Science.gov

Sample records for control systems lessons

  1. Lessons learned on the Ground Test Accelerator control system

    SciTech Connect

    Kozubal, A.J.; Weiss, R.E.

    1994-09-01

    When we initiated the control system design for the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA), we envisioned a system that would be flexible enough to handle the changing requirements of an experimental project. This control system would use a developers` toolkit to reduce the cost and time to develop applications for GTA, and through the use of open standards, the system would accommodate unforeseen requirements as they arose. Furthermore, we would attempt to demonstrate on GTA a level of automation far beyond that achieved by existing accelerator control systems. How well did we achieve these goals? What were the stumbling blocks to deploying the control system, and what assumptions did we make about requirements that turned out to be incorrect? In this paper we look at the process of developing a control system that evolved into what is now the ``Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System`` (EPICS). Also, we assess the impact of this system on the GTA project, as well as the impact of GTA on EPICS. The lessons learned on GTA will be valuable for future projects.

  2. Lessons learned from the MIT Tara control and data system

    SciTech Connect

    Gaudreau, M.P.J.; Sullivan, J.D.; Fredian, T.W.; Irby, J.H.; Karcher, C.A.; Rameriz, R.A.; Sevillano, E.; Stillerman, J.A.; Thomas, P.

    1987-10-01

    The control and data system of the MIT Tara Tandem Mirror has worked successfully throughout the lifetime of the experiment (1983 through 1987). As the Tara project winds down, it is appropriate to summarize the lessons learned from the implementation and operation of the control and data system over the years and in its final form. The control system handled approx.2400 I/0 points in real time throughout the 5 to 10 minute shot cycle while the data system, in near real time, handled approx.1000 signals with a total of 5 to 7 Mbytes of data each shot. The implementation depended upon a consistent approach based on separating physics and engineering functions and on detailed functional diagrams with narrowly defined cross communication. This paper is a comprehensive treatment of the principal successes, residual problems, and dilemmas that arose from the beginning until the final hardware and software implementation. Suggestions for future systems of either similar size or of larger scale such as CIT are made in the conclusion. 11 refs., 1 fig.

  3. Lessons Learned and Flight Results from the F15 Intelligent Flight Control System Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosworth, John

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the lessons learned and flight results from the F15 Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS) project is shown. The topics include: 1) F-15 IFCS Project Goals; 2) Motivation; 3) IFCS Approach; 4) NASA F-15 #837 Aircraft Description; 5) Flight Envelope; 6) Limited Authority System; 7) NN Floating Limiter; 8) Flight Experiment; 9) Adaptation Goals; 10) Handling Qualities Performance Metric; 11) Project Phases; 12) Indirect Adaptive Control Architecture; 13) Indirect Adaptive Experience and Lessons Learned; 14) Gen II Direct Adaptive Control Architecture; 15) Current Status; 16) Effect of Canard Multiplier; 17) Simulated Canard Failure Stab Open Loop; 18) Canard Multiplier Effect Closed Loop Freq. Resp.; 19) Simulated Canard Failure Stab Open Loop with Adaptation; 20) Canard Multiplier Effect Closed Loop with Adaptation; 21) Gen 2 NN Wts from Simulation; 22) Direct Adaptive Experience and Lessons Learned; and 23) Conclusions

  4. International Space Station Passive Thermal Control System Analysis, Top Ten Lessons-Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iovine, John

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) has been on-orbit for over 10 years, and there have been numerous technical challenges along the way from design to assembly to on-orbit anomalies and repairs. The Passive Thermal Control System (PTCS) management team has been a key player in successfully dealing with these challenges. The PTCS team performs thermal analysis in support of design and verification, launch and assembly constraints, integration, sustaining engineering, failure response, and model validation. This analysis is a significant body of work and provides a unique opportunity to compile a wealth of real world engineering and analysis knowledge and the corresponding lessons-learned. The analysis lessons encompass the full life cycle of flight hardware from design to on-orbit performance and sustaining engineering. These lessons can provide significant insight for new projects and programs. Key areas to be presented include thermal model fidelity, verification methods, analysis uncertainty, and operations support.

  5. Lessons learned in digital upgrade projects digital control system implementation at US nuclear power stations

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, S.; Bolian, T. W.

    2006-07-01

    AREVA NP has gained significant experience during the past five years in digital upgrades at operating nuclear power stations in the US. Plants are seeking modernization with digital technology to address obsolescence, spare parts availability, vendor support, increasing age-related failures and diminished reliability. New systems offer improved reliability and functionality, and decreased maintenance requirements. Significant lessons learned have been identified relating to the areas of licensing, equipment qualification, software quality assurance and other topics specific to digital controls. Digital control systems have been installed in non safety-related control applications at many utilities within the last 15 years. There have also been a few replacements of small safety-related systems with digital technology. Digital control systems are proving to be reliable, accurate, and easy to maintain. Digital technology is gaining acceptance and momentum with both utilities and regulatory agencies based upon the successes of these installations. Also, new plants are being designed with integrated digital control systems. To support plant life extension and address obsolescence of critical components, utilities are beginning to install digital technology for primary safety-system replacement. AREVA NP analyzed operating experience and lessons learned from its own digital upgrade projects as well as industry-wide experience to identify key issues that should be considered when implementing digital controls in nuclear power stations.

  6. Lessons Learned from Application of System and Software Level RAMS Analysis to a Space Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, N.; Esper, A.

    2012-01-01

    The work presented in this article represents the results of applying RAMS analysis to a critical space control system, both at system and software levels. The system level RAMS analysis allowed the assignment of criticalities to the high level components, which was further refined by a tailored software level RAMS analysis. The importance of the software level RAMS analysis in the identification of new failure modes and its impact on the system level RAMS analysis is discussed. Recommendations of changes in the software architecture have also been proposed in order to reduce the criticality of the SW components to an acceptable minimum. The dependability analysis was performed in accordance to ECSS-Q-ST-80, which had to be tailored and complemented in some aspects. This tailoring will also be detailed in the article and lessons learned from the application of this tailoring will be shared, stating the importance to space systems safety evaluations. The paper presents the applied techniques, the relevant results obtained, the effort required for performing the tasks and the planned strategy for ROI estimation, as well as the soft skills required and acquired during these activities.

  7. NASA Ares I Launch Vehicle Roll and Reaction Control Systems Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butt, Adam; Popp, Chris G.; Jernigan, Frankie R.; Paseur, Lila F.; Pitts, Hank M.

    2011-01-01

    On April 15, 2010 President Barak Obama made the official announcement that the Constellation Program, which included the Ares I launch vehicle, would be canceled. NASA s Ares I launch vehicle was being designed to launch the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, returning humans to the moon, Mars, and beyond. It consisted of a First Stage (FS) five segment solid rocket booster and a liquid J-2X Upper Stage (US) engine. Roll control for the FS was planned to be handled by a dedicated Roll Control System (RoCS), located on the connecting interstage. Induced yaw or pitch moments experienced during FS ascent would have been handled by vectoring of the booster nozzle. After FS booster separation, the US Reaction Control System (ReCS) would have provided the US Element with three degrees of freedom control as needed. The lessons learned documented in this paper will be focused on the technical designs and producibility of both systems along with the partnership between NASA and Boeing, who was on contract to build the Ares I US Element, which included the FS RoCS and US ReCS. In regards to partnership, focus will be placed on integration along with technical work accomplished by Boeing with special emphasis on each task order. In summary, this paper attempts to capture key lessons learned that should be helpful in the development of future launch vehicle RCS designs.

  8. Design lessons from using programmable controllers in the MFTF-B personnel safety and interlocks system

    SciTech Connect

    Branum, J.D.

    1983-11-29

    Applying programmable controllers in critical applications such as personnel safety and interlocks systems requires special considerations in the design of both hardware and software. All modern programmable controller systems feature extensive internal diagnostic capabilities to protect against problems such as program memory errors; however most, if not all present designs lack an intrinsic capability for detecting and countering failures on the field-side of their I/O modules. Many of the most common styles of I/O modules can also introduce potentially dangerous sneak circuits, even without component failure. This paper presents the most significant lessons learned to date in the design of the MFTF-B Personnel Safety and Interlocks System, which utilizes two non-redundant programmable controllers with over 800 I/O points each. Specific problems recognized during the design process as well as those discovered during initial testing and operation are discussed along with their specific solutions in hardware and software.

  9. Deepwater completion/workover riser and control system: Operational experience and lessons learned

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, W.C.; Beebe, D.C.

    1996-12-31

    Sonsub International designed, built and is currently operating a deepwater Completion/Workover (C/WO) Riser and Control System which is being offered to the industry on a lease basis. In an industry partnering approach, Sonsub worked closely with both operating companies and Deepstar participants to develop a system that would meet both current and future requirements for completion/workover operations in deepwater subsea development applications. The C/WO Riser and Control System is designed for use in water depths up to 6,000 ft (but is capable of being extended to 10,000 ft) and is rated for 10,000 psi working pressure. The system includes all of the equipment required for use in well completion operations to run and install the tubing hanger and subsea tree and in workover operations to provide wireline and/or coiled tubing access into the well bore. The C/WO Riser and Control System was used initially by Shell Offshore, Inc. (SOI) to complete two wells in 2,040 ft of water in the Popeye Field in the US Gulf of Mexico (GOM) during the second half of 1995, and a single well in 2,960 ft of water in the Mars field in the GOM in early 1996. It is scheduled for use by SOI in 5,400 ft of water in the Mensa field in the GOM in late 1996/early 1997. This paper discusses the design of the C/WO Riser and Control System and the experience gained from operating this equipment in the Popeye and Mars fields and also discusses some of the lessons learned (both positive and negative). This information is currently being used to enhance the design and operating features of the C/WO Riser and Control System and to further refine the operating procedures to improve operating efficiency and reduce costs.

  10. Lessons Learned from the Crew Health Care System (CHeCS) Rack 1 Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper will provide an overview of the International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) design of the Crew Health Care System (CHeCS) Rack 1 and it will document some of the lessons that have been learned to date for the ECLS equipment in this rack.

  11. Designing Specification Languages for Process Control Systems: Lessons Learned and Steps to the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveson, Nancy G.; Heimdahl, Mats P. E.; Reese, Jon Damon

    1999-01-01

    Previously, we defined a blackbox formal system modeling language called RSML (Requirements State Machine Language). The language was developed over several years while specifying the system requirements for a collision avoidance system for commercial passenger aircraft. During the language development, we received continual feedback and evaluation by FAA employees and industry representatives, which helped us to produce a specification language that is easily learned and used by application experts. Since the completion of the PSML project, we have continued our research on specification languages. This research is part of a larger effort to investigate the more general problem of providing tools to assist in developing embedded systems. Our latest experimental toolset is called SpecTRM (Specification Tools and Requirements Methodology), and the formal specification language is SpecTRM-RL (SpecTRM Requirements Language). This paper describes what we have learned from our use of RSML and how those lessons were applied to the design of SpecTRM-RL. We discuss our goals for SpecTRM-RL and the design features that support each of these goals.

  12. Importance Of Quality Control in Reducing System Risk, a Lesson Learned From The Shuttle and a Recommendation for Future Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Safie, Fayssal M.; Messer, Bradley P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents lessons learned from the Space Shuttle return to flight experience and the importance of these lessons learned in the development of new the NASA Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV). Specifically, the paper discusses the relationship between process control and system risk, and the importance of process control in improving space vehicle flight safety. It uses the External Tank (ET) Thermal Protection System (TPS) experience and lessons learned from the redesign and process enhancement activities performed in preparation for Return to Flight after the Columbia accident. The paper also, discusses in some details, the Probabilistic engineering physics based risk assessment performed by the Shuttle program to evaluate the impact of TPS failure on system risk and the application of the methodology to the CLV.

  13. System safety management lessons learned

    SciTech Connect

    Piatt, J.A.

    1989-05-01

    The Assistant Secretary of the Army for Research, Development and Acquisition directed the Army Safety Center to provide an audit of the causes of accidents and safety of use restrictions on recently fielded systems by tracking residual hazards back through the acquisition process. The objective was to develop ''lessons learned'' that could be applied to the acquisition process to minimize mishaps in fielded systems. System safety management lessons learned are defined as Army practices or policies, derived from past successes and failures, that are expected to be effective in eliminating or reducing specific systemic causes of residual hazards. They are broadly applicable and supportive of the Army structure and acquisition objectives. 29 refs., 7 figs.

  14. Soft systems, hard lessons.

    PubMed

    Kirwan, B

    2000-12-01

    This paper is concerned with practical experiences of achieving human factors and safety interventions in the nuclear power and process control industries. It rests upon the premise that, although human factors (HF) and safety may be technological in approach, they nevertheless must operate in a socio-technical environment, within companies with corporate structures and cultures, interacting with regulatory authorities. A crucial ingredient to the successful implementation and integration of human factors into company practices and procedures is therefore the nature of the inter-relationships between human factors personnel and those who control the existing procedures determining all aspects of the design and operational processes. Such inter-relationships can largely determine whether HF is implemented or not. These human-human interactions and interfaces in a socio-technical system may be referred to as soft systems. When training in human factors, much of the training is concerned with technical aspects of the discipline. However, when entering industry or consultancy, one quickly discovers that technical aspects are usually the least of one's problems. This paper is concerned with experiences and guidance to better help the human factors professional starting out in industry. There is little scientific method in the paper. It is, instead, a distillation of this author's and others' experiences in acting either as a practitioner or consultant, or as leader of a human factors unit in industries that have at times been reluctant or even hostile about the perceived 'invasion' of human factors. However, to avoid being purely anecdotal, the experiences are placed in a framework concerned with the life cycle of integrating human factors into an industry, from being the first HF person in a company, to the development of a successful unit, or the absorption of a successful unit into other departments. Within this framework a range of strategic aspects are dealt with

  15. Engineering Lessons Learned and Systems Engineering Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, Paul S.; Garcia, Danny; Vaughan, William W.

    2005-01-01

    Systems Engineering is fundamental to good engineering, which in turn depends on the integration and application of engineering lessons learned. Thus, good Systems Engineering also depends on systems engineering lessons learned from within the aerospace industry being documented and applied. About ten percent of the engineering lessons learned documented in the NASA Lessons Learned Information System are directly related to Systems Engineering. A key issue associated with lessons learned datasets is the communication and incorporation of this information into engineering processes. As part of the NASA Technical Standards Program activities, engineering lessons learned datasets have been identified from a number of sources. These are being searched and screened for those having a relation to Technical Standards. This paper will address some of these Systems Engineering Lessons Learned and how they are being related to Technical Standards within the NASA Technical Standards Program, including linking to the Agency's Interactive Engineering Discipline Training Courses and the life cycle for a flight vehicle development program.

  16. Arms control: moral, political and historical lesson

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, K.W.

    1990-01-01

    Many of the world's most influential policy-makers and analysts view arms control as a scientific and technological problem. They measure a nation's nuclear power exclusively by megatonnage and throw-weights leaving the intangible elements of military and political power to philosophers and historians. They tend to ignore the human and qualitative aspects of power. This is a book that shift the emphasis to aspects of the nuclear problem which are sometimes overlooked. Basically, these elements are bound up in the moral, political, and historical lessons of the nuclear age. Nonquantitative factors have been central to studies of national defense and military power since the rise of the modern nation state system. However, most students of present-day nuclear weapons tend to stress their revolutionary character. Because they are considered wholly unique, analysts tend to write about them in a historical and apolitical terms. One purpose of the collection of papers in this little volume is to redirect attention to the moral, political, and historical lessons that the nuclear age presents. What most distinguishes the writings of contributors to this volume is their use of certain well-established principles and concepts long acknowledged in military and foreign policy analysis. Thus Father Hehir asks many of the same questions that students of ethics and foreign policy have asked for four hundred years.

  17. Mayoral Leadership Matters: Lessons Learned from Mayoral Control of Large Urban School Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Kenneth K.; Shen, Francis X.

    2007-01-01

    "Mayoral takeover" has emerged as a major reform option for struggling urban districts since it was launched in Boston in 1992 and Chicago in 1995. This article examines the design, implementation, and the effects of mayoral-led school systems. Our research addresses issues that are critical to systemwide improvement: Are there variation in how…

  18. Epigenetic control of the immune system: a lesson from Kabuki syndrome.

    PubMed

    Stagi, Stefano; Gulino, Anna Virginia; Lapi, Elisabetta; Rigante, Donato

    2016-04-01

    Kabuki syndrome (KS) is a rare multi-systemic disorder characterized by a distinct face, postnatal growth deficiency, mild-to-moderate intellectual disability, skeletal and visceral (mainly cardiovascular, renal, and skeletal) malformations, dermatoglyphic abnormalities. Its cause is related to mutations of two genes: KMT2D (histone-lysine N-methyltransferase 2D) and KDM6A (lysine-specific demethylase 6A), both functioning as epigenetic modulators through histone modifications in the course of embryogenesis and in several biological processes. Epigenetic regulation is defined as the complex of hereditable modifications to DNA and histone proteins that modulates gene expression in the absence of DNA nucleotide sequence changes. Different human disorders are caused by mutations of genes involved in the epigenetic regulation, and not surprisingly, all these share developmental defects, disturbed growth (in excess or defect), multiple congenital organ malformations, and also hematological and immunological defects. In particular, most KS patients show increased susceptibility to infections and have reduced serum immunoglobulin levels, while some suffer also from autoimmune manifestations, such as idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, hemolytic anemia, autoimmune thyroiditis, and vitiligo. Herein we review the immunological aspects of KS and propose a novel model to account for the immune dysfunction observed in this condition. PMID:26411453

  19. Engineering Lessons Learned and Systems Engineering Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, Paul S.; Garcia, Danny; Vaughan, William W.

    2005-01-01

    Systems Engineering is fundamental to good engineering, which in turn depends on the integration and application of engineering lessons learned and technical standards. Thus, good Systems Engineering also depends on systems engineering lessons learned from within the aerospace industry being documented and applied. About ten percent of the engineering lessons learned documented in the NASA Lessons Learned Information System are directly related to Systems Engineering. A key issue associated with lessons learned datasets is the communication and incorporation of this information into engineering processes. Systems Engineering has been defined (EINIS-632) as "an interdisciplinary approach encompassing the entire technical effort to evolve and verify an integrated and life-cycle balanced set of system people, product, and process solutions that satisfy customer needs". Designing reliable space-based systems has always been a goal for NASA, and many painful lessons have been learned along the way. One of the continuing functions of a system engineer is to compile development and operations "lessons learned" documents and ensure their integration into future systems development activities. They can produce insights and information for risk identification identification and characterization. on a new project. Lessons learned files from previous projects are especially valuable in risk

  20. Lessons Learned from the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrison, Matt; Patel, Deepak; Bradshaw, Heather; Robinson, Frank; Neuberger, Dave

    2016-01-01

    The ICESat-2 Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) instrument is an upcoming Earth Science mission focusing on the effects of climate change. The flight instrument passed all environmental testing at GSFC (Goddard Space Flight Center) and is now ready to be shipped to the spacecraft vendor for integration and testing. This presentation walks through the lessons learned from design, hardware, analysis and testing perspective. ATLAS lessons learned include general thermal design, analysis, hardware, and testing issues as well as lessons specific to laser systems, two-phase thermal control, and optical assemblies with precision alignment requirements.

  1. Receiver System: Lessons Learned From Solar Two

    SciTech Connect

    LITWIN, ROBERT Z.; PACHECO, JAMES E.

    2002-03-01

    The Boeing Company fabricated the Solar Two receiver as a subcontractor for the Solar Two project. The receiver absorbed sunlight reflected from the heliostat field. A molten-nitrate-salt heat transfer fluid was pumped from a storage tank at grade level, heated from 290 to 565 C by the receiver mounted on top of a tower, then flowed back down into another storage tank. To make electricity, the hot salt was pumped through a steam generator to produce steam that powered a conventional Rankine steam turbine/generator. This evaluation identifies the most significant Solar Two receiver system lessons learned from the Mechanical Design, Instrumentation and Control, Panel Fabrication, Site Construction, Receiver System Operation, and Management from the perspective of the receiver designer/manufacturer. The lessons learned on the receiver system described here consist of two parts: the Problem and one or more identified Solutions. The appendix summarizes an inspection of the advanced receiver panel developed by Boeing that was installed and operated in the Solar Two receiver.

  2. Radiological Control Technician: Phase 1, Site academic training lesson plans

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This volume provides lesson plans for training radiological control technicians. Covered here is basic radiological documentation, counting errors, dosimetry, environmental monitoring, and radiation instruments.

  3. Global lessons from Nigeria's ebolavirus control strategy.

    PubMed

    Elemuwa, Chris; Kutalek, Ruth; Ali, Mohammad; Mworozi, Edison; Kochhar, Sonali; Rath, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The current Ebola virus disease outbreak challenged medical and public health systems in West Africa. In Nigeria, the existing infrastructure of the polio surveillance system was leveraged rapidly to contain the spread of Ebola virus. We highlight important lessons learnt from the successful implementation of Ebola virus disease surveillance strategies, which should be amplified further to prepare the ground for successful vaccination programs. Close collaboration between national and international stakeholders as well as public/private partnerships will be instrumental in future Ebola virus immunization strategies. PMID:26190046

  4. From Bridges and Rockets, Lessons for Software Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, C. Michael

    2004-01-01

    Although differences exist between building software systems and building physical structures such as bridges and rockets, enough similarities exist that software engineers can learn lessons from failures in traditional engineering disciplines. This paper draws lessons from two well-known failures the collapse of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge in 1940 and the destruction of the space shuttle Challenger in 1986 and applies these lessons to software system development. The following specific applications are made: (1) the verification and validation of a software system should not be based on a single method, or a single style of methods; (2) the tendency to embrace the latest fad should be overcome; and (3) the introduction of software control into safety-critical systems should be done cautiously.

  5. Space Station Control Moment Gyroscope Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurrisi, Charles; Seidel, Raymond; Dickerson, Scott; Didziulis, Stephen; Frantz, Peter; Ferguson, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Four 4760 Nms (3510 ft-lbf-s) Double Gimbal Control Moment Gyroscopes (DGCMG) with unlimited gimbal freedom about each axis were adopted by the International Space Station (ISS) Program as the non-propulsive solution for continuous attitude control. These CMGs with a life expectancy of approximately 10 years contain a flywheel spinning at 691 rad/s (6600 rpm) and can produce an output torque of 258 Nm (190 ft-lbf)1. One CMG unexpectedly failed after approximately 1.3 years and one developed anomalous behavior after approximately six years. Both units were returned to earth for failure investigation. This paper describes the Space Station Double Gimbal Control Moment Gyroscope design, on-orbit telemetry signatures and a summary of the results of both failure investigations. The lessons learned from these combined sources have lead to improvements in the design that will provide CMGs with greater reliability to assure the success of the Space Station. These lessons learned and design improvements are not only applicable to CMGs but can be applied to spacecraft mechanisms in general.

  6. Effectiveness of a Case-Based System in Lesson Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saad, A.; Chung, P. W. H.; Dawson, C. W.

    2014-01-01

    Lesson planning imposes a significant burden on teachers as they need to prepare different lesson plans for different classes according to various constraints. SmartLP, a case-based lesson planning system, has been implemented as a means of assisting teachers in constructing quality lesson plans more quickly. SmartLP enables teachers to retrieve…

  7. Historical problem areas: Lessons learned for expendable and reusable vehicle propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fester, Dale A.

    1991-01-01

    The following subject areas are covered: expendable launch vehicle lessons learned, upper stage/transfer vehicle lessons learned, shuttle systems - reuse, and reusable system issues and lessons learned.

  8. Very Large System Dynamics Models - Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Leonard Malczynski

    2008-10-01

    This paper provides lessons learned from developing several large system dynamics (SD) models. System dynamics modeling practice emphasize the need to keep models small so that they are manageable and understandable. This practice is generally reasonable and prudent; however, there are times that large SD models are necessary. This paper outlines two large SD projects that were done at two Department of Energy National Laboratories, the Idaho National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories. This paper summarizes the models and then discusses some of the valuable lessons learned during these two modeling efforts.

  9. Promoting Systems Thinking through Biology Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riess, Werner; Mischo, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    This study's goal was to analyze various teaching approaches within the context of natural science lessons, especially in biology. The main focus of the paper lies on the effectiveness of different teaching methods in promoting systems thinking in the field of Education for Sustainable Development. The following methods were incorporated into the…

  10. Scheduling lessons learned from the Autonomous Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ringer, Mark J.

    1992-01-01

    The Autonomous Power System (APS) project at NASA LeRC is designed to demonstrate the applications of integrated intelligent diagnosis, control, and scheduling techniques to space power distribution systems. The project consists of three elements: the Autonomous Power Expert System (APEX) for Fault Diagnosis, Isolation, and Recovery (FDIR); the Autonomous Intelligent Power Scheduler (AIPS) to efficiently assign activities start times and resources; and power hardware (Brassboard) to emulate a space-based power system. The AIPS scheduler was tested within the APS system. This scheduler is able to efficiently assign available power to the requesting activities and share this information with other software agents within the APS system in order to implement the generated schedule. The AIPS scheduler is also able to cooperatively recover from fault situations by rescheduling the affected loads on the Brassboard in conjunction with the APEX FDIR system. AIPS served as a learning tool and an initial scheduling testbed for the integration of FDIR and automated scheduling systems. Many lessons were learned from the AIPS scheduler and are now being integrated into a new scheduler called SCRAP (Scheduler for Continuous Resource Allocation and Planning). This paper will service three purposes: an overview of the AIPS implementation, lessons learned from the AIPS scheduler, and a brief section on how these lessons are being applied to the new SCRAP scheduler.

  11. The Network Operations Control Center upgrade task: Lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherif, J. S.; Tran, T.-L.; Lee, S.

    1994-01-01

    This article synthesizes and describes the lessons learned from the Network Operations Control Center (NOCC) upgrade project, from the requirements phase through development and test and transfer. At the outset, the NOCC upgrade was being performed simultaneously with two other interfacing and dependent upgrades at the Signal Processing Center (SPC) and Ground Communications Facility (GCF), thereby adding a significant measure of complexity to the management and overall coordination of the development and transfer-to-operations (DTO) effort. Like other success stories, this project carried with it the traditional elements of top management support and exceptional dedication of cognizant personnel. Additionally, there were several NOCC-specific reasons for success, such as end-to-end system engineering, adoption of open-system architecture, thorough requirements management, and use of appropriate off-the-shelf technologies. On the other hand, there were several difficulties, such as ill-defined external interfaces, transition issues caused by new communications protocols, ambivalent use of two sets of policies and standards, and mistailoring of the new JPL management standard (due to the lack of practical guidelines). This article highlights the key lessons learned, as a means of constructive suggestions for the benefit of future projects.

  12. LDEF electronic systems: Successes, failures and lessons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, E. A.; Brooks, L. K.; Johnson, C. J.; Levorsen, J. L.; Mulkey, O. R.; Porter, D. C.; Smith, D. W.

    1992-01-01

    Following LDEF retrieval, a series of tests were performed of various NASA and experimenter electronics, including the NASA provided data and initiate systems. The post-flight test program objectives and observations are discussed, as well as the 'lessons learned' from these examinations. Results are also included of an evaluation of electronic hardware flown on Boeing's LDEF experiment. Overall the electronic systems performed remarkably well, even though most were developed under budget restraints and used some non-space qualified components. Several anomalies were observed, however, including some which resulted in loss of data. Suggestions for avoiding similar problems on future programs are presented.

  13. LDEF electronic systems: Successes, failures, and lessons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Emmett; Porter, Dave; Smith, Dave; Brooks, Larry; Levorsen, Joe; Mulkey, Owen

    1991-01-01

    Following the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) retrieval, the Systems Special Investigation Group (SIG) participated in an extensive series of tests of various electronic systems, including the NASA provided data and initiate systems, and some experiment systems. Overall, these were found to have performed remarkably well, even though most were designed and tested under limited budgets and used at least some nonspace qualified components. However, several anomalies were observed, including a few which resulted in some loss of data. The postflight test program objectives, observations, and lessons learned from these examinations are discussed. All analyses are not yet complete, but observations to date will be summarized, including the Boeing experiment component studies and failure analysis results related to the Interstellar Gas Experiment. Based upon these observations, suggestions for avoiding similar problems on future programs are presented.

  14. Lessons from tuberculosis control for public health.

    PubMed

    Frieden, T R

    2009-04-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) control in many ways exemplifies evidence-based public health practice, rigorously implemented, with appropriate emphasis on the central importance of political support for success. With more than 30 million patients treated in the past decade, TB control has important implications for managing both communicable and non-communicable diseases. Simple diagnostic tests, meticulously proven standardized treatment regimens with assured drug supply, supportive case management and a superb information system that tracks the progress of every patient, all facilitate effective program implementation. TB control shows that public health programs, including those that require long-term treatment in the primary care system, can be effective in poor countries; however, TB rates are heavily influenced by the social, environmental and epidemiologic context, emphasizing that treatment is not enough and that socio-economic factors may be more important determinants of epidemiologic trends than treatment programs. TB control is effective when it combines two essential components: a practical, implementable, proven technical package, and political commitment. Political commitment is also essential to implement other interventions that can improve health, including healthier air, water and food, as well as programs to prevent or reduce tobacco smoking, cardiovascular disease, cancer, obesity and other growing public health problems. By implementing evidence-based practices, ensuring operational excellence, using information systems that facilitate accountability and evaluation, and obtaining and maintaining political support, we can address the public health challenges of the twenty-first century. PMID:19335945

  15. Lessons learned from experiments conducted on radar data management systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, Mark W.

    1994-06-01

    The thesis provides lessons learned from experiments conducted by the 11th Air Force to verify the capabilities of two vendor-produced Radar Data Management Systems (RDMS). The first part of the thesis provides background information explaining the impetus for such experiments and why a lessons learned approach was taken. The experimental plan and the final report from the PACAF experiments are analyzed using evaluation tools taught in the C3 curriculum at the Naval Postgraduate School. The lessons learned from the mistakes made during these experiments are applied to produce a revised experimental plan. A lessons learned section follows the analysis. This section discusses specific lessons learned from the 11th Air Force experiments as well as more general lessons learned by the author. The thesis concludes with two chapters that provide overall conclusions and a summary, and recommendations for future work that can be accomplished in the area of radar data management.

  16. Lessons Learned from the Puerto Rico Battery Energy Storage System

    SciTech Connect

    BOYES, JOHN D.; DE ANA, MINDI FARBER; TORRES, WENCESLANO

    1999-09-01

    The Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) installed a distributed battery energy storage system in 1994 at a substation near San Juan, Puerto Rico. It was patterned after two other large energy storage systems operated by electric utilities in California and Germany. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage Systems Program at Sandia National Laboratories has followed the progress of all stages of the project since its inception. It directly supported the critical battery room cooling system design by conducting laboratory thermal testing of a scale model of the battery under simulated operating conditions. The Puerto Rico facility is at present the largest operating battery storage system in the world and is successfully providing frequency control, voltage regulation, and spinning reserve to the Caribbean island. The system further proved its usefulness to the PREPA network in the fall of 1998 in the aftermath of Hurricane Georges. The owner-operator, PREPA, and the architect/engineer, vendors, and contractors learned many valuable lessons during all phases of project development and operation. In documenting these lessons, this report will help PREPA and other utilities in planning to build large energy storage systems.

  17. On-line controlled documents: Lessons learned

    SciTech Connect

    Cochrell, R.C.; Steele, C.M.

    1995-06-01

    Placing Controlled Documents on-line on a computer network seems like the solution to many problems, one being distribution, with a path toward a paperless office. However, many problems presented themselves as we were designing the system and placing the documents on-line. Although we planned and established a Process Management Team to help work out the bugs, we still encountered many obstacles in the process. This presentation will cover the ``trials and tribulations`` of placing Controlled Documents on a computer network at three different sites. We will discuss the process we went through, the problems we encountered, the software we used, and how we got management to buy into the process.

  18. Human Systems Integration in Practice: Constellation Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zumbado, Jennifer Rochlis

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Constellation program provided a unique testbed for Human Systems Integration (HSI) as a fundamental element of the Systems Engineering process. Constellation was the first major program to have HSI mandated by NASA's Human Rating document. Proper HSI is critical to the success of any project that relies on humans to function as operators, maintainers, or controllers of a system. HSI improves mission, system and human performance, significantly reduces lifecycle costs, lowers risk and minimizes re-design. Successful HSI begins with sufficient project schedule dedicated to the generation of human systems requirements, but is by no means solely a requirements management process. A top-down systems engineering process that recognizes throughout the organization, human factors as a technical discipline equal to traditional engineering disciplines with authority for the overall system. This partners with a bottoms-up mechanism for human-centered design and technical issue resolution. The Constellation Human Systems Integration Group (HSIG) was a part of the Systems Engineering and Integration (SE&I) organization within the program office, and existed alongside similar groups such as Flight Performance, Environments & Constraints, and Integrated Loads, Structures and Mechanisms. While the HSIG successfully managed, via influence leadership, a down-and-in Community of Practice to facilitate technical integration and issue resolution, it lacked parallel top-down authority to drive integrated design. This presentation will discuss how HSI was applied to Constellation, the lessons learned and best practices it revealed, and recommendations to future NASA program and project managers. This presentation will discuss how Human Systems Integration (HSI) was applied to NASA's Constellation program, the lessons learned and best practices it revealed, and recommendations to future NASA program and project managers on how to accomplish this critical function.

  19. Tuberculosis control: lessons for outbreak preparedness in correctional facilities.

    PubMed

    Parvez, Farah M; Lobato, Mark N; Greifinger, Robert B

    2010-07-01

    Correctional facilities typically house large numbers of persons in close and crowded conditions for long periods. Clusters of communicable diseases ranging from simple viral upper respiratory infections to more serious threats, such as tuberculosis (TB), infections with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and influenza, often emerge in these surroundings. The recent H1N1 influenza pandemic highlights the importance of outbreak prevention and containment preparedness, particularly in congregate settings. In this commentary, the authors propose that the TB control model can provide valuable lessons for infection control practitioners to prepare for, identify, investigate, and control outbreaks of communicable diseases to prevent transmission in correctional facilities and to the surrounding community. PMID:20466700

  20. SWS CoCo: Lessons Learned about Distributed Multi-Platform Software Development and Configuration Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huygen, R.; Boxhoorn, D.; Roelfsema, P. R.; Sym, N.; Vandenbussche, B.; Wieprecht, E.

    This paper describes how the ISO-SWS development team developed the Interactive Analysis (IA) software in a distributed environment. When it became clear that IA would be developed by at least three institutes that were geographically distributed, a platform-independent configuration control system (CoCo) was designed that could control the software development in terms of version control and access control, and distribute the software in a consistent and automatic way. The CoCo system incorporates also tracking of problem reports. Over the years the development team has gained experience in distributed software development and maintenance. The lessons learned from this experience are discussed.

  1. Everyday robotic action: lessons from human action control

    PubMed Central

    de Kleijn, Roy; Kachergis, George; Hommel, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Robots are increasingly capable of performing everyday human activities such as cooking, cleaning, and doing the laundry. This requires the real-time planning and execution of complex, temporally extended sequential actions under high degrees of uncertainty, which provides many challenges to traditional approaches to robot action control. We argue that important lessons in this respect can be learned from research on human action control. We provide a brief overview of available psychological insights into this issue and focus on four principles that we think could be particularly beneficial for robot control: the integration of symbolic and subsymbolic planning of action sequences, the integration of feedforward and feedback control, the clustering of complex actions into subcomponents, and the contextualization of action-control structures through goal representations. PMID:24672474

  2. Lessons learned in the development of the STOL intelligent tutoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seamster, Thomas; Baker, Clifford; Ames, Troy

    1991-01-01

    Lessons learned during the development of the NASA Systems Test and Operations Language (STOL) Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS), being developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center are presented. The purpose of the intelligent tutor is to train STOL users by adapting tutoring based on inferred student strengths and weaknesses. This system has been under development for over one year and numerous lessons learned have emerged. These observations are presented in three sections, as follows. The first section addresses the methodology employed in the development of the STOL ITS and briefly presents the ITS architecture. The second presents lessons learned, in the areas of: intelligent tutor development; documentation and reporting; cost and schedule control; and tools and shells effectiveness. The third section presents recommendations which may be considered by other ITS developers, addressing: access, use and selection of subject matter experts; steps involved in ITS development; use of ITS interface design prototypes as part of knowledge engineering; and tools and shells effectiveness.

  3. LDCM Ground System. Network Lesson Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gal-Edd, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) and the lessons learned in implementing the network that was assembled to allow for the acquisition, archiving and distribution of the data from the Landsat mission. The objective of the LDCM is to continue the acquisition, archiving, and distribution of moderate-resolution multispectral imagery affording global, synoptic, and repetitive coverage of the earth's land surface at a scale where natural and human-induced changes can be detected, differentiated, characterized, and monitored over time. It includes a review of the ground network, including a block diagram of the ground network elements (GNE) and a review of the RF design and testing. Also included is a listing of the lessons learned.

  4. Plants and Photosynthesis: Level III, Unit 3, Lesson 1; The Human Digestive System: Lesson 2; Functions of the Blood: Lesson 3; Human Circulation and Respiration: Lesson 4; Reproduction of a Single Cell: Lesson 5; Reproduction by Male and Female Cells: Lesson 6; The Human Reproductive System: Lesson 7; Genetics and Heredity: Lesson 8; The Nervous System: Lesson 9; The Glandular System: Lesson 10. Advanced General Education Program. A High School Self-Study Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Job Corps.

    This self-study program for the high-school level contains lessons in the following subjects: Plants and Photosynthesis; The Human Digestive System; Functions of the Blood; Human Circulation and Respiration; Reproduction of a Single Cell; Reproduction by Male and Female Cells; The Human Reproductive System; Genetics and Heredity; The Nervous…

  5. Lessons Learned from Pit Viper System Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Catalan, Michael A.; Bailey, Sharon A.; Alzheimer, James M.; Baker, Carl P.; Valdez, Patrick L.

    2002-08-08

    The Pit Viper is a tele-operated system intended to enhance worker safety while simultaneously improving the efficiency of pit operations at the Hanford Site. Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components were used in an attempt to increase system reliability and reduce integration difficulties. The Pit Viper, as is, provides significant improvement over the current baseline approach. During integration, multiple areas where technology development would enhance the effectiveness of the system were identified. Most notable of these areas were the manipulator control system, tool design, and tool handling. Various issues were identified regarding the interfacing of the Pit Viper with the Tank Farm environment and the maturity of remote/ robotic systems for unstructured environments.

  6. Designing and Evaluating Health Systems Level Hypertension Control Interventions for African-Americans: Lessons from a Pooled Analysis of Three Cluster Randomized Trials

    PubMed Central

    Pavlik, Valory N.; Chan, Wenyaw; Hyman, David J.; Feldman, Penny; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Schwartz, Joseph E.; McDonald, Margaret; Einhorn, Paula; Tobin, Jonathan N.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives African-Americans (AAs) have a high prevalence of hypertension and their blood pressure (BP) control on treatment still lags behind other groups. In 2004, NHLBI funded five projects that aimed to evaluate clinically feasible interventions to effect changes in medical care delivery leading to an increased proportion of AA patients with controlled BP. Three of the groups performed a pooled analysis of trial results to determine: 1) the magnitude of the combined intervention effect; and 2) how the pooled results could inform the methodology for future health-system level BP interventions. Methods Using a cluster randomized design, the trials enrolled AAs with uncontrolled hypertension to test interventions targeting a combination of patient and clinician behaviors. The 12-month Systolic BP (SBP) and Diastolic BP (DBP) effects of intervention or control cluster assignment were assessed using mixed effects longitudinal regression modeling. Results 2,015 patients representing 352 clusters participated across the three trials. Pooled BP slopes followed a quadratic pattern, with an initial decline, followed by a rise toward baseline, and did not differ significantly between intervention and control clusters: SBP linear coefficient = −2.60±0.21 mmHg per month, p<0.001; quadratic coefficient = 0.167± 0.02 mmHg/month, p<0.001; group by time interaction group by time group x linear time coefficient=0.145 ± 0.293, p=0.622; group x quadratic time coefficient= −0.017 ± 0.026, p=0.525). Results were similar for DBP. The individual sites did not have significant intervention effects when analyzed separately. Conclusion Investigators planning behavioral trials to improve BP control in health systems serving AAs should plan for small effect sizes and employ a “run-in” period in which BP can be expected to improve in both experimental and control clusters. PMID:25808682

  7. ATLAS LTCS Vertically Challenged System Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Deepak; Garrison, Matt; Ku, Jentung

    2014-01-01

    Re-planning of LTCS TVAC testing and supporting RTA (Receiver Telescope Assembly) Test Plan and Procedure document preparation. The Laser Thermal Control System (LTCS) is designed to maintain the lasers onboard Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) at their operational temperatures. In order to verify the functionality of the LTCS, a thermal balance test of the thermal hardware was performed. During the first cold start of the LTCS, the Loop Heat Pipe (LHP) was unable to control the laser mass simulators temperature. The control heaters were fully on and the loop temperature remained well below the desired setpoint. Thermal analysis of the loop did not show these results. This unpredicted behavior of the LTCS was brought up to a panel of LHP experts. Based on the testing and a review of all the data, there were multiple diagnostic performed in order to narrow down the cause. The prevailing theory is that gravity is causing oscillating flow within the loop, which artificially increased the control power needs. This resulted in a replan of the LTCS test flow and the addition of a GSE heater to allow vertical operation.

  8. Signal Systems of Lesson Settings and the Task-Related Behavior of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kounin, Jacob S.; Gump, Paul V.

    1974-01-01

    Teachers were videotaped teaching lessons. Lessons were seen as signal systems to participants. These signal systems were characterized along dimensions of continuity, insulation, and intrusiveness. Task involvement was used as the criterion. Results indicate most successful to least successful lessons, based on signal systems. (Author/SE)

  9. Lessons from Adaptive Level One Accelerator (ALOA) System Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Umesh D.; Brambora, Clifford; Ghuman, Parminder; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Adaptive Level One Accelerator (ALOA) system was developed as part of the Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) project. The reconfigurable computing technologies were investigated for Level 1 satellite telemetry data processing to achieve computing acceleration and cost reduction for the next-generation Level 1 data processing systems. The MODIS instrument calibration algorithm was implemented using reconfigurable a computer. The system development process and the lessons learned throughout the design cycle are summarized in this paper.

  10. Articulated Multimedia Physics, Lesson 1, Measurement and Unit Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Inst. of Tech., Old Westbury.

    As the first lesson of the Articulated Multimedia Physics Course, instructional materials are presented in this study guide with relation to measurement and unit systems. An introduction is given for the realm of mechanics. The subject content is provided in scrambled form, and the use of matrix transparencies is required for students to control…

  11. MODIS Science Algorithms and Data Systems Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Robert E.; Ridgway, Bill L.; Patt, Fred S.; Masuoka, Edward J.

    2009-01-01

    For almost 10 years, standard global products from NASA's Earth Observing System s (EOS) two Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors are being used world-wide for earth science research and applications. This paper discusses the lessons learned in developing the science algorithms and the data systems needed to produce these high quality data products for the earth sciences community. Strong science team leadership and communication, an evolvable and scalable data system, and central coordination of QA and validation activities enabled the data system to grow by two orders of magnitude from the initial at-launch system to the current system able to reprocess data from both the Terra and Aqua missions in less than a year. Many of the lessons learned from MODIS are already being applied to follow-on missions.

  12. Nuclear Instrumentation and Control Cyber Testbed Considerations – Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Jonathan Gray; Robert Anderson; Julio G. Rodriguez; Cheol-Kwon Lee

    2014-08-01

    Abstract: Identifying and understanding digital instrumentation and control (I&C) cyber vulnerabilities within nuclear power plants and other nuclear facilities, is critical if nation states desire to operate nuclear facilities safely, reliably, and securely. In order to demonstrate objective evidence that cyber vulnerabilities have been adequately identified and mitigated, a testbed representing a facility’s critical nuclear equipment must be replicated. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has built and operated similar testbeds for common critical infrastructure I&C for over ten years. This experience developing, operating, and maintaining an I&C testbed in support of research identifying cyber vulnerabilities has led the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute of the Republic of Korea to solicit the experiences of INL to help mitigate problems early in the design, development, operation, and maintenance of a similar testbed. The following information will discuss I&C testbed lessons learned and the impact of these experiences to KAERI.

  13. Resurrected DSCOVR Propulsion System - Challenges and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varia, Apurva P.; Scroggins, Ashley R.

    2015-01-01

    The Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR), formerly known as Triana, is a unique mission, not because of its objectives but because of how long it was in storage before launch. The Triana spacecraft was built in the late 90s and later renamed as DSCOVR, but the project was canceled before the spacecraft was launched. The nearly-complete spacecraft was put in controlled storage for 10 years, until the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) provided funding for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to refurbish the spacecraft. On February 11, 2015, DSCOVR was launched on a Falcon 9 v1.1 from launch complex 40 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. This paper describes the DSCOVR propulsion system, which utilizes ten 4.5 N thrusters in blowdown mode to perform Midcourse Correction (MCC) maneuvers, Lissajous Orbit Insertion (LOI) at Lagrangian point L1, momentum unloading maneuvers, and station keeping delta-v maneuvers at L1. This paper also describes the testing that was performed, including susbsystem-level and spacecraft-level tests, to verify the propulsion system's integrity for flight. Finally, this paper concludes with a discussion of the challenges and lessons learned during this unique mission, including replacement of a bent thruster and installation of an auxiliary heater over existing propellant line heaters.

  14. Seating arrangements for children with insufficient head control: lessons from trials using the i2i head & neck positioning & support system

    PubMed Central

    Uyama, Sachie; Hanaki, Keiichi

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] An insufficient head control is the most troublesome condition for children with impaired mobility who require optimal seating. [Subjects and Methods] We report on the clinical trial of the newly developed i2i head & neck positioning & support system called i2i for locomotively disabled children with periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). [Results] Two major advantages of the i2i were observed in the trial. The first was its favorable effect on the alignment of the spine to prevent scoliosis and to provide stable breathing and optimal seating, which resulted in improvement of the children’s activities of daily living (ADL). The second was its direct application of force to the head rather than indirectly to the pelvis in a conventional seat arrangement. The conventional way of head support is based on stabilization of the trunk which is based on stabilization of the pelvis by some seating arrangement. [Conclusion] The trial of the i2i device demonstrated its usefulness in helping PVL children with insufficient head control develop their abilities while preventing secondary disability. PMID:25931766

  15. Seating arrangements for children with insufficient head control: lessons from trials using the i2i head & neck positioning & support system.

    PubMed

    Uyama, Sachie; Hanaki, Keiichi

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] An insufficient head control is the most troublesome condition for children with impaired mobility who require optimal seating. [Subjects and Methods] We report on the clinical trial of the newly developed i2i head & neck positioning & support system called i2i for locomotively disabled children with periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). [Results] Two major advantages of the i2i were observed in the trial. The first was its favorable effect on the alignment of the spine to prevent scoliosis and to provide stable breathing and optimal seating, which resulted in improvement of the children's activities of daily living (ADL). The second was its direct application of force to the head rather than indirectly to the pelvis in a conventional seat arrangement. The conventional way of head support is based on stabilization of the trunk which is based on stabilization of the pelvis by some seating arrangement. [Conclusion] The trial of the i2i device demonstrated its usefulness in helping PVL children with insufficient head control develop their abilities while preventing secondary disability. PMID:25931766

  16. Implementing a regional oncology information system: approach and lessons learned

    PubMed Central

    Evans, W.K.; Ashbury, F.D.; Hogue, G.L.; Smith, A.; Pun, J.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Paper-based medical record systems are known to have major problems of inaccuracy, incomplete data, poor accessibility, and challenges to patient confidentiality. They are also an inefficient mechanism of record-sharing for interdisciplinary patient assessment and management, and represent a major problem for keeping current and monitoring quality control to facilitate improvement. To address those concerns, national, regional, and local health care authorities have increased the pressure on oncology practices to upgrade from paper-based systems to electronic health records. Objectives Here, we describe and discuss the challenges to implementing a region-wide oncology information system across four independent health care organizations, and we describe the lessons learned from the initial phases that are now being applied in subsequent activities of this complex project. Results The need for change must be shared across centres to increase buy-in, adoption, and implementation. It is essential to establish physician leadership, commitment, and engagement in the process. Work processes had to be revised to optimize use of the new system. Culture change must be included in the change management strategy. Furthermore, training and resource requirements must be thoroughly planned, implemented, monitored, and modified as required for effective adoption of new work processes and technology. Interfaces must be established with multiple existing electronic systems across the region to ensure appropriate patient flow. Periodic assessment of the existing project structure is necessary, and adjustments are often required to ensure that the project meets its objectives. Conclusions The implementation of region-wide oncology information systems across different health practice locations has many challenges. Leadership is essential. A strong, collaborative information-sharing strategy across the region and with the supplier is essential to identify, discuss, and resolve

  17. Heritage Systems Engineering Lessons from NASA Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barley, Bryan; Newhouse, Marilyn; Clardy, Dennon

    2010-01-01

    In the design and development of complex spacecraft missions, project teams frequently assume the use of advanced technology systems or heritage systems to enable a mission or reduce the overall mission risk and cost. As projects proceed through the development life cycle, increasingly detailed knowledge of the advanced and heritage systems within the spacecraft and mission environment identifies unanticipated technical issues. Resolving these issues often results in cost overruns and schedule impacts. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Discovery & New Frontiers (D&NF) Program Office at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) recently studied cost overruns and schedule delays for 5 missions. The goal was to identify the underlying causes for the overruns and delays, and to develop practical mitigations to assist the D&NF projects in identifying potential risks and controlling the associated impacts to proposed mission costs and schedules. The study found that optimistic hardware/software inheritance and technology readiness assumptions caused cost and schedule growth for all five missions studied. The cost and schedule growth was not found to be the result of technical hurdles requiring significant technology development. The projects institutional inheritance and technology readiness processes appear to adequately assess technology viability and prevent technical issues from impacting the final mission success. However, the processes do not appear to identify critical issues early enough in the design cycle to ensure project schedules and estimated costs address the inherent risks. In general, the overruns were traceable to: an inadequate understanding of the heritage system s behavior within the proposed spacecraft design and mission environment; an insufficient level of development experience with the heritage system; or an inadequate scoping of the systemwide impacts necessary to implement an advanced technology for space flight applications

  18. Customizing the JPL Multimission Ground Data System: Lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Susan C.; Louie, John J.; Guerrero, Ana Maria; Hurley, Daniel; Flora-Adams, Dana

    1994-01-01

    The Multimission Ground Data System (MGDS) at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory has brought improvements and new technologies to mission operations. It was designed as a generic data system to meet the needs of multiple missions and avoid re-inventing capabilities for each new mission and thus reduce costs. It is based on adaptable tools that can be customized to support different missions and operations scenarios. The MGDS is based on a distributed client/server architecture, with powerful Unix workstations, incorporating standards and open system architectures. The distributed architecture allows remote operations and user science data exchange, while also providing capabilities for centralized ground system monitor and control. The MGDS has proved its capabilities in supporting multiple large-class missions simultaneously, including the Voyager, Galileo, Magellan, Ulysses, and Mars Observer missions. The Operations Engineering Lab (OEL) at JPL has been leading Customer Adaptation Training (CAT) teams for adapting and customizing MGDS for the various operations and engineering teams. These CAT teams have typically consisted of only a few engineers who are familiar with operations and with the MGDS software and architecture. Our experience has provided a unique opportunity to work directly with the spacecraft and instrument operations teams and understand their requirements and how the MGDS can be adapted and customized to minimize their operations costs. As part of this work, we have developed workstation configurations, automation tools, and integrated user interfaces at minimal cost that have significantly improved productivity. We have also proved that these customized data systems are most successful if they are focused on the people and the tasks they perform and if they are based upon user confidence in the development team resulting from daily interactions. This paper will describe lessons learned in adapting JPL's MGDS to fly the Voyager, Galileo, and Mars

  19. Lessons learned in control center technologies and non-technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Elaine R.

    1991-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on the Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME) Control Center and the Oculometer and Automated Space Interface System (OASIS). Topics covered include SME mission operations functions; technical and non-technical features of the SME control center; general tasks and objects within the Space Station Freedom (SSF) ground system nodes; OASIS-Real Time for the control and monitoring of of space systems and subsystems; and OASIS planning, scheduling, and PC architecture.

  20. Lessons from the German Dual System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyslop, Alisha

    2012-01-01

    Most average Americans know more about the food in Germany than the education structure, but its emphasis on a dual system of education and training has a number of insights to offer to American career and technical educators. This author had the opportunity to observe firsthand the vocational education and training system, or "VET" system as it…

  1. Lessons from risk assessment of countermine robotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chappell, Isaac; Moses, Franklin L.; Aeillo, Matthew P.

    2011-05-01

    The U.S. Army's desire for increased standoff distances between Soldiers and disguised explosive threats has yielded a complex new technical challenge: augment existing small military robots with state-of-the-art detection and neutralization technology. The magnitude of the challenge is increased by the need for reliable autonomy that allows the robot to operate in different environments (e.g., complex and urban terrains, confined areas, and underground locations). This paper describes lessons learned during efforts in 2008-09 to identify and remediate risks of developing a countermine robot system. It also addresses issues that need attention to achieve total mission success. The work studied three phases of a robotic countermine system: move to a threat area, investigate that area with sensor(s), and neutralize detected threats. Each of these phases is essential, yet attention tends to focus on the third one. The focus of this paper is on risks and lessons pertaining to the first two. What was learned about moving a countermine robot to the area of expected threats? What is necessary for a robot to maneuver sensors and have the maximum probability of detection (Pd) of hazards while minimizing the false alarm rate (FAR)? This paper presents observations during demonstration and test events over the past 2 years. From those observations, lessons learned are summarized as a foundation for realizing a countermine robot and a path forward.

  2. Changing Course Management Systems: Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, Kathy A.; Meyer, Katrina A.

    2005-01-01

    During 2003, the North Dakota University System began to be concerned about the cost of supporting multiple course management systems. Since 1997, the 11 NDUS institutions had used 9 different course management packages, including one homegrown product (HTMLeZ) and such proprietary products as Blackboard, WebCT, and e-College. The University of…

  3. Apollo Lesson Sampler: Apollo 13 Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interbartolo, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains a two-part case study of the Apollo 13 accident. The first lesson contains an overview of the electrical system hardware on the Apollo spacecraft, providing a context for the details of the oxygen tank explosion, and the failure chain reconstruction that led to the conditions present at the time of the accident. Given this background, the lesson then covers the tank explosion and immediate damage to the spacecraft, and the immediate response of Mission Control to what they saw. Part 2 of the lesson picks up shortly after the explosion of the oxygen tank on Apollo 13, and discusses how Mission Control gained insight to and understanding of the damage in the aftermath. Impacts to various spacecraft systems are presented, along with Mission Control's reactions and plans for in-flight recovery leading to a successful entry. Finally, post-flight vehicle changes are presented along with the lessons learned.

  4. Computational design of ICCP systems: Lessons learned and future directions

    SciTech Connect

    DeGiorgi, V.G.; Lucas, K.E.

    1999-07-01

    Computational modeling using boundary element techniques has been proposed for design and evaluation of shipboard impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) systems. LaPlace's equation, the governing differential equation for electrochemical corrosion, is well suited for solution by the boundary element method. There has been much work performed in this field during the past two decades. Computational modeling efforts designed to validate boundary element procedures are reviewed. US Navy ship systems discussed are CG-59, CG-66, and CVN-068. Computational analysis accuracy is determined by comparison with physical scale modeling experimental results. Lessons learned from the analysis described are summarized. Advantages and disadvantages of boundary element modeling are discussed.

  5. Time to retrieve the best benefits from renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibition in heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction: lessons from randomized controlled trials and registries.

    PubMed

    Rossignol, Patrick; Zannad, Faiez; Pitt, Bertram

    2014-12-20

    Numerous registries, including the most recent ESC Euro-observational registry, have reported a large and persistent gap between real-life practice in the use of life-saving evidence-based therapies (such as renin angiotensin antagonists, beta-blockers, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists) and recommended practices in international guidelines. Although the use of multiple renin angiotensin aldosterone system-inhibitors is associated with the development of worsening renal function and hyperkalemia in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction, increased efforts should be expended to initiate and maintain target doses of these agents so as to provide their benefits on mortality and hospitalizations for heart failure. PMID:25465821

  6. LANSCE personnel access control system

    SciTech Connect

    Sturrock, J.C.; Gallegos, F.R.; Hall, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    The Radiation Security System (RSS) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) provides personnel protection from prompt radiation due to accelerated beam. The Personnel Access Control System (PACS) is a component of the RSS that is designed to prevent personnel access to areas where prompt radiation is a hazard. PACS was designed to replace several older personnel safety systems (PSS) with a single modem unified design. Lessons learned from the operation over the last 20 years were incorporated into a redundant sensor, single-point failure safe, fault tolerant, and tamper-resistant system that prevents access to the beam areas by controlling the access keys and beam stoppers. PACS uses a layered philosophy to the physical and electronic design. The most critical assemblies are battery backed up, relay logic circuits; less critical devices use Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) for timing functions and communications. Outside reviewers have reviewed the operational safety of the design. The design philosophy, lessons learned, hardware design, software design, operation, and limitations of the device are described.

  7. Systemic Amyloidosis: Lessons from β2-Microglobulin*

    PubMed Central

    Stoppini, Monica; Bellotti, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    β2-Microglobulin is responsible for systemic amyloidosis affecting patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis. Its genetic variant D76N causes a very rare form of familial systemic amyloidosis. These two types of amyloidoses differ significantly in terms of the tissue localization of deposits and for major pathological features. Considering how the amyloidogenesis of the β2-microglobulin mechanism has been scrutinized in depth for the last three decades, the comparative analysis of molecular and pathological properties of wild type β2-microglobulin and of the D76N variant offers a unique opportunity to critically reconsider the current understanding of the relation between the protein's structural properties and its pathologic behavior. PMID:25750126

  8. Middeck Active Control Experiment Reflight (MACE II): lessons learned and reflight status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ninneman, Ronald R.; Denoyer, Keith K.

    2000-06-01

    The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) is sponsoring the Middeck Active Control Experiment Reflight (MACE II) Program. MACE II is a manned space experiment that evaluates the capabilities of adaptive control of flexible structures in the zero-g environment of the space shuttle's Middeck. MACE II has grown out of lessons learned from the original MACE flight and from AFRL sponsored structural control experiments. Previous experiments required extensive testing and 'tuning' for their particular test environment to meet their performance expectations. Such a process is too inefficient to be seriously considered for operational systems, especially space-based systems where access is limited. MACE II takes the next logical step by evaluating the capability of adaptive structural control algorithms AFRL has assembled a team of five small businesses and universities to develop and evaluate several adaptive control methodologies. In addition, AFRL has recruited a second science team led by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology to evaluate control system for time-varying and geometrically nonlinear systems. This paper is an overview of the AFRL science team only.

  9. Lessons Learned from the Node 1 Temperature and Humidity Control Subsystem Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Node 1 flew to the International Space Station (ISS) on Flight 2A during December 1998. To date the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has learned a lot of lessons from this module based on its history of approximately two years of acceptance testing on the ground and currently its twelve years on-orbit. This paper will provide an overview of the ISS Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) design of the Node 1 Temperature and Humidity Control (THC) subsystem and it will document some of the lessons that have been learned to date for this subsystem and it will document some of the lessons that have been learned to date for these subsystems based on problems prelaunch, problems encountered on-orbit, and operational problems/concerns. It is hoped that documenting these lessons learned from ISS will help in preventing them in future Programs. 1

  10. Japanese healthcare system: lessons to be learned.

    PubMed

    Ikegami, Naoki

    2009-06-01

    Naoki Ikegami is Professor and Chair of the Department of Health Policy and Management at the Keio University School of Medicine (Tokyo, Japan), from which he received his MD and PhD. He also received a Master of Arts degree in health services studies with Distinction from Leeds University (UK). During 1990-1991, he was a visiting Professor at the University of Pennsylvania's Wharton School and Medical School (PA, USA). His publications include "The Art of Balance in Health Policy--Maintaining Japan's Low-Cost Egalitarian System" (Cambridge University Press, 1998) with John C Campbell, and "Measuring the quality of long-term care in institutional and community settings. In: "Measuring Up--Improving Health Care Performance in OECD Countries" (OECD, 2002) with John Hirdes and Iain Carpenter. His interests are comparative health policy, long-term care and reimbursement systems. He is currently president of the Japan Society on Healthcare Administration, and the Japan Healtheconomics Society. Here, Naoki Ikegami talks to Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research about how Japan is dealing with the health policy issues of today. PMID:19527091

  11. Lessons Learned from Pit Viper System Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Catalan, Michael A.; Alzheimer, James M.; Valdez, Patrick LJ; Bailey, Sharon A.; Baker, Carl P.

    2002-04-11

    Tele-operated and robotic systems operated in unstructured field environments pose unique challenges for tool design. Since field tasks are not always well defined and the robot work area usually cannot be designed for ease of operation, the tools must be versatile. It's important to carefully consider the orientation of the grip the robot takes on the tool, as it's not easily changed in the field. The stiffness of the robot and the possibility of robot positioning errors encourages the use of non-contact or minimal-contact tooling. While normal hand tools can usually be modified for use by the robot, this is not always the most effective approach. It's desirable to have tooling that is relatively independent of the robot; in this case, the robot places the tool near the desired work location and the tool performs its task relatively independently. Here we consider the adaptation of a number of tools for cleanup of a radioactively contaminated piping junction and valve pit. The tasks to be considered are debris removal (small nuts and bolts and pipe up to 100 mm in diameter), size reduction, surface cleaning, and support of past practice crane-based methods for working in the pits.

  12. Lessons learned in over 100 zebra mussel control applications at industrial facilities

    SciTech Connect

    McGough, C.M.; Gilland, P.H.; Muia, R.A.

    1998-12-31

    Since their introduction into US waterways, Zebra Mussels (Dreissena polymorphae) have spread rapidly throughout the Great Lakes and Mississippi regions. These mussels have continued to colonize the intake pipes of industrial water supplies and water distribution systems throughout the affected areas. Their colonization has compromised plant safety and production efficiency, and steadily increased costs to water users. The design of each industrial plant water distribution system is unique. A comprehensive zebra mussel control strategy using the best available options must be considered in each specific situation. This paper discusses the successful use of one strategy (a quaternary ammonia-based molluscicide) in the battle against zebra mussels. The commercial life cycle of an industrial molluscicide began with initial toxicity screening in the laboratory. The evaluation continued at plant sites through field trials and applications. Lessons learned from these experiences helped direct the efforts toward the development of a second generation program.

  13. Production of an Automated Lesson for Use on the Audio Visual Response System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowse, Nancy

    The development, production, and evaluation of an automated lesson for use on the Audio Visual Response System (AVR System 400) is described in this paper. Establishment of learning objectives was the central focus of the lesson development process, followed by script development and the planning and design of illustrative materials. These…

  14. Lessons Learned Study Final Report for the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Laak, Jim; Brumfield, M. Larry; Moore, Arlene A.; Anderson, Brooke; Dempsey, Jim; Gifford, Bob; Holloway, Chip; Johnson, Keith

    2004-01-01

    This report is the final product of a 90-day study performed for the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. The study was to assemble lessons NASA has learned from previous programs that could help the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate pursue the Exploration vision. It focuses on those lessons that should have the greatest significance to the Directorate during the formulation of program and mission plans. The study team reviewed a large number of lessons learned reports and data bases, including the Columbia Accident Investigation Board and Rogers Commission reports on the Shuttle accidents, accident reports from robotic space flight systems, and a number of management reviews by the Defense Sciences Board, Government Accountability Office, and others. The consistency of the lessons, findings, and recommendations validate the adequacy of the data set. In addition to reviewing existing databases, a series of workshops was held at each of the NASA centers and headquarters that included senior managers from the current workforce as well as retirees. The full text of the workshop reports is included in Appendix A. A lessons learned website was opened up to permit current and retired NASA personnel and on-site contractors to input additional lessons as they arise. These new lessons, when of appropriate quality and relevance, will be brought to the attention of managers. The report consists of four parts: Part 1 provides a small set of lessons, called the Executive Lessons Learned, that represent critical lessons that the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate should act on immediately. This set of Executive Lessons and their supporting rationale have been reviewed at length and fully endorsed by a team of distinguished NASA alumni; Part 2 contains a larger set of lessons, called the Selected Lessons Learned, which have been chosen from the lessons database and center workshop reports on the basis of their specific significance and relevance to the near

  15. “Why Didn’t it Work?” Lessons From a Randomized Controlled Trial of a Web-based Personally Controlled Health Management System for Adults with Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Arguel, Amaël; Dennis, Sarah; Liaw, Siaw-Teng; Coiera, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Background Personally controlled health management systems (PCHMS), which may include a personal health record (PHR), health management tools, and information resources, have been advocated as a next-generation technology to improve health behaviors and outcomes. There have been successful trials of PCHMS in various health settings. However, there is mixed evidence for whether consumers will use these systems over the long term and whether they ultimately lead to improved health outcomes and behaviors. Objective The aim was to test whether use of a PCHMS by consumers can increase the uptake or updating of a written asthma action plan (AAP) among adults with asthma. Methods A 12-month parallel 2-group randomized controlled trial was conducted. Participants living with asthma were recruited nationally in Australia between April and August 2013, and randomized 1:1 to either the PCHMS group or control group (online static educational content). The primary outcome measure was possession of an up-to-date written AAP poststudy. Secondary measures included (1) utilizing the AAP; (2) planned or unplanned visits to a health care professional for asthma-related concerns; (3) severe asthma exacerbation, inadequately controlled asthma, or worsening of asthma that required a change in treatment; and (4) number of days lost from work or study due to asthma. Ancillary analyses examined reasons for adoption or nonadoption of the intervention. Outcome measures were collected by online questionnaire prestudy, monthly, and poststudy. Results A total of 330 eligible participants were randomized into 1 of 2 arms (intervention: n=154; control: n=176). Access to the PCHMS was not associated with a significant difference in any of the primary or secondary outcomes. Most participants (80.5%, 124/154) did not access the intervention or accessed it only once. Conclusions Despite the intervention being effective in other preventive care settings, system use was negligible and outcome changes

  16. Medical devices transition to information systems: lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Charters, Kathleen G

    2012-01-01

    Medical devices designed to network can share data with a Clinical Information System (CIS), making that data available within clinician workflow. Some lessons learned by transitioning anesthesia reporting and monitoring devices (ARMDs) on a local area network (LAN) to integration of anesthesia documentation within a CIS include the following categories: access, contracting, deployment, implementation, planning, security, support, training and workflow integration. Areas identified for improvement include: Vendor requirements for access reconciled with the organizations' security policies and procedures. Include clauses supporting transition from stand-alone devices to information integrated into clinical workflow in the medical device procurement contract. Resolve deployment and implementation barriers that make the process less efficient and more costly. Include effective field communication and creative alternatives in planning. Build training on the baseline knowledge of trainees. Include effective help desk processes and metrics. Have a process for determining where problems originate when systems share information. PMID:24199054

  17. Satellite-instrument system engineering best practices and lessons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schueler, Carl F.

    2009-08-01

    This paper focuses on system engineering development issues driving satellite remote sensing instrumentation cost and schedule. A key best practice is early assessment of mission and instrumentation requirements priorities driving performance trades among major instrumentation measurements: Radiometry, spatial field of view and image quality, and spectral performance. Key lessons include attention to technology availability and applicability to prioritized requirements, care in applying heritage, approaching fixed-price and cost-plus contracts with appropriate attention to risk, and assessing design options with attention to customer preference as well as design performance, and development cost and schedule. A key element of success either in contract competition or execution is team experience. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of success, however, is thorough requirements analysis and flowdown to specifications driving design performance with sufficient parameter margin to allow for mistakes or oversights - the province of system engineering from design inception to development, test and delivery.

  18. Cost Estimation and Control for Flight Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, Walter E.; Vanhook, Michael E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Good program management practices, cost analysis, cost estimation, and cost control for aerospace flight systems are interrelated and depend upon each other. The best cost control process cannot overcome poor design or poor systems trades that lead to the wrong approach. The project needs robust Technical, Schedule, Cost, Risk, and Cost Risk practices before it can incorporate adequate Cost Control. Cost analysis both precedes and follows cost estimation -- the two are closely coupled with each other and with Risk analysis. Parametric cost estimating relationships and computerized models are most often used. NASA has learned some valuable lessons in controlling cost problems, and recommends use of a summary Project Manager's checklist as shown here.

  19. Development of Constellation's Launch Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lougheed, Kirk D.; Peaden, Cary J.

    2010-01-01

    The paper focuses on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Constellation Program's Launch Control System (LCS) development effort at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). It provides a brief history of some preceding efforts to provide launch control and ground processing systems for other NASA programs, and some lessons learned from those experiences. It then provides high level descriptions of the LCS mission, objectives, organization, architecture, and progress. It discusses some of our development tenets, including our use of standards based design and use of off-the-shelf products whenever possible, incremental development cycles, and highly reliable, available, and supportable enterprise class system servers. It concludes with some new lessons learned and our plans for the future.

  20. Lessons not to make light of (when designing optical systems for space)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendrick, Stephen E.

    2015-09-01

    There is a range of lessons learned when taking an optical system from design through deployment in space. I will summarize some key lessons and observations related to both airborne and spaceborne optical systems with an emphasis on light weighted optics and space telescopes. Areas discussed encompass 1) the initial architecture and system trades as constrained by system error budgets, 2) manufacturing considerations, 3) testing implications, and 4) real and perceived cost impacts.

  1. Lessons Learned and Technical Standards: A Logical Marriage for Future Space Systems Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, Paul S.; Garcia, Danny; Vaughan, William W.; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A comprehensive database of engineering lessons learned that corresponds with relevant technical standards will be a valuable asset to those engaged in studies on future space vehicle developments, especially for structures, materials, propulsion, control, operations and associated elements. In addition, this will enable the capturing of technology developments applicable to the design, development, and operation of future space vehicles as planned in the Space Launch Initiative. Using the time-honored tradition of passing on lessons learned while utilizing the newest information technology, NASA has launched an intensive effort to link lessons learned acquired through various Internet databases with applicable technical standards. This paper will discuss the importance of lessons learned, the difficulty in finding relevant lessons learned while engaged in a space vehicle development, and the new NASA effort to relate them to technical standards that can help alleviate this difficulty.

  2. Synthetic vision system flight test results and lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radke, Jeffrey

    1993-01-01

    Honeywell Systems and Research Center developed and demonstrated an active 35 GHz Radar Imaging system as part of the FAA/USAF/Industry sponsored Synthetic Vision System Technology Demonstration (SVSTD) Program. The objectives of this presentation are to provide a general overview of flight test results, a system level perspective that encompasses the efforts of the SVSTD and Augmented VIsual Display (AVID) programs, and more importantly, provide the AVID workshop participants with Honeywell's perspective on the lessons that were learned from the SVS flight tests. One objective of the SVSTD program was to explore several known system issues concerning radar imaging technology. The program ultimately resolved some of these issues, left others open, and in fact created several new concerns. In some instances, the interested community has drawn improper conclusions from the program by globally attributing implementation specific issues to radar imaging technology in general. The motivation for this presentation is therefore to provide AVID researchers with a better understanding of the issues that truly remain open, and to identify the perceived issues that are either resolved or were specific to Honeywell's implementation.

  3. Several CASE Lessons Can Improve Students' Control of Variables Reasoning Scheme Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babai, Reuven; Levit-Dori, Tamar

    2009-01-01

    This study addressed one aspect of scientific reasoning, the control of variables reasoning scheme. We explored whether a short intervention aimed at accelerating this reasoning scheme by CASE lessons would improve students' ability to apply this scheme in problems related to the biology curriculum. About 120 students from grade nine were assessed…

  4. The Effects of Variations in Lesson Control and Practice on Learning from Interactive Video.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannafin, Michael J.; Colamaio, MaryAnne E.

    1987-01-01

    Discussion of the effects of variations in lesson control and practice on the learning of facts, procedures, and problem-solving skills during interactive video instruction focuses on a study of graduates and advanced level undergraduates learning cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Embedded questioning methods and posttests used are described.…

  5. Lessons from Archimedes, a system for planning and executing mechanical assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Strip, D.

    1992-04-01

    Archimedes is a prototype mechanical assembly system which generates and executes robot assembly programs from a CAD model input. The system seeks to increase flexibility in robotic mechanical assembly applications by automating the programming task. Input is a solid model of the finished assembly, augmented by additional design information such as weld specifications. Parts relationships and geometric constraints are deduced from the solid model. A rule-based planner generates a ``generic`` assembly plan that satisfies the geometric constraints, as well as other constraints embodied in the rules. A plan compiler then converts the generic plan into code specific to an application environment. Other outputs include fixture designs, workcell layout information, object-recognition (vision) routines, grasp plans, and executable code for controlling the robot and workcell accessories. Lessons from operating and demonstrating the system are presented, with a particular emphasis on the implications for future systems. 12 refs.

  6. Lessons from Archimedes, a system for planning and executing mechanical assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Strip, D.

    1992-01-01

    Archimedes is a prototype mechanical assembly system which generates and executes robot assembly programs from a CAD model input. The system seeks to increase flexibility in robotic mechanical assembly applications by automating the programming task. Input is a solid model of the finished assembly, augmented by additional design information such as weld specifications. Parts relationships and geometric constraints are deduced from the solid model. A rule-based planner generates a generic'' assembly plan that satisfies the geometric constraints, as well as other constraints embodied in the rules. A plan compiler then converts the generic plan into code specific to an application environment. Other outputs include fixture designs, workcell layout information, object-recognition (vision) routines, grasp plans, and executable code for controlling the robot and workcell accessories. Lessons from operating and demonstrating the system are presented, with a particular emphasis on the implications for future systems. 12 refs.

  7. Capturing flight system test engineering expertise: Lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woerner, Irene Wong

    1991-01-01

    Within a few years, JPL will be challenged by the most active mission set in history. Concurrently, flight systems are increasingly more complex. Presently, the knowledge to conduct integration and test of spacecraft and large instruments is held by a few key people, each with many years of experience. JPL is in danger of losing a significant amount of this critical expertise, through retirement, during a period when demand for this expertise is rapidly increasing. The most critical issue at hand is to collect and retain this expertise and develop tools that would ensure the ability to successfully perform the integration and test of future spacecraft and large instruments. The proposed solution was to capture and codity a subset of existing knowledge, and to utilize this captured expertise in knowledge-based systems. First year results and activities planned for the second year of this on-going effort are described. Topics discussed include lessons learned in knowledge acquisition and elicitation techniques, life-cycle paradigms, and rapid prototyping of a knowledge-based advisor (Spacecraft Test Assistant) and a hypermedia browser (Test Engineering Browser). The prototype Spacecraft Test Assistant supports a subset of integration and test activities for flight systems. Browser is a hypermedia tool that allows users easy perusal of spacecraft test topics. A knowledge acquisition tool called ConceptFinder which was developed to search through large volumes of data for related concepts is also described and is modified to semi-automate the process of creating hypertext links.

  8. Taking Aim At Guns...Gun Control Lessons for Intermediate, Junior and Senior High Schools. A Teacher's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    This guide is intended to assist classroom teachers in developing lessons revolving around New York's 1980 handgun control law. It contains model lesson plans and a section on resource materials designed to provide insight into the law and its ramifications. The guide is designed for use in intermediate, junior and senior high schools. (Author/APM)

  9. Precision digital control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyskub, V. G.; Rozov, B. S.; Savelev, V. I.

    This book is concerned with the characteristics of digital control systems of great accuracy. A classification of such systems is considered along with aspects of stabilization, programmable control applications, digital tracking systems and servomechanisms, and precision systems for the control of a scanning laser beam. Other topics explored are related to systems of proportional control, linear devices and methods for increasing precision, approaches for further decreasing the response time in the case of high-speed operation, possibilities for the implementation of a logical control law, and methods for the study of precision digital control systems. A description is presented of precision automatic control systems which make use of electronic computers, taking into account the existing possibilities for an employment of computers in automatic control systems, approaches and studies required for including a computer in such control systems, and an analysis of the structure of automatic control systems with computers. Attention is also given to functional blocks in the considered systems.

  10. Impulse control and criminal responsibility: lessons from neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Penney, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Almost all of the world's legal systems recognize the "M'Naghten" exception to criminal responsibility: the inability to appreciate the wrongfulness of action. This exception rests on the assumption that punishment is morally justified only if the defendant was able to choose whether to do wrong. Jurists and jurisdictions differ, however, on whether to extend M'Naghten's logic to cases where the defendant understood the wrongfulness of an act but was incapable of resisting an impulse to commit it. In this article I ask whether contemporary neuroscience can help lawmakers to decide whether to adopt or retain this defense, known variously as the "irresistible impulse" defense or the "control" or "volitional" test for insanity. More specifically, I ask firstly, whether it is empirically true that a person can understand the wrongfulness of an act yet be powerless to refrain from committing it; and second (assuming an affirmative answer to the first), whether the law of criminal responsibility can practically accommodate this phenomenon? After canvassing the relevant neuroscientific literature, I conclude that the answer to the first question is "yes." After examining the varied treatment of the defense in the United States and other nations, I also give an affirmative answer to the second question, but only in limited circumstances. In short, the defense of irresistible impulse should be recognized, but only when it can be shown that the defendant experienced a total incapacity to control his or her conduct in the circumstances. PMID:22261322

  11. Control system design method

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, David G.; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2012-02-21

    A control system design method and concomitant control system comprising representing a physical apparatus to be controlled as a Hamiltonian system, determining elements of the Hamiltonian system representation which are power generators, power dissipators, and power storage devices, analyzing stability and performance of the Hamiltonian system based on the results of the determining step and determining necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of the Hamiltonian system, creating a stable control system based on the results of the analyzing step, and employing the resulting control system to control the physical apparatus.

  12. GCFR plant control system

    SciTech Connect

    Estrine, E.A.; Greiner, H.G.

    1980-05-01

    A plant control system is being designed for a gas-cooled fast breeder reactor (GCFR) demonstration plant. Control analysis is being performed as an integral part of the plant design process to ensure that control requirements are satisfied as the plant design evolves. The load control portion of the plant control system provides stable automatic (closed-loop) control of the plant over the 25% to 100% load range. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate load control system performance. The results show that the plant is controllable at full load with the control system structure selected, but gain scheduling is required to achieve desired performance over the load range.

  13. Multi-unit Operations in Non-Nuclear Systems: Lessons Learned for Small Modular Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    OHara J. M.; Higgins, J.; DAgostino, A.

    2012-01-17

    The nuclear-power community has reached the stage of proposing advanced reactor designs to support power generation for decades to come. Small modular reactors (SMRs) are one approach to meet these energy needs. While the power output of individual reactor modules is relatively small, they can be grouped to produce reactor sites with different outputs. Also, they can be designed to generate hydrogen, or to process heat. Many characteristics of SMRs are quite different from those of current plants and may be operated quite differently. One difference is that multiple units may be operated by a single crew (or a single operator) from one control room. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is examining the human factors engineering (HFE) aspects of SMRs to support licensing reviews. While we reviewed information on SMR designs to obtain information, the designs are not completed and all of the design and operational information is not yet available. Nor is there information on multi-unit operations as envisioned for SMRs available in operating experience. Thus, to gain a better understanding of multi-unit operations we sought the lesson learned from non-nuclear systems that have experience in multi-unit operations, specifically refineries, unmanned aerial vehicles and tele-intensive care units. In this paper we report the lessons learned from these systems and the implications for SMRs.

  14. Evaluating Policy, Systems, and Environmental Change Interventions: Lessons Learned From CDC’s Prevention Research Centers

    PubMed Central

    Leeman, Jennifer; McCarthy, William J.; Bastani, Roshan; Carter-Edwards, Lori; Clark, Heather; Garney, Whitney; Gustat, Jeanette; Hites, Lisle; Nothwehr, Faryle; Kegler, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The field of public health is increasingly implementing initiatives intended to make policies, systems, and environments (PSEs) more supportive of healthy behaviors, even though the evidence for many of these strategies is only emerging. Our objective was 3-fold: 1) to describe evaluations of PSE-change programs in which the evaluators followed the steps of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC’s) Framework for Program Evaluation in Public Health, 2) to share the resulting lessons learned, and 3) to assist future evaluators of PSE-change programs with their evaluation design decisions. Methods Seven Prevention Research Centers (PRCs) applied CDC’s framework to evaluate their own PSE-change initiatives. The PRCs followed each step of the framework: 1) engage stakeholders, 2) describe program, 3) focus evaluation design, 4) gather credible evidence, 5) justify conclusions, and 6) ensure use and share lessons learned. Results Evaluation stakeholders represented a range of sectors, including public health departments, partner organizations, and community members. Public health departments were the primary stakeholders for 4 of the 7 evaluations. Four PRCs used logic models to describe the initiatives being evaluated. Their evaluations typically included both process and outcome questions and used mixed methods. Evaluation findings most commonly focused on contextual factors influencing change (process) and the adoption or implementation of PSE-change strategies (outcome). Evaluators shared lessons learned through various channels to reach local stakeholders and broader public health audiences. Conclusion Framework for Program Evaluation in Public Health is applicable to evaluations of PSE-change initiatives. Using this framework to guide such evaluations builds practice-based evidence for strategies that are increasingly being used to promote healthful behaviors. PMID:26469947

  15. Detecting and controlling foodborne infections in humans: lessons for China from the United States experience.

    PubMed

    Varma, Jay K; Wu, Shuyu; Feng, Zijian

    2012-01-01

    In the past 50 years, the United States has made major advances in human health surveillance, research and outbreak investigation that have helped reduce microbial contamination of food. In China, food safety has emerged as one of the country's most prominent domestic concerns, but there has been limited investment in surveillance, inter-agency coordination, outbreak investigation and data synthesis. After large outbreaks of Salmonella in the 1960s and E. coli O157:H7 in the 1990s, the United States transformed its approach to detecting and investigating foodborne infections, including deployment of a national, laboratory-based surveillance system that uses molecular subtyping. In China, the absence of a national, laboratory-based surveillance system means that it is difficult to rapidly detect a widely dispersed foodborne infection outbreak or the emergence of new foodborne infections. Based on lessons learned in the United States, we propose policy and administrative changes that China can adopt to strengthen detection and control of foodborne infections. PMID:22175805

  16. FD-CHIRP: hosted payload system engineering lessons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schueler, Carl F.

    2012-10-01

    The Commercially Hosted Infrared Payload (CHIRP) Flight Demonstration (FD-CHIRP) launched 21 Sept 2011 was designated a "resounding success" as the first Wide Field-of-View (WFOV) staring infrared (IR) sensor flown in geostationary earth orbit (GEO) with a primary mission of Missile Warning (MW). FD-CHIRP was an Air Force research and development project initiated in July 2008 via an unsolicited industry proposal aimed to mature and reduce the risk of WFOV sensors and ground processing technologies. Unlike the Defense Support Program (DSP) and the Space Based Infrared System (SBIRS) which were acquired via traditional integrated sensor and satellite design, FDCHIRP was developed using the "commercially hosted" approach. The FD-CHIRP host spacecraft and sensor were independently designed, creating significant development risk to the industry proposer, especially under a Firm Fixed Price contract. Yet, within 39 months of contract initiation, FD-CHIRP was launched and successfully operated in GEO to 30 June 2012 at a total cost of 111M including the 82.9M CHIRP commercial-hosting contract and a $28M sensor upgrade. The commercial-hosting contract included sensor and spacecraft modifications, integration and test, design and development of secure Mission Operations and Analysis Centers, launch, and nearly a year of GEO operations with 70 Mbps secure data acquisition. The Air Force extended the contract for six months to continue operations through the end of calendar 2012. This paper outlines system engineering challenges FD-CHIRP overcame and key lessons to smooth development of future commercially hosted missions.

  17. Learner Control of Feedback in a Computer Lesson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pridemore, Doris R.; Klein, James D.

    This study assessed whether learner control of feedback has a beneficial effect in student performance and attitude, focusing on whether the degree of elaboration feedback needed for high performance could be determined. Program and learner control were used at three levels of feedback, verification, correct answer, and elaboration. Subjects were…

  18. The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum: Lessons in Biological Control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cactus moth was one of the success stories in classical biological control. In the 1920s, the prickly pear cactus was a serious pest in Australia. The cactus moth was imported from its native habitat in South America and proved so successful in controlling cactus that it was mass reared and exp...

  19. Digital wireless control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R.

    1993-08-01

    The Digital Wireless Control System (DWCS) is designed to initiate high explosives safely while using a wireless remote control system. Numerous safety features have been designed into the fire control system to mitigate the hazards associated with remote initiation of high explosives. These safety features range from a telemetry (TM) fire control status system to mechanical timers and keyed power lockout switches. The environment, safety, and health (ES&H) Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) SP471970 is intended as a guide when working with the DWCS. This report describes the Digital Wireless Control System and outlines each component's theory of operation and its relationship to the system.

  20. MARGINS mini-lessons: A tour of the Mariana Subduction System (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodliffe, A. M.; Oakley, A.

    2009-12-01

    MARGINS mini-lessons provide an efficient way to quickly move cutting edge MARGINS research into the university classroom. Instructors who are not necessarily familiar with the MARGINS program can easily use mini-lessons in a variety of educational settings. The mini-lesson described herein is centered on bathymetric and multi-channel seismic data collected during a 2003 NSF-MARGINS funded marine geophysical survey in the Mariana Basin. Designed as an approximately sixty minute lecture segment, the lesson covers both the techniques used to collect marine geophysical data and a description of the geology of the system. All geological provinces are included, from the subducting Pacific Plate in the east to the remnant arc in the west. Representative seismic lines and bathymetric images are presented for each province, along with a description of key processes including deformation of the subducting plate, serpentinite mud volcanism, forearc faulting, potentially tsunamigenic landslides, arc volcanism, and backarc spreading. The Mariana subduction system mini-lesson requires a computer with an internet connection, powerpoint, Google Earth, and a web-browser. Questions are embedded in the powerpoint presentation that can be adapted to a specific interactive response system as needed. Optimally the lesson should be used in parallel with a GeoWall. A 3-dimensional ArcScene visualization of the Mariana system is available for download through the MARGINS mini-lessons web site. Such visualizations are particularly effective in helping students understand complex three-dimensional systems. If presented in a computer lab students will benefit from being able to explore the Mariana system using tools such as GeoMapApp.

  1. Learning from Successful Skills Development Systems: Lessons from Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karmel, Tom

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the main institutional features of Australia's TVET sector, focussing particularly on the qualifications framework, how it relates to the labour market, and the role of industry. It also looks briefly at two current policy challenges for Australia. Seeking lessons for other countries in the Asia Pacific region, it…

  2. Preparing Future Teacher Leaders: Lessons from Exemplary School Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrum, Lynne; Levin, Barbara B.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that teachers have an opportunity to take on leadership roles in technology-rich schools and districts. Based on data collected during a year-long project to investigate award-winning schools and districts, we used observations, interviews and focus groups, and document analysis to glean lessons learned from leaders and…

  3. Lesson on Demand. Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Sue

    This lesson plan helps students understand the role consumer demand plays in the market system, i.e., how interactions in the marketplace help determine pricing. Students will participate in an activity that demonstrates the concepts of demand, demand schedule, demand curve, and the law of demand. The lesson plan provides student objectives;…

  4. Lesson Learning at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oberhettinger, David

    2011-01-01

    A lessons learned system is a hallmark of a mature engineering organization A formal lessons learned process can help assure that valuable lessons get written and published, that they are well-written, and that the essential information is "infused" into institutional practice. Requires high-level institutional commitment, and everyone's participation in gathering, disseminating, and using the lessons

  5. Health education campaign on population control: lessons from Iran.

    PubMed

    Montazeri, A

    1995-11-01

    A descriptive study was carried out in Tehran, the capital of Iran, to investigate a health education campaign on population control. A sample of 68 adults aged 20 to 40 years participated in the study. Each respondent was shown a picture of the campaign. They then filled in a short questionnaire. The main objectives of the study were to measure recall rates and to assess attitude of the subjects. The study results show that recall rates were high (78%), 68% of respondents claimed that the campaign is likely to change their attitudes towards population control, and 87% of participants perceived the main idea of the campaign correctly. The study findings show that there are some significant associations between demographic variables (marital status, having child or not) and perception of the campaign. These may lead health educators and health promoters to communicate more effectively and efficiently in the context of family planning. In countries with a large number of young people, health education campaigns on population control with respect to social values of each society and moral considerations are recommended. PMID:8570803

  6. Segment alignment control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aubrun, JEAN-N.; Lorell, Ken R.

    1988-01-01

    The segmented primary mirror for the LDR will require a special segment alignment control system to precisely control the orientation of each of the segments so that the resulting composite reflector behaves like a monolith. The W.M. Keck Ten Meter Telescope will utilize a primary mirror made up of 36 actively controlled segments. Thus the primary mirror and its segment alignment control system are directly analogous to the LDR. The problems of controlling the segments in the face of disturbances and control/structures interaction, as analyzed for the TMT, are virtually identical to those for the LDR. The two systems are briefly compared.

  7. Intelligent flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1993-01-01

    The capabilities of flight control systems can be enhanced by designing them to emulate functions of natural intelligence. Intelligent control functions fall in three categories. Declarative actions involve decision-making, providing models for system monitoring, goal planning, and system/scenario identification. Procedural actions concern skilled behavior and have parallels in guidance, navigation, and adaptation. Reflexive actions are spontaneous, inner-loop responses for control and estimation. Intelligent flight control systems learn knowledge of the aircraft and its mission and adapt to changes in the flight environment. Cognitive models form an efficient basis for integrating 'outer-loop/inner-loop' control functions and for developing robust parallel-processing algorithms.

  8. Lesson Plan on Comparative Political Systems: Compare and Contrast the Presidential Election System of the USA to the Parliamentary Election System of Hungary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Daniel W.

    This lesson describes the current government of Hungary and its underlying political and electoral systems. The lesson is structured with: (1) background on the parliamentary model of government, political parties, and Hungary's unique electoral system; (2) a summary of the six major political parties in Hungary and voter information for the 1990…

  9. Temperature offset control system

    SciTech Connect

    Fried, M.

    1987-07-28

    This patent describes a temperature offset control system for controlling the operation of both heating and air conditioning systems simultaneously contained within the same premises each of which is set by local thermostats to operate at an appropriate temperature, the offset control system comprising: a central control station having means for presetting an offset temperature range, means for sensing the temperature at a central location, means for comparing the sensed temperature with the offset temperature range, means responsive to the comparison for producing a control signal indicative of whether the sensed temperature is within the offset temperature range or beyond the offset temperature range, and means for transmitting the control signal onto the standard energy lines servicing the premises; and a receiving station respectively associated with each heating and air conditioning system, the receiving stations each comprising means for receiving the same transmitted control signal from the energy lines, and switch means for controlling the energization of the respective system in response to the received control signal. The heating systems and associated local thermostat are disabled by the control signal when the control signal originates from a sensed temperature above the lower end of the offset temperature range. The air conditioning systems and associated thermostats are disabled by the same control signal when the control signal originates from a sensed temperature below the upper end of the offset temperature range.

  10. Intermittent Control Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Thomas L.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    The technique of intermittent control systems for air quality control as developed and used by the Tennessee Valley Authority is investigated. Although controversial, all Tennessee Valley Authority sulfur dioxide elimination programs are scheduled to be operational this year. Existing or anticipated intermittent control systems are identified. (BT)

  11. Automated Serials Control System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Elizabeth

    In 1967, the New York State Library at Albany (NYSL) developed a tape-oriented, off-line serials control system for 10,000 active titles. The system would perform all the serials control functions: bibliographic control, check-in of current receipts, claiming for gaps in receipts and late issues, binding notification for completed sets,…

  12. Lessons from the TAPS study - message handling and appointment systems.

    PubMed

    Makeham, Meredith A B; Cooper, Chris; Kidd, Michael R

    2008-06-01

    The Threats to Australian Patient Safety (TAPS) Study collected 648 anonymous reports about threats to patient safety from a representative random sample of Australian general practitioners. These contained any events the GPs felt should not have happened, and would not want to happen again, regardless of who was at fault or the outcome of the event. This series of articles presents clinical lessons resulting from the TAPS study. PMID:18523697

  13. Lessons from the TAPS study--recall and reminder systems.

    PubMed

    Makeham, Meredith A B; Saltman, Deborah C; Kidd, Michael R

    2008-11-01

    The Threats to Australian Patient Safety (TAPS) study collected 648 anonymous reports about threats to patient safety from a representative random sample of Australian general practitioners. These contained any events the GPs felt should not have happened and would not want to happen again, regardless of who was at fault or the outcome of the event. THis series of articles presents clinical lessons resulting from the TAPS study. PMID:19037466

  14. JT-60 Control System

    SciTech Connect

    Yonekawa, I.; Kawamata, Y.; Totsuka, T.; Akasaka, H.; Sueoka, M.; Kurihara, K.; Kimura, T.

    2002-09-15

    The present status of the JT-60U control system is reported including its original design concept, the progress of the system, and various modifications since the JT-60 upgrade. This control system has features of a functionally distributed and hierarchical structure, using CAMAC interfaces initially, which have been replaced by versatile module Europe (VME)-bus interfaces, and a protective interlock system composed of both software and hard-wired interlock logics. Plant monitoring and control are performed by efficient data communication through CAMAC highways and Ethernet with TCP/IP protocols. Sequential control of plasma discharges is executed by a combination of a remodeled VME-bus system and a timing system. A real-time plasma control system and a human interface system have been continuously modified corresponding to the progress of JT-60U experiments.

  15. Lessons Learned from the Space Shuttle Engine Hydrogen Flow Control Valve Poppet Breakage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, Hugo E.; Damico, Stephen; Brewer, John

    2011-01-01

    The Main Propulsion System (MPS) uses three Flow Control Valves (FCV) to modulate the flow of pressurant hydrogen gas from the Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME) to the hydrogen External Tank (ET). This maintains pressure in the ullage volume as the liquid level drops, preserving ET structural integrity and assuring the engines receive a sufficient amount of head pressure. On Space Transportation System (STS)-126 (2009), with only a handful of International Space Station (ISS) assembly flights from the end of the Shuttle program, a portion of a single FCV?s poppet head broke off at about a minute and a half after liftoff. The risk of the poppet head failure is that the increased flow area through the FCV could result in excessive gaseous hydrogen flow back to the external tank, which could result in overboard venting of hydrogen ullage pressure. If the hydrogen venting were to occur in first stage (i.e., lower atmosphere), a flammability hazard exists that could lead to catastrophic loss of crew and vehicle. Other failure risks included particle impact damage to MPS downstream hardware. Although the FCV design had been plagued by contamination-related sluggish valve response problems prior to a redesign at STS-80 (1996), contamination was ruled out as the cause of the STS-126 failure. Employing a combination of enhanced hardware inspection and a better understanding of the consequences of a poppet failure, safe flight rationale for subsequent flights (STS-119 and later) was achieved. This paper deals with the technical lessons learned during the investigation and mitigation of this problem at a time when assembly flights were each in the critical path to Space Station success.

  16. Intelligent Control Systems Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loparo, Kenneth A.

    1994-01-01

    Results of a three phase research program into intelligent control systems are presented. The first phase looked at implementing the lowest or direct level of a hierarchical control scheme using a reinforcement learning approach assuming no a priori information about the system under control. The second phase involved the design of an adaptive/optimizing level of the hierarchy and its interaction with the direct control level. The third and final phase of the research was aimed at combining the results of the previous phases with some a priori information about the controlled system.

  17. Control and optimization system

    DOEpatents

    Xinsheng, Lou

    2013-02-12

    A system for optimizing a power plant includes a chemical loop having an input for receiving an input parameter (270) and an output for outputting an output parameter (280), a control system operably connected to the chemical loop and having a multiple controller part (230) comprising a model-free controller. The control system receives the output parameter (280), optimizes the input parameter (270) based on the received output parameter (280), and outputs an optimized input parameter (270) to the input of the chemical loop to control a process of the chemical loop in an optimized manner.

  18. Sustainability in a state comprehensive cancer control coalition: lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Desmond, Renee A; Chapman, Kathryn; Graf, Gavin; Stanfield, Bret; Waterbor, John W

    2014-03-01

    The Alabama Comprehensive Cancer Control Coalition (ACCCC) has developed an integrated and coordinated approach to reducing cancer incidence, morbidity, and mortality, and to improving the quality of life for cancer survivors, their families, and their caregivers. The ACCCC is currently in a maintenance phase and a formal plan for sustainability of the coalition was needed to keep the members engaged and productive. A training session in coalition sustainability conducted in 2013 identified the following elements as essential to success: (1) increased marketing of the coalition by simplifying its mission; (2) improved networking including flexibility in coalition meeting location and attendance; (3) increased membership satisfaction through transformational leadership; (4) revision of the working structure of committees and improved accountability; and (5) enhancement of partner satisfaction with coalition activities designed to recruit and retain new partners. A self-administered membership satisfaction survey was given to assess coalition mission, meeting logistics, organization, capacity building, and coalition goals. Results indicated that the subcategories of communication, mission, and meeting logistics were rated satisfied to very satisfied on a five-point scale. Although the ACCCC had clearly written goals, improvement could be made in leadership participation and new member orientation could be improved. Most members rated their parent organization as highly involved with the ACCCC and many offered suggestions on capacity building. Results of the sustainability training have clarified the ACCCC's plans to ensure coalition viability and improve strategies to inform stakeholders of the benefits of participation in the coalition. PMID:24132542

  19. The ILC control system.

    SciTech Connect

    Carwardine, J.; Saunders, C.; Arnold, N.; Lenkszus, F.; Rehlich, K.; Simrock, S.; Banerjee, b.; Chase, B.; Gottschalk, E.; Joireman, P.; Kasley, P.; Lackey, S.; McBride, P.; Pavlicek, V.; Patrick, J.; Votava, M.; Wolbers, S.; Furukawa, K.; Michizono, S.; Larson, R.S.; Downing, R.; DESY; FNAL; SLAC

    2007-01-01

    Since the last ICALEPCS, a small multi-region team has developed a reference design model for a control system for the International Linear Collider as part of the ILC Global Design Effort. The scale and performance parameters of the ILC accelerator require new thinking in regards to control system design. Technical challenges include the large number of accelerator systems to be controlled, the large scale of the accelerator facility, the high degree of automation needed during accelerator operations, and control system equipment requiring 'Five Nines' availability. The R&D path for high availability touches the control system hardware, software, and overall architecture, and extends beyond traditional interfaces into the technical systems. Software considerations for HA include fault detection through exhaustive out-of-band monitoring and automatic state migration to redundant systems, while the telecom industry's emerging ATCA standard - conceived, specified, and designed for High Availability - is being evaluated for suitability for ILC front-end electronics.

  20. National Training Course. Emergency Medical Technician. Paramedic. Instructor's Lesson Plans. Module VI. Cardiovascular System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This instructor's lesson plan guide on the cardiovascular system is one of fifteen modules designed for use in the training of emergency medical technicians (paramedics). Seven units of study are presented: (1) the anatomy and physiology of the cardiovascular system; (2) patient assessment for the cardiac patient; (3) pathophysiology; (4) reading…

  1. National Training Course. Emergency Medical Technician. Paramedic. Instructor's Lesson Plans. Module V. Respiratory System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This instructor's lesson plan guide on the respiratory system is one of fifteen modules designed for use in the training of emergency medical technicians (paramedics). Five units of study are presented: (1) anatomy and physiology of the respiratory system; (2) pathophysiology assessment of the patient; (3) pathophysiology and management of…

  2. Dynamic Lesson Planning in EFL Reading Classes through a New e-Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okada, Takeshi; Sakamoto, Yasunobu

    2015-01-01

    This paper illustrates how lesson plans, teaching styles and assessment can be dynamically adapted on a real-time basis during an English as a Foreign Language (EFL) reading classroom session by using a new e-learning system named iBELLEs (interactive Blended English Language Learning Enhancement system). iBELLEs plays a crucial role in filling…

  3. KEKB accelerator control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akasaka, Nobumasa; Akiyama, Atsuyoshi; Araki, Sakae; Furukawa, Kazuro; Katoh, Tadahiko; Kawamoto, Takashi; Komada, Ichitaka; Kudo, Kikuo; Naito, Takashi; Nakamura, Tatsuro; Odagiri, Jun-ichi; Ohnishi, Yukiyoshi; Sato, Masayuki; Suetake, Masaaki; Takeda, Shigeru; Takeuchi, Yasunori; Yamamoto, Noboru; Yoshioka, Masakazu; Kikutani, Eji

    2003-02-01

    The KEKB accelerator control system including a control computer system, a timing distribution system, and a safety control system are described. KEKB accelerators were installed in the same tunnel where the TRISTAN accelerator was. There were some constraints due to the reused equipment. The control system is based on Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). In order to reduce the cost and labor for constructing the KEKB control system, as many CAMAC modules as possible are used again. The guiding principles of the KEKB control computer system are as follows: use EPICS as the controls environment, provide a two-language system for developing application programs, use VMEbus as frontend computers as a consequence of EPICS, use standard buses, such as CAMAC, GPIB, VXIbus, ARCNET, RS-232 as field buses and use ergonomic equipment for operators and scientists. On the software side, interpretive Python and SAD languages are used for coding application programs. The purpose of the radiation safety system is to protect personnel from radiation hazards. It consists of an access control system and a beam interlock system. The access control system protects people from strong radiation inside the accelerator tunnel due to an intense beam, by controlling access to the beamline area. On the other hand, the beam interlock system prevents people from radiation exposure by interlocking the beam operation. For the convenience of accelerator operation and access control, the region covered by the safety system is divided into three major access control areas: the KEKB area, the PF-AR area, and the beam-transport (BT) area. The KEKB control system required a new timing system to match a low longitudinal acceptance due to a low-alpha machine. This timing system is based on a frequency divider/multiply technique and a digital delay technique. The RF frequency of the KEKB rings and that of the injector Linac are locked with a common divisor frequency. The common

  4. LESSONS LEARNED FROM PREVIOUS WASTE STORAGE TANK VAPOR CONTROL ATTEMPTS ON SINGLE SHELL TANK (SST) & DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) FARMS

    SciTech Connect

    BAKER, D.M.

    2004-08-03

    This report forms the basis for a feasibility study and conceptual design to control vapor emissions from waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site. The Carbtrol, Vapor Mixing, and High Efficiency Gas Absorber (HEGA) vapor controls were evaluated to determine the lessons learned from previous failed vapor control attempts. This document illustrates the resulting findings based on that evaluation.

  5. Torque control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studenick, D. K.; Tyler, A. L.; Squillari, W.

    1975-01-01

    System stabilizes aximuth of gondolas which are carried by high-altitude balloons as platforms for tracking telescopes. When telescopes must be constantly aimed at specific targets, control system stabilizes gondola to within 5 arc-seconds.

  6. Remote Systems Experience at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory--A Summary of Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Noakes, Mark W; Burgess, Thomas W; Rowe, John C

    2011-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has a long history in the development of remote systems to support the nuclear environment. ORNL, working in conjunction with Central Research Laboratories, created what is believed to be the first microcomputer-based implementation of dual-arm master-slave remote manipulation. As part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program, ORNL developed the dual-arm advanced servomanipulator focusing on remote maintainability for systems exposed to high radiation fields. ORNL also participated in almost all of the various technical areas of the U.S. Department of Energy s Robotics Technology Development Program, while leading the Decontamination and Decommissioning and Tank Waste Retrieval categories. Over the course of this involvement, ORNL has developed a substantial base of working knowledge as to what works when and under what circumstances for many types of remote systems tasks as well as operator interface modes, control bandwidth, and sensing requirements to name a few. By using a select list of manipulator systems that is not meant to be exhaustive, this paper will discuss history and outcome of development, field-testing, deployment, and operations from a lessons learned perspective. The final outcome is a summary paper outlining ORNL experiences and guidelines for transition of developmental remote systems to real-world hazardous environments.

  7. Control system design guide

    SciTech Connect

    Sellers, David; Friedman, Hannah; Haasl, Tudi; Bourassa, Norman; Piette, Mary Ann

    2003-05-01

    The ''Control System Design Guide'' (Design Guide) provides methods and recommendations for the control system design process and control point selection and installation. Control systems are often the most problematic system in a building. A good design process that takes into account maintenance, operation, and commissioning can lead to a smoothly operating and efficient building. To this end, the Design Guide provides a toolbox of templates for improving control system design and specification. HVAC designers are the primary audience for the Design Guide. The control design process it presents will help produce well-designed control systems that achieve efficient and robust operation. The spreadsheet examples for control valve schedules, damper schedules, and points lists can streamline the use of the control system design concepts set forth in the Design Guide by providing convenient starting points from which designers can build. Although each reader brings their own unique questions to the text, the Design Guide contains information that designers, commissioning providers, operators, and owners will find useful.

  8. Novel microsatellite control system

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, K.R.; Frigo, J.R.; Tilden, M.W.

    1996-12-31

    The authors are developing extremely simple yet quite capable analog pulse-coded neural networks for smaller-faster-cheaper spacecraft attitude and control systems. They will demonstrate a prototype microsatellite that uses the novel control system to autonomously stabilize itself in the ambient magnetic field and point itself at the brightest available light source.

  9. Analyzing Feedback Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Frank H.; Downing, John P.

    1987-01-01

    Interactive controls analysis (INCA) program developed to provide user-friendly environment for design and analysis of linear control systems, primarily feedback control. Designed for use with both small- and large-order systems. Using interactive-graphics capability, INCA user quickly plots root locus, frequency response, or time response of either continuous-time system or sampled-data system. Configuration and parameters easily changed, allowing user to design compensation networks and perform sensitivity analyses in very convenient manner. Written in Pascal and FORTRAN.

  10. Cockpit control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesnewski, David; Snow, Russ M.; Paufler, Dave; Schnieder, George; Athousake, Roxanne; Combs, Lisa

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to provide a detail design for the cockpit control system of the Viper PFT. The statement of work for this project requires provisions for control of the ailerons, elevator, rudder, and elevator trim. The system should provide adjustment for pilot stature, rigging, and maintenance. MIL-STD-1472 is used as a model for human factors criterion. The system is designed to the pilot limit loading outlined in FAR part 23.397. The general philosophy behind this design is to provide a simple, reliable control system which will withstand the daily abuse that is experienced in the training environment without excessive cost or weight penalties.

  11. Successfully maintaining program funding during trying times: lessons from tobacco control programs in five states.

    PubMed

    Nelson, David E; Reynolds, Jennifer H; Luke, Douglas A; Mueller, Nancy B; Eischen, Monica H; Jordan, Jerelyn; Lancaster, R Brick; Marcus, Stephen E; Vallone, Donna

    2007-01-01

    Despite negative financial conditions in recent years, several states were able to successfully maintain funding for tobacco prevention and control, which provided an opportunity to understand the factors associated with success. One explanation may be the level of long-term program sustainability in some states. According to a model developed by Saint Louis University researchers, the five elements critical to tobacco control sustainability are state political and financial climate; community awareness and capacity; program structure and administration; funding stability and planning; and surveillance and evaluation. Five states (Nebraska, New York, Indiana, Virginia, and Colorado) maintained funding for their tobacco control programs. Four of these states gained additional legislative appropriations or prevented a massive reduction; Colorado used a statewide ballot initiative to increase funding. On the basis of the sustainability framework, case studies, and prior research, the major lessons learned for maintaining funding were the importance of (1) strong and experienced leadership, (2) broad and deep organizational and community ties, (3) coordinated efforts, (4) strategic use of surveillance and evaluation data, (5) active dissemination of information about program successes, and (6) policy maker champions. The sustainability framework and lessons learned may provide valuable insights for other public health programs facing funding threats. PMID:17984716

  12. Lessons learned from pilot errors using automated systems in advanced technology aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, W.R.; Byers, J.C.; Haney, L.N.; Ostrom, L.T.; Reece, W.J.

    1993-04-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) sponsored a project at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to investigate pilot errors that occur during interaction with automated systems in advanced technology (``glass cockpit``) aircraft. In particular, we investigated the causes and potential corrective measures for pilot errors that resulted in altitude deviation incidents (i.e. failure to capture or maintain the altitude assigned by air traffic control). To do this, we analyzed altitude deviation events that have been reported in the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS), NASA`s data base of incidents self-reported by pilots and air traffic controllers. We developed models of the pilot tasks that are performed to capture and maintain altitude. Two types of models were developed to provide complementary perspectives of these tasks: sequential models and functional models. Both types of models show the errors that occur in actual altitude deviation events in advanced technology aircraft. Then, errors from the ASRS data base were categorized according to the models, to help understand the potential causes of the different error types. This paper summarizes the methodology used to analyze pilot errors, the lessons learned from the study of altitude deviation errors, and the application of these results for the introduction of advanced technology in nuclear power plants.

  13. Lessons learned from pilot errors using automated systems in advanced technology aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, W.R.; Byers, J.C.; Haney, L.N.; Ostrom, L.T.; Reece, W.J.

    1993-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) sponsored a project at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to investigate pilot errors that occur during interaction with automated systems in advanced technology ( glass cockpit'') aircraft. In particular, we investigated the causes and potential corrective measures for pilot errors that resulted in altitude deviation incidents (i.e. failure to capture or maintain the altitude assigned by air traffic control). To do this, we analyzed altitude deviation events that have been reported in the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS), NASA's data base of incidents self-reported by pilots and air traffic controllers. We developed models of the pilot tasks that are performed to capture and maintain altitude. Two types of models were developed to provide complementary perspectives of these tasks: sequential models and functional models. Both types of models show the errors that occur in actual altitude deviation events in advanced technology aircraft. Then, errors from the ASRS data base were categorized according to the models, to help understand the potential causes of the different error types. This paper summarizes the methodology used to analyze pilot errors, the lessons learned from the study of altitude deviation errors, and the application of these results for the introduction of advanced technology in nuclear power plants.

  14. Automatic clutch control system

    SciTech Connect

    Kasai, H.; Ogawa, N.; Hattori, T.; Ishihara, M.; Uriuhara, M.

    1986-12-16

    This patent describes an automatic clutch control system, comprising: a clutch having a full clutch engagement point and a clutch contact point; a clutch actuator for controlling a clutch stroke; a plurality of solenoid valves for controlling the clutch actuator; clutch stroke sensor means for measuring the clutch stroke and for detecting the full clutch engagement point and the clutch contact point in the clutch stroke; control means, for feeding back a stroke signal detected by the clutch stroke sensor and for controlling the solenoid valves to control clutch engagement and disengagement.

  15. THE INTEGRATION OF ENGINEERED AND INSTITUTIONAL CONTROLS: A CASE STUDY APPROACH WITH LESSONS LEARNED FROM PREVIOUSLY CLOSED SITES

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin M. Kostelnik; James H. Clarke; Jerry L. Harbour

    2005-02-01

    Environmental remediation efforts that are underway at hundreds of contaminated sites in the United States will not be able to remediate large portions of those sites to conditions that would permit unrestricted access. Rather, large volumes of waste materials, contaminated soils and cleanup residuals will have to be isolated either in place or in new, often on-site, disposal cells with long term monitoring, maintenance and institutional control needs. The challenge continues to be to provide engineering systems and controls that can ensure the protection of public health and the environment over very long time horizons (hundreds to perhaps thousands of years) with minimal intervention. Effective long term management of legacy hazardous and nuclear waste requires an integrated approach that addresses both the engineered containment and control system itself and the institutional controls and other responsibilities that are needed. Decisions concerning system design, monitoring and maintenance, and the institutional controls that will be employed are best done through a "risk-nformed, performance-based" approach. Such an approach should incorporate an analysis of potential "failure" modes and consequences for all important system features, together with lessons learned from experience with systems already in place. The authors will present the preliminary results of a case study approach that included several sites where contamination isolation systems including institutional controls have been implemented. The results are being used together with failure trees and logic diagrams that have been developed for both the engineered barriers and the institutional controls. The use of these analytical tools to evaluate the potential for different levels of failure and associated consequences will be discussed. Of special interest is the robustness of different approaches to providing long-term protection through redundancy and defense in depth.

  16. Common Control System Vulnerability

    SciTech Connect

    Trent Nelson

    2005-12-01

    The Control Systems Security Program and other programs within the Idaho National Laboratory have discovered a vulnerability common to control systems in all sectors that allows an attacker to penetrate most control systems, spoof the operator, and gain full control of targeted system elements. This vulnerability has been identified on several systems that have been evaluated at INL, and in each case a 100% success rate of completing the attack paths that lead to full system compromise was observed. Since these systems are employed in multiple critical infrastructure sectors, this vulnerability is deemed common to control systems in all sectors. Modern control systems architectures can be considered analogous to today's information networks, and as such are usually approached by attackers using a common attack methodology to penetrate deeper and deeper into the network. This approach often is composed of several phases, including gaining access to the control network, reconnaissance, profiling of vulnerabilities, launching attacks, escalating privilege, maintaining access, and obscuring or removing information that indicates that an intruder was on the system. With irrefutable proof that an external attack can lead to a compromise of a computing resource on the organization's business local area network (LAN), access to the control network is usually considered the first phase in the attack plan. Once the attacker gains access to the control network through direct connections and/or the business LAN, the second phase of reconnaissance begins with traffic analysis within the control domain. Thus, the communications between the workstations and the field device controllers can be monitored and evaluated, allowing an attacker to capture, analyze, and evaluate the commands sent among the control equipment. Through manipulation of the communication protocols of control systems (a process generally referred to as ''reverse engineering''), an attacker can then map out the

  17. Drone Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Drones, subscale vehicles like the Firebees, and full scale retired military aircraft are used to test air defense missile systems. The DFCS (Drone Formation Control System) computer, developed by IBM (International Business Machines) Federal Systems Division, can track ten drones at once. A program called ORACLS is used to generate software to track and control Drones. It was originally developed by Langley and supplied by COSMIC (Computer Software Management and Information Center). The program saved the company both time and money.

  18. Digital flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caglayan, A. K.; Vanlandingham, H. F.

    1977-01-01

    The design of stable feedback control laws for sampled-data systems with variable rate sampling was investigated. These types of sampled-data systems arise naturally in digital flight control systems which use digital actuators where it is desirable to decrease the number of control computer output commands in order to save wear and tear of the associated equipment. The design of aircraft control systems which are optimally tolerant of sensor and actuator failures was also studied. Detection of the failed sensor or actuator must be resolved and if the estimate of the state is used in the control law, then it is also desirable to have an estimator which will give the optimal state estimate even under the failed conditions.

  19. An Evaluation of Geographic Information Systems in Social Studies Lessons: Teachers' Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aladag, Elif

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the applicability of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), used increasingly in primary and secondary education across the world, in social studies lessons in Turkey. In line with this aim, 14 social studies teachers working in the province of Aydin, Turkey received a 6-hour training course about GIS during the…

  20. National Training Course. Emergency Medical Technician. Paramedic. Instructor's Lesson Plans. Module VII. Central Nervous System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This instructor's lesson plan guide on the central nervous system is one of fifteen modules designed for use in the training of emergency medical technicians. Four units of study are presented: (1) anatomy and physiology; (2) assessment of patients with neurological problems; (3) pathophysiology and management of neurological problems; (4)…

  1. Power Systems Control Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    James Davidson

    2005-01-01

    A diagram provided in the report depicts the complexity of the power systems control architecture used by the national power structure. It shows the structural hierarchy and the relationship of the each system to those other systems interconnected to it. Each of these levels provides a different focus for vulnerability testing and has its own weaknesses. In evaluating each level, of prime concern is what vulnerabilities exist that provide a path into the system, either to cause the system to malfunction or to take control of a field device. An additional vulnerability to consider is can the system be compromised in such a manner that the attacker can obtain critical information about the system and the portion of the national power structure that it controls.

  2. Load Control System Reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Trudnowski, Daniel

    2015-04-03

    This report summarizes the results of the Load Control System Reliability project (DOE Award DE-FC26-06NT42750). The original grant was awarded to Montana Tech April 2006. Follow-on DOE awards and expansions to the project scope occurred August 2007, January 2009, April 2011, and April 2013. In addition to the DOE monies, the project also consisted of matching funds from the states of Montana and Wyoming. Project participants included Montana Tech; the University of Wyoming; Montana State University; NorthWestern Energy, Inc., and MSE. Research focused on two areas: real-time power-system load control methodologies; and, power-system measurement-based stability-assessment operation and control tools. The majority of effort was focused on area 2. Results from the research includes: development of fundamental power-system dynamic concepts, control schemes, and signal-processing algorithms; many papers (including two prize papers) in leading journals and conferences and leadership of IEEE activities; one patent; participation in major actual-system testing in the western North American power system; prototype power-system operation and control software installed and tested at three major North American control centers; and, the incubation of a new commercial-grade operation and control software tool. Work under this grant certainly supported the DOE-OE goals in the area of “Real Time Grid Reliability Management.”

  3. IGISOL control system modernization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koponen, J.; Hakala, J.

    2016-06-01

    Since 2010, the IGISOL research facility at the Accelerator laboratory of the University of Jyväskylä has gone through major changes. Comparing the new IGISOL4 facility to the former IGISOL3 setup, the size of the facility has more than doubled, the length of the ion transport line has grown to about 50 m with several measurement setups and extension capabilities, and the accelerated ions can be fed to the facility from two different cyclotrons. The facility has evolved to a system comprising hundreds of manual, pneumatic and electronic devices. These changes have prompted the need to modernize also the facility control system taking care of monitoring and transporting the ion beams. In addition, the control system is also used for some scientific data acquisition tasks. Basic guidelines for the IGISOL control system update have been remote control, safety, usability, reliability and maintainability. Legacy components have had a major significance in the control system hardware and for the renewed control system software the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) has been chosen as the architectural backbone.

  4. Desiccant humidity control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amazeen, J. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    A regenerable sorbent system was investigated for controlling the humidity and carbon dioxide concentration of the space shuttle cabin atmosphere. The sorbents considered for water and carbon dioxide removal were silica gel and molecular sieves. Bed optimization and preliminary system design are discussed along with system optimization studies and weight penalites.

  5. Lessons Learned JSC Micro-Wireless Instrumentation Systems on Space Shuttle and International Space Station CANEUS 2006

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Studor, George

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on lessons learned from NASA Johnson Space Center's micro-wireless instrumentation is shown. The topics include: 1) Background, Rationale and Vision; 2) NASA JSC/Structural Engineering Approach & History; 3) Orbiter Wing Leading Edge Impact Detection System; 4) WLEIDS Confidence and Micro-WIS Lessons Learned; and 5) Current Projects and Recommendations.

  6. Staffing the ISS Control Centers: Lessons Learned from Long-Duration Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Carrie D.; Horvath, Timothy J.; Davis, Sally P.

    2006-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) has been in operation with a permanent human presence in space for over five years, and plans for continued operations stretch ten years into the future. Ground control and support operations are, likewise, a 15-year enterprise. This long-term, 24-hour per day, 7 day per week support has presented numerous challenges in the areas of ground crew training, initial and continued certification, and console staffing. The Mission Control Center in Houston, Texas and the Payload Operations Center in Huntsville, Alabama have both tackled these challenges, with similar, yet distinct, approaches. This paper describes the evolution of the staffing and training policies of both control centers in a chronological progression. The relative merits and shortcomings of the various policies employed are discussed and a summary of "lessons learned" is presented. Finally, recommendations are made as best practices for future long-term space missions.

  7. What is system control?

    SciTech Connect

    Hirst, E.; Kirby, B.

    1999-11-01

    Just as the aviation industry needs air-traffic controllers to manage the movement of airplanes for safety and commerce, so too, the electricity industry requires system operators. The electrical-system-control functions encompass a range of activities that support commercial transactions and maintain bulk-power reliability. As part of a project for the Edison Electric Institute, the authors examined the functions and costs of system control and the issues that need to be resolved in a restructured electricity industry (Hirst and Kirby 1998).

  8. HETDEX tracker control system design and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beno, Joseph H.; Hayes, Richard; Leck, Ron; Penney, Charles; Soukup, Ian

    2012-09-01

    To enable the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment, The University of Texas at Austin Center for Electromechanics and McDonald Observatory developed a precision tracker and control system - an 18,000 kg robot to position a 3,100 kg payload within 10 microns of a desired dynamic track. Performance requirements to meet science needs and safety requirements that emerged from detailed Failure Modes and Effects Analysis resulted in a system of 13 precision controlled actuators and 100 additional analog and digital devices (primarily sensors and safety limit switches). Due to this complexity, demanding accuracy requirements, and stringent safety requirements, two independent control systems were developed. First, a versatile and easily configurable centralized control system that links with modeling and simulation tools during the hardware and software design process was deemed essential for normal operation including motion control. A second, parallel, control system, the Hardware Fault Controller (HFC) provides independent monitoring and fault control through a dedicated microcontroller to force a safe, controlled shutdown of the entire system in the event a fault is detected. Motion controls were developed in a Matlab-Simulink simulation environment, and coupled with dSPACE controller hardware. The dSPACE real-time operating system collects sensor information; motor commands are transmitted over a PROFIBUS network to servo amplifiers and drive motor status is received over the same network. To interface the dSPACE controller directly to absolute Heidenhain sensors with EnDat 2.2 protocol, a custom communication board was developed. This paper covers details of operational control software, the HFC, algorithms, tuning, debugging, testing, and lessons learned.

  9. Automated Subsystem Control for Life Support System (ASCLSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Block, Roger F.

    1987-01-01

    The Automated Subsystem Control for Life Support Systems (ASCLSS) program has successfully developed and demonstrated a generic approach to the automation and control of space station subsystems. The automation system features a hierarchical and distributed real-time control architecture which places maximum controls authority at the lowest or process control level which enhances system autonomy. The ASCLSS demonstration system pioneered many automation and control concepts currently being considered in the space station data management system (DMS). Heavy emphasis is placed on controls hardware and software commonality implemented in accepted standards. The approach demonstrates successfully the application of real-time process and accountability with the subsystem or process developer. The ASCLSS system completely automates a space station subsystem (air revitalization group of the ASCLSS) which moves the crew/operator into a role of supervisory control authority. The ASCLSS program developed over 50 lessons learned which will aide future space station developers in the area of automation and controls..

  10. Remotely controllable mixing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belew, R. R. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    This invention relates to a remotely controllable mixing system in which a plurality of mixing assemblies are arranged in an annular configuration, and wherein each assembly employs a central chamber and two outer, upper and lower chambers. Valves are positioned between chambers, and these valves for a given mixing assembly are operated by upper and lower control rotors, which in turn are driven by upper and lower drive rotors. Additionally, a hoop is compressed around upper control rotors and a hoop is compressed around lower control rotors to thus insure constant frictional engagement between all control rotors and drive rotors. The drive rollers are driven by a motor.

  11. Lessons learned from the Hubble Space Telescope planning and scheduling system implementation and operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruitberg, Edward O.; Ondrus, Paul J.

    1990-01-01

    The major challenge of the NASA Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Ground System has been the implementation of the planning and scheduling system. This paper describes the operational flow of HST from science proposals to the actual execution of science observations on board the HST. The paper provides a collection of lessons learned over the 10 years that have covered the definition, development, test, and initial operation of HST's planning and scheduling system.

  12. Flight control actuation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingett, Paul T. (Inventor); Gaines, Louie T. (Inventor); Evans, Paul S. (Inventor); Kern, James I. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A flight control actuation system comprises a controller, electromechanical actuator and a pneumatic actuator. During normal operation, only the electromechanical actuator is needed to operate a flight control surface. When the electromechanical actuator load level exceeds 40 amps positive, the controller activates the pneumatic actuator to offset electromechanical actuator loads to assist the manipulation of flight control surfaces. The assistance from the pneumatic load assist actuator enables the use of an electromechanical actuator that is smaller in size and mass, requires less power, needs less cooling processes, achieves high output forces and adapts to electrical current variations. The flight control actuation system is adapted for aircraft, spacecraft, missiles, and other flight vehicles, especially flight vehicles that are large in size and travel at high velocities.

  13. NUCLEAR REACTOR CONTROL SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Epler, E.P.; Hanauer, S.H.; Oakes, L.C.

    1959-11-01

    A control system is described for a nuclear reactor using enriched uranium fuel of the type of the swimming pool and other heterogeneous nuclear reactors. Circuits are included for automatically removing and inserting the control rods during the course of normal operation. Appropriate safety circuits close down the nuclear reactor in the event of emergency.

  14. Lessons Learned from the Node 1 Atmosphere Control and Storage and Water Recovery and Management Subsystem Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Node 1 flew to the International Space Station (ISS) on Flight 2A during December 1998. To date the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has learned a lot of lessons from this module based on its history of approximately two years of acceptance testing on the ground and currently its twelve years on-orbit. This paper will provide an overview of the ISS Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) design of the Node 1 Atmosphere Control and Storage (ACS) and Water Recovery and Management (WRM) subsystems and it will document some of the lessons that have been learned to date for these subsystems based on problems prelaunch, problems encountered on-orbit, and operational problems/concerns. It is hoped that documenting these lessons learned from ISS will help in preventing them in future Programs.

  15. Lessons Learned from the Node 1 Atmosphere Control and Storage and Water Recovery and Management Subsystem Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Node 1 flew to the International Space Station (ISS) on Flight 2A during December 1998. To date the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has learned a lot of lessons from this module based on its history of approximately two years of acceptance testing on the ground and currently its twelve years on-orbit. This paper will provide an overview of the ISS Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) design of the Node 1 Atmosphere Control and Storage (ACS) and Water Recovery and Management (WRM) subsystems and it will document some of the lessons that have been learned to date for these subsystems based on problems prelaunch, problems encountered on-orbit, and operational problems/concerns. It is hoped that documenting these lessons learned from ISS will help in preventing them in future Programs.

  16. The ISOLDE control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deloose, I.; Pace, A.

    1994-12-01

    The two CERN isotope separators named ISOLDE have been running on the new Personal Computer (PC) based control system since April 1992. The new architecture that makes heavy use of the commercial software and hardware of the PC market has been implemented on the 1700 geographically distributed control channels of the two separators and their experimental area. Eleven MSDOS Intel-based PCs with approximately 80 acquisition and control boards are used to access the equipment and are controlled from three PCs running Microsoft Windows used as consoles through a Novell Local Area Network. This paper describes the interesting solutions found and discusses the reduced programming workload and costs that have been obtained.

  17. MFTF supervisory control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-12-01

    A computerized supervisory control system is being developed for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility. The system includes nine Perkin-Elmer 7/32 and 8/32 computers connected by a block of common core memory (128 kilobytes). The network is a disk designed for reliability and redundancy. If one computer goes down, the local-control micro-processors that it controls are switched to another computer in a matter of seconds. The control consoles permit operators to open and close valves, start or stop pumps, and adjust operating levels. The experiment is controlled by two superconsoles and five satellite consoles. The software, written in PASCAL, contains such subsystems as organizing the computers into a network, operating the consoles and accessing the data base.

  18. Computer controlled antenna system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raumann, N. A.

    1972-01-01

    The application of small computers using digital techniques for operating the servo and control system of large antennas is discussed. The advantages of the system are described. The techniques were evaluated with a forty foot antenna and the Sigma V computer. Programs have been completed which drive the antenna directly without the need for a servo amplifier, antenna position programmer or a scan generator.

  19. ACCESS Pointing Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brugarolas, Paul; Alexander, James; Trauger, John; Moody, Dwight; Egerman, Robert; Vallone, Phillip; Elias, Jason; Hejal, Reem; Camelo, Vanessa; Bronowicki, Allen; O'Connor, David; Partrick, Richard; Orzechowski, Pawel; Spitter, Connie; Lillie, Chuck

    2010-01-01

    ACCESS (Actively-Corrected Coronograph for Exoplanet System Studies) was one of four medium-class exoplanet concepts selected for the NASA Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept Study (ASMCS) program in 2008/2009. The ACCESS study evaluated four major coronograph concepts under a common space observatory. This paper describes the high precision pointing control system (PCS) baselined for this observatory.

  20. Fuel control system

    SciTech Connect

    Staniak, W.A.; Samuelson, R.E.; Moncelle, M.E.

    1986-10-14

    A fuel control system is described comprising: a fuel rack movable in opposite fuel-increasing and fuel-decreasing directions; a rack control member movable in opposite fuel-increasing and fuel-decreasing directions; servo system means for moving the fuel rack in response to movement of the rack control member an electrically energizable member movable in opposite fuel-increasing and fuel-decreasing directions, the electrically energizable member being urged to move in its fuel-decreasing direction when energized; first coupling means for connecting the electrically energizable member to the rack control member to move the rack control member in its fuel-decreasing direction in response to movement of the electrically energizable member in its fuel-decreasing direction; a mechanical governor control having a member movable in opposite fuel-increasing and fuel-decreasing directions; second coupling means for connecting the mechanical governor to the rack control member to move the rack control member in its fuel-decreasing direction in response to movement of the mechanical governor member in its fuel-decreasing direction; bias means for biasing the rack control member to move in its fuel-increasing direction.

  1. Heritage and Advanced Technology Systems Engineering Lessons Learned from NASA Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barley, Bryan; Newhouse, Marilyn; Clardy, Dennon

    2010-01-01

    In the design and development of complex spacecraft missions, project teams frequently assume the use of advanced technology systems or heritage systems to enable a mission or reduce the overall mission risk and cost. As projects proceed through the development life cycle, increasingly detailed knowledge of the advanced and heritage systems within the spacecraft and mission environment identifies unanticipated technical issues. Resolving these issues often results in cost overruns and schedule impacts. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Discovery & New Frontiers (D&NF) Program Office at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) recently studied cost overruns and schedule delays for 5 missions. The goal was to identify the underlying causes for the overruns and delays, and to develop practical mitigations to assist the D&NF projects in identifying potential risks and controlling the associated impacts to proposed mission costs and schedules. The study found that optimistic hardware/software inheritance and technology readiness assumptions caused cost and schedule growth for four of the five missions studied. The cost and schedule growth was not found to result from technical hurdles requiring significant technology development. The projects institutional inheritance and technology readiness processes appear to adequately assess technology viability and prevent technical issues from impacting the final mission success. However, the processes do not appear to identify critical issues early enough in the design cycle to ensure project schedules and estimated costs address the inherent risks. In general, the overruns were traceable to: an inadequate understanding of the heritage system s behavior within the proposed spacecraft design and mission environment; an insufficient level of development experience with the heritage system; or an inadequate scoping of the system-wide impacts necessary to implement an advanced technology for space flight

  2. CNEOST Control Software System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Zhao, H. B.; Xia, Y.; Lu, H.; Li, B.

    2015-03-01

    In 2013, CNEOST (China Near Earth Object Survey Telescope) adapted its hardware system for the new CCD camera. Based on the new system architecture, the control software is re-designed and implemented. The software system adopts the message passing mechanism via WebSocket protocol, and improves its flexibility, expansibility, and scalability. The user interface with responsive web design realizes the remote operating under both desktop and mobile devices. The stable operating of software system has greatly enhanced the operation efficiency while reducing the complexity, and has also made a successful attempt for the future system design of telescope and telescope cloud.

  3. CNEOST Control Software System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Zhao, Hai-bin; Xia, Yan; Lu, Hao; Li, Bin

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, CNEOST (China Near Earth Object Survey Telescope) adapted its hardware system for the new CCD camera. Based on the new system architecture, the control software is re-designed and implemented. The software system adopts the messaging mechanism based on the WebSocket protocol, and possesses good flexibility and expansibility. The user interface based on the responsive web design has realized the remote observations under both desktop and mobile devices. The stable operation of the software system has greatly enhanced the operation efficiency while reducing the complexity, and has also made a successful attempt for the future system design of telescope and telescope cloud.

  4. Lessons learned from the NEPTUNE power system and other deep-sea adventures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkham, Harold

    2005-01-01

    The development of underwater science systems presents some challenging technical issues. It seems that the best efforts of the engineers and scientists involved are sometimes inadequate, and projects that once seemed straightforward end up being late, or overbudget, or cancelled. This paper will review some of the lessons that may be learned from the examples of three science projects in the deep ocean: the DUMAND neutrino detector, the H20 observatory, and the power system part of the NEPTUNE regional cabled observatory.

  5. Asynchronous interactive control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vuskovic, M. I.; Heer, E.

    1980-01-01

    A class of interactive control systems is derived by generalizing interactive manipulator control systems. The general structural properties of such systems are discussed and an appropriate general software implementation is proposed. This is based on the fact that tasks of interactive control systems can be represented as a network of a finite set of actions which have specific operational characteristics and specific resource requirements, and which are of limited duration. This has enabled the decomposition of the overall control algorithm into a set of subalgorithms, called subcontrollers, which can operate simultaneously and asynchronously. Coordinate transformations of sensor feedback data and actuator set-points have enabled the further simplification of the subcontrollers and have reduced their conflicting resource requirements. The modules of the decomposed control system are implemented as parallel processes with disjoint memory space communicating only by I/O. The synchronization mechanisms for dynamic resource allocation among subcontrollers and other synchronization mechanisms are also discussed in this paper. Such a software organization is suitable for the general form of multiprocessing using computer networks with distributed storage.

  6. Neural Flight Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gundy-Burlet, Karen

    2003-01-01

    The Neural Flight Control System (NFCS) was developed to address the need for control systems that can be produced and tested at lower cost, easily adapted to prototype vehicles and for flight systems that can accommodate damaged control surfaces or changes to aircraft stability and control characteristics resulting from failures or accidents. NFCS utilizes on a neural network-based flight control algorithm which automatically compensates for a broad spectrum of unanticipated damage or failures of an aircraft in flight. Pilot stick and rudder pedal inputs are fed into a reference model which produces pitch, roll and yaw rate commands. The reference model frequencies and gains can be set to provide handling quality characteristics suitable for the aircraft of interest. The rate commands are used in conjunction with estimates of the aircraft s stability and control (S&C) derivatives by a simplified Dynamic Inverse controller to produce virtual elevator, aileron and rudder commands. These virtual surface deflection commands are optimally distributed across the aircraft s available control surfaces using linear programming theory. Sensor data is compared with the reference model rate commands to produce an error signal. A Proportional/Integral (PI) error controller "winds up" on the error signal and adds an augmented command to the reference model output with the effect of zeroing the error signal. In order to provide more consistent handling qualities for the pilot, neural networks learn the behavior of the error controller and add in the augmented command before the integrator winds up. In the case of damage sufficient to affect the handling qualities of the aircraft, an Adaptive Critic is utilized to reduce the reference model frequencies and gains to stay within a flyable envelope of the aircraft.

  7. Toward sustainable and comprehensive control of schistosomiasis in China: lessons from Sichuan.

    PubMed

    Seto, Edmund Y W; Remais, Justin V; Carlton, Elizabeth J; Wang, Shuo; Liang, Song; Brindley, Paul J; Qiu, Dongchuan; Spear, Robert C; Wang, Long-De; Wang, Tian-Ping; Chen, Hong-Gen; Dong, Xing-Qi; Wang, Li-Ying; Hao, Yang; Bergquist, Robert; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2011-10-01

    Triggered by a fascinating publication in the New England Journal of Medicine detailing China's new multi-pronged strategy to control and eventually interrupt the transmission of Schistosoma japonicum, this PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases Debate critically examines the generalizability and financial costs of the studies presented from the marshlands of the lake region. Edmund Seto from the University of California and colleagues emphasize that the epidemiology and control of schistosomiasis varies according to the social-ecological context. They conjecture that the successful intervention packages piloted in the lake region is not fully fit for the hilly and mountainous environments in Sichuan and Yunnan provinces, and hence call for more flexible, setting-specific, and less expensive control strategies. In response, Xiao-Nong Zhou from the National Institute of Parasitic Diseases at the Chinese Center of Disease Control and Prevention and colleagues explain the steps from designing pilot studies to the articulation and implementation of a new national control strategy through a careful process of scaling-up and adaptations. Finally, the two opponents converge. The need for integrated, intersectoral, and setting-specific control measures is stressed, supported by rigorous surveillance and continuous research. Experiences and lessons from China are important for shaping the schistosomiasis elimination agenda. PMID:22039563

  8. SERVOMOTOR CONTROL SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    MacNeille, S.M.

    1958-12-01

    Control systems for automatic positioning of an electric motor operated vapor valve are described which is operable under the severe conditions existing in apparatus for electro-magnetlcally separating isotopes. In general, the system includes a rotor for turning the valve comprising two colls mounted mutually perpendicular to each other and also perpendicular to the magnetic field of the isotope separating apparatus. The coils are furnished with both a-c and d- c current by assoclate control circuitry and a position control is provided for varying the ratlo of the a-c currents in the coils and at the same time, but in an inverse manner, the ratio between the d-c currents in the coils is varied. With the present system the magnitude of the motor torque is constant for all valves of the rotor orientatlon angle.

  9. TRMM On Orbit Attitude Control System Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Brent; Placanica, Sam; Morgenstern, Wendy

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Attitude Control System (ACS) along with detailed in-flight performance results for each operational mode. The TRMM spacecraft is an Earth-pointed, zero momentum bias satellite launched on November 27, 1997 from Tanegashima Space Center, Japan. TRMM is a joint mission between NASA and the National Space Development Agency (NASDA) of Japan designed to monitor and study tropical rainfall and the associated release of energy. Launched to provide a validation for poorly known rainfall data sets generated by global climate models, TRMM has demonstrated its utility by reducing uncertainties in global rainfall measurements by a factor of two. The ACS is comprised of Attitude Control Electronics (ACE), an Earth Sensor Assembly (ESA), Digital Sun Sensors (DSS), Inertial Reference Units (IRU), Three Axis Magnetometers (TAM), Coarse Sun Sensors (CSS), Magnetic Torquer Bars (MTB), Reaction Wheel Assemblies (RWA), Engine Valve Drivers (EVD) and thrusters. While in Mission Mode, the ESA provides roll and pitch axis attitude error measurements and the DSS provide yaw updates twice per orbit. In addition, the TAM in combination with the IRU and DSS can be used to provide pointing in a contingency attitude determination mode which does not rely on the ESA. Although the ACS performance to date has been highly successful, lessons were learned during checkout and initial on-orbit operation. This paper describes the design, on-orbit checkout, performance and lessons learned for the TRMM ACS.

  10. Attitude control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonpragenau, G. L.; Rupp, C. C. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An attitude control system is described in which angular rate signals are generated by rate gyros mounted closely adjacent to gimbaled engines at the rear of a vehicle. Error signals representative of a commanded change in vehicle angle or attitude are obtained from a precision inertial platform located in the nose region of the vehicle. The rate gyro derived signals dominate at high frequencies where dynamic effects become significant, and platform signals dominate at low frequencies where precision signals are required for a steady vehicle attitude. The blended signals are applied in a conventional manner to control the gimbaling of vehicle engines about control axes.

  11. Data Integration for Dynamic and Sustainable Systems Biology Resources: Challenges and Lessons Learned

    PubMed Central

    Gabbard, Joseph L.; Shukla, Maulik; Sobral, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Systems biology and infectious disease (host-pathogen-environment) research and development is becoming increasingly dependent on integrating data from diverse and dynamic sources. Maintaining integrated resources over long periods of time presents distinct challenges. This paper describes experiences and lessons learned from integrating data in two five-year projects focused on pathosystems biology: the Pathosystems Resource Integration Center (PATRIC, http://patric.vbi.vt.edu/), with a goal of developing bioinformatics resources for the research and countermeasures development communities based on genomics data, and the Resource Center for Biodefense Proteomics Research (RCBPR, http://www.proteomicsresource.org/), with a goal of developing resources based on the experiment data such as microarray and proteomics data from diverse sources and technologies. Some challenges include integrating genomic sequence and experiment data, data synchronization, data quality control, and usability engineering. We present examples of a variety of data integration problems drawn from our experiences with PATRIC and RBPRC, as well as open research questions related to long term sustainability, and describe the next steps to meeting these challenges. Novel contributions of this work include (1) an approach for addressing discrepancies between experiment results and interpreted results and (2) expanding the range of data integration techniques to include usability engineering at the presentation level. PMID:20491070

  12. REACTOR CONTROL SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    MacNeill, J.H.; Estabrook, J.Y.

    1960-05-10

    A reactor control system including a continuous tape passing through a first coolant passageway, over idler rollers, back through another parallel passageway, and over motor-driven rollers is described. Discrete portions of fuel or poison are carried on two opposed active sections of the tape. Driving the tape in forward or reverse directions causes both active sections to be simultaneously inserted or withdrawn uniformly, tending to maintain a more uniform flux within the reactor. The system is particularly useful in mobile reactors, where reduced inertial resistance to control rod movement is important.

  13. The ALMA Real Time Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, Jeffrey S.; Juerges, Thomas A.; Marson, Ralph G.

    2009-01-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is a revolutionary millimeter and submillimeter array being developed on the Atacama plateau of northern Chile. An international partnership lead by NRAO, ESO, and NAOJ this powerful and flexible telescope will provide unprecedented observations of this relatively unexplored frequency range. The control subsystem for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array must coordinate the monitor and control of at least sixty six antennas (in four different styles), two correlators, and all of the ancillary equipment (samplers, local oscillators, front ends, etc.). This equipment will be spread over tens of kilometers and operated remotely. Operation of the array requires a robust, scalable, and maintainable real time control system. The real time control system is responsible for monitoring and control of any devices where there are fixed deadlines. Examples in the ALMA context are antenna pointing and fringe tracking. Traditionally the real time portion of a large software system is an intricate and error prone portion of the software. As a result the real time portion is very expensive in terms of effort expended both during construction and during maintenance phases of a project. The ALMA real time control system uses a Linux based real time operating system to interact with the hardware and the CORBA based ALMA Common Software to communicate in the distributed computing environment. Mixing the requirements of real time computing and the non-deterministic CORBA middleware has produced an interesting design. We discuss the architecture, design, and implementation of the ALMA real time control system. Highlight some lessons learned along the way, and justify our assertion that this should be the last large scale real time control system in radio astronomy.

  14. Intelligence control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saridis, G. N.

    1980-01-01

    The evolution of ideas of intelligent controls and their application to high level man machine interactive systems like general purpose manipulators, industrial robots, prosthetic devices for amputees, and orthotic devices for paralyzed persons are discussed. Some case studies are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the approach.

  15. Electric turbocompound control system

    DOEpatents

    Algrain, Marcelo C.

    2007-02-13

    Turbocompound systems can be used to affect engine operation using the energy in exhaust gas that is driving the available turbocharger. A first electrical device acts as a generator in response to turbocharger rotation. A second electrical device acts as a motor to put mechanical power into the engine, typically at the crankshaft. Apparatus, systems, steps, and methods are described to control the generator and motor operations to control the amount of power being recovered. This can control engine operation closer to desirable parameters for given engine-related operating conditions compared to actual. The electrical devices can also operate in "reverse," going between motor and generator functions. This permits the electrical device associated with the crankshaft to drive the electrical device associated with the turbocharger as a motor, overcoming deficient engine operating conditions such as associated with turbocharger lag.

  16. Timing control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiker, Gordon A. (Inventor); Wells, Jr., George H. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A timing control system is disclosed which is particularly useful in connection with simulated mortar shells. Special circuitry is provided to assure that the shell does not overshoot, but rather detonates early in case of an improper condition; this ensures that ground personnel will not be harmed by a delayed detonation. The system responds to an externally applied frequency control code which is configured to avoid any confusion between different control modes. A premature detonation routine is entered in case an improper time-setting signal is entered, or if the shell is launched before completion of the time-setting sequence. Special provisions are also made for very early launch situations and improper detonator connections. An alternate abort mode is provided to discharge the internal power supply without a detonation in a manner that can be externally monitored, thereby providing a mechanism for non-destructive testing. The abort mode also accelerates the timing function for rapid testing.

  17. Controllability of Complex Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slotine, Jean-Jacques

    2013-03-01

    We review recent work on controllability of complex systems. We also discuss the interplay of our results with questions of synchronization, and point out key directions of future research. Work done in collaboration with Yang-Yu Liu, Center for Complex Network Research and Departments of Physics, Computer Science and Biology, Northeastern University and Center for Cancer Systems Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute; and Albert-László Barabási, Center for Complex Network Research and Departments of Physics, Computer Science and Biology, Northeastern University; Center for Cancer Systems Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute; and Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School.

  18. Telerobot control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backes, Paul G. (Inventor); Tso, Kam S. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    This invention relates to an operator interface for controlling a telerobot to perform tasks in a poorly modeled environment and/or within unplanned scenarios. The telerobot control system includes a remote robot manipulator linked to an operator interface. The operator interface includes a setup terminal, simulation terminal, and execution terminal for the control of the graphics simulator and local robot actuator as well as the remote robot actuator. These terminals may be combined in a single terminal. Complex tasks are developed from sequential combinations of parameterized task primitives and recorded teleoperations, and are tested by execution on a graphics simulator and/or local robot actuator, together with adjustable time delays. The novel features of this invention include the shared and supervisory control of the remote robot manipulator via operator interface by pretested complex tasks sequences based on sequences of parameterized task primitives combined with further teleoperation and run-time binding of parameters based on task context.

  19. Comparing Health Systems in Four Countries: Lessons for the United States

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Lawrence D.

    2003-01-01

    The Rekindling Reform initiative examined the health systems of 4 countries: Canada, France, Germany, and Great Britain (United Kingdom). From the 4 country reports published in this issue of the American Journal of Public Health, 10 crosscutting themes emerge: (1) coverage, (2) funding, (3) costs, (4) providers, (5) integration, (6) markets, (7) analysis, (8) supply, (9) satisfaction, and (10) leadership. Lessons for the United States are presented under each point. PMID:12511384

  20. Lessons learned in procuring a laser optical disk system

    SciTech Connect

    Berndt, V.L.

    1993-05-01

    This paper describes an effort to procure an optical disk storage system for the Hanford Radiological Records Program. The project manager evaluated technologies available and compatible to the existing computers. A feasibility study was initiated that incorporates special needs and system costs. A requirements analysis, system design, vendor selection and system implementation and testing are documented. Recommendations applicable to procurement in general are given.

  1. Lessons Learned from the Space Shuttle Engine Cutoff System (ECO) Anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, Hugo E.; Welzyn, Ken

    2011-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter's main engine cutoff (ECO) system first failed ground checkout in April, 2005 during a first tanking test prior to Return-to-Flight. Despite significant troubleshooting and investigative efforts that followed, the root cause could not be found and intermittent anomalies continued to plague the Program. By implementing hardware upgrades, enhancing monitoring capability, and relaxing the launch rules, the Shuttle fleet was allowed to continue flying in spite of these unexplained failures. Root cause was finally determined following the launch attempts of STS-122 in December, 2007 when the anomalies repeated, which allowed drag-on instrumentation to pinpoint the fault (the ET feedthrough connector). The suspect hardware was removed and provided additional evidence towards root cause determination. Corrective action was implemented and the system has performed successfully since then. This white paper presents the lessons learned from the entire experience, beginning with the anomalies since Return-to-Flight through discovery and correction of the problem. To put these lessons in better perspective for the reader, an overview of the ECO system is presented first. Next, a chronological account of the failures and associated investigation activities is discussed. Root cause and corrective action are summarized, followed by the lessons learned.

  2. From ecological test site to geographic information system: lessons for the 1980's

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexander, Robert H.

    1981-01-01

    Geographic information systems were common elements in two kinds of interdisciplinary regional demonstration projects in the 1970's. Ecological test sits attempted to provide for more efficient remote-sensing data delivery for regional environmental management. Regional environmental systems analysis attempted to formally describe and model the interacting regional social and environmental processes, including the resource-use decision making process. Lessons for the 1980's are drawn from recent evaluations and assessments of these programs, focusing on cost, rates of system development and technology transfer, program coordination, integrative analysis capability, and the involvement of system users and decision makers.

  3. Management control system description

    SciTech Connect

    Bence, P. J.

    1990-10-01

    This Management Control System (MCS) description describes the processes used to manage the cost and schedule of work performed by Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL), Richland, Washington. Westinghouse Hanford will maintain and use formal cost and schedule management control systems, as presented in this document, in performing work for the DOE-RL. This MCS description is a controlled document and will be modified or updated as required. This document must be approved by the DOE-RL; thereafter, any significant change will require DOE-RL concurrence. Westinghouse Hanford is the DOE-RL operations and engineering contractor at the Hanford Site. Activities associated with this contract (DE-AC06-87RL10930) include operating existing plant facilities, managing defined projects and programs, and planning future enhancements. This document is designed to comply with Section I-13 of the contract by providing a description of Westinghouse Hanford's cost and schedule control systems used in managing the above activities. 5 refs., 22 figs., 1 tab.

  4. [New vector control measures implemented between 2005 and 2011 on Reunion Island: lessons learned from chikungunya epidemic].

    PubMed

    Bâville, M; Dehecq, J S; Reilhes, O; Margueron, T; Polycarpe, D; Filleul, L

    2012-03-01

    A major chikungunya outbreak concerned 38% of people living in Reunion Island in 2005-2006. Chikungunya is an arthropod-born-virus disease conveyed by mosquitoes called Aedes albopictus. The health agency in Indian Ocean is responsible for vector control. Previously, in the early 40s, vector control concerned only malaria prophylaxis in La Réunion. Then, during the chikungunya outbreak, a new vector control team was installed and learned from this epidemic. The lessons drawn from chikungunya outbreak in La Réunion are about global executive management and organization linked the local partners and population. The lessons also concern technical topics such as the need of scientific research about vectors and vector-control methods. Finally, the regional cooperation in Indian Ocean (Réunion, Maurice, Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar) has to be developed to share epidemiologic and entomologic data in order to prevent new chikungunya or dengue outbreak. PMID:22693927

  5. Development testing of TSS-1 Deployer tether control system mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bentley, D. P.; Tisdale, D.

    1989-01-01

    Successful tether deployment and retrieval, consistent with established control laws, is predicated upon statusing real time tether dynamic conditions. This paper reports on the initial phase of engineering tests performed on various components and subassemblies integral to the TSS-1 tether control system as part of the TSS Deployer. The tests were conducted as part of the tether control system development and verification plan to confirm the functionality and map the performance of the hardware in both ambient and environmental test conditions. The result of this development effort is a lessons-learned list and design upgrades to both the flight and test hardware and to the test methods and procedures.

  6. NASA's Earth Science Data Systems - Lessons Learned and Future Directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramapriyan, Hampapuram K.

    2010-01-01

    In order to meet the increasing demand for Earth Science data, NASA has significantly improved the Earth Science Data Systems over the last two decades. This improvement is reviewed in this slide presentation. Many Earth Science disciplines have been able to access the data that is held in the Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Information System (EOSDIS) at the Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) that forms the core of the data system.

  7. Teaching Inquiry using NASA Earth-System Science: Lessons Learned for Blended, Scaffolded Professional Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, T. D.; TeBockhorst, D.

    2013-12-01

    Teaching Inquiry using NASA Earth-System Science (TINES) is a NASA EPOESS funded program exploring blended professional development for pre- and in-service educators to learn how to conduct meaningful inquiry lessons and projects in the K-12 classroom. This project combines trainings in GLOBE observational protocols and training in the use of NASA Earth Science mission data in a backward-faded scaffolding approach to teaching and learning about scientific inquiry. It also features a unique partnership with the National Science Teachers Association Learning Center to promote cohort building and blended professional development with access to NSTA's collection of resources. In this presentation, we will discuss lessons learned in year one and two of this program and how we plan to further develop this program over the next two years.

  8. Challenges and Lessons Learned From Resurrecting a Legacy Research Flight Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dees, Ray A.; Moua, Cheng M.

    2010-01-01

    Resurrecting the legacy Inner Loop Thrust Vectoring research flight controller to investigate the tail shock region brought unique challenges. This report documents these challenges and lessons learned from a stability and controls perspective. The flight test approach for flight envelope expansion and probing tests, as well as limited flight test results, are presented. Recent advances in sonic boom reduction technology have contributed to a resurgent interest in civilian supersonic cruise flight. These advances have focused only on fore body shaping, however, and little, if any, experimental flight data are available to develop and validate design tools for the tail shock region. In January of 2009, the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center completed research flights to investigate the tail shock region of a highly modified F-15 aircraft by probing the shock waves around it, using another F-15 aircraft. To adjust the lift distribution and plume shape, a decade-old research flight controller from the Inner Loop Thrust Vectoring project was required. To investigate the tail shock region, the lift distribution was changed by adjusting the canard position, and the plume shape was changed by adjusting the nozzle area and thrust vectoring.

  9. Cholera in Africa: lessons on transmission and control for Latin America.

    PubMed

    Glass, R I; Claeson, M; Blake, P A; Waldman, R J; Pierce, N F

    1991-09-28

    In January, 1991, epidemic cholera emerged in Peru and spread to 7 other countries of Latin America. Cholera was introduced 20 years ago to Africa, where it spread rapidly to 30 of the 46 countries of the region and by 1990 accounted for 90% of all cases reported to the World Health Organisation. Many lessons from the cholera epidemic in Africa are relevant to efforts to control the disease in Latin America. Public health practices from the past--quarantine and cordon sanitaire to halt introduction of cholera by travellers, and vaccination and mass chemoprophylaxis to control epidemics--are ineffective in preventing spread of the disease. Cholera can be transmitted not only by contaminated water but also by food. Social phenomena such as mass migrations and burial practices may play a greater role than previously understood. While efforts to prevent the spread of cholera have been ineffective, cholera-associated mortality can be decreased with rehydration therapy. Since the current pandemic is unlikely to retreat soon, new strategies are urgently needed to control the spread of cholera through sanitary and behavioural interventions or improved vaccines. PMID:1681168

  10. Vehicle speed control system

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, D.; Tanno, T.; Fukunaga, T.

    1987-06-16

    This patent describes a vehicle speed control system for performing vehicle speed control by controlling the displacement of at least one of a hydraulic pump and a hydraulic motor of a hydraulic transmission through an electric servo device, comprising: vehicle speed setting means for generating a voltage signal corresponding to a vehicle speed to be set; compensating means interposed between the vehicle speed setting means and the electric servo device, the compensating means comprising a first delay element; and second delay element having a response characteristic slower than that of the first delay element. A selecting means for judging as to whether a voltage signal changed by the operation of the vehicle speed setting means represents an acceleration command or a deceleration command and for selecting the first delay element when the voltage signal represents an acceleration command and for selecting the second delay element when the voltage signal represents a deceleration command.

  11. Incoherent control of locally controllable quantum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dong Daoyi; Zhang Chenbin; Rabitz, Herschel; Pechen, Alexander; Tarn, T.-J.

    2008-10-21

    An incoherent control scheme for state control of locally controllable quantum systems is proposed. This scheme includes three steps: (1) amplitude amplification of the initial state by a suitable unitary transformation, (2) projective measurement of the amplified state, and (3) final optimization by a unitary controlled transformation. The first step increases the amplitudes of some desired eigenstates and the corresponding probability of observing these eigenstates, the second step projects, with high probability, the amplified state into a desired eigenstate, and the last step steers this eigenstate into the target state. Within this scheme, two control algorithms are presented for two classes of quantum systems. As an example, the incoherent control scheme is applied to the control of a hydrogen atom by an external field. The results support the suggestion that projective measurements can serve as an effective control and local controllability information can be used to design control laws for quantum systems. Thus, this scheme establishes a subtle connection between control design and controllability analysis of quantum systems and provides an effective engineering approach in controlling quantum systems with partial controllability information.

  12. Lessons about Virtual-Environment Software Systems from 20 years of VE building

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Russell M.; Jerald, Jason; VanderKnyff, Chris; Wendt, Jeremy; Borland, David; Marshburn, David; Sherman, William R.; Whitton, Mary C.

    2010-01-01

    What are desirable and undesirable features of virtual-environment (VE) software architectures? What should be present (and absent) from such systems if they are to be optimally useful? How should they be structured? To help answer these questions we present experience from application designers, toolkit designers, and VE system architects along with examples of useful features from existing systems. Topics are organized under the major headings of: 3D space management, supporting display hardware, interaction, event management, time management, computation, portability, and the observation that less can be better. Lessons learned are presented as discussion of the issues, field experiences, nuggets of knowledge, and case studies. PMID:20567602

  13. OAJ control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antón, J. L.; Yanes-Díaz, A.; Rueda-Teruel, S.; Luis-Simoes, R.; Chueca, S.; Lasso-Cabrera, N. M.; Bello, R.; Jiménez, D.; Suárez, O.; Guillén, L.; López-Alegre, G.; Rodríguez, M. A.; de Castro, S.; Nevot, C.; Sánchez-Artigot, J.; Moles, M.; Cenarro, A. J.; Marín-Franch, A.; Ederoclite, A.; Varela, J.; Valdivielso, L.; Cristóbal-Hornillos, D.; López-Sainz, A.; Hernández-Fuertes, J.; Díaz-Martín, M. C.; Iglesias-Marzoa, R.; Abril, J.; Lamadrid, J. L.; Maicas, N.; Rodríguez, S.; Tilve, V.; Civera, T.; Muniesa, D. J.

    2015-05-01

    The Observatorio Astrofísico de Javalambre (OAJ) is a new astronomical facility located at the Sierra de Javalambre (Teruel, Spain) whose primary role will be to conduct all-sky astronomical surveys leveraging two unprecedented telescopes with unusually large fields of view: the JST/T250, a 2.55 m telescope with a 3 deg field of view, and the JAST/T80, an 83 cm telescope with a 2 deg field of view. The immediate objective of these telescopes for the next years is carrying out two unique photometric surveys covering several thousands square degrees: J-PAS and J-PLUS, each of them with a wide range of scientific applications, like e.g. large structure cosmology and Dark Energy, galaxy evolution, supernovae, Milky Way structure and exoplanets. JST and JAST will be equipped with panoramic cameras being developed within the J-PAS collaboration, JPCam and T80Cam respectively, which make use of large format (˜10{k}×10{k}) CCDs covering the entire focal plane. CEFCA engineering team has been designing the OAJ control system as a global concept to manage, monitor, control and service the observatory systems, not only astronomical but also infrastructure and other facilities. We will give an overview of OAJ's control system from an engineering point of view.

  14. How to build an information gathering and processing system: lessons from naturally and artificially intelligent systems.

    PubMed

    Chappell, Jackie; Demery, Zoe P; Arriola-Rios, Veronica; Sloman, Aaron

    2012-02-01

    Imagine a situation in which you had to design a physical agent that could collect information from its environment, then store and process that information to help it respond appropriately to novel situations. What kinds of information should it attend to? How should the information be represented so as to allow efficient use and re-use? What kinds of constraints and trade-offs would there be? There are no unique answers. In this paper, we discuss some of the ways in which the need to be able to address problems of varying kinds and complexity can be met by different information processing systems. We also discuss different ways in which relevant information can be obtained, and how different kinds of information can be processed and used, by both biological organisms and artificial agents. We analyse several constraints and design features, and show how they relate both to biological organisms, and to lessons that can be learned from building artificial systems. Our standpoint overlaps with Karmiloff-Smith (1992) in that we assume that a collection of mechanisms geared to learning and developing in biological environments are available in forms that constrain, but do not determine, what can or will be learnt by individuals. PMID:22008634

  15. Telerobotic virtual control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Shumin; Milgram, Paul

    1992-03-01

    A project to develop a telerobotic `virtual control' capability, currently underway at the University of Toronto, is described. The project centers on a new mode of interactive telerobotic control based on the technology of combining computer generated stereographic images with remotely transmitted stereoscopic video images. A virtual measurement technique, in conjunction with a basic level of digital image processing, comprising zooming, parallax adjustment, edge enhancement, and edge detection has been developed to assist the human operator in visualization of the remote environment and in spatial reasoning. The aim is to maintain target recognition, tactical planning, and high-level control functions in the hands of the human operator with the computer performing low-level computation and control. Control commands initiated by the operator are implemented through manipulation of a virtual image of the robot system, merged with a live video image of the remote scene. This paper discusses the philosophy and objectives of the project, with emphasis on the underlying human factor considerations in the design, and reports the progress made to date in this effort.

  16. Private Agricultural Extension System in Kenya: Practice and Policy Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muyanga, Milu; Jayne, T. S.

    2008-01-01

    Private extension system has been at the centre of a debate triggered by inefficient public agricultural extension. The debate is anchored on the premise that the private sector is more efficient in extension service delivery. This study evaluates the private extension system in Kenya. It employs qualitative and quantitative methods. The results…

  17. Space Moves: Adding Movement to Solar System Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Deborah Bainer; Heidorn, Brent

    2009-01-01

    Earth and space science figure prominently in the National Science Education Standards for levels 5-8 (NRC 1996). The Earth in the Solar System standard focuses on students' ability to understand (1) the composition of the solar system (Earth, Moon, Sun, planets with their moons, and smaller objects like asteroids and comets) and (2) that…

  18. A sustainable primary care system: lessons from the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Faber, Marjan J; Burgers, Jako S; Westert, Gert P

    2012-01-01

    The Dutch primary care system has drawn international attention, because of its high performance at low cost. Primary care practices are easily accessible during office hours and collaborate in a unique out-of-hours system. After the reforms in 2006, there are no copayments for patients receiving care in the primary care practice in which they are registered. Financial incentives support the transfer of care from hospital specialists to primary care physicians, and task delegation from primary care physicians to practice nurses. Regional collaborative care groups of primary care practices offer disease management programs. The quality assessment system and the electronic medical record system are predominantly driven by health care professionals. Bottom-up and top-down activities contributed to a successful Dutch primary care system. PMID:22668606

  19. Gas turbine engine control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Idelchik, Michael S. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A control system and method of controlling a gas turbine engine. The control system receives an error signal and processes the error signal to form a primary fuel control signal. The control system also receives at least one anticipatory demand signal and processes the signal to form an anticipatory fuel control signal. The control system adjusts the value of the anticipatory fuel control signal based on the value of the error signal to form an adjusted anticipatory signal and then the adjusted anticipatory fuel control signal and the primary fuel control signal are combined to form a fuel command signal.

  20. A Model for Systemic Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwaninger, Markus; Ambroz, Kristjan; Olaya, Camilo

    2006-06-01

    Where should one begin with a design for the self-control of social systems? That is the question addressed by this paper. The traditional concepts of control rest on the feedback loop; control is essential to the attainment of goals. However, the simple feedback loop is insufficient for the modeling of a control system for an organization or other social system. For those systems, which search for multiple goals, it is necessary to design multilevel control systems incorporating the notion of pre-control. This eminently anticipatory function has hardly been considered by past research. Pre-control as understood here is a higher-order control that takes place between different logical levels of a control system. The Model of Systemic Control (MSC), a framework for multilevel control with pre-control relationships, is expounded and illustrated by means of a System Dynamics model.

  1. Thermoelectric Converter for Loop Heat Pipe Temperature Control: Experience and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jentung; Ottenstein, Laura

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the theoretical background and implementation methodology of using a thermoelectric converter (TEC) for operating temperature control of a loop heat pipe (LHP). In particular, experimental results from ambient and thermal vacuum tests of an LHP are presented for illustrations. The most commonly used state-of-the-art method to control the LHP operating temperature is to cold bias its compensation chamber (CC) and use an electrical heater to maintain the CC at the desired set point temperature. Although effective, this approach has its shortcomings in that the electrical heater can only provide heating to the CC, and the required power can be large under certain conditions. An alternative method is to use a TEC, which is capable of providing both heating and cooling to the CC. In this method, one side of the TEC is attached to the CC, and the other side is connected to the evaporator via a thermal strap. Using a bipolar power supply and a control algorithm, a TEC can function as a heater or a cooler, depending on the direction of the current flow. Extensive ground tests of several LHPs have demonstrated that a TEC can provide very tight temperature control for the CC. It also offers several additional advantages: (1) The LHP can operate at temperatures below its natural operating temperature at low heat loads; (2) The required heater power for a TEC is much less than that for an electrical heater; and (3) It enhances the LHP start-up success. Although the concept of using a TEC for LHP temperature control is simple, there are many factors to be considered in its implementation for space applications because the TEC is susceptible to the shear stress and yet has to sustain the dynamic load under the spacecraft launch environment. The added features that help the TEC to withstand the dynamic load will inevitably affect the TEC thermal performance. Some experiences and lessons learned are addressed in this paper.

  2. MIRADAS control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosich Minguell, Josefina; Garzón Lopez, Francisco

    2012-09-01

    The Mid-resolution InfRAreD Astronomical Spectrograph (MIRADAS, a near-infrared multi-object echelle spectrograph operating at spectral resolution R=20,000 over the 1-2.5μm bandpass) was selected in 2010 by the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) partnership as the next-generation near-infrared spectrograph for the world's largest optical/infrared telescope, and is being developed by an international consortium. The MIRADAS consortium includes the University of Florida, Universidad de Barcelona, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Institut de Física d'Altes Energies, Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya and Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. This paper shows an overview of the MIRADAS control software, which follows the standards defined by the telescope to permit the integration of this software on the GTC Control System (GCS). The MIRADAS Control System is based on a distributed architecture according to a component model where every subsystem is selfcontained. The GCS is a distributed environment written in object oriented C++, which runs components in different computers, using CORBA middleware for communications. Each MIRADAS observing mode, including engineering, monitoring and calibration modes, will have its own predefined sequence, which are executed in the GCS Sequencer. These sequences will have the ability of communicating with other telescope subsystems.

  3. Crawling the Control System

    SciTech Connect

    Theodore Larrieu

    2009-10-01

    Information about accelerator operations and the control system resides in various formats in a variety of places on the lab network. There are operating procedures, technical notes, engineering drawings, and other formal controlled documents. There are programmer references and API documentation generated by tools such as doxygen and javadoc. There are the thousands of electronic records generated by and stored in databases and applications such as electronic logbooks, training materials, wikis, and bulletin boards and the contents of text-based configuration files and log files that can also be valuable sources of information. The obvious way to aggregate all these sources is to index them with a search engine that users can then query from a web browser. Toward this end, the Google "mini" search appliance was selected and implemented because of its low cost and its simple web-based configuration and management. In addition to crawling and indexing electronic documents, the appliance provides an API that has been used to supplement search results with live control system data such as current values of EPICS process variables and graphs of recent data from the archiver.

  4. CONTROL ROOM WITH SPRINKLER SYSTEM CONTROLS, INCLUDING MANUAL CONTROL BOXES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTROL ROOM WITH SPRINKLER SYSTEM CONTROLS, INCLUDING MANUAL CONTROL BOXES FOR THE VENTILATION SYSTEM AND A PLC SWITCH FOR AUTOMATIC CO (CARBON MONOXIDE) SYSTEM. THE AIR TESTING SYSTEM IS FREE STANDING AND THE FANS ARE COMPUTER-OPERATED. - Alaskan Way Viaduct and Battery Street Tunnel, Seattle, King County, WA

  5. Promoting system-level learning from project-level lessons

    SciTech Connect

    Jong, Amos A. de; Runhaar, Hens A.C.; Runhaar, Piety R.; Kolhoff, Arend J.; Driessen, Peter P.J.

    2012-02-15

    A growing number of low and middle income nations (LMCs) have adopted some sort of system for environmental impact assessment (EIA). However, generally many of these EIA systems are characterised by a low performance in terms of timely information dissemination, monitoring and enforcement after licencing. Donor actors (such as the World Bank) have attempted to contribute to a higher performance of EIA systems in LMCs by intervening at two levels: the project level (e.g. by providing scoping advice or EIS quality review) and the system level (e.g. by advising on EIA legislation or by capacity building). The aims of these interventions are environmental protection in concrete cases and enforcing the institutionalisation of environmental protection, respectively. Learning by actors involved is an important condition for realising these aims. A relatively underexplored form of learning concerns learning at EIA system-level via project level donor interventions. This 'indirect' learning potentially results in system changes that better fit the specific context(s) and hence contribute to higher performances. Our exploratory research in Ghana and the Maldives shows that thus far, 'indirect' learning only occurs incidentally and that donors play a modest role in promoting it. Barriers to indirect learning are related to the institutional context rather than to individual characteristics. Moreover, 'indirect' learning seems to flourish best in large projects where donors achieved a position of influence that they can use to evoke reflection upon system malfunctions. In order to enhance learning at all levels donors should thereby present the outcomes of the intervention elaborately (i.e. discuss the outcomes with a large audience), include practical suggestions about post-EIS activities such as monitoring procedures and enforcement options and stimulate the use of their advisory reports to generate organisational memory and ensure a better information dissemination.

  6. Support of an Active Science Project by a Large Information System: Lessons for the EOS Era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelici, Gary L.; Skiles, J. W.; Popovici, Lidia Z.

    1993-01-01

    The ability of large information systems to support the changing data requirements of active science projects is being tested in a NASA collaborative study. This paper briefly profiles both the active science project and the large information system involved in this effort and offers some observations about the effectiveness of the project support. This is followed by lessons that are important for those participating in large information systems that need to support active science projects or that make available the valuable data produced by these projects. We learned in this work that it is difficult for a large information system focused on long term data management to satisfy the requirements of an on-going science project. For example, in order to provide the best service, it is important for all information system staff to keep focused on the needs and constraints of the scientists in the development of appropriate services. If the lessons learned in this and other science support experiences are not applied by those involved with large information systems of the EOS (Earth Observing System) era, then the final data products produced by future science projects may not be robust or of high quality, thereby making the conduct of the project science less efficacious and reducing the value of these unique suites of data for future research.

  7. High Gain Antenna System Deployment Mechanism Integration, Characterization, and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parong, Fil; Russell, Blair; Garcen, Walter; Rose, Chris; Johnson, Chris; Huber, Craig

    2014-01-01

    The integration and deployment testing of the High Gain Antenna System for the Global Precipitation Measurement mission is summarized. The HGAS deployment mechanism is described. The gravity negation system configuration and its influence on vertical, ground-based, deployment tests are presented with test data and model predictions. A focus is made on the late discovery and resolution of a potentially mission degrading deployment interference condition. The interaction of the flight deployment mechanism, gravity negation mechanism, and use of dynamic modeling is described and lessons learned presented.

  8. High Gain Antenna System Deployment Mechanism Integration, Characterization, and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parong, Fil; Russell, Blair; Garcen, Walter; Rose, Chris; Johnson, Chris; Huber, Craig

    2014-01-01

    The integration and deployment testing of the High Gain Antenna System (HGAS) for the Global Precipitation Measurement mission is summarized. The HGAS deployment mechanism is described. The gravity negation system configuration and its influence on vertical, ground-based deployment tests are presented with test data and model predictions. A focus is made on the late discovery and resolution of a potentially mission-degrading deployment interference condition. The interaction of the flight deployment mechanism, gravity-negation mechanism, and use of dynamic modeling is described and lessons learned presented

  9. Lessons learned from the NEPTUNE power system, and other deep-sea adventures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkham, Harold

    2006-11-01

    The development of underwater science systems presents some challenging technical issues. It seems that the best efforts of the engineers and scientists involved are sometimes inadequate, and projects that once seemed straightforward end up being late or over-budget, or cancelled. This paper will review some of the lessons that may be learned from the examples of three science projects in the deep ocean: the Deep Underwater Muon and Neutrino Detector neutrino detector, the H2O observatory, and the power system part of the NEPTUNE regional cabled observatory.

  10. Energy management systems in buildings: The practical lessons

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, P.

    1984-01-01

    Dramatic reductions in energy consumption in buildings can now be achieved by the use of automated energy management systems (EMS). This book draws on the results of an official programme of twenty five EMS installations in widely differing organisations. It provides detailed guidance on how to determine whether such a system represents a good investment for them; how to approach the project and write a good specification; how to select suitable prospective equipment suppliers; how to assess tenders and set up contracts; and how to train and educate supervisors and staff. Further chapters cover the practicalities of installing and commissioning the equipment and making best use of the system, including action in response to the information output and solutions to problems of handling the data.

  11. Immunodeficiency and autoimmunity: lessons from systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Grammatikos, Alexandros P.; Tsokos, George C.

    2011-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that systemic autoimmunity and immunodeficiency are not separate entities, but rather interconnected processes. Immunodeficiency results from distinct defects of the immune response and primarily presents as infections, but also frequently with autoimmune features. Systemic autoimmunity is the combined effect of multiple genetic variations, infectious and immunoregulatory factors that result in dominant autoimmune manifestations in addition to frequent and opportunistic infections. The overlap in disease manifestations and symptoms suggests that immunodeficiency should be considered in the presence of autoimmunity, and vice versa. In this review, we present the shared or similar aspects of immunodeficiency and autoimmunity using systemic lupus erythematosus as a paradigm and discuss the implications for clinical care. PMID:22177735

  12. Lessons learned in transitioning to an open systems environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boland, Dillard E.; Green, David S.; Steger, Warren L.

    1994-01-01

    Software development organizations, both commercial and governmental, are undergoing rapid change spurred by developments in the computing industry. To stay competitive, these organizations must adopt new technologies, skills, and practices quickly. Yet even for an organization with a well-developed set of software engineering models and processes, transitioning to a new technology can be expensive and risky. Current industry trends are leading away from traditional mainframe environments and toward the workstation-based, open systems world. This paper presents the experiences of software engineers on three recent projects that pioneered open systems development for NASA's Flight Dynamics Division of the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC).

  13. BLTC control system software

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, J.B., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-10

    This is a direct revision to Rev. 0 of the BLTC Control System Software. The entire document is being revised and released as HNF-SD-FF-CSWD-025, Rev 1. The changes incorporated by this revision include addition of a feature to automate the sodium drain when removing assemblies from sodium wetted facilities. Other changes eliminate locked in alarms during cold operation and improve the function of the Oxygen Analyzer. See FCN-620498 for further details regarding these changes. Note the change in the document number prefix, in accordance with HNF-MD-003.

  14. Smog control system

    SciTech Connect

    Eichhorn, C.D.

    1992-01-01

    A smog control system is designed comprised of fans or blowers which are located to introduce air into a smog particle destruction chamber operated with laser energy. The smog particles are broken down and the air is passed into a filtering chamber which may adopt the form of a liquid charcoal chamber. The air may be bubbled through the liquid charcoal and the effluent may then be passed into a freshening agent chamber. The air may then pass as an effluent from the freshening agent chamber. A liquid charcoal supply may be connected to the liquid charcoal chamber and the recovered liquid charcoal which has been spent may be reused for other purposes.

  15. Lessons from Restructuring the University of Maine System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pattenaude, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    Even before the international financial crisis, the University of Maine System was looking at a $42.8 million projected annual shortfall between revenues and expenses within four years if it continued business as usual. In this article, the author describes the approach used to deal with a rapidly growing structural gap in the finances of the…

  16. Engineered containment and control systems : nurturing nature.

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonell, M.; Clarke, J.; Smith, E.; Dunn, J.; Waugh, J.; Environmental Assessment; Vanderbilt Univ.; ORNL; Kleinfelder; U.S. Department of Energy Grand Junction Office

    2004-06-01

    The development of engineered containment and control systems for contaminated sites must consider the environmental setting of each site. The behaviors of both contaminated materials and engineered systems are affected by environmental conditions that will continue to evolve over time as a result of such natural processes as climate change, ecological succession, pedogenesis, and landform changes. Understanding these processes is crucial to designing, implementing, and maintaining effective systems for sustained health and environmental protection. Traditional engineered systems such as landfill liners and caps are designed to resist natural processes rather than working with them. These systems cannot be expected to provide long-term isolation without continued maintenance. In some cases, full-scale replacement and remediation may be required within 50 years, at an effort and cost much higher than for the original cleanup. Approaches are being developed to define smarter containment and control systems for stewardship sites, considering lessons learned from implementing prescriptive waste disposal regulations enacted since the 1970s. These approaches more effectively involve integrating natural and engineered systems; enhancing sensors and predictive tools for evaluating performance; and incorporating information on failure events, including precursors and consequences, into system design and maintenance. An important feature is using natural analogs to predict environmental conditions and system responses over the long term, to accommodate environmental change in the design process, and, as possible, to engineer containment systems that mimic favorable natural systems. The key emphasis is harmony with the environment, so systems will work with and rely on natural processes rather than resisting them. Implementing these new integrated systems will reduce current requirements for active management, which are resource-intensive and expensive.

  17. Engineered containment and control systems: nurturing nature.

    PubMed

    Clarke, James H; MacDonell, Margaret M; Smith, Ellen D; Dunn, R Jeffrey; Waugh, W Jody

    2004-06-01

    The development of engineered containment and control systems for contaminated sites must consider the environmental setting of each site. The behaviors of both contaminated materials and engineered systems are affected by environmental conditions that will continue to evolve over time as a result of such natural processes as climate change, ecological succession, pedogenesis, and landform changes. Understanding these processes is crucial to designing, implementing, and maintaining effective systems for sustained health and environmental protection. Traditional engineered systems such as landfill liners and caps are designed to resist natural processes rather than working with them. These systems cannot be expected to provide long-term isolation without continued maintenance. In some cases, full-scale replacement and remediation may be required within 50 years, at an effort and cost much higher than for the original cleanup. Approaches are being developed to define smarter containment and control systems for stewardship sites, considering lessons learned from implementing prescriptive waste disposal regulations enacted since the 1970s. These approaches more effectively involve integrating natural and engineered systems; enhancing sensors and predictive tools for evaluating performance; and incorporating information on failure events, including precursors and consequences, into system design and maintenance. An important feature is using natural analogs to predict environmental conditions and system responses over the long term, to accommodate environmental change in the design process, and, as possible, to engineer containment systems that mimic favorable natural systems. The key emphasis is harmony with the environment, so systems will work with and rely on natural processes rather than resisting them. Implementing these new integrated systems will reduce current requirements for active management, which are resource-intensive and expensive. PMID:15209944

  18. Airflow control system

    DOEpatents

    Motszko, Sean Ronald; McEnaney, Ryan Patrick; Brush, Jeffrey Alan; Zimmermann, Daniel E.

    2007-03-13

    A dual airflow control system for an environment having a first air zone and a second air zone. The system includes a first input device operable to generate a first input signal indicative of a desired airflow to the first zone and a second input device operable to generate a second input signal indicative of a desired airflow to the second zone. First and second flow regulators are configured to regulate airflow to the first and second zones, respectively, such that the first and second regulators selectively provide the airflow to each of the first and second zones based on the first and second input signals. A single actuator is associated with the first and second flow regulators. The actuator is operable to simultaneously actuate the first and second flow regulators based on an input from the first and second input devices to allow the desired airflows to the first and the second zones.

  19. Accessing population health information through interactive systems: lessons learned and future directions.

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, D. J.; Anderka, M.; Krieger, J. W.; Land, G.; Solet, D.

    2001-01-01

    In the mid-1990s, several state and county public health departments implemented interactive software systems that provided easy access to public health-related data for local boards of health, other public health agencies, health care providers, community groups, and other interested members of the public. Based on their experiences with two well-established state interactive systems and one well-established county system, the authors summarize lessons that could prove useful to state and local public health agencies interested in developing new interactive systems or adapting existing ones. The article addresses issues such as: basing interactive systems on a broad definition of health, designing systems to incorporate user preferences, moving from data warehouses to information warehouses, and fostering prevention communities. Finally, the article provides recommendations to assist federal, state, and local public health agencies in developing the next generation of interactive data access systems. PMID:11847299

  20. Lessons learned from an Internet GP information system.

    PubMed

    Briggs, J S; Bradley, M P

    1998-01-01

    We describe the prototype of an application that in actual use would allow GPs to find out more information about consultants at hospitals. This would aid the GP in making the decision about which consultant a patient should be referred to. The requirements of the application from the GP's perspective are described, together with some of the issues that have to be resolved before hospitals can provide the necessary information in a standard format. The application is implemented as a client--server system using standard Internet technologies such as Java and HTML. This architecture has a number of advantages but also revealed some issues concerning security and the format of data, among other things. The project showed that there is a desire for such a system and that that desire can be fulfilled at a relatively low cost. PMID:9785327

  1. The influenza vaccine innovation system and lessons for PDPs.

    PubMed

    Huzair, Farah

    2012-03-01

    As Product Development Partnerships (PDPs) emerge and evolve in response to the need for vaccines, this paper re-examines the oldest and most successful PDP in the vaccine field; that which year after year, produces and reinvents influenza vaccines. This paper describes the influenza vaccine production and innovation system and reviews some of its most recent major innovations. Innovation in this system is a result of collaborative partnerships between various actors from both the public and private sector. It is argued that the influenza vaccine innovation system is a Product Development Partnership (PDP), be it an unconventional one, with a central coordination role allocated to the WHO rather than a private company or charitable/not for profit entity. The unusual structure of this PDP overcomes some of the organizational issues surrounding vaccine research and production faced by other documented PDPs. These are first, the need to coordinate knowledge flow via an effective knowledge broker. Second, the need to build in-house capacity and fund essential research and elements of production where private partners find involvement too risky or costly. PMID:22327495

  2. Cold ischemic organ preservation: lessons from natural systems.

    PubMed

    Storey, Kenneth B

    2004-07-01

    Mammalian hibernators offer natural models for investigating solutions to the metabolic injuries that accrue during cold ischemic storage of human organs removed for transplant. Knowledge of the biochemical mechanisms that regulate and stabilize metabolism to ensure long-term viability in the hypometabolic, hypothermic state of hibernation could lead to applied treatments that could increase the time that excised organs can be maintained in cold storage and/or improve recovery of function after implantation. New research has documented the widespread role of reversible protein phosphorylation control of metabolism in achieving the coordinated suppression of metabolic rate that greatly extends viability during torpor. Analysis of hibernation-induced gene expression is proving to be of crucial importance for identifying the genes and proteins that are up-regulated to address organ-specific concerns during torpor. In particular, the power of complementary deoxyribonucleic acid (cDNA) array screening is identifying families of proteins that are up-regulated during hibernation (eg, serpins, heat shock proteins, antioxidants, membrane transporters) and highlighting previously unrecognized areas of cellular metabolism as contributing to the hibernation phenotype. These offer new targets for innovative applied treatments that could enhance cytoprotection and cold ischemia survival of organ explants. PMID:15551654

  3. Lessons learned from past experience with intensive livestock management systems.

    PubMed

    Cronin, G M; Rault, J L; Glatz, P C

    2014-04-01

    The main impetus for 'modern' intensive animal production occurred after the Second World War, when Western governments developed policies to increase the availability of cheap, safe food for their populations. Livestock benefit under intensive husbandry by protection from environmental extremes and predators, and better nutritional and health management. Nevertheless, there are costs to the animal, such as impaired social behaviour, limited choice of living environment or pen mates, poor environmental stimulation and behavioural restrictions. The rapid progress in genetic selection of production traits has also, in some cases, adversely affected welfare by creating anatomical and metabolic problems. Above all, the intensively housed animal is heavily reliant on the stockperson and, therefore, inadequate care and husbandry practices by the stockperson may be the largest welfare risk. In a future in which the food supply may be limited as the world's population grows and land availability shrinks, intensive animal production is likely to expand. At the same time, ethical considerations surrounding intensive farming practices may also become more prominent. Novel technologies provide the opportunity to enhance both the productivity and welfare of intensively kept animals. Developing countries are also establishing more intensive commercial systems to meet their growing need for animal protein. Intensive livestock production in such countries has the potential for major expansion, particularly if such developments address the key constraints of poor welfare, inadequate nutrition, poor reproduction, poor housing, and high mortality often seen with traditional systems, and if farmer access to emerging market opportunities is improved. However, as shown by previous experience, inadequate regulation and staff who lack the appropriate training to care for the welfare of intensively housed livestock can be major challenges to overcome. PMID:25000786

  4. Systems Engineering Lessons Learned for Class D Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rojdev, Kristina; Piatek, Irene; Moore, Josh; Calvert, Derek

    2015-01-01

    One of NASA's goals within human exploration is to determine how to get humans to Mars safely and to live and work on the Martian surface. To accomplish this goal, several smaller missions act as stepping-stones to the larger end goal. NASA uses these smaller missions to develop new technologies and learn about how to survive outside of Low Earth Orbit for long periods. Additionally, keeping a cadence of these missions allows the team to maintain proficiency in the complex art of bringing spacecraft to fruition. Many of these smaller missions are robotic in nature and have smaller timescales, whereas there are others that involve crew and have longer mission timelines. Given the timelines associated with these various missions, different levels of risk and rigor need to be implemented to be more in line with what is appropriate for the mission. Thus, NASA has four different classifications that range from Class A to Class D based on the mission details. One of these projects is the Resource Prospector (RP) Mission, which is a multi-center and multi-institution collaborative project to search for volatiles in the polar regions of the Moon. The RP mission is classified as a Class D mission and as such, has the opportunity to more tightly manage, and therefore accept, greater levels of risk. The requirements for Class D missions were at the forefront of the design and thus presented unique challenges in vehicle development and systems engineering processes. This paper will discuss the systems engineering process at NASA and how that process is tailored for Class D missions, specifically the RP mission.

  5. Can Land Managers Control Japanese Knotweed? Lessons from Control Tests in Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delbart, Emmanuel; Mahy, Grégory; Weickmans, Bernard; Henriet, François; Crémer, Sébastien; Pieret, Nora; Vanderhoeven, Sonia; Monty, Arnaud

    2012-12-01

    Japanese knotweed Fallopia japonica is an extremely abundant invasive plant in Belgium and surrounding countries. To date, no eradication method is available for land managers facing the invasion of this rhizomatous plant. We tested different chemical herbicides with two application methods (spraying and stem injection), as well as mechanical treatments, on knotweed clones throughout southern Belgium. The tested control methods were selected to be potentially usable by managers, e.g., using legally accepted rates for herbicides. Stem volume, height and density reduction were assessed after one or two years, depending on the control method. Labor estimations were made for each control method. No tested control method completely eradicated the clones. Stem injection with glyphosate-based herbicide (3.6 kg ha-1 of acid equivalent glyphosate) caused the most damage, i.e., no sprouting shoots were observed the year following the injection. The following year, though, stunted shoots appeared. Among the mechanical control methods, repeated cuts combined with native tree transplanting most appreciably reduced knotweed development. The most efficient methods we tested could curb knotweed invasion, but are not likely to be effective in eradicating the species. As such, they should be included in a more integrated restoration strategy, together with prevention and public awareness campaigns.

  6. Implementing drought early warning systems: policy lessons and future needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias, Ana; Werner, Micha; Maia, Rodrigo; Garrote, Luis; Nyabeze, Washington

    2014-05-01

    Drought forecasting and Warning provides the potential of reducing impacts to society due to drought events. The implementation of effective drought forecasting and warning, however, requires not only science to support reliable forecasting, but also adequate policy and societal response. Here we propose a protocol to develop drought forecasting and early warning based in the international cooperation of African and European institutions in the DEWFORA project (EC, 7th Framework Programme). The protocol includes four major phases that address the scientific knowledge and the social capacity to use the knowledge: (a) What is the science available? Evaluating how signs of impending drought can be detected and predicted, defining risk levels, and analysing of the signs of drought in an integrated vulnerability approach. (b) What are the societal capacities? In this the institutional framework that enables policy development is evaluated. The protocol gathers information on vulnerability and pending hazard in advance so that early warnings can be declared at sufficient lead time and drought mitigation planning can be implemented at an early stage. (c) How can science be translated into policy? Linking science indicators into the actions/interventions that society needs to implement, and evaluating how policy is implemented. Key limitations to planning for drought are the social capacities to implement early warning systems. Vulnerability assessment contributes to identify these limitations and therefore provides crucial information to policy development. Based on the assessment of vulnerability we suggest thresholds for management actions to respond to drought forecasts and link predictive indicators to relevant potential mitigation strategies. Vulnerability assessment is crucial to identify relief, coping and management responses that contribute to a more resilient society. (d) How can society benefit from the forecast? Evaluating how information is provided to

  7. The lessons of Medicare's prospective payment system show that the bundled payment program faces challenges.

    PubMed

    Altman, Stuart H

    2012-09-01

    Policy makers have been trying to replace Medicare's fee-for-service payment system for years with approaches that pay one price for an aggregation of services. The intent is to reward providers for offering needed care in the most appropriate and cost-effective manner. Medicare's first payment change designed to accomplish such a change was the hospital prospective payment system, introduced during 1983-84. But because it focused only on hospital care, its impact on total Medicare spending was limited. In 2011 Medicare began a new initiative to expand the "bundled payment" concept to link payments for multiple services that patients receive during an episode of care. The goal of Medicare's current bundled payment initiative is to provide incentives to deliver health care more efficiently while maintaining or improving quality. This article provides a detailed analysis of how Medicare implemented the hospital prospective payment system, how hospitals responded to the new incentives, and lessons learned that are applicable to the bundled payment initiative. The lessons include that any Medicare payment reform needs to continuously respond to the many different components of the health system and that payment reform should be coupled with analogous reforms in private insurance payment, so that providers receive consistent signals to alter their behavior. PMID:22949439

  8. Lessons learned from a whole hospital PACS installation. Picture Archiving and Communication System.

    PubMed

    Pilling, J R

    2002-09-01

    The Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital has incorporated a fully filmless Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) as part of a new hospital provision using PFI funding. The PACS project has been very successful and has met with unanimous acclaim from radiologists and clinicians. A project of this size cannot be achieved without learning some lessons from mistakes and recognising areas where attention to detail resulted in a successful implementation. This paper considers the successes and problems encountered in a large PACS installation. PMID:12384103

  9. Pollution control system

    SciTech Connect

    Voliva, B.H.; Bernstein, I.B.

    1984-09-25

    A pollution control system is disclosed wherein condensable pollutants are removed from a high-temperature gas stream by counterflow contact in a vertical tower with downwardly flowing, relatively cool absorbent oil. The absorbent is at a sufficiently low temperature so as to rapidly condense a portion of the pollutants in order to form a fog of fine droplets of pollutant entrained by the gas stream, which fog is incapable of being absorbed by the absorbent. The remainder of the condensable pollutants is removed by downwardly flowing absorbent oil, and the gas and entrained fog are directed from the tower to gas/droplet separation means, such as an electrostatic precipitator. The fog is thereby separated from the gas and substantially pollutant-free gas is discharged to the atmosphere.

  10. Optically controlled welding system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Stephen S. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An optically controlled welding system (10) wherein a welding torch (12) having through-the-torch viewing capabilities is provided with an optical beam splitter (56) to create a transmitted view and a reflective view of a welding operation. These views are converted to digital signals which are then processed and utilized by a computerized robotic welder (15) to make the welding torch responsive thereto. Other features includes an actively cooled electrode holder (26) which minimizes a blocked portion of the view by virtue of being constructed of a single spoke or arm (28) and a weld pool contour detector (14) comprising a laser beam directed onto the weld pool with the position of specular radiation reflected therefrom being characteristic of a penetrated or unpenetrated condition of the weld pool.

  11. Optically controlled welding system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Stephen S. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    An optically controlled welding system wherein a welding torch having through-the-torch viewing capabilities is provided with an optical beam splitter to create a transmitted view and a reflective view of a welding operation. These views are converted to digital signals which are then processed and utilized by a computerized robotic welder to make the welding torch responsive thereto. Other features include an actively cooled electrode holder which minimizes a blocked portion of the view by virtue of being constructed of a single spoke or arm, and a weld pool contour detector comprising a laser beam directed onto the weld pool with the position of specular radiation reflected therefrom, being characteristic of a penetrated or unpenetrated condition of the weld pool.

  12. How a universal health system reduces inequalities: lessons from England

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Shehzad; Doran, Tim; Ferguson, Brian; Fleetcroft, Robert; Goddard, Maria; Goldblatt, Peter; Laudicella, Mauro; Raine, Rosalind; Cookson, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Background Provision of universal coverage is essential for achieving equity in healthcare, but inequalities still exist in universal healthcare systems. Between 2004/2005 and 2011/2012, the National Health Service (NHS) in England, which has provided universal coverage since 1948, made sustained efforts to reduce health inequalities by strengthening primary care. We provide the first comprehensive assessment of trends in socioeconomic inequalities of primary care access, quality and outcomes during this period. Methods Whole-population small area longitudinal study based on 32 482 neighbourhoods of approximately 1500 people in England from 2004/2005 to 2011/2012. We measured slope indices of inequality in four indicators: (1) patients per family doctor, (2) primary care quality, (3) preventable emergency hospital admissions and (4) mortality from conditions considered amenable to healthcare. Results Between 2004/2005 and 2011/2012, there were larger absolute improvements on all indicators in more-deprived neighbourhoods. The modelled gap between the most-deprived and least-deprived neighbourhoods in England decreased by: 193 patients per family doctor (95% CI 173 to 213), 3.29 percentage points of primary care quality (3.13 to 3.45), 0.42 preventable hospitalisations per 1000 people (0.29 to 0.55) and 0.23 amenable deaths per 1000 people (0.15 to 0.31). By 2011/2012, inequalities in primary care supply and quality were almost eliminated, but socioeconomic inequality was still associated with 158 396 preventable hospitalisations and 37 983 deaths amenable to healthcare. Conclusions Between 2004/2005 and 2011/2012, the NHS succeeded in substantially reducing socioeconomic inequalities in primary care access and quality, but made only modest reductions in healthcare outcome inequalities. PMID:26787198

  13. Lessons learned from quantitative dynamical modeling in systems biology.

    PubMed

    Raue, Andreas; Schilling, Marcel; Bachmann, Julie; Matteson, Andrew; Schelker, Max; Schelke, Max; Kaschek, Daniel; Hug, Sabine; Kreutz, Clemens; Harms, Brian D; Theis, Fabian J; Klingmüller, Ursula; Timmer, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Due to the high complexity of biological data it is difficult to disentangle cellular processes relying only on intuitive interpretation of measurements. A Systems Biology approach that combines quantitative experimental data with dynamic mathematical modeling promises to yield deeper insights into these processes. Nevertheless, with growing complexity and increasing amount of quantitative experimental data, building realistic and reliable mathematical models can become a challenging task: the quality of experimental data has to be assessed objectively, unknown model parameters need to be estimated from the experimental data, and numerical calculations need to be precise and efficient. Here, we discuss, compare and characterize the performance of computational methods throughout the process of quantitative dynamic modeling using two previously established examples, for which quantitative, dose- and time-resolved experimental data are available. In particular, we present an approach that allows to determine the quality of experimental data in an efficient, objective and automated manner. Using this approach data generated by different measurement techniques and even in single replicates can be reliably used for mathematical modeling. For the estimation of unknown model parameters, the performance of different optimization algorithms was compared systematically. Our results show that deterministic derivative-based optimization employing the sensitivity equations in combination with a multi-start strategy based on latin hypercube sampling outperforms the other methods by orders of magnitude in accuracy and speed. Finally, we investigated transformations that yield a more efficient parameterization of the model and therefore lead to a further enhancement in optimization performance. We provide a freely available open source software package that implements the algorithms and examples compared here. PMID:24098642

  14. Overview, Control Strategies, and Lessons Learned in the CDC Response to the 2014-2016 Ebola Epidemic.

    PubMed

    Bell, Beth P; Damon, Inger K; Jernigan, Daniel B; Kenyon, Thomas A; Nichol, Stuart T; O'Connor, John P; Tappero, Jordan W

    2016-01-01

    During 2014-2016, CDC, working with U.S. and international partners, mounted a concerted response to end the unprecedented epidemic of Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in West Africa. CDC's response, which was the largest in the agency's history, was directed simultaneously at controlling the epidemic in West Africa and strengthening preparedness for Ebola in the United States. Although experience in responding to approximately 20 Ebola outbreaks since 1976 had provided CDC and other international responders an understanding of the disease and how to stop its spread, the epidemic in West Africa presented new and formidable challenges. The initial response was slow and complicated for several reasons, including wide geographic spread of cases, poor public health and societal infrastructure, sociodemographic factors, local unfamiliarity with Ebola, and distrust of government and health care workers. In the United States, widespread public alarm erupted after Ebola cases were diagnosed in Dallas, Texas, and New York City, New York. CDC, in collaboration with its U.S. and international counterparts, applied proven public health strategies as well as innovative new approaches to help control the Ebola epidemic in West Africa and strengthen public health readiness in the United States. Lessons learned include the recognition that West African and other countries need effective systems to detect and stop infectious disease threats, the need for stronger international surge capacity for times when countries are overwhelmed by an outbreak, and the importance of improving infection prevention and control in health care settings. The activities summarized in this report would not have been possible without collaboration with many U.S. and international partners (http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/outbreaks/2014-west-africa/partners.html). PMID:27389903

  15. On Restructurable Control System Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Athans, M.

    1983-01-01

    The state of stochastic system and control theory as it impacts restructurable control issues is addressed. The multivariable characteristics of the control problem are addressed. The failure detection/identification problem is discussed as a multi-hypothesis testing problem. Control strategy reconfiguration, static multivariable controls, static failure hypothesis testing, dynamic multivariable controls, fault-tolerant control theory, dynamic hypothesis testing, generalized likelihood ratio (GLR) methods, and adaptive control are discussed.

  16. A coordinated approach to control system modifications

    SciTech Connect

    Lance, G.J.; Babuka, R.D.; Ricker, S.

    1995-10-01

    This paper describes the structured approach to a major control system retrofit. The project included replacing out-dated controls hardware with a distributed control system as part of a low NO{sub x} conversion project. The success of the coordinated approach used for this project depended on many key factors. The most important factor was strength of the EKPC/B and W relationship that united B and W design and installation expertise with EKPC operations. This relationship provided a comprehensive forum for information exchange between all parties involved. The design documents (P and IDs, SRSs, I/O Lists, and SITs) provided a conduit for technical information exchange. The integrated schedule was used as a dynamic road map to drive, guide and coordinate the project. The schedule provided direction to all contributing organizations through the engineering, installation, and start-up phases. The labor partnering approach to electrical and instrumentation installation infused valuable installation expertise into the project. The lessons learned sessions provided important performance feedback. These sessions measured the effectiveness of overall communication and led to process improvement. The success of this project is directly attributable to the dedication and coordinated approach of the EKPC/B and W project team.

  17. Lessons Learned In Developing Multiple Distributed Planning Systems for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maxwell, Theresa G.; McNair, Ann R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The planning processes for the International Space Station (ISS) Program are quite complex. Detailed mission planning for ISS on-orbit operations is a distributed function. Pieces of the on-orbit plan are developed by multiple planning organizations, located around the world, based on their respective expertise and responsibilities. The "pieces" are then integrated to yield the final detailed plan that will be executed onboard the ISS. Previous space programs have not distributed the planning and scheduling functions to this extent. Major ISS planning organizations are currently located in the United States (at both the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) and NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)), in Russia, in Europe, and in Japan. Software systems have been developed by each of these planning organizations to support their assigned planning and scheduling functions. Although there is some cooperative development and sharing of key software components, each planning system has been tailored to meet the unique requirements and operational environment of the facility in which it operates. However, all the systems must operate in a coordinated fashion in order to effectively and efficiently produce a single integrated plan of ISS operations, in accordance with the established planning processes. This paper addresses lessons learned during the development of these multiple distributed planning systems, from the perspective of the developer of one of the software systems. The lessons focus on the coordination required to allow the multiple systems to operate together, rather than on the problems associated with the development of any particular system. Included in the paper is a discussion of typical problems faced during the development and coordination process, such as incompatible development schedules, difficulties in defining system interfaces, technical coordination and funding for shared tools, continually evolving planning concepts/requirements, programmatic

  18. Lessons Learned in Developing Multiple Distributed Planning Systems for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maxwell, Theresa G.

    2002-01-01

    The planning processes for the International Space Station (ISS) Program are quite complex. Detailed mission planning for ISS on-orbit operations is a distributed function. Pieces of the on-orbit plan are developed by multiple planning organizations, located around the world, based on their respective expertise and responsibilities. The pieces are then integrated to yield the final detailed plan that will be executed onboard the ISS. Previous space programs have not distributed the planning and scheduling functions to this extent. Major ISS planning organizations are currently located in the United States (at both the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) and NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)), in Russia, in Europe, and in Japan. Software systems have been developed by each of these planning organizations to support their assigned planning and scheduling functions. Although there is some cooperative development and sharing of key software components, each planning system has been tailored to meet the unique requirements and operational environment of the facility in which it operates. However, all the systems must operate in a coordinated fashion in order to effectively and efficiently produce a single integrated plan of ISS operations, in accordance with the established planning processes. This paper addresses lessons learned during the development of these multiple distributed planning systems, from the perspective of the developer of one of the software systems. The lessons focus on the coordination required to allow the multiple systems to operate together, rather than on the problems associated with the development of any particular system. Included in the paper is a discussion of typical problems faced during the development and coordination process, such as incompatible development schedules, difficulties in defining system interfaces, technical coordination and funding for shared tools, continually evolving planning concepts/requirements, programmatic and

  19. Safety issues of manipulator systems under computer control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andary, James F.; Carter, Ruth C.; Halterman, Karen; Spidaliere, Peter D.; Tasevoli, Michael; Rad, Adrian L.

    1992-01-01

    An overview of the development test flight (DTF-1) mission is presented, and the system design, safety requirements, and safety features are described. The lessons that were learned during the design and early development stages are also presented. The DTF-1 mission objectives are to evaluate: the overall man-machine performance in zero G, Flight Telerobotic Service manipulator design, and workstation design, including handcontrollers and displays. The payload bay and aft flight deck elements, and computer control of the DTF-1 are described. Recommendations for developing and implementing a safety system are presented, and some design alternatives for the next space-qualified telerobotic system are suggested.

  20. Thermal control system technology discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Wilbert E.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on thermal control systems technology discipline for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics covered include: heat rejection; heat acquisition and transport; monitoring and control; passive thermal control; and analysis and test verification.

  1. Division 1137 property control system

    SciTech Connect

    Pastor, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    An automated data processing property control system was developed by Mobile and Remote Range Division 1137. This report describes the operation of the system and examines ways of using it in operational planning and control.

  2. NSLS control system upgrade status

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.; Ramamoorthy, S.; Tang, Y.; Flannigan, J.; Sathe, S.; Keane, J.; Krinsky, S.

    1993-07-01

    The NSLS control system initially installed in 1978 has undergone several modifications but the basic system architecture remained relatively unchanged. The need for faster response, increased reliability and better diagnostics made the control system upgrade a priority. Since the NSLS runs continuously, major changes to the control system are difficult. The upgrade plan had to allow continuous incremental changes to the control system without having any detrimental effect on operations. The plan had to provide for immediate improvement in a few key areas, such as data access rates, and be complete in a short time. At present, most accelerator operations utilize the upgraded control system.

  3. Environment control system

    DOEpatents

    Sammarone, Dino G.

    1978-01-01

    A system for controlling the environment of an enclosed area in nuclear reactor installations. The system permits the changing of the environment from nitrogen to air, or from air to nitrogen, without the release of any radioactivity or process gas to the outside atmosphere. In changing from a nitrogen to an air environment, oxygen is inserted into the enclosed area at the same rate which the nitrogen-oxygen gas mixture is removed from the enclosed area. The nitrogen-oxygen gas mixture removed from the enclosed area is mixed with hydrogen, the hydrogen recombining with the oxygen present in the gas to form water. The water is then removed from the system and, if it contains any radioactive products, can be utilized to form concrete, which can then be transferred to a licensed burial site. The process gas is purified further by stripping it of carbon dioxide and then distilling it to remove any xenon, krypton, and other fission or non-condensable gases. The pure nitrogen is stored as either a cryogenic liquid or a gas. In changing from an air to nitrogen environment, the gas is removed from the enclosed area, mixed with hydrogen to remove the oxygen present, dried, passed through adsorption beds to remove any fission gases, and reinserted into the enclosed area. Additionally, the nitrogen stored during the nitrogen to air change, is inserted into the enclosed area, the nitrogen from both sources being inserted into the enclosed area at the same rate as the removal of the gas from the containment area. As designed, the amount of nitrogen stored during the nitrogen to air change substantially equals that required to replace oxygen removed during an air to nitrogen change.

  4. A new primary care rostering and capitation system in Norway: Lessons for Canada?

    PubMed Central

    Ostbye, T; Hunskaar, S

    1997-01-01

    Providing every patient with a personal primary care physician or, from the physician's perspective, establishing a stable roster or list of patients is currently being actively debated in Canada. Norway's system of primary care medicine, similar to Canada's, faces many of the same problems. In 1992 a trial rostering system with blended funding (capitation, fee-for-service and user fees) was established in 4 Norwegian municipalities. After 3 years of close monitoring, the results of system evaluations have attracted strong interest. This article reports on the benefits and problems encountered with the new rostering system in Norway. If Canada is moving in the same direction, some of the lessons learned may be helpful. PMID:9220943

  5. Aircraft control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, Greg T. (Inventor); Morgan, Walter R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A span-loaded, highly flexible flying wing, having horizontal control surfaces mounted aft of the wing on extended beams to form local pitch-control devices. Each of five spanwise wing segments of the wing has one or more motors and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other wing segments, to minimize inter-segment loads. Wing dihedral is controlled by separately controlling the local pitch-control devices consisting of a control surface on a boom, such that inboard and outboard wing segment pitch changes relative to each other, and thus relative inboard and outboard lift is varied.

  6. [Lessons learned in the control of Aedes aegypti to address dengue and the emergency of chikungunya in Iquitos, Peru].

    PubMed

    Vilcarromero, Stalin; Casanova, Wilma; Ampuero, Julia S; Ramal-Asayag, Cesar; Siles, Crystyan; Díaz, Gloria; Durand, Salomón; Celis-Salinas, Juan C; Astete, Helvio; Rojas, Percy; Vásquez-La Torre, Gabriela; Marín, Johan; Bazán, Isabel; Alegre, Yuri; Morrison, Amy C; Rodriguez-Ferrucci, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Dengue has affected Iquitos since 1990 causing outbreaks of major impact on public health and for this reason great efforts have been made for its temporal control. Currently, with the expansion of the chikungunya virus in the Americas and the threat of the emergence of the virus in Iquitos, we reflect on lessons learned by way of the activities undertaken in the area of vector control; epidemiological surveillance, diagnosis and clinical management during periods of outbreaks of dengue, in a way that will allow us to better face the threat of an outbreak of chikungunya virus in the largest city in the Peruvian Amazon. PMID:26102121

  7. Design and Validation of MAPS for Educators: A Performance Support System to Guide Media Selection for Lesson Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Wei-Chen; Kalota, Faisal

    2013-01-01

    The importance of adopting technology-supported performance systems for on-the-job learning and training is well-recognized in a networked economy. In this study, we present a performance support system (PSS) designed to support technology integration for lesson design. The goal is to support educators in the development of appropriate and…

  8. Lessons Learned about Perceived Purposes of the Head Start National Reporting System at the Local Program Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallemeyn, Leanne M.; DeStefano, Lizanne

    2010-01-01

    Two purposes for early childhood assessment systems are informing program development and providing accountability. Based on findings from a case study of a local Head Start program implementing the National Reporting System (NRS) in 2004-2005, we provide 5 lessons learned from experiences with the NRS that may have implications for other…

  9. System for controlling apnea

    SciTech Connect

    Holzrichter, John F

    2015-05-05

    An implanted stimulation device or air control device are activated by an external radar-like sensor for controlling apnea. The radar-like sensor senses the closure of the air flow cavity, and associated control circuitry signals (1) a stimulator to cause muscles to open the air passage way that is closing or closed or (2) an air control device to open the air passage way that is closing or closed.

  10. Networked control of microgrid system of systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, Magdi S.; Rahman, Mohamed Saif Ur; AL-Sunni, Fouad M.

    2016-08-01

    The microgrid has made its mark in distributed generation and has attracted widespread research. However, microgrid is a complex system which needs to be viewed from an intelligent system of systems perspective. In this paper, a network control system of systems is designed for the islanded microgrid system consisting of three distributed generation units as three subsystems supplying a load. The controller stabilises the microgrid system in the presence of communication infractions such as packet dropouts and delays. Simulation results are included to elucidate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.