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  1. Further Evidence for the Cultural Norm Hypothesis: Positive Emotion in Depressed and Control European American and Asian American Women

    PubMed Central

    Chentsova-Dutton, Yulia E.; Tsai, Jeanne L.; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2010-01-01

    How does culture shape the experience and expression of depression? Previously we observed that depression dampened negative emotional responses in European Americans, but increased negative emotional responses in Asian Americans (Chentsova-Dutton et al., 2007). We interpreted these findings as support for the cultural norm hypothesis, which predicts that depression reduces individuals’ abilities to react in culturally normative or ideal ways (i.e., disrupting European Americans’ abilities to express their emotions openly and Asian Americans’ abilities to moderate and control their emotions). In the present study, we examined the generalizability of the cultural norm hypothesis to positive emotion. We measured the emotional reactivity of 35 European Americans (17 depressed, 18 controls) and 31 Asian Americans (15 depressed, 16 controls) to an amusing film clip. Consistent with the cultural norm hypothesis, depressed European Americans showed dampened positive emotional reactivity (i.e., fewer enjoyment and non-enjoyment smiles, less intense reports of positive emotion, lower cardiac activation) compared to control European Americans, whereas depressed Asian Americans showed similar (i.e., smiles, reports of positive emotion), and even greater (i.e., higher cardiac activation) positive emotional reactivity compared to control Asian Americans. These findings suggest that the cultural norm hypothesis generalizes to the experience and expression of positive emotion. PMID:20438167

  2. Interpretations of parental control by Asian immigrant and European American youth.

    PubMed

    Chao, Ruth K; Aque, Christine

    2009-06-01

    Although studies have reported ethnic and cultural differences in the effects of parenting on adolescent well-being, rarely have they included specific examinations of the cultural processes underlying these differences. This study examined adolescents' affective interpretations of parents' control (i.e., feelings of anger toward control) and how these interpretations may moderate the relationship between control and adolescents' behavioral adjustment. The study comprised 1,085 immigrant youth of Chinese, Korean, and Filipino descent, and also European American youth from high schools in the greater Los Angeles area. Differences were found between European American and Asian immigrant youth in the effects of both behavioral control and psychological control. Furthermore, among European Americans only, as adolescents' feelings of anger increased, the beneficial consequences of behavioral control decreased, whereas the negative effects of psychological control on behavior problems decreased. The results suggest that feeling anger toward parents' use of psychological control may serve a protective function for European American youth but not for Asian immigrant youth. In contrast, feeling angry about behavioral control seems to reduce the beneficial consequences of control among European Americans but not Asian immigrants. PMID:19586197

  3. The Impact of Parental Support, Behavioral Control, and Psychological Control on the Academic Achievement and Self-Esteem of African American and European American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, Roy A.; Bush, Kevin R.; McKenry, Patrick C.; Wilson, Stephan M.

    2003-01-01

    Relationships between adolescent functioning and parent support, behavioral control, and psychological control were examined among European American and African American adolescents. A number of correlations were significant, including maternal support and academic achievement and self-esteem, and paternal psychological control and self-esteem.…

  4. Emotion Control Values and Responding to an Anger Provocation inAsian-American and European-American Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Mauss, Iris B.; Butler, Emily A.; Roberts, Nicole A.; Chu, Ann

    2009-01-01

    The present research examined whether Asian-American (AA) versus European-American (EA) women differed in experiential, expressive, or autonomic physiological responding to a laboratory anger provocation and assessed the mediating role of values about emotional control. Results indicate that AA participants reported and behaviorally displayed less anger than EA participants, while there were no group differences in physiological responses. Observed differences in emotional responses were partially mediated by emotion control values, suggesting a potential mechanism for effects of cultural background on anger responding. PMID:21116444

  5. Associations among body size dissatisfaction, perceived dietary control, and diet history in African American and European American women.

    PubMed

    Chandler-Laney, Paula C; Hunter, Gary R; Bush, Nikki C; Alvarez, Jessica A; Roy, Jane L; Byrne, Nuala M; Gower, Barbara A

    2009-12-01

    European American (EA) women report greater body dissatisfaction and less dietary control than do African American (AA) women. This study investigated whether ethnic differences in dieting history contributed to differences in body dissatisfaction and dietary control, or to differential changes that may occur during weight loss and regain. Eighty-nine EA and AA women underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure body composition and completed questionnaires to assess body dissatisfaction and dietary control before, after, and one year following, a controlled weight-loss intervention. While EA women reported a more extensive dieting history than AA women, this difference did not contribute to ethnic differences in body dissatisfaction and perceived dietary control. During weight loss, body satisfaction improved more for AA women, and during weight regain, dietary self-efficacy worsened to a greater degree for EA women. Ethnic differences in dieting history did not contribute significantly to these differential changes. Although ethnic differences in body image and dietary control are evident prior to weight loss, and some change differentially by ethnic group during weight loss and regain, differences in dieting history do not contribute significantly to ethnic differences in body image and dietary control. PMID:19778748

  6. Cues used for distinguishing African American and European American voices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Erik R.; Lass, Norman J.

    2005-04-01

    Past studies have shown that listeners can distinguish most African American and European American voices, but how they do so is poorly understood. Three experiments were designed to investigate this problem. Recordings of African American and European American college students performing various reading tasks were used as the basis for stimuli in all three. In the first experiment, stimuli were subjected to monotonization, lowpass filtering at 660 Hz, and no modification. In the second, stimuli featuring certain ethnically diagnostic vowels and control stimuli were subjected to monotonization, conversion of vowels to schwa, or no modification. In the third, stimuli featuring diagnostic vowels and control stimuli were modified so that the intonation of paired African American and European American speakers was swapped. In all three experiments, African American and European American listeners in North Carolina and European American listeners in West Virginia identified the ethnicity of the speaker of each stimulus. Vowel quality emerged as the most consistent cue for identifications. However, listeners accessed other cues differently for male and female speakers. Breathiness was correlated with identifications of male speakers but not of female speakers. F0-related factors proved more important for female speakers than for male speakers. [Work supported by NSF.

  7. Culture and Personality Among European American and Asian American Men

    PubMed Central

    Eap, Sopagna; DeGarmo, David S.; Kawakami, Ayaka; Hara, Shelley N.; Hall, Gordon C.N.; Teten, Andra L.

    2009-01-01

    Personality differences between Asian American (N = 320) and European American men (N = 242) and also among Asian American ethnic groups (Korean, Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, and mixed Asian) are examined on the Big Five personality dimension. Personality structures for Asian Americans and European Americans closely replicate established norms. However, congruence is greater for European American and highly acculturated Asian American men than for low acculturated Asian American men. Similar patterns are found for the construct loss of face (LOF). Asian American men with a high concern for LOF are less similar in their personality structure to European American men than Asian American men with low LOF concern. Mean differences are also found among Asian American and European American men, who differ significantly on Extraversion, Conscientiousness, Openness, and Neuroticism. Results indicate that acculturation and LOF are significantly associated with these four personality dimensions for both Asian American and European American men. PMID:19169434

  8. Close relationships between Asian American and European American college students.

    PubMed

    Chen, C; Edwards, K; Young, B; Greenberger, E

    2001-02-01

    The authors examined attitudes and behaviors regarding close relationships between European and Asian Americans, with a particular emphasis on 5 major subgroups of Asian Americans (Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, and Filipino Americans). Participants were 218 Asian American college students and 171 European American college students attending a culturally diverse university. The European Americans did not differentiate among the various subgroups of Asian Americans. Their attitudes regarding close relationships were less positive toward Asian Americans than toward Mexican and African Americans, a finding contrary to the prediction of social exchange theory (H. Tajfel, 1975). In contrast to the European Americans' view of homogeneity among Asian Americans, the 5 major subgroups of Asian Americans expressed a distinctive hierarchy of social preference among themselves. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for future research on interethnic relations involving Asian Americans. PMID:11294169

  9. Assessing European Egg Parasitoids as a Mean of Controlling the Invasive South American Tomato Pinworm Tuta absoluta

    PubMed Central

    Chailleux, Anaïs; Desneux, Nicolas; Seguret, Julien; Do Thi Khanh, Hong; Maignet, Pascal; Tabone, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    The South American tomato pinworm (Tuta absoluta) has recently invaded Europe and is rapidly spreading in the Afro-Eurasian continent where it is becoming a major pest on tomato crops. Laboratory tests were undertaken to evaluate the potential of 29 European strains of Trichogramma parasitoids to control T. absoluta. In addition to the host itself, the host plant (tomato) was used during the laboratory tests in order to increase the chance of selecting the best parasitoid strains. Trichogramma females were placed with T. absoluta eggs on a tomato leaflet in tubes. We compared the parasitism of T. absoluta by the various Trichogramma species tested to the Trichogramma species currently commercially available for the pest control in Europe, i.e. Trichogramma achaeae. Thereafter, the more promising strains were tested on a larger scale, in mesocosm (i.e. cages in greenhouses) and in greenhouse compartments to evaluate efficiency of laboratory selected strains under cropping conditions. The most efficient strain from the laboratory screening trials did not perform as efficiently under the greenhouse conditions. We discuss differences in parasitism levels among species and strains and among the different scales tested in the experiments, as well as implications of these results for further screening for biocontrol agents. PMID:23144727

  10. Help-Seeking Experiences and Attitudes among African American, Asian American, and European American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masuda, Akihiko; Anderson, Page L.; Twohig, Michael P.; Feinstein, Amanda B.; Chou, Ying-Yi; Wendell, Johanna W.; Stormo, Analia R.

    2009-01-01

    The study examined African American, Asian American, and European American college students' previous direct and indirect experiences of seeking professional psychological services and related attitudes. Survey data were collected from 254 European American, 182 African American and 82 Asian American college students. Results revealed that fewer…

  11. Media exposure, internalization of the thin ideal, and body dissatisfaction: comparing Asian American and European American college females.

    PubMed

    Nouri, Mahsa; Hill, Laura G; Orrell-Valente, Joan K

    2011-09-01

    Internalization of the thin ideal mediates the media exposure-body dissatisfaction relation in young adult European American females. There is little related research on Asian Americans. We used structural equations modeling to test: (1) whether media exposure was associated with body dissatisfaction in Asian American young adult females, (2) internalization of the thin ideal mediated any such association, and (3) whether the mediational model provided equivalent fit for European American and Asian American samples. Participants were 287 college females (154 Asian Americans, 133 European Americans). Internalization of the thin ideal explained the media exposure-body dissatisfaction association equally well for both groups. Results suggest that Asian Americans may be employing unhealthy weight control behaviors, and may be prone to developing eating disorders, at rates similar to European American young adult females. Clinicians need to screen carefully for body dissatisfaction, unhealthy weight control behaviors, and eating disorders in Asian American females. PMID:21775227

  12. Emotional expression and physiology in European Americans and Hmong Americans.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jeanne L; Chentsova-Dutton, Yulia; Freire-Bebeau, Liliana; Przymus, Diane E

    2002-12-01

    Ethnographic and clinical observations suggest that Asians are less expressive than European Americans. To examine whether this difference emerged in online emotional responding, 50 Hmong Americans (HAs) and 48 European Americans (EAs) were asked to relive past episodes of intense happiness, pride, love, anger, disgust, and sadness. Facial behavior and physiological reactivity were measured. For most emotions, more cultural similarities than differences were found. There were some exceptions: During happiness, fewer HAs than EAs showed non-Duchenne smiles (i.e., "social" smiles), despite similarities in reported emotional experience and physiological reactivity. Within-group differences between "less Hmong" and "more Hmong" HAs were also found. Implications of these findings for our understanding of culture-emotion relations are discussed. PMID:12899371

  13. Beyond parenting practices: extended kinship support and the academic adjustment of African-American and European-American teens.

    PubMed

    Pallock, Linda L; Lamborn, Susie D

    2006-10-01

    This study examined adolescents' perceptions of parenting practices and extended kinship support in relation to academic adjustment for 104 African American and 60 European American 9th and 10th graders (14 and 15 year olds). For African-American teens, parental acceptance was associated with school values, teacher bonding, and work orientation. Higher levels of behavioral control and lower levels of psychological control were associated with a stronger work orientation. After accounting for the demographic variables and the three parenting practices, higher levels of extended kinship support related to stronger school values, higher teacher bonding, and a stronger work orientation. For European-American teens, parental acceptance related to academic adjustment, including stronger school values, higher teacher bonding, and a stronger work orientation. European-American adolescents with stronger extended kinship networks reported higher teacher bonding and a stronger work orientation. Results indicate the importance of extended kinship support for both African-American and European-American adolescents. PMID:16455133

  14. Failure to detect DUP25 in lymphoblastoid cells derived from patients with panic disorder and control individuals representing European and American populations.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guanshan; Bartsch, Oliver; Skrypnyk, Cristina; Rotondo, Alessandro; Akhtar, Longina A; Harris, Claudia; Virkkunen, Matti; Cassano, Giovanni; Goldman, David

    2004-06-01

    Investigation of the co-occurrence of panic and phobic disorders with joint laxity led to the identification of interstitial duplications involving human chromosome 15q24-26 (named 'DUP25') in a Spanish population. DUP25 was observed in 97% of patients and in 7% of control individuals. In the present study, we used two different methods to detect DUP25: high-throughput molecular gene dosage analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). We evaluated 56 lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from 26 unrelated patients with panic disorder obtained from several European and American populations and 30 normal controls. We could not find any cell line showing a result consistent with DUP25. These data do not support any association of DUP25 with panic disorder. PMID:15054397

  15. Perceptions of African American and European American Teachers on the Education of African American Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, Ellen; Banks, Joy; Young, Kathryn; Jackson, Francesina R.

    2007-01-01

    The authors interviewed 27 teachers (16 African American and 11 European American) on instructional factors contributing to overidentification of behavior problems in African American boys. Interviews focused on teachers' perspectives of effective teachers, teacher-student relationships, and communication styles. Analysis of the interviews showed…

  16. Fine Motor Skills and Mathematics Achievement in East Asian American and European American Kindergartners and First Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Zupei; Jose, Paul E.; Huntsinger, Carol S.; Pigott, Therese D.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined whether fine motor skills were related to the initial scores and growth rate of mathematics achievement in American kindergartners and first graders. Participants were 244 East Asian American and 9,816 European American children from the US-based Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-K). To control sampling bias, two…

  17. Friendship factors and suicidality: common and unique patterns in Mexican American and European American youth.

    PubMed

    Winterrowd, Erin; Canetto, Silvia Sara; Chavez, Ernest L

    2011-02-01

    Research suggests a link between friendships and suicidality among U.S. youth, but this link has not been confirmed across ethnicities. The relationship between friendships and suicidality among Mexican American and European American adolescents was examined in this study. Specifically, the role of friendship problems (i.e., social isolation, poor quality friendships) and problematic friends (i.e., friends who were disconnected from school, delinquent friends) was explored. Participants were 648 community youth. Friends' school disconnection was related to Mexican American girls' suicidal ideation, while friends' delinquency was associated with European American youth suicidal behavior. Friendship factors were no longer associated with suicidality after controlling for suicidality correlates such as depression. These findings indicate that the relationship between friendships and suicidality varies by gender and ethnicity. They also suggest a dominant role of depression. PMID:21309824

  18. What can Europeans learn from Americans?

    PubMed Central

    Enthoven, Alain C.

    1989-01-01

    In a wide-ranging look at many aspects of health care financing and delivery, the concepts of glasnost and perestroika are used as a framework for presenting ideas from the American system that may have value for European health care planners. These include more uniform approaches to data collection and cost reporting, patient outcome studies, evaluation of service and access standards, publication of information, quality assurance review, decentralization and independent institutions, prepaid group practice, demonstrations and experiments, and managed competition. Suggestions are offered for making health care systems on both sides of the Atlantic more manageable, efficient, and responsive. PMID:10313435

  19. What can Europeans learn from Americans?

    PubMed

    Enthoven, A C

    1989-12-01

    In a wide-ranging look at many aspects of health care financing and delivery, the concepts of glasnost and perestroika are used as a framework for presenting ideas from the American system that may have value for European health care planners. These include more uniform approaches to data collection and cost reporting, patient outcome studies, evaluation of service and access standards, publication of information, quality assurance review, decentralization and independent institutions, prepaid group practice, demonstrations and experiments, and managed competition. Suggestions are offered for making health care systems on both sides of the Atlantic more manageable, efficient, and responsive. PMID:10313435

  20. Vitamin D Deficiency in a Multiethnic Healthy Control Cohort and Altered Immune Response in Vitamin D Deficient European-American Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Hemangi B.; Robertson, Julie M.; Fife, Dustin A.; Maecker, Holden T.; Du, Hongwu; Fathman, Charles G.; Chakravarty, Eliza F.; Scofield, R. Hal; Kamen, Diane L.; Guthridge, Joel M.; James, Judith A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective In recent years, vitamin D has been shown to possess a wide range of immunomodulatory effects. Although there is extensive amount of research on vitamin D, we lack a comprehensive understanding of the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency or the mechanism by which vitamin D regulates the human immune system. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of vitamin D deficiency and the relationship between vitamin D and the immune system in healthy individuals. Methods Healthy individuals (n = 774) comprised of European-Americans (EA, n = 470), African–Americans (AA, n = 125), and Native Americans (NA, n = 179) were screened for 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels by ELISA. To identify the most noticeable effects of vitamin D on the immune system, 20 EA individuals with severely deficient (<11.3 ng/mL) and sufficient (>24.8 ng/mL) vitamin D levels were matched and selected for further analysis. Serum cytokine level measurement, immune cell phenotyping, and phosphoflow cytometry were performed. Results Vitamin D sufficiency was observed in 37.5% of the study cohort. By multivariate analysis, AA, NA, and females with a high body mass index (BMI, >30) demonstrate higher rates of vitamin D deficiency (p<0.05). Individuals with vitamin D deficiency had significantly higher levels of serum GM-CSF (p = 0.04), decreased circulating activated CD4+ (p = 0.04) and CD8+ T (p = 0.04) cell frequencies than individuals with sufficient vitamin D levels. Conclusion A large portion of healthy individuals have vitamin D deficiency. These individuals have altered T and B cell responses, indicating that the absence of sufficient vitamin D levels could result in undesirable cellular and molecular alterations ultimately contributing to immune dysregulation. PMID:24727903

  1. Using European Systems from a North American Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinton, Marshall; Grenville, Sally

    1980-01-01

    Illustrates the special considerations of using European search systems from North America: steps in establishing a telephone link with the European Space Agency's system, lack of availability to North Americans of some European databases through this system, user reaction, and costs. Brief descriptions of some European databases and a connect…

  2. Mothers' Self-Reported Emotional Expression in Mainland Chinese, Chinese American and European American Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camras, Linda; Kolmodin, Karen; Chen, Yinghe

    2008-01-01

    This study compared Mainland Chinese, Chinese American and European American mothers' self-reported emotional expression within the family. Mothers of 3-year-old European American (n = 40), Chinese American (n = 39) and Mainland Chinese (n = 36) children (n = 20 girls per group) completed the Self-Expressiveness in the Family Questionnaire (SEFQ),…

  3. Discerning the Ancestry of European Americans in Genetic Association Studies

    PubMed Central

    Price, Alkes L; Butler, Johannah; Patterson, Nick; Capelli, Cristian; Pascali, Vincenzo L; Scarnicci, Francesca; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; Groop, Leif; Saetta, Angelica A; Korkolopoulou, Penelope; Seligsohn, Uri; Waliszewska, Alicja; Schirmer, Christine; Ardlie, Kristin; Ramos, Alexis; Nemesh, James; Arbeitman, Lori; Goldstein, David B

    2008-01-01

    European Americans are often treated as a homogeneous group, but in fact form a structured population due to historical immigration of diverse source populations. Discerning the ancestry of European Americans genotyped in association studies is important in order to prevent false-positive or false-negative associations due to population stratification and to identify genetic variants whose contribution to disease risk differs across European ancestries. Here, we investigate empirical patterns of population structure in European Americans, analyzing 4,198 samples from four genome-wide association studies to show that components roughly corresponding to northwest European, southeast European, and Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry are the main sources of European American population structure. Building on this insight, we constructed a panel of 300 validated markers that are highly informative for distinguishing these ancestries. We demonstrate that this panel of markers can be used to correct for stratification in association studies that do not generate dense genotype data. PMID:18208327

  4. Appearance Self-Attitudes of African American and European American Women: Media Comparisons and Internalization of Beauty Ideals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferson, Deana L.; Stake, Jayne E.

    2009-01-01

    African American (AA) women have reported less body image disturbance than European American (EA) women, but questions remain about the nature and extent of this difference. This study examined differences in the body image of 80 AA women and 89 EA women with an improved methodology that controlled for body size, distinguished between satisfaction…

  5. Personal Goals and Depression among Vietnamese American and European American Young Adults: A Meditational Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Anthony D.; Phinney, Jean S.

    2002-01-01

    Reports findings that support the utility of the self-concordance model as an alternative approach to studying depression among Vietnamese and European American college students. Finds that Vietnamese Americans reported higher levels of depression than did the European American students. Includes references. (CMK)

  6. Extending Research on the Consequences of Parenting Style for Chinese Americans and European Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chao, Ruth K.

    2001-01-01

    Examined effects of parent-adolescent relationships on school performance for Chinese American and European American high school students. Found positive effects of both authoritative parenting and relationship closeness on school performance for European Americans and to some extent second-generation Chinese, but not first-generation Chinese. The…

  7. A Psychometric Revision of the European American Values Scale for Asian Americans Using the Rasch Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Sehee; Kim, Bryan S. K.; Wolfe, Maren M.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the 18-item European American Values Scale for Asian Americans (M. M. Wolfe, P. H. Yang, E. C. Wong, & D. R. Atkinson, 2001) was revised on the basis of results from a psychometric analysis using the Rasch Model (G. Rasch, 1960). The results led to the establishment of the 25-item European American Values Scale for Asian…

  8. An American Construction of European Education Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silova, Iveta; Brehm, William C.

    2010-01-01

    The construction of the European education space has typically been attributed to European education policy makers, institutions, and networks. Rarely do scholars consider the role of outside, non-European actors in shaping the terrain of European education thought and practice. This article considers the construction of the European education…

  9. Horizontal and vertical dimensions of individualism-collectivism: a comparison of African Americans and European Americans.

    PubMed

    Komarraju, Meera; Cokley, Kevin O

    2008-10-01

    The current study examined ethnic differences in horizontal and vertical dimensions of individualism and collectivism among 96 African American and 149 European American college students. Participants completed the 32-item Singelis et al. (1995) Individualism/Collectivism Scale. Multivariate analyses of variance results yielded a main effect for ethnicity, with African Americans being significantly higher on horizontal individualism and European Americans being higher on horizontal collectivism and vertical individualism. A moderated multiple regression analysis indicated that ethnicity significantly moderated the relationship between individualism and collectivism. Individualism and collectivism were significantly and positively associated among African Americans, but not associated among European Americans. In addition, collectivism was related to grade point average for African Americans but not for European Americans. Contrary to the prevailing view of individualism-collectivism being unipolar, orthogonal dimensions, results provide support for individualism-collectivism to be considered as unipolar, related dimensions for African Americans. PMID:18954169

  10. Moderation and mediation effects of coping by Chinese American and European American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jose, Paul E; Huntsinger, Carol S

    2005-03-01

    The authors asked 55 second-generation Chinese American adolescents (M age = 16.8 years) and 58 European American adolescents (M age = 17.0 years) to complete self-report measures of stress levels, use of coping strategies, psychological outcomes, and grades. Chinese American adolescents reported higher levels of everyday life event stress (e.g., stress from schoolwork), more depression, and higher grade point averages. Problem-focused and avoidance-coping behaviors moderated the effect of stress on negative adjustment for Chinese American youth but not for European American youth. Path analysis showed that avoidance coping behavior partially mediated the stress-to-negative adjustment relationship for Chinese American youth but not for European American youth. Stress was associated with lower grades in Chinese American youth, but the authors found no association for European American youth. PMID:15782676

  11. Associations between depression, distress tolerance, delay discounting, and alcohol-related problems in European American and African American college students.

    PubMed

    Dennhardt, Ashley A; Murphy, James G

    2011-12-01

    Although levels of heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems are high in college students, there is significant variability in the number and type of problems experienced, even among students who drink heavily. African American students drink less and experience fewer alcohol-related problems than European American students, but are still at risk, and little research has investigated the potentially unique patterns and predictors of problems among these students. Depression, distress tolerance, and delay discounting have been implicated in adult substance abuse and may be important predictors of alcohol problem severity among college students. We examined the relationship between these variables and alcohol-related problems among African American and European American students (N = 206; 53% female; 68% European American; 28% African American) who reported recent heavy drinking. In regression models that controlled for drinking level, depression, distress tolerance, and delay discounting were associated with alcohol problems among African American students, but only depression was associated with alcohol problems among European American students. These results suggest that negative affect is a key risk factor for alcohol problems among college student drinkers. For African American students, the inability to tolerate negative emotions and to organize their behavior around future outcomes may also be especially relevant risk factors. PMID:21988480

  12. Cultural variation in the social organization of problem solving among African American and European American siblings.

    PubMed

    Budak, Daniel; Chavajay, Pablo

    2012-07-01

    This study examined the social organization of a problem-solving task among 15 African American and 15 European American sibling pairs. The 30 sibling pairs between the ages of 6 and 12 were video recorded constructing a marble track together during a home visit. African American siblings were observed to collaborate more often than European American siblings who were more likely to divide up the labor and direct each other in constructing the marble track. In addition, older European American siblings made more proposals of step plans than older African American siblings. The findings provide insights into the cultural basis of the social organization of problem solving across African American and European American siblings. PMID:22686140

  13. Exercise economy in African American and European American women

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, John P.; Bamman, Marcas M.; Larson-Meyer, D. Enette; Fisher, Gordon; Newcomer, Bradley R.

    2011-01-01

    We have previously shown that Achilles tendon length is related to walking economy on the flat, presumably because of increased stretch–shortening cycle elastic energy savings. In addition, greater walking economy in African American (AA) women compared to European American (EA) women is explained by longer Achilles tendons in AA women. The purposes of this study were to determine whether economy while walking up a grade and during isometric plantar flexion, two tasks expected to produce proportionately less energy savings from elastic savings are different between AA and EA women. We evaluated walking economy at 4.8 km/h at 0 and 2.5% grade in 48 AA and 48 EA premenopausal women. Plantar flexor muscle metabolic economy (force/ATP) was also evaluated using 31 phosphate magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS). AA women walked on the flat more economically (net VO2, AA 8.3 and EA 8.9 ml kg−1 min−1, P = 0.04). No significant ethnic differences were observed while walking up a 2.5% grade or in 31P-MRS determined plantar flexor muscle metabolic economy. These data support our previous study’s suggestion that AA women are more economical while walking on the flat. On the other hand, in activities in which stretch–shortening cycle elastic energy savings would be expected to be reduced (grade walking and isometric force production), no differences in economy during grade walking or isometric force production were observed suggesting that biomechanical, i.e. stretch–shortening cycle elastic energy savings differences rather biochemical differences contribute to the better flat walking economy observed in AA women. PMID:21229260

  14. Paternal Hostility and Maternal Hostility in European American and African American Families.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ed Y; Reeb, Ben T; Martin, Monica J; Gibbons, Frederick X; Simons, Ronald L; Conger, Rand D

    2014-06-01

    The authors examined the hypothesized influence of maternal and paternal hostility on youth delinquency over time. The investigation addressed significant gaps in earlier research on parental hostility, including the neglect of father effects, especially in African American families. Using prospective, longitudinal data from community samples of European American (n = 422) and African American (n = 272) 2-parent families, the authors examined the independent effects of paternal and maternal hostility on youth delinquency. The results indicated that paternal hostility significantly predicted relative increases in youth delinquent behaviors above and beyond the effects of maternal hostility; conversely, maternal hostility did not predict youth delinquency after controlling for paternal hostility. Multiple-group analyses yielded similar results for both ethnic groups and for boys and girls. These results underscore the importance of including both parents in research on diverse families. Neglecting fathers provides an incomplete account of parenting in relation to youth development. PMID:25045174

  15. Cultural In-Group Advantage: Emotion Recognition in African American and European American Faces and Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickline, Virginia B.; Bailey, Wendy; Nowicki, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The authors explored whether there were in-group advantages in emotion recognition of faces and voices by culture or geographic region. Participants were 72 African American students (33 men, 39 women), 102 European American students (30 men, 72 women), 30 African international students (16 men, 14 women), and 30 European international students…

  16. Disclosure to parents about everyday activities among american adolescents from mexican, chinese, and European backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Yau, Jenny P; Tasopoulos-Chan, Marina; Smetana, Judith G

    2009-01-01

    Disclosure to parents and reasons for not disclosing different activities were examined in 489 Chinese, Mexican, and European American adolescents (M = 16.37 years, SD = 0.77). With generational status controlled, Chinese American adolescents disclosed less to mothers about personal and multifaceted activities than European Americans and less about personal feelings than other youth, primarily because these acts were considered personal, not harmful, or because parents would not listen or understand. Disclosure regarding prudential behavior was lower among Mexican American than among European American adolescents, primarily due to concerns with parental disapproval. Multigroup path analyses indicated that greater closeness to parents is associated with more disclosure for all youth and activities; associations between family obligation and disclosure varied by domain and ethnicity. PMID:19765013

  17. Attachment Style Differences and Depression in African American and European American College Women: Normative Adaptations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooley, Eileen L.; Garcia, Amber L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined ethnic differences in attachment styles and depression among African American and European American college women. African American women reported less favorable views of others, which suggests that attachment styles emphasizing caution in relationships may be normative and adaptive for these women. There were no differences…

  18. Cultural Models of Education and Academic Performance for Native American and European American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fryberg, Stephanie A.; Covarrubias, Rebecca; Burack, Jacob A.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the role of cultural representations of self (i.e., interdependence and independence) and positive relationships (i.e., trust for teachers) in academic performance (i.e., self-reported grades) for Native American ("N"?=?41) and European American ("N"?=?49) high school students. The Native American students endorsed…

  19. Design and Development of the European American Values Scale for Asian Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Maren M.; Yang, Peggy H.; Wong, Eunice C.; Atkinson, Donald R.

    2001-01-01

    Introduces development of a scale that can be used along with the Asian Values Scale, to assess adherence to Asian cultural values. Used in combination these scales can measure Asian American acculturation to European American values. They make it possible to obtain a value and behavior assessment of Asian American acculturation. (JDM)

  20. The American "New Journalism" and the Europeans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzolf, Marion

    American "New Journalism" of the 1880s and 1890s--a blend of the popular press and the elite political and literary journal creating a comprehensive general interest newspaper that informed, entertained, and editorialized on politics--became the model for the modern daily newspaper in the Western World. The American emphasis on news and the…

  1. MEASUREMENT EQUIVALENCE OF NEIGHBORHOOD QUALITY MEASURES FOR EUROPEAN AMERICAN AND MEXICAN AMERICAN FAMILIES

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Yeong; Nair, Rajni; Knight, George P.; Roosa, Mark W.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.

    2009-01-01

    The factorial and construct equivalence of subscales assessing parents’ and children’s perceptions of the quality of their neighborhood was examined in Mexican American and European American families. All subscales (dangerous people in the neighborhood, sense of safety in the neighborhood, quality of the physical environment) demonstrated adequate partial factorial invariance across English- and Spanish-speaking Mexican American and European American families. Reports by children about dangerous people in the neighborhood was the closest to achieving strict factorial invariance, and the only one of the four dimensions to achieve invariance in the validity analyses across Mexican American and European American families. The implications of using these self-report neighborhood quality measures in studies of multiple cultural or language groups are discussed. PMID:19183709

  2. Brief report: Explaining differences in depressive symptoms between African American and European American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mrug, Sylvie; King, Vinetra; Windle, Michael

    2016-01-01

    African American adolescents report more depressive symptoms than their European American peers, but the reasons for these differences are poorly understood. This study examines whether risk factors in individual, family, school, and community domains explain these differences. African American and European American adolescents participating in the Birmingham Youth Violence Study (N = 594; mean age 13.2 years) reported on their depressive symptoms, pubertal development, aggressive and delinquent behavior, connectedness to school, witnessing violence, and poor parenting. Primary caregivers provided information on family income and their education level, marital status, and depression, and the adolescents' academic performance. African American adolescents reported more depressive symptoms than European American participants. Family socioeconomic factors reduced this difference by 29%; all risk factors reduced it by 88%. Adolescents' exposure to violence, antisocial behavior, and low school connectedness, as well as lower parental education and parenting quality, emerged as significant mediators of the group differences in depressive symptoms. PMID:26580552

  3. Design and development of the European American values scale for Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, M M; Yang, P H; Wong, E C; Atkinson, D R

    2001-08-01

    Existing instruments for measuring Asian American acculturation emphasize behavior acculturation to the exclusion of value acculturation. Most are based on the assumption that acquisition of European American behavior occurs simultaneously with the loss of Asian behavior. With the advent of the Asian Values Scale (AVS; B.S.K. Kim, D.R. Atkinson, & P.H. Yang, 1999), it is now possible to assess adherence to Asian cultural values. This article describes the development of a scale that can be used to measure Asian American adherence to European American values. The current scale, combined with the AVS, can be used to independently measure Asian American acculturation to European American values and enculturation in Asian values. PMID:11506073

  4. My Mother and Me: Why Tiger Mothers Motivate Asian Americans But Not European Americans.

    PubMed

    Fu, Alyssa S; Markus, Hazel Rose

    2014-04-11

    "Tiger Mother" Amy Chua provoked a culture clash with her claim that controlling parenting in Asian American (AA) contexts produces more successful children than permissive parenting in European American (EA) contexts. At the heart of this controversy is a difference in the normative models of self that guide behavior. Ideas and practices prevalent in AA contexts emphasize that the person is and should be interdependent with one's close others, especially one's mother. In contrast, EA contexts emphasize the person as independent, even from one's mother. We find that AA compared with EA high school students experience more interdependence with their mothers and pressure from them, but that the pressure does not strain their relationship with their mothers. Furthermore, following failure, AAs compared with EAs are more motivated by their mothers, and AAs are particularly motivated by pressure from their mothers when it conveys interdependence. PMID:24727812

  5. Breadth of Extracurricular Participation and Adolescent Adjustment Among African-American and European-American Youth

    PubMed Central

    Fredricks, Jennifer A.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the linear and nonlinear relations between breadth of extracurricular participation in 11th grade and developmental outcomes at 11th grade and 1 year after high school in an economically diverse sample of African-American and European-American youth. In general, controlling for demographic factors, children's motivation, and the dependent variable measured 3 years earlier, breadth was positively associated with indicators of academic adjustment at 11th grade and at 1 year after high school. In addition, for the three academic outcomes (i.e., grades, educational expectations, and educational status) the nonlinear function was significant; at high levels of involvement the well-being of youth leveled off or declined slightly. In addition, breadth of participation at 11th grade predicted lower internalizing behavior, externalizing behavior, alcohol use, and marijuana use at 11th grade. Finally, the total number of extracurricular activities at 11th grade was associated with civic engagement 2 years later. PMID:22837637

  6. Cognitive Skill, Skill Demands of Jobs, and Earnings among Young European American, African American, and Mexican American Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farkas, George; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Analyses of National Longitudinal Survey data indicate that cognitive skill level affects access to high-skill occupations and earnings. Lower cognitive skill levels for African Americans and U.S.-born Mexican Americans explain a substantial proportion of income differences between these groups and European Americans but not the gender gap in pay…

  7. Psychocultural Correlates of Mental Health Service Utilization Among African American and European American Girls

    PubMed Central

    Hipwell, Alison E.; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Keenan, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to examine the effects of cultural factors (ethnic identity, perceived discrimination), family relations, and child problem type on mental health service utilization in a community sample of 1,480 adolescent girls (860 African American, 620 European American) between ages 15 and 17 years enrolled in the Pittsburgh Girls Study. Results revealed ethnic identity, caregiver attachment, and conduct disorder were related to service use among African American girls. Among European American girls, correlate patterns differed by clinical need. Findings highlight the need for research on health disparities to examine racially specific influences on service utilization. PMID:25380787

  8. Psychocultural Correlates of Mental Health Service Utilization Among African American and European American Girls.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Miwa; Hipwell, Alison E; Stepp, Stephanie D; Keenan, Kate

    2015-11-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to examine the effects of cultural factors (ethnic identity, perceived discrimination), family relations, and child problem type on mental health service utilization in a community sample of 1,480 adolescent girls (860 African American, 620 European American) between ages 15 and 17 years enrolled in the Pittsburgh Girls Study. Results revealed ethnic identity, caregiver attachment, and conduct disorder were related to service use among African American girls. Among European American girls, correlate patterns differed by clinical need. Findings highlight the need for research on health disparities to examine racially specific influences on service utilization. PMID:25380787

  9. Chinese-American and European-American Mothers and Infants: Cultural Influences in the First Three Months of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuchner, Joan F.

    This study explores cultural influences in the first three months of life by comparing the daily experiences of first generation Chinese-American and European-American infants whose parents were born in the United States. The study focused on 10 Chinese-American and 10 European-American families whose mothers were recruited during the third…

  10. Differences in the Tumor Microenvironment between African-American and European-American Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Damali N.; Boersma, Brenda J.; Yi, Ming; Reimers, Mark; Howe, Tiffany M.; Yfantis, Harry G.; Tsai, Yien Che; Williams, Erica H.; Lee, Dong H.; Stephens, Robert M.; Weissman, Allan M.; Ambs, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Background African-American breast cancer patients experience higher mortality rates than European-American patients despite having a lower incidence of the disease. We tested the hypothesis that intrinsic differences in the tumor biology may contribute to this cancer health disparity. Methods and Results Using laser capture microdissection, we examined genome-wide mRNA expression specific to tumor epithelium and tumor stroma in 18 African-American and 17 European-American patients. Numerous genes were differentially expressed between these two patient groups and a two-gene signature in the tumor epithelium distinguished between them. To identify the biological processes in tumors that are different by race/ethnicity, Gene Ontology and disease association analyses were performed. Several biological processes were identified which may contribute to enhanced disease aggressiveness in African-American patients, including angiogenesis and chemotaxis. African-American tumors also contained a prominent interferon signature. The role of angiogenesis in the tumor biology of African-Americans was further investigated by examining the extent of vascularization and macrophage infiltration in an expanded set of 248 breast tumors. Immunohistochemistry revealed that microvessel density and macrophage infiltration is higher in tumors of African-Americans than in tumors of European-Americans. Lastly, using an in silico approach, we explored the potential of tailored treatment options for African-American patients based on their gene expression profile. This exploratory approach generated lists of therapeutics that may have specific antagonistic activity against tumors of African-American patients, e.g., sirolimus, resveratrol, and chlorpromazine in estrogen receptor-negative tumors. Conclusions The gene expression profiles of breast tumors indicate that differences in tumor biology may exist between African-American and European-American patients beyond the knowledge of current

  11. Influence of CYP2C9 Genotype on warfarin dose among African American and European Americans.

    PubMed

    Limdi, Na; Goldstein, Ja; Blaisdell, Ja; Beasley, Tm; Rivers, Ca; Acton, Rt

    2007-05-01

    BACKGROUND: Cytochrome P4502C9 (CYP2C9) plays a vital role in drug metabolism. There has been an increased effort to identify polymorphisms within the gene and determine their clinical consequences. However, most of these efforts have focused on populations of European descent. Herein we report the influence of CYP2C9 genotype on warfarin dose among European American and African American patients. We also identify two new mutations; one in the coding region and one in the non-coding region of the CYP2C9 gene. METHODS: Patients (≥20 years of age) are enrolled after obtaining medical, lifestyle and concomitant medication history. Changes in International Normalized Ratio (INR), warfarin dose, co-medications, diet, physical activity and the occurrence of complications are documented. CYP2C9 genotype was determined using PCR-RFLP and pyrosequencing. Differences in genotype frequencies and HWE assumptions were assessed using χ(2) statistics and exact tests. The genotype dose association was evaluated using multivariable linear regression. RESULTS: This report includes 490 patients (mean age 60.6 ± 15.6, 51.3% men). African American patients comprise 48.9% of the cohort with mean follow-up of 13.5 (±10.6) months. Both the CYP2C9 *2 and *3 allele were more frequent in European Americans (11.24%, 5.1%) compared to African Americans (1.1% and 1.8%). CYP2C9 *5 (0.9%), *6 (0.4%), and *11 (1.1%) variants were only observed in African Americans. The variant genotype is more frequent among European Americans compared to African Americans (29.8% vs. 9.73%, p<0.0001). Warfarin dose was significantly related to CYP2C9 genotype (p<0.0001) both in univariate and multivariate analyses. Multivariable race-specific analyses highlight the contribution of CYP2C9 genotype among European American but not among African American patients. CONCLUSION: The variant CYP2C9 genotype is more frequent among European Americans compared to African Americans. Among African Americans the variant

  12. African American and European American Mothers’ Beliefs about Negative Emotions and Emotion Socialization Practices

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Jackie A.; Leerkes, Esther M.; O’Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objective Mothers’ beliefs about their children’s negative emotions and their emotion socialization practices were examined. Design Sixty-five African American and 137 European American mothers of 5-year-old children reported their beliefs and typical responses to children’s negative emotions, and mothers’ emotion teaching practices were observed. Results African American mothers reported that the display of negative emotions was less acceptable than European American mothers, and African American mothers of boys perceived the most negative social consequences for the display of negative emotions. African American mothers reported fewer supportive responses to children’s negative emotions than European Americans and more nonsupportive responses to children’s anger. African American mothers of boys also reported more nonsupportive responses to submissive negative emotions than African American mothers of girls. However, no differences were found by ethnicity or child gender in observed teaching about emotions. Group differences in mothers’ responses to negative emotions were explained, in part, by mothers’ beliefs about emotions. Conclusions Differences in beliefs and practices may reflect African American mothers’ efforts to protect their children from discrimination. PMID:22639552

  13. Effects of Perceived Racism and Sexism on Psychological Well Being and the Moderating Effects of Identity Development among African and European American College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Highlen, Pamela S.; Tom, David M.; Ashton, Kathleen R.; Thompson, Kenya I.

    The combined and singular effects of racism and sexism on African American females (AAF), males (AAM), and European American females (EAF) are examined with identity development as a moderator of psychological well being. Samples of AAF, AAM, EAF and a control group of European American Males (EAM) completed counterbalanced instruments that…

  14. Modalities of Infant-Mother Interaction in Japanese, Japanese American Immigrant, and European American Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Cote, Linda R.; Haynes, O. Maurice; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Bakeman, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Cultural variation in relations and moment-to-moment contingencies of infant-mother person-oriented and object-oriented interactions were compared in 118 Japanese, Japanese American immigrant, and European American dyads with 5.5-month-olds. Infant and mother person-oriented behaviors were related in all cultural groups, but infant and mother…

  15. Parenting and Perceived Maternal Warmth in European American and African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson-Newsom, Julia; Buchanan, Christy M.; McDonald, Richard M.

    2008-01-01

    Traditional conceptualizations of parenting style assume certain associations between parenting practices/philosophies and parental warmth. This study examines whether those links are similar for European American and African American adolescents. Two hundred and ninety-eight early adolescents and their mothers reported on discipline and control…

  16. Child Depressive Symptoms, Spanking, and Emotional Support: Differences between African American and European American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie-Mizell, C. Andre; Pryor, Erin M.; Grossman, Elizabeth R. B.

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Mother and Child samples, we explored the relationships among child and adolescent depressive symptoms, spanking, and emotional support offered to youth. We present cross-sectional and change models for both African Americans and European Americans. Findings showed that regardless of race,…

  17. Friendship Factors and Suicidality: Common and Unique Patterns in Mexican American and European American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winterrowd, Erin; Canetto, Silvia Sara; Chavez, Ernest L.

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests a link between friendships and suicidality among U.S. youth, but this link has not been confirmed across ethnicities. The relationship between friendships and suicidality among Mexican American and European American adolescents was examined in this study. Specifically, the role of friendship problems (i.e., social isolation, poor…

  18. African American and European American Students' Peer Groups during Early Adolescence: Structure, Status, and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Travis; Karimpour, Ramin; Rodkin, Philip C.

    2011-01-01

    Focusing on a sample of 382 African American (206 female) and 264 European American (132 female) students in diverse fourth and fifth grade classrooms, this study investigated three questions concerning the connections between peer groups and academic achievement during early adolescence: (a) How is group structure (i.e., hierarchy and cohesion)…

  19. Depression among Rural Native American and European American Grandparents Rearing Their Grandchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letiecq, Bethany L.; Bailey, Sandra J.; Kurtz, Marcia A.

    2008-01-01

    Increasing numbers of grandparents are rearing their grandchildren because of their adult children's inability to parent. Researchers have begun to document the mental health outcomes of grandparent caregivers in general, yet none have examined the mental health of Native American and European American grandparent caregivers residing in rural…

  20. Family Cohesion in the Lives of Mexican American and European American Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behnke, Andrew O.; MacDermid, Shelley M.; Coltrane, Scott L.; Parke, Ross D.; Duffy, Sharon; Widaman, Keith F.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated similarities and differences in relations between stress and parenting behaviors for 509 Mexican American and European American fathers and mothers in Southern California. Our model posited that family cohesion mediates the relation between stressors and parenting behavior, and we found that family cohesion strongly…

  1. Predictors of African American and European American Adolescents' Endorsement of Race-Conscious Social Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Julie Milligan; Bigler, Rebecca S.

    2011-01-01

    To examine the predictors of adolescents' evaluations of affirmative action and school desegregation policies, African American and European American students (ns = 94 and 116, respectively; aged 14 to 17 years) attending a racially diverse high school in the Midwestern United States completed measures of (a) implicit racial attitudes, (b)…

  2. African American and European American Veterans’ Perspectives on Receiving Mental Health Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Frank; AhnAllen, Christopher G.; Wiltsey-Stirman, Shannon; Lester-Williams, Kristin; Klunk-Gillis, Julie; Dick, Alexandra M.; Resick, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about client attitudes, especially Veterans’, toward the types of structured interventions that are increasingly being offered in public sector and VA mental health clinics, nor is the possible impact these attitudes may have on treatment engagement well understood. Previous work indicates that attitudes of African Americans and European Americans toward treatment may differ in important ways. Attitudes toward treatment have been a proposed explanation for lower treatment engagement and higher dropout rates among African Americans compared to European Americans. Yet to date, the relationship between race and attitudes toward treatment and treatment outcomes has been understudied, and findings inconclusive. The purpose of this study was to explore African American and European American Veteran attitudes toward mental health care, especially as they relate to structured treatments. Separate focus groups were conducted with 24 African American and 37 European American military Veterans. In general, both groups reported similar reasons to seek treatment and similar thoughts regarding the purpose of therapy. Differences emerged primarily regarding therapist preferences. In both groups, some participants expressed favorable opinions of structured treatments and others expressed negative views; treatment preferences did not appear to be influenced by race. PMID:25822316

  3. American Civic Issues in the Light of European Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nostrand, Howard Lee

    A second series of discussions of American civic issues in the light of European experience is summarized. The overall topics were: the third age of life as a resource in a community, health care, western Eurpoean communism, labor-management co-determination, language education, and the question of whether youth hostels should be subsidized in…

  4. Understanding Chinese immigrant and European American mothers' expressions of warmth.

    PubMed

    Cheah, Charissa S L; Li, Jin; Zhou, Nan; Yamamoto, Yoko; Leung, Christy Y Y

    2015-12-01

    Maternal warmth, the quality of the affectional bond between mothers and their children, has been found to be consistently associated with children's positive developmental outcomes in Western cultures. However, researchers debate the potential differences in the cultural meanings of maternal warmth, particularly between Chinese and European American families. To address the lack of empirical research on this issue, the present study examined culturally derived perceptions and practices of maternal warmth through open-ended interviews with 70 Chinese immigrant and 70 European American mothers of preschoolers. Specifically, we compared mothers' perceived importance and degree of expression of warmth toward their children, and why and how they express warmth toward their children in the 2 cultural groups. Results showed that, although mothers perceived expressing warmth to be similarly important, European American mothers perceived expressing more warmth toward their children. Moreover, both cultural similarities and differences were found in why these 2 groups of mothers believed it was important to express warmth and the specific practices they used. Chinese immigrant mothers' responses were interpreted as reflecting a cultural emphasis on nurturance and instrumental support, whereas European American mothers' responses reflected the Western cultural focus on more direct and outward demonstrations of warmth. PMID:26479547

  5. Ethics and Nuclear Arms: European and American Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Raymond, Ed.

    In these 10 essays, 5 European and 5 American political and religious leaders examine the ethics of possessing and using nuclear weapons. They appraise the policy of nuclear deterrence. Protestant and Catholic viewpoints are represented. There are disagreements on details and differences in emphasis on positions and policies. There is general…

  6. NORTH AMERICAN AND EUROPEAN EXPERIENCE WITH BIOLOGICAL TOILETS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A history of North American and European experience with biological toilets is provided. The early use of these devices in Scandanavia was to solve a specific problem, that of providing a low-cost solution for disposing of human wastes from recreational cabins. Because of their e...

  7. Intergroup Attitudes of European American Children Attending Ethnically Homogeneous Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGlothlin, Heidi; Killen, Melanie

    2006-01-01

    Intergroup attitudes were assessed in European American 1st-grade (M=6.99 years, SD=0.32) and 4th-grade (M=10.01 years, SD=0.36) children (N=138) attending ethnically homogeneous schools to test hypotheses about racial biases and interracial friendships. An Ambiguous Situations Task and an Intergroup Contact Assessment were administered to all…

  8. European-American Children's Intergroup Attitudes about Peer Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGlothlin, Heidi; Killen, Melanie; Edmonds, Christina

    2005-01-01

    Intergroup attitudes were assessed in European-American first grade (M=6.8 years) and fourth grade (M=9.9 years) boys and girls (N=94) to test hypotheses about implicit racial biases, perceptions of similarity between peer dyads, and judgments about cross-race friendships. Two assessments, an ambiguous situations task and a perceptions of…

  9. Multiple distinct CHRNB3-CHRNA6 variants are genetic risk factors for nicotine dependence in African Americans and European Americans

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Eric O.; Breslau, Naomi; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Sadler, Brooke; Brooks, Andrew I.; Hesselbrock, Victor M.; Schuckit, Marc A.; Tischfield, Jay A.; Goate, Alison M.; Saccone, Nancy L.; Bierut, Laura J.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Studies have shown association between common variants in the α6–β3 nicotinic receptor subunit gene cluster and nicotine dependence in European Ancestry populations. We investigate whether this generalizes to African Americans, whether the association is specific to nicotine dependence, and whether this region contains additional genetic contributors to nicotine dependence. Design We examined consistency of association across studies and race between the α6β3 nicotinic receptor subunit locus and nicotine, alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine dependence in three independent studies. Setting United States of America Participants European Americans and African Americans from three case control studies of substance dependence. Measurements Subjects were evaluated using the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism. Nicotine dependence was determined using the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence. Findings rs13273442 was significantly associated to nicotine dependence across all three studies in both ancestry groups (OR=0.75, p=5.8 × 10−4 European Americans; OR=0.80, p=0.05 African Americans). No other substance dependence was consistently associated to this variant in either group. Another SNP in the region, rs4952, remains modestly associated with nicotine dependence in the combined data after conditioning on rs13273442. Conclusions The common variant rs13273442 in the CHRNB3-CHNRA6 region is significantly associated to nicotine dependence in European Americans and African Americans across studies recruited for nicotine, alcohol, and cocaine dependence. Although these data are modestly powered for other substances, our results provide no evidence that correlates of rs13273442 represent a general substance dependence liability. Additional variants likely account for some of the association of this region to nicotine dependence. PMID:24401102

  10. Extending research on the consequences of parenting style for Chinese Americans and European Americans.

    PubMed

    Chao, R K

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the effects of parent-adolescent relationships on school performance to provide a clearer understanding of why authoritative parenting does not have as beneficial effects for Asian Americans as it does for European Americans. Over 500 adolescents of Chinese- (148 first and 176 second generation) and European-descent (208 primarily third generation or more) families from seven different high schools completed measures of (1) parenting style, (2) parent-adolescent closeness (cohesion subscale from the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Environment Scales II and relationship satisfaction), and (3) school performance. Positive effects of both authoritative parenting and relationship closeness on school performance were found for European Americans and, to some extent, second-generation Chinese, but not first-generation Chinese. These effects were also stronger for European Americans than first-generation Chinese. Through examination of the mediating role of parent-adolescent relationships, this study also found that among European American families, the beneficial effects of authoritative parenting are explained through relationship closeness. PMID:11768148

  11. Why They Do What They Say They Do: A Closer Look at African-American and European-American Communication Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Tracy V.

    An earlier study compared the communication styles of African Americans and European Americans (Banks, 2000). Its purpose was to contribute to that body of literature by addressing some of the limitations of the extant research (e.g., by controlling for variables and by grounding the research in the framework of a theoretical perspective). The…

  12. Achievement Emotions as Predictors of High School Science Success Among African-American and European American Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowe, Marilyn Louise Simmons

    The literature includes few studies of the interrelations of achievement goals and achievement emotions with respect to minority students and science achievement. The objective of this study was to test the control-value theory (CVT) of achievement emotions to determine if the eight discrete achievement emotions would be predictive of test scores on the High School Graduation Test (GHSGT)-Science for African-American compared to European-American science students. Convenience cluster sampling was employed to select 160 students who were all juniors in the same public high school at the time that they took the GHSGT-Science. The central research question for this study aimed to uncover whether any of the eight achievement emotions identified in CVT would contribute significantly to the predictability of science achievement as measured by GHSGT-Science scores. Data were collected using a nonexperimental, cross sectional design survey. Data were analyzed using a hierarchal, forced entry, multiple regression analysis. Key results indicated that the eight achievement emotions were predictive of GHSGT-Science score outcomes. Positive social change at the individual level could reflect a boost in confidence for African American science students and help decrease the achievement gap in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) endeavors between European Americans and African-American students. Educators may consider the importance of achievement emotions in science outcomes by including social emotional learning (SEL) as a part of the regular science curriculum. Future researchers should repeat the study in a school district where the population is available to support the desired cluster sample of equal parts European Americans to African Americans and male to female students.

  13. Explanatory style, family expressiveness, and self-esteem among Asian American and European American college students.

    PubMed

    Kao, E M; Nagata, D K; Peterson, C

    1997-08-01

    Fifty-nine Asian American and 40 European American college students completed questionnaires measuring explanatory style, family expressiveness, and self-esteem. In both groups, a global explanatory style correlated with low self-esteem, but only among European Americans was an internal style associated with low self-esteem. The two groups differed in reported styles of family expressiveness, with Asian Americans indicating more emotional restraint. The participants who reported more negative submissiveness had a more global explanatory style, whereas those who reported more positive dominance had a less global explanatory style. An additional measure developed to assess attribution to collectivities did not distinguish the two groups. Results were discussed in terms of the cross-cultural generality of the learned helplessness reformulation. PMID:9248358

  14. Self-Perceived Multicultural Competencies of African American and European American Vocational Rehabilitation Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granello, Darcy Haag; Wheaton, Joe E.

    1998-01-01

    Vocational-rehabilitation counselors (N=180) in one midwestern state completed the Multicultural Counseling Inventory (MCI) and the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale. Overall, counselors perceived themselves most multiculturally competent in the area of multicultural skills. Significant differences appeared between European-American and…

  15. Perceived Barriers to Employment Success: Are There Differences between European American and African American VR Consumers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanskas, Stephen A.; Lustig, Daniel C.; Ishitani, Terry T.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The primary purpose of this study was to investigate whether there were differences between European and African American vocational rehabilitation consumers' perceptions of the barriers they experience towards obtaining employment. A secondary purpose was to determine whether there were differences in these perceptions based upon gender…

  16. Interrelationships between Expressive Individualism and Other Achievement Goal Orientations among African and European American Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gano-Overway, Lori A.; Duda, Joan L.

    1999-01-01

    Examined the construct of expressive individualism and its relationship to other goal perspectives established in sport literature. European and African American high school athletes completed surveys. Results indicate that personal expression relates to task orientation for African Americans, whereas for European Americans it relates to ego…

  17. Body size in early life and breast cancer risk in African American and European American women

    PubMed Central

    Bandera, Elisa V.; Chandran, Urmila; Zirpoli, Gary; Ciupak, Gregory; Bovbjerg, Dana H.; Jandorf, Lina; Pawlish, Karen; Freudenheim, Jo L.; Ambrosone, Christine B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose There is growing evidence that body size in early life influences lifetime breast cancer risk, but little is known for African American (AA) women. Methods We evaluated body size during childhood and young adulthood and breast cancer risk among 1,751 cases [979 AA and 772 European American (EA)] and 1,673 controls (958 AA and 715 EA) in the Women’s Circle of Health Study. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using logistic regression models while adjusting for potential covariates. Results Among AA women, being shorter at 7–8 y compared to peers was associated with increased postmenopausal breast cancer risk (OR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.02–2.74), and being heavier at menarche with decreased postmenopausal breast cancer risk, although of borderline significance (OR: 0.45, 95% CI: 0.20–1.02). For EA women, being shorter from childhood through adolescence, particularly at menarche, was associated with reduced premenopausal breast cancer risk (OR: 0.55, 95% CI: 0.31–0.98). After excluding hormone replacement therapy users, an inverse association with postmenopausal breast cancer was found among EA women reporting to be heavier than their peers at menarche (OR: 0.18, 95% CI: 0.04–0.79). The inverse relationship between BMI at age 20 and breast cancer risk was stronger and only statistically significant in EA women. No clear association with weight gain since age 20 was found. Conclusions Findings suggest that the impact of childhood height on breast cancer risk may differ for EA and AA women and confirm the inverse association previously reported in EA populations with adolescent body fatness, in AA women. PMID:24113797

  18. Anger suppression, interdependent self-construal, and depression among Asian American and European American college students.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Rebecca Y M; Park, Irene J K

    2010-10-01

    The present study tested a theoretical model of emotion regulation (Yap, Sheeber, & Allen, 2007) in a sample of Asian American and European American college students (N = 365). Specifically, the mediating role of anger suppression in the effect of temperament and family processes on depressive symptoms was tested across race and levels of interdependent self-construal (a culturally based self orientation emphasizing connectedness with others). Next, the moderation of the suppression-depression relation was tested by race and interdependent self-construal. Results indicated that the hypothesized model fit well across Asian American and European American students, as well as those with high versus low levels of interdependent self-construal. Anger suppression was a significant mediator of the hypothesized indirect effects on depressive symptoms. Moreover, race and interdependent self-construal moderated the suppression-depression link, such that Asian American status and a stronger interdependent self-construal attenuated the relation between anger suppression and depressive symptoms. Understanding both universal and culture-specific aspects of emotion regulation in the development of depressive symptoms will be essential for sound theory, future research, and effective prevention and intervention efforts across diverse populations. PMID:21058815

  19. Anger Suppression, Interdependent Self-Construal, and Depression among Asian American and European American College Students

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Rebecca Y. M.; Park, Irene J. K.

    2010-01-01

    The present study tested a theoretical model of emotion regulation (Yap, Sheeber, & Allen, 2007) in a sample of Asian American and European American college students (N = 365). Specifically, the mediating role of anger suppression in the effect of temperament and family processes on depressive symptoms was tested across race and levels of interdependent self-construal (a culturally based self orientation emphasizing connectedness with others). Next, the moderation of the suppression—depression relation was tested by race and interdependent self-construal. Results indicated that the hypothesized model fit well across Asian American and European American students as well as those with high vs. low levels of interdependent self-construal. Anger suppression was a significant mediator of the hypothesized indirect effects on depressive symptoms. Moreover, race and interdependent self-construal moderated the suppression—depression link, such that Asian American status and a stronger interdependent self-construal attenuated the relation between anger suppression and depressive symptoms. Understanding both universal and culture-specific aspects of emotion regulation in the development of depressive symptoms will be essential for sound theory, future research, and effective prevention and intervention efforts across diverse populations. PMID:21058815

  20. The Genetic Ancestry of African Americans, Latinos, and European Americans across the United States

    PubMed Central

    Bryc, Katarzyna; Durand, Eric Y.; Macpherson, J. Michael; Reich, David; Mountain, Joanna L.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 500 years, North America has been the site of ongoing mixing of Native Americans, European settlers, and Africans (brought largely by the trans-Atlantic slave trade), shaping the early history of what became the United States. We studied the genetic ancestry of 5,269 self-described African Americans, 8,663 Latinos, and 148,789 European Americans who are 23andMe customers and show that the legacy of these historical interactions is visible in the genetic ancestry of present-day Americans. We document pervasive mixed ancestry and asymmetrical male and female ancestry contributions in all groups studied. We show that regional ancestry differences reflect historical events, such as early Spanish colonization, waves of immigration from many regions of Europe, and forced relocation of Native Americans within the US. This study sheds light on the fine-scale differences in ancestry within and across the United States and informs our understanding of the relationship between racial and ethnic identities and genetic ancestry. PMID:25529636

  1. The genetic ancestry of African Americans, Latinos, and European Americans across the United States.

    PubMed

    Bryc, Katarzyna; Durand, Eric Y; Macpherson, J Michael; Reich, David; Mountain, Joanna L

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 500 years, North America has been the site of ongoing mixing of Native Americans, European settlers, and Africans (brought largely by the trans-Atlantic slave trade), shaping the early history of what became the United States. We studied the genetic ancestry of 5,269 self-described African Americans, 8,663 Latinos, and 148,789 European Americans who are 23andMe customers and show that the legacy of these historical interactions is visible in the genetic ancestry of present-day Americans. We document pervasive mixed ancestry and asymmetrical male and female ancestry contributions in all groups studied. We show that regional ancestry differences reflect historical events, such as early Spanish colonization, waves of immigration from many regions of Europe, and forced relocation of Native Americans within the US. This study sheds light on the fine-scale differences in ancestry within and across the United States and informs our understanding of the relationship between racial and ethnic identities and genetic ancestry. PMID:25529636

  2. Do Birds of a Feather Flock Together? The Variable Bases for African American, Asian American, and European American Adolescents' Selection of Similar Friends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamm, Jill V.

    2000-01-01

    Examined variability in adolescent-friend similarity in African American, Asian American, and European American adolescents. Found greatest similarity for substance use, modest for academic orientation, and low for ethnic identity. Found that compared with other groups, African Americans chose friends who were less similar in academic orientation…

  3. Evaluation of a Structural Model of Objectification Theory and Eating Disorder Symptomatology among European American and African American Undergraduate Women

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Karen S.; Mazzeo, Suzanne E.

    2009-01-01

    The current study evaluated a structural equation model of objectification theory among European American (n = 408) and African American women (n = 233). Modeling results indicated a particularly strong association between thin-ideal internalization/body monitoring and eating disorder symptoms, with weaker relationships among body dissatisfaction, depression, anxiety, and eating disorder symptoms. The measurement model was not equivalent for European Americans and African Americans; however, the structural model was invariant, suggesting that the relationships among these variables may be similar for both groups. Thus, objectification theory does appear to be applicable to African American women, although specification of relevant constructs and refinement of assessment instruments are warranted. PMID:20221314

  4. Physical Discipline and Behavior Problems in African American, European American, and Hispanic Children: Emotional Support as a Moderator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLoyd, Vonnie C.; Smith, Julia

    2002-01-01

    Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth was used to assess whether maternal emotional support of a child moderates the relation between spanking and behavior problems. For each group (European Americans, African Americans, Hispanic Americans), spanking predicted an increase in the level of problem behavior over time. Maternal emotional…

  5. Beyond Parenting Practices: Extended Kinship Support and the Academic Adjustment of African-American and European-American Teens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pallock, Linda L.; Lamborn, Susie D.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined adolescents' perceptions of parenting practices and extended kinship support in relation to academic adjustment for 104 African American and 60 European American 9th and 10th graders (14 and 15 year olds). For African-American teens, parental acceptance was associated with school values, teacher bonding, and work orientation.…

  6. Risk Factors of Sexual Harassment by Peers: A Longitudinal Investigation of African American and European American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Sara E.; Malanchuk, Oksana; Davis-Kean, Pamela E.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2007-01-01

    The present research explores risk factors for, and longitudinal associations of, sexual harassment by peers during adolescence. Eight-hundred and seventy-two African American and European American adolescents (65.4% African American, 51.1% females) were assessed during the summer after the eighth grade (mean age=14.2 years) and then again in the…

  7. Influencing and adjusting in daily emotional situations: a comparison of European and Asian American action styles.

    PubMed

    Boiger, Michael; Mesquita, Batja; Tsai, Annie Y; Markus, Hazel

    2012-01-01

    Emotions are for action, but action styles in emotional episodes may vary across cultural contexts. Based on culturally different models of agency, we expected that those who engage in European-American contexts will use more influence in emotional situations, while those who engage in East-Asian contexts will use more adjustment. European-American (N=60) and Asian-American (N=44) college students reported their action style during emotional episodes four times a day during a week. Asian Americans adjusted more than European Americans, whereas both used influence to a similar extent. These cultural differences in action style varied across types of emotion experienced. Moreover, influencing was associated with life satisfaction for European Americans, but not for Asian Americans. PMID:21707271

  8. Multiple cholinergic nicotinic receptor genes affect nicotine dependence risk in African and European Americans

    PubMed Central

    Saccone, Nancy L.; Schwantes-An, Tae-Hwi; Wang, Jen C.; Grucza, Richard A.; Breslau, Naomi; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Johnson, Eric O.; Rice, John P.; Goate, Alison M.; Bierut, Laura J.

    2010-01-01

    Several independent studies show that the chromosome 15q25.1 region, which contains the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene cluster, harbors variants strongly associated with nicotine dependence, other smoking behaviors, lung cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We investigated whether variants in other cholinergic nicotinic receptor subunit (CHRN) genes affect risk for nicotine dependence in a new sample of African-Americans (N = 710). We also analyzed this African-American sample together with a European-American sample (N=2062, 1608 of which have been previously studied), allowing for differing effects in the two populations. Cases are current nicotine-dependent smokers and controls are non-dependent smokers. Variants in or near CHRND-CHRNG, CHRNA7, and CHRNA10 show modest association with nicotine dependence risk in the African-American sample. In addition, CHRNA4, CHRNB3-CHRNA6, and CHRNB1 show association in at least one population. CHRNG and CHRNA4 harbor SNPs that have opposite directions of effect in the two populations. In each of the population samples, these loci substantially increase the trait variation explained, although no loci meet Bonferroni-corrected significance in the African-American sample alone. The trait variation explained by three key associated SNPs in CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 is 1.9% in European-Americans and also 1.9% in African-Americans; this increases to 4.5% in EAs and 7.3% in AAs when we add six variants representing associations at other CHRN genes. Multiple nicotinic receptor subunit genes outside of chromosome 15q25 are likely to be important in the biological processes and development of nicotine dependence, and some of these risks may be shared across diverse populations. PMID:20584212

  9. The space laboratory: A European-American cooperative effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffmann, H. E. W.

    1981-01-01

    A review of the history of the European participation in the American space shuttle project is presented. Some early work carried out in West Germany on the rocket-powered second state of a reusable launch vehicle system is cited, in particular wind tunnel studies of the aerodynamic and flight-mechanical behavior of various lifting body configurations in the subsonic range. The offer made by the U.S. to Europe of participating in the space shuttle program by developing a reusable launch vehicle is discussed, noting West Germany's good preparation in this area, as well as the ultimate decision of the U.S. to exclude Europe from participation in the design of the Orbiter and the booster stage of the shuttle.

  10. Chinese and European American Mothers' Beliefs about the Role of Parenting in Children's School Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chao, Ruth K.

    1996-01-01

    Compared 48 immigrant Chinese and 50 European American mothers of preschool-age children on their perspectives on the role of parenting in their children's school success. Findings reveal Chinese immigrants have a high regard for education and a belief in a strong parental role, while European Americans regard social skills and self-esteem of…

  11. Production of Emotional Facial Expressions in European American, Japanese, and Chinese Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camras, Linda A.; And Others

    1998-01-01

    European American, Japanese, and Chinese 11-month-olds participated in emotion-inducing laboratory procedures. Facial responses were scored with BabyFACS, an anatomically based coding system. Overall, Chinese infants were less expressive than European American and Japanese infants, suggesting that differences in expressivity between European…

  12. Emotion regulation strategies and later externalizing behavior among European American and African American children

    PubMed Central

    Supplee, Lauren H.; Skuban, Emily Moye; Shaw, Daniel S.; Prout, Joanna

    2009-01-01

    Children’s early emotion regulation strategies (ERS) have been related to externalizing problems; however, most studies have included predominantly European American, middle-class children. The current study explores whether ERS use may have differential outcomes as a function of the mother’s ethnic culture. The study utilizes two diverse samples of low-income male toddlers to examine observed ERS during a delay of gratification task in relation to maternal and teacher reports of children’s externalizing behavior 2 to 6 years later. Although the frequencies of ERS were comparable between ethnic groups in both samples, the use of physical comfort seeking and self-soothing was positively related to African American children’s later externalizing behavior but negatively related to externalizing behavior for European American children in Sample 1. Data from Sample 2 appear to support this pattern for self-soothing in maternal, but not teacher, reportof externalizing behavior. Within group differences by income were examined as a possible explanatory factor accounting for the ethnic differences, but it was not supported. Alternative explanations are discussed to explain the pattern of findings. PMID:19338690

  13. Predictors of African American and European American adolescents' endorsement of race-conscious social policies.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Julie Milligan; Bigler, Rebecca S

    2011-03-01

    To examine the predictors of adolescents' evaluations of affirmative action and school desegregation policies, African American and European American students (ns = 94 and 116, respectively; aged 14 to 17 years) attending a racially diverse high school in the Midwestern United States completed measures of (a) implicit racial attitudes, (b) knowledge about historical racism, and (c) perceptions of and attributions for racial disparities. The following day, adolescents learned about either a proposed affirmative action policy (n = 101) or a school desegregation policy (n = 109) and completed measures of their attitudes toward the policy. Results indicated racial differences in policy support and in the factors predicting policy support. Theoretical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:21142372

  14. Visual Representation of Body Shape in African-American and European American Women: Clinical Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Capers, Patrice L.; Kinsey, Amber W.; Miskell, Edrika L.; Affuso, Olivia

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Body mass index (BMI) has been used widely among clinicians to assess obesity in their patients due to its ease and availability. However, BMI has some diagnostic limitations and other measures related to health risks; in particular, body shape may be of greater relevance to health outcomes. OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to illustrate the importance of body shape assessments above and beyond BMI and its relationship to health risk among a sample of African-American and European American women. METHODS African-American and European American women aged 19–78 years (n = 552) in Birmingham, Alabama, were recruited and stratified by menopausal status (ie, pre- or postmenopausal). Pictorial body shapes were derived from digital photographs, while body fat distribution defined by android–gynoid ratio (AGR) and body composition were obtained from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS Images of BMI and age-matched women illustrate variability in fat distribution. Among both menopausal status groups, more than 50% of women had a pear body shape (AGR < 1). An apple body shape was associated with higher odds of having diabetes (unadjusted odds ratio [OR]: 4.1, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.9–9.3), hypertension (unadjusted OR: 3.1, 95% CI: 2.0–4.7), and high cholesterol (unadjusted OR: 3.0, 95% CI: 1.8–5.1). CONCLUSION Use of visual cues alongside traditional methods of weight status assessment may help to facilitate weight management conversations between physicians and female patients. However, next steps should include the validation of visual assessments of body shape in women for use by physicians. PMID:27478392

  15. "Tie, Tied and Tight": The Expansion of /ai/ Monophthongization in African-American and European-American Speech in Memphis, Tennessee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fridland, Valerie

    2003-01-01

    Explores the distribution of /ai/ monophthongization in African-American and European-American speakers in Memphis, Tennessee. Presents evidence of extensive glide weakening in the African-American community in Memphis and compares it to the degree and contexts of glide weakening in the European-American community. (Author/VWL)

  16. Acculturation of Personality: A Three-Culture Study of Japanese, Japanese Americans, and European Americans

    PubMed Central

    Güngör, Derya; Bornstein, Marc H.; De Leersnyder, Jozefien; Cote, Linda; Ceulemans, Eva; Mesquita, Batja

    2013-01-01

    The present study tests the hypothesis that involvement with a new culture instigates changes in personality of immigrants that result in (a) better fit with the norms of the culture of destination and (b) reduced fit with the norms of the culture of origin. Participants were 40 Japanese first-generation immigrants to the United States, 57 Japanese monoculturals, and 60 U.S. monoculturals. All participants completed the Jackson Personality Inventory (JPI) as a measure of the Big Five; immigrants completed the Japanese American Acculturation Scale. Immigrants’ fits with the cultures of destination and origin were calculated by correlating Japanese American mothers’ patterns of ratings on the Big Five with the average patterns of ratings of European Americans and Japanese on the same personality dimensions. Japanese Americans became more “American” and less “Japanese” in their personality as they reported higher participation in the U.S. culture. The results support the view that personality can be subject to cultural influence. PMID:23935211

  17. Understanding Distress: The Role of Face Concern among Chinese Americans, European Americans, Hong Kong Chinese, and Mainland Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mak, Winnie W. S.; Chen, Sylvia Xiaohua; Lam, Amy G.; Yiu, Venus F. L.

    2009-01-01

    To explore the cultural mechanisms underlying the distress experience among Hong Kong and Mainland Chinese, Chinese Americans, and European Americans, this investigation examined the role of face concern in psychological distress through a series of studies in both college students and community samples. Face concern refers to one's concern over…

  18. Disproportionate Diagnosis of Mental Disorders among African American versus European American Clients: Implications for Counseling Theory, Research, and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Robert C.; Feisthamel, Kevin P.

    2009-01-01

    Research generated by the professions of psychiatry and psychology reveals that African Americans are more often diagnosed with specific mental disorders (e.g., psychotic disorders) compared with European Americans. No research to date, however, has investigated whether professional counselors make differential diagnoses according to client race.…

  19. Perceptions of Siblings with Autism and Relationships with Them: European American and Asian American Siblings Draw and Tell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sage, Kara D.; Jegatheesan, Brinda

    2010-01-01

    Background: This study examined typically developing children's perceptions of their siblings with autism and their relationships with them in a European American and an Asian American family. Method: Data were drawn from interviews with the siblings using the "draw-and-tell" technique and participant observation in the homes of the 2 families.…

  20. Parent Beliefs and Children's Achievement Trajectories during the Transition to School in Asian American and European American Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sy, Susan R.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the predictive relationships among 309 Asian American and 9471 European American parents' beliefs, expectations, and involvement, and their children's math and reading achievement trajectories during children's transition to school. Data came from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K), an ongoing…

  1. African American and European American Children in Diverse Elementary Classrooms: Social Integration, Social Status, and Social Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Travis; Rodkin, Philip C.

    2011-01-01

    With a sample of African American and European American 3rd- and 4th-grade children (N = 486, ages 8-11 years), this study examined classroom ethnic composition, peer social status (i.e., social preference and perceived popularity as nominated by same- and cross-ethnicity peers), and patterns of ethnic segregation (i.e., friendship, peer group,…

  2. Instructional Strategies and Best Practices to Narrow the Mathematics Achievement Gaps between African American, Hispanic, and European American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolden, Felicia Mickles

    2012-01-01

    A persistent mathematics achievement gap between African American, Hispanic, and European American students at one elementary school was the focus of this investigation. The research questions of this single site case study involved understanding why an achievement gap exists, and to identify the instructional strategies and best practices used to…

  3. Predictors of Psychosocial Well-Being in Urban African American and European American Youth: The Role of Ecological Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prelow, Hazel M.; Bowman, Marvella A.; Weaver, Scott R.

    2007-01-01

    Hierarchical regression analyses were used to identify factors that functioned as either promotive or protective factors against the impact of ecological risk on the psychological adjustment of 112 African American and 94 European American adolescents (13-19 years of age). Indicators of ecological risk, promotive/protective factors, and adjustment…

  4. The Impact of Ecological Risk and Perceived Discrimination on the Psychological Adjustment of African American and European American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prelow, Hazel M.; Danoff-Burg, Sharon; Swenson, Rebecca R.; Pulgiano, Dana

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of cumulative ecological risk (i.e., neighborhood disadvantage and ecologically salient stressful events) and perceived discrimination on the psychological adjustment of urban African American and European American youth. Findings indicated that both cumulative ecological risk and perceived…

  5. Asian and European American Cultural Values, Bicultural Competence, and Attitudes toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help among Asian American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omizo, Michael M.; Kim, Bryan S. K.; Abel, Nicholas R.

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined the extent to which Asian American adolescents who were living in Hawaii adhered to Asian and European American cultural values in relation to mental health variables including collective self-esteem (membership, private, public, importance to identity), cognitive flexibility, general self-efficacy, and attitudes toward…

  6. Culture, Power, Authenticity and Psychological Well-Being within Romantic Relationships: A Comparison of European American and Mexican Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neff, Kristin D.; Suizzo, Marie-Anne

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated possible cultural differences in the association of power, authentic self-expression, and well-being within romantic relationships. Participants (N = 314) included European American students from a central Texas university and Mexican American students from a border university. Results indicated that power inequality was…

  7. Negative and Positive Peer Influence: Relations to Positive and Negative Behaviors for African American, European American, and Hispanic Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Bean, Roy A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine adolescents' perceptions of negative and positive peer influence (i.e., indirect peer association and direct peer pressure) as they related to adolescent behavior. Regression analyses were conducted using a sample of African American, European American, and Hispanic adolescents (N=1659, M age=16.06,…

  8. Evaluation of a Structural Model of Objectification Theory and Eating Disorder Symptomatology among European American and African American Undergraduate Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Karen S.; Mazzeo, Suzanne E.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated a structural equation model of objectification theory among European American (EA; n = 408) and African American women (AA; n = 233). Modeling results indicated a particularly strong association between thin-ideal internalization/body monitoring and eating disorder symptoms, with weaker relationships among body…

  9. Defensive Localism in White and Black: A Comparative History of European-American and African-American Youth Gangs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamson, Christopher

    2000-01-01

    Compares European American and African American youth gangs in four historical periods (seaboard, immigrant, racially changing, and hypersegregated cities), showing that differences can be traced to race-specific effects of labor, housing, and consumer markets, government policies, local politics, and organized crime on their communities.…

  10. Reliability and Construct Validity of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised for Latino, European American, and African American Male Inmates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Elizabeth A.; Abramowitz, Carolyn S.; Lopez, Mabel; Kosson, David S.

    2006-01-01

    The utility of the psychopathy construct in predicting laboratory deficits, criminal behavior, response to intervention, and recidivism has been well documented in European American populations. However, less is known about the manifestation and correlates of psychopathy in Latino and African American populations. The present study examined the…

  11. Adolescent Bicultural Stress and Its Impact on Mental Well-Being among Latinos, Asian Americans, and European Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero, Andrea J.; Carvajal, Scott C.; Valle, Fabian; Orduna, Michele

    2007-01-01

    The perception of bicultural stress, stress due to discrimination/prejudice, immigration, and acculturation, was investigated in relation to mental well-being in a sample of urban Latino (n = 304), European American (n = 215), and Asian American (n = 131) 8th grade students. Bicultural stress was reported by all ethnic groups and was significantly…

  12. Mental health and diurnal salivary cortisol patterns among African American and European American female dementia family caregivers.

    PubMed

    McCallum, T J; Sorocco, Kristen H; Fritsch, Thomas

    2006-08-01

    Using a sociocultural stress and coping model, this pilot study examines the influence of depressive symptoms and stress on diurnal salivary cortisol patterns among African American (N=30) and European American (N=24) female dementia caregivers and noncaregivers (African American, N=48; European American, N=15). Caregiving participants completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and Stress-Related Growth Scale (SRGS) as respective measures of depressive symptoms, stress, and stress resilience. Participants also collected five saliva samples daily for two consecutive days. African American caregivers scored significantly higher than European American caregivers on the SRGS, but they did not differ on the PSS and CES-D scales. Regression analyses with age, ethnicity, caregiving status, and depressive symptoms as predictors, and cortisol slope as criterion, showed that only age and ethnicity predicted cortisol slope. African Americans had flatter slopes than the European Americans sampled, regardless of caregiving status. Findings highlight the role of cultural beliefs and of ethnicity in explaining cortisol function. PMID:16861373

  13. Essential elements of treatment: a comparative study between European and American therapeutic communities for addiction.

    PubMed

    Goethals, Ilse; Soyez, Veerle; Melnick, Gerald; De Leon, George; Broekaert, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether European and American therapeutic communities (TCs) for addiction, both traditional and modified, share a common perspective on what is essential in treatment using the Survey of Essential Elements Questionnaire (SEEQ). The European sample (N = 19) was gathered in 2009. For the American sample (N = 19), we used previously published research data. Despite comparable perspectives, European traditional TCs (N = 11) scored significantly higher than their American predecessors (N = 11) on four SEEQ domains. Cluster differences were more pronounced in Europe than in America. PMID:21235341

  14. Experiences and Perspectives of African-American, Latina/o, Asian-American and European-American Psychology Graduate Students: A National Study

    PubMed Central

    Maton, Kenneth I.; Wimms, Harriette E.; Grant, Sheila K.; Wittig, Michele A.; Rogers, Margaret R.; Vasquez, Melba J. T.

    2013-01-01

    A national, web-based survey of 1,222 African-American, Latina/o, Asian-American and European-American psychology graduate students revealed both similarities and differences in experiences and perspectives. Mentoring was found to be the strongest predictor of satisfaction across groups. Academic supports and barriers, along with perceptions of diversity were also important predictors of satisfaction. Students of color differed from European-American students in perceptions of fairness of representation of their ethnic group within psychology, and in aspects of the graduate school experience perceived as linked to ethnicity. Limitations of the study and implications for future research and action are discussed. PMID:21341899

  15. Why are Chinese mothers more controlling than American mothers? "My child is my report card".

    PubMed

    Ng, Florrie Fei-Yin; Pomerantz, Eva M; Deng, Ciping

    2014-01-01

    Chinese parents exert more control over children than do American parents. The current research examined whether this is due in part to Chinese parents' feelings of worth being more contingent on children's performance. Twice over a year, 215 mothers and children (Mage  = 12.86 years) in China and the United States (European and African American) reported on psychologically controlling parenting. Mothers also indicated the extent to which their worth is contingent on children's performance. Psychologically controlling parenting was higher among Chinese than American mothers, particularly European (vs. African) American mothers. Chinese (vs. American) mothers' feelings of worth were more contingent on children's performance, with this contributing to their heightened psychological control relative to American mothers. PMID:23581633

  16. Differences in health between Americans and Western Europeans: Effects on longevity and public finance.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Pierre-Carl; Goldman, Dana; Lakdawalla, Darius; Gailey, Adam; Zheng, Yuhui

    2011-07-01

    In 1975, 50-year-old Americans could expect to live slightly longer than most of their Western European counterparts. By 2005, American life expectancy had fallen behind that of most Western European countries. We find that this growing longevity gap is primarily due to real declines in the health of near-elderly Americans, relative to their Western European peers. We use a microsimulation approach to project what US longevity would look like, if US health trends approximated those in Western Europe. The model implies that differences in health can explain most of the growing gap in remaining life expectancy. In addition, we quantify the public finance consequences of this deterioration in health. The model predicts that gradually moving American cohorts to the health status enjoyed by Western Europeans could save up to $1.1 trillion in discounted total health expenditures from 2004 to 2050. PMID:21719178

  17. Differences in Health between Americans and Western Europeans: Effects on Longevity and Public Finance

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Dana; Lakdawalla, Darius; Gailey, Adam; Zheng, Yuhui

    2011-01-01

    In 1975, 50 year-old Americans could expect to live slightly longer than most of their Western European counterparts. By 2005, American life expectancy had fallen behind that of most Western European countries. We find that this growing longevity gap is primarily due to real declines in the health of near-elderly Americans, relative to their Western European peers. We use a microsimulation approach to project what US longevity would look like, if US health trends approximated those in Western Europe. The model implies that differences in health can explain most of the growing gap in remaining life expectancy. In addition, we quantify the public finance consequences of this deterioration in health. The model predicts that gradually moving American cohorts to the health status enjoyed by Western Europeans could save up to $1.1 trillion in discounted total health expenditures from 2004 to 2050. PMID:21719178

  18. Native Americans experienced a strong population bottleneck coincident with European contact.

    PubMed

    O'Fallon, Brendan D; Fehren-Schmitz, Lars

    2011-12-20

    The genetic and demographic impact of European contact with Native Americans has remained unclear despite recent interest. Whereas archeological and historical records indicate that European contact resulted in widespread mortality from various sources, genetic studies have found little evidence of a recent contraction in Native American population size. In this study we use a large dataset including both ancient and contemporary mitochondrial DNA to construct a high-resolution portrait of the Holocene and late Pleistocene population size of indigenous Americans. Our reconstruction suggests that Native Americans suffered a significant, although transient, contraction in population size some 500 y before the present, during which female effective size was reduced by ∼50%. These results support analyses of historical records indicating that European colonization induced widespread mortality among indigenous Americans. PMID:22143784

  19. Native Americans experienced a strong population bottleneck coincident with European contact

    PubMed Central

    O'Fallon, Brendan D.; Fehren-Schmitz, Lars

    2011-01-01

    The genetic and demographic impact of European contact with Native Americans has remained unclear despite recent interest. Whereas archeological and historical records indicate that European contact resulted in widespread mortality from various sources, genetic studies have found little evidence of a recent contraction in Native American population size. In this study we use a large dataset including both ancient and contemporary mitochondrial DNA to construct a high-resolution portrait of the Holocene and late Pleistocene population size of indigenous Americans. Our reconstruction suggests that Native Americans suffered a significant, although transient, contraction in population size some 500 y before the present, during which female effective size was reduced by ∼50%. These results support analyses of historical records indicating that European colonization induced widespread mortality among indigenous Americans. PMID:22143784

  20. European-American and African-American Mothers' Emotion Socialization Practices Relate Differently to Their Children's Academic and Social-Emotional Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jackie A.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Perry, Nicole B.; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines whether the relation between mothers' responses to their children's negative emotions and teachers' reports of children's academic performance and social-emotional competence are similar or different for European-American and African-American families. Two hundred mothers (137 European-American, 63…

  1. How European American and Taiwanese Mothers Talk to Their Children about Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jin; Fung, Heidi; Bakeman, Roger; Rae, Katharine; Wei, Wanchun

    2014-01-01

    Little cross-cultural research exists on parental socialization of children's learning beliefs. The current study compared 218 conversations between European American and Taiwanese mothers and children (6-10 years) about good and poor learning. The findings support well-documented cultural differences in learning beliefs. European Americans…

  2. European Studies as Answer to Allan Bloom's "The Closing of the American Mind."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macdonald, Michael H.

    European studies can provide a solution to several of the issues raised in Allan Bloom's "The Closing of the American Mind." European studies pursue the academic quest for what is truth, what is goodness, and what is beauty. In seeking to answer these questions, the Greeks were among the first to explore many of humanity's problems and their…

  3. The Mythology of Schooling: The Historiography of American and European Education in Comparative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Matthew Gardner

    2014-01-01

    This essay explores the historiography of American and European education, considering how educational historians communicate powerful messages about the purposes and promises of schooling through their writing. I divide the historiography of American education into four interpretive traditions: traditionalism, radical revisionism, progressive…

  4. Demographics of African-American vs. European-Heritage Mothers of Newborns with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodapp, Robert M.; Urbano, Richard C.

    2008-01-01

    Although important for public health policy, ethnic/racial disparities have rarely been examined among families of young children with Down syndrome. This study compared 144 African-American mothers with 726 European-heritage mothers of newborns with Down syndrome using official birth records in one American state from 1990 through 2002; outcome…

  5. Teaching Media and Methods in Marketing: European and North American Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vila, Natalia; Kuster, Ines

    2009-01-01

    This article aims to examine the most widely used teaching media and methods in university education. To achieve this objective, international research has been carried out among 135 marketing teachers from North American and European universities. The study shows that North American teachers use more traditional media and participatory methods…

  6. European Ancestry as a Risk Factor for Atrial Fibrillation in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, Gregory M.; Alonso, Alvaro; Peralta, Carmen A.; Lettre, Guillaume; Vittinghoff, Eric; Lubitz, Steven A.; Fox, Ervin R.; Levitzky, Yamini S.; Mehra, Reena; Kerr, Kathleen F.; Deo, Rajat; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Akylbekova, Meggie; Ellinor, Patrick T.; Paltoo, Dina N.; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Heckbert, Susan R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite a higher burden of standard atrial fibrillation (AF) risk factors, African Americans have a lower risk of AF than whites. It is unknown if the higher riskis due to genetic or environmental factors. As African Americans have varying degrees of European ancestry, we sought to test the hypothesis that European ancestry is an independent risk factor for AF. Methods and Results We studied whites (n=4,543) and African Americans (n=822) in the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and whites (n=10,902) and Africa Americans (n=3,517) in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study (n=3,517). Percent European ancestry in African Americans was estimated using 1,747 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) from the Illumina custom ITMAT-Broad-CARe (IBC) array. Among African Americans without baseline AF, 120 of 804 CHS participants and 181 of 3,517 ARIC participants developed incident AF. A meta-analysis from the two studies revealed that every 10% increase in European ancestry increased the risk of AF by 13% (HR 1.13, 95% CI 1.03–1.23, p=0.007). After adjusting for potential confounders, European ancestry remained a predictor of incident AF in each cohort alone, with a combined estimated hazard ratio for each 10% increase in European ancestry of 1.17 (95% CI 1.07–1.29, p=0.001). A second analysis using 3,192 AIMs from a genome wide Affymetrix 6.0 array in ARIC African Americans yielded similar results. Conclusion European ancestry predicted risk of incident AF. Our study suggests that investigating genetic variants contributing to differential AF risk in individuals of African versus European ancestry will be informative. PMID:21098467

  7. Circadian rhythm phase shifts and endogenous free-running circadian period differ between African-Americans and European-Americans

    PubMed Central

    Eastman, Charmane I.; Suh, Christina; Tomaka, Victoria A.; Crowley, Stephanie J.

    2015-01-01

    Successful adaptation to modern civilization requires the internal circadian clock to make large phase shifts in response to circumstances (e.g., jet travel and shift work) that were not encountered during most of our evolution. We found that the magnitude and direction of the circadian clock's phase shift after the light/dark and sleep/wake/meal schedule was phase-advanced (made earlier) by 9 hours differed in European-Americans compared to African-Americans. European-Americans had larger phase shifts, but were more likely to phase-delay after the 9-hour advance (to phase shift in the wrong direction). The magnitude and direction of the phase shift was related to the free-running circadian period, and European-Americans had a longer circadian period than African-Americans. Circadian period was related to the percent Sub-Saharan African and European ancestry from DNA samples. We speculate that a short circadian period was advantageous during our evolution in Africa and lengthened with northern migrations out of Africa. The differences in circadian rhythms remaining today are relevant for understanding and treating the modern circadian-rhythm-based disorders which are due to a misalignment between the internal circadian rhythms and the times for sleep, work, school and meals. PMID:25670162

  8. European healthcare policies for controlling drug expenditure.

    PubMed

    Ess, Silvia M; Schneeweiss, Sebastian; Szucs, Thomas D

    2003-01-01

    In the last 20 years, expenditures on pharmaceuticals - as well as total health expenditures - have grown faster than the gross national product in all European countries. The aim of this paper was to review policies that European governments apply to reduce or at least slow down public expenditure on pharmaceutical products. Such policies can target the industry, the wholesalers and retailers, prescribers, and patients. The objectives of pharmaceutical policies are multidimensional and must take into account issues relating to public health, public expenditure and industrial incentives. Both price levels and consumption patterns determine the level of total drug expenditure in a particular country, and both factors vary greatly across countries. Licensing and pricing policies intend to influence the supply side. Three types of pricing policies can be recognised: product price control, reference pricing and profit control. Profit control is mainly used in the UK. Reference pricing systems were first used in Germany and The Netherlands and are being considered in other countries. Product price control is still the most common method for establishing the price of drugs. For the aim of fiscal consolidation, price-freeze and price-cut measures have been frequently used in the 1980s and 1990s. They have affected all types of schemes. For drug wholesalers and retailers, most governments have defined profit margins. The differences in price levels as well as the introduction of a Single European Pharmaceutical Market has led to the phenomenon of parallel imports among member countries of the European Union. This may be facilitated by larger and more powerful wholesalers and the vertical integration between wholesalers and retailers. To control costs, the use of generic drugs is encouraged in most countries, but only few countries allow pharmacists to substitute generic drugs for proprietary brands. Various interventions are used to reduce the patients' demand for drugs by

  9. Americans Split on Government Control of Tuition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selingo, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Nearly seven months before the November election, a plurality of Americans favor Barack Obama to tackle what they consider the most pressing issue in higher education: the runaway cost of a bachelor's degree. According to a new nationwide survey conducted through The Chronicle/Gallup Panel, 42 percent of Americans think that controlling college…

  10. Brominated flame retardants and Dechloranes in European and American eels from glass to silver life stages.

    PubMed

    Sühring, Roxana; Byer, Jonathan; Freese, Marko; Pohlmann, Jan-Dag; Wolschke, Hendrik; Möller, Axel; Hodson, Peter V; Alaee, Mehran; Hanel, Reinhold; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2014-12-01

    The populations of American (Anguilla rostrata) and European eels (Anguilla anguilla) have been declining rapidly in the last decades. Organic contaminants are suspected to be one of the possible causes for the decline; however, so far there have been few investigations of the uptake of specific compounds by different life cycle stages (e.g. freshwater or marine stage) and how the contamination patterns develop throughout the eel's life cycle. In the present study we measured concentrations of polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), alternate brominated flame retardants (alternate BFRs) and Dechloranes (Decs) in different life stages of European and American eels to compare the contamination patterns and their development throughout the eel's life cycle. In general, concentrations of flame retardants (FRs) were similar to or higher in American than in European eels, and a greater number of FRs were detected. PBDE congeners that are characteristic of the Penta-PBDE formulation were the most abundant FRs in all adult eels as well as American glass eels. In European glass eels the alternate BFR 2,3-dibromopropyl-2,4,6-tribromophenylether (DPTE) and Dechlorane Plus were the dominating FRs, with average concentrations of 1.1±0.31 ng g(-1) ww and up to 0.32 ng g(-1) ww respectively. Of the PBDEs BDE-183 was the most abundant congener in European glass eels. Low concentrations (less than 10% of the total contamination) of Tetra and Penta-PBDEs in juvenile European eels indicated that bans of technical Penta-PBDE in the European Union are effective. Enrichment of PBDEs was observed over the life stages of both European and American eels. However, a greater relative contribution of PBDEs to the sum FR contamination in American eels indicated an on-going exposure to these substances. High contributions of alternate BFRs in juvenile eels indicated an increased use of these substances in recent years. Concentrations seemed to be driven primarily by location, rather than life

  11. Differential gene expression between African American and European American colorectal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Jovov, Biljana; Araujo-Perez, Felix; Sigel, Carlie S; Stratford, Jeran K; McCoy, Amber N; Yeh, Jen Jen; Keku, Temitope

    2012-01-01

    The incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer (CRC) is higher in African Americans (AAs) than other ethnic groups in the U. S., but reasons for the disparities are unknown. We performed gene expression profiling of sporadic CRCs from AAs vs. European Americans (EAs) to assess the contribution to CRC disparities. We evaluated the gene expression of 43 AA and 43 EA CRC tumors matched by stage and 40 matching normal colorectal tissues using the Agilent human whole genome 4x44K cDNA arrays. Gene and pathway analyses were performed using Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM), Ten-fold cross validation, and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). SAM revealed that 95 genes were differentially expressed between AA and EA patients at a false discovery rate of ≤5%. Using IPA we determined that most prominent disease and pathway associations of differentially expressed genes were related to inflammation and immune response. Ten-fold cross validation demonstrated that following 10 genes can predict ethnicity with an accuracy of 94%: CRYBB2, PSPH, ADAL, VSIG10L, C17orf81, ANKRD36B, ZNF835, ARHGAP6, TRNT1 and WDR8. Expression of these 10 genes was validated by qRT-PCR in an independent test set of 28 patients (10 AA, 18 EA). Our results are the first to implicate differential gene expression in CRC racial disparities and indicate prominent difference in CRC inflammation between AA and EA patients. Differences in susceptibility to inflammation support the existence of distinct tumor microenvironments in these two patient populations. PMID:22276153

  12. Genetic Variants Influencing Joint Damage in Mexican Americans and European Americans With Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Arya, Rector; Del Rincon, Inmaculada; Farook, Vidya S; Restrepo, Jose F; Winnier, Diedre A; Fourcaudot, Marcel J; Battafarano, Daniel F; de Almeida, Marcio; Kumar, Satish; Curran, Joanne E; Jenkinson, Christopher P; Blangero, John; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Escalante, Agustin

    2015-12-01

    Joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is heritable, but knowledge on specific genetic determinants of joint damage in RA is limited. We have used the Immunochip array to examine whether genetic variants influence variation in joint damage in a cohort of Mexican Americans (MA) and European Americans (EA) with RA. We studied 720 MA and 424 EA patients with RA. Joint damage was quantified using a radiograph of both hands and wrists, scored using Sharp's technique. We conducted association analyses with the transformed Sharp score and the Immunochip single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data using PLINK. In MAs, 15 SNPs from chromosomes 1, 5, 9, 17 and 22 associated with joint damage yielded strong p-values (p < 1 × 10(-4) ). The strongest association with joint damage was observed with rs7216796, an intronic SNP located in the MAP3K14 gene, on chromosome 17 (β ± SE = -0.25 ± 0.05, p = 6.23 × 10(-6) ). In EAs, 28 SNPs from chromosomes 1, 4, 6, 9, and 21 showed associations with joint damage (p-value < 1 × 10(-4) ). The best association was observed on chromosome 9 with rs59902911 (β ± SE = 0.86 ± 0.17, p = 1.01 × 10(-6) ), a synonymous SNP within the CARD9 gene. We also observed suggestive evidence for some loci influencing joint damage in MAs and EAs. We identified two novel independent loci (MAP3K14 and CARD9) strongly associated with joint damage in MAs and EAs and a few shared loci showing suggestive evidence for association. PMID:26498133

  13. The Use of Self-Pleasure: Masturbation and Body Image among African American and European American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, Julie L.; Horne, Sharon G.

    2003-01-01

    The current investigation examined the relationship between masturbation and body image among 96 women seeking services at a local family planning clinic in a mid-southern U.S. city. Participants completed a questionnaire that assessed body image and masturbatory practices. Ethnic differences were found with European American women reporting…

  14. Religiosity, Meaning in Life, and Clinical Symptomology: A Comparison of African-American and European-American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Jeffrey D.; Hardin, Susan I.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether religiosity is subsumed under the broader construct of meaning in life as a predictor of psychological symptomology in college students from two ethnic groups. Data from 299 undergraduates indicated that among European-American students, religiosity predicted little variance in psychological symptomology and was…

  15. Ethnic Identity in African American and European American Preadolescents: Relation to Self-Worth, Social Goals, and Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Khiela J.; Lochman, John E.

    2009-01-01

    The current study tested models to determine the extent to which self-worth and social goals mediate the influence of ethnic identity on aggression among aggressive European and African American preadolescents. Ethnic identity emerged as important for both groups, but in different ways. Different patterns of influence of ethnic identity and of…

  16. Neuronal calcium sensor-1 and cocaine addiction: A genetic association study in African-Americans and European Americans

    PubMed Central

    Multani, Pushpinder K.; Clarke, Toni-Kim; Narasimhan, Sneha; Ambrose-Lanci, Lisa; Kampman, Kyle M.; Pettinati, Helen M.; Oslin, David W.; O’Brien, Charles P.; Berrettini, Wade H.; Lohoff, Falk W.

    2013-01-01

    Genes involved in drug reward pathways are plausible candidates for susceptibility to substance use disorders. Given the prominent role of dopamine in drug reward, dopamine receptor-interacting proteins (DRIPs) such as the neuronal calcium sensor-1 (NCS-1) protein have been hypothesized to play a role in the pathophysiology of cocaine addiction (CA). In this study, we investigated whether genetic variants in the NCS-1 gene confer risk to CA. We genotyped 8 SNPs (rs4837479, rs7849345, rs3824544, rs10819611, rs947513, rs2277200, rs7873936 and rs1342043) in our discovery sample (cases n = 796, controls n = 416) of African descent. Confirmation of associated or trending SNPs (rs7849345, rs10819611, rs1342043) was attempted using a replication sample of African American (AA) ethnicity (cases n = 335, controls n = 336) and European-American (EA) ancestry (cases n = 336, controls n = 656). Secondary sex specific analysis was also carried out for each SNP in both AA and EA individuals. Genotyping of the discovery cohort showed significant genotypic (p = 0.0005, corrected q-value) as well as allelic (p = 0.005, corrected q-value) associations of rs1342043 with CA in AAs; however, this marker could not be confirmed in either the AA or EA replication sample. Combined analysis of all AA samples (n = 1883) for rs1342043 showed a significant association with CA (genotypic p = 0.0001, allelic p = 0.002) with a gender specific effect for males (allelic p = 0.005, genotypic p = 0.0003). Our data suggest that genetic variants in the NCS-1 gene contribute to susceptibility of CA in individuals of African descent. PMID:22999924

  17. Differences in nonfatal suicide behaviors among Mexican and European American middle school children.

    PubMed

    Tortolero, S R; Roberts, R E

    2001-01-01

    This report describes ethnic and gender differences in suicide ideation among two large samples of middle school students in New Mexico (n = 2,140) and Texas (n = 1,302). Students completed a self-administered questionnaire on suicide ideation and psychosocial risk factors. Mexican Americans in both samples reported significantly higher prevalence of suicide ideation than did their European American counterparts. Mexican Americans were 1.8 times more likely to have high suicide ideation than European Americans. The suicide ideation risk for Mexican Americans remained unchanged in both samples after adjusting for gender, age, family structure, depression, low social support, and self-esteem. This study indicates that ethnicity plays an important role in suicidal ideation, but the mechanism remains unclear. PMID:11459254

  18. Psychological Aspects of European Cosmology in American Society: African and European Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Joseph A.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the Eurocentric nature of the United States social reality, and investigates psychological and mental health implications for the African-American community. Outlines the basic themes, emphases and criteria of Euro-American cosmology and describes how it can come to dominate the Afro-American's self-consciousness. Suggests ways to…

  19. Negative and positive peer influence: Relations to positive and negative behaviors for African American, European American, and Hispanic adolescents.

    PubMed

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Bean, Roy A

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine adolescents' perceptions of negative and positive peer influence (i.e., indirect peer association and direct peer pressure) as they related to adolescent behavior. Regression analyses were conducted using a sample of African American, European American, and Hispanic adolescents (N=1659, M age=16.06, SD=1.10). The study found differences and similarities in relation to respondents' ethnicity vis-à-vis indirect peer association and adolescent behavior. Although few ethnic-based differences occurred as a function of indirect negative peer association, indirect positive peer association was not as consistently or as strongly related to behaviors for minority youth as it was for European American youth. PMID:18703225

  20. The world's air transportation services : data as to passengers, mail, and goods carried by American and European transportation services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1922-01-01

    This report presents detailed descriptions, statistics, and graphs on European and American air transport. The European countries listed are Belgium, Czecho-Slovakia, Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Holland, and Italy.

  1. Psychometric properties of a brief version of the Penn State Worry Questionnaire in African Americans and European Americans.

    PubMed

    DeLapp, Ryan C T; Chapman, L Kevin; Williams, Monnica T

    2016-05-01

    The reliable and valid assessment of chronic worry in African Americans is vital when attempting to draw cross-cultural comparisons between African Americans and other ethnic groups. As such, the current study examined the psychometric properties of a brief version of a gold standard assessment of chronic worry, specifically the Penn State Worry Questionnaire-Abbreviated (PSWQ-A; Hopko et al., 2003) in a college sample of African Americans (n = 100) and European Americans (n = 121). Results indicated that the PSWQ-A total score has good internal consistency and convergent validity with another measure of anxiety, but less than favorable discriminant validity with a measure of depression in African American and European American students. Also, the 1-factor solution for the 8-item PSWQ-A had excellent model fit in our full sample and was partially invariant between ethnic groups. Collectively, the present study provides evidence that the PSWQ-A is a psychometrically sound option for assessing chronic worry and suggests that this brief measure may enhance the time efficiency and clinical utility of research and clinical assessments in ethnically diverse samples. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26375429

  2. A Reassessment of the Impact of European Contact on the Structure of Native American Genetic Diversity.

    PubMed

    Hunley, Keith; Gwin, Kiela; Liberman, Brendan

    2016-01-01

    Our current understanding of pre-Columbian history in the Americas rests in part on several trends identified in recent genetic studies. The goal of this study is to reexamine these trends in light of the impact of post-Columbian admixture and the methods used to study admixture. The previously-published data consist of 645 autosomal microsatellite genotypes from 1046 individuals in 63 populations. We used STRUCTURE to estimate ancestry proportions and tested the sensitivity of these estimates to the choice of the number of clusters, K. We used partial correlation analyses to examine the relationship between gene diversity and geographic distance from Beringia, controlling for non-Native American ancestry (from Africa, Europe and East Asia), and taking into account alternative paths of migration. Principal component analysis and multidimensional scaling were used to investigate the relationships between Andean and non-Andean populations and to explore gene-language correspondence. We found that 1) European and East Asian ancestry estimates decline as K increases, especially in Native Canadian populations, 2) a north-south decline in gene diversity is driven by low diversity in Amazonian and Paraguayan populations, not serial founder effects from Beringia, 3) controlling for non-Native American ancestry, populations in the Andes and Mesoamerica have higher gene diversity than populations in other regions, and 4) patterns of genetic and linguistic diversity are poorly correlated. We conclude that patterns of diversity previously attributed to pre-Columbian processes may in part reflect post-Columbian admixture and the choice of K in STRUCTURE analyses. Accounting for admixture, the pattern of diversity is inconsistent with a north-south founder effect process, though the genetic similarities between Mesoamerican and Andean populations are consistent with rapid dispersal along the western coast of the Americas. Further, even setting aside the disruptive effects of

  3. Latina and European American Girls’ Experiences with Academic Sexism and their Self-Concepts in Mathematics and Science During Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Leaper, Campbell

    2010-01-01

    The study investigated Latina and European American adolescent girls’ (N = 345, M = 15.2 years, range = 13 to 18) experiences with academic sexism in mathematics and science (M/S) and their M/S perceived competence and M/S value (liking and importance). M/S academic sexism was based on girls’ reported experiences hearing sexist comments about girls’ abilities in math and science. Older European American adolescents, and both younger and older Latina adolescents, who experienced several instances of academic sexism felt less competent in M/S than girls who experienced less sexism (controlling for M/S grades). In addition, among older girls (regardless of ethnicity), those who experienced several instances of academic sexism valued M/S less than girls who experienced less sexism. PMID:21212810

  4. Interaction between two independent CNR1 variants increases risk for cocaine dependence in European Americans

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Lingjun; Kranzler, Henry R.; Luo, Xingguang; Yang, Bao-zhu; Weiss, Roger; Brady, Kathleen; Poling, James; Farrer, Lindsay; Gelernter, Joel

    2010-01-01

    We recently reported that, in a European-American (EA) sample, the interaction between two cannabinoid receptor 1 gene (CNR1) variants significantly increased risk for drug dependence (DD), including cocaine dependence (CD). The present study aimed to investigate directly the association between CNR1 and CD in four independent samples. Eight markers across the 45kb CNR1 region and four large samples, i.e., family-based European-American (EA) sample (n=734), case-control EA sample (n=862), family-based African-American (AA) sample (n=834) and case-control AA sample (n=619) were examined in the present study. We investigated the association of these markers with CD and cocaine-induced paranoia (CIP) in the EA family sample first, and then replicated positive results in the other three samples. The interaction between two independent CNR1 variants, i.e., the G allele-containing genotypes of rs6454674 (SNP3^G+), and the T/T genotype of rs806368 (SNP8^T/T), significantly increased risk for CD in the EA family (PGEE=0.015) and EA case-control (Pregression=0.003) samples. EA subjects with SNP3^G+ and SNP8^T/T had higher risk to develop CD than those EA subjects with the other genotypes for these two SNPs (LR+=1.4). The SNP3^G-SNP8^T haplotype also showed significant association (P=0.018) with CD in the EA case-control sample. SNP8-containing haplotypes showed significant association with both CD (Pglobal=0.007) and CIP (Pglobal=0.003) in the EA family sample. In the AA family sample, SNP8^T/T significantly confered higher risk for CD (P=0.019). We conclude that wo independent CNR1 variants have significant interaction effects on risk for CD in EAs; they may also have effects on risk for CD in AAs. PMID:19052543

  5. What the Face and Body Reveal: In-Group Emotion Effects and Stereotyping of Emotion in African American and European American Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuminello, Elizabeth R.; Davidson, Denise

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether 3- to 7-year-old African American and European American children's assessment of emotion in face-only, face + body, and body-only photographic stimuli was affected by in-group emotion recognition effects and racial or gender stereotyping of emotion. Evidence for racial in-group effects was found, with European American…

  6. Asian and European American Cultural Values, Collective Self-Esteem, Acculturative Stress, Cognitive Flexibility, and General Self-Efficacy among Asian American College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Bryan S. K.; Omizo, Michael M.

    2005-01-01

    Asian American college students' adherence to Asian and European American cultural values and their relations to collective self-esteem, acculturative stress, cognitive flexibility, and general self-efficacy were examined. On the basis of data from 156 respondents, the results supported the hypothesis that adherence to Asian and European American…

  7. Entero-insular axis and postprandial insulin differences in African American and European American children

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Paul B.; Férnández, José R.; Garvey, W. Timothy; Granger, Wesley M.; Gower, Barbara A.

    2009-01-01

    Background African Americans (AA) have a greater post-glucose-challenge insulin response than European Americans (EA). Factors underlying this response are unknown. Objective To determine the insulin, C-peptide, and incretin responses to a mixed macronutrient meal in AA and EA children. We hypothesized that: 1) AA would have greater postprandial insulin and C-peptide responses; 2) AA would have higher incretin responses; 3) the greater β-cell response among AA would be explained by greater incretin responses. Design Subjects were 34 AA and 18 EA children. Glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) were measured after consumption of a liquid mixed meal. Insulin, C-peptide, and incretin responses were derived from the area-under-the curve (AUC) for minutes 0-30 (“early response”) and minutes 30-180 (“late response”) following meal ingestion Results The early insulin response was higher in AA (14,565 ±6,840 pmol/L × 30min) vs. EA (7,450 ±4,077 pmol/L × 30min, P<0.001). Early C-peptide AUC did not differ by ethnicity (34.8 ±12.5 vs. 28.6 ±12.5nmol/L ×30mins, for AA and EA, respectively; P=0.10). Early and late GLP-1 responses were lower in AA vs EA (108.1 ±56.4 vs. 160.5 ±90.8pmol/L ×30mins) and (509.4 ±286.9 vs. 781.9 ±483.4pmol/L ×150mins), respectively (P<0.05 for both). The GIP response did not differ between groups. Conclusion Greater early insulin response in AA vs. EA is not due to differences in circulating GLP-1 or GIP, and may be due to lesser insulin clearance. Further research is needed to determine the physiologic implications of lower GLP-1 among AA. PMID:18996863

  8. Mental Health Stigma, Self-Concealment, and Help-Seeking Attitudes among Asian American and European American College Students with No Help-Seeking Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masuda, Akihiko; Boone, Matthew S.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined whether mental health stigma (i.e., negative attitudes toward people with a psychological disorder) and self-concealment are unique predictors of help-seeking attitudes in Asian American and European American college students with no history of seeking professional psychological services. The Asian American group had…

  9. Competence, Self-Esteem, and Coping Efficacy as Mediators of Ecological Risk and Depressive Symptoms in Urban African American and European American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prelow, Hazel M.; Weaver, Scott R.; Swenson, Rebecca R.

    2006-01-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to test [Sandler, "American Journal of Community Psychology" 29: 19-61.] a theoretical model of risk and resilience in an urban sample of African American and European American adolescents. The aims of the present study were to examine whether self-system processes (i.e., competence, self-esteem, and coping…

  10. Differences between African American and European American First-Year College Students in the Relationship between Self-Efficacy, Outcome Expectations, and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFreitas, Stacie Craft

    2012-01-01

    First-year African American and European American college students were surveyed to examine ethnic differences in how their social cognitive beliefs (self-efficacy and outcome expectations) influenced their academic achievement. It was hypothesized that outcome expectations may better explain academic achievement for African Americans due to the…

  11. Optimism and Pessimism as Mediators of the Relations Between Self-Discrepancies and Distress Among Asian and European Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardin, Erin E.; Leong, Frederick T. L.

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined the role of undesired self-discrepancies in predicting emotional distress among Asian and European Americans, whether undesired self-discrepancies are stronger predictors of distress for Asian than for European Americans, and whether optimism and pessimism mediate the relations between ideal, ought, and undesired…

  12. The Validity of Observational Measures in Detecting Optimal Maternal Communication Styles: Evidence from European Americans and Latinos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadeem, Erum; Romo, Laura F.; Sigman, Marian; Lefkowitz, Eva S.; Au, Terry K.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the sensitivity of an observational coding system for assessing positive and negative maternal behaviors of Latino and European American mothers toward their adolescent children. Ninety Latino (54 Spanish speaking and 35 English speaking) and 20 European American mother-adolescent dyads participated in an observational study of…

  13. Eye color: A potential indicator of alcohol dependence risk in European Americans.

    PubMed

    Sulovari, Arvis; Kranzler, Henry R; Farrer, Lindsay A; Gelernter, Joel; Li, Dawei

    2015-07-01

    In archival samples of European-ancestry subjects, light-eyed individuals have been found to consume more alcohol than dark-eyed individuals. No published population-based studies have directly tested the association between alcohol dependence (AD) and eye color. We hypothesized that light-eyed individuals have a higher prevalence of AD than dark-eyed individuals. A mixture model was used to select a homogeneous sample of 1,263 European-Americans and control for population stratification. After quality control, we conducted an association study using logistic regression, adjusting for confounders (age, sex, and genetic ancestry). We found evidence of association between AD and blue eye color (P = 0.0005 and odds ratio = 1.83 (1.31-2.57)), supporting light eye color as a risk factor relative to brown eye color. Network-based analyses revealed a statistically significant (P = 0.02) number of genetic interactions between eye color genes and AD-associated genes. We found evidence of linkage disequilibrium between an AD-associated GABA receptor gene cluster, GABRB3/GABRG3, and eye color genes, OCA2/HERC2, as well as between AD-associated GRM5 and pigmentation-associated TYR. Our population-phenotype, network, and linkage disequilibrium analyses support association between blue eye color and AD. Although we controlled for stratification we cannot exclude underlying occult stratification as a contributor to this observation. Although replication is needed, our findings suggest that eye pigmentation information may be useful in research on AD. Further characterization of this association may unravel new AD etiological factors. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25921801

  14. Intergenerational Cultural Dissonance in Parent-Adolescent Relationships among Chinese and European Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Chunxia; Chao, Ruth K.

    2011-01-01

    Generational cultural gaps (assessed as the mismatch between adolescents' ideals and perceptions of the parent-adolescent relationship) were investigated among Chinese youth with immigrant parents and their European American counterparts who have been in the United States for generations and assumingly do not have intergenerational cultural gaps.…

  15. Emotion Regulation Strategies in European American and Hong Kong Chinese Middle School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wan, Kayan Phoebe; Savina, Elena

    2016-01-01

    This study explored emotion regulation strategies in middle school European American (N = 54) and Hong Kong Chinese (N = 89) children. Children were presented with scenarios describing a fictitious girl/boy who encountered situations eliciting sadness, anger, and fear. Based on Gross' theory (1998), the survey of emotion regulation strategies was…

  16. Parenting Knowledge: Experiential and Sociodemographic Factors in European American Mothers of Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Cote, Linda R.; Haynes, O. Maurice; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Park, Yoonjung

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of child rearing and child development is relevant to parenting and the well-being of children. Using a sociodemographically heterogeneous sample of 268 European American mothers of 2-year-olds, we assessed the state of mothers' parenting knowledge; compared parenting knowledge in groups of mothers who varied in terms of parenthood and…

  17. First Encounters: Native Americans and Europeans in the Mississippi Valley. [CD-ROM].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabo, George, III; Restrepo, Luis Fernando; Jones, Linda

    This CD-ROM provides interactive, multimedia software that enables students to investigate many aspects of Native American and European encounters in the Mississippi Valley through study of original historical sources, including texts, maps, artworks, and archaeological finds. The Lower Mississippi Valley was chosen as the study area because of…

  18. The Influence of Parental Support, Knowledge, and Authoritative Parenting on Hmong and European American Adolescent Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supple, Andrew J.; Small, Stephen A.

    2006-01-01

    This study used a community-wide survey of adolescents to compare adolescent perceptions of parental support, knowledge, and authoritative decision making in samples of Hmong and European Americans. Additional analyses considered variation in parental influence on adolescent outcomes across these groups. The results suggested that Hmong American…

  19. Change in Coping and Defense Mechanisms across Adulthood: Longitudinal Findings in a European American Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diehl, Manfred; Chui, Helena; Hay, Elizabeth L.; Lumley, Mark A.; Grühn, Daniel; Labouvie-Vief, Gisela

    2014-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal changes in coping and defense mechanisms in an age- and gender-stratified sample of 392 European American adults. Nonlinear age-related changes were found for the coping mechanisms of sublimation and suppression and the defense mechanisms of intellectualization, doubt, displacement, and regression. The change…

  20. Diversity in the Undergraduate Curriculum: Perspectives Held by Undergraduate Students at a Predominantly European American University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littleford, Linh Nguyen

    2013-01-01

    Undergraduate students (N = 932, 83.8% European Americans, 69.6% women) completed an online survey and reported their definitions of diversity, their attitudes toward incorporating diversity into the curriculum, and their motivations for learning about diversity issues. Findings revealed that students conceptualized diversity primarily in terms of…

  1. Sex Differences in Developmental Trends of Suicide Ideation, Plans, and Attempts among European American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeninger, Daria K.; Masyn, Katherine E.; Feldman, Betsy J.; Conger, Rand D.

    2010-01-01

    Although suicide ideation, plans, and attempts increase during adolescence, it remains unclear whether boys' and girls' risk for these outcomes peaks at different ages. We used longitudinal categorical data ("never," "once," "2+ times") from the Family Transitions Project (N = 1,248 rural European Americans, ages 11-19) to investigate whether…

  2. Daily Family Conflict and Emotional Distress among Adolescents from Latin American, Asian, and European Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Grace H.; Flook, Lisa; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    The authors employed a daily diary method to assess daily frequencies of interparental and parent-adolescent conflict over a 2-week period and their implications for emotional distress across the high school years in a longitudinal sample of 415 adolescents from Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds. Although family conflict remained…

  3. Integration of HIS components through open standards: an American HIS and a European Image Processing System.

    PubMed Central

    London, J. W.; Engelmann, U.; Morton, D. E.; Meinzer, H. P.; Degoulet, P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the integration of an existing American Hospital Information System with a European Image Processing System. Both systems were built independently (with no knowledge of each other), but on open systems standards. The easy integration of these systems demonstrates the major benefit of open standards-based software design. PMID:8130452

  4. Children's Attention to Interactions Directed to Others: Guatemalan Mayan and European American Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correa-Chavez, Maricela; Rogoff, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated differences in attention and learning among Guatemalan Mayan and European American children, ages 5-11 years, who were present but not addressed while their sibling was shown how to construct a novel toy. Each child waited with a distracter toy for her or his turn to make a different toy. Nonaddressed children from Mayan…

  5. European American Therapist Self-Disclosure in Cross-Cultural Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkard, Alan W.; Knox, Sarah; Groen, Michael; Perez, Maria; Hess, Shirley A.

    2006-01-01

    Eleven European American psychotherapists' use of self-disclosure in cross-cultural counseling was studied using consensual qualitative research. As reasons for self-disclosing, therapists reported the intent to enhance the counseling relationship, acknowledge the role of racism/oppression in clients' lives, and acknowledge their own…

  6. Why Attend School? Chinese Immigrant and European American Preschoolers' Views and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jin; Yamamoto, Yoko; Luo, Lily; Batchelor, Andrea K.; Bresnahan, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    The developing views of the purposes of school learning (PSLs) and related achievement among immigrant Chinese preschoolers and their European American (EA) age-mates were examined. Both culture and socioeconomic status (SES) were considered simultaneously, an often neglected research approach to studying Asian children. One hundred and fifty…

  7. Cuticles of European and American lobsters harbor diverse bacterial species and differ in disease susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Whitten, Miranda M A; Davies, Charlotte E; Kim, Anita; Tlusty, Michael; Wootton, Emma C; Chistoserdov, Andrei; Rowley, Andrew F

    2014-01-01

    Diseases of lobster shells have a significant impact on fishing industries but the risk of disease transmission between different lobster species has yet to be properly investigated. This study compared bacterial biofilm communities from American (Homarus americanus) and European lobsters (H. gammarus), to assess both healthy cuticle and diseased cuticle during lesion formation. Culture-independent molecular techniques revealed diversity in the bacterial communities of cuticle biofilms both within and between the two lobster species, and identified three bacterial genera associated with shell lesions plus two putative beneficial bacterial species (detected exclusively in healthy cuticle or healing damaged cuticle). In an experimental aquarium shared between American and European lobsters, heterospecific transmission of potentially pathogenic bacteria appeared to be very limited; however, the claws of European lobsters were more likely to develop lesions when reared in the presence of American lobsters. Aquarium biofilms were also examined but revealed no candidate pathogens for environmental transmission. Aquimarina sp. ‘homaria’ (a potential pathogen associated with a severe epizootic form of shell disease) was detected at a much higher prevalence among American than European lobsters, but its presence correlated more with exacerbation of existing lesions rather than with lesion initiation. PMID:24817518

  8. Developmental Patterns in Decision-Making Autonomy across Middle Childhood and Adolescence: European American Parents' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wray-Lake, Laura; Crouter, Ann C.; McHale, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    Longitudinal patterns in parents' reports of youth decision-making autonomy from ages 9 to 20 were examined in a study of 201 European American families with 2 offspring. Multilevel modeling analyses revealed that decision-making autonomy increased gradually across middle childhood and adolescence before rising sharply in late adolescence. Social…

  9. Genic SSRs for European and North American Hop (Humulua lupulus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eight genic SSR loci were evaluated for genetic diversity assessment and genotype identification in Humulus lupulus L. from Europe and North America. Genetic diversity, as measured by three diversity indices, was significantly lower in European cultivars than in North American wild accessions. Neigh...

  10. Early Adolescent and Peer Drinking Homogeneity: Similarities and Differences among European and North American Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farhat, Tilda; Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Kokkevi, Anna; Van der Sluijs, Winfried; Fotiou, Anastasios; Kuntsche, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    This study examined associations between perceived peer and adolescent alcohol use in European and North American countries. Self-reported monthly alcohol use and adolescents' report of their peers' alcohol use were assessed in nationally representative samples of students aged 11.5 and 13.5 years (n = 11,277) in Greece, Scotland, Switzerland, and…

  11. Ethnic Identity and Family Processes among Adolescents from Latin American, Asian, and European Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiang, Lisa; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    Ninth graders (N = 679; 50% male, 50% female) from Latin American (41%), Asian (38%), and European (21%) backgrounds reported on their ethnic identity and family attitudes and relationships. Adolescents also completed daily checklists of family interactions over a two-week period. Results indicated that ethnic identity, measured through…

  12. Racial Attitudes among Asian and European American College Students: A Cross-Cultural Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Timothy B.; Bowman, Raquel; Hsu, Sungti

    2007-01-01

    College campuses are becoming increasingly racially diverse and may provide an optimal setting for the reduction of racial stereotypes and prejudices perpetuated in society. To better understand racism among college students, this study evaluated the attitudes of Asian and White European Americans toward several racial out-groups. Participants…

  13. Atlantic Ocean forcing of North American and European summer climate.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Rowan T; Hodson, Daniel L R

    2005-07-01

    Recent extreme events such as the devastating 2003 European summer heat wave raise important questions about the possible causes of any underlying trends, or low-frequency variations, in regional climates. Here, we present new evidence that basin-scale changes in the Atlantic Ocean, probably related to the thermohaline circulation, have been an important driver of multidecadal variations in the summertime climate of both North America and western Europe. Our findings advance understanding of past climate changes and also have implications for decadal climate predictions. PMID:15994552

  14. Emotion Socialization Practices in Latina and European American Mothers of Preschoolers with Behavior Problems

    PubMed Central

    Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I.; Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Breaux, Rosanna P.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined mothers’ emotion socialization of 3-year-old children with behavior problems, to determine whether emotion socialization practices, as well as the relation between these practices and child functioning, varied across ethnicities. Participants were 134 preschoolers with behavior problems. Mothers were European American (n = 96) and Latina American (n = 38; predominately Puerto Rican). Audiotaped mother-child interactions were coded for emotion socialization behaviors. Latina and European American mothers used similar emotion socialization practices on most dimensions. Latina mothers were more likely to minimize or not respond to their children’s negative affect. However, this difference did not appear to have ramifications for children. This study provided evidence for both differences and similarities across ethnicities on emotion socialization practices. PMID:27042157

  15. Why are Chinese Mothers More Controlling than American Mothers? “My Child is My Report Card”

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Florrie Fei-Yin; Pomerantz, Eva M.; Deng, Ciping

    2013-01-01

    Chinese parents exert more control over children than do American parents. The current research examined whether this is due in part to Chinese parents' feelings of worth being more contingent on children's performance. Twice over a year, 215 mothers and children (mean age = 12.86 years) in China and the United States (European and African Americans) reported on psychologically controlling parenting. Mothers also indicated the extent to which their worth is contingent on children's performance. Psychologically controlling parenting was higher among Chinese than American mothers, particularly European (vs. African) American mothers. Chinese (vs. American) mothers' feelings of worth were more contingent on children's performance, with this contributing to their heightened psychological control relative to American mothers. PMID:23581633

  16. Cultural Perspectives on Korean American Cancer Control

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Hesung Chun

    2006-01-01

    This paper emphasizes the importance of sociocultural research for successful ethnic-based cancer control. The article first delineates some demographic characteristics of Korean Americans and then describes six subcultural groups within this population, illuminating that Korean Americans are a diverse people. The author emphasizes that any cancer control program needs to acknowledge these cultural differences in selecting the target population, identifying intervention strategies, and training a team of health-care professionals, as well as in determining psychological factors related to cancer. The author also suggests that the traditional Korean American notion of health, the preventive approach to illness by using food as medicine, the traditional classification of body types, and the sasang theory for the treatment of illness are all important factors worthy of further research. Finally, the synchronistic and holistic approach to health common among Korean Americans is described by citing recent studies of cancer control that combine the use of Western medicine together with proper physical exercise, diet control, and psychological and family counseling. PMID:17031420

  17. European American and African American Mothers’ Emotion Socialization Practices Relate Differently to their Children’s Academic and Social-Emotional Competence

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Jackie A.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Perry, Nicole B.; O’Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines whether the relation between mothers’ responses to their children’s negative emotions and teachers’ reports of children’s academic performance and social-emotional competence are similar or different for European American and African American families. Two hundred mothers (137 European American, 63 African American) reported on their responses to their 5-year-old children’s negative emotions and 150 kindergarten teachers reported on these children’s current academic standing and skillfulness with peers. Problem-focused responses to children’s negative emotions, which have traditionally been considered a supportive response, were positively associated with children’s school competence for European American children, but expressive encouragement, another response considered supportive, was negatively associated with children’s competence for African American children. The findings highlight the need to examine parental socialization practices from a culturally-specific lens. PMID:23914076

  18. Financial strain, parenting behaviors, and adolescents' achievement: testing model equivalence between African American and European American single- and two-parent families.

    PubMed

    Gutman, L M; Eccles, J S

    1999-01-01

    This study tested the equivalence of a theoretical model of parenting behaviors linking financial strain to adolescents' achievement for African American and European American families and for single- and two-parent families. The sample included an economic cross-section of African American (n = 387) and European American families (n = 230) from single- (n = 171) and two-parent (n = 446) homes. Multi-group analyses revealed no significant differences in the structural equation models between the African American and European American families, or between the single- and two-parent families. Results demonstrated that negative parent-adolescent relationships and parental school involvement mediated the relation between financial strain and adolescents' academic achievement. PMID:10621967

  19. Prevalence of Youth-Reported DSM-IV Psychiatric Disorders among African, European, and Mexican American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Robert E.; Roberts, Catherine Ramsay; Xing, Yun

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The authors present prevalence data for adolescents in a large metropolitan area and examine the association of DSM-IV diagnoses with functional impairment and selected demographic correlates among European Americans (EA), African Americans (AA), and Mexican (MA) Americans. Method: The authors sampled 4,175 youths ages 11 to 17 years…

  20. Parental involvement and African American and European American adolescents' academic, behavioral, and emotional development in secondary school.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming-Te; Hill, Nancy E; Hofkens, Tara

    2014-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal trajectories of parental involvement across middle and high school, and how these trajectories related to adolescents' academic, behavioral, and emotional adjustment. In addition, ethnic and socioeconomic status differences in longitudinal associations and the potential moderating role of parental warmth were assessed. Longitudinal growth modeling technique was used to describe trajectories of different types of parental involvement and adolescent outcomes over 7th, 9th, and 11th grades (mean ages = 12.9, 14.3, and 17.2 years, respectively) on an ethnically and economically diverse sample of 1,400 adolescents (51% female, 56% African American, 39% European American, 5% others). Each aspect of parental involvement contributed differentially but significantly to adolescent outcomes. Finally, parental warmth moderated the associations between providing structure at home and adolescent grade point average and problem behavior. PMID:25156187

  1. Daily family assistance and inflammation among adolescents from Latin American and European backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Fuligni, Andrew J; Telzer, Eva H; Bower, Julienne; Irwin, Michael R; Kiang, Lisa; Cole, Steve W

    2009-08-01

    To assess the biological impact of time spent helping the family during the teenage years, we examined circulating levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), soluble interleukin-6 receptor (sIL-6r), and C-reactive protein (CRP) in 64 adolescents (M(age)=17.79 years) from Latin American and European backgrounds. Analyses of nightly diary checklists over 14 days showed that the amount of time spent helping the family in a variety of ways, such as cooking, cleaning, and sibling care, was associated with long-term elevations of sIL-6r and CRP, even after controlling for ethnicity, parental education, BMI, substance use, distress, and frequency of daily family assistance 2 years earlier. However, adolescents who derived a greater sense of role fulfillment from helping the family on a daily basis had lower levels of sIL-6r and CRP as compared to their peers who engaged in the same amount of family assistance. Additional work should explore the family context that drives high levels of assistance among adolescents, as well as the variety of ways adolescents may derive meaning from this activity. PMID:19275931

  2. HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1 Allele and Haplotype Frequencies Distinguish Eastern European Americans from the General European American Population

    PubMed Central

    Mack, Steven J.; Tu, Bin; Lazaro, Ana; Yang, Ruyan; Lancaster, Alex K.; Cao, Kai; Ng, Jennifer; Hurley, Carolyn Katovich

    2012-01-01

    Sequence based typing was used to identify HLA-A,B,C,DRB1 alleles from 558 consecutively recruited U.S. volunteers with Eastern European ancestry for an unrelated hematopoietic stem cell registry. Four of the 31 HLA-A alleles, 29 -C alleles, 59 -B alleles, and 42 -DRB1 alleles identified (A*0325, B*440204, Cw*0332, and *0732N) are novel. The HLA-A*02010101g allele was observed at a frequency of 0.28. Two-, three- and four-locus haplotypes were estimated using the expectation maximization algorithm. The highest-frequency extended haplotypes (A*010101g-Cw*070101g-B*0801g-DRB1*0301 and A*03010101g-Cw*0702-B*0702-DRB1*1501) were observed at frequencies of 0.04 and 0.03, respectively. Linkage disequilibrium values (D’ij) of the constituent 2-locus haplotypes were highly significant for both extended haplotypes (p-values were less than 8 × 10−10), but were consistently higher for the more frequent haplotype. Balancing selection was inferred to be acting on all four loci, with the strongest evidence of balancing selection observed for the HLA-C locus. Comparisons of the A-C-B haplotype and DRB1 frequencies in this population to those for African, European and western Asian populations revealed high degrees of identity with Czech, Polish, and Slovenian populations and significant differences from the general European American population. PMID:19000140

  3. Skeletal estimation and identification in American and East European populations.

    PubMed

    Kimmerle, Erin H; Jantz, Richard L; Konigsberg, Lyle W; Baraybar, Jose Pablo

    2008-05-01

    Forensic science is a fundamental transitional justice issue as it is imperative for providing physical evidence of crimes committed and a framework for interpreting evidence and prosecuting violations to International Humanitarian Law (IHL). The evaluation of evidence presented in IHL trials and the outcomes various rulings by such courts have in regard to the accuracy or validity of methods applied in future investigations is necessary to ensure scientific quality. Accounting for biological and statistical variation in the methods applied across populations and the ways in which such evidence is used in varying judicial systems is important because of the increasing amount of international forensic casework being done globally. Population variation or the perceived effect of such variation on the accuracy and reliability of methods is important as it may alter trial outcomes, and debates about the scientific basis for human variation are now making their way into international courtrooms. Anthropological data on population size (i.e., the minimum number of individuals in a grave), demographic structure (i.e., the age and sex distribution of victims), individual methods applied for identification, and general methods of excavation and trauma analysis have provided key evidence in cases of IHL. More generally, the question of population variation and the applicability of demographic methods for estimating individual and population variables is important for American and International casework in the face of regional population variation, immigrant populations, ethnic diversity, and secular changes. The reliability of various skeletal aging methods has been questioned in trials prosecuted by the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) in The Prosecutor of the Tribunal against Radislav Krstic (Case No. IT-98-33, Trial Judgment) and again in the currently ongoing trial of The Prosecutor of the Tribunal against Zdravko Tolimir, Radivolje

  4. The Acculturation of Parenting Cognitions: A Comparison of South Korean, Korean Immigrant, and European American Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Cote, Linda R.; Kwak, Keumjoo; Putnick, Diane L.; Chung, Hyun Jin; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2016-01-01

    A three-culture comparison – native South Korean, Korean immigrants to the United States, and native European American mothers – of two types of parenting cognitions – attributions and self-perceptions – was undertaken to explore cultural contributions to parenting cognitions and their adaptability among immigrant mothers. Attributions and self-perceptions of parenting were chosen because they influence parenting behavior and children’s development and vary cross-culturally. One hundred seventy-nine mothers of 20-month-old children participated: 73 South Korean, 50 Korean immigrant, and 56 European American. Korean mothers differed from European American mothers on four of the five types of attributions studied and on all four self-perceptions of parenting, and these differences were largely consistent with the distinct cultural values of South Korea and the United States. Generally, Korean immigrant mothers’ attributions for parenting more closely resembled those of mothers in the United States, whereas their self-perceptions of parenting more closely resembled those of mothers in South Korea. This study provides insight into similarities and differences in cultural models of parenting, and information about the acculturation of parenting cognitions among immigrants from South Korea. PMID:26912926

  5. Differences in vaginal microbiome in African American women versus women of European ancestry

    PubMed Central

    Fettweis, Jennifer M.; Brooks, J. Paul; Serrano, Myrna G.; Sheth, Nihar U.; Girerd, Philippe H.; Edwards, David J.; Strauss, Jerome F.; Jefferson, Kimberly K.

    2014-01-01

    Women of European ancestry are more likely to harbour a Lactobacillus-dominated microbiome, whereas African American women are more likely to exhibit a diverse microbial profile. African American women are also twice as likely to be diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis and are twice as likely to experience preterm birth. The objective of this study was to further characterize and contrast the vaginal microbial profiles in African American versus European ancestry women. Through the Vaginal Human Microbiome Project at Virginia Commonwealth University, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis was used to compare the microbiomes of vaginal samples from 1268 African American women and 416 women of European ancestry. The results confirmed significant differences in the vaginal microbiomes of the two groups and identified several taxa relevant to these differences. Major community types were dominated by Gardnerella vaginalis and the uncultivated bacterial vaginosis-associated bacterium-1 (BVAB1) that were common among African Americans. Moreover, the prevalence of multiple bacterial taxa that are associated with microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity and preterm birth, including Mycoplasma, Gardnerella, Prevotella and Sneathia, differed between the two ethnic groups. We investigated the contributions of intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including pregnancy, body mass index, diet, smoking and alcohol use, number of sexual partners, and household income, to vaginal community composition. Ethnicity, pregnancy and alcohol use correlated significantly with the relative abundance of bacterial vaginosis-associated species. Trends between microbial profiles and smoking and number of sexual partners were observed; however, these associations were not statistically significant. These results support and extend previous findings that there are significant differences in the vaginal microbiome related to ethnicity and demonstrate that these differences are pronounced even in healthy women

  6. Ethnic Differences in the Measurement of Academic Self-Concept in a Sample of African American and European American College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cokley, Kevin; Komarraju, Meera; King, Aisha; Cunningham, Dana; Muhammed, Grace

    2003-01-01

    Examined the validity and reliability of scores on the Academic Self-Concept Scale (W. Reynolds and others, 1980) in groups of 291 European American and 396 African American college students. Results suggest important ethnic differences in the structure of academic self-concept regarding beliefs about ability and the relationship between effort…

  7. Mother-Toddler Interaction and Maternal Perception of Child Temperament in Two Ethnic Groups: Chinese-American and European-American.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sheila; Freedman, Daniel G.

    A study was conducted to compare experiential features of mother/toddler interaction and maternal perception of toddler temperament in two ethnic groups: Chinese-Americans and European-Americans. Subjects were 16 mother/toddler dyads with five girls and three boys in each group matched for sex, age, and birth order. Caucasian mothers were…

  8. Age-Related Patterns in Social Networks among European Americans and African Americans: Implications for Socioemotional Selectivity across the Life Span.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fung, Helene H.; Carstensen, Laura L.; Lang, Frieder, R.

    2001-01-01

    Tests socioemotional selectivity theory among African Americans and European Americans. Older people reported as many close partners but fewer peripheral partners as their younger counterparts, thus confirming the theory. A greater percentage of close social partners in social networks related to lower levels of happiness among the young age group…

  9. The Roles of Parental Inductions, Moral Emotions, and Moral Cognitions in Prosocial Tendencies among Mexican American and European American Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlo, Gustavo; Knight, George P.; McGinley, Meredith; Hayes, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between parental inductions, sympathy, prosocial moral reasoning, and prosocial behaviors. A total of 207 early adolescents who self-identified as Mexican American (girls, n = 105; mean age = 10.91 years) and 108 who identified as European American (girls, n = 54; mean age = 11.07 years) completed measures of…

  10. Ethnicity and Risk for Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Following Intimate Partner Violence: Prevalence and Predictors in European American and African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilly, Michelle M.; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A.

    2009-01-01

    The present study uses a feminist theoretical framework to explore risk factors for the development of posttraumatic stress symptoms following intimate partner violence, with a community sample of 120 low-income European American and African American women. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to examine demographic, violence, and mental…

  11. The Role of Disordered-Eating Cognitions and Psychological Flexibility on Distress in Asian American and European American College Females in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masuda, Akihiko; Le, Jane; Cohen, Lindsey L.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated whether different forms of disordered-eating-related cognitions and psychological flexibility were associated with psychological distress among female Asian American and European American college students in the United States. Disordered-eating-related cognitions examined in the present study included thoughts (a)…

  12. Anxiety, Alexithymia, and Depression as Mediators of the Association between Childhood Abuse and Eating Disordered Behavior in African American and European American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzeo, Suzanne E.; Mitchell, Karen S.; Williams, Larry J.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated structural equation models of the associations among family functioning, childhood abuse, depression, anxiety, alexithymia, and eating disorder symptomatology in a sample of 412 European American and 192 African American female undergraduates. Additionally, the specific roles of anxiety, depression, and alexithymia as…

  13. The Appropriateness of Using Three Measures of Self-Beliefs with European American, Latino/a, and Native American College Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurpius, Sharon E. Robinson; Payakkakom, Anusorn; Rayle, Andrea Dixon; Chee, Christine; Arredondo, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    The authors investigated the psychometric appropriateness of the Valuing/ Commitment to Education scale (A. M. Gloria, 1993), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (M. Rosenberg, 1965), and the Educational Self-Efficacy Scale (A. M. Gloria, 1993) for use with European American, Latina/o, and Native American college freshmen. Strong to moderate…

  14. Microbial diversity in European and South American spacecraft assembly clean rooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Stieglmeier, Michaela; Schwendner, Petra

    Spacecraft assembly clean rooms are unique environments for microbes: Due to low nutri-ent levels, desiccated, clean conditions, constant control of humidity and temperature, these environments are quite inhospitable to microbial life and even considered "extreme". Many procedures keep the contamination as low as possible, but these conditions are also highly se-lective for indigenous microbial communities. For space missions under planetary protection requirements, it is crucial to control the contaminating bioburden as much as possible; but for the development of novel cleaning/sterilization methods it is also important to identify and characterize (understand) the present microbial community of spacecraft clean rooms. In prepa-ration for the recently approved ESA ExoMars mission, two European and one South American spacecraft assembly clean rooms were analyzed with respect to their microbial diversity, using standard procedures, new cultivation approaches and molecular methods, that should shed light onto the presence of planetary protection relevant microorganisms. For this study, the Her-schel Space Observatory (launched in May 2009) and its housing clean rooms in Friedrichshafen (Germany), at ESTEC (The Netherlands) and CSG, Kourou (French Guyana) were sampled during assembly, test and launch operations. Although Herschel does not demand planetary protection requirements, all clean rooms were in a fully operating state during sampling. This gave us the opportunity to sample the microbial diversity under strict particulate and molecular contamination-control. Samples were collected from spacecraft and selected clean room surface areas and were subjected to cultivation assays (32 different media), molecular studies (based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis) and quantitative PCR. The results from different strategies will be compared and critically discussed, showing the advantages and limits of the selected methodologies. This talk will sum up the lessons

  15. Depression and Relational Health in Asian American and European American College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Terese J.; Chan, Pauline; Liang, Belle

    2014-01-01

    Research consistently demonstrates elevated rates of depression among college-aged women, yet evidence of racial differences in depression among this population are poorly understood. Moreover, the correlates of depression among Asian American women are also understudied. In this exploratory analysis, we examined mean differences in depression…

  16. Epistemological Beliefs' Contributions to Study Strategies of Asian Americans and European Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schommer-Aikins, Marlene; Easter, Marilyn

    2008-01-01

    Given the increasingly culturally diverse composition of students in American classrooms, understanding the nature of cultural differences is necessary to generate effective instructional interventions. This study examines the individual differences in epistemological beliefs, ways of knowing, study strategies, and academic performance among…

  17. Cultural Differences in Chinese American and European American Children's Drawing Skills over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huntsinger, Carol S.; Jose, Paul E.; Krieg, Dana Balsink; Luo, Zupei

    2011-01-01

    Parents and early childhood teachers in Chinese societies and the United States have had dissimilar views about appropriate art instruction for young children. The Chinese view is that creativity will emerge after children have been taught essential drawing skills. The American view has been that children's drawing skills emerge naturally and that…

  18. African American and European American Therapists' Experiences of Addressing Race in Cross-Racial Psychotherapy Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, Sarah; Burkard, Alan W.; Johnson, Adanna J.; Suzuki, Lisa A.; Ponterotto, Joseph G.

    2003-01-01

    Using Consensual Qualitative Research, 12 licensed psychologists' overall experiences addressing race in psychotherapy were investigated, as were their experiences addressing race in a specific cross-racial therapy dyad. Results indicated that only African American psychologists reported routinely addressing race with clients of color or when race…

  19. Strong genetic differentiation between North American and European populations of Phytophthora alni subsp. uniformis.

    PubMed

    Aguayo, Jaime; Adams, Gerard C; Halkett, Fabien; Catal, Mursel; Husson, Claude; Nagy, Zoltán Á; Hansen, Everett M; Marçais, Benoît; Frey, Pascal

    2013-02-01

    Alder decline caused by Phytophthora alni has been one of the most important diseases of natural ecosystems in Europe during the last 20 years. The emergence of P. alni subsp. alni -the pathogen responsible for the epidemic-is linked to an interspecific hybridization event between two parental species: P. alni subsp. multiformis and P. alni subsp. uniformis. One of the parental species, P. alni subsp. uniformis, has been isolated in several European countries and, recently, in North America. The objective of this work was to assess the level of genetic diversity, the population genetic structure, and the putative reproduction mode and mating system of P. alni subsp. uniformis. Five new polymorphic microsatellite markers were used to contrast both geographical populations. The study comprised 71 isolates of P. alni subsp. uniformis collected from eight European countries and 10 locations in North America. Our results revealed strong differences between continental populations (Fst = 0.88; Rst = 0.74), with no evidence for gene flow. European isolates showed extremely low genetic diversity compared with the North American collection. Selfing appears to be the predominant mating system in both continental collections. The results suggest that the European P. alni subsp. uniformis population is most likely alien and derives from the introduction of a few individuals, whereas the North American population probably is an indigenous population. PMID:23095465

  20. Epitope mapping of the nucleocapsid protein of European and North American isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, M J; Sarraseca, J; Garcia, J; Sanz, A; Plana-Durán, J; Ignacio Casal, J

    1997-09-01

    Two major genotypes of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) have been described, which correspond to the European and North American isolates. PRRSV nucleocapsid (N) protein has been identified as the most immunodominant viral protein. The N genes from two PRRSV isolates, Olot/91 (European) and Québec 807/94 (North American), were cloned and expressed in: (i) baculovirus under the control of the polyhedrin promoter and (ii) Escherichia coli using the pET3x system. The N protein from both isolates was expressed much more efficiently in E. coli as a fusion protein than in baculovirus. The antigenicity of the protein was similar in both systems and it was recognized by a collection of 48 PRRSV-positive pig sera. The antigenic structure of the PRRSV N protein was investigated using seven monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and overlapping fragments of the protein expressed in E. coli. Four MAbs recognized two discontinuous epitopes that were present in the partially folded protein, or at least a large fragment comprising the first 78 residues. The other three MAbs revealed the presence of a common antigenic site localized in the central region of the protein (amino acids 50-66). This region is well conserved among different isolates of European and North American origin and is the most hydrophilic region of the protein. However, this epitope, although recognized by the MAbs and many pig sera, is not useful for diagnostic purposes. Moreover, none of the N protein fragments were able to mimic the antigenicity of the entire protein. PMID:9292014

  1. Interventions to Promote Energy Balance and Cancer Survivorship: European and North American Priorities for Research and Care

    PubMed Central

    Alfano, Catherine M.; Molfino, Alessio; Muscaritoli, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    The growing population of cancer survivors worldwide and the growing epidemics of obesity and physical inactivity have brought increased attention to the role that interventions to promote exercise and a healthy body weight might play in mitigating the chronic and late effects of cancer. In this light, we describe the similarities and differences in research and clinical priorities related to energy balance interventions among post-treatment cancer survivors in Europe vs. North America. We review the randomized, controlled trials targeting nutrition, exercise, and weight to affect survivorship outcomes. We discuss the interventions focused on improving prognosis or survival, as well as the emerging literature on interventions targeting pathways and mechanisms of prognosis or survival. We describe current North American and European guidelines for diet, exercise, and weight control among cancer survivors and discuss implications of the current state of this science for clinical care. Finally, we delineate future European and American priorities for research and care involving energy balance among survivors. We hope that this dialogue launches an international conversation that will lead to better research and care for all post-treatment cancer survivors. PMID:23695926

  2. Comparative response of reconstituted wood products to European and North American test methods for determining formaldehyde emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Groah, W.J.; Gramp, G.; Rudzinski, R. ); Bradfield, J. Heroux, G. )

    1991-01-01

    The European large-chamber, the North American large-chamber, the European perforator, and the North American desiccator test protocols for formaldehyde emissions from wood products were compared. Two formaldehyde analytical techniques using chromotropic acid and pararosaniline chemistry were used for the large-chamber testing. Six sample sets, chosen for their range in formaldehyde emissions, provided the experimental data. The sets consisted of five particleboards and one medium-density fiberboard (MDF). The European large-chamber protocol produced values that were 20% lower than the North American large-chamber protocol and both analytical techniques produced similar test results. Linear relationships between all the tests were strong. These relationships should allow manufacturers on both continents a level of confidence in predicting their conformance with formaldehyde emission standards. These tests confirm a similarity seen by others in the emission rates of North American and European products.

  3. Genetic variants in one-carbon metabolism genes and breast cancer risk in European American and African American women.

    PubMed

    Gong, Zhihong; Yao, Song; Zirpoli, Gary; David Cheng, Ting-Yuan; Roberts, Michelle; Khoury, Thaer; Ciupak, Gregory; Davis, Warren; Pawlish, Karen; Jandorf, Lina; Bovbjerg, Dana H; Bandera, Elisa V; Ambrosone, Christine B

    2015-08-01

    Folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism plays critical roles in DNA synthesis, repair and DNA methylation. The impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in folate-metabolizing enzymes has been investigated in risk of breast cancer among European or Asian populations, but not among women of African ancestry. We conducted a comprehensive analysis of SNPs in eleven genes involved in one-carbon metabolism and risk of breast cancer in 1,275 European-American (EA) and 1,299 African-American (AA) women who participated in the Women's Circle of Health Study. Allele frequencies varied significantly between EA and AA populations. A number of these SNPs, specifically in genes including MTR, MTRR, SHMT1, TYMS and SLC19A1, were associated with overall breast cancer risk, as well as risk by estrogen receptor (ER) status, in either EA or AA women. Associations appeared to be modified by dietary folate intake. Although single-SNP associations were not statistically significant after correcting for multiple comparisons, polygenetic score analyses revealed significant associations with breast cancer risk. Per unit increase of the risk score was associated with a modest 19 to 50% increase in risk of breast cancer overall, ER positive or ER negative cancer (all p < 0.0005) in EAs or AAs. In summary, our data suggest that one-carbon metabolizing gene polymorphisms could play a role in breast cancer and that may differ between EA and AA women. PMID:25598430

  4. Remote Acculturation of Early Adolescents in Jamaica towards European American Culture: A Replication and Extension

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Gail M.; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2015-01-01

    Remote acculturation is a modern form of non-immigrant acculturation identified among early adolescents in Jamaica as “Americanization”. This study aimed to replicate the original remote acculturation findings in a new cohort of early adolescents in Jamaica (n = 222; M = 12.08 years) and to extend our understanding of remote acculturation by investigating potential vehicles of indirect and intermittent intercultural contact. Cluster analyses replicated prior findings: Relative to Traditional Jamaican adolescents (62%), Americanized Jamaican adolescents (38%) reported stronger European American cultural orientation, lower Jamaican orientation, lower family obligations, and greater conflict with parents. More U.S. media (girls) and less local media and local sports (all) were the primary vehicles of intercultural contact predicting higher odds of Americanization. U.S. food, U.S. tourism, and transnational communication were also linked to U.S. orientation. Findings have implications for acculturation research and for practice and policy targeting Caribbean youth and families. PMID:25709142

  5. Blocking the spread of nuclear weapons. American and European perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.C.; Holst, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    This volume is the product of separate but parallel studies undertaken by two panels of experts-one from the United States, the other from Western Europe-on new approaches to preventing the proliferation of nuclear weapons to additional countries. Neither panel sounded a doomsday alarm; each concluded that the chances for controlling proliferation lie in good part on building on the sound foundation of existing policies and institutional structures. Among the other conclusions derived from the parallel studies: The threat of nuclear proliferation is a specific, definable danger in a limited number of countries. The incentives that appear to make nuclear weapons an interesting option to some states must be understood, and potential proliferators must be persuaded that their acquisition will not lead to national security. Effective persuasion is more likely to come from non-nuclear weapon nations. Europe and the United States must collaborate in engaging such third-party persuaders in this endeavor. The panels' intensive examination of the six states of greatest near-term concern leads to the conclusion that the uneasy status quo will probably prevail for the next several years, yet these are volatile situations. The nature of the threat demands an extraordinary degree of international collaboration.

  6. PTSD symptomatology and hazardous drinking as risk factors for sexual assault revictimization: examination in European American and African American women.

    PubMed

    Littleton, Heather; Ullman, Sarah E

    2013-06-01

    A sexual victimization history is a risk factor for experiencing further sexual victimization. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms have been posited as predictors of revictimization through multiple pathways, including through their association with risk recognition and alcohol use. There is, however, limited longitudinal research examining these revictimization risk factors, including the extent to which they predict risk for forcible rape (rape involving threat or force) and incapacitated rape (rape of a victim incapacitated by substances). Additionally, there is no research evaluating ethnic differences in revictimization risk pathways. The current study examined PTSD symptoms and hazardous drinking as predictors of new forcible and incapacitated rape over 1 year in a community sample of European American (n = 217) and African American (n = 272) sexual assault victims (M = 34 years; 84% high school education or above). We hypothesized that PTSD symptoms would predict both types of revictimization and hazardous drinking would predict incapacitated rape. Results supported that PTSD symptoms predicted both types of rape (forcible rape, β = .34; incapacitated rape, β = .20), and hazardous drinking predicted incapacitated rape (β = .24). PTSD symptoms predicted hazardous drinking in African American women only (β = .20). Thus, there is a need to evaluate risk pathways for specific types of victimization among diverse samples. PMID:23696299

  7. BMI, body discrepancy, and self-construal as predictors of eating disturbances in European and Asian American females.

    PubMed

    Chang, Edward C; Yu, Elizabeth A; Kahle, Emma R

    2014-04-01

    This study examined for ethnic variations in the predictive utility of body discrepancy and self-construal in eating disturbances between 156 European American and 129 Asian American females. We found important ethnic variations in the prediction model between these two groups, especially in the value of self-construal. Some implications of the present findings are discussed. PMID:24854828

  8. Intake of Energy-Dense Foods, Fast Foods, Sugary Drinks, and Breast Cancer Risk in African American and European American Women

    PubMed Central

    Chandran, Urmila; McCann, Susan E.; Zirpoli, Gary; Gong, Zhihong; Lin, Yong; Hong, Chi-Chen; Ciupak, Gregory; Pawlish, Karen; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Bandera, Elisa V.

    2014-01-01

    Limiting energy-dense foods, fast foods, and sugary drinks that promote weight gain is a cancer prevention recommendation, but no studies have evaluated intake in relation to breast cancer risk in African American (AA) women. In a case-control study with 1692 AA women (803 cases and 889 controls) and 1456 European American (EA) women (755 cases and 701 controls), odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for risk were computed, stratifying for menopausal and estrogen receptor (ER) status. Among postmenopausal EA women, breast cancer risk was associated with frequent consumption of energy-dense foods (OR=2.95; 95% CI: 1.66-5.22), fast foods (OR=2.35; 95% CI: 1.38-4.00), and sugary drinks (OR=2.05; 95% CI: 1.13-3.70). Elevated risk of ER+ tumors in EA women was associated with energy-dense (OR=1.75; 95% CI: 1.14-2.69) and fast foods (OR=1.84; 95% CI: 1.22-2.77). Among AA women, frequent fast food consumption was related to premenopausal breast cancer risk (OR=1.97; 95% CI: 1.13-3.43), and with ER+ tumors. Energy adjustment attenuated risk estimates in AA women, while strengthening them among EA women. Frequent consumption of energy-dense and fast foods that have poor nutritive value appeared to increase breast cancer risk in AA and EA women, with differences by menopausal status and ER status. PMID:25265504

  9. Intake of energy-dense foods, fast foods, sugary drinks, and breast cancer risk in African American and European American women.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Urmila; McCann, Susan E; Zirpoli, Gary; Gong, Zhihong; Lin, Yong; Hong, Chi-Chen; Ciupak, Gregory; Pawlish, Karen; Ambrosone, Christine B; Bandera, Elisa V

    2014-01-01

    Limiting energy-dense foods, fast foods, and sugary drinks that promote weight gain is a cancer prevention recommendation, but no studies have evaluated intake in relation to breast cancer risk in African American (AA) women. In a case-control study with 1692 AA women (803 cases and 889 controls) and 1456 European American (EA) women (755 cases and 701 controls), odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for risk were computed, stratifying for menopausal and estrogen receptor (ER) status. Among postmenopausal EA women, breast cancer risk was associated with frequent consumption of energy-dense foods (OR = 2.95; 95% CI: 1.66-5.22), fast foods (OR = 2.35; 95% CI: 1.38-4.00), and sugary drinks (OR = 2.05; 95% CI: 1.13-3.70). Elevated risk of ER+ tumors in EA women was associated with energy-dense (OR = 1.75; 95% CI: 1.14-2.69) and fast foods (OR = 1.84; 95% CI: 1.22-2.77). Among AA women, frequent fast food consumption was related to premenopausal breast cancer risk (OR = 1.97; 95% CI: 1.13-3.43), and with ER+ tumors. Energy adjustment attenuated risk estimates in AA women, while strengthening them among EA women. Frequent consumption of energy-dense and fast foods that have poor nutritive value appeared to increase breast cancer risk in AA and EA women, with differences by menopausal status and ER status. PMID:25265504

  10. Genome-wide Ancestry Association Testing Identifies a Common European Variant on 6q14.1 as a Risk Factor for Asthma in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Torgerson, Dara G.; Capurso, Daniel; Ampleford, Elizabeth J.; Li, Xingnan; Moore, Wendy C.; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Hu, Donglei; Eng, Celeste; Mathias, Rasika A.; Busse, William W.; Castro, Mario; Erzurum, Serpil C.; Fitzpatrick, Anne M.; Gaston, Benjamin; Israel, Elliot; Jarjour, Nizar N.; Teague, W. Gerald; Wenzel, Sally E.; Rodríguez-Santana, José R.; Rodríguez-Cintrón, William; Avila, Pedro C.; Ford, Jean G.; Barnes, Kathleen C.; Burchard, Esteban G.; Howard, Timothy D.; Bleecker, Eugene R.; Meyers, Deborah A.; Cox, Nancy J.; Ober, Carole; Nicolae, Dan L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Genetic variants that contribute to asthma susceptibility may be present at varying frequencies in different populations, which is an important consideration and advantage for performing genetic association studies in admixed populations. Objective To identify asthma-associated loci in African Americans. Methods We compared local African and European ancestry estimated from dense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotype data in African American adults with asthma and non-asthmatic controls. Allelic tests of association were performed within the candidate regions identified, correcting for local European admixture. Results We identified a significant ancestry association peak on chromosomes 6q. Allelic tests for association within this region identified a SNP (rs1361549) on 6q14.1 that was associated with asthma exclusively in African Americans with local European admixture (OR=2.2). The risk allele is common in Europe (42% in the HapMap CEU) but absent in West Africa (0% in the HapMap YRI), suggesting the allele is present in African Americans due to recent European admixture. We replicated our findings in Puerto Ricans and similarly found that the signal of association is largely specific to individuals who are heterozygous for African and non-African ancestry at 6q14.1. However, we found no evidence for association in European Americans or in Puerto Ricans in the absence of local African ancestry, suggesting that the association with asthma at rs1361549 is due to an environmental or genetic interaction. Conclusion We identified a novel asthma-associated locus that is relevant to admixed populations with African ancestry, and highlight the importance of considering local ancestry in genetic association studies of admixed populations. PMID:22607992

  11. Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus: Monophyletic origin of European isolates from North American Genogroup M

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Enzmann, P.-J.; Kurath, G.; Fichtner, D.; Bergmann, S.M.

    2005-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) was first detected in Europe in 1987 in France and Italy, and later, in 1992, in Germany. The source of the virus and the route of introduction are unknown. The present study investigates the molecular epidemiology of IHNV outbreaks in Germany since its first introduction. The complete nucleotide sequences of the glycoprotein (G) and non-virion (NV) genes from 9 IHNV isolates from Germany have been determined, and this has allowed the identification of characteristic differences between these isolates. Phylogenetic analysis of partial G gene sequences (mid-G, 303 nucleotides) from North American IHNV isolates (Kurath et al. 2003) has revealed 3 major genogroups, designated U, M and L. Using this gene region with 2 different North American IHNV data sets, it was possible to group the European IHNV strains within the M genogroup, but not in any previously defined subgroup. Analysis of the full length G gene sequences indicated that an independent evolution of IHN viruses had occurred in Europe. IHN viruses in Europe seem to be of a monophyletic origin, again most closely related to North American isolates in the M genogroup. Analysis of the NV gene sequences also showed the European isolates to be monophyletic, but resolution of the 3 genogroups was poor with this gene region. As a result of comparative sequence analyses, several different genotypes have been identified circulating in Europe. ?? Inter-Research 2005.

  12. Shading as a Control Method for Invasive European Frogbit (Hydrocharis morsus-ranae L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Bin; Ellis, Michael S.; Fancher, Kelly L.; Rudstam, Lars G.

    2014-01-01

    Invasive European frogbit (Hydrocharis morsus-ranae L.) has negative environmental and economic impacts in North American water bodies. It is therefore important to develop effective management tools to control this invasive species. This study investigated shading as a control method for European frogbit in both greenhouse and lake mesocosm experiments. A series of shade treatments (0%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, and 100%) were tested in the greenhouse for three weeks. Results showed that the 100% shade was most effective at controlling European frogbit, and other shade treatments greater than 50% were less effective, reducing frogbit biomass up to 38.2%. There were no differences found in temperature between treatments, but dissolved oxygen decreased as shading increased. A lake mesocosm experiment utilizing 0% shade, 70% shade, and 100% shade treatments was performed in a sheltered inlet of Oneida Lake in New York State for over one month. Resulting European frogbit biomass was significantly (25 times) less in areas treated with the 70% shade and nearly zero with the 100% shade. Shading did not affect temperature but improved DO conditions. Results on the shading effects on submerged macrophytes were not conclusive: no significant differences in changes in species richness and abundance between the three groups at the end of studied period suggested no shading effects; significant differences between the beginning and end communities in the 70% shade and the 100% shade but not in the control group indicated significant impacts of shading. This study is the first one to investigate shading as a control method for European frogbit and it is concluded that a moderately high density shade can effective remove European frogbit likely with minor impacts on the environment. More experiments with larger scales and longer time periods are recommended for further investigation. PMID:24886916

  13. Rates and factors associated with falls in older European Americans, Afro-Caribbeans, African-Americans, and Hispanics

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Edgar Ramos; Tappen, Ruth; Engstrom, Gabriella; da Costa, Bruno R

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate rates and factors associated with older adult falls in different ethnic groups. Participants and methods Information on demographics, medical and falls history, and pain and physical activity levels was collected from 550 community-dwelling older adults (75±9 years old, 222 European Americans, 109 Afro-Caribbeans, 106 African-Americans, and 113 Hispanics). Results Taking medications for anxiety (risk ratio [RR] =1.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.1–2.0), having incontinence (RR =1.4, 95% CI =1.1–1.8, P=0.013), back pain (RR =1.4, 95% CI =1.0–1.8), feet swelling (RR =1.3, 95% CI =1.1–1.7), and age ≥75 years (RR =1.3, 95% CI =1.0–1.6) were associated with falls. The associations were stronger for Afro-Caribbeans, but they presented approximately 40% lower prevalence of falls than the other groups. Conclusion Taking anxiety medication, incontinence, back pain, feet swelling, and age ≥75 years were associated with falls, and Afro-Caribbeans presented lower prevalence of falls. These findings need to be taken into consideration in clinical interventions in aging. PMID:26604718

  14. Timing and tempo: Exploring the complex association between pubertal development and depression in African American and European American girls.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Kate; Culbert, Kristen M; Grimm, Kevin J; Hipwell, Alison E; Stepp, Stephanie D

    2014-11-01

    The relative contribution of pubertal timing and tempo to the development of depression has not been tested in a large, representative sample, nor has the interface among pubertal maturation, depression, and race been tested. Participants were a community-based sample of 2,450 girls from the Pittsburgh Girls Study who were interviewed annually from ages 9 to 17 years. Pubertal timing and tempo were characterized as a unitary construct and also separately for pubic hair and breast development using child and maternal report. Depression symptoms were assessed annually. African American girls had higher depression symptoms and progressed through puberty earlier, but at a slower tempo than European American girls. Girls with earlier timing had higher levels of depression symptoms at age 10 years. Slower tempo was associated with higher depression symptoms at age 10, and faster tempo was associated with increases in depression from ages 10 to 13. As well, race moderated the associations among timing, tempo, and depression symptoms, and the association between race and depression was partially mediated by pubertal timing and tempo. Pubertal timing and tempo and race contribute to the developmental course of depression from early to late adolescence. The pattern of association varies as a function of the developmental window within which depression is assessed. Thus, repeated measures of depression symptoms and puberty across the span of pubertal development are necessary for exploring the relative importance of dimensions of pubertal development to depression etiology. PMID:25314262

  15. Timing and tempo: Exploring the complex association between pubertal development and depression in African American and European American girls

    PubMed Central

    Keenan, Kate; Culbert, Kristen; Grimm, Kevin J.; Hipwell, Alison; Stepp, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    The relative contribution of pubertal timing and tempo to the development of depression has not been tested in a large, representative sample, nor has the interface among pubertal maturation, depression, and race. Participants were a community-based sample of 2,450 girls from the Pittsburgh Girls Study (PGS) who were interviewed annually from ages 9 to 17 years. Pubertal timing and tempo were characterized as a unitary construct and also separately for pubic hair and breast development using child and maternal report. Depression symptoms were assessed annually. African-American females had higher depression symptoms and progressed through puberty earlier, but at a slower tempo than European American girls. Girls with earlier timing had higher levels of depression symptoms at age 10 years. Slower tempo was associated with higher depression symptoms at age 10, and faster tempo was associated with increases in depression from ages 10 to 13. As well, race moderated the associations among timing, tempo, and depression symptoms, and the association between race and depression was partially mediated by pubertal timing and tempo. Pubertal timing and tempo and race contribute to the developmental course of depression from early to late adolescence. The pattern of association varies as a function of the developmental window within which depression is assessed. Thus, repeated measures of depression symptoms and puberty across the span of pubertal development are necessary for exploring the relative importance of dimensions of pubertal development to depression etiology. PMID:25314262

  16. Convergence in feeling, divergence in physiology: How culture influences the consequences of disgust suppression and amplification among European Americans and Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Soto, José A; Lee, Elizabeth A; Roberts, Nicole A

    2016-01-01

    Much empirical work documents the downsides of suppressing emotions. Emerging research points to the need for a more sophisticated and culturally informed approach to understanding the consequences of emotion regulation. To that end, we employed behavioral, self-report, and psychophysiological measures to examine the consequences of two types of emotion regulation (suppression and amplification) in a sample of 28 Asian Americans and 31 European Americans. Participants were shown a neutral film and then a series of disgust-eliciting films during which they were asked to regulate their response by suppressing or amplifying their emotional behavior (counterbalanced). Despite self-reporting equal levels of disgust, European Americans showed greater skin conductance reactivity than Asian Americans in both regulation conditions, but not in response to a neutral film. These findings extend work on divergence in the consequences of emotion regulation across different cultural groups, which could help identify optimal emotion regulation strategies for health and well-being. PMID:26681616

  17. The influence of mitigation evidence, ethnicity, and SES on death penalty decisions by European American and Latino venire persons.

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Russ K E; Willis-Esqueda, Cynthia

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the research was to determine whether European American and Latino mock jurors would demonstrate bias in death penalty decision making when mitigation evidence and defendant ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES) were varied. A total of 561 actual venire persons acted as mock jurors and read a trial transcript that varied a defendant's case information (mitigating circumstances: strong/weak, defendant ethnicity: European American/Latino, and defendant SES: low/high). European American jurors recommended the death penalty significantly more often for the low SES Latino defendant when strength of mitigation evidence was weak. In addition, they also assigned this defendant higher culpability ratings and lower ratings on positive personality trait measures compared with all other conditions. Strong mitigation evidence contributed to lower guilt ratings by European American jurors for the high SES European American defendant. Latino jurors did not differ in their death penalty sentencing across defendant mitigation, ethnicity, or SES conditions. Discussion of in-group favoritism and out-group derogation, as well as suggestions for procedures to diminish juror bias in death penalty cases, is provided. PMID:25150818

  18. Work–Family Trajectories and the Higher Cardiovascular Risk of American Women Relative to Women in 13 European Countries

    PubMed Central

    van Hedel, Karen; Mejía-Guevara, Iván; Avendaño, Mauricio; Sabbath, Erika L.; Berkman, Lisa F.; Mackenbach, Johan P.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate whether less-healthy work–family life histories contribute to the higher cardiovascular disease prevalence in older American compared with European women. Methods. We used sequence analysis to identify distinct work–family typologies for women born between 1935 and 1956 in the United States and 13 European countries. Data came from the US Health and Retirement Study (1992–2006) and the Survey of Health, Aging, and Retirement in Europe (2004–2009). Results. Work–family typologies were similarly distributed in the United States and Europe. Being a lone working mother predicted a higher risk of heart disease, stroke, and smoking among American women, and smoking for European women. Lone working motherhood was more common and had a marginally stronger association with stroke in the United States than in Europe. Simulations indicated that the higher stroke risk among American women would only be marginally reduced if American women had experienced the same work–family trajectories as European women. Conclusions. Combining work and lone motherhood was more common in the United States, but differences in work–family trajectories explained only a small fraction of the higher cardiovascular risk of American relative to European women. PMID:27310346

  19. North American wetlands and mosquito control.

    PubMed

    Rey, Jorge R; Walton, William E; Wolfe, Roger J; Connelly, C Roxanne; O'Connell, Sheila M; Berg, Joe; Sakolsky-Hoopes, Gabrielle E; Laderman, Aimlee D

    2012-12-01

    Wetlands are valuable habitats that provide important social, economic, and ecological services such as flood control, water quality improvement, carbon sequestration, pollutant removal, and primary/secondary production export to terrestrial and aquatic food chains. There is disagreement about the need for mosquito control in wetlands and about the techniques utilized for mosquito abatement and their impacts upon wetlands ecosystems. Mosquito control in wetlands is a complex issue influenced by numerous factors, including many hard to quantify elements such as human perceptions, cultural predispositions, and political climate. In spite of considerable progress during the last decades, habitat protection and environmentally sound habitat management still remain inextricably tied to politics and economics. Furthermore, the connections are often complex, and occur at several levels, ranging from local businesses and politicians, to national governments and multinational institutions. Education is the key to lasting wetlands conservation. Integrated mosquito abatement strategies incorporate many approaches and practicable options, as described herein, and need to be well-defined, effective, and ecologically and economically sound for the wetland type and for the mosquito species of concern. The approach will certainly differ in response to disease outbreaks caused by mosquito-vectored pathogens versus quality of life issues caused by nuisance-biting mosquitoes. In this contribution, we provide an overview of the ecological setting and context for mosquito control in wetlands, present pertinent information on wetlands mosquitoes, review the mosquito abatement options available for current wetlands managers and mosquito control professionals, and outline some necessary considerations when devising mosquito control strategies. Although the emphasis is on North American wetlands, most of the material is applicable to wetlands everywhere. PMID:23222252

  20. North American Wetlands and Mosquito Control

    PubMed Central

    Rey, Jorge R.; Walton, William E.; Wolfe, Roger J.; Connelly, Roxanne; O’Connell, Sheila M.; Berg, Joe; Sakolsky-Hoopes, Gabrielle E.; Laderman, Aimlee D.

    2012-01-01

    Wetlands are valuable habitats that provide important social, economic, and ecological services such as flood control, water quality improvement, carbon sequestration, pollutant removal, and primary/secondary production export to terrestrial and aquatic food chains. There is disagreement about the need for mosquito control in wetlands and about the techniques utilized for mosquito abatement and their impacts upon wetlands ecosystems. Mosquito control in wetlands is a complex issue influenced by numerous factors, including many hard to quantify elements such as human perceptions, cultural predispositions, and political climate. In spite of considerable progress during the last decades, habitat protection and environmentally sound habitat management still remain inextricably tied to politics and economics. Furthermore, the connections are often complex, and occur at several levels, ranging from local businesses and politicians, to national governments and multinational institutions. Education is the key to lasting wetlands conservation. Integrated mosquito abatement strategies incorporate many approaches and practicable options, as described herein, and need to be well-defined, effective, and ecologically and economically sound for the wetland type and for the mosquito species of concern. The approach will certainly differ in response to disease outbreaks caused by mosquito-vectored pathogens versus quality of life issues caused by nuisance-biting mosquitoes. In this contribution, we provide an overview of the ecological setting and context for mosquito control in wetlands, present pertinent information on wetlands mosquitoes, review the mosquito abatement options available for current wetlands managers and mosquito control professionals, and outline some necessary considerations when devising mosquito control strategies. Although the emphasis is on North American wetlands, most of the material is applicable to wetlands everywhere. PMID:23222252

  1. Parenting Knowledge: Experiential and Sociodemographic Factors in European American Mothers of Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Cote, Linda R.; Haynes, O. Maurice; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Park, Yoonjung

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of childrearing and child development is relevant to parenting and the well-being of children. In a sociodemographically heterogeneous sample of 268 European American mothers of 2-year-olds, we assessed the state of mothers’ parenting knowledge, compared parenting knowledge in groups of mothers who varied in terms of parenthood and social status, and identified principal sources of mothers’ parenting knowledge in terms of social factors, parenting supports, and formal classes. On the whole, European American mothers demonstrated a fair but less than complete basic parenting knowledge, and mothers’ age, education, and rated helpfulness of written materials each uniquely contributed to their knowledge. Adult mothers scored higher than adolescent mothers, and mothers improved in their knowledge of parenting from their first to their second child (and were stable across time). No differences were found between mothers of girls and boys, mothers who varied in employment status, or between birth and adoptive mothers. The implications of variation in parenting knowledge and its sources for parenting education and clinical interactions with parents are discussed. PMID:20836597

  2. A Mathematical Model of Intra-Colony Spread of American Foulbrood in European Honeybees (Apis mellifera L.)

    PubMed Central

    Jatulan, Eduardo O.; Rabajante, Jomar F.; Banaay, Charina Gracia B.; Fajardo, Alejandro C.; Jose, Editha C.

    2015-01-01

    American foulbrood (AFB) is one of the severe infectious diseases of European honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) and other Apis species. This disease is caused by a gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium Paenibacillus larvae. In this paper, a compartmental (SI framework) model is constructed to represent the spread of AFB within a colony. The model is analyzed to determine the long-term fate of the colony once exposed to AFB spores. It was found out that without effective and efficient treatment, AFB infection eventually leads to colony collapse. Furthermore, infection thresholds were predicted based on the stability of the equilibrium states. The number of infected cell combs is one of the factors that drive disease spread. Our results can be used to forecast the transmission timeline of AFB infection and to evaluate the control strategies for minimizing a possible epidemic. PMID:26674357

  3. A Mathematical Model of Intra-Colony Spread of American Foulbrood in European Honeybees (Apis mellifera L.).

    PubMed

    Jatulan, Eduardo O; Rabajante, Jomar F; Banaay, Charina Gracia B; Fajardo, Alejandro C; Jose, Editha C

    2015-01-01

    American foulbrood (AFB) is one of the severe infectious diseases of European honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) and other Apis species. This disease is caused by a gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium Paenibacillus larvae. In this paper, a compartmental (SI framework) model is constructed to represent the spread of AFB within a colony. The model is analyzed to determine the long-term fate of the colony once exposed to AFB spores. It was found out that without effective and efficient treatment, AFB infection eventually leads to colony collapse. Furthermore, infection thresholds were predicted based on the stability of the equilibrium states. The number of infected cell combs is one of the factors that drive disease spread. Our results can be used to forecast the transmission timeline of AFB infection and to evaluate the control strategies for minimizing a possible epidemic. PMID:26674357

  4. Ageism and Body Esteem: Associations With Psychological Well-Being Among Late Middle-Aged African American and European American Women

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Social expectancy theory posits that cultural values shape how individuals perceive and evaluate others, and this influences how others evaluate themselves. Based on this theory, ageism may shape older individuals’ self-evaluations. Given the cultural focus on beauty and youth, perceptions of age discrimination may be associated with lower body esteem, and this may be associated with poor psychological well-being. Because discrimination has been associated with poor health, and perceptions of health can affect body perceptions, subjective health status may also contribute to lower body esteem. Method. These associations are assessed in a structural equation model for 244 African American and European American women in their early 60s. Results. Perceptions of age discrimination and body esteem were associated with lower psychological well-being for both ethnic groups. Body esteem partially mediated the association between age discrimination and psychological well-being among European American women but not among African American women. Discussion. Age-related discrimination is one source of psychological distress for older adults, though ageism’s associations with body esteem, health, and psychological well-being vary significantly for European American and African American women. Examining body perceptions and health in the contexts of ageism and ethnicity is necessary when considering the psychological well-being of older women. PMID:24013801

  5. Investigation of the locus near MC4R with childhood obesity in Americans of European and African ancestry.

    PubMed

    Grant, Struan F A; Bradfield, Jonathan P; Zhang, Haitao; Wang, Kai; Kim, Cecilia E; Annaiah, Kiran; Santa, Erin; Glessner, Joseph T; Thomas, Kelly; Garris, Maria; Frackelton, Edward C; Otieno, F George; Shaner, Julie L; Smith, Ryan M; Imielinski, Marcin; Chiavacci, Rosetta M; Li, Mingyao; Berkowitz, Robert I; Hakonarson, Hakon

    2009-07-01

    Recently a modest, but consistently, replicated association was demonstrated between obesity and the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs17782313, 3' of the MC4R locus as a consequence of a meta-analysis of genome-wide association (GWA) studies of the disease in white populations. We investigated the association in the context of the childhood form of the disease utilizing data from our ongoing GWA study in a cohort of 728 European-American (EA) obese children (BMI > or =95th percentile) and 3,960 EA controls (BMI <95th percentile), as well as 1,008 African-American (AA) obese children and 2,715 AA controls. rs571312, rs10871777, and rs476828 (perfect surrogates for rs17782313) yielded odds ratios in the EA cohort of 1.142 (P = 0.045), 1.137 (P = 0.054), and 1.145 (P = 0.042); however, there was no significant association with these SNPs in the AA cohort. When investigating all 30 SNPs present on the Illumina BeadChip at this locus, again there was no evidence for association in AA cases when correcting for the number of tests employed. As such, variants 3' to the MC4R locus present on the genotyping platform utilized confer a similar magnitude of risk of obesity in white children as to their adult white counterparts but this observation did not extend to AAs. PMID:19265794

  6. Associations of adiponectin with individual European ancestry in African Americans: the Jackson Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Bidulescu, Aurelian; Choudhry, Shweta; Musani, Solomon K.; Buxbaum, Sarah G.; Liu, Jiankang; Rotimi, Charles N.; Wilson, James G.; Taylor, Herman A.; Gibbons, Gary H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Compared with European Americans, African Americans (AAs) exhibit lower levels of the cardio-metabolically protective adiponectin even after accounting for adiposity measures. Because few studies have examined in AA the association between adiponectin and genetic admixture, a dense panel of ancestry informative markers (AIMs) was used to estimate the individual proportions of European ancestry (PEA) for the AAs enrolled in a large community-based cohort, the Jackson Heart Study (JHS). We tested the hypothesis that plasma adiponectin and PEA are directly associated and assessed the interaction with a series of cardio-metabolic risk factors. Methods: Plasma specimens from 1439 JHS participants were analyzed by ELISA for adiponectin levels. Using pseudo-ancestral population genotype data from the HapMap Consortium, PEA was estimated with a panel of up to 1447 genome-wide preselected AIMs by a maximum likelihood approach. Interaction assessment, stepwise linear and cubic multivariable-adjusted regression models were used to analyze the cross-sectional association between adiponectin and PEA. Results: Among the study participants (62% women; mean age 48 ± 12 years), the median (interquartile range) of PEA was 15.8 (9.3)%. Body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.04) and insulin resistance (p = 0.0001) modified the association between adiponectin and PEA. Adiponectin was directly and linearly associated with PEA (β = 0.62 ± 0.28, p = 0.03) among non-obese (n = 673) and insulin sensitive participants (n = 1141; β = 0.74 ± 0.23, p = 0.001), but not among those obese or with insulin resistance. No threshold point effect was detected for non-obese participants. Conclusions: In a large AA population, the individual proportion of European ancestry was linearly and directly associated with plasma adiponectin among non-obese and non insulin-resistant participants, pointing to the interaction of genetic and metabolic factors influencing adiponectin levels. PMID:24575123

  7. For and against a European quality control of training.

    PubMed

    Dimitrakakis, C; Michalas, S

    2001-01-01

    In a world of medicine that evolves more and more rapidly, sufficient quality of education in the arts and crafts of our discipline and control of this quality are essential for the progress and vitality of Ob/Gyn. There are variations in training within European countries but with the aim of harmonization in training programmes and the flexibility of quality control mechanisms we will meet our objective that is the high standards in the care of woman throughout Europe. PMID:11205701

  8. Rare variant associations with waist-to-hip ratio in European-American and African-American women from the NHLBI-Exome Sequencing Project.

    PubMed

    Kan, Mengyuan; Auer, Paul L; Wang, Gao T; Bucasas, Kristine L; Hooker, Stanley; Rodriguez, Alejandra; Li, Biao; Ellis, Jaclyn; Adrienne Cupples, L; Ida Chen, Yii-Der; Dupuis, Josée; Fox, Caroline S; Gross, Myron D; Smith, Joshua D; Heard-Costa, Nancy; Meigs, James B; Pankow, James S; Rotter, Jerome I; Siscovick, David; Wilson, James G; Shendure, Jay; Jackson, Rebecca; Peters, Ulrike; Zhong, Hua; Lin, Danyu; Hsu, Li; Franceschini, Nora; Carlson, Chris; Abecasis, Goncalo; Gabriel, Stacey; Bamshad, Michael J; Altshuler, David; Nickerson, Deborah A; North, Kari E; Lange, Leslie A; Reiner, Alexander P; Leal, Suzanne M

    2016-08-01

    Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), a relative comparison of waist and hip circumferences, is an easily accessible measurement of body fat distribution, in particular central abdominal fat. A high WHR indicates more intra-abdominal fat deposition and is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Recent genome-wide association studies have identified numerous common genetic loci influencing WHR, but the contributions of rare variants have not been previously reported. We investigated rare variant associations with WHR in 1510 European-American and 1186 African-American women from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-Exome Sequencing Project. Association analysis was performed on the gene level using several rare variant association methods. The strongest association was observed for rare variants in IKBKB (P=4.0 × 10(-8)) in European-Americans, where rare variants in this gene are predicted to decrease WHRs. The activation of the IKBKB gene is involved in inflammatory processes and insulin resistance, which may affect normal food intake and body weight and shape. Meanwhile, aggregation of rare variants in COBLL1, previously found to harbor common variants associated with WHR and fasting insulin, were nominally associated (P=2.23 × 10(-4)) with higher WHR in European-Americans. However, these significant results are not shared between African-Americans and European-Americans that may be due to differences in the allelic architecture of the two populations and the small sample sizes. Our study indicates that the combined effect of rare variants contribute to the inter-individual variation in fat distribution through the regulation of insulin response. PMID:26757982

  9. Rare, low frequency and common coding variants in CHRNA5 and their contribution to nicotine dependence in European and African Americans.

    PubMed

    Olfson, E; Saccone, N L; Johnson, E O; Chen, L-S; Culverhouse, R; Doheny, K; Foltz, S M; Fox, L; Gogarten, S M; Hartz, S; Hetrick, K; Laurie, C C; Marosy, B; Amin, N; Arnett, D; Barr, R G; Bartz, T M; Bertelsen, S; Borecki, I B; Brown, M R; Chasman, D I; van Duijn, C M; Feitosa, M F; Fox, E R; Franceschini, N; Franco, O H; Grove, M L; Guo, X; Hofman, A; Kardia, S L R; Morrison, A C; Musani, S K; Psaty, B M; Rao, D C; Reiner, A P; Rice, K; Ridker, P M; Rose, L M; Schick, U M; Schwander, K; Uitterlinden, A G; Vojinovic, D; Wang, J-C; Ware, E B; Wilson, G; Yao, J; Zhao, W; Breslau, N; Hatsukami, D; Stitzel, J A; Rice, J; Goate, A; Bierut, L J

    2016-05-01

    The common nonsynonymous variant rs16969968 in the α5 nicotinic receptor subunit gene (CHRNA5) is the strongest genetic risk factor for nicotine dependence in European Americans and contributes to risk in African Americans. To comprehensively examine whether other CHRNA5 coding variation influences nicotine dependence risk, we performed targeted sequencing on 1582 nicotine-dependent cases (Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence score⩾4) and 1238 non-dependent controls, with independent replication of common and low frequency variants using 12 studies with exome chip data. Nicotine dependence was examined using logistic regression with individual common variants (minor allele frequency (MAF)⩾0.05), aggregate low frequency variants (0.05>MAF⩾0.005) and aggregate rare variants (MAF<0.005). Meta-analysis of primary results was performed with replication studies containing 12 174 heavy and 11 290 light smokers. Next-generation sequencing with 180 × coverage identified 24 nonsynonymous variants and 2 frameshift deletions in CHRNA5, including 9 novel variants in the 2820 subjects. Meta-analysis confirmed the risk effect of the only common variant (rs16969968, European ancestry: odds ratio (OR)=1.3, P=3.5 × 10(-11); African ancestry: OR=1.3, P=0.01) and demonstrated that three low frequency variants contributed an independent risk (aggregate term, European ancestry: OR=1.3, P=0.005; African ancestry: OR=1.4, P=0.0006). The remaining 22 rare coding variants were associated with increased risk of nicotine dependence in the European American primary sample (OR=12.9, P=0.01) and in the same risk direction in African Americans (OR=1.5, P=0.37). Our results indicate that common, low frequency and rare CHRNA5 coding variants are independently associated with nicotine dependence risk. These newly identified variants likely influence the risk for smoking-related diseases such as lung cancer. PMID:26239294

  10. Developmental Patterns in Decision-Making Autonomy across Middle Childhood and Adolescence: European American Parents’ Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Wray-Lake, Laura; Crouter, Ann C.; McHale, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    Longitudinal patterns in parents’ reports of youth decision-making autonomy from ages 9 to 20 were examined in a study of 201 European American families with two offspring. Multilevel modeling analyses revealed that decision-making autonomy increased gradually across middle childhood and adolescence before rising sharply in late adolescence. Social domain theory was supported by analyses of eight decision types spanning prudential, conventional, personal, and multifaceted domains. Decision making was higher for girls, youth whom parents perceived as easier to supervise, and youth with better educated parents. Firstborns and secondborns had different age-related trajectories of decision-making autonomy. Findings shed light on the developmental trajectories and family processes associated with adolescents’ fundamental task of gaining autonomy. PMID:20438465

  11. Developmental patterns in decision-making autonomy across middle childhood and adolescence: European American parents' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Wray-Lake, Laura; Crouter, Ann C; McHale, Susan M

    2010-01-01

    Longitudinal patterns in parents' reports of youth decision-making autonomy from ages 9 to 20 were examined in a study of 201 European American families with 2 offspring. Multilevel modeling analyses revealed that decision-making autonomy increased gradually across middle childhood and adolescence before rising sharply in late adolescence. Social domain theory was supported by analyses of 8 decision types spanning prudential, conventional, personal, and multifaceted domains. Decision making was higher for girls, youth whom parents perceived as easier to supervise, and youth with better educated parents. Firstborns and secondborns had different age-related trajectories of decision-making autonomy. Findings shed light on the developmental trajectories and family processes associated with adolescents' fundamental task of gaining autonomy. PMID:20438465

  12. Change in Coping and Defense Mechanisms across Adulthood: Longitudinal Findings in a European-American Sample

    PubMed Central

    Diehl, Manfred; Chui, Helena; Hay, Elizabeth L.; Lumley, Mark A.; Grühn, Daniel; Labouvie-Vief, Gisela

    2014-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal changes in coping and defense mechanisms in an age- and gender-stratified sample of 392 European-American adults. Nonlinear age-related changes were found for the coping mechanisms of sublimation and suppression and the defense mechanisms of intellectualization, doubt, displacement, and regression. The change trajectories for sublimation and suppression showed that their use increased from adolescence to late middle age and early old age, and remained mostly stable into late old age. The change trajectory for intellectualization showed that the use of this defense mechanism increased from adolescence to middle age, remained stable until late midlife, and started to decline thereafter. The defense mechanisms of doubt, displacement, and regression showed decreases from adolescence until early old age, with increases occurring again after the age of 65. Linear age-related decreases were found for the coping mechanism of ego regression and the defense mechanisms of isolation and rationalization. Gender and socioeconomic status were associated with the mean levels of several coping and defense mechanisms, but did not moderate age-related changes. Increases in ego level were associated with increased use of the defense mechanism intellectualization and decreased use of the defense mechanisms of doubt and displacement. Overall, these findings in a European-American sample suggest that most individuals showed development in the direction of more adaptive and less maladaptive coping and defense strategies from adolescence until late middle age or early old age. However, in late old age this development was reversed, presenting potential challenges to the adaptive capacity of older adults. PMID:23834293

  13. [Challenges to Latin-American health systems: what can be learned from the European experience?].

    PubMed

    Figueras, J; Musgrove, P; Carrin, G; Durán, A

    2002-01-01

    This article compares the challenges of health systems in Latin America and the experience in Europe. The framework is the analysis of four functions: a) to generate resources; b) to produce activities; c) to finance, and d) to exercise stewardship. It is at this level where actors can influence health system responsiveness. Five challenges are identified in Latin America: a) to extend (prepayment and solidarity) financial protection; b) to stabilise that protection for crisis times; c) to equilibrate resources in accordance to capacity for financing services; d) to increase efficiency (technical and of placement) to produce services, and e) to improve the stewardship function in public and private sectors (the most important and difficult challenge Latin-American systems have nowadays). The experience of reform in Europe is analysed, showing: a) experiences about financial protection in Beveridge and Bismarck systems; b) stability in crisis times, recently confirm (West) and with important obstacles (East); c) efforts to equilibrate hospital beds and health care professionals, combining regulation and incentives; d) increase of efficiency in services production, with more express prioritisation, empowering patients, decentralising management and with market incentives, and e) improvement of stewardship with better (not less, sometimes even more) regulation. Three areas of European experience stand out: a) to combine solidarity with financial sustainability; b) to introduce market incentives in a measured way, but maintaining a clear stewardship role for the state, and c) to adopt innovations in organising and producing services. In spite of methodological difficulties, convergence of challenges and adopted solutions justify this analysis, but learning must be seen in each national context. A future article will analyse lessons offered by reform in Latin-American systems for European reforms. PMID:11841751

  14. Genetic Association Analysis of 30 Genes Related to Obesity in a European American Population

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peng; Tiwari, Hemant K.; Lin, Wan-Yu; Allison, David B.; Chung, Wendy K.; Leibel, Rudolph L.; Yi, Nengjun; Liu, Nianjun

    2013-01-01

    Objective Obesity, which is frequently associated with diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases, is primarily the result of a net excess of caloric intake over energy expenditure. Human obesity is highly heritable, but the specific genes mediating susceptibility in non-syndromic obesity remain unclear. We tested candidate genes in pathways related to food intake and energy expenditure for association with body mass index (BMI). Methods We re-analyzed 355 common genetic variants of 30 candidate genes in 7 molecular pathways related to obesity in 1,982 unrelated European Americans from the New York Health Project. Data were analyzed by using a Bayesian hierarchical generalized linear model. The BMIs were log-transformed and then adjusted for covariates including age, age2, gender, and diabetes status. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were modeled as additive effects. Results With the stipulated adjustments, nine SNPs in eight genes were significantly associated with BMI: GHRL (rs35683), AGRP (rs5030980), CPE (rs1946816 and rs4481204), GLP1R (rs2268641), HTR2A (rs912127), NPY5R (Y5R1c52), SOCS3 (rs4969170), and STAT3 (rs4796793). We also found a gender-by-SNP interaction (rs1745837 in HTR2A), which indicated that variants in the gene HTR2A had a stronger association with BMI in males. In addition, NPY1R was detected as having a significant gene effect even though none of the SNPs in this gene was significant. Conclusion Variations in genes AGRP, CPE, GHRL, GLP1R, HTR2A, NPY1R, NPY5R, SOCS3, and STAT3 showed modest associations with BMI in European Americans. The pathways in which these genes participate regulate energy intake and thus these associations are mechanistically plausible in this context. PMID:23900445

  15. Validity Study of the "Preschool Language Scale-4" with English-Speaking Hispanic and European American Children in Head Start Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qi, Cathy H.; Marley, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the psychometric properties of the "Preschool Language Scale-4" (PLS-4) with a sample of English-speaking Hispanic and European American children who attended Head Start programs. Participants were 440 children between the ages of 3 and 5 years (52% male; 86% Hispanic and 14% European American). Participants…

  16. Parental Beliefs on Children's Play: Comparison among Mainland Chinese, Chinese Immigrants in the USA, and European-Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Shan; Han, Myae

    2016-01-01

    The current study surveyed parental play beliefs among the three groups of parents: the mainland Chinese, Chinese immigrants in the USA, and European-Americans. Limited comparison studies on parental play beliefs were previously reported for these three populations in the literature. Two measures, the Chinese child-rearing ideology and parental…

  17. Maternal Discussions of Mental States and Behaviors: Relations to Emotion Situation Knowledge in European American and Immigrant Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doan, Stacey N.; Wang, Qi

    2010-01-01

    This study examined in a cross-cultural context mothers' discussions of mental states and external behaviors in a story-telling task with their 3-year-old children and the relations of such discussions to children's emotion situation knowledge (ESK). The participants were 71 European American and 60 Chinese immigrant mother-child pairs in the…

  18. Clinical Phenomenology, Somatic Symptoms, and Distress in Hispanic/Latino and European American Youths With Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pina, Armando A.; Silverman, Wendy K.

    2004-01-01

    This study compared clinic-anxious Hispanic/Latino and European American youths (ages 6 to 17 years old) along sociodemographic and clinical variables. Groups were relatively similar, although significant differences emerged as a function of ethnocultural and language choice (English, Spanish) used during the assessment. Within the English…

  19. The Emergence of Cultural Self-Constructs: Autobiographical Memory and Self-Description in European American and Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Qi

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the emergence of cultural self-constructs as reflected in children's remembered and conceptual aspects of the self. European American and Chinese children in preschool through 2nd grade participated (N=180). Children each recounted 4 autobiographical events and described themselves in response to open-ended questions. American…

  20. Promoting Academic Persistence among Racial/Ethnic Minority and European American Freshman and Sophomore Undergraduates: Implications for College Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigali-Oiler, Marybeth; Kurpius, Sharon Robinson

    2013-01-01

    Factors influencing persistence decisions among 346 racial/ethnic minority and 813 European American freshman and sophomore undergraduates were explored. Gender and racial/ethnic differences were found in centrality and public regard of racial/ethnic identity. Perceptions of the university environment and self-beliefs predicted persistence…

  1. Meaning in Life as a Mediator of Ethnic Identity and Adjustment among Adolescents from Latin, Asian, and European American Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiang, Lisa; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    Establishing a sense of life meaning is a primary facet of well-being, yet is understudied in adolescent development. Using data from 579 adolescents (53% female) from Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds, demographic differences in meaning in life, links with psychological and academic adjustment, and the role of meaning in explaining…

  2. Parent-Child Participation in Planning Children's Activities Outside of School in European American and Latino Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauvain, Mary; Perez, Susan M.

    2005-01-01

    This longitudinal research used a sociocultural perspective to examine planning competence in the everyday experiences of European American and Latino children from 7 to 9 years of age. Data on children's participation in planning their activities outside of school, parental expectations about children's planning competence, and children's…

  3. Relations among Ethnic Identity, Parenting Style, and Adolescent Psychosocial Outcomes in European American and East Indian Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhadha, Bakhtawar

    The challenges of identity formation are particularly difficult for minority youth because of the clash of traditional culture and the host culture. This study examined the effects of parenting style, acculturation, and parent and adolescent ethnic identity on the self-esteem and school performance of East Indian and European American adolescents.…

  4. Relations between Colorblind Socialization and Children's Racial Bias: Evidence from European American Mothers and Their Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pahlke, Erin; Bigler, Rebecca S.; Suizzo, Marie-Anne

    2012-01-01

    To examine European American parents' racial socialization, mothers (n = 84) were videotaped while reading 2 race-themed books to their 4- to 5-year-old children and completed surveys concerning their racial attitudes and behaviors. Children completed measures of their racial attitudes and both groups (mothers and preschoolers) predicted the…

  5. Change in Ethnic Identity across the High School Years among Adolescents with Latin American, Asian, and European Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiang, Lisa; Witkow, Melissa R.; Baldelomar, Oscar A.; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    Changes in adolescents' ethnic identity (e.g., exploration, belonging) were examined over the 4 years of high school. Results from 541 adolescents (51% female) with Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds suggest that, as a group, adolescents do not report developmental changes in their ethnic exploration and belonging over time. Yet,…

  6. Cross-Ethnic Invariance of Self-Esteem and Depression Measures for Chinese, Filipino, and European American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Stephen T.; Crockett, Lisa J.; Shen, Yuh-Ling; Lee, Sun-A

    2008-01-01

    Self-esteem and depression are fundamental psychological adjustment constructs in the study of adolescent well-being. Most measures of these constructs have been developed and validated using European American samples, and while the correlates and predictors of psychological adjustment have been examined in multiple cultural settings, no existing…

  7. Planning, Re-Bordering and Setting Times: A Comparative Analysis of European and Latin American "Education Spaces"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rambla, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    The article compares educational regionalisation in Europe and Latin America. This analysis unveils the influence of three social phenomena in the two case studies, namely power, fields of activity and knowledge. Mostly, it focuses on the initiatives led by the European Union and the Organisation of Ibero-American States in order to implement…

  8. Emotion Situation Knowledge and Autobiographical Memory in Chinese, Immigrant Chinese, and European American 3-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Qi; Hutt, Rachel; Kulkofsky, Sarah; McDermott, Melissa; Wei, Ruohong

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the influence of children's emotion situation knowledge (EK) on their autobiographical memory ability at both group and individual levels. Native Chinese, Chinese immigrant, and European American 3-year-old children participated (N = 189). During a home visit, children recounted 2 personal memories of recent, 1-time events with…

  9. Progression to Problem Drinking Among Mexican American and White European First-Year College Students: A Multiple Group Analysis*

    PubMed Central

    Schweizer, C. Amanda; Doran, Neal; Roesch, Scott C.; Myers, Mark G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Problem drinking during college is a well-known phenomenon. However, predictors of progression to problematic drinking, particularly among ethnic minorities such as Mexican Americans, have received limited research attention. Method: The current study compared the rates and predictors of problem drinking progression from the first to the second year of college among four groups: Mexican American men, Mexican American women, White European men, and White European women (N = 215). At baseline, participants were all first-year college students who scored as nonproblem drinkers on the Young Adult Alcohol Problems Screening Test (YAAPST). Participants were classified as progressors or stable nondrinkers/nonproblem drinkers based on YAAPST scores 12 months later. Hypothesized predictors of progression included behavioral undercontrol, negative emotionality, alcohol use expectancies, and cultural orientation (Mexican American sample only). Differences were anticipated between gender and ethnic groups in both progression rates and predictors of progression. Results: Twenty-nine percent of the sample progressed to problematic drinking; however, no differences emerged by gender or ethnicity. For the full sample, higher behavioral undercontrol and higher negative emotionality significantly predicted progression. Differences in predictors were not found across gender and ethnic subgroups. Conclusions: The hypothesis that rates of progression to problem drinking would differ among the four gender and ethnic groups was not supported. Thus, although White European men are most often identified as at high risk for alcohol use problems, the present findings indicate that women and Mexican American students also should be targeted for prevention and/or intervention. PMID:22051211

  10. Agricultural pollution control under Spanish and European environmental policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MartíNez, Yolanda; Albiac, José

    2004-10-01

    Nonpoint pollution from agriculture is an important environmental policy issue in Spain and the European Union. Agricultural pollution in Spain is being addressed by the National Irrigation Plan and by the European Water Framework Directive. This article contributes to the ongoing policy decision process by analyzing nonpoint pollution control and presenting results on the efficiency of abatement measures. Results question the reliance of the Water Framework Directive on water pricing as a pollution instrument for reaching good status for all waters because higher water prices close to full recovery cost advocated by the directive appear to be inefficient as an emission control instrument. Another important result is that abatement measures based on input taxes and standards on nitrogen appear to be more suitable than the National Irrigation Plan subsidies designed to promote irrigation investments. The results also contribute with further evidence to the discussion on the appropriate instrument base for pollution control, proving that nonpoint pollution control instruments cannot be assessed accurately without a correct understanding of the key underlying biophysical processes. Nonpoint pollution is characterized by nonlinearities, dynamics, and spatial dependency, and neglect of the dynamic aspects may lead to serious consequences for the design of measures. Finally, a quantitative assessment has been performed to explore discriminating measures based on crop pollution potential on vulnerable soils. No significant welfare gains are found from discriminating control, although results are contingent upon the level of damage, and discrimination could be justified in areas with valuable ecosystems and severe pollution damages.