living in poverty, (b) examine the environmental health disparities of children living in poverty, (c) discuss environmental justice legislation, (d) describe government initiatives to improve environmental health, and (e) propose recommendations that executes measures to protect the health of children. PMID:22206190

  16. Common ragweed: a threat to environmental health in Europe.

    PubMed

    Smith, M; Cecchi, L; Skjøth, C A; Karrer, G; Šikoparija, B

    2013-11-01

    Common or short ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) is an annual herb belonging to the Asteraceae family that was described by Carl Linnaeus in the 18th century. It is a noxious invasive species that is an important weed in agriculture and a source of highly allergenic pollen. The importance placed on A. artemisiifolia is reflected by the number of international projects that have now been launched by the European Commission and the increasing number of publications being produced on this topic. This review paper examines existing knowledge about ragweed ecology, distribution and flowering phenology and the environmental health risk that this noxious plant poses in Europe. The paper also examines control measures used in the fight against it and state of the art methods for modelling atmospheric concentrations of this important aeroallergen. Common ragweed is an environmental health threat, not only in its native North America but also in many parts of the world where it has been introduced. In Europe, where the plant has now become naturalised and frequently forms part of the flora, the threat posed by ragweed has been identified and steps are being taken to reduce further geographical expansion and limit increases in population densities of the plant in order to protect the allergic population. This is particularly important when one considers possible range shifts, changes in flowering phenology and increases in the amount of pollen and allergenic potency that could be brought about by changes in climate. PMID:24140540

  17. Integrating medical and environmental sociology with environmental health: crossing boundaries and building connections through advocacy.

    PubMed

    Brown, Phil

    2013-06-01

    This article reviews the personal and professional processes of developing an interdisciplinary approach to understanding the complex issues of environmental health in their community, political-economic, social science, and scientific contexts. This interdisciplinary approach includes a synthesis of research, policy work, and advocacy. To examine multiple forms of interdisciplinarity, I examine pathways of integrating medical and environmental sociology via three challenges to the boundaries of traditional research: (1) crossing the boundaries of medical and environmental sociology, (2) linking social science and environmental health science, and (3) crossing the boundary of research and advocacy. These boundary crossings are discussed in light of conceptual and theoretical developments of popular epidemiology, contested illnesses, and health social movements. This interdisciplinary work offers a more comprehensive sociological lens for understanding complex problems and a practical ability to join with scientists, activists, and officials to meet public health needs for amelioration and prevention of environmental health threats. PMID:23598897

  18. [Environmental health in Mexico: current situation and future prospects].

    PubMed

    Riojas-Rodríguez, Horacio; Schilmann, Astrid; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth; Finkelman, Jacobo

    2013-12-01

    Environmental health has been established in Mexico as a discipline since the early nineties resuming the sanitarian tradition developed over the past century and incorporating new knowledge generated by environmental toxicology and epidemiology. During the last decade there has been some progress in reviewing and updating the regulations, designing programs and policies to reduce exposure to pollutants and consolidating research groups and teaching in the area. However, the most prevalent problems previously diagnosed still remain and new risks have emerged due to environmental degradation (air pollution, toxics exposure and climate change among others) have been incorporated. If this trend persists, the environmental risks will continue to increase and multiply. The environmental health governance in Mexico has to be redesigned involving a transectoral approach. Future proposals might include: establishment of a National Environmental Health Program, update the situational diagnosis at national and regional level, strengthening teaching and graduate programs in environmental health as well as increase support for research in the area and development of an integrated environmental health surveillance system. PMID:24715017

  19. Environmental Health and Long Non-coding RNAs.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Oskar; Baccarelli, Andrea A

    2016-09-01

    An individual's risk of developing a common disease typically depends on an interaction of genetic and environmental factors. Epigenetic research is uncovering novel ways through which environmental factors such as diet, air pollution, and chemical exposure can affect our genes. DNA methylation and histone modifications are the most commonly studied epigenetic mechanisms. The role of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in epigenetic processes has been more recently highlighted. LncRNAs are defined as transcribed RNA molecules greater than 200 nucleotides in length with little or no protein-coding capability. While few functional lncRNAs have been well characterized to date, they have been demonstrated to control gene regulation at every level, including transcriptional gene silencing via regulation of the chromatin structure and DNA methylation. This review aims to provide a general overview of lncRNA function with a focus on their role as key regulators of health and disease and as biomarkers of environmental exposure. PMID:27234044

  20. Selected Bibliographies and State-of-the-Art Review for Environmental Health. Volume 2: Environmental Health References. International Health Planning Reference Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Renee White; Shani, Hadasa

    Intended as a companion piece to volume 2 in the Method Series, Environmental Health Planning (CE 024 230), this second of six volumes in the International Health Planning Reference Series is a combined literature review and annotated bibliography dealing with environmental factors in health planning for developing countries. The review identifies…

  1. Medical laboratory investigation of children's environmental health.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Harold E; Buka, Irena; Phillips, Scott

    2007-04-01

    Medical laboratory testing is vital for investigating and managing children who have environmentally related disorders and children with environmental chemical exposures. Few of these compounds can be measured in a routine clinical service laboratory. An understanding of the exposure circumstances and toxicology of the agent is required for the ordering and interpretation of tests. Test interpretation requires understanding of the capabilities and limitations of these tests. Adequate investigation, management, and follow-up of exposed children are mandatory. PMID:17448366

  2. The need for global environmental health policy.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, David O

    2003-01-01

    The world economy has been growing by an average of 3.5% a year. Continued global development is sustainable if overall social assets remain constant or rise over time, including manufactured, human, and environmental capital. Sustainable development requires that society not decrease its overall assets. But unregulated global trade may result in long-term loss of environmental capital. Multilateral governance is needed. Classical business models tend to view environmental damage as an externality--an impact on a third party's welfare that is neither compensated nor appropriated. The Rio Declaration on Environment and Development clearly states that economic development must err on the side of environmental integrity. Whereas UN Environmental Program policy requires precaution in the face of scientific uncertainty, World Trade Organization policy requires scientific certainty before precaution can be used. The conflict is obvious. In fact, there is gross lack of policy coordination across institutions. This article looks at some environmental strains and concludes that trade policy must address all aspects of human welfare, not merely the economic. PMID:17208718

  3. Aberdeen Area Indian Health Service Environmental Health Program Review Conducted by: Indian Health Committee of the National Environmental Health Association (Aberdeen, South Dakota, May 23-27, 1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Aberdeen, SD. Aberdeen Area Office.

    The Indian Health Committee met in Aberdeen, South Dakota, during the week of May 23, 1977 to (1) review the environmental health services provided to the tribal units on the 15 Indian reservations located in North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska and Iowa, and (2) make recommendations for improvement or expansion of current programs, if needed. The…

  4. USE OF FOCUS GROUPS FOR THE ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RESEARCHER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Qualitative research techniques are often under-utilized by the environmental health researcher. Focus groups, one such qualitative method, can provide rich data sets for study planning and implementation, risk perception, program and policy research, and exploration into future...

  5. Environmental and Health Consideration for Mass Gatherings at Football Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fodero, Severio D.

    1976-01-01

    University health services along with local and state agencies have the responsibility through a coordinated effort to insure that acceptable environmental sanitation standards are maintained during mass gatherings at athletic events. (MB)

  6. SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL MODELS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Based on accumulating evidence linking health effects to ambient airborne particulate matter, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 1997 promulgated revised, stricter air quality standards for particulate matter air pollution. While many epidemiological studies hav...

  7. Understanding sex differences in environmental health: a thought leaders' roundtable.

    PubMed Central

    Keitt, Sarah K; Fagan, Thomas F; Marts, Sherry A

    2004-01-01

    Under the auspices of the Society for Women's Health Research, a thought leaders' roundtable was convened at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences in October 2002 to discuss recent advances in environmental health research, particularly those findings that explain sex differences in response to environmental exposures. Researchers discussed the latest findings on the interaction between sex and environmental exposures on health. Participants concluded that a greater focus on interdisciplinary, hypothesis-driven research is essential to advancing the field. To understand fully the potential effect of chronic exposures, researchers need to develop models to explore not only physiologic sex differences but also behavioral responses to low-dose and multiple chemical exposures. Future research should examine sex differences from the cell line to behaviors and should track these differences across multiple generations. Federal agencies should support such research in their awards of investigator-initiated grants. PMID:15064168

  8. Educated guesses: health risk assessment in environmental impact statements.

    PubMed

    Harvey, P D

    1990-01-01

    Environmental pollution threatens public health. The search for solutions has advanced the frontiers of science and law. Efforts to protect the environment and public health begin with describing potential adverse consequences of human activities and characterizing the predicted risk. The National Environmental Policy Act requires the preparation of environmental impact statements to describe the effects of proposed federal projects and provide information for agency decisionmakers and the public. Risks to public health are particularly difficult to quantify because of uncertainty about the relation between exposure to environmental contamination and disease. Risk assessment is the current scientific tool to present estimates of risk. The methodology has created controversy, however, when underlying assumptions and uncertainties are not clearly presented. Critics caution that the methodology is vulnerable to bias. This Note evaluates the use of risk assessment in the environmental impact statement process and offers recommendations to ensure informed decisions. PMID:2278245

  9. The Representative Shuttle Environmental Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brose, H. F.; Greenwood, F. H.; Thompson, C. D.; Willis, N. C.

    1974-01-01

    The Representative Shuttle Environmental Control System (RSECS) program was conceived to provide NASA with a prototype system representative of the Shuttle Environmental Control System (ECS). Discussed are the RSECS program objectives, predicated on updating and adding to the early system as required to retain its usefulness during the Shuttle ECS development and qualification effort. Ultimately, RSECS will be replaced with a flight-designed system using either refurbished development or qualification equipment to provide NASA with a flight simulation capability during the Shuttle missions. The RSECS air revitalization subsystem and the waste management support subsystem are being tested. A water coolant subsystem and a freon coolant subsystem are in the development and planning phases.

  10. Interdisciplinary Environmental-health Science Throughout Disaster Lifecycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumlee, G. S.; Morman, S. A.; Hoefen, T. M.

    2014-12-01

    Potential human health effects from exposures to hazardous disaster materials and environmental contamination are common concerns following disasters. Using several examples from US Geological Survey environmental disaster responses (e.g., 2001 World Trade Center, mine tailings spills, 2005 Hurricane Katrina, 2007-2013 wildfires, 2011 Gulf oil spill, 2012 Hurricane Sandy, 2013 Colorado floods) and disaster scenarios (2011 ARkStorm, 2013 SAFRR tsunami) this presentation will illustrate the role for collaborative earth, environmental, and health science throughout disaster lifecycles. Pre-disaster environmental baseline measurements are needed to help understand environmental influences on pre-disaster health baselines, and to constrain the magnitude of a disaster's impacts. During and following disasters, there is a need for interdisciplinary rapid-response and longer-term assessments that: sample and characterize the physical, chemical, and microbial makeup of complex materials generated by the disasters; fingerprint material sources; monitor, map, and model dispersal and evolution of disaster materials in the environment; help understand how the materials are modified by environmental processes; and, identify key characteristics and processes that influence the exposures and toxicity of disaster materials to humans and the living environment. This information helps emergency responders, public health experts, and cleanup managers: 1) identify short- and long-term exposures to disaster materials that may affect health; 2) prioritize areas for cleanup; and 3) develop appropriate disposal solutions or restoration uses for disaster materials. By integrating lessons learned from past disasters with geospatial information on vulnerable sources of natural or anthropogenic contaminants, the environmental health implications of looming disasters or disaster scenarios can be better anticipated, which helps enhance preparedness and resilience. Understanding economic costs of

  11. The federal environmental health workforce in the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Sexton, K; Perlin, S A

    1990-01-01

    This paper summarizes existing data on the size and composition of the federal environmental health workforce, delineates the major categories of activities carried out by its members, identifies current and emerging issues that are likely to affect workforce activities, and makes qualitative inferences about future trends and directions. Findings suggest that there is a current and future need for more and better qualified professionals in the federal environmental health workforce. PMID:2368849

  12. Promoting global population health while constraining the environmental footprint.

    PubMed

    McMichael, A J; Butler, C D

    2011-01-01

    Populations today face increasing health risks from human-induced regional and global environmental changes and resultant ecological nonsustainability. Localized environmental degradation that has long accompanied population growth, industrialization, and rising consumerism has now acquired a global and often systemic dimension (e.g., climate change, disrupted nitrogen cycling, biodiversity loss). Thus, the economic intensification and technological advances that previously contributed to health gains have now expanded such that humanity's environmental (and ecological) footprint jeopardizes global population health. International data show, in general, a positive correlation of a population's health with level of affluence and size of per-person footprint. Yet, beyond a modest threshold, larger footprints afford negligible health gain and may impair health (e.g., via the rise of obesity). Furthermore, some lower-income countries have attained high levels of health. Many changes now needed to promote ecological (and social) sustainability will benefit local health. Continued improvement of global health could thus coexist with an equitably shared global environmental footprint. PMID:21219161

  13. Perceptions and experiences of environmental health risks among new mothers: a qualitative study in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Crighton, E. J.; Brown, C.; Baxter, J.; Lemyre, L.; Masuda, J.R.; Ursitti, F.

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing awareness and concern in contemporary societies about potential health impacts of environmental contaminants on children. Mothers are traditionally more involved than other family members in managing family health and household decisions and thus targeted by public health campaigns to minimise risks. However little is known about how new mothers perceive and experience environmental health risks to their children. In 2010, we undertook a parallel case study using qualitative, in-depth interviews with new mothers and focus groups with public health key informants in two Public Health Units in Ontario Province, Canada. We found that the concern about environmental hazards among participants ranged from having no concerns to actively incorporating prevention into daily life. Overall, there was a common perception among participants that many risks, particularly in the indoor environment, were controllable and therefore of little concern. But environmental risks that originate outside the home were viewed as less controllable and more threatening. In response to such threats, mothers invoked coping strategies such as relying on the capacity of children's bodies to adapt. Regardless of the strategies adopted, actions (or inactions) were contingent upon active information seeking. We also found an optimistic bias in which new mothers reported that other children were at greater risk despite similar environmental circumstances. The findings suggest that risk communication experts must attend to the social and environmental contexts of risk and coping when designing strategies around risk reducing behaviours. PMID:23805055

  14. Public Health Pest Control. Bulletin 755.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Burton R.

    This manual gives general control principles and specific information on control of mosquitoes, flies, bedbugs, fleas, lice, cockroaches, venomous arthropods, ticks and chiggers, and rodents. The specific information includes life-cycles and habitats, public health importance, non-chemical control, and control with pesticides. (BB)

  15. Natural Disasters (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water ... Water Treatment Videos Games Experiments For Teachers Home Water Pollution Natural Disasters Print this Page Air Pollution Air ...

  16. 77 FR 24720 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Environmental Health/Agency for Toxic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Environmental Health/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (BSC, NCEH/ ATSDR) In... Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), announces the following meeting of the aforementioned...

  17. Environmental health citation patterns: mapping the literature 2008–2010

    PubMed Central

    Rethlefsen, Melissa L

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This research seeks to understand the publication types and ages cited most often in environmental health literature and the most commonly cited journal titles. Methods: From the 43,896 items cited in Environmental Health Perspectives and the Journal of Environmental Health during 2008–2010, 2 random samples were drawn: First, 1,042 items representing all citations were analyzed with respect to publication type, age, and Internet link. Second, the cited journal name and citation age were recorded for 1,038 items culled from only citations to journal articles. All journal titles were classified into Bradford zones and assigned subject disciplines. Results: Journal articles (n = 891, 85.5%) were the most heavily cited publication type. Cited items' publication years ranged from 1951 to 2010. Close to half (49.1%) of all cited items were published 5 or fewer years previous. Sixteen journal titles (3.9%) accounted for 32.5% of all cited journal articles. The 3 most common subject disciplines—“Public, Environmental & Occupational Health,” “Environmental Sciences,” and “Toxicology”—accounted for 21.6% of all unique journal titles and 45.3% of all citations. Conclusions: Environmental health citation patterns differ from other public health disciplines in terms of cited publication types, cited journals, and age of citations. PMID:23405046

  18. Environmental control for pulp and paper mills

    SciTech Connect

    Edde, H.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to provide the pulp and paper industry engineering community with a new source of information for use in the planning, design and operation of present and future environmental control facilities. New pollution control methods are described, and the applications of new techniques for more effectively removing a broad spectrum of contaminants from air and water discharges are discussed. The information will also be useful as text material for students in pulp and paper technology and industrial waste engineering. The book contains two parts; the first describes water and solid waste pollution control for the pulp and paper industry, while the second presents air pollution control. A condensed table of contents listing chapter titles and selected subtitles is also given.

  19. Minnows as a Classroom Model for Human Environmental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Daniel N.; Hesselbach, Renee; Kane, Andrew S.; Petering, David H.; Petering, Louise; Berg, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding human environmental health is difficult for high school students, as is the process of scientific investigation. This module provides a framework to address both concerns through an inquiry-based approach using a hypothesis-driven set of experiments that draws upon a real-life concern, environmental exposures to lead (Pb2+). Students…

  20. The Picture of Health. Environmental Sources of Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckholm, Erik P.

    This book deals comprehensively with many of the environmental factors that endanger the attainment and maintenance of health, a condition defined as being a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being. The author, taking a qlobal view of community life and culture, environmental factors and economic realities, examines the…

  1. Oral Health Inequalities: Relationships between Environmental and Individual Factors.

    PubMed

    Gupta, E; Robinson, P G; Marya, C M; Baker, S R

    2015-10-01

    Recent research has emphasized the relationships between environmental and individual factors that may influence population oral health and lead to health inequalities. However, little is known about the effect of interactions between environmental and individual factors on inequalities in clinical (e.g., decayed teeth) and subjective oral health outcomes (e.g., oral health-related quality of life [OHQoL]). This cohort study aimed to explore the direct and mediated longitudinal interrelationships between key environmental and individual factors on clinical and subjective oral health outcomes in adults. Self-reported measures of OHQoL and individual (sense of coherence [SOC], social support, stress, oral health beliefs, dental behaviors, and subjective socioeconomic status [SES]) and environmental factors (SES and social network) were collected at baseline and 3-mo follow-up, together with a baseline clinical examination of 495 adult employees of an automobile parts manufacturer in India. Lagged structural equation modeling was guided by the adapted Wilson and Cleary/Brunner and Marmot model linking clinical, individual, and environmental variables to quality of life. The study provides tentative evidence that SES may influence levels of resources such as social support and SOC, which mediate stress and in turn may influence subjective oral health outcomes. Accordingly, the present findings and the adapted Wilson and Cleary/Brunner and Marmot model on which they are predicted provide support for the psychosocial pathway being key in the SES-oral health relationship. The pathways through which environmental factors interact with individual factors to impact subjective oral health outcomes identified here may bring opportunities for more targeted oral health promotion strategies. PMID:26130261

  2. Environmental and occupational health research and training needs in Colombia: A Delphi study

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Villamizar, Laura A.; González, Beatriz Elena; Vera, Lina María; Patz, Jonathan; Bautista, Leonelo E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Environmental factors contribute with 16% of the burden of disease in Colombia. A main obstacle in implementing national and regional environmental and occupational health policies is the limited knowledge on the local ability to study and control the impact of harmful exposures on health. Objective To identify needs for research and training in environmental and occupational health in Colombia. Materials and methods We conducted a three-round hybrid Delphi study. A group of environmental and occupational health Colombian experts (n=16) from government agencies, universities, and research centers was recruited to participate in the study. Expert’s opinions on research and training needs were gathered through online questionnaires, followed by an in-person meeting. The percentage of agreement and the coefficient of variation were used to measure consensus. Results Air pollution and chemical products were considered the most important environmental and occupational exposures, due to their significant impact on chronic non-communicable diseases, such as respiratory diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. Research on the effects of outdoor air pollution on cardiovascular and respiratory diseases was considered of the greatest importance. Priority training areas included environmental and occupational health risk assessment, exposure modeling, advanced statistical methods, urban planning, occupational safety and hygiene, and epidemiology and toxicology. Conclusions These findings provide a valuable input for the definition and implementation of national environmental and occupational health policies and for the development of a regional hub aimed at strengthening the capacity for research and training in Colombia. PMID:26535742

  3. Environmental degradation and health risks in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Qi, Jun; Yang, Linsheng; Wang, Wuyi

    2007-01-01

    As China's capital city, Beijing is experiencing unprecedented environmental degradation accompanied by complex interactions between urbanization and global environmental change, which places human health at risk on a large spatial and temporal scale. For sustainable development that supports environmental and human health in Beijing and during the upcoming "green" Olympic games in 2008, experts and political leaders must acknowledge the urgent health risks from environmental changes related to urbanization. A range of urban health hazards and associated health risks in Beijing result from a variety of factors including heat islands, air pollution, water crisis, soil pollution, infectious diseases, and urban consumerism; in addition, some hazardous health conditions are associated with inequality in living and working conditions. The authors suggest 2 main areas for policy action and research direction: (1) the need to get full-scale information related to environmental monitoring data and health data (and then to provide new methodological approaches and techniques to implement interventions) and (2) the need for effective cooperation among different sectors. PMID:18171645

  4. Children's Environmental Health: Beyond National Boundaries.

    PubMed

    Miller, Mark D; Marty, Melanie A; Landrigan, Philip J

    2016-02-01

    Children are especially vulnerable to environmental pollution, a major cause of disease, death, and disability in countries at every level of development. This article reviews threats to children, including air and water pollution, toxic industrial chemicals, pesticides, heavy metals, and hazardous wastes. Global climate change is expected to exacerbate many of these issues. Examples of innovative nongovernmental organizations and governmental programs that address the impacts of environmental hazards on children are included. International travel, adoption, migration, and movement of goods and pollutants worldwide make these conditions concerns for all pediatricians. PMID:26613694

  5. Defining health by addressing individual, social, and environmental determinants: New opportunities for health care and public health

    PubMed Central

    Bircher, Johannes; Kuruvilla, Shyama

    2014-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) mobilized global commitments to promote health, socioeconomic, and sustainable development. Trends indicate that the health MDGs may not be achieved by 2015, in part because of insufficient coordination across related health, socioeconomic, and environmental initiatives. Explicitly acknowledging the need for such collaboration, the Meikirch Model of Health posits that: Health is a state of wellbeing emergent from conducive interactions between individuals' potentials, life's demands, and social and environmental determinants. Health results throughout the life course when individuals' potentials – and social and environmental determinants – suffice to respond satisfactorily to the demands of life. Life's demands can be physiological, psychosocial, or environmental, and vary across contexts, but in every case unsatisfactory responses lead to disease. This conceptualization of the integrative nature of health could contribute to ongoing efforts to strengthen cooperation across actors and sectors to improve individual and population health – leading up to 2015 and beyond. PMID:24943659

  6. Defining health by addressing individual, social, and environmental determinants: new opportunities for health care and public health.

    PubMed

    Bircher, Johannes; Kuruvilla, Shyama

    2014-08-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) mobilized global commitments to promote health, socioeconomic, and sustainable development. Trends indicate that the health MDGs may not be achieved by 2015, in part because of insufficient coordination across related health, socioeconomic, and environmental initiatives. Explicitly acknowledging the need for such collaboration, the Meikirch Model of Health posits that: Health is a state of wellbeing emergent from conducive interactions between individuals' potentials, life's demands, and social and environmental determinants. Health results throughout the life course when individuals' potentials--and social and environmental determinants--suffice to respond satisfactorily to the demands of life. Life's demands can be physiological, psychosocial, or environmental, and vary across contexts, but in every case unsatisfactory responses lead to disease. This conceptualization of the integrative nature of health could contribute to ongoing efforts to strengthen cooperation across actors and sectors to improve individual and population health--leading up to 2015 and beyond. PMID:24943659

  7. Mapping environmental injustices: pitfalls and potential of geographic information systems in assessing environmental health and equity.

    PubMed Central

    Maantay, Juliana

    2002-01-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have been used increasingly to map instances of environmental injustice, the disproportionate exposure of certain populations to environmental hazards. Some of the technical and analytic difficulties of mapping environmental injustice are outlined in this article, along with suggestions for using GIS to better assess and predict environmental health and equity. I examine 13 GIS-based environmental equity studies conducted within the past decade and use a study of noxious land use locations in the Bronx, New York, to illustrate and evaluate the differences in two common methods of determining exposure extent and the characteristics of proximate populations. Unresolved issues in mapping environmental equity and health include lack of comprehensive hazards databases; the inadequacy of current exposure indices; the need to develop realistic methodologies for determining the geographic extent of exposure and the characteristics of the affected populations; and the paucity and insufficiency of health assessment data. GIS have great potential to help us understand the spatial relationship between pollution and health. Refinements in exposure indices; the use of dispersion modeling and advanced proximity analysis; the application of neighborhood-scale analysis; and the consideration of other factors such as zoning and planning policies will enable more conclusive findings. The environmental equity studies reviewed in this article found a disproportionate environmental burden based on race and/or income. It is critical now to demonstrate correspondence between environmental burdens and adverse health impacts--to show the disproportionate effects of pollution rather than just the disproportionate distribution of pollution sources. PMID:11929725

  8. Mapping environmental injustices: pitfalls and potential of geographic information systems in assessing environmental health and equity.

    PubMed

    Maantay, Juliana

    2002-04-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have been used increasingly to map instances of environmental injustice, the disproportionate exposure of certain populations to environmental hazards. Some of the technical and analytic difficulties of mapping environmental injustice are outlined in this article, along with suggestions for using GIS to better assess and predict environmental health and equity. I examine 13 GIS-based environmental equity studies conducted within the past decade and use a study of noxious land use locations in the Bronx, New York, to illustrate and evaluate the differences in two common methods of determining exposure extent and the characteristics of proximate populations. Unresolved issues in mapping environmental equity and health include lack of comprehensive hazards databases; the inadequacy of current exposure indices; the need to develop realistic methodologies for determining the geographic extent of exposure and the characteristics of the affected populations; and the paucity and insufficiency of health assessment data. GIS have great potential to help us understand the spatial relationship between pollution and health. Refinements in exposure indices; the use of dispersion modeling and advanced proximity analysis; the application of neighborhood-scale analysis; and the consideration of other factors such as zoning and planning policies will enable more conclusive findings. The environmental equity studies reviewed in this article found a disproportionate environmental burden based on race and/or income. It is critical now to demonstrate correspondence between environmental burdens and adverse health impacts--to show the disproportionate effects of pollution rather than just the disproportionate distribution of pollution sources. PMID:11929725

  9. Drinking Water (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... water. A Guide to Drinking Water Treatment and Sanitation for Backcountry & Travel Use (Centers for Disease Control ... runoff is and its hazardous effects on the environment. Commercially Bottled Water (Centers for Disease Control and ...

  10. Environmental Health and Aging: Activity, Exposure and Biological Models to Improve Risk Assessment and Health Promotion

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other public health agencies are concerned that the environmental health of America’s growing population of older adults has not been taken into consideration in current approaches to risk assessment. The reduced capacity to respo...

  11. CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RESEARCH - EPA AND DHHS COLLABORATE TO ADDRESS LONG-TERM HEALTH ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Children's environmental health is important to the mission of both the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Over the past seven years, federal experts from a variety of disciplines including survey sampling desi...

  12. Our Environment, Our Health: A Community-Based Participatory Environmental Health Survey in Richmond, California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Alison; Lopez, Andrea; Malloy, Nile; Morello-Frosch, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    This study presents a health survey conducted by a community-based participatory research partnership between academic researchers and community organizers to consider environmental health and environmental justice issues in four neighborhoods of Richmond, California, a low-income community of color living along the fence line of a major oil…

  13. The consideration of health in strategic environmental assessment (SEA)

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Thomas B; Matuzzi, Marco; Nowacki, Julia

    2010-04-15

    Following the requirements of the European Directive 2001/42/EC on strategic environmental assessment (SEA) and the Protocol on Strategic Environmental Assessment (Kiev, 2003) to the Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context (Espoo, 1991), health is one of the aspects to be considered in SEA. In this paper, results of an evaluation of eight SEAs from Austria, the Czech Republic, Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom (England and Wales) regarding the consideration of health are presented. This includes SEAs for five spatial plans, as well as one SEA for each, a transport, a waste management and an economic development plan. It is found that while all SEAs cover important physical and natural aspects that are related to health, social and behavioural aspects are considered to a much smaller extent. Based on the results, facilitating factors and barriers for health inclusive SEA are identified. Overall, good baseline data can be seen as an important starting point for effective health inclusive SEA, while an effective monitoring system is crucial for effective implementation of the measures and recommendations brought forward in health inclusive SEA. Crucially, health authorities/health experts need to engage more with SEA, as this provides a key platform for cross sectoral dialogue on a range of issues. SEA presents the health sector with an opportunity to influence the policy and decision-making process to improve people's health and well-being.

  14. Environmentally Related Health Hazards in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, James B.; Neuroth, Richard

    The quality of air inside the schoolhouses of America may have a profound effect on students' ability to concentrate on their lessons. The environmental hazards that influence the quality of the indoor air (IAQ) of our schools have not been well understood. Research evidence suggests that school age children and youth (especially those under the…

  15. Approaches to integrated monitoring for environmental health impact assessment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Although Integrated Environmental Health Monitoring (IEHM) is considered an essential tool to better understand complex environmental health issues, there is no consensus on how to develop such a programme. We reviewed four existing frameworks and eight monitoring programmes in the area of environmental health. We identified the DPSEEA (Driving Force-Pressure-State-Exposure-Effect-Action) framework as most suitable for developing an IEHM programme for environmental health impact assessment. Our review showed that most of the existing monitoring programmes have been designed for specific purposes, resulting in narrow scope and limited number of parameters. This therefore limits their relevance for studying complex environmental health topics. Other challenges include limited spatial and temporal data availability, limited development of data sharing mechanisms, heterogeneous data quality, a lack of adequate methodologies to link disparate data sources, and low level of interdisciplinary cooperation. To overcome some of these challenges, we propose a DPSEEA-based conceptual framework for an IEHM programme that would enable monitoring and measuring the impact of environmental changes on human health. We define IEHM as ‘a systemic process to measure, analyse and interpret the state and changes of natural-eco-anthropogenic systems and its related health impact over time at the same location with causative explanations across the various compartments of the cause-effect chain’. We develop a structural work process to integrate information that is based on existing environmental health monitoring programmes. Such a framework allows the development of combined monitoring systems that exhibit a large degree of compatibility between countries and regions. PMID:23171406

  16. Approaches to integrated monitoring for environmental health impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai-Ying; Bartonova, Alena; Pascal, Mathilde; Smolders, Roel; Skjetne, Erik; Dusinska, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Although Integrated Environmental Health Monitoring (IEHM) is considered an essential tool to better understand complex environmental health issues, there is no consensus on how to develop such a programme. We reviewed four existing frameworks and eight monitoring programmes in the area of environmental health. We identified the DPSEEA (Driving Force-Pressure-State-Exposure-Effect-Action) framework as most suitable for developing an IEHM programme for environmental health impact assessment. Our review showed that most of the existing monitoring programmes have been designed for specific purposes, resulting in narrow scope and limited number of parameters. This therefore limits their relevance for studying complex environmental health topics. Other challenges include limited spatial and temporal data availability, limited development of data sharing mechanisms, heterogeneous data quality, a lack of adequate methodologies to link disparate data sources, and low level of interdisciplinary cooperation. To overcome some of these challenges, we propose a DPSEEA-based conceptual framework for an IEHM programme that would enable monitoring and measuring the impact of environmental changes on human health. We define IEHM as 'a systemic process to measure, analyse and interpret the state and changes of natural-eco-anthropogenic systems and its related health impact over time at the same location with causative explanations across the various compartments of the cause-effect chain'. We develop a structural work process to integrate information that is based on existing environmental health monitoring programmes. Such a framework allows the development of combined monitoring systems that exhibit a large degree of compatibility between countries and regions. PMID:23171406

  17. Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Xylenes (o-, m-, p-)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Xylenes (o-, m-, p-) was prepared to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emerg...

  18. Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Nitrotoluenes (o-, m-, p-)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Nitrotoluenes (o-, m-, p-) was prepared to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for...

  19. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR CARBON DISULFIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Carbon Disulfide was prepared to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency...

  20. Health and Environmental Effects Document for L-Butanol

    EPA Science Inventory

    Health and Environmental Effects Documents (HEEDS) are prepared for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER). This document series is intended to support listings under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) as well as to provide health-related limits a...

  1. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR 3,3'-DIMETHYLBENZIDINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for 3,3'-Dimethylbenzidine was prepared to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under section 3301 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for eme...

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH INDICATORS: STATE OF THE ENVIRONMENT REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Purpose: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is moving in the direction of measuring and assessing human health and ecological outcomes. The new "outcome" measures complement the more traditional approaches by more closely reflecting the actual public health...

  3. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS DOCUMENT FOR BENZOIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    Health and Environmental Effects Documents (HEEDS) are prepared for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER). his document series is intended to support listings under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) as well as to provide health-related limits an...

  4. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS DOCUMENT FOR BORON AND BORON COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Health and Environmental Effects Documents (HEEDS) are prepared for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER). his document series is intended to support listings under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) as well as to provide health-related limits an...

  5. Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Naphthalene (1986)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Naphthalene was prepared to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency acti...

  6. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR METHYL BROMIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Methyl Bromide was prepared to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency a...

  7. Exploring Australian health promotion and environmental sustainability initiatives.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Rebecca; Kingsley, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed Health promotion practitioners have important roles in applying ecosystem approaches to health and actively promoting environmental sustainability within community-level practice. The present study identified the nature and scope of health promotion activities across Australia that tackle environmental sustainability. Methods A mixed-method approach was used, with 82 participants undertaking a quantitative survey and 11 undertaking a qualitative interview. Purposeful sampling strategies were used to recruit practitioners who were delivering community-level health promotion and sustainability programs in Australia. The data were analysed thematically and interpretation was guided by the principles of triangulation. Results Study participants were at various stages of linking health promotion and environmental sustainability. Initiatives focused on healthy and sustainable food, active transport, energy efficiency, contact with nature and capacity building. Conclusion Capacity building approaches were perceived as essential to strengthening this field of practice. Healthy and sustainable food and active transport were suitable platforms for simultaneously promoting community health and sustainability. There was potential for expansion of programs that emphasise contact with nature and energy issues, as well as interventions that emphasise systems thinking and interdisciplinary approaches. So what? It was promising that Australian health promotion programs have started to address complexity rather than single issues, as evidenced by explicit engagement with environmental sustainability. However, more effort is required to enable a shift towards ecosystem approaches to health. PMID:26650394

  8. Environmental Volunteering and Health Outcomes over a 20-Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillemer, Karl; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E.; Reid, M. C.; Wells, Nancy M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study tested the hypothesis that volunteering in environmental organizations in midlife is associated with greater physical activity and improved mental and physical health over a 20-year period. Design and Methods: The study used data from two waves (1974 and 1994) of the Alameda County Study, a longitudinal study of health and…

  9. ESTABLISHING A NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH TRACKING NETWORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes the CDC's efforts to develop a National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network Tracking Network) with particular focus on air related issues and collaboration with EPA. A Tracking Network is needed in the United States to improve the health of communit...

  10. Chattanooga Creek: case study of the public health nursing role in environmental health.

    PubMed

    Phillips, L

    1995-10-01

    Public health nurses have two primary roles in protecting their communities from hazardous substances: community assessment and health education. Developing assessment skills in environmental health enables public health nurses to collaborate with other federal, state, and county agencies in identifying public health hazards and making health-based recommendations at hazardous waste sites needing remedial or removal interventions. Community health education empowers communities to minimize their exposure to hazardous wastes in their environment. Methods for community environmental health assessment and interventions are demonstrated in this article by activities conducted at the Chattanooga Creek site in Chattanooga, Tennessee. A thorough assessment and collaborative approach between government agencies, local health professionals, and community members resulted in a successful community health education program and this site's placement on the National Priorities List. PMID:7479542

  11. Environmental Health: Threats and their Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Holdstock, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    Improvements in the provision of an acceptable standard of health care, particularly in the developing world, will be undermined by three ongoing processes: ongoing armed conflicts; the threat of global warming due to rising levels of greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide emitted by developed countries; and by rapidly rising populations. The key features of these three threats are summarised, and it is shown that interactions between them increase both the likelihood of their occurrence and the probable harm that they will cause. Some of the interactions are described, with ways of providing health care taking into account the threats and their interactions, and the paradox is emphasised that better health care in the developing world will further increase population growth followed by increased greenhouse gas emissions. Improved education for women and free and unlimited access to modern methods of contraception are vital. PMID:21572838

  12. Global Environmental Change: What Can Health Care Providers and the Environmental Health Community Do About It Now?

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Brian S.; Parker, Cindy; Glass, Thomas A.; Hu, Howard

    2006-01-01

    The debate about whether global environmental change is real is now over; in its wake is the realization that it is happening more rapidly than predicted. These changes constitute a profound challenge to human health, both as a direct threat and as a promoter of other risks. We call on health care providers to inform themselves about these issues and to become agents of change in their communities. It is our responsibility as clinicians to educate patients and their communities on the connections between regressive policies, unsustainable behaviors, global environmental changes, and threats to health and security. We call on professional organizations to assist in educating their members about these issues, in helping clinicians practice behavior change with their patients, and in adding their voices to this issue in our statehouses and Congress. We call for the development of carbon- and other environmental-labeling of consumer products so individuals can make informed choices; we also call for the rapid implementation of policies that provide tangible economic incentives for choosing environmentally sustainable products and services. We urge the environmental health community to take up the challenge of developing a global environmental health index that will incorporate human health into available “planetary health” metrics and that can be used as a policy tool to evaluate the impact of interventions and document spatial and temporal shifts in the healthfulness of local areas. Finally, we urge our political, business, public health, and academic leaders to heed these environmental warnings and quickly develop regulatory and policy solutions so that the health of populations and the integrity of their environments will be ensured for future generations. PMID:17185267

  13. Identifying environmental safety and health requirements for the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation

    SciTech Connect

    Beckman, W.H.; Cossel, S.C.; Alhadeff, N.; Porco, D.J.; Lindamood, S.B.; Beers, J.A.

    1994-01-14

    This presentation will describe the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation`s (FERMCO) Standards/Requirements Identification Documents (S/RlDs) Program, the unique process used to implement it, and the status of the program. We will also discuss the lessons learned as the program was implemented. The Department of Energy (DOE) established the Fernald site to produce uranium metals for the nation`s defense programs in 1953. In 1989, DOE suspended production and, in 1991, the mission of the site was formally changed to one of environmental cleanup and restoration. The site was renamed the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). FERMCO`s mission is to provide safe, early, and least-cost final clean-up of the site in compliance with all regulations and commitments. DOE has managed nuclear facilities primarily through its oversight of Management and Operating contractors. Comprehensive nuclear industry standards were absent when most DOE sites were first established, Management and Operating contractors had to apply existing non-nuclear industry standards and, in many cases, formulate new technical standards. Because it was satisfied with the operation of its facilities, DOE did not incorporate modern practices and standards as they became available. In March 1990, the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board issued Recommendation 90-2, which called for DOE to identify relevant standards and requirements, conduct adequacy assessments of requirements in protecting environmental, public, and worker health and safety, and determine the extent to which the requirements are being implemented. The Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Office of DOE embraced the recommendation for facilities under its control. Strict accountability requirements made it essential that FERMCO and DOE clearly identify applicable requirements necessary, determine the requirements` adequacy, and assess FERMCO`s level of compliance.

  14. Physiological and environmental control of yeast prions

    PubMed Central

    Chernova, Tatiana A.; Wilkinson, Keith D.; Chernoff, Yury O.

    2014-01-01

    Prions are self-perpetuating protein isoforms that cause fatal and incurable neurodegenerative disease in mammals. Recent evidence indicates that a majority of human proteins involved in amyloid and neural inclusion disorders possess at least some prion properties. In lower eukaryotes, such as yeast, prions act as epigenetic elements, which increase phenotypic diversity by altering a range of cellular processes. While some yeast prions are clearly pathogenic, it is also postulated that prion formation could be beneficial in variable environmental conditions. Yeast and mammalian prions have similar molecular properties. Crucial cellular factors and conditions influencing prion formation and propagation were uncovered in the yeast models. Stress-related chaperones, protein quality control deposits, degradation pathways and cytoskeletal networks control prion formation and propagation in yeast. Environmental stresses trigger prion formation and loss, supposedly acting via influencing intracellular concentrations of the prion-inducing proteins, and/or by localizing prionogenic proteins to the prion induction sites via heterologous ancillary helpers. Physiological and environmental modulation of yeast prions points to new opportunities for pharmacological intervention and/or prophylactic measures targeting general cellular systems rather than the properties of individual amyloids and prions. PMID:24236638

  15. 78 FR 26793 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special...

  16. 75 FR 48979 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ... Response to Environmental Health Hazards; 93.114, Applied Toxicological Research and Testing, National... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;...

  17. 75 FR 82033 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ..., Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards; 93.114, Applied Toxicological Research and Testing... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;...

  18. 75 FR 68367 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ... Response to Environmental Health Hazards; 93.114, Applied Toxicological Research and Testing, National... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;...

  19. 77 FR 66853 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ..., Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards; 93.114, Applied, Toxicological Research and Testing... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;...

  20. 78 FR 42968 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-18

    ..., Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards; 93.114, Applied Toxicological Research and Testing... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;...

  1. 75 FR 55807 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... Response to Environmental Health Hazards; 93.114, Applied Toxicological Research and Testing, National... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;...

  2. 76 FR 58521 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ..., Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards; 93.114, Applied Toxicological Research and Testing... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;...

  3. 77 FR 30019 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ..., Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards; 93.114, Applied Toxicological Research and Testing... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;...

  4. 77 FR 61771 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ..., Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards; 93.114, Applied Toxicological Research and Testing... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;...

  5. 76 FR 21387 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ..., Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards; 93.114, Applied Toxicological Research and Testing... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;...

  6. 78 FR 56902 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-16

    ....113, Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards; 93.114, Applied Toxicological Research and... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;...

  7. 75 FR 41506 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ... Response to Environmental Health Hazards; 93.114, Applied Toxicological Research and Testing, National... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;...

  8. 77 FR 43849 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ... Response to Environmental Health Hazards; 93.114, Applied Toxicological Research and Testing, National... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;...

  9. 78 FR 27410 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-10

    ....113, Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards; 93.114, Applied Toxicological Research and... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;...

  10. 75 FR 20371 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ... Response to Environmental Health Hazards; 93.114, Applied Toxicological Research and Testing, National... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;...

  11. 78 FR 51734 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ....113, Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards; 93.114, Applied Toxicological Research and... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;...

  12. Health and Environmental Hazards of Electronic Waste in India.

    PubMed

    Borthakur, Anwesha

    2016-04-01

    Technological waste in the form of electronic waste (e-waste) is a threat to all countries. E-waste impacts health and the environment by entering the food chain in the form of chemical toxicants and exposing the population to deleterious chemicals, mainly in the form of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and persistent organic pollutants. This special report tries to trace the environmental and health implications of e-waste in India. The author concludes that detrimental health and environmental consequences are associated with e-waste and the challenge lies in producing affordable electronics with minimum chemical toxicants. PMID:27188068

  13. Environmental Strategies for Portion Control in Children

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Thomas N.; Matheson, Donna M.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from laboratory and field studies indicates that large portions lead to greater food and energy intake relative to small portions. However, most children and adults demonstrate limited abilities to estimate and control the amounts of food they serve and consume. Five potential environmental strategies appear promising for improving portion control in children: (1) using tall, thin, and small volume glasses and mugs, (2) using smaller diameter and volume plates, bowls and serving utensils, (3) using plates with rims, (4) reducing total television and other screen watching and (5) reducing or eliminating eating while watching television and/or other screens. Further experimental research in real world settings is needed to test these interventions as strategies for portion control and their roles in prevention and treatment of obesity. PMID:25485874

  14. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR PYRENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report was prepared to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams and to provide health-related limits for emergency actions. Published literature and information obtained from EPA program office files were evaluated as they pertained to poten...

  15. Health and environmental risks of energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, L.D.

    1984-01-01

    This paper gives four examples of health risk assessments of energy systems: (1) Comparative risk assessment of the health effects of the coal and nuclear fuel cycles. Estimates differ from previous values chiefly by inclusion of ranges of uncertainty, but some coal-cycle numbers were re-estimated. Upper-boundary public disease risks of air pollution from coal-fired plants dominate. Reactors probably account for most of the potential effect of major nuclear accidents. Accidental death rates in electricity generation are low for reactors and higher for coal. (2) Upper boundary air pollution health risks of existing fossil-based energy technologies in the United States. Preliminary mortality estimates were obtained combining potential impacts of three index pollutants - SO/sub 4/, NO/sub 2/, and CO - as independent measures of risk. Four fuel cycle trajectories leading to three end-uses were analyzed. Example results: domestic wood burning has substantial potential impact, with an upper boundary exceeding that of coal; upper-boundary air pollution impacts of gas can exceed those of oil, because of NO/sub 2/. (3) Health risks of acid deposition and other transported air pollutants, carried out as part of an assessment of the US Congress Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) Acid Rain and Transported Air Pollutants - Implications for Public Policy. Three scenarios were examined, leading to estimates of 40,000 to 50,000 annual premature deaths, depending on year (1978 vs 2000) and scenario (holding total emissions constant vs 30% reduction). (4) health effects of uranium mill tailings piles. Mortality risk is estimated to be minuscule (8.7 x 10/sup -9/ average individual lifetime cancer risk from a model mill, compared with 9.5 x 10/sup -4/ for background radiation). Methods that sum risks over the indefinite future are shown to be to be unrealistic. 39 references, 7 figures, 15 tables.

  16. Environmental Equity and Health: Understanding Complexity and Moving Forward

    PubMed Central

    Northridge, Mary E.; Stover, Gabriel N.; Rosenthal, Joyce E.; Sherard, Donna

    2003-01-01

    The authors invoke a population health perspective to assess the distribution of environmental hazards according to race/ethnicity, social class, age, gender, and sexuality and the implications of these hazards for health. The unequal burden of environmental hazards borne by African American, Native American, Latino, and Asian American/Pacific Islander communities and their relationship to welldocumented racial/ethnic disparities in health have not been critically examined across all population groups, regions of the United States, and ages. The determinants of existing environmental inequities also require critical research attention. To ensure inclusiveness and fill important gaps, scientific evidence is needed on the health effects of the built environment as well as the natural environment, cities and suburbs as well as rural areas, and indoor as well as outdoor pollutants. PMID:12554571

  17. A permanent US-Mexico border environmental health commission. Council on Scientific Affairs.

    PubMed

    1990-06-27

    Public health officials, physicians, and politicians have long been aware of the squalid environmental conditions existing along the US-Mexico border. Some attempts have been made to improve the environmental pollution and causes of human disease, beginning as early as the 1930s with the IBWC, established in 1889. More recent agreements and legislation have called for US and Mexico cooperation by way of each nation's corresponding environmental agency (ie, the EPA and Mexico's SEDUE) and their agencies of foreign affairs (ie, the IBWC). Nevertheless, environmental monitoring and disease incidence data continue to point out that public and environmental health along the border--the result of uncontrolled air and water pollution and lack of disease vector control--is rapidly deteriorating and seriously affecting the health and future economic vitality on both sides of the border. Many prominent public health professionals and environmental organizations are concerned that the present working relationship between the United States and Mexico is not functioning well and cannot adequately cope with existing environmental conditions; for one thing, the efforts of the EPA and SEDUE are reviewed no more frequently than once a year by a staff quartered in Washington and Mexico City. Some projects to improve these conditions have been undertaken by the EPA and SEDUE and the IBWC; at present, the prospects for success do not appear promising. Consequently, these individuals and organizations have urged creation of a US-Mexico border environmental health commission. Congress did see fit last year to give responsibility for the environment to the IBWC in the form of Public Law 100-465. This law, however, does not address the full severity of environmental and public health degradation along the border; it does not address the pollution of the New River, Agua Prieta, the San Pedro River, or the Pacific Ocean, neither does it offer remedial control of hazardous waste sites

  18. Industrial workers' health and environmental pollution under the new international division of labor: the Taiwan experience.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, M S; Huang, C L

    1997-01-01

    Using Taiwan as an example, this paper conducts a historical analysis of the relationship between economic development in the new international division of labor and environmental pollution and industrial workers' health. Three industries-asbestos, plastic, and dye-were chosen for case studies. We trace the emergence of each industry in Taiwan and study each industry's protection of workers' health and environmental quality. Under the new international division of labor, the state's prioritization of economic development leads to lenient regulation. Under such state policies, employers have few incentives to invest in the protection of their workers' health and in the control of environmental pollution. Workers and the public are constrained in their efforts to protect their own health and prevent environmental pollution. This situation is exemplified by the deplorable working conditions and inadequate environmental pollution controls in the asbestos, plastic, and dye industries. Workers' health and the public's health are greatly compromised by economic development in the new international division of labor. Images p1228-a p1228-b PMID:9240119

  19. Urban environmental health applications of remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rush, M.; Goldstein, J.; Hsi, B. P.; Olsen, C. B.

    1974-01-01

    An urban area was studied through the use of the inventory-by-surrogate method rather than by direct interpretation of photographic imagery. Prior uses of remote sensing in urban and public research are examined. The effects of crowding, poor housing conditions, air pollution, and street conditions on public health are considered. Color infrared photography was used to categorize land use features and the grid method was used in photo interpretation analysis. The incidence of shigella and salmonella, hepatitis, meningitis, tuberculosis, myocardial infarction and veneral disease were studied, together with mortality and morbidity rates. Sample census data were randomly collected and validated. The hypothesis that land use and residential quality are associated with and act as an influence upon health and physical well-being was studied and confirmed.

  20. A Representative Shuttle Environmental Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brose, H. F.; Stanley, M. D.; Leblanc, J. C.

    1977-01-01

    The Representative Shuttle Environmental Control System (RSECS) provides a ground test bed to be used in the early accumulation of component and system operating data, the evaluation of potential system improvements, and possibly the analysis of Shuttle Orbiter test and flight anomalies. Selected components are being subjected to long term tests to determine endurance and corrosion resistance capability prior to Orbiter vehicle experience. Component and system level tests in several cases are being used to support flight certification of Orbiter hardware. These activities are conducted as a development program to allow for timeliness, flexibility, and cost effectiveness not possible in a program burdened by flight documentation and monitoring constraints.

  1. The Energy Burden and Environmental Impact of Health Services

    PubMed Central

    Buettner, Petra G.; Canyon, Deon V.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We reviewed the English-language literature on the energy burden and environmental impact of health services. Methods. We searched all years of the PubMed, CINAHL, and ScienceDirect databases for publications reporting energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, or the environmental impact of health-related activities. We extracted and tabulated data to enable cross-comparisons among different activities and services; where possible, we calculated per patient or per event emissions. Results. We identified 38 relevant publications. Per patient or per event, health-related energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions are quite modest; in the aggregate, however, they are considerable. In England and the United States, health-related emissions account for 3% and 8% of total national emissions, respectively. Conclusions. Although reducing health-related energy consumption and emissions alone will not resolve all of the problems of energy scarcity and climate change, it could make a meaningful contribution. PMID:23078475

  2. The Exposome: Embracing the Complexity for Discovery in Environmental Health

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yuxia; Balshaw, David M.; Kwok, Richard K.; Thompson, Claudia L.; Collman, Gwen W.; Birnbaum, Linda S.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Environmental exposures are ubiquitous and play a fundamental role in the development of complex human diseases. The exposome, which is defined as the totality of environmental exposures over the life course, allows for systematic evaluation of the relationship between exposures and associated biological consequences, and represents a powerful approach for discovery in environmental health research. However, implementing the exposome concept is challenged by the ability to accurately assess multiple exposures and the ability to integrate information across the exposure–disease continuum. On 14–15 January 2015, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) held the Exposome Workshop where a group of international and U.S. scientists from different disciplines gathered to review the state of the science in research areas related to the exposome and to provide recommendations for incorporating the exposome concept into each research area. To move the field forward, the NIEHS is establishing a Children’s Health Exposure Analysis Resource (CHEAR) to provide infrastructure support for access to laboratory and statistical analyses to children’s health studies. It is recognized that incorporating the exposome concept into exposure and environmental health research will be a long journey and will require significant collaborative efforts from different scientific disciplines, nations, and stakeholders. PMID:27479988

  3. The green choices project: integrating environmental health education into reproductive health care settings.

    PubMed

    Worthington, Sandra; Armstrong, Kay; Debevec, Elie

    2010-01-01

    A national reproductive health organization developed the Green Choices project to educate staff and clients about how to live in healthier environments by reducing potentially harmful environmental exposures to toxicants. An advisory group, comprised of experts in environmental and reproductive health and literacy, defined the project's scope and common environmental exposures to address. The following educational materials were developed: an online staff environmental health 101 curriculum, an environmental health assessment tool for clients to identify their potential risks, and information sheets for each environmental exposure that described potential risks and ways to reduce risks. Beta-testing methods included baseline and follow-up surveys, one-on-one interviews, focus groups, and recommendations from experts. Staff and client feedback on the educational materials resulted in increased clarity, sensitivity, relevancy, and appeal. Environmental health experts ensured accuracy of information, and reading experts lowered the reading level from 12th to 6th grade. A campaign to disseminate environmental health information and educational materials nationally is under way. PMID:20838173

  4. Chiral xenobiotics bioaccumulations and environmental health prospectives.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Iqbal; ALOthman, Zeid A; Alwarthan, Abdulrahman A; Sanagi, Mohd Marsin; Ali, Imran

    2015-08-01

    The chiral xenobiotics are very dangerous for all of us due to the different enantioselective toxicities of the enantiomers. Besides, these have different enantioselective bioaccumulations and behaviors in our body and other organisms. It is of urgent need to understand the enantioselective bioaccumulations, toxicities, and the health hazards of the chiral xenobiotics. The present article describes the classification, sources of contamination, distribution, enantioselective bioaccumulation, and the toxicities of the chiral xenobiotics. Besides, the efforts are also made to discuss the prevention and remedial measures of the havoc of the chiral xenobiotics. The challenges of the chiral xenobiotics have also been highlighted. Finally, future prospectives are also discussed. PMID:26148690

  5. Veterinarians in Environmental Health: Opportunities for Veterinarians at the Environmental Protection Agency

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was created in 1970 partially in response to widespread public concern about environmental degradation. The EPA mission is to protect human health and the environment and the Agency is tasked with enforcing our nation's envi...

  6. Personalized Exposure Assessment: Promising Approaches for Human Environmental Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Weis, Brenda K.; Balshaw, David; Barr, John R.; Brown, David; Ellisman, Mark; Lioy, Paul; Omenn, Gilbert; Potter, John D.; Smith, Martyn T.; Sohn, Lydia; Suk, William A.; Sumner, Susan; Swenberg, James; Walt, David R.; Watkins, Simon; Thompson, Claudia; Wilson, Samuel H.

    2005-01-01

    New technologies and methods for assessing human exposure to chemicals, dietary and lifestyle factors, infectious agents, and other stressors provide an opportunity to extend the range of human health investigations and advance our understanding of the relationship between environmental exposure and disease. An ad hoc Committee on Environmental Exposure Technology Development was convened to identify new technologies and methods for deriving personalized exposure measurements for application to environmental health studies. The committee identified a “toolbox” of methods for measuring external (environmental) and internal (biologic) exposure and assessing human behaviors that influence the likelihood of exposure to environmental agents. The methods use environmental sensors, geographic information systems, biologic sensors, toxicogenomics, and body burden (biologic) measurements. We discuss each of the methods in relation to current use in human health research; specific gaps in the development, validation, and application of the methods are highlighted. We also present a conceptual framework for moving these technologies into use and acceptance by the scientific community. The framework focuses on understanding complex human diseases using an integrated approach to exposure assessment to define particular exposure–disease relationships and the interaction of genetic and environmental factors in disease occurrence. Improved methods for exposure assessment will result in better means of monitoring and targeting intervention and prevention programs. PMID:16002370

  7. Nuclear propulsion control and health monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, P. B.; Edwards, R. M.

    1993-01-01

    An integrated control and health monitoring architecture is being developed for the Pratt & Whitney XNR2000 nuclear rocket. Current work includes further development of the dynamic simulation modeling and the identification and configuration of low level controllers to give desirable performance for the various operating modes and faulted conditions. Artificial intelligence and knowledge processing technologies need to be investigated and applied in the development of an intelligent supervisory controller module for this control architecture.

  8. Children’s Health in Latin America: The Influence of Environmental Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Laborde, Amalia; Tomasina, Fernando; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Bruné, Marie-Noel; Buka, Irena; Comba, Pietro; Corra, Lilian; Cori, Liliana; Duffert, Christin Maria; Harari, Raul; Iavarone, Ivano; McDiarmid, Melissa A.; Gray, Kimberly A.; Sly, Peter D.; Soares, Agnes; Suk, William A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic diseases are increasing among children in Latin America. Objective and Methods To examine environmental risk factors for chronic disease in Latin American children and to develop a strategic initiative for control of these exposures, the World Health Organization (WHO) including the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), the Collegium Ramazzini, and Latin American scientists reviewed regional and relevant global data. Results Industrial development and urbanization are proceeding rapidly in Latin America, and environmental pollution has become widespread. Environmental threats to children’s health include traditional hazards such as indoor air pollution and drinking-water contamination; the newer hazards of urban air pollution; toxic chemicals such as lead, asbestos, mercury, arsenic, and pesticides; hazardous and electronic waste; and climate change. The mix of traditional and modern hazards varies greatly across and within countries reflecting industrialization, urbanization, and socioeconomic forces. Conclusions To control environmental threats to children’s health in Latin America, WHO, including PAHO, will focus on the most highly prevalent and serious hazards—indoor and outdoor air pollution, water pollution, and toxic chemicals. Strategies for controlling these hazards include developing tracking data on regional trends in children’s environmental health (CEH), building a network of Collaborating Centres, promoting biomedical research in CEH, building regional capacity, supporting development of evidence-based prevention policies, studying the economic costs of chronic diseases in children, and developing platforms for dialogue with relevant stakeholders. Citation Laborde A, Tomasina F, Bianchi F, Bruné MN, Buka I, Comba P, Corra L, Cori L, Duffert CM, Harari R, Iavarone I, McDiarmid MA, Gray KA, Sly PD, Soares A, Suk WA, Landrigan PJ. 2015. Children’s health in Latin America: the influence of environmental exposures. Environ

  9. Health and environmental effects document on geothermal energy: 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Layton, D.W.; Anspaugh, L.R.; O'Banion, K.D.

    1981-12-04

    Several of the important health and environmental risks associated with a reference geothermal industry that produces 21,000 MW/sub e/ for 30 y (equivalent to 20 x 10/sup 18/ J) are assessed. The analyses of health effects focus on the risks associated with exposure to hydrogen sulfide, particulate sulfate, benzene, mercury, and radon in air and arsenic in water. Results indicate that emissions of hydrogen sulfide are likely to cause odor-related problems in geothermal resources areas, assuming that no pollution controls are employed. For individuals living within an 80 km radius of the geothermal resources, chronic exposure to particulate sulfate could result in between 0 to 95 premature deaths per 10/sup 18/ J of electricity generated. The mean population risk of leukemia from the inhalation of benzene was calculated to be 3 x 10/sup -2/ cases per 10/sup 18/ J. Exposure to elemental mercury in the atmosphere could produce between 0 and 8.2 cases of tremors per 10/sup 18/ J of electricity. Inhalation of radon and its short-lived daughters poses a mean population risk of 4.2 x 10/sup -1/ lung cancers per 10/sup 18/ J. Analysis of skin cancer risk from the ingestion of surface water contaminated with geothermally derived arsenic suggests that a dose-response model is inconsistent with data showing that arsenic is an essential element and that excessive body burdens do not appear even when arsenic reaches 100 ..mu..g/liter in drinking water. Estimates of occupational health effects were based on rates of accidental deaths and occupational diseases in surrogate industries. According to calculations, there would be 14 accidental deaths per 10/sup 18/ J of electricity and 340 cases of occupational diseases per 10/sup 18/ J. The analysis of the effects of noncondensing gases on vegetation showed that ambient concentrations of hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide are more likely to enhance rather than inhibit the growth of plants.

  10. 40 CFR 720.50 - Submission of test data and other data concerning the health and environmental effects of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... concerning the health and environmental effects of a substance. 720.50 Section 720.50 Protection of... NOTIFICATION Notice Form § 720.50 Submission of test data and other data concerning the health and... all test data in the submitter's possession or control which are related to the effects on health...

  11. 75 FR 16488 - National Center for Environmental Health/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (NCEH...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Environmental Health/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (NCEH/ATSDR); Notice of National Conversation on Public Health and Chemical Exposures Leadership...

  12. 75 FR 41505 - National Center for Environmental Health/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (NCEH...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Environmental Health/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (NCEH/ATSDR) ATSDR-263; Notice of National Conversation on Public Health and Chemical...

  13. 75 FR 75474 - National Center for Environmental Health/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (NCEH...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Environmental Health/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (NCEH/ATSDR); Notice of National Conversation on Public Health and Chemical Exposures Leadership...

  14. 75 FR 59727 - National Center for Environmental Health/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (NCEH...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Environmental Health/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (NCEH/ATSDR); Notice of National Conversation on Public Health and Chemical Exposures Leadership...

  15. Residential Proximity to Environmental Hazards and Adverse Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Maantay, Juliana A.; Chakraborty, Jayajit

    2011-01-01

    How living near environmental hazards contributes to poorer health and disproportionate health outcomes is an ongoing concern. We conducted a substantive review and critique of the literature regarding residential proximity to environmental hazards and adverse pregnancy outcomes, childhood cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses, end-stage renal disease, and diabetes. Several studies have found that living near hazardous wastes sites, industrial sites, cropland with pesticide applications, highly trafficked roads, nuclear power plants, and gas stations or repair shops is related to an increased risk of adverse health outcomes. Government agencies should consider these findings in establishing rules and permitting and enforcement procedures to reduce pollution from environmentally burdensome facilities and land uses. PMID:22028451

  16. Health and Environmental Effects Profile for methyl bromide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-06-01

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for methyl bromide was prepared to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency actions under Section 101 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Both published literature and information obtained from Agency program office files were evaluated as they pertained to potential human health, aquatic life, and environmental effects. Quantitative estimates are presented provided sufficient data are available. Methyl bromide has been determined to be a systemic toxicant. An Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI), for methyl bromide is 0.0014 mg/kg/day for oral exposure. The Reportable Quantity (RQ) value for methyl bromide is 100.

  17. Educating Young People about Environmental Health for Informed Social Action

    PubMed Central

    Keselman, Alla; Levin, Daniel M.; Kramer, Judy F.; Matzkin, Karen; Dutcher, Gale

    2013-01-01

    Whereas environmental health education is rapidly becoming a global priority, it still receives little attention in schools. This paper describes a U.S. National Library of Medicine program, aiming to support environmental health education in grades 6-12 in U.S. schools. The program has four components: (1) developing reliable online resources that provide quality environmental health information; (2) creating lesson plans that integrate our resources into the classroom and extracurricular activities; (3) engaging teachers by inviting collaborations and promoting our resources and activities; and (4) conducting educational research that provides a foundation for the other components. The paper describes specific educational resources and activities and grounds them in learning theories from the fields of cognitive psychology and science education. PMID:24383062

  18. Educating Young People about Environmental Health for Informed Social Action.

    PubMed

    Keselman, Alla; Levin, Daniel M; Kramer, Judy F; Matzkin, Karen; Dutcher, Gale

    2011-01-01

    Whereas environmental health education is rapidly becoming a global priority, it still receives little attention in schools. This paper describes a U.S. National Library of Medicine program, aiming to support environmental health education in grades 6-12 in U.S. schools. The program has four components: (1) developing reliable online resources that provide quality environmental health information; (2) creating lesson plans that integrate our resources into the classroom and extracurricular activities; (3) engaging teachers by inviting collaborations and promoting our resources and activities; and (4) conducting educational research that provides a foundation for the other components. The paper describes specific educational resources and activities and grounds them in learning theories from the fields of cognitive psychology and science education. PMID:24383062

  19. Environmental pollution and child health in central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, E F; Schell, L M; Marshall, E G; Carpenter, D O; Suk, W A; Zejda, J E

    1998-01-01

    For the last 50 years, the economic and industrial development of the nations of Central and Eastern Europe has been achieved at the cost of environmental degradation. The health risks posed by this pollution to children and the steps necessary to ameliorate such risks are only beginning to be investigated. At a recent conference in Poland, sponsored in part by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, participants from 11 countries in the region, together with scientists from Western Europe and the United States, met to share information regarding pediatric environmental health in Central and Eastern Europe, to consider methodologic issues in the design and conduct of such studies, and to discuss preventive strategies. This report summarizes the deliberations, outlines problem areas such as heavy metals and air pollution, delineates research and training needs to help Central and Eastern Europeans deal more effectively with such problems, and recommends specific future actions and collaborative efforts. PMID:9618345

  20. Utilization of health insurance data in an environmental epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Jongsik; Cho, Seongkyung

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In South Korea, health insurance data are used as material for the health insurance of national whole subject. In general, health insurance data could be useful for estimating prevalence or incidence rate that is representative of the actual value in a population. The purpose of this study was to apply the concept of episode of care (EoC) in the utilization of health insurance data in the field of environmental epidemiology and to propose an improved methodology through an uncertainty assessment of disease course and outcome. Methods In this study, we introduced the concept of EoC as a methodology to utilize health insurance data in the field of environmental epidemiology. The characterization analysis of the course and outcome of applying the EoC concept to health insurance data was performed through an uncertainty assessment. Results The EoC concept in this study was applied to heat stroke (International Classification of Disease, 10th revision, code T67). In the comparison of results between before and after applying the EoC concept, we observed a reduction in the deviation of daily claims after applying the EoC concept. After that, we categorized context, model, and input uncertainty and characterized these uncertainties in three dimensions by using uncertainty typology. Conclusions This study is the first to show the process of constructing episode data for environmental epidemiological studies by using health insurance data. Our results will help in obtaining representative results for the processing of health insurance data in environmental epidemiological research. Furthermore, these results could be used in the processing of health insurance data in the future. PMID:26796891

  1. Environmental Health Indicators of Climate Change for the United States: Findings from the State Environmental Health Indicator Collaborative

    PubMed Central

    English, Paul B.; Sinclair, Amber H.; Ross, Zev; Anderson, Henry; Boothe, Vicki; Davis, Christine; Ebi, Kristie; Kagey, Betsy; Malecki, Kristen; Shultz, Rebecca; Simms, Erin

    2009-01-01

    Objective To develop public health adaptation strategies and to project the impacts of climate change on human health, indicators of vulnerability and preparedness along with accurate surveillance data on climate-sensitive health outcomes are needed. We researched and developed environmental health indicators for inputs into human health vulnerability assessments for climate change and to propose public health preventative actions. Data sources We conducted a review of the scientific literature to identify outcomes and actions that were related to climate change. Data sources included governmental and nongovernmental agencies and the published literature. Data extraction Sources were identified and assessed for completeness, usability, and accuracy. Priority was then given to identifying longitudinal data sets that were applicable at the state and community level. Data synthesis We present a list of surveillance indicators for practitioners and policy makers that include climate-sensitive health outcomes and environmental and vulnerability indicators, as well as mitigation, adaptation, and policy indicators of climate change. Conclusions A review of environmental health indicators for climate change shows that data exist for many of these measures, but more evaluation of their sensitivity and usefulness is needed. Further attention is necessary to increase data quality and availability and to develop new surveillance databases, especially for climate-sensitive morbidity. PMID:20049116

  2. Environmental controls: Market incentives v. direct regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Kosobud, R.F.; Atallah, D.S.

    1996-12-31

    Cap-and-trade environmental markets, where the commodities are tradable pollution rights, are being introduced in several closely watched applications as a potentially more cost-effective way of cleaning up the environment than direct or command-and-control (CAC) regulation. In this study, we examine the evidence on control cost savings provided by price and transactions data from the first few years of activity in two markets designed to reduce atmospheric pollution. Some observers of both markets have argued that prices for tradable permits lower than expected, and transactions fewer than expected, are evidence that the markets are not achieving the hoped for savings. It was found, on the contrary, that observed prices point toward more flexible and improved pollution control choices and that the number of transactions has been steadily increasing as market incentives are incorporated into enterprise decisions. These new markets during their first few years are generating, according to our estimates, control cost savings in the neighborhood of one to two billion dollars annually. However, there is evidence that the markets have not yet reached their full potential. In the course of this study, several obstacles to market performance were found that are worthy of attention by policy makers. 13 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. An Introductory Lesson to Environmental Health: Media Analysis and Risk Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratnapradipa, Dhitinut; Rhodes, Darson L.

    2010-01-01

    This activity is designed to provide students with an overview of environmental health and to encourage them to think critically about how they can minimize their potential negative health impacts from environmental exposures. Objectives: Students will (a) define environmental health, (b) analyze media wherein environmental health issues are…

  4. Using NASA Remotely Sensed Data to Help Characterize Environmental Risk Factors for National Public Health Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Crosson, William; Economou, Sigrid; Estes, Maurice, Jr.; Estes, Sue; Hemmings, Sarah; Kent, Shia; Quattrochi, Dale; Wade, Gina; McClure, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center is collaborating with the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) School of Public Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Center for Public Health Informatics to address issues of environmental health and enhance public health decision making by utilizing NASA remotely sensed data and products. The objectives of this study are to develop high-quality spatial data sets of environmental variables, link these with public health data from a national cohort study, and deliver the linked data sets and associated analyses to local, state and federal end-user groups. Three daily environmental data sets will be developed for the conterminous U.S. on different spatial resolutions for the period 2003-2008: (1) spatial surfaces of estimated fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposures on a 10-km grid utilizing the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground observations and NASA's MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data; (2) a 1-km grid of Land Surface Temperature (LST) using MODIS data; and (3) a 12-km grid of daily Solar Insolation (SI) using the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) forcing data. These environmental data sets will be linked with public health data from the UAB REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) national cohort study to determine whether exposures to these environmental risk factors are related to cognitive decline and other health outcomes. These environmental datasets and public health linkage analyses will be disseminated to end-users for decision making through the CDC Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER) system.

  5. Health and environmental-effects profile for nitroanilines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-03-01

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for nitroanilines was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency actions under Section 101 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Both published literature and information obtained from Agency program office files were evaluated as they pertained to potential human health, aquatic life, and environmental effects of hazardous-waste constituents. Quantitative estimates are presented, provided sufficient data are available. Existing data are insufficient to determine an Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) or a carcinogenic potency factor for nitroanilines. The Reportable Quantity (RQ) value of 1, 10, 100, 1000, or 5000 pounds is used to determine the quantity of a hazardous substance for which notification is required in the event of a release as specified by CERCLA based on chronic toxicity. The RQ value for nitroanilines is 100.

  6. Health and environmental-effects profile for vanadium pentoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-04-01

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for vanadium pentoxide was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency actions under Section 101 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Both published literature and information obtained from Agency program office files were evaluated as they pertained to potential human health, aquatic life, and environmental effects of hazardous-waste constituents. Quantitative estimates are presented, provided sufficient data are available. Existing data are insufficient to determine an Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) or a carcinogenic potency factor for vanadium pentoxide. The Reportable Quantity (RQ) value of 1, 10, 100, 1000, or 5000 pounds is used to determine the quantity of a hazardous substance for which notification is required in the event of a release as specified by CERCLA based on chronic toxicity. The RQ value for vanadium pentoxide is 100.

  7. Health and environmental-effects profile for trimethyl phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-01

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for trimethyl phosphate was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency actions under Section 101 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Both published literature and information obtained from Agency program office files were evaluated as they pertained to potential human health, aquatic life, and environmental effects of hazardous-waste constituents. Quantitative estimates are presented, provided sufficient data are available. Trimethyl phosphate has been evaluated as a carcinogen. The human carcinogen potency factor (q1*) for trimethyl phosphate is .0383 (mg/kg/day)-1 for oral exposure. The Reportable Quantity (RQ) value of 1, 10, 100, 1000, or 5000 pounds is used to determine the quantity of a hazardous substance for which notification is required in the event of a release as specified by CERCLA based on chronic toxicity. The RQ value for trimethyl phosphate is 100.

  8. Health and environmental-effects profile for quinoline

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-01

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for quinoline was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency actions under Section 101 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Both published literature and information obtained from Agency program office files were evaluated as they pertained to potential human health, aquatic life, and environmental effects of hazardous-waste constituents. Quantitative estimates are presented, provided sufficient data are available. Quinoline has been evaluated as a carcinogen. The human carcinogen potency factor (ql*) for quinoline is 12.48 (mg/kg/day)-1 for oral exposure. The Reportable Quantity (RQ) value of 1, 10, 100, 1000, or 5000 pounds is used to determine the quantity of a hazardous substance for which notification is required in the event of a release as specified by CERCLA based on chronic toxicity. Existing data are insufficient to determine an RQ value.

  9. Health and environmental-effects profile for nitromethane

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-03-01

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for nitromethane was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency actions under Section 101 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Both published literature and information obtained from Agency program office files were evaluated as they pertained to potential human health, aquatic life, and environmental effects of hazardous-waste constituents. Quantitative estimates are presented, provided sufficient data are available. Existing data are insufficient to determine an Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) or a carcinogenic potency factor for nitromethane. The Reportable Quantity (RQ) value of 1, 10, 100, 1000, or 5000 pounds is used to determine the quantity of a hazardous substance for which notification is required in the event of a release as specified by CERCLA based on chronic toxicity. The RQ value for nitromethane is 1000.

  10. Health and environmental-effects profile for propylene oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-06-01

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for propylene oxide was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency actions under Section 101 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Both published literature and information obtained from Agency program office files were evaluated as they pertained to potential human health, aquatic life, and environmental effects of hazardous-waste constituents. Quantitative estimates are presented, provided sufficient data are available. Propylene oxide has been evaluated as a carcinogen. The human carcinogen potency factor (q1*) for propylene oxide is .239 (mg/kg/day)-2 for oral exposure. The Reportable Quantity (RQ) value of 1, 10, 100, 1000, or 5000 pounds is used to determine the quantity of a hazardous substance for which notification is required in the event of a release as specified by CERCLA based on chronic toxicity. The RQ value for propylene oxide is 1000.

  11. Environmentally induced epigenetic toxicity: potential public health concerns.

    PubMed

    Marczylo, Emma L; Jacobs, Miriam N; Gant, Timothy W

    2016-09-01

    Throughout our lives, epigenetic processes shape our development and enable us to adapt to a constantly changing environment. Identifying and understanding environmentally induced epigenetic change(s) that may lead to adverse outcomes is vital for protecting public health. This review, therefore, examines the present understanding of epigenetic mechanisms involved in the mammalian life cycle, evaluates the current evidence for environmentally induced epigenetic toxicity in human cohorts and rodent models and highlights the research considerations and implications of this emerging knowledge for public health and regulatory toxicology. Many hundreds of studies have investigated such toxicity, yet relatively few have demonstrated a mechanistic association among specific environmental exposures, epigenetic changes and adverse health outcomes in human epidemiological cohorts and/or rodent models. While this small body of evidence is largely composed of exploratory in vivo high-dose range studies, it does set a precedent for the existence of environmentally induced epigenetic toxicity. Consequently, there is worldwide recognition of this phenomenon, and discussion on how to both guide further scientific research towards a greater mechanistic understanding of environmentally induced epigenetic toxicity in humans, and translate relevant research outcomes into appropriate regulatory policies for effective public health protection. PMID:27278298

  12. Health and environmental effects profile for methyl isocyanate

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for methyl isocyanate was prepared to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Both published literature and information obtained from Agency program office files were evaluated as they pertained to potential human health, aquatic life and environmental effects of hazardous-waste constituents. Existing data are insufficient to determine a Reference Dose (RfD) or a carcinogenic potency factor for methyl isocyanate. Existing data are insufficient to determine an RQ value.

  13. Environmental Safety and Health Analytical Laboratory, Pantex Plant, Amarillo, Texas. Final Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) of the construction and operation of an Environmental Safety and Health (ES&H) Analytical Laboratory and subsequent demolition of the existing Analytical Chemistry Laboratory building at Pantex Plant near Amarillo, Texas. In accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality requirements contained in 40 CFR 1500--1508.9, the Environmental Assessment examined the environmental impacts of the Proposed Action and discussed potential alternatives. Based on the analysis of impacts in the EA, conducting the proposed action, construction of an analytical laboratory and demolition of the existing facility, would not significantly effect the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and the Council on Environmental Quality regulations in 40 CFR 1508.18 and 1508.27.

  14. Global diets link environmental sustainability and human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilman, David; Clark, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Diets link environmental and human health. Rising incomes and urbanization are driving a global dietary transition in which traditional diets are replaced by diets higher in refined sugars, refined fats, oils and meats. By 2050 these dietary trends, if unchecked, would be a major contributor to an estimated 80 per cent increase in global agricultural greenhouse gas emissions from food production and to global land clearing. Moreover, these dietary shifts are greatly increasing the incidence of type II diabetes, coronary heart disease and other chronic non-communicable diseases that lower global life expectancies. Alternative diets that offer substantial health benefits could, if widely adopted, reduce global agricultural greenhouse gas emissions, reduce land clearing and resultant species extinctions, and help prevent such diet-related chronic non-communicable diseases. The implementation of dietary solutions to the tightly linked diet-environment-health trilemma is a global challenge, and opportunity, of great environmental and public health importance.

  15. Anishinabe youth perceptions about community health: toward environmental repossession.

    PubMed

    Big-Canoe, Katie; Richmond, Chantelle A M

    2014-03-01

    This community-based research applied environmental dispossession as a theoretical framework for understanding Anishinabe youth perceptions about health, social relationships and contemporary Anishinabe way of life in Northern Ontario, Canada. Qualitative interviews with 19 youth reveal considerable worry about their community's health. Youth perceive changes in the Anishinabe way of life, including decreased access to their traditional lands, to be central to poor health at the community level. Youth emphasized the importance of social relationships for fostering healthy behaviours and developing community wide initiatives that will provide opportunities for reconnecting to land, and for learning and practicing Indigenous Knowledge. This study builds on the growing body of decolonizing research with Indigenous communities, and it concludes by offering the concept of environmental repossession as a way forward for studies on the Indigenous environment-health interface. PMID:24440804

  16. Educating refugees to improve their home environmental health

    PubMed Central

    Korfmacher, Katrina Smith; George, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    Rochester's Healthy Home was a hands-on home environmental health museum that educated over 3500 visitors between June 2006 and December 2009. The Healthy Home provided visitors with the tools, resources, and motivation to make their homes healthier by reducing environmental hazards. The Healthy Home focused on empowering low-income renters to protect their families from home health risks, but served a broad audience. Based on the Healthy Home's initial successes with diverse visitors, in 2009 the county health department provided funding for a six-month project to educate 200 recently arrived refugees. This report summarizes the project's innovative approach to home health education, presents evaluation data on impacts on refugees and other visitors, suggests implications for resettlement agencies, and provides guidelines for those interested in replicating this approach in their own community. PMID:22836539

  17. Global diets link environmental sustainability and human health.

    PubMed

    Tilman, David; Clark, Michael

    2014-11-27

    Diets link environmental and human health. Rising incomes and urbanization are driving a global dietary transition in which traditional diets are replaced by diets higher in refined sugars, refined fats, oils and meats. By 2050 these dietary trends, if unchecked, would be a major contributor to an estimated 80 per cent increase in global agricultural greenhouse gas emissions from food production and to global land clearing. Moreover, these dietary shifts are greatly increasing the incidence of type II diabetes, coronary heart disease and other chronic non-communicable diseases that lower global life expectancies. Alternative diets that offer substantial health benefits could, if widely adopted, reduce global agricultural greenhouse gas emissions, reduce land clearing and resultant species extinctions, and help prevent such diet-related chronic non-communicable diseases. The implementation of dietary solutions to the tightly linked diet-environment-health trilemma is a global challenge, and opportunity, of great environmental and public health importance. PMID:25383533

  18. Systems Biology: New Approaches to Old Environmental Health Problems

    PubMed Central

    Toscano, William A.; Oehlke, Kristen P.

    2005-01-01

    The environment plays a pivotal role as a human health determinant and presence of hazardous pollutants in the environment is often implicated in human disease. That pollutants cause human diseases however is often controversial because data connecting exposure to environmental hazards and human diseases are not well defined, except for some cancers and syndromes such as asthma. Understanding the complex nature of human-environment interactions and the role they play in determining the state of human health is one of the more compelling problems in public health. We are becoming more aware that the reductionist approach promulgated by current methods has not, and will not yield answers to the broad questions of population health risk analysis. If substantive applications of environment-gene interactions are to be made, it is important to move to a systems level approach, to take advantage of epidemiology and molecular genomic advances. Systems biology is the integration of genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics together with computer technology approaches to elucidate environmentally caused disease in humans. We discuss the applications of environmental systems biology as a route to solution of environmental health problems. PMID:16705795

  19. Environmental Public Health Dimensions of Shale and Tight Gas Development

    PubMed Central

    Hays, Jake; Finkel, Madelon L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The United States has experienced a boom in natural gas production due to recent technological innovations that have enabled this resource to be produced from shale formations. Objectives: We reviewed the body of evidence related to exposure pathways in order to evaluate the potential environmental public health impacts of shale gas development. We highlight what is currently known and identify data gaps and research limitations by addressing matters of toxicity, exposure pathways, air quality, and water quality. Discussion: There is evidence of potential environmental public health risks associated with shale gas development. Several studies suggest that shale gas development contributes to ambient air concentrations of pollutants known to be associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Similarly, an increasing body of studies suggest that water contamination risks exist through a variety of environmental pathways, most notably during wastewater transport and disposal, and via poor zonal isolation of gases and fluids due to structural integrity impairment of cement in gas wells. Conclusion: Despite a growing body of evidence, data gaps persist. Most important, there is a need for more epidemiological studies to assess associations between risk factors, such as air and water pollution, and health outcomes among populations living in close proximity to shale gas operations. Citation: Shonkoff SB, Hays J, Finkel ML. 2014. Environmental public health dimensions of shale and tight gas development. Environ Health Perspect 122:787–795; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307866 PMID:24736097

  20. Dysbiotic drift: mental health, environmental grey space, and microbiota.

    PubMed

    Logan, Alan C

    2015-01-01

    Advances in research concerning the mental health implications of dietary patterns and select nutrients have been remarkable. At the same time, there have been rapid increases in the understanding of the ways in which non-pathogenic microbes can potentially influence many aspects of human health, including those in the mental realm. Discussions of nutrition and microbiota are often overlapping. A separate, yet equally connected, avenue of research is that related to natural (for example, green space) and built environments, and in particular, how they are connected to human cognition and behaviors. It is argued here that in Western industrial nations a 'disparity of microbiota' might be expected among the socioeconomically disadvantaged, those whom face more profound environmental forces. Many of the environmental forces pushing against the vulnerable are at the neighborhood level. Matching the developing microbiome research with existing environmental justice research suggests that grey space may promote dysbiosis by default. In addition, the influence of Westernized lifestyle patterns, and the marketing forces that drive unhealthy behaviors in deprived communities, might allow dysbiosis to be the norm rather than the exception in those already at high risk of depression, subthreshold (subsyndromal) conditions, and subpar mental health. If microbiota are indeed at the intersection of nutrition, environmental health, and lifestyle medicine (as these avenues pertain to mental health), then perhaps the rapidly evolving gut-brain-microbiota conversation needs to operate through a wider lens. In contrast to the more narrowly defined psychobiotic, the term eco-psychotropic is introduced. PMID:25947328

  1. Dental outpatients: health locus of control correlates.

    PubMed

    Ludenia, K; Donham, G W

    1983-11-01

    Examined relationships between the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC) Scales, Beck Depression Inventory, Trait subscales of the State-Trait Personality Inventory, and dental ratings of oral hygiene and presence of periodontal disease with dental outpatients (N = 101) at a Veterans Administration Medical Center Dental Clinic. Results indicated that this sample of outpatients scored comparably on MHLC Health Internality and Health Externality to a sample reported by Wallston and Wallston. Older dental patients, in the present sample, scored significantly higher on Powerful Others Externality in contrast to younger Ss, which suggests greater reliance on health professionals for dental health. Confirmatory evidence is presented on the negative correlations of depression, anger, and anxiety with Health Internality. Differential approaches to dental treatment are discussed. PMID:6662936

  2. [Health effects of environmental noise exposure].

    PubMed

    Röösli, Martin

    2013-12-01

    In the EU 27 countries about 100 million persons are exposed to road traffic noise above 55 dB (LDEN) according to the European Environment Agency. Exposure to railway noise affects 16 million individuals, aircraft noise 4 million and industry noise 1 million persons. Although the proportion of people reporting to be annoyed by noise exposure is substantial, health effects of noise is rarely an issue in general practitioners' consultations. According to stress models chronic noise exposure results in an increased allostatic load by direct physiological responses as well as psychological stress responses including sleep disturbances. In relation to acute and chronic noise exposure an increase of blood pressure was observed in epidemiological studies. An association between ischemic heart diseases and noise exposure was observed in various studies. However, the data is less consistent for other cardiovascular diseases and for cognitive effects in children. The association between metabolic syndrome and noise has rarely been investigated so far. Recently an association between road traffic noise and diabetes was observed in a Danish cohort study. Given the plausibility for a noise effect, general practitioners should consider noise exposure in patients with increased cardiometabolic risk. PMID:24297857

  3. [Carbon monoxide contamination: an environmental health problem].

    PubMed

    Téllez, Jairo; Rodríguez, Alba; Fajardo, Alvaro

    2006-01-01

    Carbon monoxide is considered to be a major factor contaminating earth's atmosphere. The main sources producing this contamination are cars using gasoline or diesel fuel and industrial processes using carbon compounds; these two are responsible for 80% of carbon monoxide being emitted to the atmosphere. This substance has a well-known toxic effect on human beings and its acute poisonous effects (including death) have been widely studied; however, its long-term chronic effects are still not known. During the last few years, experimental research on animals and studies of human epidemiology have established the relationship between chronic exposure to low and middle levels of carbon monoxide in breathable air and adverse effects on human health, especially on organs consuming large amounts of oxygen such as the heart and brain. Harmful cardiovascular and neuropsychological effects have been documented in carbon monoxide concentration in air of less than 25 ppm and in carboxyhaemoglobin levels in blood of less than 10%. The main cardiac damage described to date has been high blood pressure, cardiac arrhythm and electrocardiograph signs of ischemia. Lack of memory, attention, concentration and Parkinson-type altered movement are the neuropsychological changes most frequently associated with chronic exposure to low levels of carbon monoxide and carboxyhaemoglobin. PMID:16703967

  4. The Control of Environmental Tobacco Smoke: A Policy Review

    PubMed Central

    McNabola, Aonghus; Gill, Laurence William

    2009-01-01

    According to World Health Organisation figures, 30% of all cancer deaths, 20% of all coronary heart diseases and strokes and 80% of all chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are caused by cigarette smoking. Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) exposure has also been shown to be associated with disease and premature death in non-smokers. In response to this environmental health issue, several countries have brought about a smoking ban policy in public places and in the workplace. Countries such as the U.S., France, Italy, Ireland, Malta, the Netherlands, Sweden, Scotland, Spain, and England have all introduced policies aimed at reducing the population exposure to ETS. Several investigations have monitored the effectiveness of these smoking ban policies in terms of ETS concentrations, human health and smoking prevalence, while others have also investigated a number of alternatives to smoking ban policy measures. This paper reviews the state of the art in research, carried out in the field of ETS, smoking bans and Tobacco Control to date and highlights the need for future research in the area. PMID:19440413

  5. The TERRA framework: conceptualizing rural environmental health inequities through an environmental justice lens.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, Patricia; Postma, Julie

    2009-01-01

    The deleterious consequences of environmentally associated diseases are expressed differentially by income, race, and geography. Scientists are just beginning to understand the consequences of environmental exposures under conditions of poverty, marginalization, and geographic isolation. In this context, we developed the TERRA (translational environmental research in rural areas) framework to explicate environmental health risks experienced by the rural poor. Central to the TERRA framework is the premise that risks exist within physical-spatial, economic-resources, and cultural-ideologic contexts. In the face of scientific and political uncertainty, a precautionary risk reduction approach has the greatest potential to protect health. Conceptual and technical advances will both be needed to achieve environmental justice. PMID:19461228

  6. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR CHLORPYRIFOS AND CHLORPYRIFOS-METHYL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos methyl was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste to support listings of hazardous con...

  7. 75 FR 63844 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ... the Environmental Health Sciences; 93.113, Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards; 93.114... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;...

  8. 77 FR 16844 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ... Development in the Environmental Health Sciences; 93.113, Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;...

  9. 75 FR 46950 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ... Development in the Environmental Health Sciences; 93.113, Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;...

  10. 76 FR 5594 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-01

    ... the Environmental Health Sciences; 93.113, Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards; 93.114... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;...

  11. 75 FR 41505 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ... Development in the Environmental Health Sciences; 93.113, Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;...

  12. 76 FR 35225 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... Development in the Environmental Health Sciences; 93.113, Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;...

  13. 77 FR 33472 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... Development in the Environmental Health Sciences; 93.113, Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;...

  14. 76 FR 27653 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-12

    ... Development in the Environmental Health Sciences; 93.113, Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;...

  15. 78 FR 13358 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ... Development in the Environmental Health Sciences; 93.113, Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences...

  16. 75 FR 7487 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-19

    ... the Environmental Health Sciences; 93.113, Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards; 93.114... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;...

  17. 75 FR 45133 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... Development in the Environmental Health Sciences; 93.113, Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;...

  18. Noise Pollution, AMA Congress on Environmental Health (6th, Chicago, Illinois, April 28-29, 1969).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Medical Association, Chicago, IL.

    Contained are 15 papers presented at the sixth annual AMA Congress on Environmental Health. Three papers are concerned with noise induced hearing loss as it relates to pathological effects, the role of physicians in workmen's compensation cases, and exposure to steady-state noise. Five papers deal with noise control as it relates to medical…

  19. CURRENT CONCEPTS IN THE ETHICAL CONDUCT OF HUMAN ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    In recent years, the concern for human research subject protection has increased markedly in the United States. The nature of research subject participation in controlled exposure environmental health research is such that the individual subject bears the risk of participation w...

  20. Status of scrap (recyclable) dental amalgams as environmental health hazards or toxic substances.

    PubMed

    Rogers, K D

    1989-07-01

    This article presents information garnered after an investigation by the Environmental Protection Agency in 1987 of dentists and others who had sold scrap dental amalgam to refiners who had "arranged for the disposal or treatment ... of hazardous substances," and were responsible for adverse consequences associated with their subsequent management and refining. Information about the health hazard status of scrap dental amalgams was obtained by: interviews with toxicologists, review of published lists of toxic and hazardous materials, and survey of biomedical publications (1977 through 1987) concerning toxicity or health hazards associated with dental amalgams. The conclusions were that scrap dental amalgam is not: a waste substance to be disposed of, but is a product of commercial value; identified or regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, the Department of Transportation, the Food and Drug Administration, the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, the US Public Health Service, or the Centers for Disease Control as an environmental health hazard or toxic substance; identified by toxicologists and persons responsible for solid waste regulation as a toxic substance or environmental health hazard; nor proved by scientific study to be toxic or hazardous in the manner and form in which it is collected and stored by dentists and subsequently sold to metal refiners. PMID:2668374

  1. Environmental Controls of Biological Manganese Oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belz, A. P.; Ahn, C. C.; Nealson, K. H.

    2001-12-01

    Biological catalysis of manganese oxidation represents an important contribution to global manganese cycling; biological oxidation rates are several orders of magnitude higher than those of abiotic processes. Despite recent genetics advances, ongoing behavioral studies, and a large pool of knowledge regarding manganese chemistry, the links between biology and environmental chemistry remain unresolved. We have performed experiments on batch cultures of Leptothrix discophora SS-1 to explore the physiology of biological manganese oxidation. We have further conducted spectroscopic and microscopic studies of the mechanism as manganese proceeds from the soluble Mn2+ species to the insoluble Mn(III) and Mn(IV) phases. These investigations suggest roles for aqueous chemistry, mineralogy, and microbial physiology in controlling manganese fluxes in metal-rich environments.

  2. Environmental Control Of A Genetic Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khosla, Chaitan; Bailey, James E.

    1991-01-01

    E. coli bacteria altered to contain DNA sequence encoding production of hemoglobin made to produce hemoglobin at rates decreasing with increases in concentration of oxygen in culture media. Represents amplification of part of method described in "Cloned Hemoglobin Genes Enhance Growth Of Cells" (NPO-17517). Manipulation of promoter/regulator DNA sequences opens promising new subfield of recombinant-DNA technology for environmental control of expression of selected DNA sequences. New recombinant-DNA fusion gene products, expression vectors, and nucleotide-base sequences will emerge. Likely applications include such aerobic processes as manufacture of cloned proteins and synthesis of metabolites, production of chemicals by fermentation, enzymatic degradation, treatment of wastes, brewing, and variety of oxidative chemical reactions.

  3. Environmental control system transducer development study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brudnicki, M. J.

    1973-01-01

    A failure evaluation of the transducers used in the environmental control systems of the Apollo command service module, lunar module, and portable life support system is presented in matrix form for several generic categories of transducers to enable identification of chronic failure modes. Transducer vendors were contacted and asked to supply detailed information. The evaluation data generated for each category of transducer were compiled and published in failure design evaluation reports. The evaluation reports also present a review of the failure and design data for the transducers and suggest both design criteria to improve reliability of the transducers and, where necessary, design concepts for required redesign of the transducers. Remedial designs were implemented on a family of pressure transducers and on the oxygen flow transducer. The design concepts were subjected to analysis, breadboard fabrication, and verification testing.

  4. Proceedings, National Congress on Environmental Health Management, AMA Congress on Environmental Health Problems (4th, New York, New York, April 24-26, 1967).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archives of Environmental Health, 1967

    1967-01-01

    Included are 18 papers presented at the fourth American Medical Association Congress on Environmental Health Problems. Topics related to environmental health include clinical and epidemiological considerations, genetics, patterns of health agencies, role of the physician and the medical society, and environmental stress. Topics related to…

  5. Occupational and environmental health nursing in the era of consumer-directed health care.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Bruce; Click, Elizabeth

    2007-05-01

    Consumer-directed health care plans (CDHPs) present an opportunity to control health care costs. Health savings accounts (HSAs) and health reimbursement arrangements (HRAs) are two different approaches to providing pre-tax funding for CDHP enrollees. Each has a significant impact on the nature and business aspects of worksite health care. Worksite clinics can provide support via on-site education, expanded acute care services, and referral to other health-related benefits and resources for all CDHP enrollees. With attention to the type of employee health benefits funding support (HSA or HRA), occupational health nurses can maximize the effectiveness and value of worksite clinic services for CDHP enrollees. PMID:17526298

  6. Interweaving Knowledge Resources to Address Complex Environmental Health Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Beth Ellen; Suk, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Complex problems do not respect academic disciplinary boundaries. Environmental health research is complex and often moves beyond these boundaries, integrating diverse knowledge resources to solve such challenges. Here we describe an evolving paradigm for interweaving approaches that integrates widely diverse resources outside of traditional academic environments in full partnerships of mutual respect and understanding. We demonstrate that scientists, social scientists, and engineers can work with government agencies, industry, and communities to interweave their expertise into metaphorical knowledge fabrics to share understanding, resources, and enthusiasm. Objective Our goal is to acknowledge and validate how interweaving research approaches can contribute to research-driven, solution-oriented problem solving in environmental health, and to inspire more members of the environmental health community to consider this approach. Discussion The National Institutes of Health’s National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Superfund Research Program (SRP), as mandated by Congress, has evolved to become a program that reaches across a wide range of knowledge resources. SRP fosters interweaving multiple knowledge resources to develop innovative multidirectional partnerships for research and training. Here we describe examples of how motivation, ideas, knowledge, and expertise from different people, institutions, and agencies can integrate to tackle challenges that can be as complex as the resources they bring to bear on it. Conclusions By providing structure for interweaving science with its stakeholders, we are better able to leverage resources, increase potential for innovation, and proactively ensure a more fully developed spectrum of beneficial outcomes of research investments. Citation Anderson BE, Naujokas MF, Suk WA. 2015. Interweaving knowledge resources to address complex environmental health challenges. Environ Health Perspect 123:1095–1099

  7. Tracking health and the environment: a pilot test of environmental public health indicators.

    PubMed

    Dreyling, Erin; Dederick, Elizabeth J; Chari, Ramya; Resnick, Beth; Malecki, Kristen Chossek; Burke, Thomas; Neff, Roni

    2007-12-01

    Examining the relationship between health outcomes and environmental exposures requires summary measures, or indicators. To advance the use of indicators, the Johns Hopkins Center for Excellence in Environmental Public Health Tracking piloted three pairs of indicators: 1) air toxics and leukemia in New Jersey, 2) mercury emissions and fish advisories in the United States, and 3) urban sprawl and obesity in New Jersey. These analyses illustrate the feasibility of creating environmental hazard, exposure, and health outcome indicators, examining their temporal and geographic trends, and identifying their temporal and geographic relationships. They also show the importance of including appropriate caveats with the findings. The authors' investigations demonstrate how existing environmental health data can be used to create meaningful indicator measures to further the understanding of environment-related diseases and to help prioritize and guide interventions. Indicators are the foundation of environmental public health tracking, and increased use and development of them are necessary for the establishment of a nationwide tracking network capable of linking environmental exposures and health outcomes. PMID:18189034

  8. Risk management frameworks for human health and environmental risks.

    PubMed

    Jardine, Cindy; Hrudey, Steve; Shortreed, John; Craig, Lorraine; Krewski, Daniel; Furgal, Chris; McColl, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    A comprehensive analytical review of the risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication approaches currently being undertaken by key national, provincial/state, territorial, and international agencies was conducted. The information acquired for review was used to identify the differences, commonalities, strengths, and weaknesses among the various approaches, and to identify elements that should be included in an effective, current, and comprehensive approach applicable to environmental, human health and occupational health risks. More than 80 agencies, organizations, and advisory councils, encompassing more than 100 risk documents, were examined during the period from February 2000 until November 2002. An overview was made of the most important general frameworks for risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication for human health and ecological risk, and for occupational health risk. In addition, frameworks for specific applications were reviewed and summarized, including those for (1)contaminated sites; (2) northern contaminants; (3) priority substances; (4) standards development; (5) food safety; (6) medical devices; (7) prescription drug use; (8) emergency response; (9) transportation; (10) risk communication. Twelve frameworks were selected for more extensive review on the basis of representation of the areas of human health, ecological, and occupational health risk; relevance to Canadian risk management needs; representation of comprehensive and well-defined approaches; generalizability with their risk areas; representation of "state of the art" in Canada, the United States, and/or internationally; and extent of usage of potential usage within Canada. These 12 frameworks were: 1. Framework for Environmental Health Risk Management (US Presidential/Congressional Commission on Risk Assessment and Risk Management, 1997). 2. Health Risk Determination: The Challenge of Health Protection (Health and Welfare Canada, 1990). 3. Health Canada Decision

  9. Environmental health impacts of feeding crops to farmed fish.

    PubMed

    Fry, Jillian P; Love, David C; MacDonald, Graham K; West, Paul C; Engstrom, Peder M; Nachman, Keeve E; Lawrence, Robert S

    2016-05-01

    Half of the seafood consumed globally now comes from aquaculture, or farmed seafood. Aquaculture therefore plays an increasingly important role in the global food system, the environment, and human health. Traditionally, aquaculture feed has contained high levels of wild fish, which is unsustainable for ocean ecosystems as demand grows. The aquaculture industry is shifting to crop-based feed ingredients, such as soy, to replace wild fish as a feed source and allow for continued industry growth. This shift fundamentally links seafood production to terrestrial agriculture, and multidisciplinary research is needed to understand the ecological and environmental health implications. We provide basic estimates of the agricultural resource use associated with producing the top five crops used in commercial aquaculture feed. Aquaculture's environmental footprint may now include nutrient and pesticide runoff from industrial crop production, and depending on where and how feed crops are produced, could be indirectly linked to associated negative health outcomes. We summarize key environmental health research on health effects associated with exposure to air, water, and soil contaminated by industrial crop production. Our review also finds that changes in the nutritional content of farmed seafood products due to altered feed composition could impact human nutrition. Based on our literature reviews and estimates of resource use, we present a conceptual framework describing the potential links between increasing use of crop-based ingredients in aquaculture and human health. Additional data and geographic sourcing information for crop-based ingredients are needed to fully assess the environmental health implications of this trend. This is especially critical in the context of a food system that is using both aquatic and terrestrial resources at unsustainable rates. PMID:26970884

  10. Health and Environmental Effects Document on Geothermal Energy -- 1982 update

    SciTech Connect

    Layton, David W.; Daniels, Jeffrey I.; Anspaugh, Lynn R.; O'Banion, Kerry D.

    1983-11-30

    We assess several of the important health and environmental risks associated with a reference geothermal industry that produces 21,000 MWe for 30 y (equivalent to 20 x 10{sup 18} J). The analyses of health effects focus on the risks associated with exposure to hydrogen sulfide, particulate sulfate, benzene, mercury, and radon in air and arsenic in food. Results indicate that emissions of hydrogen sulfide are likely to cause odor-related problems in 29 of 51 geothermal resources areas, assuming that no pollution controls are employed. Our best estimates and ranges of uncertainty for the health risks of chronic population exposures to atmospheric pollutants are as follows (risks expressed per 10{sup 18} J of electricity): particulate sulfate, 44 premature deaths (uncertainty range of 0 to 360); benzene, 0.15 leukemias (range of 0 to 0.51); elemental mercury, 14 muscle tremors (range of 0 to 39); and radon, 0.68 lung cancers (range of 0 to 1.8). The ultimate risk of fatal skin cancers as the result of the transfer of waste arsenic to the general population over geologic time ({approx} 100,000 y) was calculated as 41 per 10{sup 18} J. We based our estimates of occupational health effects on rates of accidental deaths together with data on occupational diseases and injuries in surrogate industries. According to our best estimates, there would be 8 accidental deaths per 10{sup 18} J of electricity, 300 cases of occupational diseases per 10{sup 18} J, and 3400 occupational injuries per 10{sup 18}J. The analysis of the effects of noncondensing gases on vegetation showed that ambient concentrations of hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide are more likely to enhance rather than inhibit the growth of plants. We also studied the possible consequences of accidental releases of geothermal fluids and concluded that probably less than 5 ha of land would be affected by such releases during the production of 20 x 10{sup 18} J of electricity. Boron emitted from cooling towers in the

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL-HUMAN HEALTH INTERCONNECTIONS: A WORKSHOP REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Pellston Workshop jointly sponsored by SETAC and SOT to discuss this topic of "Interconnections" was held in June, 2000 in Snowbird, Utah. This workshop was motivated by a deep concern shared by many human health, environmental, and social scientists for the interconnections, ...

  12. Environmental Health concerns in natural and man-made environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergtholdt, C. P.

    1975-01-01

    Industrial hygene and environmental health aspects of ground operation at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory were investigated. Major areas of concern are: (1) toxic substances, (2) noise pollution, (3) electromagnetic radiation; and (4) biohazards and sanitation. Each of these categories are also studied in a closed environment, such as encountered aboard of a spacecraft.

  13. QUALITY ASSURANCE GUIDELINES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH EFFECTS RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is a statement of the quality assurance (QA) policy of the Health Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina (HERL-RTP). It describes the HERL-RTP QA organization and the QA responsibilities of both mana...

  14. Increasing cropping system diversity balances productivity, profitability and environmental health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Balancing productivity, profitability, and environmental health is a key challenge for agricultural sustainability. Most crop production systems in the United States are characterized by low species and management diversity, high use of fossil energy and agrichemicals, and can have large negative im...

  15. NLM Web Resources for Environmental Health and Biomedical Research

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, R.

    2010-09-12

    The National Library of Medicine (NLM) is sponsoring this course to increase awareness of the availability and value of NLM’s online environmental health and toxicology information resources that provide invaluable tools to address these issues—for professionals and consumers alike. Participants will receive hands-on practice with selected NLM resources, and demonstrations of other valuable resources will be provided.

  16. First, Do No Harm: Children's Environmental Health in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatham-Stephens, Kevin M.; Mann, Mana; Schwartz, Andrea Wershof; Landrigan, Philip J.

    2012-01-01

    In the past century, the threats to children's health have shifted radically. Life-threatening infectious diseases--smallpox, polio, and cholera--have been largely conquered. But children are growing up in a world in which environmental toxins are ubiquitous. Measurable levels of hundreds of man-made chemicals are routinely found in the bodies of…

  17. Understanding Wicked Problems: A Key to Advancing Environmental Health Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreuter, Marshall W.; De Rosa, Christopher; Howze, Elizabeth H.; Baldwin, Grant T.

    2004-01-01

    Complex environmental health problems--like air and water pollution, hazardous waste sites, and lead poisoning--are in reality a constellation of linked problems embedded in the fabric of the communities in which they occur. These kinds of complex problems have been characterized by some as "wicked problems" wherein stakeholders may have…

  18. Developmental Origins of Health and Disease: Integrating Environmental Influences.

    PubMed

    Heindel, Jerrold J; Balbus, John; Birnbaum, Linda; Brune-Drisse, Marie Noel; Grandjean, Philippe; Gray, Kimberly; Landrigan, Philip J; Sly, Peter D; Suk, William; Cory Slechta, Deborah; Thompson, Claudia; Hanson, Mark

    2015-10-01

    There are now robust data supporting the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) paradigm. This includes human and animal data focusing on nutrition or environmental chemicals during development. However, the term DOHaD has not been generally accepted as the official term to be used when one is concerned with understanding the pathophysiological basis for how environmental influences acting during early development influence the risk of later noncommunicable diseases. Similarly, there is no global research or public health program built around the DOHaD paradigm that encompasses all aspects of environment. To better inform the global health efforts aimed at addressing the growing epidemic of chronic noncommunicable diseases of environmental origin, we propose a two-pronged approach: first, to make it clear that the current concept of DOHaD comprehensively includes a range of environmental factors and their relevance to disease occurrence not just throughout the life span but potentially across several generations; and second, to initiate the discussion of how adoption of DOHaD can promote a more realistic, accurate, and integrative approach to understanding environmental disruption of developmental programming and better inform clinical and policy interventions. PMID:26241070

  19. Photovoltaic energy systems: environmental concerns and control technology needs

    SciTech Connect

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Perry, P.; Wilenitz, I.

    1982-11-01

    Technical and commercial readiness for alternate photovoltaic energy systems, and waste streams from three different photovoltaic systems are examined. This analysis suggests that some uncontrolled waste streams could be declared toxic or hazardous under various provisions of the Clean Air, Clean Water, and Resource and Conservation Recovery Acts. Although some processes could emit large quantities of pollutants, these can be controlled using available technology. Other processes may emit small quantities of more toxic pollutants which will probably not be directly controlled unless significant health hazards are identified. Environmental problems in installation and operation are probably associated with large central-station applications; no significant effects are expected from small decentralized applications. Decommissioning of broken or degraded photovoltaic systems will generate large quantities of solid waste which can be simply disposed of in a landfill or perhaps recycled.

  20. Disproportionate Proximity to Environmental Health Hazards: Methods, Models, and Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Maantay, Juliana A.; Brender, Jean D.

    2011-01-01

    We sought to provide a historical overview of methods, models, and data used in the environmental justice (EJ) research literature to measure proximity to environmental hazards and potential exposure to their adverse health effects. We explored how the assessment of disproportionate proximity and exposure has evolved from comparing the prevalence of minority or low-income residents in geographic entities hosting pollution sources and discrete buffer zones to more refined techniques that use continuous distances, pollutant fate-and-transport models, and estimates of health risk from toxic exposure. We also reviewed analytical techniques used to determine the characteristics of people residing in areas potentially exposed to environmental hazards and emerging geostatistical techniques that are more appropriate for EJ analysis than conventional statistical methods. We concluded by providing several recommendations regarding future research and data needs for EJ assessment that would lead to more reliable results and policy solutions. PMID:21836113

  1. Photovoltaic environmental, health and safety electronic bulletin board service

    SciTech Connect

    Meinhold, A.F.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1990-01-01

    An electronic bulletin board system (BBS) has been established by the Biomedical and Environmental Assessment Group, Brookhaven National Laboratory, for the Photovoltaics Technology Division, US Department of Energy. The purpose of the BBS is to provide a forum for the ongoing exchange of information relating to the environmental, health and safety aspects of photovoltaic cell manufacture. This BBS is available, at no charge, to organizations engaged in photovoltaic cell research, development and production. Individuals with access to a microcomputer, modem and communications software can call into the BBS and join ongoing discussions. Users of the BBS may also electronically access reports, models and databases which relate to the environmental, health and safety aspects of photovoltaic cell manufacture. 6 figs.

  2. Creating Meaningful Partnerships Between Communities and Environmental Health Researchers

    PubMed Central

    De Souza, Rachael; Aguilar, Genevieve C.; de Castro, A. B.

    2014-01-01

    Community engagement is a necessary, although challenging, element of environmental health research in communities. To facilitate the engagement process, direct action community organizing agencies can be useful in bringing together communities and researchers. This article describes the preliminary activities that one direct action community organizing agency used in partnership with researchers to improve community engagement in the first 6 months of an environmental health study conducted in a major U.S. city. Activities included developing communication strategies, creating opportunities for researcher–community interaction, and sustaining project momentum. To conduct environmental research that is both scientifically rigorous and relevant to communities, collaborating partners had to develop professional skills and strategies outside of their areas of expertise. PMID:23875568

  3. [Citizens' veillance on environmental health through ICT and Genomics].

    PubMed

    Tallacchini, Mariachiara; Biggeri, Annibale

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade three different phenomena have merged: the widespread use of ICT devices to collect and potentially share personal and scientific data, and to build networked communities; biobanking for genomics, namely the organized storage of human biological samples and information; and the collaboration between scientists and citizens in creating knowledge, namely peer-production of knowledge, for shared social goals. These different forms of knowledge, technical tools, and skills have merged in community based scientific and social, as well as legal, initiatives, where scientists and citizens use genetic information and ICT as powerful ways to gain more control over their health and the environment. These activities can no longer be simply qualified as epidemiological research and surveillance. Instead, they can be framed as new forms of citizens' participatory "veillance:" an attitude of cognitive proactive alertness towards the protection of common goods. This paper illustrates two Italian case-studies where citizens and scientists, by making use of both ICT and biobanking, have joined with the goal of protecting environmental health in highly polluted contexts. The statute of these initiatives still needs to be defined as to both the validity of the underlying citizen science and the lack of adequate legal tools for structuring them. However, as to their scientific quality and use of sophisticated technologies, these activities cannot be compared to previous experiences, such as those inspired by so-called popular epidemiology. Moreover, the deep awareness towards the data to be transparent, reliable, and accessible, as well as towards funding mechanisms to be crowdsourced, allows these experiences to go beyond the mere confrontation with institutional knowledge, and to represent a potential model for knowledge production for institutional implementation. PMID:25387742

  4. Water, water quality and health (Chapter 3 in Book entitled: Environmental Tracking for Public Health Surveillance).

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter identifies the role environmental tracking plays in identifying public health water hazard and water quality issues. It outlines public health issues to be examined and provides an integrated overview of water and diseases by combining knowledge of the hydrological ...

  5. Human health perspective on environmental exposure to hydrazines: a review.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, G; Hansen, H

    1998-08-01

    Hydrazines are colorless liquid compounds that have been found at various Department of Defense hazardous waste sites. They are designated as environmental contaminants causing adverse effects to public health and have been identified at many National Priorities List (NPL) hazardous waste sites and federal facilities sites in the United States. Three chemically similar hydrazines-hydrazine, 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, and 1,2-dimethylhydrazine--occur in the environment and cause adverse health effects to persons living near hazardous waste sites. Humans are exposed to hydrazines by drinking contaminated, water, by inhaling contaminated air, or by swallowing or touching contaminated dust. Human occupational data and studies in laboratory animals suggest that people exposed to hydrazines may develop adverse systemic health effects or cancer. Hydrazines have caused cancer in animals following acute- or intermediate- duration exposure by the oral and inhalation routes. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the International Agency for Research on Cancer, and the World Health Organization have classified hydrazines as possible cancer-causing environmental contaminants. PMID:9717244

  6. Opportunities for health and safety professionals in environmental restoration work

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, A.E.

    1991-01-01

    The safety of workers in waste management and in environmental restoration work is regulated in large part by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Many of the OSHA rules are given in Part 1910, Occupational Safety and Health Standards, of Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). Section 120 of 29 CFR 1910 specifically addresses hazardous waste operations and emergency response operations. The remainder of this discussion focuses on clean-up operations. The purpose of this paper is to review areas of employment opportunity in environmental restoration work for health and safety professionals. Safety and health risk analyses are mentioned as one area of opportunity, and these analyses are required by the standards. Site safety and health supervisors will be needed during field operations. Those who enjoy teaching might consider helping to meet the training needs that are mandated. Finally, engineering help both to separate workers from hazards and to improve personal protective equipment, when it must be worn, would benefit those actively involved in environmental restoration activities.

  7. Environmental controls on uranium in reef corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Glen T.; Dunbar, Robert B.

    1995-05-01

    A survey of corals from a variety of tropical settings reveals previously unseen seasonal variations in skeletal U/Ca. Based upon two corals from the Galapagos Islands, a comparison of U/Ca with δ180 suggests a possible temperature dependence of +3-4% per degree centigrade cooling. An overall range in U/Ca of 1.03-1.37 μmol U/mol Ca (2.45-3.25 ppm) between corals from warm and cool water settings supports this interpretation. An alternative control, however, cannot be ruled out. Changes in the carbonate ion content of surface waters are sufficient to drive comparable variations, provided uranium is incorporated as UO 22+ or a carbonate complex thereof. In addition to these possible controls, we identify a probable salinity influence on coral U/Ca which suggests that uranium uptake depends upon [U] seawater and not [ U/Ca] seawater. Within individual corals, artifacts associated with "vital" influences appear minimal. Extension/calcification rate effects as assessed via comparisons of contemporaneous growth trajectories in individual colonies appear small relative to typical seasonal U/Ca variations of 10-20%. Excluding corals from the Galápagos cool regime, five species from warmer tropical settings exhibit remarkably little variability in mean U/Ca (1.03-1.09 μmol U/mol Ca). Our findings suggest that the range of U/Ca in modern corals defined by published data reflects a combination of interspecific variability and environmental control. The possibility that coral U/Ca is associated with temperature, alkalinity, and salinity suggests many uses for this new paleotracer. Rapid and precise measurement of uranium by isotope dilution ICP-MS will expedite future development and application. Key among the next steps must be studies to isolate the influences of the above mentioned environmental parameters. Additionally, potential microsampling artifacts (e.g., caused by drilling) and an apparent 6% "leachable" uranium fraction in a single test coral should be

  8. Cytokines and other immunological biomarkers in children's environmental health studies

    PubMed Central

    Duramad, Paurene; Tager, Ira B.; Holland, Nina T.

    2007-01-01

    Environmental exposures (e.g. pesticides, air pollution, and environmental tobacco smoke) during prenatal and early postnatal development have been linked to a growing number of childhood diseases including allergic disorders and leukemia. Because the immune response plays a critical role in each of these diseases, it is important to study the effects of toxicants on the developing immune system. Children's unique susceptibility to environmental toxicants has become an important focus of the field of immunotoxicology and the use of immune biomarkers in molecular epidemiology of children's environmental health is a rapidly expanding field of research. In this review, we discuss how markers of immune status and immunotoxicity are being applied to pediatric studies, with a specific focus on the various methods used to analyze T-helper-1/2 (Th1/Th2) cytokine profiles. Furthermore, we review recent data on the effects of children's environmental exposures to volatile organic compounds, metals, and pesticides on Th1/Th2 cytokine profiles and the associations of Th1/Th2 profiles with adverse health outcomes such as pediatric respiratory diseases, allergies, cancer and diabetes. Although cytokine profiles are increasingly used in children's studies, there is still a need to acquire distribution data for different ages and ethnic groups of healthy children. These data will contribute to the validation and standardization of cytokine biomarkers for future studies. Application of immunological markers in epidemiological studies will improve the understanding of mechanisms that underlie associations between environmental exposures and immune-mediated disorders. PMID:17624696

  9. Environmental noise and sleep disturbances: A threat to health?

    PubMed

    Halperin, Demian

    2014-12-01

    Environmental noise, especially that caused by transportation means, is viewed as a significant cause of sleep disturbances. Poor sleep causes endocrine and metabolic measurable perturbations and is associated with a number of cardiometabolic, psychiatric and social negative outcomes both in adults and children. Nocturnal environmental noise also provokes measurable biological changes in the form of a stress response, and clearly affects sleep architecture, as well as subjective sleep quality. These sleep perturbations are similar in their nature to those observed in endogenous sleep disorders. Apart from these measurable effects and the subjective feeling of disturbed sleep, people who struggle with nocturnal environmental noise often also suffer the next day from daytime sleepiness and tiredness, annoyance, mood changes as well as decreased well-being and cognitive performance. But there is also emerging evidence that these short-term effects of environmental noise, particularly when the exposure is nocturnal, may be followed by long-term adverse cardiometabolic outcomes. Nocturnal environmental noise may be the most worrying form of noise pollution in terms of its health consequences because of its synergistic direct and indirect (through sleep disturbances acting as a mediator) influence on biological systems. Duration and quality of sleep should thus be regarded as risk factors or markers significantly influenced by the environment and possibly amenable to modification through both education and counseling as well as through measures of public health. One of the means that should be proposed is avoidance at all costs of sleep disruptions caused by environmental noise. PMID:26483931

  10. Environmental noise and sleep disturbances: A threat to health?

    PubMed Central

    Halperin, Demian

    2014-01-01

    Environmental noise, especially that caused by transportation means, is viewed as a significant cause of sleep disturbances. Poor sleep causes endocrine and metabolic measurable perturbations and is associated with a number of cardiometabolic, psychiatric and social negative outcomes both in adults and children. Nocturnal environmental noise also provokes measurable biological changes in the form of a stress response, and clearly affects sleep architecture, as well as subjective sleep quality. These sleep perturbations are similar in their nature to those observed in endogenous sleep disorders. Apart from these measurable effects and the subjective feeling of disturbed sleep, people who struggle with nocturnal environmental noise often also suffer the next day from daytime sleepiness and tiredness, annoyance, mood changes as well as decreased well-being and cognitive performance. But there is also emerging evidence that these short-term effects of environmental noise, particularly when the exposure is nocturnal, may be followed by long-term adverse cardiometabolic outcomes. Nocturnal environmental noise may be the most worrying form of noise pollution in terms of its health consequences because of its synergistic direct and indirect (through sleep disturbances acting as a mediator) influence on biological systems. Duration and quality of sleep should thus be regarded as risk factors or markers significantly influenced by the environment and possibly amenable to modification through both education and counseling as well as through measures of public health. One of the means that should be proposed is avoidance at all costs of sleep disruptions caused by environmental noise. PMID:26483931

  11. Health and environmental effects of complex chemical mixtures: proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) of the Department of Energy supports a broad long-term research program on human health and environmental effects from potential exposure to energy-related complex chemical mixtures. The program seeks basic mechanistic data on the effects of complex mixtures at the cellular, molecular, and whole animal levels to aid in predicting human health effects and seeks ecological data on biological and physical transformations in the mixtures, concentrations of the mixtures in various compartments of the environment, and potential routes for human exposure to these mixtures (e.g., food chain). On June 17-18, 1985, OHER held its First Annual Technical Meeting on the Complex Chemical Mixtures Program in Chicago, IL. The primary purpose of the meeting was to enable principal investigators to report the research status and accomplishments of ongoing complex chemical mixture studies supported by OHER. To help focus future research directions round table discussions were conducted.

  12. 2014 Ebola Outbreak: Implications for Environmental Health Practice.

    PubMed

    Ratnapradipa, Kendra

    2015-11-01

    Environmental health practitioners deal with assessing risk of potential environmental contaminants from a variety of sources, including infectious disease such as Ebola virus disease (EVD). Therefore, they are uniquely qualified to contribute to epidemiological discussions of the interactions between agent-host-environment and how those interactions might be disrupted to stop the spread of EVD. Occupational health contributions on the proper use of personal protective equipment are particularly relevant for diseases lacking vaccination and treatment such as EVD. Occupations that may be at increased risk of exposure include health workers, laboratory workers, cleaning crews (for hospitals, ambulances, travel facilities, etc.), transportation workers (e.g., airlines, public transportation, taxis), sanitation workers, and morgue workers. Raising awareness professionally and publicly is an important step to stopping the spread of EVD. PMID:26638671

  13. The environmental impact of health care: implications for infusion nursing.

    PubMed

    Lipkin, Noelle Claire

    2012-01-01

    Health care provision is a dangerous business. Health professionals recognize the potential for miscommunication, medication errors, and other possible threats to patient safety. Less evident are the hazards to the environment inherent in the everyday practice of patient care. This article addresses 3 areas of practice in which infusion nurses can make a positive impact on the environment: preferable intravenous (IV) supply purchasing, proper management of electronic equipment (including purchasing, servicing, and disposal), and appropriate medication use and disposal practices. The article aims to inform IV nurses of the alarming environmental effects that the health care industry has on the environment and to suggest a clear, direct course of action to improve our environmental impact. PMID:22498487

  14. GRACE: Public Health Recovery Methods following an Environmental Disaster

    PubMed Central

    Svendsen, ER; Whittle, N; Wright, L; McKeown, RE; Sprayberry, K; Heim, M; Caldwell, R; Gibson, JJ; Vena, J.

    2014-01-01

    Different approaches are necessary when Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR) of environmental illness is initiated after an environmental disaster within a community. Often such events are viewed as golden scientific opportunities to do epidemiological studies. However, we believe that in such circumstances, community engagement and empowerment needs to be integrated into the public health service efforts in order for both those and any science to be successful, with special care being taken to address the immediate health needs of the community first rather than the pressing needs to answer important scientific questions. We will demonstrate how we have simultaneously provided valuable public health service, embedded generalizable scientific knowledge, and built a successful foundation for supplemental CBPR through our on-going recovery work after the chlorine gas disaster in Graniteville, South Carolina. PMID:20439226

  15. Advancing Health and Environmental Disease Tracking: A 5-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Litt, Jill S.; Wismann, Andrea; Resnick, Beth; Dawson, Rebecca Smullin; Hano, Mary; Burke, Thomas A.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. Our goal was to gain an understanding of the extent to which environmental public health tracking (EPHT) has progressed since the release of the 2000 Pew Environmental Health Commission report examining the nation’s EPHT infrastructure. Methods. As a follow-up to the Pew Commission report, we conducted a telephone survey of state practitioners in an effort to assess EPHT trends and changes in state-level capacities and activities over the past several years. Results. We found that new and enhanced federal–state partnerships; improved surveillance, data analysis, and communication capacities; and enhanced support of tracking personnel have provided a foundation for progress in the area of EPHT. Also, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s support of EPHT has strengthened the national environmental public health infrastructure and capacity to track environmental hazards, exposures, and health. Conclusions. Improved funding, data access, and translation of data to prevention activities are critical to sustaining progress in EPHT and developing the evidence base necessary for assessing the longer-term impacts and efficacy of EPHT and related environmental health improvements. PMID:17267714

  16. Using NASA Remotely Sensed Data to Help Characterize Environmental Risk Factors for National Public Health Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hamdan, M. Z.; Crosson, W. L.; Economou, S.; Estes, M., Jr.; Estes, S. M.; Hemmings, S. N.; Kent, S.; Loop, M.; Puckett, M.; Quattrochi, D. A.; Wade, G.; McClure, L.

    2012-12-01

    The overall goal of this study is to address issues of environmental health and enhance public health decision making by using NASA remotely sensed data and products. This study is a collaboration between NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Universities Space Research Association (USRA), the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) School of Public Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Office of Surveillance, Epidemiology and Laboratory Services. The objectives of this study are to develop high-quality spatial data sets of environmental variables, link these with public health data from a national cohort study, and deliver the environmental data sets and associated public health analyses to local, state and federal end-user groups. Three daily environmental data sets were developed for the conterminous U.S. on different spatial resolutions for the period 2003-2008: (1) spatial surfaces of estimated fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on a 10-km grid using US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground observations and NASA's MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data; (2) a 1-km grid of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST); and (3) a 12-km grid of daily incoming solar radiation and maximum and minimum air temperature using the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) data. These environmental datasets were linked with public health data from the UAB REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) national cohort study to determine whether exposures to these environmental risk factors are related to cognitive decline, stroke and other health outcomes. These environmental national datasets will also be made available to public health professionals, researchers and the general public via the CDC Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER) system, where they can be aggregated to the county-level, state-level, or regional-level as per users' need and downloaded in tabular, graphical

  17. Using NASA Remotely Sensed Data to Help Characterize Environmental Risk Factors for National Public Health Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Crosson, William; Economou, Sigrid; Estes,Maurice, Jr.; Estes, Sue; Hemmings, Sarah; Kent, Shia; Puckett, Mark; Quattrochi, Dale; Wade, Gina; McClure, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    The overall goal of this study is to address issues of environmental health and enhance public health decision making by using NASA remotely sensed data and products. This study is a collaboration between NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Universities Space Research Association (USRA), the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) School of Public Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Office of Surveillance, Epidemiology and Laboratory Services. The objectives of this study are to develop high-quality spatial data sets of environmental variables, link these with public health data from a national cohort study, and deliver the environmental data sets and associated public health analyses to local, state and federal end ]user groups. Three daily environmental data sets were developed for the conterminous U.S. on different spatial resolutions for the period 2003-2008: (1) spatial surfaces of estimated fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on a 10-km grid using US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground observations and NASA's MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data; (2) a 1-km grid of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST); and (3) a 12-km grid of daily incoming solar radiation and maximum and minimum air temperature using the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) data. These environmental datasets were linked with public health data from the UAB REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) national cohort study to determine whether exposures to these environmental risk factors are related to cognitive decline, stroke and other health outcomes. These environmental national datasets will also be made available to public health professionals, researchers and the general public via the CDC Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER) system, where they can be aggregated to the county-level, state-level, or regional-level as per users f need and downloaded in tabular, graphical

  18. Health Consequences of Environmental Exposures in Early Life: Coping with a Changing World in the Post-MDG Era.

    PubMed

    Suk, William; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; Stein, Renato T; Diaz-Barriga, Fernando; Carpenter, David O; Neira, Maria; Sly, Peter D

    2016-01-01

    Despite overall progress toward achieving the Millennium Development Goals, large health discrepancies persist between developed and developing countries. The world is rapidly changing and the influences of societal change and climate change will disproportionately affect the world's most vulnerable populations, thus exacerbating current inequities. Current development strategies do not adequately address these disproportionate impacts of environmental exposures. The aim of this study was to propose a new framework to address the health consequences of environmental exposures beyond 2015. This framework is transdisciplinary and precautionary. It is based on identifying social and economic determinants of health, strengthening primary health systems, and improving the health of vulnerable populations. It incorporates deliberate plans for assessment and control of avoidable environmental exposures. It sets specific, measurable targets for health and environmental improvement. PMID:27325065

  19. Health-system strengthening and tuberculosis control.

    PubMed

    Atun, Rifat; Weil, Diana E C; Eang, Mao Tan; Mwakyusa, David

    2010-06-19

    Weak health systems are hindering global efforts for tuberculosis care and control, but little evidence is available on effective interventions to address system bottlenecks. This report examines published evidence, programme reviews, and case studies to identify innovations in system design and tuberculosis control to resolve these bottlenecks. We outline system bottlenecks in relation to governance, financing, supply chain management, human resources, health-information systems, and service delivery; and adverse effects from rapid introduction of suboptimum system designs. This report also documents innovative solutions for disease control and system design. Solutions pursued in individual countries are specific to the nature of the tuberculosis epidemic, the underlying national health system, and the contributors engaged: no one size fits all. Findings from countries, including Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Tanzania, Thailand, and Vietnam, suggest that advances in disease control and system strengthening are complementary. Tuberculosis care and control are essential elements of health systems, and simultaneous efforts to innovate systems and disease response are mutually reinforcing. Highly varied and context-specific responses to tuberculosis show that solutions need to be documented and compared to develop evidence-based policies and practice. PMID:20488514

  20. Report of health and environmental effects of increased coal utilization by the Committee on Health and Environmental Effects of Increased Coal Utilization.

    PubMed

    1980-06-01

    The National Energy Plan announced by President Carter on April 29, 1977 proposed a significant increase in the utilization of the vast domestic deposits of coal to replace the dwindling supplies of oil and natural gas, and increasingly expensive oil from foreign sources, to meet national energy needs. At the same time, in recognition of possible adverse health and ecological consequences of increased coal production and use, the President announced that a special committee would be formed to study this aspect of the National Energy Plan. The Committee held a series of public meetings during November and December 1977 to review a number of special papers on particular problems associated with increased coal utilization. These papers, which were prepared by scientists of the US Environmental Protection Agency; the Department of Energy; the HEW National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; New York University; and Vanderbilt University; provided essential background information for the deliberations of the Committee and were published in EHP Vol. 33, pp. 127-314, 1979. One paper by A. P. Altschuler et al. is published in this volume of EHP. The Committee's basic finding was that it is safe to proceed with plans to increase the utilization of coal if the following environmental and safety policies are adhered to:* Compliance with Federal and State air, water, and solid waste regulations* Universal adoption and successful operation of best available control technology on new facilities* Compliance with reclamation standards* Compliance with mine health and safety standards* Judicious siting of coal-fired facilitiesThe Committee concluded that, even with the best mitigation policies, there will be some adverse health and environmental effects from the dramatic increase in coal use. However, these will not impact all regions and individuals uniformly. The Committee identified six major areas of

  1. Improving Environmental Health Literacy and Justice through Environmental Exposure Results Communication.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Andreotta, Monica D; Brody, Julia Green; Lothrop, Nathan; Loh, Miranda; Beamer, Paloma I; Brown, Phil

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the short- and long-term impacts of a biomonitoring and exposure project and reporting personal results back to study participants is critical for guiding future efforts, especially in the context of environmental justice. The purpose of this study was to evaluate learning outcomes from environmental communication efforts and whether environmental health literacy goals were met in an environmental justice community. We conducted 14 interviews with parents who had participated in the University of Arizona's Metals Exposure Study in Homes and analyzed their responses using NVivo, a qualitative data management and analysis program. Key findings were that participants used the data to cope with their challenging circumstances, the majority of participants described changing their families' household behaviors, and participants reported specific interventions to reduce family exposures. The strength of this study is that it provides insight into what people learn and gain from such results communication efforts, what participants want to know, and what type of additional information participants need to advance their environmental health literacy. This information can help improve future report back efforts and advance environmental health and justice. PMID:27399755

  2. Improving Environmental Health Literacy and Justice through Environmental Exposure Results Communication

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Andreotta, Monica D.; Brody, Julia Green; Lothrop, Nathan; Loh, Miranda; Beamer, Paloma I.; Brown, Phil

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the short- and long-term impacts of a biomonitoring and exposure project and reporting personal results back to study participants is critical for guiding future efforts, especially in the context of environmental justice. The purpose of this study was to evaluate learning outcomes from environmental communication efforts and whether environmental health literacy goals were met in an environmental justice community. We conducted 14 interviews with parents who had participated in the University of Arizona’s Metals Exposure Study in Homes and analyzed their responses using NVivo, a qualitative data management and analysis program. Key findings were that participants used the data to cope with their challenging circumstances, the majority of participants described changing their families’ household behaviors, and participants reported specific interventions to reduce family exposures. The strength of this study is that it provides insight into what people learn and gain from such results communication efforts, what participants want to know, and what type of additional information participants need to advance their environmental health literacy. This information can help improve future report back efforts and advance environmental health and justice. PMID:27399755

  3. Race, Social and Environmental Conditions, and Health Behaviors in Men.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Roland J; Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; Griffith, Derek M; Bruce, Marino A; Coa, Kisha; Bell, Caryn N; Young, Jessica; Bowie, Janice V; LaVeist, Thomas A

    2015-01-01

    Although understanding race differences in health behaviors among men is an important step in reducing disparities in leading causes of death in the United States, progress has been stifled when using national data because of the confounding of race, socioeconomic status, and residential segregation. The purpose of this study is to examine the nature of disparities in health behaviors among African American and white men in the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities Study-Southwest Baltimore, which was conducted in a racially integrated neighborhood of Baltimore to data from the 2003 National Health Interview Survey. After adjusting for age, marital status, insurance, income, educational attainment, poor or fair health, and obesity status, African American men in National Health Interview Survey had greater odds of being physically inactive (odds ratio [OR] = 1.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 129-1.69), reduced odds of being a current smoker (OR = 0.77; 95% CI, 0.65-0.90), and reduced odds of being a current drinker (OR = 0.58; 95% CI, 0.50-0.67). In the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities Study-Southwest Baltimore sample, African American and white men had similar odds of being physically inactive (OR = 0.79; 95% CI, 0.50-1.24), being a current smoker (OR = 0.86; 95% CI, 0.60-1.23), or being a current drinker (OR = 1.34; 95% CI, 0.81-2.21). Because race disparities in these health behaviors were ameliorated in the sample where African American and white men were living under similar social, environmental, and socioeconomic status conditions, these findings suggest that social environment may be an important determinant of health behaviors among African American and white men. Public health interventions and health promotion strategies should consider the social environment when seeking to better understand men's health disparities. PMID:26291190

  4. Advanced Environmental Monitoring and Control Program: Technology Development Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jan, Darrell (Editor); Seshan, Panchalam (Editor); Ganapathi, Gani (Editor); Schmidt, Gregory (Editor); Doarn, Charles (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    Human missions in space, from the International Space Station on towards potential human exploration of the moon, Mars and beyond into the solar system, will require advanced systems to maintain an environment that supports human life. These systems will have to recycle air and water for many months or years at a time, and avoid harmful chemical or microbial contamination. NASA's Advanced Environmental Monitoring and Control program has the mission of providing future spacecraft with advanced, integrated networks of microminiaturized sensors to accurately determine and control the physical, chemical and biological environment of the crew living areas. This document sets out the current state of knowledge for requirements for monitoring the crew environment, based on (1) crew health, and (2) life support monitoring systems. Both areas are updated continuously through research and space mission experience. The technologies developed must meet the needs of future life support systems and of crew health monitoring. These technologies must be inexpensive and lightweight, and use few resources. Using these requirements to continue to push the state of the art in miniaturized sensor and control systems will produce revolutionary technologies to enable detailed knowledge of the crew environment.

  5. 77 FR 46373 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Hemlock Woolly...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological... of Symnus coniferarum into the eastern United States for use as a biological control agent to reduce... as a biological control agent to reduce the severity of hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges...

  6. Participatory health impact assessment for the development of local government regulation on hazard control

    SciTech Connect

    Inmuong, Uraiwan; Rithmak, Panee; Srisookwatana, Soomol; Traithin, Nathathai; Maisuporn, Pornpun

    2011-07-15

    The Thai Public Health Act 1992 required the Thai local governments to issue respective regulations to take control of any possible health-hazard related activities, both from commercial and noncommercial sources. Since 1999, there has been centrally decentralized of power to a new form of local government establishment, namely Sub-district Administrative Organization (SAO). The SAO is asmall-scale local governing structure while its legitimate function is for community services, including control of health impact related activities. Most elected SAO administrators and officers are new and less experience with any of public health code of practice, particularly on health-hazard control. This action research attempted to introduce and apply a participatory health impact assessment (HIA) tool for the development of SAO health-hazard control regulation. The study sites were at Ban Meang and Kok See SAOs, Khon Kaen Province, Thailand, while all intervention activities conducted during May 2005-April 2006. A set of cooperative activities between researchers and community representatives were planned and organized by; surveying and identifying place and service base locally causing local environmental health problems, organizing community participatory workshops for drafting and proposing the health-hazard control regulation, and appropriate practices for health-hazard controlling measures. This action research eventually could successfully enable the SAO administrators and officers understanding of local environmental-related health problem, as well as development of imposed health-hazard control regulation for local community.

  7. Status of health and environmental research relative to direct coal liquefaction: 1976 to the present

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, R.H.; Cowser, K.E.

    1982-06-01

    This document describes the status of health and environmental research efforts, supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE), to assist in the development of environmentally acceptable coal liquefaction processes. Four major direct coal liquefaction processes are currently in (or have been investigated at) the pilot plant stage of development. Two solvent refined coal processes (SRC-I and -II), H-coal (a catalytic liquefaction process) and Exxon donor solvent (EDS). The Pacific Northwest Laboratory was assigned responsibility for evaluating SRC process materials and prepared comprehensive health and environmental effects research program plans for SRC-I and -II. A similar program plan was prepared for H-coal process materials by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A program has been developed for EDS process materials by Exxon Research and Engineering Co. The program includes short-term screening of coal-derived materials for potential health and ecological effects. Longer-term assays are used to evaluate materials considered most representative of potential commercial practice and with greatest potential for human exposure or release to the environment. Effects of process modification, control technologies and changing operational conditions on potential health and ecological effects are also being evaluated. These assessments are being conducted to assist in formulating cost-effective environmental research programs and to estimate health and environmental risks associated with a large-scale coal liquefaction industry. Significant results of DOE's health and environmental research efforts relative to coal liquefaction include the following: chemical characterization, health effects, ecological fate and effects, amelioration and risk assessment.

  8. COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT IN CHILDREN’S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RESEARCH

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Barbara L.; Manice, Melissa P.

    2010-01-01

    Community engagement strategies and skills can build trust and reduce historical mistrust between researchers, communities and populations being studied, as well as contribute to the quality of study designs, methods and dissemination of findings. This review paper discusses why community engagement is of increasing importance in children’s environmental health research, describes models and the continuum of methods that are used and discusses their challenges and benefits. Two case studies, representing different study designs and using different community engagement models and methods, and lessons learned from these cases are described. Community engagement methods are best understood on a continuum based on the degree to which community members or representatives of community populations are involved in research planning, decision making and dissemination. Methods along this continuum include community consultation, community based participatory research(CBPR) and community consent to research. Community engagement knowledge and skills are especially important in the conduct of children’s environmental health research with its emphasis on reducing environmental risks at the community level; the increasing focus on genetics and gene-environment interactions; and the importance placed on translation of scientific results into behaviors and policies that protect the community. Across study designs, whether qualitative survey research, an observational epidemiology study, or a randomized intervention trial, understanding community interests, norms and values is necessary to describe attitudes and behaviors of specific population groups, build evidence of cause and effect between environmental exposures and health and/or that demonstrate the effectiveness of interventions to reduce risks. PMID:21259265

  9. Toxicology in Australia: a key component of environmental health.

    PubMed

    Priestly, Brian G; Di Marco, Peter; Sim, Malcolm; Moore, Michael R; Langley, Andrew

    2007-10-01

    Managing public concerns relating to chemical exposures can consume substantial public health resources, particularly as the scientific basis around these issues is often contentious. Toxicology remains underrecognized as a public health discipline in Australia, although Australian toxicologists are making significant contributions from academia, government, and the commercial sector toward assessing the level of risk and protecting the community from environmental hazards. Internationally, the growth of environmental toxicology and the promotion of sound science in risk assessment as a basis for making regulatory decisions have been, to some extent, driven by the outcomes of the 1992 UNCED Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio Summit) and its Chapter 19 Agenda 21 activities. The promotion of safe chemical management practices and the need for global strengthening of capabilities in toxicology are among the initiatives of the Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety (IFCS), which was formed after the Rio Summit to manage these programs. This article describes some of the initiatives in capacity building that marked the development of environmental toxicology in Australia since 1992 in response to these international environmental health initiatives. PMID:17763075

  10. Cigarette smoking: health effects and control strategies.

    PubMed

    Alberg, Anthony J

    2008-12-01

    Active cigarette smoking causes a broad spectrum of diseases that extend to many different organ systems. Its numerous deleterious health effects, combined with the substantial prevalence of cigarette smoking, make it a major worldwide cause of death. Smoking contributes so heavily to the mortality burden because it is a major cause of vascular disease, cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In addition to these diseases, cigarette smoking also causes other respiratory symptoms, adversely affects reproductive outcomes and is a cause of diminished health status. Furthermore, exposure to secondhand smoke is an established cause of coronary heart disease and lung cancer, as well as a host of other adverse health effects. Given that cigarette smoking is such a major threat to global public health, controlling the worldwide epidemic of cigarette smoking would lead to enormous public health benefits. Strategies to control cigarette smoking at the societal level include smoke-free workplace legislation, increasing cigarette taxes and regulating cigarette advertising. On the individual level, preventing the initiation of cigarette smoking among youths is the optimal strategy; in practice, discovering efficacious primary prevention interventions has proven challenging. During the past two decades, major advances have been made in extending the menu of options available to assist dependent smokers in successfully quitting smoking. Successfully combating cigarette smoking requires a broad-based commitment to smoking control from multiple stakeholders, along with a multifaceted strategy that addresses both societal and individual factors. PMID:19198699

  11. The role of genetic polymorphisms in environmental health.

    PubMed Central

    Kelada, Samir N; Eaton, David L; Wang, Sophia S; Rothman, Nathaniel R; Khoury, Muin J

    2003-01-01

    Interest is increasing in the role of variations in the human genome (polymorphisms) in modifying the effect of exposures to environmental health hazards (often referred to as gene-environment interaction), which render some individuals or groups in the population more or less likely to develop disease after exposure. This review is intended for an audience of environmental health practitioners and students and is designed to raise awareness about this rapidly growing field of research by presenting established and novel examples of gene-environment interaction that illustrate the major theme of effect modification. Current data gaps are identified and discussed to illustrate limitations of past research and the need for the application of more robust methods in future research projects. Two primary benefits of incorporating genetics into the existing environmental health research framework are illustrated: a) the ability to detect different levels of risk within the population, and b) greater understanding of etiologic mechanisms. Both offer opportunities for developing new methods of disease prevention. Finally, we describe a basic framework for researchers interested in pursuing health effects research that incorporates genetic polymorphisms. PMID:12826477

  12. Air Pollution Affects Community Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shy, Carl M.; Finklea, John F.

    1973-01-01

    Community Health and Environmental Surveillance System (CHESS), a nationwide program relating community health to environmental quality, is designed to evaluate existing environmental standards, obtain health intelligence for new standards, and document health benefits of air pollution control. (BL)

  13. TOXNET and Beyond: Using the National Library of Medicine's Environmental Health and Toxicology Portal

    SciTech Connect

    Templin-Branner, W.

    2010-10-20

    The National Library of Medicine's Environmental Health and Toxicology Portal provides access to numerous databases that can help you explore environmental chemicals and risks. TOXNET and Beyond: Using NLM's Environmental Health and Toxicology Portal conveys the fundamentals of searching the NLM's TOXNET system of databases in chemistry, toxicology, environmental health, and related fields. In addition to TOXNET, the course will highlight various resources available through the Environmental Health and Toxicology Portal.

  14. Occupational health, waste management, and environmental research program of the Health Division 1981. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Voelz, G.L.

    1983-09-01

    The primary responsibility of the Health Division at the Los Alamos National Laboratory is to provide effective programs in health, safety, waste processing, and environmental protection for the Laboratory. During 1981, evaluations of respiratory protective equipment included 3 special DOE contractor supplied-air suits or hoods and 10 commercial supplied-air devices. Preliminary results of chemical permeation tests of different protective garment materials are reported. Industrial hygiene field studies of oil shale work were conducted at the Geokinetics true in situ facility and the Rio Blanco modified in situ facility. An occupational medical survey of workers at the Geokinetics, Inc., facility was completed. Research on the generation and characterization of aerosols was continued for inhalation studies of man-made mineral fibers and oil shale aerosols. The distribution of /sup 241/Am in a whole body was determined by tissue analyses. Preliminary results of mortality in workers formerly employed at the Rocky Flats plant were reported. A simplified method for the analysis of plutonium in urine has been developed. Instrumentation development resulted in a portable computer system for field data analysis and a small, computerized, wristwatch-style radiation dosimeter. Environmental surveillance at Los Alamos during 1981 showed the highest estimated radiation dose due to Laboratory operations is about 4% of the dose due to the natural radioactivity here. A study was completed on alternative strategies for long-term management of Los Alamos transuranic wastes. A successful 10-day test burn of pentachlorophenol-contaminated wastes was conducted in the Controlled Air Incinerator. Decontamination factors for five fission products in the off-gas handling system of the incinerator were measured.

  15. Environmental Control and Life Support System Mockup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Group of the Flight Projects Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. This photograph shows the mockup of the the ECLSS to be installed in the Node 3 module of the ISS. From left to right, shower rack, waste management rack, Water Recovery System (WRS) Rack #2, WRS Rack #1, and Oxygen Generation System (OGS) rack are shown. The WRS provides clean water through the reclamation of wastewaters and is comprised of a Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) and a Water Processor Assembly (WPA). The UPA accepts and processes pretreated crewmember urine to allow it to be processed along with other wastewaters in the WPA. The WPA removes free gas, organic, and nonorganic constituents before the water goes through a series of multifiltration beds for further purification. The OGS produces oxygen for breathing air for the crew and laboratory animals, as well as for replacing oxygen loss. The OGS is comprised of a cell stack, which electrolyzes (breaks apart the hydrogen and oxygen molecules) some of the clean water provided by the WRS, and the separators that remove the gases from the water after electrolysis.

  16. Environmental control technology for shale oil wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Mercer, B.W.; Wakamiya, W.; Bell, N.E.; Mason, M.J.; Spencer, R.R.; English, C.J.; Riley, R.G.

    1982-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of studies conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory from 1976 to 1982 on environmental control technology for shale oil wastewaters. Experimental studies conducted during the course of the program were focused largely on the treatment and disposal of retort water, particularly water produced by in situ retorting of oil shale. Alternative methods were evaluated for the treatment and disposal of retort water and minewater. Treatment and disposal processes evaluated for retort water include evaporation for separation of water from both inorganic and organic pollutants; steam stripping for ammonia and volatile organics removal; activated sludge and anaerobic digestion for removal of biodegradable organics and other oxidizable substances; carbon adsorption for removal of nonbiodegradable organics; chemical coagulation for removal of suspended matter and heavy metals; wet air oxidation and solvent extraction for removal of organics; and land disposal and underground injection for disposal of retort water. Methods for the treatment of minewater include chemical processing and ion exchange for fluoride and boron removal. Preliminary cost estimates are given for several retort water treatment processes.

  17. Environmental controls on alpine cirque size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delmas, Magali; Gunnell, Yanni; Calvet, Marc

    2014-02-01

    Pleistocene alpine cirques are emblematic landforms of mountain scenery, yet their deceptively simple template conceals complex controlling variables. This comparative study presents a new database of 1071 cirques, the largest of its kind, located in the French eastern Pyrenees. It is embedded in a review of previous work on cirque morphometry and thus provides a perspective on a global scale. First-order cirque attributes of length, width, and amplitude were measured; and their power as predictors of climatic and lithological variables and as proxies for the duration of glacier activity was tested using ANOVA, simple and multiple linear regression, and their various post-hoc tests. Conventional variables such as cirque aspect, floor elevation, and exposure with respect to regional precipitation-bearing weather systems are shown to present some consistency in spatial patterns determined by solar radiation, the morning-afternoon effect, and wind-blown snow accumulation in the lee of ridgetops. This confirms in greater detail the previously encountered links between landforms and climate. A special focus on the influence of bedrock lithology, a previously neglected nonclimatic variable, highlights the potential for spurious relations in the use of cirque size as a proxy of past environmental conditions. Cirques are showcased as complex landforms resulting from the combination of many climatic and nonclimatic variables that remain difficult to rank by order of importance. Apart from a few statistically weak trends, several combinations of different factors in different proportions are shown to produce similar morphometric outcomes, suggesting a case of equifinality in landform development.

  18. Public Health Pest Control Category Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, James S.; Turmel, Jon P.

    This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. It presents pest control guidelines for those organisms of public health significance. Fact sheets with line drawings discuss pests such as cockroaches, bedbugs, lice, ants, beetles, bats, birds, and rodents. (CS)

  19. Communication about environmental health risks: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Using the most effective methods and techniques for communicating risk to the public is critical. Understanding the impact that different types of risk communication have played in real and perceived public health risks can provide information about how messages, policies and programs can and should be communicated in order to be most effective. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify the effectiveness of communication strategies and factors that impact communication uptake related to environmental health risks. Methods A systematic review of English articles using multiple databases with appropriate search terms. Data sources also included grey literature. Key organization websites and key journals were hand searched for relevant articles. Consultation with experts took place to locate any additional references. Articles had to meet relevance criteria for study design [randomized controlled trials, clinical controlled trials, cohort analytic, cohort, any pre-post, interrupted time series, mixed methods or any qualitative studies), participants (those in community-living, non-clinical populations), interventions (including, but not limited to, any community-based methods or tools such as Internet, telephone, media-based interventions or any combination thereof), and outcomes (reported measurable outcomes such as awareness, knowledge or attitudinal or behavioural change). Articles were assessed for quality and data was extracted using standardized tools by two independent reviewers. Articles were given an overall assessment of strong, moderate or weak quality. Results There were no strong or moderate studies. Meta-analysis was not appropriate to the data. Data for 24 articles were analyzed and reported in a narrative format. The findings suggest that a multi-media approach is more effective than any single media approach. Similarly, printed material that offers a combination of information types (i.e., text and diagrams) is a more effective

  20. Health assessment of environmental pollutants; Proliferative and degenerative diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, B.O. )

    1987-01-01

    The health assessments of environmental air contaminants are at present frequently based upon probability of cancer, if this has been identified as a potential result of prolonged exposure to the particular inhalation hazard. However, for many airborne hazards chronic inhalation exposure may result in morbidity or mortality risks due to chronic degenerative diseases such as emphysema, fibrosis, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease that may be nearly as great or greater than those of more widely recognized neoplastic or proliferative disease. The relative hazards of environmentally released radioactive and chemical air contaminants, i.e., radon daughters and diesel engine exhaust, are discussed as examples.