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Sample records for controlled route requests

  1. VHDL Control Routing Simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Venard, J.

    1995-07-10

    The control router simulates a backplane consisting of up to 16 slot. Slot 0, reserved for a control module (cr-ctrl), generates the system clocks and provides the serial interface to the Gating Logic. The remaining 15 slots (1-15) contain routing modules (cr mod), each having up to 64 serial inputs and outputs with FIFOs. Messages to be transmitted to the Control Router are taken from text files. There are currently 17 such source files. In the model, the serial output of each source is connected to multiple receivers, so that there are 8 identical messages transmitted to the router for each message file entry.

  2. VHDL Control Routing Simulator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1995-07-10

    The control router simulates a backplane consisting of up to 16 slot. Slot 0, reserved for a control module (cr-ctrl), generates the system clocks and provides the serial interface to the Gating Logic. The remaining 15 slots (1-15) contain routing modules (cr mod), each having up to 64 serial inputs and outputs with FIFOs. Messages to be transmitted to the Control Router are taken from text files. There are currently 17 such source files. Inmore » the model, the serial output of each source is connected to multiple receivers, so that there are 8 identical messages transmitted to the router for each message file entry.« less

  3. Request routing with a backerror propagation network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauser, Susan E.; Hsu, Wayne; Thoma, George R.

    1993-09-01

    A pilot project of the Center involves automatic document delivery in response to computerized Interlibrary loan requests. Each document request includes an unstructured comment field that patrons occasionally use to indicate whether or not they want the National Library of Medicine to fill that request. These comments vary widely in content, but were found to always contain the test 'NLM.' This paper describes a technique to automatically reduce the amount of operator intervention to resolve ambiguities in the intent of the patron as to whether the request should be filled or not.

  4. Controls Request Tracker

    SciTech Connect

    White, Karen S; Kasemir, Kay; Hartman, Steven M; Verstovsek, Igor

    2009-01-01

    Controls groups at large accelerators are routinely called upon to build and support controls for virtually all machine systems. While construction projects within the US DOE system are normally carefully planned and tracked by project management professionals, this support ends when construction milestones are met. However, once construction is complete, work continues as the group performs ongoing support and maintenance while also implementing requested system improvements and upgrades. With customers from virtually every accelerator and experiment group, the demands on the group often exceed the capacity of available resources. This type of diverse workload needs to be well organized and managed in order set proper priorities and ensure efficient use of resources. At SNS, we have collaborated with Cosylab to develop Controls Request Tracker (CRT), which is adapted from the Cosylab Project Manager (CPM) software. The resulting system not only provides standard request tracking features, but is interfaced to the SNS Logbook and work control system. This paper will discuss CRT and how we use it to manage the work of our controls group.

  5. VHDL CONTROL ROUTER. VHDL Control Routing Simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Venard, J.

    1994-03-01

    The control router simulates a backplane consisting of up to 16 slot. Slot 0, reserved for a control module (cr-ctrl), generates the system clocks and provides the serial interface to the Gating Logic. The remaining 15 slots (1-15) contain routing modules (cr mod), each having up to 64 serial inputs and outputs with FIFOs. Messages to be transmitted to the Control Router are taken from text files. There are currently 17 such source files. In the model, the serial output of each source is connected to multiple receivers, so that there are 8 identical messages transmitted to the router for each message file entry.

  6. Congestion control and routing over satellite networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jinhua

    Satellite networks and transmissions find their application in fields of computer communications, telephone communications, television broadcasting, transportation, space situational awareness systems and so on. This thesis mainly focuses on two networking issues affecting satellite networking: network congestion control and network routing optimization. Congestion, which leads to long queueing delays, packet losses or both, is a networking problem that has drawn the attention of many researchers. The goal of congestion control mechanisms is to ensure high bandwidth utilization while avoiding network congestion by regulating the rate at which traffic sources inject packets into a network. In this thesis, we propose a stable congestion controller using data-driven, safe switching control theory to improve the dynamic performance of satellite Transmission Control Protocol/Active Queue Management (TCP/AQM) networks. First, the stable region of the Proportional-Integral (PI) parameters for a nominal model is explored. Then, a PI controller, whose parameters are adaptively tuned by switching among members of a given candidate set, using observed plant data, is presented and compared with some classical AQM policy examples, such as Random Early Detection (RED) and fixed PI control. A new cost detectable switching law with an interval cost function switching algorithm, which improves the performance and also saves the computational cost, is developed and compared with a law commonly used in the switching control literature. Finite-gain stability of the system is proved. A fuzzy logic PI controller is incorporated as a special candidate to achieve good performance at all nominal points with the available set of candidate controllers. Simulations are presented to validate the theory. An effocient routing algorithm plays a key role in optimizing network resources. In this thesis, we briefly analyze Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite networks, review the Cross Entropy (CE

  7. DOCLINE: A National Automated Interlibrary Loan Request Routing and Referral System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutcher, Gale A.

    1989-01-01

    Describes an automated interlibrary loan request routing and referral system made available to U.S. biomedical libraries by the National Library of Medicine. The description covers the databases used and the systems modules that support various functions. The current status of the system and possible future developments are discussed. (six…

  8. 78 FR 36776 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Emission Control System Performance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ... AGENCY Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Emission Control System Performance... an information collection request (ICR), ``Emission Control System Performance Warranty Regulations and Voluntary Aftermarket Part Certification Program (Renewal)'' (EPA ICR No. 0116.10, OMB Control...

  9. Route-Based Control of Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Gonder, J. D.

    2008-01-01

    Today's hybrid electric vehicle controls cannot always provide maximum fuel savings over all drive cycles. Route-based controls could improve HEV fuel efficiency by 2%-4% and help save nearly 6.5 million gallons of fuel annually.

  10. Short-Term Memory, Executive Control, and Children's Route Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purser, Harry R. M.; Farran, Emily K.; Courbois, Yannick; Lemahieu, Axelle; Mellier, Daniel; Sockeel, Pascal; Blades, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate route-learning ability in 67 children aged 5 to 11 years and to relate route-learning performance to the components of Baddeley's model of working memory. Children carried out tasks that included measures of verbal and visuospatial short-term memory and executive control and also measures of verbal and…

  11. Multi-depot Vehicle Routing Problem with Pickup and Delivery Requests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sombuntham, Pandhapon; Kachitvichyanukul, Voratas

    2010-10-01

    This paper considers a multi-depot vehicle routing problem with pickup and delivery requests. In the problem of interest, each location may have goods for both pickup and delivery with multiple delivery locations that may not be the depots. These characteristics are quite common in industrial practice. A particle swarm optimization algorithm with multiple social learning structures is proposed for solving the practical case of multi-depot vehicle routing problem with simultaneous pickup and delivery and time window. A new decoding procedure is implemented using the PSO class provided in the ETLib object library. Computational experiments are carried out using the test instances for the pickup and delivery problem with time windows (PDPTW) as well as a newly generated instance. The preliminary results show that the proposed algorithm is able to provide good solutions to most of the test problems.

  12. Valiant load-balanced robust routing algorithm for multigranularity connection requests in traffic-grooming WDM mesh networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoning; Li, Lemin; Wang, Sheng

    2006-09-01

    The paper considers the problem of establishing robust routes for multi-granularity connection requests in traffic-grooming WDM mesh networks and proposes a novel Valiant Load-Balanced robust routing scheme for the hose uncertain model. Our objective is to minimize the total network cost when assuring robust routing for all possible multi-granularity connection requests under the hose model. Since the optimization problem is recently shown to be NP-hard, two heuristic algorithms are proposed and compared. When implementing Valiant Load-Balanced robust routing scheme to WDM mesh networks, a novel traffic-grooming algorithm called MHF (minimal hop first) is proposed. We evaluate MHF by Valiant Load-Balanced robust routing with the traditional traffic-grooming algorithm by computer simulation.

  13. Direct-To Tool for En Route Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz; McNally, David; Foster, Michelle

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a new automation tool for en route air traffic controllers, called the Direct-To Tool. The Tool is designed to reduce the time of flight and fuel consumption for aircraft flying in en route airspace. It provides each controller with the identities of aircraft in his/her sector, which can reduce their time en route by bypassing dog-legged route segments and flying "direct to" a waypoint closer to the destination airport. The Tool uses its build-in conflict probing capability to determine if the improved route is free of conflicts with other aircraft. The Tool's graphical computer interface enables the controller to enter a direct-to clearance by a simple point and click action. Because of its low workload and convenience, this method is strongly favored by controllers The Tool has been running since January with live radar data received at NASA from the Fort Worth Air Route Traffic Control Center. For aircraft operating in the Fort Worth Center, the Tool has the potential to save in excess of 500,000 in-flight minutes per year. A provisional patent application for this Tool has been filed. A field task in planned for the last quarter of this year.

  14. Atlanta Air Route Traffic Control Center's involvement in aviation weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, W. D.

    1979-01-01

    The distribution of weather information throughout the Air Traffic Control System is discussed along with the development of meteorological radar, and the modifications to the Air Route Traffic Control Center radars for locating and determining the severity of storms' cells. The planned improvements in the availability of weather data to the control centers are listed.

  15. Automatic-repeat-request error control schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, S.; Costello, D. J., Jr.; Miller, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    Error detection incorporated with automatic-repeat-request (ARQ) is widely used for error control in data communication systems. This method of error control is simple and provides high system reliability. If a properly chosen code is used for error detection, virtually error-free data transmission can be attained. Various types of ARQ and hybrid ARQ schemes, and error detection using linear block codes are surveyed.

  16. [How to control postoperative pain: intravenous route].

    PubMed

    Occella, P; Vivaldi, F

    2003-12-01

    Intravenous administration of analgesic drugs is one of the most common ways to control post-operative pain. It can be used in almost all kinds of surgical interventions and particularly those of medium and high complexity. Besides, when other techniques are contraindicated because of clinical and/or managing problems, intravenous way finds its best application. Among analgesic drugs NSAID (ketorolac) and opioids (tramadol, morphine, buprenorphine) are most frequently used. As to administration techniques, elastomeric pump is, according to personal experience, a simple-to-manage, practical and precise device with lower cost respect to other administration set. Elastomeric pump is a single use reservoir that allows continuous administration of drugs with a uniform pre-set infusion speed. Finally, guide-lines, showing pre-load and infusion doses of analgesic drugs, based on pain intensity, are presented. PMID:14663417

  17. Energy consumption and control response evaluations of AODV routing in WSANs for building-temperature control.

    PubMed

    Booranawong, Apidet; Teerapabkajorndet, Wiklom; Limsakul, Chusak

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to investigate the effects of routing protocols on wireless sensor and actuator networks (WSANs), focusing on the control system response and the energy consumption of nodes in a network. We demonstrate that routing algorithms designed without considering the relationship between communication and control cannot be appropriately used in wireless networked control applications. For this purpose, an ad-hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) routing, an IEEE 802.15.4, and a building-temperature control system are employed for this exploration. The findings from our scenarios show that the AODV routing can select a path with a high traffic load for data transmission. It takes a long time before deciding to change a new route although it experiences the unsuccessful transmission of packets. As a result, the desirable control target cannot be achieved in time, and nodes consume more energy due to frequent packet collisions and retransmissions. Consequently, we propose a simple routing solution to alleviate these research problems by modifying the original AODV routing protocol. The delay-threshold is considered to avoid any congested connection during routing procedures. The simulation results demonstrate that our solution can be appropriately applied in WSANs. Both the energy consumption and the control system response are improved. PMID:23807689

  18. Energy Consumption and Control Response Evaluations of AODV Routing in WSANs for Building-Temperature Control

    PubMed Central

    Booranawong, Apidet; Teerapabkajorndet, Wiklom; Limsakul, Chusak

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to investigate the effects of routing protocols on wireless sensor and actuator networks (WSANs), focusing on the control system response and the energy consumption of nodes in a network. We demonstrate that routing algorithms designed without considering the relationship between communication and control cannot be appropriately used in wireless networked control applications. For this purpose, an ad-hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) routing, an IEEE 802.15.4, and a building-temperature control system are employed for this exploration. The findings from our scenarios show that the AODV routing can select a path with a high traffic load for data transmission. It takes a long time before deciding to change a new route although it experiences the unsuccessful transmission of packets. As a result, the desirable control target cannot be achieved in time, and nodes consume more energy due to frequent packet collisions and retransmissions. Consequently, we propose a simple routing solution to alleviate these research problems by modifying the original AODV routing protocol. The delay-threshold is considered to avoid any congested connection during routing procedures. The simulation results demonstrate that our solution can be appropriately applied in WSANs. Both the energy consumption and the control system response are improved. PMID:23807689

  19. A novel robust routing algorithm for multi-granularity connection requests in wavelength division multiplexing mesh networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoning; Li, Lemin; Wang, Sheng; Wei, Xuetao

    2008-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel robust routing algorithm based on Valiant load-balancing under the model of polyhedral uncertainty (i.e., hose uncertainty model) for WDM (wavelength division multiplexing) mesh networks. Valiant load-balanced robust routing algorithm constructs the stable virtual topology on which any traffic patterns under the hose uncertainty model can be efficiently routed. Considering there are multi-granularity connection requests in WDM mesh networks, we propose the method called hose-model separation to solve the problem for the proposed algorithm. Our goal is to minimize total network cost when constructing the stable virtual topology that assures robust routing for the hose model in WDM mesh networks. A mathematical formulation (integer linear programming, ILP) about Valiant load-balanced robust routing algorithm is presented. Two fast heuristic approaches are also proposed and evaluated. We compare the network throughput of the virtual topology constructed by the proposed algorithm with that of the traditional traffic grooming algorithm under the same total network cost by computer simulation.

  20. Active route learning in virtual environments: disentangling movement control from intention, instruction specificity, and navigation control.

    PubMed

    von Stülpnagel, Rul; Steffens, Melanie C

    2013-09-01

    Active navigation research examines how physiological and psychological involvement in navigation benefits spatial learning. However, existing conceptualizations of active navigation comprise separable, distinct factors. This research disentangles the contributions of movement control (i.e., self-contained vs. observed movement) as a central factor from learning intention (Experiment 1), instruction specificity and instruction control (Experiment 2), as well as navigation control (Experiment 3) to spatial learning in virtual environments. We tested the effects of these factors on landmark recognition (landmark knowledge), tour-integration and route navigation (route knowledge). Our findings suggest that movement control leads to robust advantages in landmark knowledge as compared to observed movement. Advantages in route knowledge do not depend on learning intention, but on the need to elaborate spatial information. Whenever the necessary level of elaboration is assured for observed movement, too, the development of route knowledge is not inferior to that for self-contained movement. PMID:22922991

  1. Controller evaluation of initial data link en route air traffic control services: Mini study 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marek, Hank; Shochet, Ephraim; Darby, Evan; Buck, Frank; Sweeney, David; Cratch, Preston

    1991-06-01

    The results of Mini Study 3 conducted November 5-9, 1990 are presented. This Mini Study was conducted at the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Technical Center utilizing the Washington Air Route Traffic Control Center (ARTCC) airspace in the Data Link test bed. Initial Data Link en route services were evaluated in order to identify service delivery methods which optimize the human computer interface. Controllers from the Air Traffic Data Link Validation Team participated in this study.

  2. Tour time in a two-route traffic system controlled by signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatani, Takashi; Naito, Yuichi

    2011-11-01

    We study the dynamic behavior of vehicular traffic in a two-route system with a series of signals (traffic lights) at low density where the number of signals on route A is different from that on route B. We investigate the dependence of the tour time on the route for some strategies of signal control. The nonlinear dynamic model of a two-route traffic system controlled by signals is presented by nonlinear maps. The vehicular traffic exhibits a very complex behavior, depending on the cycle time, the phase difference, and the irregularity. The dependence of the tour time on the route choice is clarified for the signal strategies.

  3. Analysis of Controller Communication in En Route Air Traffic Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seamster, Thomas L.; And Others

    To contribute to an understanding of the elements of good air traffic controller communication with the objective of providing recommendations to improve controller communication training, two studies analyzed team communication, ground-air communication, and ground-line communication. The simulated and live traffic analyses examined established…

  4. Optimization and Planning of Emergency Evacuation Routes Considering Traffic Control

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lijun; Wang, Zhaohua

    2014-01-01

    Emergencies, especially major ones, happen fast, randomly, as well as unpredictably, and generally will bring great harm to people's life and the economy. Therefore, governments and lots of professionals devote themselves to taking effective measures and providing optimal evacuation plans. This paper establishes two different emergency evacuation models on the basis of the maximum flow model (MFM) and the minimum-cost maximum flow model (MC-MFM), and proposes corresponding algorithms for the evacuation from one source node to one designated destination (one-to-one evacuation). Ulteriorly, we extend our evaluation model from one source node to many designated destinations (one-to-many evacuation). At last, we make case analysis of evacuation optimization and planning in Beijing, and obtain the desired evacuation routes and effective traffic control measures from the perspective of sufficiency and practicability. Both analytical and numerical results support that our models are feasible and practical. PMID:24991636

  5. Optimization and planning of emergency evacuation routes considering traffic control.

    PubMed

    Li, Guo; Zhang, Lijun; Wang, Zhaohua

    2014-01-01

    Emergencies, especially major ones, happen fast, randomly, as well as unpredictably, and generally will bring great harm to people's life and the economy. Therefore, governments and lots of professionals devote themselves to taking effective measures and providing optimal evacuation plans. This paper establishes two different emergency evacuation models on the basis of the maximum flow model (MFM) and the minimum-cost maximum flow model (MC-MFM), and proposes corresponding algorithms for the evacuation from one source node to one designated destination (one-to-one evacuation). Ulteriorly, we extend our evaluation model from one source node to many designated destinations (one-to-many evacuation). At last, we make case analysis of evacuation optimization and planning in Beijing, and obtain the desired evacuation routes and effective traffic control measures from the perspective of sufficiency and practicability. Both analytical and numerical results support that our models are feasible and practical. PMID:24991636

  6. Crystallization engineering as a route to epitaxial strain control

    SciTech Connect

    Akbashev, Andrew R.; Plokhikh, Aleksandr V.; Barbash, Dmitri; Lofland, Samuel E.; Spanier, Jonathan E.

    2015-10-01

    The controlled synthesis of epitaxial thin films offers opportunities for tuning their functional properties via enabling or suppressing strain relaxation. Examining differences in the epitaxial crystallization of amorphous oxide films, we report on an alternate, low-temperature route for strain engineering. Thin films of amorphous Bi–Fe–O were grown on (001)SrTiO{sub 3} and (001)LaAlO{sub 3} substrates via atomic layer deposition. In situ X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies of the crystallization of the amorphous films into the epitaxial (001)BiFeO{sub 3} phase reveal distinct evolution profiles of crystallinity with temperature. While growth on (001)SrTiO{sub 3} results in a coherently strained film, the same films obtained on (001)LaAlO{sub 3} showed an unstrained, dislocation-rich interface, with an even lower temperature onset of the perovskite phase crystallization than in the case of (001)SrTiO{sub 3}. Our results demonstrate how the strain control in an epitaxial film can be accomplished via its crystallization from the amorphous state.

  7. Dynamic Congestion Control using MDB-Routing Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anuradha, S.; Raghu Ram, G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents high through put routing algorithm. Modified depth Breadth routing algorithm takes a decision in moving forward packet in the next node which will visit to reach its final destination. Load balancing to improve the performance of distributed by processing power of the entire system to smooth out process of very high congestion at individual nodes, by transferring some of the load of heavily loaded nodes to the other nodes for processing. This achieves a 306.53 average time for packet, compared with the DB routing which achieves 316.13 average time for packet. Results shows that the proposed Modified depth Breadth achieves 348 average time when compared to DB routing which gives 548 for 3500 packets on 5 × 5 grid. Further results show that no of dead packets significantly reduced in the case of MDB. This focuses on Routing Network and Tables. These Network tables includes the information used by a routing algorithm to take a decision in moving forward the packet in the next node which will visit to reach its final destination. Load balancing try to improve the performance of a distributed system by processing power of the entire system to smooth out periods of very high congestion at individual nodes, which is done by transferring some of the load of heavily loaded nodes to other nodes for processing.

  8. Energy Efficient Link Aware Routing with Power Control in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    PubMed Central

    Katiravan, Jeevaa; Sylvia, D.; Rao, D. Srinivasa

    2015-01-01

    In wireless ad hoc networks, the traditional routing protocols make the route selection based on minimum distance between the nodes and the minimum number of hop counts. Most of the routing decisions do not consider the condition of the network such as link quality and residual energy of the nodes. Also, when a link failure occurs, a route discovery mechanism is initiated which incurs high routing overhead. If the broadcast nature and the spatial diversity of the wireless communication are utilized efficiently it becomes possible to achieve improvement in the performance of the wireless networks. In contrast to the traditional routing scheme which makes use of a predetermined route for packet transmission, such an opportunistic routing scheme defines a predefined forwarding candidate list formed by using single network metrics. In this paper, a protocol is proposed which uses multiple metrics such as residual energy and link quality for route selection and also includes a monitoring mechanism which initiates a route discovery for a poor link, thereby reducing the overhead involved and improving the throughput of the network while maintaining network connectivity. Power control is also implemented not only to save energy but also to improve the network performance. Using simulations, we show the performance improvement attained in the network in terms of packet delivery ratio, routing overhead, and residual energy of the network. PMID:26167529

  9. Method and System For an Automated Tool for En Route Traffic Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz (Inventor); McNally, B. David (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A method and system for a new automation tool for en route air traffic controllers first finds all aircraft flying on inefficient routes, then determines whether it is possible to save time by bypassing some route segments, and finally whether the improved route is free of conflicts with other aircraft. The method displays all direct-to eligible aircraft to an air traffic controller in a list sorted by highest time savings. By allowing the air traffic controller to easily identify and work with the highest pay-off aircraft, the method of the present invention contributes to a significant increase in both air traffic controller and aircraft productivity. A graphical computer interface (GUI) is used to enable the air traffic controller to send the aircraft direct to a waypoint or fix closer to the destination airport by a simple point and click action.

  10. Method and system for an automated tool for en route traffic controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz (Inventor); McNally, B. David (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A method and system for a new automation tool for en route air traffic controllers first finds all aircraft flying on inefficient routes, then determines whether it is possible to save time by bypassing some route segments, and finally whether the improved route is free of conflicts with other aircraft. The method displays all direct-to eligible aircraft to an air traffic controller in a list sorted by highest time savings. By allowing the air traffic controller to easily identify and work with the highest pay-off aircraft, the method of the present invention contributes to a significant increase in both air traffic controller and aircraft productivity. A graphical computer interface (GUI) is used to enable the air traffic controller to send the aircraft direct to a waypoint or fix closer to the destination airport by a simple point and click action.

  11. A desert ant's memory of recent visual experience and the control of route guidance

    PubMed Central

    Collett, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Insects such as desert ants learn stereotyped visual routes between their nests and reliable food sites. Studies here reveal an important control element for ensuring that the route memories are used appropriately. They find that visual route memories can be disengaged, so that they do not provide guidance, even when all appropriate visual cues are present and when there are no competing guidance cues. Ants were trained along a simple route dominated by a single isolated landmark. If returning ants were caught just before entering the nest and replaced at the feeder, then they often interrupted the recapitulation of their homeward route with a period of apparent confusion during which the route memories were ignored. A series of experiments showed that this confusion occurred in response to the repetition of the route, and that the ants must therefore maintain some kind of a memory of their visual experience on the current trip home. A conceptual model of route guidance is offered to explain the results here. It proposes how the memory might act and suggests a general role for disengagement in regulating route guidance. PMID:24870046

  12. Connectivity-enhanced route selection and adaptive control for the Chevrolet Volt

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gonder, Jeffrey; Wood, Eric; Rajagopalan, Sai

    2016-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory and General Motors evaluated connectivity-enabled efficiency enhancements for the Chevrolet Volt. A high-level model was developed to predict vehicle fuel and electricity consumption based on driving characteristics and vehicle state inputs. These techniques were leveraged to optimize energy efficiency via green routing and intelligent control mode scheduling, which were evaluated using prospective driving routes between tens of thousands of real-world origin/destination pairs. The overall energy savings potential of green routing and intelligent mode scheduling was estimated at 5% and 3%, respectively. Furthermore, these represent substantial opportunities considering that they only require software adjustments to implement.

  13. Connectivity-Enhanced Route Selection and Adaptive Control for the Chevrolet Volt: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Gonder, J.; Wood, E.; Rajagopalan, S.

    2014-09-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory and General Motors evaluated connectivity-enabled efficiency enhancements for the Chevrolet Volt. A high-level model was developed to predict vehicle fuel and electricity consumption based on driving characteristics and vehicle state inputs. These techniques were leveraged to optimize energy efficiency via green routing and intelligent control mode scheduling, which were evaluated using prospective driving routes between tens of thousands of real-world origin/destination pairs. The overall energy savings potential of green routing and intelligent mode scheduling was estimated at 5% and 3% respectively. These represent substantial opportunities considering that they only require software adjustments to implement.

  14. Controlled spatial switching and routing of surface plasmons in designed single-crystalline gold nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Könenkamp, R.; Word, R. C.; Fitzgerald, J. P. S.; Nadarajah, Athavan; Saliba, S. D.

    2012-10-01

    Electron emission microscopy is used to visualize plasmonic routing in gold nano-structures. We show that in single-crystalline gold structures reliable routing can be achieved with polarization switching. The routing is due to the polarization dependence of the photon-to-plasmon coupling, which controls the mode distribution in the plasmonic gold film. We use specifically designed, single-crystalline planar structures. In these structures, the plasmon propagation length is sufficiently large such that significant plasmon power can be delivered to the near-field region around the end tips of the router. Solid state devices based on internal electron excitation and emission processes appear feasible.

  15. Distributed Power Flow Control: Distributed Power Flow Control using Smart Wires for Energy Routing

    SciTech Connect

    2012-04-24

    GENI Project: Smart Wire Grid is developing a solution for controlling power flow within the electric grid to better manage unused and overall transmission capacity. The 300,000 miles of high-voltage transmission line in the U.S. today are congested and inefficient, with only around 50% of all transmission capacity utilized at any given time. Increased consumer demand should be met in part with more efficient and an economical power flow. Smart Wire Grid’s devices clamp onto existing transmission lines and control the flow of power within—much like how internet routers help allocate bandwidth throughout the web. Smart wires could support greater use of renewable energy by providing more consistent control over how that energy is routed within the grid on a real-time basis. This would lessen the concerns surrounding the grid’s inability to effectively store intermittent energy from renewables for later use.

  16. Improving Operational Acceptability of Dynamic Weather Routes Through Analysis of Commonly Use Routings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Antony D.; Sridhar, Banavar; McNally, David

    2016-01-01

    The Dynamic Weather Routes (DWR) tool is a ground-based trajectory automation system that continuously and automatically analyzes active in-flight aircraft in en route airspace to find simple modifications to flight plan routes that can save significant flying time, while avoiding weather and considering traffic conflicts, airspace sector congestion, special use airspace, and FAA routing restrictions. Trials of the DWR system have shown that significant delay savings are possible. However, some DWR advised routes are also rejected by dispatchers or modified before being accepted. Similarly, of those sent by dispatchers to flight crews as proposed route change requests, many are not accepted by air traffic control, or are modified before implementation as Center route amendments. Such actions suggest that the operational acceptability of DWR advised route corrections could be improved, which may reduce workload and increase delay savings. This paper analyzes the historical usage of different flight routings, varying from simple waypoint pairs to lengthy strings of waypoints incorporating jet routes, in order to improve DWR route acceptability. An approach is developed that can be incorporated into DWR, advising routings with high historical usage and savings potential similar to that of the nominal DWR advisory. It is hypothesized that modifying a nominal DWR routing to one that is commonly used, and nearby, will result in more actual savings since common routings are generally familiar and operationally acceptable to air traffic control. The approach allows routing segments with high historical usage to be concatenated to form routes that meet all DWR constraints. The relevance of a route's historical usage to its acceptance by dispatchers and air traffic control is quantified by analyzing historical DWR data. Results indicate that while historical usage may be less of a concern to flight dispatchers accepting or rejecting DWR advised route corrections, it may be

  17. The deployment of routing protocols in distributed control plane of SDN.

    PubMed

    Jingjing, Zhou; Di, Cheng; Weiming, Wang; Rong, Jin; Xiaochun, Wu

    2014-01-01

    Software defined network (SDN) provides a programmable network through decoupling the data plane, control plane, and application plane from the original closed system, thus revolutionizing the existing network architecture to improve the performance and scalability. In this paper, we learned about the distributed characteristics of Kandoo architecture and, meanwhile, improved and optimized Kandoo's two levels of controllers based on ideological inspiration of RCP (routing control platform). Finally, we analyzed the deployment strategies of BGP and OSPF protocol in a distributed control plane of SDN. The simulation results show that our deployment strategies are superior to the traditional routing strategies. PMID:25250395

  18. Reliable on-demand multicast routing with congestion control in wireless ad hoc networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Ken; Gerla, Mario

    2001-07-01

    In this paper, we address the congestion control multicast routing problem in wireless ad hoc networks through the medium access control (MAC) layer. We first introduce the Broadcast Medium Window (BMW) MAC protocol, which provides reliable delivery to broadcast packets at the MAC layer. We then extend the wireless On-Demand Multicast Routing Protocol (ODMRP) to facilitate congestion control in ad hoc networks using BMW. Through simulation, we show that ODMRP with congestion control adapts well to multicast sources that are aggressive in data transmissions.

  19. The Deployment of Routing Protocols in Distributed Control Plane of SDN

    PubMed Central

    Jingjing, Zhou; Di, Cheng; Weiming, Wang; Rong, Jin; Xiaochun, Wu

    2014-01-01

    Software defined network (SDN) provides a programmable network through decoupling the data plane, control plane, and application plane from the original closed system, thus revolutionizing the existing network architecture to improve the performance and scalability. In this paper, we learned about the distributed characteristics of Kandoo architecture and, meanwhile, improved and optimized Kandoo's two levels of controllers based on ideological inspiration of RCP (routing control platform). Finally, we analyzed the deployment strategies of BGP and OSPF protocol in a distributed control plane of SDN. The simulation results show that our deployment strategies are superior to the traditional routing strategies. PMID:25250395

  20. Analyzing the effect of routing protocols on media access control protocols in radio networks

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, C. L.; Drozda, M.; Marathe, A.; Marathe, M. V.

    2002-01-01

    We study the effect of routing protocols on the performance of media access control (MAC) protocols in wireless radio networks. Three well known MAC protocols: 802.11, CSMA, and MACA are considered. Similarly three recently proposed routing protocols: AODV, DSR and LAR scheme 1 are considered. The experimental analysis was carried out using GloMoSim: a tool for simulating wireless networks. The main focus of our experiments was to study how the routing protocols affect the performance of the MAC protocols when the underlying network and traffic parameters are varied. The performance of the protocols was measured w.r.t. five important parameters: (i) number of received packets, (ii) average latency of each packet, (iii) throughput (iv) long term fairness and (v) number of control packets at the MAC layer level. Our results show that combinations of routing and MAC protocols yield varying performance under varying network topology and traffic situations. The result has an important implication; no combination of routing protocol and MAC protocol is the best over all situations. Also, the performance analysis of protocols at a given level in the protocol stack needs to be studied not locally in isolation but as a part of the complete protocol stack. A novel aspect of our work is the use of statistical technique, ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) to characterize the effect of routing protocols on MAC protocols. This technique is of independent interest and can be utilized in several other simulation and empirical studies.

  1. Distributive routing and congestion control in wireless multihop ad hoc communication networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glauche, Ingmar; Krause, Wolfram; Sollacher, Rudolf; Greiner, Martin

    2004-10-01

    Due to their inherent complexity, engineered wireless multihop ad hoc communication networks represent a technological challenge. Having no mastering infrastructure the nodes have to selforganize themselves in such a way that for example network connectivity, good data traffic performance and robustness are guaranteed. In this contribution the focus is on routing and congestion control. First, random data traffic along shortest path routes is studied by simulations as well as theoretical modeling. Measures of congestion like end-to-end time delay and relaxation times are given. A scaling law of the average time delay with respect to network size is revealed and found to depend on the underlying network topology. In the second step, a distributive routing and congestion control is proposed. Each node locally propagates its routing cost estimates and information about its congestion state to its neighbors, which then update their respective cost estimates. This allows for a flexible adaptation of end-to-end routes to the overall congestion state of the network. Compared to shortest-path routing, the critical network load is significantly increased.

  2. Cognitive Task Analysis of En Route Air Traffic Control: Model Extension and Validation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redding, Richard E.; And Others

    Phase II of a project extended data collection and analytic procedures to develop a model of expertise and skill development for en route air traffic control (ATC). New data were collected by recording the Dynamic Simulator (DYSIM) performance of five experts with a work overload problem. Expert controllers were interviewed in depth for mental…

  3. Supervisory control of Petri nets using routing functions: starvation avoidance issues.

    PubMed

    Alpan, G; Gaujal, B

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new point of view on supervisory control of Petri nets by using routing functions instead of the traditional control places. We first show the relation between the two notions. In the second part of the paper, we illustrate the use of routing functions by showing how to compute a routing function in order to avoid starvation in general Petri nets. This control uses a continuous version of the net and a description of the evolution of the net under the form of linear algebraic equations. As for the computational part, we use algebraic polynomial geometry in the continuous case and Diophantine equations for the discrete version of the Petri net under study. PMID:18252402

  4. Draft Cognitive Skills Training Program for En-Route Air Traffic Controllers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redding, Richard E.

    This document begins with a discussion of the cognitive task analysis (CTA) that was commissioned by the Federal Aviation Administration to identify the cognitive skills-related training needs of en-route air traffic controllers. Concluding the introductory section are a brief list of recommendations regarding the design of a training program…

  5. 31 CFR 50.8 - Procedure for requesting determinations of controlling influence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM General Provisions § 50.8 Procedure for requesting... controlling influence. Such submissions shall be made to the Terrorism Risk Insurance Program...

  6. 31 CFR 50.8 - Procedure for requesting determinations of controlling influence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM General Provisions § 50.8 Procedure for requesting... controlling influence. Such submissions shall be made to the Terrorism Risk Insurance Program...

  7. 31 CFR 50.8 - Procedure for requesting determinations of controlling influence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM General Provisions § 50.8 Procedure for requesting... controlling influence. Such submissions shall be made to the Terrorism Risk Insurance Program...

  8. Comprehensive Optimization of Emergency Evacuation Route and Departure Time under Traffic Control

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ying; Liu, Mengqi

    2014-01-01

    With the frequent occurrence of major emergencies, emergency management gets high attention from all around the world. This paper investigates the comprehensive optimization of major emergency evacuation route and departure time, in which case the evacuation propagation mechanism is considered under traffic control. Given the practical assumptions, we first establish a comprehensive optimization model based on the simulation of evacuation route and departure time. Furthermore, we explore the reasonable description method of evacuation traffic flow propagation under traffic control, including the establishment of traffic flow propagation model and the design of the simulation mudule that can simulate the evacuation traffic flow. Finally, we propose a heuristic algorithm for the optimization of this comprehensive model. In case analysis, we take some areas in Beijing as the evaluation sources to verify the reliability of our model. A series of constructive suggestions for Beijing's emergency evacuation are proposed, which can be applied to the actual situation under traffic control. PMID:24977232

  9. En Route Air Traffic Control Input Devices for the Next Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mainini, Matthew J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the usefulness of different input device configurations when trial planning new routes for aircraft in an advanced simulation of the en route workstation. The task of trial planning is one of the futuristic tools that is performed by the graphical manipulation of an aircraft's trajectory to reroute the aircraft without voice communication. In this study with two input devices, the FAA's current trackball and a basic optical computer mouse were evaluated with "pick" button in a click-and-hold state and a click-and-release state while the participant dragged the trial plan line. The trial plan was used for three different conflict types: Aircraft Conflicts, Weather Conflicts, and Aircraft + Weather Conflicts. Speed and accuracy were the primary dependent variables. Results indicate that the mouse conditions were significantly faster than the trackball conditions overall with no significant loss of accuracy. Several performance ratings and preference ratings were analyzed from post-run and post-simulation questionnaires. The release conditions were significantly more useful and likable than the hold conditions. The results suggest that the mouse in the release button state was the fastest and most well liked device configuration for trial planning in the en route workstation. Keywords-input devices, en route, controller, workstation, mouse, trackball, NextGen

  10. Controlling the release of proteins/peptides via the pulmonary route.

    PubMed

    Shoyele, Sunday A

    2008-01-01

    The inhalation route is seen as the most promising non-invasive alternative for the delivery of proteins; however, the short duration of activity of drugs delivered via this route brought about by the activities of alveolar macrophages and mucociliary clearance means there is a need to develop controlled release system to prolong the activities of proteins delivered to the lung. Polymeric materials such as (D,L)-poly(lactic glycolic acid) (PLGA), chitosan and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEGs) have been used for controlled release of proteins. Other systems such as liposomes and microcrystallization have also proved effective. This chapter gives a more detailed understanding of these techniques and the manufacture of the delivery systems. PMID:18369966

  11. An Integrated Tool Suite for En Route Radar Controllers in NextGen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, Joey; Prevot, Thomas; Brasil, Connie; Mainini, Matthew; Kupfer, Michael; Smtih, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes recent human-in-the-loop research in the Airspace Operations Laboratory at the NASA Ames Research Center focusing on en route air traffic management with advanced trajectory planning tools and increased levels of human-automation cooperation. The decision support tools were exercised in a simulation of seven contiguous high-altitude sectors. Preliminary data suggests the controllers were able to manage higher amounts of traffic as compared to today, while maintaining acceptable levels of workload.

  12. RoCoMAR: Robots' Controllable Mobility Aided Routing and Relay Architecture for Mobile Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Van Le, Duc; Oh, Hoon; Yoon, Seokhoon

    2013-01-01

    In a practical deployment, mobile sensor network (MSN) suffers from a low performance due to high node mobility, time-varying wireless channel properties, and obstacles between communicating nodes. In order to tackle the problem of low network performance and provide a desired end-to-end data transfer quality, in this paper we propose a novel ad hoc routing and relaying architecture, namely RoCoMAR (Robots' Controllable Mobility Aided Routing) that uses robotic nodes' controllable mobility. RoCoMAR repeatedly performs link reinforcement process with the objective of maximizing the network throughput, in which the link with the lowest quality on the path is identified and replaced with high quality links by placing a robotic node as a relay at an optimal position. The robotic node resigns as a relay if the objective is achieved or no more gain can be obtained with a new relay. Once placed as a relay, the robotic node performs adaptive link maintenance by adjusting its position according to the movements of regular nodes. The simulation results show that RoCoMAR outperforms existing ad hoc routing protocols for MSN in terms of network throughput and end-to-end delay. PMID:23881134

  13. Distributed Multihoming Routing Method by Crossing Control MIPv6 with SCTP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Hongbo; Hamagami, Tomoki

    There are various wireless communication technologies, such as 3G, WiFi, used widely in the world. Recently, not only the laptop but also the smart phones can be equipped with multiple wireless devices. The communication terminals which are implemented with multiple interfaces are usually called multi-homed nodes. Meanwhile, a multi-homed node with multiple interfaces can also be regarded as multiple single-homed nodes. For example, when a person who is using smart phone and laptop to connect to the Internet concurrently, we may regard the person as a multi-homed node in the Internet. This paper proposes a new routing method, Multi-homed Mobile Cross-layer Control to handle multi-homed mobile nodes. Our suggestion can provide a distributed end-to-end routing method for handling the communications among multi-homed nodes at the fundamental network layer.

  14. On-chip electrically controlled routing of photons from a single quantum dot

    SciTech Connect

    Bentham, C.; Coles, R. J.; Royall, B.; O'Hara, J.; Prtljaga, N.; Fox, A. M.; Skolnick, M. S.; Wilson, L. R.; Itskevich, I. E.; Clarke, E.

    2015-06-01

    Electrical control of on-chip routing of photons emitted by a single InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dot (SAQD) is demonstrated in a photonic crystal cavity-waveguide system. The SAQD is located inside an H1 cavity, which is coupled to two photonic crystal waveguides. The SAQD emission wavelength is electrically tunable by the quantum-confined Stark effect. When the SAQD emission is brought into resonance with one of two H1 cavity modes, it is preferentially routed to the waveguide to which that mode is selectively coupled. This proof of concept provides the basis for scalable, low-power, high-speed operation of single-photon routers for use in integrated quantum photonic circuits.

  15. The Effects of Shared Information on Pilot-Controller Situation Awareness And Re-Route Negotiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Todd C.; Hansman, R. John; Endsley, Mica R.; Amonlirdviman, Keith

    1999-01-01

    The effect of shared information is assessed in terms of pilot-controller negotiating behavior and shared situation awareness. Pilot goals and situation awareness requirements are developed and compared against those of air traffic controllers to identify areas of common and competing interest. An exploratory, part-task simulator experiment is described which evaluates the extent to which shared information may lead pilots and controllers to cooperate or compete when negotiating route amendments. Results are presented which indicate that shared information enhances situation awareness and can engender more collaborative interaction between pilots and air traffic controllers. Furthermore, the value of providing controllers with a good-quality weather overlay on their plan view displays is demonstrated. Observed improvements in situation awareness and separation assurance are discussed.

  16. En route position and time control of aircraft using Kalman filtering of radio aid data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgee, L. A.; Christensen, J. V.

    1973-01-01

    Fixed-time-of-arrival (FTA) guidance and navigation is investigated as a possible technique capable of operation within much more stringent en route separation standards and offering significant advantages in safety, higher traffic densities, and improved scheduling reliability, both en route and in the terminal areas. This study investigated the application of FTA guidance previously used in spacecraft guidance. These FTA guidance techniques have been modified and are employed to compute the velocity corrections necessary to return an aircraft to a specified great-circle reference path in order to exercise en route time and position control throughout the entire flight. The necessary position and velocity estimates to accomplish this task are provided by Kalman filtering of data from Loran-C, VORTAC/TACAN, Doppler radar, radio or barometric altitude,and altitude rate. The guidance and navigation system was evaluated using a digital simulation of the cruise phase of supersonic and subsonic flights between San Francisco and New York City, and between New York City and London.

  17. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 controls lysosomal routing of G-CSF receptor

    PubMed Central

    Irandoust, Mahban I; Aarts, Lambertus H J; Roovers, Onno; Gits, Judith; Erkeland, Stefan J; Touw, Ivo P

    2007-01-01

    The hematopoietic system provides an attractive model for studying growth factor-controlled expansion and differentiation of cells in relation to receptor routing and its consequences for signal transduction. Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins regulate receptor signaling partly via their ubiquitin ligase (E3)-recruiting SOCS box domain. Whether SOCS proteins affect signaling through modulating intracellular trafficking of receptors is unknown. Here, we show that a juxtamembrane lysine residue (K632) of the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor (G-CSFR) plays a key role in receptor routing and demonstrate that the effects of SOCS3 on G-CSF signaling to a major extent depend on this lysine. Mutation of K632 causes accumulation of G-CSFR in early endosomes and leads to sustained activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 and ERK, but not protein kinase B. Myeloid progenitors expressing G-CSFR mutants lacking K632 show a perturbed proliferation/differentiation balance in response to G-CSF. This is the first demonstration of SOCS-mediated ubiquitination and routing of a cytokine receptor and its impact on maintaining an appropriate signaling output. PMID:17363902

  18. Controls on the behaviour of sediment routing systems using a mass balance approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittaker, Alexander; Allen, Philip; Michael, Nikolas; Duller, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Sediment routing systems link source regions undergoing erosion with depositional sinks and involve a volumetric or mass budget. Understanding how these source-to-sink systems function is key to stratigraphic prediction, but estimation of their surface sediment discharges and depositional fluxes on geological time scales is a challenging problem. Moreover, resolving the extent to which tectono-climatic boundary conditions determine the temporal and spatial distribution of sediment characteristics remains contentious. In particular the rate of down-system fining of grain size, percentages of grain size fractions in preserved stratigraphy, position of moving boundaries, and evolution of gross depositional environments can all be related to variations in the volume of sediment supplied, the grain-size mix of the supply, and the spatial distribution of tectonic subsidence generating the accommodation. Deciphering how these factors interact to produce stratigraphy is a key challenge in the Earth Sciences. Here we compare detailed reconstructions of palaeo-sediment routing systems from the mid-late Eocene Escanilla Formation and its time-equivalents, Spanish Pyrenees, with Mio-Pliocene sediment routing systems draining the Great Plains, Central USA. Rates of grain size fining along time-lines in stratigraphy are reconstructed as a function of down-system distance and cumulative sediment volume in time and space, and are contrasted within a dimensionless mass balance framework that accounts for sediment extraction as a function of sediment volume. Use of a mass-balance framework allows for consistent, quantitative comparison across sediment routing systems of varying scales and shapes. Our results demonstrate that the position of key stratigraphic observables, such as the gravel front and rate of grain size fining, are similarly controlled by mass extraction across systems that differ in size and extent, but that selective extraction of particular size classes (e

  19. Routing of surface plasmons in silver nanowire networks controlled by polarization and coating.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hong; Pan, Deng; Xu, Hongxing

    2015-12-01

    Controllable propagation of electromagnetic energy in plasmonic nanowaveguides is of great importance for building nanophotonic circuits. Here, we studied the routing of surface plasmons in silver nanowire structures by combining experiments and electromagnetic simulations. The superposition of different plasmon modes results in the tunable near field patterns of surface plasmons on the nanowire. Using the quantum dot fluorescence imaging technique, we experimentally demonstrate that the near field distribution on the nanowire controls the surface plasmon transmission in the nanowire networks. By controlling the polarization of the input light or by controlling the dielectric coating on the nanowire to modulate the plasmon field distribution and guarantee the strong local field intensity at the connecting junction, the surface plasmons can be efficiently routed to the connected nanowires. Depositing a thin layer of Al2O3 film onto the nanowires can reverse the polarization dependence of the output intensity at the nanowire terminals. These results are instructive for designing functional plasmonic nanowire networks and metal-nanowire-based nanophotonic devices. PMID:26514593

  20. Routing of surface plasmons in silver nanowire networks controlled by polarization and coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Hong; Pan, Deng; Xu, Hongxing

    2015-11-01

    Controllable propagation of electromagnetic energy in plasmonic nanowaveguides is of great importance for building nanophotonic circuits. Here, we studied the routing of surface plasmons in silver nanowire structures by combining experiments and electromagnetic simulations. The superposition of different plasmon modes results in the tunable near field patterns of surface plasmons on the nanowire. Using the quantum dot fluorescence imaging technique, we experimentally demonstrate that the near field distribution on the nanowire controls the surface plasmon transmission in the nanowire networks. By controlling the polarization of the input light or by controlling the dielectric coating on the nanowire to modulate the plasmon field distribution and guarantee the strong local field intensity at the connecting junction, the surface plasmons can be efficiently routed to the connected nanowires. Depositing a thin layer of Al2O3 film onto the nanowires can reverse the polarization dependence of the output intensity at the nanowire terminals. These results are instructive for designing functional plasmonic nanowire networks and metal-nanowire-based nanophotonic devices.

  1. Intelligent routing protocol for ad hoc wireless network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Chaorong; Chen, Chang Wen

    2006-05-01

    A novel routing scheme for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), which combines hybrid and multi-inter-routing path properties with a distributed topology discovery route mechanism using control agents is proposed in this paper. In recent years, a variety of hybrid routing protocols for Mobile Ad hoc wireless networks (MANETs) have been developed. Which is proactively maintains routing information for a local neighborhood, while reactively acquiring routes to destinations beyond the global. The hybrid protocol reduces routing discovery latency and the end-to-end delay by providing high connectivity without requiring much of the scarce network capacity. On the other side the hybrid routing protocols in MANETs likes Zone Routing Protocol still need route "re-discover" time when a route between zones link break. Sine the topology update information needs to be broadcast routing request on local zone. Due to this delay, the routing protocol may not be applicable for real-time data and multimedia communication. We utilize the advantages of a clustering organization and multi-routing path in routing protocol to achieve several goals at the same time. Firstly, IRP efficiently saves network bandwidth and reduces route reconstruction time when a routing path fails. The IRP protocol does not require global periodic routing advertisements, local control agents will automatically monitor and repair broke links. Secondly, it efficiently reduces congestion and traffic "bottlenecks" for ClusterHeads in clustering network. Thirdly, it reduces significant overheads associated with maintaining clusters. Fourthly, it improves clusters stability due to dynamic topology changing frequently. In this paper, we present the Intelligent Routing Protocol. First, we discuss the problem of routing in ad hoc networks and the motivation of IRP. We describe the hierarchical architecture of IRP. We describe the routing process and illustrate it with an example. Further, we describe the control manage

  2. Separation-Compliant, Optimal Routing and Control of Scheduled Arrivals in a Terminal Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadovsky, Alexander V.; Davis, Damek; Isaacson, Douglas R.

    2013-01-01

    We address the problem of navigating a set (fleet) of aircraft in an aerial route network so as to bring each aircraft to its destination at a specified time and with minimal distance separation assured between all aircraft at all times. The speed range, initial position, required destination, and required time of arrival at destination for each aircraft are assumed provided. Each aircraft's movement is governed by a controlled differential equation (state equation). The problem consists in choosing for each aircraft a path in the route network and a control strategy so as to meet the constraints and reach the destination at the required time. The main contribution of the paper is a model that allows to recast this problem as a decoupled collection of problems in classical optimal control and is easily generalized to the case when inertia cannot be neglected. Some qualitative insight into solution behavior is obtained using the Pontryagin Maximum Principle. Sample numerical solutions are computed using a numerical optimal control solver. The proposed model is first step toward increasing the fidelity of continuous time control models of air traffic in a terminal airspace. The Pontryagin Maximum Principle implies the polygonal shape of those portions of the state trajectories away from those states in which one or more aircraft pair are at minimal separation. The model also confirms the intuition that, the narrower the allowed speed ranges of the aircraft, the smaller the space of optimal solutions, and that an instance of the optimal control problem may not have a solution at all (i.e., no control strategy that meets the separation requirement and other constraints).

  3. 78 FR 41058 - Information Collection Request Submitted to OMB for Review and Approval; Comment Request; Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ... February 26, 2007 (72 FR 8428) manufacturers of new portable gasoline containers are required to obtain... previously requested via the Federal Register (78 FR 15010) on March 8, 2013 during a 60-day comment period... of Evaporative Emissions From Portable Gasoline Containers (Renewal) AGENCY: Environmental...

  4. Near-optimal geostationary transfer maneuvers with cooperative en-route inspection using hybrid optimal control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showalter, Daniel J.; Black, Jonathan T.

    2014-12-01

    This research investigates the performance of bi-level hybrid optimal control algorithms in the solution of minimum delta-velocity geostationary transfer maneuvers with cooperative en-route inspection. The maneuvers, introduced here for the first time, are designed to populate a geostationary constellation of space situational awareness satellites while providing additional characterization of objects in lower-altitude orbit regimes. The maneuvering satellite, called the chaser, performs a transfer from low Earth orbit to geostationary orbit, during which it performs an inspection of one of several orbiting targets in conjunction with a ground site for the duration of the target's line-of-site contact with that site. A three-target scenario is used to test the performance of multiple bi-level hybrid optimal control algorithms. A bi-level hybrid algorithm is then utilized to solve fifteen-, and thirty-target scenarios and shown to have increasing benefit to complete enumeration as the number of targets is increased. Results indicate that the en-route inspection can be accomplished for a small increase in the delta-velocity required for a simple transfer to geostationary orbit given the same initial conditions.

  5. Underwater acoustic sensor networks: Medium access control, routing and reliable transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Peng

    Recently there have been growing interests in monitoring aquatic environments for scientific exploration, commercial exploitation and coastline protection. The ideal vehicle for this type of extensive monitoring is a mobile underwater sensor network (M-UWSN), consisting of a large number of low cost underwater sensors that can move with water currents and dispersion. M-UWSNs are significantly different from terrestrial sensor networks: (1) Radio channels do not work well under water. They must be replaced by acoustic channels, which feature long propagation delays, low communication bandwidth and high channel error rates; (2) While most ground sensors are static, underwater sensor nodes may move with water currents (and other underwater activities), as introduces passive sensor mobility. Due to the very different environment properties and the unique characteristics of acoustic channels, the protocols developed for terrestrial sensor networks are not applicable to M-UWSNs, and new research at every level of the protocol suite is demanded. In this dissertation work, we investigate three fundamental networking problems in M-UWSN design: medium access control, multi-hop routing and reliable data transfer. (1) Medium access control (MAC): the long propagation delays and narrow communication bandwidth of acoustic channels pose the major challenges to the energy-efficient MAC design in M-UWSNs. For the first time, we formally investigate the random access and RTS/CTS techniques in networks with long propagation delays and low communication bandwidth (as in M-UWSNs). Based on this study, we propose a novel reservation-based MAC approach, called R-MAC, for dense underwater sensor networks with unevenly distributed (spatially and temporally) traffic. Simulation results show that R-MAC is not only energy efficient but also supports fairness. (2) Multi-hop routing: In M-UWSNs, energy efficiency and mobility handling are the two major concerns for multi-hop routing, which have

  6. Laser Alignment as a Route to Ultrafast Control of Electron Transport through Junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Reuter, Matthew G; Ratner, Mark A.; Seideman, Tamar

    2012-01-01

    We consider the extension of ultrafast laser alignment schemes to surface-adsorbed molecules, where the laser field coerces the molecule to reorient itself relative to the surface. When probed by a scanning tunneling microscope tip, this reorientation modifies the tip-molecule distance, and thus the tunneling current, suggesting a route to an ultrafast, nanoscale current switch. In addition to exploring the controllability of adsorbed molecules by moderately intense laser fields and discussing the fundamental differences of alignment behavior between surface-adsorbed molecules and gas phase molecules, we computationally investigate the quality of orientation with respect to field intensity, field duration, and the location of the tip. Overall, the molecule moves directly to its oriented configuration, which is reasonably insensitive to the tip location. These results collectively suggest the efficacy of using laser alignment schemes to control electron transport through junctions.

  7. Effect of Processing Route on Strain Controlled Low Cycle Fatigue Behavior of Polycrystalline NiAl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, K. Bhanu Sankara; Lerch, B. A.; Noebe, R. D.

    1995-01-01

    The present investigation examines the effects of manufacturing process on the total axial strain controlled low cycle fatigue behavior of polycrystalline NiAl at 1000 K, a temperature above the monotonic Brittle-to-Ductile Transition Temperature (BDTT). The nickel aluminide samples were produced by three different processing routes: hot isostatic pressing of pre- alloyed powders, extrusion of prealloyed powders, and extrusion of vacuum induction melted ingots. The LCF behavior of the cast plus extruded material was also determined at room temperature (below the BD77) for comparison to the high temperature data. The cyclic stress response, cyclic stress-strain behavior, and strain-life relationships were influenced by the alloy preparation technique and the testing temperature. Detailed characterization of the LCF tested samples was conducted by optical and electron microscopy to determine the variations in fracture and deformation modes and to determine any microstructural changes that occurred during LCF testing. The dependence of LCF properties on processing route was rationalized on the basis of starting microstructure, brittle-to-ductile transition temperature, deformation induced changes in the basic microstructure, deformation substructure, and synergistic interaction between the damage modes.

  8. Colloidal electroluminescence: Novel routes to controlled emission of organic light emitting diode devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huebner, Christopher Fletcher

    In recent years the importance of the organic light emitting diode (OLED) has grown immensely, and the past two decades have seen ongoing and exhaustive research in organic routes to solid state lighting, wherein electricity is directly converted into emitted light through an excited state relaxation mechanism. The benefits of incorporating polymeric and small molecule materials into solid state lighting devices include high efficiences, low production costs, amenability to large-scale production and devices, reduced environmental impact and low energy consumption. Herein are presented novel routes to materials engineering and preparation, device fabrication and emission tailoring through the abilility to form a variety of polymeric and small molecule materials into aqueously dispersed semiconductive electroluminescent (EL) colloids. Compartmentalization of the emissive and semiconductive species into colloidal particles affords the ability to systematically control energy transfer processes that occur in light emitting devices. Energy transfer can occur through a Coulombic (Forster) or an electronic (Dexter) process, each needing several conditions to be met for the transfer to occur, however common to both are spectral and proximal characteristics. In this work, energy transfer will be simultaneously exploited and inhibited through the creation of EL colloidal particles which can be combined in a dispersion or thin layer in order to tailor the light emission for a variety of applications.

  9. Fuzzy-Neural Controller in Service Requests Distribution Broker for SOA-Based Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fras, Mariusz; Zatwarnicka, Anna; Zatwarnicki, Krzysztof

    The evolution of software architectures led to the rising importance of the Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) concept. This architecture paradigm support building flexible distributed service systems. In the paper the architecture of service request distribution broker designed for use in SOA-based systems is proposed. The broker is built with idea of fuzzy control. The functional and non-functional request requirements in conjunction with monitoring of execution and communication links are used to distribute requests. Decisions are made with use of fuzzy-neural network.

  10. Air Route Traffic Control Center. Controller Over-The-Shoulder Training Review: Instruction Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    The instruction manual provides 12 step-by-step instructions for air traffic control supervisors in conducting over-the-shoulder training observations of enroute center controllers. Since the primary purpose of the review is to quickly identify training needs and requirements, the control responsibilities are approached from a deficiency…

  11. An Evaluation of Controller and Pilot Performance, Workload and Acceptability under a NextGen Concept for Dynamic Weather Adapted Arrival Routing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Walter W.; Lachter, Joel; Brandt, Summer; Koteskey, Robert; Dao, Arik-Quang; Kraut, Josh; Ligda, Sarah; Battiste, Vernol

    2012-01-01

    In todays terminal operations, controller workload increases and throughput decreases when fixed standard terminal arrival routes (STARs) are impacted by storms. To circumvent this operational constraint, Prete, Krozel, Mitchell, Kim and Zou (2008) proposed to use automation to dynamically adapt arrival and departure routing based on weather predictions. The present study examined this proposal in the context of a NextGen trajectory-based operation concept, focusing on the acceptability and its effect on the controllers ability to manage traffic flows. Six controllers and twelve transport pilots participated in a human-in-the-loop simulation of arrival operations into Louisville International Airport with interval management requirements. Three types of routing structures were used: Static STARs (similar to current routing, which require the trajectories of individual aircraft to be modified to avoid the weather), Dynamic routing (automated adaptive routing around weather), and Dynamic Adjusted routing (automated adaptive routing around weather with aircraft entry time adjusted to account for differences in route length). Spacing Responsibility, whether responsibility for interval management resided with the controllers (as today), or resided with the pilot (who used a flight deck based automated spacing algorithm), was also manipulated. Dynamic routing as a whole was rated superior to static routing, especially by pilots, both in terms of workload reduction and flight path safety. A downside of using dynamic routing was that the paths flown in the dynamic conditions tended to be somewhat longer than the paths flown in the static condition.

  12. Shape and size controlled synthesis of uniform iron oxide nanocrystals through new non-hydrolytic routes.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenlu; Lee, Seung Soo; Wu, Jiewei; Hinton, Carl H; Fortner, John D

    2016-08-12

    New, non-hydrolytic routes to synthesize highly crystalline iron oxide nanocrystals (8-40 nm, magnetite) are described in this report whereby particle size and morphology were precisely controlled through reactant (precursor, e.g. (FeO(OH)) ratios, co-surfactant and organic additive, and/or reaction time. Particle size, with high monodispersivity (<10%), is demonstrated to be a function of precursor concentrations and through the addition of different cosurfactants and/or additives, cubic, octahedral, potato-like, and flower-like iron oxide nanocrystals can be reproducibly synthesized through simple one-pot thermal decomposition methods. High resolution transmission electron microscope, x-ray diffraction, and superconducting quantum interference device were used to characterize the size, structure and magnetic properties of the resulting nanocrystals. For aqueous applications, materials synthesized/purified in organic solvents are broadly water dispersible through a variety of phase (aqueous) transfer method(s). PMID:27354334

  13. Experimental Generation of Riemann Waves in Optics: A Route to Shock Wave Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetzel, Benjamin; Bongiovanni, Domenico; Kues, Michael; Hu, Yi; Chen, Zhigang; Trillo, Stefano; Dudley, John M.; Wabnitz, Stefano; Morandotti, Roberto

    2016-08-01

    We report the first observation of Riemann (simple) waves, which play a crucial role for understanding the dynamics of any shock-bearing system. This was achieved by properly tailoring the phase of an ultrashort light pulse injected into a highly nonlinear fiber. Optical Riemann waves are found to evolve in excellent quantitative agreement with the remarkably simple inviscid Burgers equation, whose applicability in physical systems is often challenged by viscous or dissipative effects. Our method allows us to further demonstrate a viable novel route to efficiently control the shock formation by the proper shaping of a laser pulse phase. Our results pave the way towards the experimental study, in a convenient benchtop setup, of complex physical phenomena otherwise difficult to access.

  14. Experimental Generation of Riemann Waves in Optics: A Route to Shock Wave Control.

    PubMed

    Wetzel, Benjamin; Bongiovanni, Domenico; Kues, Michael; Hu, Yi; Chen, Zhigang; Trillo, Stefano; Dudley, John M; Wabnitz, Stefano; Morandotti, Roberto

    2016-08-12

    We report the first observation of Riemann (simple) waves, which play a crucial role for understanding the dynamics of any shock-bearing system. This was achieved by properly tailoring the phase of an ultrashort light pulse injected into a highly nonlinear fiber. Optical Riemann waves are found to evolve in excellent quantitative agreement with the remarkably simple inviscid Burgers equation, whose applicability in physical systems is often challenged by viscous or dissipative effects. Our method allows us to further demonstrate a viable novel route to efficiently control the shock formation by the proper shaping of a laser pulse phase. Our results pave the way towards the experimental study, in a convenient benchtop setup, of complex physical phenomena otherwise difficult to access. PMID:27563966

  15. Shape and size controlled synthesis of uniform iron oxide nanocrystals through new non-hydrolytic routes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenlu; Lee, Seung Soo; Wu, Jiewei; Hinton, Carl H.; Fortner, John D.

    2016-08-01

    New, non-hydrolytic routes to synthesize highly crystalline iron oxide nanocrystals (8–40 nm, magnetite) are described in this report whereby particle size and morphology were precisely controlled through reactant (precursor, e.g. (FeO(OH)) ratios, co-surfactant and organic additive, and/or reaction time. Particle size, with high monodispersivity (<10%), is demonstrated to be a function of precursor concentrations and through the addition of different cosurfactants and/or additives, cubic, octahedral, potato-like, and flower-like iron oxide nanocrystals can be reproducibly synthesized through simple one-pot thermal decomposition methods. High resolution transmission electron microscope, x-ray diffraction, and superconducting quantum interference device were used to characterize the size, structure and magnetic properties of the resulting nanocrystals. For aqueous applications, materials synthesized/purified in organic solvents are broadly water dispersible through a variety of phase (aqueous) transfer method(s).

  16. Dimensions of air traffic control tower information needs: from information requests to display design.

    PubMed

    Durso, Francis T; Johnson, Brian R; Crutchfield, Jerry M

    2010-09-01

    In an effort to determine the information needs of tower air traffic controllers, instructors from the Federal Aviation Administration's Academy in Oklahoma City were asked to control traffic in a high-fidelity tower cab simulator. Information requests were made apparent by eliminating access to standard tower information sources. Instead, controllers were required to ask for precisely the information they needed during the scenarios. The information requests were classified using an elaboration of Zwaan and Radvansky's (1998) dimensions of situation models. The vast majority of requests were about three of the dimensions originally developed for reading comprehension: the protagonist, intentionality, and space. The information requests were also classified into 28 operational categories (e.g., aircraft identification, destination). From these results, the data were summarized, not just statistically, but by the creation of display-hypotheses. The display-hypotheses were organized according to the situation-model dimensions. Controllers preferred data blocks organized by the situation-model principle over those that violated this organization. The summary display-hypotheses were quite simple and accounted for the vast majority of the information requests controllers made. The display-hypotheses accounted for the information needs of controllers during routine as well as off-nominal events. PMID:20853983

  17. Dynamic routing control in heterogeneous tactical networks with multiple traffic priorities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fecko, Mariusz A.; Wong, Larry; Kang, Jaewong; Cichocki, Andrzej; Kaul, Vikram; Samtani, Sunil

    2012-05-01

    To efficiently use alternate paths during periods of congestion, we have devised prioritized Dynamic Routing Control Agent (pDRCA) that (1) selects best links to meet the bandwidth and delay requirements of traffic, (2) provides load-balancing and traffic prioritization when multiple topologies are available, and (3) handles changes in link quality and traffic demand, and link outages. pDRCA provides multiplatform load balancing to maximize SATCOM (both P2P and multi-point) and airborne links utilization. It influences link selection by configuring the cost metrics on a router's interface, which does not require any changes to the routing protocol itself. It supports service differentiation of multiple traffic priorities by providing more network resources to the highest priority flows. pDRCA does so by solving an optimization problem to find optimal links weights that increase throughput and decrease E2E delay; avoid congested, low quality, and long delay links; and exploit path diversity in the network. These optimal link weights are sent to the local agents to be configured on individual routers per traffic priority. The pDRCA optimization algorithm has been proven effective in improving application performance. We created a variety of different test scenarios by varying traffic profile and link behavior (stable links, varying capacity, and link outages). In the scenarios where high priority traffic experienced significant loss without pDRCA, the average loss was reduced from 49.5% to 13% and in some cases dropped to 0%. Currently, pDRCA is integrated with an open-source software router and priority queues on Linux as a component of Open Tactical Router (OTR), which is being developed by ONR DTCN program.

  18. Dimensions of Air Traffic Control Tower Information Needs: From Information Requests to Display Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durso, Francis T.; Johnson, Brian R.; Crutchfield, Jerry M.

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to determine the information needs of tower air traffic controllers, instructors from the Federal Aviation Administration's Academy in Oklahoma City were asked to control traffic in a high-fidelity tower cab simulator. Information requests were made apparent by eliminating access to standard tower information sources. Instead,…

  19. 76 FR 7196 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Request for Authorization of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    ...).\\5\\ \\5\\ See 59 FR 36969 (July 20, 1994). In order to be consistent with section 209(a), California's... AGENCY California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; Request for Authorization of Airborne Toxic Control Measure for In-Use Portable Diesel Engines 50 Horsepower and Greater; Opportunity...

  20. A programming environment to control switching networks based on STC104 packet routing chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legrand, I. C.; Schwendicke, U.; Leich, H.; Medinnis, M.; Koehler, A.; Wegner, P.; Sulanke, K.; Dippel, R.; Gellrich, A.

    1997-02-01

    The software environment used to control a large switching architecture based on SGS-Thomson STC104 (an asynchronous 32-way dynamic packet routing chip) is presented. We are evaluating this switching technology for large scale, real-time parallel systems. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) written as a multi-thread application in Java allows to set the switch configuration and to continuously monitor the state of each link. This GUI connects to a multi-thread server via TCP/IP sockets. The server is running on a PC-Linux system and implements the virtual channel protocol in communicating with the STC104 switching units using the Data Strobe link or the VME bus. Linux I/O drivers to control the Data Strobe link parallel adaptor (STC101) were developed. For each client the server creates a new thread and allocates a new socket for communications. The Java code of the GUI may be transferred to any client using the http protocol providing a user friendly interface to the system with real-time monitoring which is also platform independent.

  1. Dynamic Covalent Functionalization as a route to Controlling Self Assembly of Organic Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pentzer, Emily

    Efforts to optimize the optoelectronic properties of conjugated organic materials are ongoing across many fields of science and engineering. For example, in bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells, researchers seek to optimize absorption of the solar spectrum by the active materials, form interpenetrating domains of p-type and n-type materials to facilitate exciton dissociation, and improve interactions between electrode, charge blocking layers, and active layers to ensure rapid charge transport. One advantage of organic polymers compared to inorganic materials (e.g., silicon), is the low cost and ability process the materials in solution. Moreover, assembly of conjugated organic materials in solution or in the solid state (i.e., films) can be used to optimize both a material's optoelectronic properties and its interface with surfaces and other materials, addressing many of the concerns listed above. Unfortunately, such solution processability requires appendage of insulating alkyl chains to the conjugated frameworks, which don solubility, but are also insulating and thus can hurt device performance. This presentation will report recent results from the Pentzer Lab from Case Western Reserve University on using functional alkyl chains that serve to control self-assembly, control interfaces with other materials, or can be removed by an external stimulus as a route to optimizing the materials for solar cell applications.

  2. A Novel Route Controlling Begomovirus Resistance by the Messenger RNA Surveillance Factor Pelota

    PubMed Central

    Lapidot, Moshe; Karniel, Uri; Gelbart, Dana; Fogel, Doron; Evenor, Dalia; Kutsher, Yaarit; Makhbash, Zion; Nahon, Sahadia; Shlomo, Haviva; Chen, Lea; Reuveni, Moshe; Levin, Ilan

    2015-01-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is a devastating disease of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) that can be effectively controlled by the deployment of resistant cultivars. The TYLCV-resistant line TY172 carries a major recessive locus for TYLCV resistance, designated ty-5, on chromosome 4. In this study, the association between 27 polymorphic DNA markers, spanning the ty-5 locus, and the resistance characteristics of individual plants inoculated with TYLCV in 51 segregating recombinant populations were analyzed. These analyses localized ty-5 into a 425 bp region containing two transversions: one in the first exon of a gene encoding the tomato homolog of the messenger RNA surveillance factor Pelota (Pelo), and a second in its proximal promoter. Analyses of susceptible and resistant lines revealed that the relative transcript level of the gene remained unchanged, regardless of whether the plants were infected with TYLCV or not. This suggests that the polymorphism discovered in the coding region of the gene controls the resistance. Silencing of Pelo in a susceptible line rendered the transgenic plants highly resistant, while in the resistant line TY172 had no effect on symptom development. In addition, over-expression of the susceptible allele of the gene in the resistant TY172 line rendered it susceptible, while over-expression of the resistant allele in susceptible plants had no effect. These results confirm that Pelo is the gene controlling resistance at the ty-5 locus. Pelo, implicated in the ribosome recycling-phase of protein synthesis, offers an alternative route to promote resistance to TYLCV and other viruses. PMID:26448569

  3. G-Quadruplexes in Pathogens: A Common Route to Virulence Control?

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Lynne M.; Merrick, Catherine J.

    2015-01-01

    DNA can form several secondary structures besides the classic double helix: one that has received much attention in recent years is the G-quadruplex (G4). This is a stable four-stranded structure formed by the stacking of quartets of guanine bases. Recent work has convincingly shown that G4s can form in vivo as well as in vitro and can affect both replication and transcription of DNA. They also play important roles at G-rich telomeres. Now, a spate of exciting reports has begun to reveal roles for G4 structures in virulence processes in several important microbial pathogens of humans. Interestingly, these come from a range of kingdoms—bacteria and protozoa as well as viruses—and all facilitate immune evasion in different ways. In particular, roles for G4s have been posited in the antigenic variation systems of bacteria and protozoa, as well as in the silencing of at least two major human viruses, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Although antigenic variation and the silencing of latent viruses are quite distinct from one another, both are routes to immune evasion and the maintenance of chronic infections. Thus, highly disparate pathogens can use G4 motifs to control DNA/RNA dynamics in ways that are relevant to common virulence phenotypes. This review explores the evidence for G4 biology in such processes across a range of important human pathogens. PMID:25654363

  4. Adaptive Traffic Route Control in QoS Provisioning for Cognitive Radio Technology with Heterogeneous Wireless Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Toshiaki; Ueda, Tetsuro; Obana, Sadao

    As one of the dynamic spectrum access technologies, “cognitive radio technology,” which aims to improve the spectrum efficiency, has been studied. In cognitive radio networks, each node recognizes radio conditions, and according to them, optimizes its wireless communication routes. Cognitive radio systems integrate the heterogeneous wireless systems not only by switching over them but also aggregating and utilizing them simultaneously. The adaptive control of switchover use and concurrent use of various wireless systems will offer a stable and flexible wireless communication. In this paper, we propose the adaptive traffic route control scheme that provides high quality of service (QoS) for cognitive radio technology, and examine the performance of the proposed scheme through the field trials and computer simulations. The results of field trials show that the adaptive route control according to the radio conditions improves the user IP throughput by more than 20% and reduce the one-way delay to less than 1/6 with the concurrent use of IEEE802.16 and IEEE802.11 wireless media. Moreover, the simulation results assuming hundreds of mobile terminals reveal that the number of users receiving the required QoS of voice over IP (VoIP) service and the total network throughput of FTP users increase by more than twice at the same time with the proposed algorithm. The proposed adaptive traffic route control scheme can enhance the performances of the cognitive radio technologies by providing the appropriate communication routes for various applications to satisfy their required QoS.

  5. 76 FR 26746 - Information Collection Requests to Office of Management and Budget; OMB Control Numbers: 1625...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ..., issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Information Collection Requests 1. Title: Security Plans for... comments and documents: To view comments, as well as documents mentioned in this Notice as being available....S. Coast Guard, Assistant Commandant for Command, Control, Communications, Computers and...

  6. 78 FR 42803 - Comment Request for Information Collection for Job Corps Health Questionnaire (OMB Control No...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-17

    ... Employment and Training Administration Comment Request for Information Collection for Job Corps Health... Administration is soliciting comments regarding gathering Job Corps application data collection forms (OMB Control No. 1205-0033, expires 1/31/2014): ETA Form 653, Job Corps Health Questionnaire. DATES:...

  7. 75 FR 30868 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Review of a Revised Information Collection: (OMB Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... MANAGEMENT Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Review of a Revised Information Collection: (OMB Control No. 3206-0162; OPM Form 1530) AGENCY: Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In... that the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) intends to submit to the Office of Management and...

  8. 75 FR 33366 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Review of a Revised Information Collection: (OMB Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... MANAGEMENT Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Review of a Revised Information Collection: (OMB Control No. 3206-0218; Form RI 94-7) AGENCY: Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In... that the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) intends to submit to the Office of Management and...

  9. 75 FR 30866 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Review of a Revised Information Collection: (OMB Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... MANAGEMENT Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Review of a Revised Information Collection: (OMB Control No. 3206-0216; Form RI 98-7) AGENCY: Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In... that the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) intends to submit to the Office of Management and...

  10. 75 FR 47030 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Review of a Revised Information Collection: (OMB Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ... MANAGEMENT Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Review of a Revised Information Collection: (OMB Control No. 3206-0128; Standard Form 2802 and Standard Form 2802A) AGENCY: Office of Personnel Management..., 1995), this notice announces that the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) intends to submit to...

  11. 75 FR 39588 - Proposed Collection; Request for Comments on a Revised Information Collection: (OMB Control No...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ... MANAGEMENT Proposed Collection; Request for Comments on a Revised Information Collection: (OMB Control No. 3206-0121; OPM FORM 1496A) AGENCY: Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In... that the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) intends to submit to the Office of Management and...

  12. 31 CFR 50.8 - Procedure for requesting determinations of controlling influence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... secret information in accordance with Treasury's Freedom of Information Act regulations at 31 CFR Part 1... the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM General Provisions § 50.8 Procedure for requesting... controlling influence. Such submissions shall be made to the Terrorism Risk Insurance Program...

  13. 31 CFR 50.8 - Procedure for requesting determinations of controlling influence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... secret information in accordance with Treasury's Freedom of Information Act regulations at 31 CFR Part 1... the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM General Provisions § 50.8 Procedure for requesting... controlling influence. Such submissions shall be made to the Terrorism Risk Insurance Program...

  14. Size-controlled synthesis of transition metal nanoparticles through chemical and photo-chemical routes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tangeysh, Behzad

    The central objective of this work is developing convenient general procedures for controlling the formation and stabilization of nanoscale transition metal particles. Contemporary interest in developing alternative synthetic approaches for producing nanoparticles arises in large part from expanding applications of the nanomaterials in areas such as catalysis, electronics and medicine. This research focuses on advancing the existing nanoparticle synthetic routes by using a new class of polymer colloid materials as a chemical approach, and the laser irradiation of metal salt solution as a photo-chemical method to attain size and shape selectivity. Controlled synthesis of small metal nanoparticles with sizes ranging from 1 to 5nm is still a continuing challenge in nanomaterial synthesis. This research utilizes a new class of polymer colloid materials as nano-reactors and protective agents for controlling the formation of small transition metal nanoparticles. The polymer colloid particles were formed from cross-linking of dinegatively charged metal precursors with partially protonated poly dimethylaminoethylmethacrylate (PDMAEMA). Incorporation of [PtCl6]2- species into the colloidal particles prior to the chemical reduction was effectively employed as a new strategy for synthesis of unusually small platinum nanoparticles with narrow size distributions (1.12 +/-0.25nm). To explore the generality of this approach, in a series of proof-of-concept studies, this method was successfully employed for the synthesis of small palladium (1.4 +/-0.2nm) and copper nanoparticles (1.5 +/-0.6nm). The polymer colloid materials developed in this research are pH responsive, and are designed to self-assemble and/or disassemble by varying the levels of protonation of the polymer chains. This unique feature was used to tune the size of palladium nanoparticles in a small range from 1nm to 5nm. The procedure presented in this work is a new convenient room temperature route for synthesis of

  15. Design and Operational Evaluation of the Traffic Management Advisor at the Ft. Worth Air Route Traffic Control Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swenson, Harry N.; Vincent, Danny; Tobias, Leonard (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    NASA and the FAA have designed and developed and an automation tool known as the Traffic Management Advisor (TMA). The system was operationally evaluated at the Ft. Worth Air Route Traffic Control Center (ARTCC). The TMA is a time-based strategic planning tool that provides Traffic Management Coordinators and En Route Air Traffic Controllers the ability to efficiently optimize the capacity of a demand impacted airport. The TMA consists of trajectory prediction, constraint-based runway scheduling, traffic flow visualization and controllers advisories. The TMA was used and operationally evaluated for forty-one rush traffic periods during a one month period in the Summer of 1996. The evaluations included all shifts of air traffic operations as well as periods of inclement weather. Performance data was collected for engineering and human factor analysis and compared with similar operations without the TMA. The engineering data indicates that the operations with the TMA show a one to two minute per aircraft delay reduction during rush periods. The human factor data indicate a perceived reduction in en route controller workload as well as an increase in job satisfaction. Upon completion of the evaluation, the TMA has become part of the normal operations at the Ft. Worth ARTCC.

  16. A Linear Programming Approach to Routing Control in Networks of Constrained Nonlinear Positive Systems with Concave Flow Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arneson, Heather M.; Dousse, Nicholas; Langbort, Cedric

    2014-01-01

    We consider control design for positive compartmental systems in which each compartment's outflow rate is described by a concave function of the amount of material in the compartment.We address the problem of determining the routing of material between compartments to satisfy time-varying state constraints while ensuring that material reaches its intended destination over a finite time horizon. We give sufficient conditions for the existence of a time-varying state-dependent routing strategy which ensures that the closed-loop system satisfies basic network properties of positivity, conservation and interconnection while ensuring that capacity constraints are satisfied, when possible, or adjusted if a solution cannot be found. These conditions are formulated as a linear programming problem. Instances of this linear programming problem can be solved iteratively to generate a solution to the finite horizon routing problem. Results are given for the application of this control design method to an example problem. Key words: linear programming; control of networks; positive systems; controller constraints and structure.

  17. 76 FR 62644 - Request To Consider Automatic Termination Controls

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... energy efficiency of clothes washers. (76 FR 50145, Aug. 12, 2011). The petition also served as a... represents a significant savings opportunity. \\7\\ 75 FR 37618. We recognize that there are significant... effectiveness of automatic termination controls such as moisture and temperature sensor controls. Public...

  18. A Solvothermal Route Decorated on Different Substrates: Controllable Separation of an Oil/Water Mixture to a Stabilized Nanoscale Emulsion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weifeng; Liu, Na; Cao, Yingze; Chen, Yuning; Xu, Liangxin; Lin, Xin; Feng, Lin

    2015-12-01

    A facile solvothermal route is developed to fabricate polydivinylbenzene (PDVB) and decorate the polymer onto porous substrates. "Controllable" separation can be realized by selecting substrates with different pore sizes. The PDVB-modified mesh shows superhydrophobicity/superoleophilicity, and can be used for oil/seawater mixture separation, while the PDVB-modified membrane exhibits high hydrophobicity/superoleophilicity, and is able to separate surfactant stabilized nanoscale water-in-oil emulsions. PMID:26489016

  19. Scalable software-defined optical networking with high-performance routing and wavelength assignment algorithms.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chankyun; Cao, Xiaoyuan; Yoshikane, Noboru; Tsuritani, Takehiro; Rhee, June-Koo Kevin

    2015-10-19

    The feasibility of software-defined optical networking (SDON) for a practical application critically depends on scalability of centralized control performance. The paper, highly scalable routing and wavelength assignment (RWA) algorithms are investigated on an OpenFlow-based SDON testbed for proof-of-concept demonstration. Efficient RWA algorithms are proposed to achieve high performance in achieving network capacity with reduced computation cost, which is a significant attribute in a scalable centralized-control SDON. The proposed heuristic RWA algorithms differ in the orders of request processes and in the procedures of routing table updates. Combined in a shortest-path-based routing algorithm, a hottest-request-first processing policy that considers demand intensity and end-to-end distance information offers both the highest throughput of networks and acceptable computation scalability. We further investigate trade-off relationship between network throughput and computation complexity in routing table update procedure by a simulation study. PMID:26480397

  20. Distributed control of circuits in multiuser communication networks with circuit precedence and path suitability criteria using failsafe routing concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrante, M. C.

    1984-12-01

    A distributed aperiodic failsafe algorithm is developed for application in a dedicated circuit allocation and restoral environment using circuit precedence features. The algorithm uses update control messages, initiated by changes in network topology or in user-defined truck weighting parameter, to determine shortest path routes. The number for the connected are compared with an equiprobable multinomial distribution and found to deviate only slightly from the hypothesized standard. Performance is slightly worse for a 16-node network than for an 8-node network. Single truck failures and subsequent circuit restoral indicate that high priority circuits will find new end-to-end paths but that low priority circuits stand little chance of restoral. Finally, attempts to include path suitability constraints verify that problem prone routes may be avoided if slightly larger average hop counts per circuit and fewer total circuit connections are tolerable.

  1. Mindlessness Revisited: Sequential Request Techniques Foster Compliance by Draining Self-control Resources

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The present research extends previous findings suggesting that sequential request techniques, such as the Foot-in-the-Door (FITD) or Door-in-the-Face (DITF) technique, are primarily effective under conditions conducive of mindlessness. We forward that this mindlessness may be the product of the influence technique itself. More specifically, based on the notion of self-control as a limited resource, we hypothesize that actively responding to the initial request-phase of a FITD-compliance gaining procedure drains the target of his/her self-regulatory resources, thus creating the mindlessness so often observed in social influence settings. This resource depletion opens the door for compliance with the target request. The results were in line with these expectations. More specifically, we observed that active responding to an initial request of a FITD technique reduced the availability of self-regulatory resources. This state of resource depletion mediated the effect of the technique on behavioral compliance. In addition, the results of this study ruled out the alternate explanation that the effects were attributable to mood or a general tendency for acquiescence. PMID:20835348

  2. Defining Dynamic Route Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelinski, Shannon; Jastrzebski, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This poster describes a method for defining route structure from flight tracks. Dynamically generated route structures could be useful in guiding dynamic airspace configuration and helping controllers retain situational awareness under dynamically changing traffic conditions. Individual merge and diverge intersections between pairs of flights are identified, clustered, and grouped into nodes of a route structure network. Links are placed between nodes to represent major traffic flows. A parametric analysis determined the algorithm input parameters producing route structures of current day flight plans that are closest to todays airway structure. These parameters are then used to define and analyze the dynamic route structure over the course of a day for current day flight paths. Route structures are also compared between current day flight paths and more user preferred paths such as great circle and weather avoidance routing.

  3. Automated Computer Access Request System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snook, Bryan E.

    2010-01-01

    The Automated Computer Access Request (AutoCAR) system is a Web-based account provisioning application that replaces the time-consuming paper-based computer-access request process at Johnson Space Center (JSC). Auto- CAR combines rules-based and role-based functionality in one application to provide a centralized system that is easily and widely accessible. The system features a work-flow engine that facilitates request routing, a user registration directory containing contact information and user metadata, an access request submission and tracking process, and a system administrator account management component. This provides full, end-to-end disposition approval chain accountability from the moment a request is submitted. By blending both rules-based and rolebased functionality, AutoCAR has the flexibility to route requests based on a user s nationality, JSC affiliation status, and other export-control requirements, while ensuring a user s request is addressed by either a primary or backup approver. All user accounts that are tracked in AutoCAR are recorded and mapped to the native operating system schema on the target platform where user accounts reside. This allows for future extensibility for supporting creation, deletion, and account management directly on the target platforms by way of AutoCAR. The system s directory-based lookup and day-today change analysis of directory information determines personnel moves, deletions, and additions, and automatically notifies a user via e-mail to revalidate his/her account access as a result of such changes. AutoCAR is a Microsoft classic active server page (ASP) application hosted on a Microsoft Internet Information Server (IIS).

  4. 75 FR 6677 - Information Collection Request to Office of Management and Budget; OMB Control Number: 1625-0086

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Information Collection Request Title: Great Lakes Pilotage. OMB Control... data crucial from both an operational and rate-making standpoint. Need: To comply with the...

  5. An Experimental Study of the Effect of Shared Information on Pilot/Controller Re-Route Negotiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Todd C.; Hansman, R. John

    1999-01-01

    Air-ground data link systems are being developed to enable pilots and air traffic controllers to share information more fully. The sharing of information is generally expected to enhance their shared situation awareness and foster more collaborative decision making. An exploratory, part-task simulator experiment is described which evaluates the extent to which shared information may lead pilots and controllers to cooperate or compete when negotiating route amendments. The results indicate an improvement in situation awareness for pilots and controllers and a willingness to work cooperatively. Independent of data link considerations, the experiment also demonstrates the value of providing controllers with a good-quality weather representation on their plan view displays. Observed improvements in situation awareness and separation assurance are discussed. It is argued that deployment of this relatively simple, low-risk addition to the plan view displays be accelerated.

  6. Education Financial Management: Weak Internal Controls Led to Instances of Fraud and Other Improper Payments. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calbom, Linda M.

    This report to Congressional Requesters is concerned with internal control problems found in the U.S. Department of Education. Significant internal control weaknesses in the U.S. Department of Education's payment processes and poor physical control over its computer assets made the department vulnerable to (and in some cases resulted in) fraud,…

  7. Dynamic Power Flow Controller: Compact Dynamic Phase Angle Regulators for Transmission Power Routing

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-03

    GENI Project: Varentec is developing compact, low-cost transmission power controllers with fractional power rating for controlling power flow on transmission networks. The technology will enhance grid operations through improved use of current assets and by dramatically reducing the number of transmission lines that have to be built to meet increasing contributions of renewable energy sources like wind and solar. The proposed transmission controllers would allow for the dynamic control of voltage and power flow, improving the grid’s ability to dispatch power in real time to the places where it is most needed. The controllers would work as fail-safe devices whereby the grid would be restored to its present operating state in the event of a controller malfunction instead of failing outright. The ability to affordably and dynamically control power flow with adequate fail-safe switchgear could open up new competitive energy markets which are not possible under the current regulatory structure and technology base.

  8. Contact Graph Routing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    . The information carried by CGR contact plan messages is useful not only for dynamic route computation, but also for the implementation of rate control, congestion forecasting, transmission episode initiation and termination, timeout interval computation, and retransmission timer suspension and resumption.

  9. The Effect of Shared Information on Pilot/Controller Situation Awareness and Re-Route Negotiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Todd C.; Hansman, R. John; Endsley, Mica R.; Amonlirdviman, Keith; Vigeant-Langlois, Laurence

    1998-01-01

    The effect of shared information is assessed in terms of pilot/controller negotiation and shared situation awareness. Pilot goals and situation awareness requirements are developed and compared against those of air traffic controllers to identify areas of common and competing interest. A part-task simulator experiment is described which probes pilot/controller interaction in areas where common information has the potential to lead to contention, as identified in the comparative analysis. Preliminary results are presented which suggest that shared information can effect more collaborative interaction between pilots and air traffic controllers.

  10. 75 FR 51484 - Comment Request for Information Collection for OMB Control No. 1205-0035, Job Corps Placement and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... Request for Information Collection for OMB Control No. 1205-0035, Job Corps Placement and Assistance... comments concerning the collection of data about Job Corps Placement and Assistance Record [OMB Control No. 1205- 0035, expires 09/30/2010]: ETA 678 form, Job Corps Placement and Assistance Record. ETA form...

  11. Facile and solvent-free routes for the synthesis of size-controllable Fe3O4 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hieu Ngo, Thanh; Tran, Dai Lam; Do, Hung Manh; Hoang Tran, Vinh; Le, Van Hong; Phuc Nguyen, Xuan

    2010-09-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles are one of the most important materials that are widely used in both medically diagnostic and therapeutic research. In this paper, we present some facile and non-toxic synthetic approaches for size-controllable preparations of magnetite nanoparticles, which are appropriate for biomedical applications, namely (i) co-precipitation; (ii) reduction–precipitation and (iii) oxidation–precipitation. Magnetic characterizations of the obtained nanoparticles have been studied and discussed. The oxidation precipitation route was chosen for investigation of the dependence of kinetic driven activation energy and that of coercive force on particle size (and temperature) during the course of the reaction. The structural–magnetic behavior was also correlated. Being solvent and surfactant-free, these methods are advantageous for synthesis and further functionalization towards biomedical applications.

  12. Recent Advances in Shape-Controlled Synthesis of Noble Metal Nanoparticles by Radiolysis Route.

    PubMed

    Abedini, Alam; Bakar, Ahmad Ashrif A; Larki, Farhad; Menon, P Susthitha; Islam, Md Shabiul; Shaari, Sahbudin

    2016-12-01

    This paper focuses on the recent advances on radiolysis-assisted shape-controlled synthesis of noble metal nanostructures. The techniques and protocols for producing desirable shapes of noble metal nanoparticles are discussed through introducing the critical parameters which can influence the nucleation and growth mechanisms. Nucleation rate plays a vital role on the crystallinity of seeds while growth rate of different seeds' facets determines the final shape of resultant nanoparticles. Nucleation and growth rate both can be altered with factors such as absorbed dose, capping agents, and experimental environment condition to control the final shape. Remarkable physical and chemical properties of synthesized noble metal nanoparticles by controlled morphology have been systematically evaluated to fully explore their applications. PMID:27283051

  13. Recent Advances in Shape-Controlled Synthesis of Noble Metal Nanoparticles by Radiolysis Route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abedini, Alam; Bakar, Ahmad Ashrif A.; Larki, Farhad; Menon, P. Susthitha; Islam, Md. Shabiul; Shaari, Sahbudin

    2016-06-01

    This paper focuses on the recent advances on radiolysis-assisted shape-controlled synthesis of noble metal nanostructures. The techniques and protocols for producing desirable shapes of noble metal nanoparticles are discussed through introducing the critical parameters which can influence the nucleation and growth mechanisms. Nucleation rate plays a vital role on the crystallinity of seeds while growth rate of different seeds' facets determines the final shape of resultant nanoparticles. Nucleation and growth rate both can be altered with factors such as absorbed dose, capping agents, and experimental environment condition to control the final shape. Remarkable physical and chemical properties of synthesized noble metal nanoparticles by controlled morphology have been systematically evaluated to fully explore their applications.

  14. Review of Restricted Experiment Requests, Division of Select Agents and Toxins, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2006-2013.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jacinta; Gangadharan, Denise; Weyant, Robbin

    2015-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Division of Select Agents and Toxins (DSAT) regulates laboratories that possess, use, or transfer select agents and toxins in the United States. DSAT also mitigates biosafety risks through the review of "restricted experiments," which under the select agent regulations are experiments that pose heightened biosafety risks. From January 2006 through December 2013, DSAT received 618 requests from 109 entities to perform potentially restricted experiments. Of these requests, 85% were determined not to meet the regulatory definition of a restricted experiment, while 15% of the requests met the definition of a restricted experiment. Of the 91 restricted experiments proposed, DSAT approved 31 (34%) requests because the biosafety conditions proposed were commensurate with the experiments' biosafety risk. All 31 approved restricted experiments were for work with select toxins. DSAT did not approve 60 restricted experiment requests due to potentially serious biosafety risks to public health and safety. All 60 denied restricted experiments proposed inserting drug resistance traits into select agents that could compromise the control of disease. The select agents and toxins associated most frequently with requests that met the regulatory definition of a restricted experiment are Shiga toxin (n = 16), Burkholderia mallei (n = 15), Botulinum neurotoxin (n = 14), and Brucella abortus (n = 14). In general, all restricted experiment decisions are determined on a case-by-case basis. This article describes the trends and characteristics of the data associated with restricted experiment requests among select agents that have an impact on public health and safety (HHS only agents) or both public health and safety and animal health or products (overlap agents). The information presented here, coupled with the information published in the restricted experiment guidance document ( www.selectagents.gov ), is intended to promote awareness

  15. Controlled evaporative self-assembly of confined microfluids: A route to complex ordered structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, Myunghwan

    The evaporative self-assembly of nonvolatile solutes such as polymers, nanocrystals, and carbon nanotubes has been widely recognized as a non-lithographic means of producing a diverse range of intriguing complex structures. Due to the spatial variation of evaporative flux and possible convection, however, these non-equilibrium dissipative structures (e.g., fingering patterns and polygonal network structures) are often irregularly and stochastically organized. Yet for many applications in microelectronics, data storage devices, and biotechnology, it is highly desirable to achieve surface patterns having a well-controlled spatial arrangement. To date, only a few elegant studies have centered on precise control over the evaporation process to produce ordered structures. In a remarked comparison with conventional lithography techniques, surface patterning by controlled solvent evaporation is simple and cost-effective, offering a lithography- and external field-free means to organize nonvolatile materials into ordered microscopic structures over large surface areas. The ability to engineer an evaporative self-assembly process that yields a wide range of complex, self-organizing structures over large areas offers tremendous potential for applications in electronics, optoelectronics, and bio- or chemical sensors. We developed a facile, robust tool for evaporating polymer, nanoparticle, or DNA solutions in curve-on-flat geometries to create versatile, highly regular microstructures, including hierarchically structured polymer blend rings, conjugated polymer "snake-skins", block copolymer stripes, and punch-hole-like meshes, biomolecular microring arrays, etc. The mechanism of structure formation was elucidated both experimentally and theoretically. Our method further enhances current fabrication approaches to creating highly ordered structures in a simple and cost-effective manner, envisioning the potential to be tailored for use in photonics, optoelectronics, microfluidic

  16. "Recalculating Route".

    PubMed

    Baum, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Can you imagine going to a doctor who uses a paper chart, sends you a bill on a ledger card, and handwrites a prescription? You wouldn't have a great deal of confidence that the clinical skills of the doctor were up to date. This would be an example of a doctor who did not "recalculate his or her route." This article provides 10 examples of adjustments that have been made in medicine where the route has been recalculated. PMID:26399043

  17. Ultrastable Liquid-Liquid Interface as Viable Route for Controlled Deposition of Biodegradable Polymer Nanocapsules.

    PubMed

    Vecchione, Raffaele; Iaccarino, Giulia; Bianchini, Paolo; Marotta, Roberto; D'autilia, Francesca; Quagliariello, Vincenzo; Diaspro, Alberto; Netti, Paolo A

    2016-06-01

    Liquid-liquid interfaces are highly dynamic and characterized by an elevated interfacial tension as compared to solid-liquid interfaces. Therefore, they are gaining an increasing interest as viable templates for ordered assembly of molecules and nanoparticles. However, liquid-liquid interfaces are more difficult to handle compared to solid-liquid interfaces; their intrinsic instability may affect the assembly process, especially in the case of multiple deposition. Indeed, some attempts have been made in the deposition of polymer multilayers at liquid-liquid interfaces, but with limited control over size and stability. This study reports on the preparation of an ultrastable liquid-liquid interface based on an O/W secondary miniemulsion and its possible use as a template for the self-assembly of polymeric multilayer nanocapsules. Such polymer nanocapsules are made of entirely biodegradable materials, with highly controlled size-well under 200 nm-and multi-compartment and multifunctional features enriching their field of application in drug delivery, as well as in other bionanotechnology fields. PMID:27060934

  18. Efficient thermolysis route to monodisperse Cu₂ZnSnS₄ nanocrystals with controlled shape and structure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Guo, Guobiao; Ji, Cheng; Huang, Kai; Zha, Chenyang; Wang, Yifeng; Shen, Liming; Gupta, Arunava; Bao, Ningzhong

    2014-01-01

    Monodisperse Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanocrystals with tunable shape, crystalline phase, and composition are synthesized by efficient thermolysis of a single source precursor of mixed metal-oleate complexes in hot organic solvents with dissolved sulfur sources. Suitable tuning of the synthetic conditions and the Cu/(Zn + Sn) ratio of the precursor has enabled precise control of the crystalline phase in the form of kesterite, or a newly observed wurtzite structure. Nanocrystals with morphology in the form of spherical, rice-like, or rod-like shapes are obtained over a wide range of compositions (0.5 ≤ Cu/(Zn + Sn) ≤ 1.2). Both the final products and intermediates for each shape exhibit consistent composition and structure, indicating homogenous nucleation and growth of single-phase nanocrystals. Thin films prepared from colloidal nanocrystal suspensions display interesting shape-dependent photoresponse behavior under white light illumination from a solar simulator. PMID:24866987

  19. Weather routing in long-distance Mediterranean routes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delitala, A. M. S.; Gallino, S.; Villa, L.; Lagouvardos, K.; Drago, A.

    2010-10-01

    The selection of ship routes based on modern weather forecasting is a mean of computing optimum shipping routes thereby increasing safety and comfort at sea, cutting down on transit time, and reducing fuel consumption. Further empirical research in the effectiveness of modern weather routing applications is required especially in applications concerning shorter routes in enclosed seas of limited geographical extent such as the Mediterranean Sea. The present study used two climatological simulations to test this state-of-the-art approach to ship routing. Simulations represented two theoretical routes: (1) a route between Italy and Greece and (2) a route between Cyprus and Italy. Both routes were analyzed across varying simulated climatic conditions and the results were compared with those of control routes. Furthermore, results were analyzed in terms of passenger and crew comfort, bunker consumption by ships, and time of crossing. The first simulation showed that weather routing would improve ship performance on 37% of days while the second simulation revealed that weather routing would support ship captains virtually all the time.

  20. 75 FR 51485 - Comment Request for Information Collection for OMB Control No. 1205-0033; Job Corps Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... Request for Information Collection for OMB Control No. 1205-0033; Job Corps Health Questionnaire... collection of data about Job Corps Health Questionnaire, Form ETA 6-53 which expires on 10/31/2010. A copy of..., Office of Job Corps, Room N-4507, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20210. Telephone...

  1. 50 CFR 22.31 - Golden eagle depredations control order on request of Governor of a State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Golden eagle depredations control order on request of Governor of a State. 22.31 Section 22.31 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION...

  2. 75 FR 47031 - Submission for OPM Review; Request for Comments on a Revised Information Collection: (OMB Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ... MANAGEMENT Submission for OPM Review; Request for Comments on a Revised Information Collection: (OMB Control No. 3206-0174; Forms RI 20-63, RI 20-116 and RI 20-117) AGENCY: Office of Personnel Management..., 1995), this notice announces that the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) has submitted to the...

  3. 75 FR 17787 - Submission for OMB Review; Request for Comments on a Revised Information Collection: (OMB Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... MANAGEMENT Submission for OMB Review; Request for Comments on a Revised Information Collection: (OMB Control No. 3206-0228; Standard Form 3112) AGENCY: Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... announces that the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) has submitted to ] the Office of Management...

  4. 75 FR 17787 - Submission for OMB Review; Request for Comments on a Revised Information Collection: (OMB Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... MANAGEMENT Submission for OMB Review; Request for Comments on a Revised Information Collection: (OMB Control No. 3206-0226; Form RI 38-128) AGENCY: Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In... that the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) has submitted to the Office of Management and Budget...

  5. 75 FR 33366 - Submission for OMB Review; Request for Comments on a Revised Information Collection: (OMB Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... MANAGEMENT Submission for OMB Review; Request for Comments on a Revised Information Collection: (OMB Control No. 3206-0170; Standard Forms 3106 and 3106A) AGENCY: Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: Notice... notice announces that the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) has submitted to the Office of...

  6. 77 FR 58577 - Certain Video Game Systems and Wireless Controllers and Components Thereof; Notice of Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Video Game Systems and Wireless Controllers and Components Thereof; Notice of Request for... limited exclusion order and a cease and desist order against certain video game systems and...

  7. 75 FR 57808 - Information Collection Request to Office of Management and Budget; OMB Control Numbers: 1625-0080

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... its approval for the following collection of information: 1625-0080, Customer Satisfaction Surveys... regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008 issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Information Collection Request Title: Customer Satisfaction Surveys. OMB Control Number: 1625-0080. Summary:...

  8. 40 CFR 65.115 - Standards: Closed vent systems and control devices; or emissions routed to a fuel gas system or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... control devices; or emissions routed to a fuel gas system or process. 65.115 Section 65.115 Protection of... gas system or process. (a) Compliance schedule. The owner or operator shall comply with this section... to comply with the provisions of this subpart shall design and operate the flare as specified in §...

  9. 40 CFR 63.1015 - Closed vent systems and control devices; or emissions routed to a fuel gas system or process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... devices; or emissions routed to a fuel gas system or process. 63.1015 Section 63.1015 Protection of... fuel gas system or process. (a) Compliance schedule. The owner or operator shall comply with this... provisions of this subpart shall design and operate the closed vent system and nonflare control devices...

  10. 40 CFR 63.1015 - Closed vent systems and control devices; or emissions routed to a fuel gas system or process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... devices; or emissions routed to a fuel gas system or process. 63.1015 Section 63.1015 Protection of... fuel gas system or process. (a) Compliance schedule. The owner or operator shall comply with this... provisions of this subpart shall design and operate the closed vent system and nonflare control devices...

  11. 40 CFR 65.115 - Standards: Closed vent systems and control devices; or emissions routed to a fuel gas system or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... control devices; or emissions routed to a fuel gas system or process. 65.115 Section 65.115 Protection of... gas system or process. (a) Compliance schedule. The owner or operator shall comply with this section... to comply with the provisions of this subpart shall design and operate the flare as specified in §...

  12. 40 CFR 63.1015 - Closed vent systems and control devices; or emissions routed to a fuel gas system or process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... nonflare control devices used to comply with this subpart shall comply with the provisions of subpart SS of... in subpart SS of this part, except as provided in § 63.1002(b). (3) Owners or operators routing... SS of this part, except as provided in § 63.1002(b)....

  13. 40 CFR 63.1015 - Closed vent systems and control devices; or emissions routed to a fuel gas system or process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... nonflare control devices used to comply with this subpart shall comply with the provisions of subpart SS of... in subpart SS of this part, except as provided in § 63.1002(b). (3) Owners or operators routing... SS of this part, except as provided in § 63.1002(b)....

  14. 40 CFR 63.1015 - Closed vent systems and control devices; or emissions routed to a fuel gas system or process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... nonflare control devices used to comply with this subpart shall comply with the provisions of subpart SS of... in subpart SS of this part, except as provided in § 63.1002(b). (3) Owners or operators routing... SS of this part, except as provided in § 63.1002(b)....

  15. A new route to fabricate biocompatible hydrogels with controlled drug delivery behavior.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaohong; Gong, Xiao

    2016-05-15

    Hydrogels for drug delivery have attracted extensive interests since they can be used for biomaterials such as contact lenses. Here, we report that biocompatible hydrogels for contact lenses with controlled drug delivery behavior can be fabricated using copolymer hydrogels and Layer-by-Layer (LbL) surface modification technique. Methyl acrylic anhydride (MAA) modified β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) (MA-β-CD) was synthesized and copolymerized with hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) to form copolymer hydrogel. The introduction of second monomer of MA-β-CD would accelerate the polymerization of hydrogel, leading to increase of residual CC groups. The structure of copolymers was characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Transparence, equilibrium swelling ratio and contact angle of copolymer hydrogel were also detailed discussed in the work. In vitro drug release results showed that copolymer hydrogel with higher MA-β-CD content exhibited a better drug loading capacity and drug release behaviors could be tuned by MA-β-CD/monomer ratio. Finally, alkynyl functional hyaluronic acid (HA-BP) and nitrine functional chitosan (CS-N3) were synthesized and covalently cross-linked to copolymer hydrogel surface using LbL technique through click chemistry. The successful LbL multilayers were confirmed by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Resultsofcytotoxicityexperiment revealed that the hydrogels were biocompatible since they could support the growth of cells. PMID:26930541

  16. Self-assembly of designed precursors: A route to crystallographically aligned new materials with controlled nanoarchitecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westover, Richard; Atkins, Ryan A.; Falmbigl, Matthias; Ditto, Jeffrey J.; Johnson, David C.

    2016-04-01

    Modulated elemental reactants is a method by which new and complex intergrowth compounds can be synthesized by the self-assembly of designed precursors prepared by physical vapor deposition. Careful calibration of the composition and thickness of the precursors ensures the formation of the desired product by precise control of local composition and diffusion lengths. Superstructures of increasing complexity can be realized using binary and ternary systems as starting points. The synthesis of systems based on three different binary compounds, either alloyed together or separated into distinct layers, expands the number of possible superstructures that can be formed using this technique, but provides analytical challenges. The synthesis of [(SnSe)1.15]1([TaxV1-x]Se2)1[(SnSe)1.15]1([VyTa1-y]Se2)1 compound is used to illustrate the preparation of precursors and the challenges in both measuring and limiting the interdiffusion of layers during self-assembly. Systematic changes in the electrical properties of (SnSe)1+δ(TaxV1-x)Se2 alloys are observed as x is varied. The electrical resistivity of [(SnSe)1.15]1([TaxV1-x]Se2)1[(SnSe)1.15]1([VyTa1-y]Se2)1 can be modeled as the two constituent layers in parallel.

  17. Maximum Data Collection Rate Routing Protocol Based on Topology Control for Rechargeable Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Lin, Haifeng; Bai, Di; Gao, Demin; Liu, Yunfei

    2016-01-01

    In Rechargeable Wireless Sensor Networks (R-WSNs), in order to achieve the maximum data collection rate it is critical that sensors operate in very low duty cycles because of the sporadic availability of energy. A sensor has to stay in a dormant state in most of the time in order to recharge the battery and use the energy prudently. In addition, a sensor cannot always conserve energy if a network is able to harvest excessive energy from the environment due to its limited storage capacity. Therefore, energy exploitation and energy saving have to be traded off depending on distinct application scenarios. Since higher data collection rate or maximum data collection rate is the ultimate objective for sensor deployment, surplus energy of a node can be utilized for strengthening packet delivery efficiency and improving the data generating rate in R-WSNs. In this work, we propose an algorithm based on data aggregation to compute an upper data generation rate by maximizing it as an optimization problem for a network, which is formulated as a linear programming problem. Subsequently, a dual problem by introducing Lagrange multipliers is constructed, and subgradient algorithms are used to solve it in a distributed manner. At the same time, a topology controlling scheme is adopted for improving the network's performance. Through extensive simulation and experiments, we demonstrate that our algorithm is efficient at maximizing the data collection rate in rechargeable wireless sensor networks. PMID:27483282

  18. How to Control Airline Routes from the Supply Side: The Case of TAP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Button, Kenneth; Costa, Alvaro; Reis, Vasco

    2005-01-01

    Competition in the European airline industry is currently fierce in the face of depressed demand conditions, and in the wake of privatizations and liberalization. The Portuguese flag carrier, TAP Air Portugal, operates within this environment. It is a medium sized carrier that was part of the defunct Qualiflyer Group alliance and has recently joined the Star Alliance. It controls more than 50% of the air market between Europe and Brazil and Europe and Angola. Nevertheless, it has been experiencing financial losses. One reason for this is that, following the reasoning of Ronald Coase (1946), it is difficult for any company with decreasing average costs to recover full costs in a highly competitive market. One way of approaching the problem is to establish quasi-monopoly power and airlines have done this through such things as frequent flyer programs and hub-and-spoke operations. Other airlines, notably charter carriers, have sought to adjust capacity and services to meet an anticipated cash flow. In practice, many have used a combination of measures with mixed success. This paper focuses on how TAP has responded to changing conditions by adjusting its supply-side activities in terms of restructuring its network to maximize potential revenues.

  19. Porous devices derived from co-continuous polymer blends as a route for controlled drug release.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Pouneh; Sarazin, Pierre; Favis, Basil D

    2008-04-01

    In this study we examine the release profile of bovine serum albumin (BSA) from a porous polymer matrix derived from a co-continuous polymer blend. The porosity is generated through the selective extraction of one of the continuous phases. This is the first study to examine the approach of using morphologically tailored co-continuous polymer blends as a template for generating porous polymer materials for use in controlled release. A method for the preparation of polymeric capsules is introduced, and the effect of matrix pore size and surface area on the BSA release profile is investigated. Furthermore, the effect of surface charge on release is examined by surface modification of the porous substrate using layer-by-layer deposition techniques. Synthetic, nonerodible polymer, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), was used as a model substrate prepared by melt blending with two different styrene-ethylene-butylene copolymers. Blends with HDPE allow for the preparation of porous substrates with small pore sizes (300 and 600 nm). A blend of polylactide (PLA) and polystyrene was also used to prepare porous PLA with a larger pore size (1.5 microm). The extents of interconnectivity, surface area, and pore dimension of the prepared porous substrates were examined via gravimetric solvent extraction, BET nitrogen adsorption, mercury porosimetry, and image analysis of scanning electron microscopy micrographs. With a loading protocol into the porous HDPE and PLA involving the alternate application of pressure and vacuum, it is shown that virtually the entire porous network was accessible to BSA loading, and loading efficiencies of between 80% and 96% were obtained depending on the pore size of the carrier and the applied pressure. The release profile of BSA from the microporous structure was monitored by UV spectrophotometry. The influence of pore size, surface area, surface charge, and number of deposited layers is demonstrated. It is shown that an effective closed-cell structure

  20. Parking and routing information system phase 1 evaluation -- Data management and quality control/quality assurance plans

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    A parking and routing information system (PARIS) is being designed and deployed at a test site on the Mountain Home Veterans Administration campus in Johnson City, Tennessee using three sensor technologies. The purpose of the PARIS project is to demonstrate innovative integration of vehicle sensing technologies with parking management strategies to improve mobility and relieve congestion associated with a growing medical technology complex. Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL) role during phase 1 of the project is to act as the independent evaluator. This technical memorandum presents two plans, Data Management Plan and Quality Control/Quality Assurance (QC/QA) Plan, which were developed to support ORNL`s responsibilities and functions. The purposes of the Data Management Plan are to coordinate the data needs which will be addressed in four individual evaluation test plans and to deal with the data issues facing the phase 1 evaluation as a whole. The objectives of the QC/QA Plan are to ensure that the evaluation is conducted properly, to guarantee that the data which will be collected are valid and properly analyzed, and to make sure that the test results are accurately recorded and reported. The evaluation will be performed through the execution of four integrated studies (system performance, user acceptance, institutional and business issues, and transportation systems). The phase 1 evaluation data will be collected from 24 sources. Three databases will be established based upon these data (project team database, distributed database processor, and evaluator database).

  1. Drug Control: Observations on Elements of the Federal Drug Control Strategy. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. General Government Div.

    Although the United States government invests vast sums of money in the war on drugs, the availability of drugs and the number of persons using illegal drugs are still serious problems. Information that Congress can use in improving drug control strategies is provided here. Some of the report's highlights include current research on promising…

  2. Modulation of the Action Control System by Social Intention: Unexpected Social Requests Override Preplanned Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartori, Luisa; Becchio, Cristina; Bulgheroni, Maria; Castiello, Umberto

    2009-01-01

    Four experiments investigated the influence of a sudden social request on the kinematics of a preplanned action. In Experiment 1, participants were requested to grasp an object and then locate it within a container (unperturbed trials). On 20% of trials, a human agent seated nearby the participant unexpectedly stretched out her arm and unfolded…

  3. Central East Pacific Flight Routing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grabbe, Shon; Sridhar, Banavar; Kopardekar, Parimal; Cheng, Nadia

    2006-01-01

    With the introduction of the Federal Aviation Administration s Advanced Technology and Oceanic Procedures system at the Oakland Oceanic Center, a level of automation now exists in the oceanic environment to potentially begin accommodating increased user preferred routing requests. This paper presents the results of an initial feasibility assessment which examines the potential benefits of transitioning from the fixed Central East Pacific routes to user preferred routes. As a surrogate for the actual user-provided routing requests, a minimum-travel-time, wind-optimal dynamic programming algorithm was developed and utilized in this paper. After first describing the characteristics (e.g., origin airport, destination airport, vertical distribution and temporal distribution) of the westbound flights utilizing the Central East Pacific routes on Dec. 14-16 and 19-20, the results of both a flight-plan-based simulation and a wind-optimal-based simulation are presented. Whereas the lateral and longitudinal distribution of the aircraft trajectories in these two simulations varied dramatically, the number of simulated first-loss-of-separation events remained relatively constant. One area of concern that was uncovered in this initial analysis was a potential workload issue associated with the redistribution of traffic in the oceanic sectors due to thc prevailing wind patterns.

  4. Application of Improved PSO to Power Flow Control by TCSC for Maximum Acceptance of Requested Wheeled Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Yasuhiro; Matsuki, Junya; Kanai, Genshin

    Open access to electric power transmission networks has been carried out in order to foster generation competition and customer choice in the worldwide. When several PPSs request to simultaneously supply power to customers based on bilateral contracts, it is expected that transmission network accepts amounts of wheeled power requested by the PPSs as much as possible. It is possible to maximize total requested wheeled power by controlling power flow through transmission lines. It is well known that FACTS device is available to control line flow flexibly. In this paper, in order to maximize total wheeled power simultaneously requested by several PPSs, the authors propose an algorithm to determine the optimal reactance of TCSC (one of FACTS devices). The proposed algorithm is based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), which is one of optimization methods based on swarm intelligence. In the proposed algorithm, PSO is improved to enhance ability of searching global minimum by giving different characteristic to behavior of each agent. In order to check the validity of the proposed method, numerical results are shown for 6 and IEEE 30 bus system models.

  5. 78 FR 719 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Urban Buses; Request for Waiver of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-04

    ...., 74 FR at 32767 (July 8, 2009); see also MEMA I, 627 F.2d at 1126. III. EPA's Request for Comments EPA... hydrocarbon (NMHC) standards for diesel-fueled urban bus engines through the 2003 model year; more...

  6. Influence of Patients’ Requests for Directly Advertised Antidepressants: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kravitz, Richard L.; Epstein, Ronald; Feldman, Mitchell D.; Franz, Carol E.; Azari, Rahman; Wilkes, Michael S.; Hinton, Ladson; Franks, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Context Direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising of prescription drugs in the United States is both ubiquitous and controversial. Critics charge that DTC advertising leads to over-prescribing, while proponents counter that it helps avert under-use of effective treatments, especially for conditions such as depression that are poorly recognized or stigmatized. Objective To ascertain the effects of patients’ DTC-related requests on physicians’ initial treatment decisions (prescribing, referral, and follow-up) in patients with depressive symptoms. Design Randomized trial using Standardized Patients (SPs). Six SP roles (experimental cells) were created by crossing two conditions (major depression or adjustment disorder) with three request types (brand-specific, general, or none). Setting Offices of primary care physicians in Sacramento, CA; San Francisco, CA; and Rochester, NY. Participants 152 family physicians and general internists recruited from solo and group practices and health maintenance organizations; cooperation rates ranged from 53% to 61%. Interventions SPs were randomly assigned to make 298 unannounced visits, with assignments constrained so physicians saw 1 SP with major depression and 1 with adjustment disorder (approximately 50 visits per experimental cell). Main Outcome Measures Data on prescribing, mental health referral, and primary care follow-up were obtained from SP written reports, visit audio-recordings, chart review, and analysis of written prescriptions and drug samples. The effects of request type on prescribing were evaluated using contingency tables and confirmed in generalized linear mixed models that accounted for clustering and adjusted for site, physician, and visit characteristics. Results SP role fidelity was excellent, and the detection rate was 12%. In major depression, rates of antidepressant prescribing were 53%, 76%, and 31% for SPs making brand-specific requests, general requests, and no requests, respectively (p<.0001). In

  7. Controllable synthesis and growth mechanism of {alpha}-Co(OH){sub 2} nanorods and nanoplates by a facile solution-phase route

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Wenzhong; Feng Kai; Wang Zhi; Ma Yunyan; Zhang Suyun; Liang Yujie

    2011-12-15

    A facile chemical precipitation route has been developed to control synthesis of {alpha}-cobalt hydroxide nanostructures with rod-like and plate-like morphologies. The {alpha}-Co(OH){sub 2} nanorods were achieved in large quantity when the experiments were carried out in the presence of a suitable shape-controlling reagent polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), while the {alpha}-Co(OH){sub 2} nanoplates were obtained when the experiments were conducted in the absence of PVP, whilst keeping other experimental conditions constant. The chemical composition and morphologies of the as-prepared {alpha}-Co(OH){sub 2} nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effect of polymer PVP on the morphologies of {alpha}-Co(OH){sub 2} nanoparticles were discussed in detail. The results indicated that PVP played a key role for the formation of {alpha}-Co(OH){sub 2} nanorods. The growth mechanism of the as-synthesized nanorods and nanoplates were discussed in detail based on the experimental results. A possible growth mechanism has been proposed to illustrate the growth of {alpha}-Co(OH){sub 2} nanorods. - Graphical abstract: A facile solution-phase route has been developed to synthesize {alpha}-Co(OH){sub 2} nanorods and nanoplates. The possible growth mechanism of nanorods and nanoplates was proposed. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A facile controllable route was described for {alpha}-Co(OH){sub 2} nanowires and nanoplates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The {alpha}-Co(OH){sub 2} nanowires were achieved in the presence of shape controller PVP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The {alpha}-Co(OH){sub 2} nanoplates were obtained in the absence of shape controller PVP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The shape controller PVP played a key role in the formation of {alpha}-Co(OH){sub 2} nanowires.

  8. Developing Stimulus Control of Young Children's Requests to Teachers: Classwide Applications of Multiple Schedules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cammilleri, Anthony P.; Tiger, Jeffrey H.; Hanley, Gregory P.

    2008-01-01

    Children may recruit their teachers' attention at undesirably high rates or at inconvenient times. Tiger and Hanley (2004) described a multiple-schedule procedure to reduce ill-timed requests, which involved providing children with two distinct continuous signals that were correlated with periods in which teacher attention was either available or…

  9. 78 FR 44112 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Urban Buses; Request for Waiver of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... PM, 15.5 g/bhp-hr CO, and 0.05 g/bhp-hr formaldehyde. \\24\\ 70 FR 50322 (August 26, 2005). C. EPA's... on CARB's request. \\24\\ 78 FR 719 (January 4, 2013). EPA invited comment, with respect to California.... 209(b)(1)(A). \\27\\ CAA Sec. 209(b)(1)(B). \\28\\ CAA Sec. 209(b)(1)(C). \\29\\ See, e.g., 74 FR...

  10. Problem Definition and Solution Concept for En Route Constrained Airspace Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Steven; Vivona, Robert

    2000-01-01

    NASA's AATT Program is investigating potential ground-based decision support tool (DST) development for en route controllers and managers. NASA's previous work in en route DST development has focused on Transition airspace, where aircraft are impacted by constraints associated with the transition of aircraft from en route to terminal airspace. This paper investigates the problems associated with aircraft in non-transitional en route airspace, termed Constrained Airspace. A literature search was performed to catalog previously identified constrained airspace problems. The results of this search were investigated with industry representatives to validate these problems were significant in constrained airspace. Three general problem areas were identified. The first problem area involves negative impacts caused by a loss of airspace (e.g., activation of Special Use Airspace (SUA), weather cell formation, and overloaded sectors). The second problem area is the lack of identifying and taking advantage of gained airspace (e.g., SUA deactivation, weather dissipation, and sector loading reductions). The third problem area is unforeseen negative impacts caused by the acceptance of user routing requests (e.g., a route change into an area of congestion that negated the users intended benefit). Based upon the problems identified, an operational concept was developed for a DST to help handle these problems efficiently. The goal is to strategically identify constrained airspace problems and to provide functionality to support ARTCC TMUs in resolving the identified impacts. The capability lends itself well to TMU and Airline Operations Center (AOC) collaboration.

  11. Controllable synthesis, shape evolution, and luminescence properties of uniform and well-dispersed NaEuF{sub 4} microcrystals through hydrothermal route

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Zhenhe Zhao, Qian; Ding, Fu; Sun, Yaguang

    2013-08-01

    Graphical abstract: Sodium europium fluorides NaEuF{sub 4} microcrystals have been prepared via a facile hydrothermal route. The possible growth mechanism and the luminescent properties of the as-prepared microcrystals have been discussed. - Highlights: • Sodium europium fluorides NaEuF{sub 4} microspheres were prepared by a facile hydrothermal route. • The as-prepared samples NaEuF{sub 4} and EuF{sub 3} exhibit respective red or orange-red emissions. • These finding may find potential applications in the fields of color display, UV laser and biomedicine. - Abstract: Sodium europium fluorides NaEuF{sub 4} microcrystals with uniform and well-dispersed shapes and dimensions have been prepared via a facile hydrothermal route using Na{sub 3}Cit as the chelating ligand and shape modifier. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), selected-area electron diffraction (SAED), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) and photoluminescence spectra (PL) were taken to characterize the samples. A series of controlled experiments reveal that the trisodium citrate (Na{sub 3}Cit) content, pH value of the initial solution, and reaction time have an indispensable role on the phase, size, and morphology of the as-prepared microcrystals. Based on the experimental results, the possible growth mechanism of the microcrystals prepared under different conditions was proposed. Moreover, we systematically investigated the luminescent properties of the as-prepared microcrystals with different morphologies obtained under different amounts of Na{sub 3}Cit, which have potential application in the fields of color display, UV laser and biomedicine.

  12. The price of commitment in online stochastic vehicle routing

    SciTech Connect

    Bent, Russell W; Van Hentenryck, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers online stochastic multiple vehicle routing with time windows in which requests arrive dynamically and the goal is to maximize the number of serviced customers. Early work has focused on very flexible routing settings where the decision to assign a vehicle to a customer is delayed until a vehicle is actually deployed to the customer. Motivated by real applications that require stability in the decision making, this paper considers a setting where the decision to assign a customer request to a vehicle must be taken when that request is accepted. Experimental results suggest that this constraint severely degrades the performance of existing algorithms. However, the paper shows how the use of stochastic information for vehicle assignment and request acceptance improves decision quality considerably. Moreover, the use of resource augmentation quantifies precisely the cost of commitment in online vehicle routing.

  13. LABORATORY TEST METHOD OF EXPOSURE BY ORAL AND INTRAVENOUS ROUTES OF MICORBIAL PEST CONTROL AGENTS TO NON TARGET AVIAN SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbial pest control agents (MPCAs) are microorganisms applied to the environment to control the proliferation and spread of agricultural or silvicultural insect, arthropod. and plant pests. hen used in this manner, the micrporganisms are classified as pesticides and are subjec...

  14. LABORATORY TEST METHODS OF EXPOSURE TO MICROBIAL PEST CONTROL AGENTS BY THE RESPIRATORY ROUTE TO NON-TARGET AVIAN SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbial pest control agents (MPCAs) are microorganisms applied to agricultural and silvacultural environments to control proliferation and spread of insect or plant pests. uring application, it is likely that nontarget plants and animals are exposed to MPCAs. ollowing extensive...

  15. 40 CFR 63.1034 - Closed vent systems and control devices; or emissions routed to a fuel gas system or process...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... devices; or emissions routed to a fuel gas system or process standards. 63.1034 Section 63.1034 Protection... routed to a fuel gas system or process standards. (a) Compliance schedule. The owner or operator shall...) Compliance standard. (1) Owners or operators routing emissions from equipment leaks to a fuel gas system...

  16. 40 CFR 63.1034 - Closed vent systems and control devices; or emissions routed to a fuel gas system or process...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... devices; or emissions routed to a fuel gas system or process standards. 63.1034 Section 63.1034 Protection... routed to a fuel gas system or process standards. (a) Compliance schedule. The owner or operator shall...) Compliance standard. (1) Owners or operators routing emissions from equipment leaks to a fuel gas system...

  17. Masked Proportional Routing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolpert, David

    2004-01-01

    Masked proportional routing is an improved procedure for choosing links between adjacent nodes of a network for the purpose of transporting an entity from a source node ("A") to a destination node ("B"). The entity could be, for example, a physical object to be shipped, in which case the nodes would represent waypoints and the links would represent roads or other paths between waypoints. For another example, the entity could be a message or packet of data to be transmitted from A to B, in which case the nodes could be computer-controlled switching stations and the links could be communication channels between the stations. In yet another example, an entity could represent a workpiece while links and nodes could represent, respectively, manufacturing processes and stages in the progress of the workpiece towards a finished product. More generally, the nodes could represent states of an entity and the links could represent allowed transitions of the entity. The purpose of masked proportional routing and of related prior routing procedures is to schedule transitions of entities from their initial states ("A") to their final states ("B") in such a manner as to minimize a cost or to attain some other measure of optimality or efficiency. Masked proportional routing follows a distributed (in the sense of decentralized) approach to probabilistically or deterministically choosing the links. It was developed to satisfy a need for a routing procedure that 1. Does not always choose the same link(s), even for two instances characterized by identical estimated values of associated cost functions; 2. Enables a graceful transition from one set of links to another set of links as the circumstances of operation of the network change over time; 3. Is preferably amenable to separate optimization of different portions of the network; 4. Is preferably usable in a network in which some of the routing decisions are made by one or more other procedure(s); 5. Preferably does not cause an

  18. Preliminary Benefits Assessment of Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Jeff; Idris, Husni; Wing, David J.

    2012-01-01

    While en route, aircrews submit trajectory change requests to air traffic control (ATC) to better meet their objectives including reduced delays, reduced fuel burn, and passenger comfort. Aircrew requests are currently made with limited to no information on surrounding traffic. Consequently, these requests are uninformed about a key ATC objective, ensuring traffic separation, and therefore less likely to be accepted than requests informed by surrounding traffic and that avoids creating conflicts. This paper studies the benefits of providing aircrews with on-board decision support to generate optimized trajectory requests that are probed and cleared of known separation violations prior to issuing the request to ATC. These informed requests are referred to as traffic aware strategic aircrew requests (TASAR) and leverage traffic surveillance information available through Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) In capability. Preliminary fast-time simulation results show increased benefits with longer stage lengths since beneficial trajectory changes can be applied over a longer distance. Also, larger benefits were experienced between large hub airports as compared to other airport sizes. On average, an aircraft equipped with TASAR reduced its travel time by about one to four minutes per operation and fuel burn by about 50 to 550 lbs per operation depending on the objective of the aircrew (time, fuel, or weighted combination of time and fuel), class of airspace user, and aircraft type. These preliminary results are based on analysis of approximately one week of traffic in July 2012 and additional analysis is planned on a larger data set to confirm these initial findings.

  19. Controllable synthesis of hierarchical nanostructures of CaWO{sub 4} and SrWO{sub 4} via a facile low-temperature route

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Z.; Gong, Q.; Zhu, J.; Yuan, Y.P.; Qian, L.W.; Qian, X.F.

    2009-01-08

    CaWO{sub 4} and SrWO{sub 4} nanostructures have been synthesized via a simple microemulsion-mediated route. With careful control of the fundamental experimental parameters including the concentration of reactants, the reaction time and the temperature, the products with different morphologies of dumbbell, coral, rod and dendrite have been obtained, respectively. The possible formation mechanism of these unique morphologies has been proposed based on surfactant self-assembly under different experimental conditions. The as-synthesized CaWO{sub 4} samples with various morphologies exhibit different photoluminescence properties. X-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, and luminescence spectroscopy were used to characterize these products.

  20. Reverse flood routing with the inverted Muskingum storage routing scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koussis, A. D.; Mazi, K.; Lykoudis, S.; Argiriou, A. A.

    2012-01-01

    This work treats reverse flood routing aiming at signal identification: inflows are inferred from observed outflows by orienting the Muskingum scheme against the wave propagation direction. Routing against the wave propagation is an ill-posed, inverse problem (small errors amplify, leading to large spurious responses); therefore, the reverse solution must be smoothness-constrained towards stability and uniqueness (regularised). Theoretical constrains on the coefficients of the reverse routing scheme assist in error control, but optimal grids are derived by numerical experimentation. Exact solutions of the convection-diffusion equation, for a single and a composite wave, are reverse-routed and in both instances the wave is backtracked well for a range of grid parameters. In the arduous test of a square pulse, the result is comparable to those of more complex methods. Seeding outflow data with random errors enhances instability; to cope with the spurious oscillations, the reversed solution is conditioned by smoothing via low-pass filtering or optimisation. Good-quality inflow hydrographs are recovered with either smoothing treatment, yet the computationally demanding optimisation is superior. Finally, the reverse Muskingum routing method is compared to a reverse-solution method of the St. Venant equations of flood wave motion and is found to perform equally well, at a fraction of the computing effort. This study leads us to conclude that the efficiently attained good inflow identification rests on the simplicity of the Muskingum reverse routing scheme that endows it with numerical robustness.

  1. Performance and policy dimensions in internet routing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mills, David L.; Boncelet, Charles G.; Elias, John G.; Schragger, Paul A.; Jackson, Alden W.; Thyagarajan, Ajit

    1995-01-01

    The Internet Routing Project, referred to in this report as the 'Highball Project', has been investigating architectures suitable for networks spanning large geographic areas and capable of very high data rates. The Highball network architecture is based on a high speed crossbar switch and an adaptive, distributed, TDMA scheduling algorithm. The scheduling algorithm controls the instantaneous configuration and swell time of the switch, one of which is attached to each node. In order to send a single burst or a multi-burst packet, a reservation request is sent to all nodes. The scheduling algorithm then configures the switches immediately prior to the arrival of each burst, so it can be relayed immediately without requiring local storage. Reservations and housekeeping information are sent using a special broadcast-spanning-tree schedule. Progress to date in the Highball Project includes the design and testing of a suite of scheduling algorithms, construction of software reservation/scheduling simulators, and construction of a strawman hardware and software implementation. A prototype switch controller and timestamp generator have been completed and are in test. Detailed documentation on the algorithms, protocols and experiments conducted are given in various reports and papers published. Abstracts of this literature are included in the bibliography at the end of this report, which serves as an extended executive summary.

  2. Zone routing in a torus network

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer

    2013-01-29

    A system for routing data in a network comprising a network logic device at a sending node for determining a path between the sending node and a receiving node, wherein the network logic device sets one or more selection bits and one or more hint bits within the data packet, a control register for storing one or more masks, wherein the network logic device uses the one or more selection bits to select a mask from the control register and the network logic device applies the selected mask to the hint bits to restrict routing of the data packet to one or more routing directions for the data packet within the network and selects one of the restricted routing directions from the one or more routing directions and sends the data packet along a link in the selected routing direction toward the receiving node.

  3. Advances in optimal routing through computer networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paz, I. M.

    1977-01-01

    The optimal routing problem is defined. Progress in solving the problem during the previous decade is reviewed, with special emphasis on technical developments made during the last few years. The relationships between the routing, the throughput, and the switching technology used are discussed and their future trends are reviewed. Economic aspects are also briefly considered. Modern technical approaches for handling the routing problems and, more generally, the flow control problems are reviewed.

  4. Reverse flood routing with the inverted Muskingum storage routing scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koussis, A. D.; Mazi, K.; Lykoudis, S.; Argyriou, A.

    2010-09-01

    Motivation On occasion, flood related questions are posed in the reverse from the conventional sense, e.g.: Which inflow created the flow observed at cross-section X, or the flood profile observed along reach Y? This is a signal identification type problem (hydrologic forensics). A related question concerns the operation of a reservoir, via optimal outflow control, so as to minimise downstream flood damage. Solution of the aforementioned problems requires routing of floods in the upstream direction. This is an inverse problem, and as such it is not well posed. In routing against the wave propagation, small errors in the flow measurements, or rounding errors, are amplified leading to instability, i.e., to spurious, large changes in the response (inflow hydrograph). Therefore, for the reverse solution to be stable it must be constrained by a smoothness condition; this however does not ensure its uniqueness. Storage routing models as approximate diffusion wave models By appropriate choice of their parameter values, storage routing models approximate closely diffusion-wave (DW) behaviour, if dominant flood propagation mode is that of kinematic waves (KW), which is very often true. We solve the flood signal identification problem by reversing the Muskingum routing scheme. The Muskingum routing scheme derives from a first-order accurate FD discretisation of the KW equation yet yields second-order accurate DW solutions by matching the numerical diffusion coefficient of that KW equation solution scheme to the DW equation’s hydraulic diffusion coefficient. Formulation and testing of a reverse routing scheme based on Muskingum routing Theoretical analysis of the reversed Muskingum routing scheme yields nominal grid design rules; however, we study optimal grid design mainly by numerical experimentation. First, we reverse an exact outflow hydrograph (a single-wave solution of the convection-diffusion equation), and then demonstrate the scheme’s ability to reverse

  5. Controlled RAFT Polymerization of 2-Vinyl-4,4-Dimethylazlactone (VDMA): A Facile Route to Bio-Inspired Polymer Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Lokitz, Bradley S; Messman, Jamie M; Hinestrosa Salazar, Juan Pablo; Alonzo Calderon, Jose E; Verduzco, Rafael; Brown, Rebecca H; Osa, Masashi; Ankner, John Francis; Kilbey, II, S Michael

    2009-01-01

    We report the controlled radical polymerization of 2-vinyl-4,4-dimethyl azlactone (VDMA), a 2-alkenyl-2-oxazolin-5-one monomer that contains a polymerizable vinyl moiety as well as a highly reactive, pendant azlactone as well as solution characterizations and surface attachment and functionaliztion. Reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) was used to polymerize of VDMA in benzene at 65 C using either 2-(2-cyanopropyl) dithiobenzoate (CPDB) or 2-dodecylsulfanylthiocarbonyl-sulfanyl-2-methylpropionic acid (DMP) as RAFT chain transfer agents (CTAs). The pseudo first order kinetics and resultant well-defined polymers of low polydispersity indicate that both CTAs afford control over the RAFT polymerization of VDMA. Dynamic and static light scattering and small angle neutron scattering were performed to determine the dn/dc, weight-average molecular weight, radius of gyration, and second virial coefficient of VDMA homopolymers in THF. Additionally, well-defined polymers of VDMA containing carboxyl end groups were covalently attached to epoxy modified silicon wafers via esterification to produce polymeric scaffolds that could be subsequently functionalized for various bio-inspired applications.

  6. Galvanic Replacement Coupled to Seeded Growth as a Route for Shape-Controlled Synthesis of Plasmonic Nanorattles.

    PubMed

    Polavarapu, Lakshminarayana; Zanaga, Daniele; Altantzis, Thomas; Rodal-Cedeira, Sergio; Pastoriza-Santos, Isabel; Pérez-Juste, Jorge; Bals, Sara; Liz-Marzán, Luis M

    2016-09-14

    Shape-controlled synthesis of metal nanoparticles (NPs) requires mechanistic understanding toward the development of modern nanoscience and nanotechnology. We demonstrate here an unconventional shape transformation of Au@Ag core-shell NPs (nanorods and nanocubes) into octahedral nanorattles via room-temperature galvanic replacement coupled with seeded growth. The corresponding morphological and chemical transformations were investigated in three dimensions, using state-of-the-art X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy (XEDS) tomography. The addition of a reducing agent (ascorbic acid) plays a key role in this unconventional mechanistic path, in which galvanic replacement is found to dominate initially when the shell is made of Ag, while seeded growth suppresses transmetalation when a composition of Au:Ag (∼60:40) is reached in the shell, as revealed by quantitative XEDS tomography. This work not only opens new avenues toward the shape control of hollow NPs beyond the morphology of sacrificial templates, but also expands our understanding of chemical transformations in nanoscale galvanic replacement reactions. The XEDS electron tomography study presented here can be generally applied to investigate a wide range of nanoscale morphological and chemical transformations. PMID:27556588

  7. 76 FR 10385 - Information Collection Request to Office of Management and Budget; OMB Control Number: 1625-0106

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... Collection Request (ICR) to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs (OIRA), requesting an extension of its approval for the following collection of information: 1625... Coast Guard public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR...

  8. 76 FR 27073 - Information Collection Request to Office of Management and Budget; OMB Control Number: 1625-0109

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... Collection Request (ICR) to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs (OIRA), requesting approval of revisions to the following collection of information: 1625-0109... statement regarding Coast Guard public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73...

  9. G-quadruplex induced chirality of methylazacalix[6]pyridine via unprecedented binding stoichiometry: en route to multiplex controlled molecular switch

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Ai-Jiao; Shen, Meng-Jie; Xiang, Jun-Feng; Zhang, En-Xuan; Li, Qian; Sun, Hong-Xia; Wang, Li-Xia; Xu, Guang-Zhi; Tang, Ya-Lin; Xu, Li-Jin; Gong, Han-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Nucleic acid based molecular device is a developing research field which attracts great interests in material for building machinelike nanodevices. G-quadruplex, as a new type of DNA secondary structures, can be harnessed to construct molecular device owing to its rich structural polymorphism. Herein, we developed a switching system based on G-quadruplexes and methylazacalix[6]pyridine (MACP6). The induced circular dichroism (CD) signal of MACP6 was used to monitor the switch controlled by temperature or pH value. Furthermore, the CD titration, Job-plot, variable temperature CD and 1H-NMR experiments not only confirmed the binding mode between MACP6 and G-quadruplex, but also explained the difference switching effect of MACP6 and various G-quadruplexes. The established strategy has the potential to be used as the chiral probe for specific G-quadruplex recognition. PMID:25990684

  10. Morphology-controlled synthesis of nanostructured zinc hydroxide fluoride via a microwave-assisted ionic liquid route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Songtao; Zheng, Mingbo; Song, Jiakui; Li, Nianwu; Lu, Hongling; Cao, Jieming

    2014-12-01

    Zinc hydroxide fluoride (Zn(OH)F) with multiform morphologies such as flower-like particles, pumpkin-like aggregates, and hollow orange-like aggregates are prepared by a microwave-assisted ionic liquid method. During synthesis, microwave irradiation accelerates the reaction rate and shortens the reaction time. 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Bmim][BF4]) or 1-2-hydroxylethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([C2OHmim][BF4]) is used as both reactant and template. Experimental results indicate that the morphology evolution of Zn(OH)F is mainly controlled by the concentration of zinc acetate solution. A possible mechanism underlying the formation of nanostructured Zn(OH)F with diverse morphologies is proposed. Furthermore, nanoporous ZnO is obtained by the thermal decomposition of as-prepared Zn(OH)F in air, and the morphology is well retained.

  11. Efficient Thermolysis Route to Monodisperse Cu2ZnSnS4 Nanocrystals with Controlled Shape and Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Guo, Guobiao; Ji, Cheng; Huang, Kai; Zha, Chenyang; Wang, Yifeng; Shen, Liming; Gupta, Arunava; Bao, Ningzhong

    2014-05-01

    Monodisperse Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanocrystals with tunable shape, crystalline phase, and composition are synthesized by efficient thermolysis of a single source precursor of mixed metal-oleate complexes in hot organic solvents with dissolved sulfur sources. Suitable tuning of the synthetic conditions and the Cu/(Zn + Sn) ratio of the precursor has enabled precise control of the crystalline phase in the form of kesterite, or a newly observed wurtzite structure. Nanocrystals with morphology in the form of spherical, rice-like, or rod-like shapes are obtained over a wide range of compositions (0.5 <= Cu/(Zn + Sn) <= 1.2). Both the final products and intermediates for each shape exhibit consistent composition and structure, indicating homogenous nucleation and growth of single-phase nanocrystals. Thin films prepared from colloidal nanocrystal suspensions display interesting shape-dependent photoresponse behavior under white light illumination from a solar simulator.

  12. Nutritional route in oesophageal resection trial II (NUTRIENT II): study protocol for a multicentre open-label randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Berkelmans, Gijs H K; Wilts, Bas J W; Kouwenhoven, Ewout A; Kumagai, Koshi; Nilsson, Magnus; Weijs, Teus J; Nieuwenhuijzen, Grard A P; van Det, Marc J; Luyer, Misha D P

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Early start of an oral diet is safe and beneficial in most types of gastrointestinal surgery and is a crucial part of fast track or enhanced recovery protocols. However, the feasibility and safety of oral intake directly following oesophagectomy remain unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of early versus delayed start of oral intake on postoperative recovery following oesophagectomy. Methods and analysis This is an open-label multicentre randomised controlled trial. Patients undergoing elective minimally invasive or hybrid oesophagectomy for cancer are eligible. Further inclusion criteria are intrathoracic anastomosis, written informed consent and age 18 years or older. Inability for oral intake, inability to place a feeding jejunostomy, inability to provide written consent, swallowing disorder, achalasia, Karnofsky Performance Status <80 and malnutrition are exclusion criteria. Patients will be randomised using online randomisation software. The intervention group (direct oral feeding) will receive a liquid oral diet for 2 weeks with gradually expanding daily maximums. The control group (delayed oral feeding) will receive enteral feeding via a jejunostomy during 5 days and then start the same liquid oral diet. The primary outcome measure is functional recovery. Secondary outcome measures are 30-day surgical complications; nutritional status; need for artificial nutrition; need for additional interventions; health-related quality of life. We aim to recruit 148 patients. Statistical analysis will be performed according to an intention to treat principle. Results are presented as risk ratios with corresponding 95% CIs. A two-tailed p<0.05 is considered statistically significant. Ethics and dissemination Our study protocol has received ethical approval from the Medical research Ethics Committees United (MEC-U). This study is conducted according to the principles of Good Clinical Practice. Verbal and written informed consent is

  13. Relationship between Air Traffic Selection and Training (AT-SAT)) Battery Test Scores and Composite Scores in the Initial en Route Air Traffic Control Qualification Training Course at the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Ronald Scott

    2012-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: This study focused on the development and use of the AT-SAT test battery and the Initial En Route Qualification training course for the selection, training, and evaluation of air traffic controller candidates. The Pearson product moment correlation coefficient was used to measure the linear relationship between the…

  14. Continuous-flow precipitation as a route to prepare highly controlled nanohydroxyapatite: in vitro mineralization and biological evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Filipa; Ribeiro, Viviana P.; Ferreira, António; Oliveira, Ana L.; Reis, Rui L.; Teixeira, José A.; Rocha, Fernando

    2016-07-01

    This work reports the biological evaluation of nanosized hydroxyapatite (HAp) previously synthesized by continuous-flow precipitation in a scaled-up meso oscillatory flow reactor (meso-OFR). Physico-chemical characterization of the synthesized HAp suggests high surface reactivity namely because of its high specific surface area and low crystallinity. On the other hand, in vitro biomineralization assays demonstrated the apatite-forming activity of the prepared HAp and their higher surface reactivity when compared to a commercial HAp. Furthermore, human osteoblastic-like (Saos-2) cells culture evidenced that the synthesized HAp stimulated cell proliferation, especially when applied at lower concentrations (30 and 50 μg ml‑1), although its cellular uptake behavior. Therefore, the prepared HAp shows immense potential as biomedical material, as well as drug and gene delivery vehicle. The results are also very promising regarding further scaling up of the process, as the designed methodology allow for the preparation in a continuous mode of nanosized HAp with controlled physico-chemical properties.

  15. From Rice Bran to High Energy Density Supercapacitors: A New Route to Control Porous Structure of 3D Carbon

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Jianhua; Cao, Chuanbao; Ma, Xilan; Idrees, Faryal; Xu, Bin; Hao, Xin; Lin, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Controlled micro/mesopores interconnected structures of three-dimensional (3D) carbon with high specific surface areas (SSA) are successfully prepared by carbonization and activation of biomass (raw rice brans) through KOH. The highest SSA of 2475 m2 g−1 with optimized pore volume of 1.21 cm3 g−1 (40% for mesopores) is achieved for KOH/RBC = 4 mass ratio, than others. The as-prepared 3D porous carbon-based electrode materials for supercapacitors exhibit high specific capacitance specifically at large current densities of 10 A g−1 and 100 A g−1 i.e., 265 F g−1 and 182 F g−1 in 6 M KOH electrolyte, respectively. Moreover, a high power density ca. 1223 W kg−1 (550 W L−1) and energy density 70 W h kg−1 (32 W h L−1) are achieved on the base of active material loading (~10 mg cm2) in the ionic liquid. The findings can open a new avenue to use abundant agricultural by-products as ideal materials with promising applications in high-performance energy-storage devices. PMID:25434348

  16. Facile Route to the Controlled Synthesis of Tetragonal and Orthorhombic SnO2 Films by Mist Chemical Vapor Deposition.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jae-Yoon; Park, Jozeph; Kim, Hyun You; Kim, Hyun-Suk; Park, Jin-Seong

    2015-06-10

    Two types of tin dioxide (SnO2) films were grown by mist chemical vapor deposition (Mist-CVD), and their electrical properties were studied. A tetragonal phase is obtained when methanol is used as the solvent, while an orthorhombic structure is formed with acetone. The two phases of SnO2 exhibit different electrical properties. Tetragonal SnO2 behaves as a semiconductor, and thin-film transistors (TFTs) incorporating this material as the active layer exhibit n-type characteristics with typical field-effect mobility (μ(FE)) values of approximately 3-4 cm(2)/(V s). On the other hand, orthorhombic SnO2 is found to behave as a metal-like transparent conductive oxide. Density functional theory calculations reveal that orthorhombic SnO2 is more stable under oxygen-rich conditions, which correlates well with the experimentally observed solvent effects. The present study paves the way for the controlled synthesis of functional materials by atmospheric pressure growth techniques. PMID:25984757

  17. Aluminium Foams Fabricated by the PM Route using Nickel-coated Titanium Hydride Powders of Controlled Particle Size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proa-Flores, Paula Mercedes

    To establish the effect of reducing the temperature mismatch between the TiH2 decomposition temperature and the aluminium melting point on the foams morphological features and their mechanical compression behavior, a nickel coating on TiH2 powders was used as a hydrogen diffusion barrier and the size of TiH2 powders was controlled to modify the hydrogen evolution temperature. The nickel diffusion barrier was produced by an electroless deposition technique and the hydrogen evolution behavior of coated powders was investigated by thermogravimetrical analysis. The effect of particle size was determined with powders of five particle size fractions along with powders of different particle size obtained from a supplier. Foamable precursors were obtained by hot pressing a mix of aluminium powders with 1 wt.% of TiH2 powders and foams were fabricated at 750 and 800 °C. The foams mechanical strength was investigated by uni-axial compression on foam cylinders with and without outer skin. Coating produced a continuous and homogeneous deposit of 96.5 wt.% nickel and reduced the initial temperature mismatch by approximately 70°C. Additionally, the coating adhesion proved to be good enough to withstand the mixing and compaction processes. Nickel-coated TiH2 powders generated foams with a more homogeneous and reproducible pore structure than foams produced with powders in the as-received and passivated condition. On the other hand, the hydrogen evolution onset of TiH2 shifted towards higher temperatures as the particle size increased. The particle size influenced the foam expansion and the porosity features. Powders of larger particle size produced foams with a more uniform pore distribution and size. Finally, compression tests on skinless foams containing nickel displayed quasi-horizontal energy regimes with longer stroke lengths than the rest, however the final energy absorption efficiencies (above 7.2 kJ·kg-1) were not remarkably increased.

  18. A simple route to alloyed quaternary nanocrystals Ag-In-Zn-S with shape and size control.

    PubMed

    Gabka, Grzegorz; Bujak, Piotr; Giedyk, Kamila; Ostrowski, Andrzej; Malinowska, Karolina; Herbich, Jerzy; Golec, Barbara; Wielgus, Ireneusz; Pron, Adam

    2014-05-19

    A convenient method of the preparation of alloyed quaternary Ag-In-Zn-S nanocrystals is elaborated, in which a multicomponent mixture of simple and commercially available precursors, namely, silver nitrate, indium(III) chloride, zinc stearate, 1-dodecanethiol, and sulfur, is used with 1-octadecene as a solvent. The formation of quaternary nanocrystals necessitates the use of an auxiliary sulfur precursor, namely, elemental sulfur dissolved in oleylamine, in addition to 1-dodecanethiol. Without this additional precursor binary ZnS nanocrystals are formed. The optimum reaction temperature of 180 °C was also established. In these conditions shape, size, and composition of the resulting nanocrystals can be adjusted in a controlled manner by changing the molar ratio of the precursors in the reaction mixture. For low zinc stearate contents anisotropic rodlike (ca.3 nm x 10 nm) and In-rich nanocrystals are obtained. This is caused by a significantly higher reactivity of the indium precursor as compared to the zinc one. With increasing zinc precursor content the reactivities of both precursors become more balanced, and the resulting nanocrystals are smaller (1.5-4.0 nm) and become Zn-rich as evidenced by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and energy-dispersive spectrometry investigations. Simultaneous increases in the zinc and sulfur precursor content result in an enlargement of nanocrystals (2.5 to 5.0 nm) and further increase in the molar ZnS content (up to 0.76). The prepared nanoparticles show stable photoluminescence with the quantum yield up to 37% for In and Zn-rich nanocrystals. Their hydrodynamic diameter in toluene dispersion, determined by dynamic light scattering, is roughly twice larger than the diameter of their inorganic core. PMID:24786548

  19. Using Collective Intelligence to Route Internet Traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolpert, David H.; Tumer, Kagan; Frank, Jeremy

    1998-01-01

    A Collective Intelligence (COIN) is a community of interacting reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms designed so that their collective behavior maximizes a global utility function. We introduce the theory of COINs, then present experiments using that theory to design COINs to control internet traffic routing. These experiments indicate that COINs outperform previous RL-based systems for such routing that have previously been investigated.

  20. 75 FR 61785 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Review of a Revised Information Collection: (OMB Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... No. 3206-0201; Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) Open Season Express Interactive Voice... Health Benefits (FEHB) Open Season Express Interactive Voice Response (IVR) System'' (OMB Control No. 3206-0201), and the Open Season Web site, Open Season Online, are used by retirees and survivors....

  1. En route to controlled catalytic CVD synthesis of densely packed and vertically aligned nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube arrays

    PubMed Central

    Pattinson, Sebastian W; Geiser, Valérie; Shaffer, Milo S P

    2014-01-01

    Summary The catalytic chemical vapour deposition (c-CVD) technique was applied in the synthesis of vertically aligned arrays of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (N-CNTs). A mixture of toluene (main carbon source), pyrazine (1,4-diazine, nitrogen source) and ferrocene (catalyst precursor) was used as the injection feedstock. To optimize conditions for growing the most dense and aligned N-CNT arrays, we investigated the influence of key parameters, i.e., growth temperature (660, 760 and 860 °C), composition of the feedstock and time of growth, on morphology and properties of N-CNTs. The presence of nitrogen species in the hot zone of the quartz reactor decreased the growth rate of N-CNTs down to about one twentieth compared to the growth rate of multi-wall CNTs (MWCNTs). As revealed by electron microscopy studies (SEM, TEM), the individual N-CNTs (half as thick as MWCNTs) grown under the optimal conditions were characterized by a superior straightness of the outer walls, which translated into a high alignment of dense nanotube arrays, i.e., 5 × 108 nanotubes per mm2 (100 times more than for MWCNTs grown in the absence of nitrogen precursor). In turn, the internal crystallographic order of the N-CNTs was found to be of a ‘bamboo’-like or ‘membrane’-like (multi-compartmental structure) morphology. The nitrogen content in the nanotube products, which ranged from 0.0 to 3.0 wt %, was controlled through the concentration of pyrazine in the feedstock. Moreover, as revealed by Raman/FT-IR spectroscopy, the incorporation of nitrogen atoms into the nanotube walls was found to be proportional to the number of deviations from the sp2-hybridisation of graphene C-atoms. As studied by XRD, the temperature and the [pyrazine]/[ferrocene] ratio in the feedstock affected the composition of the catalyst particles, and hence changed the growth mechanism of individual N-CNTs into a ‘mixed base-and-tip’ (primarily of the base-type) type as compared to the purely

  2. En route to controlled catalytic CVD synthesis of densely packed and vertically aligned nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube arrays.

    PubMed

    Boncel, Slawomir; Pattinson, Sebastian W; Geiser, Valérie; Shaffer, Milo S P; Koziol, Krzysztof K K

    2014-01-01

    The catalytic chemical vapour deposition (c-CVD) technique was applied in the synthesis of vertically aligned arrays of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (N-CNTs). A mixture of toluene (main carbon source), pyrazine (1,4-diazine, nitrogen source) and ferrocene (catalyst precursor) was used as the injection feedstock. To optimize conditions for growing the most dense and aligned N-CNT arrays, we investigated the influence of key parameters, i.e., growth temperature (660, 760 and 860 °C), composition of the feedstock and time of growth, on morphology and properties of N-CNTs. The presence of nitrogen species in the hot zone of the quartz reactor decreased the growth rate of N-CNTs down to about one twentieth compared to the growth rate of multi-wall CNTs (MWCNTs). As revealed by electron microscopy studies (SEM, TEM), the individual N-CNTs (half as thick as MWCNTs) grown under the optimal conditions were characterized by a superior straightness of the outer walls, which translated into a high alignment of dense nanotube arrays, i.e., 5 × 10(8) nanotubes per mm(2) (100 times more than for MWCNTs grown in the absence of nitrogen precursor). In turn, the internal crystallographic order of the N-CNTs was found to be of a 'bamboo'-like or 'membrane'-like (multi-compartmental structure) morphology. The nitrogen content in the nanotube products, which ranged from 0.0 to 3.0 wt %, was controlled through the concentration of pyrazine in the feedstock. Moreover, as revealed by Raman/FT-IR spectroscopy, the incorporation of nitrogen atoms into the nanotube walls was found to be proportional to the number of deviations from the sp(2)-hybridisation of graphene C-atoms. As studied by XRD, the temperature and the [pyrazine]/[ferrocene] ratio in the feedstock affected the composition of the catalyst particles, and hence changed the growth mechanism of individual N-CNTs into a 'mixed base-and-tip' (primarily of the base-type) type as compared to the purely 'base'-type for undoped

  3. State alternative route designations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a state routing agency,'' defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective.

  4. State alternative route designations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a ``state routing agency,`` defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective.

  5. A multicentre, randomised controlled trial comparing the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of early nutritional support via the parenteral versus the enteral route in critically ill patients (CALORIES).

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Sheila E; Parrott, Francesca; Harrison, David A; Sadique, M Zia; Grieve, Richard D; Canter, Ruth R; McLennan, Blair Kp; Tan, Jermaine Ck; Bear, Danielle E; Segaran, Ella; Beale, Richard; Bellingan, Geoff; Leonard, Richard; Mythen, Michael G; Rowan, Kathryn M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Malnutrition is a common problem in critically ill patients in UK NHS critical care units. Early nutritional support is therefore recommended to address deficiencies in nutritional state and related disorders in metabolism. However, evidence is conflicting regarding the optimum route (parenteral or enteral) of delivery. OBJECTIVES To estimate the effect of early nutritional support via the parenteral route compared with the enteral route on mortality at 30 days and on incremental cost-effectiveness at 1 year. Secondary objectives were to compare the route of early nutritional support on duration of organ support; infectious and non-infectious complications; critical care unit and acute hospital length of stay; all-cause mortality at critical care unit and acute hospital discharge, at 90 days and 1 year; survival to 90 days and 1 year; nutritional and health-related quality of life, resource use and costs at 90 days and 1 year; and estimated lifetime incremental cost-effectiveness. DESIGN A pragmatic, open, multicentre, parallel-group randomised controlled trial with an integrated economic evaluation. SETTING Adult general critical care units in 33 NHS hospitals in England. PARTICIPANTS 2400 eligible patients. INTERVENTIONS Five days of early nutritional support delivered via the parenteral (n = 1200) and enteral (n = 1200) route. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES All-cause mortality at 30 days after randomisation and incremental net benefit (INB) (at £20,000 per quality-adjusted life-year) at 1 year. RESULTS By 30 days, 393 of 1188 (33.1%) patients assigned to receive early nutritional support via the parenteral route and 409 of 1195 (34.2%) assigned to the enteral route had died [p = 0.57; absolute risk reduction 1.15%, 95% confidence interval (CI) -2.65 to 4.94; relative risk 0.97 (0.86 to 1.08)]. At 1 year, INB for the parenteral route compared with the enteral route was negative at -£1320 (95% CI -£3709 to £1069). The probability that early

  6. An Approach towards Reduction of Routing Paths for Mobile Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Thakurta, P. K. Guha; Sinha, Prothoma; Mallick, Nilesh; Bandyopadhyay, Subhansu

    2010-10-26

    The foundation of various routing paths for a specific call requesting cell has been proposed in this paper. To improve searching efficiency, the number of routing paths has been reduced to a large extent. Hence, this reduction is based on the computation of frequent item sets. The performance of this proposed model is evaluated with respect to a parameter known as 'Occurrence Index (O{sub i})'. With such reduction, a significant performance gain would be achieved.

  7. An Approach towards Reduction of Routing Paths for Mobile Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakurta, P. K. Guha; Sinha, Prothoma; Mallick, Nilesh; Bandyopadhyay, Subhansu

    2010-10-01

    The foundation of various routing paths for a specific call requesting cell has been proposed in this paper. To improve searching efficiency, the number of routing paths has been reduced to a large extent. Hence, this reduction is based on the computation of frequent item sets. The performance of this proposed model is evaluated with respect to a parameter known as "Occurrence Index (Oi)". With such reduction, a significant performance gain would be achieved.

  8. Using Trust to Establish a Secure Routing Model in Cognitive Radio Network

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guanghua; Chen, Zhenguo; Tian, Liqin; Zhang, Dongwen

    2015-01-01

    Specific to the selective forwarding attack on routing in cognitive radio network, this paper proposes a trust-based secure routing model. Through monitoring nodes’ forwarding behaviors, trusts of nodes are constructed to identify malicious nodes. In consideration of that routing selection-based model must be closely collaborative with spectrum allocation, a route request piggybacking available spectrum opportunities is sent to non-malicious nodes. In the routing decision phase, nodes’ trusts are used to construct available path trusts and delay measurement is combined for making routing decisions. At the same time, according to the trust classification, different responses are made specific to their service requests. By adopting stricter punishment on malicious behaviors from non-trusted nodes, the cooperation of nodes in routing can be stimulated. Simulation results and analysis indicate that this model has good performance in network throughput and end-to-end delay under the selective forwarding attack. PMID:26421843

  9. Using Trust to Establish a Secure Routing Model in Cognitive Radio Network.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guanghua; Chen, Zhenguo; Tian, Liqin; Zhang, Dongwen

    2015-01-01

    Specific to the selective forwarding attack on routing in cognitive radio network, this paper proposes a trust-based secure routing model. Through monitoring nodes' forwarding behaviors, trusts of nodes are constructed to identify malicious nodes. In consideration of that routing selection-based model must be closely collaborative with spectrum allocation, a route request piggybacking available spectrum opportunities is sent to non-malicious nodes. In the routing decision phase, nodes' trusts are used to construct available path trusts and delay measurement is combined for making routing decisions. At the same time, according to the trust classification, different responses are made specific to their service requests. By adopting stricter punishment on malicious behaviors from non-trusted nodes, the cooperation of nodes in routing can be stimulated. Simulation results and analysis indicate that this model has good performance in network throughput and end-to-end delay under the selective forwarding attack. PMID:26421843

  10. 78 FR 71606 - Information Collection Request Submitted to OMB for Review and Approval; Comment Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... Protection Agency has submitted an information collection request (ICR), Emission Control System Performance... previously requested via the Federal Register (78 FR 36776) on June, 19 2013 during a 60-day comment period... AGENCY Information Collection Request Submitted to OMB for Review and Approval; Comment Request;...

  11. 75 FR 39700 - Information Collection Request to Office of Management and Budget; OMB; Control Number: 1625-New

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-12

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Information Collection Request Title: Port Stakeholder Interface Form. OMB... Marine Transportation System. Need: Section 202 of Public Law 109-347 authorizes the Secretary...

  12. 76 FR 11502 - Information Collection Request to Office of Management and Budget; OMB Control Number: 1625-0003

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Information Collection Requests. 1. Title... report to the State authority when: (1) A person dies; or (2) A person is injured and requires...

  13. View southwest along Route Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing commercial ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southwest along Route Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing commercial and residential buildings on the east and west sides of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  14. Service discovery with routing protocols for MANETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Xuemai; Shi, Shuo

    2005-11-01

    Service discovery is becoming an important topic as its use throughout the Internet becomes more widespread. In Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs), the routing protocol is very important because it is special network. To find a path for data, and destination nodes, nodes send packets to each node, creating substantial overhead traffic and consuming much time. Even though a variety of routing protocols have been developed for use in MANETs, they are insufficient for reducing overhead traffic and time. In this paper, we propose SDRP: a new service discovery protocol combined with routing policies in MANETs. The protocol is performed upon a distributed network. We describe a service by a unique ID number and use a group-cast routing policy in advertisement and request. The group-cast routing policy decreases the traffic in networks, and it is efficient to find destination node. In addition, the nodes included in the reply path also cache the advertisement information, and it means when each node finds a node next time, they can know where it is as soon as possible, so they minimize the time. Finally, we compare SDRP with both Flood and MAODV in terms of overload, and average delay. Simulation results show SDRP can spend less response time and accommodate even high mobility network environments.

  15. Individuality in bird migration: routes and timing.

    PubMed

    Vardanis, Yannis; Klaassen, Raymond H G; Strandberg, Roine; Alerstam, Thomas

    2011-08-23

    The exploration of animal migration has entered a new era with individual-based tracking during multiple years. Here, we investigated repeated migratory journeys of a long-distance migrating bird, the marsh harrier Circus aeruginosus, in order to analyse the variation within and between individuals with respect to routes and timing. We found that there was a stronger individual repeatability in time than in space. Thus, the annual timing of migration varied much less between repeated journeys of the same individual than between different individuals, while there was considerable variation in the routes of the same individual on repeated journeys. The overall contrast in repeatability between time and space was unexpected and may be owing to strong endogenous control of timing, while short-term variation in environmental conditions (weather and habitat) might promote route flexibility. The individual variation in migration routes indicates that the birds navigate mainly by other means than detailed route recapitulation based on landmark recognition. PMID:21307045

  16. Highway and interline transportation routing models

    SciTech Connect

    Joy, D.S.; Johnson, P.E.

    1994-06-01

    The potential impacts associated with the transportation of hazardous materials are important issues to shippers, carriers, and the general public. Since transportation routes are a central characteristic in most of these issues, the prediction of likely routes is the first step toward the resolution of these issues. In addition, US Department of Transportation requirements (HM-164) mandate specific routes for shipments of highway controlled quantities of radioactive materials. In response to these needs, two routing models have been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). These models have been designated by DOE`s Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Transportation Management Division (DOE/EM) as the official DOE routing models. Both models, HIGHWAY and INTERLINE, are described.

  17. ROUTE-SPECIFIC DOSIMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The capacity to perform route-to-route extrapolation of toxicity data is becoming increasingly crucial to the Agency, with a number of strategies suggested and demonstrated. One strategy involves using a combination of existing data and modeling approaches. This strategy propos...

  18. 75 FR 29471 - The New York North Shore Helicopter Route

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78) or you may visit http... http://www.gpoaccess.gov/fr/index.html . You can also get a copy by sending a request to the Federal... intended effect of this proposal is to maximize utilization of the existing route flown by...

  19. 76 FR 43477 - Debit Card Interchange Fees and Routing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ... routing procedures. \\4\\ The Board reported preliminary survey results in the proposed rule (See 75 FR... published elsewhere in the Federal Register. \\6\\ See 75 FR 81742-81743 (Dec. 28, 2010). The Board requested... fraud.\\21\\ \\21\\ These percentages may differ from those noted in the Board's proposal (See 75 FR...

  20. Automatic routing module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Janice A.

    1987-01-01

    Automatic Routing Module (ARM) is a tool to partially automate Air Launched Cruise Missile (ALCM) routing. For any accessible launch point or target pair, ARM creates flyable routes that, within the fidelity of the models, are optimal in terms of threat avoidance, clobber avoidance, and adherence to vehicle and planning constraints. Although highly algorithmic, ARM is an expert system. Because of the heuristics applied, ARM generated routes closely resemble manually generated routes in routine cases. In more complex cases, ARM's ability to accumulate and assess threat danger in three dimensions and trade that danger off with the probability of ground clobber results in the safest path around or through difficult areas. The tools available prior to ARM did not provide the planner with enough information or present it in such a way that ensured he would select the safest path.

  1. Experimental demonstration of an OpenFlow/PCE integrated control plane for IP over translucent WSON with the assistance of a per-request-based dynamic topology server.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Casellas, Ramon; Tsuritani, Takehiro; Morita, Itsuro; Martínez, Ricardo; Muñoz, Raül

    2013-02-25

    To mitigate the potential scalability issues of an OpenFlow-based control plane, a seamless OpenFlow and Path Computation Element (PCE) integrated control plane is proposed, by means of an architecture in which the path computation function is formally decoupled from the controller so the controller can off-load the task to one or more dedicated PCEs using an open and standard interface and protocol, and where the PCE obtains its topology database by means of a dedicated dynamic topology server, which is accessed by the PCE on a per-request basis. The overall feasibility and performance metrics of this integrated control plane are experimentally verified and quantitatively evaluated on a real IP over translucent Wavelength Switched Optical Network (WSON) testbed. PMID:23481952

  2. 76 FR 27287 - Port Access Route Study: In the Bering Strait; Extension of Comment Period

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... of Study and request for comments for the Port Access Route Study: In the Bering Strait (75 FR 68568... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 167 Port Access Route Study: In the Bering Strait; Extension of Comment...: In the Bering Strait. In this action, USCG is providing notice that the public comment period...

  3. 76 FR 30835 - Requests for Modification or Revocation of Toxic Substances Control Act Section 5 Significant New...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... detector, and sign the EPA visitor log. All visitor bags are processed through an X-ray machine and subject... January 6, 2010 (75 FR 773) (FRL-8794-5), EPA had intended to include these modification requests. In the... issue of December 22, 2008 (73 FR 78261) (FRL-8395-8), EPA included regulatory text to...

  4. 76 FR 80956 - Information Collection Request to Office of Management and Budget; OMB Control Number: 1625-0011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... statement regarding Coast Guard public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Information Collection Request Title: CG-2554 Private Aids to Navigation Application. CG-4143...-0011, Applications for Private Aids to Navigation and for Class I Private Aids to Navigation...

  5. 75 FR 27583 - Comment Request for Information Collection for OMB Control No. 1205-0478: American Recovery and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ... program helps to ensure that requested data can be provided in the desired format, reporting burden (time... of collection requirements on respondents can be properly assessed. Currently, the Employment and... emergency review was approved on April 1, 2010. A copy of this ICR can be obtained from the RegInfo.gov...

  6. 76 FR 77243 - Information Collection Request to Office of Management and Budget; OMB Control Number: 1625-0010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Information Collection Request...-1074], indicate the specific section of the document to which each comment applies, providing a reason... your comment online, go to http://www.regulations.gov , and type ``USCG-2011-1074'' in the...

  7. 75 FR 56140 - Comment Request for Information Collection for the YouthBuild (YB) Reporting System (OMB Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... Employment and Training Administration Comment Request for Information Collection for the YouthBuild (YB... recordkeeping requirements of the YouthBuild (YB) program. This reporting structure features standardized data... formats. All data collection and reporting is done by YouthBuild grantees. The quarterly progress...

  8. 76 FR 12758 - Proposed Information Collection Request of the ETA-9016 (OMB Control No. 1205-0268) on Alien...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... No. 1205-0268) on Alien Claims Activity Report; Comment Request on Extension Without Change AGENCY...) the requirements of the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS), Systematic Alien... Insurance (UI) program. In addition, data from the Alien Claims Activity report is being used to assist...

  9. 75 FR 20616 - Information Collection Request to Office of Management and Budget; OMB Control Numbers: 1625-0007...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ..., 2008 issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Information Collection Request 1. Title... vessels. An Operations Manual (OM) is also required for this type of facility. The OM establishes... regulation is contained in 33 CFR 154.110 and the OM regulations are contained in 33 CFR part 154 subpart...

  10. 75 FR 30845 - Request Voucher for Grant Payment and Line of Credit Control System (LOCCS) Voice Response System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ...The proposed information collection requirement described below has been submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act. The Department is soliciting public comments on the subject proposal. Payment request vouchers for distribution of grant funds using the automated Voice Response System (VRS). An authorization form is submitted......

  11. Diagnostic throughput factor analysis for en-route airspace and optimal aircraft trajectory generation based on capacity prediction and controller workload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Sanghyun

    Today's National Airspace System (NAS) is approaching its limit to efficiently cope with the increasing air traffic demand. Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) with its ambitious goals aims to make the air travel more predictable with fewer delays, less time sitting on the ground and holding in the air to improve the performance of the NAS. However, currently the performance of the NAS is mostly measured using delay-based metrics which do not capture a whole range of important factors that determine the quality and level of utilization of the NAS. The factors affecting the performance of the NAS are themselves not well defined to begin with. To address these issues, motivated by the use of throughput-based metrics in many areas such as ground transportation, wireless communication and manufacturing, this thesis identifies the different factors which majorly affect the performance of the NAS as demand (split into flight cancellation and flight rerouting), safe separation (split into conflict and metering) and weather (studied as convective weather) through careful comparison with other applications and performing empirical sensitivity analysis. Additionally, the effects of different factors on the NAS's performance are quantitatively studied using real traffic data with the Future ATM Concepts Evaluation Tool (FACET) for various sectors and centers of the NAS on different days. In this thesis we propose a diagnostic tool which can analyze the factors that have greater responsibility for regions of poor and better performances of the NAS. Based on the throughput factor analysis for en-route airspace, it was found that weather and controller workload are the major factors that decrease the efficiency of the airspace. Also, since resources such as air traffic controllers, infrastructure and airspace are limited, it is becoming increasingly important to use the available resources efficiently. To alleviate the impact of the weather and controller

  12. Understanding individual routing behaviour.

    PubMed

    Lima, Antonio; Stanojevic, Rade; Papagiannaki, Dina; Rodriguez, Pablo; González, Marta C

    2016-03-01

    Knowing how individuals move between places is fundamental to advance our understanding of human mobility (González et al. 2008 Nature 453, 779-782. (doi:10.1038/nature06958)), improve our urban infrastructure (Prato 2009 J. Choice Model. 2, 65-100. (doi:10.1016/S1755-5345(13)70005-8)) and drive the development of transportation systems. Current route-choice models that are used in transportation planning are based on the widely accepted assumption that people follow the minimum cost path (Wardrop 1952 Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng. 1, 325-362. (doi:10.1680/ipeds.1952.11362)), despite little empirical support. Fine-grained location traces collected by smart devices give us today an unprecedented opportunity to learn how citizens organize their travel plans into a set of routes, and how similar behaviour patterns emerge among distinct individual choices. Here we study 92 419 anonymized GPS trajectories describing the movement of personal cars over an 18-month period. We group user trips by origin-destination and we find that most drivers use a small number of routes for their routine journeys, and tend to have a preferred route for frequent trips. In contrast to the cost minimization assumption, we also find that a significant fraction of drivers' routes are not optimal. We present a spatial probability distribution that bounds the route selection space within an ellipse, having the origin and the destination as focal points, characterized by high eccentricity independent of the scale. While individual routing choices are not captured by path optimization, their spatial bounds are similar, even for trips performed by distinct individuals and at various scales. These basic discoveries can inform realistic route-choice models that are not based on optimization, having an impact on several applications, such as infrastructure planning, routing recommendation systems and new mobility solutions. PMID:26962031

  13. Routing Vehicles with Ants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Wen Fang; Lee, Lai Soon; Majid, Zanariah Abdul; Seow, Hsin Vonn

    Routing vehicles involve the design of an optimal set of routes for a fleet of vehicles to serve a number of customers with known demands. This research develops an Ant Colony Optimization for the vehicle routing with one central depot and identical vehicles. The procedure simulates the behavior of real ants that always find the shortest path between their nest and a food source through a form of communication, pheromone trail. Finally, preliminary results on the learning of the algorithm testing on benchmark data set will be presented in this paper.

  14. Transportation routing analysis geographic information system -- TRAGIS, a multimodal transportation routing tool

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.E.

    1995-12-31

    Over 15 years ago, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) developed two transportation routing models: HIGHWAY, which predicts truck transportation routes, and INTERLINE, which predicts rail transportation routes. Subsequent modifications have been made to enhance each of these models. Some of these changes include population density information for routes, HM-164 routing regulations for highway route controlled quantities of radioactive materials (RAM) truck shipments, and inclusion of waterway routing into INTERLINE. The AIRPORT model, developed 2 years after the HIGHWAY and INTERLINE models, serves as an emergency response tool. This model identifies the nearest airports from a designated location. Currently, the AIRPORT model is inactive. The Transportation Management Division of the US Department of Energy held a Baseline Requirements Assessment Session on the HIGHWAY, INTERLINE, and AIRPORT models in April 1994 to bring together many users of these models and other experts in the transportation routing field to discuss these models and to decide on the capabilities that needed to be added. Of the many needs discussed, the primary one was to have the network databases within a geographic information system (GIS). As a result of the Baseline Requirements Session, the development of a new GIS model has been initiated. This paper will discuss the development of the new Transportation Routing Analysis GIS (TRAGIS) model at ORNL.

  15. Class network routing

    DOEpatents

    Bhanot, Gyan; Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D.; Takken, Todd E.; Vranas, Pavlos M.

    2009-09-08

    Class network routing is implemented in a network such as a computer network comprising a plurality of parallel compute processors at nodes thereof. Class network routing allows a compute processor to broadcast a message to a range (one or more) of other compute processors in the computer network, such as processors in a column or a row. Normally this type of operation requires a separate message to be sent to each processor. With class network routing pursuant to the invention, a single message is sufficient, which generally reduces the total number of messages in the network as well as the latency to do a broadcast. Class network routing is also applied to dense matrix inversion algorithms on distributed memory parallel supercomputers with hardware class function (multicast) capability. This is achieved by exploiting the fact that the communication patterns of dense matrix inversion can be served by hardware class functions, which results in faster execution times.

  16. Railroad Routing Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1995-01-05

    INTERLINE/PC is an interactive program designed to simulate the routing practices of the United States rail system. The rail industry is divided into a large number of independent competing companies. The INTERLINE data base represents these rail companies as 94 separate subnetworks. An additional two subnetworks represent navigable inland/intracoastal and deep draft marine routes. Interchange points between individual rail systems and waterway systems are also identified.

  17. Human Poisoning Through Atypical Routes of Exposure.

    PubMed

    Behal, Niharika; Wong, Alan; Mantara, Ruzly; Cantrell, F Lee

    2016-02-01

    There are over 2 million human exposure cases reported to United States poison centers annually. Much of the data involves exposure through ingestion, dermal contact, inhalation, ocular, or parenteral routes. There is limited data characterizing exposure via atypical routes. We conducted a retrospective review of the California Poison Control System Database for a 24-month period from January 2012 to December 2013 for poison exposure that occurred through the otic, vaginal, or rectal route. There were a total of 634 cases involving single-route and single-substance atypical poison exposure. There were 287 (45%) cases of otic exposure, 190 (30.0%) cases of vaginal exposure, and 157 (25%) cases of rectal exposure. Five hundred forty (85%) of the cases were unintentional. Gasoline exposure through the otic route occurred in 83 (13.1%) cases, followed by hydrogen peroxide (4.7%), acetaminophen (3.8%), and miconazole (2.7%). Adverse effects occurred in 336 (53%) cases. No deaths were reported. The most common treatment was observation only, occurring in 396 (62.4%) cases. The majority of the cases did not warrant hospital evaluation (73.5%). This is the first retrospective characterization study of atypical routes of poison exposure. These results may provide education to providers and the public regarding risks of exposure to substances through atypical routes. PMID:26250476

  18. 40 CFR 205.171-1 - Test request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test request. 205.171-1 Section 205... TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycle Exhaust Systems § 205.171-1 Test request. (a) The Administrator will request all testing under § 205.171 by means of a test request addressed to the...

  19. 40 CFR 205.57-1 - Test request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test request. 205.57-1 Section 205.57... TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks § 205.57-1 Test request. (a) The Administrator will request all testing under § 205.57 by means of a test request addressed to the...

  20. 40 CFR 205.160-1 - Test request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test request. 205.160-1 Section 205... TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.160-1 Test request. (a) The Administrator will request all testing under § 205.160 by means of a test request addressed to the manufacturer. (b) The...

  1. Collective network routing

    DOEpatents

    Hoenicke, Dirk

    2014-12-02

    Disclosed are a unified method and apparatus to classify, route, and process injected data packets into a network so as to belong to a plurality of logical networks, each implementing a specific flow of data on top of a common physical network. The method allows to locally identify collectives of packets for local processing, such as the computation of the sum, difference, maximum, minimum, or other logical operations among the identified packet collective. Packets are injected together with a class-attribute and an opcode attribute. Network routers, employing the described method, use the packet attributes to look-up the class-specific route information from a local route table, which contains the local incoming and outgoing directions as part of the specifically implemented global data flow of the particular virtual network.

  2. Route based forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuurendonk, I. W.; Wokke, M. J. J.

    2009-09-01

    Road surface temperatures can differ several degrees on a very short distance due to local effects. In order to get more insight in the local temperature differences and to develop safer gritting routes, Meteogroup has developed a system for route based temperature forecasting. The standard version of the road model is addressed to forecast road surface temperature and condition for a specific location. This model consists of two parts. First a physical part, based on the energy balance equations. The second part of the model performs a statistical correction on the calculated physical road surface temperature. The road model is able to create a forecast for one specific location. From infrared measurements, we know that large local differences in road surface temperature exist on a route. Differences can be up to 5 degrees Celsius over a distance of several hundreds of meters. Based on those measurements, the idea came up to develop a system that forecasts road surface temperature and condition for an entire route: route based forecasting. The route is split up in sections with equal properties. For each section a temperature and condition will be calculated. The main factors that influence the road surface temperature are modelled in this forecasting system: •The local weather conditions: temperature, dew point temperature, wind, precipitation, weather type, cloudiness. •The sky view: A very sheltered place will receive less radiation during daytime and emit less radiation during nighttime. For a very open spot, the effects are reversed. •The solar view: A road section with trees on the southern side, will receive less solar radiation during daytime than a section with tress on the southern side. The route based forecast shows by means of a clear Google Maps presentation which sections will be slippery at what time of the coming night. The final goal of this type of forecast, is to make dynamical gritting possible: a variable salt amount and a different

  3. 78 FR 57378 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Annual Public Water System Compliance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... AGENCY Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Annual Public Water System Compliance... Protection Agency is planning to submit an information collection request (ICR), ``Annual Public Water System... Public Water Systems Compliance Report; ICR Numbers: EPA ICR Number 1812.05, OMB Control Number...

  4. 78 FR 29439 - Proposed Information Collection (Request for Details of Expenses) Activity: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Request for Details of Expenses) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY...: Request for Details of Expenses, VA Form 21-8049. OMB Control Number: 2900-0138. Type of Review:...

  5. 75 FR 45205 - Proposed Information Collection (Request for Details of Expenses) Activity: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Request for Details of Expenses) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY.... Title: Request for Details of Expenses, VA Form 21-8049. OMB Control Number: 2900-0138. Type of...

  6. 78 FR 13872 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; EPA's WaterSense Program (Renewal); EPA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... AGENCY Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; EPA's WaterSense Program (Renewal); EPA... request (ICR), ``EPA's WaterSense Program (Renewal)'' (EPA ICR No. 2233.06, OMB Control No. 2040-0272), to... INFORMATION CONTACT: Alicia Marrs, WaterSense Branch, Municipal Support Division, Office of...

  7. A route to phase controllable Cu2ZnSn(S(1-x)Se(x))4 nanocrystals with tunable energy bands.

    PubMed

    Ji, Shulin; Shi, Tongfei; Qiu, Xiaodong; Zhang, Jian; Xu, Guoping; Chen, Chao; Jiang, Zheng; Ye, Changhui

    2013-01-01

    Cu2ZnSn(S(1-x)Se(x))4 nanocrystals are an emerging family of functional materials with huge potential of industrial applications, however, it is an extremely challenging task to synthesize Cu2ZnSn(S(1-x)Se(x))4 nanocrystals with both tunable energy band and phase purity. Here we show that a green and economic route could be designed for the synthesis of Cu2ZnSn(S(1-x)Se(x))4 nanocrystals with bandgap tunable in the range of 1.5-1.12 eV. Consequently, conduction band edge shifted from -3.9 eV to -4.61 eV (relative to vacuum energy) is realized. The phase purity of Cu2ZnSn(S(1-x)Se(x))4 nanocrystals is substantiated with in-depth combined optical and structural characterizations. Electrocatalytic and thermoelectric performances of Cu2ZnSn(S(1-x)Se(x))4 nanocrystals verify their superior activity to replace noble metal Pt and materials containing heavy metals. This green and economic route will promote large-scale application of Cu2ZnSn(S(1-x)Se(x))4 nanocrystals as solar cell materials, electrocatalysts, and thermoelectric materials. PMID:24061108

  8. A Route to Phase Controllable Cu2ZnSn(S1−xSex)4 Nanocrystals with Tunable Energy Bands

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Shulin; Shi, Tongfei; Qiu, Xiaodong; Zhang, Jian; Xu, Guoping; Chen, Chao; Jiang, Zheng; Ye, Changhui

    2013-01-01

    Cu2ZnSn(S1−xSex)4 nanocrystals are an emerging family of functional materials with huge potential of industrial applications, however, it is an extremely challenging task to synthesize Cu2ZnSn(S1−xSex)4 nanocrystals with both tunable energy band and phase purity. Here we show that a green and economic route could be designed for the synthesis of Cu2ZnSn(S1−xSex)4 nanocrystals with bandgap tunable in the range of 1.5–1.12 eV. Consequently, conduction band edge shifted from −3.9 eV to −4.61 eV (relative to vacuum energy) is realized. The phase purity of Cu2ZnSn(S1−xSex)4 nanocrystals is substantiated with in-depth combined optical and structural characterizations. Electrocatalytic and thermoelectric performances of Cu2ZnSn(S1−xSex)4 nanocrystals verify their superior activity to replace noble metal Pt and materials containing heavy metals. This green and economic route will promote large-scale application of Cu2ZnSn(S1−xSex)4 nanocrystals as solar cell materials, electrocatalysts, and thermoelectric materials. PMID:24061108

  9. By Request.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beales, Janet R.

    1995-01-01

    Public schools that contract with someone outside to offer an instructional program need to issue a Request for Proposal (RFP) to potential providers. This document details the type of service desired and invites individuals or companies to submit bids or proposals for consideration. Explains the key components of an RFP. (MLF)

  10. Submarine cable route survey

    SciTech Connect

    Herrouin, G.; Scuiller, T.

    1995-12-31

    The growth of telecommunication market is very significant. From the beginning of the nineties, more and more the use of optical fiber submarine cables is privileged to that of satellites. These submarine telecommunication highways require accurate surveys in order to select the optimum route and determine the cable characteristics. Advanced technology tools used for these surveys are presented along with their implementation.

  11. Hydrologic Flood Routing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heggen, Richard J.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses a short classroom-based BASIC program which routes stream flow through a system of channels and reservoirs. The program is suitable for analyses of open channel conveyance systems, flood detention reservoirs, and combinations of the two. (Author/JN)

  12. En route Spacing Tool: Efficient Conflict-free Spacing to Flow-Restricted Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, S.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the Air Traffic Management (ATM) problem within the U.S. of flow-restricted en route airspace, an assessment of its impact on airspace users, and a set of near-term tools and procedures to resolve the problem. The FAA is committed, over the next few years, to deploy the first generation of modem ATM decision support tool (DST) technology under the Free-Flight Phase-1 (FFp1) program. The associated en route tools include the User Request Evaluation Tool (URET) and the Traffic Management Advisor (TMA). URET is an initial conflict probe (ICP) capability that assists controllers with the detection and resolution of conflicts in en route airspace. TMA orchestrates arrivals transitioning into high-density terminal airspace by providing controllers with scheduled times of arrival (STA) and delay feedback advisories to assist with STA conformance. However, these FFPl capabilities do not mitigate the en route Miles-In-Trail (MIT) restrictions that are dynamically applied to mitigate airspace congestion. National statistics indicate that en route facilities (Centers) apply Miles-In-Trail (MIT) restrictions for approximately 5000 hours per month. Based on results from this study, an estimated 45,000 flights are impacted by these restrictions each month. Current-day practices for implementing these restrictions result in additional controller workload and an economic impact of which the fuel penalty alone may approach several hundred dollars per flight. To mitigate much of the impact of these restrictions on users and controller workload, a DST and procedures are presented. The DST is based on a simple derivative of FFP1 technology that is designed to introduce a set of simple tools for flow-rate (spacing) conformance and integrate them with conflict-probe capabilities. The tool and associated algorithms are described based on a concept prototype implemented within the CTAS baseline in 1995. A traffic scenario is used to illustrate the controller's use of

  13. 78 FR 41926 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Performance Evaluation Studies on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... Wastewater Laboratories (Renewal); EPA ICR No. 0234.11, OMB Control No. 2080-0021 AGENCY: Environmental... an information collection request (ICR), ``Performance Evaluation Studies on Wastewater...

  14. 78 FR 56222 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Highly Qualified Teachers Clearance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Highly Qualified Teachers Clearance AGENCY... notice will be considered public records. Title of Collection: Highly Qualified Teachers Clearance OMB... disadvantaged students) are taught by teachers participating in an alternative route to certification...

  15. Energy-efficient routing control algorithm in large-scale WSN for water environment monitoring with application to Three Gorges Reservoir area.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yuanchang; Cheng, Lin; Zhang, Liang; Song, Yongduan; Karimi, Hamid Reza

    2014-01-01

    The typical application backgrounds of large-scale WSN (wireless sensor networks) for the water environment monitoring in the Three Gorges Reservoir are large coverage area and wide distribution. To maximally prolong lifetime of large-scale WSN, a new energy-saving routing algorithm has been proposed, using the method of maximum energy-welfare optimization clustering. Firstly, temporary clusters are formed based on two main parameters, the remaining energy of nodes and the distance between a node and the base station. Secondly, the algorithm adjusts cluster heads and optimizes the clustering according to the maximum energy-welfare of the cluster by the cluster head shifting mechanism. Finally, in order to save node energy efficiently, cluster heads transmit data to the base station in single-hop and multihop way. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is feasible and advanced. It can efficiently save the node energy, balance the energy dissipation of all nodes, and prolong the network lifetime. PMID:24741360

  16. Energy-Efficient Routing Control Algorithm in Large-Scale WSN for Water Environment Monitoring with Application to Three Gorges Reservoir Area

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Yuanchang; Zhang, Liang; Song, Yongduan

    2014-01-01

    The typical application backgrounds of large-scale WSN (wireless sensor networks) for the water environment monitoring in the Three Gorges Reservoir are large coverage area and wide distribution. To maximally prolong lifetime of large-scale WSN, a new energy-saving routing algorithm has been proposed, using the method of maximum energy-welfare optimization clustering. Firstly, temporary clusters are formed based on two main parameters, the remaining energy of nodes and the distance between a node and the base station. Secondly, the algorithm adjusts cluster heads and optimizes the clustering according to the maximum energy-welfare of the cluster by the cluster head shifting mechanism. Finally, in order to save node energy efficiently, cluster heads transmit data to the base station in single-hop and multihop way. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is feasible and advanced. It can efficiently save the node energy, balance the energy dissipation of all nodes, and prolong the network lifetime. PMID:24741360

  17. Aerosol immunisation for TB: matching route of vaccination to route of infection

    PubMed Central

    Manjaly Thomas, Zita-Rose; McShane, Helen

    2015-01-01

    TB remains a very significant global health burden. There is an urgent need for better tools for TB control, which include an effective vaccine. Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG), the currently licensed vaccine, confers highly variable protection against pulmonary TB, the main source of TB transmission. Replacing BCG completely or boosting BCG with another vaccine are the two current strategies for TB vaccine development. Delivering a vaccine by aerosol represents a way to match the route of vaccination to the route of infection. This route of immunisation offers not only the scientific advantage of delivering the vaccine directly to the respiratory mucosa, but also practical and logistical advantages. This review summarises the state of current TB vaccine candidates in the pipeline, reviews current progress in aerosol administration of vaccines in general and evaluates the potential for TB vaccine candidates to be administered by the aerosol route. PMID:25636950

  18. 75 FR 81244 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... clauses at DFARS 252.204; DD Form 2051, Request for Assignment of a Commercial and Government Entity (CAGE... (CAGE) Code; OMB Control Number 0704-0225. Type of Request: Extension. Number of Respondents:...

  19. Reconfigurable Robust Routing for Mobile Outreach Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ching-Fang

    2010-01-01

    The Reconfigurable Robust Routing for Mobile Outreach Network (R3MOO N) provides advanced communications networking technologies suitable for the lunar surface environment and applications. The R3MOON techn ology is based on a detailed concept of operations tailored for luna r surface networks, and includes intelligent routing algorithms and wireless mesh network implementation on AGNC's Coremicro Robots. The product's features include an integrated communication solution inco rporating energy efficiency and disruption-tolerance in a mobile ad h oc network, and a real-time control module to provide researchers an d engineers a convenient tool for reconfiguration, investigation, an d management.

  20. Robustness of airline route networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lordan, Oriol; Sallan, Jose M.; Escorihuela, Nuria; Gonzalez-Prieto, David

    2016-03-01

    Airlines shape their route network by defining their routes through supply and demand considerations, paying little attention to network performance indicators, such as network robustness. However, the collapse of an airline network can produce high financial costs for the airline and all its geographical area of influence. The aim of this study is to analyze the topology and robustness of the network route of airlines following Low Cost Carriers (LCCs) and Full Service Carriers (FSCs) business models. Results show that FSC hubs are more central than LCC bases in their route network. As a result, LCC route networks are more robust than FSC networks.

  1. New Routing Metrics for ADHOC Network Routing Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, P. C.

    2014-12-01

    The performance and reliability of Internet is measured using different quantities. When the quantities measured are essential and have wide range of acceptance then they are called metrics. Performance metrics enable comparison and selection among the alternatives. In computer networks, metrics are used to evaluate an application, protocol etc. Routing in adhoc networks is nontrivial. Routing protocols for adhoc networks are still evolving and there is need for continuous evaluation of them. In the literature existing, several routing protocols are evaluated using standard metrics under different conditions. This paper proposes new metrics for evaluation of routing protocols and uses them to evaluate the adhoc network routing protocols AODV, DSR, DSDV and TORA. Simulation environment is created using NS-2 simulator. Typical range of speeds, pause times and data rates are used. The results provide new insights in to the working of the routing protocols.

  2. Emergency control system based on the analytical hierarchy process and coordinated development degree model for sudden water pollution accidents in the Middle Route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project in China.

    PubMed

    Long, Yan; Xu, Guobin; Ma, Chao; Chen, Liang

    2016-06-01

    Water transfer projects are important for realizing reasonable allocation of water resources, but once a water pollution accident occurs during such a project, the water environment is exposed to enormous risks. Therefore, it is critical to determine an appropriate emergency control system (ECS) for sudden water pollution accidents that occur in water transfer projects. In this study, the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) integrated with the coordinated development degree model (CDDM) was used to develop the ECS. This ECS was developed into two parts, including the emergency risk assessment and the emergency control. Feasible emergency control targets and control technology were also proposed for different sudden water pollution accidents. A demonstrative project was conducted in the Fangshui to Puyang channel, which is part of the Beijing-Shijiazhuang Emergency Water Supply Project (BSP) in the Middle Route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project (MR-SNWTP) in China. However, we could not use an actual toxic soluble pollutant to validate our ECS, so we performed the experiment with sucrose to test the ECS based on its concentration variation. The relative error of peak sucrose concentration was less than 20 %. PMID:26979314

  3. Intelligent route surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoemaker, Robin; Sandbrink, Rody; van Voorthuijsen, Graeme

    2009-05-01

    Intelligence on abnormal and suspicious behaviour along roads in operational domains is extremely valuable for countering the IED (Improvised Explosive Device) threat. Local sensor networks at strategic spots can gather data for continuous monitoring of daily vehicle activity. Unattended intelligent ground sensor networks use simple sensing nodes, e.g. seismic, magnetic, radar, or acoustic, or combinations of these in one housing. The nodes deliver rudimentary data at any time to be processed with software that filters out the required information. At TNO (Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research) research has started on how to equip a sensor network with data analysis software to determine whether behaviour is suspicious or not. Furthermore, the nodes should be expendable, if necessary, and be small in size such that they are hard to detect by adversaries. The network should be self-configuring and self-sustaining and should be reliable, efficient, and effective during operational tasks - especially route surveillance - as well as robust in time and space. If data from these networks are combined with data from other remote sensing devices (e.g. UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles)/aerostats), an even more accurate assessment of the tactical situation is possible. This paper shall focus on the concepts of operation towards a working intelligent route surveillance (IRS) research demonstrator network for monitoring suspicious behaviour in IED sensitive domains.

  4. Route Recapitulation and Route Loyalty in Homing Pigeons: Pilotage From 25 km?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biro, Dora; Meade, Jessica; Guilford, Tim

    2006-01-01

    We utilised precision Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking to examine the homing paths of pigeons (Columba livia) released 20 times consecutively 25 km from the loft. By the end of the training phase, birds had developed highly stereotyped yet individually distinct routes home, with detailed recapitulation evident at each stage of the journey. Following training, birds also participated in a series of releases from novel sites at perpendicular distances of up to 3 km from their established routes. Results showed that subjects were attracted back to their established routes and recapitulated them from the point of contact. Naïve conspecifics (yoked controls) released from the same off-route sites confirmed that the experienced birds' route choices were not influenced by constraints exerted by terrain features, but that increased experience with the general area conferred a homing advantage in the form of more efficient flight tracks, even from these novel sites. Patterns in the paths taken by experienced birds to rejoin their established routes are discussed with reference to navigational mechanisms employed by homing pigeons in their familiar area.

  5. Schedules of Controlled Substances: Placement of Thiafentanil Into Schedule II. Interim final rule with request for comments.

    PubMed

    2016-08-26

    The Drug Enforcement Administration is placing the substance thiafentanil (4-(methoxycarbonyl)-4-(N-phenmethoxyacetamido)-1-[2-(thienyl)ethyl]piperidine), including its isomers, esters, ethers, salts and salts of isomers, esters and ethers as possible, into schedule II of the Controlled Substances Act. This scheduling action is pursuant to the Controlled Substances Act, as revised by the Improving Regulatory Transparency for New Medical Therapies Act which was signed into law on November 25, 2015. PMID:27568479

  6. Schedules of Controlled Substances: Placement of Brivaracetam Into Schedule V. Interim final rule, with request for comments.

    PubMed

    2016-05-12

    The Drug Enforcement Administration is placing the substance brivaracetam ((2S)-2-[(4R)-2-oxo-4-propylpyrrolidin-1-yl] butanamide) (also referred to as BRV; UCB-34714; Briviact) (including its salts) into schedule V of the Controlled Substances Act. This scheduling action is pursuant to the Controlled Substances Act, as revised by the Improving Regulatory Transparency for New Medical Therapies Act which was signed into law on November 25, 2015. PMID:27192732

  7. A chemical bath deposition route to facet-controlled Ag3PO4 thin films with improved visible light photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunjakar, Jayavant L.; Jo, Yun Kyung; Kim, In Young; Lee, Jang Mee; Patil, Sharad B.; Pyun, Jae.-Chul.; Hwang, Seong-Ju

    2016-08-01

    A facile, economic, and reproducible chemical bath deposition (CBD) method is developed for the fabrication of facet-controlled Ag3PO4 thin films with enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity. The fine-control of bath temperature, precursor, complexing agent, substrate, and solution pH is fairly crucial in preparing the facet-selective thin film of Ag3PO4 nanocrystal. The change of precursor from silver nitrate to silver acetate makes possible the tailoring of the crystal shape of Ag3PO4 from cube to rhombic dodecahedron and also the bandgap tuning of the deposited films. The control of [Ag+]/[phosphate] ratio enables to maximize the loading amount of Ag3PO4 crystals per the unit area of the deposited film. All the fabricated Ag3PO4 thin films show high photocatalytic activity for visible light-induced degradation of organic molecules, which can be optimized by tailoring the crystal shape of the deposited crystals. This CBD method is also useful in preparing the facet-controlled hybrid film of Ag3PO4-ZnO photocatalyst. The present study clearly demonstrates the usefulness of the present CBD method for fabricating facet-controlled thin films of metal oxosalt and its nanohybrid.

  8. 78 FR 79714 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Proposed Collection; Comment Request Upon Written Request Copies Available From: Securities and Exchange Commission, Office of Investor Education and Advocacy, Washington, DC 20549-0213. Extension: Rule 425, OMB Control No. 3235-0521, SEC...

  9. 78 FR 79711 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Proposed Collection; Comment Request Upon Written Request, Copies Available From: Securities and Exchange Commission, Office of Investor Education and Advocacy, Washington, DC 20549-0213. Extension: Rule 17f-7, OMB Control No. 3235-0529,...

  10. 78 FR 79714 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Proposed Collection; Comment Request Upon Written Request, Copies Available From: Securities and Exchange Commission, Office of Investor Education and Advocacy, Washington, DC 20549-0213. Extension: Rule 17f-5 OMB Control No.: 3235-0269,...