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Sample records for controlled cross-sectional survey

  1. Manual handling risk controls in hospitals (MARCH): a cross-sectional survey of UK hospitals.

    PubMed

    Smedley, J; Poole, J; Waclawski, E; Harrison, J; Stevens, A; Buckle, P; Coggon, D

    2004-05-01

    Injury and ill health among healthcare staff associated with handling patients is an important area of risk for UK National Health Service (NHS) employers. Since the introduction of a specific legal duty to control this risk in 1992, many Trusts have developed manual handling risk management strategies. Anecdotally, however, practice varies between Trusts and there is no published description of common practice among NHS employers. The latter would be useful as a benchmark for risk managers. Therefore, we undertook a cross-sectional survey of 158 UK trusts (81% of those invited) using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire to collect information about manual handling risk controls. Most Trusts had basic systems for risk management, including defined management accountability, written policies, provision of handling equipment, training, expert advice about manual handling and access to occupational health services and physiotherapy for injured employees. However, there was wide variation in important aspects, including the extent of expert manpower and criteria for referral to occupational health. Arrangements for monitoring risk controls were generally poor, and the variation in practice was a cause for concern. These data will help NHS employers by providing a benchmark against which to measure and develop risk management systems for manual handling. Future research should aim to develop standards through consensus opinion and ultimately evidence of effectiveness of risk controls. PMID:15198858

  2. Social capital - a neglected issue in diabetes control: a cross-sectional survey in Iran.

    PubMed

    Farajzadegan, Ziba; Jafari, Najmeh; Nazer, Saeed; Keyvanara, Mahmoud; Zamani, Ahmadreza

    2013-01-01

    Glycaemic control is an essential component in diabetes management. There is growing attention on the protective effects of social capital on health, where social capital comprises features of society that facilitate co-operation for mutual benefit. The aim of this study was to investigate its role as a social determinant of health in the glycaemic control of diabetes mellitus. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a diabetes care charity institute, Isfahan, Iran from July 2010 to September 2010. Based on the level of HbA1c, all patients were divided into two groups: HbA1c level ≤ 7 as controlled diabetes and HbA1c level > 7 as uncontrolled diabetes. Sixty patients were randomly selected from each group (controlled diabetes and uncontrolled diabetes) and all agreed to participate. Social capital was measured using the Integrated Questionnaire for the Measurement of Social Capital (SC-IQ). The mean age of participants in the controlled diabetes group was 51.3 (SD: 7.8) years and 50.1(SD: 7.2) in the uncontrolled group. The mean social capital score was 185.1 (CI 95% 181.4-188.6) in the controlled group and 175.4 (CI 95% 171.8-178.8) in the uncontrolled group. There was a significant negative correlation between empowerment and political action and trust and solidarity dimensions and the level of HbA1c. In multiple regression analysis, trust and solidarity and empowerment and political action were significant predictors of the HbA1c. The results of this study suggest that social participation, trust, and empowerment and political action may determine how effectively the patient's diabetes has been managed. This initial finding warrants subsequent experimental investigations designed to identify strategies that can be used to foster the creation of social capital to improve diabetes control. PMID:23057630

  3. Does Perceived Control Predict Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Use Among Patients with Lung Cancer? A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Bauml, Joshua; Langer, Corey J.; Evans, Tracey; Garland, Sheila N.; Desai, Krupali; Mao, Jun J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Scant literature exists on the use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) among patients with lung cancer. Preliminary data indicates that perceived control is an important factor leading patients to CAM. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between perceived control and CAM use in patients with lung cancer. Methods We performed a cross sectional survey in patients with lung cancer under active treatment and follow-up at the oncology clinic of an academic medical center. Self-reported CAM use was the primary outcome. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine the relationship between perceived control and CAM use, controlling for other factors. Results Among 296 participants. 54.4% were female, 83.5% Caucasian, 57.6% ≤65 years old, 52.4% stage IV and 86.4% had Non-small cell lung cancer. 50.9% of patients had used CAM, most commonly vitamins (31.5%), herbs (19.3%), relaxation techniques (16%) and special diets (15.7%). In multivariate analysis, CAM use was associated with having greater perceived control over the cause of cancer (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) 2.27, 95% CI 1.35–3.80), age ≤65 (AOR 1.64, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.01–2.67), higher education (AOR 2.17, 95% CI 1.29–3.64), and never having smoked tobacco (AOR 2.39, 95% CI 1.25–4.54). Nearly 60% of patients who used CAM were receiving active treatment. Conclusion Over half of lung cancer patients have used CAM since diagnosis. Greater perceived control over the cause of cancer was associated with CAM use. Given the high prevalence of CAM, it is essential that oncologists caring for patients with lung cancer discuss its use. PMID:24715092

  4. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey CROSS SECTION ST. PATRICK'S ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey CROSS SECTION - ST. PATRICK'S R. C. CHURCH c. 1839 - JAMES GALLIER, ARCHITECT, IN COLLECTION OF THE LOUISIANA STATE MUSEUM, JACKSON SQUARE, NEW ORLEANS, LA. - St. Patrick's Roman Catholic Church, 724 Camp Street, New Orleans, Orleans Parish, LA

  5. Child abuse: Cross-sectional survey of general dentists

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Harsimran; Chaudhary, Seema; Choudhary, Nidhi; Manuja, Naveen; Chaitra, T.R.; Amit, Sinha Ashish

    2015-01-01

    Background Child abuse continues to be a social menace causing both physical and emotional trauma to benevolent children. Census has shown that nearly 50–75% of child abuse include trauma to mouth, face, and head. Thus, dental professionals are in strategic position to identify physical and emotional manifestations of abuse. Aim A cross-sectional survey was undertaken to assess knowledge and attitude of dental practitioners regarding child abuse and to identify the barriers in reporting the same. Methods With prior consent, a 20-question survey including both multiple choice and dichotomous (Yes/No) questions was mailed to 120 state-registered general dentists, and the data collected were subjected to statistical analysis. Results Overall response rate to the questionnaires was 97%. Lack of knowledge about dentist's role in reporting child abuse accounted to 55% in the reasons for hesitancy to report. Pearson chi-square test did not show any significant difference between male and female regarding reason for hesitancy to report and legal obligation of dentists. Conclusion Although respondent dentists were aware of the diagnosis of child abuse, they were hesitant and unaware of the appropriate authority to report. Increased instruction in the areas of recognition and reporting of child abuse and neglect should be emphasized. PMID:27195209

  6. Cross-sectional serological survey of human fascioliasis in haiti.

    PubMed

    Agnamey, P; Fortes-Lopes, E; Raccurt, C P; Boncy, J; Totet, A

    2012-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica, the aetiological agent of fascioliasis in the Caribbean region, occurs throughout the major islands of the Greater Antilles and in localised zones on two islands (Martinique and Saint Lucia) of the Lesser Antilles. However, apart from Puerto Rico, information regarding human fascioliasis in islands of the Caribbean is out of date or unavailable, or even nonexistent as in Haiti. The authors conducted a retrospective, cross-sectional serological survey in Port-au-Prince using a Western blotting test (LDBIO Diagnostics) on human fascioliasis in Haiti. A total of 216 serum samples obtained from apparently healthy adults were tested. The frequency of antibodies in serum samples of the study population was 6.5% (14/216). The immunodominant bands recognised in Western blots were 27-28 kDa (100%), 42 kDa (64%), 60 kDa, and 8-9 kDa (28%). This is the first survey to reveal a relatively low proportion of asymptomatic F. hepatica-infected humans in Haiti. PMID:21876782

  7. Healthcare Environments and Spatial Variability of Healthcare Associated Infection Risk: Cross-Sectional Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Gaudart, Jean; Cloutman-Green, Elaine; Guillas, Serge; D’Arcy, Nikki; Hartley, John C.; Gant, Vanya; Klein, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    Prevalence of healthcare associated infections remains high in patients in intensive care units (ICU), estimated at 23.4% in 2011. It is important to reduce the overall risk while minimizing the cost and disruption to service provision by targeted infection control interventions. The aim of this study was to develop a monitoring tool to analyze the spatial variability of bacteriological contamination within the healthcare environment to assist in the planning of interventions. Within three cross-sectional surveys, in two ICU wards, air and surface samples from different heights and locations were analyzed. Surface sampling was carried out with tryptic Soy Agar contact plates and Total Viable Counts (TVC) were calculated at 48hrs (incubation at 37°C). TVCs were analyzed using Poisson Generalized Additive Mixed Model for surface type analysis, and for spatial analysis. Through three cross-sectional survey, 370 samples were collected. Contamination varied from place-to-place, height-to-height, and by surface type. Hard-to-reach surfaces, such as bed wheels and floor area under beds, were generally more contaminated, but the height level at which maximal TVCs were found changed between cross-sectional surveys. Bedside locations and bed occupation were risk factors for contamination. Air sampling identified clusters of contamination around the nursing station and surface sampling identified contamination clusters at numerous bed locations. By investigating dynamic hospital wards, the methodology employed in this study will be useful to monitor contamination variability within the healthcare environment and should help to assist in the planning of interventions. PMID:24069459

  8. Healthcare environments and spatial variability of healthcare associated infection risk: cross-sectional surveys.

    PubMed

    Gaudart, Jean; Cloutman-Green, Elaine; Guillas, Serge; D'Arcy, Nikki; Hartley, John C; Gant, Vanya; Klein, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    Prevalence of healthcare associated infections remains high in patients in intensive care units (ICU), estimated at 23.4% in 2011. It is important to reduce the overall risk while minimizing the cost and disruption to service provision by targeted infection control interventions. The aim of this study was to develop a monitoring tool to analyze the spatial variability of bacteriological contamination within the healthcare environment to assist in the planning of interventions. Within three cross-sectional surveys, in two ICU wards, air and surface samples from different heights and locations were analyzed. Surface sampling was carried out with tryptic Soy Agar contact plates and Total Viable Counts (TVC) were calculated at 48 hrs (incubation at 37 °C). TVCs were analyzed using Poisson Generalized Additive Mixed Model for surface type analysis, and for spatial analysis. Through three cross-sectional survey, 370 samples were collected. Contamination varied from place-to-place, height-to-height, and by surface type. Hard-to-reach surfaces, such as bed wheels and floor area under beds, were generally more contaminated, but the height level at which maximal TVCs were found changed between cross-sectional surveys. Bedside locations and bed occupation were risk factors for contamination. Air sampling identified clusters of contamination around the nursing station and surface sampling identified contamination clusters at numerous bed locations. By investigating dynamic hospital wards, the methodology employed in this study will be useful to monitor contamination variability within the healthcare environment and should help to assist in the planning of interventions. PMID:24069459

  9. Significant impairment of health-related quality of life in mainland Chinese patients with chronic hepatitis B: a cross-sectional survey with pair-matched healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective Few studies have evaluated health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in mainland China. We aimed at characterizing the impact of CHB on HRQoL in mainland Chinese and finding out factors associated with HRQoL. Methods 460 CHB patients (323 with CHB only, 54 with compensated cirrhosis and 83 with decompensated cirrhosis) and 460 pair-matched healthy controls were recruited in Xi’an city. They answered a structured questionnaire including the Short Form 36 version 2 (SF-36v2), the Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire (CLDQ) (only for patients), and questions on socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. A blood sample was collected from each of patients for liver function tests. SF-36v2 scores were compared between patients and controls overall and by groups by paired-samples t-test, and CLDQ scores and paired differences of SF-36v2 scores were compared among three patient groups by one-way ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis test. Multi-variable linear regression analyses were performed to identify determinants of HRQoL in patients. Results Patients, overall and by groups had significantly lower SF-36v2 scores than controls on all summaries and domains, with differences higher than the suggested minimally important difference values. Both the SF-36v2 and the CLDQ showed that HRQoL of patients with cirrhosis further deteriorated, but compensated and decompensated cirrhosis patients had similar total HRQoL impairments. The gradually increasing impairment with disease progression was confirmed only on physical components. Impaired liver function and currently taken anti-viral treatment were associated with lower HRQoL. Education attainment and annual per capita household income had a positive effect on HRQoL. Conclusions Mainland Chinese CHB patients suffered significant HRQoL impairment on all health dimensions, and the impairment reached a high level on mental health at initial stage of illness and increased gradually on

  10. Policy on Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) and adherence to food preparation guidelines: a cross sectional survey of stakeholders in food service in Kumasi, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Food borne diseases claim more lives and are growing public health concerns. Simple preventive techniques such as adoption and adherence to hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) policy can significantly reduce this disease burden. Though food screening and inspection are done, the ultimate regulation, Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point, which is known and accepted worldwide, appears not to be popular among food operators in Ghana. This paper examines the level of awareness of the existence of policy on hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) and its adherence to food preparation guidelines among food service providers in Ghana. Results The results revealed the mean age of food providers as 33.1 years with a standard deviation of 7.5, range of 18–55 years, more females, in full time employment and with basic education. Of the fifty institutional managers, 42 (84%) were senior officers and had worked for more than five years. Education and type of food operator had strong statistically significant relationship with the implementation of HCCP policy and adherence with food preparation guidelines. The enforcement of HACCP policy and adherence with food safety guidelines was led by the Ghana Tourist Board, Public Health officers, and KMA, respectively. While a majority of food operators 373/450 (83.3%) did not know HACCP policy is part of food safety guidelines, staff of food safety law enforcement 44/50 (88%) confirmed knowing that food operators were not aware of the HACCP policy. Conclusion The study documents evidence on the practice of food safety principles or HACCP policy or adherence to food preparation guidelines. Existing food safety guidelines incorporate varying principles of HACCP, however, awareness is low among food operators. The implication is that food production is likely to fall short of acceptable standards and not be wholesome putting consumers at health risk. Repeating this study in rural and urban

  11. Surveying Cross Sections of the Kootenai River Between Libby Dam, Montana, and Kootenay Lake, British Columbia, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barton, Gary J.; Moran, Edward H.; Berenbrock, Charles

    2004-01-01

    The declining population of Kootenai River white sturgeon, which was listed as an Endangered Species in 1994, has prompted a recovery team to assess the feasibility of various habitat enhancement scenarios to reestablish white sturgeon populations. As the first phase in this assessment, the U.S. Geological Survey collected stream channel cross-section and longitudinal data during 2002—03 at about 400 locations along the Kootenai River from Libby Dam near Libby, Montana, to where the river empties into Kootenay Lake near Creston, British Columbia, Canada. Survey control stations with a horizontal and vertical accuracy of less than 0.1 foot were established using a global positioning system (GPS) prior to collection of stream channel cross-section data along the Kootenai River. A total of 245 cross sections were surveyed. Six cross sections upstream from Kootenai Falls were surveyed using a total station where the river was too shallow or dangerous to navigate by vessel. The remaining 239 cross sections were surveyed by interfacing real-time GPS equipment with an echo sounder to obtain bathymetric data and with a laser range- finder to obtain streambank data. These data were merged, straightened, ordered, and reduced in size to be useful. Spacing between these cross sections ranged from about 600 feet in the valley flat near Deep Creek and Shorty Island and near bridges to as much as several miles in other areas. These stream channel cross sections will provide information that can be used to develop hydraulic flow models of the Kootenai River from Libby Dam, Montana, to Queens Bay on Kootenay Lake in British Columbia, Canada.

  12. Cross-sectional survey of kidney function in refinery employees

    SciTech Connect

    Viau, C.; Bernard, A.; Lauwerys, R.; Buchet, J.P.; Quaeghebeur, L.; Cornu, M.E.; Phillips, S.C.; Mutti, A.; Lucertini, S.; Franchini, I.

    1987-01-01

    We examined sensitive biochemical and immunological markers of kidney function and damage in 53 male oil refinery workers exposed to hydrocarbons and compared their results with those of a control group of 61 age-matched nonexposed males. The mean duration of employment of exposed males was 11 years. The current levels of exposure to a variety of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, as determined by personal monitoring, were well below the current threshold limit values. No difference was found in the urinary tubular parameters beta-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase, beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-m) and retinol-binding protein. Similar serum beta 2-m levels indicated no impairment of the glomerular filtration rate in the exposed workers. The levels of circulating immune complexes were also identical in both groups. The mean albuminuria was slightly higher (p less than .005) in the exposed group in a quantitative assay but was not dipstick-detectable. The mean urinary excretion of a renal antigen was also higher (p less than .05) in the exposed group and correlated with the excretion of albumin. Finally, slightly higher titers of anti-laminin antibodies were found in five exposed employees, but this was not accompanied by an increased albuminuria. We conclude that chronic low-level hydrocarbon exposure in these refinery workers does not lead to clinically significant renal abnormalities. Nevertheless, some findings are consistent with the possible role of hydrocarbon exposure in the induction of renal disturbances.

  13. Validation of the Fibromyalgia Survey Questionnaire within a Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Häuser, Winfried; Jung, Eva; Erbslöh-Möller, Brigitte; Gesmann, Mechthild; Kühn-Becker, Hedi; Petermann, Franz; Langhorst, Jost; Weiss, Thomas; Winkelmann, Andreas; Wolfe, Frederick

    2012-01-01

    The Fibromyalgia Survey Questionnaire (FSQ) assesses the key symptoms of fibromyalgia syndrome. The FSQ can be administrated in survey research and settings where the use of interviews to evaluate the number of pain sites and extent of somatic symptom intensity and tender point examination would be difficult. We validated the FSQ in a cross-sectional survey with FMS patients. In a cross-sectional survey, participants with physician diagnosis of FMS were recruited by FMS-self help organisations and nine clinical institutions of different levels of care. Participants answered the FSQ (composed by the Widespread Pain Index [WPI] and the Somatic Severity Score [SSS]) assessing the Fibromyalgia Survey Diagnostic Criteria (FSDC) and the Patient Health Questionnaire PHQ 4. American College of Rheumatology 1990 classification criteria were assessed in a subgroup of participants. 1,651 persons diagnosed with FMS were included into analysis. The acceptance of the FSQ-items ranged between 78.9 to 98.1% completed items. The internal consistency of the items of the SSS ranged between 0.75–0.82. 85.5% of the study participants met the FSDC. The concordance rate of the FSDC and ACR 1990 criteria was 72.7% in a subsample of 128 patients. The Pearson correlation of the SSS with the PHQ 4 depression score was 0.52 (p<0.0001) and with the PHQ anxiety score was 0.51 (p<0.0001) (convergent validity). 64/202 (31.7%) of the participants not meeting the FSDC criteria and 152/1283 (11.8%) of the participants meeting the FSDC criteria reported an improvement (slightly too very much better) in their health status since FMS-diagnosis (Chi2 = 55, p<0.0001) (discriminant validity). The study demonstrated the feasibility of the FSQ in a cross-sectional survey with FMS-patients. The reliability, convergent and discriminant validity of the FSQ were good. Further validation studies of the FSQ in clinical and general population settings are necessary. PMID:22662163

  14. Digital database of channel cross-section surveys, Mount St. Helens, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosbrucker, Adam R.; Spicer, Kurt R.; Major, Jon J.; Saunders, Dennis R.; Christianson, Tami S.; Kingsbury, Cole G.

    2015-01-01

    Stream-channel cross-section survey data are a fundamental component to studies of fluvial geomorphology. Such data provide important parameters required by many open-channel flow models, sediment-transport equations, sediment-budget computations, and flood-hazard assessments. At Mount St. Helens, Washington, the long-term response of channels to the May 18, 1980, eruption, which dramatically altered the hydrogeomorphic regime of several drainages, is documented by an exceptional time series of repeat stream-channel cross-section surveys. More than 300 cross sections, most established shortly following the eruption, represent more than 100 kilometers of surveyed topography. Although selected cross sections have been published previously in print form, we present a comprehensive digital database that includes geospatial and tabular data. Furthermore, survey data are referenced to a common geographic projection and to common datums. Database design, maintenance, and data dissemination are accomplished through a geographic information system (GIS) platform, which integrates survey data acquired with theodolite, total station, and global navigation satellite system (GNSS) instrumentation. Users can interactively perform advanced queries and geospatial time-series analysis. An accuracy assessment provides users the ability to quantify uncertainty within these data. At the time of publication, this project is ongoing. Regular database updates are expected; users are advised to confirm they are using the latest version.

  15. A cross-sectional survey of experts’ opinions about the relative effectiveness of tobacco control strategies for the general population versus disadvantaged groups: what do we choose in the absence of evidence?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a clear disparity in smoking rates according to social disadvantage. In the absence of sufficiently robust data regarding effective strategies for reducing smoking prevalence in disadvantaged populations, understanding the views of tobacco control experts can assist with funding decisions and research agendas. Methods A web-based cross-sectional survey was conducted with 192 respondents (response rate 65%) sampled from the Australian and New Zealand Tobacco Control Contacts list and a literature search. Respondents were asked to indicate whether a number of tobacco control strategies were perceived to be effective for each of: the general population; Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people; those with a low income; and people with a mental illness. Results A high proportion of respondents indicated that mass media and increased tobacco taxation (84% and 89% respectively) were effective for the general population. Significantly lower proportions reported these two strategies were effective for sub-populations, particularly Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders (58% and 63% respectively, p’s < .0001). Subsidised medication was the only strategy associated with a greater proportion of respondents perceiving it to be effective in disadvantaged sub-populations compared to the general population. Tailored quit programs and culturally relevant programs were nominated as additional effective strategies for disadvantaged populations. Conclusions Views about subsidised medications in particular, suggest the need for robust cost-effectiveness data relevant to disadvantaged groups to avoid wastage of scarce tobacco control resources. Strategies perceived to be effective for disadvantaged populations such as tailored or culturally relevant programs require rigorous evaluation so that potential adoption of these approaches is evidence-based. PMID:24314097

  16. Catastrophic household expenditure on health in Nepal: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Gilmour, Stuart; Rahman, Md Mizanur; Gautam, Ghan Shyam; Shrestha, Pradeep Krishna; Shibuya, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the incidence of – and illnesses commonly associated with – catastrophic household expenditure on health in Nepal. Methods We did a cross-sectional population-based survey in five municipalities of Kathmandu Valley between November 2011 and January 2012. For each household surveyed, out-of-pocket spending on health in the previous 30 days that exceeded 10% of the household’s total expenditure over the same period was considered to be catastrophic. We estimated the incidence and intensity of catastrophic health expenditure. We identified the illnesses most commonly associated with such expenditure using a Poisson regression model and assessed the distribution of expenditure by economic quintile of households using the concentration index. Findings Overall, 284 of the 1997 households studied in Kathmandu, i.e. 13.8% after adjustment by sampling weight, reported catastrophic health expenditure in the 30 days before the survey. After adjusting for confounders, this expenditure was found to be associated with injuries, particularly those resulting from road traffic accidents. Catastrophic expenditure by households in the poorest quintile were associated with at least one episode of diabetes, asthma or heart disease. Conclusion In an urban area of Nepal, catastrophic household expenditure on health was mostly associated with injuries and noncommunicable diseases such as diabetes and asthma. Throughout Nepal, interventions for the control and management of noncommunicable diseases and the prevention of road traffic accidents should be promoted. A phased introduction of health insurance should also reduce the incidence of catastrophic household expenditure. PMID:25378730

  17. Low back pain status in elite and semi-elite Australian football codes: a cross-sectional survey of football (soccer), Australian rules, rugby league, rugby union and non-athletic controls

    PubMed Central

    Hoskins, Wayne; Pollard, Henry; Daff, Chris; Odell, Andrew; Garbutt, Peter; McHardy, Andrew; Hardy, Kate; Dragasevic, George

    2009-01-01

    Background Our understanding of the effects of football code participation on low back pain (LBP) is limited. It is unclear whether LBP is more prevalent in athletic populations or differs between levels of competition. Thus it was the aim of this study to document and compare the prevalence, intensity, quality and frequency of LBP between elite and semi-elite male Australian football code participants and a non-athletic group. Methods A cross-sectional survey of elite and semi-elite male Australian football code participants and a non-athletic group was performed. Participants completed a self-reported questionnaire incorporating the Quadruple Visual Analogue Scale (QVAS) and McGill Pain Questionnaire (short form) (MPQ-SF), along with additional questions adapted from an Australian epidemiological study. Respondents were 271 elite players (mean age 23.3, range 17–39), 360 semi-elite players (mean age 23.8, range 16–46) and 148 non-athletic controls (mean age 23.9, range 18–39). Results Groups were matched for age (p = 0.42) and experienced the same age of first onset LBP (p = 0.40). A significant linear increase in LBP from the non-athletic group, to the semi-elite and elite groups for the QVAS and the MPQ-SF was evident (p < 0.001). Elite subjects were more likely to experience more frequent (daily or weekly OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.29–2.42) and severe LBP (discomforting and greater OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.29–2.38). Conclusion Foolers in Australia have significantly more severe and frequent LBP than a non-athletic group and this escalates with level of competition. PMID:19371446

  18. Oral health behavior patterns among Tanzanian university students: a repeat cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Åstrøm, Anne Nordrehaug; Masalu, Joyce Rose

    2001-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study examines oral health behavioral trends and the development of sociodemographic differences in oral health behaviors among Tanzanian students between 1999 and 2000. METHODS: The population targeted was students attending the Muhimbili University College of Health Sciences (MUCHS) at the University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM), Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted and a total of 635 and 981 students, respectively, completed questionnaires in 1999 and 2001. RESULTS: Cross-tabulation analyses revealed that in 1999, the rates of abstinence from tobacco use, and of soft drink consumption, regular dental checkups, and intake of chocolate/candy were 84%, 51%, 48%, and 12%, respectively, among students of urban origin and 83%, 29%, 37%, and 5% among their rural counterparts. The corresponding rates in 2001 were 87%, 56%, 50%, and 9% among urban students and 84%, 44%, 38%, and 4% among rural ones. Multiple logistic regression analyses controlling for sex, age, place of origin, educational level, year of survey, and their interaction terms revealed a significant increase in the rate of soft drink consumption, implementation of oral hygiene measures, and abstinence from tobacco use between 1999 and 2001. Social inequalities observed in 1999, with urban students being more likely than their rural counterparts to take soft drinks and go for regular dental checkups, had leveled off by 2001. CONCLUSION: This study provides initial evidence of oral health behavioral trends, that may be utilized in the planning of preventive programs among university students in Tanzania. PMID:11782294

  19. Rising risk of type 2 diabetes among inhabitants of Jamnagar, Gujarat: A cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rohit; Prajapati, Pradeep Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Undoubtedly, diabetes is an incremental threat for the world health and substantial evidence now suggest that diabetes is strongly associated with patients’ unhealthy lifestyle, behavioral patterns, and socioeconomic changes. Treatment modalities, in particular to this disease differs from patient to patient. In Ayurveda, this individuality is decided on the basis of Prakriti, Vaya, Bala, Desha etc., and hence it is essential to know these factors for successful management of diseases. Aim: To assess the role of demographic profile, changes in life style habits, dietary patterns, occupational and social background in increasing prevalence of type 2 diabete mellitus (DM) at Jamnagar region. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey study was conducted on randomly selected 350 diabetic patients of Jamnagar region. A survey proforma was prepared and detailed history of each patient fulfilling the diagnostic criteria was taken along with demographic profile. Observations and Conclusion: The obtained data reveals that, certain faulty dietary and life style regimes of this region are responsible in manifestation of DM. Its magnitude and low awareness warrants appropriate public health interventions for its effective control. PMID:26730132

  20. Chagas disease and housing improvement in northeastern Brazil: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Lima, Marli M; Carvalho-Costa, Filipe A; Toma, Helena K; Borges-Pereira, José; de Oliveira, Tiago Guedes; Sarquis, Otília

    2015-05-01

    Chagas disease was investigated in two new settlements of landless rural workers inhabiting prefabricated, triatomine-proof houses and in four neighboring older communities where mud huts were still well suitable for vectors. Through a cross-sectional survey and entomological assessment, we surveyed 148 houses/families in the two new settlements and in 47 houses/families in the four older localities. We determined seroprevalence of Chagas disease through IFI and Elisa (eluates) assays and searched for vectors in the domestic and peridomestic environments. Seroprevalence reached 0.6% (3/466) in the new settlements and 0.8% (1/115) in the older communities. Triatomines were not found in the new settlements, while 7 Triatoma brasiliensis, 4 T. pseudomaculata, 1 Panstrongylus lutzi, and 145 Rhodnius nasutus were collected in the older localities. In addition, a colony of T. brasiliensis (n = 55) was encountered inside a school attended by children of the region. Parasite strains isolated from the insects were characterized as T. cruzi I. Despite the low prevalence of Chagas disease in both scenarios, entomological surveillance must be strengthened and housing improvement reinforced in order to control vector transmission. The risk of infection by the vectors was lower in the settlements of improved homes, where conditions for colonization of the peridomestic environment by transmitting insects were not observed. PMID:25673077

  1. A cross-sectional survey to investigate community understanding of medical research ethics committees.

    PubMed

    Fritschi, Lin; Kelsall, Helen L; Loff, Bebe; Slegers, Claudia; Zion, Deborah; Glass, Deborah C

    2015-07-01

    Study explanatory forms often state that an ethics committee has approved a research project. To determine whether the lay community understand the roles of ethics committees in research, we took a cross-sectional national sample from three sampling frames: the general population (n=1532); cohort study participants (n=397); and case-control study participants (n=151). About half (51.3%) of the participants had heard of ethics committees. Those who had were more likely to be those who had participated in previous surveys, older participants, those born in Australia and those with higher education. Almost all participants agreed that the roles of an ethics committee were to protect participants' privacy and ensure no harm came to study participants and most agreed that the committee's role was to ensure that the research was capable of providing answers. Case-control and cohort participants were more likely than the general population to consider that the role of an ethics committee was to design the research and obtain research funding. Overall, we found that about half of the population are aware of ethics committees and that most could correctly identify that ethics committees are there to protect the welfare and rights of research participants, although a substantial minority had some incorrect beliefs about the committees' roles. Increased education, particularly for migrants and older people, might improve understanding of the role of ethics committees in research. PMID:25605609

  2. Quantifying consumer portion control practices. A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Spence, M; Lähteenmäki, L; Stefan, V; Livingstone, M B E; Gibney, E R; Dean, M

    2015-09-01

    The use of portion control practices has rarely been quantified. The present study aimed to: (1) explore which portion control practices are actually used by the general population and their association with cognitive restraint, demographic background and general health interest (GHI), and (2) examine how the usage of portion control practices predicts the estimated consumption of an energy dense food (i.e. pizza). Twenty-two portion control practices were rated in terms of their frequency of use from 'never' to 'very often' by a representative sample of 1012 consumers from the island of Ireland. Three factors were extracted and named: measurement-strategy scale, eating-strategy scale, and purchasing-strategy scale. The eating-strategy scale score was the highest, while the measurement-strategy scale carried the lowest frequency score. For each strategy scale score, the strongest predictor was GHI, followed by gender. Having higher GHI and being female were independently associated with more frequent portion control. Both the eating-strategy scale score and the purchasing-strategy scale score were negatively associated with pizza portion size consumption estimates. In conclusion, while this study demonstrates that the reported use of portion control practices is low, the findings provide preliminary evidence for their validity. Further studies are needed to explore how portion control practices are used in different kinds of portion size decisions and what their contribution is to the intake of food over an extended period of time. PMID:26048005

  3. Cross-sectional prevalence survey of intimate partner violence perpetration and victimization in Canadian military personnel

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) is prevalent and is associated with a broad range of adverse consequences. In military organizations, IPV may have special implications, such as the potential of service-related mental disorders to trigger IPV. However, the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) have limited data to guide their prevention and control efforts. Methods Self-reported IPV perpetration, victimization, and their correlates were assessed on a cross-sectional survey of a stratified random sample of currently-serving Canadian Regular Forces personnel (N = 2157). The four primary outcomes were perpetration or victimization of any physical and/or sexual or emotional and/or financial IPV over the lifespan of the current relationship. Results Among the 81% of the population in a current relationship, perpetration of any physical and/or sexual IPV was reported in 9%; victimization was reported in 15%. Any emotional and/or financial abuse was reported by 19% (perpetration) and 22% (victimization). Less physically injurious forms of abuse predominated. Logistic regression modelling showed that relationship dissatisfaction was independently associated with all four outcomes (OR range = 2.3 to 3.7). Probable depression was associated with all outcomes except physical and/or sexual IPV victimization (OR range = 2.5 – 2.7). PTSD symptoms were only associated with physical and/or sexual IPV perpetration (OR = 3.2, CI = 1.4 to 7.9). High-risk drinking was associated with emotional and/or financial abuse. Risk of IPV was lowest in those who had recent deployment experience; remote deployment experience (vs. never having deployed) was an independent risk factor for all IPV outcomes (OR range = 2.0 – 3.4). Conclusions IPV affects an important minority of military families; less severe cases predominate. Mental disorders, high-risk drinking, relationship dissatisfaction, and remote deployment were independently associated with abuse outcomes. The

  4. Cigarette pack design and adolescent smoking susceptibility: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Allison; MacKintosh, Anne Marie; Moodie, Crawford; Richardson, Sol; Hastings, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To compare adolescents’ responses to three different styles of cigarette packaging: novelty (branded packs designed with a distinctive shape, opening style or bright colour), regular (branded pack with no special design features) and plain (brown pack with a standard shape and opening and all branding removed, aside from brand name). Design Cross-sectional in-home survey. Setting UK. Participants Random location quota sample of 1025 never smokers aged 11–16 years. Main outcome measures Susceptibility to smoking and composite measures of pack appraisal and pack receptivity derived from 11 survey items. Results Mean responses to the three pack types were negative for all survey items. However, ‘novelty’ packs were rated significantly less negatively than the ‘regular’ pack on most items, and the novelty and regular packs were rated less negatively than the ‘plain’ pack. For the novelty packs, logistic regressions, controlling for factors known to influence youth smoking, showed that susceptibility was associated with positive appraisal and also receptivity. For example, those receptive to the innovative Silk Cut Superslims pack were more than four times as likely to be susceptible to smoking than those not receptive to this pack (AOR=4.42, 95% CI 2.50 to 7.81, p<0.001). For the regular pack, an association was found between positive appraisal and susceptibility but not with receptivity and susceptibility. There was no association with pack appraisal or receptivity for the plain pack. Conclusions Pack structure (shape and opening style) and colour are independently associated, not just with appreciation of and receptivity to the pack, but also with susceptibility to smoke. In other words, those who think most highly of novelty cigarette packaging are also the ones who indicate that they are most likely to go on to smoke. Plain packaging, in contrast, was found to directly reduce the appeal of smoking to adolescents. PMID:24056481

  5. Workplace violence against nurses in Chinese hospitals: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Mingli; Ning, Ning; Li, Ye; Gao, Lijun; Cui, Yu; Sun, Hong; Kang, Zheng; Liang, Libo; Wu, Qunhong; Hao, Yanhua

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence of workplace violence that Chinese nurses have encountered, identify risk factors and provide a basis for future targeted interventions. Setting Heilongjiang, a province in northeast China. Methods A cross-sectional survey. Participants A total of 588 nurses provided data. There were also in-depth interviews with 12 nurses, 7 hospital administrators and 6 health officials. Results A total of 7.8% of the nurses reported physically violent experiences and 71.9% reported non-physically violent experiences in the preceding year. Perpetrators were patients or their relatives (93.5% and 82%, respectively), and 24% of nurses experienced non-physical violence that involved Yi Nao (gangs specifically targeting hospitals). Inexperienced nurses were more likely to report physical (13.2%) or non-physical (89.5%) violence compared with experienced nurses. Graduate-level nurses were more likely to perceive and report non-physical violence (84.6%). Nurses who worked rotating shifts were 3.668 times (95% CI 1.275 to 10.554) more likely to experience physical violence, and 1.771 times (95% CI 1.123 to 2.792) more likely to experience non-physical violence compared with nurses who worked fixed day shifts. Higher anxiety levels about workplace violence and work types were associated with violence. Interviewees perceived financial burdens, unsatisfactory treatment outcomes and miscommunications as influencing factors for workplace violence. Conclusions Preplacement education should focus on high-risk groups to reduce workplace violence. Increased awareness from the public and policymakers is necessary to develop effective control strategies at individual, hospital and national levels. PMID:25814496

  6. Public support for tobacco control policy extensions in Western Australia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Michael; Wood, Lisa; Ferguson, Renee; Houghton, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Policy makers seeking to introduce new tobacco control measures need to anticipate community support to assist them in planning appropriate implementation strategies. This study assessed community support for plain packaging and smoking bans in outdoor locations in Australia. Design Analytical cross-sectional survey. Setting and participants 2005 Western Australian adults participated in a computer-assisted telephone interview. Random household telephone numbers were used to obtain a representative sample. Outcome measures Support for plain packaging of cigarettes and smoking bans at outdoor venues by demographic characteristics. Results Around half of the survey respondents supported plain packaging and almost a further quarter reported being neutral on the issue. Only one in three smokers disagreed with the introduction of a plain packaging policy. A majority of respondents supported smoking bans at five of the six nominated venues, with support being strongest among those with children under the age of 15 years. The venues with the highest levels of support were those where smoke-free policies had already been voluntarily introduced by the venue managers, where children were most likely to be in attendance, and that were more limited in size. Conclusions The study results demonstrate community support for new tobacco control policies. This evidence can be used by public policy makers in their deliberations relating to the introduction of more extensive tobacco control regulations. PMID:22382124

  7. Compassion fatigue and satisfaction: a cross-sectional survey among US healthcare workers.

    PubMed

    Smart, Denise; English, Ashley; James, Jennifer; Wilson, Marian; Daratha, Kenn B; Childers, Belinda; Magera, Chris

    2014-03-01

    Professional quality of life among healthcare providers can impact the quality and safety of patient care. The purpose of this research was to investigate compassion satisfaction and compassion fatigue levels as measured by the Professional Quality of Life Scale self-report instrument in a community hospital in the United States. A cross-sectional survey study examined differences among 139 RNs, physicians, and nursing assistants. Relationships among individual and organizational variables were explored. Caregivers for critical patients scored significantly lower on the Professional Quality of Life subscale of burnout when compared with those working in a noncritical care unit. Linear regression results indicate that high sleep levels and employment in critical care areas are associated with less burnout. Identification of predictors can be used to design interventions that address modifiable risks. PMID:23663318

  8. Ethical dilemmas among dental professionals in Davangere city- a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Priyanka, S G; Singla, Hitashi; Lawrence, Denzy; Veeresh, D J

    2016-01-01

    To determine the ethical problems faced by dental practitioners, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in Bapuji Dental College and Hospital, College of Dental Sciences and private dental clinics in the city of Davangere. A questionnaire with close-ended questions on eight scenarios was administered to the 135 study participants. In the case of scenario 1, 81.4% of the participants said that the doctor had violated the principle of truthfulness. As for scenario 2, less than 50% of the participants replied that the doctor had breached ethical principles. In case scenario 3, 93% felt that the doctor should have taken the physician's opinion before extracting a tooth. Most dental practitioners faced ethical dilemmas because of the lack of awareness, and there is a need to introduce certain programmes to promote knowledge of ethics. PMID:27260818

  9. Cross-sectional survey on helminth infections of chickens in the Samsun region, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kurt, M; Acici, M

    2008-06-01

    A cross-sectional survey was performed to determine the prevalence and intensity of helminth infections in 185 chickens from nine districts in the Samsun region, northern Turkey between July 1999 and June 2000. In total, 88% of 83 scavenging chickens and 4% of 52 layers from laying batteries were infected, but none of the 50 broilers harboured helminths in the alimentary tract or trachea. The difference in prevalence was statistically significant among broilers, layers from laying batteries and scavenging chickens. A total of 16 different species were detected. The helminth species found were: Davainea proglottina (23%), Raillietina echinobothrida (13%), Raillietina cesticillus (12%), Hymenolepis carioca (10%), Raillietina tetragona (6%), Choanotaenia. infundibulum (2%), Amoebotaenia cuneata (2%), Echinoparyhium recurvatum (1%), Echinostoma revolutum (1%), Heterakis gallinarum (29%), Ascaridia galli (16%), Capillaria caudinflata (12%), Capillaria retusa (6%), Capillaria bursata (4%), Capillaria annulata (1%) and Syngamus trachea (2%). PMID:18605376

  10. Bullying in the American Graduate Medical Education System: A National Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To deliver an estimate of bullying among residents and fellows in the United States graduate medical education system and to explore its prevalence within unique subgroups. Design/Setting/Participants A national cross-sectional survey from a sample of residents and fellows who completed an online bullying survey conducted in June 2015. The survey was distributed using a chain sampling method that relied on electronic referrals from 4,055 training programs, with 1,791 residents and fellows completing the survey in its entirety. Survey respondents completed basic demographic and programmatic information plus four general bullying and 20 specific bullying behavior questions. Between-group differences were compared for demographic and programmatic stratifications. Main Outcomes/Measures Self-reported subjected to workplace bullying from peers, attendings, nurses, ancillary staff, or patients in the past 12 months. Results Almost half of the respondents (48%) reported being subjected to bullying although both those subjected and not subjected reported experiencing ≥ 1 bullying behaviors (95% and 39% respectively). Attendings (29%) and nurses (27%) were the most frequently identified source of bullying, followed by patients, peers, consultants and staff. Attempts to belittle and undermine work and unjustified criticism and monitoring of work were the most frequently reported bullying behaviors (44% each), followed by destructive innuendo and sarcasm (37%) and attempts to humiliate (32%). Specific bullying behaviors were more frequently reported by female, non-white, shorter than < 5’8 and BMI ≥ 25 individuals. Conclusions/Relevance Many trainees report experiencing bullying in the United States graduate medical education programs. Including specific questions on bullying in the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education annual resident/fellow survey, implementation of anti-bullying policies, and a multidisciplinary approach engaging all

  11. Positive and negative reasons for sickness presenteeism in Norway and Sweden: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Johansen, Vegard; Aronsson, Gunnar; Marklund, Staffan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This article investigates various reasons for sickness presenteeism (SP), that is, going to work despite illness. The research questions asked is: What are the main reported reasons for SP in Norway and Sweden? Design Cross-sectional survey in Norway and Sweden. Use of binomial logistic regression analysis. Participants A random sample of people aged between 20 and 60 years was obtained from complete and updated databases of the Norwegian and Swedish populations. A postal questionnaire was sent to the selected individuals, with response rate 33% (n=2843). 2533 workers responded to questions about SP during the last 12 months. Primary and secondary outcome measures The article informs about the distribution of reasons for SP in Norway and Sweden, selected by the respondents from a closed list. The article also examines which factors influence the most often reported reasons for SP. Results 56% of the Norwegian and Swedish respondents experienced SP in the previous year. The most frequently reported reasons for SP include not burden colleagues (43%), enjoy work (37%) and feeling indispensable (35%). A lower proportion of Norwegians state that they cannot afford taking sick leave adjusted OR (aOR 0.16 (95% CI 0.10 to 0.22)), while a higher proportion of Norwegians refer to that they enjoy their work (aOR=1.64 (95% CI 1.28 to 2.09)). Women and young workers more often report that they do not want to burden their colleagues. Managers (aOR=2.19 (95% CI 1.67 to 2.86)), highly educated persons and the self-employed more often report that they are indispensable. Conclusions Positive and negative reasons for SP are reported, and there are significant differences between respondents from the two countries. The response rate is low and results must be interpreted with caution. Study design Cross-sectional study. PMID:24523425

  12. A cross-sectional structured survey of patients receiving botulinum toxin type A treatment for blepharospasm.

    PubMed

    Fezza, John; Burns, John; Woodward, Julie; Truong, Daniel; Hedges, Thomas; Verma, Amit

    2016-08-15

    To characterize satisfaction with current standard-of-care botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A) treatment for blepharospasm, we performed a cross-sectional, structured survey in subjects with blepharospasm who had received ≥2 BoNT/A cycles. Subjects were interviewed immediately before re-injection to evaluate treatment satisfaction, time course of treatment effects, preferred injection intervals, Jankovic Rating Scale (JRS), and Blepharospasm Disability Index (BSDI). Subjects' (n=114) last treatment was onabotulinumtoxinA (n=78), incobotulinumtoxinA (n=35), or abobotulinumtoxinA (n=1). The most frequent injection interval was 12weeks (46.5% subjects); 30.7% had an interval >12weeks. The main rationale for interval choice was "to maintain treatment efficacy" (44.7%). However, 36.6% reported that treatment effects usually declined within 8weeks; 69.6% within 10weeks. JRS and BSDI scores indicated re-emergence of symptoms before re-injection, with 70.2% and 73.7% of subjects reporting difficulties to drive and read, respectively. Overall, treatment satisfaction was high, but declined at the end of the cycle. Many subjects (52.3%) would prefer an injection interval of <12weeks; 30.6% of <10weeks. In conclusion, the survey results indicate that blepharospasm symptoms, such as difficulties to drive and read, re-emerge at the end of a BoNT treatment cycle and that flexible, individualized treatment intervals may improve treatment satisfaction and outcomes. PMID:27423565

  13. Incidence estimation using a single cross-sectional age-specific prevalence survey with differential mortality.

    PubMed

    Turner, Elizabeth L; Sweeting, Michael J; Lindfield, Robert J; Deangelis, Daniela

    2014-02-10

    Here, we present a method for incidence estimation of a curable, non-recurring disease when data from a single cross-sectional survey are used together with population-level mortality rates and an assumption of differential mortality of diseased versus non-diseased individuals. The motivating example is cataract, and the VISION2020 goal to eliminate avoidable blindness globally by 2020. Reliable estimates of current and future cataract disease burden are required to predict how many surgeries would need to be performed to meet the VISION2020 goals. However, incidence estimates, needed to derive future burden, are not as easily available, due to the cost of conducting cohort studies. Disease is defined at the person-level in accordance with the WHO person-level definition of blindness. An extension of the standard time homogeneous illness-death model to a four-state model is described, which allows the disease to be cured, whereby surgery is performed on at least one diseased eye. Incidence is estimated, and the four-state model is used to predict disease burden assuming different surgical strategies whilst accounting for the competing risk of death. The method is applied to data from approximately 10,000 people from a survey of visual impairment in Nigeria. PMID:24009063

  14. A cross-sectional survey of cadmium biomarkers and cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Eric M; Arheart, Kris; Lee, David J; Hennekens, Charles H; Hlaing, WayWay M

    2016-07-01

    Cadmium contamination of tobacco may contribute to the health hazards of cigarette smoking. The 2005-2012 United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data provided a unique opportunity to conduct a cross-sectional survey of cadmium biomarkers and cigarette smoking. Among a sample of 6761 participants, we evaluated mean differences and correlations between cadmium biomarkers in the blood and urine and characteristics of never, former and current smokers. We found statistically significant differences in mean cadmium biomarker levels between never and former smokers as well as between never and current smokers. In current smokers, duration in years had a higher correlation coefficient with urinary than blood cadmium levels. In contrast, number of cigarettes smoked per day had a higher correlation coefficient with blood than urinary cadmium levels. These data suggest that blood and urine cadmium biomarker levels differ by duration and dose. These findings should be considered in evaluating any association between cadmium and smoking related diseases, especially cardiovascular disease. PMID:26983064

  15. A national, cross-sectional survey of children's hospital-based safety resource centres

    PubMed Central

    Kendi, Sadiqa; Zonfrillo, Mark R; Seaver Hill, Karen; Arbogast, Kristy B; Gittelman, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the location, staffing, clientele, safety product disbursement patterns, education provided and sustainability of safety resource centres (SRCs) in US children's hospitals. Methods A cross-sectional survey was distributed to children's hospital-based SRC directors. Survey categories included: funding sources, customer base, items sold, items given free of charge, education provided and directors’ needs. Results 32/38 (84.2%) SRC sites (affiliated with 30 hospitals) completed the survey. SRCs were in many hospital locations including lobby (28.1%), family resource centres (12.5%), gift shop/retail space (18.8%), mobile units (18.8%) and patient clinics (12.5%). 19% of respondents reported that their SRC was financially self-sustainable. Sales to patients predominated (mean of 44%); however, hospital employees made up a mean of 20% (range 0–60%) of sales. 78.1% of SRCs had products for children with special healthcare needs. Documentation kept at SRC sites included items purchased (96.9%), items given free of charge (65.6%) and customer demographics (50%). 56.3% of SRCs provided formal injury prevention education classes. The SRCs’ directors’ most important needs were finances (46.9%), staffing (50%) and space (46.9%). All of the directors were ‘somewhat interested’ or ‘very interested’ in each of the following: creation of a common SRC listserv, national SRC data bank and multisite SRC research platform. Conclusions SRCs are located in many US children's hospitals, and can be characterised as heterogeneous in location, products sold, data kept and ability to be financially sustained. Further research is needed to determine best practices for SRCs to maximise their impact on injury prevention. PMID:24667383

  16. Nurses’ perceptions of medication adherence in schizophrenia: results of the ADHES cross-sectional questionnaire survey

    PubMed Central

    Emsley, Robin; Alptekin, Koksal; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Cañas, Fernando; Dubois, Vincent; Gorwood, Philip; Haddad, Peter M.; Naber, Dieter; Olivares, José Manuel; Papageorgiou, Georgios; Roca, Miguel; Thomas, Pierre; Hargarter, Ludger; Schreiner, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Poor adherence to antipsychotic treatment is a widespread problem within schizophrenia therapy with serious consequences including increased risks of relapse and rehospitalization. Mounting evidence supports the key roles that nurses play in monitoring patient progress and facilitating long-term treatment adherence. The Adherencia Terapéutica en la Esquizofrenia (ADHES) nurses’ survey was designed to assess the opinions of nurses on the causes and management of partial/nonadherence to antipsychotic medication. Methods: A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey of 4120 nurses from Europe, the Middle East and Africa. Interpretation of results was based on a descriptive comparison of responses. Results: Nurses perceived 54% of patients seen in the preceding month to be partially/nonadherent to treatment. Most nurses (90%) reported some level of experience with administration of long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics, with 24% of nurses administering >10 injections per month. The majority (85%) of nurses surveyed believed that improving adherence would improve patient outcomes. Nearly half (49%) reported that most of their patients depend on a family member or other nonprofessional carer to remind them to take their medication as prescribed. A similar proportion of nurses (43%) reported that most of their patients relied on a professional to remind them to take medication. Most nurses (92%) felt that ensuring continuous medication with LAI antipsychotics would yield long-term benefits for patients, but their opinion was that over a third of patients were unaware of LAI antipsychotic treatments. In a series of forced options, the strategy used most often by respondents (89%) to promote medication adherence was to build trusting relationships with patients while listening to and interpreting their needs and concerns. Respondents also rated this as the most effective strategy that they used (48%). Conclusion: Nurses are highly aware of adherence

  17. A cross-sectional survey of essential surgical capacity in Somalia

    PubMed Central

    Elkheir, Natalie; Sharma, Akshay; Cherian, Meena; Saleh, Omar Abdelrahman; Everard, Marthe; Popal, Ghulam Rabani; Ibrahim, Abdi Awad

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess life-saving and disability-preventing surgical services (including emergency, trauma, obstetrics, anaesthesia) of health facilities in Somalia and to assist in the planning of strategies for strengthening surgical care systems. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Health facilities in all 3 administrative zones of Somalia; northwest Somalia (NWS), known as Somaliland; northeast Somalia (NES), known as Puntland; and south/central Somalia (SCS). Participants 14 health facilities. Measures The WHO Tool for Situational Analysis to Assess Emergency and Essential Surgical Care was employed to capture a health facility's capacity to deliver surgical and anaesthesia services by investigating four categories of data: infrastructure, human resources, interventions available and equipment. Results The 14 facilities surveyed in Somalia represent 10 of the 18 districts throughout the country. The facilities serve an average patient population of 331 250 people, and 12 of the 14 identify as hospitals. While major surgical procedures were provided at many facilities (caesarean section, laparotomy, appendicectomy, etc), only 22% had fully available oxygen access, 50% fully available electricity and less than 30% had any management guidelines for emergency and surgical care. Furthermore, only 36% were able to provide general anaesthesia inhalation due to lack of skills, supplies and equipment. Basic supplies for airway management and the prevention of infection transmission were severely lacking in most facilities. Conclusions According to the results of the WHO Tool for Situational Analysis to Assess Emergency and Essential Surgical Care survey, there exist significant gaps in the capacity of emergency and essential surgical services in Somalia including inadequacies in essential equipment, service provision and infrastructure. The information provided by the WHO tool can serve as a basis for evidence-based decisions on country-level policy regarding the

  18. Post-market clinical research conducted by medical device manufacturers: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Joseph S; Blount, Katrina L; Ritchie, Jessica D; Hodshon, Beth; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2015-01-01

    Background In the US, once a medical device is made available for use, several requirements have been established by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to ensure ongoing post-market surveillance of device safety and effectiveness. Our objective was to determine how commonly medical device manufacturers initiate post-market clinical studies or augment FDA post-market surveillance requirements for higher-risk devices that are most often approved via the FDA’s pre-market approval (PMA) pathway. Methods and results We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 47 manufacturers with operations in California, Minnesota, and Massachusetts who market devices approved via the PMA pathway. Among 22 respondents (response rate =47%), nearly all self-reported conducting post-market clinical research studies, commonly between 1 and 5; only 1 respondent reported never conducting post-market clinical research studies. While manufacturers most often engaged in these studies to satisfy FDA requirements, other reasons were reported, including performance monitoring and surveillance and market acceptance initiatives. Risks of conducting and not conducting post-market clinical research studies were described through open-ended response to questions. Conclusion Medical device manufacturers commonly initiate post-market clinical studies at the request of the FDA. Clinical data from these studies should be integrated into national post-market surveillance initiatives. PMID:26060416

  19. Laparoscopic simulation training in gynaecology: Current provision and staff attitudes - a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Burden, Christy; Fox, Robert; Hinshaw, Kim; Draycott, Timothy J; James, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore current provision of laparoscopic simulation training, and to determine attitudes of trainers and trainees to the role of simulators in surgical training across the UK. An anonymous cross-sectional survey with cluster sampling was developed and circulated. All Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG) Training Programme Directors (TPD), College Tutors (RCT) and Trainee representatives (TR) across the UK were invited to participate. One hundred and ninety-six obstetricians and gynaecologists participated. Sixty-three percent of hospitals had at least one box trainer, and 14.6% had least one virtual-reality simulator. Only 9.3% and 3.6% stated that trainees used a structured curriculum on box and virtual-reality simulators, respectively. Respondents working in a Large/Teaching hospital (p = 0.008) were more likely to agree that simulators enhance surgical training. Eighty-nine percent agreed that simulators improve the quality of training, and should be mandatory or desirable for junior trainees. Consultants (p = 0.003) and respondents over 40 years (p = 0.011) were more likely to hold that a simulation test should be undertaken before live operation. Our data demonstrated, therefore, that availability of laparoscopic simulators is inconsistent, with limited use of mandatory structured curricula. In contrast, both trainers and trainees recognise a need for greater use of laparoscopic simulation for surgical training. PMID:26491789

  20. Prevalence of depression and anxiety in patients requesting physicians’ aid in dying: cross sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Goy, Elizabeth R; Dobscha, Steven K

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of depression and anxiety in terminally ill patients pursuing aid in dying from physicians. Design Cross sectional survey. Setting State of Oregon, USA. Participants 58 Oregonians, most terminally ill with cancer or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, who had either requested aid in dying from a physician or contacted an aid in dying advocacy organisation. Main outcome measures Diagnosis of depression or anxiety according to the hospital anxiety and depression scale and the structured clinical interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Results 15 study participants met “caseness” criteria for depression, and 13 met criteria for anxiety. 42 patients died by the end of the study; 18 received a prescription for a lethal drug under the Death with Dignity Act, and nine died by lethal ingestion. 15 participants who received a prescription for a lethal drug did not meet criteria for depression; three did. All three depressed participants died by legal ingestion within two months of the research interview. Conclusion Although most terminally ill Oregonians who receive aid in dying do not have depressive disorders, the current practice of the Death with Dignity Act may fail to protect some patients whose choices are influenced by depression from receiving a prescription for a lethal drug. PMID:18842645

  1. Cross-sectional survey of the disaster preparedness of nurses across the Asia-Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Usher, Kim; Mills, Jane; West, Caryn; Casella, Evan; Dorji, Passang; Guo, Aimin; Koy, Virya; Pego, George; Phanpaseuth, Souksavanh; Phouthavong, Olaphim; Sayami, Jamuna; Lak, Muy Seang; Sio, Alison; Ullah, Mohammad Mofiz; Sheng, Yu; Zang, Yuli; Buettner, Petra; Woods, Cindy

    2015-12-01

    Healthcare workers who have received disaster preparedness education are more likely to report a greater understanding of disaster preparedness. However, research indicates that current nursing curricula do not adequately prepare nurses to respond to disasters. This is the first study to assess Asia-Pacific nurses' perceptions about their level of disaster knowledge, skills, and preparedness. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 757 hospital and community nurses in seven Asia-Pacific countries. Data were collected using the modified Disaster Preparedness Evaluation Tool. Participants were found to have overall low-to-moderate levels of disaster knowledge, skills and preparedness, wherein important gaps were identified. A majority of the variance in disaster preparedness scores was located at the level of the individual respondent, not linked to countries or institutions. Multilevel random effects modelling identified disaster experience and education as significant factors of positive perceptions of disaster knowledge, skills, and management. The first step toward disaster preparedness is to ensure frontline health workers are able to respond effectively to disaster events. The outcomes of this study have important policy and education implications. PMID:26245707

  2. Enhancing the role of nutrition professionals in weight management: A cross sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Bleich, Sara N.; Bandara, Sachini; Bennett, Wendy; Cooper, Lisa A.; Gudzune, Kimberly A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective 1) To determine the non-physician health profession perceived as best qualified to provide weight management; 2) To examine nutrition professionals’ current practice characteristics and perceived challenges and solutions for obesity care; and 3) To examine the association between nutrition professionals’ quality of training and self-efficacy in weight management. Design and methods We analyzed a 2014 national cross-sectional online survey of 500 U.S. non-physician health professionals (100 from each: nutrition, nursing, behavioral/mental health, exercise, pharmacy). Results Nutrition professionals most commonly self-identified as the most qualified group to help patients lose weight (92%), sentiments supported by other health professionals (57%). The most often cited challenge was lack of patient adherence (87%). Among nutrition professionals, 77% reported receiving high quality training in weight loss counseling. Nutrition professionals who reported high quality training were significantly more likely to report confidence (95% vs. 48%) and success (74% vs. 50%) in helping obese patients lose weight (p<0.05) than those reporting lower quality training. Conclusion Across all non-physician health professionals, nutrition professionals were identified as best suited to provide routine weight management counseling to obese patients. Yet, nutrition professionals’ receipt of high quality weight management training appears critical to their success in helping patients lose weight. PMID:25445319

  3. A cross-sectional survey of patient needs in hospital evacuation.

    PubMed

    Rimstad, Rune; Holtan, Anders

    2015-01-01

    To aid development of contingency plans, a cross-sectional survey of inpatient needs in the event of a total hospital evacuation within a few hours was undertaken. The hospital is a part of a tertiary care facility with a mixed surgical and medical population and a relatively large load of emergency medicine. A doctor or nurse on each ward registered patients' physical mobility, special needs complicating transportation (intensive care, labor, isolation, etc), and the lowest acceptable level of care after evacuation. Of the 760 included patients, 57.8 percent could walk, 20.0 percent needed wheelchair, and 22.2 percent needed transport on stretcher. Special needs were registered for 18.2 percent of patients. Only 49.7 percent of patients needed to be evacuated to another hospital to continue care on an acceptable level, while 37.6 percent could be discharged to their own home, and 12.6 percent could be evacuated to a nursing home. Patients in psychiatric wards and high dependency units had distinctly different needs than patients in ordinary somatic wards. The differences between patients in surgical and nonsurgical wards were minor. Patient discharge seems to be a considerable capacity buffer in a hospital crisis situation. PMID:26312655

  4. Understanding and Predicting Social Media Use Among Community Health Center Patients: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of social media by health care organizations is growing and provides Web-based tools to connect patients, caregivers, and providers. Objective The aim was to determine the use and factors predicting the use of social media for health care–related purposes among medically underserved primary care patients. Methods A cross-sectional survey was administered to 444 patients of a federally qualified community health center. Results Community health center patients preferred that their providers use email, cell phones for texting, and Facebook and cell phone apps for sharing health information. Significantly more Hispanic than white patients believed their providers should use Facebook (P=.001), YouTube (P=.01), and Twitter (P=.04) for sharing health information. Use and intentions to use social media for health-related purposes were significantly higher for those patients with higher subjective norm scores. Conclusions Understanding use and factors predicting use can increase adoption and utilization of social media for health care–related purposes among underserved patients in community health centers. PMID:25427823

  5. Perception and intentions to quit among waterpipe smokers in Qatar: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Jaam, M.; Al-Marridi, W.; Fares, H.; Izham, M.; Kheir, N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the perceptions and attitudes of waterpipe (shisha) smokers in Qatar regarding the health risks associated with addiction and to determine their intentions to quit. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 181 self-reported waterpipe smokers. Participants were approached in public places as well as in shisha cafes in Qatar. The questionnaire included items related to perception, attitude and intention to quit. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were performed for data analyses, with P ≤ 0.05 considered statistically significant. Results: About 44% of the respondents believed that waterpipe smoking was safer than cigarette smoking, and more than 70% would not mind if their children became involved in waterpipe smoking. More than half of the current smokers wanted to quit smoking shisha at some point, and 17% identified health concerns as the main motivating factor for their intention to quit. Conclusion: A large proportion of shisha smokers viewed shisha as a safer alternative to cigarettes, yet they admitted to intending to quit. These findings underscore the need to design educational interventions and awareness campaigns as well as impose stringent laws on waterpipe smoking in public places in Qatar. PMID:27051611

  6. A cross-sectional survey of patient needs in hospital evacuation.

    PubMed

    Rimstad, Rune; Holtan, Anders

    2015-01-01

    To aid development of contingency plans, a cross-sectional survey of inpatient needs in the event of a total hospital evacuation within a few hours was undertaken. The hospital is a part of a tertiary care facility with a mixed surgical and medical population and a relatively large load of emergency medicine. A doctor or nurse on each ward registered patients' physical mobility, special needs complicating transportation (intensive care, labor, isolation, etc), and the lowest acceptable level of care after evacuation. Of the 760 included patients, 57.8 percent could walk, 20.0 percent needed wheelchair, and 22.2 percent needed transport on stretcher. Special needs were registered for 18.2 percent of patients. Only 49.7 percent of patients needed to be evacuated to another hospital to continue care on an acceptable level, while 37.6 percent could be discharged to their own home, and 12.6 percent could be evacuated to a nursing home. Patients in psychiatric wards and high dependency units had distinctly different needs than patients in ordinary somatic wards. The differences between patients in surgical and nonsurgical wards were minor. Patient discharge seems to be a considerable capacity buffer in a hospital crisis situation. PMID:27149311

  7. Tobacco marketing and susceptibility to smoking: cross-sectional survey of Polish children.

    PubMed

    Maruska, Karin; Isensee, Barbara; Florek, Ewa; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2012-01-01

    Susceptibility to smoking has been identified as predictor of smoking onset in adolescence. Aim of the study was to investigate whether receptivity to tobacco marketing, for which a link to adolescent smoking already could be shownin the past, was also associated with susceptibility to smoking. A cross-sectional survey of 1,478 Polish students who reported having never smoked wasconducted. Mean age was 10.1 years and about 53.3% were female. Overall, 84 (5.7%) students were classifiedas susceptible to smoking, and 33 (2.3%) were considered as receptiveto tobacco marketing, operationalised by asking students to name a brand of their favourite cigarette advertisement. Crude logistic regression analyses as well as logistic regression analyses adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, personality characteristics, factors of social influence and smoking-related cognitions revealed a positive association between receptivity to tobacco marketing and susceptibility to smoking (adjusted odds ratio=3.49 [95% confidence interval: 1.28-9.46], p=0.014). In conclusion, this study revealed that receptivityto tobacco marketing increases susceptibility to smoking. Results providesupport for the almost comprehensive ban of tobacco marketing as existing in Poland and recommend its further expansion towards a total ban including e.g. ban of promotion at point of sale. PMID:23421019

  8. Cross sectional survey of perpetrators, victims, and witnesses of violence in Bogotá, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Duque, L; Klevens, J; Ramirez, C

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To establish the prevalence and distribution of witnesses, victims, and perpetrators of different types of violence in the general population and the proportion of victims consulting health services or reporting the incident to authorities. Methods: Cross sectional survey of a random sample of 3007 inhabitants between the ages of 15 and 60 in the city of Bogotá, Colombia, in 1997, based on a face to face interview. Results: Age adjusted past year prevalence of witnesses, victims, and perpetrators of physical aggression was 61%, 27%, and 27%, respectively, while lifetime prevalence of witnesses, victims, and perpetrators of assault with a weapon in this population reached 70%, 55%, and 5.8%. Between 11% and 67% of the victims consulted a health service and less than 32% reported the incident to an authority. Those involved in most types of physical violence tended to be young, male, from lower middle social classes, with some degree of secondary education, and single or divorced. Conclusions: Prevalence of witnesses and victims of violence in this sample appears to be high, while perpetrators constitute a small proportion. Violence is not equally distributed throughout the population suggesting the possibility of identifying a population at higher risk for the development of intervention programmes. PMID:12700220

  9. Cross-sectional survey of Good Samaritan behaviour by physicians in North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Garneau, William M; Harris, Dean M; Viera, Anthony J

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the responses of physicians to providing emergency medical assistance outside of routine clinical care. We assessed the percentage who reported previous Good Samaritan behaviour, their responses to hypothetical situations, their comfort providing specific interventions and the most likely reason they would not intervene. Setting Physicians residing in North Carolina. Participants Convenience sample of 1000 licensed physicians. Intervention Mailed survey. Design Cross-sectional study conducted May 2015 to September 2015. Main outcome and measures Willingness of physicians to act as Good Samaritans as determined by the last opportunity to intervene in an out-of-office emergency. Results The adjusted response rate was 26.1% (253/970 delivered). 4 out of 5 physicians reported previous opportunities to act as Good Samaritans. Approximately, 93% reported acting as a Good Samaritan during their last opportunity. There were no differences in this outcome between sexes, practice setting, specialty type or experience level. Doctors with greater perceived knowledge of Good Samaritan law were more likely to have intervened during a recent opportunity (p=0.02). The most commonly cited reason for potentially not intervening was that another health provider had taken charge. Conclusions We found the frequency of Good Samaritan behaviour among physicians to be much higher than reported in previous studies. Greater helping behaviour was exhibited by those who expressed more familiarity with Good Samaritan law. These findings suggest that physicians may respond to legal protections. PMID:26966061

  10. German medical students´ exposure and attitudes toward pharmaceutical promotion: A cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Jahnke, Kristine; Kremer, Marcel Stephan; Schmidt, Carsten Oliver; Kochen, Michael M.; Chenot, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Early contact of medical students with pharmaceutical promotion has been shown in many international studies. We assessed the frequency and places of contact of German medical students to pharmaceutical promotion and examined their attitudes toward pharmaceutical promotional activities. Methods: This cross-sectional survey was based on a self-developed questionnaire. It was distributed to all clinical students at the University of Goettingen Medical School in 2010. A 4-point rating scale was used to assess the attitudes toward different statements regarding pharmaceutical promotion. Results: The overall response rate was 55% (702/1287). The proportion of students with direct contact to pharmaceutical sales representatives increased from 21% in the first clinical year up to 77% in the final year. 60% were contacted during their elective clerkship. 80% had accepted promotional gifts. 86% stated their prescribing behavior to be unsusceptible to the influence of accepting promotional gifts. However, 35% of the unsusceptible students assumed doctors to be susceptible. Almost all (90%) reported that dealing with pharmaceutical promotion was never addressed during lectures and 65% did not feel well prepared for interactions with the pharmaceutical industry. 19% agreed to prohibit contacts between medical students and the pharmaceutical industry. Conclusions: German medical students get in contact with pharmaceutical promotion early and frequently. There is limited awareness for associated conflicts of interests. Medical schools need to regulate contacts and incorporate the topic in their curriculum to prepare students for interactions with the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:25228934

  11. A Cross-Sectional Survey on Older Adults' Community Mobility in an Indian Metropolis.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Meena; D'Souza, Sebestina A

    2016-03-01

    Community mobility supports occupational participation among older adults and promotes active ageing. This study aimed to explore community mobility of older adults within an urban Indian context in view of the limited available literature in this area. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on a convenience sample of 75 older adults residing in Chennai city using a questionnaire and a non-retrospective, open format, two-day time diary. Participants engaged in community mobility and activities outside home for 10 % of time over two days. Activities and roles related to religious and spiritual activities and expression, social participation, leisure and informal personal education participation occupied most time and were engaged in most frequently. Walking was the most frequently used mode of transportation and participants reported numerous road-related hazards (lack of proper pavements, disobedience of traffic rules, difficulty crossing roads, crowded roads, and poor condition of roads). Participants used public transport less often. Public transport-related barriers (difficulty boarding and alighting buses/trains due to high steps/insufficient time, inadequate seat reservation for older adults, overcrowding and increased expense on auto rickshaws/taxis) were also expressed as concerns. Participants linked their ability to use public transport with independence and assigned relatively less value to driving. The findings emphasize the significance of community mobility to promote participation in older adults and recommend age-friendly environments in Indian cities. PMID:26706252

  12. Social responsibility of the hospitals in Isfahan city, Iran: Results from a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Keyvanara, Mahmoud; Sajadi, Haniye Sadat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Changes in modern societies develop the perception that the external environment is essential in organization’s practices, especially in the way they deal with aspects such as human rights, community needs, market demands and environmental interests. These issues are usually under the umbrella of the concept of social responsibility. Given the importance of this concept in the context of health care delivery, suggesting a new paradigm in hospital governance, the aim of this study was to measure the social responsibility in hospitals. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was employed to collect data from a sample of 946 hospital staff of Isfahan city. Data was obtained by structured and valid self-administrated questionnaire and analyzed by descriptive and analytic statistics using SPSS. Results: The mean score of hospitals’ social responsibility was 3.0 compared with the justified range from 1.0 to 5.0. Results showed that there was a significant relationship between social responsibility score and hospitals’ ownership (public or private). Also, there was no significant relationship between social responsibility and type of hospital specialty. Conclusion: It is recommended that hospital managers develop and apply appropriate policies and strategies to improve their hospitals’ social responsibility level, especially through concentrating on their staff’s working environment. PMID:26340391

  13. Basic Competence of Intensive Care Unit Nurses: Cross-Sectional Survey Study.

    PubMed

    Lakanmaa, Riitta-Liisa; Suominen, Tarja; Ritmala-Castrén, Marita; Vahlberg, Tero; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Critical care patients benefit from the attention of nursing personnel with a high competence level. The aim of the study was to describe and evaluate the self-assessed basic competence of intensive care unit nurses and related factors. A cross-sectional survey design was used. A basic competence scale (Intensive and Critical Care Nursing Competence Scale version 1, Likert scale 1-5, 1 = poor and 5 = excellent) was employed among Finnish intensive care unit nurses (n = 431). Intensive care unit nurses' self-assessed basic competence was good (mean 4.19, SD 0.40). The attitude and value base of basic competence was excellent whereas experience base was the poorest compared to the knowledge base and skill base of intensive and critical care nursing. The strongest factor explaining nurses' basic competence was their experience of autonomy in nursing care (F value 60.85, β 0.11, SE 0.01, and P ≤ 0.0001). Clinical competence was self-rated as good. Nurses gave their highest competence self-ratings for ICU patient care according to the principles of nursing care. The ICU nurses also self-rated their professional competence as good. Collaboration was self-rated as the best competence. In basic and continuing education and professional self-development discussions it is meaningful to consider and find solutions for how to improve nurses' experienced autonomy in nursing. PMID:26557676

  14. Alcohol, cigarette, and illegal substance consumption among medical students: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Gignon, M; Havet, E; Ammirati, C; Traullé, S; Manaouil, C; Balcaen, T; Loas, G; Dubois, G; Ganry, O

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated addictive substance use by French medical students. A cross-sectional survey was distributed to 255 participants randomly selected from 1,021 second- to sixth-year medical students. Questionnaires were self-administered and included questions on sociodemographic characteristics, mental health, and alcohol (The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test [AUDIT test]), tobacco (Fagerstrom test), and illegal substance consumption (Cannabis Abuse Screening Test [CAST test]). The AUDIT scores indicated that 11% of the study participants were at risk for addiction and 21% were high-risk users. Tobacco dependence was strong or very strong for 12% of the participants. The CAST score showed that 5% of cannabis users needed health care services. Cannabis users were also more likely than non-users to fail their medical school examinations (89% vs. 39%, p<.01). One quarter of medical student participants (n=41) had used other illegal drugs, and 10% of study participants had considered committing suicide during the previous 12 months. Psychoactive substance consumption by French medical students requires preventive measures, screening, and health care services. PMID:25881656

  15. West Nile Virus Seroprevalence in the Greek Population in 2013: A Nationwide Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Pournaras, Spyros; Mavrouli, Maria; Marka, Andriani; Tserkezou, Persefoni; Baka, Agoritsa; Billinis, Charalambos; Katsioulis, Antonios; Psaroulaki, Anna; Papa, Anna; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Mamuris, Zissis; Tsakris, Athanasios; Kremastinou, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Cases of West Nile Virus (WNV) disease were recorded for three consecutive years in Greece following the year 2010 outbreak. A cross-sectional serologic survey was conducted to estimate the WNV seroprevalence and assess the ratio of infection to neuroinvasive disease. A stratified left-over sampling methodology was used including age and residence strata. A total of 3,962 serum samples was collected and tested for WNV Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies by Enzyme–Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). All positive samples were further tested by Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test (PRNT) and WNV Immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies. WNV IgG antibodies were detected in 82 samples and 61 were also positive in PRNT representing a weighted seroprevalence of 2.1% (95% C.I.: 1.7–2.6) and 1.5% (95% C.I.: 1.2–2.0), respectively. Multivariable analysis showed that seroprevalence was associated with age and residence. The overall ratio of neuroinvasive disease to infected persons was estimated at 1:376 (95% C.I.: 1:421–1:338), while the elderly people had the highest ratio. This nationwide study provided valuable data regarding the epidemiology of WNV in Greece based on the fact that elderly people have higher risk of being both infected and having severe disease. PMID:26605539

  16. Determinants of smoking initiation among women in five European countries: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The rate of smoking and lung cancer among women is rising in Europe. The primary aim of this study was to determine why women begin smoking in five different European countries at different stages of the tobacco epidemic and to determine if smoking is associated with certain characteristics and/or beliefs about smoking. Methods A cross-sectional telephone survey on knowledge and beliefs about tobacco was conducted as part of the Women in Europe Against Lung Cancer and Smoking (WELAS) Project. A total of 5 000 adult women from France, Ireland, Italy, Czech Republic, and Sweden were interviewed, with 1 000 from each participating country. All participants were asked questions about demographics, knowledge and beliefs about smoking, and their tobacco use background. Current and former smokers also were asked questions about smoking initiation. Basic statistics on the cross-sectional data was reported with chi-squared and ANOVA p-values. Logistic regression was used to analyze ever versus never smokers. Linear regression analyses were used to analyze age of smoking initiation. Results Being older, being divorced, having friends/family who smoke, and having parents who smoke were all significantly associated with ever smoking, though the strength of the associations varied by country. The most frequently reported reason for initiation smoking was friend smoking, with 62.3% of ever smokers reporting friends as one of the reasons why they began smoking. Mean age of smoking initiation was 18.2 years and over 80% of participants started smoking by the age of 20. The highest levels of young initiators were in Sweden with 29.3% of women initiating smoking at age 14-15 and 12.0% initiating smoking younger than age 14. The lowest level of young initiators was in the Czech Republic with 13.7% of women initiating smoking at age 14-15 and 1.4% of women initiating smoking younger than age 14. Women who started smoking because their friends smoked or to look 'cool' were

  17. Error, stress, and teamwork in medicine and aviation: cross sectional surveys

    PubMed Central

    Sexton, J Bryan; Thomas, Eric J; Helmreich, Robert L

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: To survey operating theatre and intensive care unit staff about attitudes concerning error, stress, and teamwork and to compare these attitudes with those of airline cockpit crew. Design: Cross sectional surveys. Setting: Urban teaching and non-teaching hospitals in the United States, Israel, Germany, Switzerland, and Italy. Major airlines around the world. Participants: 1033 doctors, nurses, fellows, and residents working in operating theatres and intensive care units and over 30 000 cockpit crew members (captains, first officers, and second officers). Main outcome measures: Perceptions of error, stress, and teamwork. Results: Pilots were least likely to deny the effects of fatigue on performance (26% v 70% of consultant surgeons and 47% of consultant anaesthetists). Most pilots (97%) and intensive care staff (94%) rejected steep hierarchies (in which senior team members are not open to input from junior members), but only 55% of consultant surgeons rejected such hierarchies. High levels of teamwork with consultant surgeons were reported by 73% of surgical residents, 64% of consultant surgeons, 39% of anaesthesia consultants, 28% of surgical nurses, 25% of anaesthetic nurses, and 10% of anaesthetic residents. Only a third of staff reported that errors are handled appropriately at their hospital. A third of intensive care staff did not acknowledge that they make errors. Over half of intensive care staff reported that they find it difficult to discuss mistakes. Conclusions: Medical staff reported that error is important but difficult to discuss and not handled well in their hospital. Barriers to discussing error are more important since medical staff seem to deny the effect of stress and fatigue on performance. Further problems include differing perceptions of teamwork among team members and reluctance of senior theatre staff to accept input from junior members. PMID:10720356

  18. Patient-reported areas for quality improvement in general practice: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Waller, Amy; Carey, Mariko; Mazza, Danielle; Yoong, Serene; Grady, Alice; Sanson-Fisher, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Background GPs are often a patient’s first point of contact with the health system. The increasing demands imposed on GPs may have an impact on the quality of care delivered. Patients are well placed to make judgements about aspects of care that need to be improved. Aim To determine whether general practice patients perceive that the care they receive is ‘patient-centred’ across eight domains of care, and to determine the association between sociodemographic, GP and practice characteristics, detection of preventive health risks, and receipt of patient-centred care. Design and setting Cross-sectional survey of patients attending Australian general practice clinics. Method Patients completed a touchscreen survey in the waiting room to rate the care received from their GP across eight domains of patient-centred care. Patients also completed the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and self-reported health risk factors. GPs completed a checklist for each patient asking about the presence of health risk factors. Results In total 1486 patients and 51 GPs participated. Overall, 83% of patients perceived that the care they received was patient-centred across all eight domains. Patients most frequently perceived the ‘access to health care when needed’ domain as requiring improvement (8.3%). Not having private health insurance and attending a practice located in a disadvantaged area were significantly associated with perceived need for improvements in care (P<0.05). Conclusion Patients in general practice report that accessibility is an aspect of care that could be improved. Further investigation of how indicators of lower socioeconomic status interact with the provision of patient-centred care and health outcomes is required. PMID:25918336

  19. Error, stress, and teamwork in medicine and aviation: cross sectional surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sexton, J. B.; Thomas, E. J.; Helmreich, R. L.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To survey operating theatre and intensive care unit staff about attitudes concerning error, stress, and teamwork and to compare these attitudes with those of airline cockpit crew. DESIGN:: Cross sectional surveys. SETTING:: Urban teaching and non-teaching hospitals in the United States, Israel, Germany, Switzerland, and Italy. Major airlines around the world. PARTICIPANTS:: 1033 doctors, nurses, fellows, and residents working in operating theatres and intensive care units and over 30 000 cockpit crew members (captains, first officers, and second officers). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:: Perceptions of error, stress, and teamwork. RESULTS:: Pilots were least likely to deny the effects of fatigue on performance (26% v 70% of consultant surgeons and 47% of consultant anaesthetists). Most pilots (97%) and intensive care staff (94%) rejected steep hierarchies (in which senior team members are not open to input from junior members), but only 55% of consultant surgeons rejected such hierarchies. High levels of teamwork with consultant surgeons were reported by 73% of surgical residents, 64% of consultant surgeons, 39% of anaesthesia consultants, 28% of surgical nurses, 25% of anaesthetic nurses, and 10% of anaesthetic residents. Only a third of staff reported that errors are handled appropriately at their hospital. A third of intensive care staff did not acknowledge that they make errors. Over half of intensive care staff reported that they find it difficult to discuss mistakes. CONCLUSIONS: Medical staff reported that error is important but difficult to discuss and not handled well in their hospital. Barriers to discussing error are more important since medical staff seem to deny the effect of stress and fatigue on performance. Further problems include differing perceptions of teamwork among team members and reluctance of senior theatre staff to accept input from junior members.

  20. Exercise training characteristics in cardiac rehabilitation programmes: a cross-sectional survey of Australian practice

    PubMed Central

    Abell, Bridget; Glasziou, Paul; Briffa, Tom; Hoffmann, Tammy

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Exercise training is a core component of cardiac rehabilitation (CR), however, little information exists regarding the specific exercise interventions currently provided for coronary heart disease in Australian practice. We aimed to analyse the current status of exercise-based CR services across Australia. Design Cross-sectional survey. Methods Australian sites offering exercise-based CR were identified from publically available directories. All sites were invited by email to participate in an online Survey Monkey questionnaire between October 2014 and March 2015, with reminders via email and phone follow-up. Questions investigated the demographics and format of individual programmes, as well as specific exercise training characteristics. Results 297 eligible programmes were identified, with an 82% response rate. Most sites (82%) were based at hospital or outpatient centres, with home (15%), community (18%) or gym-based options (5%) less common. While CR was most often offered in a comprehensive format (72% of sites), the level of exercise intervention varied greatly among programmes. Most frequently, exercise was prescribed 1–2 times per week for 60 min over 7 weeks. Almost one-quarter (24%) had a sole practitioner supervising exercise, although the majority used a nurse/physiotherapist combination. Low to moderate exercise intensities were used in 60% of programmes, however, higher intensity prescriptions were not uncommon. Few sites (<6%) made use of technology, such as mobile phones or the internet, to deliver or support exercise training. Conclusions While advances have been made towards providing flexible and accessible exercise-based CR, much of Australia's service remains within traditional models of care. A continuing focus on service improvement and evidence-based care should, therefore, be considered a core aim of those providing exercise for CR in order to improve health service delivery and optimise outcomes for patients. PMID

  1. Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction in Elementary School Children: Results of a Cross-Sectional Teacher Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Lauren N.; Chuang, Kai-wen; Champeau, Angelique; Allen, I. Elaine; Copp, Hillary L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Lower urinary tract dysfunction in school-aged children is common and yet data are lacking on current teacher practice regarding bathroom use and daytime incontinence during classroom hours. We determined the prevalence of elementary school teachers who promote lower urinary tract health and identified predictors for and against such behavioral promotion. Materials and Methods We performed an electronic cross-sectional survey among self-identified teachers using targeted social media advertisement during a 1-week period in July 2014. The empirical survey tool consisted of 27 questions and collected data on 5 principal domains, including 1) teacher demographics, 2) rules and regulations on water intake and bathroom use during classroom hours, 3) characteristics of school bathrooms in terms of safety, supervision and suitability for use, 4) experience with and management of students with daytime incontinence and 5) training on the topic of lower urinary tract health. Predictors for promoting lower urinary tract health were identified by multivariable logistic regression. Results Of the 4,166 teachers who completed the survey 88% indicated that they encourage students to hold urine. Despite strict bathroom protocols 81% of teachers allowed children unlimited access to water. Of the teachers 82% reported never having undergone any professional development on bathroom regulations for children. Overall only 24% of surveyed teachers met criteria for promoting lower urinary tract health. The odds of promoting lower urinary tract health decreased with ascending grade level (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.76–0.84). Conversely it increased if teaching experience was greater than 5 years (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.39–1.98) or professional development on the subject had been received (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.18–1.70). Conclusions Of elementary school teachers 76% are not promoting lower urinary tract health in school-aged children. Professional development training on the topics of lower

  2. Prevalence and Clustering of Major Cardiovascular Risk Factors in China: A Recent Cross-Sectional Survey.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jie; Cheng, Xinqi; Qiu, Ling; Xu, Tao; Zhu, Guangjin; Han, Jianhua; Xia, Liangyu; Qin, Xuzhen; Cheng, Qian; Liu, Qian

    2016-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the Chinese population. Although general prevalence estimates of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) are available for Chinese adults, prevalence estimates covering all adult age groups by race/ethnicity have not been reported. The aim of this study is to estimate the current prevalence and clustering of major CVRFs in Chinese adults, including a plurality of ethnic minorities.A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a nationally representative sample of 23,010 adults aged 18 years and older from 2007 to 2011. Questionnaires and physical examinations were performed, and fasting blood was collected for laboratory measurements. The prevalence of traditional CVRFs, including hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, overweight, and current smoking, were determined.The prevalence of the major CVRFs, including hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, overweight, and current smoking were 24.3%, 4.3%, 49.3%, 32.0%, and 21.7%, respectively. These risk factors were significantly associated with sex, age, region, ethnicity, and education levels. Overall, 70.3%, 40.3%, and 16.7% of Chinese adults had ≥1, ≥2, or ≥3 CVRFs, respectively. Men, northern and rural residents were more likely to have clustered CVRFs compared with women, southern and urban residents, respectively. Compared with Han residents, Hui and Mongolian residents were more likely, and Tujia and Miao residents were less likely, to have ≥1, ≥2, or ≥3 risk factors. The prevalence of Chinese women having ≥1, ≥2, or ≥3 CVRFs decreased with increasing levels of education.The prevalence and clustering of CVRFs is still high in Chinese adults ≥18 years old, especially in men and in individuals living in the northern and rural areas. Of note, there are differences in cardiovascular risk among different ethnic groups. Therefore, targeted and enhanced intervention measures are required to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and the corresponding

  3. Orientation of Dental Professionals in India towards Integrative Medicine: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Gayathri, Haritheertham; Garhnayak, Mirna; Naik, Eslavath Seena

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There is a growing demand on our health care system, including Dentistry, to shift from a bio-medical approach to Integrative model of care. The attitudes of health professionals towards Integrative Medicine (IM) are an important factor that influences this transition. Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the orientation of the dental professionals in India towards the principles and practice of Integrative Medicine. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 286 dental faculty and postgraduate students from three dental schools in India. The participants voluntarily and anonymously completed the “Integrative Medicine-30’ questionnaire, a 30 item self-report instrument that measures the health care provider’s orientation towards Integrative Medicine in five subscales. Data analysis included summary statistics and intergroup comparisons by gender and professional status with independent samples Mann-Whitney U test. Results The overall orientation of the dental professionals towards IM was almost neutral. While the use of learning resources on Complementary and Alternative Medicine was lower, they showed a more positive orientation towards patient-centred care. Compared to postgraduate students of Dentistry, the dental faculty were more oriented towards IM (median score of 82 vs. 79.5, p<0.01), especially in terms of learning from alternate paradigms (14 vs. 12, p<0.01) and safety of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (13 vs. 12, p<0.01). Females scored better than males both in terms of overall orientation (82 vs. 78, p<0.01) and towards patient-centred care (12 vs. 11, p<0.001). Conclusion The results highlight the impending need to improve the orientation of dental professionals in India towards the principles and practice of IM. PMID:27042588

  4. Critical care resources in the Solomon Islands: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There are minimal data available on critical care case-mix, care processes and outcomes in lower and middle income countries (LMICs). The objectives of this paper were to gather data in the Solomon Islands in order to gain a better understanding of common presentations of critical illness, available hospital resources, and what resources would be helpful in improving the care of these patients in the future. Methods This study used a mixed methods approach, including a cross sectional survey of respondents' opinions regarding critical care needs, ethnographic information and qualitative data. Results The four most common conditions leading to critical illness in the Solomon Islands are malaria, diseases of the respiratory system including pneumonia and influenza, diabetes mellitus and tuberculosis. Complications of surgery and trauma less frequently result in critical illness. Respondents emphasised the need for basic critical care resources in LMICs, including equipment such as oximeters and oxygen concentrators; greater access to medications and blood products; laboratory services; staff education; and the need for at least one national critical care facility. Conclusions A large degree of critical illness in LMICs is likely due to inadequate resources for primary prevention and healthcare; however, for patients who fall through the net of prevention, there may be simple therapies and context-appropriate resources to mitigate the high burden of morbidity and mortality. Emphasis should be on the development and acquisition of simple and inexpensive tools rather than complicated equipment, to prevent critical care from unduly diverting resources away from other important parts of the health system. PMID:22376229

  5. Quality of web based information on treatment of depression: cross sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Kathleen M; Christensen, Helen

    2000-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate quality of web based information on treatment of depression, to identify potential indicators of content quality, and to establish if accountability criteria are indicators of quality. Design Cross sectional survey. Data sources 21 frequently accessed websites about depression. Main outcome measures (i) Site characteristics; (ii) quality of content—concordance with evidence based depression guidelines (guideline score), appropriateness of other relevant site information (issues score), and subjective rating of site quality (global score); and (iii) accountability—conformity with core accountability standards (Silberg score) and quality of evidence cited in support of conclusions (level of evidence score). Results Although the sites contained useful information, their overall quality was poor: the mean guideline, issues, and global scores were only 4.7 (range 0-13) out of 43, 9.8 (6-14) out of 17, and 3 (0.5-7.5) out of 10 respectively. Sites typically did not cite scientific evidence in support of their conclusions. The guideline score correlated with the two other quality of content measures, but none of the content measures correlated with the Silberg accountability score. Content quality was superior for sites owned by organisations and sites with an editorial board. Conclusions There is a need for better evidence based information about depression on the web, and a need to reconsider the role of accountability criteria as indicators of site quality and to develop simple valid indicators of quality. Ownership by an organisation and the involvement of a professional editorial board may be useful indicators. The study methodology may be useful for exploring these issues in other health related subjects. PMID:11118181

  6. Community preparedness for emergency: a cross-sectional survey of residents in Heilongjiang of China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Weilan; Hao, Yanhua; Wu, Qunhong; Ning, Ning; You, Jia; Liu, Chaojie; Jiao, Mingli; Gao, Lijun; Kang, Zheng; Liang, Libo; Sun, Hong; Cui, Yu; Li, Ye; Han, Xiaonan; Fang, Xin; Zhao, Xiyan; Hu, Man; Ding, Ding; Gao, Hao; Lu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Objective This article aims to identify factors that shape the knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of community residents in China's Heilongjiang province towards emergency preparedness. Findings of such a study may provide evidence to support the development of effective public risk communication strategies and education campaigns. Design A cross-sectional household questionnaire survey was conducted in Heilongjiang province in 2014. A stratified cluster sampling strategy was employed to select study participants. The questionnaires were administered using face-to-face interviews. 2800 questionnaires were completed, among which 2686 (95.9%) were considered valid for data analyses. A multivariate logistic regression model was adopted to identify the extent to which the independent variables were associated with emergency preparedness. Results Fewer than 5% respondents were well prepared for emergency. Over half (52%) of poorly prepared respondents did not know what to do in emergency; women (OR=1.691), higher household income (OR ranging from 1.666 to 2.117), previous experience with emergency (OR=1.552), higher levels of knowledge about emergency (OR=2.192), risk awareness (OR=1.531), self-efficacy (OR=1.796), as well as positive attitudes towards emergency preparedness (OR=2.265) were significant predictors for emergency preparedness. Neither educational attainment nor exposure to awareness-raising entered into the logic regression model as a significant predictor for emergency preparedness. Conclusions The level of emergency preparedness in Heilongjiang residents is very low, which is linked with poor knowledge and attitudes of the residents towards emergency preparedness. Future emergency awareness campaigns should be more focused and tailored to the needs of intended audience, taking into consideration of their usual source of information and knowledge in relation to emergency. PMID:26553829

  7. Food consumption patterns in the Waterloo Region, Ontario, Canada: a cross-sectional telephone survey

    PubMed Central

    Nesbitt, Andrea; Majowicz, Shannon; Finley, Rita; Pollari, Frank; Pintar, Katarina; Marshall, Barbara; Cook, Angela; Sargeant, Jan; Wilson, Jeff; Ribble, Carl; Knowles, Lewinda

    2008-01-01

    Background The demographics and lifestyles of Canadians are changing, thereby influencing food choices and food preparation in the home. Although different dietary practices are associated with increased risk of foodborne illness, our ability to evaluate food consumption trends and assess risks associated with foodborne illness is limited by lack of data on current eating habits and consumer food safety practices. The objective of this study was to describe, for the first time, the food consumption patterns in a Canadian-based population from a food safety perspective, in order to establish baseline data on actual food intake of individuals. Method A cross-sectional telephone survey of 2,332 randomly selected residents of Waterloo Region, Ontario, Canada (C-EnterNet pilot site) was conducted between November 2005 and March 2006. Food intake was assessed using a 7-day dietary recall method. Results Certain food items were consumed more than others among the same food groups, and consumption of many food items varied by gender and age. Specific foods considered high-risk for the transmission of certain enteric pathogens were significantly more likely to be consumed by males (i.e. unpasteurized juice, bean sprouts, and undercooked meat) and elderly individuals (i.e. undercooked eggs). The majority of households prepared and consumed most meals at home, allocating an average of 44 minutes to prepare a meal. Conclusion Baseline data on actual food intake is useful to public health professionals and food safety risk assessors for developing communication messages to consumers and in foodborne outbreak investigations. PMID:18950509

  8. Iodine and pregnancy - a UK cross-sectional survey of dietary intake, knowledge and awareness.

    PubMed

    Combet, E; Bouga, M; Pan, B; Lean, M E J; Christopher, C O

    2015-07-14

    Iodine is a key component of the thyroid hormones, which are critical for healthy growth, development and metabolism. The UK population is now classified as mildly iodine-insufficient. Adequate levels of iodine during pregnancy are essential for fetal neurodevelopment, and mild iodine deficiency is linked to developmental impairments. In the absence of prophylaxis in the UK, awareness of nutritional recommendations during pregnancy would empower mothers to make the right dietary choices leading to adequate iodine intake. The present study aimed to: estimate mothers' dietary iodine intake in pregnancy (using a FFQ); assess awareness of the importance of iodine in pregnancy with an understanding of existing pregnancy dietary and lifestyle recommendations with relevance for iodine; examine the level of confidence in meeting adequate iodine intake. A cross-sectional survey was conducted and questionnaires were distributed between August 2011 and February 2012 on local (Glasgow) and national levels (online electronic questionnaire); 1026 women, UK-resident and pregnant or mother to a child aged up to 36 months participated in the study. While self-reported awareness about general nutritional recommendations during pregnancy was high (96 %), awareness of iodine-specific recommendations was very low (12 %), as well as the level of confidence of how to achieve adequate iodine intake (28 %). Median pregnancy iodine intake, without supplements, calculated from the FFQ, was 190 μg/d (interquartile range 144-256μg/d), which was lower than that of the WHO's recommended intake for pregnant women (250 μg/d). Current dietary recommendations in pregnancy, and their dissemination, are found not to equip women to meet the requirements for iodine intake. PMID:26005740

  9. Public stigma associated with mental illnesses in Pakistani university students: a cross sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Zubair, Muhammad; Ghulam, Hamzah; Wajih Ullah, Muhammad; Zubair Tariq, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Background. The objectives of the study were to explore the knowledge and attitudes of Pakistani university students toward mental illnesses. People with mental illnesses are challenged not only by their symptoms but also by the prejudices associated with their illness. Acknowledging the stigma of mental illness should be the first essential step toward devising an appropriate treatment plan. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted at the University of Punjab, Lahore, CMH Lahore Medical and Dental College, Lahore, and University of Sargodha, Sub-campus Lahore, from February to May 2014. The self-administered questionnaire consisted of three sections: demographics, general knowledge of psychiatric illnesses, and Community Attitudes towards Mental Illnesses (CAMI) Scale. The questionnaire was distributed to 650 participants enrolled in different disciplines (Social Sciences, Medicine and Formal Sciences). Results. Response rate was 81% (527/650 respondents). Mean age was 20.98 years. Most of the students (331, 62.8%) had an urban background and studied Social Sciences (238, 45.2%). Four hundred and eighteen respondents (79.3%) considered religion very important and most respondents considered psychiatrists (334, 63.4%) and spiritual leaders (72, 13.7%) to be best able to treat mental illnesses. One hundred and sixty nine respondents (32.1%) considered black magic to be a cause of mental illness. Only 215 (41%) respondents had ever read an article on mental illnesses. Multiple regression analysis revealed study discipline, exposure, perceived causes of mental illnesses and superstitions to be significantly associated with attitudes towards mental illnesses (p < .05). Conclusion. Although low awareness and exposure were found in this sample of Pakistani university students, their attitude towards mental illnesses was generally positive. Most respondents gave supernatural explanations for mental illnesses but only a few believed that spiritual leaders can play a

  10. Road traffic injuries to children during the school commute in Hyderabad, India: cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Tetali, Shailaja; Murthy, G V S; Roberts, I

    2016-01-01

    Background India is motorising rapidly. With increasing motorisation, road traffic injuries are predicted to increase. A third of a billion children travel to school every day in India, but little is known about children's safety during the school commute. We investigated road traffic injury to children during school journeys. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey in Hyderabad using a two-stage stratified cluster sampling design. We used school travel questionnaires to record any road injury in the past 12 months that resulted in at least 1 day of school missed or required treatment by a doctor or nurse. We estimated the prevalence of road injury by usual mode of travel and distance to school. Results The total sample was 5842 children, of whom 5789 (99.1%) children answered the question on road injury. The overall prevalence of self-reported road injury in the last 12 months during school journeys was 17% (95% CI 12.9% to 21.7%). A higher proportion of boys (25%) reported a road injury than girls (11%). There was a strong association between road injury, travel mode and distance to school. Children who cycled to school were more likely to be injured compared with children who walked (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.2 to 2.0). Travel by school bus was safer than walking (OR 0.5; 95% CI 0.3 to 0.9). Conclusions A sixth of the children reported a road traffic injury in the past 12 months during school journeys in Hyderabad. Injury prevention interventions should focus on making walking and cycling safer for children. PMID:26701985

  11. Physical Violence against General Practitioners and Nurses in Chinese Township Hospitals: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Kai; Jiao, Mingli; Ma, Hongkun; Qiao, Hong; Hao, Yanhua; Li, Ye; Gao, Lijun; Sun, Hong; Kang, Zheng; Liang, Libo; Wu, Qunhong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors of physical violence in Chinese township hospitals. Methods A cross-sectional survey was used in a sample of 442 general practitioners and 398 general nurses from 90 township hospitals located in Heilongjiang province, China (response rate = 84.8%). Results A total of 106 of the 840 (12.6%) respondents reported being physically attacked in their workplace in the previous 12 months. Most perpetrators were the patients’ relatives (62.3%), followed by the patient (22.6%); 73.6% of perpetrators were aged between 20 and 40 years. Of the physical violence incidents, about 56.6% (n = 60) resulted in a physical injury, and 45.4% of respondents took two or three days of sick leave. Reporting workplace violence in hospitals to superiors or authorities was low (9.4%). Most respondents (62.8%) did not receive training on how to avoid workplace violence. Logistic regression analyses indicated that general nurses, aged 35 years or younger, and with a higher-level professional title were more likely to experience physical violence. Healthcare workers with direct physical contact (washing, turning, lifting) with patients had a higher risk of physical violence compared to other health care workers. Procedures for reporting workplace violence were a protective factor for physical violence; when in place, reporting after psychological violence (verbal abuse, bullying/mobbing, harassment, and threats) was more protective than waiting until an instance of physical violence (beating, kicking, slapping, stabbing, etc.). Conclusions Physical violence in Chinese township hospitals is an occupational hazard of rural public health concern. Policies, procedures, and intervention strategies should be undertaken to manage this issue. PMID:26571388

  12. Self-Efficacy Beliefs Are Associated with Visual Height Intolerance: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Grill, Eva; Schäffler, Florian; Huppert, Doreen; Müller, Martin; Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter; Brandt, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background Responses to height may range from indifference to minor distress to severe symptoms of fear of heights (acrophobia); visual height intolerance (vHI) denotes the whole spectrum of symptoms. Although there are options to manage vHI, only a small part of persons affected by vHI are willing to seek professional help or confront their problem. Purpose of this study was to determine if persons with vHI, specifically those who show avoidant behavior towards heights (avoiders), score lower in their general self-efficacy (GSE) than those who confront vHI (confronters). Method Cross-sectional survey in 607 individuals living in the urban region of Munich, Germany, using a mailed questionnaire on presence or absence of vHI, confronting or avoiding behaviour, and GSE. Results Of all participants (mean age 53.9, 50.3% female), 407 reported life-time presence of vHI. Participants with vHI had a mean GSE score of 31.8 (SD 4.3) points (participants without vHI: 32.5, SD 4.3, p  = 0.008 for difference). Among individuals with vHI, 23% reported confronting behavior. Confronters were significantly younger (p<.0001, 50.2 vs. 55.7 years), more likely to be female (p  = 0.0039, 64.3% female), and had a higher GSE score (p  = 0.0049, 32.5 vs. 31.1). Associations remained significant after multiple adjustment. Conclusions Our study provides evidence for the association of GSE and vHI. These findings may have consequences for strategies of alleviation and therapy of vHI. PMID:25548910

  13. Prevalence of child sexual abuse among adolescents in Geneva: results of a cross sectional survey.

    PubMed Central

    Halpérin, D. S.; Bouvier, P.; Jaffé, P. D.; Mounoud, R. L.; Pawlak, C. H.; Laederach, J.; Wicky, H. R.; Astié, F.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To measure the cumulative prevalence of child sexual abuse in a representative sample of the adolescent population of Geneva. DESIGN--Cross sectional survey with an anonymous self administered questionnaire centred on a factual description of sexual activities. SETTING--68 classes (17 schools) randomly selected from the 201 ninth grade classes of the public school system in Geneva. SUBJECTS--1193 adolescents aged 13-17 years, of whom 1116 (93.5%; 568 girls, 548 boys) consented to the study and returned completed questionnaires. RESULTS--192 (33.8%) girls and 60 (10.9%) boys reported having experienced at least one sexually abusive event. The prevalence of abuse involving physical contact was 20.4% (116 cases) among girls and 3.3% (18) among boys. The prevalence of abuse involving some form of penetration was 5.6% (32 cases) among girls and 1.1% (six) among boys. One third of the abused adolescents had experienced more than one abusive event and 46.5% (92/198) had experienced the first event before age 12. Abuse by a family member was reported by 20.5% (36/176) of abused girls and 6.3% (3/48) of abused boys. Abusers were known to victims in two thirds of cases. Ninety per cent of abusers were male and 35.3% (71/201) came from the victim's peer group. Over 80% of participants found the questionnaire interesting, clearly formulated, and useful. CONCLUSIONS--Child sexual abuse is a universal social phenomenon. Adolescents themselves can contribute to research and so help in the search for more efficient prevention and intervention strategies. PMID:8646043

  14. Specialty choice in times of economic crisis: a cross-sectional survey of Spanish medical students

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Jeffrey E; González López-Valcárcel, Beatriz; Ortún, Vicente; Barber, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the determinants of specialty choice among graduating medical students in Spain, a country that entered into a severe, ongoing economic crisis in 2008. Setting Since 2008, the percentage of Spanish medical school graduates electing Family and Community Medicine (FCM) has experienced a reversal after more than a decade of decline. Design A nationwide cross-sectional survey conducted online in April 2011. Participants We invited all students in their final year before graduation from each of Spain's 27 public and private medical schools to participate. Main outcome measures Respondents’ preferred specialty in relation to their perceptions of: (1) the probability of obtaining employment; (2) lifestyle and work hours; (3) recognition by patients; (4) prestige among colleagues; (5) opportunity for professional development; (6) annual remuneration and (7) the proportion of the physician's compensation from private practice. Results 978 medical students (25% of the nationwide population of students in their final year) participated. Perceived job availability had the largest impact on specialty preference. Each 10% increment in the probability of obtaining employment increased the odds of preferring a specialty by 33.7% (95% CI 27.2% to 40.5%). Job availability was four times as important as compensation from private practice in determining specialty choice (95% CI 1.7 to 6.8). We observed considerable heterogeneity in the influence of lifestyle and work hours, with students who preferred such specialties as Cardiovascular Surgery and Obstetrics and Gynaecology valuing longer rather than shorter workdays. Conclusions In the midst of an ongoing economic crisis, job availability has assumed critical importance as a determinant of specialty preference among Spanish medical students. In view of the shortage of practitioners of FCM, public policies that take advantage of the enhanced perceived job availability of FCM may help steer medical school

  15. What are the symptoms of varicose veins? Edinburgh vein study cross sectional population survey

    PubMed Central

    Bradbury, Andrew; Evans, Christine; Allan, Paul; Lee, Amanda; Ruckley, C Vaughan; Fowkes, F G R

    1999-01-01

    Objective To define the relations between age, sex, lower limb symptoms, and the presence of trunk varicose veins on clinical examination. Design Cross sectional population study. Setting 12 general practices with catchment areas geographically and socioeconomically distributed throughout Edinburgh. Participants An age stratified random sample of 1566 people (699 men and 867 women) aged 18-64 selected from the computerised age-sex registers of participating practices. Main outcome measures Self administered questionnaire on the presence of lower limb symptoms and physical examination to determine the presence and severity of varicose veins. Results Women were significantly more likely than men to report lower limb symptoms such as heaviness or tension, swelling, aching, restless legs, cramps, and itching. The prevalence of symptoms tended to increase with age in both sexes. In men, only itching was significantly related to the presence and severity of trunk varices (linear test for trend, P=0.011). In women there was a significant relation between trunk varices and the symptoms of heaviness or tension (P⩽0.001), aching (P⩽0.001), and itching (P⩽0.005). However, the level of agreement between the presence of symptoms and trunk varices was too low to be of clinical value, especially in men. Conclusions Even in the presence of trunk varices, most lower limb symptoms probably have a non-venous cause. Surgical extirpation of trunk varices is unlikely to ameliorate such symptoms in most patients. Key messagesIn this population survey women were more likely than men to report a wide range of lower limb symptomsIn men, only itching was significantly related to the presence of trunk varicesIn women there was a significant relation between trunk varices and heaviness or tension, aching, and itchingThe level of agreement between the presence of symptoms and trunk varices is probably too low to be clinically usefulA thorough clinical history and examination should be

  16. Public stigma associated with mental illnesses in Pakistani university students: a cross sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Waqas, Ahmed; Zubair, Muhammad; Ghulam, Hamzah; Wajih Ullah, Muhammad; Zubair Tariq, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Background. The objectives of the study were to explore the knowledge and attitudes of Pakistani university students toward mental illnesses. People with mental illnesses are challenged not only by their symptoms but also by the prejudices associated with their illness. Acknowledging the stigma of mental illness should be the first essential step toward devising an appropriate treatment plan. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted at the University of Punjab, Lahore, CMH Lahore Medical and Dental College, Lahore, and University of Sargodha, Sub-campus Lahore, from February to May 2014. The self-administered questionnaire consisted of three sections: demographics, general knowledge of psychiatric illnesses, and Community Attitudes towards Mental Illnesses (CAMI) Scale. The questionnaire was distributed to 650 participants enrolled in different disciplines (Social Sciences, Medicine and Formal Sciences). Results. Response rate was 81% (527/650 respondents). Mean age was 20.98 years. Most of the students (331, 62.8%) had an urban background and studied Social Sciences (238, 45.2%). Four hundred and eighteen respondents (79.3%) considered religion very important and most respondents considered psychiatrists (334, 63.4%) and spiritual leaders (72, 13.7%) to be best able to treat mental illnesses. One hundred and sixty nine respondents (32.1%) considered black magic to be a cause of mental illness. Only 215 (41%) respondents had ever read an article on mental illnesses. Multiple regression analysis revealed study discipline, exposure, perceived causes of mental illnesses and superstitions to be significantly associated with attitudes towards mental illnesses (p < .05). Conclusion. Although low awareness and exposure were found in this sample of Pakistani university students, their attitude towards mental illnesses was generally positive. Most respondents gave supernatural explanations for mental illnesses but only a few believed that spiritual leaders can play a

  17. Cross-sectional survey of antimicrobial prescribing patterns in UK small animal veterinary practice.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Laura A; Williams, Nicola; Clegg, Peter; Callaby, Rebecca; Nuttall, Tim; Coyne, Karen; Pinchbeck, Gina; Dawson, Susan

    2012-05-01

    The increase in the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance has resulted in both human and veterinary antimicrobial use coming under increased scrutiny. The aim of this study was to characterise antimicrobial prescribing patterns in small-animal veterinary practices in the UK. A cross-sectional survey of UK small animal veterinarians was undertaken. A postal questionnaire to evaluate antimicrobial prescribing habits was sent to 900 clinicians. Data were collected on the clinicians, their practices and their sources of information regarding antimicrobials and their use. Respondents were asked if they would prescribe antimicrobials to animals described in four clinical scenarios, and, if so, to provide details of the prescription(s). Questionnaires were completed by 51% of the veterinarians. Only 3.5% of clinicians reported that their practice had an antimicrobial use policy. Penicillins were most commonly prescribed in three clinical scenarios, and 1st generation cephalosporins were most commonly prescribed in a scenario about canine pyoderma. In one scenario, fluoroquinolones and 3rd generation cephalosporins accounted for 10% and 13% of prescriptions respectively. Five percent of all prescriptions were under the recommended dose and 20% were over the recommended dose. Overall, 2.3% of prescriptions were not licensed for use in dogs or cats in the UK. Associations between the use of various antimicrobial drugs and independent variables were analysed using multivariable logistic regression models. Off-license prescriptions and inaccurate dosing of antimicrobials by small-animal clinicians in the UK appears to occur. Antimicrobial use guidelines are rare in small animal practice. The introduction of such guidelines has been shown to lead to more appropriate use of antimicrobials and is therefore recommended. PMID:22225772

  18. Study of Nurses’ Knowledge about Palliative Care: A Quantitative Cross-sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Prem, Venkatesan; Karvannan, Harikesavan; Kumar, Senthil P; Karthikbabu, Surulirajan; Syed, Nafeez; Sisodia, Vaishali; Jaykumar, Saroja

    2012-01-01

    Context: Studies have documented that nurses and other health care professionals are inadequately prepared to care for patients in palliative care. Several reasons have been identified including inadequacies in nursing education, absence of curriculum content related to pain management, and knowledge related to pain and palliative care. Aims: The objective of this paper was to assess the knowledge about palliative care amongst nursing professionals using the palliative care knowledge test (PCKT). Settings and Design: Cross-sectional survey of 363 nurses in a multispecialty hospital. Materials and Methods: The study utilized a self-report questionnaire- PCKT developed by Nakazawa et al., which had 20 items (statements about palliative care) for each of which the person had to indicate ‘correct’, ‘incorrect’, or ‘unsure.’ The PCKT had 5 subscales (philosophy- 2 items, pain- 6 items, dyspnea- 4 items, psychiatric problems- 4 items, and gastro-intestinal problems- 4 items). Statistical Analysis Used: Comparison across individual and professional variables for both dimensions were done using one-way ANOVA, and correlations were done using Karl-Pearson's co-efficient using SPSS version 16.0 for Windows. Results: The overall total score of PCKT was 7.16 ± 2.69 (35.8%). The philosophy score was 73 ± .65 (36.5%), pain score was 2.09 ± 1.19 (34.83%), dyspnea score was 1.13 ± .95 (28.25%), psychiatric problems score was 1.83 ± 1.02 (45.75%), and gastro-intestinal problems score was 1.36 ± .97 (34%). (P = .00). The female nurses scored higher than their male counterparts, but the difference was not significant (P > .05). Conclusions: Overall level of knowledge about palliative care was poor, and nurses had a greater knowledge about psychiatric problems and philosophy than the other aspects indicated in PCKT. PMID:23093828

  19. Austin Powers bites back: a cross sectional comparison of US and English national oral health surveys

    PubMed Central

    Tsakos, Georgios; Sheiham, Aubrey; Marmot, Michael G; Kawachi, Ichiro; Watt, Richard G

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare oral health in the US and England and to assess levels of educational and income related oral health inequalities between both countries. Design Cross sectional analysis of US and English national surveys. Setting Non-institutionalised adults living in their own homes. Participants Oral health measures and socioeconomic indicators were assessed in nationally representative samples: the Adult Dental Health Survey 2009 for England, and the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-08. Adults aged ≥25 years were included in analyses with samples of 8719 (England) and 9786 (US) for analyses by education, and 7184 (England) and 9094 (US) for analyses by income. Main outcome measures Number of missing teeth, self rated oral health, and oral impacts on daily life were outcomes. Educational attainment and household income were used as socioeconomic indicators. Age standardised estimates of oral health were compared between countries and across educational and income groups. Regression models were fitted, and relative and absolute inequalities were measured using the relative index of inequality (RII) and the slope index of inequality (SII). Results The mean number of missing teeth was significantly higher in the US (7.31 (standard error 0.15)) than in England (6.97 (0.09)), while oral impacts were higher in England. There was evidence of significant social gradients in oral health in both countries, although differences in oral health by socioeconomic position varied according to the oral health measure used. Consistently higher RII and SII values were found in the US than in England, particularly for self rated oral health. RII estimates for self rated oral health by education were 3.67 (95% confidence interval 3.23 to 4.17) in the US and 1.83 (1.59 to 2.11) in England. In turn, SII values were 42.55 (38.14 to 46.96) in the US and 18.43 (14.01 to 22.85) in England. Conclusions The oral health of US citizens is not better than

  20. Prevalence of disease related prion protein in anonymous tonsil specimens in Britain: cross sectional opportunistic survey

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Carole M; Andrews, Nick; Vogliqi, Kelly; Mallinson, Gary; Kaisar, Maria; Hilton, David A; Ironside, James W; Edwards, Philip; McCardle, Linda M; Ritchie, Diane L; Dabaghian, Reza; Ambrose, Helen E; Gill, O Noel

    2009-01-01

    Objective To establish with improved accuracy the prevalence of disease related prion protein (PrPCJD) in the population of Britain and thereby guide a proportionate public health response to limit the threat of healthcare associated transmission of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD). Design Cross sectional opportunistic survey. Study samples Anonymised tonsil pairs removed at elective tonsillectomy throughout England and Scotland. Setting National anonymous tissue archive for England and Scotland. Main outcome measure Presence of PrPCJD determined by using two enzyme immunoassays based on different analytical principles, with further investigation by immunohistochemistry or immunoblotting of any samples reactive in either assay. Results Testing of 63 007 samples was completed by the end of September 2008. Of these, 12 753 were from the birth cohort in which most vCJD cases have arisen (1961-85) and 19 908 were from the 1986-95 cohort that would have been also exposed to bovine spongiform encephalopathy through infected meat or meat products. None of the samples tested was unequivocally reactive in both enzyme immunoassays. Only two samples were reactive in one or other enzyme immunoassay and equivocal in the other, and nine samples were equivocally reactive in both enzyme immunoassays. Two hundred and seventy six samples were initially reactive in one or other enzyme immunoassay; the repeat reactivity rate was 15% or less, depending on the enzyme immunoassay and cut-off definition. None of the samples (including all the 276 initially reactive in enzyme immunoassay) that were investigated by immunohistochemistry or immunoblotting was positive for the presence of PrPCJD. Conclusions The observed prevalence of PrPCJD in tonsils from the 1961-95 combined birth cohort was 0/32 661 with a 95% confidence interval of 0 to 113 per million. In the 1961-85 cohort, the prevalence of zero with a 95% confidence interval of 0 to 289 per million was lower than, but

  1. Antihypertensive combination therapy in primary care offices: results of a cross-sectional survey in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Roas, Susanne; Bernhart, Felix; Schwarz, Michael; Kaiser, Walter; Noll, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Background Most hypertensive patients need more than one substance to reach their target blood pressure (BP). Several clinical studies indicate the high efficacy of antihypertensive combinations, and recent guidelines recommend them in some situations even as initial therapies. In general practice they seem widespread, but only limited data are available on their effectiveness under the conditions of everyday life. The objectives of this survey among Swiss primary care physicians treating hypertensive patients were: to know the frequency of application of different treatment modalities (monotherapies, free individual combinations, single-pill combinations); to see whether there are relationships between prescribed treatment modalities and patient characteristics, especially age, treatment duration, and comorbidities; and to determine the response rate (percentage of patients reaching target BP) of different treatment modalities under the conditions of daily practice. Methods This cross-sectional, observational survey among 228 randomly chosen Swiss primary care physicians analyzed data for 3,888 consecutive hypertensive patients collected at one single consultation. Results In this survey, 31.9% of patients received monotherapy, 41.2% two substances, 20.9% three substances, and 4.7% more than three substances. By combination mode, 34.9% took free individual combinations and 30.0% took fixed-dose single-pill combinations. Combinations were more frequently given to older patients with a long history of hypertension and/or comorbidities. In total, 67.8% of patients achieved their BP target according to their physician’s judgment. When compared, single-pill combinations were associated with a higher percentage of patients achieving target BP than free individual combinations and monotherapies for the total sample and for patients with comorbidity. Conclusion Antihypertensive combination therapy was widely used in Swiss primary care practices. The number of prescribed

  2. The Commissioning and Provision of Advocacy for Problem Drug Users in English DATS: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cargill, Tamsin; Weaver, Tim D.; Patterson, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Aims: This study investigated the commissioning and delivery of advocacy for problem drug users. We aimed to quantify provision, describe the commissioning of advocacy services in Drug Action Teams (DATs) and to identify factors influencing advocacy provision. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of a randomly selected sample of 50 English DATs. The…

  3. The National Survey of Student Engagement as a Predictor of Undergraduate GPA: A Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, M. B.; Wilson, M. A.; Tobin, R. M.

    2011-01-01

    Data from the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE) collected across seven years were used to predict final, cumulative grade point averages (GPA). Cross-product regression was used to explore the predictive abilities of the NSSE benchmark scores for freshmen (n = 2578) and seniors (n = 2293) collected in cross-sectional cohorts.…

  4. Deliberate Self-Harm in Adolescents Aged 12-18: A Cross-Sectional Survey of 18,104 Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watanabe, Norio; Nishida, Atsushi; Shimodera, Shinji; Inoue, Ken; Oshima, Norihito; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Inoue, Shimpei; Akechi, Tatsuo; Furukawa, Toshi A.; Okazaki, Yuji

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about accurate prevalence and associated factors of deliberate self-harm (DSH) among adolescents in Asian countries. In this study, the prevalence and associated factors of DSH among adolescents in Japan were examined. Data were derived from a cross-sectional survey using an anonymous self-report questionnaire and enrolling 8,620…

  5. Schizophrenia through the carers' eyes: results of a European cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Svettini, A; Johnson, B; Magro, C; Saunders, J; Jones, K; Silk, S; Hargarter, L; Schreiner, A

    2015-09-01

    adherence to medication. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey of 138 carers across 16 European countries. Interpretation of results was based on a descriptive comparison of responses. Carers recognized the importance of medication to help patients get better (76%) and improve their quality of life (76%) and relationships (74%). Sixty-seven per cent believed medication damages general health. Sixty-five per cent reported that treatment adherence was a burden for patients. Thirty-eight per cent indicated that it was a daily struggle to get patients to take their medication. Fifty per cent perceived that medication administered every few weeks rather than daily was quite/very important. Ninety-three per cent agreed on the importance of family support to boost adherence, with education and information deemed important for families and patients. Carers rely less on the patient themselves when assessing adherence than psychiatrists. The burden faced by carers and patients in taking medication provides an opportunity for healthcare professionals to provide support in a multidisciplinary 'team' involving psychiatrists, nurses and carers. PMID:25944551

  6. No global consensus: a cross-sectional survey of maternal weight policies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Growing evidence suggests that maternal prepregnancy weight and gestational weight gain are risk factors for perinatal complications and subsequent maternal and child health. Postpartum weight retention is also associated with adverse birth outcomes and maternal obesity. Clinical guidelines addressing healthy weight before, during, and after pregnancy have been introduced in some countries, but at present a systematic accounting for these policies has not been conducted. The objective of the present study was to conduct a cross-national comparison of maternal weight guidelines. Methods This cross sectional survey administered a questionnaire online to key informants with expertise on the subject of maternal weight to assess the presence and content of preconceptional, pregnancy and postpartum maternal weight guidelines, their rationale and availability. We searched 195 countries, identified potential informants in 80 and received surveys representing 66 countries. We estimated the proportion of countries with guidelines by region, income, and formal or informal policy, and described and compared guideline content, including a rubric to assess presence or absence of 4 guidelines: encourage healthy preconceptional weight, antenatal weighing, encourage appropriate gestational gain, and encourage attainment of healthy postpartum weight. Results Fifty-three countries reported either a formal or informal policy regarding maternal weight. The majority of these policies included guidelines to assess maternal weight at the first prenatal visit (90%), to monitor gestational weight gain during pregnancy (81%), and to provide recommendations to women about healthy gestational weight gain (62%). Guidelines related to preconceptional (42%) and postpartum (13%) weight were less common. Only 8% of countries reported policies that included all 4 fundamental guidelines. Guideline content and rationale varied considerably between countries, and respondents perceived that

  7. Management of Patient-Reported Outcome (PRO) Alerts in Clinical Trials: A Cross Sectional Survey.

    PubMed Central

    Kyte, Derek; Ives, Jonathan; Draper, Heather; Calvert, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Background Assessment of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) provides valuable information to inform patient-centered care, but may also reveal ‘PRO alerts’: psychological distress or physical symptoms that may require an immediate response. Ad-hoc management of PRO alerts in clinical trials may result in suboptimal patient care or potentially bias trial results. To gain greater understanding of current practice in PRO alert management we conducted a national survey of personnel involved in clinical trials with a PRO endpoint. Methods and Findings We conducted a national cross-sectional survey of 767 UK-based research nurses, data managers/coordinators, trial managers and chief/principal investigators involved in clinical trials using PROs. Respondents were self-selected volunteers from a non-randomised sample of eligible individuals recruited via 55 UK Clinical Research Collaboration Registered Clinical Trials Units and 19 Comprehensive Local Research Networks. Questions centred on the proportion of trial personnel encountering alerts, how staff responded to PRO alerts and whether current guidance was deemed sufficient to support research personnel. We undertook descriptive analyses of the quantitative data and directed thematic analysis of free-text comments. 20% of research nurses did not view completed PRO questionnaires and were not in a position to discover alerts, 39–50% of the remaining respondent group participants reported encountering PRO alerts. Of these, 83% of research nurses and 54% of data managers/trial coordinators reported taking action to assist the trial participant, but less than half were able to record the intervention in the trial documentation. Research personnel reported current PRO alert guidance/training was insufficient. Conclusions Research personnel are intermittently exposed to PRO alerts. Some intervene to help trial participants, but are not able to record this intervention in the trial documentation, risking co

  8. Screening for Atrial Fibrillation – A Cross-Sectional Survey of Healthcare Professionals in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Taggar, Jaspal S.; Coleman, Tim; Lewis, Sarah; Jones, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Screening for atrial fibrillation (AF) in primary care has been recommended; however, the views of healthcare professionals (HCPs) are not known. This study aimed to determine the opinions of HCP about the feasibility of implementing screening within a primary care setting. Methods A cross-sectional mixed methods census survey of 418 HCPs from 59 inner-city practices (Nottingham, UK) was conducted between October-December 2014. Postal and web-surveys ascertained data on existing methods, knowledge, skills, attitudes, barriers and facilitators to AF screening using Likert scale and open-ended questions. Responses, categorized according to HCP group, were summarized using proportions, adjusting for clustering by practice, with 95% C.Is and free-text responses using thematic analysis. Results At least one General Practitioner (GP) responded from 48 (81%) practices. There were 212/418 (51%) respondents; 118/229 GPs, 67/129 nurses [50 practice nurses; 17 Nurse Practitioners (NPs)], 27/60 healthcare assistants (HCAs). 39/48 (81%) practices had an ECG machine and diagnosed AF in-house. Non-GP HCPs reported having less knowledge about ECG interpretation, diagnosing and treating AF than GPs. A greater proportion of non-GP HCPs reported they would benefit from ECG training specifically for AF diagnosis than GPs [proportion (95% CI) GPs: 11.9% (6.8–20.0); HCAs: 37.0% (21.7–55.5); nurses: 44.0% (30.0–59.0); NPs 41.2% (21.9–63.7)]. Barriers included time, workload and capacity to undertake screening activities, although training to diagnose and manage AF was a required facilitator. Conclusion Inner-city general practices were found to have adequate access to resources for AF screening. There is enthusiasm by non-GP HCPs to up-skill in the diagnosis and management of AF and they may have a role in future AF screening. However, organisational barriers, such as lack of time, staff and capacity, should be overcome for AF screening to be feasibly implemented

  9. Prevalence of Buruli Ulcer in Akonolinga Health District, Cameroon: Results of a Cross Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Porten, Klaudia; Sailor, Karen; Comte, Eric; Njikap, Adelaide; Sobry, Agnes; Sihom, Francois; Meva'a, Abanda; Eyangoh, Sarah; Myatt, Mark; Nackers, Fabienne; Grais, Rebecca F.

    2009-01-01

    Background Buruli ulcer (BU) is a chronic, indolent necrotizing disease of the skin and underlying tissues caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, which may result in functional incapacity. In 2002, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) opened a BU programme in Akonolinga Hospital, Cameroon, offering antibiotic treatment, surgery and general medical care. Six hundred patients have been treated in the project to date. However, due to the nature of the disease and its stigmatization, determining the exact prevalence and burden of disease is difficult and current estimates may not reflect the magnitude of the problem. The objectives of this survey were to estimate the prevalence of BU in the health district of Akonolinga, describe the geographic extension of the highly endemic area within the health district, and determine the programme coverage and its geographical distribution. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a cross-sectional population survey using centric systematic area sampling (CSAS). A 15×15 km grid (quadrats of 225 km2) was overlaid on a map of Akonolinga district with its position chosen to maximize the area covered by the survey. Quadrats were selected if more than 50% of the quadrat was inside of the health district. The chiefdom located closest to the centre of each quadrat was selected and Buruli cases were identified using an active case finding strategy (the sensitivity of the strategy was estimated by capture-recapture). WHO-case definitions were used for nodules, plaque, ulcer, oedema and sequelae. Out of a total population of 103,000 inhabitants, 26,679 were surveyed within the twenty quadrats. Sensitivity of the case finding strategy was estimated to be 84% (95%CI 54–97%). The overall prevalence was 0.47% (n = 105) for all cases including sequelae and 0.25% (n = 56) for active stages of the disease. Five quadrats had a high prevalence of >0.6% to 0.9%, 5 a prevalence >0.3% to 0.6% and 10 quadrats <0.3%. The quadrats with the high

  10. Lifetime prevalence, characteristics, and associated problems of non-consensual sex in men: cross sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Coxell, Adrian; King, Michael; Mezey, Gillian; Gordon, Dawn

    1999-01-01

    Objective To identify the lifetime prevalence of non-consensual sexual experiences in men, the relationship between such experiences as a child and as an adult, associated psychological and behavioural problems, and help received. Design Cross sectional survey. Setting England. Subjects 2474 men (mean age 46 years) attending one of 18 general practices. Main outcome measures Experiences of non-consensual and consensual sex before and after the age of 16 years—that is, as a child and adult respectively—psychological problems experienced for more than 2 weeks at any one time, use of alcohol (CAGE questionnaire), self harm, and help received. Results 2474 of 3142 men (79%) agreed to participate; 71/2468 (standardised rate 2.89%, 95% confidence interval 2.21% to 3.56%) reported non-consensual sexual experiences as adults, 128/2423 (5.35%, 4.39% to 6.31%) reported non-consensual sexual experiences as children, and 185/2406 (7.66%, 6.54% to 8.77%) reported consensual sexual experiences as children that are illegal under English law. Independent predictors of non-consensual sex as adults were reporting male sexual partners (odds ratio 6.0, 2.6 to 13.5), non-consensual sex in childhood (4.2, 2.1 to 8.6), age (0.98, 0.96 to 0.99), and sex of interviewer (2.0, 1.2 to 3.5). Non-consensual sexual experiences were associated with a greater prevalence of psychological problems, alcohol misuse, and self harm. These sexual experiences were also significant predictors of help received from mental health professionals. Conclusion Almost 3% of men in England report non-consensual sexual experiences as adults. Medical professionals need to be aware of the range of psychological difficulties in men who have had such experiences. They also need to be aware of the relationship between sexual experiences in childhood and adulthood in men. Key messagesAlmost 3% of men report non-consensual sexual experiences as adultsOver 5% of men report sexual abuse as childrenNon-consensual sexual

  11. Lumbar spondylolysis: a life long dynamic condition? A cross sectional survey of 4.151 adults

    PubMed Central

    Sonne-Holm, Stig; Rovsing, H. C.; Monrad, Henrik; Gebuhr, Peter

    2006-01-01

    increases throughout life and is apparently not a condition restricted to adolescence. Although the cross-sectional nature of the present study prevents an exact estimate of the age at onset; future, sequential studies of the cohort may provide us with some important answers on this topic. Apart from aging–obesity, lordotic angle and pelvic inclination were found to be individual risk factors for LS. PMID:17120072

  12. Prescription antibiotics for outpatients in Bangladesh: a cross-sectional health survey conducted in three cities

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Antibiotics prescribing by physicians have gained due importance across the globe, mainly because of an increase in antibiotic usage, prevalence of infections and drug resistances. The present study is aimed to evaluate the physicians prescribing pattern of antibiotics, their usages by outpatients and disease conditions for which the antibiotics are prescribed in three cities of Bangladesh. Methods This cross sectional health survey was carried out with a self designed standard questionnaire by manual data collection over a three months period (20.03.2013 to 20.06.2013) at three adjacent cities Jessore Sadar, Monirampur and Keshabpur upazila respectively. The data were collected from the patient’s prescription and by directly interviewing the patients who were prescribed at least one antibiotic during the study period. WHO Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classifications for antibiotics was used and descriptive statistics were applied to the collected data and analyzed using Microsoft Excel software. Modified Wald method was applied to calculate 95% CI. Results A total of 900 prescriptions were analyzed during the study period. It was found that the prescriber prescribed antibiotics to the patients who were suffering mainly from cold and fever, infections, diarrhea and gonorrhea. The highest prescribed antibiotic groups were cephalosporins (31.78%), macrolides (27.33%), quinolones (16.33%), penicillins (7.11%), and metronidazoles (6.78%) respectively. Two or more antibiotics were prescribed in 25.44% of prescriptions. A total of 66.89% prescriptions had complete information on dosage form, 57% had complete direction for antibiotics use and 64.22% patients completed full course of antibiotics. Although 83% prescriptions have no clinical test for using antibiotics, even though the percentages of patients’ disease recovery were 61.78% and incompliance were 38.22%. Conclusion From this research, it is observed that physicians prescribed antibiotics

  13. Herbal remedy in the treatment of malaria: cross sectional survey of residents of Lagos State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Idowu, E T; Mafe, M A; Otubanjo, O A; Adeneye, A K

    2006-06-01

    Semi structured questionnaires. designed to capture information on the type. composition, method of preparation. dosage, mode of administration. and frequency of use of herbal preparations in malaria treatment, were administered to 1,593 adults of the 3 main ethnic groups and a forth group comprising other smaller ethnic groups designated as "others", all resident in Lagos metropolis in a cross sectional survey. The 1,593 respondents were made up of 892 males and 701 females and their ages ranged from 19 to 60 years. A high percentage in all the ethnic groups especially the Yorubas admitted to the use of herbs in treating malaria [Yoruba (69%), Hausa (47%). others (32%) and Igbo (30%)1. Effectiveness of herbs in treating malaria episodes featured as the major factor for their use. as claimed by the majority (>50%) of the respondents in each of the ethnic groups, while cost consideration was the next most important factor. Other factors mentioned included the absence of side effect in herbal use. to avoid the itchy side effect and ineffectiveness of chloroquine and some other anti-malarials. An appreciable percentage across the ethnic groups had no idea of the constituents of the herbal remedies they use for treating their malaria episodes since they buy these from traditional herbalists. Varied combinations of these herbs in combination with different types of fruits and other substances are claimed to be used, the main ones of which are Azardiracha indica and pineapple. A large majority of respondents in all the ethnic groups claimed to use the same herbs for the treatment and prevention of malaria and great improvement is experienced after use [Hausas (90%). Igbos (83%). Yorubas (77%) and the others (88%)]. There is usually no specific dose or dose regimen. however a high proportion in all the ethnic groups use herbal preparation thrice a day and a few of the respondents take unspecified measures at arbitrary intervals. The lack of standards in the use of these

  14. Climate change and health in Bangladesh: a baseline cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Kabir, Md Iqbal; Rahman, Md Bayzidur; Smith, Wayne; Lusha, Mirza Afreen Fatima; Milton, Abul Hasnat

    2016-01-01

    Background Bangladesh is facing the unavoidable challenge of adaptation to climate change. However, very little is known in relation to climate change and health. This article provides information on potential climate change impact on health, magnitude of climate-sensitive diseases, and baseline scenarios of health systems to climate variability and change. Design A cross-sectional study using multistage cluster sampling framework was conducted in 2012 among 6,720 households of 224 rural villages in seven vulnerable districts of Bangladesh. Information was obtained from head of the households using a pretested, interviewer-administered, structured questionnaire. A total of 6,720 individuals participated in the study with written, informed consent. Results The majority of the respondents were from the low-income vulnerable group (60% farmers or day labourers) with an average of 30 years’ stay in their locality. Most of them (96%) had faced extreme weather events, 45% of people had become homeless and displaced for a mean duration of 38 days in the past 10 years. Almost all of the respondents (97.8%) believe that health care expenditure increased after the extreme weather events. Mean annual total health care expenditure was 6,555 Bangladeshi Taka (BDT) (1 USD=77 BDT in 2015) and exclusively out of pocket of the respondents. Incidence of dengue was 1.29 (95% CI 0.65–2.56) and malaria 13.86 (95% CI 6.00–32.01) per 1,000 adult population for 12 months preceding the data collection. Incidence of diarrhoea and pneumonia among under-five children of the households for the preceding month was 10.3% (95% CI 9.16–11.66) and 7.3% (95% CI 6.35–8.46), respectively. Conclusions The findings of this survey indicate that climate change has a potential adverse impact on human health in Bangladesh. The magnitude of malaria, dengue, childhood diarrhoea, and pneumonia was high among the vulnerable communities. Community-based adaptation strategy for health could be

  15. Why medical students choose psychiatry - a 20 country cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recruitment to psychiatry is insufficient to meet projected mental health service needs world-wide. We report on the career plans of final year medical students from 20 countries, investigating factors identified from the literature which influence psychiatric career choice. Methods Cross sectional electronic or paper survey. Subjects were final year medical students at 46 medical schools in participating countries. We assessed students’ career intentions, motivations, medical school teaching and exposure to psychiatry. We assessed students’ attitudes and personality factors. The main outcome measure was likelihood of specializing in psychiatry. Multilevel logistic regression was used to examine the joint effect of factors upon the main outcome. Results 2198 of 9135 (24%) of students responded (range 4 to 91%) across the countries. Internationally 4.5% of students definitely considered psychiatry as a career (range 1 to 12%). 19% of students (range 0 to 33%) were “quite likely”, and 25% were “definitely not” considering psychiatry. Female gender, experience of mental/physical illness, media portrayal of doctors, and positive attitudes to psychiatry, but not personality factors, were associated with choosing psychiatry. Quality of psychiatric placement (correlation coefficient = 0.22, p < 0.001) and number of placements (correlation coefficient =0.21, p < 0.001) were associated with higher ATP scores. During medical school, experience of psychiatric enrichment activities (special studies modules and university psychiatry clubs), experience of acutely unwell patients and perceived clinical responsibility were all associated with choice of psychiatry. Multilevel logistic regression revealed six factors associated with students choosing psychiatry: importance of own vocation, odds ratio (OR) 3.01, 95% CI 1.61 to 5.91, p < 0.001); interest in psychiatry before medical school, OR 10.8 (5.38 to 21.8, p < 0.001); undertaking a

  16. Changes in left ventricular structure and function in patients with white coat hypertension: cross sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Muscholl, Michael W; Hense, Hans-W; Bröckel, Ulrich; Döring, Angela; Riegger, Günter A J; Schunkert, Heribert

    1998-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the relation between white coat hypertension and alterations of left ventricular structure and function. Design: Cross sectional survey. Setting: Augsburg, Germany. Subjects: 1677 subjects, aged 25 to 74 years, who participated in an echocardiographic substudy of the monitoring of trends and determinants in cardiovascular disease Augsburg study during 1994-5. Outcome measures: Blood pressure measurements and M mode, two dimensional, and Doppler echocardiography. After at least 30 minutes’ rest blood pressure was measured three times by a technician, and once by a physician after echocardiography. Subjects were classified as normotensive (technician <140/90 mm Hg, physician <160/95 mm Hg; n=849), white coat hypertensive (technician <140/90 mm Hg, physician ⩾160/95 mm Hg; n=160), mildly hypertensive (technician ⩾140/90 mm Hg, physician <160/95 mm Hg; n=129), and sustained hypertensive (taking antihypertensive drugs or blood pressure measured by a technican ⩾140/90 mm Hg, and physician ⩾160/95 mm Hg; n=538). Results: White coat hypertension was more common in men than women (10.9% versus 8.2% respectively) and positively related to age and body mass index. After adjustment for these variables, white coat hypertension was associated with an increase in left ventricular mass and an increased prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy (odds ratio 1.9, 95% confidence interval 1.2 to 3.2; P=0.009) compared with normotensive patients. The increase in left ventricular mass was secondary to significantly increased septal and posterior wall thicknesses whereas end diastolic diameters were similar in both groups with white coat hypertension or normotension. Additionally, the systolic white coat effect (difference between blood pressures recorded by a technician and physician) was associated with increased left ventricular mass and increased prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy (P<0.05 each). Values for systolic left

  17. Heart Failure Telemonitoring in Japan and Sweden: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Peter; Okada, Ikuko; de Vries, Arjen E; Kinugawa, Koichiro; Strömberg, Anna; Jaarsma, Tiny

    2015-01-01

    Background Telemonitoring of heart failure (HF) patients is increasingly discussed at conferences and addressed in research. However, little is known about actual use in specific countries. Objective We aimed to (1) describe the use of non-invasive HF telemonitoring, (2) clarify expectations of telemonitoring among cardiologists and nurses, and (3) describe barriers to the implementation of telemonitoring in Japan and Sweden. Methods This study used a cross-sectional survey of non-invasive HF telemonitoring. A total of 378 Japanese (120 cardiologists, 258 nurses) and 120 Swedish (39 cardiologists, 81 nurses) health care professionals from 165 Japanese and 61 Swedish hospitals/clinics nationwide participated in the study (210 in Japan and 98 in Sweden were approached). Data were collected between November 2013 and May 2014 with a questionnaire that was adapted from a previous Dutch study on telemonitoring. Results The mean age of the cardiologists and nurses was 47 years and 41 years, respectively. Experience at the current position caring for HF patients was 19 years among the physicians and 15 years among the nurses. In total, 7 Japanese (4.2%) and none of the Swedish health care institutions used telemonitoring. One fourth (24.0%, 118/498) of the health care professionals were familiar with the technology (in Japan: 21.6%, 82/378; in Sweden: 30.0%, 36/120). The highest expectations of telemonitoring (rated on a scale from 0-10) were reduced hospitalizations (8.3 in Japan and 7.5 in Sweden), increased patient self-care (7.8 and 7.4), and offering high-quality care (7.8 and 7.0). The major goal for introducing telemonitoring was to monitor physical condition and recognize signs of worsening HF in Japan (94.1%, 352/374) and Sweden (88.7%, 102/115). The following reasons were also high in Sweden: to monitor effects of treatment and adjust it remotely (86.9%, 100/115) and to do remote drug titration (79.1%, 91/115). Just under a quarter of Japanese (22.4%, 85/378) and

  18. Mobile Phone Use Among Medical Residents: A Cross-Sectional Multicenter Survey in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Temsah, Mohamad-Hani; Khan, Samina A; Al-Eyadhy, Ayman; Chiang, Michael F

    2016-01-01

    Background Mobile phones have great potential for medical education, as they allow health care providers and students to access resources efficiently at the precise time at the point-of-care to help in informed decision making. Objective The objective of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of mobile phone usage among medical residents and to explore their attitudes, perceptions, and the challenges they experience when using mobile phones in academic and clinical practice. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted on all 133 residents in 17 different specialties across two large academic hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The Web-based validated questionnaire measured mobile phone platform preferences, and their uses in general and medical practice. The perception of confidentiality and safety impact of using mobile phones for communication and accessing patient’s data was also explored, alongside challenges of use and how residents learn to use their mobile phone. Results With a response rate of 101/133 (75.9%) and mean age of 27.8 (SD 3.0) years, we found that 100/101 (99.0%) of participants were mobile phone users with mean duration of use of 5.12 (SD 2.4) years, and a range from 1 to 12 years. There was no significant difference in use between male and female respondents. A negative linear correlation was found between age and use duration (P=.004). The most common operating system used by participants was the iOS platform (55/101, 54.5%), with English the most commonly used language to operate residents’ mobile phones (96/100, 96.0%) despite their native language being Arabic. For communication outside medical practice, chatting applications such as WhatsApp matched phone calls as most commonly used tools (each 88/101, 87.1%). These were also the primary tools for medical communication, but used at a lower rate (each 65/101, 64.4%). In medical practice, drug (83/101, 82.2%) and medical (80/101, 79.2%) references and medical calculation

  19. Taylor-Couette flow control by amplitude variation of the inner cylinder cross-section oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oualli, Hamid; Mekadem, Mahmoud; Lebbi, Mohamed; Bouabdallah, Ahcene

    2015-07-01

    The hydrodynamic stability of a viscous fluid flow evolving in an annular space between a rotating inner cylinder with a periodically variable radius and an outer fixed cylinder is considered. The basic flow is axis-symmetric with two counter-rotating vortices each wavelength along the whole filled system length. The numerical simulations are implemented on the commercial Fluent software package, a finite-volume CFD code. It is aimed to make investigation of the early flow transition with assessment of the flow response to radial pulsatile motion superimposed to the inner cylinder cross-section as an extension of a previous developed work in Oualli et al. [H. Oualli, A. Lalaoua, S. Hanchi, A. Bouabdallah, Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 61, 11102 (2013)] where a comparative controlling strategy is applied to the outer cylinder. The same basic system is considered with similar calculating parameters and procedure. In Oualli et al. [H. Oualli, A. Lalaoua, S. Hanchi, A. Bouabdallah, Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 61, 11102 (2013)], it is concluded that for the actuated outer cylinder and relatively to the non-controlled case, the critical Taylor number, Tac1, characterizing the first instability onset illustrated by the piled Taylor vortices along the gap, increases substantially to reach a growing rate of 70% when the deforming amplitude is ɛ = 15%. Interestingly, when this controlling strategy is applied to the inner cylinder cross-section with a slight modification of the actuating law, this tendency completely inverts and the critical Taylor number decreases sharply from Tac1 = 41.33 to Tac1 = 17.66 for ɛ = 5%, corresponding to a reduction rate of 57%. Fundamentally, this result is interesting and can be interpreted by prematurely triggering instabilities resulting in rapid development of flow turbulence. Practically, important applicative aspects can be met in several industry areas where substantial intensification of transport phenomena (mass, momentum and heat) is

  20. Cross-sectional schooling-health associations misrepresented causal schooling effects on adult health and health-related behaviors: evidence from the Chinese Adults Twins Survey.

    PubMed

    Behrman, Jere R; Xiong, Yanyan; Zhang, Junsen

    2015-02-01

    Adult health outcomes and health behaviors are often associated with schooling. However, such associations do not necessarily imply that schooling has causal effects on health with the signs or magnitudes found in the cross-sectional associations. Schooling may be proxying for unobserved factors related to genetics and family background that directly affect both health and schooling. Recently several studies have used within-monozygotic (MZ) twins methods to control for unobserved factors shared by identical twins. Within-MZ estimates for developed countries are generally smaller than suggested by cross-sectional associations, consistent with positive correlations between unobserved factors that determine schooling and those that determine health. This study contributes new estimates of cross-sectional associations and within-MZ causal effects using the Chinese Adults Twins Survey, the first study of its type for developing countries. The cross-sectional estimates suggest that schooling is significantly associated with adult health-related behaviors (smoking, drinking, exercising) but not with own or spouse health outcomes (general health, mental health, overweight, chronic diseases). However, within-MZ-twins estimators change the estimates for approximately half of these health indicators, in one case declining in absolute magnitudes and becoming insignificant and in the other cases increasing in absolute magnitudes. Within-MZ estimates indicate significant pro-health effects for at least one of the indicators for own health (better mental health), own health-related behaviors (less smoking) and spouse health (less overweight). PMID:25464872

  1. Factors Associated with Leishmania Asymptomatic Infection: Results from a Cross-Sectional Survey in Highland Northern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Custodio, Estefanía; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Sordo, Luis; Cruz, Israel; Moreno, Javier; Nieto, Javier; Chicharro, Carmen; Aseffa, Abraham; Abraham, Zelalem; Hailu, Tsegaye; Cañavate, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Background In northern Ethiopia the prevalence of visceral leishmaniasis is steadily rising posing an increasing public health concern. In order to develop effective control strategies on the transmission of the disease it is important to generate knowledge on the epidemiological determinants of the infection. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a cross-sectional survey on children 4–15 years of age using a multi staged stratified cluster sampling on high incidence sub-districts of Amhara regional state, Ethiopia. The survey included a socio-demographic, health and dietary questionnaire, and anthropometric measurements. We performed rK39-ICT and DAT serological tests in order to detect anti-Leishmania antibodies and carried out Leishmanin Skin Test (LST) using L.major antigen. Logistic regression models were used. Of the 565 children surveyed 56 children were positive to infection (9.9%). The individual variables that showed a positive association with infection were increasing age, being male and sleeping outside [adjusted odds ratios (95% CI): 1.15 (1.03, 1.29), 2.56 (1.19, 5.48) and 2.21 (1.03, 4.71) respectively] and in relation to the household: past history of VL in the family, living in a straw roofed house and if the family owned sheep [adjusted OR (95% CI): 2.92 (1.25, 6.81), 2.71 (1.21, 6.07) and 4.16 (1.41, 12.31) respectively]. Conclusions/Significance A behavioural pattern like sleeping outside is determinant in the transmission of the infection in this area. Protective measures should be implemented against this identified risk activity. Results also suggest a geographical clustering and a household focalization of the infection. The behaviour of the vector in the area needs to be clarified in order to establish the role of domestic animals and house materials in the transmission of the infection. PMID:23029576

  2. A Cross-Sectional Survey of Knowledge, Attitude and Practices Related to Cutaneous Leishmaniasis and Sand Flies in Punjab, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Akram, Ayesha; Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Qadir, Abdul; Sabir, Arshad Makhdoom

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent outbreaks of cutaneous leishmaniasis make the disease a public health concern in Punjab, Pakistan. The knowledge of how the population perceives the disease and its vector is essential in order to design an effective management strategy, but such studies are rare in Pakistan. Methodology/Principal Findings The present study was based on a cross-sectional self-administered survey comprising 250 household samples collected from five localities including Bhawalpur, Multan, Jhang, Faisalabad and Lahore. The results revealed that the respondents had a poor knowledge of the vector and disease. Few of the respondents were aware about the identification of sand flies, their breeding place, biting time, transmission of leishmaniasis and control measures. Skin infection and sandflies as the main disease symptom and vector of the disease, respectively, were known to some of the respondents. Some believed that summer was the main peak incidence of the disease and it could be transmitted from man to man via contact. However, most of the respondents believed that the disease could be cured. Admission to hospitals, cleanliness and use of bed nets were the treatment measures for the disease in suspected patients, whereas some thought that the use of bed nets could be helpful in preventing leishmaniasis infection. Conclusions/Significance Poor knowledge of the disease and its vector in the study population emphasize the need to initiate health education and awareness campaigns to minimize the risks of cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreaks in the future. PMID:26090870

  3. Determinants of caregivers’ vaccination intention with respect to child age group: a cross-sectional survey in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Shin, Kyung-Ah; Park, Kisoo

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study examined how knowledge, risk perception, health beliefs and multidimensional health locus of control (HLC) were associated with caregivers’ intention to vaccinate their child, and how these associations varied across child age groups. Setting South Korea. Methods The cross-sectional survey was conducted via a face-to-face interview among 1017 nationally representative caregivers who had children aged 12 or younger. The outcome variable was caregivers’ intention to vaccinate their children. Results Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that risk perception was negatively associated with vaccination intention only among the age group 4–6 (β=−0.127, p<0.05). Perceived benefit was the only significant predictor of the outcome variables for all three age groups. In contrast, perceived barrier was negatively related to vaccination intention only among the age group 7–12 (β=−0.104, p<0.05). Internal HLC was positively related to vaccination intention only among the age group 7–12 (β=0.151, p<0.001), while chance HLC was negatively related to vaccination intention only among the age group 0–3 (β=−0.121, p<0.05). Conclusions This study identifies key vaccination intention determinants that are differentially associated with caregivers’ children's age groups. To improve vaccination rates, it suggests the need for strategies tailored to children's age. PMID:26408283

  4. Mediational Effects of Self-Efficacy Dimensions in the Relationship between Knowledge of Dengue and Dengue Preventive Behaviour with Respect to Control of Dengue Outbreaks: A Structural Equation Model of a Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Isa, Affendi; Loke, Yoon K.; Smith, Jane R.; Papageorgiou, Alexia; Hunter, Paul R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Dengue fever is endemic in Malaysia, with frequent major outbreaks in urban areas. The major control strategy relies on health promotional campaigns aimed at encouraging people to reduce mosquito breeding sites close to people's homes. However, such campaigns have not always been 100% effective. The concept of self-efficacy is an area of increasing research interest in understanding how health promotion can be most effective. This paper reports on a study of the impact of self-efficacy on dengue knowledge and dengue preventive behaviour. Methods and Findings We recruited 280 adults from 27 post-outbreak villages in the state of Terengganu, east coast of Malaysia. Measures of health promotion and educational intervention activities and types of communication during outbreak, level of dengue knowledge, level and strength of self-efficacy and dengue preventive behaviour were obtained via face-to-face interviews and questionnaires. A structural equation model was tested and fitted the data well (χ2 = 71.659, df = 40, p = 0.002, RMSEA = 0.053, CFI = 0.973, TLI = 0.963). Mass media, local contact and direct information-giving sessions significantly predicted level of knowledge of dengue. Level and strength of self-efficacy fully mediated the relationship between knowledge of dengue and dengue preventive behaviours. Strength of self-efficacy acted as partial mediator in the relationship between knowledge of dengue and dengue preventive behaviours. Conclusions To control and prevent dengue outbreaks by behavioural measures, health promotion and educational interventions during outbreaks should now focus on those approaches that are most likely to increase the level and strength of self-efficacy. PMID:24086777

  5. Oral Hygiene Status of Institutionalised Dependent Elderly in India – a Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Khanagar, Sanjeev; Naganandini, S.; Rajanna, Vasuda; Naik, Sachin; Rao, Rekha; Madhuniranjanswamy, M S

    2015-01-01

    Background/Introduction For various reasons, the care demand from elderly people is low and difficult to determine, whereas their oral hygiene status would need urgent care. Objective To assess the oral hygiene status of institutionalized dependent elderly in Bangalore City, India. Methods A cross-sectional study of 322 dependent elderly patients was conducted at seven elderly homes of Bangalore City, India. The oral hygiene status recorded includes dental and prosthetic hygiene. Results The mean Debris Index and Plaque Index scores of dentate elderly were 2.87±0.22 and 3.17±0.40, respectively, the mean Denture Plaque and Denture Stomatitis scores were 3.15±0.47 and 1.43±0.68, respectively. Conclusion The dental hygiene was inadequate. This study emphasizes the care demand and the need for help in oral hygiene procedures for the dependent institutionalized elderly. PMID:26180560

  6. A Cross Sectional, Observational Survey to Assess Levels and Predictors of Psychological Wellbeing in Adults with Epidermolysis Bullosa

    PubMed Central

    Dures, Emma; Rumsey, Nichola; Morris, Marianne; Gleeson, Kate

    2013-01-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) describes a cluster of genetically determined skin disorders. Symptoms can be painful, disabling and disfiguring, yet there is little research on the psychological impact of the disease. The study aim was to measure psychological wellbeing in adults with EB; and to examine the association between psychological wellbeing and self efficacy, health locus of control and adjustment to appearance in an observational, cross sectional survey. Questionnaire packs comprising the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), the General Self Efficacy Scale (GSE), the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale (MHLOC), and the Derriford Appearance Scale (DAS-24), were sent to approximately 385 adults with EB. The data were analysed using SPSS. Eighty-seven participants responded. Scores on the GHQ-12 showed non-problematic psychological health in 36% of the sample; levels bordering on clinical disorder in 32.1% and severe psychological distress in 31.9%. No correlations were found between demographic factors (age and sex) or clinical factors (EB type and perceived severity) and psychological well-being. Scores on the GSE, the internal locus of control sub-scale of the MHLOC and the DAS-24 showed them to be statistically significant correlates of psychological wellbeing (P<0.001; P<0.018; and P<0.001 respectively). In a regression analysis, adjustment to appearance and self efficacy accounted for 24% of the variation in psychological wellbeing. Adults with EB might be at risk of experiencing poor psychological health. Interventions designed to enhance disease self management, self efficacy and improve body image are likely to be beneficial in this clinical group. PMID:26973893

  7. Malaria baseline survey in four special regions of northern Myanmar near China: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidemiological data in the border area of the northern Myanmar near China are either of little accuracy or sparse of information, due to the poor public health system in these areas, and malaria cases may be severely underestimated. This study aimed to investigate malaria prevalence and health facilities for malaria services, and to provide the baseline information for malaria control in these areas. Methods A cluster, randomized, cross-sectional survey was conducted in four special regions of northern Myanmar, near China: 5,585 people were selected for a malaria prevalence survey and 1,618 households were selected for a mosquito net-owning survey. Meanwhile, a total of 97 health facilities were surveyed on their malaria services. The data were analysed and descriptive statistics were used. Results A total of 761 people were found positive through microscopy test, including 290 people for Plasmodium falciparum, 460 for Plasmodium vivax, two for Plasmodium malariae, and nine for mixed infection. The average prevalence of malaria infection was 13.6% (95% CI: 12.7-14.6%). There were significant differences of prevalence of malaria infection among the different regions (P < 0.01); 38.1% (95% CI: 28.3-48.0%) of health facilities had malaria microscope examination service, and 35.1% (95% CI: 25.4-44.7%) of these had malaria treatment services, 23.7% (95% CI: 15.1-32.3%) had malaria outreach services. 28.3% (95% CI: 26.1-30.6%) of households owned one or more long-lasting insecticidal bed nets (LLINs). Conclusion The prevalence of malaria infection was high in the four special regions of northern Myanmar, near China. Malaria services in health facilities in these areas were weak. ITNs/LLINs owning rate was also low. The cross-border cooperation mechanism should be further strengthened to share the epidemical data about malaria, support technical assistance, and conduct joint malaria control or elimination activities. PMID:25098412

  8. Control of Flow Structure in Square Cross-Sectioned U Bend using Numerical Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yavuz, Mehmet Metin; Guden, Yigitcan

    2014-11-01

    Due to the curvature in U-bends, the flow development involves complex flow structures including Dean vortices and high levels of turbulence that are quite critical in considering noise problems and structural failure of the ducts. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models are developed using ANSYS Fluent to analyze and to control the flow structure in a square cross-sectioned U-bend with a radius of curvature Rc/D = 0.65. The predictions of velocity profiles on different angular positions of the U-bend are compared against the experimental results available in the literature and the previous numerical studies. The performances of different turbulence models are evaluated to propose the best numerical approach that has high accuracy with reduced computation time. The numerical results of the present study indicate improvements with respect to the previous numerical predictions and very good agreement with the available experimental results. In addition, a flow control technique is utilized to regulate the flow inside the bend. The elimination of Dean vortices along with significant reduction in turbulence levels in different cross flow planes are successfully achieved when the flow control technique is applied. The project is supported by Meteksan Defense Industries, Inc.

  9. Evidence base for an intervention to maximise uptake of glaucoma testing: a theory-based cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Prior, Maria; Burr, Jennifer M; Ramsay, Craig R; Jenkinson, David; Campbell, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify factors associated with intention to attend a hypothetical eye health test and provide an evidence base for developing an intervention to maximise attendance, for use in studies evaluating glaucoma screening programmes. Design Theory-based cross-sectional survey, based on an extended Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) and the Common Sense Self-Regulation Model, conducted in June 2010. Participants General population including oversampling from low socioeconomic areas. Setting Aberdeenshire and the London Boroughs of Lewisham and Southwark, UK. Results From 867 questionnaires posted, 327 completed questionnaires were returned (38%). In hierarchical regression analysis, the three theoretical predictors in the TPB (Attitude, Subjective norm and Perceived Behavioural Control) accounted for two-thirds of the variance in intention scores (adjusted R2=0.65). All three predictors contributed significantly to prediction. Adding ‘Anticipated regret’ as a factor in the TPB model resulted in a significant increase in prediction (adjusted R2=0.74). In the Common Sense Self-Regulation Model, only illness representations about the personal consequences of glaucoma (How much do you think glaucoma would affect your life?) and illness concern (How concerned are you about getting glaucoma?) significantly predicted. The final model explained 75% of the variance in intention scores, with ethnicity significantly contributing to prediction. Conclusions In this population-based sample (including over-representation of lower socioeconomic groupings), the main predictors of intention to attend a hypothetical eye health test were Attitude, Perceived control over attendance, Anticipated regret if did not attend and black ethnicity. This evidence informs the design of a behavioural intervention with intervention components targeting low intentions and predicted to influence health-related behaviours. PMID:22382121

  10. Knowledge and Attitude of Nigerian Pregnant Women towards Antenatal Exercise: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Mbada, Chidozie E.; Adebayo, Olubukayomi E.; Adeyemi, Adebanjo B.; Arije, Olujide O.; Dada, Olumide O.; Akinwande, Olabisi A.; Awotidebe, Taofeek O.; Alonge, Ibidun A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Engagement in physical exercise in pregnancy is hamstrung by safety concerns, skepticism about usefulness, and limited individualized prescription guidelines. This study assessed knowledge and attitude of pregnant women towards antenatal exercises (ANEx). Methods. The cross-sectional study recruited 189 pregnant women from six selected antenatal clinics in Ile-Ife, South-West, Nigeria. Data were obtained on maternal characteristics, knowledge, and attitude towards ANEx. Results. Relaxation and breathing (59.8%), back care (51.3%), and muscle strengthening (51.3%) exercises were the most commonly known ANEx. Prevention of back pain risk (75.9%) and excess weight gain (69.1%) were perceived as benefits, while lower extremities swelling (31.8%) and extreme weight gain or loss (30.7%) were considered as contraindications to ANEx. 15.8% of the respondents had negative attitude towards ANEx resulting from insufficient information on exercise (83.3%) and tiredness (70.0%). Age significantly influences knowledge about contraindications to ANEx (P = 0.001), while attitude was influenced by age and occupation, respectively (P < 0.05). There was significant association between attitude and knowledge about benefits and contraindications to ANEx (P < 0.05). Conclusion. A majority of Nigerian pregnant women demonstrated inadequate knowledge but had positive attitude towards ANEx. Knowledge about benefits and contraindications to ANEx significantly influenced the attitude towards exercise in pregnancy. PMID:25006478

  11. Hepatitis B surface antigen prevalence in pregnant women: A cross-sectional survey in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Shoghli, Alireza; Nabavi, Seyed Mahmood; Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Kolifarhood, Goodarz; Goya, Mohammad Mehdi; Namazi, Roshanak; Fallahnezhad, Mojtaba; Mohajeri, Mansor; Mousavinasab, Nouraldin; Zanjani, Rahim Sorouri; Saeini, Mohammad Reza; Jalilvand, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Vertical transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) from infected mothers to their neonates is one of the most important routes of infection. The exact prevalence rate of HBV in Iranian pregnant mothers is not well known but based on different studies it is estimated between 0.35% and 6.5%. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in pregnant women of selected provinces in Iran. Methods: At this cross-sectional study, seven provinces supposed to be of high and low prevalence of hepatitis B in the general population selected. Multistage sampling was used to enroll 5261 parturient women who attended the target provinces birth facilities, during January to March of 2011, were recruited to study. To determine the statistically significant mean and proportion differences, t-test and χ2 test were used, respectively. Results: Overall 1.2% was positive HBsAg of which 11% of them were hepatitis B e-antigen positive as well. The eastern and north eastern provinces were considerably higher in HBsAg seropositivity than the west and northwest of the country. Conclusions: In view of the considerable prevalence of hepatitis B in pregnant women, screening all pregnant women prioritizing the eastern and north-eastern provinces is strongly recommended. PMID:26622992

  12. Knowledge, attitudes, and breast feeding practices of postnatal mothers: A cross sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Vijayalakshmi, Poreddi; Susheela, T; Mythili, D

    2015-01-01

    Background Breast feeding has several benefits for both the infants and mothers. However, despite strong evidences in support of breast feeding its prevalence has remained low worldwide. The objective of the present study was to examine the knowledge and attitude towards breast feeding and infant feeding practices among Indian postnatal mothers. Methodology A cross sectional descriptive study was carried out among randomly selected postnatal mothers at Pediatric outpatient department at a tertiary care center. Data was collected through face-to-face interview using a structured questionnaire. Results Our findings revealed that a majority (88.5%) of the mothers were breast feeders. However, merely 27% of the mothers were exclusive breast feeders and only 36.9% initiated breast feeding within an hour. While mothers have good knowledge on breast feeding (12.05±1.74, M±SD), the average score of the Iowa Infant Feeding Scale (IIFAS) (58.77±4.74, M ±SD) indicate neutral attitudes toward breast feeding. Mothers those who were currently breast feeding (58.83 ± 4.74) had more positive attitudes than non- breastfeed mothers (45.21±5.22). Conclusion Our findings also show that the level of exclusive breast-feeding was low. Thus, it is important to provide prenatal education to mothers and fathers on breast-feeding. We also recommend strengthening the public health education campaigns to promote breast-feeding. PMID:26715916

  13. A cross-sectional survey of the effect on emerging adults living with a depressed parent.

    PubMed

    Mechling, B M

    2015-10-01

    A parent who is depressed is physically present, but may be psychologically absent, or different to their children. Changes in the parent-child relationship, feelings of loss, and increased stress can occur for the child. These factors can impair psychosocial well-being throughout the child's upbringing, and the effects might impact that child the most in their transition to adulthood. The aim of this exploratory study was to examine factors experienced while growing up with a depressed parent that might contribute to the current psychosocial well-being of emerging adults (individuals between the ages of 18 and 25) using ambiguous loss theory as a theoretical lens. A cross-sectional, correlational design with multiple regression analysis was used to examine relationships between emerging adults' (n = 120) perceptions of retrospective duration and understanding of parent's depression, caregiving, stress, social support, hope, and boundary ambiguity and current psychosocial well-being. Experiencing hope, stress, and then the length of parent's depression during their upbringing were the most predictive variables for emerging adult psychosocial well-being. Findings from this study will help mental health professionals better understand factors contributing to outcomes for this population. The knowledge to be gained is important for developing or refining age and developmentally appropriate interventions aimed at improving outcomes of adult children of depressed parents. PMID:26148684

  14. Retirement on grounds of ill health: cross sectional survey in six organisations in United Kingdom.

    PubMed Central

    Poole, C. J.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the process and outcome of retirement due to ill health in six large organisations. DESIGN: Cross sectional study of the rate of retirement due to ill health by age, sex, and length of service. Principal diagnoses by age and length of service were also compared. SETTING: Four public and two private large employers in the United Kingdom. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rates of retirement on the grounds of ill health by age, sex, and length of service of employees contributing to pension schemes. RESULTS: Rates of ill health retirement varied from 20 to 250 per 10,000 contributing members, and in two organisations the rate varied geographically within the same organisation. In the two organisations that provided data by sex, women retired at a greater rate than men under age 40 and over age 50. In four organisations the modal age or length of service coincided with enhancements in benefits. In the four that provided information on diagnoses, musculoskeletal and minor psychiatric illnesses were the most common reasons for retirement. CONCLUSION: The granting of ill health retirement benefits may not be determined by illness. There is a need for some employers and pension schemes to improve their processes for granting benefits. Doctors should be wary of conflicts of interest and work to guidelines when they advise pension schemes about the merits of an application for benefits. PMID:9099115

  15. Prevalence and risk factors for COPD in farmers: a cross-sectional controlled study.

    PubMed

    Guillien, Alicia; Puyraveau, Marc; Soumagne, Thibaud; Guillot, Stéphanie; Rannou, Fabrice; Marquette, David; Berger, Patrick; Jouneau, Stéphane; Monnet, Elisabeth; Mauny, Frédéric; Laplante, Jean-Jacques; Dalphin, Jean-Charles; Degano, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    There are conflicting data regarding the magnitude and determinants of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) risk in farmers.In a cross-sectional study of 917 nonfarming working controls and 3787 farmers aged 40-75 years, we assessed respiratory symptoms, tobacco exposure, job history (without direct exposure measurement) and lung function. COPD was defined by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criterion (post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) <0.70) and by the Quanjer reference equation (post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC controls, respectively (p=0.005), and 3.1% (2.5-3.6%) and 1.5% (0.7-2.3%), respectively, for the LLN criterion (p<0.01). For both COPD criteria after adjustment for age, sex and smoking status, COPD prevalence was similar in controls and crop farmers. Compared to controls, four job categories had a higher prevalence of COPD according to the GOLD criterion, namely, cattle breeders, swine breeders, poultry breeders and breeders of two or more livestock types. Among cattle breeders, only those from Franche-Comté had higher prevalence of COPD according to both GOLD and LLN criteria.The prevalence of COPD in farmers is higher than in nonfarming working controls, and depends on the farming activity, the region and the criterion used to define COPD. PMID:26453630

  16. Determinants of Salivary Cotinine among Smokeless Tobacco Users: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Huque, Rumana; Shah, Sarwat; Mushtaq, Nasir; Siddiqi, Kamran

    2016-01-01

    Introduction More than 80% of all smokeless tobacco (ST) products in the world are consumed in South Asia; yet little is known about their consumption behaviour, addictiveness, and toxic properties. This paper, for the first time, describes associations between salivary cotinine concentrations among ST users in Bangladesh and their socio-demographic characteristics and tobacco use behaviours. Methods In a survey of ST users in Dhaka, Bangladesh, we purposively recruited 200 adults who were non-smokers but consumed ST on a regular basis. In-person interviews were conducted to obtain information about socio-demographic and ST use behaviours, and saliva samples were collected to measure cotinine concentration. Simple and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to test associations between the log transformed salivary cotinine concentration and other study variables. Results The geometric mean of cotinine concentration among ST users was 380ng/ml (GSD:2). Total duration of daily ST use in months had a statistically significant association with cotinine concentration. Other ST use characteristics including type and quantity of ST use, swallowing of tobacco juice, urges and strength of urges and attempts to cut down on tobacco use were not found to be associated with cotinine concentration in a multivariable model. Conclusion This is the first report from Bangladesh studying cotinine concentration among ST users and it points towards high levels of addiction. This warrants effective tobacco control policies to help ST cessation and prevention. PMID:27504912

  17. Non-Life Threatening Maternal Morbidity: Cross Sectional Surveys from Malawi and Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Zafar, Shamsa; Jean-Baptiste, Rachel; Rahman, Atif; Neilson, James P.; van den Broek, Nynke R.

    2015-01-01

    Background For more accurate estimation of the global burden of pregnancy associated disease, clarity is needed on definition and assessment of non-severe maternal morbidity. Our study aimed to define maternal morbidity with clear criteria for identification at primary care level and estimate the distribution of and evaluate associations between physical (infective and non-infective) and psychological morbidities in two different low-income countries. Methods Cross sectional study with assessment of morbidity in early pregnancy (34%), late pregnancy (35%) and the postnatal period (31%) among 3459 women from two rural communities in Pakistan (1727) and Malawi (1732). Trained health care providers at primary care level used semi-structured questionnaires documenting signs and symptoms, clinical examination and laboratory tests which were bundled to reflect infectious, non-infectious and psychological morbidity. Results One in 10 women in Malawi and 1 in 5 in Pakistan reported a previous pregnancy complication with 1 in 10 overall reporting a previous neonatal death or stillbirth. In the index pregnancy, 50.1% of women in Malawi and 53% in Pakistan were assessed to have at least one morbidity (infective or non-infective). Both infective (Pakistan) and non-infective morbidity (Pakistan and Malawi) was lower in the postnatal period than during pregnancy. Multiple morbidities were uncommon (<10%). There were marked differences in psychological morbidity: 26.9% of women in Pakistan 2.6% in Malawi had an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Score (EPDS) > 9. Complications during a previous pregnancy, infective morbidity (p <0.001), intra or postpartum haemorrhage (p <0.02) were associated with psychological morbidity in both settings. Conclusions Our findings highlight the need to strengthen the availability and quality of antenatal and postnatal care packages. We propose to adapt and improve the framework and criteria used in this study, ensuring a basic set of diagnostic tests

  18. Association between Menopausal Symptoms and Overactive Bladder: A Cross-Sectional Questionnaire Survey in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lingping; Cheng, Xiaoxia; Sun, Jiaxin; Lv, Shiyi; Mei, Suzhen; Chen, Xing; Xi, Sisi; Zhang, Jin; Yang, Mukun; Bai, Wenpei; Yan, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The association between menopause and overactive bladder is controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between menopausal symptoms and overactive bladder, and identify the risk factors for overactive bladder. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed. The study included 403 women aged 36–76 years who visited the menopause clinic at Peking University First Hospital between September 2012 and December 2013. The overactive bladder symptom score and modified Kupperman index questionnaires were used. Differences were assessed using descriptive statistics to determine any association between the overactive bladder symptom score and modified Kupperman index score, and to evaluate the risk factors for overactive bladder. Results A total of 304 women were finally enrolled. The prevalence of overactive bladder was 9.43%, and the modified Kupperman index score; number of sexual problems; and frequency of urinary tract infections, vertigo, melancholia, and mood swings were significantly higher in patients with overactive bladder than in the patients without overactive bladder (p < 0.05). Menopausal symptoms (modified Kupperman index score ≥ 15) (odds ratio: 1.049, 95% confidence interval: 1.006–1.095, p = 0.025) and a low frequency of sexual intercourse in the last 6 months (odds ratio: 2.580, 95% confidence interval: 1.228–5.422, p = 0.012) were identified as independent risk factors for overactive bladder. The frequency of sexual intercourse was found to decrease with an increase in the severity of overactive bladder (p = 0.004, linear-by-linear association = 0.001). Conclusion Menopausal symptoms may be closely associated with overactive bladder, and sexual activity may be associated with the severity of overactive bladder. Moreover, sexual problems, urinary tract infections, vertigo, melancholia, and mood swings may be associated with overactive bladder. PMID:26448626

  19. Medical Students' Opinions About the Commercialization of Healthcare: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    PubMed

    Civaner, M Murat; Balcioglu, Harun; Vatansever, Kevser

    2016-06-01

    There are serious concerns about the commercialization of healthcare and adoption of the business approach in medicine. As market dynamics endanger established professional values, healthcare workers face more complicated ethical dilemmas in their daily practice. The aim of this study was to investigate the willingness of medical students to accept the assertions of commercialized healthcare and the factors affecting their level of agreement, factors which could influence their moral stance when market demands conflict with professional values. A cross-sectional study was conducted in three medical schools in Turkey. The study population consisted of first-, third-, and sixth-year students, and 1,781 students participated in total. Students were asked to state if they agreed with the assertions of commercialized healthcare. Of all students, 87.2 per cent agreed with at least one of the assertions, and one-fifth (20.8 per cent) of them agreed with more than half of the assertions. First-year students significantly agreed more with some assertions than third- and sixth-year students. Being female, having mid-level family income, choosing medicine due to idealistic reasons, and being in the third or sixth years of medical study increased the probability of disagreement. Also, studying in a medical school that included integrated lectures on health policies, rights related to health, and health inequities, along with early field visits, increased the probability of disagreement. This study suggests that agreement with the assertions of commercialized healthcare might be prevalent among students at a considerable level. We argue that this level of agreement is not compatible with best practice in professional ethics and indicates the need for an educational intervention in order to have physicians who give priority to patients' best interests in the face of market demands. PMID:26781432

  20. Taylor-Couette flow control using the outer cylinder cross-section variation strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oualli, Hamid; Lalaoua, Adel; Hanchi, Samir; Bouabdallah, Ahcene

    2013-01-01

    A numerical study of a controlled flow evolving in a Taylor-Couette system is presented in this paper. The study is devoted to investigate the effect of the outer cylinder cross-section variation on the flow behavior. It is aimed to make assessment of the flow response in terms of the criticality of the early transitional flow regimes and the accompanying flow topology alterations. The numerical simulations are carried out on the Fluent software package for a three-dimensional incompressible flow. The basic system is characterized by a height H = 200 mm, a ratio of the inner to the outer cylinders radii η = 0.9, an aspect ratio corresponding to the cylinders height reported to the gap length Г = 40 and a ratio of the gap to the radius of the inner cylinder δ = 0.1. The numerical deformation of the outer cylinder is executed using the dynamic mesh program according to a predefined function implemented in a homemade program as an UDF (user defined function). It is established that the first instability mode of transition is retarded from Tac1 = 41.33, corresponding to the first Taylor number critical value, to Tac1 = 70 when the deforming amplitude is equal to 15% the external cylinder diameter value. This flow relaminarization process is accompanied by substantial modifications in the flow behavior and configuration.

  1. A cross-sectional survey of depression, anxiety, and cognitive function in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Trento, M; Raballo, M; Trevisan, M; Sicuro, J; Passera, P; Cirio, L; Charrier, L; Cavallo, F; Porta, M

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of depression in outpatients with type 2 diabetes and its possible correlation with anxiety, cognitive function, and clinical variables. The Zung Self-Rating Depression and Anxiety Scales and the Mini-Mental-State Examination were administered to 249 non-insulin-treated (NIT) and 249 insulin-treated (IT) outpatients with type 2 diabetes, aged 40-80, in a cross-sectional survey. Compared with a reported prevalence of 6-13% in the general population, 104 (20.9%) patients had either a score indicative of depression or were on anti-depressant medication. Assuming that medication might modify the responses to questionnaires, the latter patients were excluded from further analysis. IT patients had higher age, known duration of diabetes, HbA1c, more foot ulcers, retinopathy, microalbuminuria and practised more self-monitoring of blood glucose (P < 0.01 all) but a slightly lower mean depression score (P = 0.004) and similar anxiety or cognitive function. At multivariate analysis, depression was associated with anxiety (P < 0.001), age (P < 0.001), gender (men having lower scores than women, P = 0.042), and insulin treatment, IT patients being less depressed than NIT (P < 0.001), but none of the clinical variables. Anxiety correlated with age (P < 0.001). The association between depression and anxiety became progressively weaker with increasing age. These data confirm increased prevalence of depression in a population of patients with type 2 diabetes who did not show impaired cognitive function. The lack of correlation with disease duration, metabolic control, and complications suggests that depression may not appear/worsen with diabetes and/or its complications but rather supports suggestions that it might predate both. PMID:21442429

  2. Spread of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in Myanmar: a cross-sectional survey of the K13 molecular marker

    PubMed Central

    Tun, Kyaw M; Imwong, Mallika; Lwin, Khin M; Win, Aye A; Hlaing, Tin M; Hlaing, Thaung; Lin, Khin; Kyaw, Myat P; Plewes, Katherine; Faiz, M Abul; Dhorda, Mehul; Cheah, Phaik Yeong; Pukrittayakamee, Sasithon; Ashley, Elizabeth A; Anderson, Tim J C; Nair, Shalini; McDew-White, Marina; Flegg, Jennifer A; Grist, Eric P M; Guerin, Philippe; Maude, Richard J; Smithuis, Frank; Dondorp, Arjen M; Day, Nicholas P J; Nosten, François; White, Nicholas J; Woodrow, Charles J

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Emergence of artemisinin resistance in southeast Asia poses a serious threat to the global control of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Discovery of the K13 marker has transformed approaches to the monitoring of artemisinin resistance, allowing introduction of molecular surveillance in remote areas through analysis of DNA. We aimed to assess the spread of artemisinin-resistant P falciparum in Myanmar by determining the relative prevalence of P falciparum parasites carrying K13-propeller mutations. Methods We did this cross-sectional survey at malaria treatment centres at 55 sites in ten administrative regions in Myanmar, and in relevant border regions in Thailand and Bangladesh, between January, 2013, and September, 2014. K13 sequences from P falciparum infections were obtained mainly by passive case detection. We entered data into two geostatistical models to produce predictive maps of the estimated prevalence of mutations of the K13 propeller region across Myanmar. Findings Overall, 371 (39%) of 940 samples carried a K13-propeller mutation. We recorded 26 different mutations, including nine mutations not described previously in southeast Asia. In seven (70%) of the ten administrative regions of Myanmar, the combined K13-mutation prevalence was more than 20%. Geospatial mapping showed that the overall prevalence of K13 mutations exceeded 10% in much of the east and north of the country. In Homalin, Sagaing Region, 25 km from the Indian border, 21 (47%) of 45 parasite samples carried K13-propeller mutations. Interpretation Artemisinin resistance extends across much of Myanmar. We recorded P falciparum parasites carrying K13-propeller mutations at high prevalence next to the northwestern border with India. Appropriate therapeutic regimens should be tested urgently and implemented comprehensively if spread of artemisinin resistance to other regions is to be avoided. Funding Wellcome Trust–Mahidol University–Oxford Tropical Medicine Research

  3. Duration of unemployment and depression: a cross-sectional survey in Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Stankunas, Mindaugas; Kalediene, Ramune; Starkuviene, Skirmante; Kapustinskiene, Violeta

    2006-01-01

    Background In spite of a growing economy, unemployment is still a severe socio-economic problem in Lithuania. Nonetheless, no studies have been performed about the associations between unemployment and mental health in Lithuania. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between unemployment duration and depression in Lithuania. Methods The data was collected in a cross-sectional study in 2005. There were 429 filled-in questionnaires received (53.6% response rate) from unemployed persons registered with the Kaunas Labour Market Office. The severity of depression symptoms was evaluated using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Logistic regression was used to estimate the risk factors for occurrence of depression. Sex, age, place of residence, marital status, education, income and practiced religion were the independent variables. Long-term unemployment was defined as lasting a duration of 12 months or more. Results The findings showed that long-term unemployed persons had more episodes of a depressive mood in the past 12 months in comparison with the group of the short-term unemployed. In addition, the BDI score mean was higher among the long-term unemployed compared with the short-term unemployed (10.1 ± 8.8 and 14.2 ± 9.5 respectively, p < 0.001). It was estimated that the duration of unemployment and BDI score had a positive correlation (r = 0.1968, p < 0.001). Among the short-term unemployed, the risk of depression increased significantly when the person was female, had an older age and had experienced more episodes of unemployment. Among the long-term unemployed, an older age was the risk factor for development of depression. However, higher education and income were the factors that significantly decreased the risk of developing depression for-short term as well as for long-term unemployed. Conclusion The results indicated that depression is a severe problem in the unemployed population. Depression is more elevated among the long

  4. Use of complementary and alternative medicine by older adults – a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Very little is known about complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use by older adults in Germany. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of CAM and other health promoting substances (e.g., herbal teas) by older adults of at least 70 years of age. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted among persons of ≥70 years from metropolitan Berlin and rural parts of Brandenburg, Germany. Recorded were: demographics, current use of CAM, medical diagnoses, users’ opinions and preferences. Results A total of 400 older adults, living as ‘self-reliant’ (n = 154), ‘home care service user’ (n = 97), or ‘in nursing home’ (n = 149), and with the legal status ‘without guardian’ (n = 355) or ‘with guardian’ (n = 45) were included (mean age 81.8 ± 7.4 years, 78.5% female). Any type of CAM used 61.3% of respondents (dietary supplements 35.5%, herbal medicines 33.3%, and external preparations 26.8%); 3.0% used drug-interaction causing preparations. Usage was based on recommendations (total 30.3%; in 20.0% by friends or family and 10.4% by pharmacists), own initiative (27.3%), and doctors’ prescription (25.8%). Participants with legal guardian took almost solely prescribed dietary supplements. Of the others, only half (58.7%) informed their general practitioner (GP) of their CAM use. Participants expected significant (44.9%) or moderate (37.1%) improvement; half of them perceived a good effect (58.7%) and two-thirds (64.9%) generally preferred a combination of CAM and conventional medicine. More than half (57.9%) stated that they could neither assess whether their CAM preparations have side effects, nor assess what the side effects might be. Strongest predictors for CAM use were two treatment preferences (vs. ‘conventional only’: ‘CAM only’, OR = 3.98, p = 0.0042 and ‘CAM + conventional’, 3.02, 0.0028) and the type of health insurance (‘statutory’ vs. ‘private’, 3.57, 0.0356); against CAM use two

  5. Practice patterns of doctors of chiropractic with a pediatric diplomate: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is growing in popularity, especially within the pediatric population. Research on CAM practitioners and their specialties, such as pediatrics, is lacking. Within the chiropractic profession, pediatrics is one of the most recently established post-graduate specialty programs. This paper describes the demographic and practice characteristics of doctors of chiropractic with a pediatric diplomate. Methods 218 chiropractors with a pediatric diplomate were invited to complete our survey using either web-based or mailed paper survey methods. Practitioner demographics, practice characteristics, treatment procedures, referral patterns, and patient characteristics were queried with a survey created with the online survey tool, SurveyMonkey©®. Results A total of 135 chiropractors responded (62.2% response rate); they were predominantly female (74%) and white (93%). Techniques most commonly used were Diversified, Activator ®, and Thompson with the addition of cranial and extremity manipulation to their chiropractic treatments. Adjunctive therapies commonly provided to patients included recommendations for activities of daily living, corrective or therapeutic exercise, ice pack\\cryotherapy, and nutritional counseling. Thirty eight percent of respondents' patients were private pay and 23% had private insurance that was not managed care. Pediatrics represented 31% of the survey respondents' patients. Chiropractors also reported 63% of their work time devoted to direct patient care. Health conditions reportedly treated within the pediatric population included back or neck pain, asthma, birth trauma, colic, constipation, ear infection, head or chest cold, and upper respiratory infections. Referrals made to or from these chiropractors were uncommon. Conclusions This mixed mode survey identified similarities and differences between doctors of chiropractic with a pediatric diplomate to other surveys of doctors of chiropractic

  6. Reproductive and sexual health in the Maldives: analysis of data from two cross-sectional surveys

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Maldives faces challenges in the provision of health services to its population scattered across many small islands. The government commissioned two separate reproductive health surveys, in 1999 and 2004, to inform their efforts to improve reproductive and sexual health services. Methods A stratified random sample of islands provided the study base for a cluster survey in 1999 and a follow-up of the same clusters in 2004. In 1999 the household survey enquired about relevant knowledge, attitudes and practices and views and experience of available reproductive health services, with a focus on women aged 15-49 years. The 2004 household survey included some of the same questions as in 1999, and also sought views of men aged 15-64 years. A separate survey about sexual and reproductive health covered 1141 unmarried youth aged 15-24 years. Results There were 4087 household respondents in 1999 and 4102 in 2004. The contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) for modern methods was 33% in 1999 and 34% in 2004. Antenatal care improved: more women in 2004 than in 1999 had at least four antenatal care visits (90.0% v 65.1%) and took iron supplements (86.7% v 49.6%) during their last pregnancy. The response rate for the youth survey was only 42% (varying from 100% in some islands to 12% in sites in the capital). The youth respondents had some knowledge gaps (one third did not know if people with HIV could look healthy and less than half thought condoms could protect against HIV), and some unhelpful attitudes about gender and reproductive health. Conclusions The two household surveys were commissioned as separate entities, with different priorities and data capture methods, rather than being undertaken as a specific research study. The direct comparisons we could make indicated an unchanged CPR and improvements in antenatal care, with the Maldives ahead of the South Asia region for antenatal care. The low response rate in the youth survey limited interpretation of the

  7. Secular trend in the occurrence of asthma among children and young adults: critical appraisal of repeated cross sectional surveys.

    PubMed Central

    Magnus, P.; Jaakkola, J. J.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To review repeated surveys of the rising prevalence of obstructive lung disease among children and young adults and determine whether systematic biases may explain the observed trends. DESIGN: Review of published reports of repeated cross sectional surveys of asthma and wheezing among children and young adults. The repeated surveys used the same sampling frame, the same definition of outcome variables, and equivalent data collection methods. SETTING: Repeated surveys conducted anywhere in the world. SUBJECTS: All repeated surveys whose last set of results were published in 1983 or later. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Lifetime and current prevalences of asthma and current prevalence of wheezing. The absolute increase (yearly percentage) in the prevalences of asthma and wheezing was calculated and compared between studies. RESULTS: 16 repeated surveys fulfilled the inclusion criteria. 12 reported increases in the current prevalence of asthma (from 0.09% to 0.97% a year) and eight reported increases in the current prevalence of wheezing (from 0.14% to 1.24% a year). Changes in labelling are likely to have occurred for the reporting of asthma, and information biases may have occurred for the reporting of wheezing. Only one study reported an increase in an objective measurement. CONCLUSIONS: The evidence for increased prevalences of asthma and wheezing is weak because the measures used are susceptible to systematic errors. Until repeated surveys incorporating more objective data are available no firm conclusions about increases in obstructive lung disease among children and young adults can be drawn. PMID:9224081

  8. AN INCREASE IN RISK FACTORS FOR CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE IN YOGYAKARTA, INDONESIA: A COMPARISON OF TWO CROSS-SECTIONAL SURVEYS.

    PubMed

    Dewi, F S T; Stenlund, H; Hakimi, M; Weinehall, L

    2015-07-01

    This paper aims to describe changes in risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) over a five year period in urban Indonesia. In 2004 (n = 3,205) and 2009 (n = 2,467) we conducted cross-sectional surveys of residents in Yogjakarta City, Indonesia evaluating risk factors for CVD. Smoking habits, fruit and vegetable intake, physical activity, blood pressure, weight, and height were recorded. The results of these 2 surveys conducted 5 years apart were then compared. The risk for having a CVD event was also calculated. Behavioral CVD risk factors were more common among men. The predicted risk of having a CVD event increased from 8.4% to 11.3% among men between 2004 and 2009. Effective measures need to be taken to change these behaviors among men in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. PMID:26867398

  9. Residential exposure to volatile organic compounds and lung function: results from a population-based cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Cakmak, Sabit; Dales, Robert E; Liu, Ling; Kauri, Lisa Marie; Lemieux, Christine L; Hebbern, Christopher; Zhu, Jiping

    2014-11-01

    Exposure to residential volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is ubiquitous in homes, and may influence respiratory health with important public health implications. To investigate the association between VOCs measured in residential indoor air and lung function in the Canadian population Cycle 2 of the Canadian Health Measures Survey - a population based cross-sectional survey designed to be representative of the Canadian population - was carried out between 2009 and 2011. Of the 84 VOCs measured, 47 were detectable in at least 50% of homes and ten were negatively associated with lung function: decanal, 2-furancarboxaldehyde, hexanal, nonanal, octanal, benzene, styrene, α-pinene, 2-methyl-1,2-butadiene and naphthalene. Differences were observed between males and females, as well as by age, and significant associations were most frequent in those under 17 years. These results provide evidence that some VOCs measured indoors are negatively associated with lung function in the Canadian population. PMID:25108490

  10. Household food insecurity and diet diversity after the major 2010 landslide disaster in Eastern Uganda: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Rukundo, Peter M; Andreassen, Bård A; Kikafunda, Joyce; Rukooko, Byaruhanga; Oshaug, Arne; Iversen, Per Ole

    2016-02-28

    In 2010, a landslide in Bududa, Eastern Uganda, killed about 350 people and nearly 1000 affected households were resettled in Kiryandongo, Western Uganda. A cross-sectional survey assessed household food insecurity and diet diversity among 1078 affected and controls. In Bududa, the affected had a lower adjusted mean score of food insecurity than controls - 9·2 (se 0·4) v. 12·3 (se 0·4) (P<0·01)--but higher diet diversity score (DDS) - 7·1 (se 0·1) v. 5·9 (se 0·1) (P<0·01). On controlling for disaster and covariates, recipients of relief food had higher food insecurity - 12·0 (se 0·6) v. 10·4 (se 0·3) (P=0·02)--whereas farmers had higher DDS - 6·6 (se 0·2) v. 5·6 (se 0·3) (P<0·01). Household size increased the likelihood of food insecurity (OR 1·15; 95% CI 1·00, 1·32; P<0·05) but reduced DDS (OR 0·93; 95% CI 0·87, <1·00; P=0·04). Low DDS was more likely in disaster affected (OR 4·22; 95% CI 2·65, 6·72; P<0·01) and farmers (OR 2·52; 95% CI 1·37, 4·64; P<0·01). In Kiryandongo, affected households had higher food insecurity - 12·3 (se 0·8) v. 2·6 (se 0·8) (P<0·01)--but lower DDS - 5·8 (se 0·3) v. 7·0 (se 0·3) (P=0·02). The latter reduced with increased age (OR 0·99; 95% CI 0·97, 1·00; P<0·05), lowest education (OR 0·54; 95% CI 0·31, 0·93; P=0·03), farmers (OR 0·59; 95 % CI 0·35, 0·98; P=0·04) and asset ownership (OR 0·56; 95% CI 0·39, 0·81; P<0·01). Addressing social protection could mitigate food insecurity. PMID:26777212

  11. Characteristics of Academic Health Departments: Initial Findings from a Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Erwin, Paul Campbell; Barlow, Patrick; Brownson, Ross C.; Amos, Kathleen; Keck, C. William

    2016-01-01

    Academic Health Departments (AHDs) represent collaborative relationships between public health academia and practice. The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of AHD characteristics, to document the extent of collaboration between organizations in an AHD, and to explore the benefits of AHDs. An electronic survey on the AHD was sent to members of the Academic Health Department Learning Community – a virtual learning community with 338 members. There were 110 valid responses to the survey, with 65 indicating they were currently in an AHD partnership. Thirty-two percent of AHDs had been established > 10 years; 64% were engaged in joint research activities; and, while 92% of respondents placed a high value on improving the competencies of students, almost half placed a high value on improving the competencies of faculty. This study can be a springboard for further research on the impact of AHDs on practice, academia, and ultimately community health. PMID:25668013

  12. The Italian cross-sectional survey of the management of bone metastasis: ZeTa study

    PubMed Central

    Santini, Daniele; Bertoldo, Francesco; Dell'Aquila, Emanuela; Cecchini, Isabella; Fregosi, Stefania; Bortolussi, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Background Several studies have emphasized the importance of the maintenance of bone health in a comprehensive cancer care. However, no survey about approach to bone metastasis care is currently available. The ZeTa study provides a picture of the Italian oncologists' therapeutics habits in this area, in a real clinical-practice scenario. Design This study was based on online questionnaire-based interviews to Italian oncologists that included 145 questions. The aim was to collect information on the treatment of bone metastasis, the current use of bisphosphonates, the awareness of guidelines and the concerns about ONJ, the use of vitamin D supplementation. Results 445 oncologists were contacted, 283 agreed to participate. The results show that the current management of bone metastasis is still sub-optimal, as the recommendations from current clinical guidelines are not completely followed by all specialists. Conclusions This survey highlights the urgent need to improve management of bone metastasis in cancer patients. PMID:26909253

  13. THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN MENSTRUAL CYCLE CHARACTERISTICS AND PERCEIVED BODY IMAGE: A CROSS-SECTIONAL SURVEY OF POLISH FEMALE ADOLESCENTS.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarek, Maria; Trambacz-Oleszak, Sylwia

    2016-05-01

    The increasing prevalence of negative body perceptions among adolescent girls and the tendency towards wishing to be thinner have become a cultural norm in Western culture. Adolescent girls are particularly vulnerable to developing a negative body image due to physical and sexual changes occurring during puberty. This study aimed to evaluate the association between different measures of body image perceptions and different phases of the menstrual cycle after controlling for weight status and other potential confounders in Polish adolescent girls aged 12-18 years. Three-hundred and thirty participants of a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2009, normally cycling and with no eating disorders, completed a background questionnaire and the Stunkard Figure Rating Scale, and their anthropometric measurements were collected. The dependent outcome variables were measures of body image (actual body image, ideal body image and ideal-self discrepancy) and dichotomous body image perception (satisfied versus dissatisfied) adjusted for other predictor factors: socio-demographic variables, menstrual history and cycle phases, and weight status. One-way ANOVA indicated that weight status, age at menarche and menstrual cycle phase were associated with actual body image and rate of ideal-self discrepancy. Ideal body image was associated with weight status and menstrual cycle phase. General logistic regression models were constructed to evaluate associations of body dissatisfaction and all potential predictor variables. The final selected model of the multiple logistic regression analysis using the backward elimination procedure revealed that adjusted for other factors, negative body image was significantly associated with different phases of the menstrual cycle (p trend=0.033) and increasing body weight status (p trend=0.0007). The likelihood of body dissatisfaction was greatest during the premenstrual phase of the menstrual cycle (OR=2.38; 95% CI 1.06, 5.32) and among girls in

  14. Associations Between Sleep Quality and Migraine Frequency: A Cross-Sectional Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Kai; Lin, Guan-Yu; Lee, Jiunn-Tay; Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Tsai, Chia-Kuang; Hsu, Yu-Wei; Lin, Yu-Zhen; Tsai, Yi-Chien; Yang, Fu-Chi

    2016-04-01

    Migraine has been associated with sleep disturbances. Relationship between sleep quality and migraine frequency is yet to be determined. The present study aimed to investigate sleep disturbances among low-frequency, moderate-frequency, high-frequency, and chronic migraineurs, with and without auras, with well-controlled confounding variables.This cross-sectional controlled study included 357 subjects from an outpatient headache clinic in Taiwan. Standardized questionnaires were utilized to collect demographic, migraine, sleep, depression, anxiety, and restless leg syndrome characteristics in all participants. According to frequency of migraine attacks, patients were divided into 4 groups: with 1 to 4 migraine days per month, 5 to 8 migraine days in a month, 9 to 14 migraine days in a month, and >14 migraine days per month. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and subgroup items were used to evaluate sleep quality. The association between migraine frequency and sleep quality was investigated using multivariable linear regression and logistic regression.The PSQI total score was highest in patients with high frequent migraine (10.0 ± 3.4) and lowest in controls (7.0 ± 3.4) with a significant trend analysis (P for trend = 0.006). Migraine frequency had an independent effect on the items "Cannot get to sleep within 30 minutes" (P < 0.001), "Wake up in the middle of the night or early morning" (P < 0.001), "Bad dreams" (P = 0.001), "Pain" (P = 0.004), and "Quality of sleep" (P < 0.001). The result showed the effect of migraine frequency in both the aura-present (P for trend = 0.008) and the aura-absent subgroups (P for trend = 0.011).High migraine frequency correlates with poor sleep quality and a higher prevalence of poor sleepers. These associations occur in migraine with aura and without aura. PMID:27124064

  15. A community-based cross-sectional immunisation survey in parents of primary school students.

    PubMed

    Hon, Kam Lun; Tsang, Yin Ching K; Chan, Lawrence C N; Ng, Daniel K K; Miu, Ting Yat; Chan, Johnny Y; Lee, Albert; Leung, Ting Fan

    2016-01-01

    Immunisation is a very important aspect of child health. Invasive pneumococcal and influenza diseases have been major vaccine-available communicable diseases. We surveyed demographics and attitudes of parents of primary school students who received pneumococcal conjugate vaccination (PCV) and compared them with those who did not receive pneumococcal vaccination. The survey was carried out in randomly selected primary schools in Hong Kong. Questionnaires were sent to nine primary schools between June and September 2014. Parents of 3,485 children were surveyed, and 3,479 (1,452 PCV immunised, 2,027 un-immunised) valid questionnaires were obtained. Demographic data were generally different between the two groups. PCV-immunised children were more likely to be female (57.0 vs. 52.2%, P=0.005), born in Hong Kong (94.2 vs. 92.3%, P=0.031), have a parent with tertiary education (49.2 vs. 31.8, P<0.0005), from the higher-income group (P=0.005), have suffered upper respiratory infections, pneumonia, otitis media or sinusitis (P=0.019), and have doctor visits in preceding 12 months (P=0.009). They were more likely to have received additional immunisations outside the Hong Kong Childhood Immunization Programme (64.0 vs. 30.6%, P<0.0005) at private practitioner clinics (91.1 vs. 83.5%, P<0.0005). Un-immunised children were more likely to live with senior relatives who had not received PCV. Their parents were less likely to be aware of public education programme on PCV and influenza immunisation, and children were less likely to have received influenza vaccination. The major reasons for PCV immunisations were parent awareness that pneumococcal disease could be severe and vaccines were efficacious in prevention. The major reasons for children not being immunised with PCV were concerns about vaccine side effects, cost, vaccine not efficacious or no recommendation by family doctor or government. In conclusion, PCV unimmunized children were prevalent during the study period

  16. Reducing corruption in a Mexican medical school: impact assessment across two cross-sectional surveys

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Corruption pervades educational and other institutions worldwide and medical schools are not exempt. Empirical evidence about levels and types of corruption in medical schools is sparse. We conducted surveys in 2000 and 2007 in the medical school of the Autonomous University of Guerrero in Mexico to document student perceptions and experience of corruption and to support the medical school to take actions to tackle corruption. Methods In both 2000 and 2007 medical students completed a self-administered questionnaire in the classroom without the teacher present. The questionnaire asked about unofficial payments for admission to medical school, for passing an examination and for administrative procedures. We examined factors related to the experience of corruption in multivariate analysis. Focus groups of students discussed the quantitative findings. Results In 2000, 6% of 725 responding students had paid unofficially to obtain entry into the medical school; this proportion fell to 1.6% of the 436 respondents in 2007. In 2000, 15% of students reported having paid a bribe to pass an examination, not significantly different from the 18% who reported this in 2007. In 2007, students were significantly more likely to have bribed a teacher to pass an examination if they were in the fourth year, if they had been subjected to sexual harassment or political pressure, and if they had been in the university for five years or more. Students resented the need to make unofficial payments and suggested tackling the problem by disciplining corrupt teachers. The university administration made several changes to the system of admissions and examinations in the medical school, based on the findings of the 2000 survey. Conclusion The fall in the rate of bribery to enter the medical school was probably the result of the new admissions system instituted after the first survey. Further actions will be necessary to tackle the continuing presence of bribery to pass examinations

  17. A community-based cross-sectional immunisation survey in parents of primary school students

    PubMed Central

    Hon, Kam Lun; Tsang, Yin Ching K; Chan, Lawrence C N; Ng, Daniel K K; Miu, Ting Yat; Chan, Johnny Y; Lee, Albert; Leung, Ting Fan

    2016-01-01

    Immunisation is a very important aspect of child health. Invasive pneumococcal and influenza diseases have been major vaccine-available communicable diseases. We surveyed demographics and attitudes of parents of primary school students who received pneumococcal conjugate vaccination (PCV) and compared them with those who did not receive pneumococcal vaccination. The survey was carried out in randomly selected primary schools in Hong Kong. Questionnaires were sent to nine primary schools between June and September 2014. Parents of 3,485 children were surveyed, and 3,479 (1,452 PCV immunised, 2,027 un-immunised) valid questionnaires were obtained. Demographic data were generally different between the two groups. PCV-immunised children were more likely to be female (57.0 vs. 52.2%, P=0.005), born in Hong Kong (94.2 vs. 92.3%, P=0.031), have a parent with tertiary education (49.2 vs. 31.8, P<0.0005), from the higher-income group (P=0.005), have suffered upper respiratory infections, pneumonia, otitis media or sinusitis (P=0.019), and have doctor visits in preceding 12 months (P=0.009). They were more likely to have received additional immunisations outside the Hong Kong Childhood Immunization Programme (64.0 vs. 30.6%, P<0.0005) at private practitioner clinics (91.1 vs. 83.5%, P<0.0005). Un-immunised children were more likely to live with senior relatives who had not received PCV. Their parents were less likely to be aware of public education programme on PCV and influenza immunisation, and children were less likely to have received influenza vaccination. The major reasons for PCV immunisations were parent awareness that pneumococcal disease could be severe and vaccines were efficacious in prevention. The major reasons for children not being immunised with PCV were concerns about vaccine side effects, cost, vaccine not efficacious or no recommendation by family doctor or government. In conclusion, PCV unimmunized children were prevalent during the study period

  18. Disaster resilience in tertiary hospitals: a cross-sectional survey in Shandong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hospital disaster resilience can be defined as a hospital’s ability to resist, absorb, and respond to the shock of disasters while maintaining critical functions, and then to recover to its original state or adapt to a new one. This study aims to explore the status of resilience among tertiary hospitals in Shandong Province, China. Methods A stratified random sample (n = 50) was derived from tertiary A, tertiary B, and tertiary C hospitals in Shandong Province, and was surveyed by questionnaire. Data on hospital characteristics and 8 key domains of hospital resilience were collected and analysed. Variables were binary, and analysed using descriptive statistics such as frequencies. Results A response rate of 82% (n = 41) was attained. Factor analysis identified four key factors from eight domains which appear to reflect the overall level of disaster resilience. These were hospital safety, disaster management mechanisms, disaster resources and disaster medical care capability. The survey demonstrated that in regard to hospital safety, 93% had syndromic surveillance systems for infectious diseases and 68% had evaluated their safety standards. In regard to disaster management mechanisms, all had general plans, while only 20% had specific plans for individual hazards. 49% had a public communication protocol and 43.9% attended the local coordination meetings. In regard to disaster resources, 75.6% and 87.5% stockpiled emergency drugs and materials respectively, while less than a third (30%) had a signed Memorandum of Understanding with other hospitals to share these resources. Finally in regard to medical care, 66% could dispatch an on-site medical rescue team, but only 5% had a ‘portable hospital’ function and 36.6% and 12% of the hospitals could surge their beds and staff capacity respectively. The average beds surge capacity within 1 day was 13%. Conclusions This study validated the broad utility of a framework for understanding and measuring the

  19. Autonomic control of cardiovascular system in pre- and postmenopausal women: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Neufeld, Irina W.; Kiselev, Anton R.; Karavaev, Antoly S.; Prokhorov, Mikhail D.; Gridnev, Vladimir I.; Ponomarenko, Vladimir I.; Bezruchko, Boris P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the features of autonomic control of the cardiovascular system in pre- and postmenopausal women. Material and Methods We studied 185 postmenopausal women aged 59.3±8.5 years (mean±SD) and 104 premenopausal women aged 45.1±5.8 years. Standard indices of heart rate variability (HRV) (mean heart rate, coefficient of variation, standard deviation of the NN interval (the time elapsing between two consecutive R waves in the electrocardiogram with normal sinus rhythm) (SDNN), square root of the mean squared differences of successive NN intervals (RMSSD), proportion derived by dividing RR50, the number of interval differences of successive NN intervals greater than 50 ms, by the total number of NN intervals (PNN50), and power of low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) bands in absolute values and percentages of total spectral power) and index S of synchronization between the 0.1-Hz rhythms in heart rate and photoplethysmogram were compared between these two groups at rest. We assessed the following sex hormones: estradiol, follicle stimulating hormone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and testosterone. Results Mean heart rate and power of LF and HF bands were significantly different (p<0.05) in pre- and postmenopausal women. The autonomic indices were similar in women with natural and surgical menopause. Some indices (coefficient of variation, SDNN, RMSSD, PNN50, and power of LF and HF bands) showed weak correlation with menopause time in women with natural menopause. In women with surgical menopause, a moderate statistically significant correlation was observed only between menopause time and S index (r=−0.41, p=0.039). In premenopausal women, only testosterone correlated weakly with coefficient of variation, SDNN, PNN50, RMSSD, and power of HF band. In postmenopausal women, no correlations were found. We did not find any significant relationship between autonomic indices and hot flashes, assessed by hot

  20. Patient attitudes and understanding about biosimilars: an international cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Ira; Singh, Ena; Sewell, K Lea; AL-Sabbagh, Ahmad; Shane, Lesley G

    2016-01-01

    Objective To understand the levels of awareness, usage, and knowledge of biosimilars among patients, caregivers, and the general population in the US and the European Union; perceptions of biosimilars compared to originator biologics; perceived benefits and drawbacks of clinical trials; and whether advocacy groups impact patients’ willingness to try a biosimilar. Methods An international survey was conducted which contained up to 56 closed-ended (requiring yes/no or ranking answers) and open-ended questions, depending on the population assigned. The survey was divided into distinct sections, including medication-class awareness, usage, and knowledge about biologic and biosimilar therapies; perceptions of clinical trials; and involvement in advocacy groups. Interviews were conducted in adults categorized as: 1) diagnosed: patients with inflammatory bowel disease including Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, breast cancer, lung cancer, colorectal cancer, or non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma; 2) diagnosed advocacy: individuals with these diseases who participated in patient support groups; 3) caregiver: has a loved one with these conditions and is involved in medical decisions; 4) general population: aged 18–64 years, without these conditions. Statistical analyses among groups within a region (US or EU) used column proportions test with a 95% confidence interval. Results In all, 3,198 individuals responded. Awareness about biologic therapies was significantly higher in diagnosed, diagnosed advocacy, and caregiver groups (45%–78%) versus general population (27%; P<0.05). Across all groups, awareness of biosimilars was low; only 6% of the general population reported at least a general impression of biosimilars. Awareness was significantly higher in the diagnosed advocacy group (20%–30%; P<0.05). Gaps in knowledge about biosimilars included safety, efficacy, and access to these agents. Respondents had generally positive perceptions

  1. Healthcare Managers' Perceptions of Patient Perpetrated Aggression and Prevention Strategies: A Cross Sectional Survey.

    PubMed

    Baby, Maria; Swain, Nicola; Gale, Christopher

    2016-07-01

    Patient or client aggression towards staff is a risk in healthcare. Healthcare takes place in a variety of settings, including hospitals, community, and Aged Care facilities. A minimal amount is known regarding the existence of safety and training measures available throughout the broad range of hospital and community healthcare services. A web-based survey of the type and frequency of violence experienced by healthcare staff was sent to unit managers working in mental health and older peoples' services of District Health Boards, Non-Governmental Organisations, and Aged Care facilities across New Zealand. One hundred and forty-one managers responded to the survey with a response rate of 79.21%. Managers reported high rates of verbal aggression and assaults against staff within their services. A total of 60% of respondents stated that an increase in assaults against staff was due to an increase in violent events and 43.1% related this to increased staff awareness and reporting of violent events to management. Communication skills and de-escalation training were provided across approximately 95% of organisations. The availability of safety measures including panic buttons, personal alarms, use of security personnel, and police assistance were more widely available and accessible within hospital settings and the community sector was found to mostly rely on police for assistance when violence occurs. The perception of violence is high in healthcare. Prevention and management training is provided in public hospital and aged care setting but not so much in NGOs. All areas of healthcare provision could benefit from increased evidence based aggression prevention programmes. PMID:27127851

  2. Attitude to health risk in the Canadian population: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Bansback, Nick; Harrison, Mark; Sadatsafavi, Mohsen; Stiggelbout, Anne; Whitehurst, David G.T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Risk is a ubiquitous part of health care. Understanding how people respond to risks is important for predicting how populations make health decisions. Our objective was to seek preliminary descriptive insights into the attitude to health risk in the Canadian population and factors associated with heterogeneity in risk attitude. Methods: We used a large market-research panel to survey (in English and French) a representative sample of the Canadian general population that reflected the age, sex and geography of the population. The survey included the Health-Risk Attitude Scale, which predicts how a person resolves risky health decisions related to treatment, prevention of disease and health-related behaviour. In addition, we assessed participants' numeracy and risk understanding, as well as income band and level of education. We summarized the responses, and we explored the independent associations between demographics, numeracy, risk understanding and risk attitude in multivariable models. Results: Of 6780 respondents, 4949 (73.0%) were averse to health risks; however, but there was considerable heterogeneity in the magnitude of risk aversion. We found significant gradients of risk averse attitudes with increasing age and being female (p < 0.001) using the multivariable model. French-speaking participants appeared to be more risk averse than those who were English-speaking (p < 0.001), as were individuals scoring higher on the Subjective Numeracy Scale (p < 0.001). Interpreation: In general, Canadians were averse to health risks, but we found that a sizeable, identifiable group of risk takers exists. Heterogeneity in preferences for risk can explain variations in health care utilization in the context of patient-centred care. Understanding risk preference heterogeneity can help guide policy and assist in patient-physician decisions. PMID:27398375

  3. Male and Female Adult Population Health Status in China: A Cross-Sectional National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jing; Liu, Meina; Zhang, Qiuju; Lu, Mingshan; Quan, Hude

    2008-01-01

    Background With rapid economic growth and globalization, lifestyle in China has been changing dramatically. This study aimed to describe the male and female adult Chinese population health status. Methods The Chinese Third National Health Services Survey was conducted in 2003 to collect information about health status and quality of life from randomly selected residents. Of the 193,689 respondents to the survey (response rate 77.8%), 139,831 (69,748 male and 70,083 female) respondents who were 18 years of age or older were analyzed. Results Among the respondents, fewer males than females rated their overall wellbeing as being poor or very poor (4.8% versus 6.2%), reported illness in the last 2 weeks (14.1% versus 17.4%), presence of physician diagnosed chronic disease (15.0% versus 17.7%) and at least one functional problem in seven items of the quality of life (26.9% versus 32.8%). More males than females were currently smoking (52.4% versus 3.4%) and drank alcohol more than three times per week (16.5% versus 1.1%). Physically inactive rate was similar between males and females (85.8% versus 87.0%). Fewer rural respondents reported chronic disease than urban respondents (13.0% versus 19.9% for males and 15.5% versus 22.8% for females). In all seven items of the quality of life measured, rural respondents reported less problems than urban respondents (26.2% versus 28.7% for males and 32.0% versus 34.7% for females). Conclusion Males had better health status than females in terms of self-perceived wellbeing, presence of illness, chronic disease, and quality of life. However, smoking and frequent alcohol drinking was more prevalent among males than that among females. In contrast with the social-economic gradient in health commonly found in the literature, the wealthier urban population in China was not found to be healthier than the rural population in terms of physician diagnosed chronic disease. PMID:18681978

  4. Knowledge of the health consequences of tobacco smoking: a cross-sectional survey of Vietnamese adults

    PubMed Central

    Minh An, Dao Thi; Van Minh, Hoang; Huong, Le Thi; Giang, Kim Bao; Xuan, Le Thi Thanh; Thi Hai, Phan; Quynh Nga, Pham; Hsia, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Background Although substantial efforts have been made to curtail smoking in Vietnam, the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) revealed that the proportion of male adults currently smoking remains high at 47.4%. Objectives To determine the level of, and characteristics associated with, knowledge of the health consequences of smoking among Vietnamese adults. Design GATS 2010 was designed to survey a nationally representative sample of Vietnamese men and women aged 15 and older drawn from 11,142 households using a two-stage sampling design. Descriptive statistics were calculated and multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations between postulated exposure factors (age, education, access to information, ethnic group etc.) and knowledge on health risks. Results General knowledge on the health risks of active smoking (AS) and exposure to second hand smoke (SHS) was good (90% and 83%, respectively). However, knowledge on specific diseases related to tobacco smoking (stroke, heart attack, and lung cancer) appeared to be lower (51.5%). Non-smokers had a significantly higher likelihood of demonstrating better knowledge on health risks related to AS (OR 1.6) and SHS (OR 1.7) than smokers. Adults with secondary education, college education or above also had significantly higher levels knowledge of AS/SHS health risks than those with primary education (AS: ORs 1.6, 1.7, and 1.9, respectively, and SHS: ORs 2.4, 3.9, and 5.7 respectively). Increasing age was positively associated with knowledge of the health consequences of SHS, and access to information was significantly associated with knowledge of AS/SHS health risks (ORs 2.3 and 1.9 respectively). Otherwise, non-Kinh ethnic groups had significantly less knowledge on health risks of AS/SHS than Kinh ethnic groups. Conclusions It may be necessary to target tobacco prevention programs to specific subgroups including current smokers, adults with low education, non-Kinh ethnics in order to increase their

  5. Strengthening the perception-assessment tools for dengue prevention: a cross-sectional survey in a temperate region (Madeira, Portugal)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Community participation is mandatory in the prevention of Dengue outbreaks. Taking public views into account is crucial to guide more effective planning and quicker community participation in preventing campaigns. This study aims to assess community perceptions of Madeira population in order to explore their involvement in the A. aegypti’s control and reinforce health-educational planning. Due to the lack of accurate methodologies for measuring perception, a new tool to assess the community’s perceptions was built. Methods A cross-sectional survey was performed in the Island’s aegypti-infested area, exploring residents’ perceptions regarding most critical community behaviour: aegypti-source reduction and their domestic aegypti-breeding sites. A novel tool defining five essential topics which underlie the source reduction’s awareness and accession was built, herein called Essential-Perception (EP) analysis. Results Of 1276 individuals, 1182 completed the questionnaire (92 · 6%). EP-Score analysis revealed that community’s perceptions were scarce, inconsistent and possibly incorrect. Most of the population (99 · 6%) did not completely understood the five essential topics explored. An average of 54 · 2% of residents only partially understood each essential topic, revealing inconsistencies in their understanding. Each resident apparently believed in an average of four false assumptions/myths. Significant association (p<0.001) was found between both the EP-Score level and the domestic presence of breeding sites, supporting the validity of this EP-analysis. Aedes aegypti’s breeding sites, consisting of décor/leisure containers, presented an atypical pattern of infestation comparing with dengue prone regions. Conclusions The studied population was not prepared for being fully engaged in dengue prevention. Evidences suggest that EP-methodology was efficient and accurate in assessing the community perception and its compliance to

  6. Development of a Questionnaire and Cross-Sectional Survey of Patient eHealth Readiness and eHealth Inequalities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many speak of the digital divide, but variation in the opportunity of patients to use the Internet for health (patient eHealth readiness) is not a binary difference, rather a distribution influenced by personal capability, provision of services, support, and cost. Digital divisions in health have been addressed by various initiatives, but there was no comprehensive validated measure to know if they are effective that could be used in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) covering both non-Internet-users and the range of Internet-users. Objective The aim of this study was to develop and validate a self-completed questionnaire and scoring system to assess patient eHealth readiness by examining the spread of scores and eHealth inequalities. The intended use of this questionnaire and scores is in RCTs of interventions aiming to improve patient eHealth readiness and reduce eHealth inequalities. Methods Based on four factors identified from the literature, a self-completed questionnaire, using a pragmatic combination of factual and attitude questions, was drafted and piloted in three stages. This was followed by a final population-based, cross-sectional household survey of 344 people used to refine the scoring system. Results The Patient eHealth Readiness Questionnaire (PERQ) includes questions used to calculate four subscores: patients’ perception of (1) provision, (2) their personal ability and confidence, (3) their interpersonal support, and (4) relative costs in using the Internet for health. These were combined into an overall PERQ score (0-9) which could be used in intervention studies. Reduction in standard deviation of the scores represents reduction in eHealth inequalities. Conclusions PERQ appears acceptable for participants in British studies. The scores produced appear valid and will enable assessment of the effectiveness of interventions to improve patient eHealth readiness and reduce eHealth inequalities. Such methods need continued evolution and

  7. Photoionization of Synchrotron-Radiation-Excited Atoms: Separating Partial Cross Sections by Full Polarization Control

    SciTech Connect

    Aloiese, S.; Meyer, M.; Cubaynes, D.; Grum-Grzhimailo, A. N.

    2005-06-10

    Resonant atomic excitation by synchrotron radiation and subsequent ionization by a tunable dye laser is used to study the photoionization of short-lived Rydberg states in Xe. By combining circular and linear polarization of the synchrotron as well as of the laser photons the partial photoionization cross sections were separated in the region of overlapping autoionizing resonances of different symmetry and the parameters of the resonances were extracted.

  8. Total knee arthroplasty and the unforeseen impact on return to work: a cross-sectional multicenter survey.

    PubMed

    Kievit, Arthur J; van Geenen, Rutger C I; Kuijer, P Paul F M; Pahlplatz, Thijs M J; Blankevoort, Leendert; Schafroth, Matthias U

    2014-06-01

    The number of patients receiving a TKA during working life is increasing but little is known about the impact of TKA on patients' reintegration into the workplace. In this cross-sectional survey it was found that 173 of 480 responders worked within 2 years prior to surgery. Sixty-three percent of the working patients stopped within two weeks prior to surgery and 102 patients returned within 6 months. One third never returned to work. Activities that most improved were operating foot pedals, operating vehicles, standing and walking on level terrain. Activities that least improved were kneeling, crouching and clambering. Fifty patients scored 5 or less on the Work Ability Index. Thirty patients were dissatisfied. TKA significantly, but unequally, reduces difficulties in carrying out knee-burdening work activities. PMID:24524779

  9. Estimating HIV incidence among key affected populations in China from serial cross-sectional surveys in 2010–2014

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yan; Guo, Wei; Li, Dongmin; Wang, Liyan; Shi, Cynthia X; Brookmeyer, Ron; Detels, Roger; Ge, Lin; Ding, Zhengwei; Wu, Zunyou

    2016-01-01

    Introduction HIV incidence is an important measure for monitoring the development of the epidemic, but it is difficult to ascertain. We combined serial HIV prevalence and mortality data to estimate HIV incidence among key affected populations (KAPs) in China. Methods Serial cross-sectional surveys were conducted among KAPs from 2010 to 2014. Trends in HIV prevalence were assessed by the Cochran-Armitage test, adjusted by risk group. HIV incidence was estimated from a mathematical model that describes the relationship between changes in HIV incidence with HIV prevalence and mortality. Results The crude HIV prevalence for the survey samples remained stable at 1.1 to 1.2% from 2010 to 2014. Among drug users (DUs), HIV prevalence declined from 4.48 to 3.29% (p<0.0001), and among men who have sex with men (MSM), HIV prevalence increased from 5.73 to 7.75% (p<0.0001). Changes in HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs) and male patients of sexually transmitted disease clinics were more modest but remained statistically significant (all p<0.0001). The MSM population had the highest incidence estimates at 0.74% in 2011, 0.59% in 2012, 0.57% in 2013 and 0.53% in 2014. Estimates of the annual incidence for DUs and FSWs were very low and may not be reliable. Conclusions Serial cross-sectional prevalence data from representative samples may be another approach to construct approximate estimates of national HIV incidence among key populations. We observed that the MSM population had the highest incidence for HIV among high-risk groups in China, and we suggest that interventions targeting MSM are urgently needed to curb the growing HIV epidemic. PMID:26989062

  10. The prevalence of eating behaviors among Canadian youth using cross-sectional school-based surveys

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity is a growing public health concern in Canada. Excess weight is particularly a concern among youth given that obesity in youth predicts obesity in adulthood. Eating behaviors, both inside and outside the home have been associated with increased risk of obesity; however, there is little data among Canadian youth to monitor trends. Methods The School Health Action, Planning and Evaluation Surveys (SHAPES) were administered in schools. Our study examined 20, 923 students (grades 5-12) from four regions in Canada. The regions were Hamilton and Thunder Bay (both in Ontario), the Province of Prince Edward Island, and the Province of Quebec. Results Consuming breakfast daily was reported by 70% of grade 5-8 students, and 51% of grade 9-12’s. Among students in grade 9-12, 52% reported eating with family members daily, compared with 68% in grade 5-8. Just over half of students in grade 5-8, and 70% in grade 9-12 reported eating at a fast-food place once a week or more. Among grade 5-8 students 68% reported eating in front of the television at least once per week, compared to 76% in grade 9-12. Obese students were more likely to watch TV while eating, and less likely to eat with a family member and eat breakfast. Conclusions The findings suggest that only a modest proportion of youth report dietary patterns that have previously been associated with healthy eating and reduced risk of obesity. Later adolescence may be a critical time for intervention in health-related behaviors. PMID:24708863

  11. Prevalence of dysfunctional breathing in patients treated for asthma in primary care: cross sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Mike; McKinley, R K; Freeman, Elaine; Foy, Chris

    2001-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence of dysfunctional breathing in adults with asthma treated in the community. Design Postal questionnaire survey using Nijmegen questionnaire. Setting One general practice with 7033 patients. Participants All adult patients aged 17-65 with diagnosed asthma who were receiving treatment. Main outcome measure Score ⩾23 on Nijmegen questionnaire. Results 227/307 patients returned completed questionnaires; 219 (71.3%) questionnaires were suitable for analysis. 63 participants scored ⩾23. Those scoring ⩾23 were more likely to be female than male (46/132 (35%) v 17/87 (20%), P=0.016) and were younger (mean (SD) age 44.8 (14.7) v 49.0 (13.8, (P=0.05). Patients at different treatment steps of the British Thoracic Society asthma guidelines were affected equally. Conclusions About a third of women and a fifth of men had scores suggestive of dysfunctional breathing. Although further studies are needed to confirm the validity of this screening tool and these findings, these prevalences suggest scope for therapeutic intervention and may explain the anecdotal success of the Buteyko method of treating asthma. What is already known on this topicAbnormal breathing patterns may cause characteristic symptoms and impair quality of lifeEffective interventions exist for dysfunctional breathingDysfunctional breathing has been described in patients attending hospital respiratory clinicsWhat this study adds29% of adults treated for asthma in primary care had symptoms suggestive of dysfunctional breathingAffected patients were more likely to be female and younger, but no differences were found with severity of asthmaSome patients with asthma may benefit from breathing therapy PMID:11337441

  12. Use of home remedies: a cross-sectional survey of patients in Germany

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Reliable information regarding patient knowledge of home remedies and the types of health problems patients use them for is scarce. Nevertheless, anecdotal evidence indicates that home remedies are used by patients for managing minor health problems and that this can be sufficient for symptom management while the body recovers from minor health problems. The aim of the presented study was to explore patient use of home remedies in Germany. Methods A questionnaire was developed and pretested in a pilot study phase. The revised questionnaire was comprised of questions about general knowledge and experienced efficiency of home remedies, the use of home remedies for common health problems and socio-demographic data. Patients were recruited via randomly selected addresses of general practitioners (GPs) in three regions of Germany (Heidelberg, Erfurt and Hanover and surrounding areas). The questionnaire was handed out in the waiting area of GP practices. The data was analyzed descriptively. Results 480 of 592 patients from 37 GP practices were included, according to a response rate of 81%. Based on the survey results, home remedies were widely known and used by about 80% of our respondents (on average 22 different home remedies were used per person). The most frequently used home remedies were steam-inhalation, hot lemon drink, honey, chamomile tea and chicken soup. 80% of respondents tried home remedies before pharmaceutical options. Information about home remedies was most commonly gained from family members, rather than from written guides, media or GPs. Conclusions These results provide an initial overview on the use of home remedies from the patient’s perspective in a German context. Bearing in mind the high use of home remedies that was reported by patients in the study, it is highly likely that GPs in Germany may need to advise patients on their use of home remedies during consultations. To this end, given the scarcity of reliable information on home

  13. Women's knowledge and attitudes surrounding abortion in Zambia: a cross-sectional survey across three provinces

    PubMed Central

    Cresswell, Jenny A; Schroeder, Rosalyn; Dennis, Mardieh; Owolabi, Onikepe; Vwalika, Bellington; Musheke, Maurice; Campbell, Oona; Filippi, Veronique

    2016-01-01

    Objectives In Zambia, despite a relatively liberal legal framework, there remains a substantial burden of unsafe abortion. Many women do not use skilled providers in a well-equipped setting, even where these are available. The aim of this study was to describe women's knowledge of the law relating to abortion and attitudes towards abortion in Zambia. Setting Community-based survey in Central, Copperbelt and Lusaka provinces. Participants 1484 women of reproductive age (15–44 years). Primary and secondary outcome measures Correct knowledge of the legal grounds for abortion, attitudes towards abortion services and the previous abortions of friends, family or other confidants. Descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression were used to analyse how knowledge and attitudes varied according to sociodemographic characteristics. Results Overall, just 16% (95% CI 11% to 21%) of women of reproductive age correctly identified the grounds for which abortion is legal. Only 40% (95% CI 32% to 45% of women of reproductive age knew that abortion was legally permitted in the extreme situation where the pregnancy threatens the life of the mother. Even in urban areas of Lusaka province, only 55% (95% CI 41% to 67%) of women knew that an abortion could legally take place to save the mother's life. Attitudes remain conservative. Women with correct knowledge of abortion law in Zambia tended to have more liberal attitudes towards abortion and access to safe abortion services. Neither correct knowledge of the law nor attitudes towards abortion were associated with knowing someone who previously had an induced abortion. Conclusions Poor knowledge and conservative attitudes are important obstacles to accessing safe abortion services. Changing knowledge and attitudes can be challenging for policymakers and public health practitioners alike. Zambia could draw on its previous experience in dealing with its large HIV epidemic to learn cross-cutting lessons in effective mass

  14. Family planning in conflict: results of cross-sectional baseline surveys in three African countries

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite the serious consequences of conflict for reproductive health, populations affected by conflict and its aftermath face tremendous barriers to accessing reproductive health services, due to insecurity, inadequate numbers of trained personnel and lack of supplies. Family planning is often particularly neglected. Methods In six conflict-affected areas in Sudan, northern Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo, household surveys of married or in-union women of reproductive age were conducted to determine baseline measures of family planning knowledge, attitudes and behaviors regarding contraception. Health facility assessments were carried out to assess baseline measures of family planning services availability. Data were double-entered into CSPro 3.2 and exported to SAS 9.2, which was used to calculate descriptive statistics. The studies' purposes were to guide program activities and to serve as a baseline against which program accomplishments could be measured. Results Knowledge of modern contraceptive methods was low relative to other sub-Saharan African countries, and use of modern methods was under 4% in four sites; in two sites with prior family planning services it was 12% and 16.2%. From 30% to 40% of women reported they did not want a child within two years, however, and an additional 12% to 35% wanted no additional children, suggesting a clear need for family planning services. The health facilities assessment showed that at most only one-third of the facilities mandated to provide family planning had the necessary staff, equipment and supplies to do so adequately; in some areas, none of the facilities were prepared to offer such services. Conclusions Family planning services are desired by women living in crisis situations when offered in a manner appropriate to their needs, yet services are rarely adequate to meet these needs. Refugee and internally displaced women must be included in national and donors' plans to improve family

  15. Cross sectional survey of human-bat interaction in Australia: public health implications

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Flying foxes (megachiroptera) and insectivorous microbats (microchiroptera) are the known reservoirs for a range of recently emerged, highly pathogenic viruses. In Australia there is public health concern relating to bats’ role as reservoirs of Australian Bat Lyssavirus (ABLV), which has clinical features identical to classical rabies. Three deaths from ABLV have occurred in Australia. A survey was conducted to determine the frequency of bat exposures amongst adults in Australia’s most populous state, New South Wales; explore reasons for handling bats; examine reported practices upon encountering injured or trapped bats or experiencing bat bites or scratches; and investigate knowledge of bat handling warnings. Methods A representative sample of 821 New South Wales adults aged 16 years and older were interviewed during May and June 2011, using a computer assisted telephone interview (CATI) method. Frequencies, proportions and statistical differences in proportion were performed. Using an α-value of 0.05 and power of 80%, it was calculated that a sample size of 800 was required to provide statistical significance of +/− 5% for dichotomous variables. Results One-hundred-and-twenty-seven (15.5%) respondents indicated that they had previously handled a bat, being 22% (48/218) rural and 13% (78/597) urban respondents (χ2 = 9.8, p = 0.0018). Twenty one percent of males (63/304) had handled bats compared with 12% (64/517) of females (χ2 = 10.2, p = 0.0014). Overall, 42.0% (n = 345) of respondents reported having seen or heard a warning about handling bats. If faced with an injured or trapped bat, 25% (206/821) indicated that they would handle the bat, with 17% (36/206) saying that they would use their bare hands. For minor scratches, 14% (117/821) indicated that they would ignore the injury while four respondents would ignore major scratches or bites. Conclusions Previous human-bat interactions were relatively common. Bat exposures

  16. Evaluating health information sites on the Internet in Korea: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Aeree, S; Mee-Kyung, S

    2001-01-01

    Through the internet the public in South Korea has access to a growing supply of information on health and disease. In South Korea an estimated 13.93 million people used the internet in 2000. The number has increased rapidly compared to 1.63 million in 1997. Health information is often said to be one of the most retrieved types of information on the internet. However, a concern has emerged for the quality of health information documents contained on the World Wide Web. Lack of evaluation and oversight, and ease of publication, have led to inaccurate and misleading health-related publications on the Internet. For those seeking easy ways to identify high-quality and reliable information, rating systems to evaluate the quality of health information on the internet should be provided and developed. Given this background, the purpose of this research was to evaluate health information web sites on the internet. In this study we aimed to survey websites providing health information. 440 websites were selected using four search engines, YahooKorea (http://www.yahoo.co.kr), LycosKorea (http://www.lycos.co.kr), Empas (http://www.empas.co.kr), and Naver (http://www.naver.com), to conduct searches in December 2000. General quality criteria were used for the evaluation. These included ownership, currency, authorship, source, feedback mechanism, links, and functionality. More than 50% of web sites did not provide the date of publication or update of information, author and author credentials, references to source, etc. Websites of universities and universities' hospitals were more likely to provide name and type of provider (p < .01), author's name (p < .001), and references to source (p < .01) than other service providers. There is a need for better evidence-based health information as well as a need to develop simple criteria that ordinary people can understand and use. In addition, gateway services that operate a selective process and provide links to other organizations

  17. A cross-sectional survey of the Maltese general public on medication wastage.

    PubMed

    West, Lorna Marie; Diack, Lesley; Cordina, Maria; Stewart, Derek

    2016-04-01

    Background Medication wastage is a global issue, with key public health implications in terms of safety, the environment and the economy. A recently conducted systematic review of the published literature identified a lack of focus on the views of healthcare professionals and the general public. Objective To explore awareness, attitudes and behaviours relating to medication wastage amongst the general public in Malta. Setting Malta. Method Survey methodology employing a pre-piloted questionnaire was developed from theoretical frameworks of behaviour. Questionnaire items comprised open, closed and 5-point Likert scales. Medication adherence as a possible factor associated with wastage was measured using the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale. Random sample of 1920 was obtained from the Maltese electoral register 2013. Ethical approval was obtained. Main outcome measures Awareness, attitudes and behaviours relating to medication wastage amongst the general public in Malta. Results Response rate was 20.4 %. The majority (70.6 %) agreed that they were fully aware of the issue of wastage and 71.9 % disagreed that they had no interest in wastage. The following were significantly related to increased awareness of wastage: older age (p = 0.003), pensioners (p = 0.011), on regular medication (p = 0.021) and obtaining free medication (p = 0.026). Lack of interest in wastage was significantly related to obtaining free medication by government (p = 0.022), with those purchasing medication being significantly more interested (p = 0.028). While 75.1 % of respondents on regular medication self-reported not being fully adherent, there were no associations with awareness (p = 0.100) and interest in wastage (p = 0.385). Unemployed were more likely to report contribution towards wastage (p = 0.010) and the presence of a healthcare professional as family member was significantly related to confidence in ability to reduce wastage (p = 0.009). 46.2

  18. Quality of surgical care in hospitals providing internship training in Kenya: a cross sectional survey.

    PubMed Central

    Mwinga, Stephen; Kulohoma, Colette; Mwaniki, Paul; Idowu, Rachel; Masasabi, John; English, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate services in hospitals providing internship training to graduate doctors in Kenya. Methods A survey of 22 internship training hospitals was conducted. Availability of key resources spanning infrastructure, personnel, equipment and drugs was assessed by observation. Outcomes and process of care for pre-specified priority conditions (head injury, chest injury, fractures, burns and acute abdomen) were evaluated by auditing case records. Results Each hospital had at least one consultant surgeon. Scheduled surgical outpatient clinics, major ward rounds and elective (half day) theatre lists were provided once per week in 91%, 55% and 9%, respectively. In all other hospitals, these were conducted twice weekly. Basic drugs were not always available (e.g. gentamicin, morphine and pethidine in 50%, injectable antistaphylococcal penicillins in 5% hospitals). Fewer than half of hospitals had all resources needed to provide oxygen. One hundred and forty-five of 956 cases evaluated underwent operations under general or spinal anaesthesia. We found operation notes for 99% and anaesthetic records for 72%. Pre-operatively measured vital signs were recorded in 80% of cases, and evidence of consent to operation was found in 78%. Blood loss was documented in only one case and sponge and instrument counts in 7%. Conclusions Evaluation of surgical services would be improved by development and dissemination of clear standards of care. This survey suggests that internship hospitals may be poorly equipped and documented care suggests inadequacies in quality and training. Objectif Evaluer les services dans les hôpitaux offrant des stages de formation à des médecins diplômés au Kenya. Méthodes Enquête auprès de 22 hôpitaux offrant des stages de formation. La disponibilité des ressources clés incluant infrastructure, personnel, matériel et médicaments a été évaluée par observation. Les résultats et processus de soins pour des affections prioritaires pr

  19. Cross-sectional prospective survey to study indication-based usage of antimicrobials in animals: Results of use in cattle

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Katariina; Rantala, Merja; Hautala, Maria; Pyörälä, Satu; Kaartinen, Liisa

    2008-01-01

    Background Indication-based data on the use of antimicrobials in animals were collected using a prospective cross-sectional survey, similarly as for surveys carried out in human medicine, but adapting the questionnaire to include veterinary-specific issues. The participating veterinarians were randomly selected from a sample population of practising veterinarians. The sampling was stratified to take into account the proportions of different types of veterinary practice in the country. All patients consulting the veterinary practice during a 1-week period were included in the study and veterinarians returned a completed questionnaire for each patient receiving antimicrobial treatment. As cattle received most of the treatments, results from the survey are given using cattle as an example species. Results The survey was sent to 681 veterinarians, of whom 262 (39%) responded. In total 2850 questionnaires were completed. The largest quantities of antimicrobials, measured in kilograms, were used for cattle, followed by pigs, dogs and horses. The species that were treated most were cattle (n = 1308), dogs (n = 989) and cats (n = 311). For cattle, the most common reason for treatment was acute mastitis (52%), followed by dry-cow therapy (21%), subclinical mastitis (6%) and treatment for acute enteritis (4%). The remaining treatments covered 17% of cattle patients and 15 different indications. For acute mastitis, parenteral or intramammary treatment was used in 36% and 34% of the cases, respectively. The remaining 30% received both treatments simultaneously. Of the parenteral treatments (n = 459), benzyl penicillin was used in 83% of the treated animals (n = 379), while fluoroquinolones were used in 49 cases (11%). Of the 433 cows receiving intramammary treatment, ampicillin combined with cloxacillin was most commonly used (n = 157; 36%), followed by cephalexin+streptomycin (n = 113; 26%). Conclusion This cross-sectional prospective survey provided a useful method for the

  20. Bullying, sleep/wake patterns and subjective sleep disorders: findings from a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Kubiszewski, Violaine; Fontaine, Roger; Potard, Catherine; Gimenes, Guillaume

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to explore: (a) sleep patterns and disorders possibly associated with adolescent bullying profiles (pure bully, pure victim, bully/victim and neutral) and (b) the effect of sleep on psychosocial problems (externalized and internalized) related to bullying. The sample consisted of 1422 students aged 10-18 (mean = 14.3, SD = 2.7; 57% male) from five socioeconomically diverse schools in France. Bullying profiles were obtained using the revised Bully-Victim Questionnaire. Subjective sleep disorders were assessed using the Athens Insomnia Scale. School-week and weekend sleep/wake patterns were recorded. Internalizing problems were investigated using a Perceived Social Disintegration Scale and a Psychological Distress Scale. Externalizing behaviors were assessed using a General Aggressiveness Scale and an Antisocial Behavior Scale. These questionnaires were administered during individual interviews at school. After controlling for effects of gender and age, victims of bullying showed significantly more subjective sleep disturbances than the pure-bully or neutral groups (p < 0.001). Bullies' sleep schedules were more irregular (p < 0.001 for bedtime irregularity and p<0.01 for wake-up time irregularity) and their sleep duration was shorter than their schoolmates (p < 0.001 for the school week and p < 0.05 for the weekend). There was an effect of sleep on psychosocial problems related to bullying, and our results indicate that sleep has a moderating effect on aggression in bullies (p < 0.001). This would suggest a higher vulnerability of bullies to sleep deprivation. These results show differences in sleep problems and patterns in school-bullying profiles. Findings of this study open up new perspectives for understanding and preventing bullying in schools, with implications for research and clinical applications. PMID:24417522

  1. Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene in Schools in Low Socio-Economic Regions in Nicaragua: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Jordanova, Tania; Cronk, Ryan; Obando, Wanda; Medina, Octavio Zeledon; Kinoshita, Rinko; Bartram, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) in schools contributes to better health and educational outcomes among school-aged children. In 2012, UNICEF Nicaragua and partners conducted a cross-sectional survey of WaSH in 526 schools in 12 low socio-economic status municipalities in Nicaragua. The survey gathered information on: school characteristics; teacher and community participation; water and sanitation infrastructure; and hygiene education and habits. Survey results were analyzed for associations between variables. WaSH coverage was significantly higher in urban than rural areas. Presence of drinking water infrastructure (43%) was lower than sanitation infrastructure (64%). Eighty-one percent of schools had no hand washing stations and 74% of schools lacked soap. Sanitation facilities were not in use at 28% of schools with sanitation infrastructure and 26% of schools with water infrastructure had non-functional systems. Only 8% of schools had budgets to purchase toilet-cleaning supplies and 75% obtained supplies from students’ families. This study generates transferable WaSH sector learnings and new insights from monitoring data. Results can be used by donors, service providers, and policy makers to better target resources in Nicaraguan schools. PMID:26035665

  2. Water, sanitation, and hygiene in schools in low socio-economic regions in Nicaragua: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Jordanova, Tania; Cronk, Ryan; Obando, Wanda; Medina, Octavio Zeledon; Kinoshita, Rinko; Bartram, Jamie

    2015-06-01

    Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) in schools contributes to better health and educational outcomes among school-aged children. In 2012, UNICEF Nicaragua and partners conducted a cross-sectional survey of WaSH in 526 schools in 12 low socio-economic status municipalities in Nicaragua. The survey gathered information on: school characteristics; teacher and community participation; water and sanitation infrastructure; and hygiene education and habits. Survey results were analyzed for associations between variables. WaSH coverage was significantly higher in urban than rural areas. Presence of drinking water infrastructure (43%) was lower than sanitation infrastructure (64%). Eighty-one percent of schools had no hand washing stations and 74% of schools lacked soap. Sanitation facilities were not in use at 28% of schools with sanitation infrastructure and 26% of schools with water infrastructure had non-functional systems. Only 8% of schools had budgets to purchase toilet-cleaning supplies and 75% obtained supplies from students' families. This study generates transferable WaSH sector learnings and new insights from monitoring data. Results can be used by donors, service providers, and policy makers to better target resources in Nicaraguan schools. PMID:26035665

  3. A multinational cross-sectional survey of the management of patient medication adherence by European healthcare professionals

    PubMed Central

    Clyne, Wendy; Mshelia, Comfort; McLachlan, Sarah; Jones, Peter; de Geest, Sabina; Ruppar, Todd; Siebens, Kaat; Dobbels, Fabienne; Kardas, Przemyslaw

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine which interventions healthcare professionals use to support patients with taking medicines and their perceptions about the effectiveness of those actions. Design Cross-sectional multinational study. Setting Online survey in Austria, Belgium, England, France, Germany, Hungary, The Netherlands, Poland, Portugal and Switzerland. Participants A total of 3196 healthcare professionals comprising doctors (855), nurses (1047) and pharmacists (1294) currently registered and practising in primary care and community settings. Main outcome measures Primary outcome: Responses to the question ‘I ask patients if they have missed any doses of their medication’ for each profession and in each country. Secondary outcome: Responses to 50 items concerning healthcare professional behaviour to support patients with medication-taking for each profession and in each country. Results Approximately half of the healthcare professionals in the survey ask patients with long-term conditions whether they have missed any doses of their medication on a regular basis. Pharmacists persistently report that they intervene less than the other two professions to support patients with medicines. No country effects were found for the primary outcome. Conclusions Healthcare professionals in Europe are limited in the extent to which they intervene to assist patients having long-term conditions with medication adherence. This represents a missed opportunity to support people with prescribed treatment. These conclusions are based on the largest international survey to date of healthcare professionals’ management of medication adherence. PMID:26832430

  4. HIV testing in re-education through labour camps in Guangxi Autonomous Region, China (a cross-sectional survey)

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Lorraine; Reekie, Joanne; Liu, Wei; Chen, Yi; Wu, Zunyou; Li, Jianghong; Zhang, Lei; Wand, Handan; Donovan, Basil; Butler, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Objective HIV testing is mandatory in re-education-through-labour camps (laojiaosuo) in China yet no studies have reported on the process. Methods The survey response rate was 100% although 29 detainees were excluded because they were under 18 years of age. A cross-sectional face-to-face survey was conducted in three labour camps in Guangxi, located in the south-western region of China. Results Of the 755 detainees surveyed, 725 (96%) reported having a blood test in the labour camps of whom 493 (68%) thought this included an HIV test. 61 detainees self-reported they were HIV infected, their status confirmed by medical records, if available. Of these, 53 (87%) recalled receiving post-test HIV education, and 15 (25%) were currently receiving HIV antiretroviral therapy. Pretest education on HIV was provided to 233/725 (32%) detainees. The study further reports on detainees’ reactions and feelings towards non-disclosure and disclosure of their HIV test results in the labour camps. Conclusions Mandatory testing is almost universal in the labour camps although a proportion of detainees were unaware that this included an HIV test. HIV test results should be disclosed to all labour camp detainees to reduce their distress of not knowing and prevent misconceptions about their HIV status. Labour camps provide another opportunity to implement universal treatment (‘Test and Treat’) to prevent the spread of HIV. PMID:25739879

  5. Workplace Bullying and Sleep Disturbances: Findings from a Large Scale Cross-Sectional Survey in the French Working Population

    PubMed Central

    Niedhammer, Isabelle; David, Simone; Degioanni, Stéphanie; Drummond, Anne; Philip, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore the associations between workplace bullying, the characteristics of workplace bullying, and sleep disturbances in a large sample of employees of the French working population. Design: Workplace bullying, evaluated using the validated instrument developed by Leymann, and sleep disturbances, as well as covariates, were measured using a self-administered questionnaire. Covariates included age, marital status, presence of children, education, occupation, working hours, night work, physical and chemical exposures at work, self-reported health, and depressive symptoms. Statistical analysis was performed using logistic regression analysis and was carried out separately for men and women. Setting: General working population. Participants: The study population consisted of a random sample of 3132 men and 4562 women of the working population in the southeast of France. Results: Workplace bullying was strongly associated with sleep disturbances. Past exposure to bullying also increased the risk for this outcome. The more frequent the exposure to bullying, the higher the risk of experiencing sleep disturbances. Observing someone else being bullied in the workplace was also associated with the outcome. Adjustment for covariates did not modify the results. Additional adjustment for self-reported health and depressive symptoms diminished the magnitude of the associations that remained significant. Conclusions: The prevalence of workplace bullying (around 10%) was found to be high in this study as well was the impact of this major job-related stressor on sleep disturbances. Although no conclusion about causality could be drawn from this cross-sectional study, the findings suggest that the contribution of workplace bullying to the burden of sleep disturbances may be substantial. Citation: Niedhammer I; David S; Degioanni S; Drummond A; Philip P. Workplace bullying and sleep disturbances: findings from a large scale cross-sectional

  6. Perception of Mattering and Suicide Ideation in the Australian Working Population: Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Survey.

    PubMed

    Milner, A; Page, K M; LaMontagne, A D

    2016-07-01

    Thoughts about suicide are a risk factor for suicide deaths and attempts and are associated with a range of mental health outcomes. While there is considerable knowledge about risk factors for suicide ideation, there is little known about protective factors. The current study sought to understand the role of perceived mattering to others as a protective factor for suicide in a working sample of Australians using a cross-sectional research design. Logistic regression analysis indicated that people with a higher perception that they mattered had lower odds of suicide ideation than those with lower reported mattering, after controlling for psychological distress, demographic and relationship variables. These results indicate the importance of further research and intervention studies on mattering as a lever for reducing suicidality. Understanding more about protective factors for suicide ideation is important as this may prevent future adverse mental health and behavioural outcomes. PMID:26939798

  7. EQ-5D-5L in the General German Population: Comparison and Evaluation of Three Yearly Cross-Section Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Manuel B.; Reitmeir, Peter; Vogelmann, Martin; Leidl, Reiner

    2016-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is a key measure for evaluating health status in populations. Using the recent EQ-5D-5L for measurement, this study analyzed quality of life results and their stability over consecutive population surveys. Three cross-section surveys for representative samples of the general German population from 2012, 2013, and 2014 were evaluated using the EQ-5D-5L descriptive system and valuation by the Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Aggregated sample size reached 6074. The dimension with the highest prevalence of problems was pain/discomfort (31.7%). Compared with 2012 (59.3%), the percentage of participants in the best health state increased slightly in 2013 (63.4%) and 2014 (62%). Over the 3-year period, diabetes and heart disease had the strongest negative influence on mean VAS result. The number of reported chronic diseases cumulatively reduced mean VAS. Extreme problems in one or more dimensions were stated by only 0.1%–0.2% of patients. Of the potential 247 health states with a problem score ≥20, only six were observed in the aggregated sample. HRQoL results were fairly stable over the 3 years, but the share of the population with no problems was not. Results from the aggregated sample may serve as updated reference values for the general German population. PMID:27007387

  8. Psychosomatic complaints and sense of coherence among adolescents in a county in Sweden: a cross-sectional school survey

    PubMed Central

    Simonsson, Bo; Nilsson, Kent W; Leppert, Jerzy; Diwan, Vinod K

    2008-01-01

    Background Over the last five to ten years there has been an increase in psychosomatic complaints (PSC) in Swedish children. The objective of the study was to examine the relation between PSC and sense of coherence (SOC). Methods A cross-sectional school survey in the county of Västmanland, Sweden. All 16- and 19-year old adolescents present at school on the day of the survey were asked to complete a questionnaire in their classrooms during a one-lesson hour session under the supervision of their teachers. Totally 3,998 students in both private and public schools, studying in ninth grade elementary school or third grade secondary school participated. Results The results from our study show that there is a statistically significant relation between PSC and SOC among adolescents. It also shows that adolescents with a weak SOC score have more symptoms of PSC. Conclusion Our study indicates that SOC can help the adolescents to choose a coping strategy that is appropriate for the situation and thereby may prevent them from developing PSC. However, additional studies are needed to confirm our findings. PMID:18261203

  9. Evaluation of the impact of a breast cancer awareness program in rural Ghana: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Mena, Marisa; Wiafe-Addai, Beatrice; Sauvaget, Catherine; Ali, Ibrahim A; Wiafe, Seth A; Dabis, François; Anderson, Benjamin O; Malvy, Denis; Sasco, Annie J

    2014-02-15

    Community awareness is crucial to early detection of breast cancer in low- and middle-income countries. In Ghana 60% of the cases are detected at late stages. Breast Care International (BCI) is a Ghanaian non-governmental organization dedicated to raising breast cancer awareness. A cross-sectional survey was designed to assess the impact of BCI program on knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) toward breast cancer among women from rural communities of Ghana. A total of 232 women were interviewed in June 2011 in the Ashanti region; of these 131 participants were from a community that received the BCI program in August 2010 (intervention group) and 101 from another community that received the program post-survey (referent group). Data analysis was performed using Epi-Info version 3.5.3. Knowledge about breast cancer among participants who received the program was better than among those who did not. Only 53.5% of participants from the referent group knew that breast cancer usually appears as painless breast lump when compared to 82.3% from the intervention group. Participants who attended the program were significantly more likely to obtain higher knowledge scores (odds ratio (OR) = 2.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.14-3.86) and to state practicing breast self-examination (OR = 12.29, 95% CI = 5.31-28.48). The BCI program improved KAP toward breast cancer. Further research is warranted to provide stronger evidence that the program improves breast cancer early detection. PMID:23913595

  10. Type 2 Diabetes Patients' Needs and Preferences for Care Concerning Sexual Problems: A Cross-Sectional Survey and Qualitative Interviews.

    PubMed

    Rutte, Anne; Welschen, Laura M C; van Splunter, Maaike M I; Schalkwijk, Annemarie A H; de Vries, Lianne; Snoek, Frank J; Enzlin, Paul; Nijpels, Giel; Elders, Petra J M

    2016-05-18

    Sexual dysfunction is highly prevalent among patients with type 2 diabetes; however, little is known regarding these patients' needs and preferences for care for sexual problems. A cross-sectional survey and 25 semistructured interviews were therefore conducted among 40- to 75-year-old type 2 diabetes patients to explore this. We learned from the survey and interviews that most participants were unaware of the association between type 2 diabetes and sexual problems. Although certain barriers for discussing sexual problems with a care provider were identified (e.g., feelings of embarrassment), patients still reported a need for discussing their problems, because sex was viewed as an important part of their relationship. Some patients had sought help, but were dissatisfied with the offered care. Patients experienced a lack of attention and information from diabetes care providers. Improving this, together with a care provider-initiated conversation, was suggested to lower the threshold for discussion. Moreover, patients preferred a care provider with whom they have a close relationship, whereas age, gender, and medical specialty were regarded to be less important. An important recommendation was to make care for sexual problems an integral part of routine diabetes care. Future research should look into these recommendations. PMID:25849308

  11. Sense of control and diabetes mellitus among U.S. adults: A cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cardarelli, Kathryn M; Vernon, Sally W; Baumler, Elizabeth R; Tortolero, Susan; David Low, M

    2007-01-01

    Background Little is known about the influence of psychosocial factors on diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to improve understanding of the association between two psychosocial factors- sense of control and social support- and diabetes mellitus. Methods The authors analyzed data from 2,592 U.S. households in the 1995 survey of the Aging, Status, and the Sense of Control study. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine whether sense of personal control and social support were associated with DM and whether gender, race, and Hispanic ethnicity modified these associations. Results After adjusting for age, obesity, and socioeconomic position, a one point increase in sense of control (i.e., a stronger sense of control) was associated a significant reduction in risk of diabetes mellitus (odds ratio = 0.67, 95% confidence interval: 0.47, 0.95). A weak social support system was associated with a non-significant risk of diabetes (odds ratio = 1.32, 95% confidence interval: 0.93, 1.89). No effect modification was detected. Conclusion Sense of control deserves greater attention as a predictor of diabetes mellitus. Further studies of the contribution of psychosocial factors to diabetes mellitus should assess the temporal nature of this relationship. PMID:17971217

  12. Use of extensively hydrolysed formula for refeeding neonates postnecrotising enterocolitis: a nationwide survey-based, cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Lapillonne, Alexandre; Matar, Maroun; Adleff, Ariane; Chbihi, Marwa; Kermorvant-Duchemin, Elsa; Campeotto, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the prevalence of and reasons for using extensively hydrolysed formulas (EHFs) of cow's milk proteins in the French neonatal units as well as the modality of their prescription for refeeding infants recovering from necrotising enterocolitis (NEC). Methods A multicentre nationwide cross-sectional study using a questionnaire to address the prevalence of use and the reasons for prescribing EHF in hospitalised neonates and to examine the protocols and the actual reasons for their use for refeeding infants in recovery from NEC. The questionnaire was sent to only 1 senior neonatologist in each neonatal unit included in the study. Results More than half of the French neonatal units participated in the survey. 91% of the surveyed units used EHF. Of 1969 infants hospitalised on the day the survey was run, 12% were fed on an EHF. 11% of the EHF prescriptions were due to previous NEC. The main reasons for using an EHF to feed infants post-NEC were the absence of human milk (75%) and surgical management of NEC (17%). When given, EHF was mainly prescribed for a period varying between 15 days and 3 months. None of the involved units continued using the EHF after 6 months of age. More than half of the surveyed units acknowledged hospitalising infants for the initiation of weaning EHF but only 21% of them tested these infants for cow's milk allergy. Conclusions The prevalence of EHF use in the French neonatal units is high. Refeeding infants post-NEC is one of the main reasons for such a high prevalence. The main incentive for using an EHF is the absence of human breast milk, either maternal or donor. PMID:27388344

  13. Impact of conflict on medical education: a cross-sectional survey of students and institutions in Iraq

    PubMed Central

    Barnett-Vanes, Ashton; Shawki, Marwan; Ismail, Omar Abdulkadir; Fung, Chi; Kedia, Tara

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study surveyed all Iraqi medical schools and a cross-section of Iraqi medical students regarding their institutional and student experiences of medical education amidst ongoing conflict. The objective was to better understand the current resources and challenges facing medical schools, and the impacts of conflict on the training landscape and student experience, to provide evidence for further research and policy development. Setting Deans of all Iraqi medical schools registered in the World Directory of Medical Schools were invited to participate in a survey electronically. Medical students from three Iraqi medical schools were invited to participate in a survey electronically. Outcomes Primary: Student enrolment and graduation statistics; human resources of medical schools; dean perspectives on impact of conflict. Secondary: Medical student perspectives on quality of teaching, welfare and future career intentions. Findings Of 24 medical schools listed in the World Directory of Medical Schools, 15 replied to an initial email sent to confirm their contact details, and 8 medical schools responded to our survey, giving a response rate from contactable medical schools of 53% and overall of 33%. Five (63%) medical schools reported medical student educational attainment being impaired or significantly impaired; 4 (50%) felt the quality of training medical schools could offer had been impaired or significantly impaired due to conflict. A total of 197 medical students responded, 62% of whom felt their safety had been threatened due to violent insecurity. The majority (56%) of medical students intended to leave Iraq after graduating. Conclusions Medical schools are facing challenges in staff recruitment and adequate resource provision; the majority believe quality of training has suffered as a result. Medical students are experiencing added psychological stress and lower quality of teaching; the majority intend to leave Iraq after graduation. PMID:26883241

  14. Control of Trachoma from Achham District, Nepal: A Cross-Sectional Study from the Nepal National Trachoma Program

    PubMed Central

    Pant, Bidya Prasad; Bhatta, Ramesh C.; Chaudhary, J. S. P.; Awasthi, Suresh; Mishra, Sailesh; Sharma, Shekhar; Cuddapah, Puja A.; Gwyn, Sarah E.; Stoller, Nicole E.; Martin, Diana L.; Keenan, Jeremy D.; Lietman, Thomas M.; Gaynor, Bruce D.

    2016-01-01

    Background The WHO seeks to control trachoma as a public health problem in endemic areas. Achham District in western Nepal was found to have TF (trachoma follicular) above 20% in a 2006 government survey, triggering 3 annual mass drug administrations finishing in 2010. Here we assess the level of control that has been achieved using surveillance for clinical disease, ocular chlamydia trachomatis infection, and serology for antibodies against chlamydia trachomatis protein antigens. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of children aged 1–9 years in communities in Achham District in early 2014 including clinical examination validated with photographs, conjunctival samples for Chlamydia trachomatis (Amplicor PCR), and serological testing for antibodies against chlamydia trachomatis protein antigens pgp3 and CT694 using the Luminex platform. Findings In 24 randomly selected communities, the prevalence of trachoma (TF and/or TI) in 1–9 year olds was 3/1124 (0.3%, 95% CI 0.1 to 0.8%), and the prevalence of ocular chlamydia trachomatis infection was 0/1124 (0%, 95% CI 0 to 0.3%). In 18 communities selected because they had the highest prevalence of trachoma in a previous survey, the prevalence of TF and/or TI was 7/716 (1.0%, 95% CI 0.4 to 2.0%) and the prevalence of ocular chlamydia trachomatis infection was 0/716 (0%, 95% CI 0 to 0.5%). In 3 communities selected for serological testing, the prevalence of trachoma was 0/68 (0%, 95% CI 0 to 5.3%), the prevalence of ocular chlamydia trachomatis infection was 0/68 (0%, 95% CI 0 to 0.5%), the prevalence of antibodies against chlamydia trachomatis protein antigen pgp3 was 1/68 (1.5%, 95% CI 0.04% to 7.9%), and the prevalence of antibodies against chlamydia trachomatis protein antigen CT694 was 0/68 (0%, 95% CI 0 to 5.3%). Conclusion/Significance This previously highly endemic district in Nepal has little evidence of recent clinical disease, chlamydia trachomatis infection, or serological evidence of trachoma

  15. Pain and pressure pain thresholds in adolescents with chronic fatigue syndrome and healthy controls: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Winger, Anette; Kvarstein, Gunnvald; Wyller, Vegard Bruun; Sulheim, Dag; Fagermoen, Even; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Helseth, Sølvi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Although pain is a significant symptom in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), pain is poorly understood in adolescents with CFS. The aim of this study was to explore pain distribution and prevalence, pain intensity and its functional interference in everyday life, as well as pressure pain thresholds (PPT) in adolescents with CFS and compare this with a control group of healthy adolescents (HC). Methods This is a case–control, cross-sectional study on pain including 120 adolescents with CFS and 39 HCs, aged 12–18 years. We measured pain frequency, pain severity and pain interference using self-reporting questionnaires. PPT was measured using pressure algometry. Data were collected from March 2010 until October 2012 as part of the Norwegian Study of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome in Adolescents: Pathophysiology and Intervention Trial. Results Adolescents with CFS had significantly lower PPTs compared with HCs (p<0.001). The Pain Severity Score and the Pain Interference Score were significantly higher in adolescents with CFS compared with HCs (p<0.001). Almost all adolescents with CFS experienced headache, abdominal pain and/or pain in muscles and joints. Moreover, in all sites, the pain intensity levels were significantly higher than in HCs (p<0.001). Conclusions We found a higher prevalence of severe pain among adolescents with CFS and lowered pain thresholds compared with HCs. The mechanisms, however, are still obscure. Large longitudinal population surveys are warranted measuring pain thresholds prior to the onset of CFS. Trial registration number Clinical Trials, NCT01040429; The Norwegian Study of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome in Adolescents: Pathophysiology and Intervention Trial (NorCAPITAL) http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. PMID:25287104

  16. Attitudes and perceptions of medical students about family medicine in Spain: protocol for a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Coello, Pablo; Villa, Josep Jiménez; Hijar, Antonio Monreal; Tuduri, Xavier Mundet; Puime, Ángel Otero

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite the fact that family medicine (FM) has become established as a specialty in the past 25 years, this has not been reflected in the inclusion of the specialty in the majority of medical schools in Spain. Almost 40% of the students will work in primary care but, in spite of this, most universities do not have an assessed placement as such. There are only specific practice periods in health centres or some student-selected components with little weight in the overall curricula. Objectives To evaluate the attitudes and perceptions of medical students about FM in the health system and their perception about the need for specific training in FM at the undergraduate level. To explore change over time of these attitudes and perceptions and to examine potential predictive factors for change. Finally, we will review what teaching activity in FM is offered across the Spanish schools of medicine. Methods Descriptive cross-sectional survey. Each one of the different analyses will consist of two surveys: one for all the students in the first, third and fifth year of medical school in all the Spanish schools of medicine asking about their knowledge, perceptions and attitudes in relation to primary care and FM. There will be an additional survey for the coordinating faculty of the study in each university about the educational activities related to FM that are carried out in their centres. The repetition of the study every 2 years will allow for an analysis of the evolution of the cohort of students until they receive their degree and the potential predictive factors. Discussion This study will provide useful information for strategic planning decisions, content and educational methodology in medical schools in Spain and elsewhere. It will also help to evaluate the influence of the ongoing changes in FM, locally and at the European level, on the attitudes and perceptions of the students towards FM in Spain. PMID:22189348

  17. Perceptions, knowledge, and satisfaction with contralateral prophylactic mastectomy among young women with breast cancer: A cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Shoshana M.; Tracy, Michaela S.; Meyer, Meghan E.; Sepucha, Karen; Gelber, Shari; Hirshfield-Bartek, Judi; Troyan, Susan; Morrow, Monica; Schapira, Lidia; Come, Steven E.; Winer, Eric P.; Partridge, Ann H.

    2013-01-01

    Background There has been a dramatic increase in rates of contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM), particularly among younger women with breast cancer, however little is known about how women approach the decision to undergo CPM. Objective To examine preferences, knowledge, decision-making, and experiences of young women with breast cancer who chose CPM. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Eight academic and community medical centers that enrolled 550 women diagnosed with breast cancer at age 40 and younger, between November 2006 and November 2010. Patients 123 women without known bilateral breast cancer who reported having a bilateral mastectomy. Measurements A one-time, 23 item survey that included items related to decision-making, knowledge, risk perception, and breast cancer worry. Results Most women (98%) indicated that the desire to lower the chance of developing a contralateral breast cancer (CBC) and to improve survival (94%) were extremely or very important factors in their decision to undergo CPM. However, only 18% indicated that women with breast cancer who undergo CPM live longer than women who do not. BRCA 1 or BRCA 2 mutation carriers more accurately perceived their risk of a CBC while women without a known mutation substantially overestimated this risk. Limitations The survey, administered a median of two years post-surgery, was not validated and some questions might have been misinterpreted by respondents or subject to recall bias. Generalizability of our findings might be limited. Conclusions Despite knowing that CPM does not clearly improve survival, women who have undergone the procedure do so, in part, to extend their lives. Many women overestimate their actual risk of developing breast cancer in the unaffected breast. Interventions aimed at improving risk communication in an effort to promote evidence-based decision-making are warranted. PMID:24042365

  18. Changes in energy content of lunchtime purchases from fast food restaurants after introduction of calorie labelling: cross sectional customer surveys

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Christina Y; Nonas, Cathy A; Matte, Thomas D; Bassett, Mary T; Silver, Lynn D

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of fast food restaurants adding calorie labelling to menu items on the energy content of individual purchases. Design Cross sectional surveys in spring 2007 and spring 2009 (one year before and nine months after full implementation of regulation requiring chain restaurants’ menus to contain details of the energy content of all menu items). Setting 168 randomly selected locations of the top 11 fast food chains in New York City during lunchtime hours. Participants 7309 adult customers interviewed in 2007 and 8489 in 2009. Main outcome measures Energy content of individual purchases, based on customers’ register receipts and on calorie information provided for all items in menus. Results For the full sample, mean calories purchased did not change from before to after regulation (828 v 846 kcal, P=0.22), though a modest decrease was shown in a regression model adjusted for restaurant chain, poverty level for the store location, sex of customers, type of purchase, and inflation adjusted cost (847 v 827 kcal, P=0.01). Three major chains, which accounted for 42% of customers surveyed, showed significant reductions in mean energy per purchase (McDonald’s 829 v 785 kcal, P=0.02; Au Bon Pain 555 v 475 kcal, P<0.001; KFC 927 v 868 kcal, P<0.01), while mean energy content increased for one chain (Subway 749 v 882 kcal, P<0.001). In the 2009 survey, 15% (1288/8489) of customers reported using the calorie information, and these customers purchased 106 fewer kilocalories than customers who did not see or use the calorie information (757 v 863 kcal, P<0.001). Conclusion Although no overall decline in calories purchased was observed for the full sample, several major chains saw significant reductions. After regulation, one in six lunchtime customers used the calorie information provided, and these customers made lower calorie choices. PMID:21791497

  19. Update on End-of-Life Care Training During Nephrology Fellowship: A Cross-sectional National Survey of Fellows

    PubMed Central

    Combs, Sara A.; Culp, Stacey; Matlock, Daniel D.; Kutner, Jean S.; Holley, Jean L.; Moss, Alvin H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with end-stage renal disease have high mortality and symptom burden. Past studies demonstrated that nephrologists do not feel prepared to care for their patients at the end of life (EOL). We sought to characterize current palliative and EOL care education received during nephrology fellowship and compare this to data from 2003. Study Design Cross-sectional online survey of second year nephrology trainees. Responses were compared to a similar survey in 2003. Setting & Participants 104 US nephrology fellowship programs in 2013. Measurements Quality of training in and attitudes toward EOL care, and knowledge and preparedness to provide nephrology-specific EOL care. Results Of the 204 fellows included for analysis (response rate, 65%), significantly more thought it was moderately to very important to learn to provide care at EOL in 2013 compared to 2003 (95% vs. 54%; p<0.001). Nearly all (99%) fellows in both surveys believed physicians have a responsibility to help patients at EOL. Ranking of teaching quality during fellowship in all areas (mean, 4.1 ± 0.8 on a scale of 0-5 [0, poor; 5, excellent) and specific to EOL care (mean, 2.4 ± 1.1) was unchanged from 2003, but knowledge of the annual gross mortality rate for dialysis patients was nominally worse in 2013, as only 57% vs. 67% in 2003 answered correctly (p=0.05). To an open-ended question asking what would most improve fellows’ EOL care education, the most common response was a required palliative medicine rotation during fellowship. Limitations Assessments were based on fellows’ subjective perceptions. Conclusions Nephrology fellows increasingly believe they should learn to provide EOL care during fellowship. However, perceptions about the quality of this teaching have not improved during the past decade. Palliative care training should be integrated into nephrology fellowship curricula. PMID:25245300

  20. Distress, concerns and unmet needs in survivors of head and neck cancer: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Wells, M; Cunningham, M; Lang, H; Swartzman, S; Philp, J; Taylor, L; Thomson, J

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the distress, unmet needs and concerns of head and neck cancer (HNC) survivors in the first 5 years after treatment. Two hundred and eighty HNC survivors from three Scottish health boards responded to a cross-sectional postal survey in 2011. Questionnaires included the Distress Thermometer, Patient Concerns Inventory (PCI) and an adapted version of the PCI to measure unmet needs. One-third of the survivors had moderate or severe levels of distress, and 74% had at least one unmet need. The most common concerns and unmet needs included oral and eating problems, fear of recurrence and fatigue. Multivariate analysis revealed that being younger, out of work (not retired), ever having had a feeding tube fitted, having a greater number of comorbidities and living alone were associated with higher levels of distress, concerns and unmet needs. The diversity of concerns and unmet needs identified in this study highlights the importance of holistic needs assessment as part of follow-up care for HNC survivors with tailoring of support for particular concerns. Specific information resources and self-management strategies are required to help HNC survivors with the practical and functional consequences of HNC treatment. PMID:26250705

  1. The components of self-perceived health in the Kailali district of Nepal: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Freidoony, Leila; Chhabi, Ranabhat; Kim, Chang Soo; Park, Myung Bae; Kim, Chun-Bae

    2015-03-01

    Self-perceived health is a health measure with well-established links with mortality, healthcare services utilization, and future health. Various components of self-perceived health have been identified in different populations. In this study, we aimed to investigate the components of self-perceived health in a Nepali population. This was a cross-sectional survey conducted in the Kailali district of Nepal in 2014. The sample was initially consisted of 309 households, representative of the population of one municipality and one village; however, 304 participants were included in the analyses. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, health condition, satisfaction with healthcare services, psychological factors, and health behaviors was extracted. Logistic regression analyses were carried out to identify putative components of self-perceived health. Among the 304 respondents, 244 (80.3%) and 60 (19.7%) perceived their health as good and poor, respectively. Middle age and lower satisfaction with healthcare services were associated with worse self-perceived health, accounting for 10.3% of variance. No regular exercise, drinking, smoking, and being unhappy were also related with worse self-perceived health, after adjustment for age and satisfaction level. In the final model, however, drinking status did not significantly contribute. Our findings support previous findings that individuals with positive health behaviors and psychological wellbeing are more likely to perceive their health better. This study may direct public health policies toward more targeted interventions. PMID:25789457

  2. Food insecurity and dental caries in schoolchildren: a cross-sectional survey in the western Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Frazão, Paulo; Benicio, Maria H D; Narvai, Paulo C; Cardoso, Marly A

    2014-06-01

    We analyzed the association between food insecurity and dental caries in 7- to 9-yr-old schoolchildren. We performed a cross-sectional survey nested in a population-based cohort study of 203 schoolchildren. The participants lived in the urban area of a small town within the western Brazilian Amazon. Dental examinations were performed according to criteria recommended by the World Health Organization. The number of decayed deciduous and permanent teeth as a count variable was the outcome measure. Socio-economic status, food security, behavioral variables, and child nutritional status, measured by Z-score for body mass index (BMI), were investigated, and robust Poisson regression models were used. The results showed a mean (SD) of 3.63 (3.26) teeth affected by untreated caries. Approximately 80% of schoolchildren had at least one untreated decayed tooth, and nearly 60% lived in food-insecure households. Sex, household wealth index, mother's education level, and food-insecurity scores were associated with dental caries in the crude analysis. Dental caries was 1.5 times more likely to be associated with high food-insecurity scores after adjusting for socio-economic status and sex. A significant dose-response relationship was observed. In conclusion, food insecurity is highly associated with dental caries in 7- to 9-yr-old children and may be seen as a risk factor. These findings suggest that food-security policies could reduce dental caries. PMID:24754799

  3. Validation of the Patient-Doctor-Relationship Questionnaire (PDRQ-9) in a Representative Cross-Sectional German Population Survey

    PubMed Central

    van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina; Brähler, Elmar; Häuser, Winfried

    2014-01-01

    The patient-doctor relationship (PDR) as perceived by the patient is an important concept in primary care and psychotherapy. The PDR Questionnaire (PDRQ-9) provides a brief measure of the therapeutic aspects of the PDR in primary care. We assessed the internal and external validity of the German version of the PDRQ-9 in a representative cross-sectional German population survey that included 2,275 persons aged≥14 years who reported consulting with a primary care physician (PCP). The acceptance of the German version of this questionnaire was good. Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that the PRDQ-9 was unidimensional. The internal reliability (Cronbach's α) of the total score was .95. The corrected item-total correlations were≥.94. The mean satisfaction index of persons with a probable depressive disorder was lower than that of persons without a probable depressive disorder, indicating good discriminative concurrent criterion validity. The correlation coefficient between satisfaction with PDR and satisfaction with pain therapy was r = .51 in 489 persons who reported chronic pain, indicating good convergent validity. Despite the limitation of low variance in the PDRQ-9 total scores, the results indicate that the German version of the PDRQ-9 is a brief questionnaire with good psychometric properties to assess German patients' perceived therapeutic alliance with PCPs in public health research. PMID:24637904

  4. Breast Cancer Screening Awareness, Knowledge, and Practice among Arab Women in the United Arab Emirates: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Elobaid, Yusra E.; Aw, Tar Ching; Grivna, Michal; Nagelkerke, Nico

    2014-01-01

    Background Breast cancer screening can reduce morbidity and mortality and improve the survival rate for this malignancy. Low participation in screening programs has been attributable to many factors including lack of knowledge. The aim of this study was to assess breast cancer screening knowledge, attitudes and practices among women of screening age (≥40 years old) in the city of Al Ain, United Arab Emirates (UAE). Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2013 using the Breast Cancer Awareness Measure (CAM). Four out of twelve cultural and religious community centers in Al Ain city were randomly selected. Two hundred and forty seven women were interviewed. Chi Square test and regression analysis were used to analyze the data. Results Despite the increase in the uptake of screening modalities in our study group, a lack of knowledge about breast cancer screening is still evident. Almost half (44.8%) of women who never had a Clinical Breast Exam (CBE) and 44.1% of women who never had a mammography expressed a lack of knowledge about the existence of these screening techniques. Nearly one third of the participants interpreted the presence of a breast lump incorrectly and, moreover, expressed fewer worries about the nature of the lump than would normally be expected. Conclusions The National screening program needs to be improved and directed towards more efficient and targeted utilization of resources. Healthcare professionals play a major role in alerting women to the importance of periodic screening. PMID:25265385

  5. Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine among People with Type 2 Diabetes in Taiwan: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hsiao-yun Annie; Wallis, Marianne; Tiralongo, Evelin

    2011-01-01

    Research into CAM use by people with diabetes is limited. This study explored CAM use among patients who attend diabetic clinics for followup treatment. Special attention was paid to patients' changing patterns of CAM use before and after diagnosis with Type 2 diabetes, their experience of CAM use, and their management of CAM use with conventional medicines. A retrospective cross-sectional survey (n = 326) was undertaken in three census regions in Taiwan, including metropolitan, urban, and rural areas in 2006-7 (87.4% response rate). Participants reported extensive use of CAM with conventional medicines. The prevalence of CAM use was 22.7% before and 61.0% after diagnosis with Type 2 diabetes with nutritional supplements being the most commonly used CAM before and after diagnosis. However, the disclosure rate of CAM use to healthcare professionals remained low (24.6%), and lack of knowledge about CAM ingredients was common (63.4%). Awareness of the widespread use of CAM by people with Type 2 diabetes is crucial for healthcare professionals. The self-administration of both conventional medicines and CAM without disclosure of CAM use to healthcare professionals may result in ineffective diabetes management and adverse effects. CAM information needs to be incorporated into clinical practice and patient and professional education. PMID:20953402

  6. Gastrointestinal, influenza-like illness and dermatological complaints following exposure to floodwater: a cross-sectional survey in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    DE Man, H; Mughini Gras, L; Schimmer, B; Friesema, I H M; DE Roda Husman, A M; VAN Pelt, W

    2016-05-01

    Extreme rainfall events may cause pluvial flooding, increasing the transmission of several waterborne pathogens. However, the risk of experiencing clinically overt infections following exposure to pluvial floodwater is poorly estimated. A retrospective cross-sectional survey was performed to quantify the occurrence of self-reported gastrointestinal, influenza-like illness (ILI) and dermatological complaints, and the frequency of visits to the general practitioner (GP), during a 4-week observation period following pluvial flooding at seven locations in The Netherlands. Questionnaires were sent to 817 flooded households, 149 (17%) of which returned the questionnaire reporting information for 199 participants. Contact with floodwater was significantly associated with increased occurrence of gastrointestinal [odds ratio (OR 4·44)], ILI (OR 2·75) and dermatological (OR 6·67) complaints, and GP visits (OR 2·72). Having hand contact with floodwater was associated with gastrointestinal and dermatological complaints, whereas ILI complaints were associated with being engaged in post-flooding cleaning operations and having walked/cycled through floodwater. This study shows that floodwater-associated diseases occur in urban settings following extreme rainfall events in a high-income country. As pluvial floods are expected to escalate in the future due to global climate change, further research is warranted to determine the disease burden of pluvial flooding and to assess the effect of different interventions, including raising awareness among stakeholders. PMID:26554647

  7. Deliberate self-harm in adolescents aged 12-18: a cross-sectional survey of 18,104 students.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Norio; Nishida, Atsushi; Shimodera, Shinji; Inoue, Ken; Oshima, Norihito; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Inoue, Shimpei; Akechi, Tatsuo; Furukawa, Toshi A; Okazaki, Yuji

    2012-10-01

    Little is known about accurate prevalence and associated factors of deliberate self-harm (DSH) among adolescents in Asian countries. In this study, the prevalence and associated factors of DSH among adolescents in Japan were examined. Data were derived from a cross-sectional survey using an anonymous self-report questionnaire and enrolling 8,620 adolescents aged 12-15 and 9,484 aged 15-18. DSH in the previous 12 months was reported by 3.3% (95% CI, 2.9-3.7) of junior and 4.3% (3.9%-4.7%) of senior high school respondents. The prevalence was more than four times as high among girls as among boys for both age groups. DSH was further strongly associated with having suicidal thoughts, having depression/anxiety symptoms, and having used recreational drugs. These associated factors were similar for both sexes and for both older and younger teenagers. A substantial minority of adolescents present with DSH, even among those aged 12-15. The prevalence of DSH in Japan was in the lower ranges of those reported for Western countries. The identified associated factors were not dissimilar from those reported in the West. PMID:22889157

  8. Cross-sectional association between polyfluoroalkyl chemicals and cognitive limitation in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)

    PubMed Central

    Power, Melinda C.; Webster, Thomas F.; Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Weisskopf, Marc G.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Our limited understanding of how polyflouoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs) may impact human health suggests the potential for a protective impact on brain health. This study was designed to explore the association between PFCs and cognitive ability in older adults. Methods We assessed the association between four PFCs, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), and self-reported limitation due to difficulty remembering or periods of confusion using data from participants aged 60–85 from the 1999–2000 and 2003–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. We also considered whether diabetic status or diabetic medication use modifies this association in light of in vitro evidence that PFCs may act on the same receptors as some diabetic medications. Results In multivariable adjusted models, point estimates suggest a protective association between PFCs and self-reported cognitive limitation (OR (95% CI) for a doubling in PFOS, 0.90 (0.78, 1.03); PFOA, 0.92 (0.78, 1.09); PFNA, 0.91 (0.79, 1.04); PFHxS, 0.93 (0.82, 1.06)). The protective association was concentrated in diabetics, with strong, significant protective associations in non-medicated diabetics. Conclusions This cross-sectional study suggests that there may be a protective association between exposure to PFCs and cognition in older adults, particularly diabetics. PMID:23095808

  9. Probable Post Traumatic Stress Disorder in Kenya and Its Associated Risk Factors: A Cross-Sectional Household Survey

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Rachel; Othieno, Caleb; Omollo, Raymond; Ongeri, Linnet; Sifuna, Peter; Mboroki, James Kingora; Kiima, David; Ogutu, Bernhards

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the prevalence of probable post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and its associated risk factors in a general household population in Kenya. Data were drawn from a cross-sectional household survey of mental disorders and their associated risk factors. The participants received a structured epidemiological assessment of common mental disorders, and symptoms of PTSD, accompanied by additional sections on socio-demographic data, life events, social networks, social supports, disability/activities of daily living, quality of life, use of health services, and service use. The study found that 48% had experienced a severe trauma, and an overall prevalence rate of 10.6% of probable PTSD, defined as a score of six or more on the trauma screening questionnaire (TSQ). The conditional probability of PTSD was 0.26. Risk factors include being female, single, self-employed, having experienced recent life events, having a common mental disorder (CMD)and living in an institution before age 16. The study indicates that probable PTSD is prevalent in this rural area of Kenya. The findings are relevant for the training of front line health workers, their support and supervision, for health management information systems, and for mental health promotion in state boarding schools. PMID:26516877

  10. Correlates of problematic unrecorded alcohol consumption in Sikkim, Northeast India - Results from a cross-sectional pilot survey.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Amit; Rai, Tekendra K; Sharma, Bijaya; Rai, Bhim Bahadur

    2015-01-01

    The magnitude and consequences of unrecorded alcohol consumption, defined as home brewed or clandestinely produced illicit liquor or surrogate alcoholic beverage has been little investigated in India. A significant portion of all alcohol consumed globally is unrecorded, therefore these consumers constitute a significant population. Sikkim, a province in Northeast India, lies in the foothills of the Himalayas. Unrecorded alcohol use is traditionally prevalent, with more than ten types available. This study investigated correlates of problematic unrecorded alcohol consumption in rural and urban communities of Sikkim. A cross-sectional, community-based pilot survey was conducted. Intensive case-finding recruited current heavy users (at least 3 days/week) of unrecorded alcohol of either sex above 16 years of age. On enrolment, participants responded to a socio-demographic instrument including 12 questions on their pattern of alcohol consumption and a 4-item CAGE questionnaire. Alcohol problems exist significantly among the young adult population. Although consumption of unrecorded alcohol is traditional in Sikkim, it has emerged as an important public health problem, with alarmingly high rates of problematic consumption. This is also expected to have significant economic costs. Therefore, prevention and treatment measures are an urgent need as well as policy decisions on production and sales of unrecorded alcohol. PMID:25800078

  11. Attitudes towards General Practice: a comparative cross-sectional survey of 1st and 5th year medical students

    PubMed Central

    Kruschinski, Carsten; Wiese, Birgitt; Hummers-Pradier, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Positive attitudes towards General Practice can be understood as a prerequisite for becoming a General Practitioner (GP) and for collaboration with GPs later on. This study aimed to assess attitudes of medical students at the beginning and the end of medical school. Methods: A total of 160 1st year students at Hannover Medical School were surveyed. Their attitudes were compared to those of 287 5th year students. Descriptive, bi- and multivariate analyses were performed to investigate influences of year of study and gender. Results: Year of study and gender both were associated with the attitudes towards General Practice. The interest in General Practice and patient-orientation (communication, care of older patients with chronic diseases) was higher in 1st year students compared to more advanced students. Female students valued such requirements more than male students, the differences in attitudes between the years of study being more pronounced in male students. Conclusion: Despite some limitations caused by the cross-sectional design, the attitudes towards General Practice competencies changed to their disadvantage during medical school. This suggests a formative influence of the strategies used in medical education. Educational strategies, however, could be used to bring about a change of attitudes in the other direction. PMID:23255966

  12. A Cross-Sectional, Randomized Cluster Sample Survey of Household Vulnerability to Extreme Heat among Slum Dwellers in Ahmedabad, India

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Kathy V.; Azhar, Gulrez S.; Nair, Rajesh; Knowlton, Kim; Jaiswal, Anjali; Sheffield, Perry; Mavalankar, Dileep; Hess, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Extreme heat is a significant public health concern in India; extreme heat hazards are projected to increase in frequency and severity with climate change. Few of the factors driving population heat vulnerability are documented, though poverty is a presumed risk factor. To facilitate public health preparedness, an assessment of factors affecting vulnerability among slum dwellers was conducted in summer 2011 in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. Indicators of heat exposure, susceptibility to heat illness, and adaptive capacity, all of which feed into heat vulnerability, was assessed through a cross-sectional household survey using randomized multistage cluster sampling. Associations between heat-related morbidity and vulnerability factors were identified using multivariate logistic regression with generalized estimating equations to account for clustering effects. Age, preexisting medical conditions, work location, and access to health information and resources were associated with self-reported heat illness. Several of these variables were unique to this study. As sociodemographics, occupational heat exposure, and access to resources were shown to increase vulnerability, future interventions (e.g., health education) might target specific populations among Ahmedabad urban slum dwellers to reduce vulnerability to extreme heat. Surveillance and evaluations of future interventions may also be worthwhile. PMID:23778061

  13. The impact of a streamlined funding application process on application time: two cross-sectional surveys of Australian researchers

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Adrian G; Graves, Nicholas; Clarke, Philip; Herbert, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine if streamlining a medical research funding application process saved time for applicants. Design Cross-sectional surveys before and after the streamlining. Setting The National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) of Australia. Participants Researchers who submitted one or more NHMRC Project Grant applications in 2012 or 2014. Main outcome measures Average researcher time spent preparing an application and the total time for all applications in working days. Results The average time per application increased from 34 working days before streamlining (95% CI 33 to 35) to 38 working days after streamlining (95% CI 37 to 39; mean difference 4 days, bootstrap p value <0.001). The estimated total time spent by all researchers on applications after streamlining was 614 working years, a 67-year increase from before streamlining. Conclusions Streamlined applications were shorter but took longer to prepare on average. Researchers may be allocating a fixed amount of time to preparing funding applications based on their expected return, or may be increasing their time in response to increased competition. Many potentially productive years of researcher time are still being lost to preparing failed applications. PMID:25596201

  14. The Components of Self-Perceived Health in the Kailali District of Nepal: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Freidoony, Leila; Chhabi, Ranabhat; Kim, Chang Soo; Park, Myung Bae; Kim, Chun-Bae

    2015-01-01

    Self-perceived health is a health measure with well-established links with mortality, healthcare services utilization, and future health. Various components of self-perceived health have been identified in different populations. In this study, we aimed to investigate the components of self-perceived health in a Nepali population. This was a cross-sectional survey conducted in the Kailali district of Nepal in 2014. The sample was initially consisted of 309 households, representative of the population of one municipality and one village; however, 304 participants were included in the analyses. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, health condition, satisfaction with healthcare services, psychological factors, and health behaviors was extracted. Logistic regression analyses were carried out to identify putative components of self-perceived health. Among the 304 respondents, 244 (80.3%) and 60 (19.7%) perceived their health as good and poor, respectively. Middle age and lower satisfaction with healthcare services were associated with worse self-perceived health, accounting for 10.3% of variance. No regular exercise, drinking, smoking, and being unhappy were also related with worse self-perceived health, after adjustment for age and satisfaction level. In the final model, however, drinking status did not significantly contribute. Our findings support previous findings that individuals with positive health behaviors and psychological wellbeing are more likely to perceive their health better. This study may direct public health policies toward more targeted interventions. PMID:25789457

  15. Probable Post Traumatic Stress Disorder in Kenya and Its Associated Risk Factors: A Cross-Sectional Household Survey.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Rachel; Othieno, Caleb; Omollo, Raymond; Ongeri, Linnet; Sifuna, Peter; Mboroki, James Kingora; Kiima, David; Ogutu, Bernhards

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to assess the prevalence of probable post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and its associated risk factors in a general household population in Kenya. Data were drawn from a cross-sectional household survey of mental disorders and their associated risk factors. The participants received a structured epidemiological assessment of common mental disorders, and symptoms of PTSD, accompanied by additional sections on socio-demographic data, life events, social networks, social supports, disability/activities of daily living, quality of life, use of health services, and service use. The study found that 48% had experienced a severe trauma, and an overall prevalence rate of 10.6% of probable PTSD, defined as a score of six or more on the trauma screening questionnaire (TSQ). The conditional probability of PTSD was 0.26. Risk factors include being female, single, self-employed, having experienced recent life events, having a common mental disorder (CMD)and living in an institution before age 16. The study indicates that probable PTSD is prevalent in this rural area of Kenya. The findings are relevant for the training of front line health workers, their support and supervision, for health management information systems, and for mental health promotion in state boarding schools. PMID:26516877

  16. Validation of the Patient-Doctor-Relationship Questionnaire (PDRQ-9) in a representative cross-sectional German population survey.

    PubMed

    Zenger, Markus; Schaefert, Rainer; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina; Brähler, Elmar; Häuser, Winfried

    2014-01-01

    The patient-doctor relationship (PDR) as perceived by the patient is an important concept in primary care and psychotherapy. The PDR Questionnaire (PDRQ-9) provides a brief measure of the therapeutic aspects of the PDR in primary care. We assessed the internal and external validity of the German version of the PDRQ-9 in a representative cross-sectional German population survey that included 2,275 persons aged ≥14 years who reported consulting with a primary care physician (PCP). The acceptance of the German version of this questionnaire was good. Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that the PRDQ-9 was unidimensional. The internal reliability (Cronbach's α) of the total score was .95. The corrected item-total correlations were ≥.94. The mean satisfaction index of persons with a probable depressive disorder was lower than that of persons without a probable depressive disorder, indicating good discriminative concurrent criterion validity. The correlation coefficient between satisfaction with PDR and satisfaction with pain therapy was r = .51 in 489 persons who reported chronic pain, indicating good convergent validity. Despite the limitation of low variance in the PDRQ-9 total scores, the results indicate that the German version of the PDRQ-9 is a brief questionnaire with good psychometric properties to assess German patients' perceived therapeutic alliance with PCPs in public health research. PMID:24637904

  17. Participants’ perception of pharmaceutical clinical research: a cross-sectional controlled study

    PubMed Central

    González-Saldivar, Gerardo; Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, René; Viramontes-Madrid, José Luis; Salcido-Montenegro, Alejandro; Carlos-Reyna, Kevin Erick Gabriel; Treviño-Alvarez, Andrés Marcelo; Álvarez-Villalobos, Neri Alejandro; González-González, José Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    Background There is scarce scientific information assessing participants’ perception of pharmaceutical research in developed and developing countries concerning the risks, safety, and purpose of clinical trials. Methods To assess the perception that 604 trial participants (cases) and 604 nonparticipants (controls) of pharmaceutical clinical trials have about pharmaceutical clinical research, we surveyed participants with one of four chronic diseases from 12 research sites throughout Mexico. Results Participation in clinical trials positively influences the perception of pharmaceutical clinical research. More cases (65.4%) than controls (50.7%) perceived that the main purpose of pharmaceutical research is to cure more diseases and to do so more effectively. In addition, more cases considered that there are significant benefits when participating in a research study, such as excellent medical care and extra free services, with this being the most important motivation to participate for both groups (cases 52%, controls 54.5%). We also found a sense of trust in their physicians to deal with adverse events, and the perception that clinical research is a benefit to their health, rather than a risk. More controls believed that clinical trial participants’ health is put at risk (57% vs 33.3%). More cases (99.2%) than controls (77.5%) would recommend participating in a clinical trial, and 90% of cases would enroll in a clinical trial again. Conclusion Participation in clinical trials positively influences the perception that participants have about pharmaceutical clinical research when compared to nonparticipants. This information needs to be conveyed to clinicians, public health authorities, and general population to overcome misconceptions. PMID:27199549

  18. Assessment of asthma control using asthma control test in chest clinics in Cameroon: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Hugo, Mbatchou Ngahane Bertrand; Walter, Pefura-Yone Eric; Maïmouna, Mama; Malea, Nganda Motto; Ubald, Olinga; Adeline, Wandji; Bruno, Tengang; Emmanuel, Nyankiyé; Emmanuel, Afane Ze; Christopher, Kuaban

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The goal of asthma treatment is to obtain and maintain a good control of symptoms. Investigating factors associated with inadequately control asthma could help in strategies to improve asthma control. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and factors associated with inadequately controlled asthma in asthma patients under chest specialist care. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2012 to May 2013. Physician-diagnosed asthma patients aged 12 years and above were included. A questionnaire was used to collect demographic data, comorbidities, and medical history of asthma. Asthma control was assessed using the Asthma Control Test (ACT), with a score less than 20 for inadequately controlled asthma and a score greater or equal to 20 for controlled asthma. A multivariate analysis was used to identify factors associated with inadequately controlled asthma. Results Overall, 243 patients were included in this study. Asthma was controlled in 141 patients (58%) and inadequately controlled in 102 (42%). The mean duration of asthma was 8 years with an interquartile range of 4 and 18 years. Forty-three participants (17.7%) were not under any controller medication while the mean ACT score was 19.3 ± 4.6. Independent associations were found between inadequately controlled asthma and female gender (OR 1.91; 95% CI 1.06-3.47) and obesity (OR 1.81; 1.01-3.27). Conclusion Asthma remains poorly controlled in a large proportion of asthma patients under specialist care in Cameroon. Educational programs for asthma patients targeting women and based on weight loss for obese patients may help in improving the control of asthma. PMID:27217894

  19. Solute Transport in Cyclically Deformed Porous Tissue Scaffolds with Controlled Pore Cross-Sectional Geometries

    PubMed Central

    Op Den Buijs, Jorn; Lu, Lichun; Jorgensen, Steven M.; Dragomir-Daescu, Dan; Yaszemski, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of pore geometry on the transport rate and depth after repetitive mechanical deformation of porous scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. Flexible cubic imaging phantoms with pores in the shape of a circular cylinder, elliptic cylinder, and spheroid were fabricated from a biodegradable polymer blend using a combined 3D printing and injection molding technique. The specimens were immersed in fluid and loaded with a solution of a radiopaque solute. The solute distribution was quantified by recording 20 μm pixel-resolution images in an X-ray microimaging scanner at selected time points after intervals of dynamic straining with a mean strain of 8.6 ± 1.6% at 1.0 Hz. The results show that application of cyclic strain significantly increases the rate and depth of solute transport, as compared to diffusive transport alone, for all pore shapes. In addition, pore shape, pore size, and the orientation of the pore cross-sectional asymmetry with respect to the direction of strain greatly influence solute transport. Thus, pore geometry can be tailored to increase transport rates and depths in cyclically deformed scaffolds, which is of utmost importance when thick, metabolically functional tissues are to be engineered. PMID:19196145

  20. Medication double-checking procedures in clinical practice: a cross-sectional survey of oncology nurses' experiences

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Yvonne; Taxis, Katja

    2016-01-01

    Background Double-checking is widely recommended as an essential method to prevent medication errors. However, prior research has shown that the concept of double-checking is not clearly defined, and that little is known about actual practice in oncology, for example, what kind of checking procedures are applied. Objective To study the practice of different double-checking procedures in chemotherapy administration and to explore nurses' experiences, for example, how often they actually find errors using a certain procedure. General evaluations regarding double-checking, for example, frequency of interruptions during and caused by a check, or what is regarded as its essential feature was assessed. Methods In a cross-sectional survey, qualified nurses working in oncology departments of 3 hospitals were asked to rate 5 different scenarios of double-checking procedures regarding dimensions such as frequency of use in practice and appropriateness to prevent medication errors; they were also asked general questions about double-checking. Results Overall, 274 nurses (70% response rate) participated in the survey. The procedure of jointly double-checking (read-read back) was most commonly used (69% of respondents) and rated as very appropriate to prevent medication errors. Jointly checking medication was seen as the essential characteristic of double-checking—more frequently than ‘carrying out checks independently’ (54% vs 24%). Most nurses (78%) found the frequency of double-checking in their department appropriate. Being interrupted in one's own current activity for supporting a double-check was reported to occur frequently. Regression analysis revealed a strong preference towards checks that are currently implemented at the responders' workplace. Conclusions Double-checking is well regarded by oncology nurses as a procedure to help prevent errors, with jointly checking being used most frequently. Our results show that the notion of independent checking needs to be

  1. A cross-sectional online survey of compulsive internet use and mental health of young adults in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Kutty, Nizar A. M.; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The last decade has seen the emergence of the internet as the prime communication medium changing the way people live and interact. Studies from various countries have reported on internet addiction and its association with mental health, but none have come from Malaysia. Objectives: We aimed at assessing the frequency of the use of various internet applications and exploring the association of compulsive internet use with mental health and socio-demographic factors. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional online survey was carried out among participants registered for the monthly opinion poll survey of University Tunku Abdul Rahman, Malaysia. The questionnaire contained socio-demographic information, the use of various internet applications on a five-point Likert scale, compulsive internet use scale (CIUS) and 12 item general health questionnaire (GHQ-12). Correlations and linear regression analyzes were carried out. Results: Of the 330 respondents, 182 were females and 148 were males. The mean age was 23.17 (SD = 3.84). Mean CIUS score was 19.85 (SD = 10.57) and mean GHQ score was 15.47 (SD = 6.29). Correlation coefficients of CIUS score with age, years of use and daily hours of internet use were −0.118 (P = 0.03), −0.014 (P = 0.81) and 0.242 (P < 0.001) respectively. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that age (β = −0.111, P = 0.033) and marital status (β = −0.124, P = 0.018) were negatively associated with CIUS scores whereas daily hours of internet use (β = 0.269, P = 0.001) and GHQ score (β = 0.259, P = 0.001) were positively associated with the CIUS score. Conclusions: Compulsive internet use was correlated with GHQ score. More research is needed to confirm our results. Psychologists may consider assessing internet addiction when evaluating young psychiatric patients. PMID:24696631

  2. Influenza Vaccination: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Knowledge, Attitude and Practices among the Lebanese Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    El Khoury, Ghada; Salameh, Pascale

    2015-01-01

    Background: Influenza is a common preventable infectious disease associated with high mortality and morbidity. Vaccination is the most cost-effective measure to prevent influenza, yet the vaccine uptake is known to be low. No previous studies have assessed the rate of seasonal influenza vaccination use among the Lebanese population, nor examined the knowledge and attitudes towards the influenza vaccine. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was performed in 30 pharmacies randomly selected across Lebanon. A 19-item questionnaire was used to record influenza vaccination status, knowledge and attitudes towards the influenza vaccine among the Lebanese general population. Results: The survey response rate was 93%. Among the 640 study participants, the overall 2014-2015 seasonal influenza vaccination rate was 27.6%. The majority of participants (72.4%) reported irregular uptake of the vaccine. Results of the multivariate analysis revealed that elderly people (OR = 2.25, CI = 1.08–4.71), with higher education (OR = 1.42, CI = 1.09–1.84), higher physical activity (OR significantly higher than 1 for all categories), and chronic respiratory disease (OR = 3.24, CI = 1.58–6.62) were more regularly vaccinated, while those who visit the doctor “only when needed” (OR = 0.55, CI = 0.34–0.88) and those who consume more than seven drinks/week (OR = 0.24, CI = 0.09–0.65) were less regularly vaccinated. When introducing knowledge and attitude variables to the model, “thinking that the vaccine was not needed” was the only correlate that demonstrated a significant inverse association with regular influenza vaccination (OR = 0.15; p = 0.017). Conclusions: Suboptimal vaccination rates exist among the Lebanese ambulatory adult population. Clear misinformation on the importance of regular influenza immunization is also highlighted. This evidence underscores a compelling need to raise public awareness regarding the efficacy of the influenza vaccine. PMID:26690189

  3. Assessment of perceived health status among primary care patients in Southern Italy: findings from a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The primary aim of this study was to measure HRQOL of primary care patients in one of the poorest areas of Italy, using SF-12, whereas the secondary aim was to identify subgroups of this population, according to socio-demographics, clinical characteristics, behavioural risk factors, and health services utilization, that manifest poorer HRQOL. These data may be helpful to policy makers to implement health care policies and social interventions for improving HRQOL. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Southern Italy on primary care patients aged 18 and over. SF-12 was used to measure perceived health status. Physical component and mental summary scores were obtained. We performed univariate and multivariate analysis to evaluate eventual significant differences of mean PCS-12 and MCS-12 according to various characteristics (demographics, presence of chronic diseases, behavioral risk factors, and utilization of health services). Results Of the 1467 participating in our survey, more than one third evaluated their health as unsatisfactory, noted significant limitations and reported problems on all SF-12-scales. Physical and mental summary scores showed an overall mean of 45.9 (SD ± 10.8) and 44.9 (SD ± 11.6), respectively. Statistical analysis showed significant differences in perceived health status by socio-demographic characteristics, such as gender, age, education level and employment status, by behavioral risk factors, chronic diseases and health services utilization. Conclusions Our findings seem to indicate that primary care patients in Southern Italy have a poor HRQOL and this perception is even poorer in subgroups of the population, according to several sociodemographic, clinical characteristics, and behavioural risk factors. These results may have significant implications for health care policymakers, since they emphasize the need of developing effective and targeted strategies to improve HRQOL in Southern Italy. PMID:23758708

  4. Constant speed control for complex cross-section welding using robot based on angle self-test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Long; Zou, Yong; Huang, Jiqiang; Huang, Junfen; Tao, Xinghua; Hu, Yanfeng

    2014-03-01

    Expandable profile liner(EPL) is a promising new oil well casing cementing technique, and welding is a major EPLs connection technology. Connection of EPL is still in the stage of manual welding so far, automatic welding technology is a hotspot of EPL which is one of the key technologies to be solved. A robot for automatic welding of "8" type EPL is studied. Four quadrants of mathematical equations of the 8-shaped cross-section track of EPL, consisting of multiple arcs, are established. Mechanism program for complex cross-section welding of EPL based on angle detection is proposed according to characteristics of small size, small valleys, and large forming errors, etc. A welding velocity vector control model is established by linkage control of a welding vehicle, a small driven actuator, and a height tracking mechanism. A constant speed control model based on an angle and symmetrical analysis model of rectangular coordinate system for EPL is built. Constraint conditions of constant speed control between each section are analyzed with 4 sections in first quadrant as an example, and cooperation work mechanism of the welding vehicle and the small tracking actuator is established based on pressure detection. The constant speed control model using angle self-test can be used to avoid the need for a precise mathematical model for tracking control and to adapt manufacture and installation deviation of EPL workpiece. The model is able to solve constant speed and trajectory tracking problems of EPL cross-section welding. EPL seams welded by the studied robot are good in appearance, and non-destructive testing(NDT) shows the seams are good in quality with no welding defects. Bulge tests show that the maximum pressure of welded EPL is 35 MPa, which can fulfill expansion performance requirements.

  5. Transactional sex and HIV risks – evidence from a cross-sectional national survey among young people in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Choudhry, Vikas; Ambresin, Anne-Emmanuelle; Nyakato, Viola Nilah; Agardh, Anette

    2015-01-01

    Background Transactional sex is associated with the HIV epidemic among young people in Uganda. Few quantitative studies based on nationally representative survey data explored the relationship between sexual behaviors, HIV infection, and transactional sex. Objective This study aimed to determine the associations between risky sexual behaviors, participation in transactional sex, and HIV sero-status among men and women aged 15–24 in Uganda. Design The study uses data from the Uganda AIDS Indicator Survey, a cross-sectional national HIV serological study conducted in 2011. We analyzed data on 1,516 men and 2,824 women aged 15–24 who had been sexually active in the 12 months preceding the survey. Private, face-to-face interviews were also conducted to record the sociodemographics, sexual history, and experiences of sexual coercion. Logistic regression analysis was performed to measure associations between sexual behaviors and transactional sex, and associations between HIV sero-status and transactional sex. Results Among young people who had been sexually active in the 12 months prior to the survey, 5.2% of young men reported paying for sex while 3.7% of young women reported receiving gifts, favors, or money for sex. Lower educational attainment (ORadjusted 3.25, CI 1.10–9.60) and experience of sexual coercion (ORadjusted 2.83, CI 1.07–7.47) were significantly associated with paying for sex among men. Multiple concurrent sexual relationships were significantly associated with paying for sex among young men (ORadjusted 5.60, CI 2.08–14.95) and receiving something for sex among young women (ORadjusted 8.04, CI 2.55–25.37). Paying for sex among young men and having three to five lifetime sexual partners among young women were associated with increased odds of testing positive for HIV. Conclusions Transactional sex is associated with sexual coercion and HIV risk behaviors such as multiple concurrent sexual partnerships among young people in Uganda. In addition

  6. Risk of bias versus quality assessment of randomised controlled trials: cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Ospina, Maria; Liang, Yuanyuan; Dryden, Donna M; Hooton, Nicola; Krebs Seida, Jennifer; Klassen, Terry P

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the risk of bias tool, introduced by the Cochrane Collaboration for assessing the internal validity of randomised trials, for inter-rater agreement, concurrent validity compared with the Jadad scale and Schulz approach to allocation concealment, and the relation between risk of bias and effect estimates. Design Cross sectional study. Study sample 163 trials in children. Main outcome measures Inter-rater agreement between reviewers assessing trials using the risk of bias tool (weighted κ), time to apply the risk of bias tool compared with other approaches to quality assessment (paired t test), degree of correlation for overall risk compared with overall quality scores (Kendall’s τ statistic), and magnitude of effect estimates for studies classified as being at high, unclear, or low risk of bias (metaregression). Results Inter-rater agreement on individual domains of the risk of bias tool ranged from slight (κ=0.13) to substantial (κ=0.74). The mean time to complete the risk of bias tool was significantly longer than for the Jadad scale and Schulz approach, individually or combined (8.8 minutes (SD 2.2) per study v 2.0 (SD 0.8), P<0.001). There was low correlation between risk of bias overall compared with the Jadad scores (P=0.395) and Schulz approach (P=0.064). Effect sizes differed between studies assessed as being at high or unclear risk of bias (0.52) compared with those at low risk (0.23). Conclusions Inter-rater agreement varied across domains of the risk of bias tool. Generally, agreement was poorer for those items that required more judgment. There was low correlation between assessments of overall risk of bias and two common approaches to quality assessment: the Jadad scale and Schulz approach to allocation concealment. Overall risk of bias as assessed by the risk of bias tool differentiated effect estimates, with more conservative estimates for studies at low risk. PMID:19841007

  7. Attitude of patients with HIV infection towards organ transplant between HIV patients. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey.

    PubMed

    Taha, Huda; Newby, Katie; Das, Archik; Das, Satyajit

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the HIV patients' attitudes towards the practice of organ transplant between HIV patients using a cross-sectional survey design. In total, 206 patients participated with a mean age of 42 (±8.8) years. The majority (70%) were black African and women (54%), and 83% described themselves as heterosexual. Most participants (n = 171, 83%) were on treatment, and 159 (93%) had viral load less than 40 copies/ml. Mean duration of illness and mean duration of treatment were 77 (±42.7) and 68 (±41) months, respectively. Of all participants, 128 (62%) reported that they would consider donating either any organ or a specific organ/s to an HIV patient, 33 (16%) would not consider it and 45 (22%) were unsure about donating their organs. Furthermore, 113 (55%) participants would consider receiving an organ from an HIV patient, 37 (18%) would not consider it, and 56 (27%) were unsure. Ninety-eight participants (42%) reported that they would consider both donating and receiving an organ. Multinomial logistic regression analysis found that significantly more Black African than Caucasian participants were unsure about organ donation (p = 0.011, OR = 3.887). Participants with longer duration of infection were significantly less likely to consider receiving an organ from an HIV patient (p = 0.036, OR = 1.297). Overall, the study findings indicated that the majority of participants were in favour of organ transplant between HIV patients. Use of HIV-infected donors could potentially reduce current organ waiting list among HIV patients. PMID:25614524

  8. Psychosocial Problems Syndemically Increase Adolescent Substance Use: Findings From a Cross-sectional Survey of 82,812 Chinese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jie; Wu, Hong; Wang, Juan; Deng, Jianxiong; Gao, Xue; Xu, Yan; Huang, Guoliang; Huang, Jinghui; Guo, Lan; Lu, Ciyong

    2015-12-01

    A growing body of studies have indicated the associations between substance use and psychosocial problems in adolescents. However, few of them have examined whether these psychosocial problems form a syndemic, which means the co-occurrence of psychosocial problems accompanied by additional effects on substance use.We conducted a cross-sectional survey with 82,812 Chinese adolescents who were selected using a multistage random procedure. Bivariate associations were estimated between selected syndemic indicators and adolescent substance use. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the association between the syndemic indicator count score (the count of syndemic indicators) and adolescent substance use. In addition, cluster analysis was used to partition participants reporting at least one of syndemic indicators to assess associations between resolved cluster memberships and adolescent substance use.All selected syndemic indicators were associated with each other and with adolescent substance use. As the number of syndemic indicators increases, stronger associations with substance use were found in our analysis: the range of adjusted OR was from 1.57 (95% CI: 1.38-1.79) for 1 syndemic indicator to 9.45 (95% CI: 7.60-11.76) for 5 or 6 syndemic indicators. There was no effect modification of gender on these additive associations. The multivariate logistic regression indicated that the cluster membership of nonlow SES academic failures has the highest odds of using substance (OR = 2.26, 95% CI: 2.12-2.41), compared to students reporting none syndemic indicators.Our findings support the syndemic hypothesis that adolescents bearing multiple psychosocial problems experience additive risks of using substance. Our findings support that a comprehensive approach to substance use prevention in adolescents would necessitate the involvement of a variety of providers. PMID:26717391

  9. Knowledge, attitudes and preferences regarding genetic testing for smoking cessation. A cross-sectional survey among Dutch smokers.

    PubMed

    Quaak, Marieke; Smerecnik, Chris; van Schooten, Frederik J; de Vries, Hein; van Schayck, Constant P

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Recent research strongly suggests that genetic variation influences smokers' ability to stop. Therefore, the use of (pharmaco) genetic testing may increase cessation rates. This study aims to assess the intention of smokers concerning undergoing genetic testing for smoking cessation and their knowledge, attitudes and preferences about this subject. Design Online cross-sectional survey. Setting Database internet research company of which every inhabitant of the Netherlands of ≥12 years with an email address and capable of understanding Dutch can become a member. Participants 587 of 711 Dutch smokers aged ≥18 years, daily smokers for ≥5 years and smoke on average ≥10 cigarettes/day (response rate=83%). Primary and secondary outcome measures Smokers' knowledge, attitudes and preferences and their intention to undergo genetic testing for smoking cessation. Results Knowledge on the influence of genetic factors in smoking addiction and cessation was found to be low. Smokers underestimated their chances of having a genetic predisposition and the influence of this on smoking cessation. Participants perceived few disadvantages, some advantages and showed moderate self-efficacy towards undergoing a genetic test and dealing with the results. Smokers were mildly interested in receiving information and participating in genetic testing, especially when offered by their general practitioner (GP). Conclusions For successful implementation of genetic testing for smoking in general practice, several issues should be addressed, such as the knowledge on smoking cessation, genetics and genetic testing (including advantages and disadvantages) and the influence of genetics on smoking addiction and cessation. Furthermore, smokers allocate their GPs a crucial role in the provision of information and the delivery of a genetic test for smoking; however, it is unclear whether GPs will be able and willing to take on this role. PMID:22223839

  10. Assessing the potential for improvement of primary care in 34 countries: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Boerma, Wienke GW; Murante, Anna M; Sixma, Herman JM; Schellevis, François G; Groenewegen, Peter P

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate patients’ perceptions of improvement potential in primary care in 34 countries. Methods We did a cross-sectional survey of 69 201 patients who had just visited general practitioners at primary-care facilities. Patients rated five features of person-focused primary care – accessibility/availability, continuity, comprehensiveness, patient involvement and doctor–patient communication. One tenth of the patients ranked the importance of each feature on a scale of one to four, and nine tenths of patients scored their experiences of care received. We calculated the potential for improvement by multiplying the proportion of negative patient experiences with the mean importance score in each country. Scores were divided into low, medium and high improvement potential. Pair-wise correlations were made between improvement scores and three dimensions of the structure of primary care – governance, economic conditions and workforce development. Findings In 26 countries, one or more features of primary care had medium or high improvement potentials. Comprehensiveness of care had medium to high improvement potential in 23 of 34 countries. In all countries, doctor–patient communication had low improvement potential. An overall stronger structure of primary care was correlated with a lower potential for improvement of continuity and comprehensiveness of care. In countries with stronger primary care governance patients perceived less potential to improve the continuity of care. Countries with better economic conditions for primary care had less potential for improvement of all features of person-focused care. Conclusion In countries with a stronger primary care structure, patients perceived that primary care had less potential for improvement. PMID:25883409

  11. Masculinities and condom use patterns among young rural South Africa men: a cross-sectional baseline survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Notions of ideal manhood in South Africa are potentially prescriptive of male sexuality thus accounting for the behaviors which may lead to men being at greater HIV risk. We tested the hypothesis that gender and relationship constructs are associated with condom use among young men living in rural South Africa. Methods 1219 men aged 15–26 years completed a cross-sectional baseline survey from an IsiXhosa questionnaire asking about sexual behaviour and relationships. Univariate and bivariate analyses described condom use patterns and explanatory variables, and multinomial regression modeling assessed the factors associated with inconsistent versus consistent and non-condom use. Results 47.7% of men never used condoms, when 36.9% were inconsistent and 15.4% were consistent with any partner in the past year. Condom use patterns differed in association with gender relations attitudes: never users were significantly more conservative than inconsistent or consistent users. Three gender positions emerged indicating that inconsistent users were most physically/sexually violent and sexually risky; never users had more conservative gender attitudes but were less violent and sexually risky; and consistent users were less conservative, less violent and sexually risky with notably fewer sexual partners than inconsistent users. Conclusions The confluence of conservative gender attitudes, perpetration of violence against women and sexual risk taking distinguished inconsistent condom users as the most risky compared to never condom users, and rendered inconsistent use one of the basic negative attributes of dominant masculinities in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. This finding is important for the design of HIV prevention and gender equity interventions and emphasizes the need for a wider roll-out of interventions that promote progressive and healthy masculine practices in the country. PMID:22892159

  12. Survey of Attitudes toward Uterus Transplantation among Japanese Women of Reproductive Age: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Kisu, Iori; Banno, Kouji; Soeda, Etsuko; Kurihara, Yuki; Okushima, Miho; Yamaguchi, Ami; Nakagawa, Eriko; Umene, Kiyoko; Aoki, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Objective Uterus transplantation (UTx) is a potential option for women with uterine factor infertility to have a child, but there has been no large-scale survey of the views on UTx in women of reproductive age in Japan. The present study was aimed to clarify the views of Japanese women of reproductive age on UTx for uterine factor infertility. Methods A questionnaire on UTx was conducted by an Internet research company in December 2014 as a cross-sectional study in 3,892 randomly chosen women aged 25 to 39 years old. Responses were analyzed from 3,098 subjects (mean age 32.1±4.2 years old), after exclusion of inappropriate respondents in screening. Results Of the respondents, 62.1%, 34.7% and 18.1% favored adoption, UTx and gestational surrogacy, respectively. In contrast, 7.0%, 21.9% and 63.3% opposed adoption, UTx and gestational surrogacy, respectively. In choices of candidates for UTx based on highest priority, deceased persons (33.8%) and mothers (19.0%) were favored as donors, and women with congenital absence of the uterus (54.4%) and hysterectomy due to a malignant uterine tumor (20.0%) as recipients. Regarding societal acceptance of UTx, the answer rates were 15.7% for "UTx should be permitted", 77.6% for "UTx should be permitted with discussion", and 6.7% for "UTx should not be permitted, even with discussion". Regarding personal opinions on UTx, 44.2% were in favor, 47.5% had no opinion, and 8.3% were against. Conclusion Our results suggest that many Japanese women of reproductive age feel that UTx is socially and individually acceptable, but that concerns requiring further discussion remain among these women. There was also a tendency for UTx to be viewed more favorably than gestational surrogacy. PMID:27203855

  13. Extent, Nature, and Risk Factors of Workplace Violence in Public Tertiary Hospitals in China: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    PubMed

    Liu, He; Zhao, Siqi; Jiao, Mingli; Wang, Jingtao; Peters, David H; Qiao, Hong; Zhao, Yuchong; Li, Ye; Song, Lei; Xing, Kai; Lu, Yan; Wu, Qunhong

    2015-06-01

    Using a cross-sectional survey design from 11 public tertiary hospitals (a specialist hospital, four Chinese medicine hospitals, and six general hospitals) in the urban areas of Heilongjiang, we determined the nature of workplace violence that medical staff have encountered in Chinese hospitals and identified factors associated with those experiences of violence. A total of 1129 health workers participated. The specialist hospital had the highest prevalence of physical violence (35.4%), while the general hospitals had the highest prevalence of non-physical violence (76%). Inexperienced medical staff (p < 0.001) were more likely to suffer non-physical violence than physical violence in Chinese medicine hospitals compared to experienced staff. Medical units (p = 0.001) had a high risk of non-physical violence, while surgical units (p = 0.005) had a high risk of physical violence. In general hospitals, staff with higher levels of anxiety about workplace violence were more vulnerable to both physical violence (1.67, 95% CI 1.36-2.10) and non-physical violence (1.309, 95% CI 1.136-1.508) compared to those with lower levels of anxiety, while rotating shift workers had a higher odds of physical violence (2.2, 95% CI 1.21-4.17) and non-physical violence (1.65, 95% CI 1.13-2.41) compared to fixed day shift workers. Thus, prevention should focus not only on high-risk sections of hospitals, but also on the nature of the hospital itself. PMID:26086703

  14. Epidemic Diffusion of OXA-23-Producing Acinetobacter baumannii Isolates in Italy: Results of the First Cross-Sectional Countrywide Survey

    PubMed Central

    Principe, Luigi; Piazza, Aurora; Giani, Tommaso; Bracco, Silvia; Caltagirone, Maria Sofia; Arena, Fabio; Nucleo, Elisabetta; Tammaro, Federica; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Pagani, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAb) is emerging worldwide as a public health problem in various settings. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of CRAb isolates in Italy and to characterize their resistance mechanisms and genetic relatedness. A countrywide cross-sectional survey was carried out at 25 centers in mid-2011. CRAb isolates were reported from all participating centers, with overall proportions of 45.7% and 22.2% among consecutive nonreplicate clinical isolates of A. baumannii from inpatients (n = 508) and outpatients (n = 63), respectively. Most of them were resistant to multiple antibiotics, whereas all remained susceptible to colistin, with MIC50 and MIC90 values of ≤0.5 mg/liter. The genes coding for carbapenemase production were identified by PCR and sequencing. OXA-23 enzymes (found in all centers) were by far the most common carbapenemases (81.7%), followed by OXA-58 oxacillinases (4.5%), which were found in 7 of the 25 centers. In 6 cases, CRAb isolates carried both blaOXA-23-like and blaOXA-58-like genes. A repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP)-PCR technique, multiplex PCRs for group identification, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were used to determine the genetic relationships among representative isolates (n = 55). Two different clonal lineages were identified, including a dominant clone of sequence type 2 (ST2) related to the international clone II (sequence group 1 [SG1], SG4, and SG5) and a clone of ST78 (SG6) previously described in Italy. Overall, our results demonstrate that OXA-23 enzymes have become the most prevalent carbapenemases and are now endemic in Italy. In addition, molecular typing profiles showed the presence of international and national clonal lineages in Italy. PMID:24920776

  15. Body Pain Intensity and Interference in Adults (45-53 Years Old): A Cross-Sectional Survey in Chongqing, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xianglong; Li, Bing; Liu, Lingli; Zhao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Culture and national care models matter both in reporting and treatment of pain status. However, most findings on body pain intensity and interference in adults are from Western studies, with little reliable evidence from China. This study aimed to assess body pain intensity and interference and its associations with demographic, socioeconomic characteristics, and health behaviors in adults. A cross-sectional survey was performed to collect data from 1224 adults, who were recruited via multistage stratified random sampling. The SF-36 quality-of-life instrument was used to investigate body pain intensity and interference. Ordinal logistic regression analysis was used in this study. Our results showed that 64.1% of the participants (males: 687; females: 537) reported body pain, and 45.7% of the participants reported body pain interference. Middle-aged respondents who were female, were unmarried/divorced or separated/widowed, had a negative relationship with their family, had poor sleep quality, and were not satisfied with their current living conditions had a higher body pain intensity rating (ordered logistic regression/six-level pain intensity criterion; odds ratios, p < 0.05). Respondents who were unmarried/divorced or separated/widowed, with a low education level, were unemployed, had lower incomes, had a negative relationship with their family, and were not satisfied with their current living conditions had a higher body pain interference rating (ordered logistic regression/five-level pain interference criterion; odds ratios, p < 0.05). In conclusion, an estimated 64.1% of middle-aged adults reported body pain, and 45.7% of middle-aged adults reported body pain interference. These results provide a clue for possible interventions for improving body pain intensity and interference in adults, especially among middle-aged people. These factors should be taken into consideration in the prevention of pain, pain management and treatment planning in order to help

  16. Prevalence and correlates of sleep disturbance and depressive symptoms among Chinese adolescents: a cross-sectional survey study

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Lan; Deng, Jianxiong; He, Yuan; Deng, Xueqing; Huang, Jinghui; Huang, Guoliang; Gao, Xue; Lu, Ciyong

    2014-01-01

    Study objective To investigate the prevalence and the correlates of sleep disturbance and depressive symptoms among Chinese adolescents and to examine the association between the two problems. Design Cross-sectional survey. Participants A total of 3186 school students in grades 7–12 were sampled from the schools in Guangdong. A stratified-cluster random-sampling strategy was used to select the schools. Main outcome measures A self-administered questionnaire was used. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality index (PSQI) was used to assess the occurrence of sleep disturbance, and the Center for Epidemiology Scale for Depression (CES-D) was used to identify whether individuals had depressive symptoms. Results The mean PSQI global score was 8.7 (±2.4) points, and 39.6% of the total sample had sleep disturbance. The mean CES-D score of students was 15.2 (±9.4) points, and 6.4% of the students had depressive symptoms. Additionally, girls and older adolescents were more likely to suffer from sleep disturbance, and the students who had depressive symptoms were 2.47 (95% CI 1.61 to 3.79) times more likely to suffer from sleep disturbance. Factors that were correlated with sleep disturbance and depressive symptoms were having a poor relationship with teachers, feeling lonely, suicide ideation and having run away from home. Conclusions Sleep disturbance was determined to be more prevalent among Chinese adolescents with depressive symptoms. Sleep disturbance and depressive symptoms were associated with each other, while school factors, family factors and psychosocial adjustment were comprehensively correlated with both. PMID:25079937

  17. Belief system, meaningfulness, and psychopathology associated with suicidality among Chinese college students: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Research suggests that Chinese religious believers are more likely to commit suicide than those identifying as non-religious among rural young adults, contrary to findings in Western countries. However, one cannot conclude that religiosity is associated with elevated suicide risk without examining the effect of political and religious beliefs in a generally atheist country like China where political belief plays a dominant role in the belief system of young adults. The present study investigated the effects of political and religious belief on suicidality with meaningfulness and psychopathology as potential mediators in a large representative sample of Chinese college students. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1390 first-year college students randomly sampled from 10 colleges and universities in mainland China. Results A total of 1168 respondents (84.0%) provided complete data on all variables. Lifetime prevalence of suicidal ideation, plan, and attempt were 45.1%, 6.8%, and 1.9% respectively, with one-year suicidal ideation showing at 19.3%. Female gender was associated with elevated risk of suicidality. Political belief but not religious belief was associated with decreased suicide risk. A significant interactive effect of political belief and religious belief was found, indicating that for political believers, being religious was associated with decreased suicide risk; for non-political believers, being religious was associated with increased suicide risk. Multi-group structural equation modeling showed that meaningfulness completely mediated and psychopathology partially mediated the effect of belief system on suicidality. Gender differences were found in pathways of political belief by religious beliefs to suicidality and political belief to psychopathology. The coefficients were significant for males but not for females. Conclusions In less religious societies, political belief may serve as a means of integration as does

  18. The epidemiology of dependency among urban-dwelling older people in the Dominican Republic; a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Acosta, Daisy; Rottbeck, Ruth; Rodríguez, Guillermina; Ferri, Cleusa P; Prince, Martin J

    2008-01-01

    Background Demographic ageing, and the health transition will soon lead to large increases in the number of dependent older people in low and middle income countries. Despite its importance, this topic has not previously been studied. Methods A cross sectional catchment area one-phase survey of health conditions, dependency, care arrangements and caregiver strain among 2011 people aged 65 years and over in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic Results 7.1% of participants required much care and a further 4.7% required at least some care. The prevalence of dependency increased sharply with increasing age. Dependent older people were less likely than others to have a pension and much less likely to have paid work, but no more likely to benefit from financial support from their family. Needing much care was strongly associated with comorbidity between cognitive, psychological and physical health problems. However, dementia made the strongest independent contribution. Among those needing care, those with dementia stood out as being more disabled, as needing more care (particularly support with core activities of daily living), and as being more likely to have paid caregivers. Dementia caregivers experienced more strain than caregivers of those with other health conditions, an effect mediated by behavioural and psychological symptoms. Conclusion Dependency among older people is nearly as prevalent in Dominican Republic as in developed western settings. Non-communicable diseases, particularly dementia are the main contributing factors. Attention needs to be directed towards the development of age-appropriate healthcare, a long-term care policy, and mechanisms for ensuring the social protection of older persons. PMID:18700967

  19. A Cross-Sectional Survey of Childhood Trauma and Compliance With General Health Care Among Adult Primary Care Outpatients

    PubMed Central

    Jordan Bohinc, R.; Wiederman, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Beyond the examination of medication compliance among individuals with substance abuse or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), few studies have examined relationships between childhood trauma and health care compliance in adulthood—the focus of the present study. Method: Using a cross-sectional approach and a self-report survey methodology, we examined 5 types of childhood trauma (ie, witnessing violence, physical neglect, emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse) in relationship to 4 measures of general health care compliance (ie, self-rated general conscientiousness with medical treatment; 5 items pertaining to general health care compliance such as scheduling regular dental checkups, timely arrival for doctor’s appointments, and timely completion of laboratory work; 2 medication compliance items; and the Medical Outcomes Study general adherence score) among a sample of adult primary care outpatients (N = 272). Data were collected in March 2014. Results: According to findings, some health care adherence variables demonstrated relationships with the summed childhood trauma score, whereas others did not. It could be interpreted that the more subjective health care compliance variables (eg, self-rated conscientiousness with regard to medical treatment) demonstrated no relationship with a summed childhood trauma score, whereas the more objective health care compliance variables (eg, frequency of regular dental checkups, ability to remember to take all medications, Medical Outcomes Study general adherence score) did demonstrate statistically significant relationships with a summed childhood trauma score (most at P < .01). Conclusions: Patients with histories of childhood trauma demonstrate some deficits with health care compliance in comparison to those without childhood trauma. One interpretation is that the mistreated appear to believe that they are fairly compliant with health care treatment, but

  20. Bacteraemia predictive factors among general medical inpatients: a retrospective cross-sectional survey in a Japanese university hospital

    PubMed Central

    Fukui, Sayato; Uehara, Yuki; Fujibayashi, Kazutoshi; Takahashi, Osamu; Hisaoka, Teruhiko; Naito, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The precise criteria for obtaining blood cultures have not been established; they depend on the physician's judgement. We examined clinical parameters to determine predictive factors of bacteraemia and the need for blood cultures among general medical inpatients. Design A retrospective cross-sectional survey. Setting A Japanese university hospital. Participants All general inpatients who had blood cultures taken from 1 January 2011 to 31 December 2012. Main Measures Clinical information at or just before blood culture sampling was extracted from medical charts. Factors potentially predictive of bacteraemia were analysed using Fisher's exact test, followed by multivariable logistic regression model analysis. Main Results A total of 200 patients (male: female=119:81, 64.3±19.1 years old) comprised this study; 57 (28.5%) had positive blood culture results. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that age >60 years (OR=2.75, 95% CI 1.23 to 6.48, p=0.015), female sex (OR=2.21, 95% CI 1.07 to 4.67, p=0.038), pulse rate >90 bpm (OR=5.18, 95% CI 2.25 to 12.48, p<0.001) and neutrophil percentage >80% (OR=3.61, 95% CI 1.71 to 8.00, p=0.001) were independent risk factors for positive blood culture results. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis of this model was 0.796. Conclusions Our results emphasise the importance of taking blood cultures if the pulse rate is >90 bpm, in elderly patients and in women, and for ordering a differential white cell count. PMID:27388348

  1. Importance of Thinking Locally for Mental Health: Data from Cross-Sectional Surveys Representing South East London and England

    PubMed Central

    Hatch, Stephani L.; Woodhead, Charlotte; Frissa, Souci; Fear, Nicola T.; Verdecchia, Maria; Stewart, Robert; Reichenberg, Abraham; Morgan, Craig; Bebbington, Paul; McManus, Sally; Brugha, Traolach; Kankulu, Bwalya; Clark, Jennifer L.; Gazard, Billy; Medcalf, Robert; Hotopf, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Background Reliance on national figures may be underestimating the extent of mental ill health in urban communities. This study demonstrates the necessity for local information on common mental disorder (CMD) and substance use by comparing data from the South East London Community Health (SELCoH) study with those from a national study, the 2007 English Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Study (APMS). Methodology/Principal Findings Data were used from two cross-sectional surveys, 1698 men and women residing in south London and 7403 men and women in England. The main outcome, CMD, was indicated by a score of 12 or above on the Revised Clinical Interview Schedule. Secondary outcomes included hazardous alcohol use and illicit drug use. SELCoH sample prevalence estimates of CMD were nearly twice that of the APMS England sample estimates. There was a four-fold greater proportion of depressive episode in the SELCoH sample than the APMS sample. The prevalence of hazardous alcohol use was higher in the national sample. Illicit drug use in the past year was higher in the SELCoH sample, with cannabis and cocaine the illicit drugs reported most frequently in both samples. In comparisons of the SELCoH sample with the APMS England sample and the APMS sample from the Greater London area in combined datasets, these differences remained after adjusting for socio-demographic and socioeconomic indicators for all outcomes. Conclusions/Significance Local information for estimating the prevalence of CMD and substance use is essential for surveillance and service planning. There were similarities in the demographic and socioeconomic factors related to CMD and substance use across samples. PMID:23251330

  2. Extent, Nature, and Risk Factors of Workplace Violence in Public Tertiary Hospitals in China: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Liu, He; Zhao, Siqi; Jiao, Mingli; Wang, Jingtao; Peters, David H.; Qiao, Hong; Zhao, Yuchong; Li, Ye; Song, Lei; Xing, Kai; Lu, Yan; Wu, Qunhong

    2015-01-01

    Using a cross-sectional survey design from 11 public tertiary hospitals (a specialist hospital, four Chinese medicine hospitals, and six general hospitals) in the urban areas of Heilongjiang, we determined the nature of workplace violence that medical staff have encountered in Chinese hospitals and identified factors associated with those experiences of violence. A total of 1129 health workers participated. The specialist hospital had the highest prevalence of physical violence (35.4%), while the general hospitals had the highest prevalence of non-physical violence (76%). Inexperienced medical staff (p < 0.001) were more likely to suffer non-physical violence than physical violence in Chinese medicine hospitals compared to experienced staff. Medical units (p = 0.001) had a high risk of non-physical violence, while surgical units (p = 0.005) had a high risk of physical violence. In general hospitals, staff with higher levels of anxiety about workplace violence were more vulnerable to both physical violence (1.67, 95% CI 1.36–2.10) and non-physical violence (1.309, 95% CI 1.136–1.508) compared to those with lower levels of anxiety, while rotating shift workers had a higher odds of physical violence (2.2, 95% CI 1.21–4.17) and non-physical violence (1.65, 95% CI 1.13–2.41) compared to fixed day shift workers. Thus, prevention should focus not only on high-risk sections of hospitals, but also on the nature of the hospital itself. PMID:26086703

  3. A Cross-Sectional Survey of Healthcare Workers on the Knowledge and Attitudes towards Polio Vaccination in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Muhammad Umair; Ahmad, Akram; Aqeel, Talieha; Akbar, Naila; Salman, Saad; Idress, Jawaria

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Pakistan accounts for 85.2% of the total polio cases reported worldwide. Healthcare workers (HCWs) are an integral part of immunization campaigns and source of education for the general public. This study aimed to assess the knowledge and attitudes towards polio vaccination among HCWs providing immunisation and education to general public in Quetta and Peshawar divisions of Pakistan. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 490 HCWs was conducted in two major referral public teaching hospitals of Quetta and Peshawar divisions. During February to April, 2015, a random sample of 490 HCWs was invited to participate in this study. Knowledge and attitudes were assessed by using self-administered, anonymous and pretested questionnaire. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were used to express the results. Results A total of 468 participants responded to the questionnaire, giving a response rate of 95.5%. Overall, participants demonstrated good knowledge and positive attitudes towards polio vaccination. The mean knowledge score of HCWs about polio was 13.42±2.39 (based on 18 knowledge questions) while the mean attitude score was 28.75±5.5 (based on 9 attitudes statements). Knowledge gaps were identified about the incubation period of poliovirus (19.5%), management issues (31.9%), use of polio vaccine in mild illnesses (34.7%) and the consequences of the polio virus (36.9%). The majority of participants agreed that all children should be vaccinated for polio (95.1%), while reservations were noted about the need of a booster (38.9%), and sterility issues associated with polio vaccines (43.6%). Internet (n = 167, 37%) and Posters (n = 158, 35%) were the main sources used by HCWs to educate themselves about polio. Conclusion Participants in this study had good knowledge and positive attitudes towards polio vaccination. Although the data are indicative of gaps in the knowledge of HCWs, the findings may not be generalized to other hospitals in Pakistan. PMID

  4. Student and staff experiences of attendance monitoring in undergraduate obstetrics and gynecology: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Deane, Richard P; Murphy, Deirdre J

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the widespread introduction of active learning strategies to engage students across modern medical curricula, student attendance and attendance monitoring remain a challenging issue for medical educators. In addition, there is little published evidence available to medical educators regarding the use of attendance monitoring systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the opinions of students and staff about the use of a paper-based student logbook to record student attendance across all clinical and classroom-based learning activities within an undergraduate clinical rotation in obstetrics and gynecology (OBGYN). Methods Each student undertaking the clinical rotation in OBGYN was required to complete a paper-based logbook in a booklet format that listed every clinical and classroom-based activity that the student was expected to attend. A cross-sectional survey evaluating the acceptability, practicality, and effect on access to learning opportunities of using the logbook was undertaken. The survey was conducted among all medical students who completed their OBGYN rotation over a full academic year and staff who taught on the program. Results The response rate was 87% (n=128/147) among students and 80% (n=8/10) among staff. Monitoring attendance was widely acceptable to students (n=107/128, 84%) and staff (n=8/8, 100%). Most students (n=95/128, 74%) and staff (n=7/8, 88%) recommended that attendance should be mandatory during rotations. Almost all staff felt that attendance should contribute toward academic credit (n=7/8, 88%), but students were divided (n=73/128, 57%). Students (n=94/128, 73%) and staff (n=6/8, 75%) reported that the use of the logbook to record attendance with tutor signatures was a satisfactory system, although students questioned the need for recording attendance at every classroom-based activity. Most students felt that the logbook facilitated access to learning experiences during the rotation (n=90/128, 71%). Staff felt

  5. Trends in overweight and obesity in Lebanon: evidence from two national cross-sectional surveys (1997 and 2009)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Even though the obesity epidemic continues to grow in various parts of the world, recent reports have highlighted disparities in obesity trends across countries. There is little empirical evidence on the development and growth of obesity in Lebanon and other countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Acknowledging the need for effective obesity preventive measures and for accurate assessment of trends in the obesity epidemic, this study aims at examining and analyzing secular trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity over a 12-year period in Lebanon. Methods Based on weight and height measurements obtained from two national cross-sectional surveys conducted in 1997 and 2009 on subjects 6 years of age and older, BMI was calculated and the prevalence of obesity was determined based on BMI for adults and BMI z-scores for children and adolescents, according to WHO criteria. Age -and sex- adjusted odds ratios for overweight and obesity were determined, with the 1997 year as the referent category. Annual rates of change in obesity prevalence per sex and age group were also calculated. Results The study samples included a total of 2004 subjects in the 1997 survey and 3636 in the 2009 survey. Compared to 1997, mean BMI values were significantly higher in 2009 among all age and sex groups, except for 6–9 year old children. Whereas the prevalence of overweight appeared stable over the study period in both 6–19 year old subjects (20.0% vs. 21.2%) and adults aged 20 years and above (37.0% vs. 36.8%), the prevalence of obesity increased significantly (7.3% vs. 10.9% in 6–19 year olds; 17.4% vs. 28.2% in adults), with the odds of obesity being 2 times higher in 2009 compared to 1997, in both age groups (OR = 1.96, 95% CI:1.29-2.97 and OR = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.67-2.43, respectively). The annual rates of change in obesity prevalence ranged between +4.1% in children and adolescents and +5.2% in adults. Conclusion The study’s findings highlight an

  6. Elastic and Related Transport Cross Sections, Charge Transfer: Data from the Controlled Fusion Atomic Data Center (CFADC)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Krstic, P. S; Schultz, D. R.

    Data files available in this section of the Controlled Fusion Atomic Data Center (CFADC) are found under the following headings: • Isotopomers of hydrogen ions, atoms and molecules and helium • Vibrationally excited states of hydrogen molecule with proton, and hydrogen molecular ion with hydrogen • Isotopomers of hydrogen ions with carbon • Isotopomers of hydrogen ions with argon • Hydrogen ions with neon • Hydrogen ions with krypton • Hydrogen ions with xenon • Elastic and other cross sections from ApJ xxx, yyyy (2008) Each heading is a link to more information, the data, and customized interfaces. (Specialized Interface)

  7. A Survey of Electron Impact Cross-Sections for Halogens and Halogen Compounds of Interest to Plasma Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, S. P.; Rao, M. V. V. S.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Published electron impact cross section data on halogens Cl2, F2, and halogen containing compounds such as Cx Fy, HCl, Cx Cly Fz are reviewed and critically evaluated based on the information provided by various researchers. The present work reports data on electron impact excitation, ionization, dissociation, electron attachment, electron detachment, and photo detachment. Elastic scattering cross sections and data on bulk properties such as diffusion coefficients in various background gases are also evaluated. Since some of the cross sectional data is derived from indirect measurements such as drift velocity, care has been taken to reconcile the differences among the reported data with due attention to the measurement technique. In conclusion, the processes with no or very limited amount of data and questionable set of data are identified and recommendation for further research direction is made.

  8. Alcohol, Substance Use and Psychosocial Competence of Adolescents in Selected Secondary Schools in Uganda: A Cross Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Abbo, Catherine; Okello, Elialilia S.; Muhwezi, Wilson; Akello, Grace; Ovuga, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Aims 1) To determine the nature and extent of alcohol and substance use and 2) To describe the relationship between alcohol use and psychosocial competence among secondary school youths in Northern and Central Uganda. Study Design This was a cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of study Departments of Mental Health, Gulu University (Northern Uganda) and Department of Psychiatry, Makerere University College of Health Sciences (Central Uganda) between September 2011 and April 2012. Methodology Four (4) and eight (8) secondary schools located in the rural and urban areas of Gulu and Kampala districts respectively were randomly selected to participate in the survey. A total of 3,200 students aged 12 to 24 years were recruited by proportionate multistage sampling. Data was collected using a socio-demographic questionnaire that included questions about nature and frequency of alcohol and substance use. A pre-tested self-administered survey questionnaire with scales to measure components of psychosocial competence (PSC) was administered. Data was entered in Epidata, and exported to SPSS version 16.0 for analysis. Psychosocial competence was classified as high or low depending on the responses in the sub-scales of decision making, self efficacy, empathy, emotional awareness, coping with stress and emotions, and accurate self-assessment and self-confidence. Results A total of 2,902 questionnaires comprising of 2,502, (86.2%) from Kampala district and 400 (13.8%)) from Gulu district were analyzed. Male to female ratio was 1:1 with an age range of 12 to 24 years and a mean of 16.5. About 70.1% had ever used alcohol and substances. Only 39.1% used substances regularly. The commonest substance used was alcohol (23.3%), followed by kuber (10.8%), khat (10.5%), aviation fuel (10.1%), cannabis (9.2%) and cigarettes (5.9%). Respondents from the Gulu district were twice more likely to use all substances. Users and regular users from the North Northern Uganda had lower

  9. Influenza vaccination coverage against seasonal and pandemic influenza and their determinants in France: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Following the emergence of the influenza A(H1N1)2009 virus, the French ministry of health decided to offer free vaccination against pandemic influenza to the entire French population. Groups of people were defined and prioritised for vaccination. Methods We took a random sample of the population of mainland France and conducted a retrospective cross-sectional telephone survey to estimate vaccination coverage against seasonal and pandemic influenza and to identify determinants of these vaccinations. Results 10,091 people were included in the survey. Overall seasonal influenza vaccination coverage (IVC) remained stable in the population from the 2008-2009 season to the 2009-2010 season reaching 20.6% and 20.8% respectively. Overall pandemic IVC in the French population is estimated to be 11.1% (CI95%: 9.8 - 12.4). The highest pandemic IVC was observed in the 0-4 years age group. For individuals with health conditions associated with higher risk of influenza, pandemic IVC was estimated to be 12.2% (CI95%: 9.8 - 15.1). The main determinants associated with pandemic influenza vaccine uptake were: living in a household with a child < 5 years ORadj: 2.0 (CI95%: 1.3 - 3.1) or with two children < 5 years or more, ORadj: 2.7 (CI95%: 1.4 - 5.1), living in a household where the head of the family is university graduate (>2 years), ORadj: 2.5 (CI95%: 1.5 - 4.1), or has a higher professional and managerial occupation, ORadj: 3.0 (CI95%: 1.5 - 5.5) and being vaccinated against seasonal influenza, ORadj: 7.1 (CI95%: 5.1 - 10.0). Being an individual with higher risk for influenza was not a determinant for pandemic influenza vaccine uptake. These determinants are not the same as those for seasonal influenza vaccination. Conclusions Overall A(H1N1)2009 influenza vaccine uptake remained low, particularly among individuals with higher risk for influenza and was lower than that observed for seasonal influenza. The reasons behind people's reluctance to be vaccinated need to be

  10. The possible absence of a healthy-worker effect: a cross-sectional survey among educated Japanese women

    PubMed Central

    Nishikitani, Mariko; Nakao, Mutsuhiro; Tsurugano, Shinobu; Yano, Eiji

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Despite being highly educated in comparison with women in other member countries of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Japanese women are expected to assume traditional gender roles, and many dedicate themselves to full-time housewifery. Women working outside the home do so under poor conditions, and their health may not be better than that of housewives. This study compared the self-rated health status and health behaviours of housewives and working women in Japan. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting A national university in Tokyo with 9864 alumnae. Participants A total 1344 women who graduated since 1985 and completed questionnaires in an anonymous mail-based survey. Primary and secondary outcome measures Health anxiety and satisfaction, receipt of health check-ups, eating breakfast, smoking, and sleep problems according to job status and family demands: housewives (n=247) and working women with (n=624) and without (n=436) family demands. ORs were used for risk assessment, with housewives as a reference. Results After adjustment for satisfaction with present employment status and other confounding factors, working women were more likely than housewives to feel health anxiety (with family demands, OR: 1.68, 95% CI1.10 to 2.57; without family demands, OR: 3.57, 95% CI 2.19 to 4.50) and health dissatisfaction (without family demands, OR: 3.50, 95% CI 2.35 to 5.21); they were also more likely than housewives to eat an insufficient breakfast (with family demands, OR: 1.91, 95% CI 1.22 to 3.00; without family demands, OR: 4.02, 95% CI 2.47 to 6.57) and to have sleep problems (ORs: 2.08 to 4.03). Conclusions No healthy-worker effect was found among Japanese women. Housewives, at least those who are well educated, appear to have better health status and health-related behaviours than do working women with the same level of education. PMID:22964114

  11. Violence against civilians and access to health care in North Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo: three cross-sectional surveys

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The province of North Kivu in the Democratic Republic of Congo has been afflicted by conflict for over a decade. After months of relative calm, offences restarted in September 2008. We did an epidemiological study to document the impact of violence on the civilian population and orient pre-existing humanitarian aid. Methods In May 2009, we conducted three cross-sectional surveys among 200 000 resident and displaced people in North Kivu (Kabizo, Masisi, Kitchanga). The recall period covered an eight month period from the beginning of the most recent offensives to the survey date. Heads of households provided information on displacement, death, violence, theft, and access to fields and health care. Results Crude mortality rates (per 10 000 per day) were below emergency thresholds: Kabizo 0.2 (95% CI: 0.1-0.4), Masisi 0.5 (0.4-0.6), Kitchanga 0.7 (0.6-0.9). Violence was the reported cause in 39.7% (27/68) and 35.8% (33/92) of deaths in Masisi and Kitchanga, respectively. In Masisi 99.1% (897/905) and Kitchanga 50.4% (509/1020) of households reported at least one member subjected to violence. Displacement was reported by 39.0% of households (419/1075) in Kitchanga and 99.8% (903/905) in Masisi. Theft affected 87.7% (451/514) of households in Masisi and 57.4% (585/1019) in Kitchanga. Access to health care was good: 93.5% (359/384) of the sick in Kabizo, 81.7% (515/630) in Masisi, and 89.8% (651/725) in Kitchanga received care, of whom 83.0% (298/359), 87.5% (451/515), and 88.9% (579/651), respectively, did not pay. Conclusions Our results show the impact of the ongoing war on these civilian populations: one third of deaths were violent in two sites, individuals are frequently subjected to violence, and displacements and theft are common. While humanitarian aid may have had a positive impact on disease mortality and access to care, the population remains exposed to extremely high levels of violence. PMID:21059195

  12. Patient and Public Views on Electronic Health Records and Their Uses in the United Kingdom: Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Luchenski, Serena A; Reed, Julie E; Marston, Cicely; Papoutsi, Chrysanthi; Majeed, Azeem

    2013-01-01

    Background The development and implementation of electronic health records (EHRs) remains an international challenge. Better understanding of patient and public attitudes and the factors that influence overall levels of support toward EHRs is needed to inform policy. Objective To explore patient and public attitudes toward integrated EHRs used simultaneously for health care provision, planning and policy, and health research. Methods Cross-sectional questionnaire survey administered to patients and members of the public who were recruited from a stratified cluster random sample of 8 outpatient clinics of a major teaching hospital and 8 general practices in London (United Kingdom). Results 5331 patients and members of the public responded to the survey, with 2857 providing complete data for the analysis presented here. There were moderately high levels of support for integrated EHRs used simultaneously for health care provision, planning and policy, and health research (1785/2857, 62.47%), while 27.93% (798/2857) of participants reported being undecided about whether or not they would support EHR use. There were higher levels of support for specific uses of EHRs. Most participants were in favor of EHRs for personal health care provision (2563/2857, 89.71%), with 66.75% (1907/2857) stating that they would prefer their complete, rather than limited, medical history to be included. Of those “undecided” about integrated EHRs, 87.2% (696/798) were nevertheless in favor of sharing their full (373/798, 46.7%) or limited (323/798, 40.5%) records for health provision purposes. There were similar high levels of support for use of EHRs in health services policy and planning (2274/2857, 79.59%) and research (2325/2857, 81.38%), although 59.75% (1707/2857) and 67.10% (1917/2857) of respondents respectively would prefer their personal identifiers to be removed. Multivariable analysis showed levels of overall support for EHRs decreasing with age. Respondents self

  13. Parent-reported measures of child health and wellbeing in same-sex parent families: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that children with same-sex attracted parents score well in psychosocial aspects of their health, however questions remain about the impact of stigma on these children. Research to date has focused on lesbian parents and has been limited by small sample sizes. This study aims to describe the physical, mental and social wellbeing of Australian children with same-sex attracted parents, and the impact that stigma has on them. Methods A cross-sectional survey, the Australian Study of Child Health in Same-Sex Families, was distributed in 2012 to a convenience sample of 390 parents from Australia who self-identified as same-sex attracted and had children aged 0-17 years. Parent-reported, multidimensional measures of child health and wellbeing and the relationship to perceived stigma were measured. Results 315 parents completed the survey (completion rate = 81%) representing 500 children. 80% of children had a female index parent while 18% had a male index parent. Children in same-sex parent families had higher scores on measures of general behavior, general health and family cohesion compared to population normative data (β = 2.93, 95% CI = 0.35 to 5.52, P = .03; β = 5.60, 95% CI = 2.69 to 8.52, P = <.001; and β = 6.01, 95% CI = 2.84 to 9.17, P = <.001 respectively). There were no significant differences between the two groups for all other scale scores. Physical activity, mental health, and family cohesion were all negatively associated with increased stigma (β = -3.03, 95% CI = -5.86 to -0.21, P = .04; β = -10.45, 95% CI = -18.48 to -2.42, P = .01; and β = -9.82, 95% CI = -17.86 to -1.78, P = .02 respectively) and the presence of emotional symptoms was positively associated with increased stigma (β =0.94, 95% CI = 0.08 to 1.81, P = .03). Conclusions Australian children with same-sex attracted parents score higher than population samples on a

  14. Untying chronic pain: prevalence and societal burden of chronic pain stages in the general population - a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic pain is a major public health problem. The impact of stages of chronic pain adjusted for disease load on societal burden has not been assessed in population surveys. Methods A cross-sectional survey with 4360 people aged ≥ 14 years representative of the German population was conducted. Measures obtained included demographic variables, presence of chronic pain (based on the definition of the International Association for the Study of Pain), chronic pain stages (by chronic pain grade questionnaire), disease load (by self-reported comorbidity questionnaire) and societal burden (by self-reported number of doctor visits, nights spent in hospital and days of sick leave/disability in the previous 12 months, and by current unemployment). Associations between chronic pain stages with societal burden, adjusted for demographic variables and disease load, were tested by Poisson and logistic regression analyses. Results 2508 responses were received. 19.4% (95% CI 16.8% to 22.0%) of participants met the criteria of chronic non-disabling non-malignant pain. 7.4% (95% CI 5.0% to 9.9%) met criteria for chronic disabling non-malignant pain. Compared with no chronic pain, the rate ratio (RR) of days with sick leave/disability was 1.6 for non-disabling pain and 6.4 for disabling pain. After adjusting for age and disease load, the RRs increased to 1.8 and 6.8. The RR of doctor visits was 2.5 for non-disabling pain and 4.5 for disabling pain if compared with no chronic pain. After adjusting for age and disease load, the RR fell to 1.7 and 2.6. The RR of days in hospital was 2.7 for non-disabling pain and 11.7 for disabling pain if compared with no chronic pain. After adjusting for age and disease load, the RR fell to 1.5 and 4.0. Unemployment was predicted by lower educational level (Odds Ratio OR 3.27 [95% CI 1.70-6.29]), disabling pain (OR 3.30 [95% CI 1.76-6.21]) and disease load (OR 1.70 [95% CI 1.41-2.05]). Conclusion Chronic pain stages, but also disease

  15. A cross sectional survey of knowledge, attitude and practices related to house flies among dairy farmers in Punjab, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background House flies are of major public health concerns in areas with poor sanitation and hygienic conditions. Unfortunately, sanitation and hygiene have always been ignored in dairy farms particularly in the developing or low-income countries. Management of these flies mostly depends on the awareness regarding associated hazards and protective measures taken by the people to minimize risks associated with flies. The present study therefore explores the knowledge, attitude and practices taken by dairy farmers in Punjab, Pakistan against house flies. Methods The present study was based on a cross sectional self administered survey to a convenience sample of 173 small scale dairy farmers in four localities – Multan, Lahore, Shorkot and Faisalabad – of Pakistan. The relationships between socio-demographics, knowledge and preventive practices were investigated through logistic regression analysis and chi-square test of association. Results Considerable number of dairy farmers 71/173 (41.04%) had no idea about the problems associated with house flies. Although 77/173 (44.51%) dairy farmers reported house flies as disease transmitters, only 23 (29.87%) farmers were familiar with diseases and 22 (28.57%) had somewhat idea of the mode of disease transmission. We found a positive association between dairy farmer’s education level and overall knowledge of house flies in multivariate analysis. Farmer’s education level and knowledge of the house flies breeding sites had a positive association with the adoption of house fly prevention practices by the respondents. However, knowledge of the problems associated with house flies and preventive measures had no association with house fly prevention practices. Conclusion The present ethnoentomological survey provides information about knowledge, attitude and practices of dairy farmers related to house flies in Punjab, Pakistan. We conclude that the farmers’ education level and knowledge of the breeding sites had a

  16. Human Resource and Funding Constraints for Essential Surgery in District Hospitals in Africa: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kruk, Margaret E.; Wladis, Andreas; Mbembati, Naboth; Ndao-Brumblay, S. Khady; Hsia, Renee Y.; Galukande, Moses; Luboga, Sam; Matovu, Alphonsus; de Miranda, Helder; Ozgediz, Doruk; Quiñones, Ana Romàn; Rockers, Peter C.; von Schreeb, Johan; Vaz, Fernando; Debas, Haile T.; Macfarlane, Sarah B.

    2010-01-01

    Background There is a growing recognition that the provision of surgical services in low-income countries is inadequate to the need. While constrained health budgets and health worker shortages have been blamed for the low rates of surgery, there has been little empirical data on the providers of surgery and cost of surgical services in Africa. This study described the range of providers of surgical care and anesthesia and estimated the resources dedicated to surgery at district hospitals in three African countries. Methods and Findings We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional survey of data from eight district hospitals in Mozambique, Tanzania, and Uganda. There were no specialist surgeons or anesthetists in any of the hospitals. Most of the health workers were nurses (77.5%), followed by mid-level providers (MLPs) not trained to provide surgical care (7.8%), and MLPs trained to perform surgical procedures (3.8%). There were one to six medical doctors per hospital (4.2% of clinical staff). Most major surgical procedures were performed by doctors (54.6%), however over one-third (35.9%) were done by MLPs. Anesthesia was mainly provided by nurses (39.4%). Most of the hospital expenditure was related to staffing. Of the total operating costs, only 7% to 14% was allocated to surgical care, the majority of which was for obstetric surgery. These costs represent a per capita expenditure on surgery ranging from US$0.05 to US$0.14 between the eight hospitals. Conclusion African countries have adopted different policies to ensure the provision of surgical care in their respective district hospitals. Overall, the surgical output per capita was very low, reflecting low staffing ratios and limited expenditures for surgery. We found that most surgical and anesthesia services in the three countries in the study were provided by generalist doctors, MLPs, and nurses. Although more information is needed to estimate unmet need for surgery, increasing the funds allocated to

  17. Human trafficking and health: a cross-sectional survey of NHS professionals’ contact with victims of human trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Claire; Dimitrova, Stoyanka; Howard, Louise M; Dewey, Michael; Zimmerman, Cathy; Oram, Siân

    2015-01-01

    Objectives (1) To estimate the proportion of National Health Service (NHS) professionals who have come into contact with trafficked people and (2) to measure NHS professionals’ knowledge and confidence to respond to human trafficking. Design A cross-sectional survey. Setting Face-to-face mandatory child protection and/or vulnerable adults training sessions at 10 secondary healthcare provider organisations in England, and meetings of the UK College of Emergency Medicine. Participants 782/892 (84.4%) NHS professionals participated, including from emergency medicine, maternity, mental health, paediatrics and other clinical disciplines. Measures Self-completed questionnaire developed by an expert panel. Questionnaire asks about prior training and contact with potential victims of trafficking, perceived and actual human trafficking knowledge, confidence in responding to human trafficking, and interest in future human trafficking training. Results 13% participants reported previous contact with a patient they knew or suspected of having been trafficked; among maternity services professionals this was 20.4%. However, 86.8% (n=679) reported lacking knowledge of what questions to ask to identify potential victims and 78.3% (n=613) reported that they had insufficient training to assist trafficked people. 71% (n=556), 67.5% (n=528) and 53.4% (n=418) lacked confidence in making appropriate referrals for men, women and children, respectively, who had been trafficked. 95.3% (n=746) of respondents were unaware of the scale of human trafficking in the UK, and 76.5% (n=598) were unaware that calling the police could put patients in more danger. Psychometric analysis showed that subscales measuring perceived knowledge, actual knowledge and confidence to respond to human trafficking demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach's αs 0.93, 0.63 and 0.64, respectively) and internal correlations. Conclusions NHS professionals working in secondary care are in contact with potential

  18. Musculoskeletal pain and limitations in work ability in Swedish marines: a cross-sectional survey of prevalence and associated factors

    PubMed Central

    Monnier, Andreas; Larsson, Helena; Djupsjöbacka, Mats; Brodin, Lars-Åke; Äng, Björn O

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence of self-rated musculoskeletal pain and pain limiting work ability in Swedish Armed Forces (SAF) marines, and to study factors potentially associated with pain limiting work ability for the most prevalent pain regions reported. Design Population-based, cross-sectional survey. Participants There were 272 SAF marines from the main marine battalion in Sweden included in the study. Outcomes Self-assessed musculoskeletal pain and pain limiting the marines' work ability within a 6-month period, as obtained from structured questionnaires. The association of individual, health and work-related factors with musculoskeletal pain limiting work ability was systematically regressed with multiple logistic models, estimating OR and 95% CI. Results Musculoskeletal pain and pain limiting work ability were most common in the back, at 46% and 20%, and lower extremities at 51% and 29%, respectively. Physical training ≤1 day/week (OR 5.3, 95% CI 1.7 to 16.8); body height ≤1.80 m (OR 5.0, 95% CI 1.6 to 15.1) and ≥1.86 m (OR 4.4, 95% CI 1.4 to 14.1); computer work 1/4 of the working day (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.0 to 10.0) and ≥1/2 (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.1 to 10.1) of the working day were independently associated with back pain limiting work ability. None of the studied variables emerged significantly associated with such pain for the lower extremities. Conclusions Our findings show that musculoskeletal pain and resultant limitations in work ability are common in SAF marines. Low frequency of physical training emerged independently associated with back pain limiting work ability. This suggests that marines performing physical training 1 day per week or less are suitable candidates for further medical evaluation and secondary preventive actions. While also associated, body height and computer work need further exploration as underlying mechanisms for back pain limiting work ability. Further prospective studies are necessary to clarify the direction

  19. Is the ICU staff satisfied with the computerized physician order entry? A cross-sectional survey study

    PubMed Central

    Fumis, Renata Rego Lins; Costa, Eduardo Leite Vieira; Martins, Paulo Sergio; Pizzo, Vladimir; Souza, Ivens Augusto; Schettino, Guilherme de Paula Pinto

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the satisfaction of the intensive care unit staff with a computerized physician order entry and to compare the concept of the computerized physician order entry relevance among intensive care unit healthcare workers. Methods We performed a cross-sectional survey to assess the satisfaction of the intensive care unit staff with the computerized physician order entry in a 30-bed medical/surgical adult intensive care unit using a self-administered questionnaire. The questions used for grading satisfaction levels were answered according to a numerical scale that ranged from 1 point (low satisfaction) to 10 points (high satisfaction). Results The majority of the respondents (n=250) were female (66%) between the ages of 30 and 35 years of age (69%). The overall satisfaction with the computerized physician order entry scored 5.74±2.14 points. The satisfaction was lower among physicians (n=42) than among nurses, nurse technicians, respiratory therapists, clinical pharmacists and diet specialists (4.62±1.79 versus 5.97±2.14, p<0.001); satisfaction decreased with age (p<0.001). Physicians scored lower concerning the potential of the computerized physician order entry for improving patient safety (5.45±2.20 versus 8.09±2.21, p<0.001) and the ease of using the computerized physician order entry (3.83±1.88 versus 6.44±2.31, p<0.001). The characteristics independently associated with satisfaction were the system's user-friendliness, accuracy, capacity to provide clear information, and fast response time. Conclusion Six months after its implementation, healthcare workers were satisfied, albeit not entirely, with the computerized physician order entry. The overall users' satisfaction with computerized physician order entry was lower among physicians compared to other healthcare professionals. The factors associated with satisfaction included the belief that digitalization decreased the workload and contributed to the intensive care unit quality with a

  20. Bluetongue sentinel surveillance program and cross-sectional serological survey in cattle in Belgium in 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Vangeel, I; De Leeuw, I; Méroc, E; Vandenbussche, F; Riocreux, F; Hooyberghs, J; Raemaekers, M; Houdart, P; Van der Stede, Y; De Clercq, K

    2012-10-01

    Bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) emerged in Central Western Europe in 2006 causing a large scale epidemic in 2007 that involved several European Union (EU) countries including Belgium. As in several other EU member states, vaccination against BTV-8 with inactivated vaccines was initiated in Belgium in spring 2008 and appeared to be successful. Since 2009, no clinical cases of Bluetongue (BT) have been reported in Belgium and BTV-8 circulation seemed to have completely disappeared by spring 2010. Therefore, a series of repeated cross-sectional surveys, the BT sentinel surveillance program, based on virus detection in blood samples by means of real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) were carried out in dairy cattle from the end of 2010 onwards with the aim to demonstrate the absence of BTV circulation in Belgium. This paper describes the results of the first two sampling rounds of this BT sentinel surveillance program carried out in October-November 2010 and January-February 2011. In addition, the level of BTV-specific maternal antibodies in young non-vaccinated animals was monitored and the level of herd immunity against BTV-8 after 3 consecutive years of compulsory BTV-8 vaccination was measured by ELISA. During the 1st sampling round of the BT sentinel surveillance program, 15 animals tested positive and 2 animals tested doubtful for BTV RNA by RT-qPCR. During the 2nd round, 17 animals tested positive and 5 animals tested doubtful. The positive/doubtful animals in both rounds were re-sampled 2-4 weeks after the original sampling and then all tested negative by RT-qPCR. These results demonstrate the absence of BTV circulation in Belgium in 2010 at a minimum expected prevalence of 2% and 95% confidence level. The study of the maternal antibodies in non-vaccinated animals showed that by the age of 7 months maternal antibodies against BTV had disappeared in most animals. The BTV seroprevalence at herd level after 3 years of compulsory BTV-8 vaccination was very high (97.4% [95

  1. Cross-sectional survey of salt content in cheese: a major contributor to salt intake in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Hashem, Kawther M; He, Feng J; Jenner, Katharine H; MacGregor, Graham A

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the salt (sodium chloride) content in cheese sold in UK supermarkets. Study design We carried out a cross-sectional survey in 2012, including 612 cheeses available in UK supermarkets. Methods The salt content (g/100 g) was collected from product packaging and nutrient information panels of cheeses available in the top seven retailers. Results Salt content in cheese was high with a mean (±SD) of 1.7±0.58 g/100 g. There was a large variation in salt content between different types of cheeses and within the same type of cheese. On average, halloumi (2.71±0.34 g/100 g) and imported blue cheese (2.71±0.83 g/100 g) contained the highest amounts of salt and cottage cheese (0.55±0.14 g/100 g) contained the lowest amount of salt. Overall, among the 394 cheeses that had salt reduction targets, 84.5% have already met their respective Department of Health 2012 salt targets. Cheddar and cheddar-style cheese is the most popular/biggest selling cheese in the UK and has the highest number of products in the analysis (N=250). On average, salt level was higher in branded compared with supermarket own brand cheddar and cheddar-style products (1.78±0.13 vs 1.72±0.14 g/100 g, p<0.01). Ninety per cent of supermarket own brand products met the 2012 target for cheddar and cheddar-style cheese compared with 73% of branded products (p=0.001). Conclusions Salt content in cheese in the UK is high. There is a wide variation in the salt content of different types of cheeses and even within the same type of cheese. Despite this, 84.5% of cheeses have already met their respective 2012 targets. These findings demonstrate that much larger reductions in the amount of salt added to cheese could be made and more challenging targets need to be set, so that the UK can continue to lead the world in salt reduction. PMID:25099933

  2. Ethnoveterinary medicines in four districts of Jimma zone, Ethiopia: cross sectional survey for plant species and mode of use

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Traditional medicines have been used for nearly 90% of livestock populations in Ethiopia where complimentary remedies are required to the modern health care system. All plants with pharmacological activity complimentarily prescribed as best choice against livestock diseases. A community based cross - sectional survey was conducted to investigate ethno-veterinary knowledge and practices of study area by purposive sampling techniques. The data from respondents were collected through face-to face interview using pre-tested semi-structured questionnaires, which was further accompanied by field observations of the medicinal plants. The vast majority of the statistics were analyzed descriptively by SPSS 16 Windows version to extrapolate our findings in ethno-botanical knowledge. Results In the study, a total of 74 species of ethnoveterinary medicinal plant species from 31 families have been identified for treating 22 different livestock ailments. The three families: Asteraceae, Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae make up larger proportion of reported medicinal plants which accounted for 10.41%, 8.33% and 6.25%, respectively. Of reported medicinal plants, 16.7% informant consensus was recorded for the species Croton macrostachyus Del., 10.7% for Nicotiana tabacum L. and 9.5% for Olea capensis L.Subsp. macrocarpa (C.H. Wright) I.Verd. in treatment of one or more veterinary ailments. The greater varieties of medicinal plant species that accounted for 28.2% were used against management of blackleg which was common livestock diseases in the study area. The findings showed, trees accounted for 43.24%, followed by shrubs (33.78%) and herbs (14.86%). Eighty one percent of medicinal plants reported by respondents were collected from wild habitats, and leaves reported to be used by 68% of the informants for ethnoveterinary medicines preparations. The preparations were applied through different routes of administration; oral administration accounted for (76.2%), followed by

  3. Interest and preferences for using advanced physical activity tracking devices: results of a national cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Alley, Stephanie; Schoeppe, Stephanie; Guertler, Diana; Jennings, Cally; Vandelanotte, Corneel

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Pedometers are an effective self-monitoring tool to increase users' physical activity. However, a range of advanced trackers that measure physical activity 24 hours per day have emerged (eg, Fitbit). The current study aims to determine people's current use, interest and preferences for advanced trackers. Design and participants A cross-sectional national telephone survey was conducted in Australia with 1349 respondents. Outcome measures Regression analyses were used to determine whether tracker interest and use, and use of advanced trackers over pedometers is a function of demographics. Preferences for tracker features and reasons for not wanting to wear a tracker are also presented. Results Over one-third of participants (35%) had used a tracker, and 16% are interested in using one. Multinomial regression (n=1257) revealed that the use of trackers was lower in males (OR=0.48, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.65), non-working participants (OR=0.43, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.61), participants with lower education (OR=0.52, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.72) and inactive participants (OR=0.52, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.70). Interest in using a tracker was higher in younger participants (OR=1.73, 95% CI 1.15 to 2.58). The most frequently used tracker was a pedometer (59%). Logistic regression (n=445) revealed that use of advanced trackers compared with pedometers was higher in males (OR=1.67, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.79) and younger participants (OR=2.96, 95% CI 1.71 to 5.13), and lower in inactive participants (OR=0.35, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.63). Over half of current or interested tracker users (53%) prefer to wear it on their wrist, 31% considered counting steps the most important function and 30% regarded accuracy as the most important characteristic. The main reasons for not wanting to use a tracker were, ‘I don't think it would help me’ (39%), and ‘I don't want to increase my activity’ (47%). Conclusions Activity trackers are a promising tool to engage people in self-monitoring a physical activity

  4. Recurrent wheezing is associated with intestinal protozoan infections in Warao Amerindian children in Venezuela: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background While in developed countries the prevalence of allergic diseases is rising, inflammatory diseases are relatively uncommon in rural developing areas. High prevalence rates of helminth and protozoan infections are commonly found in children living in rural settings and several studies suggest an inverse association between helminth infections and allergies. No studies investigating the relationship between parasitic infections and atopic diseases in rural children of developing countries under the age of 2 years have been published so far. We performed a cross-sectional survey to investigate the association of helminth and protozoan infections and malnutrition with recurrent wheezing and atopic eczema in Warao Amerindian children in Venezuela. Methods From August to November 2012, 229 children aged 0 to 2 years residing in the Orinoco Delta in Venezuela were enrolled. Data were collected through standardized questionnaires and physical examination, including inspection of the skin and anthropometric measurements. A stool sample was requested from all participants and detection of different parasites was performed using microscopy and real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results We observed high prevalence rates of atopic eczema and recurrent wheezing, respectively 19% and 23%. The prevalence of helminth infections was 26% and the prevalence of protozoan infections was 59%. Atopic eczema and recurrent wheezing were more frequently observed in stunted compared with non-stunted children in multivariable analysis (OR 4.3, 95% CI 1.3 – 13.6, p = 0.015 and OR 4.5, 95% CI 0.97 – 21.2, p = 0.055). Furthermore, recurrent wheezing was significantly more often observed in children with protozoan infections than in children without protozoan infections (OR 6.7, 95% CI 1.5 – 30.5). Conclusions High prevalence rates of atopic eczema and recurrent wheezing in Warao Amerindian children under 2 years of age were related to stunting and intestinal

  5. Cost of illness of patient-reported adverse drug events: a population-based cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Gyllensten, Hanna; Rehnberg, Clas; Jönsson, Anna K; Petzold, Max; Carlsten, Anders; Andersson Sundell, Karolina

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the cost of illness (COI) of individuals with self-reported adverse drug events (ADEs) from a societal perspective and to compare these estimates with the COI for individuals without ADE. Furthermore, to estimate the direct costs resulting from two ADE categories, adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and subtherapeutic effects of medication therapy (STE). Design Cross-sectional study. Setting The adult Swedish general population. Participants The survey was distributed to a random sample of 14 000 Swedish residents aged 18 years and older, of which 7099 responded, 1377 reported at least one ADE and 943 reported an ADR or STE. Main outcome measures Societal COI, including direct and indirect costs, for individuals with at least one self-reported ADE, and the direct costs for prescription drugs and healthcare use resulting from self-reported ADRs and STEs were estimated during 30 days using a bottom-up approach. Results The economic burden for individuals with ADEs were (95% CI) 442.7 to 599.8 international dollars (Int$), of which direct costs were Int$ 279.6 to 420.0 (67.1%) and indirect costs were Int$ 143.0 to 199.8 (32.9%). The average COI was higher among those reporting ADEs compared with other respondents (COI: Int$ 442.7 to 599.8 versus Int$ 185.8 to 231.2). The COI of respondents reporting at least one ADR or STE was Int$ 468.9 to 652.9. Direct costs resulting from ADRs or STEs were Int$ 15.0 to 48.4. The reported resource use occurred both in hospitals and outside in primary care. Conclusions Self-reported ADRs and STEs cause resource use both in hospitals and in primary care. Moreover, ADEs seem to be associated with high overall COI from a societal perspective when comparing respondents with and without ADEs. There is a need to further examine this relationship and to study the indirect costs resulting from ADEs. PMID:23794552

  6. Mobile Health Insurance System and Associated Costs: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Primary Health Centers in Abuja, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Lalit; Eze, Godson

    2016-01-01

    Background Nigeria contributes only 2% to the world’s population, accounts for 10% of the global maternal death burden. Health care at primary health centers, the lowest level of public health care, is far below optimal in quality and grossly inadequate in coverage. Private primary health facilities attempt to fill this gap but at additional costs to the client. More than 65% Nigerians still pay out of pocket for health services. Meanwhile, the use of mobile phones and related services has risen geometrically in recent years in Nigeria, and their adoption into health care is an enterprise worth exploring. Objective The purpose of this study was to document costs associated with a mobile technology–supported, community-based health insurance scheme. Methods This analytic cross-sectional survey used a hybrid of mixed methods stakeholder interviews coupled with prototype throw-away software development to gather data from 50 public primary health facilities and 50 private primary care centers in Abuja, Nigeria. Data gathered documents costs relevant for a reliable and sustainable mobile-supported health insurance system. Clients and health workers were interviewed using structured questionnaires on services provided and cost of those services. Trained interviewers conducted the structured interviews, and 1 client and 1 health worker were interviewed per health facility. Clinic expenditure was analyzed to include personnel, fixed equipment, medical consumables, and operation costs. Key informant interviews included a midmanagement staff of a health-management organization, an officer-level staff member of a mobile network operator, and a mobile money agent. Results All the 200 respondents indicated willingness to use the proposed system. Differences in the cost of services between public and private facilities were analyzed at 95% confidence level (P<.001). This indicates that average out-of-pocket cost of services at private health care facilities is significantly

  7. Physician clinical management strategies and reasoning: a cross-sectional survey using clinical vignettes of eight common medical admissions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Physicians often select clinical management strategies not strongly supported by evidence or guidelines. Our objective was to examine the likelihood of selecting, and rationale for pursuing, clinical management strategies with more or less guideline support among physicians using clinical vignettes of eight common medical admissions. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey using clinical vignettes of attending physicians and housestaff at one internal medicine program in New York City. Each clinical vignette included a brief clinical scenario and a varying number of clinical management strategies: diagnostic tests, consultations, and treatments, some of which had strong evidence or guideline support (Level 1 strategies) while others had limited evidence or guideline support (Level 3 strategies). Likelihood of selecting a given management strategy was assessed using Likert scales and multiple response options were used to indicate rationale(s) for selections. Results Our sample included 79 physicians; 68 (86%) were younger than 40 years of age, 34 (43%) were female. There were 31 attending physicians (39%) and 48 housestaff (61%) and 39 (49%) had or planned to have primarily primary care internal medicine clinical responsibilities. Overall, physicians were more likely to select Level 1 strategies “always” or “most of the time” when compared with Level 3 strategies (82% vs. 43%; p < 0.001), with wide variation across the eight medical admissions. There were no differences between attending and housestaff physician likelihood of selecting Level 3 strategies (47% vs. 45%, p = 0.36). Supportive evidence and local practice patterns were the two most common rationales behind selections; supportive evidence was cited as the most common rationale for selecting Level 1 when compared with Level 3 strategies (63% versus 30%; p < 0.001), whereas ruling out other severe conditions was cited most often for Level 3 strategies. Conclusions For

  8. Good knowledge about hypertension is linked to better control of hypertension; A multicentre cross sectional study in Karachi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background According to the National Health survey only 3% of the population has controlled hypertension. This study was designed to elucidate the knowledge about hypertension in hypertensive patients at three tertiary care centers in Karachi. Secondly we sought to compare the knowledge of those with uncontrolled hypertension and controlled hypertension. Methods It was a cross-sectional study conducted at The Aga Khan University hospital (AKUH), Ziauddin Hospital (ZH) and Civil hospital, Karachi (CHK. All diagnosed Hypertensive patients (both inpatients and outpatients) coming to a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan aged > 18 years were included. Patients were categorized into 2 groups: controlled and uncontrolled hypertension based on their initial BP readings on presentation Uncontrolled Hypertension was defined as average BP ≥ 140/90 mm Hg in patients on treatment. Controlled Hypertension (HTN) was defined as average BP <140/90 mm Hg in patients on treatment. Standardized methods were used to record BP in the sitting position. Knowledge was recorded as a15 item question. Primary outcome was knowledge about hypertension. Results A total of 650 participants were approached and consented 447 were found eligible. 284(63.5%) were from Aga Khan University, 101(22.6) from Dow University of health sciences and 62(13.9) were from Ziauddin University. Mean (SD) age of participants was 57.7(12) years, 50.1(224) were men. Controlled hypertension was present in 323(72.3) and uncontrolled hypertension was present in 124(27.4). The total mean (SD) Knowledge score was 20.97(4.93) out of a maximum score of 38. On comparison of questions related to knowledge between uncontrolled and controlled hypertension, there was statistically significant different in; meaning of hypertension (p <0.001), target SBP(p0.001), target DBP(p 0.001), importance of SBP versus DBP, improvement of health with lowering of blood pressure (p 0.002), high blood pressure being asymptomatic (p <0

  9. Controls on cross-sectional geometry of extensional basins, east-central Nevada -- A seismic-stratigraphic approach

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, C.J.; Grow, J.A.; Miller, J.J. )

    1993-04-01

    A 110-km regional seismic profile in east-central Nevada crosses Neogene east-tilted half-grabens in (from west to east) Railroad Valley (RRV), White River Valley, Cave Valley (CV), Muleshoe Valley and Lake Valley. Variations in the internal architecture of these basins may be related to two factors: (1) differences in structural evolution and (2) position of cross section (i.e., the seismic profile) with respect to major depocenters, accommodation zones, and other along-strike transitions in basin geometry. A detailed grid of seismic data in Railroad Valley and proprietary data from other basins show that without adequate three-dimensional seismic control, one should carefully consider factor (2) before generalizing about factor (1). As illustrations, the authors compare cross section derived from the seismic data across RRV (latitude of Grant Canyon) and CV (latitude of Sidehill Pass). In summary, data from RRV and CV illustrate the complexity of broad basin-bounding extensional fault zones and suggest that listric faulting and stratal rotation are characteristic of basin depocenters, whereas translation above planar bounding faults is characteristic of parts of extensional basins that are removed from the depocenter.

  10. Lumbopelvic motor control and low back pain in elite soccer players: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Grosdent, Stéphanie; Demoulin, Christophe; Rodriguez de La Cruz, Carlos; Giop, Romain; Tomasella, Marco; Crielaard, Jean-Michel; Vanderthommen, Marc

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the history of low back pain and quality of lumbopelvic motor control in soccer players. Forty-three male elite soccer players (mean age, 18.2 ± 1.4 years) filled in questionnaires related to low back pain and attended a session to assess lumbopelvic motor control by means of five tests (the bent knee fall out test, the knee lift abdominal test, the sitting knee extension test, the waiter's bow and the transversus abdominis test). A physiotherapist, blinded to the medical history of the participants, scored (0 = failed, 1 = correct) the performance of the players for each of the tests resulting in a lumbopelvic motor control score ranging from 0 to 5. Forty-seven per cent of the soccer players reported a disabling low back pain episode lasting at least two consecutive days in the previous year. These players scored worse lumbopelvic motor control than players without a history of low back pain (lumbopelvic motor control score of 1.8 vs. 3.3, P < 0.01). The between-groups difference was particularly marked for the bent knee fall out test, the knee lift abdominal test and the transversus abdominis test (P < 0.01). In conclusion, most soccer players with a history of low back pain had an altered lumbopelvic motor control. Further research should examine whether lumbopelvic motor control is etiologically involved in low back pain episodes in soccer players. PMID:26407007