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1

Degradation of thermal control materials under a simulated radiative space environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A spacecraft with a passive thermal control system utilizes various thermal control materials to maintain temperatures within safe operating limits. Materials used for spacecraft applications are exposed to harsh space environments such as ultraviolet (UV) and particle (electron, proton) irradiation and atomic oxygen (AO), undergo physical damage and thermal degradation, which must be considered for spacecraft thermal design optimization and cost effectiveness. This paper describes the effect of synergistic radiation on some of the important thermal control materials to verify the assumptions of beginning-of-life (BOL) and end-of-life (EOL) properties. Studies on the degradation in the optical properties (solar absorptance and infrared emittance) of some important thermal control materials exposed to simulated radiative geostationary space environment are discussed. The current studies are purely related to the influence of radiation on the degradation of the materials; other environmental aspects (e.g., thermal cycling) are not discussed. The thermal control materials investigated herein include different kind of second-surface mirrors, white anodizing, white paints, black paints, multilayer insulation materials, varnish coated aluminized polyimide, germanium coated polyimide, polyether ether ketone (PEEK) and poly tetra fluoro ethylene (PTFE). For this purpose, a test in the constant vacuum was performed reproducing a three year radiative space environment exposure, including ultraviolet and charged particle effects on North/South panels of a geostationary three-axis stabilized spacecraft. Reflectance spectra were measured in situ in the solar range (250-2500 nm) and the corresponding solar absorptance values were calculated. The test methodology and the degradations of the materials are discussed. The most important degradations among the low solar absorptance materials were found in the white paints whereas the rigid optical solar reflectors remained quite stable. Among the high solar absorptance elements, as such the change in the solar absorptance was very low, in particular the germanium coated polyimide was found highly stable.

Sharma, A. K.; Sridhara, N.

2012-11-01

2

Final report for the designed synthesis of controlled degradative materials LDRD  

SciTech Connect

The main goal of this research was to develop degradable systems either by developing weaklink-containing polymers or identifying commercial polymeric systems which are easily degraded. In both cases, the degradation method involves environmentally friendly chemistries. The weaklinks are easily degradable fragments which are introduced either randomly or regularly in the polymer backbone or as crosslinking sites to make high molecular weight systems via branching. The authors targeted three general application areas: (1) non-lethal deterrents, (2) removable encapsulants, and (3) readily recyclable/environmentally friendly polymers for structural and thin film applications.

LOY,DOUGLAS A.; ULIBARRI,TAMARA A.; CURRO,JOHN G.; SAUNDERS,R.; DERZON,DORA K.; GUESS,TOMMY R.; BAUGHER,B.M.

2000-02-01

3

Methods for degrading lignocellulosic materials  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to methods for degrading a lignocellulosic material, comprising: treating the lignocellulosic material with an effective amount of one or more cellulolytic enzymes in the presence of at least one surfactant selected from the group consisting of a secondary alcohol ethoxylate, fatty alcohol ethoxylate, nonylphenol ethoxylate, tridecyl ethoxylate, and polyoxyethylene ether, wherein the presence of the surfactant increases the degradation of lignocellulosic material compared to the absence of the surfactant. The present invention also relates to methods for producing an organic substance, comprising: (a) saccharifying a lignocellulosic material with an effective amount of one or more cellulolytic enzymes in the presence of at least one surfactant selected from the group consisting of a secondary alcohol ethoxylate, fatty alcohol ethoxylate, nonylphenol ethoxylate, tridecyl ethoxylate, and polyoxyethylene ether, wherein the presence of the surfactant increases the degradation of lignocellulosic material compared to the absence of the surfactant; (b) fermenting the saccharified lignocellulosic material of step (a) with one or more fermentating microoganisms; and (c) recovering the organic substance from the fermentation.

Vlasenko, Elena (Davis, CA); Cherry, Joel (Davis, CA); Xu, Feng (Davis, CA)

2008-04-08

4

Methods for degrading lignocellulosic materials  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to methods for degrading a lignocellulosic material, comprising: treating the lignocellulosic material with an effective amount of one or more cellulolytic enzymes in the presence of at least one surfactant selected from the group consisting of a secondary alcohol ethoxylate, fatty alcohol ethoxylate, nonylphenol ethoxylate, tridecyl ethoxylate, and polyoxyethylene ether, wherein the presence of the surfactant increases the degradation of lignocellulosic material compared to the absence of the surfactant. The present invention also relates to methods for producing an organic substance, comprising: (a) saccharifying a lignocellulosic material with an effective amount of one or more cellulolytic enzymes in the presence of at least one surfactant selected from the group consisting of a secondary alcohol ethoxylate, fatty alcohol ethoxylate, nonylphenol ethoxylate, tridecyl ethoxylate, and polyoxyethylene ether, wherein the presence of the surfactant increases the degradation of lignocellulosic material compared to the absence of the surfactant; (b) fermenting the saccharified lignocellulosic material of step (a) with one or more fermenting microorganisms; and (c) recovering the organic substance from the fermentation.

Vlasenko, Elena (Davis, CA); Cherry, Joel (Davis, CA); Xu, Feng (Davis, CA)

2011-05-17

5

Degradation of materials in the atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a perspective on the potential for materials degradation as a consequence of atmospheric exposure. Ferrous metals, masonry, zinc, copper, and perhaps some paints appear most likely to be degraded. The regimes of greatest concern vary with different materials, but they include dew, fog, airborne particles, and indoor air. The results, however, rest on a rather sparse data

T. E. Graedel; R. McGill

1986-01-01

6

Mechanical degradation temperature of waste storage materials  

SciTech Connect

Heat loading analysis of the Solid Waste Disposal Facility (SWDF) waste storage configurations show the containers may exceed 90{degrees}C without any radioactive decay heat contribution. Contamination containment is primarily controlled in TRU waste packaging by using multiple bag layers of polyvinyl chloride and polyethylene. Since literature values indicate that these thermoplastic materials can begin mechanical degradation at 66{degrees}C, there was concern that the containment layers could be breached by heating. To better define the mechanical degradation temperature limits for the materials, a series of heating tests were conducted over a fifteen and thirty minute time interval. Samples of a low-density polyethylene (LDPE) bag, a high-density polyethylene (HDPE) high efficiency particulate air filter (HEPA) container, PVC bag and sealing tape were heated in a convection oven to temperatures ranging from 90 to 185{degrees}C. The following temperature limits are recommended for each of the tested materials: (1) low-density polyethylene -- 110{degrees}C; (2) polyvinyl chloride -- 130{degrees}C; (3) high-density polyethylene -- 140{degrees}C; (4) sealing tape -- 140{degrees}C. Testing with LDPE and PVC at temperatures ranging from 110 to 130{degrees}C for 60 and 120 minutes also showed no observable differences between the samples exposed at 15 and 30 minute intervals. Although these observed temperature limits differ from the literature values, the trend of HDPE having a higher temperature than LDPE is consistent with the reference literature. Experimental observations indicate that the HDPE softens at elevated temperatures, but will retain its shape upon cooling. In SWDF storage practices, this might indicate some distortion of the waste container, but catastrophic failure of the liner due to elevated temperatures (<185{degrees}C) is not anticipated.

Fink, M.C.; Meyer, M.L.

1993-05-13

7

Material Corrion/Degradation Database  

SciTech Connect

The corrosion of a variety of structural metals and materials is presented. Data on specific material--and for well-studied agents--has been abstracted from the corrosion literature. In addition, limited data on one superacid (so-called ''Magic Acid,'' a mixture of 100% fluorosulfonic acid, HSO{sub 3}F, with 25% (w/w) of antimony pentafluoride (SbF{sub 5}) added) is tabulated.

Kinkead, S.A.

1999-07-08

8

Elastomer degradation sensor using a piezoelectric material  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for monitoring the degradation of elastomeric materials is provided. Piezoelectric oscillators are placed in contact with the elastomeric material so that a forced harmonic oscillator with damping is formed. The piezoelectric material is connected to an oscillator circuit,. A parameter such as the resonant frequency, amplitude or Q value of the oscillating system is related to the elasticity of the elastomeric material. Degradation of the elastomeric material causes changes in its elasticity which, in turn, causes the resonant frequency, amplitude or Q of the oscillator to change. These changes are monitored with a peak height monitor, frequency counter, Q-meter, spectrum analyzer, or other measurement circuit. Elasticity of elastomers can be monitored in situ, using miniaturized sensors.

Olness, Dolores U. (Livermore, CA); Hirschfeld, deceased, Tomas B. (late of Livermore, CA)

1990-01-01

9

Energetic oxygen atom material degradation studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of a study designed to test potential Shuttle surface materials for the extents of degradation and mass loss expected to be suffered in space from the velocity impacts of ambient oxygen atoms, a novel technique was developed for generation of a high flux of energetic oxygen atoms. The generation technique involves laser-induced breakdown of molecular oxygen followed by a rapid expansion of energetic oxygen atoms. The high-velocity streams developed in an evacuated hypersonic nozzle have average O-atom velocities of about 5 to 13 km/s, with an estimated total production of 10 to the 18th atoms per pulse over pulse durations of several microseconds. Results on preliminary material degradation tests conducted with this test facility have been reported by Caledonia et al. (1987). Diagrams of the experimental setup are included.

Caledonia, George E.; Krech, Robert H.

1987-01-01

10

Materials Degradation in Light Water Reactors: Life After 60,???  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear reactors present a very harsh environment for components service. Components within a reactor core must tolerate high temperature water, stress, vibration, and an intense neutron field. Degradation of materials in this environment can lead to reduced performance, and in some cases, sudden failure. A recent EPRI-led study interviewed 47 US nuclear utility executives to gauge perspectives on long-term operation of nuclear reactors. Nearly 90% indicated that extensions of reactor lifetimes to beyond 60 years were likely. When polled on the most challenging issues facing further life extension, two-thirds cited plant reliability as the key issue with materials aging and cable/piping as the top concerns for plant reliability. Materials degradation within a nuclear power plant is very complex. There are many different types of materials within the reactor itself: over 25 different metal alloys can be found with can be found within the primary and secondary systems, not to mention the concrete containment vessel, instrumentation and control, and other support facilities. When this diverse set of materials is placed in the complex and harsh environment coupled with load, degradation over an extended life is indeed quite complicated. To address this issue, the USNRC has developed a Progressive Materials Degradation Approach (NUREG/CR-6923). This approach is intended to develop a foundation for appropriate actions to keep materials degradation from adversely impacting component integrity and safety and identify materials and locations where degradation can reasonably be expected in the future. Clearly, materials degradation will impact reactor reliability, availability, and potentially, safe operation. Routine surveillance and component replacement can mitigate these factors, although failures still occur. With reactor life extensions to 60 years or beyond or power uprates, many components must tolerate the reactor environment for even longer times. This may increase susceptibility for most components and may introduce new degradation modes. While all components (except perhaps the reactor vessel) can be replaced, it may not be economically favorable. Therefore, understanding, controlling, and mitigating materials degradation processes are key priorities for reactor operation, power uprate considerations, and life extensions. This document is written to give an overview of some of the materials degradation issues that may be key for extend reactor service life. A detailed description of all the possible forms of degradation is beyond the scope of this short paper and has already been described in other documents (for example, the NUREG/CR-6923). The intent of this document is to present an overview of current materials issues in the existing reactor fleet and a brief analysis of the potential impact of extending life beyond 60 years. Discussion is presented in six distinct areas: (1) Reactor pressure vessel; (2) Reactor core and primary systems; (3) Reactor secondary systems; (4) Weldments; (5) Concrete; and (6) Modeling and simulations. Following each of these areas, some research thrust directions to help identify and mitigate lifetime extension issues are proposed. Note that while piping and cabling are important for extended service, these components are discussed in more depth in a separate paper. Further, the materials degradation issues associated with fuel cladding and fuel assemblies are not discussed in this section as these components are replaced periodically and will not influence the overall lifetime of the reactor.

Busby, Jeremy T [ORNL; Nanstad, Randy K [ORNL; Stoller, Roger E [ORNL; Feng, Zhili [ORNL; Naus, Dan J [ORNL

2008-04-01

11

Tuning the Degradation Profiles of Poly(l-lactide)-Based Materials through Miscibility  

PubMed Central

The effective use of biodegradable polymers relies on the ability to control the onset of and time needed for degradation. Preferably, the material properties should be retained throughout the intended time frame, and the material should degrade in a rapid and controlled manner afterward. The degradation profiles of polyester materials were controlled through their miscibility. Systems composed of PLLA blended with poly[(R,S)-3-hydroxybutyrate] (a-PHB) and polypropylene adipate (PPA) with various molar masses were prepared through extrusion. Three different systems were used: miscible (PLLA/a-PHB5 and PLLA/a-PHB20), partially miscible (PLLA/PPA5/comp and PLLA/PPA20/comp), and immiscible (PLLA/PPA5 and PLLA/PPA20) blends. These blends and their respective homopolymers were hydrolytically degraded in water at 37 °C for up to 1 year. The blends exhibited entirely different degradation profiles but showed no diversity between the total degradation times of the materials. PLLA presented a two-stage degradation profile with a rapid decrease in molar mass during the early stages of degradation, similar to the profile of PLLA/a-PHB5. PLLA/a-PHB20 presented a single, constant linear degradation profile. PLLA/PPA5 and PLLA/PPA20 showed completely opposing degradation profiles relative to PLLA, exhibiting a slow initial phase and a rapid decrease after a prolonged degradation time. PLLA/PPA5/comp and PLLA/PPA20/comp had degradation profiles between those of the miscible and the immiscible blends. The molar masses of the materials were approximately the same after 1 year of degradation despite their different profiles. The blend composition and topographical images captured at the last degradation time point demonstrate that the blending component was not leached out during the period of study. The hydrolytic stability of degradable polyester materials can be tailored to obtain different and predetermined degradation profiles for future applications. PMID:24279455

2013-01-01

12

Atmospheric degradation and corrosion control  

SciTech Connect

This book offers solutions to the problems associated with atmospheric corrosion by covering corrosion theory, the mechanisms and effects of corrosion on specific materials, and the means of protecting materials against atmospheric corrosion. The book addresses the atmospheric corrosion of metals and alloys, metallic coatings, conversion coatings, polymeric coatings, plastics, elastomers, masonry materials, ceramics, wood, and indoor atmospheric corrosion.

Schweitzer, P.A.

1999-07-01

13

Space simulation test for thermal control materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tests were run in TRW's Combined Environment Facility to examine the degradation of thermal control materials in a simulated space environment. Thermal control materials selected for the test were those presently being used on spacecraft or predicted to be used within the next few years. The geosynchronous orbit environment was selected as the most interesting. One of the goals was to match degradation of those materials with available flight data. Another aim was to determine if degradation can adequately be determined with accelerated or short term ground tests.

Hardgrove, W. R.

1990-01-01

14

Degradation of Spacecraft Materials in the Space Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When we think of space, we typically think of a vacuum containing very little matter that lies between the Earth and other planetary and stellar bodies. However, the space above Earth's breathable atmosphere and beyond contains many things that make designing durable spacecraft a challenge. Depending on where the spacecraft is flyng, it may encounter atomic oxygen, ultraviolet and other forms of radiation, charged particles, micrormeteoroids and debris, and temperature extremes. These environments on their own and in combination can cause degradation and failure of polymers, composites, paints and other materials used on the exterior of spacecraft for thermal control, structure, and power generation. This article briefly discusses and gives examples of some of the degradation experienced on spacecraft and night experiments as a result of the space environment and the use of ground and space data to predict durability.

Miller, Sharon K. R.; Banks, Bruce A.

2010-01-01

15

Microbial degradation of Phaeocystis material in the water column  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observational evidence shows that the large amounts of mucilaginous substances produced by blooms of Phaeocystis colonies largely resist rapid microbial degradation in surface waters of most Phaeocystis-dominated ecosystems. In this paper the biodegradability of Phaeocystis colony-derived material is analysed with respect to current knowledge and novel data on the chemical nature of Phaeocystis material in relationship with specific bacterial enzymatic activities. Particular emphasis is given to the chemical nature of Phaeocystis colony matrix which constitutes more than 80% of total colony biomass at maximum development. This analysis gives evidence of the potential biodegradability of this mucilaginous material made of nutrient-deprived polysaccharides. Other factors controlling microbial degradation as the production of antibacterial substances by Phaeocystis colonies, cold temperature and lack of inorganic nitrogen and phosphate are further considered. It is concluded that nutrient limitation currently observed at the senescent stage of Phaeocystis blooms might well explain the low biodegradability of Phaeocystis material. However the lack of bacteria attached to colonies during the exponential phase of Phaeocystis bloom development are not clearly understood and needs further investigations.

Thingstad, F.; Billen, G.

1994-04-01

16

MATERIALS MANAGEMENT MATERIALS MANAGEMENT -INVENTORY CONTROL  

E-print Network

MATERIALS MANAGEMENT MATERIALS MANAGEMENT - INVENTORY CONTROL Record of Property Transferred from. DEPARTMENT HEAD ______ ___________________________________ 4. MM INVENTORY CONTROL MANAGEMENT ______ ___________________________________ 3. HOSPITAL DIRECTOR (If Applies) ______ IF YOU NEED

Oliver, Douglas L.

17

OXIDATIVE DEGRADATION OF AQUATIC HUMIC MATERIAL  

EPA Science Inventory

Experimental research on the chemical structure of aquatic humic material has been stimulated in the last decade by public health interest in possible adverse human health effects of reaction by-products of humic materials with chlorine. The purpose of the paper is to describe th...

18

MATERIAL CONTROL ACCOUNTING INMM  

SciTech Connect

Since 1996, the Mining and Chemical Combine (MCC - formerly known as K-26), and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) have been cooperating under the cooperative Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Program between the Russian Federation and the U.S. Governments. Since MCC continues to operate a reactor for steam and electricity production for the site and city of Zheleznogorsk which results in production of the weapons grade plutonium, one of the goals of the MPC&A program is to support implementation of an expanded comprehensive nuclear material control and accounting (MC&A) program. To date MCC has completed upgrades identified in the initial gap analysis and documented in the site MC&A Plan and is implementing additional upgrades identified during an update to the gap analysis. The scope of these upgrades includes implementation of MCC organization structure relating to MC&A, establishing material balance area structure for special nuclear materials (SNM) storage and bulk processing areas, and material control functions including SNM portal monitors at target locations. Material accounting function upgrades include enhancements in the conduct of physical inventories, limit of error inventory difference procedure enhancements, implementation of basic computerized accounting system for four SNM storage areas, implementation of measurement equipment for improved accountability reporting, and both new and revised site-level MC&A procedures. This paper will discuss the implementation of MC&A upgrades at MCC based on the requirements established in the comprehensive MC&A plan developed by the Mining and Chemical Combine as part of the MPC&A Program.

Hasty, T.

2009-06-14

19

Materials Degradation Studies for High Temperature Steam Electrolysis Systems  

SciTech Connect

Experiments are currently in progress to assess the high temperature degradation behavior of materials in solid oxide electrolysis systems. This research includes the investigation of various electrolysis cell components and balance of plant materials under both anodic and cathodic gas atmospheres at temperatures up to 850°C. Current results include corrosion data for a high temperature nickel alloy used for the air-side flow field in electrolysis cells and a commercial ferritic stainless steel used as the metallic interconnect. Three different corrosion inhibiting coatings were also tested on the steel material. The samples were tested at 850ºC for 500 h in both air and H2O/H2 atmospheres. The results of this research will be used to identify degradation mechanisms and demonstrate the suitability of candidate materials for long-term operation in electrolysis cells.

Paul Demkowicz; Pavel Medvedev; Kevin DeWall; Paul Lessing

2007-06-01

20

DERIVATION OF DAMAGE FUNCTIONS FOR ATMOSPHERIC DEGRADATION OF MATERIALS  

EPA Science Inventory

The information in the pape is directed to those who develop and use damage functions which relate atmospheric degradation of materials to various causal agents in the atmosphere. Such relationships must be quantified mathematically as part of the overall cost-benefit considerati...

21

Experimental characterization of material degradation of solder joint under fatigue loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal fatigue damage is a progressive process of material degradation. The objective of this study is to experimentally quantify the material degradation of solder joint in electronic BGA package under thermal fatigue loading. Elastic modulus degradation under thermal cycling, which is considered as a physically detectable quantity of material degradation, was measured by nano-indenter. It was compared with tendency of

Hong Tang; Cemal Basaran

2002-01-01

22

Physical and mechanical properties of degraded waste surrogate material  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses rock mechanics testing of surrogate materials to provide failure criteria for compacted, degraded nuclear waste. This daunting proposition was approached by first assembling all known parameters such as the initial waste inventory and rock mechanics response of the underground setting after the waste is stored. Conservative assumptions allowing for extensive degradation processes helped quantify the lowest possible strength conditions of the future state of the waste. In the larger conceptual setting, computations involve degraded waste behavior in transient pressure gradients as gas exits the waste horizon into a wellbore. Therefore, a defensible evaluation of tensile strength is paramount for successful analyses and intentionally provided maximal failed volumes. The very conservative approach assumes rampant degradation to define waste surrogate composition. Specimens prepared from derivative degradation product were consolidated into simple geometries for rock mechanics testing. Tensile strength thus derived helped convince a skeptical peer review panel that drilling into the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) would not likely expel appreciable solids via the drill string.

Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Carlsbad, NM (United States); Mellegard, K.D. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States)

1998-03-01

23

Evaluation of a degradable shape-memory polymer network as matrix for controlled drug release  

Microsoft Academic Search

Degradable shape-memory polymers are multifunctional materials with broad applicability for medical devices. They are designed to acquire their therapeutically relevant shape and mechanical properties after implantation. In this study, the potential of a completely amorphous shape-memory polymer matrix for controlled drug release was comprehensively characterized according to a four step general strategy which provides concepts for validating multifunctional materials for

Christian Wischke; Axel T. Neffe; Susi Steuer; Andreas Lendlein

2009-01-01

24

Materials degradation and fatigue under extreme conditions. Final report, 1 April 1994-31 August 1997  

Microsoft Academic Search

This AFOSR URI addressed complex research problems of materials degradation and fatigue in aerospace structures in severe or extreme environments. A better understanding of materials degradation and flaw initiation dynamics was achieved through a multi-disciplinary research program encompassing chemistry, surface physics, materials science and mechanics, both experimental and theoretical. The Subprojects were as follows: (1) Surface Induced Degradation of Fluorocarbon

1997-01-01

25

Enhanced material classification using turbulence-degraded polarimetric imagery.  

PubMed

An enhanced material-classification algorithm using turbulence-degraded polarimetric imagery is presented. The proposed technique improves upon an existing dielectric/metal material-classification algorithm by providing a more detailed object classification. This is accomplished by redesigning the degree-of-linear-polarization priors in the blind-deconvolution algorithm to include two subclasses of metals--an aluminum group classification (includes aluminum, copper, gold, and silver) and an iron group classification (includes iron, titanium, nickel, and chromium). This new classification provides functional information about the object that is not provided by existing dielectric/metal material classifiers. A discussion of the design of these new degree-of-linear-polarization priors is provided. Experimental results of two painted metal samples are also provided to verify the algorithm's accuracy. PMID:21042363

Hyde, Milo W; Schmidt, Jason D; Havrilla, Michael J; Cain, Stephen C

2010-11-01

26

Degradation of chitosan-based materials after different sterilization treatments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biopolymers have received in recent years an increasing interest for their potential applications in the field of biomedical engineering. Among the natural polymers that have been experimented, chitosan is probably the most promising in view of its exceptional biological properties. Several techniques may be employed to sterilize chitosan-based materials. The aim of our study was to compare the effect of common sterilization treatments on the degradation of chitosan-based materials in various physical states: solutions, hydrogels and solid flakes. Four sterilization methods were compared: gamma irradiation, beta irradiation, exposure to ethylene oxide and saturated water steam sterilization (autoclaving). Exposure to gamma or beta irradiation was shown to induce an important degradation of chitosan, regardless of its physical state. The chemical structure of chitosan flakes was preserved after ethylene oxide sterilization, but this technique has a limited use for materials in the dry state. Saturated water steam sterilization of chitosan solutions led to an important depolymerization. Nevertheless, steam sterilization of chitosan flakes bagged or dispersed in water was found to preserve better the molecular weight of the polymer. Hence, the sterilization of chitosan flakes dispersed in water would represent an alternative step for the preparation of sterilized chitosan solutions. Alternatively, autoclaving chitosan physical hydrogels did not significantly modify the macromolecular structure of the polymer. Thus, this method is one of the most convenient procedures for the sterilization of physical chitosan hydrogels after their preparation.

San Juan, A.; Montembault, A.; Gillet, D.; Say, J. P.; Rouif, S.; Bouet, T.; Royaud, I.; David, L.

2012-02-01

27

Novel oxygen atom source for material degradation studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) has developed a high flux pulsed source of energetic (8 km/s) atomic oxygen to bombard specimens in experiments on the aging and degradation of materials in a low earth orbit environment. The proof-of-concept of the PSI approach was demonstrated in a Phase 1 effort. In Phase 2 a large O-atom testing device (FAST-2) has been developed and characterized. Quantitative erosion testing of materials, components, and even small assemblies (such as solar cell arrays) can be performed with this source to determine which materials and/or components are most vulnerable to atomic oxygen degradation. The source is conservatively rated to irradiate a 100 sq cm area sample at greater than 10(exp 17) atoms/s, at a 10 Hz pulse rate. Samples can be exposed to an atomic oxygen fluence equivalent to the on-orbit ram direction exposure levels incident on Shuttle surfaces at 250 km during a week-long mission in a few hours.

Krech, R. H.; Caledonia, G. E.

1988-01-01

28

Degradation, fatigue and failure of resin dental composite materials  

PubMed Central

The intent of this article is to review the numerous factors that affect the mechanical properties of particle or fiber filler containing, indirect dental resin composite materials. The focus will be on degradation due to aging in different media, mainly water and water and ethanol, cyclic loading, and mixed mode loading on the flexure strength and fracture toughness. Next several selected papers will be examined in detail with respect to mixed and cyclic loading and then an examination of 3D tomography using multiaxial compression specimens. The main cause of failure, for most dental resin composites, is the breakdown of the resin matrix and or the interface between the filler and the resin matrix. In clinical studies, it appears that failure in the first 5 years is a restoration issue (technique or material selection) and after that time period from secondary decay. PMID:18650540

Drummond, James L.

2008-01-01

29

Degradation of Piezoelectric Materials for Energy Harvesting Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of energy harvesting is to provide long term alternatives to replaceable batteries across a number of applications. Piezoelectric vibration harvesting provides advantages over other transduction methods due to the ability to generate large voltages even on a small scale. However, the operation in energy harvesting is different from typical sensors or actuators. The applied stress is often at the material limit in order to generate the maximum power output. Under these conditions, the degradation of the materials becomes an important factor for long term deployment. In this work bimorph piezoelectric beams were sub jected to lifetime testing through electromagnetic tip actuation for a large number of cycles. The results of two measurement series at different amplitudes are discussed. The dominant effect observed was a shift in mechanical resonance frequencies of the beams which could be very detrimental to resonant harvesters.

Pillatsch, P.; Shashoua, N.; Holmes, A. S.; Yeatman, E. M.; Wright, P. K.

2014-11-01

30

Computational simulation of coupled material degradation processes for probabilistic lifetime strength of aerospace materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research included ongoing development of methodology that provides probabilistic lifetime strength of aerospace materials via computational simulation. A probabilistic material strength degradation model, in the form of a randomized multifactor interaction equation, is postulated for strength degradation of structural components of aerospace propulsion systems subjected to a number of effects or primative variables. These primative variable may include high temperature, fatigue or creep. In most cases, strength is reduced as a result of the action of a variable. This multifactor interaction strength degradation equation has been randomized and is included in the computer program, PROMISS. Also included in the research is the development of methodology to calibrate the above described constitutive equation using actual experimental materials data together with linear regression of that data, thereby predicting values for the empirical material constraints for each effect or primative variable. This regression methodology is included in the computer program, PROMISC. Actual experimental materials data were obtained from the open literature for materials typically of interest to those studying aerospace propulsion system components. Material data for Inconel 718 was analyzed using the developed methodology.

Boyce, Lola; Bast, Callie C.

1992-01-01

31

Material Aging and Degradation Detection and Remaining Life Assessment for Plant Life Management  

SciTech Connect

One of the major factors that may impact long term operations is structural material degradation, Detecting materials degradation, estimating the remaining useful life (RUL) of the component, and determining approaches to mitigating the degradation are important from the perspective of long term operations. In this study, multiple nondestructive measurement and monitoring methods were evaluated for their ability to assess the material degradation state. Metrics quantifying the level of damage from these measurements were defined, and evaluated for their ability to provide estimates of remaining life of the component. An example of estimating the RUL from nondestructive measurements of material degradation condition is provided.

Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Henager, Charles H.; Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Meyer, Ryan M.; Coble, Jamie B.; Pitman, Stan G.; Bond, Leonard J.

2012-12-31

32

Integrated control of protein degradation in C. elegans muscle  

PubMed Central

Protein degradation is a fundamental cellular process, the genomic control of which is incompletely understood. The advent of transgene-coded reporter proteins has enabled the development of C. elegans into a model for studying this problem. The regulation of muscle protein degradation is surprisingly complex, integrating multiple signals from hypodermis, intestine, neurons and muscle itself. Within the muscle, degradation is executed by separately regulated autophagy-lysosomal, ubiquitin-proteasome and calpain-mediated systems. The signal-transduction mechanisms, in some instances, involve modules previously identified for their roles in developmental processes, repurposed in terminally differentiated muscle to regulate the activities of pre-formed proteins. Here we review the genes, and mechanisms, which appear to coordinately control protein degradation within C. elegans muscle. We also consider these mechanisms in the context of development, physiology, pathophysiology and disease models. PMID:23457662

Lehmann, Susann; Shephard, Freya; Jacobson, Lewis A.; Szewczyk, Nathaniel J.

2012-01-01

33

Common causes of material degradation in buried piping  

SciTech Connect

Buried pipe may fail for innumerable reasons. Causes can be mechanical damage/breakage, chemically initiated corrosion, or a combination. Failures may originate either internally or externally on the pipe. They may be related to flaws in the design, to excessive or unanticipated internal pressure or ground level loading, and/or to poor or uncertain installation practice. Or the pipe may simply ``wear out`` in service. Steel is strong and very forgiving in underground applications, especially with regard to backfill. However, soil support developed through densification or compaction is critical for brittle concrete and vitrified clay tile pipe, and is very important for cast iron and plastic pipe. Chemistry of the soil determines whether or not it will enhance corrosion or other types of degradation. Various causes and mechanisms for deterioration of buried pipe are indicated. Some peculiarities of the different materials of construction are characterized. Repair methods and means to circumvent special problems are described.

Jenkins, C.F.

1997-01-20

34

Degradation study on optical materials for concentrator photovoltaics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work the impact of accelerated aging on the spectral transmission and the mechanical robustness of silicone elastomers for concentrator photovoltaic applications was investigated. Therefore, specific test samples were manufactured. The samples were annealed at 150 °C to assure a complete cross-linking. These samples were exposed to humidity freeze, to a pressure cooker test, and to UV light. To investigate optical materials under UVA intensity up to 10 W/cm2 a test setup was developed. Thus, a UV dosage of 10000 kWh/m2 was applied to the silicone samples after thermal treatment. The mean transmission was used as a measure to identify changes in the spectral behavior and was, therefore, compared after the stress tests with the initial value. No total failures but rather degradation was observed, mainly in the range of ultraviolet and visible light. In addition, the shear strengths for the silicone elastomers were compared before and after stress.

Eltermann, Fabian; Roeder, Kerstin; Wiesenfarth, Maike; Wilde, Juergen; Bett, Andreas W.

2012-10-01

35

Degradation behavior of Ca-Mg-Zn intermetallic compounds for use as biodegradable implant materials.  

PubMed

With the goal of developing new biodegradable implant materials, we have investigated the degradation behavior of (Ca, Mg)-based intermetallic compounds. The degradation behavior of the compounds within the Ca-Mg-Zn system was roughly classified into four groups, and their behaviors were strongly influenced by the compositions of the compounds. For example, the Ca3MgxZn(15-x) compound exhibited a large solubility region with varying the Mg/Zn ratio, and the Ca3Mg12Zn3 phase alloy with the lowest Zn content was rapidly broken apart within 6h of immersion. Alternatively, the Ca3Mg4.6Zn10.4 phase alloy with the highest Zn content retained the bulk shape even after 250 h of immersion. These varying degradation behaviors were ascribed to the difference in the formability of Zn oxide as a protective layer against corrosion on the specimen surfaces, depending on the Zn content. The gained results suggest that there is a feasibility on developing new biodegradable materials based on intermetallic compounds in which the degradation rate can be controlled by their compositions. PMID:25280708

Hagihara, Koji; Shakudo, Shuhei; Fujii, Kenta; Nakano, Takayoshi

2014-11-01

36

Control of Several Emissions during Olive Pomace Thermal Degradation  

PubMed Central

Biomass plays an important role as an energy source, being an interesting alternative to fossil fuels due to its environment-friendly and sustainable characteristics. However, due to the exposure of customers to emissions during biomass heating, evolved pollutants should be taken into account and controlled. Changing raw materials or mixing them with another less pollutant biomass could be a suitable step to reduce pollution. This work studied the thermal behaviour of olive pomace, pyrenean oak and their blends under combustion using thermogravimetric analysis. It was possible to monitor the emissions released during the process by coupling mass spectrometry analysis. The experiments were carried out under non-isothermal conditions at the temperature range 25–750 °C and a heating rate of 20 °C·min?1. The following species were analysed: aromatic compounds (benzene and toluene), sulphur emissions (sulphur dioxide), 1,4-dioxin, hydrochloric acid, carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides. The results indicated that pollutants were mainly evolved in two different stages, which are related to the thermal degradation steps. Thus, depending on the pollutant and raw material composition, different emission profiles were observed. Furthermore, intensity of the emission profiles was related, in some cases, to the composition of the precursor. PMID:25314298

Miranda, Teresa; Nogales, Sergio; Román, Silvia; Montero, Irene; Arranz, José Ignacio; Sepúlveda, Francisco José

2014-01-01

37

Control of several emissions during olive pomace thermal degradation.  

PubMed

Biomass plays an important role as an energy source, being an interesting alternative to fossil fuels due to its environment-friendly and sustainable characteristics. However, due to the exposure of customers to emissions during biomass heating, evolved pollutants should be taken into account and controlled. Changing raw materials or mixing them with another less pollutant biomass could be a suitable step to reduce pollution. This work studied the thermal behaviour of olive pomace, pyrenean oak and their blends under combustion using thermogravimetric analysis. It was possible to monitor the emissions released during the process by coupling mass spectrometry analysis. The experiments were carried out under non-isothermal conditions at the temperature range 25-750 °C and a heating rate of 20 °C·min?¹. The following species were analysed: aromatic compounds (benzene and toluene), sulphur emissions (sulphur dioxide), 1,4-dioxin, hydrochloric acid, carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides. The results indicated that pollutants were mainly evolved in two different stages, which are related to the thermal degradation steps. Thus, depending on the pollutant and raw material composition, different emission profiles were observed. Furthermore, intensity of the emission profiles was related, in some cases, to the composition of the precursor. PMID:25314298

Miranda, Teresa; Nogales, Sergio; Román, Silvia; Montero, Irene; Arranz, José Ignacio; Sepúlveda, Francisco José

2014-01-01

38

Probabilistic analysis for fatigue strength degradation of materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents the results of the first year of a research program conducted for NASA-LeRC by the University of Texas at San Antonio. The research included development of methodology that provides a probabilistic treatment of lifetime prediction of structural components of aerospace propulsion systems subjected to fatigue. Material strength degradation models, based on primitive variables, include both a fatigue strength reduction model and a fatigue crack growth model. Linear elastic fracture mechanics is utilized in the latter model. Probabilistic analysis is based on simulation, and both maximum entropy and maximum penalized likelihood methods are used for the generation of probability density functions. The resulting constitutive relationships are included in several computer programs, RANDOM2, RANDOM3, and RANDOM4. These programs determine the random lifetime of an engine component, in mechanical load cycles, to reach a critical fatigue strength or crack size. The material considered was a cast nickel base superalloy, one typical of those used in the Space Shuttle Main Engine.

Royce, Lola

1989-01-01

39

Materials Degradation & Failure: Assessment of Structure and Properties. Resources in Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module provides information on materials destruction (through corrosion, oxidation, and degradation) and failure. A design brief includes objective, student challenge, resources, student outcomes, and quiz. (SK)

Technology Teacher, 1991

1991-01-01

40

Aerospace Materials Quality Control Presentation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This PowerPoint document from the Aerospace Manufacturing Education Project looks into the topic of quality control of materials used in the aerospace industry. The presentation includes 27 slides and covers why quality control is important in this field. It also includes details about aerospace QC teams and techniques, including non-destructive testing.

2012-11-16

41

Control of scaffold degradation in tissue engineering: a review.  

PubMed

Tissue engineering has shown a great promise as a solution to the high demand for tissue and organ transplantations. Biomaterial scaffolds serve to house and direct cells to grow, exposing them to an adequate perfusion of nutrients, oxygen, metabolic products, and appropriate growth factors to enhance their differentiation and function. The degradation of biomaterial scaffolds is a key factor to successful tissue regeneration. In this article, the existing degradation control approaches in the context of scaffold tissue engineering were reviewed and a new paradigm of thinking called active control of scaffold degradation, proposed elsewhere by us, was also revisited and discussed in light of its benefit and requirement of this new technology. PMID:24547761

Zhang, Hongbo; Zhou, Li; Zhang, Wenjun

2014-10-01

42

Thermal and chemical degradation of inorganic membrane materials. Topical report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of a literature review to evaluate the long-term thermal and chemical degradation of inorganic membranes that are being developed to separate gaseous products produced by the gasification or combustion of coal in fixed-, fluidized-, and entrained-bed gasifiers, direct coal-fired turbines, and pressurized-fluidized-bed combustors. Several impurities, such as H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and trace metal compounds are generated during coal conversion, and they must be removed from the coal gas or the combustor flue gas to meet environmental standards. The use of membranes to separate these noxious gases is an attractive alternative to their removal by sorbents such as zinc titanate or calcium oxide. Inorganic membranes that have a high separation efficiency and exhibit both thermal and chemical stability would improve the economics of power generation from coal. The U.S. Department of Energy is supporting investigations to develop inorganic membranes for separating hydrogen from coal gas streams and noxious impurities from hot coal- and flue-gas streams. Membrane materials that have been investigated in the past include glass (silica), alumina, zirconia, carbon, and metals (Pd and Pt).

Krishnan, G.N.; Sanjurjo, A.; Wood, B.J.; Lau, K.H.

1994-04-01

43

Thermal Control Surfaces Experiment (TCSE) materials analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Materials on the Thermal Control Surfaces Experiment (TCSE) underwent changes in their properties during the 5.8 years of exposure to the combined space environment. The analysis of these materials is continuing and current results are discussed. Some materials were significantly degraded such as silver Teflon, S13GLO, and Z302; while others such as Z93 and YB71 were stable. Time dependent flight data is provided, along with preflight and postflight measurements. Results are compared with other experiments, demonstrating the atomic oxygen (AO) ram effect. Atomic oxygen texturing of silver Teflon varies with incident angle. Even indirect exposure to atomic oxygen appears to be involved with surface texturing on the interior of the TCSE. Localized contamination occurred at discrete locations both inside and on exterior surfaces. Most of the visible deposits were the result of the classical photo-enhanced contamination deposition. The synergism of combined space environmental effects is demonstrated by the specific localization of contamination caused by photo-enhanced deposition versus AO removal. Optical degradation measurements of these contaminated areas, utilizing a new portable reflectometer, are presented.

Wilkes, Donald R.; Miller, Edgar R.; Zwiener, James M.; Mell, Richard J.

1992-01-01

44

Materials Control for Aerospace Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The distant future of mankind and the ultimate survivability of the human race, as it is known today, will depend on mans' ability to break earthly bonds and establish new territorial positions throughout the universe. Man must therefore be positioned to not only travel to, but also, to readily adapt to numerous and varying environments. For this mass migration across the galaxies nothing is as import to the human race as is NASA's future missions into Low Earth Orbit (LEO), to the moon, and/or Mars. These missions will form the building blocks to eternity for mankind. From these missions, NASA will develop the foundations for these building blocks based on sound engineering and scientific principles, both known and yet to be discovered. The integrity of the program will lead to development, tracking and control of the most basic elements of hardware production: That being development and control of applications of space flight materials. Choosing the right material for design purposes involves many considerations, such as governmental regulations associated with manufacturing operations, both safety of usage and of manufacturing, general material usage requirements, material longevity and performance requirements, material interfacing compatibility and material usage environments. Material performance is subject to environmental considerations in as much as a given material may perform exceptionally well at standard temperatures and pressures while performing poorly under non-standard conditions. These concerns may be found true for materials relative to the extreme temperatures and vacuum gradients of high altitude usage. The only way to assure that flight worthy materials are used in design is through testing. However, as with all testing, it requires both time on schedule and cost to the operation. One alternative to this high cost testing approach is to rely on a materials control system established by NASA. The NASA community relies on the MAPTIS materials control system founded at MSFC and supported by the other NASA Centers. This system is a data bank of all materials used in space flight operations. These materials are rated for several characteristics that are common concerns in high altitude or deep space usage: Odor, off gassing, material fluid compatibility, toxicity, corrosion susceptibility, stress corrosion susceptibility, etc.

Ferguson, Michael

2005-01-01

45

Heat and mass transport from thermally degrading thin cellulosic materials in a microgravity environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Attention is given to a theoretical model describing the behavior of a thermally thin cellulosic sheet heated by external thermal radiation in a quiescent microgravity environment. This model describes thermal and oxidative degradation of the sheet and the heat and mass transfer of evolved degradation products from the heated cellulosic surface into the gas phase. Two calculations are carried out: heating without thermal degradation, and heating with thermal degradation of the sheet with endothermic pyrolysis, exothermic thermal oxidative degradation, and highly exothermic char oxidation. It is shown that pyrolysis is the main degradation reaction. Self-sustained smoldering is controlled and severely limited by the reduced oxygen supply.

Kushida, G.; Baum, H. R.; Kashiwagi, T.; Di Blasi, C.

1992-01-01

46

Heat and mass transport from thermally degrading thin cellulosic materials in a microgravity environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Attention is given to a theoretical model describing the behavior of a thermally thin cellulosic sheet heated by external thermal radiation in a quiescent microgravity environment. This model describes thermal and oxidative degradation of the sheet and the heat and mass transfer of evolved degradation products from the heated cellulosic surface into the gas phase. Two calculations are carried out: heating without thermal degradation, and heating with thermal degradation of the sheet with endothermic pyrolysis, exothermic thermal oxidative degradation, and highly exothermic char oxidation. It is shown that pyrolysis is the main degradation reaction. Self-sustained smoldering is controlled and severely limited by the reduced oxygen supply.

Kushida, G.; Baum, H. R.; Kashiwagi, T.; di Blasi, C.

1992-05-01

47

A test and instrumentation system for the investigation of degradation of electrical insulating materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The basic test methods of aging and deterioration mechanisms of electrical insulating materials are discussed. A comprehensive test system developed to study the degradation process is described. This system is completely checked, and calibrated with a few insulating material samples.

1982-01-01

48

Thermal/chemical degradation of inorganic membrane materials  

SciTech Connect

The specific objectives of this program are to (1) identify and evaluate long-term degradation mechanisms for inorganic membranes exposed to hot coal gasification and combustion gas streams using data from the existing literature, (2) quantify the extent of the degradation process for the most serious mechanisms by performing experiments under laboratory-scale conditions, and (3) develop a predictive model that allows estimation of membrane degradation under operating conditions. To achieve the above objectives, the program is divided into the following tasks: (1) Development of evaluation methodology; (2) evaluation of potential long-term degradation mechanism; (3) submission of a topical report and a plan for experimental testing; (4) experimental testing; and (5) model development. Tasks 4 and 5 are separate options that may be exercised by the US Department of Energy at the conclusion of Task 3. Accomplishments are presented for Tasks 1, 2 and 3.

Krishnan, G.N.; Sanjurgo, A.; Wood, B.J.

1993-09-01

49

Damage Assessment Technologies for Prognostics and Proactive Management of Materials Degradation  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has undertaken a program to lay the groundwork for defining proactive actions to manage degradation of materials in light water reactors (LWRs). This paper discusses the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s Proactive Management of Materials Degradation (PMMD) program and its application to nuclear power plant structures, systems and components. The PMMD program is examining LWR component materials and the degradation phenomena that affect them. Of particular interest is how such phenomena can be monitored to predict degradation and prevent component failure. Some forms of degradation, including some modes of stress corrosion cracking, are characterized by a long initiation time followed by a rapid growth phase. Monitoring such long-term degradation will require new non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods and measurement procedures. A critical analysis of all reactor components is required to determine if new inspection strategies are required to effectively manage slow degradation mechanisms that may lead to component failure. As reactor lifetimes are extended, degradation mechanisms previously considered too long-term to be of consequence (such as concrete and wiring insulation degradation) may become more important. This paper includes a review of techniques with potential for sensing and monitoring degradation in its early stages and will concisely explain the basic principles of PMMD and its relationship to in-service inspection, condition based maintenance, and advanced diagnostics and prognostics.

Bond, Leonard J.; Doctor, Steven R.; Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Hull, Amy B.; Malik, Shah

2011-01-01

50

Thermomechanical Constitutive Modeling of Viscoelastic Materials undergoing Degradation  

E-print Network

of moisture and chemical reactions (for instance, oxidation) and there is need for a good understanding of the various degradation mechanisms. This work focuses on: 1) some topics related to development of viscoelastic fluid models that can be used to predict...

Karra, Satish

2012-07-16

51

Main chain acid-degradable polymers for the delivery of bioactive materials  

DOEpatents

Novel main chain acid degradable polymer backbones and drug delivery systems comprised of materials capable of delivering bioactive materials to cells for use as vaccines or other therapeutic agents are described. The polymers are synthesized using monomers that contain acid-degradable linkages cleavable under mild acidic conditions. The main chain of the resulting polymers readily degrade into many small molecules at low pH, but remain relatively stable and intact at physiological pH. The new materials have the common characteristic of being able to degrade by acid hydrolysis under conditions commonly found within the endosomal or lysosomal compartments of cells thereby releasing their payload within the cell. The materials can also be used for the delivery of therapeutics to the acidic regions of tumors and other sites of inflammation.

Frechet, Jean M. J. (Oakland, CA); Standley, Stephany M. (Evanston, IL); Jain, Rachna (Milpitas, CA); Lee, Cameron C. (Cambridge, MA)

2012-03-20

52

Sources of high temperature degradation of cement-based materials : nanoindentation and microporoelastic analysis  

E-print Network

The effects of high temperature exposure on cement-based materials have been under investigation for quite some time, but a fundamental understanding of the sources of high temperature degradation has been limited by ...

DeJong, Matthew J. (Matthew Justin)

2005-01-01

53

Ground and space based optical analysis of materials degradation in low-Earth-orbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is strong interest in being able to accurately and sensitively monitor materials degradation in both ground-based and space-based environments. Two optical techniques for sensitive degradation monitoring are reviewed: spectroscopic ellipsometry and photothermal spectroscopy. These techniques complement each other in that ellipsometry is sensitive to atomically thin surface and subsurface changes, and photothermal spectroscopy is sensitive to local defects, pin-holes, subsurface defects, and delamination. Progress in applying these spectroscopies (both ex situ and in situ) to atomic oxygen degradation of space materials is reviewed.

Woollam, John A.; Synowicki, Ron; Hale, Jeffrey S.; Peterkin, Jane; Machlab, Hassanayn; De, Bhola N.; Johs, Blaine

1991-01-01

54

ADAPTIVE OPTICS CONTROL FOR LASER MATERIAL PROCESSING  

E-print Network

ADAPTIVE OPTICS CONTROL FOR LASER MATERIAL PROCESSING S. Mauch , J. Reger , E. Beckert Control: adaptive optics, tip-tilt control, Kalman-filtering, material processing 1. INTRODUCTION In laser material the slopes in x- and y-direction of each subaperture. The sensor is connected to a real-time control system

Knobloch,Jürgen

55

Control of in vivo mineral bone cement degradation.  

PubMed

The current study aimed to prevent the formation of hydroxyapatite reprecipitates in brushite-forming biocements by minimizing the availability of free Ca(2+) ions in the cement matrix. This was achieved by both maximizing the degree of cement setting to avoid unreacted, calcium-rich cement raw materials which can deliver Ca(2+) directly to the cement matrix after dissolution, and by a reduction in porosity to reduce Ca(2+) diffusion into the set cement matrix. In addition, a biocement based on the formation of the magnesium phosphate mineral struvite (MgNH4PO4·6H2O) was tested, which should prevent the formation of low-solubility hydroxyapatite reprecipitates due to the high magnesium content. Different porosity levels were fabricated by altering the powder-to-liquid ratio at which the cements were mixed and the materials were implanted into mechanically unloaded femoral defects in sheep for up to 10 months. While the higher-porosity brushite cement quantitatively transformed into crystalline octacalcium phosphate after 10 months, slowing down cement resorption, a lower-porosity brushite cement modification was found to be chemically stable with the absence of reprecipitate formation and minor cement resorption from the implant surface. In contrast, struvite-forming cements were much more degradable due to the absence of mineral reprecipitates and a nearly quantitative cement degradation was found after 10 months of implantation. PMID:24769112

Kanter, Britta; Geffers, Martha; Ignatius, Anita; Gbureck, Uwe

2014-07-01

56

Advanced Materials for RSOFC Dual Operation with Low Degradation  

SciTech Connect

Reversible solid oxide fuel cells (RSOFCs) are energy conversion devices. They are capable of operating in both power generation mode (SOFC) and electrolysis modes (SOEC). RSOFC can integrate renewable production of electricity and hydrogen when power generation and steam electrolysis are coupled in a system, which can turn intermittent solar and wind energy into "firm power." In this DOE EERE project, VPS continuously advanced RSOFC cell stack technology in the areas of endurance and performance. Over 20 types of RSOFC cells were developed in the project. Many of those exceeded performance (area specific resistance less than 300 mohmcm2) and endurance (degradation rate less than 4% per 1000 hours) targets in both fuel cell and electrolysis modes at 750C. One of those cells, RSOFC-7, further demonstrated the following: Steady-state electrolysis with a degradation rate of 1.5% per 1000 hours. Ultra high current electrolysis over 3 A/cm2 at 75% water electrolysis efficiency voltage of 1.67 V. Daily SOFC/SOEC cyclic test of over 600 days with a degradation rate of 1.5% per 1000 hours. Over 6000 SOFC/SOEC cycles in an accelerated 20-minute cycling with degradation less than 3% per 1000 cycles. In RSOFC stack development, a number of kW-class RSOFC stacks were developed and demonstrated the following: Steady-state electrolysis operation of over 5000 hours. Daily SOFC/SOEC cyclic test of 100 cycles. Scale up capability of using large area cells with 550 cm2 active area showing the potential for large-scale RSOFC stack development in the future. Although this project is an open-ended development project, this effort, leveraging Versa Power Systems' years of development experience, has the potential to bring renewable energy RSOFC storage systems significantly closer to commercial viability through improvements in RSOFC durability, performance, and cost. When unitized and deployed in renewable solar and wind installations, an RSOFC system can enable higher availability for intermittent renewable resources, thereby improving the commercial viability of these types of energy resources.

Eric, Tang; Tony, Wood; Sofiane, Benhaddad; Casey, Brown; Hongpeng, He; Jeff, Nelson; Oliver, Grande; Ben, Nuttall; Mark, Richards; Randy, Petri

2012-12-27

57

Photoconversion of gasified organic materials into biologically-degradable plastics  

DOEpatents

A process is described for converting organic materials (such as biomass wastes) into a bioplastic suitable for use as a biodegradable plastic. In a preferred embodiment the process involves thermally gasifying the organic material into primarily carbon monoxide and hydrogen, followed by photosynthetic bacterial assimilation of the gases into cell material. The process is ideally suited for waste recycling and for production of useful biodegradable plastic polymer. 3 figures.

Weaver, P.F.; Pinching Maness.

1993-10-05

58

Mechanism-based Representative Volume Elements (RVEs) for Predicting Property Degradations in Multiphase Materials  

SciTech Connect

Quantitative understanding of the evolving thermal-mechanical properties of a multi-phase material hinges upon the availability of quantitative statistically representative microstructure descriptions. Questions then arise as to whether a two-dimensional (2D) or a three-dimensional (3D) representative volume element (RVE) should be considered as the statistically representative microstructure. Although 3D models are more representative than 2D models in general, they are usually computationally expensive and difficult to be reconstructed. In this paper, we evaluate the accuracy of a 2D RVE in predicting the property degradations induced by different degradation mechanisms with the multiphase solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode material as an example. Both 2D and 3D microstructure RVEs of the anodes are adopted to quantify the effects of two different degradation mechanisms: humidity-induced electrochemical degradation and phosphorus poisoning induced structural degradation. The predictions of the 2D model are then compared with the available experimental measurements and the results from the 3D model. It is found that the 2D model, limited by its inability of reproducing the realistic electrical percolation, is unable to accurately predict the degradation of thermo-electrical properties. On the other hand, for the phosphorus poisoning induced structural degradation, both 2D and 3D microstructures yield similar results, indicating that the 2D model is capable of providing computationally efficient yet accurate results for studying the structural degradation within the anodes.

Xu, Wei; Sun, Xin; Li, Dongsheng; Ryu, Seun; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2013-02-01

59

Susceptibility of a polycaprolactone-based root canal filling material to degradation using an agar-well diffusion assay  

PubMed Central

Purpose Cholesterol esterase is both a component of salivary hydrolases as well as an inflammatory cell-derived enzyme and has been shown to cause biodegradation of methacrylate-based resin composites. This study examined whether Resilon, a polycaprolactone-based thermoplastic root filling material is susceptible to biodegradation by cholesterol esterase using agar-well diffusion assay of serially-diluted aqueous Resilon emulsions that were dispersed in agar. Materials and methods Emulsions of Resilon and polycaprolactone were prepared and dispersed in agar on culture plates. Two different concentrations of a cholesterol esterase (0.3 and 1.2 U/mL) were prepared and fed to wells prepared in the agar plates using an agar-well diffusion assay for examination the degradation of polymeric materials. Results Degradation of the emulsified Resilon was manifested as the formation of clear zones of different sizes around the agar wells. No clear zones were observed in agar wells that contain sterile distilled water as the negative control. Clinical significance Although dispersion Resilon into an emulsion is not the way in which this material is employed as a root filling material, the potential for Resilon to be degraded by cholesterol esterase is of potential concern as one cannot limit the degradation of extruded Resilon from a root apex by monocyte-derived macrophages to just the anatomical root apex. As the present study employed a high concentration of cholesterol esterase, further studies should be directed to examining the degradation of Resilon using macrophage cell cultures. PMID:18578181

Hiraishi, Noriko; Sadek, Fernanda T.; King, Nigel M.; Ferrari, Marco; Pashley, David H.; Tay, Franklin R

2013-01-01

60

Understanding and harnessing energy-dependent proteolysis for controlled protein degradation in bacteria  

E-print Network

Regulated intracellular protein degradation is critical for cellular viability. In many organisms, degradation controls cell-cycle progression, executes responses to stress-inducing environmental changes, and enables the ...

Davis, Joseph H. (Joseph Harry), III

2010-01-01

61

Long-Term Lunar Radiation Degradation Effects on Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is focused on developing technologies for extending human presence beyond low Earth orbit. These technologies are to advance the state-of-the-art and provide for longer duration missions outside the protection of Earth's magnetosphere. One technology of great interest for large structures is advanced composite materials, due to their weight and cost savings, enhanced radiation protection for the crew, and potential for performance improvements when compared with existing metals. However, these materials have not been characterized for the interplanetary space environment, and particularly the effects of high energy radiation, which is known to cause damage to polymeric materials. Therefore, a study focusing on a lunar habitation element was undertaken to investigate the integrity of potential structural composite materials after exposure to a long-term lunar radiation environment. An overview of the study results are presented, along with a discussion of recommended future work.

Rojdev, Kristina; ORourke, Mary Jane; Koontz, Steve; Alred, John; Hill, Charles; Devivar, Rodrigo; Morera-Felix, Shakira; Atwell, William; Nutt, Steve; Sabbann, Leslie

2010-01-01

62

Electrochemical shock : mechanical degradation of ion-intercalation materials  

E-print Network

The ion-intercalation materials used in high-energy batteries such as lithium-ion undergo large composition changes-which correlate to high storage capacity-but which also induce structural changes and stresses that can ...

Woodford, William Henry, IV

2013-01-01

63

Phenol degradation using the mixed material clay/Fe immobilized on glass slides.  

PubMed

The mixed material clay/Fe was prepared and immobilized on glass slides and calcined at 550 and 750 °C. The calcined material X-ray powder pattern (XRD) diffractograms indicate that there is no intercalation of iron compounds inside the lamella clay. The experimental design revealed that the most suitable phenol degradation conditions were obtained using the material calcined at 750 °C in a pH 7 and 140 mg/L of hydrogen peroxide solution. The material MMAFe750 showed excellent performance as a catalyst for Fenton-like reaction; in 125 min, 50 % of phenol was removed in the absence of leaching-supported iron. These results indicate that the reaction occurs by a heterogeneous process. Furthermore, the material showed no loss of catalytic activity after five degradation studies. It was noted that the adsorption of phenol in the synthesized materials does not occur and the mixed material is strongly adsorbed onto glass slides. PMID:25065479

Taketa, Lidiane Yumi; Ignachewski, Franciély; Villalba, Juan Carlo; Anaissi, Fauze Jacó; Fujiwara, Sérgio Toshio

2014-07-29

64

D d ti f M h i lDegradation of Mechanical Properties in Composite Materials  

E-print Network

D d ti f M h i lDegradation of Mechanical Properties in Composite Materials Subjected to Salt Water mechanical properties, supplemented with additional materials of interest to the MHK application ­ For the laminates in Task 1, condition coupons of approximately 6-mm thickness for 1000 hours in synthetic sea water

65

Anaerobic rumen SBR for degradation of cellulosic material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrolysis of organic particulates under anaerobic conditions is generally regarded as the rate limiting step in solid digestion processes. Rumen-based ecosystems appear to achieve very high hydrolysis rates for cellulosic organic material. This study aimed at the development and demonstration of an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR) process operating with a rumen-based microbial inoculum. Fibrous alpha cellulose was used as

S. P. Barnes; J. Keller

2004-01-01

66

Correlation of electrical reactor cable failure with materials degradation  

SciTech Connect

Complete circuit failure (shortout) of electrical cables typically used in nuclear power plant containments is investigated. Failure modes are correlated with the mechanical deterioration of the elastomeric cable materials. It is found that for normal reactor operation, electrical cables are reliable and safe over very long periods. During high temperature excursions, however, cables pulled across corners under high stress may short out due to conductor creep. Severe cracking will occur in short times during high temperatures (>150/sup 0/C) and in times of the order of years at elevated temperatures (100/sup 0/C to 140/sup 0/C). A theoretical treatment of stress distribution responsible for creep and for cracking by J.E. Reaugh of Science Applications, Inc. is contained in the Appendix. 29 refs., 32 figs.

Stuetzer, O.M.

1986-03-01

67

Controlling Weapons-Grade Fissile Material  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the problems of controlling weapons-grade fissionable material. Projections of the growth of fission nuclear reactors indicates sufficient materials will be available to construct 300,000 atomic bombs each containing 10 kilograms of plutonium by 1990. (SL)

Rotblat, J.

1977-01-01

68

Characterisation and anaerobic batch degradation of materials accumulating in anaerobic digesters treating poultry slaughterhouse waste.  

PubMed

We characterised materials accumulating in two failed mesophilic semi-continuous anaerobic digesters treating poultry slaughterhouse waste and, for reference, materials in the two well-performing digesters, to find the anaerobic degradability of these materials and the factors affecting their degradation. We also studied materials accumulating and stratifying in various layers in one of the two well-performing digesters. The material from the most severely failed digesters produced methane sluggishly and did not improve appreciably even with 33 percent dilution suggesting that the recovery of failed process is slow. The methane production was apparently affected by the accumulated long-chain fatty acids, totalling 8.1 g l-1, which degraded slowly. However, the material produced methane in the end, which shows that the failure was reversible. In the well-performing digester, considerable amounts of long-chain fatty acids already floated on top of the digester after 20 hours without mixing, a phenomenon which may have affected their bioavailability and toxicity. However, materials from the top, middle, and bottom layers of the digester were readily and largely methanised by the microbial populations present in them and additional inocula did not markedly enhance the methanation. The results indicate that long-chain fatty acids are apparently the main factor affecting both the failure and recovery of a poultry slaughterhouse waste digester. Thus excessive feeding of lipids into the digester should be avoided. PMID:11424735

Salminen, E; Einola, J; Rintala, J

2001-05-01

69

Materials Chemistry and Physics 100 (2006) 3840 X-ray irradiation induced degradation of cellulose nitrate  

E-print Network

nitrate F.M.F. Ng, K.N. Yu Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat the thickness of the cellulose nitrate layer of the commonly used LR 115 solid-state nuclear track detector spectrometry will induce degradation of the cellulose nitrate. For this purpose, Fourier transform infrared

Yu, K.N.

70

SCAPS Modeling for Degradation of Ultrathin CdTe Films: Materials Interdiffusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrathin film solar cells based on CdS/CdTe (d CdTe ? 1 µm) suffer from two main issues: incomplete photo absorption and high degradation rate. The former is cured by light-trapping techniques, whereas the latter is a matter of fabrication details. Interdiffusion of the material components and formation of subsequent interlayers at the front/back region can change the optical/electrical properties and performance/stability of the device. We model the degradation of the ultrathin CdTe film devices considering the material interdiffusion and interlayers formation: CdTeS, CdZnTe, Cu x Te (i.e., Te/Cu bilayer), and oxide interlayers (i.e., CdTeO3). The diffusion rate of the materials is considered separately and the reactions that change the interlayer's properties are studied. Additionally, a back contact of single-walled carbon nanotube showed a higher stability than the metallic contacts. A new time-dependent approach is applied to simulate the degradation rate due to formation of any interlayer. It is shown that the materials interdiffusion causes a defect increment under thermal stress and illumination. The metallic back contact accelerates the degradation, whereas single-walled carbon nanotubes show the highest stability. A SCAPS simulator was used because of its ability in defining the properties of the back contact and metastabilities at the interface layers. The properties of the layers were taken from the experimental data reported in the literature.

Houshmand, Mohammad; Zandi, M. Hossein; Gorji, Nima E.

2015-01-01

71

An analytical approach toward monitoring degradation in engineering thermoplastic materials used for electrical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Engineering thermoplastics are being used in a broad array of applications throughout the electrical industry. Polyester thermoplastics offer desirable electrical and mechanical properties; but when used in the wrong environments, they can be susceptible to hydrolysis. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) can be used as an analytical tool for monitoring the degree of hydrolytic degradation occurring to engineering thermoplastic materials. By

Sam J. Ferrito; Thomas A. Edison

1996-01-01

72

Adiabatic shear banding-induced degradation in a thermo-elastic\\/viscoplastic material under dynamic loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the approach presented, adiabatic shear banding (ASB) is considered as a form of anisotropic deterioration. The anisotropic mechanical degradation induced in the structural material by the bands is dealt with by using a second-order tensor internal variable. The kinematical consequences of the presence of the bands are described by means of the corresponding part (deterioration-induced part in addition to

Patrice Longère; André Dragon; Hervé Trumel; Xavier Deprince

2005-01-01

73

Evaluation of a degradable shape-memory polymer network as matrix for controlled drug release.  

PubMed

Degradable shape-memory polymers are multifunctional materials with broad applicability for medical devices. They are designed to acquire their therapeutically relevant shape and mechanical properties after implantation. In this study, the potential of a completely amorphous shape-memory polymer matrix for controlled drug release was comprehensively characterized according to a four step general strategy which provides concepts for validating multifunctional materials for pharmaceutical applications. Independent functionalities are thereby crucial for fully exploiting the potential of the materials. The copolyester urethane network was synthesized by crosslinking star-shaped tetrahydroxy telechelics of oligo[(rac-lactide)-co-glycolide] with an aliphatic diisocyanate. In step 1 of the four step characterization procedure, this material showed the thermal and mechanical properties, which are required for the shape-memory effect under physiological conditions. Shape recovery could be realized by a one-step or a multi-step methodology. In step 2, feasibility of drug loading of pre-formed shape-memory networks has been demonstrated with drugs of different hydrophobicities. The presence of drugs did not disturb the material's functionalities directly after loading (step 3) and under release conditions (step 4). A predictable release of about 90% of the payload in 80 days was observed. Overall, the synthesized amorphous polymer network showed three independent functionalities, i.e., a shape-memory effect combined with biodegradability and controlled drug release. PMID:19470395

Wischke, Christian; Neffe, Axel T; Steuer, Susi; Lendlein, Andreas

2009-09-15

74

Role of synergy between wear and corrosion in degradation of materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tribocorrosion is a term used to describe the material degradation due to the combination of electrochemical and tribological processes. Due to a synergetic effect, the material loss can be larger than the sum of the losses due to wear and corrosion acting separately. In this thesis, the synergy of wear and corrosion was investigated for different types of material, namely the Ti-6Al-4V alloy, the SS316L stainless steel coated with a thin film of Diamond Like Carbon (DLC), and the SS301 stainless steel coated with a thin film of chromium silicon nitride (CrSiN). A tribocorrosion apparatus was designed and constructed to conduct wear experiments in corrosive media. Sliding ball-on-plate configuration was used in this design, where the contact between the ball and the specimen is totally immersed in the test electrolyte. The specimen was connected to a potentiostat to control its electrochemical parameters, namely the potential and the current. Electrochemical techniques were used to control the kinetics of corrosion reactions, and therefore it was possible to assess separately the role of corrosion and wear in the total degradation of material, and to evaluate the synergy between them. For Ti-6Al-4V, it was found that the corrosion and tribocorrosion depend strongly on the structure of the material. The alpha-equiaxed microstructure with fine dispersed beta-phase exhibited the best corrosion resistance. The corrosion resistance was found to decrease when the basal plane was preferentially aligned parallel to the surface, which is attributed to a low resistance to charge transfer in the oxide films formed on this plane. On the other hand, when wear and corrosion were involved simultaneously, the oxide layer protecting the substrate against dissolution was mechanically destroyed leading to a high corrosion rate. It was found that the hardness was the most important factor determining the tribocorrosion behavior of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy; samples with high hardness exhibited less mechanical wear, less wear-enhanced corrosion, and less corrosion-enhanced wear. For DLC coatings, it was found that interface engineering plays a crucial role in the tribocorrosion behavior of DLC films. DLC films with nitrided interface layer (SSN3hDLC) were shown to have very poor tribocorrosion resistance; the DLC film delaminated from the substrate after 50 cycles of sliding wear at 9 N load in Ringer's solution. It should be mentioned that a previous study performed at Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal [4] has shown that the same coating resisted 1800 cycles of dry wear at 22 N without delamination. This demonstrates clearly the effect of corrosion on the wear resistance of DLC films. The use of a-SiN:H bond layer between the SS316L substrate and the DLC film improved significantly the tribocorrosion behavior of the coating. This layer acts as a barrier against corrosion reaction; the polarization resistance was 5.76 GO.cm2 compared to 27.5 MO.cm2 and 1.81 MO.cm2 for the DLC-coated SS316L with nitrided interface layer and the bare substrate, respectively. For CrSiN coatings, it was also shown that nitriding treatment of the substrate prior to deposition reduces significantly the tribocorosion resistance of the CrSiN-coated SS301 substrates. This is attributed to the peculiar morphology of the nitrided surface prior to deposition. The high relives at the grain boundaries of the substrate may be the reason for the generation, during sliding wear, of defects in the film, which makes the infiltration of the liquid easier, and consequently leads to the destruction of the CrSiN film.

Azzi, Marwan

75

Low Cycle Fatigue Evaluation of Duplex Stainless Steel with Material Degradation Effect Under Torsional Load  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monotonic torsional and pure torsional low cycle fatigue (LCF) tests with artificial degradation were performed on duplex stainless steel (CF8M). CF8M is used in pipes and valves in a nuclear reactor coolant system. It was aged at 430°C for 3600 hrs. Through the monotonic and LCF tests, it is found that mechanical properties (i.e., yield strength, strain hardening exponent, strength coefficient etc.) are increased and fatigue life (Nf) is decreased with degradation of material. The relationship between shear strain amplitude (?a) and Nf was proposed.

Kwon, Jae Do; Park, Joong Cheul; Kim, Joong Hyoung

76

Adaptive control of hysteretic smart material systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smart materials exhibit nonlinear behaviors and hysteresis when driven at field levels necessary to meet stringent performance criteria in high performance applications. This requires models and control designs that effectively compensate for the nonlinear, hysteretic field-coupled material behavior. In this dissertation, we investigate model identification using the homogenized energy model and adaptive control of hysteresis in smart hysteretic system, while

Xiang Fan

2009-01-01

77

Thermal/chemical degradation of ceramic cross-flow filter materials  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the 14-month, Phase 1 effort conducted by Westinghouse on the Thermal/Chemical Degradation of Ceramic Cross-Flow Filter Materials program. In Phase 1 expected filter process conditions were identified for a fixed-bed, fluid-bed, and entrained-bed gasification, direct coal fired turbine, and pressurized fluidized-bed combustion system. Ceramic cross-flow filter materials were also selected, procured, and subjected to chemical and physical characterization. The stability of each of the ceramic cross-flow materials was assessed in terms of potential reactions or phase change as a result of process temperature, and effluent gas compositions containing alkali and fines. In addition chemical and physical characterization was conducted on cross-flow filters that were exposed to the METC fluid-bed gasifier and the New York University pressurized fluidized-bed combustor. Long-term high temperature degradation mechanisms were proposed for each ceramic cross-flow material at process operating conditions. An experimental bench-scale test program is recommended to be conducted in Phase 2, generating data that support the proposed cross-flow filter material thermal/chemical degradation mechanisms. Papers on the individual subtasks have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

Alvin, M.A.; Lane, J.E.; Lippert, T.E.

1989-11-01

78

LANL material control indicator analysis program  

SciTech Connect

The possibility of SNM diversion/theft is a major concern to organizations charged with control of Special Nuclear Material (SNM). Several methods have been put in place to deter and or detect losses of SNM. These include inventory, material control physical barriers and the use of material control indicators (MCI). This paper will discuss the multi-tier LANL review mechanism for detecting and isolating missing SNM by the use of Material Control Indicators. Los Alamos MCI include daily analysis and review of item adjustments, weekly review of item adjustments, monthly analysis and review of inventory differences by Process Status and by Material Balance Areas, and quarterly analysis and review of Propagation of Variance. This paper, by providing an introduction to a site-specific application of MCI's, assists safeguards professionals in understanding the importance of an MCI Program in detecting accumulation for subsequent diversion/theft of special nuclear material.

Roybal, G. S. (Gilbert S.)

2001-01-01

79

Control of atomic layer degradation on Si substrate  

SciTech Connect

To develop 32 nm node devices, the degradation of atomic layers on the surface of Si substrates must be controlled. During the etching of a SiO{sub 2} or Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} hard mask or sidewall, the surface of Si is attended due to exposure to fluorocarbon plasma. The authors have quantitatively evaluated the relationship between the energy of incident ions and the thickness of the fluorocarbon polymer for a CH{sub 2}F{sub 2}/CF{sub 4}/Ar/O{sub 2} plasma in a dual frequency CCP system. At a fixed ion energy the thickness of the damage layer (T{sub d}) basically depended on the thickness of the fluorocarbon polymer (T{sub C-F}). When the T{sub C-F} was changed by controlling the O/CF{sub x} gas ratio, T{sub d} had a minimum thickness under the conditions at balance point: P{sub b}, under which the T{sub C-F} was nearly equal to ion penetration depth: D{sub p}. Using molecular dynamics simulation, reaction around the transition from SiO{sub 2} to Si was clarified. The damage was done to the Si before the SiO{sub 2} was completely removed, and the largest T{sub d} was observed when the SiO{sub 2} was etched off. After that, T{sub C-F} began to increase because there was no longer an outflux of O from SiO{sub 2} and the damage decreased as the unstable SiF{sub x} species in the damaged layer desorbed. Once the T{sub C-F} became thicker than the ion penetration depth, the damaged layer got buried and T{sub d} stopped changing. When the ion penetration depth was controlled to be equal to T{sub C-F} in a steady state under low ion energy conditions, the T{sub d} was reduced to less than 1 nm.

Nakamura, Y.; Tatsumi, T.; Kobayashi, S.; Kugimiya, K.; Harano, T.; Ando, A.; Kawase, T.; Hamaguchi, S.; Iseda, S. [LSI Production Division 1, Sony Semiconductor Kyushu Corp., 1883-43 Tsukuba-machi, Isahaya-shi, Nagasaki 854-0065 (Japan); Semiconductor Technology Development Division, Sony Corp., 4-14-1 Asahi-cho, Atsugi-shi, Kanagawa 243-0014 (Japan); LSI Production Division 1, Sony Semiconductor Kyushu Corp., 1883-43 Tsukuba-machi, Isahaya-shi, Nagasaki 854-0065 (Japan); Semiconductor Technology Development Division, Sony Corp., 4-14-1 Asahi-cho, Atsugi-shi, Kanagawa 243-0014 (Japan); Center for Atomic and Molecular Technologies, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); LSI Production Division 1, Sony Semiconductor Kyushu Corp., 1883-43 Tsukuba-machi, Isahaya-shi, Nagasaki 854-0065 (Japan)

2007-07-15

80

Small-Molecule Control of Protein Degradation Using Split Adaptors  

E-print Network

Targeted intracellular degradation provides a method to study the biological function of proteins and has numerous applications in biotechnology. One promising approach uses adaptor proteins to target substrates with ...

Davis, Joseph H.

81

Damage Assessment Technologies for Prognostics and Proactive Management of Materials Degradation (PMMD)  

SciTech Connect

There are approximately 440 operating reactors in the global nuclear power plant (NPP) fleet with an average age greater than 20 years and design lives of 30 or 40 years. The United States is currently implementing license extensions of 20 years on many plants, and consideration is now being given to the concept of "life-beyond-60", license extension from 60 to 80 years and potentially longer. In almost all countries with NPPs, authorities are looking at some form of license renewal program. In support of NPP license renewal over the past decade, various national and international programs have been initiated. This paper discusses stressor-based prognostics and its role as part of emerging trends in Proactive Management of Materials Degradation (PMMD) applied to nuclear power plant structures, systems and components (SSC). The paper concisely explains the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s (NRC) program in PMMD, the basic principles of PMMD and its relationship to advanced diagnostics and prognostics. It then provides an assessment of the state of maturity for diagnostic and prognostic technologies, including NDE and related technologies for damage assessment, and the current trend to move from condition-based maintenance to on-line monitoring for advanced diagnostics and stressor-based prognostics. This development in technology requires advances in sensors; better understanding of what and how to measure within a nuclear power plant; enhanced data interrogation, communication and integration; new prediction models for damage/aging evolution; system integration for real-world deployments and quantification of uncertainties in what are inherently ill-posed problems. Stressor-based analysis is based upon understanding which stressor characteristics (e.g., pressure transients) provide a percussive indication that can be used for mapping subsequent damage due to a specific degradation mechanism. The resulting physical damage and the associated decrease in asset performance start with the application of a stressor to the component. The design engineer sets the desired operational stressor intensity level so that the degradation in the physical state of the component occurs slowly enough for the equipment to last for its required design life. In general, when the design limit of a stressor is exceeded (during operation), the component life expectancy starts to shorten. Conversely, careful control of operational parameters can enable extension of component life beyond that normally expected. For systems which were conservatively designed (such as nuclear power plants), the premise of the prognostic methodology is that a relationship can be derived that will allow a much more accurate projection of the remaining useful life. This is achieved by focusing on trending the stressor characterics rather than trending a performance metric. In this trend analysis example, the slope of the trended parameter is thought to give a measure of the degradation rate of the component performance. This is assumed to be a function of the rate of decline in the physical integrity of the equipment. Experience from measurements has shown this assumption to be true if one accounts for the nonlinearity which can occur between physical attributes and their effects on performance.

Bond, Leonard J.; Doctor, Steven R.; Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Hull, Amy B.; Malik, Shah

2009-01-16

82

Degradation mechanisms of materials for large space systems in low Earth orbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Degradation was explored of various materials used in aerospace vehicles after severe loss of polymeric material coatings (Kapton) was observed on an early shuttle flight in low Earth orbit. Since atomic oxygen is the major component of the atmosphere at 300 km, and the shuttle's orbital velocity produced relative motion corresponding to approx. 5 eV of oxygen energy, it was natural to attribute much of this degradation to oxygen interaction. This assumption was tested using large volume vacuum systems and ion beam sources, in an exploratory effort to produce atomic oxygen of the appropriate energy, and to observe mass loss from various samples as well as optical radiation. Several investigations were initiated and the results of these investigations are presented in four papers. These papers are summarized. They are entitled: (1) The Space Shuttle Glow; (2) Laboratory Degradation of Kapton in a Low Energy Oxygen Ion Beam; (3) The Energy Dependence and Surface Morphology of Kapton Degradation Under Atomic Oxygen Bombardment; and (4) Surface Analysis of STS 8 Samples.

Gordon, William L.; Hoffman, R. W.

1987-01-01

83

Commutability of control materials in glycohemoglobin determinations.  

PubMed

The intermethod variabilities of control materials and patient blood samples for the measurement of glycohemoglobin were compared. Sets of 50 blood samples and 15 control materials were analyzed by HPLC and affinity and immunochemical methods. For each pair of methods, the distances of the materials from the regression line of patient blood results (expressed as normalized residuals) were calculated. Only two of 15 controls had normalized residuals exceeding 3 standard deviations from the regression line. Total hemoglobin (Hb) content, Hb derivatives, and cellulose acetate electrophoresis demonstrated that only a minority of controls could be considered similar to patients' blood samples. We selected Menarini's and our home-prepared controls to simulate calibration of the different techniques by these materials. Intermethod calibration succeeded mostly in harmonizing results obtained by HPLC methods. On the contrary, calibration of the immunochemical techniques (Boehringer and Roche) did not improve intermethod agreement to a clinically useful level. PMID:9510872

Mosca, A; Paleari, R; Madè, A; Ferrero, C; Locatelli, M; Ceriotti, F

1998-03-01

84

Study of the degradation of mulch materials in vegetable crops for organic farming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mulching is the most common technique used worldwide by vegetable growers in protected cultivation. For this purpose, several plastic materials have been used, with polyethylene (PE) being the most widespread. However, PE is produced from petroleum derivatives, it is not degradable, and thus pollutes the environment for periods much longer than the crop duration (Martín-Closas and Pelacho, 2011), which are very important negative aspects especially for organic farmers. A large portion of plastic films is left on the field or burnt uncontrollably by the farmers, with the associated negative consequences to the environment (Moreno and Moreno, 2008). Therefore, the best solution is to find a material with a lifetime similar to the crop duration time that can be later incorporated by the agricultural system through a biodegradation process (Martín-Closas and Pelacho, 2011). In this context, various biodegradable materials have been considered as alternatives in the last few years, including oxo-biodegradable films, biopolymer mulches, different types of papers, and crop residues (Kasirajan and Ngouajio, 2012). In this work we evaluate the evolution of different properties related to mulch degradation in both the buried and the superficial (exposed) part of mulch materials of different composition (standard black PE, papers and black biodegradable plastics) in summer vegetable crops under organic management in Castilla-La Mancha (Central Spain). As results, it is remarkable the early deterioration suffered by the buried part of the papers, disappearing completely in the soil at the end of the crop cycles and therefore indicating the total incorporation of these materials to the soil once the crop has finished. In the case of the degradation of the exposed mulch, small differences between crops were observed. In general, all the materials were less degraded under the plants than when receiving directly the solar radiation. As conclusion, biodegradable mulches degrade early but once they have fulfilled their functions, appearing as a good alternative to PE, especially in organic farming. Project INIA RTA2011-00104-C04-03. References: Kasirajan, S.; Ngouajio, M. 2012. Polyethylene and biodegradable mulches for agricultural applications: a review. Agron. Sustain. Dev. 32: 501-529. Martín-Closas, L.; Pelacho, A.M. 2011. Agronomic potential of biopolymer films. p. 277-299. In: Biopolymers. New materials for sustainable films and coating. John Wiley & Sons, New York. Moreno, M.M.; Moreno A. 2008. Effect of different biodegradable and polyethylene mulches on productivity and soil thermal and biological properties in a tomato crop. Sci. Hort. 116(3): 256-263.

María Moreno, Marta; Mancebo, Ignacio; Moreno, Carmen; Villena, Jaime; Meco, Ramón

2014-05-01

85

Understanding Fundamental Material Degradation Processes in High Temperature Aggressive Chemomechanical Environments  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that limit materials durability for very high-temperature applications. Current design limitations are based on material strength and corrosion resistance. This project will characterize the interactions of high-temperature creep, fatigue, and environmental attack in structural metallic alloys of interest for the very high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) or Next–Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) and for the associated thermo-chemical processing systems for hydrogen generation. Each of these degradation processes presents a major materials design challenge on its own, but in combination, they can act synergistically to rapidly degrade materials and limit component lives. This research and development effort will provide experimental results to characterize creep-fatigue-environment interactions and develop predictive models to define operation limits for high-temperature structural material applications. Researchers will study individually and in combination creep-fatigue-environmental attack processes in Alloys 617, 230, and 800H, as well as in an advanced Ni-Cr oxide dispersion strengthened steel (ODS) system. For comparison, the study will also examine basic degradation processes in nichrome (Ni-20Cr), which is a basis for most high-temperature structural materials, as well as many of the superalloys. These materials are selected to represent primary candidate alloys, one advanced developmental alloy that may have superior high-temperature durability, and one model system on which basic performance and modeling efforts can be based. The research program is presented in four parts, which all complement each other. The first three are primarily experimental in nature, and the last will tie the work together in a coordinated modeling effort. The sections are 1) dynamic creep-fatigue-environment process, 2) subcritical crack processes, 3) dynamic corrosion – crack initiation processes, and 4) modeling.

Stubbins, James; Gewirth, Andrew; Sehitoglu, Huseyin; Sofronis, Petros; Robertson, Ian

2014-01-16

86

Imprinted sol–gel materials for monitoring degradation products in automotive oils by shear transverse wave  

Microsoft Academic Search

Titania sol–gel layers imprinted with capric acid have been used as synthetic receptors for highly sensitive detection of oxidized products resulting from degradation of automotive engine oil. These layers have been applied as sensitive coating material on shear transverse wave (STW) resonators of frequencies ranging from 100MHz to 430MHz. A relatively small size of STW resonators, i.e. about 2mm for

Adnan Mujahid; Adeel Afzal; Gerd Glanzing; Anton Leidl; Peter A. Lieberzeit; Franz L. Dickert

2010-01-01

87

Development of advanced SQUID system for nondestructive evaluation of material degradation in power plants  

SciTech Connect

A newer and more advanced version of the SQUID sensor system for estimating the degradation of materials in power plants have been developed. The miniaturized SQUID sensor developed for nondestructive measurement is 262 mm high, 152 mm in diameter, and 5 kg in weight, making it only one-twelfth the size and one-tenth the weight of a conventional SQUID sensor. Tests have demonstrated that the new SQUID sensor can successfully estimate fatigue damage in Type 316 stainless steel.

Otaka, M.; Hayashi, E. [Hitachi, Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan)

1995-08-01

88

High-Resolution Crack Imaging Reveals Degradation Processes in Nuclear Reactor Structural Materials  

SciTech Connect

Corrosion and cracking represent critical failure mechanisms for structural materials in many applications. Although a crack can often be seen with the unaided eye, higher resolution imaging techniques are required to understand the nature of the crack tips and underlying degradation processes. Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) employ a suite of microscopy techniques and site-specific material sampling to analyze corrosion and crack structures, producing images and compositional analyses with near-atomic spatial resolution. The samples are cracked components removed from commercial light-water reactor service or laboratory samples tested in simulated reactor environments.

Olszta, Matthew J.; Schreiber, Daniel K.; Thomas, Larry E.; Bruemmer, Stephen M.

2012-04-01

89

Characterization of material degradation in ceramic matrix composites using infrared reflectance spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Ceramic matrix composite materials for thermal protection systems are required to maintain operational performance in extreme thermal and mechanical environments. In-service inspection of materials capable of assessing the degree and extent of damage and degradation will be required to ensure the safety and readiness of future air vehicles. Infrared reflectance spectroscopy is an established material characterization technique capable of extracting information regarding the chemical composition of substances. The viability of this technique as a potentially powerful nondestructive evaluation method capable of monitoring degradation in thermal protection system materials subjected to extreme mechanical and thermal environments is analyzed. Several oxide-based and non-oxide-based ceramic matrix composite materials were stressed to failure in a high temperature environment and subsequently measured using infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Spectral signatures at locations along the length of the samples were compared resulting in distinct and monotonic reflectance peak changes while approaching the fracture point. The chemical significance of the observed signatures and the feasibility of infrared reflectance nondestructive evaluation techniques are discussed.

Cooney, Adam T.; Flattum-Riemers, Richard Y. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, NonDestructive Evaluation Branch, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (United States); Scott, Benjamin J. [Universal Technology Corporation, Dayton, OH (United States)

2011-06-23

90

Engineering hyaluronic acid hydrogel degradation to control cellular interactions and adult stem cell fate in 3D  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design and implementation of extracellular matrix (ECM)-mimetic hydrogels for tissue engineering (TE) applications requires an intensive understanding of cell-material interactions, including matrix remodeling and stem cell differentiation. However, the influence of microenvironmental cues, e.g., matrix biodegradability, on cell behavior in vitro has not been well studied in the case of direct cell encapsulation within 3-dimensional (3D) hydrogels. To address these issues, a facile sequential crosslinking technique was developed that provides spatial and temporal control of 3D hydrogel degradability to investigate the importance of material design on cell behavior. Specifically, hydrogels were synthesized from hyaluronic acid (HA) macromers in a sequential process: (1) a primary Michael-type addition crosslinking using cell adhesive and matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-degradable oligopeptides to consume a portion of total reactive groups and resulting in "-UV" hydrogels permissive to cell-mediated degradation, followed by (2) a secondary, light initiated free-radical crosslinking to consume remaining reactive groups and "switch" the network to a non-degradable structure ("+UV") via the addition of non-degradable kinetic chains. Using this approach, we demonstrated control of encapsulated hMSC spreading by varying the crosslink type (i.e., the relative hydrogel biodegradability), including with spatial control. Upon incubation with bipotential soluble differentiation factors, these same degradation-mediated spreading cues resulted in an hMSC differentiation fate switch within -UV versus +UV environments. Follow-up studies demonstrated that degradation-mediated traction generation, rather than matrix mechanics or cell morphology, is the critical biophysical signal determining hMSC fate. Sequentially crosslinked HA hydrogels were also studied for the capacity to support remodeling by in vivo and ex vivo tissues, including with spatial control, toward tissue engineering (e.g., neovascularization) applications. In total, the work presented here highlights sequential crosslinking as a versatile platform technology affording processing capabilities to better mimic dynamic features of native microenvironments, including spatial patterning and temporal alteration of hydrogel degradability, toward both basic studies of cell behavior and TE applications.

Khetan, Sudhir

91

Water-Soluble, Biocompatible Polyphosphazenes with Controllable and pH-Promoted Degradation Behavior  

PubMed Central

The synthesis of a series of novel, water-soluble poly(organophosphazenes) prepared via living cationic polymerization is presented. The degradation profiles of the polyphosphazenes prepared are analyzed by GPC, 31P NMR spectroscopy, and UV–Vis spectroscopy in aqueous media and show tunable degradation rates ranging from days to months, adjusted by subtle changes to the chemical structure of the polyphosphazene. Furthermore, it is observed that these polymers demonstrate a pH-promoted hydrolytic degradation behavior, with a remarkably faster rate of degradation at lower pH values. These degradable, water soluble polymers with controlled molecular weights and structures could be of significant interest for use in aqueous biomedical applications, such as polymer therapeutics, in which biological clearance is a requirement and in this context cell viability tests are described which show the non-toxic nature of the polymers as well as their degradation intermediates and products. PMID:24729657

Wilfert, Sandra; Iturmendi, Aitziber; Schoefberger, Wolfgang; Kryeziu, Kushtrim; Heffeter, Petra; Berger, Walter; Brüggemann, Oliver; Teasdale, Ian

2014-01-01

92

Downhole material injector for lost circulation control  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and method are disclosed for simultaneously and separately emplacing two streams of different materials through a drill string in a borehole to a downhole location for lost circulation control. The two streams are mixed outside the drill string at the desired downhole location and harden only after mixing for control of a lost circulation zone. 6 figs.

Glowka, D.A.

1994-09-06

93

Downhole material injector for lost circulation control  

DOEpatents

This invention is comprised of an apparatus and method for simultaneously and separately emplacing two streams of different materials through a drillstring in a borehole to a downhole location for lost circulation control. The two streams are mixed outside the drillstring at the desired downhole location and harden only after mixing for control of a lost circulation zone.

Glowka, D.A.

1991-01-01

94

Downhole material injector for lost circulation control  

SciTech Connect

Apparatus and method for simultaneously and separately emplacing two streams of different materials through a drillstring in a borehole to a downhole location for lost circulation control. The two streams are mixed outside the drillstring at the desired downhole location and harden only after mixing for control of a lost circulation zone.

Glowka, David A. (Tijeras, NM)

1994-01-01

95

Distinct quaternary structures of the AAA+ Lon protease control substrate degradation  

E-print Network

Lon is an ATPase associated with cellular activities (AAA+) protease that controls cell division in response to stress and also degrades misfolded and damaged proteins. Subunits of Lon are known to assemble into ring-shaped ...

Vieux (Kloss), Ellen

96

Dose rate effects in radiation degradation of polymer-based cable materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cable ageing under the nuclear power plant (NPP) conditions must be effectively managed to ensure that the required plant safety and reliability are maintained throughout the plant service life. Ionizing radiation is one of the main stressors causing age-related degradation of polymer-based cable materials in air. For a given absorbed dose, radiation-induced damage to a polymer in air environment usually depends on the dose rate of the exposure. In this work, the effect of dose rate on the degradation rate has been studied. Three types of NPP cables (with jacket/insulation combinations PVC/PVC, PVC/PE, XPE/XPE) were irradiated at room temperature using 60Co gamma ray source at average dose rates of 7, 30 and 100 Gy/h with the doses up to 590 kGy. The irradiated samples have been tested for their mechanical properties, thermo-oxidative stability (using differential scanning calorimetry, DSC), and density. In the case of PVC and PE samples, the tested properties have shown evident dose rate effects, while the XPE material has shown no noticeable ones. The values of elongation at break and the thermo-oxidative stability decrease with the advanced degradation, density tends to increase with the absorbed dose. For XPE samples this effect can be partially explained by the increase of crystallinity. It was tested by the DSC determination of the crystalline phase amount.

Pla?ek, V.; Bartoní?ek, B.; Hnát, V.; Otáhal, B.

2003-08-01

97

Stability of CIGS solar cells and component materials evaluated by a step-stress accelerated degradation test method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A step-stress accelerated degradation testing (SSADT) method was employed for the first time to evaluate the stability of CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) solar cells and device component materials in four Al-framed test structures encapsulated with an edge sealant and three kinds of backsheet or moisture barrier film for moisture ingress control. The SSADT exposure used a 15°C and then a 15% relative humidity (RH) increment step, beginning from 40°C/40%RH (T/RH = 40/40) to 85°C/70%RH (85/70) as of the moment. The voluminous data acquired and processed as of total DH = 3956 h with 85/70 = 704 h produced the following results. The best CIGS solar cells in sample Set-1 with a moisture-permeable TPT backsheet showed essentially identical I-V degradation trend regardless of the Al-doped ZnO (AZO) layer thickness ranging from standard 0.12 ?m to 0.50 ?m on the cells. No clear "stepwise" feature in the I-V parameter degradation curves corresponding to the SSADT T/RH/time profile was observed. Irregularity in I-V performance degradation pattern was observed with some cells showing early degradation at low T/RH < 55/55 and some showing large Voc, FF, and efficiency degradation due to increased series Rs (ohm-cm2) at T/RH >= 70/70. Results of (electrochemical) impedance spectroscopy (ECIS) analysis indicate degradation of the CIGS solar cells corresponded to increased series resistance Rs (ohm) and degraded parallel (minority carrier diffusion/recombination) resistance Rp, capacitance C, overall time constant Rp*C, and "capacitor quality" factor (CPE-P), which were related to the cells' p-n junction properties. Heating at 85/70 appeared to benefit the CIGS solar cells as indicated by the largely recovered CPE-P factor. Device component materials, Mo on soda lime glass (Mo/SLG), bilayer ZnO (BZO), AlNi grid contact, and CdS/CIGS/Mo/SLG in test structures with TPT showed notable to significant degradation at T/RH >= 70/70. At T/RH = 85/70, substantial blistering of BZO layers on CIGS cell pieces was observed that was not seen on BZO/glass, and a CdS/CIGS sample displayed a small darkening and then flaking feature. Additionally, standard AlNi grid contact was less stable than thin Ni grid contact at T/RH >= 70/70. The edge sealant and moisture-blocking films were effective to block moisture ingress, as evidenced by the good stability of most CIGS solar cells and device components at T/RH = 85/70 for 704 h, and by preservation of the initial blue color on the RH indicator strips. The SSADT experiment is ongoing to be completed at T/RH = 85/85.

Pern, F. J.; Noufi, R.

2012-10-01

98

Stability of CIGS Solar Cells and Component Materials Evaluated by a Step-Stress Accelerated Degradation Test Method: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

A step-stress accelerated degradation testing (SSADT) method was employed for the first time to evaluate the stability of CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) solar cells and device component materials in four Al-framed test structures encapsulated with an edge sealant and three kinds of backsheet or moisture barrier film for moisture ingress control. The SSADT exposure used a 15oC and then a 15% relative humidity (RH) increment step, beginning from 40oC/40%RH (T/RH = 40/40) to 85oC/70%RH (85/70) as of the moment. The voluminous data acquired and processed as of total DH = 3956 h with 85/70 = 704 h produced the following results. The best CIGS solar cells in sample Set-1 with a moisture-permeable TPT backsheet showed essentially identical I-V degradation trend regardless of the Al-doped ZnO (AZO) layer thickness ranging from standard 0.12 ?m to 0.50 ?m on the cells. No clear 'stepwise' feature in the I-V parameter degradation curves corresponding to the SSADT T/RH/time profile was observed. Irregularity in I-V performance degradation pattern was observed with some cells showing early degradation at low T/RH < 55/55 and some showing large Voc, FF, and efficiency degradation due to increased series Rs (ohm-cm2) at T/RH ? 70/70. Results of (electrochemical) impedance spectroscopy (ECIS) analysis indicate degradation of the CIGS solar cells corresponded to increased series resistance Rs (ohm) and degraded parallel (minority carrier diffusion/recombination) resistance Rp, capacitance C, overall time constant Rp*C, and 'capacitor quality' factor (CPE-P), which were related to the cells? p-n junction properties. Heating at 85/70 appeared to benefit the CIGS solar cells as indicated by the largely recovered CPE-P factor. Device component materials, Mo on soda lime glass (Mo/SLG), bilayer ZnO (BZO), AlNi grid contact, and CdS/CIGS/Mo/SLG in test structures with TPT showed notable to significant degradation at T/RH ? 70/70. At T/RH = 85/70, substantial blistering of BZO layers on CIGS cell pieces was observed that was not seen on BZO/glass, and a CdS/CIGS sample displayed a small darkening and then flaking feature. Additionally, standard AlNi grid contact was less stable than thin Ni grid contact at T/RH ? 70/70. The edge sealant and moisture-blocking films were effective to block moisture ingress, as evidenced by the good stability of most CIGS solar cells and device components at T/RH = 85/70 for 704 h, and by preservation of the initial blue color on the RH indicator strips. The SSADT experiment is ongoing to be completed at T/RH = 85/85.

Pern, F. J.; Noufi, R.

2012-10-01

99

Towards coherent control of energetic material initiation  

SciTech Connect

Direct optical initiation (DOI) of energetic materials using coherent control of localized energy deposition requires depositing energy into the material to produce a critical size hot spot, which allows propagation of the reaction and thereby initiation, The hot spot characteristics needed for growth to initiation can be studied using quantum controlled initiation (QCI). Achieving direct quantum controlled initiation (QCI) in condensed phase systems requires optimally shaped ultrafast laser pulses to coherently guide the energy flow along the desired paths. As a test of our quantum control capabilities we have successfully demonstrated our ability to control the reaction pathway of the chemical system stilbene. An acousto-optical modulator based pulse shaper was used at 266 nm, in a shaped pump/supercontinuum probe technique, to enhance and suppress th relative yields of the cis- to trans-stilbene isomerization. The quantum control techniques tested in the stilbene experiments are currently being used to investigate QCI of the explosive hexanitroazobenzene (HNAB).

Greenfield, Margo T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcgrane, Shawn D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scharff, R Jason [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Moore, David S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

100

Degradation of 1-hydroxy-2,4-dinitrobenzene from aqueous solutions by electrochemical oxidation: role of anodic material.  

PubMed

Electrochemical oxidation (ECOx) of 1-hydroxy-2,4-dinitrobenzene (or 2,4-dinitrophenol: 2,4-DNP) in aqueous solutions by electrolysis under galvanostatic control was studied at Pb/PbO2, Ti/SnO2, Ti/IrxRuySnO2 and Si/BDD anodes as a function of current density applied. Oxidative degradation of 2,4-DNP has clearly shown that electrode material and the current density applied were important parameters to optimize the oxidation process. It was observed that 2,4-DNP was oxidized at few substrates to CO2 with different results, obtaining good removal efficiencies at Pb/PbO2, Ti/SnO2 and Si/BDD anodes. Trends in degradation way depend on the production of hydroxyl radicals (OH) on these anodic materials, as confirmed in this study. Furthermore, HPLC results suggested that two kinds of intermediates were generated, polyhydroxylated intermediates and carboxylic acids. The formation of these polyhydroxylated intermediates seems to be associated with the denitration step and substitution by OH radicals on aromatic rings, this being the first proposed step in the reaction mechanism. These compounds were successively oxidized, followed by the opening of aromatic rings and the formation of a series of carboxylic acids which were at the end oxidized into CO2 and H2O. On the basis of these information, a reaction scheme was proposed for each type of anode used for 2,4-D oxidation. PMID:24462986

Quiroz, Marco A; Sánchez-Salas, José L; Reyna, Silvia; Bandala, Erick R; Peralta-Hernández, Juan M; Martínez-Huitle, Carlos A

2014-03-15

101

Development of control material for hemoglobin analysis.  

PubMed

Abstract Background: There is no certified control material for hemoglobin analysis which has the hemoglobin (Hb)A(2)/E level as high as found in ?-thalassemia trait, HbE trait, ?-thalassemia/HbE disease and homozygote of HbE, the thalassemia types found frequently in the Southeast Asian population. The aim of this study was to prepare the lyophilized hemoglobin control materials for hemoglobin analysis. Methods: Washed and dialysed erythrocytes of normal individuals and patients with ?-thalassemia trait, HbE trait, ?-thalassemia/HbE disease, homozygous HbE were lysed in 5% sucrose solution. The lyophilized hemoglobin control materials were prepared by using a freeze-drying (lyophilization) method. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of lyophilized hemoglobin was performed after storing at ?20?C for 1, 15 and 30?days and for 3?months. Results: The chromatograms of lyophilized hemoglobin control materials showed similar patterns and similar levels of HbA, HbA(2)/E and HbF when compared with equivalent fresh whole blood. Moreover, the lyophilized hemoglobin presented a good correlation coefficient (r>0.990) of relationships between HPLC, low pressure liquid chromatography (LPLC) and capillary electrophoresis (CE) methods. Conclusions: The lyophilized hemoglobin could be developed and used as control materials for hemoglobin analysis. PMID:22070221

Pornprasert, Sakorn; Kongthai, Kunyakan; Waneesorn, Jarurin; Jaiping, Kanokwan; Treesuwan, Kallayanee

2011-11-10

102

Degradation of stone materials in the archaeological context of the Greek–Roman Theatre in Taormina (Sicily, Italy)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work results on the degradation phenomena of stone materials in the Ancient Theatre of Taormina, one of the\\u000a most important Greek–Roman monuments of Sicily, are reported. Artificial stone materials in different conservation conditions\\u000a were investigated. Samples of salt efflorescences from brick walls and degraded setting mortars were taken from the open gallery\\u000a in “summa cavea”. The chemical,

M. Brai; M. P. Casaletto; G. Gennaro; M. Marrale; T. Schillaci; L. Tranchina

2010-01-01

103

The nuclear materials control technology briefing book  

SciTech Connect

As national and international interests in nuclear arms control and non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, intensify, it becomes ever more important that contributors be aware of the technologies available for the measurement and control of the nuclear materials important to nuclear weapons development. This briefing book presents concise, nontechnical summaries of various special nuclear material (SNM) and tritium production monitoring technologies applicable to the control of nuclear materials and their production. Since the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) operates a multinational, on-site-inspector-based safeguards program in support of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), many (but not all) of the technologies reported in this document are in routine use or under development for IAEA safeguards.

Hartwell, J.K.; Fernandez, S.J.

1992-03-01

104

Materials for adaptive structural acoustic controls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research goals of this ONR sponsored University Research Initiative entitled 'Materials for Adaptive Structural Acoustics Control' relate directly to the sensing and actuating material which must be integrated to function in adaptive control of acoustic structures. This report documents work in the second year of the program and for convenience the activities are grouped under the headings General Summary Papers, Materials Studies, Composite Sensors, Actuator Studies, Integration Issues, Processing Studies, and Thin Film Ferroelectrics. The general papers cover a new comprehensive description of ferroelectric ceramics and their applications, analysis of high temperature piezoelectric sensors and the possible application of nonlinearity in enhancing the 'smartness' of ceramics and composites. Scale effects on ferroics are of increasing interest and the manner in which nanoscale polar regions control the properties of relaxor ferroelectrics is again emphasized.

Cross, L. E.

1994-01-01

105

Global nuclear material flow/control model  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The nuclear danger can be reduced by a system for global management, protection, control, and accounting as part of an international regime for nuclear materials. The development of an international fissile material management and control regime requires conceptual research supported by an analytical and modeling tool which treats the nuclear fuel cycle as a complete system. The prototype model developed visually represents the fundamental data, information, and capabilities related to the nuclear fuel cycle in a framework supportive of national or an international perspective. This includes an assessment of the global distribution of military and civilian fissile material inventories, a representation of the proliferation pertinent physical processes, facility specific geographic identification, and the capability to estimate resource requirements for the management and control of nuclear material. The model establishes the foundation for evaluating the global production, disposition, and safeguards and security requirements for fissile nuclear material and supports the development of other pertinent algorithmic capabilities necessary to undertake further global nuclear material related studies.

Dreicer, J.S.; Rutherford, D.S.; Fasel, P.K.; Riese, J.M.

1997-10-01

106

Aerospace Materials Quality Control: Instructor Notes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document from the Aerospace Manufacturing Education Project is intended to accompany a PowerPoint presentation on the topic of quality control of materials used in the aerospace industry. That presentation is available for download here. The presentation and notes will help students understand why quality control is important in this field. They also include details about aerospace QC teams and techniques, including non-destructive testing. These instructor notes also include links to a number of useful online references.

2012-11-14

107

Degradation in steam of 60 cm-long B4C control rods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of nuclear reactor core meltdown accident studies, the degradation of boron carbide control rod segments exposed to argon/steam atmospheres was investigated up to about 2000 °C in IRSN laboratories. The sequence of the phenomena involved in the degradation has been found to take place as expected. Nevertheless, the ZrO2 oxide layer formed on the outer surface of the guide tube was very protective, significantly delaying and limiting the guide tube failure and therefore the boron carbide pellet oxidation. Contrary to what was expected, the presence of the control rod decreases the hydrogen release instead of increasing it by additional oxidation of boron compounds. Boron contents up to 20 wt.% were measured in metallic mixtures formed during degradation. It was observed that these metallic melts are able to attack the surrounding fuel rods, which could have consequences on fuel degradation and fission product release kinetics during severe accidents.

Dominguez, C.; Drouan, D.

2014-08-01

108

DEGRADE, MOVE, REGROUP: Signaling Control of Splicing Proteins  

PubMed Central

With recent advances in microarrays and sequencing it is now relatively straightforward to compare pre-mRNA splicing patterns in different cellular conditions on a genome-wide scale. Such studies have revealed extensive changes in cellular splicing programs in response to stimuli such as neuronal depolarization, DNA damage, immune signaling and cellular metabolic changes. However, for many years our understanding of the signaling pathways responsible for such splicing changes was greatly lacking. Excitingly, over the past few years this gap has begun to close. Recent studies now suggest notable trends in the mechanisms that link cellular stimuli to downstream alternative splicing events. These include regulated synthesis or degradation of splicing factors, differential protein–protein interactions, altered nuclear translocation and changes in transcription elongation. PMID:21596569

Heyd, Florian; Lynch, Kristen W.

2011-01-01

109

Thermal/chemical degradation of ceramic candle filter materials. Final report, September 1988--October 1994  

SciTech Connect

High-temperature ceramic candle filters are being developed for use in advanced power generation systems such as the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC), Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustor (PFBC), and Direct Coal-Fired Turbine (DCFT). The direct firing of coal produces particulate matter which must be removed to meet both environmental and process limitations. The ceramic candles increase the efficiency of the advanced power generation systems and protect downstream equipment from erosion and impingement of particulate matter in the hot exhaust gases. Ceramic candle filters are rigid, closed-ended (capped on one side) porous cylinders which generally have a flange on the open-ended side. The flange at the open end allows the candle to be suspended by a tubesheet in the filter vessel. Candle filters have shown promise, but have also encountered durability problems during use in hostile, high-temperature environments. Limitations in the candle lifetime lower the economic advantages of using candle filters for this application. Candles typically fail by cracking at the flange or in the body of the candle. The objective of this project was to test and analyze ceramic candle filter materials and to evaluate the degradation mechanisms. The tests were conducted such that the effects of each degradation mechanism could be examined. Separately. The overall objective of the project was to: (a) develop a better understanding of the thermal and chemical degradation mechanisms of ceramic candle filter materials in advanced coal utilization projects, (b) develop test procedures, and (c) recommend changes to increase filter lifetime. 15 refs., 67 figs., 17 tabs.

NONE

1995-01-01

110

Concurrency Control Theory for Deferred Materialized Views  

Microsoft Academic Search

. We consider concurrency control problems that arise in thepresence of materialized views. Consider a database system supportingmaterialized views to speed up queries. For a range of important applications (e.g. banking, billing, network management), transactions that accessmaterialized views would like to get some consistency guarantees---ifa transaction reads a base relation after an update, and then reads a materializedview derived from

Akira Kawaguchi; Daniel F. Lieuwen; Inderpal Singh Mumick; Dallan Quass; Kenneth A. Ross

1997-01-01

111

Concurrency Control Theory for Deferred Materialized Views  

E-print Network

@cs.columbia.edu. z 2 Bell Laboratories, lieuwen@research.bell­labs.com. 3 AT&T Laboratories, mumickConcurrency Control Theory for Deferred Materialized Views Akira Kawaguchi 1 Daniel Lieuwen 2 of Akira Kawaguchi and Kenneth A. Ross was performed while visiting AT&T Bell Laboratories, and was also

Ross, Kenneth A.

112

Computerized materials protection, control, and accountability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proliferation of nuclear weapons, along with the technical knowledge and materials needed to make these weapons, is an enduring problem of international urgency. Current international nuclear nonproliferation efforts are aimed at deterring, detecting, and responding to proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. These safeguards efforts are being implemented by applying preeminent science and technology to the management and control

R. Whiteson; S. Seitz; R. P. Landry; M. L. Hadden; J. A. Painter

1997-01-01

113

Detection and mitigating rod drive control system degradation in Westinghouse PWRs  

SciTech Connect

A study of the effects of aging on the Westinghouse Control Rod Drive (CRD) System was performed as part of the US NRC's Nuclear Plant aging Research (NPAR) Program. For the study, the CRD system boundary includes the power and logic cabinets associated with the manual control rod movement, and the control rod mechanism itself. The aging-related degradation of the interconnecting cables and connectors and the rod position indicating system also were considered. This paper presents the results of that study pertaining to the electrical and instrumentation portions of the CRD system including ways to detect and mitigate system degradation.

Gunther, W.; Sullivan, K.

1990-01-01

114

In and Out of the ER: Protein Folding, Quality Control, Degradation, and Related Human Diseases  

E-print Network

In and Out of the ER: Protein Folding, Quality Control, Degradation, and Related Human Diseases 1377 C. Protein folding 1378 II. Protein Translocation, Folding, and Quality Control in the Endoplasmic Reticulum 1379 A. Protein targeting to the ER 1379 B. Chaperone-assisted protein folding in the ER 1379 C

Hebert, Daniel N.

115

Data-driven diagnosis of sensor precision degradation in the presence of control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the precision degradation type of sensor faults within control loops. In a closed loop, sensor faults propagate through controller to manipulated variables and disturb the other process variables, which obscures the source of sensor faults but receives less attention in existing methods of data-driven sensor fault diagnosis. With the assumption that only closed-loop data in normal condition

Yiming Wan; Hao Ye

116

Bio-inspired Supramolecular Assemblies and Porous Materials for the Degradation of Organophosphate Nerve Agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis reports the synthesis of bio-inspired supramolecular assemblies and porous materials that are catalytically active in the degradation of organophosphate nerve agents. The first catalysts described are a series of cofacial metalloporphyrin dimers modeled after the active site of phosphotriesterase that were modularly prepared from a single porphyrin building block and shown to catalyze the methanolysis of p-nitrophenyl diphenyl phosphate (PNPDPP), a simulant for nerve agents. Notably, tuning the active sites inside the cavities of these dimers, from ZnII metal centers to Al-OMe moieties, affords an enhanced nucleophilic environment where a high concentration of methoxy ligands becomes available for reaction with encapsulated phosphate triesters. Up to a 1300-fold rate acceleration over the uncatalyzed reaction can be achieved via a combination of cavity-localized Lewis-acid activation and methoxide-induced methanolysis. Based on the design principles learned from the aforementioned solution-phase Al(porphyrin) dimers, a heterogeneous porous organic polymer (POP) catalyst was synthesized by incorporating an Al(porphyrin) functionalized with a large axial ligand into a POP using a cobalt-catalyzed acetylene trimerization strategy. Removal of the axial ligand afforded a microporous material that is capable of encapsulating and solvolytically degrading PNPDPP. Supercritical CO 2 processing of the Al(porphyrin)-based POP dramatically increased the pore size and volume, allowing for significantly higher catalytic activities. The syntheses of porphyrin-based POPs with tunable pore diameters and volumes have also been attempted. SnIV(porphyrins) functionalized with bulky trans-diaxial ligands can be incorporated into POPs. Post-synthesis removal of the ligands reveal POPs with a tunable range of micro- and mesopores as well as tunable pore volumes. Expanding upon the idea that active sites that can both bind substrates and deliver nucleophiles should be active catalysts for the degradation of organophosphates, metal catecholate POPs were also explored. Metallation of catechol POPs with La(acac)3 affords a catalytically active microporous network for the solvolytic and hydrolytic degradation of the toxic organophosphate compound methyl paraoxon. As the Lewis-acidic LaIII metal ion can bind up to 9 substrates, its incorporation into a catechol-decorated POP affords a microporous environment capable of pre-concentrating methyl paraoxon in the presence of a large number of hydroxylated nucleophiles for enhanced catalysis.

Totten, Ryan K.

117

Controlled Degradation and Mechanical Behavior of Photopolymerized Hyaluronic Acid Networks  

PubMed Central

Hyaluronic acid is a natural polysaccharide found abundantly throughout the body with many desirable properties for application as a biomaterial, including scaffolding for tissue engineering. In this work, hyaluronic acid with molecular weights ranging from 50 to 1100 kDa was modified with methacrylic anhydride and photopolymerized into networks with a wide range of physical properties. With macromer concentrations from 2 to 20 wt%, networks exhibited volumetric swelling ratios ranging from ~42 to 8, compressive moduli ranging from ~2 to over 100 kPa, and degradation times ranging from less than 1 day up to almost 38 days in the presence of 100 U/ml hyaluronidase. When 3T3-fibroblasts were photoencapsulated in the hydrogels, cells remained viable with low macromer concentrations, but decreased sequentially as the macromer concentration increased. Finally, auricular swine chondrocytes produced neocartilage when photoencapsulated in the hyaluronic acid networks. This work presents a next step towards the development of advanced in vivo curable biomaterials. PMID:15638543

Burdick, Jason A.; Chung, Cindy; Jia, Xinqiao; Randolph, Mark A.; Langer, Robert

2009-01-01

118

Impacts of charge-exchange neutrals on degradation of plasma-facing materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reviews the recent data from the PISCES linear plasma facility and the TRIAM-1M tokamak, demonstrating the impacts of energetic charge-exchange particles on surface erosion and bulk damage. High energy neutrals can result in significant surface erosion via sputtering even for tungsten. For the erosion of tungsten it has been emphasized in the PISCES data that oxygen-containing plasma impurities dominate the overall erosion behavior at energies below the sputtering thresholds for hydrogenic species. Radiation damage has been observed in plasma-facing materials in TRIAM-1M due to charge-exchange hydrogen neutrals. The accumulation of dislocation loops has been observed in metals subjected to the bombardment of charge-exchange hydrogen neutrals with energy up to keV. The flux was on the order of 10 18 H atoms/m 2/s, which is comparable with the ITER first wall condition. Severe embrittlement was observed in tungsten after long-term exposure in TRIAM-1M. Due to their strong interaction with lattice defects, helium atoms cause more profound effects on material properties than hydrogen. Defect accumulation by keV helium ions induces significant hardening and embrittlement even at high temperatures. As such, bombardment of energetic neutrals of hydrogen and helium can result in unrecoverable damage in plasma-facing materials and degrade even material bulk properties.

Yoshida, N.; Hirooka, Y.

1998-10-01

119

Distinct quaternary structures of the AAA+ Lon protease control substrate degradation  

PubMed Central

Lon is an ATPase associated with cellular activities (AAA+) protease that controls cell division in response to stress and also degrades misfolded and damaged proteins. Subunits of Lon are known to assemble into ring-shaped homohexamers that enclose an internal degradation chamber. Here, we demonstrate that hexamers of Escherichia coli Lon also interact to form a dodecamer at physiological protein concentrations. Electron microscopy of this dodecamer reveals a prolate structure with the protease chambers at the distal ends and a matrix of N domains forming an equatorial hexamer–hexamer interface, with portals of ?45 Å providing access to the enzyme lumen. Compared with hexamers, Lon dodecamers are much less active in degrading large substrates but equally active in degrading small substrates. Our results support a unique gating mechanism that allows the repertoire of Lon substrates to be tuned by its assembly state. PMID:23674680

Vieux, Ellen F.; Wohlever, Matthew L.; Chen, James Z.; Sauer, Robert T.; Baker, Tania A.

2013-01-01

120

Degradation mechanism and control of blended eri and tasar silk nanofiber.  

PubMed

Fabrication of nanofibers from wild varieties of silk such as eri and tasar is very promising for tissue engineering application because of the presence of RGD (arginine-glycine-aspartic acid) ligand and high content of hydrophilic amino acids. In this study, the biodegradation of silk fibroin (SF) nanofibers have been studied in protease XIV solution to analyze the degradation behavior. The present study reveals that the degradation of nanofibrous mat strongly depends on hydrophilic amino acid fragments possessing bulky groups connecting the crystalline portion in nanofibrous structure. The newly found mechanism shows that ? sheet content and percentage of crystal in nanofibers play a major role in addition to hydrophilic fragments in degradation processes. Understanding of this mechanism can optimize the preparation of nanofibers with controlled and flexible degradation behavior without affecting essential biomaterial properties such as hydrophilicity, mechanical strength, and morphological property. This knowledge would widen the application of silk-based biomaterial for several tissues engineering application. PMID:25227684

Panda, N; Biswas, A; Sukla, L B; Pramanik, K

2014-12-01

121

Posttranslational Quality Control: Folding, Refolding, and Degrading Proteins  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Polypeptides emerging from the ribosome must fold into stable three-dimensional structures and maintain that structure throughout their functional lifetimes. Maintaining quality control over protein structure and function depends on molecular chaperones and proteases, both of which can recognize hydrophobic regions exposed on unfolded polypeptides. Molecular chaperones promote proper protein folding and prevent aggregation, and energy-dependent proteases eliminate irreversibly damaged proteins. The kinetics of partitioning between chaperones and proteases determines whether a protein will be destroyed before it folds properly. When both quality control options fail, damaged proteins accumulate as aggregates, a process associated with amyloid diseases.

Sue Wickner (National Cancer Institute;Laboratory of Molecular Biology); Michael Maurizi (National Cancer Institute;Laboratory of Cell Biology); Susan Gottesman (National Cancer Institute;Laboratory of Molecular Biology)

1999-12-03

122

The effect of the memristor electrode material on its resistance to degradation under conditions of cyclic switching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stability of titanium oxide memristors with gold and platinum electrodes with respect to switching-induced degradation has been studied. It is established that the use of gold instead of platinum as the electrode material significantly increases the resistance of a memristor to degradation in the course of repeated resistance read-write(erase) cycles. The first Russian high-endurance memristor based on titanium oxide has been obtained, which can withstand up to 3000 resistive switching cycles.

Khrapovitskaya, Yu. V.; Maslova, N. E.; Grishchenko, Yu. V.; Demin, V. A.; Zanaveskin, M. L.

2014-04-01

123

10 CFR 835.1101 - Control of material and equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Control of material and equipment. 835.1101...835.1101 Control of material and equipment. (a...and (c) of this section, material and equipment in contamination areas, high contamination areas,...

2010-01-01

124

Insider Threat - Material Control and Accountability Mitigation  

SciTech Connect

The technical objectives of nuclear safeguards are (1) the timely detection of diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material from peaceful uses to the manufacture of nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices or for purposes unknown and (2) the deterrence of such diversion by the risk of early detection. The safeguards and security program must address both outsider threats and insider threats. Outsider threats are primarily addressed by the physical protection system. Insider threats can be any level of personnel at the site including passive or active insiders that could attempt protracted or abrupt diversion. This could occur by an individual acting alone or by collusion between an individual with material control and accountability (MC&A) responsibilities and another individual who has responsibility or control within both the physical protection and the MC&A systems. The insider threat is one that must be understood and incorporated into the safeguards posture. There have been more than 18 documented cases of theft or loss of plutonium or highly enriched uranium. The insider has access, authority, and knowledge, as well as a set of attributes, that make him/her difficult to detect. An integrated safeguards program is designed as a defense-in-depth system that seeks to prevent the unauthorized removal of nuclear material, to provide early detection of any unauthorized attempt to remove nuclear material, and to rapidly respond to any attempted removal of nuclear material. The program is also designed to support protection against sabotage, espionage, unauthorized access, compromise, and other hostile acts that may cause unacceptable adverse impacts on national security, program continuity, the health and safety of employees, the public, or the environment. Nuclear MC&A play an essential role in the capabilities of an integrated safeguards system to deter and detect theft or diversion of nuclear material. An integrated safeguards system with compensating mitigation can decrease the risk of an insider performing a malicious act without detection.

Powell, Danny H [ORNL] [ORNL; Elwood Jr, Robert H [ORNL] [ORNL; Roche, Charles T [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01

125

Degradation of recycled PET fibers in Portland cement-based materials  

SciTech Connect

In order to investigate the durability of recycled PET fibers embedded in cement-based materials, fiber-reinforced mortar specimens were tested until 164 days after mixing. Compressive, tensile, and flexural strengths, elasticity modulus, and toughness of the specimens were determined. The mortars were also analyzed by SEM. The results have shown that PET fibers have no significant influence on mortars strengths and elasticity modulus. However, the toughness indexes I {sub 5}, I {sub 10}, and I {sub 20} decreased with time due to the degradation of PET fibers by alkaline hydrolysis when embedded in the cement matrix. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and SEM analysis of PET fibers immersed and kept for 150 days in alkaline solutions supported the conclusions.

Silva, D.A. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Department of Civil Engineering, C.P. 476, CEP 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)]. E-mail: denise@ecv.ufsc.br; Betioli, A.M. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Department of Civil Engineering, C.P. 476, CEP 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Gleize, P.J.P. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Department of Civil Engineering, C.P. 476, CEP 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Roman, H.R. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Department of Civil Engineering, C.P. 476, CEP 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Gomez, L.A. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Department of Civil Engineering, C.P. 476, CEP 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Ribeiro, J.L.D. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

2005-09-01

126

Environmental degradation of materials during wet storage of spent nuclear fuels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wet storage is the predominant mode of storage of spent nuclear fuels. Due to legislation and other constraints, many countries do not reprocess spent fuels and have to store these for extended periods in spent fuel storage pools (SFSPs). Although the water chemistry of the pool is benign, certain factors such as stagnancy of water, crevices, and galvanic contacts between various materials of the fuel clad and the lining of the pools can result in unexpected localized corrosion. In this study, the susceptibility to localized corrosion of aluminum-1S (Al-1S), Zircaloy-2, and type 304 stainless steel (SS) has been assessed using accelerated tests with crevice bent beam (CBB) assemblies. The pool water constituents have been analyzed and electrochemical potentials (ECPs) measured in water samples drawn from different locations of the pool. The ECP has also been measured in situ, in the pools. It has been demonstrated that under conditions of crevice and galvanic contact, aluminum clad fuels from research reactors are prone to localized corrosion even in the benign environments of a SFSP. The ECP experiments indicate the importance of surface condition of the material and irradiation on degradation of various materials due to corrosion.

Kain, Vivekanand; de, P. K.; Agarwal, K.; Seetharamaih, P.

2000-06-01

127

Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers  

SciTech Connect

Three copper-based alloys, CDA 102 (oxygen-free, high-purity copper), CDA 613 (aluminum bronze), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni), are candidates for the fabrication of high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers. Waste will include spent fuel assemblies from reactors as well as borosilicate glass, and will be sent to the prospective repository site at Yucca Mountain in Nye County, Nevada. The decay of radionuclides will result in the generation of substantial heat and in fluxes of gamma radiation outside the containers. In this environment, container materials might degrade by atmospheric oxidation, general aqueous phase corrosion, localized corrosion (LC), and stress corrosion cracking (SCC). This volume is a critical survey of available data on pitting and crevice corrosion of the copper-based candidates. Pitting and crevice corrosion are two of the most common forms of LC of these materials. Data on the SCC of these alloys is surveyed in Volume 4. Pitting usually occurs in water that contains low concentrations of bicarbonate and chloride anions, such as water from Well J-13 at the Nevada Test Site. Consequently, this mode of degradation might occur in the repository environment. Though few quantitative data on LC were found, a tentative ranking based on pitting corrosion, local dealloying, crevice corrosion, and biofouling is presented. CDA 102 performs well in the categories of pitting corrosion, local dealloying, and biofouling, but susceptibility to crevice corrosion diminishes its attractiveness as a candidate. The cupronickel alloy, CDA 715, probably has the best overall resistance to such localized forms of attack. 123 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

Farmer, J.C.; Van Konynenburg, R.A.; McCright, R.D. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Gdowski, G.E. (Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (USA))

1988-06-01

128

Early detection of critical material degradation by means of electromagnetic multi-parametric NDE  

SciTech Connect

With an increasing number of power plants operated in excess of their original design service life an early recognition of critical material degradation in components will gain importance. Many years of reactor safety research allowed for the identification and development of electromagnetic NDE methods which detect precursors of imminent damage with high sensitivity, at elevated temperatures and in a radiation environment. Regarding low-alloy heat-resistant steel grade WB 36 (1.6368, 15NiCuMoNb5), effects of thermal and thermo-mechanical aging on mechanical-technological properties and several micromagnetic parameters have been thoroughly studied. In particular knowledge regarding the process of copper precipitation and its acceleration under thermo-mechanical load has been enhanced. Whilst the Cu-rich WB 36 steel is an excellent model material to study and understand aging effects related to neutron radiation without the challenge of handling radioactive specimens in a hot cell, actually neutron-irradiated reactor pressure vessel materials were investigated as well. The neutron fluence experienced and the resulting shift of the ductile-brittle transition temperature were determined electromagnetically, and it was shown that weld and base material can be distinguished from the cladded side of the RPV wall. Low-cycle fatigue of the austenitic stainless steel AISI 347 (1.4550, X6CrNiNb18-10) has been characterized with electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) at temperatures of up to 300 °C. Time-of-flight and amplitude of the transmitted ultrasound signal were evaluated against the number of load cycles applied and observed as an indication of the imminent material failure significantly earlier than monitoring stresses or strains.

Szielasko, Klaus; Tschuncky, Ralf; Rabung, Madalina; Altpeter, Iris; Dobmann, Gerd [Fraunhofer Institute for Nondestructive Testing (IZFP), Campus E3 1, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Seiler, Georg; Herrmann, Hans-Georg; Boller, Christian [Fraunhofer Institute for Nondestructive Testing (IZFP), Campus E3 1, 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany and Saarland University, Chair of NDT and Quality Assurance, Campus E3 1, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany)

2014-02-18

129

Early detection of critical material degradation by means of electromagnetic multi-parametric NDE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With an increasing number of power plants operated in excess of their original design service life an early recognition of critical material degradation in components will gain importance. Many years of reactor safety research allowed for the identification and development of electromagnetic NDE methods which detect precursors of imminent damage with high sensitivity, at elevated temperatures and in a radiation environment. Regarding low-alloy heat-resistant steel grade WB 36 (1.6368, 15NiCuMoNb5), effects of thermal and thermo-mechanical aging on mechanical-technological properties and several micromagnetic parameters have been thoroughly studied. In particular knowledge regarding the process of copper precipitation and its acceleration under thermo-mechanical load has been enhanced. Whilst the Cu-rich WB 36 steel is an excellent model material to study and understand aging effects related to neutron radiation without the challenge of handling radioactive specimens in a hot cell, actually neutron-irradiated reactor pressure vessel materials were investigated as well. The neutron fluence experienced and the resulting shift of the ductile-brittle transition temperature were determined electromagnetically, and it was shown that weld and base material can be distinguished from the cladded side of the RPV wall. Low-cycle fatigue of the austenitic stainless steel AISI 347 (1.4550, X6CrNiNb18-10) has been characterized with electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) at temperatures of up to 300 °C. Time-of-flight and amplitude of the transmitted ultrasound signal were evaluated against the number of load cycles applied and observed as an indication of the imminent material failure significantly earlier than monitoring stresses or strains.

Szielasko, Klaus; Tschuncky, Ralf; Rabung, Madalina; Seiler, Georg; Altpeter, Iris; Dobmann, Gerd; Herrmann, Hans-Georg; Boller, Christian

2014-02-01

130

[Selection of electrochemical anodic materials for PFOA degradation and its mechanism].  

PubMed

Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) is environmentally stable and endocrine-disrupting. It was resistant to conventional biodegradation and advanced oxidation processes. Electrochemical oxidation method was adopted to degrade PFOA. The anodes, including BDD, Pt, Ti, Ti/RuO2, Ti/RuO2-IrO2, Ti/In2O3, Ti/SnO2-Sb2O5,-IrO2, Ti/SnO2-Sb2O5,-RhO2, Ti/SnO2-Sb2O5, Ti/ SnO2-Sb2O5,-CeO2 and Ti/SnO2-Sb2O5-Bi2O3, were selected as the candidate materials. The oxygen evolution potential (OEP) were determined by linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). The degradation ratios and the defluorination ratios were used to evaluate the oxidation ability of anodic materials. Ultrasonic electrochemical oxidation indirectly demonstrated that direct electron transfer was the initial step for PFOA decomposition. The anodes of Ti/SnO,-Sb20 ,-Bi2,03, Ti/SnO-Sb ,O,-CeO,, Ti/SnO2-Sb20, and BDD effectively degraded PFOA, and the decomposition ratios were 89. 8% , 89. 8% , 93. 3% and 98. 0% , respectively. The removal ratios of PFOA on Ti/ SnO2-Sb2O5,-RhO2, Ti/SnO2-Sb2O5-IrO2, and Ti/In2O3 anodes were low, and the values were 2. 1%, 2.3% , 12. 5% and 3.1%, respectively. However, Ti, Ti/RuO2 and Ti/RuO2-IrO2, had no effect on PFOA. PFOA molecule transferred electrons to the anode, decarboxylated, and followed the CF2, unzipping cycle. The intermediate products detected were C6F13 COO- , C5F11COO-, C4F9COO- and C3F7,COO-. PMID:25055671

Zhuo, Qiong-Fang; Deng, Shu-Bo; Xu, Zhen-Cheng; Yu, Gang

2014-05-01

131

Synthesis and biological evaluation of a polysialic acid-based hydrogel as enzymatically degradable scaffold material for tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Restorative medicine has a constant need for improved scaffold materials. Degradable biopolymers often suffer from uncontrolled chemical or enzymatic hydrolysis by the host. The need for a second surgery on the other hand is a major drawback for nondegradable scaffold materials. In this paper we report the design and synthesis of a novel polysialic acid-based hydrogel with promising properties. Hydrogel synthesis was optimized and enzymatic degradation was studied using a phage-born endosialidase. After addition of endosialidase, hydrogels readily degraded depending on the amount of initially used cross-linker within 2 to 11 days. This polysialic acid hydrogel is not cytotoxic, completely stable under physiological conditions, and could be evaluated as growth support for PC12 cells. Here, additional coating with collagen I, poly-L-lysine or matrigel is mandatory to improve the properties of the material. PMID:18690740

Berski, Silke; van Bergeijk, Jeroen; Schwarzer, David; Stark, Yvonne; Kasper, Cornelia; Scheper, Thomas; Grothe, Claudia; Gerardy-Schahn, Rita; Kirschning, Andreas; Dräger, Gerald

2008-09-01

132

Degradation and oxidation of B 4C control rod segments at high temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extensive series of test were performed of the degradation of boron carbide absorber rods and the oxidation of the resultant absorber melts. Various types of control rod segments made of commercial materials used in French 1300 MW PWRs were investigated in the temperature range between 800 °C and 1700 °C in a steam atmosphere. The gaseous reaction products were analyzed quantitatively by mass spectroscopy for evaluation of the oxidation rates. Extensive post-test examinations were performed by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy as well as EDX and Auger spectroscopy. Rapid melt formation due to eutectic interactions of stainless steel (cladding tube) and B 4C, on the one hand, and steel and Zircaloy-4 (guide tube), on the other hand, was observed at temperatures above 1250 °C. Complex multi-component, multi-phase melts were produced. ZrO 2 oxide scale on the outside kept the melt within the guide tube, thus preventing its early relocation and oxidation. Rapid oxidation of the absorber melts and remaining boron carbide pellets took place after failure of the protective oxide shell above 1450 °C. Only very little methane was produced in these tests which is of interest in fission product gas chemistry because of the production of organic iodine.

Steinbrück, M.

2010-05-01

133

Radiation Induced Degradation of White Thermal Control Paint  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper details a comparison analysis of the zinc-oxide pigmented white thermal control paints Z-93 and Z-93P. Both paints were simultaneously exposed to combined space environmental effects and analyzed using an in-vacuo reflectance technique. The dose applied to the paints was approximately equivalent to 5 yr in a geosynchronous orbit. This comparison analysis showed that Z-93P is an acceptable substitute for Z-93. Irradiated samples of Z-93 and Z-93P were subjected to additional exposures of ultraviolet (UV) radiation and analyzed using the in-vacuo reflectance technique to investigate UV activated reflectance recovery. Both samples showed minimal UV activated reflectance recovery after an additional 190 equivalent Sun hour (ESH) exposure. Reflectance response utilizing nitrogen as a repressurizing gas instead of air was also investigated. This investigation found the rates of reflectance recovery when repressurized with nitrogen are slower than when repressurized with air.

Edwards, D. L.; Zwiener, J. M.; Wertz, G. E.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Kamenetzky, Rachel R.; Finckenor, M. M.; Meshishnek, M. J.

1999-01-01

134

Radiation Induced Degradation of White Thermal Control Paint  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper details a comparison analysis of the zinc-oxide pigmented white thermal control paints Z-93 and Z-93P. Both paints were simultaneously exposed to combined space environmental effects and analyzed using an in-vacuo reflectance technique. The dose applied to the paints was approximately equivalent to 5 yr in a geosynchronous orbit. This comparison analysis showed that Z-93P is an acceptable substitute for Z-93. Irradiated samples of Z-93 and Z-93P were subjected to additional exposures of ultraviolet (UV) radiation and analyzed using the in-vacuo reflectance technique to investigate UV activated reflectance recovery. Both samples showed minimal UV activated reflectance recovery after an additional 190 equivalent Sun hour (ESH) exposure. Reflectance response utilizing nitrogen as a repressurizing gas instead of air was also investigated. This investigation found the rates of reflectance recovery when repressurized with nitrogen are slower than when repressurized with air.

Edwards, D. L.; Zwiener, J. M.; Wertz, G. E.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Kamenetzky, Rachel R.; Finckenor, M. M.; Meshishnek, M. J.

1998-01-01

135

Radiation Induced Degradation of White Thermal Control Paint  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper details a comparison analysis of the Zinc Oxide pigmented white thermal control paints Z-93 and Z-93P. Both paints were simultaneously exposed to combined space environmental effects and analyzed using an in-vacuum reflectance technique. The dose applied to the paints was approximately equivalent to 5 years in a geosynchronous orbit. This comparison analysis showed that Z-93P is an acceptable substitute for Z-93. Irradiated samples of Z-93 and Z-93P were subjected to additional exposures of ultraviolet (UV) radiation and analyzed using the in-vacuum reflectance technique to investigate UV activated reflectance recovery. Both samples showed minimal UV activated reflectanc6 recovery after an additional 190 Equivalent Sun Hour (ESH) exposure. Reflectance response utilizing nitrogen as a repressurizing gas instead of air was also investigated. This investigation found the rates of reflectance recovery when repressurized with nitrogen are slower than when repressurized with air.

Edwards, D. L.; Zwiener, J. M.; Wertz, G. E.; Vaughn, J. A.; Kamenetzky, R. R.; Finckenor, M. M.; Meshishnek, M. J.

1998-01-01

136

Ethylene receptor degradation controls the timing of ripening in tomato fruit  

E-print Network

Ethylene receptor degradation controls the timing of ripening in tomato fruit Brian M. Kevany-mail hjklee@ifas.ufl.edu). Summary Fruit ripening in tomato requires the coordination of both developmental in the levels of either of two family members, LeETR4 or LeETR6, causes an early-ripening phenotype. We provide

Klee, Harry J.

137

Catabolite repression and nitrogen control of allantoin-degrading enzymes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of the allantoin-degrading enzymes allantoinase, allantoicase and ureidoglycolase in Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found to be regulated by induction, catabolite repression and nitrogen control. Induction was observed when urate, allantoin or allantoate were included in the growth medium, but not with ureidoglycolate. Tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates exerted catabolite repression of the synthesis of the three enzymes, while pyruvate and

C. van der Drift; D. B. Janssen

1983-01-01

138

Nuclear Ubiquitin Ligases, NF-{kappa}B Degradation, and the Control of Inflammation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Transcriptional control of the vast majority of genes involved in the inflammatory response requires the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) family of transcription factors. Stimulation and termination of NF-κB activity are subject to stringent spatiotemporal control. According to the classical model of NF-κB regulation, both activation and termination mechanisms are centered on inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB) proteins. Whereas activation of NF-κB requires degradation of the IκBs, the main mechanism responsible for termination of NF-κB activity is the resynthesis of a specific IκB, IκBα, which sequesters NF-κB dimers in the nucleus and translocates them to the cytoplasm in an inactive form. Studies now show that an additional mechanism that is required to prevent the uncontrolled activity of NF-κB proteins is their nuclear degradation. At least two E3 ubiquitin ligases, one of which seems to be essential for control of nuclear NF-κB p65 (also known as RelA) in myeloid cells, have been identified. Moreover, additional evidence indicates that individual NF-κB dimers with particular activating or repressive properties may be differentially controlled by nuclear degradation, thus paving the way for the exploitation of NF-κB degradation pathways for therapeutic purposes.

Gioacchino Natoli (Milan;European Institute of Oncology (IEO) REV); Susanna Chiocca (Milan;European Institute of Oncology (IEO) REV)

2008-01-08

139

Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers  

SciTech Connect

Six alloys are being considered as possible materials for the fabrication of containers for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Three of these candidate materials are copper-based alloys: CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni). The other three are iron- to nickel-based austenitic materials: Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825. Radioactive waste will include spent-fuel assemblies from reactors as well as waste in borosilicate glass and will be sent to the prospective site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for disposal. The waste-package containers must maintain substantially complete containment for at least 300 yr and perhaps as long as 1000 yr. During the first 50 yr after emplacement, the containers must be retrievable from the disposal site. Shortly after emplacement of the containers in the repository, they will be exposed to high temperatures and high gamma radiation fields from the decay of high-level waste. This radiation will promote the radiolytic decomposition of moist air to hydrogen. This volume surveys the available data on the effects of hydrogen on the six candidate alloys for fabrication of the containers. For copper, the mechanism of hydrogen embrittlement is discussed, and the effects of hydrogen on the mechanical properties of the copper-based alloys are reviewed. The solubilities and diffusivities of hydrogen are documented for these alloys. For the austenitic materials, the degradation of mechanical properties by hydrogen is documented. The diffusivity and solubility of hydrogen in these alloys are also presented. For the copper-based alloys, the ranking according to resistance to detrimental effects of hydrogen is: CDA 715 (best) > CDA 613 > CDA 102 (worst). For the austenitic alloys, the ranking is: Type 316L stainless steel {approx} Alloy 825 > Type 304L stainless steel (worst). 87 refs., 19 figs., 8 tabs.

Gdowski, G.E.; Bullen, D.B. (Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (USA))

1988-08-01

140

Lost circulation control materials. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

Work in FY 94 continued to investigate the use of calcium phosphate cements as lost circulation control materials for geothermal wells. The calcium phosphate cements were produced by reacting calcium aluminate cement with sodium phosphate compounds. Pumpable formulations with thickening times up to two hours at temperatures between 25 to 90{degrees}C were developed and characterized. The materials showed rapid set behaviour, early strength development, low permeability and acceptable durability in hydrothermal environments. Strengths up to 4 MPa were achieved four hours after mixing and water permeabilities were of the order of 10{sup -9} to 10{sup -7} cm/s at 24 hours. Partial replacement of calcium aluminate cement with ground granulated blast furnace slag was found to reduce the amount of borax retarder required to maintain pumpability at elevated temperatures and pressures.

Allan, M.L.; Kukacka, L.E.

1994-01-01

141

Adaptive binary material classification of an unknown object using polarimetric images degraded by atmospheric turbulence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An improved binary material-classification algorithm using passive polarimetric imagery degraded by atmospheric turbulence is presented. The technique implements a modified version of an existing polarimetric blind-deconvolution algorithm in order to remove atmospheric distortion and correctly classify the unknown object. The classification decision, dielectric or metal in this case, is based on degree of linear polarization (DoLP) estimates provided by the blind-deconvolution algorithm augmented by two DoLP priors - one statistically modeling the polarization behavior of metals and the other statistically modeling the polarization behavior of dielectrics. The DoLP estimate which maximizes the log-likelihood function determines the image pixel's classification. The method presented here significantly improves upon a similar published polarimetric classification method by adaptively updating the DoLP priors as more information becomes available about the scene. This new adaptive method significantly extends the range of validity of the existing polarimetric classification technique to near-normal collection geometries where most polarimetric material classifiers perform poorly. In this paper, brief reviews of the polarimetric blind-deconvolution algorithm and the functional forms of the DoLP priors are provided. Also provided is the methodology for making the algorithm adaptive including three techniques for updating the DoLP priors using in-progress DoLP estimates. Lastly, the proposed technique is experimentally validated by comparing classification results of two dielectric and metallic samples obtained using the new method to those obtained using the existing technique.

Kim, Mu J.; Hyde, Milo W.

2012-10-01

142

Evaluation of near surface material degradation in concrete using nonlinear Rayleigh surface waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comparative studies of nondestructive evaluation methods have shown that nonlinear ultrasonic techniques are more sensitive than conventional linear methods to changes in material microstructure and the associated small-scale damage. Many of the material degradation processes such as carbonation in concrete, corrosion in metals, etc., initiate at the surface. In such cases, ultrasonic Rayleigh surface waves are especially appropriate for detection and characterization of damage since their energy is concentrated in the top layer of the test object. For the civil engineering infrastructure, only a limited number of field applicable nonlinear ultrasonic techniques have been introduced. In this paper a nonlinear ultrasonic measurement technique based on the use of Rayleigh waves is developed and used to characterize carbonation in concrete samples. This work develops a collinear mixing technique for concrete structures. Wedge transducer is used for the generation and an accelerometer for the detection of the fundamental and nonlinearity modulated ultrasonic signal components. The measurements are made by varying the input voltage and along the propagation distance. The slope of the normalized modulation amplitudes is taken as the nonlinearity parameter. Concrete samples with two different levels of damage are examined, and the difference of the two fundamental frequencies is used to quantify damage state.

Gross, J.; Kim, J.-Y.; Jacobs, L. J.; Kurtis, K. E.; Qu, J.

2013-01-01

143

Control of translation and mRNA degradation by miRNAs and siRNAs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The control of translation and mRNA degradation is an important part of the regulation of gene expression. It is now clear that small RNA molecules are common and effective modulators of gene expression in many eukary- otic cells. These small RNAs that control gene expres- sion can be either endogenous or exogenous micro RNAs (miRNAs) and short interfering RNAs (siRNAs)

Marco Antonio Valencia-Sanchez; Jidong Liu; Gregory J. Hannon; Roy Parker

2009-01-01

144

Materials Experiment Carrier Thermal Control System study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Materials Experimental Carrier (MEC) vehicle currently under study at NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center presents unique power and heat rejection problems to the 25 kW Power System (PS). In order to determine how these requirements can best be met on both the Power System and MEC vehicle, Thermal Control System Trade Studies were conducted. The results of these trade studies indicated total weight to orbit would be minimized for multiple MEC launches by centralized radiators on the Power System. A split loop arrangement of Power System Thermal Control Subsystem, with separate loops for payload and PS heat rejection, appeared favorable from these trades. FC72 fluid was recommended for the high temperature MEC heat transport loop.

Fleming, M.

1981-01-01

145

EVALUATION OF THE RESISTANCE OF A CHLORINATED POLYETHYLENE PROTECTIVE GARMENT MATERIAL TO PERMEATION AND DEGRADATION BY LIQUID CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

The objectives of the project was to investigate existing permeation and degradation resistance data for chlorinated polyethylene (CPE); to develop a laboratory test plan consistent with American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard Test Methods F739-81 and D471-79 r...

146

Enzymes for Degradation of Energetic Materials and Demilitarization of Explosives Stockpiles - SERDP Annual (Interim) Report, 12/98  

SciTech Connect

The current stockpile of energetic materials requiring disposal contains about half a million tons. Through 2001, over 2.1 million tons are expected to pass through the stockpile for disposal. Safe and environmentally acceptable methods for disposing of these materials are needed. This project is developing safe, economical, and environmentally sound processes using biocatalyst (enzymes) to degrade energetic materials and to convert them into economically valuable products. Alternative methods for destroying these materials are hazardous, environmentally unacceptable, and expensive. These methods include burning, detonation, land and sea burial, treatment at high temperature and pressure, and treatment with harsh chemicals. Enzyme treatment operates at room temperature and atmospheric pressure in a water solution.

Shah, M.M.

1999-01-18

147

Analysis of Retrieved Hubble Space Telescope Thermal Control Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mechanical and optical properties of the thermal control materials on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) have degraded over the nearly seven years the telescope has been in orbit. Astronaut observations and photographs from the Second Servicing Mission (SM2) revealed large cracks in the metallized Teflon FEP, the outer-layer of the multi-layer insulation (MLI), in many locations around the telescope. Also, the emissivity of the bonded metallized Teflon FEP radiator surfaces of the telescope has increased over time. Samples of the top layer of the MLI and radiator material were retrieved during SM2, and a thorough investigation into the de-radiation followed in order to determine the primary cause of the damage. Mapping of the cracks on HST and the ground testing showed that thermal cycling with deep-layer damage from electron and proton radiation are necessary to cause the observed embrittlement. Further, strong, evidence was found indicating that chain scission (reduced molecular weight) is the dominant form of damage to the metallized Teflon FEP.

Townsend, Jacqueline A.; Hansen, Patricia A.; Dever, Joyce A.; Triolo, Jack J.

1998-01-01

148

76 FR 28193 - Amendments to Material Control and Accounting Regulations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Amendments to Material Control and Accounting Regulations AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...amendments to the material control and accounting (MC&A) regulations. These regulations...outdated term, as it does not include ``accounting,'' and thus does not fully...

2011-05-16

149

Control of Cholesterol Synthesis through Regulated ER-Associated Degradation of HMG CoA Reductase  

PubMed Central

Multiple mechanisms for feedback control of cholesterol synthesis converge on the rate-limiting enzyme in the pathway, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase. This complex feedback regulatory system is mediated by sterol and nonsterol metabolites of mevalonate, the immediate product of reductase activity. One mechanism for feedback control of reductase involves rapid degradation of the enzyme from membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This degradation results from the accumulation of sterols in ER membranes, which triggers binding of reductase to ER membrane proteins called Insig-1 and Insig-2. Insig binding leads to the recruitment of a membrane-associated ubiquitin ligase called gp78 that initiates ubiquitination of reductase. Ubiquitinated reductase then becomes extracted from ER membranes and is delivered to cytosolic 26S proteasomes through an unknown mechanism that is mediated by the gp78-associated ATPase Valosin-containing protein/p97 and appears to be augmented by nonsterol isoprenoids. Here, we will highlight several advances that have led to the current view of mechanisms for sterol-accelerated, ER-associated degradation of reductase. In addition, we will discuss potential mechanisms for other aspects of the pathway such as selection of reductase for gp78-mediated ubiquitination, extraction of the ubiquitinated enzyme from ER membranes, and the contribution of Insig-mediated degradation to overall regulation of reductase in whole animals. PMID:20482385

Jo, Youngah; DeBose-Boyd, Russell A.

2010-01-01

150

UV Induced Degradation of Polycarbonate-Based Lens Materials and Implications for the Heath Care Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental undergraduate research at Keene State College has utilized facilities in physics and chemistry and at Polyonics, a local firm to study the effects of mono- and polychromatic UV radiation from various sources, including a Deuterium lamp, a solarization unit, a monochromator, and natural sunlight to study the photodegradation of polycarbonate-based lens materials used to produce eyewear using spectrophotometry and FTIR analysis. Ophthalmologic literature indicates a correlation between exposure to the UVB band of sunlight and the onset of cataract formation and macular degeneration. It is well known that polycarbonate plastic ``yellows'' when exposed to intense sunlight and, particularly, UV light either via photo-Fries rearrangement or by a photo oxidative process, forming polyconjugated systems and is a concern primarily for cosmetic reasons. Our data indicates that the ``yellowing'' is an indication of a more sinister problem in the case of eyeglasses in that spectrophotometric comparison shows it is accompanied by an increase in transmissivity in the UVB band where the wearer expects and needs protection. FTIR results indicate a degradation of molecular stabilizers and the appearance of free radicals that indicate a breakdown of the resin's chemical structure. To cite this abstract, use the following reference: http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2007.NES07.B1.4

Harkay, J. Russell; Henry, Jerry

2007-04-01

151

Relationship between anode material, supporting electrolyte and current density during electrochemical degradation of organic compounds in water.  

PubMed

Taking crystal violet (CV) dye as pollutant model, the electrode, electrolyte and current density (i) relationship for electro-degrading organic molecules is discussed. Boron-doped diamond (BDD) or Iridium dioxide (IrO2) used as anode materials were tested with Na2SO4 or NaCl as electrolytes. CV degradation and generated oxidants showed that degradation pathways and efficiency are strongly linked to the current density-electrode-electrolyte interaction. With BDD, the degradation pathway depends on i: If idegraded by OH radicals, whereas if i>i(lim), generated oxidants play a major role in the CV elimination. When IrO2 was used, CV removal was not dependent on i, but on the electrolyte. Pollutant degradation in Na2SO4 on IrO2 seems to occur via IrO3; however, in the presence of NaCl, degradation was dependent on the chlorinated oxidative species generated. In terms of efficiency, the Na2SO4 electrolyte showed better results than NaCl when BDD anodes were employed. On the contrary, NaCl was superior when combined with IrO2. Thus, the IrO2/Cl(-) and BDD/SO4(2-) systems were better at removing the pollutant, being the former the most effective. On the other hand, pollutant degradation with the BDD/SO4(2-) and IrO2/Cl(-) systems is favored at low and high current densities, respectively. PMID:24981674

Guzmán-Duque, Fernando L; Palma-Goyes, Ricardo E; González, Ignacio; Peñuela, Gustavo; Torres-Palma, Ricardo A

2014-08-15

152

Probabilistic Structural Analysis and Reliability Using NESSUS With Implemented Material Strength Degradation Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This project included both research and education objectives. The goal of this project was to advance innovative research and education objectives in theoretical and computational probabilistic structural analysis, reliability, and life prediction for improved reliability and safety of structural components of aerospace and aircraft propulsion systems. Research and education partners included Glenn Research Center (GRC) and Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) along with the University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA). SwRI enhanced the NESSUS (Numerical Evaluation of Stochastic Structures Under Stress) code and provided consulting support for NESSUS-related activities at UTSA. NASA funding supported three undergraduate students, two graduate students, a summer course instructor and the Principal Investigator. Matching funds from UTSA provided for the purchase of additional equipment for the enhancement of the Advanced Interactive Computational SGI Lab established during the first year of this Partnership Award to conduct the probabilistic finite element summer courses. The research portion of this report presents the cumulation of work performed through the use of the probabilistic finite element program, NESSUS, Numerical Evaluation and Structures Under Stress, and an embedded Material Strength Degradation (MSD) model. Probabilistic structural analysis provided for quantification of uncertainties associated with the design, thus enabling increased system performance and reliability. The structure examined was a Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) fuel turbopump blade. The blade material analyzed was Inconel 718, since the MSD model was previously calibrated for this material. Reliability analysis encompassing the effects of high temperature and high cycle fatigue, yielded a reliability value of 0.99978 using a fully correlated random field for the blade thickness. The reliability did not change significantly for a change in distribution type except for a change in distribution from Gaussian to Weibull for the centrifugal load. The sensitivity factors determined to be most dominant were the centrifugal loading and the initial strength of the material. These two sensitivity factors were influenced most by a change in distribution type from Gaussian to Weibull. The education portion of this report describes short-term and long-term educational objectives. Such objectives serve to integrate research and education components of this project resulting in opportunities for ethnic minority students, principally Hispanic. The primary vehicle to facilitate such integration was the teaching of two probabilistic finite element method courses to undergraduate engineering students in the summers of 1998 and 1999.

Bast, Callie C.; Jurena, Mark T.; Godines, Cody R.; Chamis, Christos C. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

153

Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers  

SciTech Connect

Three iron- to nickel-based austenitic alloys (Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825) are being considered as candidate materials for the fabrication of high-level radioactive-waste containers. Waste will include fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level waste in borosilicate glass forms, and will be sent to the prospective repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The decay of radionuclides in the repository will result in the generation of substantial heat and in fluences of gamma radiation. Container materials may undergo any of several modes of degradation in this environment, including atmospheric oxidation; uniform aqueous phase corrosion; pitting; crevice corrosion; sensitization and intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC); and transgranular stress corrosion cracking (TGSCC). This report is an analysis of data relevant to the pitting, crevice corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of the three austenitic candidate alloys. The candidates are compared in terms of their susceptibilities to these forms of corrosion. Although all three candidates have demonstrated pitting and crevice corrosion in chloride-containing environments, Alloy 825 has the greatest resistance to these types of localized corrosion (LC); such resistance is important because pits can penetrate the metal and serve as crack initiation sites. Both Types 304L and 316L stainless steels are susceptible to SCC in acidic chloride media. In contrast, SCC has not been documented in Alloy 825 under comparable conditions. Gamma radiation has been found to enhance SCC in Types 304 and 304L stainless steels, but it has no detectable effect on the resistance of Alloy 825 to SCC. Furthermore, while the effects of microbiologically induced corrosion have been observed for 300-series stainless steels, nickel-based alloys such as Alloy 825 seem to be immune to such problems. 211 refs., 49 figs., 10 tabs.

Farmer, J.C.; Van Konynenburg, R.A.; McCright, R.D. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Bullen, D.B. (Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (USA))

1988-04-01

154

On the degraded effectiveness of diffusion synthetic acceleration for multidimensional sn calculations in the presence of material discontinuities  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the degradation in performance of diffusion synthetic acceleration (DSA) methods in problems with discontinuities in material properties. A loss in the effectiveness of DSA schemes has been Observed before with other discretizations in two dimensions under certain conditions. We present more evidence in support of the conjecture that DSA effectiveness can degrade in multidimensional problems with discontinuities in total cross section, regardless of the particular physical configuration or spatial discretization. Through Fourier analysis and numerical experiments, we identify a set of representative problems for which established DSA schemes are ineffective, focusing on highly diffusive problems for which DSA is most needed. We consider a lumped, linear discontinuous spatial discretization of the S N transport equation on three-dimensional, unstructured tetrahedral meshes and look ata fully consistent and a 'partially consistent' DSA method for this discretization. We find that the effectiveness of both methods can be significantly degraded in the presence of material discontinuities. A Fourier analysis in the limit of decreasing cell optical thickness is shown that supports the view that the degraded effectiveness of a fully consistent DSA scheme simply reflects the failure of the spatially continuous DSA method in problems where material discontinuities are present. Key Words: diffusion synthetic acceleration, discrete ordinates, deterministic transport methods, unstructured meshes

Warsa, J. S. (James S.); Wareing, T. A. (Todd A.); Morel, J. E.

2002-01-01

155

Degradation of stone materials in the archaeological context of the Greek-Roman Theatre in Taormina (Sicily, Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work results on the degradation phenomena of stone materials in the Ancient Theatre of Taormina, one of the most important Greek-Roman monuments of Sicily, are reported. Artificial stone materials in different conservation conditions were investigated. Samples of salt efflorescences from brick walls and degraded setting mortars were taken from the open gallery in “ summa cavea”. The chemical, physical and structural characterization was performed by means of X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), both in situ and ex situ. Results showed that the deterioration of stone materials is due to the aggressive action of the environment agents. Soluble salts, such as chlorides, sulphates and nitrates, were found in efflorescence samples. Mortars were affected by a decomposition process induced by sulphates’ attack.

Brai, M.; Casaletto, M. P.; Gennaro, G.; Marrale, M.; Schillaci, T.; Tranchina, L.

2010-09-01

156

MATERIALS DEGRADATION ANALYSIS AND DEVELOPMENT TO ENABLE ULTRA LOW COST, WEB-PROCESSED WHITE P-OLED FOR SSL  

SciTech Connect

Progress over Phase II of DE-FG02-07ER86293 'Materials Degradation Analysis and Development to Enable Ultra Low Cost, Web-Processed White P-OLED for SSL' was initially rapid in terms of device performance improvements. We exceeded our device luminance lifetime goals for printed flexible white OLEDs as laid out in our project proposal. Our Phase II performance target was to demonstrate >1500 hours luminance lifetime at 100 Cd/m2 from a printed flexible device. We now have R&D devices well in excess of 8000 hrs lifetime at 100 Cd/m2, tested in air. We also were able to produce devices which met the voltage target of >1500 hours below 15V operation. After completing the initial performance milestones, we went on to focus on color-related degradation issues which were cited as important to commercialization of the technology by our manufacturing partners. We also put additional focus on cathode work as the active material development that occurred over the STTR time period required an adaptation of the cathode from the original cathode formulations which were developed based on previous generation active layer materials. We were able to improve compatibility of the cathode with some of the newer generation active layer materials and improve device yield and voltage behavior. An additional objective of the initial Phase II was to further develop the underlying manufacturing technology and real-life product specifications. This is a key requirement that must be met to ensure eventual commercialization of this DOE-funded technology. The link between commercial investment for full commercialization and R&D efforts in OLED solid State Lighting is often a large one. Add-Vision's lower cost, printed OLED manufacturing approach is an attraction, but close engagement with manufacturing partners and addressing customer specifications is a very important link. Manufacturing technology encompasses development of moisture reduction encapsulation technology, improved cost performance, and reductions in operating voltage through thinner and higher uniformity active device layers. We have now installed a pilot encapsulation system at AVI for controlled, high throughput lamination encapsulation of flexible OLEDs in a novel process. Along with this, we have developed, with our materials supply partners, adhesives, barrier films and other encapsulation materials and we are showing total air product lifetimes in the 2-4 years range from a process consistent with our throughput goals of {approx}1M device per month ({approx}30,000 sq. ft. of processed OLEDs). Within the last year of the project, we have been working to introduce the manufacturing improvements made in our LEP deposition and annealing process to our commercial partners. Based on the success of this, a pilot scale-up program was begun. During this process, Add-Vision was acquired by a strategic partner, in no small part, because of the promise of future success of the technology as evidenced by our commercial partners pilot scale-up plans. Overall, the performance, manufacturing and product work in this project has been successful. Additional analysis and device work at LBL has also shown a unique adhesion change with device bias stressing which may result from active layer polymer cross-linking during bias stressing of device. It was shown that even small bias stresses, as a fraction of a full device lifetime stress period, result in measurable chemical change in the device. Further work needs to be conducted to fully understand the chemical nature of this interaction. Elucidation of this effect would enable doped OLED formulation to be engineered to suppress this effect and further extend lifetimes and reduce voltage climb.

DR. DEVIN MACKENZIE

2011-12-13

157

RELIABILITY MODELS OF AGING PASSIVE COMPONENTS INFORMED BY MATERIALS DEGRADATION METRICS TO SUPPORT LONG-TERM REACTOR OPERATIONS  

SciTech Connect

Paper describes a methodology for the synthesis of nuclear power plant service data with expert-elicited materials degradation information to estimate the future failure rates of passive components. This method should be an important resource to long-term plant operations and reactor life extension. Conventional probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) are not well suited to addressing long-term reactor operations. Since passive structures and components are among those for which replacement can be least practical, they might be expected to contribute increasingly to risk in an aging plant; yet, passives receive limited treatment in PRAs. Furthermore, PRAs produce only snapshots of risk based on the assumption of time-independent component failure rates. This assumption is unlikely to be valid in aging systems. The treatment of aging passive components in PRA presents challenges. Service data to quantify component reliability models are sparse, and this is exacerbated by the greater data demands of age-dependent reliability models. Another factor is that there can be numerous potential degradation mechanisms associated with the materials and operating environment of a given component. This deepens the data problem since risk-informed management of component aging will demand an understanding of the long-term risk significance of individual degradation mechanisms. In this paper we describe a Bayesian methodology that integrates metrics of materials degradation susceptibility with available plant service data to estimate age-dependent passive component reliabilities. Integration of these models into conventional PRA will provide a basis for materials degradation management informed by predicted long-term operational risk.

Unwin, Stephen D.; Lowry, Peter P.; Toyooka, Michael Y.

2012-05-01

158

Nuclear Material Control and Accountability System Effectiveness Tool (MSET)  

SciTech Connect

A nuclear material control and accountability (MC&A) system effectiveness tool (MSET) has been developed in the United States for use in evaluating material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) systems in nuclear facilities. The project was commissioned by the National Nuclear Security Administration's Office of International Material Protection and Cooperation. MSET was developed by personnel with experience spanning more than six decades in both the U.S. and international nuclear programs and with experience in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) in the nuclear power industry. MSET offers significant potential benefits for improving nuclear safeguards and security in any nation with a nuclear program. MSET provides a design basis for developing an MC&A system at a nuclear facility that functions to protect against insider theft or diversion of nuclear materials. MSET analyzes the system and identifies several risk importance factors that show where sustainability is essential for optimal performance and where performance degradation has the greatest impact on total system risk. MSET contains five major components: (1) A functional model that shows how to design, build, implement, and operate a robust nuclear MC&A system (2) A fault tree of the operating MC&A system that adapts PRA methodology to analyze system effectiveness and give a relative risk of failure assessment of the system (3) A questionnaire used to document the facility's current MPC&A system (provides data to evaluate the quality of the system and the level of performance of each basic task performed throughout the material balance area [MBA]) (4) A formal process of applying expert judgment to convert the facility questionnaire data into numeric values representing the performance level of each basic event for use in the fault tree risk assessment calculations (5) PRA software that performs the fault tree risk assessment calculations and produces risk importance factor reports on the facility's MC&A (software widely used in the aerospace, chemical, and nuclear power industries) MSET was peer reviewed in 2007 and validated in 2008 by benchmark testing at the Idaho National Laboratory in the United States. The MSET documents were translated into Russian and provided to Rosatom in July of 2008, and MSET is currently being evaluated for potential application in Russian Nuclear Facilities.

Powell, Danny H [ORNL] [ORNL; Elwood Jr, Robert H [ORNL] [ORNL; Roche, Charles T [ORNL] [ORNL; Campbell, Billy J [ORNL] [ORNL; Hammond, Glenn A [ORNL] [ORNL; Meppen, Bruce W [ORNL] [ORNL; Brown, Richard F [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01

159

Controlled intermittent interfacial bond concept for composite materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Concept will enhance fracture resistance of high-strength filamentary composite without degrading its tensile strength or elastic modulus. Concept provides more economical composite systems, tailored for specific applications, and composite materials with mechanical properties, such as tensile strength, fracture strain, and fracture toughness, that can be optimized.

Marston, T. U.; Atkins, A. G.

1975-01-01

160

Identification and Assessment of Material Models for Age-Related Degradation of Structures and Passive Components in Nuclear Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

When performing seismic safety assessments of nuclear power plants (NPPs), the potential effects of age-related degradation on structures, systems, and components (SSCs) should be considered. To address the issue of aging degradation, the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has embarked on a five-year research project to develop a realistic seismic risk evaluation system which will include the consideration of aging of structures and components in NPPs. Three specific areas that are included in the KAERI research project, related to seismic probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), are probabilistic seismic hazard analysis, seismic fragility analysis including the effects of aging, and a plant seismic risk analysis. To support the development of seismic capability evaluation technology for degraded structures and components, KAERI entered into a collaboration agreement with Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in 2007. The collaborative research effort is intended to continue over a five year period with the goal of developing seismic fragility analysis methods that consider the potential effects of age-related degradation of SSCs, and using these results as input to seismic PRAs. In the Year 1 scope of work BNL collected and reviewed degradation occurrences in US NPPs and identified important aging characteristics needed for the seismic capability evaluations that will be performed in the subsequent evaluations in the years that follow. This information is presented in the Annual Report for the Year 1 Task, identified as BNL Report-81741-2008 and also designated as KAERI/RR-2931/2008. The report presents results of the statistical and trending analysis of this data and compares the results to prior aging studies. In addition, the report provides a description of U.S. current regulatory requirements, regulatory guidance documents, generic communications, industry standards and guidance, and past research related to aging degradation of SSCs. This report describes the research effort performed by BNL for the Year 2 scope of work. This research focused on methods that could be used to represent the long-term behavior of materials used at NPPs. To achieve this BNL reviewed time-dependent models which can approximate the degradation effects of the key materials used in the construction of structures and passive components determined to be of interest in the Year 1 effort. The intent was to review the degradation models that would cover the most common time-dependent changes in material properties for concrete and steel components.

Nie,J.; Braverman, J.; Hofmayer, C.; Kim, M. K.; Choi, I-K.

2009-04-27

161

10 CFR 835.1101 - Control of material and equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Contamination Control § 835.1101 Control of material and equipment...be conditionally released for movement on-site from one radiological...is performed and appropriate controls for the movement are established and...

2011-01-01

162

Phase change material for temperature control and material storage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A phase change material comprising a mixture of water and deuterium oxide is described, wherein the mole fraction of deuterium oxide is selected so that the mixture has a selected phase change temperature within a range between 0.degree. C. and 4.degree. C. The mixture is placed in a container and used for passive storage and transport of biomaterials and other temperature sensitive materials. Gels, nucleating agents, freezing point depression materials and colorants may be added to enhance the characteristics of the mixture.

Wessling, Jr., Francis C. (Inventor); Blackwood, James M. (Inventor)

2011-01-01

163

Use of lateral structures to monitor and evaluate degradation of key photovoltaic parameters in an organic bulk heterojunction material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Charge transport and recombination mechanisms within organic bulk heterojunction (BHJ) systems have been studied using lateral devices to perform in situ potentiometry. We have developed a simplified measurement technique using two types of lateral structures to elicit key charge transport parameters and study the time and process dependence of the carrier mobilities and their ratio. Small geometry lateral devices are used to evaluate the mobility of the slower carrier within the P3HT:PCBM material system. Larger structures with 5 in situ voltage probes are used to construct a simple potential profile of the device channel and accurately determine the carrier mobility ratio. These two measurements enable the calculation of carrier densities and the recombination coefficient. We monitor the change in these parameters as the P3HT:PCBM film degrades in the presence of oxygen and also examine the effect of the solvent additive 1,8-diiodooctane on this degradation mechanism. By exposing ethanol vapor to the BHJ film, we induce traps in the material and monitor the shift in dominant nongeminate recombination mechanism to a more unimolecular type. We are also able to measure the resulting decrease in carrier mobilities due to the presence of dipole-induced traps. Lateral devices are useful material diagnostic structures for studying degradation in BHJ materials.

Danielson, Eric; Ooi, Zi-En; Dodabalapur, Ananth

2014-12-01

164

Polyester-Based (Bio)degradable Polymers as Environmentally Friendly Materials for Sustainable Development  

PubMed Central

This review focuses on the polyesters such as polylactide and polyhydroxyalkonoates, as well as polyamides produced from renewable resources, which are currently among the most promising (bio)degradable polymers. Synthetic pathways, favourable properties and utilisation (most important applications) of these attractive polymer families are outlined. Environmental impact and in particular (bio)degradation of aliphatic polyesters, polyamides and related copolymer structures are described in view of the potential applications in various fields. PMID:25551604

Rydz, Joanna; Sikorska, Wanda; Kyulavska, Mariya; Christova, Darinka

2014-01-01

165

Virtual earthquake engineering laboratory with physics-based degrading materials on parallel computers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the last few decades, we have obtained tremendous insight into underlying microscopic mechanisms of degrading quasi-brittle materials from persistent and near-saintly efforts in laboratories, and at the same time we have seen unprecedented evolution in computational technology such as massively parallel computers. Thus, time is ripe to embark on a novel approach to settle unanswered questions, especially for the earthquake engineering community, by harmoniously combining the microphysics mechanisms with advanced parallel computing technology. To begin with, it should be stressed that we placed a great deal of emphasis on preserving clear meaning and physical counterparts of all the microscopic material models proposed herein, since it is directly tied to the belief that by doing so, the more physical mechanisms we incorporate, the better prediction we can obtain. We departed from reviewing representative microscopic analysis methodologies, selecting out "fixed-type" multidirectional smeared crack model as the base framework for nonlinear quasi-brittle materials, since it is widely believed to best retain the physical nature of actual cracks. Microscopic stress functions are proposed by integrating well-received existing models to update normal stresses on the crack surfaces (three orthogonal surfaces are allowed to initiate herein) under cyclic loading. Unlike the normal stress update, special attention had to be paid to the shear stress update on the crack surfaces, due primarily to the well-known pathological nature of the fixed-type smeared crack model---spurious large stress transfer over the open crack under nonproportional loading. In hopes of exploiting physical mechanism to resolve this deleterious nature of the fixed crack model, a tribology-inspired three-dimensional (3d) interlocking mechanism has been proposed. Following the main trend of tribology (i.e., the science and engineering of interacting surfaces), we introduced the base fabric of solid particle-soft matrix to explain realistic interlocking over rough crack surfaces, and the adopted Gaussian distribution feeds random particle sizes to the entire domain. Validation against a well-documented rough crack experiment reveals promising accuracy of the proposed 3d interlocking model. A consumed energy-based damage model has been proposed for the weak correlation between the normal and shear stresses on the crack surfaces, and also for describing the nature of irrecoverable damage. Since the evaluation of the consumed energy is directly linked to the microscopic deformation, which can be efficiently tracked on the crack surfaces, the proposed damage model is believed to provide a more physical interpretation than existing damage mechanics, which fundamentally stem from mathematical derivation with few physical counterparts. Another novel point of the present work lies in the topological transition-based "smart" steel bar model, notably with evolving compressive buckling length. We presented a systematic framework of information flow between the key ingredients of composite materials (i.e., steel bar and its surrounding concrete elements). The smart steel model suggested can incorporate smooth transition during reversal loading, tensile rupture, early buckling after reversal from excessive tensile loading, and even compressive buckling. Especially, the buckling length is made to evolve according to the damage states of the surrounding elements of each bar, while all other dominant models leave the length unchanged. What lies behind all the aforementioned novel attempts is, of course, the problem-optimized parallel platform. In fact, the parallel computing in our field has been restricted to monotonic shock or blast loading with explicit algorithm which is characteristically feasible to be parallelized. In the present study, efficient parallelization strategies for the highly demanding implicit nonlinear finite element analysis (FEA) program for real-scale reinforced concrete (RC) structures under cyclic loading are proposed. Quantitat

Cho, In Ho

166

Hydroxyapatite based hybrid dental materials with controlled porosity and improved  

E-print Network

Hydroxyapatite based hybrid dental materials with controlled porosity and improved tribological Lobland2 and J. R. Rodriguez1 Hybrid dental materials were designed with controlled porosity and improved with high abrasion resistance that adheres well to surfaces containing OH groups. Porosity of the materials

North Texas, University of

167

Controlled spontaneous emission in erbium-doped microphotonic materials  

E-print Network

Controlled spontaneous emission in erbium-doped microphotonic materials #12;Controlled spontaneous emission in erbium-doped microphotonic materials Jeroen Kalkman ISBN 90-393-0295-2 A digital version of this thesis can be downloaded from http://www.amolf.nl #12;Controlled spontaneous emission in erbium

Polman, Albert

168

CONTROL ID: 1484811 TITLE: Infrared Spectroscopy of Extraterrestrial Materials  

E-print Network

CONTROL ID: 1484811 TITLE: Infrared Spectroscopy of Extraterrestrial Materials AUTHORS (FIRST NAME are measuring the infrared spectra of a wide range of extraterrestrial materials in the laboratory. The goals

Rossman. George R.

169

Environmental Degradation of Materials: Surface Chemistry Related to Stress Corrosion Cracking  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Parallel experiments have been performed in order to develop a comprehensive model for stress cracking (SCC) in structural materials. The central objective is to determine the relationship between the activity and selectivity of the microstructure of structural materials to their dissolution kinetics and experimentally measured SCC kinetics. Zinc was chosen as a prototype metal system. The SCC behavior of two oriented single-crystal disks of zinc in a chromic oxide/sodium sulfate solution (Palmerton solution) were determined. It was found that: (1) the dissolution rate is strongly (hkil)-dependent and proportional to the exposure time in the aggressive environment; and (2) a specific slip system is selectively active to dissolution under applied stress and this slip line controls crack initiation and propagation. As a precursor to potential microgrvity experiments, electrophoretic mobility measurements of zinc particles were obtained in solutions of sodium sulfate (0.0033 M) with concentrations of dissolved oxygen from 2 to 8 ppm. The equilibrium distribution of exposed oriented planes as well as their correlation will determine the particle mobility.

Schwarz, J. A.

1985-01-01

170

Role of Monoubiquitylation on the Control of I?B? Degradation and NF-?B Activity  

PubMed Central

The NF-?B pathway is regulated by multiple post-translational modifications including phosphorylation, ubiquitylation and SUMOylation. Many of these modifications act on the natural inhibitor I?B? modulating its capacity to control signal-mediated NF-?B activity. While the canonical pathway involving the phosphorylation and polyubiquitylation of I?B? has been well characterized, the role of these post-translational modifications in the control of basal NF-?B activity has not been deeply explored. Using the recently developed Tandem-repeated Ubiquitin Binding Entities (also known as ubiquitin traps) to capture ubiquitylated proteins, we identified monoubiquitylated forms of I?B? from multiple rat organs and cell types. The identification of these forms was demonstrated through different procedures such as immunoprecipitations with specific ubiquitin antibodies or His6-Ubiquitin pull downs. Monoubiquitylated forms of I?B? are resistant to TNF?-mediated degradation and can be captured using TUBEs, even after proteasome inhibitors treatment. As it occurs for monoSUMOylation, monoubiquitylation is not dependent of the phosphorylation of I?B? on the serines 32/36 and is not optimally degraded after TNF? stimulation. A ubiquitin-I?B? fusion exhibits phosphorylation defects and resistance to TNF? mediated degradation similar to the ones observed for endogenous monoubiquitylated I?B?. The N-terminal attachment of a single ubiquitin moiety on the I?B? fusion results in a deficient binding to the IKK? kinase and recruitment of the SCF ligase component ?TrCP, promoting a negative impact on the NF-?B activity. Altogether, our results suggest the existence of a reservoir of monoubiquitylated I?B? resistant to TNF?-induced proteolysis, which is able to interact and repress DNA binding and NF-?B transcriptional activity. Such pool of I?B? may play an important role in the control of basal and signal-mediated NF-?B activity. PMID:22022389

Da Silva-Ferrada, Elisa; Torres-Ramos, Mónica; Aillet, Fabienne; Campagna, Michela; Matute, Carlos; Rivas, Carmen; Rodríguez, Manuel S.; Lang, Valérie

2011-01-01

171

Multiple phosphorylation events control mitotic degradation of the muscle transcription factor Myf5  

E-print Network

132 ? PPase AS 1 - - 3 + - 4 + + Nocodazole treated cells 2 - - *Page 3 of 15 (page number not for citation purposes) mechanisms governing mitotic-dependent proteasomal degradation of Myf5 are conserved in Xenopus egg extracts. hyperphosphorylation... phosphatase (? PPase), as indicated. Samples were resolved by 10% SDS-PAGE and analyzed using a Phos- phoImager. (D) A mitotic extract was first incubated with 200 µM MG132, or the same volume of pure DMSO as a control, for 10 min at 25°C; dephosphorylated...

Doucet, Christine; Gutierrez, Gustavo J; Lindon, Catherine; Lorca, Thierry; Lledo, Gwendaline; Pinset, Christian; Coux, Olivier

2005-12-01

172

Additive-free controllable fabrication of bismuth vanadates and their photocatalytic activity toward dye degradation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bismuth vanadates (BiVO 4) with various crystal structures (tetragonal scheelite, monoclinic scheelite, and tetragonal zircon) and morphologies (sphere-, nanosheet-, dendrite-, and flower-like) were controllably fabricated by using a mild additive-free hydrothermal treatment process under the different preparation conditions. The crystal structures, morphologies, and photophysical properties of the products were well-characterized. Subsequently, their UV- as well as visible-light photocatalytic performance was evaluated via dyes rhodamine B (RB) and methylene blue (MB) degradation. Special attention was paid to evaluate the correlation of the reactivity with crystal structure, morphology, and electronic structure of as-prepared BiVO 4 samples.

Guo, Yingna; Yang, Xia; Ma, Fengyan; Li, Kexin; Xu, Lei; Yuan, Xing; Guo, Yihang

2010-01-01

173

ORNL White Paper on Materials for LWRSP 1 Materials Degradation in Light Water Reactors: Life After 60  

E-print Network

60 J.T. Busby, R.K. Nanstad , R. E. Stoller, Z. Feng, and D.J Naus Materials Science and Technology further life extension, two-thirds cited plant reliability as the key issue with materials aging and cable-574-4471 #12;ORNL White Paper on Materials for LWRSP 2 Following each of these areas, some research thrust

Pennycook, Steve

174

Towards programmable materials : tunable material properties through feedback control of conducting polymers  

E-print Network

Mammalian skeletal muscle is an amazing actuation technology that can controllably modify its force and position outputs as well as its material properties such as stiffness. Unlike muscle, current engineering materials ...

Wiedenman, Nathan Scott

2008-01-01

175

A Measurement Control Program for Nuclear Material Accounting  

SciTech Connect

A measurement control program for nuclear material accounting monitors and controls the quality of the measurements of special nuclear material that are involved in material balances. The quality is monitored by collecting data from which the current precision and accuracy of measurements can be evaluated. The quality is controlled by evaluations, reviews, and other administrative measures for control of selection or design of facilities. equipment and measurement methods and the training and qualification of personnel who perform SNM measurements. This report describes the most important elements of a program by which management can monitor and control measurement quality.

,

1980-06-01

176

Gammaherpesviral Gene Expression and Virion Composition Are Broadly Controlled by Accelerated mRNA Degradation  

PubMed Central

Lytic gammaherpesvirus infection restricts host gene expression by promoting widespread degradation of cytoplasmic mRNA through the activity of the viral endonuclease SOX. Though generally assumed to be selective for cellular transcripts, the extent to which SOX impacts viral mRNA stability has remained unknown. We addressed this issue using the model murine gammaherpesvirus MHV68 and, unexpectedly, found that all stages of viral gene expression are controlled through mRNA degradation. Using both comprehensive RNA expression profiling and half-life studies we reveal that the levels of the majority of viral mRNAs but not noncoding RNAs are tempered by MHV68 SOX (muSOX) activity. The targeting of viral mRNA by muSOX is functionally significant, as it impacts intracellular viral protein abundance and progeny virion composition. In the absence of muSOX-imposed gene expression control the viral particles display increased cell surface binding and entry as well as enhanced immediate early gene expression. These phenotypes culminate in a viral replication defect in multiple cell types as well as in vivo, highlighting the importance of maintaining the appropriate balance of viral RNA during gammaherpesviral infection. This is the first example of a virus that fails to broadly discriminate between cellular and viral transcripts during host shutoff and instead uses the targeting of viral messages to fine-tune overall gene expression. PMID:24453974

Abernathy, Emma; Clyde, Karen; Yeasmin, Rukhsana; Krug, Laurie T.; Burlingame, Al; Coscoy, Laurent; Glaunsinger, Britt

2014-01-01

177

Arabidopsis DELLA Protein Degradation Is Controlled by a Type-One Protein Phosphatase, TOPP4  

PubMed Central

Gibberellins (GAs) are a class of important phytohormones regulating a variety of physiological processes during normal plant growth and development. One of the major events during GA-mediated growth is the degradation of DELLA proteins, key negative regulators of GA signaling pathway. The stability of DELLA proteins is thought to be controlled by protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. Up to date, no phosphatase involved in this process has been identified. We have identified a dwarfed dominant-negative Arabidopsis mutant, named topp4-1. Reduced expression of TOPP4 using an artificial microRNA strategy also resulted in a dwarfed phenotype. Genetic and biochemical analyses indicated that TOPP4 regulates GA signal transduction mainly via promoting DELLA protein degradation. The severely dwarfed topp4-1 phenotypes were partially rescued by the DELLA deficient mutants rga-t2 and gai-t6, suggesting that the DELLA proteins RGA and GAI are required for the biological function of TOPP4. Both RGA and GAI were greatly accumulated in topp4-1 but significantly decreased in 35S-TOPP4 transgenic plants compared to wild-type plants. Further analyses demonstrated that TOPP4 is able to directly bind and dephosphorylate RGA and GAI, confirming that the TOPP4-controlled phosphorylation status of DELLAs is associated with their stability. These studies provide direct evidence for a crucial role of protein dephosphorylation mediated by TOPP4 in the GA signaling pathway. PMID:25010794

Qin, Qianqian; Wang, Wei; Guo, Xiaola; Yue, Jing; Huang, Yan; Xu, Xiufei; Li, Jia; Hou, Suiwen

2014-01-01

178

Materials for adaptive structural acoustic control, volume 3  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research goals of this ONR sponsored University Research Initiative entitled Materials for Adaptive Structural Acoustics Control relate directly to the sensing and actuating material which must be integrated to function in adaptive control of acoustic structures. This report documents work in the second year of the program and for convenience the activities are grouped under the headings General Summary

L. E. Cross

1994-01-01

179

Materials for adaptive structural acoustic control, volume 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research goals of this ONR sponsored University Research Initiative entitled 'Materials for Adaptive Structural Acoustics Control' relate directly to the sensing and actuating material which must be integrated to function in adaptive control of acoustic structures. This report documents work in the second year of the program and for convenience the activities are grouped under the headings General Summary

L. E. Cross

1994-01-01

180

40 CFR 52.2054 - Control of asphalt paving material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Control of asphalt paving material. 52.2054 Section...Pennsylvania § 52.2054 Control of asphalt paving material. (a) Notwithstanding...Transportation shall restrict the annual usage of asphalts to the limits listed below in...

2011-07-01

181

40 CFR 52.2054 - Control of asphalt paving material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Control of asphalt paving material. 52.2054 Section...Pennsylvania § 52.2054 Control of asphalt paving material. (a) Notwithstanding...Transportation shall restrict the annual usage of asphalts to the limits listed below in...

2013-07-01

182

40 CFR 52.2054 - Control of asphalt paving material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Control of asphalt paving material. 52.2054 Section...Pennsylvania § 52.2054 Control of asphalt paving material. (a) Notwithstanding...Transportation shall restrict the annual usage of asphalts to the limits listed below in...

2012-07-01

183

40 CFR 52.2054 - Control of asphalt paving material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-07-01 false Control of asphalt paving material. 52.2054 Section...Pennsylvania § 52.2054 Control of asphalt paving material. (a) Notwithstanding...Transportation shall restrict the annual usage of asphalts to the limits listed below in...

2014-07-01

184

7 CFR 3201.68 - Erosion control materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Erosion control materials. 3201.68 Section...PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.68 Erosion control materials. (a) Definition...or other sites to prevent wind or water erosion of loose earth surfaces, which may...

2012-01-01

185

7 CFR 3201.68 - Erosion control materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Erosion control materials. 3201.68 Section...PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.68 Erosion control materials. (a) Definition...or other sites to prevent wind or water erosion of loose earth surfaces, which may...

2014-01-01

186

7 CFR 3201.68 - Erosion control materials.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Erosion control materials. 3201.68 Section...PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.68 Erosion control materials. (a) Definition...or other sites to prevent wind or water erosion of loose earth surfaces, which may...

2013-01-01

187

Materials Process Design and Control Laboratory Cornell University  

E-print Network

. Rhodes Hall Cornell University Ithaca, NY 14853-3801 Email: bw336@cornell.edu URL: http://mpdc.mae.cornell.eduMaterials Process Design and Control Laboratory Cornell University STOCHASTIC MULTISCALE MODELING/ #12;Materials Process Design and Control Laboratory Cornell University Outline Introduction

Zabaras, Nicholas J.

188

Materials Process Design and Control Laboratory Cornell University  

E-print Network

Cornell University Ithaca, NY 14853-3801 Email: zabaras@cornell.edu URL: http://mpdc.mae.cornell.eduMaterials Process Design and Control Laboratory Cornell University A New Approach to Solve/ Jiang Wan and Nicholas Zabaras #12;Materials Process Design and Control Laboratory Cornell University

Zabaras, Nicholas J.

189

Aquatic degradation of Cry1Ab protein and decomposition dynamics of transgenic corn leaves under controlled conditions.  

PubMed

The increasing cultivation of genetically modified corn plants (Zea mays) during the last decades is suggested as a potential risk to the environment. One of these genetically modified variety expressed the insecticidal Cry1Ab protein originating from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), resulting in resistance against Ostrinia nubilalis, the European corn borer. Transgenic litter material is extensively studied regarding the decomposition in soils. However, only a few field studies analyzed the fate of the Cry1Ab protein and the impact of green and senescent leaf litter from corn on the decomposition rate and related ecosystem functions in aquatic environments. Consequently, a microbial litter decomposition experiment was conducted under controlled semi-natural conditions in batch culture using two maize varieties: one variety with Cry1Ab and another one with the appertaining Iso-line as control treatment. The results showed no significant differences between the treatment with Cry1Ab and the Iso-line regarding loss of total mass in dry weight of 43% for Iso-line and 45% for Bt-corn litter, lignin content increased to 137.5% (Iso-line) and 115.7% (Bt-corn), and phenol loss decreased by 53.6% (Iso-line), 62.2% (Bt-corn) during three weeks of the experiment. At the end of the experiment Cry1Ab protein was still detected with 6% of the initial concentration. A slightly but significant lower cellulose content was found for the Cry1Ab treatment compared to the Iso-line litter at the end of the experiment. The significant higher total protein (25%) and nitrogen (25%) content in Bt corn, most likely due to the additionally expression of the transgenic protein, may increase the microbial cellulose degradation and decrease microbial lignin degradation. In conclusion a relevant year by year input of protein and therefore nitrogen rich Bt corn litter into aquatic environments may affect the balanced nutrient turnover in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:25553417

Böttger, Rita; Schaller, Jörg; Lintow, Sven; Gert Dudel, E

2015-03-01

190

Incorporation of bioactive glass in calcium phosphate cement: material characterization and in vitro degradation.  

PubMed

Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) have been widely used as an alternative to biological grafts due to their excellent osteoconductive properties. Although degradation has been improved by using poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) microspheres as porogens, the biological performance of CPC/PLGA composites is insufficient to stimulate bone healing in large bone defects. In this context, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of incorporating osteopromotive bioactive glass (BG; up to 50 wt %) on setting properties, in vitro degradation behavior and morphological characteristics of CPC/BG and CPC/PLGA/BG. The results revealed that the initial and final setting time of the composites increased with increasing amounts of incorporated BG. The degradation test showed a BG-dependent increasing effect on pH of CPC/BG and CPC/PLGA/BG pre-set scaffolds immersed in PBS compared to CPC and CPC/PLGA equivalents. Whereas no effects on mass loss were observed for CPC and CPC/BG pre-set scaffolds, CPC/PLGA/BG pre-set scaffolds showed an accelerated mass loss compared with CPC/PLGA equivalents. Morphologically, no changes were observed for CPC and CPC/BG pre-set scaffolds. In contrast, CPC/PLGA and CPC/PLGA/BG showed apparent degradation of PLGA microspheres and faster loss of integrity for CPC/PLGA/BG pre-set scaffolds compared with CPC/PLGA equivalents. Based on the present in vitro results, it can be concluded that BG can be successfully introduced into CPC and CPC/PLGA without exceeding the setting time beyond clinically acceptable values. All injectable composites containing BG had suitable handling properties and specifically CPC/PLGA/BG showed an increased rate of mass loss. Future investigations should focus on translating these findings to in vivo applications. PMID:23364896

Renno, A C M; Nejadnik, M R; van de Watering, F C J; Crovace, M C; Zanotto, E D; Hoefnagels, J P M; Wolke, J G C; Jansen, J A; van den Beucken, J J J P

2013-08-01

191

E-Area Vault Concrete Material Property And Vault Durability/Degradation Projection Recommendations  

SciTech Connect

Subsequent to the 2008 E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility (ELLWF) Performance Assessment (PA) (WSRC 2008), two additional E-Area vault concrete property testing programs have been conducted (Dixon and Phifer 2010 and SIMCO 2011a) and two additional E-Area vault concrete durability modeling projections have been made (Langton 2009 and SIMCO 2012). All the information/data from these reports has been evaluated and consolidated herein by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) at the request of Solid Waste Management (SWM) to produce E-Area vault concrete hydraulic and physical property data and vault durability/degradation projection recommendations that are adequately justified for use within associated Special Analyses (SAs) and future PA updates. The Low Activity Waste (LAW) and Intermediate Level (IL) Vaults structural degradation predictions produced by Carey 2006 and Peregoy 2006, respectively, which were used as the basis for the 2008 ELLWF PA, remain valid based upon the results of the E-Area vault concrete durability simulations reported by Langton 2009 and those reported by SIMCO 2012. Therefore revised structural degradation predictions are not required so long as the mean thickness of the closure cap overlying the vaults is no greater than that assumed within Carey 2006 and Peregoy 2006. For the LAW Vault structural degradation prediction (Carey 2006), the mean thickness of the overlying closure cap was taken as nine feet. For the IL Vault structural degradation prediction (Peregoy 2006), the mean thickness of the overlying closure cap was taken as eight feet. The mean closure cap thicknesses as described here for both E-Area Vaults will be included as a key input and assumption (I&A) in the next revision to the closure plan for the ELLWF (Phifer et al. 2009). In addition, it has been identified as new input to the PA model to be assessed in the ongoing update to the new PA Information UDQE (Flach 2013). Once the UDQE is approved, the SWM Key I&A database will be updated with this new information.

Phifer, M. A.

2014-03-11

192

Control and prediction of degradation of biopolymer based hydrogels with poly(?-caprolactone) subunits.  

PubMed

Complex hydrogels consisting of natural and synthetic polymers, stabilized by combining different physical and chemical cross-linking methods, were assessed by in vitro degradation tests performed at 37°C in phosphate buffer solution. Four biopolymer-based hydrogel series were comparatively evaluated as sponge or dense films as regards mass loss, morphology changes and thermal behavior over the fixed incubation period, considering as main factors of influence the composition, the adopted stabilization mode and the microstructure of the 3D construct. To facilitate the selection of the appropriate material for envisaged applications, matching the specific needs, the obtained data were used to generate an artificial neural network (ANN) model, able to establish correlations of the examined formulations and preparation parameters with mass loss. The comparison of experimental and calculated data showed that the developed ANN shows reasonable predictive performance (rtraining/validation(2)=0.99). PMID:24802856

Diaconescu, Rodica; Simionescu, Bogdan C; David, Geta

2014-11-01

193

Safeguarding nuclear materials in the former Soviet Republics through computerized materials protection, control and accountability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The threat of nuclear weapons proliferation is a problem of global concern. International efforts at nonproliferation focus on preventing acquisition of weapons-grade nuclear materials by unauthorized states, organizations, or individuals. Nonproliferation can best be accomplished through international cooperation in the application of advanced science and technology to the management and control of nuclear materials. Computerized systems for nuclear material protection,

A. N. Roumiantsev; Y. A. Ostroumov; R. Whiteson; S. L. Seitz; R. P. Landry; B. J. Martinez; M. G. Boor; L. K. Anderson; S. P. Gary

1997-01-01

194

HAZARDOUS WASTE DEGRADATION BY WOOD DEGRADING FUNGI  

EPA Science Inventory

The persistence and toxicity of many hazardous waste constituents indicates that the environment has limited capacity to degrade such materials. he competence and presence of degrading organisms significantly effects our ability to treat and detoxify these hazardous waste chemica...

195

Hydrogen peroxide generation and photocatalytic degradation of estrone by microstructural controlled ZnO nanorod arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The strong oxidant, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), generated by ZnO nanorod arrays under UV light irradiation was monitored by fluorescence analysis. The ZnO nanorod arrays were synthesized via a low temperature hydrothermal method and their dimensions, i.e., diameter and height, can be controlled by adjusting the concentration of zinc nitrate (Zn(NO3)2·6H2O) and hexamethylenetetramine (HMT). The morphology, nanostructure, surface roughness and optical property were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmittance spectra, respectively. The ZnO nanorod arrays were applied in the degradation of estrone, which is an emerging steroid estrogen contaminant. The results revealed that the ZnO nanorod array produced from 25 mM Zn2+ and HMT had the highest aspect ratio, the largest surface roughness and the lowest band gap energy, which was beneficial to the efficiency of UV light utilization, photocatalytic degradation of estrone and H2O2 generation.

Liu, Yangsi; Han, Jie; Qiu, Wei; Gao, Wei

2012-12-01

196

Study of Micro and Nano Scale Features in the Fabrication, Performance, and Degradation of Advanced Engineering Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasingly, modern engineering materials are designed on a micron or nano scale to fulfill a given set of requirements or to enhance the material's performance. In this dissertation several such materials will be studied including catalyst particles for carbon nanotube (CNT) growth by use of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) by reactor scale modeling, hermetic carbon coatings by focused ion beam/ scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) the latter of which was performed by Andrei Stolov at OFS Specialty Photonics Division (Avon, CT), and Ni/Yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anodes using X-ray nanotomography (XNT) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) the second of which was performed by Barry Lai at APS (Argonne National Lab, IL). For each material, a subset of the material properties will be looked at to determine how the selected property affects either the fabrication, performance, or degradation of the material. Following the analysis of these materials, it was found that although the materials are different, the study of micron and nano scale features has many related traits. X-rays and electrons are frequently used to examine nanoscale structures, numerical study can be exploited to expedite measurements and extract additional information from experiments, and the study of these requires knowledge across many scientific fields. As a product of this research, detailed information about all of the materials studied has been contributed to the scientific literature including size dependance information about the oxidation states of nanometer size iron particles, optimal CVD reactor growth conditions for different CNT catalyst particle sizes and number of walls, a technique for rapid measurement of hermetic carbon film thickness, and detailed microstructural detail and sulfur poisoning mapping for Ni/YSZ SOFC anodes.

Lombardo, Jeffrey John

197

TEMPERATURE CONTROL WITH PHASE CHANGE MATERIALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temperature control is a very suitable application because there you can take advantage of the high capacity of PCMs in a small temperature range. In the case of transport boxes, PCM modules to keep the internal temperature constant within a few degrees for a long time have already penetrated the market. Further applications that are currently under development or in

Luisa Cabeza; Harald Mehling

198

Factors controlling the abiotic photo-degradation of monomethylmercury in surface waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photo-decomposition is among the most important mechanisms responsible for degrading monomethylmercury (MMHg) in aquatic systems, but this process is not fully understood. We investigated the relative importance of different factors in controlling the rate of MMHg photo-decomposition in surface waters in experiments using DOM isolated from natural waters. We found no evidence of net abiotic production of MMHg in any dark or light exposed treatments. The average (mean ± s.d.) MMHg photo-decomposition rate constant for all light exposed samples using DOM concentrated from three coastal wetlands was 0.0099 ± 0.0020 E-1m2 (range of 0.006-0.015 E-1m2) when expressed in photon flux from 330-700 nm. This was roughly 3-fold higher than the average MMHg photo-decomposition rate constant in coastal seawater of 0.0032 ± 0.0010 E-1m2. MMHg photo-degradation was highly wavelength dependent. The ratio of MMHg photo-decomposition rate constants, with respect to photon flux, was 400:37:1 for UVB:UVA:PAR. However, when integrated across the entire water column over which MMHg photo-demethylation occurs, PAR was responsible for photo-degrading more MMHg than UVB and UVA combined in the three wetland sites because of the more rapid attenuation of UV light with depth. MMHg half-lives in the wetlands were calculated for the upper 250 cm where photo-degradation occurred, and ranged from 7.6 to 20 days under typical summer sunlight conditions at 37°N. Rates of MMHg photo-decomposition decreased with increasing salinity, and were 27% higher at a salinity of 5 than those at a salinity of 25. This difference could not be accounted for by changes in the complexation of MMHg by DOM and chloride. Differences in MMHg photo-degradation rate constants of up to 18% were measured between treatments using DOM concentrated from three different wetlands. Surprisingly, increasing DOM concentration from 1.5 to 11.3 mg OC L-1 had only a small (6%) effect on MMHg photo-decomposition, which was much smaller than the 34% decrease predicted due to the attenuation of light at the higher DOM levels. This suggests that DOM plays an important role in MMHg photo-decomposition apart from mediating light levels and MMHg complexation. Experiments employing various scavengers implied that singlet oxygen and hydroxyl radicals were not involved in the photo-degradation of MMHg in the natural waters used. Varying concentrations of Fe, Cu, and Mn had only small (?11%) effects on rates of MMHg photo-decomposition, and relatively high rates were measured in high purity water with no trace metals or DOM. These results demonstrate that MMHg photo-decomposition can occur via pathways not involving Fe, the photo-Fenton reaction, nitrate photolysis, or thiol complexation. Taken with previous studies, multiple reaction pathways appear to exist, and their importance varies as a function of water chemistry and light wavelength.

Black, Frank J.; Poulin, Brett A.; Flegal, A. Russell

2012-05-01

199

Comparison of degradation effects induced by gamma radiation and electron beam radiation in two cable jacketing materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radiation degradation behavior of commercial low density polyethylene (LDPE) and ethylene-vinylacetate (EVA) cable materials has been investigated. The changes of mechanical properties, thermooxidative stability and density exhibit different radiation stability towards 60Co-gamma radiation and 160 keV electron beam radiation. This difference reflects much higher penetration of the gamma radiation through the polymeric material as a function of sample thickness. These results are discussed with respect to the role of beta radiation during design basis events in a nuclear power plants. In case when total accidental design basis event (DBE) dose (involving about 80% soft beta radiation) is simulated by 60Co-gamma radiation the conservatism is reached.

Bartoní?ek, B.; Pla?ek, V.; Hnát, V.

2007-05-01

200

ENZYMES FOR DEGRADATION OF ENERGETIC MATERIALS AND DEMILITARIZATION OF EXPLOSIVES STOCKPILES, SERDP ANNUAL (INTERIM) REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The current stockpile of energetic materials requiring disposal contains about half a million tons. Through 2001. over 2.1 million tons are expected to pass through the stockpile for disposal. Safe and environmentally acceptable methods for disposing of these materials are needed...

201

Supplementary cementitious materials for mitigating degradation of kraft pulp fiber-cement composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kraft pulp fiber reinforced cement-based materials are being increasingly used where performance after exposure to environmental conditions must be ensured. However, significant losses in mechanical performance due to wet\\/dry cycling have been observed in these composites, when portland cement is the only cementitious material used in the matrix. In this research program, the effects of partial portland cement replacement with

B. J. Mohr; J. J. Biernacki; K. E. Kurtis

2007-01-01

202

A New Class of Risk-Importance Measures to Support Reactor Aging Management and the Prioritization of Materials Degradation Research  

SciTech Connect

As the US fleet of light water reactors ages, the risks of operation might be expected to increase. Although probabilistic risk assessment has proven a critical resource in risk-informed regulatory decision-making, limitations in current methods and models have constrained their prospective value in reactor aging management. These limitations stem principally from the use of static component failure rate models (which do not allow the impact of component aging on failure rates to be represented) and a very limited treatment of passive components (which would be expected to have an increasingly significant risk contribution in an aging system). Yet, a PRA captures a substantial knowledge base that could be of significant value in addressing plant aging. In this paper we will describe a methodology and a new class of risk importance measures that allow the use of an existing PRA model to support the management of plant aging, the prioritization of improvements to non-destructive examination and monitoring techniques, and the establishment of research emphases in materials science. This methodology makes use of data resources generated under the USNRC Proactive Management of Materials Degradation program which addresses the anticipated effects of numerous aging degradation mechanisms on a wide variety of component types.

Unwin, Stephen D.; Lowry, Peter P.; Toyooka, Michael Y.

2010-06-07

203

Survey of the degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive waste disposal containers. Final report  

SciTech Connect

One of the most significant factors impacting the performance of waste package container materials under repository relevant conditions is the thermal environment. This environment will be affected by the areal power density of the repository, which is dictated by facility design, and the dominant heat transfer mechanism at the site. The near-field environment will evolve as radioactive decay decreases the thermal output of each waste package. Recent calculations (Buscheck and Nitao, 1994) have addressed the importance of thermal loading conditions on waste package performance at the Yucca Mountain site. If a relatively low repository thermal loading design is employed, the temperature and relative humidity near the waste package may significantly affect the degradation of corrosion allowance barriers due to moist air oxidation and radiolytically enhanced corrosion. The purpose this report is to present a literature review of the potential degradation modes for moderately corrosion resistant nickel copper and nickel based candidate materials that may be applicable as alternate barriers for the ACD systems in the Yucca Mountain environment. This report presents a review of the corrosion of nickel-copper alloys, summaries of experimental evaluations of oxidation and atmospheric corrosion in nickel-copper alloys, views of experimental studies of aqueous corrosion in nickel copper alloys, a brief review of galvanic corrosion effects and a summary of stress corrosion cracking in these alloys.

Vinson, D.W.; Bullen, D.B. [Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames, IA (United States)

1995-09-22

204

The Effect of Degraded Digital Instrumentation and Control systems on Human-system Interfaces and Operator Performance  

SciTech Connect

Integrated digital instrumentation and control (I&C) systems in new and advanced nuclear power plants (NPPs) will support operators in monitoring and controlling the plants. Even though digital systems typically are expected to be reliable, their potential for degradation or failure significantly could affect the operators performance and, consequently, jeopardize plant safety. This U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) research investigated the effects of degraded I&C systems on human performance and on plant operations. The objective was to develop technical basis and guidance for human factors engineering (HFE) reviews addressing the operator's ability to detect and manage degraded digital I&C conditions. We reviewed pertinent standards and guidelines, empirical studies, and plant operating experience. In addition, we evaluated the potential effects of selected failure modes of the digital feedwater control system of a currently operating pressurized water reactor (PWR) on human-system interfaces (HSIs) and the operators performance. Our findings indicated that I&C degradations are prevalent in plants employing digital systems, and the overall effects on the plant's behavior can be significant, such as causing a reactor trip or equipment to operate unexpectedly. I&C degradations may affect the HSIs used by operators to monitor and control the plant. For example, deterioration of the sensors can complicate the operators interpretation of displays, and sometimes may mislead them by making it appear that a process disturbance has occurred. We used the findings as the technical basis upon which to develop HFE review guidance.

OHara, J.M.; Gunther, B.; Martinez-Guridi, G. (BNL); Xing, J.; Barnes, V. (NRC)

2010-11-07

205

Fabrication of Biocompatible, Vibrational Magnetoelastic Materials for Controlling Cellular Adhesion  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the functionalization of magnetoelastic (ME) materials with Parylene-C coating to improve the surface reactivity to cellular response. Previous study has demonstrated that vibrating ME materials were capable of modulating cellular adhesion when activated by an externally applied AC magnetic field. However, since ME materials are not inherently biocompatible, surface modifications are needed for their implementation in biological settings. Here, the long-term stability of the ME material in an aqueous and biological environment is achieved by chemical-vapor deposition of a conformal Parylene-C layer, and further functionalized by methods of oxygen plasma etching and protein adsorption. In vitro cytotoxicity measurement and characterization of the vibrational behavior of the ME materials showed that Parylene-C coatings of 10 µm or greater could prevent hydrolytic degradation without sacrificing the vibrational behavior of the ME material. This work allows for long-term durability and functionality of ME materials in an aqueous and biological environment and makes the potential use of this technology in monitoring and modulating cellular behavior at the surface of implantable devices feasible. PMID:25585632

Holmes, Hal R.; Tan, Ee Lim; Ong, Keat Ghee; Rajachar, Rupak M.

2012-01-01

206

Methylation-Controlled J Protein Promotes c-Jun Degradation To Prevent ABCB1 Transporter Expression? †  

PubMed Central

Methylation-controlled J protein (MCJ) is a newly identified member of the DnaJ family of cochaperones. Hypermethylation-mediated transcriptional silencing of the MCJ gene has been associated with increased chemotherapeutic resistance in ovarian cancer. However, the biology and function of MCJ remain unknown. Here we show that MCJ is a type II transmembrane cochaperone localized in the Golgi network and present only in vertebrates. MCJ is expressed in drug-sensitive breast cancer cells but not in multidrug-resistant cells. The inhibition of MCJ expression increases resistance to specific drugs by inducing expression of the ABCB1 drug transporter that prevents intracellular drug accumulation. The induction of ABCB1 gene expression is mediated by increased levels of c-Jun due to an impaired degradation of this transcription factor in the absence of MCJ. Thus, MCJ is required in these cells to prevent c-Jun-mediated expression of ABCB1 and maintain drug response. PMID:17283040

Hatle, Ketki M.; Neveu, Wendy; Dienz, Oliver; Rymarchyk, Stacia; Barrantes, Ramiro; Hale, Sarah; Farley, Nicholas; Lounsbury, Karen M.; Bond, Jeffrey P.; Taatjes, Douglas; Rincón, Mercedes

2007-01-01

207

Degradation of emissions control performance of wood stoves in Crested Butte, CO. Final report, July 1997--June 1998  

SciTech Connect

The report discusses the degradation of emissions control performance of woodstoves in Crested Butte, Colorado. Four seasons of field monitoring of EPA-certified woodstoves in and around Crested Butte has demonstrated some significant failures in emissions control performance. This study examined certified stove performance degradation with two complementary approaches. In the first approach, 12 used stoves in the Crested Butte database, identified with poor, inconsistent, or otherwise interesting performance, were inspected, removed from their installations, and then subjected to emissions testing under simulated field conditions in a laboratory. These tests examined the stoves and demonstrated that only two of them were physically degraded to where emissions control technology was ineffective. In the second approach, four new stoves were purchased and the emissions performance examined under a test matrix of fuel species, fuel moisture content, and firing rate.

Champion, M.; Jaasma, D.R.

1998-11-01

208

Probabilistic Material Strength Degradation Model for Inconel 718 Components Subjected to High Temperature, Mechanical Fatigue, Creep and Thermal Fatigue Effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This thesis presents the on-going development of methodology for a probabilistic material strength degradation model. The probabilistic model, in the form of a postulated randomized multifactor equation, provides for quantification of uncertainty in the lifetime material strength of aerospace propulsion system components subjected to a number of diverse random effects. This model is embodied in the computer program entitled PROMISS, which can include up to eighteen different effects. Presently, the model includes four effects that typically reduce lifetime strength: high temperature, mechanical fatigue, creep, and thermal fatigue. Statistical analysis was conducted on experimental Inconel 718 data obtained from the open literature. This analysis provided regression parameters for use as the model's empirical material constants, thus calibrating the model specifically for Inconel 718. Model calibration was carried out for four variables, namely, high temperature, mechanical fatigue, creep, and thermal fatigue. Methodology to estimate standard deviations of these material constants for input into the probabilistic material strength model was developed. Using the current version of PROMISS, entitled PROMISS93, a sensitivity study for the combined effects of mechanical fatigue, creep, and thermal fatigue was performed. Results, in the form of cumulative distribution functions, illustrated the sensitivity of lifetime strength to any current value of an effect. In addition, verification studies comparing a combination of mechanical fatigue and high temperature effects by model to the combination by experiment were conducted. Thus, for Inconel 718, the basic model assumption of independence between effects was evaluated. Results from this limited verification study strongly supported this assumption.

Bast, Callie Corinne Scheidt

1994-01-01

209

Controls on the width of aggrading and degrading braided rivers: A micro-scale flume experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Feedbacks between river width, sediment transport and morphological change are understood and represented poorly by existing theory, particularly in the case of multithread channel systems. Micro-scale experimental rivers (with flow depths in the order of few millimetres) have become increasingly popular in recent years and provide a means of quantifying these feedbacks. We present preliminary results from the application of micro-scale modelling to investigate changes in the hydraulic geometry and sediment transport capacity of braided channels subject to a series of aggradation and degradation events. Our experimental model is generic and is not scaled to a real world prototype. The laboratory flume tank used is 5 m long and 2.7 m wide, hence we consider situations where channel width is unrestricted by our experimental setup. River morphology was measured using high resolution laser profiling to quantify channel changes (fill, incision and lateral erosion) and section geometry. During all the runs, the evolution of the channel was recorded continuously using a Canon HG10 digital video camera and still imagery was collected at 5 minute intervals using Canon EOS10d digital cameras. All cameras were mounted overhead. The resulting data time series are used to elucidate controls on channel width evolution during aggradation and degradation. Topographic data are analysed to quantify changes in section shape and lateral flow variability that are known to represent a first order control on total sediment transport rate (Ferguson, 2003, Geomorphology, vol 56, 1-14). The purpose of this analysis is to develop simple statistical relationships that can act as width closures in models of braided river long profile evolution under non-equilibrium conditions.

Moges, M. M.; Nicholas, A. P.; Quine, T. A.

2010-05-01

210

Protein degradation and quality control in cells from laforin and malin knockout mice.  

PubMed

Lafora disease is a progressive myoclonus epilepsy caused by mutations in the EPM2A or EPM2B genes that encode a glycogen phosphatase, laforin, and an E3 ubiquitin ligase, malin, respectively. Lafora disease is characterized by accumulation of insoluble, poorly branched, hyperphosphorylated glycogen in brain, muscle, heart, and liver. The laforinmalin complex has been proposed to play a role in the regulation of glycogen metabolism and protein quality control. We evaluated three arms of the protein degradation/ quality control process (the autophago-lysosomal pathway, the ubiquitin-proteasomal pathway, and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response) in mouse embryonic fibroblasts from Epm2a(-/-), Epm2b(-/-), and Epm2a(-/-) Epm2b(-/-) mice. The levels of LC3-II, a marker of autophagy, were decreased in all knock-out cells as compared with wild type even though they still showed a slight response to starvation and rapamycin. Furthermore, ribosomal protein S6 kinase and S6 phosphorylation were increased. Under basal conditions there was no effect on the levels of ubiquitinated proteins in the knock-out cells, but ubiquitinated protein degradation was decreased during starvation or stress. Lack of malin (Epm2b(-/-) and Epm2a(-/-) Epm2b(-/-) cells) but not laforin (Epm2a(-/-) cells) decreased LAMP1, a lysosomal marker. CHOP expression was similar in wild type and knock-out cells under basal conditions or with ER stress-inducing agents. In conclusion, both laforin and malin knock-out cells display mTOR-dependent autophagy defects and reduced proteasomal activity but no defects in the ER stress response. We speculate that these defects may be secondary to glycogen overaccumulation. This study also suggests a malin function independent of laforin, possibly in lysosomal biogenesis and/or lysosomal glycogen disposal. PMID:24914213

Garyali, Punitee; Segvich, Dyann M; DePaoli-Roach, Anna A; Roach, Peter J

2014-07-25

211

An overview of environmental degradation of materials in nuclear power plant piping systems  

SciTech Connect

Piping in light water reactor (LWR) power systems is affected by several types of environmental degradation: intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of austenitic stainless steel piping in boiling water reactors (BWRs) has required research, inspection, and mitigation programs that will ultimately cost several billion dollars; erosion-corrosion of carbon steel piping has been observed frequently in the secondary systems of both BWRs and pressurized water reactors (PWRs); the effect of the BWR environment can greatly diminish the design margin inherent in the ASME Section III fatigue design curves for carbon steel piping; and cast stainless steels are subject to embrittlement after extended thermal aging at reactor operating temperatures. These problems are being addressed by wide-ranging research programs in this country and abroad. The purpose of this review is to highlight some of the accomplishments of these programs and to note some of the remaining unanswered questions.

Shack, W.J.

1987-08-01

212

Process of making porous ceramic materials with controlled porosity  

DOEpatents

A method of making metal oxide ceramic material is disclosed by which the porosity of the resulting material can be selectively controlled by manipulating the sol used to make the material. The method can be used to make a variety of metal oxide ceramic bodies, including membranes, but also pellets, plugs or other bodies. It has also been found that viscous sol materials can readily be shaped by extrusion into shapes typical of catalytic or adsorbent bodies used in industry, to facilitate the application of such materials for catalytic and adsorbent applications.

Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI); Ku, Qunyin (Madison, WI)

1993-01-01

213

BIFUNCTIONAL ALUMINUN: A PERMEABLE BARRIER MATERIAL FOR THE DEGRADATION OF MTBE  

EPA Science Inventory

Bifunctional aluminum is an innovative remedial material for the treatment of gasoline oxygenates in permeable reactive barriers (PRBs). PRBs represent a promising environmental technology for remediation of groundwater contamination. Although zero-valent metals (ZVM) have been...

214

MICROBIAL DEGRADATION OF SELECTED HAZARDOUS MATERIALS: PENTACHLOROPHENOL, HEXACHLOROCYCLOPENTADIENE, AND METHYL PARATHION  

EPA Science Inventory

This program evaluated the use of selected pure culture microrganisms for potential in biodegrading the hazardous materials pentachlorophenol (PCP), hexachlorocyclopentadiene (HCCP), and methyl parathion (MP). Each chemical was separately challenged by each of 24 organisms in aqu...

215

The relationship between sex guilt and responses to violent, degrading, and erotic material  

E-print Network

materials. One study which used filmed stimulus materials was conducted by Nosher (19731. Male and female participants in this study viewed pornographic films that portrayed face-to-face and oral-genital sexual contact. Information was gathered about... replicated this finding. In another investigation, It was found that sex guilt was a better predictor of sexual behavior ln women than morality (D'Augeili 8, Cross, 1975). Several investigations have examined sex guilt and its effect on contraceptive use...

Krause, Deborah Ann

1989-01-01

216

Chromium vapor species over solid oxide fuel cell interconnect materials and their potential for degradation processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alloys protected from corrosion by a chromia scale and LaCrOâ-based perovskites are used as materials for the interconnect of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The chromium vaporization of these materials was studied by thermochemical modeling. Partial pressures of the vaporizing species were determined for different Oâ and HâO concentrations in the oxidizing gas. CrOâ(OH)â(g) and CrOâ(g) are the most abundant

K. Hilpert; D. Das; M. Miller; D. H. Peck; R. Weiss

1996-01-01

217

10 CFR 835.1101 - Control of material and equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, material and equipment in contamination areas, high contamination areas, and airborne radioactivity areas shall not be released to a controlled area if: (1) Removable surface contamination levels on accessible...

2013-01-01

218

21 CFR 862.3280 - Clinical toxicology control material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Clinical toxicology control material. 862.3280 Section 862...MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3280 Clinical...

2012-04-01

219

21 CFR 862.3280 - Clinical toxicology control material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Clinical toxicology control material. 862.3280 Section 862...MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3280 Clinical...

2011-04-01

220

21 CFR 862.3280 - Clinical toxicology control material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Clinical toxicology control material. 862.3280 Section 862...MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3280 Clinical...

2013-04-01

221

21 CFR 862.3280 - Clinical toxicology control material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clinical toxicology control material. 862.3280 Section 862...MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3280 Clinical...

2010-04-01

222

21 CFR 862.3280 - Clinical toxicology control material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Clinical toxicology control material. 862.3280 Section 862...MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862.3280 Clinical...

2014-04-01

223

Tracing and control of raw materials sourcing for vaccine manufacturers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The control of the raw materials used to manufacture vaccines is mandatory; therefore, a very clear process must be in place to guarantee that raw materials are traced. Those who make products or supplies used in vaccine manufacture (suppliers of culture media, diagnostic tests, etc.) must apply quality systems proving that they adhere to certain standards. ISO certification, Good Manufacturing

Laurence Faretra Peysson

2010-01-01

224

21 CFR 866.5910 - Quality control material for cystic fibrosis nucleic acid assays.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...control material for cystic fibrosis nucleic acid assays. 866.5910 Section...control material for cystic fibrosis nucleic acid assays. (a) Identification...control material for cystic fibrosis nucleic acid assays. A quality control...

2010-04-01

225

21 CFR 866.5910 - Quality control material for cystic fibrosis nucleic acid assays.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...control material for cystic fibrosis nucleic acid assays. 866.5910 Section...control material for cystic fibrosis nucleic acid assays. (a) Identification...control material for cystic fibrosis nucleic acid assays. A quality control...

2014-04-01

226

21 CFR 866.5910 - Quality control material for cystic fibrosis nucleic acid assays.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...control material for cystic fibrosis nucleic acid assays. 866.5910 Section...control material for cystic fibrosis nucleic acid assays. (a) Identification...control material for cystic fibrosis nucleic acid assays. A quality control...

2011-04-01

227

21 CFR 866.5910 - Quality control material for cystic fibrosis nucleic acid assays.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...control material for cystic fibrosis nucleic acid assays. 866.5910 Section...control material for cystic fibrosis nucleic acid assays. (a) Identification...control material for cystic fibrosis nucleic acid assays. A quality control...

2012-04-01

228

Controlled release tamsulosin hydrochloride from alginate beads with waxy materials.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to develop oral controlled release delivery systems for tamsulosin hydrochloride (TSH) using alginate beads with various waxy materials, such as Compritol 888 ATO, Precirol ATO 5 and Gelucires. The beads were prepared from sodium alginate-waxy material-TSH slurry dropped onto calcium chloride to form spherical beads. The effects of the addition of various waxy materials to alginate beads on the drug encapsulation efficiency, bead size and morphology were investigated. The drug encapsulation efficiency significantly increased with the addition of waxy materials. The TSH-loaded alginate beads with and without waxy materials were almost spherical particles with an average diameter of 1.44 and 1.22 mm, respectively. In dissolution study, the TSH-loaded alginate beads with waxy materials exhibited controlled release behaviour over a 6-h period, while beads without waxy materials showed release of 100% TSH within 2 h. These results may be attributed to the formation of a more rigid alginate matrix structure due to incorporated waxy materials. From the Dunnett's t-test and the f2 factor, the release of TSH from alginate beads, a similar dissolution pattern to that of the marketed product (Harunal capsules) could be achieved by adding Gelucire 50/13 into TSH-loaded alginate beads. From these results, oral controlled release of TSH could be achieved with loading in alginate beads with waxy materials, such as Compritol 888 ATO, Precirol ATO 5 and Gelucires. PMID:16354396

Kim, Min-Soo; Park, Gyeong-Deuk; Jun, Seoung-Wook; Lee, Sibeum; Park, Jeong-Sook; Hwang, Sung-Joo

2005-12-01

229

Material-controlled dynamic vacuum insulation  

DOEpatents

A compact vacuum insulation panel is described comprising a chamber enclosed by two sheets of metal, glass-like spaces disposed in the chamber between the sidewalls, and a high-grade vacuum in the chamber includes apparatus and methods for enabling and disabling, or turning ``on`` and ``off`` the thermal insulating capability of the panel. One type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a metal hydride for releasing hydrogen gas into the chamber in response to heat, and a hydrogen grate between the metal hydride and the chamber for selectively preventing and allowing return of the hydrogen gas to the metal hydride. Another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a variable emissivity coating on the sheets of metal in which the emissivity is controllably variable by heat or electricity. Still another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes metal-to-metal contact devices that can be actuated to establish or break metal-to-metal heat paths or thermal short circuits between the metal sidewalls. 25 figs.

Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

1996-10-08

230

Material-controlled dynamic vacuum insulation  

DOEpatents

A compact vacuum insulation panel comprising a chamber enclosed by two sheets of metal, glass-like spaces disposed in the chamber between the sidewalls, and a high-grade vacuum in the chamber includes apparatus and methods for enabling and disabling, or turning "on" and "off" the thermal insulating capability of the panel. One type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a metal hydride for releasing hydrogen gas into the chamber in response to heat, and a hydrogen grate between the metal hydride and the chamber for selectively preventing and allowing return of the hydrogen gas to the metal hydride. Another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes a variable emissivity coating on the sheets of metal in which the emissivity is controllably variable by heat or electricity. Still another type of enabling and disabling apparatus and method includes metal-to-metal contact devices that can be actuated to establish or break metal-to-metal heat paths or thermal short circuits between the metal sidewalls.

Benson, David K. (14154 W. First Dr., Golden, CO 80401); Potter, Thomas F. (515 S. Magnolia La., Denver, CO 80224)

1996-10-08

231

Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers  

SciTech Connect

Three copper-based alloys and three iron- to nickel-based austenitic alloys are being considered as possible materials for fabrication of containers for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. This waste will include spent fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level waste in borosilicate glass and will be sent to the prospective site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for disposal. The containers must maintain substantially complete containment for at least 300 yr and perhaps as long as 1000 yr. During the first 50 yr after emplacement, they must be retrievable from the disposal site. Shortly after the containers are emplaced in the repository, they will be exposed to high temperatures and high gamma radiation fields from the decay of the high-level waste. This volume surveys the available data on oxidation and corrosion of the iron- to nickel-based austenitic materials (Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and Alloy 825) and the copper-based alloy materials (CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni)), which are the present candidates for fabrication of the containers. Studies that provided a large amount of data are highlighted, and those areas in which little data exists are identified. Examples of successful applications of these materials are given. On the basis of resistance to oxidation and general corrosion, the austenitic materials are ranked as follows: Alloy 825 (best), Type 316L stainless steel, and then Type 304L stainless steel (worst). For the copper-based materials, the ranking is as follows: CDA 715 and CDA 613 (both best), and CDA 102 (worst). 110 refs., 30 figs., 13 tabs.

Gdowski, G.E.; Bullen, D.B. (Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (USA))

1988-08-01

232

A ribosome-bound quality control complex triggers degradation of nascent peptides and signals translation stress.  

PubMed

The conserved transcriptional regulator heat shock factor 1 (Hsf1) is a key sensor of proteotoxic and other stress in the eukaryotic cytosol. We surveyed Hsf1 activity in a genome-wide loss-of-function library in Saccaromyces cerevisiae as well as ~78,000 double mutants and found Hsf1 activity to be modulated by highly diverse stresses. These included disruption of a ribosome-bound complex we named the Ribosome Quality Control Complex (RQC) comprising the Ltn1 E3 ubiquitin ligase, two highly conserved but poorly characterized proteins (Tae2 and Rqc1), and Cdc48 and its cofactors. Electron microscopy and biochemical analyses revealed that the RQC forms a stable complex with 60S ribosomal subunits containing stalled polypeptides and triggers their degradation. A negative feedback loop regulates the RQC, and Hsf1 senses an RQC-mediated translation-stress signal distinctly from other stresses. Our work reveals the range of stresses Hsf1 monitors and elucidates a conserved cotranslational protein quality control mechanism. PMID:23178123

Brandman, Onn; Stewart-Ornstein, Jacob; Wong, Daisy; Larson, Adam; Williams, Christopher C; Li, Gene-Wei; Zhou, Sharleen; King, David; Shen, Peter S; Weibezahn, Jimena; Dunn, Joshua G; Rouskin, Silvi; Inada, Toshifumi; Frost, Adam; Weissman, Jonathan S

2012-11-21

233

A Ribosome-Bound Quality Control Complex Triggers Degradation of Nascent Peptides and Signals Translation Stress  

PubMed Central

Summary The conserved transcriptional regulator Heat Shock Factor 1 (Hsf1) is a key sensor of proteotoxic and other stress in the eukaryotic cytosol, yet its regulation is poorly understood. We surveyed Hsf1 activity in a genome-wide loss-of-function library in Saccaromyces cerevisiae as well as ~78,000 double mutants and found Hsf1 activity to be modulated by highly diverse stresses. These included disruption of a ribosome-bound complex we named the Ribosome Quality Control Complex (RQC) comprising the Ltn1 E3 ubiquitin ligase, two highly conserved but poorly characterized proteins (Tae2 and Rqc1), and Cdc48 and its cofactors. Electron microscopy and biochemical analyses revealed that the RQC forms a stable complex with 60S ribosomal subunits containing stalled polypeptides and triggers their degradation. A negative feedback loop regulates the RQC and Hsf1 senses an RQC-mediated translation stress signal distinctly from other stresses. Our work reveals the range of stresses Hsf1 monitors and elucidates a conserved cotranslational protein quality control mechanism. PMID:23178123

Brandman, Onn; Stewart-Ornstein, Jacob; Wong, Daisy; Larson, Adam; Williams, Christopher C.; Li, Gene-Wei; Zhou, Sharleen; King, David; Shen, Peter S.; Weibezahn, Jimena; Dunn, Joshua G.; Rouskin, Silvi; Inada, Toshifumi; Frost, Adam; Weissman, Jonathan S.

2012-01-01

234

New Functional Materials for Fluid Control and Sensing in Microfluidic  

E-print Network

Spiropyran - + Slide 12 ·OPTICALLY ACTUATE BETWEEN TWO DISTINCT ISOMERS ·CONTROL PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SYSTEMNew Functional Materials for Fluid Control and Sensing in Microfluidic Devices Fernando Benito SCIENCE, FUNCTIONAL POLYMERS, DEVICE PROTOTYPING, ENERGY MANAGEMENT, ADAPTIVE MIDDLEWARE, WEARABLE SENSORS

Lee, Hyowon

235

Control of radioactive material transport in sodium-cooled reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Radioactivity Control Technology (RCT) program was established by the Department of Energy to develop and demonstrate methods to control radionuclide transport to ex-core regions of sodium-cooled reactors. This radioactive material is contained within the reactor heat transport system with any release to the environment well below limits established by regulations. However, maintenance, repair, decontamination, and disposal operations potentially expose

Brehm

2008-01-01

236

TRUE COLORS: LEDS AND THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CCT, CRI, OPTICAL SAFETY, MATERIAL DEGRADATION, AND PHOTOBIOLOGICAL STIMULATION  

SciTech Connect

This document analyzes the optical, material, and photobiological hazards of LED light sources compared to conventional light sources. It documents that LEDs generally produce the same amount of blue light, which is the primary contributor to the risks, as other sources at the same CCT. Duv may have some effect on the amount of blue light, but CRI does not.

Royer, Michael P.

2014-08-30

237

JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE 36 (2001) 4345 4349 Cementitious bond degradation during cyclic  

E-print Network

Materials Research Laboratory, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260- sistivity of the bond interface has recently been used to investigate the effects of admixtures, water. The ratio of cement to fine aggregate to coarse aggre- gate was 1 : 1.5 : 2.5. The water-cement ratio was 0

Chung, Deborah D.L.

238

Biodegradability of biodegradable\\/degradable plastic materials under aerobic and anaerobic conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted on two types of plastic materials, Mater-Bi Novamont (MB) and Environmental Product Inc. (EPI), to assess their biodegradability under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. For aerobic conditions, organic fractions of municipal solid wastes were composted. For the anaerobic process, anaerobic inoculum from a wastewater treatment plant was used. Cellulose filter papers (CFP) were used as a positive

R. Mohee; G. D. Unmar; A. Mudhoo; P. Khadoo

2008-01-01

239

Hydrophobic and hydrophilic control in polyphosphazene materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis is the culmination of several recent studies focused on the surface characterization of polyphosphazenes specifically the properties of water repellency or hydrophobicity. Chapter 1 is a background account of polyphosphazene chemistry and the hydrophobicity of polyphosphazenes. Chapter 2 provides an examination of the role of surface morphology on hydrophobicity. This study deals in depth with the electrospinning of poly[bis(2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy)phosphazene] in tetrahydrofuran. This process yields fiber mats or bead and fiber mats which exhibit roughness in continuous contact with the water droplet (fiber mats) or discontinuous contact (bead and fiber mats). These surface roughness types are compared to spun cast films using water contact angles to measure the air-water-polymer interface. The influence of aromatic moieties and fluorine content on the air-water-polymer interface is examined in Chapter 3. This study examines the influence of fluorine content and aryloxy groups on the hydrophobicity of a polyphosphazene surface via static water contact angle measurements on a goniometer. Polymer surfaces of spun cast and electrospun mats were probed with advancing, receeding, and static water contact angle and dip coated slides of the same materials were also examined with a Langmuir-Blogett trough. Chapter 4 is a description of the environmental plasma surface treatments of polyphosphazenes as a method of functionalizing solid polymer surfaces. The treatment procedure of functionalizing spun cast and electrospun poly[bis(2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy)phosphazene] surfaces with plasma gases of oxygen, nitrogen, methane, and tetrafluoromethane is detailed. The resulting functionalization of the surface is examined with XPS and water contact angle data. In Chapter 5 fluoroalkoxy polyphosphazenes were processed with liquid carbon dioxide into foams. The foams were then tested for flame retardance and hydrophobicity. Appendixes A-C contain studies on moisture sensitive phosphoranimine monomer storage, micelle formation in water from triblock copolymers, and single ion conductive membranes with increased hydrophobicity respectively. Although the appendixes examine polyphosphazene hydrophobic relationships they are not specific to surface hydrophobicity of solids and were not placed in the main text. Appendix A involves the optimization of storage conditions for a phosphoranimine monomer. Conditions examined include room temperature to -80 ºC and dilution with a variety of organic solvents. The micelle formation of A-B-A triblock copolymer of poly[bis(2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy)phosphazene]-poly(propylene-glycol)-poly[bis(2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy)phosphazene] was explored in appendix B. It was determined with light scattering and TEM that hairpin folding of our triblock copolymer allowed micelle formation with the two hydrophobic poly[bis(2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy)phosphazene] blocks facing the hydrophobic core of the micelle. Appendix C details the lithium ion conductivity of poly[norbornene-pendent-cyclotriphosphazene] with sulfonimide and methoxyethoxyethoxy groups attached. These results are then compared with unbound lithium counter ion systems.

Steely, Lee Brent

240

Distinct protein degradation mechanisms mediated by Cul1 and Cul3 controlling Ci stability in Drosophila eye development  

PubMed Central

The ubiquitin-like protein, Nedd8, covalently modifies members of the Cullin family. Cullins are the major components of a series of ubiquitin ligases that control the degradation of a broad range of proteins. We found that Nedd8 modifies Cul1 in Drosophila. In Drosophila Nedd8 and Cul1 mutants, protein levels of the signal transduction effectors, Cubitus interruptus (Ci) and Armadillo (Arm), and the cell cycle regulator, Cyclin E (CycE), are highly accumulated, suggesting that the Cul1-based SCF complex requires Nedd8 modification for the degradation processes of Ci, Arm, and CycE in vivo. We further show that two distinct degradation mechanisms modulating Ci stability in the developing eye disc are separated by the morphogenetic furrow (MF) in which retinal differentiation is initiated. In cells anterior to the MF, Ci proteolytic processing promoted by PKA requires the activity of the Nedd8-modified Cul1-based SCFSlimb complex. In posterior cells, Ci degradation is controlled by a mechanism that requires the activity of Cul3, another member of the Cullin family. This posterior Ci degradation mechanism, which partially requires Nedd8 modification, is activated by Hedgehog (Hh) signaling and is PKA-independent. PMID:12231629

Ou, Chan-Yen; Lin, Yi-Fan; Chen, Ying-Jiun; Chien, Cheng-Ting

2002-01-01

241

Novel Na?Mo?O??/?-MoO? hybrid material as highly efficient CWAO catalyst for dye degradation at ambient conditions.  

PubMed

We report a novel hybrid material Na2Mo4O13/?-MoO3 as highly efficient catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) catalyst, which showed the highest ever activity at room temperature and atmosphere pressure for the degradation of cationic red GTL. SEM and TEM analyses indicated that this hybrid catalyst has bamboo-shaped nanofiber morphology. In view of practical applications, the influence of some key parameters including operation temperature, catalyst calcination temperature, and the volume of dye wastewater have been optimized. The mechanism for the superior catalytic performance was investigated. XRD, XPS, and ESR suggested the Na2Mo4O13/?-MoO3 hybrid catalyst possesses more O(2-) ions in the oxygen deficient regions than neat ?-MoO3, promoting the formation of active ·OH radicals and resulting in a higher activity. Considering the facile preparation and its superior activity, this novel catalyst is promising for practical dye wastewater treatment. PMID:25348943

Zhang, Zhang; Yang, Ruoyan; Gao, Yanshan; Zhao, Yufei; Wang, Junyang; Huang, Liang; Guo, Jiang; Zhou, Tuantuan; Lu, Peng; Guo, Zhanhu; Wang, Qiang

2014-01-01

242

Artificial neural network predictions of degradation of nonmetallic lining materials from laboratory tests  

SciTech Connect

Such organic materials of construction as plastics (thermoplastics and thermosets) and elastomers play an increasingly important role in the containment of corrosive fluids. One major impediment to their routine use is the inability to predict their performance from laboratory tests rapidly and reliably. Artificial neural networks are computer simulations that have the potential to find the same patterns that corrosion practitioners recognize to relate experimental test results to lifetime predictions. This potential was used to construct an artificial neural network to recognize the pattern between results from a sequential immersion test for organic nonmetallic lining materials and their ability to function as linings in actual applications. The network was shown to predict field performance. The network was incorporated within an expert system to simplify data input and output, to allow for simple consistency checks between sample appearance and network output, and to make the final prediction.

Silverman, D.C. (Monsanto Co., St. Louis, MO (United States))

1994-06-01

243

Role of chemical reactions of arylamine hole transport materials in operational degradation of organic light-emitting diodes  

SciTech Connect

We report that the representative arylamine hole transport materials undergo chemical transformations in operating organic light-emitting diode (OLED) devices. Although the underlying chemical mechanisms are too complex to be completely elucidated, structures of several identified degradation products point at dissociations of relatively weak carbon-nitrogen and carbon-carbon bonds in arylamine molecules as the initiating step. Considering the photochemical reactivities, the bond dissociation reactions of arylamines occur by the homolysis of the lowest singlet excited states formed by recombining charge carriers in the operating OLED device. The subsequent chemical reactions are likely to yield long-lived, stabilized free radicals capable of acting as deep traps--nonradiative recombination centers and fluorescence quenchers. Their presence in the hole transport layer results in irreversible hole trapping and manifests as a positive fixed charge. The extent and localization of chemical transformations in several exemplary devices suggest that the free radical reactions of hole transporting materials, arylamines, can be sufficient to account for the observed luminance efficiency loss and voltage rise in operating OLEDs. The relative bond strengths and excited state energies of OLED materials appear to have a determining effect on the operational stability of OLED devices.

Kondakov, Denis Y. [Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, New York 14650-2103 (United States)

2008-10-15

244

Survey of the degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive waste disposal containers  

SciTech Connect

Oxidation and atmospheric corrosion data suggest that addition of Cr provides the greatest improvement in oxidation resistance. Cr-bearing cast irons are resistant to chloride environments and solutions containing strongly oxidizing constituents. Weathering steels, including high content and at least 0.04% Cu, appear to provide adequate resistance to oxidation under temperate conditions. However, data from long-term, high-temperature oxidation studies on weathering steels were not available. From the literature, it appears that the low alloy steels, plain carbon steels, cast steels, and cast irons con-ode at similar rates in an aqueous environment. Alloys containing more than 12% Cr or 36% Ni corrode at a lower rate than plain carbon steels, but pitting may be worse. Short term tests indicate that an alloy of 9Cr-1Mo may result in increased corrosion resistance, however long term data are not available. Austenitic cast irons show the best corrosion resistance. A ranking of total corrosion performance of the materials from most corrosion resistant to least corrosion resistant is: Austenitic Cast Iron; 12% Cr = 36% Ni = 9Cr-1Mo; Carbon Steel = Low Alloy Steels; and Cast Iron. Since the materials to be employed in the Advanced Conceptual Design (ACD) waste package are considered to be corrosion allowance materials, the austenitic cast irons, high Cr steels, high Ni steels and the high Cr-Mo steels should not be considered as candidates for the outer containment barrier. Based upon the oxidation and corrosion data available for carbon steels, low alloy steels, and cast irons, a suitable list of candidate materials for a corrosion allowance outer barrier for an ACD waste package could include, A516, 2.25%Cr -- 1%Mo Steel, and A27.

Vinson, D.W.; Nutt, W.M.; Bullen, D.B. [Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames, IA (United States)

1995-06-01

245

Maximising municipal solid waste--legume trimming residue mixture degradation in composting by control parameters optimization.  

PubMed

Composting is one of the most successful biological processes for the treatment of the residues enriched in putrescible materials. The optimization of parameters which have an influence on the stability of the products is necessary in order to maximize recycling and recovery of waste components. The influence of the composting process parameters (aeration, moisture, C/N ratio, and time) on the stability parameters (organic matter, N-losses, chemical oxygen demand, nitrate, biodegradability coefficient) of the compost was studied. The composting experiment was carried out using Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) and Legume Trimming Residues (LTR) in 200 L isolated acrylic barrels following a Box-Behnken central composite experimental design. Second-order polynomial models were found for each of the studied compost stability parameter, which accurately described the relationship between the parameters. The differences among the experimental values and those estimated by using the equations never exceeded 10% of the former. Results of the modelling showed that excluding the time, the C/N ratio is the strongest variable influencing almost all the stability parameters studied in this case, with the exception of N-losses which is strongly dependent on moisture. Moreover, an optimized ratio MSW/LTR of 1/1 (w/w), moisture content in the range of 40-55% and moderate to low aeration rate (0.05-0.175 Lair kg(-)(1) min(-1)) is recommended to maximise degradation and to obtain a stable product during co-composting of MSW and LTR. PMID:23764508

Cabeza, I O; López, R; Ruiz-Montoya, M; Díaz, M J

2013-10-15

246

Optical response of strongly absorbing inhomogeneous materials: Application to paper degradation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a new noninvasive and nondestructive approach to recover scattering and absorption coefficients from reflectance measurements of highly absorbing and optically inhomogeneous media. Our approach is based on the Yang and Miklavcic theoretical model of light propagation through turbid media, which is a generalization of the Kubelka-Munk theory, extended to accommodate optically thick samples. We show its applications to paper, a material primarily composed of a web of fibers of cellulose, whose optical properties are strongly governed by light scattering effects. Samples studied were ancient and industrial paper sheets, aged in different conditions and highly absorbing in the ultraviolet region. The recovered experimental absorptions of cellulose fibers have been compared to theoretical ab initio quantum-mechanical computational simulations carried out within time-dependent density functional theory. In this way, for each sample, we evaluate the absolute concentration of different kinds of oxidized groups formed upon aging and acting as chromophores causing paper discoloration. We found that the relative concentration of different chromophores in cellulose fibers depends on the aging temperature endured by samples. This clearly indicates that the oxidation of cellulose follows temperature-dependent reaction pathways. Our approach has a wide range of applications for cellulose-based materials, like paper, textiles, and other manufactured products of great industrial and cultural interest, and can potentially be extended to other strongly absorbing inhomogeneous materials.

Missori, M.; Pulci, O.; Teodonio, L.; Violante, C.; Kupchak, I.; Bagniuk, J.; ?ojewska, J.; Conte, A. Mosca

2014-02-01

247

Materials for adaptive structural acoustic control, volume 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research goals of this ONR sponsored University Research Initiative entitled 'Materials for Adaptive Structural Acoustics Control' relate directly to the sensing and actuating material which must be integrated to function in adaptive control of acoustic structures. This report documents work in the second year of the program and for convenience the activities are grouped under the headings General Summary Papers, Materials Studies, Composite Sensors, Actuator Studies, Integration Issues, Processing Studies, and Thin Film Ferroelectrics. The general papers cover a new comprehensive description of ferroelectric ceramics and their applications, analysis of high temperature piezoelectric sensors and the possible application of nonlinearity in enhancing the smartness of ceramics and composites. Scale effects on ferroics are of increasing interest and the manner in which nano-scale polar regions control the properties of relaxor ferroelectrics is again emphasized. For material studies the detailed examination of the evolution of diffuse, then relaxor behavior in lanthanum modified lead titanate has been completed. Interest in the soft PZT's, relaxor and phase switching materials continues, with a new thrust developing towards a more complete description of domain walls and morphotropic phase boundaries in perovskites. Materials issues in the wear out and fatigue effects in polarization switching systems have been subjected to detailed evaluation and the precautions necessary to fabricate long lasting materials which will stand 109 switches without any fatigue are delineated.

Cross, L. E.

1994-04-01

248

Materials for adaptive structural acoustic control, volume 3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research goals of this ONR sponsored University Research Initiative entitled Materials for Adaptive Structural Acoustics Control relate directly to the sensing and actuating material which must be integrated to function in adaptive control of acoustic structures. This report documents work in the second year of the program and for convenience the activities are grouped under the headings General Summary Papers, Materials Studies, Composite Sensors, Actuator Studies, Integration Issues, Processing Studies, and Thin Film Ferroelectrics. The general papers cover a new comprehensive description of ferroelectric ceramics and their applications, analysis of high temperature piezoelectric sensors and the possible application of nonlinearity in enhancing the smartness of ceramics and composites. Scale effects on ferroics are of increasing interest and the manner in which nano-scale polar regions control the properties of relaxor ferroelectrics is again emphasized. For material studies the detailed examination of the evolution of diffuse, then relaxor behavior in lanthanum modified lead titanate has been completed. Interest in the soft PZT's, relaxor and phase switching materials continues, with a new thrust developing towards a more complete description of domain walls and morphotropic phase boundaries in perovskites. Materials issues in the wear out and fatigue effects in polarization switching systems have been subjected to detailed evaluation and the precautions necessary to fabricate long lasting materials which will stand 109 switches without any fatigue are delineated.

Cross, L. E.

1994-04-01

249

Artificial neural network to predict degradation of non-metallic lining materials from laboratory tests  

SciTech Connect

Artificial neural networks are computer simulations that have the potential of ``finding`` the same patterns that corrosion practitioners recognize to relate experimental test results to lifetime predictions. This potential ability was utilized to construct an artificial neural network to recognize the pattern between results from a sequential immersion test for organic non-metallic lining materials and their ability to function as linings in actual applications. The network so constructed has been shown to predict field performance from this test. The network was incorporated within an Expert System to simplify data input and output, allow for simple consistency checks, and to make the final prediction.

Silverman, D.C. [Monsanto Co., St. Louis, MO (United States)

1994-12-31

250

The influence of Lemna gibba L. on the degradation of organic material in duckweed-covered domestic wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory scale experiments on duckweed-covered domestic sewage were carried out to determine whether removal of organic material is faster in the presence of duckweed. Performance of systems containing axenic and non-axenic Lemna gibba L., artificial plastic duckweed, air bubbling pumps and a combination of the latter two were compared with a control system without duckweed to find out which role

S Körner; G. B Lyatuu; J. E Vermaat

1998-01-01

251

Predictive modeling of composite material degradation using piezoelectric wafer sensors electromechanical impedance spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The advancement of composite materials in aircraft structures has led to on increased need for effective structural health monitoring (SHM) technologies that are able to detect and assess damage present in composites structures. The work presented in this paper is interested in understanding using self-sensing piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWAS) to conduct electromechanical impedance spectroscopy (EMIS) in glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) to perform structures health monitoring. PWAS are bonded to the composite material and the EMIS method is used to analyze the changes in the structural resonance and anti-resonance. As the damage progresses in the specimen, the impedance spectrum will change. In addition, multi-physics based finite element method (MP-FEM) is used to model the electromechanical behavior of a free PWAS and its interaction with the host structure on which it is bonded. The MPFEM permits the input and the output variables to be expressed directly in electric terms while the two way electromechanical conversion is done internally in the MP_FEM formulation. To reach the goal of using the EMIS approach to detect damage, several damages models are generated on laminated GFRP structures. The effects of the modeling are carefully studied through experimental validation. A good match has been observed for low and very high frequencies.

Gresil, Matthieu; Yu, Lingyu; Sutton, Mike; Guo, Siming; Pollock, Patrick

2012-04-01

252

Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers  

SciTech Connect

Three copper-based alloys, CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni), are being considered along with three austenitic candidates as possible materials for fabrication of containers for disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The waste will include spent fuel assemblies from reactors as well as high-level reprocessing wastes in borosilicate glass and will be sent to the prospective repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for disposal. The containers must maintain mechanical integrity for 50 yr after emplacement to allow for retrieval of waste during the preclosure phase of repository operation. Containment is required to be substantially complete for up to 300 to 1000 yr. During the early period, the containers will be exposed to high temperatures and high gamma radiation fields from the decay of high-level waste. The final closure joint will be critical to the integrity of the containers. This volume surveys the available data on the metallurgy of the copper-based candidate alloys and the welding techniques employed to join these materials. The focus of this volume is on the methods applicable to remote-handling procedures in a hot-cell environment with limited possibility of postweld heat treatment. The three copper-based candidates are ranked on the basis of the various closure techniques. On the basis of considerations regarding welding, the following ranking is proposed for the copper-based alloys: CDA 715 (best) > CDA 102 > CDA 613 (worst). 49 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

Bullen, D.B.; Gdowski, G.E. (Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (USA)); Weiss, H. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

1988-06-01

253

The effects of energetic proton bombardment on polymeric materials: Experimental studies and degradation models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes 3 MeV proton bombardment experiments on several polymeric materials of interest to NASA carried out on the Tandem Van De Graff Accelerator at the California Institute of Technology's Kellogg Radiation Laboratory. Model aromatic and aliphatic polymers such as poly(1-vinyl naphthalene) and poly(methyl methacrylate), as well as polymers for near term space applications such as Kapton, Epoxy and Polysulfone, have been included in this study. Chemical and physical characterization of the damage products have been carried out in order to develop a model of the interaction of these polymers with the incident proton beam. The proton bombardment methodology developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and reported here is part of an ongoing study on the effects of space radiation on polymeric materials. The report is intended to provide an overview of the mechanistic, as well as the technical and experimental, issues involved in such work rather than to serve as an exhaustive description of all the results.

Coulter, D. R.; Gupta, A.; Smith, M. V.; Fornes, R. E.

1986-01-01

254

A Degradable, Thermo-sensitive Poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide)-Based Scaffold with Controlled Porosity for Tissue Engineering Applications  

PubMed Central

We have developed a thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide)-based scaffold with degradability and controlled porosity. Biodegradable poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) hydrogels were synthesized by photo-copolymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide with 2-methylene-1,3-dioxepane and polycaprolactone dimethacrylate. The hydrogels’ phase transition temperature, swelling and viscoelastic properties, as well as hydrolytic degradability at 25 and 37°C, were explored. A sphere-templating technique was applied to fabricate hydrogel scaffolds with controllable pore size and a highly interconnected porous structure. The scaffold pore diameter change as a function of temperature was evaluated and, as expected, pores decreased in diameter when the temperature was raised to 37°C. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) test results suggested neither the scaffolds nor their degradation products were cytotoxic to NIH3T3 cells. Scaffolds with 55±5 ?m pore diameter were loaded with NIH3T3 cells and then were warmed to 37°C entrapping cells in pores approximately 39 ?m in diameter, a size range we have found to be optimal for angiogenesis and biointegration. Cells showed uniform infiltration and an elongated morphology after 7 days of culture. Due to the controlled monodisperse pore diameter, highly interconnected architecture, fully degradable chemistry and thermoresponsive properties, the polyNIPAM-based scaffolds developed here are attractive for applications in tissue engineering. PMID:20836521

Galperin, Anna; Long, Thomas J.; Ratner, Buddy D.

2010-01-01

255

Material Control and Accountability Experience at the Fuel Conditioning Facility  

SciTech Connect

The Fuel Conditioning Facility (FCF) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) treats spent nuclear fuel using an electrometallurgical process that separates the uranium from the fission products, sodium thermal bond, and cladding materials. Material accountancy is necessary at FCF for two reasons: 1) it provides a mechanism for detecting a potential loss of nuclear material for safeguards and security, and 2) it provides a periodic check of inventories to ensure that processes and materials are within control limits. Material Control and Accountability is also a Department of Energy (DOE) requirement (DOE Order 474.1). The FCF employs a computer based Mass Tracking (MTG) System to collect, store, retrieve, and process data on all operations that directly affect the flow of materials through the FCF. The MTG System is important for the operations of the FCF because it supports activities such as material control and accountability, criticality safety, and process modeling. To conduct material control and accountability checks and to monitor process performance, mass balances are routinely performed around the process equipment. The equipment used in FCF for pyro-processing consists of two mechanical choppers and two electro-refiners (the Mark-IV with the accompanying element chopper and Mark-V with the accompanying blanket chopper for processing driver fuel and blanket, respectively), and a cathode processor (used for processing both driver fuel and blanket) and casting furnace (mostly used for processing driver fuel). Performing mass balances requires the measurement of the masses and compositions of several process streams and equipment inventories. The masses of process streams are obtained via in-cell balances (i.e., load cells) that weigh containers entering and leaving the process equipment. Samples taken at key locations are analyzed to determine the composition of process streams and equipment inventories. In cases where equipment or containers cannot be placed on a balance, others methods (e.g., level measurements, volume calibration equations, calculated density via additive volumes) are utilized to measure the inventory mass. This paper will discuss the material control and accountability experience at the FCF after ten-plus years of processing spent nuclear fuel. A particular area of discussion is the calculated electrolyte density via additive volumes and its importance in determining the mass and composition in the FCF electro-refiners for material control and accountability of special nuclear material. (authors)

Vaden, D.; Fredrickson, G.L. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls ID 83415 (United States)

2007-07-01

256

Fine structure of the vaccinia virion determined by controlled degradation and immunolocalization.  

PubMed

The vaccinia virion is a membraned, slightly flattened, barrel-shaped particle, with a complex internal structure featuring a biconcave core flanked by lateral bodies. Although the architecture of the purified mature virion has been intensely characterized by electron microscopy, the distribution of the proteins within the virion has been examined primarily using biochemical procedures. Thus, it has been shown that non-ionic and ionic detergents combined or not with a sulfhydryl reagent can be used to disrupt virions and, to a limited degree, separate the constituent proteins in different fractions. Applying a controlled degradation technique to virions adsorbed on EM grids, we were able to immuno-localize viral proteins within the virion particle. Our results show after NP40 and DTT treatment, membrane proteins are removed from the virion surface revealing proteins that are associated with the lateral bodies and the outer layer of the core wall. Combined treatment using high salt and high DTT removed lateral body proteins and exposed proteins of the internal core wall. Cores treated with proteases could be disrupted and the internal components were exposed. Cts8, a mutant in the A3 protein, produces aberrant virus that, when treated with NP-40 and DTT, releases to the exterior the virus DNA associated with other internal core proteins. With these results, we are able to propose a model for the structure the vaccinia virion. PMID:25486587

Moussatche, Nissin; Condit, Richard C

2015-01-15

257

Rapid Temporal Control of Foxp3 Protein Degradation by Sirtuin-1  

PubMed Central

Maintenance of Foxp3 protein expression in regulatory T cells (Treg) is crucial for a balanced immune response. We have previously demonstrated that Foxp3 protein stability can be regulated through acetylation, however the specific mechanisms underlying this observation remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that SIRT1 a member of the lysine deacetylase Sirtuin (SIRT) family, but not the related SIRTs 2–7, co-localize with Foxp3 in the nucleus. Ectopic expression of SIRT1, but not SIRTs 2–7 results in decreased Foxp3 acetylation, while conversely inhibition of endogenous SIRT activity increased Foxp3 acetylation. We show that SIRT1 inhibition decreases Foxp3 poly-ubiquitination, thereby increasing Foxp3 protein levels. Co-transfection of SIRT1 with Foxp3 results in increased Foxp3 proteasomal degradation, while SIRT inhibition increases FOXP3 transcriptional activity in human Treg. Taken together, these data support a central role for SIRT1 in the regulation of Foxp3 protein levels and thereby in regulation of Treg suppressive capacity. Pharmacological modulation of SIRT1 activity in Treg may therefore provide a novel therapeutic strategy for controlling immune responses. PMID:21533107

van Loosdregt, Jorg; Brunen, Diede; Fleskens, Veerle; Pals, Cornelieke E. G. M.; Lam, Eric W. F.; Coffer, Paul J.

2011-01-01

258

Evidence for Widespread Degradation of Gene Control Regions in Hominid Genomes  

PubMed Central

Although sequences containing regulatory elements located close to protein-coding genes are often only weakly conserved during evolution, comparisons of rodent genomes have implied that these sequences are subject to some selective constraints. Evolutionary conservation is particularly apparent upstream of coding sequences and in first introns, regions that are enriched for regulatory elements. By comparing the human and chimpanzee genomes, we show here that there is almost no evidence for conservation in these regions in hominids. Furthermore, we show that gene expression is diverging more rapidly in hominids than in murids per unit of neutral sequence divergence. By combining data on polymorphism levels in human noncoding DNA and the corresponding human–chimpanzee divergence, we show that the proportion of adaptive substitutions in these regions in hominids is very low. It therefore seems likely that the lack of conservation and increased rate of gene expression divergence are caused by a reduction in the effectiveness of natural selection against deleterious mutations because of the low effective population sizes of hominids. This has resulted in the accumulation of a large number of deleterious mutations in sequences containing gene control elements and hence a widespread degradation of the genome during the evolution of humans and chimpanzees. PMID:15678168

2005-01-01

259

An interlaboratory comparison of control materials for use with hematofluorometers.  

PubMed

This interlaboratory study was conducted to examine four erythrocyte protoporphyrin control materials from Aviv Biomedical, Helena Laboratories, Kaulson Laboratories, and the New York State Department of Health for use with hematofluorometers. Our principal aims were to monitor the stability of these materials at three different storage temperatures (room, refrigerator, freezer) and, where appropriate, to validate the manufacturer's target values. Measurements for the study were generated in three reference laboratories that used a total of five hematofluorometers, three from Environmental Science Associates and two from Aviv Biomedical. Each instrument was calibrated against a consensus acetic acid-ethyl acetate extraction procedure. We found the materials from Aviv to be the most stable, followed by the New York State material. However, the target values assigned by Aviv were not within the acceptable range determined by consensus. The target values assigned by Kaulson Laboratories for their materials did fall within the acceptable consensus range, but they were the least stable of the materials evaluated. The materials from Helena Laboratories were originally designed for use as calibrators with Helena's "ProtoFluor Z" hematofluorometer, which reports in different units. They were deemed unsuitable for use as control materials with the Aviv or Environmental Science Associates hematofluorometers because of the narrow range of values and the wide scatter of results. PMID:2791273

Parsons, P J; Stanton, N V; Gunter, E W; Huff, D; Meola, J R; Reilly, A A

1989-10-01

260

Control of epithelial cell migration and invasion by the IKK?- and CK1?-mediated degradation of RAPGEF2.  

PubMed

Epithelial cell migration is crucial for the development and regeneration of epithelial tissues. Aberrant regulation of epithelial cell migration has a major role in pathological processes such as the development of cancer metastasis and tissue fibrosis. Here, we report that in response to factors that promote cell motility, the Rap guanine exchange factor RAPGEF2 is rapidly phosphorylated by I-kappa-B-kinase-? and casein kinase-1? and consequently degraded by the proteasome via the SCF(?TrCP) ubiquitin ligase. Failure to degrade RAPGEF2 in epithelial cells results in sustained activity of Rap1 and inhibition of cell migration induced by HGF, a potent metastatic factor. Furthermore, expression of a degradation-resistant RAPGEF2 mutant greatly suppresses dissemination and metastasis of human breast cancer cells. These findings reveal a molecular mechanism regulating migration and invasion of epithelial cells and establish a key direct link between IKK? and cell motility controlled by Rap-integrin signaling. PMID:24290981

Magliozzi, Roberto; Low, Teck Yew; Weijts, Bart G M W; Cheng, Tianhong; Spanjaard, Emma; Mohammed, Shabaz; van Veen, Anouk; Ovaa, Huib; de Rooij, Johan; Zwartkruis, Fried J T; Bos, Johannes L; de Bruin, Alain; Heck, Albert J R; Guardavaccaro, Daniele

2013-12-01

261

Application of smart materials to control of a helicopter rotor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Smart material actuator technology for operation `on the blade' is now becoming available and has the promise to overcome the size, weight and complexity issues of hydraulic and electric on-rotor actuation. However, the challenges of the limited output capability of the materials and the dynamic operating environment must be fully addressed and resolved. The present study covers the conceptual sizing and design of a full scale demonstration system to provide active control of noise and vibrations as well as inflight blade tracking for the MD-900 helicopter. Active control is achieved via a trailing edge flap and trim tab, both driven by on- blade smart material actuators. Overall, this ARPA sponsored program entails the design, development, and whirl tower testing of the full scale active control rotor system. If successful, an entry in the NASA Ames 40 X 80 foot wind tunnel and flight tests are planned for a follow on program.

Straub, Friedrich K.; King, Robert J.

1996-05-01

262

Fine scale spatial variability of microbial pesticide degradation in soil: scales, controlling factors, and implications  

PubMed Central

Pesticide biodegradation is a soil microbial function of critical importance for modern agriculture and its environmental impact. While it was once assumed that this activity was homogeneously distributed at the field scale, mounting evidence indicates that this is rarely the case. Here, we critically examine the literature on spatial variability of pesticide biodegradation in agricultural soil. We discuss the motivations, methods, and main findings of the primary literature. We found significant diversity in the approaches used to describe and quantify spatial heterogeneity, which complicates inter-studies comparisons. However, it is clear that the presence and activity of pesticide degraders is often highly spatially variable with coefficients of variation often exceeding 50% and frequently displays non-random spatial patterns. A few controlling factors have tentatively been identified across pesticide classes: they include some soil characteristics (pH) and some agricultural management practices (pesticide application, tillage), while other potential controlling factors have more conflicting effects depending on the site or the pesticide. Evidence demonstrating the importance of spatial heterogeneity on the fate of pesticides in soil has been difficult to obtain but modeling and experimental systems that do not include soil's full complexity reveal that this heterogeneity must be considered to improve prediction of pesticide biodegradation rates or of leaching risks. Overall, studying the spatial heterogeneity of pesticide biodegradation is a relatively new field at the interface of agronomy, microbial ecology, and geosciences and a wealth of novel data is being collected from these different disciplinary perspectives. We make suggestions on possible avenues to take full advantage of these investigations for a better understanding and prediction of the fate of pesticides in soil.

Dechesne, Arnaud; Badawi, Nora; Aamand, Jens; Smets, Barth F.

2014-01-01

263

Degradation and reuse of radiative thermal protection system materials for the space shuttle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three silicide coated columbium alloys and two cobalt alloys were subjected to identical simulated reentry profiling exposures in both static (controlled vacuum leak) and dynamic (hypersonic plasma shear) environments. Primary emphasis in the columbium alloy evaluation was on the Cb752 and C129Y alloys with a lesser amount on FS85. Commercial silicide coatings of the R512E and VH109 formulations were used. The coated specimens were intentionally defected to provide the types of coating flaws that are expected in service. Temperatures were profiled up to peak temperatures of either 2350 F or 2500 F for 15 minutes in each cycle.

Bartlett, E. S.; Maykuth, D. J.; Grinberg, I. M.; Luce, R. G.

1971-01-01

264

?TrCP controls the lysosome-mediated degradation of CDK1, whose accumulation correlates with tumor malignancy  

PubMed Central

In mammals, cell cycle progression is controlled by cyclin-dependent kinases, among which CDK1 plays important roles in the regulation of the G2/M transition, G1 progression and G1/S transition. CDK1 is highly regulated by its association to cyclins, phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, changes in subcellular localization, and by direct binding of CDK inhibitor proteins. CDK1 steady-state protein levels are held constant throughout the cell cycle by a coordinated regulation of protein synthesis and degradation. We show that CDK1 is ubiquitinated by the E3 ubiquitin ligase SCF?TrCP and degraded by the lysosome. Furthermore, we found that DNA damage not only triggers the stabilization of inhibitory phosphorylation sites on CDK1 and repression of CDK1 gene expression, but also regulates ?TrCP-induced CDK1 degradation in a cell type-dependent manner. Specifically, treatment with the chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin in certain cell lines provokes CDK1 degradation and induces apoptosis, whereas in others it inhibits destruction of the protein. These observations raise the possibility that different tumor types, depending on their pathogenic spectrum mutations, may display different sensitivity to ?TrCP-induced CDK1 degradation after DNA damage. Finally, we found that CDK1 accumulation in patients’ tumors shows a negative correlation with ?TrCP and a positive correlation with the degree of tumor malignancy. PMID:25149538

Herrero-Ruiz, Joaquín; Mora-Santos, Mar; Giráldez, Servando; Sáez, Carmen; Japón, Miguel Á.; Tortolero, Maria; Romero, Francisco

2014-01-01

265

78 FR 67223 - Proposed Guidance for Fuel Cycle Facility; Material Control and Accounting Plans and Completing...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Facility; Material Control and Accounting Plans and Completing NRC Form 327...Amendments to Material Control and Accounting Regulations; Proposed Rules Federal...Facility; Material Control and Accounting Plans and Completing NRC Form...

2013-11-08

266

78 FR 71532 - Amendments to Material Control and Accounting Regulations and Proposed Guidance for Fuel Cycle...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Amendments to Material Control and Accounting Regulations and Proposed Guidance...Facility Material Control and Accounting Plans and Completing the U...regulations for material control and accounting (MC&A) of special...

2013-11-29

267

49 CFR 195.559 - What coating material may I use for external corrosion control?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...coating material may I use for external corrosion control? 195.559 Section 195...OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Corrosion Control § 195.559 What coating material may I use for external corrosion control? Coating material...

2013-10-01

268

49 CFR 195.559 - What coating material may I use for external corrosion control?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...coating material may I use for external corrosion control? 195.559 Section 195...OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Corrosion Control § 195.559 What coating material may I use for external corrosion control? Coating material...

2012-10-01

269

49 CFR 195.559 - What coating material may I use for external corrosion control?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...coating material may I use for external corrosion control? 195.559 Section 195...OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Corrosion Control § 195.559 What coating material may I use for external corrosion control? Coating material...

2011-10-01

270

49 CFR 195.559 - What coating material may I use for external corrosion control?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...coating material may I use for external corrosion control? 195.559 Section 195...OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Corrosion Control § 195.559 What coating material may I use for external corrosion control? Coating material...

2014-10-01

271

49 CFR 195.559 - What coating material may I use for external corrosion control?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...coating material may I use for external corrosion control? 195.559 Section 195...OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Corrosion Control § 195.559 What coating material may I use for external corrosion control? Coating material...

2010-10-01

272

Dynamic and structural control utilizing smart materials and structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An account is given of several novel 'smart material' structural control concepts that are currently under development. The thrust of these investigations is the evolution of intelligent materials and structures superceding the recently defined variable-geometry trusses and shape memory alloy-reinforced composites; the substances envisioned will be able to autonomously evaluate emergent environmental conditions and adapt to them, and even change their operational objectives. While until now the primary objective of the developmental efforts presently discussed has been materials that mimic biological functions, entirely novel concepts may be formulated in due course.

Rogers, C. A.; Robertshaw, H. H.

1989-01-01

273

Electromagnetic valve for controlling the flow of molten, magnetic material  

DOEpatents

An electromagnetic valve for controlling the flow of molten, magnetic material is provided, which comprises an induction coil for generating a magnetic field in response to an applied alternating electrical current, a housing, and a refractory composite nozzle. The nozzle is comprised of an inner sleeve composed of an erosion resistant refractory material (e.g., a zirconia ceramic) through which molten, magnetic metal flows, a refractory outer shell, and an intermediate compressible refractory material, e.g., unset, high alumina, thermosetting mortar. The compressible refractory material is sandwiched between the inner sleeve and outer shell, and absorbs differential expansion stresses that develop within the nozzle due to extreme thermal gradients. The sandwiched layer of compressible refractory material prevents destructive cracks from developing in the refractory outer shell. 5 figs.

Richter, T.

1998-06-16

274

Electromagnetic valve for controlling the flow of molten, magnetic material  

DOEpatents

An electromagnetic valve for controlling the flow of molten, magnetic material is provided, which comprises an induction coil for generating a magnetic field in response to an applied alternating electrical current, a housing, and a refractory composite nozzle. The nozzle is comprised of an inner sleeve composed of an erosion resistant refractory material (e.g., a zirconia ceramic) through which molten, magnetic metal flows, a refractory outer shell, and an intermediate compressible refractory material, e.g., unset, high alumina, thermosetting mortar. The compressible refractory material is sandwiched between the inner sleeve and outer shell, and absorbs differential expansion stresses that develop within the nozzle due to extreme thermal gradients. The sandwiched layer of compressible refractory material prevents destructive cracks from developing in the refractory outer shell.

Richter, Tomas (State College, PA)

1998-01-01

275

Material Degradation during Isothermal Aging and Thermal Cycling of Hybrid Mica Seal with Ag Interlayer under SOFC Exposure Conditions  

SciTech Connect

Hybrid phlogopite mica seals with silver interlayers were evaluated in terms of materials degradation in a combined isothermal ageing and thermal cycling test. The hybrid mica seal was composed of a phlogopite mica paper sandwiched between two Ag foils. The hybrid micas were first aged at 800oC for ~1,000 hrs in a moist, dilute hydrogen fuel (~2.7% H2/bal. Ar + ~3% H2O), followed by short-term thermal cycling between ~100oC and 800oC. The combined test was repeated for 3 times for a total of 4,000 hrs ageing at 800oC and 119 thermal cycles. The results of high temperature leak rate tests showed very good thermal stability and thermal cycle stability with 800oC leak rates of ~0.02-0.03 sccm/cm. A hybrid mica seal tested in a high water content fuel (30 v% H2O/70 v% H2) demonstrated similar leakage during isothermal ageing and subsequent thermal cycles. Post-mortem analyses showed no extensive reaction between Ag and phlogopite mica as well as no significant mica degradation. Simple calculations to estimate the effect of measured leakage on the open circuit voltage and the total fuel loss for various SOFC stack sizes suggest very small fuel losses for the current hybrid mica seals, indicating that they are good candidates for SOFC sealing applications. Corresponding author: Yeong-Shyung Chou Tel: 509-375-2527, Fax: 509-375-2186, E-mail: yeong-shyung.chou@pnl.gov

Chou, Y. S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Hardy, John S.; Singh, Prabhakar

2006-11-01

276

Tracing and control of raw materials sourcing for vaccine manufacturers.  

PubMed

The control of the raw materials used to manufacture vaccines is mandatory; therefore, a very clear process must be in place to guarantee that raw materials are traced. Those who make products or supplies used in vaccine manufacture (suppliers of culture media, diagnostic tests, etc.) must apply quality systems proving that they adhere to certain standards. ISO certification, Good Manufacturing Practices for production sites and the registration of culture media with a 'Certificate of Suitability' from the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines and Healthcare are reliable quality systems pertaining to vaccine production. Suppliers must assure that each lot of raw materials used in a product that will be used in vaccine manufacture adheres to the level of safety and traceability required. Incoming materials must be controlled in a single 'Enterprise Resource Planning' system which is used to document important information, such as the assignment of lot number, expiration date, etc. Ingredients for culture media in particular must conform to certain specifications. The specifications that need to be checked vary according to the ingredient, based on the level of risk. The way a raw material is produced is also important, and any aspect relative to cross-contamination, such as the sanitary measures used in producing and storing the raw material must be checked as well. In addition, suppliers can reduce the risk of viral contamination of raw materials by avoiding purchases in countries where a relevant outbreak is currently declared. PMID:20335052

Faretra Peysson, Laurence

2010-05-01

277

Development of a murre (Uria spp.) egg control material.  

PubMed

The Seabird Tissue Archival and Monitoring Project (STAMP) is a collaborative Alaska-wide effort by the US Fish and Wildlife Service's Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge (USFWS/AMNWR), the US Geological Survey's Biological Resources Division (USGS/BRD), the Bureau of Indian Affairs Alaska Region Subsistence Branch (BIA/ARSB), and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to monitor long-term (decadal) trends in environmental contaminants using seabird eggs. To support this effort, a matrix- (seabird egg) and concentration-specific control material was needed to ensure quality during analytical work. Although a herring gull egg quality assurance (HGQA) material is available from Environment Canada (EC), contaminant concentrations in this material tended to be higher than those observed in Alaskan murre (Uria spp.) eggs. Therefore, to prepare a more appropriate control material, a total of 12 common murre (U. aalge) and thick-billed murre (U. lomvia) eggs from four Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska nesting locations were cryohomogenized to create 190 aliquots each containing approximately 6 g. This new control material was analyzed by different methods at NIST and EC facilities for the determination of concentrations and value assignment of 63 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, 20 organochlorine pesticides, and 11 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners. The total PCB concentration is approximately 58 ng g(-1) wet mass. Results obtained for analytes not listed on the certificates of analysis of the previously used control materials, HGQA and NIST's Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1946 Lake Superior Fish Tissue, are also presented. PMID:17103152

Vander Pol, Stacy S; Ellisor, Michael B; Pugh, Rebecca S; Becker, Paul R; Poster, Dianne L; Schantz, Michele M; Leigh, Stefan D; Wakeford, Bryan J; Roseneau, David G; Simac, Kristin S

2007-04-01

278

Nanostructured Solar Irradiation Control Materials for Solar Energy Conversion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tailoring the solar absorptivity (alpha(sub s)) and thermal emissivity (epsilon(sub T)) of materials constitutes an innovative approach to solar energy control and energy conversion. Numerous ceramic and metallic materials are currently available for solar absorbance/thermal emittance control. However, conventional metal oxides and dielectric/metal/dielectric multi-coatings have limited utility due to residual shear stresses resulting from the different coefficient of thermal expansion of the layered materials. This research presents an alternate approach based on nanoparticle-filled polymers to afford mechanically durable solar-absorptive and thermally-emissive polymer nanocomposites. The alpha(sub s) and epsilon(sub T) were measured with various nano inclusions, such as carbon nanophase particles (CNPs), at different concentrations. Research has shown that adding only 5 wt% CNPs increased the alpha(sub s) and epsilon(sub T) by a factor of about 47 and 2, respectively, compared to the pristine polymer. The effect of solar irradiation control of the nanocomposite on solar energy conversion was studied. The solar irradiation control coatings increased the power generation of solar thermoelectric cells by more than 380% compared to that of a control power cell without solar irradiation control coatings.

Kang, Jinho; Marshall, I. A.; Torrico, M. N.; Taylor, C. R.; Ely, Jeffry; Henderson, Angel Z.; Kim, J.-W.; Sauti, G.; Gibbons, L. J.; Park, C.; Lowther, S. E.; Lillehei, P. T.; Bryant, R. G.

2012-01-01

279

Antimicrobial Materials for Advanced Microbial Control in Spacecraft Water Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microbial detection, identification, and control are essential for the maintenance and preservation of spacecraft water systems. Requirements set by NASA put limitations on the energy, mass, materials, noise, cost, and crew time that can be devoted to microbial control. Efforts are being made to attain real-time detection and identification of microbial contamination in microgravity environments. Research for evaluating technologies for capability enhancement on-orbit is currently focused on the use of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) analysis for detection purposes and polymerase chain reaction (peR) for microbial identification. Additional research is being conducted on how to control for microbial contamination on a continual basis. Existing microbial control methods in spacecraft utilize iodine or ionic silver biocides, physical disinfection, and point-of-use sterilization filters. Although these methods are effective, they require re-dosing due to loss of efficacy, have low human toxicity thresholds, produce poor taste, and consume valuable mass and crew time. Thus, alternative methods for microbial control are needed. This project also explores ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs), surface passivation methods for maintaining residual biocide levels, and several antimicrobial materials aimed at improving current microbial control techniques, as well as addressing other materials presently under analysis and future directions to be pursued.

Birmele, Michele; Caro, Janicce; Newsham, Gerard; Roberts, Michael; Morford, Megan; Wheeler, Ray

2012-01-01

280

Quality control of MATa1 splicing and exon skipping by nuclear RNA degradation  

E-print Network

, the nuclear exosome and by the nuclear RNase III endonuclease Rnt1p to prevent undesired expression of non Rat1p and by the nuclear exosome. This function for Rat1p and the nuclear exosome in the degradation

Chanfreau, Guillaume

281

FINAL REPORT. CONTROL OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE DEGRADATION ZONES BY VERTICAL HETEROGENEITY: APPLICATIONS IN FRACTURED MEDIA  

EPA Science Inventory

The key objective of this research was to determine the distribution of biologically active contaminant degradation zones in a fractured, subsurface medium with respect to vertical heterogeneities. Our expectation was that hydrogeological properties would determine the size, d...

282

Ground-Based Testing of Replacement Thermal Control Materials for the Hubble Space Telescope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mechanical and optical properties of the metallized Teflon FEP thermal control materials on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) have degraded over the nearly seven years the telescope has been in orbit. Given the damage to the outer layer of the multi-layer insulation (MLI) that was apparent during the second servicing mission (SM2), the decision was made to replace the outer layer during subsequent servicing missions. A Failure Review Board was established to investigate the damage to the MLI and identify a replacement material. The replacement material had to meet the stringent thermal requirements of the spacecraft and maintain mechanical integrity for at least ten years. Ten candidate materials were selected and exposed to ten-year HST-equivalent doses of simulated orbital environments. Samples of the candidates were exposed sequentially to low and high energy electrons and protons, atomic oxygen, x-ray radiation, ultraviolet radiation and thermal cycling. Following the exposures, the mechanical integrity and optical properties of the candidates were investigated using Optical Microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), a Laboratory Portable Spectroreflectometer (LPSR) and a Lambda 9 Spectroreflectometer. Based on the results of these simulations and analyses, the Failure Review Board selected a replacement material and two alternates that showed the highest likelihood of providing the requisite thermal properties and surviving for ten years in orbit.

Townsend, Jacqueline A.; Hansen, Patricia A.; McClendon, Mark W.; deGroh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Triolo, Jack J.

1998-01-01

283

Evaluation and Selection of Replacement Thermal Control Materials for the Hubble Space Telescope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mechanical and optical properties of the metallized Teflon(Registered Trademark) FEP thermal control materials on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) have degraded over the nearly seven years the telescope has been in orbit. Given the damage to the outer layer of the multi-layer insulation (MLI) that was apparent during the second servicing mission (SM2), the decision was made to replace the outer layer during subsequent servicing missions. A Failure Review Board was established to investigate the damage to the MLI and identify a replacement material. The replacement material had to meet the stringent thermal requirements of the spacecraft and maintain structural integrity for at least ten years. Ten candidate materials were selected and exposed to ten-year HST-equivalent doses of simulated orbital environments. Samples of the candidates were exposed sequentially to low and high energy electrons and protons, atomic oxygen, x-ray radiation, ultraviolet radiation and thermal cycling. Following the exposures, the mechanical integrity and optical properties of the candidates were investigated using Optical Microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and a Laboratory Portable Spectroreflectometer (LPSR). Based on the results of these simulations and analyses, the FRB selected a replacement material and two alternates that showed the highest likelihood of providing the requisite thermal properties and surviving for ten years in orbit.q

Townsend, Jacqueline A.; Hansen, Patricia A.; McClendon, Mark W.; Dever, Joyce A.; Triolo, Jack J.

1998-01-01

284

Silicate, borosilicate, and borate bioactive glass scaffolds with controllable degradation rate for bone tissue engineering applications. I. Preparation and in vitro degradation.  

PubMed

Bioactive glass scaffolds with a microstructure similar to that of dry human trabecular bone but with three different compositions were evaluated for potential applications in bone repair. The preparation of the scaffolds and the effect of the glass composition on the degradation and conversion of the scaffolds to a hydroxyapatite (HA)-type material in a simulated body fluid (SBF) are reported here (Part I). The in vitro response of osteogenic cells to the scaffolds and the in vivo evaluation of the scaffolds in a rat subcutaneous implantation model are described in Part II. Scaffolds (porosity = 78-82%; pore size = 100-500 microm) were prepared using a polymer foam replication technique. The glasses consisted of a silicate (13-93) composition, a borosilicate composition (designated 13-93B1), and a borate composition (13-93B3), in which one-third or all of the SiO2 content of 13-93 was replaced by B2O3, respectively. The conversion rate of the scaffolds to HA in the SBF increased markedly with the B2O3 content of the glass. Concurrently, the pH of the SBF also increased with the B2O3 content of the scaffolds. The compressive strengths of the as-prepared scaffolds (5-11 MPa) were in the upper range of values reported for trabecular bone, but they decreased markedly with immersion time in the SBF and with increasing B2O3 content of the glass. The results show that scaffolds with a wide range of bioactivity and degradation rate can be achieved by replacing varying amounts of SiO(2) in silicate bioactive glass with B2O3. PMID:20544804

Fu, Qiang; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Fu, Hailuo; Liu, Xin

2010-10-01

285

Plasmid pRTL1 Controlling 1Chloroalkane Degradation by Rhodococcus rhodochrous NCIMB13064  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhodococcus rhodochrous NCIMB13064 can dehalogenate and use a wide range of 1-haloalkanes as sole carbon and energy source. The 1-chloroalkane degradation phenotype may be lost by cells spontaneously or after treatment with Mitomycin C. Two laboratory derivatives of the original strain exhibited differing degrees of stability of the chloroalkane degradation marker. Plasmids of approximately 100 kbp (pRTL1) and 80 kbp

A. N. Kulakova; T. M. Stafford; M. J. Larkin; L. A. Kulakov

1995-01-01

286

WindTech TV: Bonus Materials- Machine Control Circuits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This section of the Wind Technician TV website provides bonus materials pertaining to machine control circuits. Users can review content on topics like electrical theory, magnetics, ladder diagrams and start-stop interlock example. Clicking on a subtopic will launch a pop up window demonstrating the concept.

2013-07-01

287

PERFORMANCE TESTING OF SPILL CONTROL DEVICES ON FLOATABLE HAZARDOUS MATERIALS  

EPA Science Inventory

At the U.S. EPA's Oil and Hazardous Materials Simulated Environmental Test Tank (OHMSETT) in Leonardo, New Jersey, from September 1975 through November 1975, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and the U.S. Coast Guard evaluated selected oil-spill control equipment ...

288

MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES FOR INORGANIC TRACE MATERIALS IN CONTROL SYSTEM STREAMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study showing that inorganic materials in control process streams at trace levels can be determined using modified, commercially available sampling equipment and atomic absorption analysis procedures; however, special care must be taken to attain hig...

289

Human performance: An essential element in materials control and accountability  

SciTech Connect

The importance of the role of human performance in the successful and effective operation of many activities throughout many industries has been well documented. Most closely related to the materials control and accountability area is the work in human factors that has been ongoing in the U.S. nuclear industry since the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Plant accident in 1979. Research related to the role of human reliability, human-system interface, and organization and management influences has been and is still being conducted to identify ways to enhance the safe and effective operation of nuclear facilities. This paper will discuss these human performance areas and how they relate to the materials control and accountability area. Particular attention will be focussed on the notion of {open_quotes}safety culture{close_quotes} and how it can be defined and measured for understanding the values and attitudes held by individuals working in the materials control area. It is widely believed that the culture of an organization, which reflects the expectations and values of the management of an organization, is a key element to the operation of that organization. The human performance element is one which has not received a great deal of consideration in the materials control and accountability area and yet it will be demonstrated that it is an essential component to ensure the success of safeguards activities.

Haber, S.B.; Allentuck, J.

1996-10-01

290

Compatibility of refractory materials for nuclear reactor poison control systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Metal-clad poison rods have been considered for the control system of an advanced space power reactor concept studied at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Such control rods may be required to operate at temperatures of about 140O C. Selected poison materials (including boron carbide and the diborides of zirconium, hafnium, and tantalum) were subjected to 1000-hour screening tests in contact with candidate refractory metal cladding materials (including tungsten and alloys of tantalum, niobium, and molybdenum) to assess the compatibility of these materials combinations at the temperatures of interest. Zirconium and hafnium diborides were compatible with refractory metals at 1400 C, but boron carbide and tantalum diboride reacted with the refractory metals at this temperature. Zirconium diboride also showed promise as a reaction barrier between boron carbide and tungsten.

Sinclair, J. H.

1974-01-01

291

ESR spectroscopy for monitoring the photochemical and thermal degradation of conjugated polymers used as electron donor materials in organic bulk heterojunction solar cells.  

PubMed

It was shown that ESR spectroscopy is a very useful technique for monitoring the photochemical and thermal degradation of conjugated polymers commonly used in organic solar cells. The relative stability of materials can be quantified by comparing the rates of trap accumulation (dCR/dt) estimated from their ESR profiles. PMID:25435101

Frolova, Lyubov A; Piven, Natalia P; Susarova, Diana K; Akkuratov, Alexander V; Babenko, Sergey D; Troshin, Pavel A

2015-01-27

292

Growth and enrichment of pentachlorophenol-degrading microorganisms in the nutristat, a substrate concentration-controlled continuous culture  

SciTech Connect

The nutristat, a substrate concentration-controlled continuous culture, was used to grow pentachlorophenol (PCP)-degrading microorganisms. The PCP concentration control system consisted of on-line measurement of the PCP concentration in the culture vessel with a tangential filter and a flowthrough spectrophotometer. With PCP concentrations between 45 and 77 [mu]M, a stable situation was established in the nutristat, with an average dilution rate of 0.035 [+-] 0.003 h[sup [minus]1]. Compared with those of fed-batch cultures and chemostat cultures, the growth rates of microorganisms in the PCP nutristat were significantly higher, leading to considerable time savings in the enrichment procedure. In addition, PCP accumulation to severe inhibitory levels in the culture is prevented because the set point determines the (maximum) PCP concentration in the culture. The use of the nutristat as a tool for the growth of bacteria that degrade toxic compounds is discussed.

Rutgers, M.; Bogte, J.J.; Breure, A.M.; Van Andel, J.G. (National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven (Netherlands))

1993-10-01

293

Materials for adaptive structural acoustic control, volume 1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report documents work carried out in the Materials Research Laboratory of the Pennsylvania State University over the first year of a new ONR sponsored University Research Initiative (URI) entitled Materials for Adaptive Structural Acoustic Control. For this report the activities have been grouped under the following topic headings: (1) General Summary Papers; (2) Materials Studies; (3) Composite Sensors; (4) Actuator Studies; (5) Integration Issues; (6) Processing Studies; and (7) Thin Film Ferroelectrics. In material studies important advances have been made in the understanding of the evaluation of relaxor behavior in the PLZT's and of the order disorder behavior in lead scandium tantalate:lead titanate solid solutions and of the Morphotropic Phase Boundary in this system.

Cross, L. E.

1993-04-01

294

Radioactive material inventory control at a waste characterization facility  

SciTech Connect

Due to the recent introduction of more stringent Department of Energy (DOE) regulations and requirements pertaining to nuclear and criticality safety, the control of radioactive material inventory has emerged as an important facet of operations at DOE nuclear facilities. In order to comply with nuclear safety regulations and nuclear criticality requirements, radioactive material inventories at each nuclear facility have to be maintained below limits specified for the facility in its safety authorization basis documentation. Exceeding these radioactive material limits constitutes a breach of the facility`s nuclear and criticality safety envelope and could potentially result in an accident, cause a shut-down of the facility, and bring about imminent regulatory repercussions. The practice of maintaining control of radioactive material, especially sealed and unsealed sources, is commonplace and widely implemented; however, the requirement to track the entire radioactivity inventory at each nuclear facility for the purpose of ensuring nuclear safety is a new development. To meet the new requirements, the Applied Radiation Measurements Department at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed an information system, called the {open_quotes}Radioactive Material Inventory System{close_quotes} (RMIS), to track the radioactive material inventory at an ORNL facility, the Waste Examination and Assay Facility (WEAF). The operations at WEAF, which revolve around the nondestructive assay and nondestructive examination of waste and related research and development activities, results in an ever-changing radioactive material inventory. Waste packages and radioactive sources are constantly being brought in or taken out of the facility; hence, use of the RMIS is necessary to ensure that the radioactive material inventory limits are not exceeded.

Yong, L.K.; Chapman, J.A.; Schultz, F.J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

1996-06-01

295

Materials for adaptive structural acoustic control, volume 3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report documents work carried out in the Materials Research Laboratory of the Pennsylvania State University over the first year of a new ONR sponsored University Research Initiative (URI) entitled Materials for Adaptive Structural Acoustic Control. For this report the activities have been grouped under the following topic headings: (1) General Summary Papers; (2) Materials Studies; (3) Composite Sensors; (4) Actuator Studies; (5) Integration Issues; (6) Processing Studies; and (7) Thin Film Ferroelectrics. In material studies important advances have been made in the understanding of the evaluation of relaxor behavior in the PLZT's and of the order-disorder behavior in lead scandium tantalate:lead titanate solid solutions and of the Morphotropic Phase Boundary in this system. For both composite sensors and actuators, we have continued to explore and exploit the remarkable versatility of the flextensional moonie type structure. Finite element (FEA) calculations have given a clear picture of the lower order resonant modes and permitted the evaluation of various end cap metals, cap geometries, and load conditions. In actuator studies multilayer structures have been combined with flextensional moonie endcaps to yield high displacement (50 micrometers) compact structures. Electrically controlled shape memory has been demonstrated in lead zirconate stannate titanate compositions, and used for controlling a simple latching relay.

Cross, L. E.

1993-04-01

296

Materials for adaptive structural acoustic control, volume 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report documents work carried out in the Materials Research Laboratory of the Pennsylvania State University over the first year of a new ONR sponsored University Research Initiative (URI) entitled Materials for Adaptive Structural Acoustic Control. For this report the activities have been grouped under the following topic headings: (1) General Summary Papers; (2) Materials Studies; (3) Composite Sensors; (4) Actuator Studies; (5) Integration Issues; (6) Processing Studies; (7) Thin Film Ferroelectrics. In material studies important advances have been made in the understanding of the evaluation of relaxor behavior in the PLZT's and of the order disorder behavior in lead scandium tantalate:lead titanate solid solutions and of the Morphotropic Phase Boundary in this system. For both composite sensors and actuators we have continued to explore and exploit the remarkable versatility of the flextensional moonie type structure. Finite element (FEA) calculations have given a clear picture of the lower order resonant modes and permitted the evaluation of various end cap metals, cap geometries and load conditions. In actuator studies multilayer structures have been combined with flextensional moonie endcaps to yield high displacement (50 micrometers) compact structures. Electrically controlled shape memory has been demonstrated in lead zirconate stannate titanate compositions, and used for controlling a simple latching relay.

Cross, L. E.

1993-04-01

297

Autophagy plays a critical role in the degradation of active RHOA, the control of cell cytokinesis and genomic stability  

PubMed Central

Degradation of signaling proteins is one of the most powerful tumor suppressive mechanisms by which a cell can control its own growth. Here, we identify RHOA as the molecular target by which autophagy maintains genomic stability. Specifically, inhibition of autophagosome degradation by the loss of the v-ATPase a3 (TCIRG1) subunit is sufficient to induce aneuploidy. Underlying this phenotype, active RHOA is sequestered via p62 (SQSTM1) within autolysosomes, and fails to localize to the plasma membrane or to the spindle midbody. Conversely, inhibition of autophagosome formation by ATG5 shRNA dramatically increases localization of active RHOA at the midbody, followed by diffusion to the flanking zones. As a result, all of the approaches we examined that compromise autophagy (irrespective of the defect: autophagosome formation, sequestration or degradation) drive cytokinesis failure, multinucleation, and aneuploidy, processes that directly have an impact upon cancer progression. Consistently, we report a positive correlation between autophagy defects and the higher expression of RHOA in human lung carcinoma. We therefore propose that autophagy may act in part as a safeguard mechanism that degrades and thereby maintains the appropriate level of active RHOA at the midbody for faithful completion of cytokinesis and genome inheritance. PMID:23704209

Belaid, Amine; Cerezo, Michaël; Chargui, Abderrahman; Corcelle–Termeau, Elisabeth; Pedeutour, Florence; Giuliano, Sandy; Ilie, Marius; Rubera, Isabelle; Tauc, Michel; Barale, Sophie; Bertolotto, Corinne; Brest, Patrick; Vouret-Craviari, Valérie; Klionsky, Daniel J.; Carle, Georges F.; Hofman, Paul; Mograbi, Baharia

2013-01-01

298

Substrate Recognition in Nuclear Protein Quality Control Degradation Is Governed by Exposed Hydrophobicity That Correlates with Aggregation and Insolubility*  

PubMed Central

Misfolded proteins present an escalating deleterious challenge to cells over the course of their lifetime. One mechanism the cell possesses to prevent misfolded protein accumulation is their destruction by protein quality control (PQC) degradation systems. In eukaryotes, PQC degradation typically proceeds via multiple ubiquitin-protein ligases that act throughout the cell to ubiquitinate misfolded proteins for proteasome degradation. What the exact feature of misfolding that each PQC ubiquitin-protein ligase recognizes in their substrates remains an open question. Our previous studies of the budding yeast nuclear ubiquitin-protein ligase San1 indicated that it recognizes exposed hydrophobicity within its substrates, with the threshold of hydrophobicity equivalent to that of 5 contiguous hydrophobic residues. Here, we uncover an additional parameter: the nature of the exposed hydrophobicity that confers San1-mediated degradation correlates with significant protein insolubility. San1 particularly targets exposed hydrophobicity that leads to insolubility and aggregation above a certain threshold. Our studies presented here provide additional insight into the details of misfolded nuclear protein recognition and demonstrate that there is selectivity for the type of exposed hydrophobicity. PMID:23335508

Fredrickson, Eric K.; Gallagher, Pamela S.; Clowes Candadai, Sarah V.; Gardner, Richard G.

2013-01-01

299

Agricultural biological reference materials for analytical quality control  

SciTech Connect

Cooperative work is under way at Agriculture Canada, US Department of Agriculture, and US National Bureau of Standards in an attempt to fill some of the gaps in the world repertoire of reference materials and to provide much needed control materials for laboratories' day to day operations. This undertaking involves the preparation and characterization of a number of agricultural and food materials for data quality control for inorganic constituents. Parameters considered in the development of these materials were material selection based on importance in commerce and analysis; techniques of preparation, processing, and packaging; physical and chemical characterization; homogeneity testing and quantitation (certification). A large number of agricultural/food products have been selected to represent a wide range of not only levels of sought-for constituents (elements) but also a wide range of matrix components such as protein, carbohydrate, dietary fiber, fat, and ash. Elements whose concentrations are being certified cover some two dozen major, minor, and trace elements of nutritional, toxicological, and environmental significance.

Ihnat, M.

1986-01-01

300

Nuclear materials control and accountability criteria for upgrades measures  

SciTech Connect

As a result of major political and societal changes in the past several years, methods of nuclear material control may no longer be as effective as in the past in Russia, the Newly Independent States (NIS), and the Baltic States (BS). The objective of the Department of Energy (DOE) Material Protection, Control, and Accounting Program (MPC and A) is to reduce the threat of nuclear proliferation by collaborating with Russia, NIS, and BS governments to promote western-style MPC and A. This cooperation will improve the MPC and A on all weapons useable nuclear materials and will establish a sustainable infrastructure to provide future support and maintenance for these technology-based improvements. Nuclear materials of proliferation concern include materials of the types and quantities that can be most easily and directly used in a nuclear weapon. Sabotage of nuclear material is an event of great concern and potentially disastrous consequences to both the US and the host country. However, sabotage is currently beyond the scope of program direction and cannot be used to justify US-funded MPC and A upgrades. Judicious MPC and A upgrades designed to protect against insider and outsider theft scenarios would also provide addition, although not comprehensive, protection against saboteurs. This paper provides some suggestions to establish consistency in prioritizing system-enhancement efforts at nuclear material facilities. The suggestions in this paper are consistent with DOE policy and directions and should be used as a supplement to any policy directives issued by NN-40, DOE Russia/NIS Task Force.

Erkkila, B.H.; Hatcher, C.R.

1998-11-01

301

Controlling Beryllium Contaminated Material And Equipment For The Building 9201-5 Legacy Material Disposition Project  

SciTech Connect

This position paper addresses the management of beryllium contamination on legacy waste. The goal of the beryllium management program is to protect human health and the environment by preventing the release of beryllium through controlling surface contamination. Studies have shown by controlling beryllium surface contamination, potential airborne contamination is reduced or eliminated. Although there are areas in Building 9201-5 that are contaminated with radioactive materials and mercury, only beryllium contamination is addressed in this management plan. The overall goal of this initiative is the compliant packaging and disposal of beryllium waste from the 9201-5 Legacy Material Removal (LMR) Project to ensure that beryllium surface contamination and any potential airborne release of beryllium is controlled to levels as low as practicable in accordance with 10 CFR 850.25.

Reynolds, T. D.; Easterling, S. D.

2010-10-01

302

Probabilistic Material Strength Degradation Model for Inconel 718 Components Subjected to High Temperature, High-Cycle and Low-Cycle Mechanical Fatigue, Creep and Thermal Fatigue Effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of methodology for a probabilistic material strength degradation is described. The probabilistic model, in the form of a postulated randomized multifactor equation, provides for quantification of uncertainty in the lifetime material strength of aerospace propulsion system components subjected to a number of diverse random effects. This model is embodied in the computer program entitled PROMISS, which can include up to eighteen different effects. Presently, the model includes five effects that typically reduce lifetime strength: high temperature, high-cycle mechanical fatigue, low-cycle mechanical fatigue, creep and thermal fatigue. Results, in the form of cumulative distribution functions, illustrated the sensitivity of lifetime strength to any current value of an effect. In addition, verification studies comparing predictions of high-cycle mechanical fatigue and high temperature effects with experiments are presented. Results from this limited verification study strongly supported that material degradation can be represented by randomized multifactor interaction models.

Bast, Callie C.; Boyce, Lola

1995-01-01

303

Application of smart materials to helicopter rotor active control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Helicopter design is limited by the compromise inherent in meeting hover and forward flight requirements, and the unsteady environment encountered in forward flight. Active control of helicopter rotors using smart material, in-blade actuation can overcome these barriers and provide substantial reductions in noise and vibrations and improved performance. The present study covers the blade/actuator integration and actuator development for a full scale system to demonstrate active control of noise and vibrations as well as inflight blade tracking on the MD Explorer helicopter. A piezoelectric multilayer stack actuator, driving a trailing edge flap, is used for active control. A shape memory alloy torsion actuator, driving a trailing edge trim tab, is used for inflight tracking. Overall, this DARPA sponsored program entails the design, development, and fabrication of the full scale active control rotor system. If successful, an entry in the NASA Ames 40 X 80 foot wind tunnel and flight tests are planned for a follow on program.

Straub, Friedrich K.; Ealey, Mark A.; Schetky, Lawrence M.

1997-05-01

304

Development of Tailorable Electrically Conductive Thermal Control Material Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The optical characteristics of surfaces on spacecraft are fundamental parameters in controlling its temperature. Passive thermal control coatings with designed solar absorptance and infrared emittance properties have been developed and been in use for some time. In this total space environment, the coating must be stable and maintain its desired optical properties for the course of the mission lifetime. The mission lifetimes are increasing and in our quest to save weight, newer substrates are being integrated which limit electrical grounding schemes. All of this has already added to the existing concerns about spacecraft charging and related spacecraft failures or operational failures. The concern is even greater for thermal control surfaces that are very large. One way of alleviating such concerns is to design new thermal control material systems (TCMS) that can help to mitigate charging via providing charge leakage paths. The object of this program was to develop two types of passive electrically conductive TCMS.

Deshpande, M. S.; Harada, Y.

1998-01-01

305

46 CFR 128.240 - Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control-materials and pressure design.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...pneumatic power and control-materials and pressure design. 128.240 Section 128...EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Materials and Pressure Design § 128.240 Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control—materials and pressure design. (a) Each standard...

2012-10-01

306

46 CFR 128.240 - Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control-materials and pressure design.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...pneumatic power and control-materials and pressure design. 128.240 Section 128...EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Materials and Pressure Design § 128.240 Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control—materials and pressure design. (a) Each standard...

2013-10-01

307

46 CFR 128.240 - Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control-materials and pressure design.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...pneumatic power and control-materials and pressure design. 128.240 Section 128...EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Materials and Pressure Design § 128.240 Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control—materials and pressure design. (a) Each standard...

2010-10-01

308

46 CFR 128.240 - Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control-materials and pressure design.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...pneumatic power and control-materials and pressure design. 128.240 Section 128...EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Materials and Pressure Design § 128.240 Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control—materials and pressure design. (a) Each standard...

2014-10-01

309

46 CFR 128.240 - Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control-materials and pressure design.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...pneumatic power and control-materials and pressure design. 128.240 Section 128...EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEMS Materials and Pressure Design § 128.240 Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control—materials and pressure design. (a) Each standard...

2011-10-01

310

Methods of Verification, Accountability and Control of Special Nuclear Material  

SciTech Connect

This session demonstrates nondestructive assay (NDA) measurement, surveillance and analysis technology required to protect, control and account (MPC and A) for special nuclear materials (SNM) in sealed containers. These measurements, observations and analyses comprise state-of-the art, strengthened, SNM safeguards systems. Staff member specialists, actively involved in research, development, training and implementation worldwide, will present six NDA verification systems and two software tools for integration and analysis of facility MPC and A data.

Stewart, J.E.

1999-05-03

311

Insider Threat - Material Control and Accountability Mitigation (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

Why is the insider a concern? There are many documented cases of nuclear material available for sale - there are more insider diversions than outsider attacks and more than 18 documented cases of theft or loss of plutonium or highly enriched uranium. Insider attributes are: have access, has authority, possesses knowledge, works with absence of timeline, can test system, and may act alone or support a team. Material control and accountability (MC&A) is an essential part of an integrated safeguards system. Objectives of MC&A are: (1) Ongoing confirmation of the presence of special nuclear material (SNM) in assigned locations; (2) Prompt investigation of anomalies that may indicate a loss of SNM; (3) Timely and localized detection of loss, diversion, or theft of a goal quantity; (4) Rapid assessment and response to detection alarms; and (5) Timely generation of information to aid in the recovery of SNM in the event of an actual loss, diversion, or theft from the purview of the MC&A system. Control and accountability of material, equipment, and data are essential to minimizing insider threats.

Powell, Danny H [ORNL] [ORNL; Elwood Jr, Robert H [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01

312

Materials and actuators for the shape control of structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Smart materials and actuators meet a noticeable infatuation for the shape control of aerodynamic surfaces. This interest is borne as well to reduced scale where space is limited for the machining of models allowing to demonstrate the merits of some advanced concepts as to full scale prototypes, where these novative mechanisms are supposed to replace advantageously hydraulic or classical electro-magnetic solutions. These new devices are even supposed to provide in some cases several benefits for integrity improvement of the structure itself. The extrapolation from one to the other is nevertheless not straight forward and must take into account the distinct specifications if only the avionability constraints and the cost. If bulk and multilayered electro-active materials and integrated adaptive systems issued from them are convenient for dynamic control, shape memory alloys are only suitable for slow but quite significant geometry changes. After a brief survey of the most outstanding properties, the availability and the limitations of usual materials, actuators and electronic controllers, easily provisionable on the market, the paper deals with some technological applications experimented on models. The subjects investigated concern the flap deflection, the twist of rotor blades and the swelling of a wing profile. The last part of presentation points out some fast started-up and economical developments, to promote these actuators in the near term in order to compensate topical deficiencies, and first actions already undertaken to this end.

Mercier des Rochettes, Hugues; Petitniot, Jean-Luc

2001-08-01

313

Quorum sensing controls hyphal initiation in Candida albicans through Ubr1-mediated protein degradation  

PubMed Central

Candida albicans is the most common cause of invasive fungal infections in humans. Its ability to undergo the morphological transition from yeast to hyphal growth forms is critical for its pathogenesis. Hyphal initiation requires the activation of the cAMP-PKA pathway, which down-regulates the expression of NRG1, the major repressor of hyphal development. Hyphal initiation also requires inoculation of a small amount of C. albicans cells from overnight culture to fresh medium. This inoculation releases the inhibition from farnesol, a quorum-sensing molecule of C. albicans, that accumulated in the spent medium. Here, we show that farnesol inhibits hyphal initiation mainly through blocking the protein degradation of Nrg1. Through screening a kinase mutant library, we identified Sok1 as the kinase required for Nrg1 degradation during inoculation. SOK1 expression is transiently activated on inoculation during hyphal initiation, and overexpression of SOK1 overcomes the farnesol-mediated inhibition of hyphal initiation. Screening a collection of transcription factor mutants, the homeodomain-containing transcription repressor Cup9 is found to be responsible for the repression of SOK1 expression in response to farnesol inhibition. Interestingly, farnesol inhibits Cup9 degradation mediated by the N-end rule E3 ubiquitin ligase, Ubr1. Therefore, hyphal initiation requires both the cAMP-PKA pathway-dependent transcriptional down-regulation of NRG1 and Sok1-mediated degradation of Nrg1 protein. The latter is triggered by the release from farnesol inhibition of Cup9 degradation and consequently, derepression of SOK1 transcription. Neither pathway alone is sufficient for hyphal initiation. PMID:24449897

Lu, Yang; Su, Chang; Unoje, Ohimai; Liu, Haoping

2014-01-01

314

Influence of the Piping-material-originated Metal-ion on Cell Degradation of Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Influences of metal-ion adulterations into Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells (PEFC) were examined on PEFC generation characteristics and structural changes. Cupper and aluminun, novel candidate materials for forthcoming PEFC system, were introduced into polymer electrolyte membranes (PEM) by ion-exchange method as contaminants, and ca. 500-hour generation tests of PEFC cells with these PEMs were conducted in this study. Introduced metal ions were to be combined to sulfonic acid groups in PEMs by electrostatic forces. For the cell containing cupric ions (Cu2+) equivalent to 1000 pmm of supfonic acid groups in PEM, a decrease in deteriorating rate of cell voltage was observed to be 83 mV/kh during 500-hour generation, in comparison with the cell without metal-ion comtamination showing 154 mV/kh. On the other hand, an increase in deteriorating rates were observed for the cells containing 10 % Cu2+ or 1000 ppm aluminum ions (Al3+). Al3+ adulteration in PEFC set off increases in activation overpotential and fluoride ion release rate (FRR) with proceeding genaration test. An increase in activation overpotentials was supressed in 1000 ppm Cu2+-adulterated cell and the reverse was observed in 10 % Cu2+-adulterated one, though Cu2+ adulterations suppressed growths of platinum catalyst particles in size and FRR regardless of Cu2+ concentration. Restriction effect of 1000 ppm Cu2+-adulteration into PEM on PEFC voltage deterioration has found to be the unprecedented knoledge with respect to PEFC degradation phenomena. Mechanisms of those influences were also discussed.

Amitani, Chieko; Ishikawa, Masahiko; Mori, Kouya; Tanaka, Kenji; Hori, Michio

315

Biologically engineered protein-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels: A cell-adhesive and plasmin-degradable biosynthetic material for tissue repair  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of the research presented in this dissertation was to create a biomimetic artificial material that exhibits functions of extracellular matrix relevant for improved nerve regeneration. Neural adhesion peptides were photoimmobilized on highly crosslinked poly(ethylene glycol)-based substrates that were otherwise non-adhesive. Neurons adhered in two-dimensional patterns for eleven hours, but no neurites extended. To enable neurite extension and nerve regeneration in three dimensions, and to address the need for specifically cell adhesive and cell degradable materials for clinical applications in tissue repair in general, an artificial protein was recombinantly expressed and purified that consisted of a repeating amino acid sequence based on fibrinogen and anti-thrombin III. The recombinant protein contained integrin-binding RGD sites, plasmin degradation sites, heparin binding sites, and six thiol-containing cysteine residues as grafting sites for poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate via Michael-type conjugate addition. The resulting protein-graft-poly(ethylene glycol)acrylates were crosslinked by photopolymerization to form hydrogels. Although three-dimensional, RGD mediated and serine protease-dependent ingrowth of human fibroblasts into protein-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels occurred, only surface neurite outgrowth was observed from chick dorsal root ganglia. Axonal outgrowth depended on the concentration of matrix-bound heparin, suggesting that improved mechanical strength of the hydrogels and possible immobilization of neuroactive factors due to the presence of heparin promoted neurite outgrowth. Together, the above results show that specific biological functions can be harnessed by protein-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels to serve as matrices for tissue repair and regeneration. In particular, the two design objectives, specific cell adhesion and degradability by cell-associated proteases, were fulfilled by the material. In the future, this and similar artificial protein-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) materials with varying protein elements for improved wound healing might serve as biosynthetic implant materials or wound dressings that degrade in synchrony with the formation of a variety of target tissues.

Halstenberg, Sven

2002-01-01

316

Issues related to regulatory control of naturally occurring radioactive materials  

SciTech Connect

Nearly 80% of human radiation exposure is from naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). While exposure from man-made sources of radiation has been well regulated, no consistent regulatory controls exist for NORM. Because elevated radiation levels have resulted from NORM enhancement activities such as occur in the petroleum, fertilizer, mining, and processing industries, some form of regulatory control is in order. In the US, regulation of NORM by federal agencies such as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission or the Environmental Protection Agency is not anticipated in the near future because there are no authorizing federal statutes. Important issues for addressing the control of NORM include source characterization and generation, radiation protection concerns, waste management and disposition, and the regulatory framework.

Chen, S.Y.

1997-04-01

317

RESEARCH Open Access Degradation of insecticides used for indoor spraying in malaria control and possible solutions  

E-print Network

Background: The insecticide dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) is widely used in indoor residual spraying (IRS) for malaria control owing to its longer residual efficacy in the field compared to other World Health Organization (WHO) alternatives. Suitable stabilization to render these alternative insecticides longer lasting could provide a less controversial and more acceptable and effective alternative insecticide formulations than DDT. Methods: This study sought to investigate the reasons behind the often reported longer lasting behaviour of DDT by exposing all the WHO approved insecticides to high temperature, high humidity and ultra-violet light. Interactions between the insecticides and some mineral powders in the presence of an aqueous medium were also tested. Simple insecticidal paints were made using slurries of these mineral powders whilst some insecticides were dispersed into a conventional acrylic paint binder. These formulations were then spray painted on neat and manure coated mud plaques, representative of the material typically used in rural mud houses, at twice the upper limit of the WHO recommended dosage range. DDT was applied directly onto mud plaques at four times the WHO recommended concentration and on manure plaques at twice WHO recommended concentration. All plaques were subjected to accelerated ageing conditions of 40°C and a relative humidity of 90%. Results: The pyrethroids insecticides outperformed the carbamates and DDT in the accelerated ageing tests. Thus

Mthokozisi M Sib; Walter W Focke; Frederick Jwj Labuschagne; Lumbidzani Moyo; Nontete S Nhlapo; Arjun Maity; Herminio Muiambo; Pedro Massinga; Nico As Crowther; Maureen Coetzee; Gordon Wa Brindley

318

Anaerobic degradation of inedible crop residues produced in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An anaerobic reactor seeded with organisms from an anaerobic lagoon was used to study the degradation of inedible crop residues from potato and wheat crops grown in a closed environment. Conversion of this biomass into other products was also evaluated. Degradation of wheat volatile solids was about 25% where that of potato was about 50%. The main product of the anaerobic fermentation of both crops was acetic acid with smaller quantities of propionate and butyrate produced. Nitrate, known to be high in concentration in inedible potato and wheat biomass grown hydroponically, was converted to ammonia in the anaerobic reactor. Both volatile fatty acid and ammonia production may have implications in a crop production system.

Schwingel, W. R.; Sager, J. C.

1996-01-01

319

Biodegradation and biocompatibility of mechanically active magnetoelastic materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetoelastic (ME) materials have many advantages for use as sensors and actuators due to their wireless, passive nature. This paper describes the application of ME materials as biodegradable implants with controllable degradation rates. Experiments have been conducted to show that degradation rates of ME materials are dependent on the material compositions. In addition, it was shown that the degradation rates of the ME materials can be controlled remotely by applying a magnetic field, which causes the ME materials to generate low-magnitude vibrations that hasten their degradation rates. Another concern of ME materials for medical applications is biocompatibility. Indirect cytotoxicity analyses were performed on two types of ME materials: Metglas™ 2826 MB (FeNiMoB) and iron-gallium alloy. While results indicate Metglas is not biocompatible, the degradation products of iron-gallium materials have shown no adverse effects on cell viability. Overall, these results present the possibility of using ME materials as biodegradable, magnetically-controlled active implants.

Holmes, Hal R.; DeRouin, Andrew; Wright, Samantha; Riedemann, Travor M.; Lograsso, Thomas A.; Rajachar, Rupak M.; Ghee Ong, Keat

2014-09-01

320

CONTROL OF PIERCE'S DISEASE THROUGH DEGRADATION OF XANTHAN GUM Project Leader  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acinetobacter johnsonii GX123, a Xylella gum-degrading endophyte was co-inoculated with Xylella fastidiosa strain Texas in oleander plants to determine its efficacy as a biocontrol agent in preliminary experiments. Symptoms appeared in both plants inoculated with X. fastidiosa alone and plants co-inoculated with the endophyte. However, symptoms were more severe and appeared earlier in plants inoculated with X. fastidiosa than in

Donald A. Cooksey; Neal L. Schiller; Rosina Bianco; Seung-Don Lee; Korsi Dumenyo

321

Bioremediation of Contaminated Soils by Hydrocarbons Degrading Bacteria and Decontamination Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study three strains of Vibrio marine bioluminescent bacteria, have been employed to measure the biotoxicity of hydrocarbon contaminated soils from oil\\u000a terminals. The evaluation of inhibitory effects of samples on emitted light was performed on soil before and during a four\\u000a months bioremediation treatment by hydrocarbons degrading bacteria. The measure ments were carried out at room temperature,\\u000a using

Stefano Girotti; Elisabetta Maiolini; Luca Bolelli; Elida Ferri; Anna Pompei; Diego Matteuzzi; Svetlana Medvedeva; Paolo Fonti

322

P Bodies and the Control of mRNA Translation and Degradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent results indicate that many untranslating mRNAs in somatic eukaryotic cells assemble into re- lated mRNPs that accumulate in specific cytoplasmic foci referred to as P bodies. Transcripts asso- ciated with P body components can either be degraded or return to translation. Moreover, P bodies are also biochemically and functionally related to some maternal and neuronal mRNA granules. This suggestsan

Roy Parker; Ujwal Sheth

2007-01-01

323

10 CFR 74.31 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance. 74.31 Section 74.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED)...

2011-01-01

324

10 CFR 74.31 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance. 74.31 Section 74.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED)...

2014-01-01

325

10 CFR 74.31 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance. 74.31 Section 74.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED)...

2013-01-01

326

10 CFR 74.31 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance. 74.31 Section 74.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED)...

2010-01-01

327

10 CFR 74.31 - Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nuclear material control and accounting for special nuclear material of low strategic significance. 74.31 Section 74.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED)...

2012-01-01

328

Control of degradation of spent LWR (light-water reactor) fuel during dry storage in an inert atmosphere  

SciTech Connect

Dry storage of Zircaloy-clad spent fuel in inert gas (referred to as inerted dry storage or IDS) is being developed as an alternative to water pool storage of spent fuel. The objectives of the activities described in this report are to identify potential Zircaloy degradation mechanisms and evaluate their applicability to cladding breach during IDS, develop models of the dominant Zircaloy degradation mechanisms, and recommend cladding temperature limits during IDS to control Zircaloy degradation. The principal potential Zircaloy cladding breach mechanisms during IDS have been identified as creep rupture, stress corrosion cracking (SCC), and delayed hydride cracking (DHC). Creep rupture is concluded to be the primary cladding breach mechanism during IDS. Deformation and fracture maps based on creep rupture were developed for Zircaloy. These maps were then used as the basis for developing spent fuel cladding temperature limits that would prevent cladding breach during a 40-year IDS period. The probability of cladding breach for spent fuel stored at the temperature limit is less than 0.5% per spent fuel rod. 52 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Cunningham, M.E.; Simonen, E.P.; Allemann, R.T.; Levy, I.S.; Hazelton, R.F.

1987-10-01

329

Effects of Contamination, UV Radiation, and Atomic Oxygen on ISS Thermal Control Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal control surfaces on the International Space Station (ISS) have been tailored for optimum optical properties. The space environment, particularly contamination, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and atomic oxygen (AO) may have a detrimental effect on these optical properties. These effects must be quantified for modeling and planning. Also of interest was the effect of porosity on the reaction to simulated space environment. Five materials were chosen for this study based on their use on ISS. The thermal control materials were Z-93 white coating, silverized Teflon, chromic acid anodized aluminum, sulfuric acid anodized aluminum, and 7075-T6 aluminum. Some of the samples were exposed to RTV 560 silicone; others were exposed to Tefzel offgassing products. Two samples of Z-93 were not exposed to contamination as clean "controls". VUV radiation was used to photo-fix the contaminant to the material surface, then the samples were exposed to AO. All samples were exposed to 1000 equivalent sun-hours (ESH) of vacuum ultraviolet radiation (VUV) at the AZ Technology facility and a minimum of 1.5 x 10(exp 20) atoms/sq cm of AO at Marshall Space Flight Center. Half of the samples were exposed to an additional 2000 ESH of VUV at Huntington Beach prior to sent to AZ Technology. Darkening of the Z-93 white coating was noted after VUV exposure. AO exposure did bleach the Z-93 but not back to its original brightness. Solar absorptance curves show the degradation due to contamination and VUV and the recovery with AO exposure. More bleaching was noted on the Tefzel-contaminated samples than with the RTV-contaminated samples.

Visentine, Jim; Finckenor, Miria; Zwiener, Jim; Munafo, Paul (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

330

Dysprosium titanate as an absorber material for control rods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disprosium titanate is an attractive control rod material for the thermal neutron reactors. Its main advantages are: insignificant swelling, no out-gassing under neutron irradiation, rather high neutron efficiency, a high melting point (˜1870°C), non-interaction with the cladding at temperatures above 1000°C, simple fabrication and easily reprocessed non-radioactive waste. It can be used in control rods as pellets and powder. The disprosium titanate control rods have worked off in the MIR reactor for 17 years, in VVER-1000 - for 4 years without any operating problems. After post-irradiation examinations this type of control rod having high lifetime was recommended for the VVER and RBMK. The paper presents the examination results of absorber element dummies containing dysprosium titanate, irradiated in the SM reactor to the neutron fluence of 3.4×10 22 cm -2 ( E>0.1 MeV) and, also, the data on structure, thermal-physical properties of dysprosium titanate, efficiency of dysprosium titanate control rods.

Risovany, V. D.; Varlashova, E. E.; Suslov, D. N.

2000-09-01

331

Needs for Process Control in Advanced Processing of Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in the synthesis of new materials with complex microstructures, coupled with an improved understanding of process/microtructure/property relationships, has created a new challenge for NDE—the redirection of a technology originally conceived for flaw detection/characterization to the nondestructive measurement of process and microstructure variables during materials processing. This review shows how NDE techniques could play the sensor role in automated process control. The techniques, originally developed for detecting cracks, show merit in monitoring solidification. Other ultrasonic techniques show promise in characterizing temperature distributions and porosity. Problems include: the need for inverse modeling/calibration/high speed data acquisition and reconstruction; and display and hardware able to survive the harsh processing environment. Feedback systems based on artificial intelligence combine heuristic and mathematical predictions with developing sensor technologies to drive process development.

Mehrabian, Robert; Wadley, Haydn N. G.

1985-02-01

332

Selection of optimal composition-control parameters for friable materials  

SciTech Connect

A method for composition analysis of coal and minerals is proposed which uses scattered gamma radiation and does away with preliminary sample preparation to ensure homogeneous particle density, surface area, and size. Reduction of the error induced by material heterogeneity has previously been achieved by rotation of the control object during analysis. A further refinement is proposed which addresses the necessity that the contribution of the radiation scattered from each individual surface to the total intensity be the same. This is achieved by providing a constant linear rate of travel for the irradiated spot through back-and-forth motion of the sensor. An analytical expression is given for the laws of motion for the sensor and test tube which provides for uniform irradiated area movement along a path analogous to the Archimedes spiral. The relationships obtained permit optimization of measurement parameters in analyzing friable materials which are not uniform in grain size.

Pak, Yu.N.; Vdovkin, A.V.

1988-05-01

333

PEM fuel cell degradation  

SciTech Connect

The durability of PEM fuel cells is a major barrier to the commercialization of these systems for stationary and transportation power applications. While significant progress has been made in understanding degradation mechanisms and improving materials, further improvements in durability are required to meet commercialization targets. Catalyst and electrode durability remains a primary degradation mode, with much work reported on understanding how the catalyst and electrode structure degrades. Accelerated Stress Tests (ASTs) are used to rapidly evaluate component degradation, however the results are sometimes easy, and other times difficult to correlate. Tests that were developed to accelerate degradation of single components are shown to also affect other component's degradation modes. Non-ideal examples of this include ASTs examining catalyst degradation performances losses due to catalyst degradation do not always well correlate with catalyst surface area and also lead to losses in mass transport.

Borup, Rodney L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

334

Methods of measurement for semiconductor materials, process control, and devices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of methods of measurement for semiconductor materials, process control, and devices is discussed. The following subjects are also presented: (1) demonstration of the high sensitivity of the infrared response technique by the identification of gold in a germanium diode, (2) verification that transient thermal response is significantly more sensitive to the presence of voids in die attachment than steady-state thermal resistance, and (3) development of equipment for determining susceptibility of transistors to hot spot formation by the current-gain technique.

Bullis, W. M. (editor)

1971-01-01

335

Methods of measurement for semiconductor materials, process control, and devices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Activities directed toward the development of methods of measurement for semiconductor materials, process control, and devices are described. Topics investigated include: measurements of transistor delay time; application of the infrared response technique to the study of radiation-damaged, lithium-drifted silicon detectors; and identification of a condition that minimizes wire flexure and reduces the failure rate of wire bonds in transistors and integrated circuits under slow thermal cycling conditions. Supplementary data concerning staff, standards committee activities, technical services, and publications are included as appendixes.

Bullis, W. M. (editor)

1972-01-01

336

Methods of Measurement for Semiconductor Materials, Process Control, and Devices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of methods of measurement for semiconductor materials, process control, and devices is reported. Significant accomplishments include: (1) Completion of an initial identification of the more important problems in process control for integrated circuit fabrication and assembly; (2) preparations for making silicon bulk resistivity wafer standards available to the industry; and (3) establishment of the relationship between carrier mobility and impurity density in silicon. Work is continuing on measurement of resistivity of semiconductor crystals; characterization of generation-recombination-trapping centers, including gold, in silicon; evaluation of wire bonds and die attachment; study of scanning electron microscopy for wafer inspection and test; measurement of thermal properties of semiconductor devices; determination of S-parameters and delay time in junction devices; and characterization of noise and conversion loss of microwave detector diodes.

Bullis, W. M. (ed)

1973-01-01

337

Bacterial populations and environmental factors controlling cellulose degradation in an acidic Sphagnum peat.  

PubMed

Northern peatlands represent a major global carbon store harbouring approximately one-third of the global reserves of soil organic carbon. A large proportion of these peatlands consists of acidic Sphagnum-dominated ombrotrophic bogs, which are characterized by extremely low rates of plant debris decomposition. The degradation of cellulose, the major component of Sphagnum-derived litter, was monitored in long-term incubation experiments with acidic (pH 4.0) peat extracts. This process was almost undetectable at 10°C and occurred at low rates at 20°C, while it was significantly accelerated at both temperature regimes by the addition of available nitrogen. Cellulose breakdown was only partially inhibited in the presence of cycloheximide, suggesting that bacteria participated in this process. We aimed to identify these bacteria by a combination of molecular and cultivation approaches and to determine the factors that limit their activity in situ. The indigenous bacterial community in peat was dominated by Alphaproteobacteria and Acidobacteria. The addition of cellulose induced a clear shift in the community structure towards an increase in the relative abundance of the Bacteroidetes. Increasing temperature and nitrogen availability resulted in a selective development of bacteria phylogenetically related to Cytophaga hutchinsonii (94-95% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), which densely colonized microfibrils of cellulose. Among isolates obtained from this community only some subdivision 1 Acidobacteria were capable of degrading cellulose, albeit at a very slow rate. These Acidobacteria represent indigenous cellulolytic members of the microbial community in acidic peat and are easily out-competed by Cytophaga-like bacteria under conditions of increased nitrogen availability. Members of the phylum Firmicutes, known to be key players in cellulose degradation in neutral habitats, were not detected in the cellulolytic community enriched at low pH. PMID:21564458

Pankratov, Timofey A; Ivanova, Anastasia O; Dedysh, Svetlana N; Liesack, Werner

2011-07-01

338

Controlling the band gap energy of cluster-assembled materials.  

PubMed

Cluster-assembled materials combine the nanoscale size and composition-dependent properties of clusters, which have highly tunable magnetic and electronic properties useful for a great variety of potential technologies. To understand the emergent properties as clusters are assembled into hierarchical materials, we have synthesized 23 cluster-assembled materials composed of As7(3-)-based motifs and different countercations and measured their band gap energies. We found that the band gap energy varies from 1.09 to 2.21 eV. In addition, we have carried out first principles electronic structure studies to identify the physical mechanisms that enable control of the band gap edges of the cluster assemblies. The choice of counterion has a profound effect on the band gap energy in ionic cluster assemblies. The top of the valence band is localized on the arsenic cluster, while the conduction band edge is located on the alkali metal counterions. Changing the counterion changes the position of the conduction band edge, enabling control of the band gap energy. We can also vary the architecture of the ionic solid by incorporating cryptates as counterions, which provide charge but are separated from the clusters by bulky ligands. Higher dimensionality typically decreases the band gap energy through band broadening; however band gap energies increased upon moving from zero-dimensional (0D) to two-dimensional (2D) assemblies. This is because internal electric fields generated by the counterion preferentially stabilize the adjacent lone pair orbitals that mark the top of the valence band. Thus, the choice of the counterion can control the position of the conduction band edge of ionic cluster assemblies. In addition, the dimensionality of the solid via internal electric fields can control the valence band edge. Through covalently linking arsenic clusters into composite building blocks, we have also been able to tune the band gap energy. We used a theoretical description based on cluster orbital theory to provide microscopic understanding of the electronic character of the composite building blocks and the observed variations in the band gap energy. Also, we have shown how dimeric linkers can be used to control the band gap energy. Lastly, we also investigated the effects of charge transfer complexes of M(CO)3 on the band gap energy. PMID:23734558

Mandal, Sukhendu; Reber, Arthur C; Qian, Meichun; Weiss, Paul S; Khanna, Shiv N; Sen, Ayusman

2013-11-19

339

The F-BAR protein PSTPIP1 controls extracellular matrix degradation and filopodia formation in macrophages.  

PubMed

PSTPIP1 is a cytoskeletal adaptor and F-BAR protein that has been implicated in autoinflammatory disease, most notably in the PAPA syndrome: pyogenic sterile arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, and acne. However, the mechanism by which PSTPIP1 regulates the actin cytoskeleton and contributes to disease pathogenesis remains elusive. Here, we show that endogenous PSTPIP1 negatively regulates macrophage podosome organization and matrix degradation. We identify a novel PSTPIP1-R405C mutation in a patient presenting with aggressive pyoderma gangrenosum. Identification of this mutation reveals that PSTPIP1 regulates the balance of podosomes and filopodia in macrophages. The PSTPIP1-R405C mutation is in the SRC homology 3 (SH3) domain and impairs Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) binding, but it does not affect interaction with protein-tyrosine phosphatase (PTP)-PEST. Accordingly, WASP inhibition reverses the elevated F-actin content, filopodia formation, and matrix degradation induced by PSTPIP1-R405C. Our results uncover a novel role for PSTPIP1 and WASP in orchestrating different types of actin-based protrusions. Our findings implicate the cytoskeletal regulatory functions of PSTPIP1 in the pathogenesis of pyoderma gangrenosum and suggest that the cytoskeleton is a rational target for therapeutic intervention in autoinflammatory disease. PMID:24421327

Starnes, Taylor W; Bennin, David A; Bing, Xinyu; Eickhoff, Jens C; Grahf, Daniel C; Bellak, Jason M; Seroogy, Christine M; Ferguson, Polly J; Huttenlocher, Anna

2014-04-24

340

Osmotic control of glycine betaine biosynthesis and degradation in Rhizobium meliloti  

SciTech Connect

Intracellular accumulation of glycine betaine has been shown to confer an enhanced level of osmotic stress tolerance in Rhizobium meliloti. In this study, the authors used a physiological approach to investigate the mechanism by which glycine betaine is accumulated in osmotically stressed R. meliloti. Results from growth experiments, /sup 14/C labeling of intermediates, and enzyme activity assays are presented. The results provide evidence for the pathway of biosynthesis and degradation of glycine betaine and the osmotic effects on this pathway. High osmolarity in the medium decreased the activities of the enzymes involved in the degradation of glycine betaine but not those of enzymes that lead to its biosynthesis from choline. Thus, the concentration of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine is increased in stressed cells. This report demonstrates the ability of the osmolarity of the growth medium to regulate the use of glycine betaine as a carbon and nitrogen source or as an osmoprotectant. The mechanisms of osmoregulation in R. meliloti and Escherichia coli are compared.

Smith, L.T.; Pocard, J.A.; Bernard, T.; Le Rudulier, D.

1988-07-01

341

Materials and techniques for spacecraft static charge control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview of the design, development, fabrication, and testing of transparent conductive coatings and conductive lattices deposited or formed on high resistivity spacecraft dielectric materials to obtain control static charge buildup on spacecraft external surfaces is presented. Fabrication techniques for the deposition of indium/tin oxide coatings and copper grid networks on Kapton and FEP Teflon films and special frit coatings for OSR and solar cell cover glasses are discussed. The techniques include sputtering, photoetching, silkscreening, and mechanical processes. A facility designed and built to simulate the electron plasma at geosynchronous altitudes is described along with test procedures. The results of material characterizations as well as electron irradiation aging effects in this facility for spacecraft polymers treated to control static charge are presented. The data presents results for electron beam energies up to 30 kV and electron current densities of 30 nA/cm squared. Parameters measured include secondary emission, surface leakage, and through the sample currents as a function of primary beam energy and voltage.

Amore, L. J.; Eagles, A. E.

1977-01-01

342

Magnetically Controlled Shape Memory Behaviour—Materials and Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For most metals a microscopic change in shape occurs above the elastic limit by the irreversible creation and movement of dislocations. However a large number of metallic systems undergo structural, martensitic, phase transformations which are diffusionless, displacive first order transitions from a high-temperature phase to one of lower symmetry below a certain temperature TM. These transitions which have been studied for more than a century are of vital importance because of their key role in producing shape memory phenomena enabling the system to reverse large deformations in the martensitic phase by heating into the austenite phase. In addition to a change in shape (displacement) the effect can also produce a force or a combination of both. Materials having this unique property are increasing being used in medical applications—scoliosis correction, arterial clips, stents, orthodontic wire, orthopaedic implants etc. The structural phase transition essential for shape memory behaviour is usually activated by a change in temperature or applied stress. However for many applications such as for actuators the transformation is not sufficiently rapid. Poor energy conversion also limits the applicability of many shape memory alloys. In medicine a change of temperature or pressure is often inappropriate and new ferromagnetic materials are being considered in which the phenomena can be controlled by an applied magnetic field at constant temperature. In order to achieve this, it is important to optimise three fundamental parameters. These are the saturation magnetisation ?s, the Curie temperature Tc and the martensitic temperature TM. Here, ?s is important because the magnetic pressure driving the twin boundary motion is 2?sH. Furthermore the material must be in the martensitic state at the operating temperature which should be at or above room temperature. This may be achieved by alloying or controlling the stoichiometry. Recently new intermetallic compounds based on the ferromagnetic prototype Ni2MnGa have been discovered which offer the possibility of controlling the structural phase transition by a magnetic field, hence opening up new possible applications particularly in the field of medicine. The properties of these new materials will be presented and their suitability for applications discussed.

Gandy, A. P.; Sheikh, A.; Neumann, K.; Neumann, K.-U.; Pooley, D.; Ziebeck, K. R. A.

2008-06-01

343

A testbed for advanced materials control and accounting concepts  

SciTech Connect

Advanced concepts in materials control and accounting include distributed databases in a distributed process environment and on-line instrumentation. To test various ideas in this area, we developed a testbed consisting of three personal computers /PCs/ with several input devices and suitable software. The principal design aspects being tested include database structure, communication between various network nodes, database update on the host, speed of transaction processing, data input from on-line instrumentation, and a user-friendly interface with the operator. An IBM PC/XT at the local level is used to collect data using a barcode reader and balance in a mockup glove box. These represent typical examples of simple on-line instrumentation in nuclear material facilities. Manual input to the PC/XT is through a keyboard, a mouse, and a voice microphone. This PC/XT communicates with a host PC/AT that serves to post transactions for a process area or wing of a facility. A second PC/AT represents the central computer that collects data from several distributed nodes and maintains the central database for analysis and report generation. Custom software is called PC/DYMAC, a materials accounting package developed by Robert Bearse in cooperation with Argonne National Laboratory-West under the direction and funding of the Los Alamos Safeguards research and development program. It was developed using dBaseIII PLUS but was compiled with FoxBASE/plus/ under the Santa Cruz Operations XENIX operating system. 4 refs. 1 fig.

Tisinger, R.M.

1988-01-01

344

Drug Release Kinetics and Transport Mechanisms of Non-degradable and Degradable Polymeric Delivery Systems  

PubMed Central

Importance of the field The advancement in material design and engineering has led to the rapid development of novel materials with increasing complexity and functions. Both non-degradable and degradable polymers have found wide applications in the controlled delivery field. Studies on drug release kinetics provide important information into the function of material systems. To elucidate the detailed transport mechanism and the structure-function relationship of a material system, it is critical to bridge the gap between the macroscopic data and the transport behavior at the molecular level. Areas covered in this review The structure and function information of selected non-degradable and degradable polymers have been collected and summarized from literatures published after 1990s. The release kinetics of selected drug compounds from various material systems will be discussed in case studies. Recent progresses in the mathematical models based on different transport mechanisms will be highlighted. What the reader will gain This article aims to provide an overview of structure-function relationships of selected non-degradable and degradable polymers as drug delivery matrices. Take home message Understanding the structure-function relationship of the material system is key to the successful design of a delivery system for a particular application. Moreover, developing complex polymeric matrices requires more robust mathematical models to elucidate the solute transport mechanisms. PMID:20331353

Fu, Yao; Kao, Weiyuan John

2010-01-01

345

Hands-free mobile phone speech while driving degrades coordination and control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a closed-circuit driving track environment, we investigated the influence of using a hands-free mobile (or cell) phone on various biomechanical and perceptual factors that underlie the control of driving. Results showed that in three tasks representative of everyday driving conditions, the perceptual control of action was compromised when compared to a control condition where no mobile phone conversation was

Paul J. Treffner; Rod Barrett

2004-01-01

346

Controlled doping of semiconducting titania nanosheets for tailored spinelectronic materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ti1-x-yFexCoyO2 nanosheets are synthesized in which the (Fe/Co) content is systematically controlled in the range of 0 <= x <= 0.4 and 0 <= y <= 0.2. A key feature of this new preparation is the use of (Li/Fe)-, (Fe/Co)- and (Li/Co)-co-substituted layered titanates as starting materials. In exfoliated nanosheets, the composition can be intentionally modified by controlled Fe/Co substitution into Ti sites during the solid-state synthesis of the starting layered compounds. The composition of the host layers is maintained in the subsequent exfoliation process, which is very helpful in the rational design of nanosheets through the use of controlled doping. Through this controlled doping, we achieve exquisite control of the electronic properties of Ti1-?O2 nanosheets, including the position of impurity bands, the Fermi energy and ferromagnetic properties. From photoelectron spectroscopy and first-principles studies, we have observed that the use of Fe/Co co-doping with higher Fe and Co oxidation states is necessary to bring the highest occupied Fe/Co impurity states to the Fermi level. This band engineering transforms the Ti1-x-yFexCoyO2 nanosheet into a room-temperature half-metallic ferromagnet, thus accomplishing the main requirements of future spinelectronics.Ti1-x-yFexCoyO2 nanosheets are synthesized in which the (Fe/Co) content is systematically controlled in the range of 0 <= x <= 0.4 and 0 <= y <= 0.2. A key feature of this new preparation is the use of (Li/Fe)-, (Fe/Co)- and (Li/Co)-co-substituted layered titanates as starting materials. In exfoliated nanosheets, the composition can be intentionally modified by controlled Fe/Co substitution into Ti sites during the solid-state synthesis of the starting layered compounds. The composition of the host layers is maintained in the subsequent exfoliation process, which is very helpful in the rational design of nanosheets through the use of controlled doping. Through this controlled doping, we achieve exquisite control of the electronic properties of Ti1-?O2 nanosheets, including the position of impurity bands, the Fermi energy and ferromagnetic properties. From photoelectron spectroscopy and first-principles studies, we have observed that the use of Fe/Co co-doping with higher Fe and Co oxidation states is necessary to bring the highest occupied Fe/Co impurity states to the Fermi level. This band engineering transforms the Ti1-x-yFexCoyO2 nanosheet into a room-temperature half-metallic ferromagnet, thus accomplishing the main requirements of future spinelectronics. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details on XRD data, chemical analysis results, Raman spectra, UV-Visible absorption spectra for multilayer films, first-principles DFT calculations on the magnetic properties, resistivity vs. the reciprocal temperature of Ti0.75Fe0.1Co0.15O2. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr04465g

Osada, Minoru; Yoguchi, Satoshi; Itose, Masayuki; Li, Bao-Wen; Ebina, Yasuo; Fukuda, Katsutoshi; Kotani, Yoshinori; Ono, Kanta; Ueda, Shigenori; Sasaki, Takayoshi

2014-11-01

347

Fabrication of enzyme-degradable and size-controlled protein nanowires using single particle nano-fabrication technique  

PubMed Central

Protein nanowires exhibiting specific biological activities hold promise for interacting with living cells and controlling and predicting biological responses such as apoptosis, endocytosis and cell adhesion. Here we report the result of the interaction of a single high-energy charged particle with protein molecules, giving size-controlled protein nanowires with an ultra-high aspect ratio of over 1,000. Degradation of the human serum albumin nanowires was examined using trypsin. The biotinylated human serum albumin nanowires bound avidin, demonstrating the high affinity of the nanowires. Human serum albumin–avidin hybrid nanowires were also fabricated from a solid state mixture and exhibited good mechanical strength in phosphate-buffered saline. The biotinylated human serum albumin nanowires can be transformed into nanowires exhibiting a biological function such as avidin–biotinyl interactions and peroxidase activity. The present technique is a versatile platform for functionalizing the surface of any protein molecule with an extremely large surface area. PMID:24770668

Omichi, Masaaki; Asano, Atsushi; Tsukuda, Satoshi; Takano, Katsuyoshi; Sugimoto, Masaki; Saeki, Akinori; Sakamaki, Daisuke; Onoda, Akira; Hayashi, Takashi; Seki, Shu

2014-01-01

348

Biologically inspired autonomous structural materials with controlled toughening and healing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The field of structural health monitoring (SHM) has made significant contributions in the field of prognosis and damage detection in the past decade. The advantageous use of this technology has not been integrated into operational structures to prevent damage from propagating or to heal injured regions under real time loading conditions. Rather, current systems relay this information to a central processor or human operator, who then determines a course of action such as altering the mission or scheduling repair maintenance. Biological systems exhibit advanced sensory and healing traits that can be applied to the design of material systems. For instance, bone is the major structural component in vertebrates; however, unlike modern structural materials, bone has many properties that make it effective for arresting the propagation of cracks and subsequent healing of the fractured area. The foremost goal for the development of future adaptive structures is to mimic biological systems, similar to bone, such that the material system can detect damage and deploy defensive traits to impede damage from propagating, thus preventing catastrophic failure while in operation. After sensing and stalling the propagation of damage, the structure must then be repaired autonomously using self healing mechanisms motivated by biological systems. Here a novel autonomous system is developed using shape memory polymers (SMPs), that employs an optical fiber network as both a damage detection sensor and a network to deliver stimulus to the damage site initiating adaptation and healing. In the presence of damage the fiber optic fractures allowing a high power laser diode to deposit a controlled level of thermal energy at the fractured sight locally reducing the modulus and blunting the crack tip, which significantly slows the crack growth rate. By applying a pre-induced strain field and utilizing the shape memory recovery effect, thermal energy can be deployed to close the crack and return the system to its original operating state. The entire system will effectively detect, self toughen, and subsequently heal damage as biological materials such as bone does.

Garcia, Michael E.; Sodano, Henry A.

2010-04-01

349

77 FR 60482 - Regulatory Guide 5.67, Material Control and Accounting for Uranium Enrichment Facilities...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Material Control and Accounting for Uranium Enrichment Facilities Authorized To Produce...Material Control and Accounting for Uranium Enrichment Facilities Authorized to Produce...FNMC) Plan Required for Low-Enriched Uranium Facilities'' which was issued in...

2012-10-03

350

Degradation mechanisms of carbon-based electrocatalyst support materials and development of an advanced support based on electrically conducting diamond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this dissertation, the degradation mechanisms of sp 2-bonded carbon electrocatalyst supports were studied under potential and temperature conditions relevant to the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). In addition, an alternative support was fabricated in two forms: electrically conducting diamond powder and paper to overcome current material stability issues in the PEMFC. Two structurally well-characterized sp2-bonded carbon powders, graphite (structurally well-ordered) and glassy carbon (GC, structurally disordered) were studied under potentiostatic polarization from 1.0 to 1.6 V vs. Ag/AgCl at 25, 50, and 80°C. Characterization of the surface oxidation and microstructural changes (i.e., increase in the exposed edge plane density) provided evidence for the so-called order/disorder mechanism where structurally disordered carbons corrode more severely because of oxidation and gasification of the exposed edge plane. Microstructural changes for graphite were heterogeneously distributed across the electrode surface. This is indicative of a nucleation and growth process, where disordered regions and defects serve as active sites for electrochemical corrosion, while other, more structurally ordered regions do not corrode. Preliminary results for a high-surface-area carbon black, Vulcan XC-72, are presented that show changes in the surface oxide content and also discuss the effect of polarization potential on Pt activity. The physical and electrochemical properties of two commercial boron-doped diamond thin-film electrodes were compared with microcrystalline and nanocrystalline boron-doped diamond thin film deposited in our laboratory. The electrochemical response for Fe(CN)63-/4-, Ru(NH3)6 3+/2+, IrCl62-/3-, 4-methylcatechol, and Fe3+/2+ was quite reproducible from electrode type-to-type and from film-to-film for a given type. DeltaEp, ipox, and ip red values for Fe(CN)63-/4-, Ru(NH 3)63+/2+ on all electrodes were relatively unaffected by pH. Electrically conducting diamond powder was prepared by coating insulating diamond powder (8-12 mum diam) with a thin boron-doped diamond layer using microwave-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Increases in the electrical conductivity after growth confirmed that a conductive diamond overlayer formed. The charge passed during anodic polarization at 1.6 V vs. Ag/AgCl and 25°C for 1 h was largest for GC powder (0.88 C/cm2) and smallest for conductive diamond powder (0.18 C/cm2), illustrating the dimensional stability of diamond powder compared to sp2-bonded carbon powder. Boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (BND) was coated on Toray RTM carbon paper (TCP) via microwave-assisted CVD. Pt nanoparticles were deposited on TCP and BND using a pulsed galvanostatic method. The stability of the bare TCP and BND substrates and the composite Pt/TCP and Pt/BND electrodes were studied using potentiostatic polarization in 0.1 M HClO4. The BND electrode exhibited superior morphological and microstructural stability over TCP at 1.6 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Evidence was found for dissolution and redeposition of Pt on composite electrodes, particularly for Pt/TCP.

Fischer, Anne Elizabeth

2005-11-01

351

Radiological control criteria for materials considered for recycle and reuse  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting technical analyses to support the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Guidance, Air, Water, and Radiation Division (DOE/EH-232) in developing radiological control criteria for recycling or reuse of metals or equipment containing residual radioactive contamination from DOE operations. The criteria, framed as acceptable concentrations for release of materials for recycling or reuse, are risk-based and were developed through analysis of generic radiation exposure scenarios and pathways. The analysis includes evaluation of relevant radionuclides, potential mechanisms of exposure, and non-health-related impacts of residual radioactivity on electronics and film. The analysis considers 42 key radionuclides that DOE operations are known to generate and that may be contained in recycled or reused metals or equipment. Preliminary results are compared with similar results reported by the International Atomic Energy Agency, by radionuclide grouping.

Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Hill, R.L.; Aaberg, R.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Wallo, A. III [USDOE Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Environmental Guidance

1994-11-01

352

Novel cost controlled materials and processing for primary structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Textile laminates, developed a number of years ago, have recently been shown to be applicable to primary aircraft structures for both small and large components. Such structures have the potential to reduce acquisition costs but require advanced automated processing to keep costs controlled while verifying product reliability and assuring structural integrity, durability and affordable life-cycle costs. Recently, resin systems and graphite-reinforced woven shapes have been developed that have the potential for improved RTM processes for aircraft structures. Ciba-Geigy, Brochier Division has registered an RTM prepreg reinforcement called 'Injectex' that has shown effectivity for aircraft components. Other novel approaches discussed are thermotropic resins producing components by injection molding and ceramic polymers for long-duration hot structures. The potential of such materials and processing will be reviewed along with initial information/data available to date.

Dastin, S. J.

1993-01-01

353

Integrated safeguards & security for material protection, accounting, and control.  

SciTech Connect

Traditional safeguards and security design for fuel cycle facilities is done separately and after the facility design is near completion. This can result in higher costs due to retrofits and redundant use of data. Future facilities will incorporate safeguards and security early in the design process and integrate the systems to make better use of plant data and strengthen both systems. The purpose of this project was to evaluate the integration of materials control and accounting (MC&A) measurements with physical security design for a nuclear reprocessing plant. Locations throughout the plant where data overlap occurs or where MC&A data could be a benefit were identified. This mapping is presented along with the methodology for including the additional data in existing probabilistic assessments to evaluate safeguards and security systems designs.

Duran, Felicia Angelica; Cipiti, Benjamin B.

2009-10-01

354

A Randomised Controlled Trial of complete denture impression materials  

PubMed Central

Objectives There is continuing demand for non-implant prosthodontic treatment and yet there is a paucity of high quality Randomised Controlled Trial (RCT) evidence for best practice. The aim of this research was to provide evidence for best practice in prosthodontic impressions by comparing two impression materials in a double-blind, randomised, crossover, controlled, clinical trial. Methods Eighty-five patients were recruited, using published eligibility criteria, to the trial at Leeds Dental Institute, UK. Each patient received two sets of dentures; made using either alginate or silicone impressions. Randomisations determined the order of assessment and order of impressions. The primary outcome was patient blinded preference for unadjusted dentures. Secondary outcomes were patient preference for the adjusted dentures, rating of comfort, stability and chewing efficiency, experience of each impression, and an OHIP-EDENT questionnaire. Results Seventy-eight (91.8%) patients completed the primary assessment. 53(67.9%) patients preferred dentures made from silicone impressions while 14(17.9%) preferred alginate impressions. 4(5.1%) patients found both dentures equally satisfactory and 7 (9.0%) found both equally unsatisfactory. There was a 50% difference in preference rates (in favour of silicone) (95%CI 32.7–67.3%, p < 0.0001). Conclusion There is significant evidence that dentures made from silicone impressions were preferred by patients. Clinical significance Given the strength of the clinical findings within this paper, dentists should consider choosing silicone rather than alginate as their material of choice for secondary impressions for complete dentures. Trial Registration: ISRCTN 01528038.?? This article forms part of a project for which the author (TPH) won the Senior Clinical Unilever Hatton Award of the International Assocation for Dental Research, Capetown, South Africa, June 2014. PMID:24995473

Hyde, T.P.; Craddock, H.L.; Gray, J.C.; Pavitt, S.H.; Hulme, C.; Godfrey, M.; Fernandez, C.; Navarro-Coy, N.; Dillon, S.; Wright, J.; Brown, S.; Dukanovic, G.; Brunton, P.A.

2014-01-01

355

Controlling Emission Zone in Blue OLEDs by Material Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The blue component is one of the remaining challenges for the organic light emitting devices (OLED) based solid-state lighting technology. OLEDs have the potential to generate solid state white lighting with 50% power conversion efficiency. However realizing this potential will require optimization of not only blue emitter dopants but also host matrices. Charge balance is a key factor in achieving high quantum efficiency and low operating voltage in OLED devices. In this work, we studied the effect of the chemical structure of the phosphine oxide-based hosts and electron transport materials on the location of the emission zone. We observed that a strong domination of one carrier within the host results in highly localized emission zones in OLEDs. As a result, an alteration of the chemical design of the materials allows for the control of the emissive region location within the EML. By chemical modification of the host molecule, we achieved a relocation of the emissive zone in blue OLEDs from the EML/ETL interface to the EML/HTL interface.

Padmaperuma, Asanga; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Swensen, James; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Koech, Phillip; Wang, Liang

2010-03-01

356

Device for controlling the pouring of molten materials  

DOEpatents

A device for controlling the pouring of a molten material from a crucible or other container. The device (10) includes an annular retainer ring (12) for mounting in the drain opening in the bottom of a conventional crucible (16), the retainer ring defining a opening (14) therethrough. The device (10) also includes a plug member (22) having an annular forward end portion (24) for force-fit reception in the opening (14) of the retainer ring (12) to selectively seal the opening (14) and for being selectively forced through the opening (14). The plug member (22) has a rear end portion (26) for being positioned within the crucible (16), the rear end portion (26) including stop means for prohibiting the rear end portion from passing through the opening (14) in the retainer ring (12) when the forward end portion (24) is selectively forced through the opening. The plug member (22) defines at least one, and preferably a plurality of flutes (32), each extending from a point rearward the annular forward end portion (24) of the plug member (22), and forward the stop means, to a point rearward of the stop means. The flutes (32) permit fluid communication between the interior and exterior of the crucible (16) when the forward end portion (24) of the plug member (22) is forced through the opening (14) in the retaining ring (12) such that the molten material is allowed to flow from the crucible (16).

Moore, Alan F. (Knoxville, TN); Duncan, Alfred L. (Clinton, TN)

1994-01-01

357

WEATHERABILITY OF ENHANCED DEGRADABLE PLASTICS  

EPA Science Inventory

The main objective of this study was to assess the performance and the associated variability of several selected enhanced degradable plastic materials under a variety of different exposure conditions. ther objectives were to identify the major products formed during degradation ...

358

Nanostructured hydroxyapatite/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) composite coating for controlling magnesium degradation in simulated body fluid.  

PubMed

Biodegradable magnesium (Mg) and its alloys have many attractive properties (e.g. comparable mechanical properties to cortical bone) for orthopedic implant applications, but they degrade too rapidly in the human body to meet clinical requirements. Nanostructured hydroxyapatite (nHA)/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) composite coatings provide synergistic properties for controlling degradation of Mg-based substrates and improving bone-implant integration. In this study, nHA/PLGA composites were spin coated onto Mg-based substrates and the results showed that the nHA/PLGA coatings retained nano-scale features with nHA dispersed in PLGA matrix. In comparison with non-coated Mg, the nHA/PLGA composite coated Mg increased the corrosion potential and decreased the corrosion current in revised simulated body fluid (rSBF). After 24 h of immersion in rSBF, increased calcium phosphate (CaP) deposition and formation of Mg-substituted CaP rosettes were observed on the surface of the nHA/PLGA coated Mg, indicating greater bioactivity. In contrast, no significant CaP was deposited on the PLGA coated Mg. Since both PLGA coating and nHA/PLGA coating showed some degree of delamination from Mg-based substrates during extended immersion in rSBF, the coating processing and properties should be further optimized in order to take full advantage of biodegradable Mg and nHA/PLGA nanocomposites for orthopedic applications. PMID:23975041

Johnson, Ian; Akari, Khalid; Liu, Huinan

2013-09-20

359

In vitro degradation of amyloid material by four proteases in tissue of a patient with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy.  

PubMed

The effects of 4 proteolytic enzymes, alpha-chymotrypsin, bromeline, collagenase, and lysozyme on amyloid tissue sections from a patient with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) were evaluated. Degradation of amyloid fibrils was significant with alpha-chymotrypsin, moderate with bromeline and collagenase, and slight with lysozyme. All of these proteases except collagenase are used as oral mucolytics in humans. The possibility of their clinical usefulness in the treatment or prevention of the development of FAP is discussed. PMID:2837542

Adachi, N; Koh, C S; Tsukada, N; Shoji, S; Yanagisawa, N

1988-04-01

360

The Effects of Degraded Digital Instrumentation and Control Systems on Human-system Interfaces and Operator Performance: HFE Review Guidance and Technical Basis  

SciTech Connect

New and advanced reactors will use integrated digital instrumentation and control (I&C) systems to support operators in their monitoring and control functions. Even though digital systems are typically highly reliable, their potential for degradation or failure could significantly affect operator performance and, consequently, impact plant safety. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) supported this research project to investigate the effects of degraded I&C systems on human performance and plant operations. The objective was to develop human factors engineering (HFE) review guidance addressing the detection and management of degraded digital I&C conditions by plant operators. We reviewed pertinent standards and guidelines, empirical studies, and plant operating experience. In addition, we conducted an evaluation of the potential effects of selected failure modes of the digital feedwater system on human-system interfaces (HSIs) and operator performance. The results indicated that I&C degradations are prevalent in plants employing digital systems and the overall effects on plant behavior can be significant, such as causing a reactor trip or causing equipment to operate unexpectedly. I&C degradations can impact the HSIs used by operators to monitor and control the plant. For example, sensor degradations can make displays difficult to interpret and can sometimes mislead operators by making it appear that a process disturbance has occurred. We used the information obtained as the technical basis upon which to develop HFE review guidance. The guidance addresses the treatment of degraded I&C conditions as part of the design process and the HSI features and functions that support operators to monitor I&C performance and manage I&C degradations when they occur. In addition, we identified topics for future research.

O'Hara, J.M.; W. Gunther, G. Martinez-Guridi

2010-02-26

361

Knockdown of ?IIb by RNA degradation by delivering deoxyoligonucleotides piggybacked with control vivo-morpholinos into zebrafish thrombocytes.  

PubMed

Morpholino and vivo-morpholino gene knockdown methods have been used to study thrombocyte function in zebrafish. However, a large-scale knockdown of the entire zebrafish genome using these technologies to study thrombocyte function is prohibitively expensive. We have developed an inexpensive gene knockdown method, which uses a hybrid of a control vivo-morpholino and a standard antisense oligonucleotide specific for a gene. This hybrid molecule is able to deliver antisense deoxyoligonucleotides into zebrafish thrombocytes because it piggybacks on a control vivo-morpholino. To validate use of this hybrid molecule in gene knockdowns, we targeted the thrombocyte specific ?IIb gene with a hybrid of a control vivo-morpholino and an oligonucleotide antisense to ?IIb mRNA. The use of this piggyback technology resulted in degradation of ?IIb mRNA and led to thrombocyte functional defect. This piggyback method to knockdown genes is inexpensive since one control vivo-morpholino can be used to target many different genes by making many independent gene-specific oligonucleotide hybrids. Thus, this novel piggyback technology can be utilized for cost-effective large-scale knockdowns of genes to study thrombocyte function in zebrafish. PMID:25135204

Sundaramoorthi, Hemalatha; Khandekar, Gauri; Kim, Seongcheol; Jagadeeswaran, Pudur

2015-01-01

362

Controls of soil organic material stability in coastal wetland soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we utilize ramped pyrolysis to identify relative stability differences in bulk soil organic material (SOM) from three wetland types (fresh, brackish, and salt marshes). Wetland soils are responsible for the storage of 500-700 Pg of carbon, globally. Understanding the stability of this carbon is important for predicting its role as source or sink in the global carbon cycle and with various changes in climate. By comparing and relating our ramped pyrolysis stability index to the SOM depth, TOC, composition, and source, we are able to determine which of these factors plays the larger role in controlling its stability. Preliminary results indicate that, of these factors, the source of OM has the most control over SOM stability in these wetland environments, with fresh marsh SOM being more stable than salt and brackish marsh SOM. As fresh marshes are replaced by salt marshes accompanying sea-level rise, our results imply that this will initiate the accumulation of less stable OM in these soils.

Williams, Elizabeth; Rosenheim, Brad

2014-05-01

363

A signalling pathway controlling c-Myc degradation that impacts oncogenic transformation of human cells.  

PubMed

The stability of c-Myc is regulated by multiple Ras effector pathways. Phosphorylation at Ser 62 stabilizes c-Myc, whereas subsequent phosphorylation at Thr 58 is required for its degradation. Here we show that Ser 62 is dephosphorylated by protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) before ubiquitination of c-Myc, and that PP2A activity is regulated by the Pin1 prolyl isomerase. Furthermore, the absence of Pin1 or inhibition of PP2A stabilizes c-Myc. A stable c-Myc(T58A) mutant that cannot bind Pin1 or be dephosphorylated by PP2A replaces SV40 small T antigen in human cell transformation and tumorigenesis assays. Therefore, small T antigen, which inactivates PP2A, exerts its oncogenic potential by preventing dephosphorylation of c-Myc, resulting in c-Myc stabilization. Thus, Ras-dependent signalling cascades ensure transient and self-limiting accumulation of c-Myc, disruption of which contributes to human cell oncogenesis. PMID:15048125

Yeh, Elizabeth; Cunningham, Melissa; Arnold, Hugh; Chasse, Dawn; Monteith, Teresa; Ivaldi, Giovanni; Hahn, William C; Stukenberg, P Todd; Shenolikar, Shirish; Uchida, Takafumi; Counter, Christopher M; Nevins, Joseph R; Means, Anthony R; Sears, Rosalie

2004-04-01

364

Rice APC/CTE controls tillering by mediating the degradation of MONOCULM 1  

PubMed Central

Rice MONOCULM 1 (MOC1) and its orthologues LS/LAS (lateral suppressor in tomato and Arabidopsis) are key promoting factors of shoot branching and tillering in higher plants. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating MOC1/LS/LAS have remained elusive. Here we show that the rice tiller enhancer (te) mutant displays a drastically increased tiller number. We demonstrate that TE encodes a rice homologue of Cdh1, and that TE acts as an activator of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) complex. We show that TE coexpresses with MOC1 in the axil of leaves, where the APC/CTE complex mediates the degradation of MOC1 by the ubiquitin–26S proteasome pathway, and consequently downregulates the expression of the meristem identity gene Oryza sativa homeobox 1, thus repressing axillary meristem initiation and formation. We conclude that besides having a conserved role in regulating cell cycle, APC/CTE has a unique function in regulating the plant-specific postembryonic shoot branching and tillering, which are major determinants of plant architecture and grain yield. PMID:22434195

Lin, Qibing; Wang, Dan; Dong, Hui; Gu, Suhai; Cheng, Zhijun; Gong, Jie; Qin, Ruizhen; Jiang, Ling; Li, Gang; Wang, Jiu Lin; Wu, Fuqing; Guo, Xiuping; Zhang, Xin; Lei, Cailin; Wang, Haiyang; Wan, Jianmin

2012-01-01

365

Efficiency and robustness of some behavior laws in the description of viscoplastic deformation and degradation of solder materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solder materials are critical packaging compounds and due to usually weakest melting temperature among packaging constitutive materials, thus, they are frequently subjected to a multitude of physical phenomena: creep, fatigue and combined hardening effects. The complexity and interaction of such factors must be considered in suitable way in the mechanical behaviour modelling using the appropriate material behaviour laws. The choice

Sabeur MSOLLI; A. Zeanh; O. Dalverny; M. Karama

2010-01-01

366

A Degrading Experience  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners perform an experiment to learn about how different types of marine debris degrade and how weather and sunlight affect the rate of degradation. Learners discover that debris made from natural materials, while biodegradable, can still be considered pollutants and can still harm the marine environment.

Sheavly, Seba; Reigster, Katie

2014-05-28

367

Controlling lipolysis through steric surfactants: new insights on the controlled degradation of submicron emulsions after oral and intravenous administration.  

PubMed

In this work we have investigated how steric surfactants influence the metabolic degradation of emulsions (lipolysis). To do so, we have prepared submicron emulsions stabilized with Pluronic F68, Pluronic F127, Myrj 52 or Myrj 59, four non-ionic surfactants with key differences on their structure. Submicron emulsions have been prepared also with mixtures of these surfactants with different proportions between them. Then, in vitro methods have been applied to analyze the lipolysis of these emulsions, both under duodenal and intravenous conditions, to simulate lipolysis after oral and intravenous administration. Our results show that the properties of the surfactant influence dramatically the lipolysis rates observed both under duodenal and intravenous conditions, e.g., intravenous lipolysis was completely blocked when Pluronic F127 was used, while it was almost complete within 6h when using Myrj 52. The reason for this seems to be the steric hindrance that the surfactant produces around the droplet and at the interface. As a result, we can modify the lipolysis patterns by changing some characteristics of the surfactant, or by varying the proportion between two surfactants in a mixture. These findings may be applied in the development of novel strategies to rationally design submicron emulsions as lipophilic drug carriers. PMID:22209995

Wulff-Pérez, Miguel; de Vicente, Juan; Martín-Rodríguez, Antonio; Gálvez-Ruiz, María J

2012-02-28

368

Effects of Heating on Teflon(Registered Trademark) FEP Thermal Control Material from the Hubble Space Telescope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Metallized Teflon(Registered Trademark) FEP (fluorinated ethylene propylene) thermal control material on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is degrading in the space environment. Teflon(Registered Trademark) FEP thermal control blankets (space-facing FEP) retrieved during the first servicing mission (SM1) were found to be embrittled on solar facing surfaces and contained microscopic cracks. During the second servicing mission (SM2) astronauts noticed that the FEP outer layer of the multi-layer insulation (MLI) covering the telescope was cracked in many locations around the telescope. Large cracks were observed on the light shield, forward shell and equipment bays. A tightly curled piece of cracked FEP from the light shield was retrieved during SM2 and was severely embrittled, as witnessed by ground testing. A Failure Review Board (FRB) was organized to determine the mechanism causing the MLI degradation. Density, x-ray crystallinity and solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses of FEP retrieved during SM1 were inconsistent with results of FEP retrieved during SM2. Because the retrieved SM2 material curled while in space, it experienced a higher temperature extreme during thermal cycling, estimated at 200 C, than the SM1 material, estimated at 50 C. An investigation on the effects of heating pristine and FEP exposed on HST was therefore conducted. Samples of pristine. SM1, and SM2 FEP were heated to 200 C and evaluated for changes in density and morphology. Elevated temperature exposure was found to have a major impact on the density of the retrieved materials. Characterization of polymer morphology of as-received and heated FEP samples by NMR provided results that were consistent with the density results. These findings have provided insight to the damage mechanisms of FEP in the space environment.

deGroh, Kim; Gaier, James R.; Hall, Rachelle L.; Norris, Mary Jo; Espe, Matthew P.; Cato, Daveen R.

1999-01-01

369

10 CFR 74.51 - Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...accounting for strategic special nuclear material. (a) General performance...kilograms of strategic special nuclear material (SSNM) and to use such material at any site, other than a nuclear reactor licensed pursuant to...

2014-01-01

370

10 CFR 74.51 - Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...accounting for strategic special nuclear material. (a) General performance...kilograms of strategic special nuclear material (SSNM) and to use such material at any site, other than a nuclear reactor licensed pursuant to...

2010-01-01

371

10 CFR 74.51 - Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...accounting for strategic special nuclear material. (a) General performance...kilograms of strategic special nuclear material (SSNM) and to use such material at any site, other than a nuclear reactor licensed pursuant to...

2011-01-01

372

10 CFR 74.51 - Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...accounting for strategic special nuclear material. (a) General performance...kilograms of strategic special nuclear material (SSNM) and to use such material at any site, other than a nuclear reactor licensed pursuant to...

2012-01-01

373

10 CFR 74.51 - Nuclear material control and accounting for strategic special nuclear material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...accounting for strategic special nuclear material. (a) General performance...kilograms of strategic special nuclear material (SSNM) and to use such material at any site, other than a nuclear reactor licensed pursuant to...

2013-01-01

374

Control of the molecular degradation of hyaluronic acid hydrogels for tissue augmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel protocol to control the molecular deg- radation of hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogels was success- fully developed for tissue augmentation applications. HA has a different conformational structure in water and or- ganic solvent, and the carboxyl group of HA is known to be the recognition site of hyaluronidase and HA receptors. Based on these findings, HA was chemically modified

Eun Ju Oh; Ge Jiang; Il Hwan Cho; Sei Kwang Hahn

2008-01-01

375

Prospects for Inhibition of Lignin Degrading Enzymes to Control Ganoderma White Rot of Oil Palm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil palm (OP) is prone to a rot by the fungus Ganoderma which may be capable of being controlled by enzyme inhibitors. Palm oil is used in the production of vegetable oil for foods, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and, most recently, biodiesel. However, the fundamental process of the disease as \\

Russell R. M. Paterson; Sariah Meon; M. A. Zainal Abidina; N. Limab

376

Tubular structured hierarchical mesoporous titania material derived from natural cellulosic substances and application as photocatalyst for degradation of methylene blue  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: Bio-inspired, tubular structured hierarchical mesoporous titania material with high photocatalytic activity under UV light was fabricated employing natural cellulosic substance (cotton) as hard template and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant as soft template using a one-pot sol-gel method. Highlights: {yields} Tubular structured mesoporous titania material was fabricated by sol-gel method. {yields} The titania material faithfully recorded the hierarchical structure of the template substrate (cotton). {yields} The titania material exhibited high photocatalytic activity in decomposition of methylene blue. -- Abstract: Bio-inspired, tubular structured hierarchical mesoporous titania material was designed and fabricated employing natural cellulosic substance (cotton) as hard template and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) surfactant as soft template by one-pot sol-gel method. The tubular structured hierarchical mesoporous titania material processes large specific surface area (40.23 m{sup 2}/g) and shows high photocatalytic activity in the photodegradation of methylene blue under UV light irradiation.

Huang, Haiqing [Key Laboratory of Radioactive Geology and Exploration Technology Fundamental Science for National Defense, East China Institute of Technology, Fuzhou, Jiangxi 344000 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Radioactive Geology and Exploration Technology Fundamental Science for National Defense, East China Institute of Technology, Fuzhou, Jiangxi 344000 (China); Liu, Xiaoyan [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310027 (China)] [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310027 (China); Huang, Jianguo, E-mail: jghuang@zju.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310027 (China)] [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310027 (China)

2011-11-15

377

A multichamber system for analyzing the outgassing, deposition, and associated optical degradation properties of materials in a vacuum.  

PubMed

We report on the camera materials test chamber, a multivessel apparatus that analyzes the outgassing consequences of candidate materials for use in the vacuum cryostat of a new telescope camera. The system measures the outgassing products and rates of samples of materials at different temperatures and collects films of outgassing products to measure the effects on light transmission in six optical bands. The design of the apparatus minimizes potential measurement errors introduced by background contamination. PMID:20192512

Singal, Jack; Schindler, Rafe; Chang, Chihway; Czodrowski, Patrick; Kim, Peter

2010-02-01

378

Surface modification and controlled assembly of molecular materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic materials were prepared to gain an understanding of how to control the surface and bulk properties of molecular materials. Surfaces were modified by growing thin films of electronically relevant phenylene vinylene hyperbranched polymers from silicon using the Heck reaction with triiodobenzene and divinylbenzene monomers. Hyperbranched polymers enabled continued film growth regardless of random chain termination. Films were grown by reacting one monomer with the surface at a time and washing the unreacted monomer away. Films grown from patterned surfaces indicated monomers reacted with chemisorbed initiator molecules on the surface and did not physisorb onto unpatterned regions. Films were characterized using XPS, ellipsometry, SEM, and AFM. Bulk organization of molecular materials was studied using oligomers and single crystals. A series of oligo(m-phenylene ethynylene)s having triethylene glycol ester-linked side chains were studied with regard to their supramolecular organization in the solid-state. Small angle X-ray diffraction indicated that the oligomers with a chain length of eight or more monomers organized longitudinally with a d-spacing linearly dependent on the chain length, suggestive of lamellar packing. This is in contrast to the helical conformation observed in acetonitrile. Single crystal molecular organization was investigated using coordination network crystals. Crystals that had molecules arranged as chains, such as catena-poly[dicyanobenzene-silver(I)]-triflate, were exposed to inhibitors specifically designed to bind at the growing surface. It was found that inhibitors had qualitative effects on the morphology and on the surface composition of the crystals and that the surface and bulk properties had potential to be modified independently. Copper-pyridine crystals were studied to determine how the steric bulk on pyridine influenced the pyridine coordination to copper. It was found that as the steric bulk of the pyridine increased, the probability that all the copper coordination sites were occupied with pyridine decreased, and that solvent molecules and ancillary ligands also coordinated to copper. A single crystal of 4'-undecyloxy-4-biphenyl carbonitrile revealed that the molecules in the crystalline form had similar organization as the molecules in the smectic phase.

Prest, Peggy-Jean

1999-12-01

379

Evaluation of Low Earth Orbit Environmental Effects on International Space Station Thermal Control Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Samples of International Space Station (ISS) thermal control coatings were exposed to simulated low Earth orbit (LEO) environmental conditions to determine effects on optical properties. In one test, samples of the white paint coating Z-93P were coated with outgassed products from Tefzel(R) (ethylene tetrafluoroethylene copolymer) power cable insulation as-may occur on ISS. These samples were then exposed, along with an uncontaminated Z-93P witness sample, to vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation to determine solar absorptance degradation. The Z-93P samples coated with Tefzel(R) outgassing products experienced greater increases in solar absorptance than witness samples not coated with Tefzel(R) outgassing products. In another test, samples of second surface silvered Teflon(R) FEP (fluorinated ethylene propylene), SiO. (where x=2)-coated silvered Teflon(R) FEP, and Z-93P witness samples were exposed to the combined environments of atomic oxygen and VLTV radiation to determine optical properties changes due to these simulated ISS environmental effects. This test verified the durability of these materials in the absence of contaminants.

Dever, Joyce A.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Hasegawa, Mark M.; Reed, Charles K.

1998-01-01

380

Controlling pesticide release via structuring agropolymer and nanoclays based materials.  

PubMed

The potential use of nanoclays for modulating transfer properties of active agents in bio-sourced polymers was explored. For this purpose, new pesticide formulations were designed by combining wheat gluten, ethofumesate (model pesticide) and three montmorillonites (MMT) using a bi-vis extrusion process. Controlled release properties, evaluated through release experiments in water, were discussed in relation to the material formulations and their resulting structure. Partition coefficients were calculated from experimental data and diffusivity values were identified with a Fick's second law mechanistic model. The effect of temperature on release pattern was also evaluated and the activation energy of diffusion was determined. Ethofumesate release was slowed down for all wheat gluten based-formulations as compared to the commercial product. This slow release effect was increased in the presence of hydrophobic MMTs, due to a higher affinity for ethofumesate than for wheat gluten. Contrarily, hydrophilic MMT, displaying a greater affinity for wheat gluten than for ethofumesate seemed ineffective to slow down its release despite the tortuous pathway achieved through a well-exfoliated structure. To conclude, the release mechanisms would be rather governed by pesticide/MMT interactions than MMT/polymer matrix in the case of a hydrophobic pesticide such as ethofumesate and a hydrophilic matrix such as wheat gluten. PMID:22230752

Chevillard, Anne; Angellier-Coussy, Hélène; Guillard, Valérie; Gontard, Nathalie; Gastaldi, Emmanuelle

2012-02-29

381

ABA biosynthesis and degradation contributing to ABA homeostasis during barley seed development under control and terminal drought-stress conditions.  

PubMed

Drought is one of the most severe environmental stress factors limiting crop yield especially when occurring during anthesis and seed filling. This terminal drought is characterized by an excess production of the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) which plays an important role during seed development and dormancy. All the genes putatively involved in ABA biosynthesis and inactivation in barley were identified and their expression studied during plant ontogeny under standard and drought-stress conditions to learn more about ABA homeostasis and the possible mode of cross-talk between source and sink tissues. Out of 41 genes related to ABA biosynthesis and inactivation 19 were found to be differentially regulated under drought stress in both flag leaves and developing seed during seed filling. Transcripts of plastid-located enzymes are regulated similarly in flag leaf and seed under terminal drought whereas transcripts of cytosolic enzymes are differentially regulated in the two tissues. Detailed information on the expression of defined gene family members is supplemented by measurements of ABA and its degradation and conjugation products, respectively. Under drought stress, flag leaves in particular contain high concentrations of both ABA and the ABA degradation products phaseic acid (PA) and diphaseic acid (DPA); whereas, in seeds, besides ABA, DPA was mainly found. The measurements also revealed a positive correlation between ABA level and starch content in developing seeds for the following reasons: (i) genes of the ABA controlled SnRK2.6 and RCAR/PP2C-mediated signal transduction pathway to the ABF transcription factor HvABI5 are activated in the developing grain under drought, (ii) novel ABA- and dehydration-responsive cis-elements have been found in the promoters of key genes of starch biosynthesis (HvSUS1, HvAGP-L1) and degradation (HvBAM1) and these transcripts/activity are prominently induced in developing seeds during 12 and 16 DAF, (iii) spraying of fluridone (an ABA biosynthesis inhibitor) to drought-stressed plants results in severely impaired starch content and thousand grain weight of mature seeds. PMID:21289079

Seiler, Christiane; Harshavardhan, Vokkaliga Thammegowda; Rajesh, Kalladan; Reddy, Palakolanu Sudhakar; Strickert, Marc; Rolletschek, Hardy; Scholz, Uwe; Wobus, Ulrich; Sreenivasulu, Nese

2011-05-01

382

Performance of thermal control tape in the protection of composite materials to space environmental exposure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal control tape flown on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) experiment A0171 has shown to be effective in protecting epoxy fiberglass composites from atomic oxygen and ultraviolet degradation. The tape adhesive performed well. The aluminum, however, appeared to have become embrittled by the 5.8 years of space radiation exposure.

Kamenetzky, R. R.; Whitaker, A. F.

1992-01-01

383

Tags and seals for controling nuclear materials, Arms control and nonproliferation technologies. Second quarter 1993  

SciTech Connect

This issue of Arms Control and Nonproliferation Technologies summarizes demonstrations and addresses related topics. The first article, ``Basic Nuclear Material Control and Accountability Concepts as Might be Applied to the Uranium from the US-Russian HEU Purchase,`` describes safeguards sybsystems necessary for effective nuclear material safeguards. It also presents a general discussion on HEU-to-low-enrichment uranium (LEU) commingling processes and suggests applicable key measurement points. The second article, ``A Framework for Evaluating Tamper-Indicating-Device Technologies (TIDs),`` describes their uses, proper selection, and evaluation. The final three articles discuss the tags and seals applications and general characteristics of several nuclear material containers: the Type 30B uranium hexafluoride container, the AT-400R container, and the DOT Specification 6M container for SNM. Finally, the Appendix displays short descriptions and illustrations of seven tags and seals, including: the E-cup and wire seal, the python seal, the secure loop inspectable tag/seal (SLITS), bolt-and-loop type electronic identification devices, and the shrink-wrap seal.

Staehle, G; Talaber, C; Stull, S; Moulthrop, P [eds.

1993-12-31

384

Controllable electrodeposition of ZnO nanorod arrays on flexible stainless steel mesh substrate for photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Well-aligned single-crystalline ZnO nanorod arrays (ZNRAs) were prepared on flexible stainless steel mesh (SSM) substrate in large-scale by using a direct electrodeposition method. The effects of electrochemical parameters, such as applied potential, applied nucleation potential time, substrate pretreatment, electrodeposition duration and times, on the orientation, morphology and density of ZNRAs were systematically studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and the selected area electron diffraction (SAED). The results showed that ZNRAs on SSM substrate with [0 0 1] preferred orientation and well crystallization were obtained by controlling the applied potential in the range of -0.9 to -1.1 V. The density of ZNRAs could be increased obviously by applying a nucleation potential (-1.3 V for more than 10 s before deposition) or by means of substrate pretreatment (the SSM immersed in zinc acetate colloid for more than 10 min before deposition), meanwhile, the deposited ZNRAs also had small average diameter (<46 ± 4 nm), narrow size distribution and good orientation. In addition, it was also found that the average diameter of ZNRAs could be increased from 89 to 201 ± 5 nm by extending the electrodeposition duration from 1800 to 7200 s, and the length of rods was from 0.8 to 2.2 ± 0.1 ?m when the times of the electrodeposition from one to six times. Furthermore, the band gap energy (Eg) of as-prepared ZNTAs was not closely related to the electrodeposition times (only changed from 3.30 to 3.32 eV). The ZNRAs prepared with more electrodeposition times showed enhanced photocatalytic performance under the UV-lamp for degradation of Rhodamine B. The degradation efficiency of ZNRAs improved from 89.4% to 98.3% with the deposition times from one to six times.

Lu, Hui; Zhang, Mei; Guo, Min

2014-10-01

385

Radiative property degradation of water impinging on thermally-controlled surfaces under space conditions.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Review of the results of an investigation aimed at determining experimentally the directional monochromatic reflectance changes caused under high-vacuum space conditions by a water spray impinging on thermally controlled surfaces consisting of three paint specimens (Z93, S13G, and 92-007) and an aluminum foil. The first two paints and the aluminum foil suffered considerable physical damage, but only small changes resulted in the reflectance of the paints while the reflectance of the aluminum foil decreased with increase in exposure time to the water jet. Only the 92-007 Dow Corning paint retained the same physical and reflective characteristics.

Maples, D.; Spiller, M. H.; Maples, G.

1973-01-01

386

Degradation of postural control system as a consequence of Parkinson's disease and ageing.  

PubMed

In this study we have shown how Parkinson's disease and ageing affect the postural control system. Our investigation of that system has involved analysis of quiet-standing center of pressure (COP) trajectories. Using the method derived from Langevin equation, we have found disease-specific and age-specific changes in the dynamics of the COP. These findings were obtained from a comparison of the diffusion matrix, the friction coefficient and the matrix of the fluctuation strength for healthy young, healthy elderly and parkinsonian (elderly) subjects under eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions. Especially the analysis of the friction coefficient and the matrix of the fluctuation strength have allowed the more detailed study of the postural control system of the parkinsonian and elderly subjects. We have found that the healthy elderly as well as parkinsonian subjects exhibit larger level of the muscular stochastic activity, compared to the young subjects. Furthermore, closure their eyes causes further increment of that activity. We have also shown that for the healthy elderly subjects a compensating mechanism, which can be described by the friction coefficient, acts under eyes-closed conditions, whereas for parkinsonian subjects this mechanism was not observed. Thus, the increase of the muscular activity is an age-specific indicator, whereas the absence of the compensation of that increase is a disease-specific indicator. PMID:15721224

Bosek, Maciej; Grzegorzewski, Bronis?aw; Kowalczyk, Andrzej; Lubi?ski, Ignacy

2005-03-16

387

Intestinal uptake of macromolecules. Differences in distribution and degradation of protein antigen in control and immunised rats.  

PubMed Central

The present study examined intraluminal events in the in vivo processing of a protein antigen by the intestine of normal and orally immunised rats. One hour after the administration of 125I-bovine serum albumin (125I-BSA) and unlabelled BSA by gavage, the majority of the radioactivity was found in the distal small intestine of control and immunised rats but there was a difference in the distribution of radioactivity. In contrast with controls, immunised rats retained a lesser percentage of radioactivity in the proximal small intestine and a greater percentage of radioactivity in the distal small intestine. Radioactive substances present in intestinal rinse fluids and mucosal extracts were characterised by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), density gradient ultracentrifugation, and by immunochemical methods. Rinse fluids and mucosal extracts from immunised rats fed 125I-BSA by gavage contained high molecular weight components with characteristics of antigen-antibody complexes. Rinse fluids and extracts of normal rats contained more intact BSA and less fragments of BSA than did rinse fluids and extracts from immunised animals. These findings suggest that oral immunisation alters the distribution of antigen administered into the gut and that immunisation enhances the intraluminal degradation of antigen. PMID:7033055

Pang, K Y; Walker, W A; Bloch, K J

1981-01-01

388

Long-term ageing and materials degradation of hybrid mica compressive seals for solid oxide fuel cells  

SciTech Connect

Hybrid phlogopite mica seals with silver interlayers were evaluated in long term isothermal ageing tests in a dual environment consisting of dilute hydrogen vs. air at 800 degrees C. High-temperature leak tests with helium showed very stable leakage of 0.01-0.02 sccm/cm for 28366 hrs under a low applied compressive stress of 82 kPa (12 psi). Post-mortem SEM and EDS analyses of the mica showed minimum degradation in terms of changes in microstructure and chemical composition, although there appeared to be some Ag migration and segregation at interstices between mica flakes. Fluorine was also found to be released from mica. Overall, the low, constant leakage through the hybrid mica/Ag seals clearly demonstrated a very promising candidate for SOFC sealing.

Chou, Y. S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

2009-06-15

389

Microbial Degradation of Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane  

PubMed Central

The microbial degradation of low-molecular-weight polydimethylsiloxanes was investigated through laboratory experiments. Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane was found to be biodegraded under anaerobic conditions in composted sewage sludge, as monitored by the occurrence of the main polydimethylsiloxane degradation product, dimethylsilanediol, compared to that found in experiments with sterilized control samples. PMID:10224038

Grümping, R.; Michalke, K.; Hirner, A. V.; Hensel, R.

1999-01-01

390

Application of -Synthesis based H-Control for Adaptive Optics in Laser Material Processing  

E-print Network

, adaptive optics (short AO) are considered appropriate means for a real-time compensation of the disApplication of µ-Synthesis based H-Control for Adaptive Optics in Laser Material Processing Steffen-- adaptive optics, robust control, H-control, material processing, µ-synthesis I. INTRODUCTION As the costs

Knobloch,Jürgen

391

Stability control of valerian ground material and extracts: a new HPLC-method for the routine quantification of valerenic acids and lignans.  

PubMed

A new HPLC-method for the separation of medium polar and nonpolar compounds in preparations of Valeriana officinalis was established for stability control. Powdered valerian root and a commercial ethanolic valerian extract were investigated for apparent differences in stability behaviour. Storage conditions were chosen according to the ICH-guidelines. Changes in composition of valerenic acids and lignans were observed depending on storage conditions and packaging materials. Hydroxyvalerenic acid, pinoresinol and hydroxypinoresinol were identified as degradation products in Valerian root, especially during accelerated testing. Ethanolic extracts appeared not to be as sensitive for chemical degradation under climatic influences compared to the crude plant material, and showed no increase in the amounts of lignan-aglyka. In comparison, extracts showed high sensitivity on changes of physical properties like loss on drying and viscosity. PMID:15248459

Goppel, M; Franz, G

2004-06-01

392

Adaptive neural network controller for the flush material Belt Weigh Feeder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flush material belt weigh feeder (BWF) is used in many material handling plants. The stability and the performance of the layer control system will affect the quality of the production. In general, the behavior of the flush material on the BWF is non-linear, time-lag, and disturbance character. The layer of the flush material on the belt is hard to

Tsung-Ying Sun; Ming-Chin Yang; Shang-Jeng Tsai; Jyun-Sian He

2009-01-01

393

An improved flush material belt weigh feeder system via fuzzy logic controller and adaptive neural networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Flush Material Belt Weigh Feeder (FMBWF) has used in many material handling plants. The stability and the performance of the layer control system will affect the quality of the production. In general, the behavior of the flush material on the BWF is non-linear, time-lag, and disturbance character. The layer of the flush material on the belt is hard to

Tsung-Ying Sun; Ming-Chin Yang; Shang-Jeng Tsai; Jyun-Sian He

2009-01-01

394

Survey of degradation modes of candidate materials for high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers; Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three iron- to nickel-based austenitic alloys and three copper-based alloys are being considered as candidate materials for the fabrication of high-level radioactive-waste disposal containers. The austenitic alloys are Types 304L and 316L stainless steels and the high-nickel material Alloy 825. The copper-based alloys are CDA 102 (oxygen-free copper), CDA 613 (Cu-7Al), and CDA 715 (Cu-30Ni). Waste in the forms of

J. C. Farmer; R. D. McCright; J. N. Kass

1988-01-01

395

Radiation Induced Degradation of the White Thermal Control Paints Z-93 and Z-93P  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper details a comparison analysis of the zinc oxide pigmented white thermal control paints Z-93 and Z-93P. Both paints were simultaneously exposed to combined space environmental effects and analyzed using an in-vacuo reflectance technique. The dose applied to the paints was approximately equivalent to 5 years in a geosynchronous orbit. This comparison analysis showed that Z-93P is an acceptable substitute for Z-93. Irradiated samples of Z-93 and Z-93P were subjected to additional exposures of ultraviolet (UV) radiation and analyzed using the in-vacuo reflectance technique to investigate UV activated reflectance recovery. Both samples showed minimal UV activated reflectance recovery after an additional 190 equivalent sun hour (ESH) exposure. Reflectance response utilizing nitrogen as a repressurizing gas instead of air was also investigated. This investigation found the rates of reflectance recovery when repressurized with nitrogen are slower than when repressurized with air.

Edwards, D. L.; Zwiener, J. M.; Wertz, G. E.; Vaughn, J. A.; Kamenetzky, R. R.; Finckenor, M. M.; Meshishnek, M. J.

1996-01-01

396

Biochemical Control of Fungal Biomass and Enzyme Production During Native Hawaiian Litter Degradation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbial growth and enzyme production during decomposition is controlled by the availability of carbon substrates, essential elements, and the ratios of these (such as lignin:N). We manipulated carbon:nutrient stoichiometry during decomposition using a natural fertility gradient in Hawaii and litter of varying initial biochemistry. We collected freshly senesced litter of seven biochemically distinct species from three sites offering differing levels of N, P, cations, and 15N , but similar yearly rainfall and temperature patterns. Litter types were decomposed at both the sites they were collected, and at the other site(s) that species was found. Litter was collected at multiple time points, and after one year of decomposition, calculated K constants varied an order of magnitude, from 0.276 to 2.76. Decomposition rates varied significantly with both litter site of origin and deployment, except at the oldest, P-limited site, where litter site of origin was not significantly correlated with decomposition within species. As microbial exocellular enzymes provide the catalyst for the breakdown of organic molecules including phenols, cellulose, and cutin, we assayed polyphenol oxidase, cellobiohydrolase, cutinase, chitinase, and lignin peroxidase to evaluate the breakdown sequence of different litter types. To measure the fungal biomass accumulating during decomposition, we extracted (22E)-Ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3beta- ol (ergosterol) on a subset of samples. The production of particular exocellular enzymes on litter species responded distinctly to origin and decomposition sites: after six months, chitinase and cellobiohydrolase were significantly affected by origin site, whereas polyphenol oxidase activity was controlled by deployment site. We conclude that site characteristics can alter the interaction between litter carbon:nutrient ratios and decomposition rate, mediated through microbial biomass and enzyme production.

Amatangelo, K. L.; Cordova, T. P.; Vitousek, P. M.

2007-12-01

397

36 CFR 401.5 - Control and supervision of materials, design, and building.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...supervision of materials, design, and building. 401...supervision of materials, design, and building. The Commission controls the design and prescribes regulations...in a foreign country or political division of the...

2010-07-01

398

Insights Developed Into the Damage Mechanism of Teflon FEP Thermal Control Material on the Hubble Space Telescope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Metalized Teflon FEP (DuPont; fluorinated ethylene propylene) thermal control material on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has been found to degrade in the space environment. Teflon FEP thermal control blankets retrieved during the first servicing mission were found to be embrittled on solar-facing surfaces and to contain microscopic cracks (the FEP surface is exposed to the space environment). During the second servicing mission, astronauts noticed that the FEP outer layer of the multilayer insulation blanketing covering the telescope was cracked in many locations. Large cracks were observed on the light shield, forward shell, and equipment bays. A tightly curled piece of cracked FEP from the light shield was retrieved during the second mission. This piece was severely embrittled, as witnessed by ground testing. A Failure Review Board was organized by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center to determine the mechanism causing the multilayer insulation degradation. This board included members of the Electro-Physics Branch of the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field. Density measurements of the retrieved materials obtained under the review board's investigations indicated that FEP from the first servicing mission was essentially unchanged from pristine FEP but that the second servicing mission FEP had increased in density in comparison to pristine FEP (ref. 1). The results were consistent with crystallinity measurements taken using x-ray diffraction and with results from solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance tests (see the table and ref. 1). Because the second servicing mission FEP was embrittled and its density and crystallinity had increased in comparison to pristine FEP, board researchers expected that the first servicing mission FEP, which was also embrittled, would also have increased in crystallinity and density, but it did not. Because the retrieved second servicing mission material curled while in space, it experienced a higher temperature extreme during thermal cycling (estimated at 200 C) than the first servicing mission material (estimated at 50 C). Therefore, Glenn initiated and conducted an investigation of the effects of heating pristine FEP and FEP that had been exposed on the Hubble Space Telescope. Samples of pristine and first and second servicing mission FEP were heated to 200 C and evaluated for changes in density and morphology. We hoped that the results would help explain why FEP degrades in the Hubble Space Telescope space environment.

deGroh, Kim K.; Gaier, James R.; Hall, Rachelle L.; Norris, mary Jo; Espe, Matthew P.; Cato, Daveen R.

2000-01-01

399

Mechanisms of polymer degradation and erosion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most important features of the degradation and erosion of degradable polymers in vitro are discussed. Parameters of chemical degradation, which is the scission of the polymer backbone, are described such as the type of polymer bond, pH and copolymer composition. Examples are given how these parameters can be used to control degradation rates. Degradation leads finally to polymer erosion,

Achim Göpferich

1996-01-01

400

Water Chemistry Control System for Recovery of Damaged and Degraded Spent Fuel  

SciTech Connect

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the government of Serbia have led the project cosponsored by the U.S, Russia, European Commission, and others to repackage and repatriate approximately 8000 spent fuel elements from the RA reactor fuel storage basins at the VIN?A Institute of Nuclear Sciences to Russia for reprocessing. The repackaging and transportation activities were implemented by a Russian consortium which includes the Sosny Company, Tekhsnabeksport (TENEX) and Mayak Production Association. High activity of the water of the fuel storage basin posed serious risk and challenges to the fuel removal from storage containers and repackaging for transportation. The risk centered on personnel exposure, even above the basin water, due to the high water activity levels caused by Cs-137 leached from fuel elements with failed cladding. A team of engineers from the U.S. DOE-NNSA's Global Threat Reduction Initiative, the Vinca Institute, and the IAEA performed the design, development, and deployment of a compact underwater water chemistry control system (WCCS) to remove the Cs-137 from the basin water and enable personnel safety above the basin water for repackaging operations. Key elements of the WCCS system included filters, multiple columns containing an inorganic sorbent, submersible pumps and flow meters. All system components were designed to be remotely serviceable and replaceable. The system was assembled and successfully deployed at the Vinca basin to support the fuel removal and repackaging activities. Following the successful operations, the Cs-137 is now safely contained and consolidated on the zeolite sorbent used in the columns of the WCCS, and the fuel has been removed from the basins. This paper reviews the functional requirements, design, and deployment of the WCCS.

Sindelar, R.; Fisher, D.; Thomas, J.

2011-02-18

401

Implementation of Control Measures for Radioactive Waste Packages with Respect to the Materials Composition - 12365  

SciTech Connect

In addition to the radiological characterization and control measures the materials composition has to be described and respective control measures need to be implemented. The approach to verify the materials composition depends on the status of the waste: - During conditioning of raw waste the control of the materials composition has to be taken into account. - For already conditioned waste a retrospective qualification of the process might be possible. - If retrospective process qualification is not possible, legacy waste can be qualified by spot checking according to the materials composition requirements The integration of the control of the material composition in the quality control system for radioactive waste is discussed and examples of control measures are given. With the materials-list and the packaging-list the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) provides an appropriate tool to describe the materials composition of radioactive waste packages. The control measures with respect to the materials composition integrate well in the established quality control framework for radioactive waste. The system is flexible enough to deal with waste products of different qualities: raw waste, qualified conditioned waste or legacy waste. Control measures to verify the materials composition can be accomplished with minimal radiation exposure and without undue burden on the waste producers and conditioners. (authors)

Steyer, S.; Kugel, K. [Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS), Salzgitter (Germany); Brennecke, P. [Braunschweig (Germany); Boetsch, W.; Gruendler, D.; Haider, C. [ISTec, Cologne (Germany)

2012-07-01

402

PEM Degradation Investigation Final Technical Report  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this paper are: (1) Develop a system capable of measuring current and voltage performance for each membrane in a Polymer Electrolyte Membranes (PEM) fuel cell stack and record the performance of each individual cell; (2) Develop a single cell PEM FC to allow in situ synchrotron x-ray measurements of the cell in operation and to perform spatially resolved x-ray measurements on fuel cell elements before and after degradation; and (3) Perform initial magnetic resonance microimaging experiments on membrane materials. The Montana State University PEM Membrane Degradation program is geared towards determining how and why membranes in fuel cells degrade and fail. By monitoring every individual membrane in a fuel cell 2000 times/sec while the cell is subjected to real-world type use, we hope to: (1) cause the types of degradation users see, but in a controlled environment; (2) determine an electrical signature that will identify what causes failure, or at least warns of impending failure; (3) allows us to perform advanced x-ray and MRI characterization of the degraded membranes to provide information that may result in improvements of the membrane material; and (4) perhaps allow design of electronic control systems that will prevent fuel cells from operating under conditions where damage is likely to occur.

Dan Stevenson; Lee H Spangler

2007-11-02

403

Effect of a CdO coating on the degradation of a ZnS thin film phosphor material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A ZnS:Cu,Au,Al phosphor film coated with CdO was subjected to an electron beam with a beam energy and a current density of 2 keV and 16.1 mA/cm 2, respectively, in an O 2 ambient of 5×10 -7 Torr. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and cathodoluminescence (CL), both excited by the same electron beam were used to monitor changes in surface composition and luminous intensity during electron bombardment. Both Cd and S were depleted from the surface after adventitious C was removed from the surface. The surface reactions were electron beam-stimulated. CdO was reduced by an electron beam-assisted mechanism in the presence of non-reducible ZnO, as Zn from the underlying ZnS layer emerged to the surface, in the CdO-ZnO system. The CL intensity degradation of the coated film showed a dependence on the surface composition. The intensity remained constant until Cd was reduced on the surface before a slight decrease was observed. The effect of the CdO capping layer on the intensity of the phosphor was evident until CdO eventually disintegrated.

Hillie, K. T.; Basson, S. S.; Swart, H. C.

2002-02-01

404

Controlling Material Properties in Physical Models of Sounding Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contact sounds can provide information for material per- ception, and according to previous studies decay seems to be one of the most important cues. This information can be used to tune a physical model to represent various materials. This work deals with a specific class of contact sounds, i.e. collision sounds. A hammer-resonator physical model is de- veloped, and subjective

Federico Avanzini; Davide Rocchesso

2001-01-01

405

Framework for a flexible, real-time controller for automated material transport systems  

E-print Network

in nature and can be used to implement different strategies for dispatching, planning and scheduling without having to rebuild the entire controller. Therefore, the development time and cost of creating a new material transport controller is significantly...

Edlabadkar, Abhay

1995-01-01

406

Structural control in the synthesis of inorganic porous materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mesoporous (2.0--50.0 nm pore diameter) and macroporous (50.0 nm on up) materials have been the basis of my studies. These materials, for many years, possessed large pore size distributions. Recently, however, it has been possible to synthesize both mesoporous and macroporous materials that possess highly ordered uniform pores throughout the material. Workers at Mobil Corporation in 1992 discovered a hexagonally arrayed mesoporous material, designated MCM-41, which exhibited uniform pores ranging from 2.0--10.0 nm in diameter. In my work MCM-41 was used as a host for the incorporation of meso-tetrakis(5-trimethylammoniumpentyl)porphyrin (TMAP-Cl) and as a model for the synthesis of mesoporous alumino- and galloaluminophosphates which were created using cluster precursors of the type MO4Al 12(OH)24(H2O)12 7+, M = Al or Ga. Macroporous materials with uniform pore sizes have been synthesized by our group with frameworks consisting of a variety of metal oxides, metals, organosilanes, aluminophosphates and bimodal pores. These materials are synthesized from the addition of metal precursors to preordered polystyrene spheres. Removal of the spheres results in the formation of macropores with highly uniform pores extending microns in length. Porous materials with uniform and adjustable pore sizes in the mesoporous and macroporous size regimes offer distinct advantages over non-ordered materials for numerous reasons. First, catalysis reactions that are based on the ability of the porous materials to impose size and shape restrictions on the substrate are of considerable interest in the petroleum and petrochemical industries. As pore diameters increase larger molecules can be incorporated into the pores, i.e., biological molecules, dyes, etc. For the macroporous materials synthesized by our group it has been envisioned that these structures may not only be used for catalysis because of increased efficiencies of flow but for more advanced applications, e.g., photonic crystals, porous electrodes, electrochemical capacitors, etc. One of the more interesting macroporous materials takes advantage of having silicalite as the framework. This bimodal pore material may find use as an acid catalyst as aluminum is doped into the framework.

Holland, Brian Thomas

407

Novel Na2Mo4O13/?-MoO3 hybrid material as highly efficient CWAO catalyst for dye degradation at ambient conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a novel hybrid material Na2Mo4O13/?-MoO3 as highly efficient catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) catalyst, which showed the highest ever activity at room temperature and atmosphere pressure for the degradation of cationic red GTL. SEM and TEM analyses indicated that this hybrid catalyst has bamboo-shaped nanofiber morphology. In view of practical applications, the influence of some key parameters including operation temperature, catalyst calcination temperature, and the volume of dye wastewater have been optimized. The mechanism for the superior catalytic performance was investigated. XRD, XPS, and ESR suggested the Na2Mo4O13/?-MoO3 hybrid catalyst possesses more O2- ions in the oxygen deficient regions than neat ?-MoO3, promoting the formation of active .OH radicals and resulting in a higher activity. Considering the facile preparation and its superior activity, this novel catalyst is promising for practical dye wastewater treatment.

Zhang, Zhang; Yang, Ruoyan; Gao, Yanshan; Zhao, Yufei; Wang, Junyang; Huang, Liang; Guo, Jiang; Zhou, Tuantuan; Lu, Peng; Guo, Zhanhu; Wang, Qiang

2014-10-01

408

Inter-method differences and commutability of control materials for HbA2 measurement.  

PubMed

The intermethod variability of control materials and patient blood samples for the measurement of hemoglobin A2 (HbA2) were compared. A set of 54 blood samples and 10 control materials were analyzed in duplicate by HPLC and microcolumn methods. For each set of methods the distances of the materials from the regression line of patient blood results (expressed as normalized residuals) were calculated. Four out of ten controls had normalized residuals exceeding three standard deviations from the regression line. Moreover, total Hb and Hb derivatives analysis proved that only a minority of the controls could be considered similar to patients' blood samples. Intermethod calibration performed "a posteriori" by the two best performing control materials improved intermethod variability among all the five tested methods. We conclude that the use of high resolution HPLC methods together with appropriate commutable control materials allows for better harmonization of results in the field of diagnosis of hemoglobin disorders in research and clinical practice. PMID:11140635

Mosca, A; Paleari, R; Scimè-Degani, V; Leone, L; Leone, D; Ivaldi, G

2000-10-01

409

Localized corrosion of container materials under potentiodynamic and potentiostatic controls  

SciTech Connect

Potentiodynamic and potentiostatic polarization experiments were performed on ten candidate waste package container materials to evaluate their pitting tendency at ambient and elevated temperatures in aqueous environments relevant to the potential underground nuclear waste repository. Results indicate that of all the materials tested, Alloys G-30, C-4 and C-22, and Ti Gr-12 exhibited the maximum corrosion resistance, showing no pitting or observable dissolution in any environment tested. These experimental results will be used in identifying a group of potential container materials having the desired corrosion resistance.

Roy, A.K. [Framatome Cogema Fuels, Livermore, CA (United States); Fleming, D.L.; Gordon, S.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1996-05-01

410

Nonproliferation and arms control impacts on declared excess fissile material  

SciTech Connect

The presence of nuclear materials derived from dismantled nuclear weapons presents new safeguards and security issues for international inspections, for example, inspections by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The requirements of an IAEA inspection under existing guidance and the areas of conflicting interests are discussed. Possible solutions to these issues are presented. Experiences with actual inspections of material at the Y-12 facility at Oak Ridge and the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site are presented. A technique to recast some of the material is discussed. A new nondestructive assay/verification instrument that may satisfy the requirements of an inspection is described.

Rutherford, D.A.; Close, D.A.; Lucas, M.C.; Beary, B.L.

1996-06-01

411

Nanotechnology in environmental remediation: degradation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) over visible-light-active nanostructured materials.  

PubMed

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are major pollutants and are considered to be one of the most important contaminants generated by human beings living in urban and industrial areas. Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a VOC that has been widely used as a gasoline additive to reduce VOC emissions from motor vehicles. However, new gasoline additives like MTBE are having negative environmental impacts. Recent survey reports clearly show that groundwater is often polluted owing to leakage of petroleum products from underground storage tanks. MTBE is highly soluble in water (e.g., 0.35-0.71 M) and has been detected at high concentrations in groundwater. The presence of MTBE in groundwater poses a potential health problem. The documented effects of MTBE exposure are headaches, vomiting, diarrhea, fever, cough, muscle aches, sleepiness, disorientation, dizziness, and skin and eye irritation. To address these problems, photocatalytic treatment is the preferred treatment for polluted water. In the present work, a simple and template-free solution phase synthesis method has been developed for the preparation of novel cadmium sulfide (CdS) hollow microspheres using cadmium nitrate and thioacetamide precursors. The synthesized products have been characterized by a variety of methods, including X-ray powder diffraction, high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and UV-visible diffused reflectance spectroscopy. The HR-SEM measurements revealed the spherical morphology of the CdS microspheres, which evolved by the oriented aggregation of the primary CdS nanocrystals. Furthermore, studies of photocatalytic activity revealed that the synthesized CdS hollow microspheres exhibit an excellent photocatalytic performance in rapidly degrading MTBE in aqueous solution under visible light illumination. These results suggest that CdS microspheres will be an interesting candidate for photocatalytic detoxification studies under visible light radiation. PMID:24566352

Selvaraj, Rengaraj; Al-Kindy, Salma M Z; Silanpaa, Mika; Kim, Younghun

2014-01-01

412

A peroxisomal ABC transporter promotes seed germination by inducing pectin degradation under the control of ABI5.  

PubMed

Seed dormancy is essential for most plants to control the timing of germination. In Arabidopsis thaliana, PED3 is a single-copy gene encoding an ATP-binding cassette transporter that is required for peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation. PED3 is involved in the import of several biologically important molecules into the peroxisome, including very-long-chain fatty acids associated with the breakdown of seed-reserve lipids, and precursors of auxin and jasmonic acid. The germination of ped3 mutants is significantly impaired, suggesting that PED3 regulates dormancy and germination. A transcriptome analysis revealed that many genes containing the core motif of the ABA responsive element (ABRE) in their promoter regions, and the ABA insensitive 5 (ABI5) transcription factor that binds to ABRE, are abnormally up-regulated in imbibed ped3 seeds. Expression of polygalacturonase inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) is also up-regulated specifically in ped3 after imbibition. By contrast, the ped3 abi5 double mutant does not show any of these expression patterns. The results indicate that the abi5 mutation normalizes PGIP expression and rescues the impaired germination phenotype of the ped3 mutant. PGIPs are known to act as inhibitors of polygalacturonases that degrade pectin. The amount of PGIP1 transcript regulates the timing of radicle protrusion. The impaired germination of ped3 could also be rescued by removal of pectin from the seed coat using exogenous polygalacturonase or acidic conditions. Overall, our results suggest that PED3, a peroxisomal ABC transporter, promotes seed germination by suppressing PGIPs under the control of ABI5. PMID:20345608

Kanai, Masatake; Nishimura, Mikio; Hayashi, Makoto

2010-06-01

413

Experimental aspects and mechanical modeling paradigms for the prediction of degradation and failure in nanocomposite materials subjected to fatigue loading conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of the current research was to contribute to the area of mechanics of composite polymeric materials. This objective was reached by establishing a quantitative assessment of the fatigue strength and evolution of mechanical property changes during fatigue loading of nanocomposite fibers and films. Both experimental testing and mathematical modeling were used to gain a fundamental understanding of the fatigue behavior and material changes that occurred during fatigue loading. In addition, the objective of the study was to gain a qualitative and fundamental understanding of the failure mechanisms that occurred between the nanoagent and matrix in nanocomposite fibers. This objective was accomplished by examining scanning electron microscopy (SEM) fractographs. The results of this research can be used to better understand the behavior of nanocomposite materials in applications where degradation due to fatigue and instability of the composite under loading conditions may be a concern. These applications are typically encountered in automotive, aerospace, and civil engineering applications where fatigue and/or fracture are primary factors that contribute to failure.

Averett, Rodney D.

2008-10-01

414

Microbial population in the biomass adhering to supporting material in a packed-bed reactor degrading organic solid waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

An anaerobic packed-bed reactor using carbon fiber textiles (CFT) as the supporting material was continuously operated using\\u000a an artificial garbage slurry. 16S rRNA gene analysis showed that many bacteria in the biomass adhering to CFT were closely\\u000a related to those observed from other anaerobic environments, although a wide variety of unidentified bacteria were also found.\\u000a Dot blot hybridization results clarified

Kengo Sasaki; Shin Haruta; Yoshiyuki Ueno; Masaharu Ishii; Yasuo Igarashi

2007-01-01

415

Inhibitor of Nrf2 (INrf2 or Keap1) Protein Degrades Bcl-xL via Phosphoglycerate Mutase 5 and Controls Cellular Apoptosis*  

PubMed Central

INrf2 (Keap1) is an adaptor protein that facilitates INrf2-Cul3-Rbx1-mediated ubiquitination/degradation of Nrf2, a master regulator of cytoprotective gene expression. Here, we present evidence that members of the phosphoglycerate mutase family 5 (PGAM5) proteins are involved in the INrf2-mediated ubiquitination/degradation of anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-xL. Mass spectrometry and co-immunoprecipitation assays revealed that INrf2, through its DGR domain, interacts with PGAM5, which in turn interacts with anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL protein. INrf2-Cul3-Rbx1 complex facilitates ubiquitination and degradation of both PGAM5 and Bcl-xL. Overexpression of PGAM5 protein increased INrf2-mediated degradation of Bcl-xL, whereas knocking down PGAM5 by siRNA decreased INrf2 degradation of Bcl-xL, resulting in increased stability of Bcl-xL. Mutation of PGMA5-E79A/S80A abolished INrf2/PGAM5/Bcl-xL interaction. Therefore, PGAM5 protein acts as a bridge between INrf2 and Bcl-xL interaction. Further studies showed that overexpression of INrf2 enhanced degradation of PGAM5-Bcl-xL complex, led to etoposide-mediated accumulation of Bax, increased release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, activated caspase-3/7, and enhanced DNA fragmentation and apoptosis. In addition, antioxidant (tert-butylhydroquinone) treatment destabilized the Nrf2-INrf2-PGAM5-Bcl-xL complex, which resulted in release of Nrf2 in cytosol and mitochondria, release of Bcl-xL in mitochondria, increase in Bcl-xL heterodimerization with Bax in mitochondria, and reduced cellular apoptosis. These data provide the first evidence that INrf2 controls Bcl-xL via PGAM5 and controls cellular apoptosis. PMID:22072718

Niture, Suryakant K.; Jaiswal, Anil K.

2011-01-01

416

Hydroxyapatite degradation and biocompatibility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydroxyapatite (HA) is widely used as a bioactive ceramics since it forms a chemical bonding to bone. The disadvantage of this material is its poor mechanical properties. HA can be degraded in body, which is the reason for its bioactivity, but too fast degradation rate could cause negative effects, such as macrophage present, particle generation, and even implant clinical failure. HA degradation rate will be greatly changed under many conditions: purity, HA form (i.e. bulk form, porous form, coating, or HA/polymer composites), microstructure, implant site, body conditions, etc. Although much work has been done in HA properties and application areas, the HA degradation behavior and mechanism under these different conditions are still not clear. In this research, three aspects of HA degradation have been studied: (1) Two very common impurities---Tri-Calcium Phosphate (TCP) and Calcium Oxide and their influences on HA degradation in vitro and in vivo, (2) influence of HA/polymer composite form on HA degradation, (3) HA material particle generation and related mechanism. From the in vitro and in vivo tests on bulk HA disks with various Ca/P ratios, HA degradation can clearly be found. The degradation level is different in different Ca/P ratio samples as well as in different test environments. In same test environment, non-stoichiometric HA samples have higher degradation rate than stoichiometric HA. HA/PMMA composite design successfully intensifies HA degradation both in vitro and in vivo. Grain boundary damage can be found on in vivo test samples, which has not been clearly seen on bulk HA degraded surface. HA particle generation is found in in vitro and in vivo HA/PMMA composite surface and in vivo bulk HA surface. Sintering temperature and time does affect HA grain size, and this affect HA degradation rate. Intergranular fracture is found in a several micron zone close to the Ca/P ratio 1.62 and 1.67 sample degraded surfaces. At Ca/P ratio greater than 1.667, after HA degradation in water, solution pH increases because of CaO presence.

Wang, Haibo

417

Recommendations for conducting controlled clinical studies of dental restorative materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 35 years ago, Ryge provided a practical approach to evaluation of clinical performance of restorative materials. This\\u000a systematic approach was soon universally accepted. While that methodology has served us well, a large number of scientific\\u000a methodologies and more detailed questions have arisen that require more rigor. Current restorative materials have vastly improved\\u000a clinical performance and any changes over time are

R. Hickel; J.-F. Roulet; S. Bayne; S. D. Heintze; I. A. Mjör; M. Peters; V. Rousson; R. Randall; G. Schmalz; M. Tyas; G. Vanherle

2007-01-01

418

Evaluation of low-intensity laser radiation on stimulating the cholesterol degrading activity: Part I. Microorganisms isolated from cholesterol-rich materials  

PubMed Central

A survey was performed to isolate bacteria and fungi from cholesterol-rich sources including chicken liver, turkey giblets, salmon, lamb, egg yolk, beef brain and shrimps. A total of 34 bacterial and 22 fungal isolates were recovered from the tested sources. The highest count of isolates was recovered from the soil (12 isolates/g), followed by turkey giblets and egg yolk (8 isolates/g, for each). Out of 34 bacterial isolates, five induced the highest level in cholesterol degradation. The most potent bacterial isolate was recovered from turkey giblets and was identified as Streptomyces fradiae. In a trial to increase the cholesterol decomposing potentiality of S. fradiae, low intensity Nd-YAG laser irradiation was evaluated. The exposure of the chlorophyllin – photosensitized bacterium to 210 mW Nd-YAG laser for 8 min induced significant increase in cholesterol degrading activity reaching 73.8% as compared with 54.2% in the case of non-irradiated, non-photosensitized culture. Under the same conditions but using the reaction mixture containing cholesterol as a substrate and extracellular crude enzyme, the percent decomposition reached 53.7% for the irradiated culture as compared to 28.3% in the case of the control. Our data indicate the importance of the photosensitizer in enhancement of laser radiation to stimulate cholesterol decomposition of S. fradiae. PMID:23961178

Ouf, Salama A.; Alsarrani, Abdulaziz Q.; Al-Adly, Amira A.; Ibrahim, Mohamed K.

2012-01-01

419

Testing Protocol Proposal to Identify and Evaluate Candidate Materials to Substitute for Silverized Teflon in Thermal Control Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrostatic discharge (ESD) has been shown to be the primary cause of several glitches in spacecraft operations. It appears that charged particles encountered in the natural environment in certain orbits can collect on the outer surfaces of a spacecraft, building up a charge of several thousand volts. If the potential exceeds the breakdown voltage of the charged material, then an ESD will occur. ESD events involving relatively low voltages, on the order of 100 V, have been shown to damage electronic components. When ESD occurs, electronic and electrical components can be damaged, computer instructions can be garbled, and ablation of material from the spacecraft may occur; degrading both the performance of the thermal control blankets, and the cleanliness of any surfaces on which the detritus becomes deposited. There appear to be six ways to prevent or mitigate the effects of ESD: (1) Choose an orbit where charging is not a problem; (2) Carry extra electromagnetic shielding; (3) Provide redundancy in components and programming; (4) Provide for active dissipation of the charge, by generating a plasma with which to bathe susceptible surfaces; (5) Provide for passive dissipation from a plasma contactors on the susceptible surfaces; and (6) Provide thermal control blankets that do not hold a charge, i.e., that are conductive enough to bleed a charge off harmlessly. These six options are discussed in detail in Losure (1996). Of these six options, number 1 is not always practical, given other requirements of the mission; 2, 3, 4 and 5 will require that extra mass in the form of shielding, etc., be carried by the spacecraft. The most attractive option from a mass and energy point of view seems to be that of finding a material which matches the other performance characteristics of the current thermal control blankets without their tendency to build up an electrostatic charge. The goal of this paper is to describe and justify a testing program which will lead to the approval of materials of this kind.

Losure, Nancy S.

1996-01-01

420

Crime and Control: Syllabi and Instructional Materials for Criminology and Criminal Justice. Resource Materials for Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of a series of resources for teaching sociology at the postsecondary level, this volume contains syllabi and instructional materials for courses in criminology and criminal justice. Material is divided into four sections. Section 1, innovative approaches to the teaching of criminology, contains four papers which discuss a corrections practicum…

Deutschmann, Linda B., Ed.; Wright, Richard A., Ed.

421

Modeling of Materials for Naval SONAR, Pollution Control, and Nonvolatile Memory Application  

E-print Network

Modeling of Materials for Naval SONAR, Pollution Control, and Nonvolatile Memory Application Ilya materials for use in naval SONAR and have developed composition-property correlations in ferroelectric as sensors in SONAR devices. When such a material is deformed by underwater sound vibrations, it generates

Rappe, Andrew M.

422