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1

Spontaneous-emission control by photonic crystals and nanocavities  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the recent experimental progress in the control of spontaneous emission by manipulating optical modes with photonic crystals. It has been clearly demonstrated that the spontaneous emission from light emitters embedded in photonic crystals can be suppressed by the so-called photonic bandgap, whereas the emission efficiency in the direction where optical modes exist can be enhanced. Also, when an

Susumu Noda; Masayuki Fujita; Takashi Asano

2007-01-01

2

Controlling spontaneous emission in bioreplica photonic crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sophisticated methods have been created by nature to produce structure-based colors as a way to address the need of a wide variety of organisms. This pallet of available structures presents a unique opportunity for the investigation of new photonic crystal designs. Low-temperature sol-gel biotemplating methods were used to transform a single biotemplate into a variety of inorganic oxide structures. The density of optical states was calculated for a diamond-based natural photonic crystal, as well as several structures templated from it. Calculations were experimentally probed by spontaneous emission studies using time correlated single photon counting measurements.

Jorgensen, Matthew R.; Butler, Elizabeth S.; Bartl, Michael H.

2012-03-01

3

Controlling the spontaneous emission of a superconducting transmon qubit.  

PubMed

We present a detailed characterization of coherence in seven transmon qubits in a circuit QED architecture. We find that spontaneous emission rates are strongly influenced by far off-resonant modes of the cavity and can be understood within a semiclassical circuit model. A careful analysis of the spontaneous qubit decay into a microwave transmission-line cavity can accurately predict the qubit lifetimes over 2 orders of magnitude in time and more than an octave in frequency. Coherence times T1 and T_{2};{*} of more than a microsecond are reproducibly demonstrated. PMID:18764596

Houck, A A; Schreier, J A; Johnson, B R; Chow, J M; Koch, Jens; Gambetta, J M; Schuster, D I; Frunzio, L; Devoret, M H; Girvin, S M; Schoelkopf, R J

2008-08-22

4

Controlling the dynamics of spontaneous emission from quantum dots by photonic crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Control of spontaneously emitted light lies at the heart of quantum optics. It is essential for diverse applications ranging from miniature lasers and light-emitting diodes, to single-photon sources for quantum information, and to solar energy harvesting. To explore such new quantum optics applications, a suitably tailored dielectric environment is required in which the vacuum fluctuations that control spontaneous emission can

Peter Lohdahl; A. Floris van Driel; Ivan S. Nikolaev; Arie Irman; Karin Overgaag; Daniël Vanmaekelbergh; Willem L. Vos

2004-01-01

5

Spontaneous emission control of single quantum dots in bottom-up nanowire waveguides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanowire waveguides with controlled shape are promising for engineering the collection efficiency of quantum light sources. We investigate the exciton lifetime in individual InAsP quantum dots, perfectly positioned on-axis of InP nanowire waveguides. We demonstrate control over the quantum dot spontaneous emission by varying the nanowire diameter in e-beam patterned arrays, which modifies the coupling efficiency of the emitter to the fundamental waveguide mode. The spontaneous emission rate is inhibited by a factor of 12 in thin nanowires compared to nanowires with optimized waveguide diameter. From the measured inhibition factor, we determine a high radiative yield exceeding 92% in bottom-up grown nanowires.

Bulgarini, Gabriele; Reimer, Michael E.; Zehender, Tilman; Hocevar, Moïra; Bakkers, Erik P. A. M.; Kouwenhoven, Leo P.; Zwiller, Valery

2012-03-01

6

Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of monolayer MoS2 in a photonic crystal nanocavity  

PubMed Central

We report on controlling the spontaneous emission (SE) rate of a molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) monolayer coupled with a planar photonic crystal (PPC) nanocavity. Spatially resolved photoluminescence (PL) mapping shows strong variations of emission when the MoS2 monolayer is on the PPC cavity, on the PPC lattice, on the air gap, and on the unpatterned gallium phosphide substrate. Polarization dependences of the cavity-coupled MoS2 emission show a more than 5 times stronger extracted PL intensity than the un-coupled emission, which indicates an underlying cavity mode Purcell enhancement of the MoS2 SE rate exceeding a factor of 70.

Gan, Xuetao; Gao, Yuanda; Fai Mak, Kin; Yao, Xinwen; Shiue, Ren-Jye; van der Zande, Arend; Trusheim, Matthew E.; Hatami, Fariba; Heinz, Tony F.; Hone, James; Englund, Dirk

2013-01-01

7

Nanoscale imaging and spontaneous emission control with a single nano-positioned quantum dot.  

PubMed

Plasmonic nanostructures confine light on the nanoscale, enabling ultra-compact optical devices that exhibit strong light-matter interactions. Quantum dots are ideal for probing plasmonic devices because of their nanoscopic size and desirable emission properties. However, probing with single quantum dots has remained challenging because their small size also makes them difficult to manipulate. Here we demonstrate the use of quantum dots as on-demand probes for imaging plasmonic nanostructures, as well as for realizing spontaneous emission control at the single emitter level with nanoscale spatial accuracy. A single quantum dot is positioned with microfluidic flow control to probe the local density of optical states of a silver nanowire, achieving 12 nm imaging accuracy. The high spatial accuracy of this scanning technique enables a new method for spontaneous emission control where interference of counter-propagating surface plasmon polaritons results in spatial oscillations of the quantum dot lifetime as it is positioned along the wire axis. PMID:23385591

Ropp, Chad; Cummins, Zachary; Nah, Sanghee; Fourkas, John T; Shapiro, Benjamin; Waks, Edo

2013-01-01

8

Spontaneous emission and optical control of spins in quantum dots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantum dots are attractive due to their potential technological applications and the opportunity they provide for study of fundamental physics in the mesoscopic scale. This dissertation studies optically controlled spins in quantum dots in connection to quantum information processing. The physical realization of the quantum bit (qubit) consists of the two spin states of an extra electron confined in a

Sophia E. Economou

2006-01-01

9

Controlling the 1 ?m spontaneous emission in Er/Yb co-doped fiber amplifiers.  

PubMed

In this paper we present our experimental studies on controlling the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) from Yb(3+) ions in Er/Yb co-doped fiber amplifiers. We propose a new method of controlling the Yb-ASE by stimulating a laser emission at 1064 nm in the amplifier, by providing a positive 1 ?m signal feedback loop. The results are discussed and compared to a conventional amplifier setup without 1 ?m ASE control and to an amplifier with auxiliary 1064 nm seeding. We have shown, that applying a 1064 nm signal loop in an Er/Yb amplifier can increase the output power at 1550 nm and provide stable operation without parasitic lasing at 1 ?m. PMID:21996851

Sobon, Grzegorz; Kaczmarek, Pawel; Antonczak, Arkadiusz; Sotor, Jaroslaw; Abramski, Krzysztof M

2011-09-26

10

PhD TUTORIAL: Coherent control of spontaneous emission near a photonic band edge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate the coherent control of spontaneous emission for a three-level atom located within a photonic band gap (PBG) material, with one resonant frequency near the edge of the PBG. Spontaneous emission from the three-level atom can be totally suppressed or strongly enhanced depending on the relative phase between the steady-state control laser coupling the two upper levels and the pump laser pulse used to create an excited state of the atom in the form of a coherent superposition of the two upper levels. Unlike the free-space case, the steady-state inversion of the atomic system is strongly dependent on the externally prescribed initial conditions. This non-zero steady-state population is achieved by virtue of the localization of light in the vicinity of the emitting atom. It is robust to decoherence effects provided that the Rabi frequency of the control laser field exceeds the rate of dephasing interactions. As a result, such a system may be relevant for a single-atom, phase-sensitive optical memory device on the atomic scale. The protected electric dipole within the PBG provides a basis for a qubit to encode information for quantum computations. A detailed literature survey on the nature, fabrication and applications of PBG materials is presented to provide context for this research.

Woldeyohannes, Mesfin; John, Sajeev

2003-04-01

11

Coherent control of spontaneous emission near a photonic band edge: A qubit for quantum computation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate the coherent control of spontaneous emission for a three-level atom located within a photonic band-gap structure with one resonant frequency near the edge of the photonic band gap. Spontaneous emission from the three-level atom can be totally suppressed or strongly enhanced depending on the relative phase between the steady-state control laser coupling the two upper levels and the pump laser pulse used to create an excited state of the atom in the form of a coherent superposition of the two upper levels. Unlike the free-space case, the steady-state inversion of the atomic system is strongly dependent on the externally prescribed initial conditions. This nonzero steady-state population is achieved by virtue of the localization of light in the vicinity of the emitting atom. It is robust to decoherence effects provided that the Rabi frequency of the control laser field-atom interaction exceeds the rate of dephasing interactions. As a result, such a system may be relevant for a single-atom, phase-sensitive, optical memory device on the atomic scale. The protected electric dipole within the photonic band gap provides a basis for a qubit to encode information for quantum computations.

Woldeyohannes, Mesfin; John, Sajeev

1999-12-01

12

Coherent control of collective spontaneous emission in an extended atomic ensemble and quantum storage  

SciTech Connect

Coherent control of collective spontaneous emission in an extended atomic ensemble resonantly interacting with single-photon wave packets is analyzed. A scheme for coherent manipulation of collective atomic states is developed such that superradiant states of the atomic system can be converted into subradiant ones and vice versa. Possible applications of such a scheme for optical quantum-state storage and single-photon wave packet shaping are discussed. It is shown that also in the absence of inhomogeneous broadening of the resonant line, single-photon wave packets with arbitrary pulse shape may be recorded as a subradiant state and reconstructed even although the duration of the wave packets is larger than the superradiant lifetime. Specifically the applicability for storing time-bin qubits, which are used in quantum cryptography, is analyzed.

Kalachev, Alexey; Kroell, Stefan [Zavoisky Physical-Technical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Sibirsky Trakt 10/7, Kazan, 420029 (Russian Federation); Department of Physics, Lund Institute of Technology (LTH), Box 118, S-221 00 Lund (Sweden)

2006-08-15

13

Coherent Control of Spontaneous Emission near a Photonic Band Edge: A Single-Atom Optical Memory Device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate coherent control of spontaneous emission from a three-level atom with one resonant frequency near the edge of a photonic band gap. As a result of quantum interference and photon localization, spontaneous emission can be totally suppressed or strongly enhanced depending on the relative phase between the control and pump laser fields. The fractionalized steady state inversion of the atom depends sensitively on the initial conditions, suggesting the possibility of a phase-sensitive, optical memory device on the atomic scale.

Quang, Tran; Woldeyohannes, Mesfin; John, Sajeev; Agarwal, Girish S.

1997-12-01

14

Controlling the Spontaneous Emission Rate of Single Quantum Dots in a Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal  

Microsoft Academic Search

We observe large spontaneous emission rate modification of individual InAs quantum dots (QDs) in a 2D photonic crystal with a modified, high-Q single-defect cavity. Compared to QDs in a bulk semiconductor, QDs that are resonant with the cavity show an emission rate increase of up to a factor of 8. In contrast, off-resonant QDs indicate up to fivefold rate quenching

Dirk Englund; David Fattal; Edo Waks; Glenn Solomon; Bingyang Zhang; Toshihiro Nakaoka; Yasuhiko Arakawa; Yoshihisa Yamamoto; Jelena Vuckovic

2005-01-01

15

Control of spontaneous emission from a driven five-level atom in a photonic-band-gap reservoir  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the spontaneous emission properties of a five-level atom driven by a microwave field, where the two transitions are coupled to a double-band photonic-band-gap reservoir. The effects of the band-edge positions and the Rabi frequency of the microwave field on the emission spectrum are discussed. It is found that several interesting phenomena in spontaneous emission spectra such as spectral-line enhancement, spectral-line elimination, and fluorescence quenching can be controlled simply by adjusting the Rabi frequency of the driving field and the transition frequency detunings from band edges. These phenomena originate from quantum interference induced by band-edge modes and the driving field.

Liu, Ronggang

2014-05-01

16

Directional spontaneous emission enhancement in hyperbolic metamaterials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate the control of spontaneous emission enhancement in multilayered Au/Al2O3 hyperbolic metamaterials (HMMs). The hyperbolic dispersion of the Au/Al2O3 multilayers at optical frequencies is confirmed by using effective medium theory, and then the results are validated by experiments performed through variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry. The modification of spontaneous emission enhancement is observed when the emission wavelengths of different chromophores deposited on top of the multilayer are tuned from the elliptical to hyperbolic spectral region of the HMM. The simulation results further support the modification of spontaneous emission enhancement in designed HMM. This proposed concept and methodology promises potential applications in areas such as single photon sources and biosensing.

Sreekanth, K. V.; Biaglow, T.; Strangi, G.

2013-10-01

17

Quenching of spontaneous emission through interference of incoherent pump processes  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the steady-state spontaneous emission of a V-type three-level atom, with the coherence between the two upper levels modified and controlled via incoherent pumping to a fourth auxiliary level. The external pumping gives us an easily controllable handle in manipulating the spontaneous emission to such an extent that, under certain conditions, complete quenching of spontaneous emission is possible. We also show that even the interference between the decay channels, which is considered a key requirement in spontaneous emission quenching through quantum interference, is not essential to achieve near 100% trapping and almost complete suppression of spontaneous emission. Thus we provide a scheme for spontaneous emission quenching which can be easily realized experimentally.

Kapale, Kishore T. [Institute for Quantum Studies and Department of Physics, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-4242 (United States); Scully, Marlan O. [Institute for Quantum Studies and Department of Physics, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-4242 (United States); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Zhu Shiyao [Institute for Quantum Studies and Department of Physics, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-4242 (United States); Department of Physics, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China); Zubairy, M. Suhail [Institute for Quantum Studies and Department of Physics, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-4242 (United States); Department of Electronics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad (Pakistan)

2003-02-01

18

Control of F 2 color centers spontaneous emission in LiF thin films inside optical microcavities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental investigation on spontaneous emission properties of Fabry-Perot microcavities consisting of quarter-wavelength ZnS/Cryolite Bragg mirrors and a lithium fluoride (LiF) thin film colored with low-energy electron beam lithography is reported for the first time. Angular-resolved photoluminescence measurements show the modifications of F 2 color centers visible spontaneous emission. The resonator induces a narrowing of the emission spectrum and a related increase in the directionality and intensity of the emission along the cavity axis.

Belarouci, A.; Menchini, F.; Rigneault, H.; Jacquier, B.; Montereali, R. M.; Somma, F.; Moretti, P.; Cathelinaud, M.

2001-02-01

19

Control of spontaneous emission from an RF-driven five-level atom in an anisotropic double-band photonic-band-gap reservoir  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The control of spontaneous emission from an radio-frequency (RF)-driven five-level atom embedded in a three-dimensional photonic crystal is investigated by considering the anisotropic double-band photonic-band-gap (PBG) reservoir. It is shown that, due to the coexistence of the PBG and the quantum interference effect induced by the RF-driven field, some interesting features, such as the spectral-line narrowing, the spectral-line enhancement, the spectral-line suppression and the occurrence of a dark line in spontaneous emission, can be realized by adjusting system parameters under the experimentally available parameter conditions. The proposed scheme can be achieved by use of an RF-driven field into hyperfine levels in rubidium atom confined in a photonic crystal. These theoretical investigations may provide more degrees of freedom to vary the spontaneous emission.

Ding, C.; Li, J.; Yang, X.

2011-06-01

20

Controllable diffusion of cold atoms in a harmonically driven and tilted optical lattice: decoherence by spontaneous emission  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied some transport properties of cold atoms in an accelerated optical lattice in the presence of decohering effects due to spontaneous emission. One new feature added is the effect of an external ac drive. As a result we obtain a tunable diffusion coefficient and its nonlinear enhancement with increasing drive amplitude. We report an interesting maximum diffusion condition.

Navinder Singh

2008-01-01

21

Type-tunable amplified spontaneous emission from core-seeded CdSe/CdS nanorods controlled by exciton-exciton interaction.  

PubMed

Type-tunable optical gain performance of core-seeded CdSe/CdS nanorods is studied via two-photon optical pumping. Controlling the exciton-exciton interaction by varying the core and shell size, blue-shifted and red-shifted modes of amplified spontaneous emission are systematically demonstrated and their type attributions are verified by time-resolved emission kinetics. PMID:24947131

Kelestemur, Yusuf; Cihan, Ahmet Fatih; Guzelturk, Burak; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

2014-07-10

22

Spontaneous emission control of CdSe/ZnS nanoparticle monolayer in polymer nanosheet waveguide assembled on a one-dimensional silver grating surface.  

PubMed

We present spontaneous emission control of a core-shell CdSe/ZnS nanoparticle array assembled with polymer ultrathin films consisting of polymer nanosheets on a silver grating substrate, which served as a unique and simple photonic cavity. The grating-coupled waveguide modes enabled 10(3) order luminescence enhancement and one-fourth spectral narrowing. The light emission from a CdSe/ZnS nanoparticle array can be controlled by tuning the film thickness of hybrid polymer nanoassemblies, which provides multiple emission performance with good tuning ability from red to green at low-power continuous wave laser excitation (??W). PMID:22260265

Mitsuishi, Masaya; Morita, Shimpei; Tawa, Keiko; Nishii, Junji; Miyashita, Tokuji

2012-02-01

23

Control of the spontaneous emission from a single quantum dash using a slow-light mode in a two-dimensional photonic crystal on a Bragg reflector  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate the coupling of a single InAs/InP quantum, emitting around 1.55 {mu}m, to a slow-light mode in a two-dimensional photonic crystal on Bragg reflector. These surface addressable 2.5D photonic crystal band-edge modes present the advantages of a vertical emission and the mode area and localization may be controlled, leading to a less critical spatial alignment with the emitter. An increase in the spontaneous emission rate by a factor of 1.5-2 is measured at low temperature and is compared to the Purcell factor predicted by three-dimensional time-domain electromagnetic simulations.

Chauvin, N.; Fiore, A. [COBRA Research Institute, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, NL-5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Nedel, P.; Seassal, C.; Ben Bakir, B.; Letartre, X.; Gendry, M.; Viktorovitch, P. [Universite de Lyon, Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon (INL), UMR CNRS 5270, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, 36 Avenue Guy de Collongue, F-69134 Ecully (France)

2009-07-15

24

Blue shift of spontaneous emission in hyperbolic metamaterial  

PubMed Central

Spontaneous emission is one of the most fundamental quantum phenomena in optics. Following the seminal work of Purcell and in agreement with the Fermi's Golden Rule, its rate can be controlled with the photonic density of states (PDOS). In recent years, this effect has been demonstrated in metamaterials with hyperbolic dispersion – highly anisotropic composite materials, which have a broad-band singularity of the density of photonic states. At this time, we show that hyperbolic metamaterials can control spontaneous emission spectra as well. Experimentally, DCM laser dye has been embedded into lamellar metal/dielectric metamaterial. The observed 18?nm blue shift of emission is explained by strong dispersion of the density of photonic states. On the other hand, practically no spectral shift has been observed in the excitation spectra of the same dye. This suggests that the effect of PDOS on spontaneous emission is very different from its effect on excitation and absorption.

Gu, Lei; Tumkur, T. U.; Zhu, G.; Noginov, M. A.

2014-01-01

25

Blue shift of spontaneous emission in hyperbolic metamaterial.  

PubMed

Spontaneous emission is one of the most fundamental quantum phenomena in optics. Following the seminal work of Purcell and in agreement with the Fermi's Golden Rule, its rate can be controlled with the photonic density of states (PDOS). In recent years, this effect has been demonstrated in metamaterials with hyperbolic dispersion - highly anisotropic composite materials, which have a broad-band singularity of the density of photonic states. At this time, we show that hyperbolic metamaterials can control spontaneous emission spectra as well. Experimentally, DCM laser dye has been embedded into lamellar metal/dielectric metamaterial. The observed 18?nm blue shift of emission is explained by strong dispersion of the density of photonic states. On the other hand, practically no spectral shift has been observed in the excitation spectra of the same dye. This suggests that the effect of PDOS on spontaneous emission is very different from its effect on excitation and absorption. PMID:24957679

Gu, Lei; Tumkur, T U; Zhu, G; Noginov, M A

2014-01-01

26

Cavity enhanced rephased amplified spontaneous emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we report the first demonstration of "cavity enhanced rephased amplified spontaneous emission". The rephased amplified spontaneous emission (RASE) protocol provides an all-in-one photon-pair source and quantum memory that has applications as a quantum repeater node. Cavity enhancement of the interaction of the optical mode with the ensemble has the potential to improve the fidelity of the entanglement of the photon pairs. Using heterodyne detection, amplified emission and photon echo induced rephased amplified emission were observed from a Pr3+ doped Y2SiO5 crystal placed in a Fabry Perot cavity with a finesse of 70. Modifications to the experiment to allow non-classical correlations to be observed are discussed.

Sellars, Matthew J.; Ferguson, Kate; Beavan, Sarah E.

2013-03-01

27

dc-field-induced enhancement and inhibition of spontaneous emission in a cavity  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate how spontaneous emission in a cavity can be controlled by the application of a dc field. The method is especially suitable for Rydberg atoms. We present a simple argument based on Stark shifts for the control of emission.

Agarwal, G.S.; Pathak, P.K. [Physical Research Laboratory, Navrangpura, Ahmedabad-380009 (India)

2004-08-01

28

CONTROL OF LASER RADIATION PARAMETER: Formation of the spatial coherence of amplified spontaneous emission. 1. Regularly inhomogeneous active medium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An equation for a transverse correlation function is used in a study of the spatial coherence of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) at the exit from a plasma active medium of an x-ray laser. The case of large Fresnel numbers in the far-field zone is considered. If regular refraction occurs, in the far-field zone the correlation length of the ASE emerging through the end of the active medium rises exponentially with an increase in the length z of the medium, whereas the correlation length of the ASE emerging through the side surface of the active medium is relatively short and independent of z in the limiting cases of linear and saturated amplification. The region of the maximum correlation length in the ASE beam does not coincide with the region of maximum values of the flux density. Saturation of the amplification and nonresonant losses reduce the spatial coherence. A model calculation is reported of the spatial coherence of a Ne-like selenium x-ray laser in a direction perpendicular to the target. The agreement between the calculated coherence coefficient and the experimental value is obtained on the assumption that the ASE emitted through the side surface predominates at the measurement point.

Starikov, F. A.

1994-04-01

29

Spontaneous emission in dielectric nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analytical expression is obtained for the radiative-decay rate of an excited optical center in an ellipsoidal dielectric nanoparticle (with sizes much less than the wavelength) surrounded by a dielectric medium. It is found that the ratio of the decay rate A nano of an excited optical center in the nanoparticle to the decay rate A bulk of an excited optical center in the bulk sample is independent of the local-field correction and, therefore, of the adopted local-field model. Moreover, the expression implies that the ratio A nano/ A bulk for oblate and prolate ellipsoids depends strongly on the orientation of the dipole moment of the transition with respect to the ellipsoid axes. In the case of spherical nanoparticles, a formula relating the decay rate A nano and the dielectric parameters of the nanocomposite and the volumetric content c of these particles in the nanocomposite is derived. This formula reduces to a known expression for spherical nanoparticles in the limit c ? 1, while the ratio A nano/ A bulk approaches unity as c tends to unity. The analysis shows that the approach used in a number of papers {H. P. Christensen, D. R. Gabbe, and H. P. Jenssen, Phys. Rev. B 25, 1467 (1982); R. S. Meltzer, S. P. Feofilov, B. Tissue, and H. B. Yuan, Phys. Rev. B 60, R14012 (1999); R. I. Zakharchenya, A. A. Kaplyanskii, A. B. Kulinkin, et al., Fiz. Tverd. Tela 45, 2104 (2003) [Phys. Solid State 45, 2209 (2003)]; G. Manoj Kumar, D. Narayana Rao, and G. S. Agarwal, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 203903 (2003); Chang-Kui Duan, Michael F. Reid, and Zhongqing Wang, Phys. Lett. A 343, 474 (2005); K. Dolgaleva, R. W. Boyd, and P. W. Milonni, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 516 (2007)}, for which the formula for A nano is derived merely by substituting the bulk refractive index by the effective refractive index of the nanocomposite must be revised, because the resulting ratio A nano/ A bulk turns out to depend on the local-field model. The formulas for the emission and absorption cross sections ?nano for nanoparticles are derived. It is shown that the ratios ?nano/?bulk and A nano/ A bulk are not equal in general, which can be used to improve the lasing parameters. The experimentally determined and theoretically evaluated decay times of metastable states of dopant rare-earth ions in crystalline YAG and Y2O3 nanoparticles are compared with the corresponding values for bulk crystals of the same structure.

Pukhov, K. K.; Basiev, T. T.; Orlovskii, Yu. V.

2008-09-01

30

Quenching of spontaneous emission coefficients in plasmas  

SciTech Connect

We have observed changing Einstein coefficients of spontaneous emission as a function of electron density in CO/sub 2/ laser-produced plasmas. These measurements are based on the intensity branching ratio of CIV lines 5801 to 5812 A and 312.41 to 312.46 A which share a common upper level. Similar observations for CIII lines are also discussed. 12 refs., 3 figs.

Chung, Y.; Lemaire, P.; Suckewer, S.

1987-09-01

31

Competition between coherent emission and broadband spontaneous emission in the quantum free electron laser  

SciTech Connect

We extend previous analyses of spontaneous emission in a quantum free electron laser (QFEL) and competition between spontaneous and coherent QFEL emission to include a broad distribution of photon frequencies and momenta appropriate for spontaneous undulator radiation. We show that although the predictions of monochromatic and broadband models predict different electron momentum distributions for the quantum regime due to spontaneous emission alone after many photon emissions, the inclusion of broadband spontaneous emission has a negligible effect on the competition between spontaneous and coherent emission in the QFEL. Numerical results from both models are well described by the same condition for the threshold/critical value of spontaneous emission rate.

Robb, G. R. M. [SUPA, Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG, Scotland (United Kingdom); Bonifacio, R. [INFN-LNF, Via E. Fermi, 40-00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy) and Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Joao Pessoa (Brazil)

2013-03-15

32

Enhanced spontaneous emission inside hyperbolic metamaterials.  

PubMed

Hyperbolic metamaterials can enhance spontaneous emission, but the radiation-matter coupling is not optimized if the light source is placed outside such media. We demonstrate a 3-fold improvement of the Purcell factor over its outer value and a significant enlargement in bandwidth by including the emitter within a Si/Ag periodic multilayer metamaterial. To extract the plasmonic modes of the structure into the far field we implement two types of 1D grating with triangular and rectangular profile, obtaining a 10-fold radiative enhancement at visible frequencies. PMID:24663753

Ferrari, Lorenzo; Lu, Dylan; Lepage, Dominic; Liu, Zhaowei

2014-02-24

33

Spontaneous emission from free electron lasers  

SciTech Connect

Characteristics of the fundamental and harmonic emission from free-electron lasers (FELs) is examined in the spontaneous emission regime. The radiation at both odd and even harmonic frequencies is treated for electron beams with finite emittance and energy spread. For wigglers with many wiggle periods, calculation of the SE by integrating an ensemble of electrons along their exact trajectories becomes exceedingly cumbersome. Therefore, a different technique is used in which the far-field radiation pattern of a single electron is manipulated in transform space to include the effects if emittance. The effects of energy spread can be included by weighted sum over the energy distribution. The program execution time for wigglers of arbitrary length is negligible. The transverse radiation patterns including the transverse frequency dependences, are given. How this radiation is modeled in FEL simulation codes is discussed. 8 refs., 5 figs.

Schmitt, M.J.

1991-01-01

34

Coherent and spontaneous emission in the quantum free electron laser  

SciTech Connect

We present an analysis of quantum free electron laser (QFEL) dynamics including the effects of spontaneous emission. The effects of spontaneous emission are undesirable for coherent short-wave generation using FELs and have been shown in previous studies to limit the capabilities of classical self amplified spontaneous emission (SASE)-FELs at short wavelengths {approx}1 A due to growth of electron beam energy spread. As one of the attractive features of the QFEL is its potential as a relatively compact coherent x-ray source, it is important to understand the role of spontaneous emission, but to date there has not been a model which is capable of consistently describing the dynamics of both coherent FEL emission and incoherent spontaneous emission. In this paper, we present such a model, and use it to show that the limitations imposed by spontaneous emission on coherent FEL operation are significantly different in the quantum regime to those in the classical regime. An example set of parameters constituting a QFEL using electron and laser parameters which satisfy the condition for neglect of spontaneous emission during coherent QFEL emission is presented.

Robb, G. R. M.; Bonifacio, R. [SUPA, Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, G4 0NG Scotland (United Kingdom)

2012-07-15

35

Controlling spontaneous-emission noise in measurement-based feedback cooling of a Bose-Einstein condensate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Off-resonant optical imaging is a popular method for continuous monitoring of a Bose-Einstein condensate. However, the disturbance caused by scattered photons places a serious limitation on the lifetime of such continuously monitored condensates. In this paper, we demonstrate that a new choice of feedback control can overcome the heating effects of the measurement backaction. In particular, we show that the measurement backaction caused by off-resonant optical imaging is a multi-mode quantum-field effect, as the entire heating process is not seen in single-particle or mean-field models of the system. Simulating such continuously monitored systems is possible with the number-phase Wigner particle filter, which currently gives both the highest precision and largest timescale simulations amongst competing methods. It is a hybrid between the leading techniques for simulating non-equilibrium dynamics in condensates and particle filters for simulating high-dimensional non-Gaussian filters in the field of engineering. The new control scheme will enable long-term continuous measurement and feedback on one of the leading platforms for precision measurement and the simulation of quantum fields, allowing for the possibility of single-shot experiments, adaptive measurements and robust state-preparation and manipulation.

Hush, M. R.; Szigeti, S. S.; Carvalho, A. R. R.; Hope, J. J.

2013-11-01

36

Quantum theory of amplified spontaneous emission  

SciTech Connect

The positive-P representation of Drummond and Gardiner expresses the density operator as {rho} = {integral} d{sup 2}{alpha} {integral} d{sup 2}{beta} P({alpha},{beta}) {vert bar}{alpha}><{beta}{vert bar} where {vert bar}{alpha}> is a Glauber state for a particular mode of the radiation field. The generalization to a finite number of modes is straightforward. The situation for amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) is more complex, since there are no mirrors to define a discrete set of modes. Thus we must replace the positive-P representation for a single mode by a functional form. In particular, it is necessary to define generalized Glauber states for arbitrary field configurations. We spent most of our time in solving this problem and in obtaining the simplest consequences of the definition of functional Glauber states. In this paper we define generalized annihilation operators and functional Glauber states and exhibit their properties. We also use the generalized operators to define functional generalizations of the conventional phase space methods.

Morrison, H.L.; Deutsch, I.H. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA). Dept. of Physics)

1989-09-30

37

Single photon production by rephased amplified spontaneous emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The production of single photons using rephased amplified spontaneous emission is examined. This process produces single photons on demand with high efficiency by detecting the spontaneous emission from an atomic ensemble, then applying a population-inverting pulse to rephase the ensemble and produce a photon echo of the spontaneous emission events. The theoretical limits on the efficiency of the production are determined for several variants of the scheme. For an ensemble of uniform optical density, generating the initial spontaneous emission and its echo using transitions of different strengths is shown to produce single photons at 70% efficiency, limited by reabsorption. Tailoring the spatial and spectral density of the atomic ensemble is then shown to prevent reabsorption of the rephased photon, resulting in emission efficiency near unity.

Stevenson, R. N.; Hush, M. R.; Carvalho, A. R. R.; Beavan, S. E.; Sellars, M. J.; Hope, J. J.

2014-03-01

38

Spontaneous emission near the edge of a photonic band gap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study spontaneous emission near the edge of a photonic band gap. Instead of a simple exponential decay in the vacuum, spontaneous emission displays an oscillatory behavior. A single photon-atom bound dressed state exhibits a fractional steady-state atomic population on the excited state. For a three-level atom we evaluate the spectral splitting and subnatural linewidth of spontaneous emission. In the presence of N-1 unexcited atoms we show that the collective time scale factor is equal to N?, where ?=2/3 for an isotropic band gap and ?=1 or 2 for anisotropic two-dimensional or three-dimensional band edges, respectively.

John, Sajeev; Quang, Tran

1994-08-01

39

Temporal and transverse coherence of self-amplified spontaneous emission  

SciTech Connect

We review the coherence properties of the self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE). Temporally, SASE is similar to the spontaneous undulator radiation except that the spectral bandwidth is about ten times narrower compared with typical undulator radiation. The situation is quite different in the transverse dimension, where SASE is fully coherent.

Kim, Kwang-Je [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

1997-06-01

40

Spontaneous emission of an atom in the presence of nanobodies  

SciTech Connect

The effect of nanobodies, i.e., the bodies whose size is small compared to the emission wavelength, on spontaneous emission of an atom located near them is considered. The results of calculations performed within the framework of quantum and classical electrodynamics are presented both in analytic and graphical forms and can be readily used for planning experiments and analysis of experimental data. It is shown that nanobodies can be used to control efficiently the rate of spontaneous transitions. Thus, an excited atom located near a nanocylinder or a nanospheroid pole, whose transition dipole moment is directed normally to the nanobody surface, can decay with the rate that is tens and hundreds times higher than the decay rate in a free space. In the case of some (negative) dielectric constants, the decay rate can increase by a factor of 10{sup 5}-10{sup 6} and more. On the other hand, the decay of an excited atom whose transition dipole moment is directed tangentially to the nanobody surface substantially slows down. The probability of nonradiative decay of the excited state is shown to increase substantially in the presence of na-nobodies possessing losses. (review)

Klimov, Vasilii V [P.N. Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ducloy, M [Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers, UMR CNRS 7538 University Paris-Nord, Institut Galilee (France); Letokhov, V S [Institute of Spectroscopy, Russian Academy of Sciences, Troitsk, Moscow region (Russian Federation)

2001-07-31

41

Quantitative analysis of directional spontaneous emission spectra from light sources in photonic crystals  

SciTech Connect

We have performed angle-resolved measurements of spontaneous-emission spectra from laser dyes and quantum dots in opal and inverse opal photonic crystals. Pronounced directional dependencies of the emission spectra are observed: angular ranges of strongly reduced emission adjoin with angular ranges of enhanced emission. It appears that emission from embedded light sources is affected both by the periodicity and by the structural imperfections of the crystals: the photons are Bragg diffracted by lattice planes and scattered by unavoidable structural disorder. Using a model comprising diffuse light transport and photonic band structure, we quantitatively explain the directional emission spectra. This work provides detailed understanding of the transport of spontaneously emitted light in real photonic crystals, which is essential in the interpretation of quantum optics in photonic-band-gap crystals and for applications wherein directional emission and total emission power are controlled.

Nikolaev, Ivan S.; Lodahl, Peter; Vos, Willem L. [Complex Photonic Systems (COPS), Department of Science and Technology, and MESA Institute of Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

2005-05-15

42

Reversible Modulation of Spontaneous Emission by Strain in Silicon Nanowires  

PubMed Central

We computationally study the effect of uniaxial strain in modulating the spontaneous emission of photons in silicon nanowires. Our main finding is that a one to two orders of magnitude change in spontaneous emission time occurs due to two distinct mechanisms: (A) Change in wave function symmetry, where within the direct bandgap regime, strain changes the symmetry of wave functions, which in turn leads to a large change of optical dipole matrix element. (B) Direct to indirect bandgap transition which makes the spontaneous photon emission to be of a slow second order process mediated by phonons. This feature uniquely occurs in silicon nanowires while in bulk silicon there is no change of optical properties under any reasonable amount of strain. These results promise new applications of silicon nanowires as optoelectronic devices including a mechanism for lasing. Our results are verifiable using existing experimental techniques of applying strain to nanowires.

Shiri, Daryoush; Verma, Amit; Selvakumar, C. R.; Anantram, M. P.

2012-01-01

43

Spontaneous emission from semiconductor nanocrystals in coupled spherical microcavities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the coherent coupling of whispering gallery modes (WGM) in a photonic molecule formed from two melamine-formaldehyde spherical microcavities coated with a thin shell of light-emitting CdTe nanocrystals (NCs). Utilizing different excitation conditions the splitting of the WGM resonances originating from bonding and anti-bonding branches of the photonic states is observed and fine structure consisting of very sharp peaks resulting from lifting of the WGM degeneracy has been detected. Time-resolved measurements showed a slight increase in the spontaneous emission rate of NCs in a photonic molecule when compared to the spontaneous emission rate for NCs coating a single microsphere.

Rakovich, Yu. P.; Gerlach, M.; Bradley, A. L.; Donegan, J. F.; Boland, J.; Connolly, T.; Przyjalgowski, M.; Ryder, A.; Gaponik, N.; Rogach, A. L.

2005-02-01

44

Spontaneous emission in cavity QED with a terminated waveguide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the effects of a nanophotonic boundary on the spontaneous emission properties of an excited two-level atom in cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) geometry. We show that a boundary provides temporally delayed interference, which can be either constructive or destructive. Consequently, the decay of the atomic excitation can be either increased or greatly inhibited. As a concrete example, we investigate the spontaneous emission process in cavity QED with a terminated line-defect waveguide, and show the rich behavior of the atomic response due to the boundary. We also show that the output photonic wave form is strongly influenced by the boundary.

Bradford, Matthew; Shen, Jung-Tsung

2013-06-01

45

Tunable Spontaneous Emission From Layered Graphene/Dielectric Tunnel Junctions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There has been a rapidly growing interest in optoelectronic properties of graphene and associated structures. Despite the general belief on absence of spontaneous emission in graphene, which is normally attributed to its unique ultrafast carrier momentum relaxation mechanisms, there exist a few recent evidences of strong optical gain and spontaneous light emission from mono-layer graphene, supported by observations of dominant role of out-of-plane excitons in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In this article, we develop a novel concept of light emission and optical gain from simple vertical graphene/dielectric tunnel junctions. It is theoretically shown that the possible optical gain or emission spectrum will be easily tunable by the applied voltage. We present details of quantum mechanical calculations and perform an exact analysis of field-assisted tunneling using transfer matrices combined with expansion on Airy's functions.

Khorasani, Sina Ataollah

2014-05-01

46

Spontaneous Radio Frequency Emissions from Natural Aurora. Chapter 4  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At high latitudes, suitably sensitive radio experiments tuned below 5 MHz detect up to three types of spontaneous radio emissions from the Earth s ionosphere. In recent years, ground-based and rocket-borne experiments have provided strong evidence for theoretical explanations of the generation mechanism of some of these emissions, but others remain unexplained. Achieving a thorough understanding of these ionospheric emissions, accessible to ground-based experiments, will not only bring a deeper understanding of Earth s radio environment and the interactions between waves and particles in the ionosphere but also shed light on similar spontaneous emissions occurring elsewhere in Earth s environment as well as other planetary and stellar atmospheres.

LaBelle, J.

2009-01-01

47

Effect of atomic distribution on cooperative spontaneous emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study cooperative single-photon spontaneous emission from N multilevel atoms for different atomic distributions in optical vector theory. Instead of the average approximation for interatomic distance or the continuum approximation (sums over atoms replaced by integrals) for atomic distribution, the positions of every atom are taken into account by numerical calculation. It is shown that the regularity of atomic distribution has considerable influence on cooperative spontaneous emission. For a small atomic sample (compared with radiation wavelength), obtaining strong superradiance requires not only the uniform excitation (the Dicke state) but also the uniform atomic distribution. For a large sample, the uniform atomic distribution is beneficial to subradiance of the Dicke state, while the influence of atomic distribution on the timed Dicke state is weak and its time evolution obeys exponential decay approximately. In addition, we also investigate the corresponding emission spectrum and verify the directed emission for the timed Dicke state for a large atomic sample.

Feng, Wei; Li, Yong; Zhu, Shi-Yao

2014-01-01

48

Excess spontaneous emission in variable-reflectivity-mirror lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors calculate the so-called excess spontaneous emission factors, or excess noise factors, for the lowest and higher order transmission modes in geometrically stable and unstable laser cavities having Gaussian variable-reflectivity mirrors. These excess emission factors determine both the Schawlow-Townes linewidths or quantum noise fluctuations in laser oscillators and the initial noise levels from which oscillation buildup starts in regenerative

J.-L. Doumont; P. L. Mussche; A. E. Siegman

1989-01-01

49

Amplified spontaneous emission in solar-pumped iodine laser  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) from a long pulse, solar-simulating radiation pumped iodine laser amplifier is studied. The ASE threshold pump intensity is almost proportional to the inverse of the laser gain length when the gas pressure is constant in the laser tube.

Cho, Yong S.; Hwang, In H.; Han, Kwang S.; Lee, Ja H.

1992-01-01

50

Correlation between amplitude and frequency fluctuations of spontaneous otoacoustic emissions.  

PubMed

The normalized cross-correlation function between the amplitude and frequency fluctuations of 11 spontaneous otoacoustic emissions was measured. A significant correlation was found in seven subjects. The correlation coefficient ranged from -0.37 to +0.65 across subjects. In four subjects, the amplitude fluctuation lagged the frequency fluctuation. The time lag was between 1.6 and 5.5 ms. The results were interpreted using a noise-perturbed limit-cycle oscillator with nonlinear (Duffing) stiffness as a model for a spontaneous emission. The data show that the relative increase of the nonlinear stiffness in this model was between -0.010 and +0.015. This indicates that an even-order nonlinear stiffness plays a minor role in the emission generator. PMID:8064019

van Dijk, P; Wit, H P; Tubis, A; Talmadge, C L; Long, G R

1994-07-01

51

Casthouse emission control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

During blast furnace casting operations, the hot metal generates fume and particulate emissions. Environmental regulations require that blast furnace casting emissions by controlled. The casthouse of the No. 3 Blast Furnace at USS\\/KOBE in Lorain, Ohio was completely redesigned and rebuilt during the modernization of this facility. A state of the art casthouse emission control system was designed and installed

T. F. Bernarding; K. K. Krol; R. C. Stinson; V. Carson; M. Hahn

1993-01-01

52

Are Einstein's transition probabilities for spontaneous emission constant in plasmas?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation is conducted with a ruby laser to experimentally confirm the quenching of spontaneous emission coefficients and propose a mechanism for the phenomenon. Results of previous experiments are examined to determine the consistency and validity of interpretations of the spontaneous emissions. For the C IV 3s-3p and 2s-3p transitions, the line-intensity ratios are found to be dependent on the separation of the laser from the target. Density gradients and Stark broadening are proposed to interpret the results in a way that does not invalidate the Einstein A values. The interpretation is extended to C III and N V, both of which demonstrate similar changes in A values in previous experiments. The apparent quenching of Ar II by photon collisions is explained by Rabi oscillations and power broadening in the argon-ion laser cavity. It is concluded that the changes in A values cannot result from dense plasma effects.

Griem, H. R.; Huang, Y. W.; Wang, J.-S.; Moreno, J. C.

1991-01-01

53

Modifying free-space spontaneous emission near a plasmonic nanostructure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study theoretically the effects of the presence of a plasmonic nanostructure on free-space spontaneous emission in a four-level quantum system, where one V-type transition is influenced by the interaction with surface plasmons and the other V-type transition occurs in free space. The plasmonic nanostructure that we consider is a two-dimensional array of metal-coated dielectric nanospheres. We show that the spectrum of spontaneous emission in the free-space modes is strongly influenced by the presence of the plasmonic nanostructure, and we explore the dependence of the spectrum on different initial conditions of the quantum system and on the distance from the nanostructure.

Evangelou, Sofia; Yannopapas, Vassilios; Paspalakis, Emmanuel

2011-02-01

54

Modifying free-space spontaneous emission near a plasmonic nanostructure  

SciTech Connect

We study theoretically the effects of the presence of a plasmonic nanostructure on free-space spontaneous emission in a four-level quantum system, where one V-type transition is influenced by the interaction with surface plasmons and the other V-type transition occurs in free space. The plasmonic nanostructure that we consider is a two-dimensional array of metal-coated dielectric nanospheres. We show that the spectrum of spontaneous emission in the free-space modes is strongly influenced by the presence of the plasmonic nanostructure, and we explore the dependence of the spectrum on different initial conditions of the quantum system and on the distance from the nanostructure.

Evangelou, Sofia; Yannopapas, Vassilios; Paspalakis, Emmanuel [Materials Science Department, School of Natural Sciences, University of Patras, GR-265 04 Patras (Greece)

2011-02-15

55

Spontaneous emission and thermalization of cold bosons in optical lattices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the thermalization of excitations generated by spontaneous emission events for cold bosons in an optical lattice. Computing the dynamics described by the many-body master equation, we characterize equilibration time scales in different parameter regimes. For simple observables, we find regimes in which the system relaxes rapidly to values in agreement with a thermal distribution, and others where thermalization does not occur on typical experimental time scales. Because spontaneous emissions lead effectively to a local quantum quench, this behavior is strongly dependent on the low-energy spectrum of the Hamiltonian, and undergoes a qualitative change at the Mott insulator-superfluid transition point. These results have important implications for the understanding of thermalization after localized quenches in isolated quantum gases, as well as the characterization of heating in experiments.

Schachenmayer, J.; Pollet, L.; Troyer, M.; Daley, A. J.

2014-01-01

56

Laser-polarization-dependent spontaneous emission of the zero phonon line from single nitrogen–vacancy center in diamond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate spontaneous emission properties and control of the zero phonon line (ZPL) from a diamond nitrogen–vacancy (NV) center coherently driven by a single elliptically polarized control field. We use the Schrödinger equation to calculate the probability amplitudes of the wave function of the coupled system and derive analytical expressions of the spontaneous emission spectra. The numerical results show that a few interesting phenomena such as enhancement, narrowing, suppression, and quenching of the ZPL spontaneous emission can be realized by modulating the polarization-dependent phase, the Zeeman shift, and the intensity of the control field in our system. In the dressed-state picture of the control field, we find that multiple spontaneously generated coherence arises due to three close-lying states decaying to the same state. These results are useful in real experiments.

Zhang, Duo; Li, Jia-Hua; Yang, Xiao-Xue

2014-04-01

57

Self-amplified spontaneous emission for short wavelength coherent radiation  

SciTech Connect

We review the recent progress in our understanding of the self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE), emphasizing the application to short wavelength generation. Simple formulae are given for the start-up, exponential gain and the saturation of SASE. Accelerator technologies producing high brightness electron beams required for short wavelength SASE are discussed. An example utilizing electron beams from a photocathode-linac system to produce 4nm SASE in the multigigawatt range is presented.

Kim, K.J.; Xie, M.

1992-09-01

58

Comprehensive, nonintercepting electron-beam diagnostics using spontaneous emission  

SciTech Connect

Characterization and optimization of electron-beam parameters are important aspects of optimizing free-electron laser (FEL) performance. The visible spontaneous emission ({lambda}{approximately}650 nm) from the 5-meter long undulator of the Boeing FEL experiment can be characterized in sufficient detail with a streak/spectrometer to deduce time-resolved electron-beam spatial position and profile, micropulse duration, and energy. 7 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

Lumpkin, A.H.

1989-01-01

59

2-.mu.m fiber amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 2-.mu.m fiber Amplified Spontaneous Emission (ASE) source provides a wide emission bandwidth and improved spectral stability/purity for a given output power. The fiber ASE source is formed from a heavy metal oxide multicomponent glass selected from germanate, tellurite and bismuth oxides and doped with high concentrations, 0.5-15 wt. %, thulium oxides (Tm.sub.2O.sub.3) or 0.1-5 wt% holmium oxides (Ho.sub.2O.sub.3) or mixtures thereof. The high concentration of thulium dopants provide highly efficient pump absorption and high quantum efficiency. Co-doping of Tm and Ho can broaden the ASE spectrum.

Jiang, Shibin (Inventor); Wu, Jianfeng (Inventor); Geng, Jihong (Inventor)

2007-01-01

60

Directional and enhanced spontaneous emission with a corrugated metal probe.  

PubMed

A three-dimensional corrugated metal tapered probe with surface corrugated gratings at the tip apex is proposed and investigated theoretically, which leads to an obvious emission beaming effect of spontaneous emission from a single emitter near the probe. In contrast with conventional apertureless metal probes, where only the enhancement of an optical near-field is concerned, the corrugated probe is able to manipulate local excitation intensity and far-field emission direction simultaneously. The angular emission from a single dipole source, being placed close to the corrugated probe, falls into a cone with a maximum directivity angle of ±11.6°, which improves the collection efficiency 25-fold. Such a probe simultaneously increases the localized field intensity to about twice as strong as the conventional bare tip. In addition, the radiation pattern is sensitive to the working wavelength and the dipole to tip-apex separation. These findings make a promising route to the development of plasmonic spontaneous emission manipulation based on corrugated tapered antenna-for instance, tip-enhanced spectroscopy, single-molecule sensing, and single-photon source . PMID:24887425

Shen, Hongming; Lu, Guowei; He, Yingbo; Cheng, Yuqing; Liu, Haitao; Gong, Qihuang

2014-06-12

61

Directional and enhanced spontaneous emission with a corrugated metal probe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three-dimensional corrugated metal tapered probe with surface corrugated gratings at the tip apex is proposed and investigated theoretically, which leads to an obvious emission beaming effect of spontaneous emission from a single emitter near the probe. In contrast with conventional apertureless metal probes, where only the enhancement of an optical near-field is concerned, the corrugated probe is able to manipulate local excitation intensity and far-field emission direction simultaneously. The angular emission from a single dipole source, being placed close to the corrugated probe, falls into a cone with a maximum directivity angle of +/-11.6°, which improves the collection efficiency 25-fold. Such a probe simultaneously increases the localized field intensity to about twice as strong as the conventional bare tip. In addition, the radiation pattern is sensitive to the working wavelength and the dipole to tip-apex separation. These findings make a promising route to the development of plasmonic spontaneous emission manipulation based on corrugated tapered antenna--for instance, tip-enhanced spectroscopy, single-molecule sensing, and single-photon source .

Shen, Hongming; Lu, Guowei; He, Yingbo; Cheng, Yuqing; Liu, Haitao; Gong, Qihuang

2014-06-01

62

Spontaneous emission and energy transfer rates near a coated metallic cylinder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spontaneous emission and energy transfer rates of quantum systems in proximity to a dielectrically coated metallic cylinder are investigated using a Green's tensor formalism. The excitation of surface plasmon modes can significantly modify these rates. The spontaneous emission and energy transfer rates are investigated as a function of the material and dimensions of the core and coating, as well as the emission wavelength of the donor. For the material of the core we consider gold and silver, whose surface plasmon wavelengths lie in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum. The spontaneous emission rate is enhanced by several orders of magnitude when the emission wavelength is close to the surface plasmon wavelength. The energy transfer rate enhancement is found to be concentrated in hot spots around the circumference of the coated cylinder. Introducing the energy transfer efficiency as a parameter, we find that, when the donor emission and acceptor absorption spectra are resonant with the surface plasmon modes excited on the coated cylinder, the energy transfer efficiency can be significantly enhanced compared to the off-resonance situation. Tuning the surface plasmon wavelength to the emission wavelength of the donor via the geometrical and material parameters of the coated cylinder allows, therefore, control of the energy transfer efficiency.

Karanikolas, Vasilios; Marocico, Cristian A.; Bradley, A. Louise

2014-06-01

63

Diesel particulate emission control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the emission control of particulates from diesel exhaust gases. The efficiency and exhaust emissions of diesel engines will be compared with those of otto engines (petrol engines). The formation of particulates (or “soot”), one of the main nuisances of diesel exhaust gases, will be briefly outlined. The effects of various emission components on human health and the

John P. A. Neeft; Michiel Makkee; Jacob A. Moulijn

1996-01-01

64

Scanning spontaneous photon emission from transplanted ovarian tumor of mice using a photomultiplier tube.  

PubMed

A scanning system for the detection of spontaneous ultraweak photon emission from nude mice with transplanted tumors is presented. A photomultiplier tube (PMT) with an effective area of 15 mm diameter was used for measuring photon emission in a wavelength range from 300 to 650 nm. Tumors were induced in nude mice by transplantation of an ovarian cancer cell line into the back of mice. The PMT was moved for scanning over the whole body of a mouse placed in a dark box. The profiles of the intensities of photon emissions from the tumor mice are presented and compared with those obtained from the control mice. PMID:16771298

Kim, Jungdae; Lim, Jaekwan; Kim, Hongbae; Ahn, Saeyoung; Sim, Sung-Bo; Soh, Kwang-Sup

2006-01-01

65

Dual-channel spontaneous emission of quantum dots in magnetic metamaterials.  

PubMed

Metamaterials, artificial electromagnetic media realized by subwavelength nano-structuring, have become a paradigm for engineering electromagnetic space, allowing for independent control of both electric and magnetic responses of the material. Whereas most metamaterials studied so far are limited to passive structures, the need for active metamaterials is rapidly growing. However, the fundamental question on how the energy of emitters is distributed between both (electric and magnetic) interaction channels of the metamaterial still remains open. Here we study simultaneous spontaneous emission of quantum dots into both of these channels and define the control parameters for tailoring the quantum-dot coupling to metamaterials. By superimposing two orthogonal modes of equal strength at the wavelength of quantum-dot photoluminescence, we demonstrate a sharp difference in their interaction with the magnetic and electric metamaterial modes. Our observations reveal the importance of mode engineering for spontaneous emission control in metamaterials, paving a way towards loss-compensated metamaterials and metamaterial nanolasers. PMID:24335832

Decker, Manuel; Staude, Isabelle; Shishkin, Ivan I; Samusev, Kirill B; Parkinson, Patrick; Sreenivasan, Varun K A; Minovich, Alexander; Miroshnichenko, Andrey E; Zvyagin, Andrei; Jagadish, Chennupati; Neshev, Dragomir N; Kivshar, Yuri S

2013-01-01

66

Demonstration of Weak Measurement Based on Atomic Spontaneous Emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate a new type of weak measurement based on the dynamics of spontaneous emission. The pointer in our scheme is given by the Lorentzian distribution characterizing atomic exponential decay via emission of a single photon. We thus introduce weak measurement, so far demonstrated nearly exclusively with laser beams and Gaussian statistics, into the quantum regime of single emitters and single quanta, enabling the exploitation of a wide class of sources that are abundant in nature. We describe a complete analogy between our scheme and weak measurement with conventional Gaussian pointers. Instead of a shift in the mean of a Gaussian distribution, an imaginary weak value is exhibited in our scheme by a significantly slower-than-natural exponential distribution of emitted photons at the postselected polarization, leading to a large shift in their mean arrival time. The dynamics of spontaneous emission offer a broader view of the measurement process than is usually considered within the weak measurement formalism. Our scheme opens the path for the use of atoms and atomlike systems as sensitive probes in weak measurements, one example being optical magnetometry.

Shomroni, Itay; Bechler, Orel; Rosenblum, Serge; Dayan, Barak

2013-07-01

67

Spontaneous emission of two quantum dots in a single-mode cavity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spontaneous emission spectrum from two quantum dots (QDs) that are strongly coupled with a single-mode nanocavity is investigated using rigorous numerical calculations and simple analytical solutions of quantum dynamics. The emission spectra both from the side and along the axis of the cavity are considered. Modification of two parameters, the coupling strength and the detuning between the transition frequencies of the two quantum dots, allows us to efficiently control the shape of the spontaneous emission spectrum. Different profiles and their physical origins can be well understood in the dressed-state picture for the light—QD interaction in the on-resonance and off-resonance situations. In the on-resonance situation, the emission spectra exhibit symmetric features, and they are not altered by the asymmetry in the coupling parameters. The axis spectra show two emission peaks while the side spectra have three emission peaks. In the off-resonance situation, the emission spectra always show an asymmetrical three-peak feature. When the two QDs have different decay parameters, singular features (a peak or a dip) can take place at the frequency of the cavity mode, and this is attributed to the unbalanced process of the emission and absorption of a single photon.

Qiu, Liu; Zhang, Ke; Li, Zhi-Yuan

2013-09-01

68

Amplified spontaneous emission in the spiropyran-biopolymer based system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) phenomenon in the 6-nitro-1',3',3'-trimethylspiro[2H-1-benzopyran-2,2'-indolin] organic dye dispersed in a solid matrix has been observed. The biopolymer system deoxyribonucleic acid blended with cationic surfactant molecule cetyltrimethyl-ammonium chloride served as a matrix. ASE appeared under sample excitation by UV light pulses (?=355 nm) coming from nanosecond or picosecond neodymium doped yttrium aluminum garnet lasers and has been reinforced with green (?=532 nm) light excitation followed UV light pulse. The ASE characteristics in function of different excitation pulse energies as well as signal gain were measured.

Mysliwiec, Jaroslaw; Sznitko, Lech; Bartkiewicz, Stanislaw; Miniewicz, Andrzej; Essaidi, Zacaria; Kajzar, Francois; Sahraoui, Bouchta

2009-06-01

69

Amplified spontaneous emission spectra from the superexciplex of coumarin 138  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this report the dual amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) characteristics of coumarin 138 (C138) had been studied, under different solvent environments. The results obtained were compared with coumarin 461 (C461) and coumarin 450 (C450), which have closely related structure. The results showed that all these dyes could produce ASE from superexciplex - a new molecular species - formed only under high inversion densities, obtainable by pulsed laser excitation. We have strong indication that a superexciplex with TICT conformation is capable of producing strong ASE.

Ibnaouf, K. H.; Prasad, S.; Aldwayyan, A. S.; AlSalhi, Mohammad S.; Masilamani, V.

2012-11-01

70

Amplified Spontaneous Emission Properties of Semiconducting Organic Materials  

PubMed Central

This paper aims to review the recent advances achieved in the field of organic solid-state lasers with respect to the usage of semiconducting organic molecules and oligomers in the form of thin films as active laser media. We mainly focus on the work performed in the last few years by our research group. The amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) properties, by optical pump, of various types of molecules doped into polystyrene films in waveguide configuration, are described. The various systems investigated include N,N?-bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N?-diphenylbenzidine (TPD), several perilenediimide derivatives (PDIs), as well as two oligo-phenylenevinylene derivatives. The ASE characteristics, i.e., threshold, emission wavelength, linewidth, and photostability are compared with that of other molecular materials investigated in the literature.

Calzado, Eva M.; Boj, Pedro G.; Diaz-Garcia, Maria A.

2010-01-01

71

Spontaneous Radiation Emission from Short, High Field Strength Insertion Devices  

SciTech Connect

Since the earliest papers on undulaters were published, it has been known how to calculate the spontaneous emission spectrum from ''short'' undulaters when the magnetic field strength parameter is small compared to unity, or in ''single'' frequency sinusoidal undulaters where the magnetic field strength parameter is comparable to or larger than unity, but where the magnetic field amplitude is constant throughout the undulater. Fewer general results have been obtained in the case where the insertion device is both short, i.e., the magnetic field strength parameter changes appreciably throughout the insertion device, and the magnetic field strength is high enough that ponderomotive effects, radiation retardation, and harmonic generation are important physical phenomena. In this paper a general method is presented for calculating the radiation spectrum for short, high-field insertion devices. It is used to calculate the emission from some insertion device designs of recent interest.

Geoffrey Krafft

2005-09-15

72

Excess spontaneous emission in variable-reflectivity-mirror lasers  

SciTech Connect

The authors calculate the so-called excess spontaneous emission factors, or excess noise factors, for the lowest and higher order transmission modes in geometrically stable and unstable laser cavities having Gaussian variable-reflectivity mirrors. These excess emission factors determine both the Schawlow-Townes linewidths or quantum noise fluctuations in laser oscillators and the initial noise levels from which oscillation buildup starts in regenerative laser cavities. The excess emission factor for the lowest order Gaussian mode is found to be near unity for geometrically stable resonators, rise to a value very close to 2 at the stable-unstable boundary (planar-mirror case), and becomes substantially larger than unity for cavities having geometrically unstable optics. Excess emission factors as large as 10-100 times and larger are obtained in cavities having geometric magnifications of order 1.5-2 and aperture Fresnel numbers of a few times unity, increasing quadratically for higher values of the Fresnel number of the square of the magnification. Higher order modes have even larger excess noise factors.

Doumont, J.L.; Mussche, P.L.; Siegman, A.E.

1989-08-01

73

Time-reversal symmetrization of spontaneous emission for quantum state transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate the ability to control spontaneous emission from a superconducting qubit coupled to a cavity. The time domain profile of the emitted photon is shaped into a symmetric truncated exponential. The experiment is enabled by a qubit coupled to a cavity, with a coupling strength that can be tuned in tens of nanoseconds while maintaining a constant dressed state emission frequency. Symmetrization of the photonic wave packet will enable use of photons as flying qubits for transferring the quantum state between atoms in distant cavities.

Srinivasan, Srikanth J.; Sundaresan, Neereja M.; Sadri, Darius; Liu, Yanbing; Gambetta, Jay M.; Yu, Terri; Girvin, S. M.; Houck, Andrew A.

2014-03-01

74

Casthouse emission control system  

SciTech Connect

During blast furnace casting operations, the hot metal generates fume and particulate emissions. Environmental regulations require that blast furnace casting emissions by controlled. The casthouse of the No. 3 Blast Furnace at USS/KOBE in Lorain, Ohio was completely redesigned and rebuilt during the modernization of this facility. A state of the art casthouse emission control system was designed and installed as an integral part of the casthouse. Casthouse operations and maintenance, and environmental performance were foremost in the design considerations. This paper discusses the design, operations and results of this newly operational system along with some key design issues that were addressed with the EPA. The casthouse emission system as installed and permitted consists of the following: local evacuated hooding above the taphole to capture drilling, plugging and trough emissions near the taphole; a close fitting evacuated trough cover over that portion of the trough that is not covered by local hooding; an evacuated hood over the iron dam and skimmer; close fitting evacuated iron and slag runners covers on the entire length of the iron and slag runner system to capture iron and slag runner emissions; an evacuated enclosure covering the tilting iron spout to capture iron spout emissions; a baghouse operating at not less than 300,000 ACFM during casting operation to collect the captured emissions.

Bernarding, T.F.; Krol, K.K.; Stinson, R.C.; Carson, V.; Hahn, M.

1993-01-01

75

Sex and Ear Differences in Spontaneous and Click-Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions in Young Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effects of sex and handedness on the production of spontaneous and click-evoked otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) were explored in a non-hearing impaired population (ages 17-25 years). A sex difference in OAEs, either produced spontaneously (spontaneous OAEs or SOAEs) or in response to auditory stimuli (click-evoked OAEs or CEOAEs) has been reported in…

Snihur, Adrian W. K.; Hampson, Elizabeth

2011-01-01

76

Spontaneous emission near the edge of a photonic band gap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spectral and dynamical features of spontaneous emission from two and three-level atoms in which one transition frequency lay near the edge of a photonic band gap (PBG) were derived. These features included temporal oscillations, fractionalized steady-state atomic population on the excited state, spectral splitting and subnatural bandwidth. The effect of N-1 unexcited atoms were also taken into account. The direct consequences of photon localization as embodied in the photon-atom bound state were observed. One feasible experimental accomplishment of these effects may ensue from laser-cooled atoms in the void regions of a PBG medium. Another option is the application of an organic impurity molecule such as pentacene. Such molecules were known to show extremely narrow linewidths when placed in fitting solid hosts.

John, Sajeev; Quang, Tran

1994-08-01

77

Optical steganography based on amplified spontaneous emission noise.  

PubMed

We propose and experimentally demonstrate an optical steganography method in which a data signal is transmitted using amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise as a carrier. The ASE serving as a carrier for the private signal has an identical frequency spectrum to the existing noise generated by the Erbium doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) in the transmission system. The system also carries a conventional data channel that is not private. The so-called "stealth" or private channel is well-hidden within the noise of the system. Phase modulation is used for both the stealth channel and the public channel. Using homodyne detection, the short coherence length of the ASE ensures that the stealth signal can only be recovered if the receiver closely matches the delay-length difference, which is deliberately changed in a dynamic fashion that is only known to the transmitter and its intended receiver. PMID:23389187

Wu, Ben; Wang, Zhenxing; Tian, Yue; Fok, Mable P; Shastri, Bhavin J; Kanoff, Daniel R; Prucnal, Paul R

2013-01-28

78

Photophysical, amplified spontaneous emission and charge transport properties of oligofluorene derivatives in thin films.  

PubMed

We investigate the photophysical and amplified spontaneous emission properties of a series of monodisperse solution-processable oligofluorenes functionalized with hexyl chains at the C9 position of each fluorene unit. Thin films of these oligofluorenes are then used in organic field-effect transistors and their charge transport properties are examined. We have particularly focused our attention on the influence of oligofluorene length on the absorption and steady-state fluorescence spectra, on the HOMO/LUMO energy levels, on the photoluminescence lifetime and quantum yield as well as on the amplified spontaneous emission properties and the charge carrier mobilities. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction measurements demonstrate that, among all oligofluorene derivatives used in this study, only the structure and morphology of the pentafluorene film is significantly modified by a thermal treatment above the glass transition temperature, resulting in a 9 nm blue-shift of the fluorescence spectrum without significant changes in the photoluminescence quantum yield and in the amplified spontaneous emission threshold. In parallel, hole field-effect mobility is significantly increased from 8.6 × 10(-7) to 3.8 × 10(-5) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) upon thermal treatment, due to an increase of crystallinity. This study provides useful insights into the morphological control of oligofluorene thin films and how it affects their photophysical and charge transport properties. Moreover, we provide evidence that, because of the low threshold, the tunability of the amplified spontaneous emission and the photostability of the films, these oligofluorenes are promising candidates for organic solid-state laser applications. PMID:25005146

Choi, E Y; Mazur, L; Mager, L; Gwon, M; Pitrat, D; Mulatier, J C; Monnereau, C; Fort, A; Attias, A J; Dorkenoo, K; Kwon, J E; Xiao, Y; Matczyszyn, K; Samoc, M; Kim, D-W; Nakao, A; Heinrich, B; Hashizume, D; Uchiyama, M; Park, S Y; Mathevet, F; Aoyama, T; Andraud, C; Wu, J W; Barsella, A; Ribierre, J C

2014-07-23

79

High Extraction Efficiency of Spontaneous Emission from Slabs of Photonic Crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thin slab of two-dimensional photonic crystal is shown to alter drastically the radiation pattern of spontaneous emission. More specifically, by eliminating all guided modes at the transition frequencies, spontaneous emission can be coupled entirely to free space modes, resulting in a greatly enhanced extraction efficiency. Such structures might provide a solution to the long-standing problem of poor light extraction

Shanhui Fan; Pierre R. Villeneuve; J. D. Joannopoulos; E. F. Schubert

1997-01-01

80

Theory of spontaneous emission noise in open resonators and its application to lasers and optical amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theory of spontaneous emission noise is presented based on classical electromagnetic theory. Unlike conventional theories of laser noise, this presentation is valid for open resonators. A local Langevin force is added to the wave equation to account for spontaneous emission. A general expression is found relating the diffusion coefficient of this force to the imaginary part of the dielectric

C. Henry; H. HENRY

1986-01-01

81

Amplified spontaneous emission and lasing in colloidal nanoplatelets.  

PubMed

Colloidal nanoplatelets (NPLs) have recently emerged as favorable light-emitting materials, which also show great potential as optical gain media due to their remarkable optical properties. In this work, we systematically investigate the optical gain performance of CdSe core and CdSe/CdS core/crown NPLs having different CdS crown size with one- and two-photon absorption pumping. The core/crown NPLs exhibit enhanced gain performance as compared to the core-only NPLs due to increased absorption cross section and the efficient interexciton funneling, which is from the CdS crown to the CdSe core. One- and two-photon absorption pumped amplified spontaneous emission thresholds are found as low as 41 ?J/cm(2) and 4.48 mJ/cm(2), respectively. These thresholds surpass the best reported optical gain performance of the state-of-the-art colloidal nanocrystals (i.e., quantum dots, nanorods, etc.) emitting in the same spectral range as the NPLs. Moreover, gain coefficient of the NPLs is measured as high as 650 cm(-1), which is 4-fold larger than the best reported gain coefficient of the colloidal quantum dots. Finally, we demonstrate a two-photon absorption pumped vertical cavity surface emitting laser of the NPLs with a lasing threshold as low as 2.49 mJ/cm(2). These excellent results are attributed to the superior properties of the NPLs as optical gain media. PMID:24882737

Guzelturk, Burak; Kelestemur, Yusuf; Olutas, Murat; Delikanli, Savas; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

2014-07-22

82

Amplification of spontaneous emission in aluminum and magnesium plasmas  

SciTech Connect

An experimental method has been carried out in order to perform detailed investigation of electron level populations of multicharged ions in hot dense plasmas produced by lasers. This method provides an accurate diagnostic of the amplification of spontaneous emission (ASE) which may occur in plasma at X-UV wavelengths as a result of population inversions. Results are presented for lithium-like ions of aluminum and magnesium. A strong departure from Boltzmann's population ratio is observed for several of the levels. Population inversion takes place between the 5f and 3d levels, the upper level being approximately three times more populated than the lower one, while the plasma is recombinating. The measured gain coefficient is about 1 cm/sup -1/ at 105.7 A in aluminum for a 20 nanoseconds laser pulse and a 3 GW/cm flux density. Inversions are also observed for 3p-5d transitions. However, the free bound transitions give rise to a spectrum of continuous absorption lowering the net gain, which can be even cancelled in some cases. A numerical model, using stationary as well as time-dependent solutions of rate equations, has been built. It accounts for the main features of experimental results and is very useful for settling the plasma parameters which are appropriate to a fair yield of ASE.

Jaegle, P.; Jamelot, G.; Carillon, A.; Klisnick, A.; Sureau, A.; Guennou, H.

1984-09-01

83

Vacuum field energy and spontaneous emission in anomalously dispersive cavities  

SciTech Connect

Anomalously dispersive cavities, particularly white-light cavities, may have larger bandwidth to finesse ratios than their normally dispersive counterparts. Partly for this reason, they have been proposed for use in laser interferometer gravitational-wave observatory (LIGO)-like gravity-wave detectors and in ring-laser gyroscopes. In this paper we analyze the quantum noise associated with anomalously dispersive cavity modes. The vacuum field energy associated with a particular cavity mode is proportional to the cavity-averaged group velocity of that mode. For anomalously dispersive cavities with group index values between 1 and 0, this means that the total vacuum field energy associated with a particular cavity mode must exceed ({h_bar}/2{pi}){omega}/2. For white-light cavities in particular, the group index approaches zero and the vacuum field energy of a particular spatial mode may be significantly enhanced. We predict enhanced spontaneous emission rates into anomalously dispersive cavity modes and broadened laser linewidths when the linewidth of intracavity emitters is broader than the cavity linewidth.

Bradshaw, Douglas H.; Di Rosa, Michael D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

2011-05-15

84

Approximate Toffoli Gate Originated from a Single Resonant Interaction of Cavity Dissipation and Atomic Spontaneous Emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a potentially practical scheme to implement an approximate three-qubit Toffoli gate by a single resonant interaction in dissipative cavity QED in which the cavity mode decay and atomic spontaneous emission are considered. The scheme does not require two-qubit controlled-NOT gates but uses a three-qubit phase gate and two Hadamard gates, where the approximate phase gate can be implemented by only a single dissipative resonant interaction of atoms with the cavity mode. Discussions are made for the advantages and the experimental feasibility of our scheme.

Chen, Chang-Yong

2008-04-01

85

Spectral modulation of higher harmonic spontaneous emission from an optical klystron.  

PubMed

Higher harmonics of spontaneous emission from an optical klystron have been observed. The modulation factor of the spontaneous emission spectrum for the higher harmonics can be described by considering the observation system. When the dispersive gap of the optical klystron was fixed, the microstructure interval of the spontaneous emission spectrum at a certain resonant wavelength became narrower as the order of the higher harmonic became larger. Some unique characteristics of the higher harmonics have been clarified, and these studies are likely to contribute to the development of free-electron lasers using higher harmonics of an optical klystron in the shorter-wavelengths region. PMID:24971958

Sei, Norihiro; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Yamada, Kawakatsu; Koike, Masaki; Ohgaki, Hideaki

2014-07-01

86

Control of Emissions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods and apparatus utilizing chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide are useful to reduce NOx emissions, as well as SOx and mercury (or other heavy metal) emissions, from combustion flue gas streams.

Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor); Chung, Landy (Inventor)

2013-01-01

87

Enhancement and inhibition of spontaneous emission rates in nanobubbles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Letter considers the effect of a nanobubble with walls of finite thickness on the radiative decay rate of an excited atom located in its center. It is demonstrated that where the walls are dense enough, there can take place an effective reduction of the spontaneous radiative decay rate, whereas in the case where the bubble is located in an

V. V. Klimov; V. S. Letokhov

1999-01-01

88

Enhanced spontaneous emission in a photonic-crystal light-emitting diode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report direct evidence of enhanced spontaneous emission in a photonic-crystal (PhC) light-emitting diode. The device consists of p-i-n heterojunction embedded in a suspended membrane, comprising a layer of self-assembled quantum dots. Current is injected laterally from the periphery to the center of the PhC. A well-isolated emission peak at 1.3 ?m from the PhC cavity mode is observed, and the enhancement of the spontaneous emission rate is clearly evidenced by time-resolved electroluminescence measurements, showing that our diode switches off in a time shorter than the bulk radiative and nonradiative lifetimes.

Francardi, M.; Balet, L.; Gerardino, A.; Chauvin, N.; Bitauld, D.; Li, L. H.; Alloing, B.; Fiore, A.

2008-10-01

89

Effect of spontaneous emission in hydrogenlike magnesium and aluminum x-ray laser schemes  

SciTech Connect

Two-dimensional modeling of magnesium exploding-foil experiments shows that spontaneous emission from regions outside of line focus makes the measurement of induced emission and gain difficult. An improved target design is proposed that solves the spontaneous-emission problem by replacing the foil by a ribbon. The new targets consist of an aluminum ribbon on a Formvar sheet with the potential 4--3 lasing line at III A for H-like Al. We comment on what conditions are required for lasing in the 3--2 line of H-like Al at 39 A.

Eder, D.C.; Rosen, M.D.; Lee, R.W.; Trebes, J.E.; Ceglio, N.M.; Eckart, M.J.; Kauffman, R.L.; MacGowan, B.J.; Matthews, D.L.

1987-12-01

90

Spontaneous emission lifetimes in the ground electronic states of HD/+/ and H2/+/a  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because of their simplicity, H2(+) and its isotopic species are of particular interest to molecular theorists and experimentalists. If these ions are formed in excited vibrational states under conditions of highly improbable electron-ion recombination or other reactions, spontaneous emission will occur. The present note calculates the (vibrational quantum number, J prime = 0) state lifetimes under spontaneous emission for all 22 excited vibrations of HD(+) and all 19 excited vibrations of H2(+) in their ground electron states. The lifetimes presented in Tables I and III justify the assumption that spontaneous radiative processes are unimportant under certain realizable conditions. When spontaneous radiation plays a role, however, minimum lifetime at intermediate vibrational quantum number could lead to unusual vibrational distribution functions.

Peek, J. M.; Hashemi-Attar, A.-R.; Beckel, C. L.

1979-01-01

91

Spontaneous Neoplasms in Control Wistar Rats: A Comparison of Reviews  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spontaneous neoplasms in 930 control Wistar rats from five carcinogenicity bioassays conducted between 1990 and 1995 were reviewed and compared with review findings in studies between 1980 and 1990. Mean survival at 104 weeks was 55% for males and 60% for females, similar to that of the previous review. A total of 1599 neoplasms was diagnosed in 361 (78%) male

James Poteracki; Kathleen M. Walsh

1998-01-01

92

ADVANCED EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs, or air toxics) from coal-fired boilers. The project goal is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), fabric filters (baghouses), and wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) systems. Development work initially concentrated on the capture of trace metals, fine particulate, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen fluoride. Recent work has focused almost exclusively on the control of mercury emissions.

G.A. Farthing

2001-02-06

93

Advanced Emissions Control Development Program  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs, or air toxics) from coal-fired boilers. This objective is being met by identifying ways to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), fabric filters (fabric filters), and wet flue gas desulfurization (wet FGD) systems. Development work initially concentrated on the capture of trace metals, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen fluoride. Recent work has focused almost exclusively on the control of mercury emissions.

G. A. Farthing; G. T. Amrhein; G. A. Kudlac; D. A. Yurchison; D. K. McDonald; M. G. Milobowski

2001-03-31

94

Excess spontaneous emission in variable-reflectivity-mirror lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The so-called excess spontaneous emisson factors, or excess noise factors, for the lowest and highest order transverse modes in geometrically stable and unstable laser cavities having Gaussian variable-reflectivity mirrors are calculated. These factors determine both the Schawlow-Townes linewidths or quantum noise fluctuations in laser oscillators and the initial noise levels from which oscillation buildup starts in regenerative laser cavities. The

Jean-Luc Doumont; Paul L. Mussche; Anthony E. Siegman

1989-01-01

95

Interference of spontaneous emission of light from two solid-state atomic ensembles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report an interference experiment of spontaneous emission of light from two distant solid-state ensembles of atoms that are coherently excited by a short laser pulse. The ensembles are erbium ions doped into two LiNbO3 crystals with channel waveguides, which are placed in the two arms of a Mach Zehnder interferometer. The light that is spontaneously emitted after the excitation

M. Afzelius; M. U. Staudt; H. de Riedmatten; C. Simon; S. R. Hastings-Simon; R. Ricken; H. Suche; W. Sohler; N. Gisin

2007-01-01

96

Spontaneous emission rates of dipoles in photonic crystal membranes  

SciTech Connect

We show theoretically that two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystals in semiconductor membranes strongly modify the radiative decay of dipole emitters. Three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain calculations show over 7 times inhibition and 15 times enhancement of the emission rate compared with vacuum for judiciously oriented and positioned dipoles. Emission rate modifications inside the membrane mimic the local mode density in a simple 2D model. The inhibition of emission saturates with crystal size around the source, with a 1/e size that scales as the inverse gap bandwidth. Owing to the vertically guided mode structure, inhibition occurs only near the slab center, but enhanced emission persists also outside the membrane. We find that emission changes can even be observed in experiments with ensembles of randomly oriented dipoles.

Koenderink, A. Femius; Kafesaki, Maria; Soukoulis, Costas M.; Sandoghdar, Vahid [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser (IESL), Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas (FORTH), P.O. Box 1527, 71110 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Department of Materials Science and Technology, University of Crete (Greece); Ames Laboratory, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser (IESL), Foundation for Research and Technology Hellas (FORTH), P.O. Box 1527, 71110 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Department of Materials Science and Technology, University of Crete (Greece); Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), 8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

2006-06-15

97

Ultrafast spontaneous emission of copper-doped silicon enhanced by an optical nanocavity  

PubMed Central

Dopants in silicon (Si) have attracted attention in the fields of photonics and quantum optics. However, the optical characteristics are limited by the small spontaneous emission rate of dopants in Si. This study demonstrates a large increase in the spontaneous emission rate of copper isoelectronic centres (Cu-IECs) doped into Si photonic crystal nanocavities. In a cavity with a quality factor (Q) of ~16,000, the photoluminescence (PL) lifetime of the Cu-IECs is 1.1?ns, which is 30 times shorter than the lifetime of a sample without a cavity. The PL decay rate is increased in proportion to Q/Vc (Vc is the cavity mode volume), which indicates the Purcell effect. This is the first demonstration of a cavity-enhanced ultrafast spontaneous emission from dopants in Si, and it may lead to the development of fast and efficient Si light emitters and Si quantum optical devices based on dopants with efficient optical access.

SUMIKURA, HISASHI; KURAMOCHI, EIICHI; TANIYAMA, HIDEAKI; NOTOMI, MASAYA

2014-01-01

98

Ultrafast spontaneous emission of copper-doped silicon enhanced by an optical nanocavity.  

PubMed

Dopants in silicon (Si) have attracted attention in the fields of photonics and quantum optics. However, the optical characteristics are limited by the small spontaneous emission rate of dopants in Si. This study demonstrates a large increase in the spontaneous emission rate of copper isoelectronic centres (Cu-IECs) doped into Si photonic crystal nanocavities. In a cavity with a quality factor (Q) of ~16,000, the photoluminescence (PL) lifetime of the Cu-IECs is 1.1?ns, which is 30 times shorter than the lifetime of a sample without a cavity. The PL decay rate is increased in proportion to Q/Vc (Vc is the cavity mode volume), which indicates the Purcell effect. This is the first demonstration of a cavity-enhanced ultrafast spontaneous emission from dopants in Si, and it may lead to the development of fast and efficient Si light emitters and Si quantum optical devices based on dopants with efficient optical access. PMID:24853336

Sumikura, Hisashi; Kuramochi, Eiichi; Taniyama, Hideaki; Notomi, Masaya

2014-01-01

99

Spontaneous synchrotron emission from a plasma with an energetic runaway electron tail  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The emissivity of spontaneous synchrotron radiation is computed for a plasma consisting of a background thermal plasma in addition to an energetic runaway electron component. The analysis is performed for both the ordinary and extraordinary modes, for frequencies in the vicinity of the electron plasma frequency and the higher harmonics of the electron gyrofrequency, and for the case when the electron plasma frequency is approximately the same as or smaller than the cyclotron frequency. The relativistic gyroresonance with the runaway electrons is found to result in a level of spontaneous emission which, for frequencies in the neighborhood of the electron plasma frequency, is significantly enhanced over the thermal radiation.

Freund, H. P.; Dillenburg, D.; Wu, C. S.; Lee, L. C.

1978-01-01

100

Highly elevated emission of mercury vapor due to the spontaneous combustion of refuse in a landfill  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Refuse disposal (e.g., landfilling and incineration) have been recognized as a significant anthropogenic source of mercury (Hg) emission globally. However, in-situ measurements of Hg emission from landfill or refuse dumping sites where fugitive spontaneous combustion occurs have not been reported. Gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0) concentration and emission flux were observed near spontaneous combustions of refuse at a landfill site in southwestern China. Ambient Hg0 concentrations above the refuse surface ranged from 42.7 ± 20.0 to 396.4 ± 114.2 ng m-3, up to 10 times enhancement due to the spontaneous burning. Using a box model with Hg0 data obtained from 2004 to 2013, we estimated that the Hg0 emission from refuse was amplified by 8-40 times due to spontaneous combustion. A micrometeorological flux measurement system based on relaxed eddy accumulation was configured downwind of the combustion sites to quantify the Hg0 emission. Extremely large turbulent deposition fluxes (up to -128.6 ?g m-2 h-1, 20 min average) were detected during periods of high Hg0 concentration events over the measurement footprint. The effect of temperature, moisture and light on the air-surface exchange of Hg0 exchange was found to be masked by the overwhelming deposition of Hg0 from the enriched air from the refuse combustion plumes. This research reveals that mercury emission from the landfill refuse can be boosted by fugitive spontaneous combustion of refuse. The emission represents an anthropogenic source that has been overlooked in Hg inventory estimates.

Zhu, Wei; Sommar, Jonas; Li, Zhonggen; Feng, Xinbin; Lin, Che-Jen; Li, Guanghui

2013-11-01

101

Emission control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods and apparatus utilizing hydrogen peroxide are useful to reduce SOx and mercury (or other heavy metal) emissions from combustion flue gas streams. The methods and apparatus may further be modified to reduce NOx emissions. Continuous concentration of hydrogen peroxide to levels approaching or exceeding propellant-grade hydrogen peroxide facilitates increased system efficiency. In this manner, combustion flue gas streams can be treated for the removal of SOx and heavy metals, while isolating useful by-products streams of sulfuric acid as well as solids for the recovery of the heavy metals. Where removal of NOx emissions is included, nitric acid may also be isolated for use in fertilizer or other industrial applications.

Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor); Chung, J. Landy (Inventor)

2009-01-01

102

Interactions between Hair Cells Shape Spontaneous Otoacoustic Emissions in a Model of the Tokay Gecko's Cochlea  

PubMed Central

Background The hearing of tetrapods including humans is enhanced by an active process that amplifies the mechanical inputs associated with sound, sharpens frequency selectivity, and compresses the range of responsiveness. The most striking manifestation of the active process is spontaneous otoacoustic emission, the unprovoked emergence of sound from an ear. Hair cells, the sensory receptors of the inner ear, are known to provide the energy for such emissions; it is unclear, though, how ensembles of such cells collude to power observable emissions. Methodology and Principal Findings We have measured and modeled spontaneous otoacoustic emissions from the ear of the tokay gecko, a convenient experimental subject that produces robust emissions. Using a van der Pol formulation to represent each cluster of hair cells within a tonotopic array, we have examined the factors that influence the cooperative interaction between oscillators. Conclusions and Significance A model that includes viscous interactions between adjacent hair cells fails to produce emissions similar to those observed experimentally. In contrast, elastic coupling yields realistic results, especially if the oscillators near the ends of the array are weakened so as to minimize boundary effects. Introducing stochastic irregularity in the strength of oscillators stabilizes peaks in the spectrum of modeled emissions, further increasing the similarity to the responses of actual ears. Finally, and again in agreement with experimental findings, the inclusion of a pure-tone external stimulus repels the spectral peaks of spontaneous emissions. Our results suggest that elastic coupling between oscillators of slightly differing strength explains several properties of the spontaneous otoacoustic emissions in the gecko.

Gelfand, Michael; Piro, Oreste; Magnasco, Marcelo O.; Hudspeth, A. J.

2010-01-01

103

Effect of surface-plasmon polaritons on spontaneous emission and intermolecular energy-transfer rates in multilayered geometries  

SciTech Connect

We use a Green's tensor method to investigate the spontaneous emission rate of a molecule and the energy-transfer rate between molecules placed in two types of layered geometries: a slab geometry and a planar waveguide. We focus especially on the role played by surface-plasmon polaritons in modifying the spontaneous emission and energy-transfer rates as compared to free space. In the presence of more than one interface, the surface-plasmon polariton modes split into several branches, and each branch can contribute significantly to modifying the electromagnetic properties of atoms and molecules. Enhancements of several orders of magnitude both in the spontaneous emission rate of a molecule and the energy-transfer rate between molecules are obtained and, by tuning the parameters of the geometry, one has the ability to control the range and magnitude of these enhancements. For the energy-transfer rate interference effects between contributions of different plasmon-polariton branches are observed as oscillations in the distance dependence of this rate.

Marocico, C. A.; Knoester, J. [Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, NL-9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands)

2011-11-15

104

ADVANCED EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop practical strategies and systems for the simultaneous control of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, particulate matter, and air toxics emissions from coal-fired boilers in such a way as to keep coal economically and environmentally competitive as a utility boiler fuel. Of particular interest is the control of air toxics emissions through the cost-effective use of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESP's), fabric filters (baghouses), and SO{sub 2} removal systems such as wet scrubbers and various clean coal technologies. This objective will be achieved through extensive development testing in the state-of-the art, 10 MW{sub e} equivalent, Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF). The project has extended the capabilities of the CEDF to facilitate air toxics emissions control development work on backend flue gas cleanup equipment. Specifically, an ESP, a baghouse, and a wet scrubber for SO{sub 2} (and air toxics) control were added--all designed to yield air toxics emissions data under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. A schematic of the CEDF and the project test equipment is shown in Figure 1. The specific objectives of the project are to: (1) Measure and understand production and partitioning of air toxics species in coal-fired power plant systems; (2) Optimize the air toxics removal performance of conventional flue gas cleanup systems; (3) Quantify the impacts of coal cleaning on air toxics emissions; (4) Identify and/or develop advanced air toxics emissions control concepts; (5) Develop and validate air toxics emissions measurement and monitoring techniques; (6) Establish an air toxics data library to facilitate studies of the impacts of coal selection, coal cleaning, and emissions control strategies on the emissions of coal-fired power plants.

M.J. Holmes

1999-01-01

105

ADVANCED EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop practical strategies and systems for the simultaneous control of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, particulate matter, and air toxics emissions from coal-fired boilers in such a way as to keep coal economically and environmentally competitive as a utility boiler fuel. Of particular interest is the control of air toxics emissions through the cost-effective use of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESP's), fabric filters (baghouses), and SO{sub 2} removal systems such as wet scrubbers and various clean coal technologies. This objective will be achieved through extensive development testing in the state-of-the art, 10 MW{sub e} equivalent, Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF). The project has extended the capabilities of the CEDF to facilitate air toxics emissions control development work on backend flue gas cleanup equipment. Specifically, an ESP, a baghouse, and a wet scrubber for SO{sub 2} (and air toxics) control were added--all designed to yield air toxics emissions data under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. A schematic of the CEDF and the project test equipment is shown in Figure 1. The specific objectives of the project are to: (1) Measure and understand production and partitioning of air toxics species in coal-fired power plant systems; (2) Optimize the air toxics removal performance of conventional flue gas cleanup systems; (3) Quantify the impacts of coal cleaning on air toxics emissions; (4) Identify and/or develop advanced air toxics emissions control concepts; (5) Develop and validate air toxics emissions measurement and monitoring techniques; (6) Establish an air toxics data library to facilitate studies of the impacts of coal selection, coal cleaning, and emissions control strategies on the emissions of coal-fired power plants.

M.J. Holmes

1998-07-01

106

ADVANCED EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop practical strategies and systems for the simultaneous control of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, particulate matter, and air toxics emissions from coal-fired boilers in such a way as to keep coal economically and environmentally competitive as a utility boiler fuel. Of particular interest is the control of air toxics emissions through the cost-effective use of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESP's), fabric filters (baghouses), and SO{sub 2} removal systems such as wet scrubbers and various clean coal technologies. This objective will be achieved through extensive development testing in the state-of-the art, 10 MW{sub e} equivalent, Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF). The project has extended the capabilities of the CEDF to facilitate air toxics emissions control development work on backend flue gas cleanup equipment. Specifically, an ESP, a baghouse, and a wet scrubber for SO{sub 2} (and air toxics) control were added--all designed to yield air toxics emissions data under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. A schematic of the CEDF and the project test equipment is shown in Figure 1. The specific objectives of the project are to: (1) Measure and understand production and partitioning of air toxics species in coal-fired power plant systems; (2) Optimize the air toxics removal performance of conventional flue gas cleanup systems; (3) Quantify the impacts of coal cleaning on air toxics emissions; (4) Identify and/or develop advanced air toxics emissions control concepts; (5) Develop and validate air toxics emissions measurement and monitoring techniques; (6) Establish an air toxics data library to facilitate studies of the impacts of coal selection, coal cleaning, and emissions control strategies on the emissions of coal-fired power plants.

M.J. Holmes

1998-10-01

107

Spontaneous Emission in the Waveguide Free-Electron Laser.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The incoherent emission from an undulating electron beam in the presence of metallic boundaries is analyzed. A general method of solving Maxwell's equations is used to express the field of a single particle in terms of vector waveguide modes. It is shown ...

A. Amir I. Boscolo L. R. Elias

1985-01-01

108

Enhanced spontaneous emission in a photonic-crystal light-emitting diode  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report direct evidence of enhanced spontaneous emission in a photonic-crystal (PhC) light-emitting diode. The device consists of p-i-n heterojunction embedded in a suspended membrane, comprising a layer of self-assembled quantum dots. Current is injected laterally from the periphery to the center of the PhC. A well-isolated emission peak at 1.3 mum from the PhC cavity mode is observed, and

M. Francardi; LP Balet; A. Gerardino; NJG Chauvin; DJM Bitauld; L. H. Li; B. Alloing; A. Fiore

2008-01-01

109

Observation of Novel Radioactive Decay by Spontaneous Emission of Complex Nuclei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two years of experimental investigation on the subject of spontaneous emission of intermediate-mass fragments is described in this manuscript. A short introduction on this subject and a historical review are presented in chapter 1. In chapter 2, I describe the experimental methods which led to the observation of ^{14 }C emission in polycarbonate etched-track detectors from the isotopes ^{222}Ra, ^{223}Ra,

Steven William Barwick

1986-01-01

110

Comparison of amplified spontaneous emission pulse cleaners for use in chirped pulse amplification front end lasers  

SciTech Connect

We compare various schemes for removing amplified spontaneous emission from seed laser pulses. We focus on compact schemes that are compatible with fiber laser front end systems with pulse energies in the 10nJ-1{micro}J range and pulse widths in the 100fs-10ps range. Pre-pulse contrast ratios greater than 10{sup 9} have been measured.

Dawson, J; Siders, C; Phan, H; Kanz, V; Barty, C

2007-07-02

111

Slow-light enhancement of spontaneous emission in active photonic crystal waveguides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photonic crystal defect waveguides with embedded active layers containing single or multiple quantum wells or quantum dots have been fabricated. Spontaneous emission spectra are enhanced close to the bandedge, consistently with the enhancement of gain by slow light effects. These are promising results for future compact devices for terabit/s communication, such as miniaturised semiconductor optical amplifiers and mode-locked lasers.

Ek, Sara; Chen, Yaohui; Semenova, Elizaveta; Lunnemann Hansen, Per; Yvind, Kresten; Mørk, Jesper

2012-02-01

112

Novel nanosecond spectral continuum source — high intensity mode-less amplified spontaneous emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A broadband (up to about 70 nm) amplified spontaneous emission source giving an energy output of several milijoules and the very good spectral continuum has been developed. Its construction is fairly simple, the unit consists of two rectangular 1 cm cuvettes containing suitable dye solutions one of which is pumped by an excimer laser.

Ko?; os, Robert; Sepio?, Jerzy

1989-01-01

113

Noise-color-induced quenching of fluctuations in a correlated spontaneous-emission laser model  

SciTech Connect

We show via (1) an approximate, analytical technique, (2) a formally exact matrix continued-fraction analysis, and (3) an analog simulation of the classical Langevin equation of a correlated spontaneous-emission laser (CEL) that noise of nonzero correlation time leads to an enhancement of the characteristic CEL noise quenching.

Habiger, R.G.K.; Risken, H. (Abteilung fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Ulm, D-7900 Ulm, Federal Republic of Germany (DE)); James, M.; Moss, F. (Department of Physics, University of Missouri at Saint Louis, Saint Louis, Missouri 63121 (USA)); Schleich, W. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, D-8046 Garching bei Muenchen, Federal Republic of Germany (DE) Center for Advanced Studies and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (USA))

1990-04-01

114

Effect of amplified spontaneous emission on semiconductor optical amplifier based all-optical logic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performances of all-optical logic gates XOR, AND, OR, NOR and NAND based on semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) have been simulated including the effects of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE). For the parameters used, all-optical logic gates using SOA are capable of operating at speed of 80 Gb/s.

Kotb, A.; Ma, S.; Chen, Z.; Dutta, N. K.; Said, G.

2011-12-01

115

Plasmonic engineering of spontaneous emission from silicon nanocrystals  

PubMed Central

Silicon nanocrystals offer huge advantages compared to other semi-conductor quantum dots as they are made from an abundant, non-toxic material and are compatible with silicon devices. Besides, among a wealth of extraordinary properties ranging from catalysis to nanomedicine, metal nanoparticles are known to increase the radiative emission rate of semiconductor quantum dots. Here, we use gold nanoparticles to accelerate the emission of silicon nanocrystals. The resulting integrated hybrid emitter is 5-fold brighter than bare silicon nanocrystals. We also propose an in-depth analysis highlighting the role of the different physical parameters in the photoluminescence enhancement phenomenon. This result has important implications for the practical use of silicon nanocrystals in optoelectronic devices, for instance for the design of efficient down-shifting devices that could be integrated within future silicon solar cells.

Goffard, Julie; Gerard, Davy; Miska, Patrice; Baudrion, Anne-Laure; Deturche, Regis; Plain, Jerome

2013-01-01

116

Emission control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods and apparatus utilizing hydrogen peroxide are useful to reduce NOx, SOx and mercury (or other heavy metal) emissions from combustion flue gas streams. Continuous concentration of hydrogen peroxide to levels approaching or exceeding propellant-grade hydrogen peroxide facilitates increased system efficiency. In this manner, combustion flue gas streams can be treated for the removal of NOx, SOx and heavy metals, while isolating useful by-products streams of sulfuric acid and nitric acid as well as solids for the recovery of the heavy metals.

Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor)

2008-01-01

117

Spontaneous ultraweak photon emission imaging of oxidative metabolic processes in human skin: effect of molecular oxygen and antioxidant defense system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All living organisms emit spontaneous ultraweak photon emission as a result of cellular metabolic processes. In this study, the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) formed as the byproduct of oxidative metabolic processes in spontaneous ultraweak photon emission was studied in human hand skin. The effect of molecular oxygen and ROS scavengers on spontaneous ultraweak photon emission from human skin was monitored using a highly sensitive photomultiplier tube and charged coupled device camera. When spontaneous ultraweak photon emission was measured under anaerobic conditions, the photon emission was decreased, whereas under hyperaerobic condition the enhancement in photon emission was observed. Spontaneous ultraweak photon emission measured after topical application of glutathione, ?-tocopherol, ascorbate, and coenzyme Q10 was observed to be decreased. These results reveal that ROS formed during the cellular metabolic processes in the epidermal cells play a significant role in the spontaneous ultraweak photon emission. It is proposed that spontaneous ultraweak photon emission can be used as a noninvasive tool for the temporal and spatial monitoring of the oxidative metabolic processes and intrinsic antioxidant system in human skin.

Rastogi, Anshu; Pospíšil, Pavel

2011-09-01

118

Enhancing spontaneous emission rates of molecules using nanopatterned multilayer hyperbolic metamaterials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasmonic nanostructures have been extensively used to manipulate the spontaneous light emission rate of molecules and their radiative efficiency. Because molecules near a metallic surface experience a different environment than in free space, their spontaneous radiative emission rate is generally enhanced. Such enhancement, measured by means of the Purcell factor, arises as a consequence of the overlap between the surface plasmon mode frequency and the emission spectrum of the molecule. However, such overlap is available only for a few narrow bands of frequency due to the limited plasmonic materials existing in nature. Although this limitation can be overcome by using hyperbolic metamaterials (HMMs)--a type of nanoscale artificial material with hyperbolic dispersion relations--the Purcell factor and the radiative power have remained relatively low. Here, we show that by nanopatterning a hyperbolic metamaterial made of Ag and Si multilayers, the spontaneous emission rate of rhodamine dye molecules is enhanced 76-fold at tunable frequencies and the emission intensity of the dye increases by ~80-fold compared with the same hyperbolic metamaterial without nanostructuring. We explain these results using a dynamic Lorentzian model in the time domain.

Lu, Dylan; Kan, Jimmy J.; Fullerton, Eric E.; Liu, Zhaowei

2014-01-01

119

Enhancing spontaneous emission rates of molecules using nanopatterned multilayer hyperbolic metamaterials.  

PubMed

Plasmonic nanostructures have been extensively used to manipulate the spontaneous light emission rate of molecules and their radiative efficiency. Because molecules near a metallic surface experience a different environment than in free space, their spontaneous radiative emission rate is generally enhanced. Such enhancement, measured by means of the Purcell factor, arises as a consequence of the overlap between the surface plasmon mode frequency and the emission spectrum of the molecule. However, such overlap is available only for a few narrow bands of frequency due to the limited plasmonic materials existing in nature. Although this limitation can be overcome by using hyperbolic metamaterials (HMMs)—a type of nanoscale artificial material with hyperbolic dispersion relations—the Purcell factor and the radiative power have remained relatively low. Here, we show that by nanopatterning a hyperbolic metamaterial made of Ag and Si multilayers, the spontaneous emission rate of rhodamine dye molecules is enhanced 76-fold at tunable frequencies and the emission intensity of the dye increases by ~80-fold compared with the same hyperbolic metamaterial without nanostructuring. We explain these results using a dynamic Lorentzian model in the time domain. PMID:24390565

Lu, Dylan; Kan, Jimmy J; Fullerton, Eric E; Liu, Zhaowei

2014-01-01

120

Amplified spontaneous emission of glass forming DCM derivatives in PMMA films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl- 6-(p-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM) is well known red laser dye which can be used also in solid state organic lasers. The lowest threshold value of amplified spontaneous emission was achieved by doping 2wt% of DCM molecule in tris-(8-hydroxy quinoline) aluminium (Alq3) matrix. Further increase of dye concentration also increases threshold value. It is due to large intermolecular interaction which reduce photoluminescence quantum yield. Compounds with small intermolecular interaction and which exhibit similar amplified spontaneous properties as DCM could be useful for solid state organic lasers. In the work photoluminescence and amplified spontaneous emission properties of two DCM derivatives in poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) matrix were investigated. Bulky trityloxyethyl groups are attached to the donor part of investigated molecules. These groups reduce intermolecular distance wherewith reduce photoluminescence quenching. More than one order of magnitude lower excitation threshold energy of the amplified spontaneous emission was achieved in doped polymer films with investigated compound in comparison to doped polymer with DCM. It means that the investigated compound is more perspective as a laser material compared to previously study.

Vembris, Aivars; Zarinsh, Elmars; Kokars, Valdis

2014-05-01

121

Emissions control through dry scrubbing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concern over the effects of acidic deposition, from both sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, has caused both industry and the government to look at the means available for efficient, and economical, emissions control. Due to its apparent simplicity of construction, ease of retrofit, and good performance, dry scrubbing is being considered as one of the recommended control methods, should either

Farber

1985-01-01

122

Advanced Emissions Control Development Program: Mercury Control  

SciTech Connect

McDermott Technology, Inc. (a subsidiary of Babcock & Wilcox) is conducting the Advanced Emissions Control Development Project (AECDP) which is aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPS) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for such controls may arise as the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proceeds with implementation of requirements set forth in the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA`s) of 1990. Promulgation of air toxics emissions regulations for electric utility plants could dramatically impact utilities burning coal, their industrial and residential customers, and the coal industry. AECDP project work will supply the information needed by utilities to respond to potential HAPs regulations in a timely, cost-effective, enviromnentally-sound manner which supports the continued use of the Nation`s abundant reserves of coal, such as those in the State of Ohio. The development work is being carried out using the 10 MW Clean Environment Development Facility wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions. The specific objectives of the project are to (1) measure and understand production and partitioning of air toxics species for a variety of coals, (2) optimize the air toxics removal performance of conventional flue gas cleanup systems, (3) develop advanced air toxics emissions control concepts, (4) develop and validate air toxics emissions measurement and monitoring techniques, and (5) establish a comprehensive, self-consistent air toxics data library. This project is supported by the Department of Energy, the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development and Babcock & Wilcox. A comprehensive assessment of HAP emissions from coal-fired electric utility boilers sponsored by the Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute concluded that with the exception of selenium and mercury, the majority of trace elements are well controlled due to their association with the particulate phase of flue gas. Reflecting the current focus of the US EPA and state environmental agencies on mercury as a potential candidate for regulation, the project specifically targets the measurement and control of mercury species. This paper discusses the results of testing on the quantity and species distribution of mercury while firing Ohio high-sulfur coal to assess the mercury emissions control potential of conventional SO{sub 2} and particulate control systems. Results from recent AECDP tests are presented and two alternative mercury speciation methods are compared. The AECDP results clearly show that higher total mercury control efficiency can be achieved with a wet FGD scrubber than recently reported in the interim final US EPA report on HAP emissions from fossil-fired electric utility steam generating units.

Evans, A.P.; Redinger, K.W.; Holmes, M.J.

1997-07-01

123

Advanced Emissions Control Development Program  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. Ideally, the project aim is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPS), fabric filters (baghouse), and wet flue gas desulfurization. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate and hydrogen chloride. Following the construction and evaluation of a representative air toxics test facility in Phase I, Phase II focused on the evaluation of mercury and several other air toxics emissions. The AECDP is jointly funded by the United States Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development (oCDO), and Babcock& Wilcox-a McDermott company (B&W).

A.P.Evans; K.E. Redinger; M.J. Holmes

1998-04-01

124

Two-dimensional atom localization via spontaneous emission in a coherently driven five-level M-type atomic system  

SciTech Connect

A scheme is proposed for two-dimensional atom localization in the subwavelength domain via controlled spontaneous emission. We consider a five-level M-type atomic system interacting with two orthogonal standing-wave laser fields and the vacuum of the radiation field. The interaction of the atom with space-dependent standing-wave fields can provide information about the position of the atom passing through, thus leading to atom localization. It is found that the localization is significantly improved due to the interference effect between the spontaneous decay channels and the dynamically induced quantum interference generated by the two standing-wave fields. By properly varying the system parameters, we can achieve high-precision and high-resolution atom localization.

Ding Chunling; Li Jiahua; Yang Xiaoxue [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics and School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zhan Zhiming [School of Physics and Information Engineering, Jianghan University, Wuhan 430056 (China)

2011-06-15

125

Exhaust emission control apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an exhaust control apparatus for muffling noise and treating odors and pollutants, including solid particulate and gases in the exhaust of an internal combustion engine. It comprises an exhaust inlet tube for receiving the exhaust generated by an internal combustion engine; a cyclone barrier concentrically surrounding the exhaust inlet tube, a ring cavity between the cyclone tube and exhaust inlet tube defining a cyclone chamber in which the exhaust is treated; means for directing the exhaust from the exhaust inlet tube into the cyclone chamber; electrode means having small openings through which the exhaust passes to enter the cyclone chamber, the electrode means generating electrostatic forces which charge the solid particulate in the exhaust, ionize air and generate ozone in the cyclone chamber near the electrode; means for injecting air into the cyclone chamber causing centrifugal flow of the air and the exhausted within the cyclone chamber and increasing a dwell time of the exhaust within the cyclone chamber.

Eng, J.W.

1991-09-24

126

Filament-induced amplified spontaneous emission in air-hydrocarbons gas mixture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Filament-induced amplified spontaneous emission, ASE, in air-hydrocarbons (~2%) gas mixture, CH4, C2H2, and C2H4, was investigated by detecting fluorescence emitted from CH fragments prepared in the electronically excited A2? state in the filament. The fluorescence signal recorded from the side direction of the filament was linearly proportional to the length of the filament, while the fluorescence signal emitted in the backward direction of the laser propagation increased nonlinearly with the filament length. This difference showing that the filament acted as a gain medium in which the spontaneous emission from CH was amplified (ASE). This process realized by a small amount of hydrocarbon molecular species in air can be applied to remote sensing of pollutants in air.

Hosseini, Sima; Azarm, Ali; Daigle, Jean-François; Kamali, Yousef; Chin, See Leang

2014-04-01

127

Self-amplified spontaneous emission for a single pass free-electron laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SPARC (acronym of “Sorgente Pulsata ed Amplificata di Radiazione Coerente”, i.e. Pulsed and Amplified Source of Coherent Radiation) is a single pass free-electron laser designed to obtain high gain amplification at a radiation wavelength of 500 nm. Self-amplified spontaneous emission has been observed driving the amplifier with the high-brightness beam of the SPARC linac. We report measurements of energy, spectra, and exponential gain. Experimental results are compared with simulations from several numerical codes.

Giannessi, L.; Alesini, D.; Antici, P.; Bacci, A.; Bellaveglia, M.; Boni, R.; Boscolo, M.; Briquez, F.; Castellano, M.; Catani, L.; Chiadroni, E.; Cianchi, A.; Ciocci, F.; Clozza, A.; Couprie, M. E.; Cultrera, L.; Dattoli, G.; Del Franco, M.; Dipace, A.; di Pirro, G.; Doria, A.; Drago, A.; Fawley, W. M.; Ferrario, M.; Ficcadenti, L.; Filippetto, D.; Frassetto, F.; Freund, H. P.; Fusco, V.; Gallerano, G.; Gallo, A.; Gatti, G.; Ghigo, A.; Giovenale, E.; Marinelli, A.; Labat, M.; Marchetti, B.; Marcus, G.; Marrelli, C.; Mattioli, M.; Migliorati, M.; Moreno, M.; Mostacci, A.; Orlandi, G.; Pace, E.; Palumbo, L.; Petralia, A.; Petrarca, M.; Petrillo, V.; Poletto, L.; Quattromini, M.; Rau, J. V.; Reiche, S.; Ronsivalle, C.; Rosenzweig, J.; Rossi, A. R.; Rossi Albertini, V.; Sabia, E.; Serafini, L.; Serluca, M.; Spassovsky, I.; Spataro, B.; Surrenti, V.; Vaccarezza, C.; Vescovi, M.; Vicario, C.

2011-06-01

128

Exponential Gain and Saturation of a Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission Free-Electron Laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-amplified spontaneous emission in a free-electron laser has been proposed for the generation of very high brightness coherent x-rays. This process involves passing a high-energy, high-charge, short-pulse, low-energy-spread, and low-emittance electron beam through the periodic magnetic field of a long series of high-quality undulator magnets. The radiation produced grows exponentially in intensity until it reaches a saturation point. We report

S. V. Milton; E. Gluskin; N. D. Arnold; C. Benson; W. Berg; S. G. Biedron; M. Borland; Y.-C. Chae; R. J. Dejus; P. K. Den Hartog; B. Deriy; M. Erdmann; Y. I. Eidelman; M. W. Hahne; Z. Huang; K.-J. Kim; J. W. Lewellen; Y. Li; A. H. Lumpkin; O. Makarov; E. R. Moog; A. Nassiri; V. Sajaev; R. Soliday; B. J. Tieman; E. M. Trakhtenberg; G. Travish; I. B. Vasserman; N. A. Vinokurov; X. J. Wang; G. Wiemerslage; B. X. Yang

2001-01-01

129

GENERAL: Steady State Entanglement and Saturation Effects in Correlated Spontaneous Emission Lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has recently been shown that correlated spontaneous emission lasers (CEL) exhibit transient entanglement in the linear regime. Here we re-examine the quantum correlations in two-photon CEL and explore the saturation effects on continuous variable entanglement. It is shown that the steady state entanglement is obtainable in the weak or moderate saturation regime, while is washed out in the deep saturation regime.

Wang, Fei; Hu, Xiang-Ming; Shi, Wen-Xing

2009-08-01

130

Quantum theory of n-photon correlated-spontaneous-emission lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, n-photon correlated-spontaneous-emission lasers (CEL's) are studied via the quantum theory of Scully-Lamb. It is shown that inversionless lasing can be exhibited; and phase squeezing can be produced in the inversionless region when the laser intensity is smaller than a certain value. The unified approach to n-photon CEL's is given and the properties between n-photon CEL's (n >= 3) and CEL's of n = 1, 2 are compared.

Xiang-ming, Hu; Jin-sheng, Peng

1996-12-01

131

Linear theory of many-cascade two-photon correlated-spontaneous-emission lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I present the linear theory of many-cascade two-photon correlated-spontaneous-emission lasers in which the active atoms have n+1 levels with one top level, one middle level, and n-1 lower levels, and show that the squeezing and the brightness of the squeezed light of the many-cascade two-photon CEL increase with the addition of more coherently prepared lower atomic levels.

Huang, Hong-Bin

1993-09-01

132

SOâ emission control in smelters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A listing of alternatives for SOâ control of smelter emissions is presented. They include: 1) Conversion of sulfur oxides to sulfuric acid; 2) Capture of sulfur oxide from low-grade gas in some intermediate form and regeneration of the SOâ in a more concentrated gas which would then be used to make acid or liquid SOâ; 3) Liquid SOâ production, probably

R. A. Elliot; A. G. Matyas; H. D. Goodfellow; E. H. Nenniger

1982-01-01

133

Coke pushing emission control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for controlling coke oven emissions comprising the steps of: (A) aligning a one-spot, open-top coke quenching car with the coke oven, (B) providing a coke guide from the coke oven to the car, (C) positioning a fume hood over the car, with the fume hood having a length about equal to the length of the car,

D. Kwasnoski; C. Symons

1980-01-01

134

Theory of spontaneous emission noise in open resonators and its application to lasers and optical amplifiers  

SciTech Connect

A theory of spontaneous emission noise is presented based on classical electromagnetic theory. Unlike conventional theories of laser noise, this presentation is valid for open resonators. A local Langevin force is added to the wave equation to account for spontaneous emission. A general expression is found relating the diffusion coefficient of this force to the imaginary part of the dielectric function. The fields of lasers and amplifiers are found by solving the wave equation by the Green's function method. The lasing mode is a resonant state associated with a pole in Green's function. In this way, noise in lasers and amplifiers is treated by a unified approach that is valid for either gain guiding or index guiding. The Langevin rate equations for the laser are derived. The theory is illustrated with applications to traveling wave and Fabry-Perot amplifiers and Fabry-Perot lasers. Several new results are found: optical amplifier noise increases inversely with quantum efficiency; spontaneous emission into the lasing mode is enhanced in lasers with low facet reflectivities; and the linewidth of a Fabry-Perot laser with a passive section decreases as the square of the fraction of the cavity optical length that is active. 27 references.

Henry, C.H.

1986-03-01

135

Multilevel cooperative amplified spontaneous emission from the I/sub 2/(B. -->. X) system  

SciTech Connect

Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) on the I/sub 2/(B..-->..X) system has been studied as a function of excitation wavelength by using a narrow-band pulsed dye-laser pump source. ASE output in the range 1.1--1.3 ..mu..m has been observed for dye-laser excitation wavelengths between 515 and 600 nm. Cooperative emission from several adjacent rotational levels has been observed and provides an explanation for anomalous spectral features. The conversion efficiency of dye-laser photons to ASE output was as high as a few percent. Pump energy thresholds as low as 5.0 ..mu..J were observed.

Glessner, J.W.; Davis, S.J.

1987-07-01

136

Numerical study of amplified spontaneous emission and lasing in random media  

SciTech Connect

We simulate the transition from amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) to lasing in random systems with varying degrees of mode overlap. This is accomplished by solving the stochastic Maxwell-Bloch equations with the finite-difference time-domain method. Below lasing threshold, the continuous emission spectra are narrowed by frequency-dependent amplification. Our simulations reproduce the stochastic emission spikes in the spectra. Well-defined peaks, corresponding to the system resonances, emerge at higher pumping and are narrowed by stimulated emission before lasing takes place. Noise tends to distribute pump energy over many modes, resulting in multimode operation. Well above the lasing threshold, the effects of noise lessen and results become similar to those without noise. By comparing systems of different scattering strength, we find that weaker scattering extends the transition region from ASE to lasing, where the effects of noise are most significant.

Andreasen, Jonathan [Department of Applied Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Cao Hui [Department of Applied Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States)

2010-12-15

137

Control of Copper Smelter Fugitive Emissions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report deals with fugitive emissions from copper smelting and with related emission control measures. The study involved evaluation of the controls now used in the copper smelting industry and development of suggestions for alternative control device...

T. W. Devitt

1980-01-01

138

Using spontaneous photon emission to image lipid oxidation patterns in plant tissues.  

PubMed

Plants, like almost all living organisms, spontaneously emit photons of visible light. We used a highly sensitive, low-noise cooled charge coupled device camera to image spontaneous photon emission (autoluminescence) of plants. Oxidative stress and wounding induced a long-lasting enhancement of plant autoluminescence, the origin of which is investigated here. This long-lived phenomenon can be distinguished from the short-lived chlorophyll luminescence resulting from charge recombinations within the photosystems by pre-adapting the plant to darkness for about 2 h. Lipids in solvent were found to emit a persistent luminescence after oxidation in vitro, which exhibited the same time and temperature dependence as plant autoluminescence. Other biological molecules, such as DNA or proteins, either did not produce measurable light upon oxidation or they did produce a chemiluminescence that decayed rapidly, which excludes their significant contribution to the in vivo light emission signal. Selective manipulation of the lipid oxidation levels in Arabidopsis mutants affected in lipid hydroperoxide metabolism revealed a causal link between leaf autoluminescence and lipid oxidation. Addition of chlorophyll to oxidized lipids enhanced light emission. Both oxidized lipids and plants predominantly emit light at wavelengths higher than 600 nm; the emission spectrum of plant autoluminescence was shifted towards even higher wavelengths, a phenomenon ascribable to chlorophyll molecules acting as luminescence enhancers in vivo. Taken together, the presented results show that spontaneous photon emission imaged in plants mainly emanates from oxidized lipids. Imaging of this signal thus provides a simple and sensitive non-invasive method to selectively visualize and map patterns of lipid oxidation in plants. PMID:21595761

Birtic, Simona; Ksas, Brigitte; Genty, Bernard; Mueller, Martin J; Triantaphylidès, Christian; Havaux, Michel

2011-09-01

139

Observation of modulated spontaneous emission of Rhodamine 6G in low refractive index contrast 1D-periodic gelatin film  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The modulation of the spontaneous emission of Rhodamine 6G has been observed in one-dimensional periodic dielectric structure of dichromated gelatin film with refractive index contrast as low as 0.01. The spontaneous emission is enhanced at the band edges and inhibits in the band gap, which agree well with the theoretical analysis on the redistribution of the fractional local density of optical states.

Li, Wei; Zhang, Xinzheng; Wang, Zhenhua; Wu, Qiang; Liu, Longchang; Xu, Jingjun; Tang, Baiquan

2010-01-01

140

Spontaneous emission of electric and magnetic dipoles in the vicinity of thin and thick metal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strong modification of spontaneous emission of Eu3+ ions placed in close vicinity to thin and thick gold and silver films was clearly demonstrated in a microscope setup separately for electric and magnetic dipole transitions. We have shown that the magnetic transition was very sensitive to the thickness of the gold substrate and behaved distinctly different from the electric transition. The observations were described theoretically based on the dyadic Green's function approach for layered media and explained through modified image models for the near and far-field emissions. We established that there exists a "near-field event horizon", which demarcates the distance from the metal at which the dipole emission is taken up exclusively in the near field.

Hussain, R.; Keene, D.; Noginova, N.; Durach, M.

2014-04-01

141

Spontaneous emission of electric and magnetic dipoles in the vicinity of thin and thick metal.  

PubMed

Strong modification of spontaneous emission of Eu(3+) ions placed in close vicinity to thin and thick gold and silver films was clearly demonstrated in a microscope setup separately for electric and magnetic dipole transitions. We have shown that the magnetic transition was very sensitive to the thickness of the gold substrate and behaved distinctly different from the electric transition. The observations were described theoretically based on the dyadic Green's function approach for layered media and explained through modified image models for the near and far-field emissions. We established that there exists a "near-field event horizon", which demarcates the distance from the metal at which the dipole emission is taken up exclusively in the near field. PMID:24718150

Hussain, R; Keene, D; Noginova, N; Durach, M

2014-04-01

142

Amplified spontaneous emission in optically pumped neat films of a polyfluorene derivative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the emissive properties of a fluorene-based polymer, PF-1SOR, in planar asymmetric waveguides under optical pumping. A laser beam homogenizer setup was applied to achieve the flat-top intensity profile of the excitation light. Amplification of deep blue light via stimulated emission (SE) occurred at an energy threshold of 11 ?J cm -2 and the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) peak could be tuned from 411 to 423 nm. A net gain coefficient of 19.8 cm -1 was obtained by means of the modified variable stripe length (VSL) method. The PF-1SOR thin films delivered a remarkably low loss coefficient of 1.5 cm -1, among the lowest ever reported for a single component polymer waveguide.

Li, Jiu Yan; Laquai, Frédéric; Wegner, Gerhard

2009-08-01

143

USER'S GUIDE: EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES AND EMISSION FACTORS FOR UNPAVED ROAD FUGITIVE EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

This document assists control agency personnel in evaluating unpaved road fugitive emissions control plans and helps industry personnel develop effective control strategies for unpaved roads. he brochure describes control techniques for reducing unpaved road emissions and methods...

144

Spectroscopic properties and amplified spontaneous emission of a new derivative of fluorescein  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new laser dye, 2-(6-acryloyloxy-3-oxo-3H-xanthen-9-yl)-benzoic acid ethyl ester [AOXBE] has been synthesized. Its chemical structure was confirmed by 1HNMR, IR, MS and elemental analysis. This new dye was covalently bonded with methyl methacrylate (MMA) and 2-hydroxy ethyl-methacrylate (HEMA) copolymer backbone. Its optical properties were experimentally investigated. Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and photostability were studied by pumping the dye polymeric sample with a 355 nm (8 ns) pulsed Nd:YAG laser.

Kana, M. T. H. A.; Al-Shamiri, H. A. S.; Azzouz, I. M.; Elwahy, A. H. M.

2007-09-01

145

Long-lived quantum coherence of two-level spontaneous emission models within structured environments.  

PubMed

We investigate the long-lived quantum coherence of two-level spontaneous emission models within structured environments. The population of the system under the asymptotic non-Markovian dynamics is linked to the spectral density of the reservoir through a general functional relation between them. We figure out explicitly the preservation of quantum coherence, via notions of entanglement and quantum discord, in connection with the spectral parameters of Ohmic class reservoirs, and then show how to achieve them optimally. We expect these results to contribute to reservoir engineering with the aim of enhancing stationary quantum coherence in noisy environments. PMID:24104837

Zhang, Ping; You, Bo; Cen, Li-Xiang

2013-09-15

146

Modified spontaneous emission of organic molecules in-filled in inverse opals.  

PubMed

Inverse opals were prepared by replication of colloidal crystal templates made from silica spheres 298 nm in diameter. The air between the silica spheres was filled with the mixture of the monomer poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and the organic molecule Alq3 that can be subsequently polymerized. After removing the silica sphere templates, the photonic bandgap effect on the spontaneous emission of Alq3 were investigated. The dip in the fluorescence spectrum was interpreted in terms of redistribution of the photon density of states in the photonic crystal. PMID:22413286

Deng, Lier; Wang, Yongsheng; He, Dawei

2011-11-01

147

A comparison between degenerate paramagnetic oscillators and two-photon correlated-spontaneous-emission lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The degenerate parametric oscillator (DPO) is analyzed with the nonlinear material treated quantum mechanically. The source of squeezing in the DPO is the same as in the two-photon correlated-spontaneous-emission laser (CEL) — the level coherence. In this sense, they are similar. The amount of squeezing in DPO is the same as in the two-photon CEL at two-photon resonance, but the gain in DPO is usually much smaller than that in the two-photon CEL at two-photon resonance.

Zhu, Shi Yao

1991-01-01

148

Similarity and difference between degenerate parametric oscillators and two-photon correlated-spontaneous-emission lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The degenerate parametric oscillator (DPO) is analyzed with the nonlinear material treated quantum mechanically. The source of squeezing in the DPO is the same as in the two-photon correlated-spontaneous-emission laser (CEL)--the level coherence. In this sense, they are similar. The amount of squeezing in DPO is the same as in the two-photon CEL at two-photon resonance, but the gain in DPO is usually much smaller than that in the two-photon CEL at two-photon resonance.

Zhu, Shi-Yao; Scully, Marlan O.

1991-09-01

149

Reduction of the amplified spontaneous emission threshold in semiconducting polymer waveguides on porous silica.  

PubMed

Hybrid organic-inorganic monomode waveguides of conjugated polymers on porous silicon (PS) substrates have been fabricated. Different low refractive index PS substrates, varying from 1.46 down to 1.18 have been studied. Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) has been observed for all the samples and the ASE threshold has been monitored as a function of the PS refractive index. A decrease in the ASE threshold is detected when the PS refractive index decreases. These results have been analysed in the frame of a four level waveguide amplifier model and the theoretical predictions are in agreement with the experimental data. PMID:19770893

Lahoz, Fernando; Oton, Claudio J; Capuj, Nestor; Ferrer-González, Miriam; Cheylan, Stephanie; Navarro-Urrios, Daniel

2009-09-14

150

Transverse amplified spontaneous emission: The limiting factor for output energy of ultra-high power lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the new generation of the ultra-high power lasers with tens of PW of output power, kJ-level energies have to be reached. Our modeling, applied to Ti:sapphire amplifiers, demonstrates for the first time, according our knowledge, that Transverse Amplified Spontaneous Emission (TASE) places an additional restriction on storing and extracting energy in larger gain apertures, even stronger than transverse parasitic generation (TPG). Nevertheless, we demonstrate that extracting during pumping (EDP) can significantly reduce parasitic losses due to both TASE and TPG.

Chvykov, Vladimir; Nees, John; Krushelnick, Karl

2014-02-01

151

Glass-clad Cr4+:YAG crystal fiber for the generation of superwideband amplified spontaneous emission.  

PubMed

Glass-clad Cr4+:YAG crystal fiber is demonstrated by a codrawing laser-heated pedestal growth method. As much as 2.45 mW of superwideband amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) is generated in the optical fiber communication band with a 3-dB width of 240 nm. The simulation indicates that the ASE power could be in excess of 20 dBm for a 5-microm-diameter core at a pump power of 2.5 W. PMID:15005185

Lo, Chia-Yao; Huang, Kwang-Yao; Chen, Jian-Cheng; Tu, Shih-Yu; Huang, Sheng-Lung

2004-03-01

152

Glass-clad Cr4+YAG crystal fiber for the generation of superwideband amplified spontaneous emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glass-clad Cr4+YAG crystal fiber is demonstrated by a codrawing laser-heated pedestal growth method. As much as 2.45 mW of superwideband amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) is generated in the optical fiber communication band with a 3-dB width of 240 nm. The simulation indicates that the ASE power could be in excess of 20 dBm for a 5-µm-diameter core at a pump power of 2.5 W.

Lo, Chia-Yao; Huang, Kwang-Yao; Chen, Jian-Cheng; Tu, Shih-Yu; Huang, Sheng-Lung

2004-03-01

153

Unifying intensity noise and second-order coherence properties of amplified spontaneous emission sources.  

PubMed

We present joint investigations of relative intensity noise (RIN) and second-order coherence properties of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) generated by a superluminescent diode. We introduce a generalized intensity noise description for ASE sources that contains the shot noise contribution but also accounts for first- and second-order coherence properties reflecting the process of light generation. We find excellent agreement between pump-current-dependent RIN values and this new description, with the perspective of particular interesting consequences for the realization of low-noise broadband emitters. PMID:21886242

Blazek, Martin; Hartmann, Sébastien; Molitor, Andreas; Elsaesser, Wolfgang

2011-09-01

154

Amplified spontaneous emission and pulse train amplification in a KrF amplifier  

SciTech Connect

We present modeling status of pulse-train amplification experiments conducted at Sandia National Laboratory in Albuquerque (SNLA) with an e-beam pumped KrF laser amplifier. The laser geometry is such that the dominant amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) growth is along the propagation axis. Our numerical studies include the propagation of on axis co- and counter-propagating fields for both the pulse train and ASE simultaneously. The time-dependent gain, absorption, formation and quenching rates are obtained from a state-of-the-art kinetics code developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). 12 refs., 12 figs.

Ackerhalt, J.R.; Hanson, D.E.; Adams, R.G.; Raymond, T.D.; Reiser, C.; Rice, J.K.; Michie, R.B.

1988-01-01

155

Tuning Spontaneous Emission versus Forster Energy Transfer in Biological Systems by Manipulating the Density of Photonic States  

Microsoft Academic Search

We theoretically discuss how to tune the competition between Forster transfer and spontaneous emission in a continuous and nondestructive fashion. The proposed approach is especially suitable for delicate biological systems like light harvesting complexes and fluorescent protein oligomers. We demonstrate that the manipulation of the density of photonic states at the emission frequency of the energy donor results in a

Christian Blum; Willem L. Vos; Vinod Subramaniam

2007-01-01

156

Influence of femtosecond superradiant pulses on spontaneous emission spectra of GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures  

SciTech Connect

The spectra of spontaneous emission accompanying the generation of femtosecond superradiant pulses in GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures are studied. It is clearly demonstrated that spontaneous emission spectra of electron-hole pairs, which have been left in the semiconductor after the formation of a coherent collective e-h state, correspond to the strong overheating of carriers. This phenomenon can be explained by the effect of dynamic cooling and nonequilibrium condensation of collectively paired carriers at the bottoms of the bands during the superradiant emission, which was observed earlier. (lasers)

Vasil'ev, P P [P.N. Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kan, H; Hiruma, T [Central Research Lab, Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. (Japan)

2007-11-30

157

Amplified spontaneous emission and lasing from lanthanide-doped up-conversion nanocrystals.  

PubMed

Lanthanide-doped nanocrystals (NCs), which found applications in bioimaging and labeling, have recently demonstrated significant improvement in up-conversion efficiency. Here, we report the first up-conversion multicolor microcavity lasers by using NaYF4:Yb/Er@NaYF4 core-shell NCs as the gain medium. It is shown that the optical gain of the NCs, which arises from the 2- and 3-photon up-conversion processes, can be maximized via sequential pulses pumping. Amplified spontaneous emission is observed from a Fabry-Perot cavity containing the NCs dispersed in cyclohexane solution. By coating a drop of silica resin containing the NCs onto an optical fiber, a microcavity with a bottle-like geometry is fabricated. It is demonstrated that the microcavity supports lasing emission through the formation of whispering gallery modes. PMID:24266853

Zhu, Hai; Chen, Xian; Jin, Li Min; Wang, Qi Jie; Wang, Feng; Yu, Siu Fung

2013-12-23

158

Dynamics of spontaneous emission in a single-end photonic waveguide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the spontaneous emission of a two-level system, e.g., an atom or atomlike object, coupled to a single-end, i.e., a semi-infinite, one-dimensional photonic waveguide such that one end behaves as a perfect mirror while light can pass through the opposite end with no backreflection. Through a quantum microscopic model we show that such geometry can cause nonexponential and long-lived atomic decay. Under suitable conditions, a bound atom-photon stationary state appears in the atom-mirror interspace so as to trap a considerable amount of initial atomic excitation. Yet this can be released by applying an atomic frequency shift, causing a revival of photon emission. The resilience of such effects to typical detrimental factors is analyzed.

Tufarelli, Tommaso; Ciccarello, Francesco; Kim, M. S.

2013-01-01

159

Multiphoton absorption induced amplified spontaneous emission from biocatalyst-synthesized ZnO nanorods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiphoton absorption-induced photoluminescence and amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) have been observed from ZnO nanorod arrays upon near-infrared excitation (?exc~800 nm). A low threshold of ~12 mJ/cm2 was demonstrated for the ASE process. The ultraviolet emission can be attributed to the recombination of carriers coexcited by the processes of three-photon and off-resonant two-photon absorption, which was confirmed by the excitation wavelength-dependent experiments. Additionally, it has been observed that the processes of ASE and second harmonic generation in ZnO nanorods appear to enhance each other when the excitation wavelength approaches the resonant wavelength for two-photon absorption.

Zhang, Chunfeng; Zhang, Fan; Qian, Shixiong; Kumar, Nitin; Hahm, Jong-In; Xu, Jian

2008-06-01

160

Mesoscopic Entanglement Induced by Spontaneous Emission in Solid-State Quantum Optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Implementations of solid-state quantum optics provide us with devices where qubits are placed at fixed positions in photonic or plasmonic one-dimensional waveguides. We show that solely by controlling the position of the qubits and with the help of a coherent driving, collective spontaneous decay may be engineered to yield an entangled mesoscopic steady state. Our scheme relies on the realization of pure superradiant Dicke models by a destructive interference that cancels dipole-dipole interactions in one dimension.

González-Tudela, Alejandro; Porras, Diego

2013-02-01

161

Emissions control through dry scrubbing  

SciTech Connect

Concern over the effects of acidic deposition, from both sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, has caused both industry and the government to look at the means available for efficient, and economical, emissions control. Due to its apparent simplicity of construction, ease of retrofit, and good performance, dry scrubbing is being considered as one of the recommended control methods, should either acid rain legislation, or industrial boiler emission standards, be promulgated. Four years ago, Argonne National Laboratory received a coal conversion order for its baseload boiler from the US Department of Energy (DOE). This order involved the reconversion of a 170,000-lb/hr gas-fired boiler back to spreader-stoker coal combustion. Argonne had decided, for this conversion, to fuel the boiler with the high-Btu, high-sulfur coal typically found in the Illinois coal basin. In order to comply with the State of Illinois air-pollution emission regulations, it was necessary to install both particulate-matter and sulfur dioxide removal equipment. After studying both conventional and advanced technologies, Argonne decided to install the relatively new dry scrubbing process, even though it had never been tested on flue gas from high-sulfur-coal combustion. We have (1) successfully demonstrated that reliable, economical removal of sulfur dioxide at and above the levels dictated by the NSPS is possible; (2) shown that a lime-based spray dryer can perform successfully in a retrofit mode, removing 70% of the inlet SO/sub 2/; (3) ascertained (from actual operation) that system economics seem to be in line with published estimates; and (4) found from waste studies that there is a dependence of pH upon leachate concentration (but no concentration of elements was high enough to classify wastes from a dry scrubbing system as hazardous). 6 refs., 6 figs., 15 tabs.

Farber, P.S.

1985-01-01

162

Effects of low-frequency biasing on spontaneous otoacoustic emissions: Frequency modulation  

PubMed Central

It was previously reported that low-frequency biasing of cochlear structures can suppress and modulate the amplitudes of spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SOAEs) in humans [Bian, L. and Watts, K. L. (2008). “Effects of low-frequency biasing on spontaneous otoacoustic emissions: Amplitude modulation,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 123, 887–898]. In addition to amplitude modulation, the bias tone produced an upward shift of the SOAE frequency and a frequency modulation. These frequency effects usually occurred prior to significant modifications of SOAE amplitudes and were dependent on the relative strength of the bias tone and a particular SOAE. The overall SOAE frequency shifts were usually less than 2%. A quasistatic modulation pattern showed that biasing in either positive or negative pressure direction increased SOAE frequency. The instantaneous SOAE frequency revealed a “W-shaped” modulation pattern within one biasing cycle. The SOAE frequency was maximal at the biasing extremes and minimized at the zero crossings of the bias tone. The temporal modulation of SOAE frequency occurred with a short delay. These static and dynamic effects indicate that modifications of the mechanical properties of the cochlear transducer could underlie the frequency shift and modulation. These biasing effects are consistent with the suppression and modulation of SOAE amplitude due to shifting of the cochlear transducer operating point.

Bian, Lin

2008-01-01

163

Spontaneous emission rate of an electric dipole in a general microcavity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple method to obtain the spontaneous emission rate of a dipole placed in a general microcavity is proposed and demonstrated. In our approach, Maxwell's equations are solved directly in real space instead of k space by the finite-difference time-domain method with a free-space boundary condition. It is advantageous that allowed eigenmodes need not be calculated and the total radiation rates to all the allowed modes are obtained from the beginning. All the localized modes, guided modes, and extended modes are inherently included in this formulation. The validity of the method is tested for a dipole placed in an ideal planar microcavity and the calculated results agree well with the closed-form analytic solutions. The enhancement and the inhibition of the spontaneous emission rate in several photonic band-gap structures are studied. Point dipole analyses show three-dimensional effects in two-dimensional in-plane photonic band gaps and the effects of localized, guided and extended modes on radiation rates.

Hwang, Jeong-Ki; Ryu, Han-Youl; Lee, Yong-Hee

1999-08-01

164

Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis with 4 millimeter resolution based on amplified spontaneous emission.  

PubMed

A new technique for Brillouin scattering-based, distributed fiber-optic measurements of temperature and strain is proposed, analyzed, simulated, and demonstrated. Broadband Brillouin pump and signal waves are drawn from the filtered amplified spontaneous emission of an erbium-doped fiber amplifier, providing high spatial resolution. The reconstruction of the position-dependent Brillouin gain spectra along 5 cm of a silica single-mode fiber under test, with a spatial resolution of 4 mm, is experimentally demonstrated using a 25 GHz-wide amplified spontaneous emission source. A 4 mm-long localized hot spot is identified by the measurements. The uncertainty in the reconstruction of the local Brillouin frequency shift is ± 1.5 MHz. The single correlation peak between the pump and signal is scanned along a fiber under test using a mechanical variable delay line. The analysis of the expected spatial resolution and the measurement signal-to-noise ratio is provided. The measurement principle is supported by numerical simulations of the stimulated acoustic field as a function of position and time. Unlike most other Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis configurations, the proposed scheme is not restricted by the bandwidth of available electro-optic modulators, microwave synthesizers, or pattern generators. Resolution is scalable to less than one millimeter in highly nonlinear media. PMID:24921326

Cohen, Raphael; London, Yosef; Antman, Yair; Zadok, Avi

2014-05-19

165

On the spontaneous emission of electromagnetic radiation in the CSL model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spontaneous photon emission in the Continuous Spontaneous Localization (CSL) model is studied one more time. In the CSL model each particle interacts with a noise field that induces the collapse of its wave function. As a consequence of this interaction, when the particle is electrically charged, it radiates. As discussed in Adler (2013) the formula for the emission rate, to first perturbative order, contains two terms: one is proportional to the Fourier component of the noise field at the same frequency as that of the emitted photon and one is proportional to the zero Fourier component of the noise field. As discussed in previous works, this second term seems unphysical. In Adler (2013) it was shown that the unphysical term disappears when the noise is confined to a bounded region and the final particle's state is a wave packet. Here we investigate the origin of this unphysical term and why it vanishes according to the previous prescription. We will see that perturbation theory is formally not valid in the large time limit since the effect of the noise accumulates continuously in time. Therefore either one performs an exact calculation (or at least in some way includes higher order terms) as we do here, or one finds a way to make a perturbative calculation meaningful, e.g., by confining the system as in Adler (2013).

Donadi, Sandro; Deckert, Dirk-André; Bassi, Angelo

2014-01-01

166

Spontaneous neoplasms in aged control Fischer 344 rats.  

PubMed

Neoplastic lesions in untreated F-344 rats (740 males and 740 females) used as controls in carcinogenicity studies were evaluated and tabulated. The incidence of spontaneous tumors was 84.3% in the males and 76.2% in the females. In males, the most common neoplasms were testicular interstitial cell tumors (79.5%) followed by mononuclear cell leukemia/lymphomas (30.5%), pituitary adenomas (20.5%), pancreatic islet cell adenomas (6.5%), thyroid c-cell adenomas (5.7%), pheochromocytomas (5.7%), skin fibromas (3.2%), keratoacanthomas (1.9%), and thyroid follicular cell adenomas (1.9%). In females, the most common neoplasms were pituitary adenomas (30.3%) followed by mononuclear cell leukemia/lymphomas (20.5%), endometrial polyps (14.1%), mammary fibroadenomas (11.1%), thyroid c-cell adenomas (5.1%), mammary adenomas (1.9%), skin fibromas (1.1%), and clitoral carcinomas (1.1%). A variety of less common neoplasms were also observed in various other organs. PMID:1540931

Chandra, M; Frith, C F

1992-02-14

167

Light emission control by photonic crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photonic crystals are novel functional photonic nanostructures with the ability to control optical modes. In this paper, we will present recent progress on the lightemission control by photonic crystals. It has been clearly demonstrated that undesired light emission can be inhibited by the photonic bandgap, whereas desired emission efficiency can be increased. In addition, the light emission phenomena of gallium

Masayuki Fujita; Susumu Noda

2010-01-01

168

Investigation of the spontaneous emission rate of perylene dye molecules encapsulated into three-dimensional nanofibers via FLIM method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The decay dynamics of perylene dye molecules encapsulated in polymer nanofibers produced by electrospinning of polymethyl methacrylate are investigated using a confocal fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy technique. Time-resolved experiments show that the fluorescence lifetime of perylene dye molecules is enhanced when the dye molecules are encapsulated in a three-dimensional photonic environment. It is hard to produce a sustainable host with exactly the same dimensions all the time during fabrication to accommodate dye molecules for enhancement of spontaneous emission rate. The electrospinning method allows us to have a control over fiber diameter. It is observed that the wavelength of monomer excitation of perylene dye molecules is too short to cause enhancement within nanofiber photonic environment of 330 nm diameters. However, when these nanofibers are doped with more concentrated perylene, in addition to monomer excitation, an excimer excitation is generated. This causes observation of the Purcell effect in the three-dimensional nanocylindrical photonic fiber geometry.

Acikgoz, Sabriye; Demir, Mustafa M.; Yapasan, Ece; Kiraz, Alper; Unal, Ahmet A.; Inci, M. Naci

2014-03-01

169

PARTICULATE EMISSION MEASUREMENTS FROM CONTROLLED CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report summarized the results of field testing of the effectiveness of control measures for sources of fugitive particulate emissions found at construction sites. The effectiveness of watering temporary, unpaved travel surfaces on emissions of particulate matter with aerodyna...

170

Amplified spontaneous emission in N2 lasers: Saturation and bandwidth study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A complete ASE analysis in a 3-level laser system based on the model of the geometrically dependent gain coefficient (GDGC) is presented. For the study, the photon density/intensity rate equation in the saturated and unsaturated conditions, along with reported experimental measurements on the ASE output energy and spectral bandwidth for N2-lasers were utilized. It was found that the GDGC model is able to explain the ASE output energy behavior and gain profiles correctly. In addition, the model was used to predict the spontaneous emission bandwidth ??0 and consequently the stimulated emission cross-section for the C?B transition of nitrogen molecule at 337.1 nm. In this work, for example, ??0 was found to be 766 GHz (2.9 Å) which is consistent with the earliest experimental observation on the ASE bandwidth reduction in a N2-laser as reported to be ~3. This is the first theoretical result that explains the spontaneous emission bandwidth which is different from the commonly used value of ~1 Å obtained from measurements of N2-lasers output spectra. The method was also applied for a filament N2 laser for the C?B transition produced in atmosphere, and a good consistency between the laboratory and filament lasers was obtained. Details of the calculations for this study are presented. The results obtained from 3-level systems confirm further the potential of applying the GDGC model for the ASE study in different laser systems and is unifying lasers of the same active medium.

Hariri, A.; Sarikhani, S.

2014-05-01

171

Nonlinear resonance: Determining maximal autoresonant response and modulation of spontaneous otoacoustic emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sustained resonance in a linear oscillator is achievable with a drive whose constant frequency matches the resonant frequency of the oscillator. In oscillators with nonlinear restoring forces, i.e., Duffing-type oscillators, resonant frequency changes with amplitude, so a constant frequency drive generates a beat oscillation instead of sustained resonance. Duffing-type oscillators can be driven into sustained resonance, called autoresonance (AR), when drive frequency is swept in time to match the changing resonant frequency of the oscillator. It is found that near-optimal drive linear sweep rates for autoresonance can be estimated from the beat oscillation resulting from constant frequency excitation. Specifically, a least squares estimate of the slope of the Teager-Kaiser instantaneous frequency versus time plot for the rising half-cycle of the beat response to a stationary drive provides a near-optimal estimate of the linear drive sweep rate that sustains resonance in the pendulum, Duffing and Duffing-Van der Pol oscillators. These predictions are confirmed with model-based numerical simulations. A closed-form approximation to the AM-FM nonlinear resonance beat response of a Duffing oscillator driven at its low-amplitude oscillator frequency is obtained from a solution to an associated Mathieu equation. AR time responses are found to evolve along a Mathieu equation primary resonance stability boundary. AR breakdown occurs at sweep rates just past optimal and map to a single stable point just off the Mathieu equation primary resonance stability boundary. Optimal AR sweep rates produce oscillating phase differences with extrema near 90 degrees, allowing extended time in resonance. AR breakdown occurs when phase difference equals 180 degrees. Nonlinear resonance of the van der Pol type may play a role in the extraordinary sensitivity of the human ear. The mechanism for maintaining the cochlear amplifier at its critical point is currently unknown. The possibility of open-loop control of cochlear operating point, maintaining criticality on average through periodically varying damping (super-regeneration) motivates a study of spontaneous otoacoustic emission (SOAE) amplitude modulation on a short (msec) time scale. An example of periodic amplitude modulation within a wide filter bandwidth is found that appears to be a beat oscillation of two SOAEs.

Witkov, Carey

172

Final LDRD report : enhanced spontaneous emission rate in visible III-nitride LEDs using 3D photonic crystal cavities.  

SciTech Connect

The fundamental spontaneous emission rate for a photon source can be modified by placing the emitter inside a periodic dielectric structure allowing the emission to be dramatically enhanced or suppressed depending on the intended application. We have investigated the relatively unexplored realm of interaction between semiconductor emitters and three dimensional photonic crystals in the visible spectrum. Although this interaction has been investigated at longer wavelengths, very little work has been done in the visible spectrum. During the course of this LDRD, we have fabricated TiO{sub 2} logpile photonic crystal structures with the shortest wavelength band gap ever demonstrated. A variety of different emitters with emission between 365 nm and 700 nm were incorporated into photonic crystal structures. Time-integrated and time-resolved photoluminescence measurements were performed to measure changes to the spontaneous emission rate. Both enhanced and suppressed emission were demonstrated and attributed to changes to the photonic density of states.

Fischer, Arthur Joseph; Subramania, Ganapathi S.; Coley, Anthony J.; Lee, Yun-Ju; Li, Qiming; Wang, George T.; Luk, Ting Shan; Koleske, Daniel David; Fullmer, Kristine Wanta

2009-09-01

173

Spontaneous Emission Between - and Para-Levels of Water-Ion H_2O^+  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear spin conversion interaction of water ion, H_2O^+, has been studied to derive spontaneous emission lifetime between ortho- and para-levels. H_2O^+ is a radical ion with the ^2B_1 electronic ground state. Its off-diagonal electron spin-nuclear spin interaction term, Tab(S_a? I_b + S_b? I_a), connects para and ortho levels, because ? I = I_1 - I_2 has nonvanishing matrix elements between I = 0 and 1. The mixing by this term with Tab = 72 MHz predicted by ab initio theory in the MRD-CI/Bk level, is many orders of magnitude larger than for closed shell molecules because of the large magnetic interaction due to the un-paired electron. Using the molecular constants reported by Mürtz et al. by FIR-LMR, we searched for ortho and para coupling channels below 1000 cm-1 with accidental near degeneracy between para and ortho levels. For example, hyperfine components of the 42,2(ortho) and 33,0(para) levels mix by 1.2 × 10-3 due to their near degeneracy (? E = 0.417 cm-1), and give the ortho-para spontaneous emission lifetime of about 0.63 year. The most significant low lying 10,1(para) and 11,1(ortho) levels, on the contrary, mix only by 8.7 × 10-5 because of their large separation (? E = 16.267 cm-1) and give the spontaneous emission lifetime from 10,1(para) to 00,0(ortho) of about 100 year.These results qualitatively help to understand the observed high ortho- to para- H_2O^+ ratio of 4.8 ± 0.5 toward Sgr B2 but they are too slow to compete with the conversion by collision unless the number density of the region is very low (n ˜1 cm-3) or radiative temperature is very high (T_r > 100 K). M. Staikova, B. Engels, M. Peric, and S.D. Peyerimhoff, Mol. Phys. 80, 1485 (1993) P. Mürtz, L.R. Zink, K.M. Evenson, and J.M. Brown J. Chem. Phys. 109, 9744 (1998). LP. Schilke, et al., A&A 521, L11 (2010).

Tanaka, Keiichi; Harada, Kensuke; Nanbu, Shinkoh; Oka, Takeshi

2012-06-01

174

CONTROL OF COPPER SMELTER FUGITIVE EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report deals with fugitive emissions from copper smelting and with related emission control measures. The study involved evaluation of the controls now used in the copper smelting industry and development of suggestions for alternative control devices and practices. A brief ...

175

Observation of novel radioactive decay by spontaneous emission of complex nuclei  

SciTech Connect

Two years of experimental investigation on the subject of spontaneous emission of intermediate-mass fragments is described in this manuscript. A short introduction on this subject and a historical review are presented in chapter 1. In chapter 2, the author describe the experimental methods which led to the observation of /sup 14/C emission in polycarbonate etched-track detectors from the isotopes /sup 222/Ra, /sup 223/Ra, /sup 224/Ra and /sup 226/Ra at the branching ratios with respect to ..cap alpha..-decay of (3.7 +/- 0.6) x 10/sup -10/, (6.1 +/- 1.0) x 10/sup -10/, (4.3 +/- 1.2) x 10/sup -10/ and (2.9 +/- 1.0) x 10/sup -11/ respectively. Branching ratio limits for heavy-ion emission from /sup 221/Fr, /sup 221/Ra and /sup 225/Ac were determined to be at < 5.0 x 10/sup -14/, < 1.2 x 10/sup -13/ and < 4.0 x 10/sup -13/ respectively for the 90% C.L. The emission of /sup 24/Ne from /sup 232/U at a branching ratio of (2.0 +/- 0.5) x 10/sup -12/ has been discovered using polyethylene terephthalate etched-track plastics. A confirmation of /sup 24/Ne and/or /sup 25/Ne emission from /sup 233/U at a branching ratio of (5.3 +/- 2.3) x 10/sup -13/ is also reported. In chapter 3, three models of intermediate-mass decay are discussed-the analytic superasymmetric fission model, the model by Shi and Swiatecki, and a model based on a square-well + Coulomb potential.

Barwick, S.W.

1986-01-01

176

Microscopic theory of optical nonlinearities and spontaneous emission lifetime in group-III nitride quantum wells  

SciTech Connect

Microscopic calculations of the absorption and luminescence spectra are presented for wide bandgap Ga{sub 1{minus}x}In{sub x}N/GaN quantum well systems. Whereas structures with narrow well widths exhibit the usual excitation-dependent bleaching of the exciton resonance without shifting spectral position, a significant blueshift of the exciton peak is obtained for wider quantum wells. This blueshift, which is also present in the excitation-dependent luminescence spectra, is attributed to the interplay between the screening of a strain induced piezoelectric field and the density dependence of many-body Coulomb effects. The calculations also show an over two orders of magnitude increase in the spontaneous electron-hole-pair lifetime with well width, due to the reduction of the electron-hole wave function overlap in the wider wells. The resulting decrease in spontaneous emission loss is predicted to lead to improved threshold properties in wide quantum well lasers. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

Chow, W. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-0601 (United States)] [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-0601 (United States); Kira, M. [Department of Physics and Material Sciences Center, Philipps-University, Renthof 5, D-35032 Marburg (Germany)] [Department of Physics and Material Sciences Center, Philipps-University, Renthof 5, D-35032 Marburg (Germany); Koch, S.W. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-0601 (United States)] [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-0601 (United States); [Department of Physics and Material Sciences Center, Philipps-University, Renthof 5, D-35032 Marburg (Germany)

1999-07-01

177

Photo-physical properties and amplified spontaneous emission of a new derivative of fluorescein  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The synthesis of new high-performance dyes and the implementation of new ways of incorporating the organic molecules into the solid host matrices have produced a great deal of activity in the field of solid-state dye lasers. In this article, the new laser dye, 2-(6-allyl-3-oxo-3H-xanthen-9-yl)-benzoic acid ethyl ester [AXBE] has been synthesized, and its chemical structure was confirmed by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR and elemental analysis. This new dye was covalently bonded with methyl methacrylate (MMA) and 2-hydroxy ethyl methacrylate (HEMA) copolymer backbone and evaluated as the active medium of the solid-state laser dye. Its optical properties were experimentally investigated. Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and photostability were studied by pumping the dye sample with 355 nm (8 ns) pulsed Nd-YAG laser.

Al-Shamiri, Hamdan A. S.; Kana, Maram T. H. Abou; Azzouz, I. M.; Elwahy, Ahmed H. M.

2010-04-01

178

Systematic study of spontaneous emission in a two-dimensional arbitrary inhomogeneous environment  

SciTech Connect

The spontaneous emission (SE) of the excited atoms in a two-dimensional (2D) arbitrary inhomogeneous environment has been systematically studied. The local density of states, which determines the radiation dynamics of a point source (for 3D) or a line source (for 2D), in particular, the SE rate, is represented by the electric dyadic Green's function. The numerical solution of the electric Green's tensor has been accurately obtained with the finite-difference frequency-domain method with the proper approximations of the monopole and dipole sources. The SE of atoms in photonic crystal and plasmonic metal plates has been comprehensively and comparatively investigated. For both the photonic crystal and plasmonic plates systems, the SEs depend on their respective dispersion relations and could be modified by the finite-structure or finite-size effects. This work is important for SE engineering and the optimized design of optoelectronic devices.

Qiao Pengfei; Sha, Wei E. I.; Choy, Wallace C. H.; Chew, Weng Cho [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong); Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong) and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urban, Illinois 61820 (United States)

2011-04-15

179

Low threshold amplified spontaneous emission from dye-doped DNA biopolymer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we investigate the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) properties and conduct a comparative study for two kinds of dye-doped deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) biopolymers. The system consists of optical films made of DNA modified by two types of surfactants and doped with a common laser dye rhodamine 6G (Rh6G). The ASE properties of the optical films were characterized by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. The results show that low threshold of DNA biopolymer can be achieved by the employment of suitable surfactant in the system, resulting from an efficient energy transfer process. Coupled with the fluorescence enhancement exhibited in DNA, this effect can further advance biopolymers toward highly efficient media for lasing applications and organic solid-state lasers.

Hung, Yu-Chueh; Su, Che-Hsuan; Huang, Hsien-Wen

2012-06-01

180

Enhanced amplified spontaneous emission using layer-by-layer assembled cowpea mosaic virus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Layer-by-layer assembly technique was used to construct ultrathin film of cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) by electrostatic interactions, and the film was employed as a precursor on which an OF8T2 film was deposited by spin coating. Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) was observed and improved for the OF8T2 film. Compared with OF8T2 film on quartz, the introduction of CPMV nanoparticles reduced the threshold and loss, and remarkably increased the net gain. The threshold, loss, and gain reached 0.05 mJ/pulse, 6.9 cm-1, and 82 cm-1, respectively. CPMV nanoparticles may enormously scatter light, resulting in a positive feedback, thus the ASE is easily obtained and improved.

Li, Na; Deng, Zhaoqi; Lin, Yuan; Zhang, Xiaojie; Geng, Yanhou; Ma, Dongge; Su, Zhaohui

2009-01-01

181

Effect of different metal-backed waveguides on amplified spontaneous emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the effect of a metallic electrode on the ability for poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV) film to undergo amplified spontaneous emission (ASE). The threshold of the device with Ag cladding is about 10 times greater than that of a metal-free device, but metal such as Al completely shuts off ASE. The ASE recurs when a thin spacer layer, such as a few nanometers of SiO2, is introduced between the MEH-PPV film and the Al cladding. Compared with the Cu or Al electrode, the Ag cladding is most suited to serve as an electrode with its low optical loss due to its high work-function and reflectivity.

Zhang, Bo; Hou, Yan-Bing; Lou, Zhi-Dong; Teng, Feng; Liu, Xiao-Jun; Hu, Bing; Meng, Ling-Chuan; Wu, Wen-Bin

2012-08-01

182

Analysis of self-amplified spontaneous emission free-electron laser using Lienard-Wiechert fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamical equations of electrons in an electron beam with finite length under the influence of a planar wiggler magnetic field and the Lienard-Wiechert fields of other electrons are derived and solved numerically. The analysis is applicable to self-amplified spontaneous emission free-electron laser for which no initial seed radiation is required. By assuming a monoenergetic and filamentary electron beam, thermal effects are neglected and electrons are injected with zero average transverse distance from the wiggler axis. The formalism is based on the retardation effects; therefore, slippage is naturally embedded in the analysis. It was found that energy, number density, and two-particle correlation for the electron beam are modulated by the radiation wavelength which indicates bunching. Spatial, temporal, and angular characteristics of electromagnetic radiation power are also studied.

Kia, M. R.; Maraghechi, B.

2012-04-01

183

Temporal phase mask encrypted optical steganography carried by amplified spontaneous emission noise.  

PubMed

A temporal phase mask encryption method is proposed and experimentally demonstrated to improve the security of the stealth channel in an optical steganography system. The stealth channel is protected in two levels. In the first level, the data is carried by amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise, which cannot be detected in either the time domain or spectral domain. In the second level, even if the eavesdropper suspects the existence of the stealth channel, each data bit is covered by a fast changing phase mask. The phase mask code is always combined with the wide band noise from ASE. Without knowing the right phase mask code to recover the stealth data, the eavesdropper can only receive the noise like signal with randomized phase. PMID:24515055

Wu, Ben; Wang, Zhenxing; Shastri, Bhavin J; Chang, Matthew P; Frost, Nicholas A; Prucnal, Paul R

2014-01-13

184

Asbestos Emissions from Baghouse Controlled Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is virtually no information published on the absolute efficiency of baghouses in reducing the emissions of fine particles of asbestos. This lack of information is unfortunate because serious occupational health problems may result from the common practice of recirculating air to conserve energy. Emission testing has been conducted at five asbestos processing plants where the emissions are controlled by

COLIN F. HARWOOD; DAVID K. OESTREICH; PAUL SIEBERT; JOHN D. STOCKHAM

1975-01-01

185

Optimization of BOF air emission control systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fume sources from a BOF facility originate from primary and secondary emissions. Primary emissions are generated from blowing oxygen into the furnace. Secondary emissions result from hot metal transfer, desulfurization, iron ladle skimming, furnace scrap and hot metal charging, tapping and, to a lesser extent, slagging and turndown. Techniques for optimizing pollution control include: (1) improving hood capture design using

T. Cesta; L. M. Wrona

1995-01-01

186

Gravity Wave Emission by Spontaneous Imbalance of Baroclinic Waves in the Continuously Stratified Rotating Annulus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use a numerical model of the classic differentially heated rotating annulus experiment to study the spontaneous emission of gravity waves (GWs) from jet stream imbalances, which is a major source of these waves in the atmosphere for which no satisfactory parameterization exists. Atmospheric observations are the main tool for the testing and verification of theoretical concepts but have their limitations. Given their specific potential for yielding reproducible data and for studying process dependence on external system parameters, laboratory experiments are an invaluable complementary tool. Experiments with a rotating annulus exhibiting a jet modulated by large-scale waves due to baroclinic instability have already been used to study GWs: Williams et al (2008) observed spontaneously emitted interfacial GWs in a two-layer flow, and Jacoby et al (2011) detected GWs emitted from boundary-layer instabilities in a differentially heated rotating annulus. Employing a finite-volume code for the numerical simulation of a continuously stratified liquid in a differentially heated rotating annulus, we here investigate the GWs in a wide and shallow annulus with relatively large temperature difference between inner and outer cylinder walls. In this atmosphere-like regime where the Brunt-Vaisala frequency is larger than the inertial frequency, various analyses suggest a distinct gravity wave activity. To identify regions of GW emission we decompose the flow into the geostrophic and ageostrophic part through the inversion of the quasi-geostrophic potential vorticity (e.g. Verkley, 2009). The analysis of the geostrophic sources of the ageostrophic flow indicates that, in addition to boundary layer instabilities, spontaneous imbalance in the jet region acts as an important source mechanism. Jacoby, T. N. L., Read, P. L., Williams, P. D. and Young, R. M. B., 2011: Generation of inertia-gravity waves in the rotating thermal annulus by a localised boundary layer instability. Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn., 105, 161-181. Doi:10.1080/03091929.2011.560151 Verkley, W.T.M., 2009: A balanced approximation of the one-layer shallow-water equations on a sphere. J. Atmos. Sci., 66, 1735-1748. Doi:10.1175/2008JAS2837.1 Williams, P. D., Haine, T. W. N. and Read, P. L., 2008: Inertia-gravity waves emitted from balanced flow: observations, properties, and consequences. J. Atmos. Sci., 65, 3543-3556. Doi:10.1175/2008JAS2480.1

Borchert, Sebastian; Achatz, Ulrich; Rieper, Felix; Fruman, Mark

2013-04-01

187

Coke pushing emission control system  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for controlling coke oven emissions comprising the steps of: (A) aligning a one-spot, open-top coke quenching car with the coke oven, (B) providing a coke guide from the coke oven to the car, (C) positioning a fume hood over the car, with the fume hood having a length about equal to the length of the car, (D) pushing hot coke from the coke oven through the coke guide and into the car, (E) withdrawing gases from the fume hood during step (D) and passing said gases to gas cleaning equipment at a gas flowrate of between about 1000 and about 3500 scfmd per ton of coke pushed under step (D), and (F) substantially upon completion of step (E) moving the car from under the fume hood to a quenching station with the hot coke in the car exposed to the atmosphere and without further withdrawal of gases from the hot coke to the gas cleaning equipment.

Kwasnoski, D.; Symons, C.

1980-07-08

188

Towards the two-dimensional imaging of spontaneous ultra-weak photon emission from microbial, plant and animal cells  

PubMed Central

Two-dimensional imaging of spontaneous ultra-weak photon emission was measured in the yeast cells, Arabidopsis plant and the human hand using highly sensitive charge coupled device (CCD) camera. For the first time, the detail analysis of measuring parameters such as accumulation time and binning is provided with the aim to achieve two-dimensional images of spontaneous ultra-weak photon emission of good quality. We present data showing that using a hardware binning with binning factor 4 × 4, the accumulation time decreases in the following order: yeast cells (30?min) > the human hand (20?min) > Arabidopsis plant (10?min). Analysis of measuring parameters provides a detailed description of standard condition to be used for two-dimensional spontaneous ultra-weak photon imaging in microbes, plants and animals. Thus, CCD imaging can be employed as a unique tool to examine the oxidative state of the living organism with the application in microbiological, plant and medical research.

Prasad, Ankush; Pospisil, Pavel

2013-01-01

189

Calculation of spontaneous emission from a V-type three-level atom in photonic crystals using fractional calculus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fractional time derivative, an abstract mathematical operator of fractional calculus, is used to describe the real optical system of a V-type three-level atom embedded in a photonic crystal. A fractional kinetic equation governing the dynamics of the spontaneous emission from this optical system is obtained as a fractional Langevin equation. Solving this fractional kinetic equation by fractional calculus leads to

Chih-Hsien Huang; Jing-Nuo Wu; Yen-Yin Li; Szu-Cheng Cheng; Wen-Feng Hsieh

2011-01-01

190

EFFECTS OF INSTILLED EMISSION PARTICULATE MATTER ON ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHIC INDICES AND HEART RATE VARIABILITY (HRV) IN SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

EFFECTS OF INSTILLED EMISSION PARTICULATE MATTER (EPM) ON ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHIC INDICES AND HEART RATE VARIABILITY (HRV) IN SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE (SH) RATS. L.B. Wichers1, J.P. Nolan2, W.H. Rowan2, M.J. Campen3, T.P. Jenkins4, D.L. Costa2, and W.P. Watkinson2. 1UNC SPH, Chap...

191

Importance of dye host on absorption, propagation losses, and amplified spontaneous emission for dye-doped polymer thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

The absorption spectra of dye-doped polymer thin films made from a variety of five dyes and six matrices, either organic or organomineral, are analyzed to evaluate the residual absorption in the red wavelength tail and in particular at amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) wavelengths. An absorption cutoff wavelength is defined as the extrapolated wavelength at which the absorption losses are expected

Hélène Goudket; Tran Hong Nhung; Buntha Ea-Kim; Gisèle Roger; Michael Canva

2006-01-01

192

Superasymmetric two-center shell model for spontaneous heavy-ion emission  

SciTech Connect

The single particle levels for the heavy-ion emission process are computed. This decay mode is treated like a superasymmetric fission process. The nuclear shape parametrization is characterized by three degrees of freedom. The difficulties encountered in the microscopic determination of the energy scheme at these very large mass asymmetries are presented. Thereby, a new version of the two-center model, especially designed for very large mass asymmetries, is described. The {sup 14}C heavy-ion spontaneous emission from the parent nucleus {sup 223}Ra is treated in the frame of this model. The principal trends of the variations obtained for the energetic levels during this superasymmetric nuclear decay are discussed. Mainly, for this kind of decay mode, the levels with lower values of the angular momentum projection {Omega} show more pronounced variations than those with higher {Omega}. Also, a qualitative explanation for the favoring of the first excited states in the fine structure in this radioactive process is given. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

Mirea, M. [Institute of Atomic Physics, P.O. Box MG-6, Bucharest (Romania)] [Institute of Atomic Physics, P.O. Box MG-6, Bucharest (Romania)

1996-07-01

193

Spontaneous emission of guided polaritons by quantum dot coupled to metallic nanowire: beyond the dipole approximation.  

PubMed

In this paper, we theoretically analyze the emission of guided polaritons accompanying spontaneous recombination in a semiconductor quantum dot coupled to metallic nanowire. This study is aimed to shed light on the interaction between optically excited quantum emitters and metallic nanowaveguides beyond the validity of dipole approximation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time the geometry of quantum emitter and spatial inhomogeneity of the electric field constituting the fundamental polariton mode are fully taken into account. Even though we performed the analysis for disk-like quantum dot, all the conclusions are quite general and remain valid for any emitter with nanometer dimensions. Particularly, we found that the strong inhomogeneity of the electric field near the nanowire surface results in a variety of dipole-forbidden transitions in the quantum dot energy s ctra. It was also unambiguously shown that there is a certain nanowire radius that gives maximum emission efficiency into the fundamental polariton mode. Since the dipole approximation breaks for nanowires with small radii and relatively big nanoemitters, the above features need to be considered in the engineering of plasmonic devices for nanophotonic networks. PMID:19907541

Rukhlenko, Ivan D; Handapangoda, Dayan; Premaratne, Malin; Fedorov, Anatoly V; Baranov, Alexander V; Jagadish, Chennupati

2009-09-28

194

BAPTA induces frequency shifts in vivo of spontaneous otoacoustic emissions of the bobtail lizard.  

PubMed

Spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SOAEs) are indicators of active processes in the inner ear and are found in all classes of land vertebrates. In the Australian bobtail lizard, earlier work showed that otoacoustic emissions are generated by an active motility process in the hair-cell bundle. This is likely to be driven by calcium-sensitive mechanisms implicated in other non-mammalian hair cell systems. If so, it should be fundamentally influenced by the extracellular calcium concentration. In in vitro studies, the rate of force generation in hair cell stereovilli is linked to the extracellular calcium concentration. In such preparations, low-calcium solutions, buffered by the calcium chelator BAPTA, were reported to change the frequency of hair cell bundle oscillations. In the present study, BAPTA was iontophoresed into the endolymph of the bobtail skink in vivo, and SOAEs were monitored. Application of BAPTA resulted in a prolonged downward shift in the frequency of individual SOAE spectral peaks. Recovery took more than 1 h, consistent with a slow clearance of BAPTA from endolymph. SOAE peak amplitudes were most often enhanced, suggesting there was no functional disruption of tip links. The direction and degree of frequency shifts were consistent with in vitro and in vivo data showing the effects of changing calcium concentrations in the endolymph directly. PMID:15925861

Manley, Geoffrey A; Kirk, Desmond L

2005-01-01

195

Standoff detection of nitrotoluenes using 213-nm amplified spontaneous emission from nitric oxide.  

PubMed

A method of standoff detection based on the observation of laser-induced fluorescence-amplified spontaneous emission (LIF-ASE) is described. LIF-ASE generates uniaxial intensity distributions of the observed fluorescence with the majority of intensity propagating along the excitation axis in both the forward and backward directions. The detection of bulk vapor at significant standoff distances is readily achieved. This method was used to detect NO directly and as a photoproduct after 213-nm excitation of 2-, 3-, and 4-nitrotoluene. The NO LIF-ASE spectra were studied as a function of buffer gas. These studies showed that the emission from different vibrational states was dependent upon the buffer gas used, suggesting that the populations of vibrational states were influenced by the environment. A similar sensitivity of the vibrational populations was observed when the different nitroaromatic precursors were used in nitrogen buffer gas. Such sensitivity to environmental influences can be used to distinguish among the different nitroaromatic precursors and facilitate the identification of the bulk vapor of these analytes. PMID:19649618

Arnold, Bradley; Kelly, Lisa; Oleske, Jeffrey B; Schill, Alexander

2009-09-01

196

Plasmonic Structures for CMOS Photonics and Control of Spontaneous Emission.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this project, we have (i) demonstrated modulation of the refractive index n >1 at near infrared frequencies during field effect gating of conducting oxide (ITO) thin films for switching applications; (ii) demonstrated record low coupling loss from sili...

H. A. Atwater

2013-01-01

197

Gravity Wave Emission by Spontaneous Imbalance of Baroclinic Waves in the Continuously Stratified Rotating Annulus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use a numerical model of the classic differentially heated rotating annulus experiment to study the spontaneous emission of gravity waves (GWs) from jet stream imbalances, which is a major source of these waves in the atmosphere for which no satisfactory parameterization exists. Atmospheric observations are the main tool for the testing and verification of theoretical concepts but have their limitations. Given their specific potential for yielding reproducible data and for studying process dependence on external system parameters, laboratory experiments are an invaluable complementary tool. Experiments with a rotating annulus exhibiting a jet modulated by large-scale waves due to baroclinic instability have already been used to study GWs: Williams et al (2008) observed spontaneously emitted interfacial GWs in a two-layer flow, and Jacoby et al (2011) detected GWs emitted from boundary-layer instabilities in a differentially heated rotating annulus. Employing a new finite-volume code for the numerical simulation of a continuously stratified liquid in a differentially heated rotating annulus, we here investigate whether such an experiment might be useful for studies of spontaneous imbalance. A major problem was the identification of experimental parameters yielding an atmosphere-like regime where the Brunt-Vaisala frequency is larger than the inertial frequency, so that energy transport by the lowest-frequency waves is predominantly horizontal while high-frequency GWs transport energy vertically. We show that this is indeed the case for a wide and shallow annulus with relatively large temperature difference between the inner and outer cylinder walls. We also show that this set-up yields a conspicuous signal in the horizontal divergence field close to the meandering jet. Various analyses support the notion that this signal is predominantly due to GWs superposed on a geostrophic flow. Jacoby, T. N. L., Read, P. L., Williams, P. D. and Young, R. M. B., 2011: Generation of inertia-gravity waves in the rotating thermal annulus by a localised boundary layer instability. Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn., 105, 161-181. doi:10.1080/03091929.2011.560151 Williams, P. D., Haine, T. W. N. and Read, P. L., 2008: Inertia-gravity waves emitted from balanced flow: observations, properties, and consequences. J. Atmos. Sci., 65, 3543-3556. doi:10.1175/2008JAS2480.1

Borchert, S.; Achatz, U.; Rieper, F.; Fruman, M. D.

2012-04-01

198

Spontaneous abortion: a randomized, controlled trial comparing surgical evacuation with conservative management using misoprostol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare the efficacy of surgical evacuation of the uterus with medical evacuation using misoprostol in cases of spontaneous abortion.Design: A prospective, randomized, controlled trial.Setting: A university teaching hospital.Patient(s): Six hundred thirty-five women who aborted spontaneously and who consented to pretreatment randomization.Intervention(s): Routine surgical evacuation or medical evacuation of the uterus using misoprostol.Main Outcome Measure(s): Immediate, short-term (2–3 weeks),

Tony Kwok Hung Chung; Dominic Tak Sing Lee; Lai Ping Cheung; Christopher John Haines; Allan Mang Zing Chang

1999-01-01

199

Control emissions from aboveground storage tanks  

SciTech Connect

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted as vapors escape from aboveground organic liquid storage tanks. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates that in the petroleum industry along, in the absence of additional regulation, storage tank VOC emissions would reach 231,000 t/yr from the gasoline distribution industry and 122,000 t/yr from the petroleum refining industry by 1998. Proposed storage tank emission controls for the refining industry are estimated to reduce VOC emissions by 23,000 t/yr, with a cost-effectiveness of $309 per ton of VOC eliminated. This article discusses VOC emission estimates and storage tank design and retrofit techniques for controlling emissions from fixed-roof tanks (FRTs), external-floating-roof tanks (EFRTs), and internal-floating-roof tanks (IFRTs). It does not address VOC control systems for treating collected vapors, which were covered in a previous article.

Brown, C.; Dixon, P.

1996-05-01

200

Simulation and analytical study of amplified spontaneous emission in N2-lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By applying the geometrical model of the gain coefficient and population, we managed to describe the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) in a N2-laser. For this purpose, and also for verifying the geometrical modeling we used the earliest available experimental data for the N2-laser output energy ?ASE versus the laser excitation length reported by Leonard for a N2-laser operating at low gas pressure (20 Torr), with no preionization. The ASE output energy calculation was performed both numerically and analytically. Upon applying the full description of the gain coefficient and upper state population (with b-parameters?0), the numerical calculations found to explain the experimental measurements of the ?ASE versus excitation length correctly. For the analytical approach, we used the approximate expression for the gain and population (with b-parameters=0) for simplifying the calculation. The results corresponding to both cases are introduced. Furthermore, the calculated gain coefficient for describing the Leonard's experiment has been compared with our recent gain measurements in a N2-laser with corona preionization, and higher operational gas pressure (˜100 Torr). This observation is indicating that while the gain coefficients in both experiments are obeying the generalized formulation of the gain coefficient, but the gain profile for the higher gas pressure is slightly higher than the case when the laser is operating at a low gas pressure. That is, the laser geometry still has the dominant contribution for the laser gain coefficient.

Sarikhani, S.; Hariri, A.

2013-01-01

201

Near infrared amplified spontaneous emission in a dye-doped polymeric waveguide for active plasmonic applications.  

PubMed

Near-infrared amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) from an optically-pumped dye-doped polymeric slab waveguide, consisting of IR-140 in PMMA on a glass substrate, has been characterised. The ASE gain was measured using the variable stripe length method. Linewidth narrowing with increasing pump intensity was observed, indicating ASE gain in this material. The effects of the dye concentration and pump intensity on the gain were investigated under linear operation. The maximum achieved gain coefficient is ? ~68 cm-1 for a film with 0.8wt % of IR-140 to PMMA for a pump intensity of 43.4 mJ/cm2. The polarisation dependence of the ASE gain was also investigated by measuring the gain coefficient of orthogonal TE and TM modes and varying the pump polarisation relative to the amplifier length. It was observed that there is some degree of gain anisotropy when the pump polarisation is aligned perpendicular to the length, but that the gain was isotropic when the pump polarisation is aligned parallel the length. The applicability of IR-140 doped PMMA for active plasmonic applications is discussed. PMID:24921362

Keshmarzi, Elham Karami; Tait, R Niall; Berini, Pierre

2014-05-19

202

Measuring the energy of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) in a short pulse laser amplifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In high-gain pulsed laser amplifiers, amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) tends to limit the gain in single stage fiber amplifiers. Even if ASE is not strong enough to deplete the gain of the amplifier, it still contributes strongly to a low-intensity background output in the amplified signal. The intensity contrast between the amplified short pulse and this background ASE pedestal can be measured with third-order autocorrelation, but this method cannot be used to completely specify the ASE's energy, which is distributed over many nanoseconds. We have developed a novel method that allows us to determine the energy and the spectrum of the ASE. We use a cross polarized wave (XPW) generating crystal such as BaF2 to ``clean up'' the ASE from the short pulse(SP). The input pulse (SP and ASE) and the cross-polarized signal are passed through a birefringent crystal such as sapphire. The relative group velocity difference along each crystal axis results in a delay between both channels. After passing through a polarizer, an interferogram is obtained in a spectrometer. This interferogram results from interference of the XPW pulse with the short-pulse content of the amplifier output, with a background of the ASE spectrum. Fourier analysis yields both the ASE energy and its spectrum.

Iliev, Marin; Adams, Daniel; Greco, Michael; Meier, Amanda; Squier, Jeff; Durfee, Charles

2010-10-01

203

Brain modularity controls the critical behavior of spontaneous activity.  

PubMed

The human brain exhibits a complex structure made of scale-free highly connected modules loosely interconnected by weaker links to form a small-world network. These features appear in healthy patients whereas neurological diseases often modify this structure. An important open question concerns the role of brain modularity in sustaining the critical behaviour of spontaneous activity. Here we analyse the neuronal activity of a model, successful in reproducing on non-modular networks the scaling behaviour observed in experimental data, on a modular network implementing the main statistical features measured in human brain. We show that on a modular network, regardless the strength of the synaptic connections or the modular size and number, activity is never fully scale-free. Neuronal avalanches can invade different modules which results in an activity depression, hindering further avalanche propagation. Critical behaviour is solely recovered if inter-module connections are added, modifying the modular into a more random structure. PMID:24621482

Russo, R; Herrmann, H J; de Arcangelis, L

2014-01-01

204

Brain modularity controls the critical behavior of spontaneous activity  

PubMed Central

The human brain exhibits a complex structure made of scale-free highly connected modules loosely interconnected by weaker links to form a small-world network. These features appear in healthy patients whereas neurological diseases often modify this structure. An important open question concerns the role of brain modularity in sustaining the critical behaviour of spontaneous activity. Here we analyse the neuronal activity of a model, successful in reproducing on non-modular networks the scaling behaviour observed in experimental data, on a modular network implementing the main statistical features measured in human brain. We show that on a modular network, regardless the strength of the synaptic connections or the modular size and number, activity is never fully scale-free. Neuronal avalanches can invade different modules which results in an activity depression, hindering further avalanche propagation. Critical behaviour is solely recovered if inter-module connections are added, modifying the modular into a more random structure.

Russo, R.; Herrmann, H. J.; de Arcangelis, L.

2014-01-01

205

Variable emissivity laser thermal control system  

DOEpatents

A laser thermal control system for a metal vapor laser maintains the wall mperature of the laser at a desired level by changing the effective emissivity of the water cooling jacket. This capability increases the overall efficiency of the laser.

Milner, Joseph R. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01

206

Bleederless ventilation systems as a spontaneous combustion control measure in US coal mines. Information circular/1994  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Bureau of Mines conducted a worldwide literature review of bleederless ventilation practices to evaluate their use as a spontaneous combustion control measure in U.S. coal mines. Factors that must be taken into account in the design and use of these systems include seal construction, the use of ventilation control devices, the use of methane-drainage systems in gassy mines, and the ground control plan. Monitoring for the detection of spontaneous combustion and the control of methane when methane-drainage techniques are employed is critical to the successful use of a bleederless ventilation system. The report describes the types of ventilation systems used throughout the world and the spontaneous combustion risks associated with these systems.

Smith, A.C.; Diamond, W.P.; Mucho, T.P.; Organiscak, J.A.

1994-01-01

207

Waste incineration and emission-control technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper gives results of a survey of available waste-incineration and emission-control technologies in the U.S., Japan, and Western Europe. Increasing concern over landfills as a waste-management option and the decreasing availability of sites have focused attention on incineration for destruction of hazardous wastes and volume reduction of other wastes in the U.S. Incineration requires the control of air-pollutant emissions,

T. G. Brna; C. B. Sedman

1987-01-01

208

Calculation of spontaneous emission from a V-type three-level atom in photonic crystals using fractional calculus  

SciTech Connect

Fractional time derivative, an abstract mathematical operator of fractional calculus, is used to describe the real optical system of a V-type three-level atom embedded in a photonic crystal. A fractional kinetic equation governing the dynamics of the spontaneous emission from this optical system is obtained as a fractional Langevin equation. Solving this fractional kinetic equation by fractional calculus leads to the analytical solutions expressed in terms of fractional exponential functions. The accuracy of the obtained solutions is verified through reducing the system into the special cases whose results are consistent with the experimental observation. With accurate physical results and avoiding the complex integration for solving this optical system, we propose fractional calculus with fractional time derivative as a better mathematical method to study spontaneous emission dynamics from the optical system with non-Markovian dynamics.

Huang, Chih-Hsien; Hsieh, Wen-Feng [Department of Photonics and Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 Tahsueh Rd., Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Institute of Electro-Optical Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 Dahsueh Rd., Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Wu, Jing-Nuo; Cheng, Szu-Cheng [Department of Physics, Chinese Culture University, Yangming Mt., Taipei 111, Taiwan (China); Li, Yen-Yin [Department of Photonics and Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 Tahsueh Rd., Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)

2011-07-15

209

Calculation of spontaneous emission from a V-type three-level atom in photonic crystals using fractional calculus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fractional time derivative, an abstract mathematical operator of fractional calculus, is used to describe the real optical system of a V-type three-level atom embedded in a photonic crystal. A fractional kinetic equation governing the dynamics of the spontaneous emission from this optical system is obtained as a fractional Langevin equation. Solving this fractional kinetic equation by fractional calculus leads to the analytical solutions expressed in terms of fractional exponential functions. The accuracy of the obtained solutions is verified through reducing the system into the special cases whose results are consistent with the experimental observation. With accurate physical results and avoiding the complex integration for solving this optical system, we propose fractional calculus with fractional time derivative as a better mathematical method to study spontaneous emission dynamics from the optical system with non-Markovian dynamics.

Huang, Chih-Hsien; Wu, Jing-Nuo; Li, Yen-Yin; Cheng, Szu-Cheng; Hsieh, Wen-Feng

2011-07-01

210

Efficient directional spontaneous emission from an InGaAs\\/InP heterostructure with an integral parabolic reflector  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to increase the radiative efficiency and directivity of spontaneous emission from a lattice-matched InGaAs\\/InP heterostructure, we have polished the substrate into a parabolic reflector. We combine optical and thermal measurements to obtain the absolute external efficiency over a wide range of carrier densities. Using a simple model, the measurement is used to determine interface, radiative, and Auger recombination

T. H. Gfroerer; E. A. Cornell; M. W. Wanlass

1998-01-01

211

Spectrally narrowed amplified spontaneous emission source at 977 nm based on a single-mode ytterbium-doped fiber  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) source based on a single-mode ytterbium-doped fiber pumped by a Nd : YVO4 laser emitting at 914 nm. The ASE is centered on 977 nm with a bandwidth of 3 nm. With a spectrally filtered reflection of the copropagating ASE, we have obtained a source of ASE with a bandwidth of 0.4 nm

A. Bouchier; G. Lucas-Leclin; F. Balembois; P. Georges

2004-01-01

212

First Observation of Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission in a Free-Electron Laser at 109 nm Wavelength  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the first observation of self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) in a free-electron laser (FEL) in the vacuum ultraviolet regime at 109 nm wavelength (11 eV). The observed free-electron laser gain (approximately 3000) and the radiation characteristics, such as dependency on bunch charge, angular distribution, spectral width, and intensity fluctuations, are all consistent with the present models for SASE FELs.

J. Andruszkow; B. Aune; V. Ayvazyan; N. Baboi; R. Bakker; V. Balakin; D. Barni; A. Bazhan; M. Bernard; A. Bosotti; J. C. Bourdon; W. Brefeld; R. Brinkmann; S. Buhler; J.-P. Carneiro; M. Castellano; P. Castro; L. Catani; S. Chel; Y. Cho; S. Choroba; E. R. Colby; W. Decking; P. den Hartog; M. Desmons; M. Dohlus; D. Edwards; H. T. Edwards; B. Faatz; J. Feldhaus; M. Ferrario; M. J. Fitch; K. Flöttmann; M. Fouaidy; A. Gamp; T. Garvey; C. Gerth; M. Geitz; E. Gluskin; V. Gretchko; U. Hahn; W. H. Hartung; D. Hubert; M. Hüning; R. Ischebek; M. Jablonka; J. M. Joly; M. Juillard; T. Junquera; P. Jurkiewicz; A. Kabel; J. Kahl; H. Kaiser; T. Kamps; V. V. Katelev; J. L. Kirchgessner; M. Körfer; L. Kravchuk; G. Kreps; J. Krzywinski; T. Lokajczyk; R. Lange; B. Leblond; M. Leenen; J. Lesrel; M. Liepe; A. Liero; T. Limberg; R. Lorenz; Lu Hui Hua; Lu Fu Hai; C. Magne; M. Maslov; G. Materlik; A. Matheisen; J. Menzel; P. Michelato; W.-D. Möller; A. Mosnier; U.-C. Müller; O. Napoly; A. Novokhatski; M. Omeich; H. S. Padamsee; C. Pagani; F. Peters; B. Petersen; P. Pierini; J. Pflüger; P. Piot; B. Phung Ngoc; L. Plucinski; D. Proch; K. Rehlich; S. Reiche; D. Reschke; I. Reyzl; J. Rosenzweig; J. Rossbach; S. Roth; E. L. Saldin; W. Sandner; Z. Sanok; H. Schlarb; G. Schmidt; P. Schmüser; J. R. Schneider; E. A. Schneidmiller; H.-J. Schreiber; S. Schreiber; P. Schütt; J. Sekutowicz; L. Serafini; D. Sertore; S. Setzer; S. Simrock; B. Sonntag; B. Sparr; F. Stephan; V. A. Sytchev; S. Tazzari; F. Tazzioli; M. Tigner; M. Timm; M. Tonutti; E. Trakhtenberg; R. Treusch; D. Trines; V. Verzilov; T. Vielitz; V. Vogel; G. V. Walter; R. Wanzenberg; T. Weiland; H. Weise; J. Weisend; M. Wendt; M. Werner; M. M. White; I. Will; S. Wolff; M. V. Yurkov; K. Zapfe; P. Zhogolev; F. Zhou

2000-01-01

213

Triple amplified spontaneous emissions from a conjugated copolymer BEHP-co-MEH-PPV in solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spectral and laser properties of conjugated polymer {[2-[2?,5?-bis(2?-ethylhexyloxy)phenyl]-1,4-phenylenevinylene]-co-[2-methoxy-5-(2?-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene]} (BEHP-co-MEH-PPV) in benzene had been studied and presented in this paper. BEHP-co-MEH-PPV was dissolved in benzene to form solutions of concentrations ranging from 1 mM to 10 mM. The absorption spectra had shown no new band when concentration increased; this indicates no dimer formation in these solutions for all concentrations mentioned above. The fluorescence spectra for the concentration 2.5 mM have shown two peaks at 560 nm and 600 nm, which could be attributed to monomer and excimer of MEH-PPV alone. At higher concentration (5 mM) the band at 560 nm almost disappeared and the band at 600 nm became dominant. At still higher concentration, the longer wavelength side of these spectra, there was a hump at 650 nm. So, this new band around 650 nm could be due to double excimer of MEH-PPV alone. When the laser pump power at 355 nm and concentration of above solution were suitably chosen, we observed amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) at 570 nm, 605 nm and 650 nm. These ASE peaks could arise from the monomer, excimer and double excimer states of MEH-PPV as a segment. To the best of our knowledge this is perhaps the first report on ASE from double excimer of the conjugated copolymer, BEHP-co-MEH-PPV, in liquid solution.

Ibnaouf, K. H.; Prasad, Saradh; Masilamani, V.; AlSalhi, M. S.; Mustapha, N.; Alyamani, A.

2013-09-01

214

Simulation of amplified spontaneous emission in high gain KrF laser amplifiers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High gain KrF amplifier simulations require a realistic model of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE). We have recently developed an accurate three-dimensional time-dependent code to model ASE and parasitic oscillations in the Nike and Electra amplifiers. It currently includes arbitrary specular reflections at all of the walls and can be easily extended to nonspecular reflections. It can also simulate the ASE that would be seen by another amplifier stage or a camera located outside the amplifier module. The code approximates the ASE light by a discrete set of ordinates or quasi-plane waves whose propagation vectors represent all directions, but cluster preferentially around the amplifier axis, where the gain is highest. At each grid point, it updates the directed intensity by adding an analytic solution of the radiation transport equation within time increment ?t to the earlier intensity at a ``local look-back'' (LLB) point; this point is located a distance c?t back along the ordinate's characteristic direction. Because the LLB does not generally lie at a grid point, interpolation is required to calculate the earlier flux. Trilinear interpolation is simple and computationally fast, but it can introduce numerical spatial diffusion in the specific intensity. This diffusion is usually tolerable, but it can be a significant limitation if one attempts to treat a problem where the operating conditions or ASE viewing position favor a narrow range of directions that are not parallel to one of the Cartesian axes. For those conditions, we use an alternative interpolation scheme based on the flux-corrected transport algorithm, which previously has been used only to treat shock wave propagation in fluids. This article describes the code in detail, then shows ASE simulations illustrating the code's capabilities and the effects of transient excitation, diffusion, and gain narrowing.

Lehmberg, R. H.; Giuliani, J. L.

2003-07-01

215

CONTROL OF AIR EMISSIONS FROM SUPERFUND SITES  

EPA Science Inventory

This handbook is an easy-to-use tool for decision makers to evaluate emission control devices for use with Superfund remediation actions. t will assist in the selection of cost-effective control options. t is intended for use by engineers and scientists involved in preparing reme...

216

Comment on “Competition between coherent emission and broadband spontaneous emission in the quantum free electron laser” [Phys. Plasmas 20, 033106 (2013)  

SciTech Connect

We point out that in the equation for the electron distribution evolution during Thomson/Compton or undulator radiation used in the paper: “Competition between coherent emission and broadband spontaneous emission in the quantum free electron laser” by G. R. M. Robb and R. Bonifacio [Phys. Plasmas 20, 033106 (2013)], the weight function should be the distribution of the number of emitted photons and not the photon energy distribution. Nevertheless, the considerations expressed in this comment do not alter the conclusions drawn in the paper in object.

Petrillo, V.; Rossi, A. R.; Serafini, L. [Università di Milano-INFN, Via Celoria, 16 Milano (Italy)] [Università di Milano-INFN, Via Celoria, 16 Milano (Italy)

2013-12-15

217

Comment on ``Competition between coherent emission and broadband spontaneous emission in the quantum free electron laser'' [Phys. Plasmas 20, 033106 (2013)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We point out that in the equation for the electron distribution evolution during Thomson/Compton or undulator radiation used in the paper: "Competition between coherent emission and broadband spontaneous emission in the quantum free electron laser" by G. R. M. Robb and R. Bonifacio [Phys. Plasmas 20, 033106 (2013)], the weight function should be the distribution of the number of emitted photons and not the photon energy distribution. Nevertheless, the considerations expressed in this comment do not alter the conclusions drawn in the paper in object.

Petrillo, V.; Rossi, A. R.; Serafini, L.

2013-12-01

218

Optimization of BOF air emission control systems  

SciTech Connect

Fume sources from a BOF facility originate from primary and secondary emissions. Primary emissions are generated from blowing oxygen into the furnace. Secondary emissions result from hot metal transfer, desulfurization, iron ladle skimming, furnace scrap and hot metal charging, tapping and, to a lesser extent, slagging and turndown. Techniques for optimizing pollution control include: (1) improving hood capture design using advanced methods; (2) automation and sequencing of system flow control dampers with the meltshop cycle to divert spare capacity to emission sources; (3) upgrading particulate collectors to reinstate or increase original flow capacity; (4) upgrading collectors to improve cleaning efficiency; and (5) primary off-gas scrubber system simulation of combustion and gas cooling to maximize flow capacity. Several case studies are presented to illustrate these techniques.

Cesta, T. [Hatch Associates Ltd., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Wrona, L.M. [Hatch Associates Consultants, Inc., Buffalo, NY (United States)

1995-07-01

219

Attosecond control of electron emission from atoms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate that the electron emission from atoms can be temporally controlled on an attosecond time scale. Electron wave-packets are formed by ionizing an atomic target with an attosecond pulse train composed of both odd and even high-order harmonics in the presence of a relatively weak infrared field. We show that interference between one- and two-photon transitions produces a large asymmetry in the angular distribution of the photoelectrons. The direction of the emission can be controlled on an attosecond time scale by varying the time delay between the two pulses. In addition, we show that such asymmetric emission is also related to the properties of the attosecond pulse train. The temporal analysis of the modulated electron emission, based on an accurate description of the atomic physics of the photoionization process, then provides a way to measure the temporal profile of the attosecond pulse.

Laurent, G.; Cao, W.; Ben-Itzhak, I.; Cocke, C. L.

2014-04-01

220

Less Costly Catalysts for Controlling Engine Emissions  

SciTech Connect

Lowering the fuel consumption of transportation vehicles could decrease both emissions of greenhouse gases and our dependence on fossil fuels. One way to increase the fuel efficiency of internal combustion engines is to run them 'lean,' in the presence of more air than needed to burn all of the fuel. It may seem strange that engines are usually designed to run with fuel and air at stoichiometric balance, or even fuel rich. However, the way emissions have been controlled with catalytic converters has required some unburned fuel in the exhaust, especially for controlling the nitrogen oxide pollutants NO and NO{sub 2} (called NO{sub x}). On page 1624 of this issue, Kim et al. (1) report encouraging results for catalysts that can process NO{sub x} in lean-burn engines. These perovskite oxide catalysts may help reduce or even eliminate the need for expensive and scarce platinum group metals (PGMs) in emission control catalysts.

Parks, II, James E [ORNL

2010-01-01

221

Spontaneous Centralization of Control in a Network of Company Ownerships  

PubMed Central

We introduce a model for the adaptive evolution of a network of company ownerships. In a recent work it has been shown that the empirical global network of corporate control is marked by a central, tightly connected “core” made of a small number of large companies which control a significant part of the global economy. Here we show how a simple, adaptive “rich get richer” dynamics can account for this characteristic, which incorporates the increased buying power of more influential companies, and in turn results in even higher control. We conclude that this kind of centralized structure can emerge without it being an explicit goal of these companies, or as a result of a well-organized strategy.

Krause, Sebastian M.; Peixoto, Tiago P.; Bornholdt, Stefan

2013-01-01

222

Environmental controls over methanol emission from leaves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methanol is found throughout the troposphere, with average concentrations second only to methane among atmospheric hydrocarbons. Proposed global methanol budgets are highly uncertain, but all agree that at least 60% of the total source arises from the terrestrial biosphere and primary emissions from plants. However, the magnitude of these emissions is also highly uncertain, and the environmental factors which control them require further elucidation. Using a temperature-controlled leaf enclosure, we measured methanol emissions from leaves of six plant species by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry, with simultaneous measurements of leaf evapotranspiration and stomatal conductance. Rates of emission at 30°C varied from 0.3 to 38 ?g g (dry mass)-1 h-1, with higher rates measured on young leaves, consistent with the production of methanol via pectin demethylation in expanding foliage. On average, emissions increased by a factor of 2.4 for each 10°C increase in leaf temperature. At constant temperature, emissions were also correlated with co-varying incident photosynthetic photon flux density and rates of stomatal conductance. The data were analyzed using the emission model developed by Niinemets and Reichstein (2003a, b), with the incorporation of a methanol production term that increased exponentially with temperature. It was concluded that control of emissions, during daytime, was shared by leaf temperature and stomatal conductance, although rates of production may also vary diurnally in response to variations in leaf growth rate in expanding leaves. The model, which generally provided reasonable simulations of the measured data during the day, significantly overestimated emissions on two sets of measurements made through the night, suggesting that production rates of methanol were reduced at night, perhaps because leaf growth was reduced or possibly through a direct effect of light on production. Although the short-term dynamics of methanol emissions can be successfully modeled only if stomatal conductance and compound solubility are taken into account, emissions on longer time scales will be determined by rates of methanol production, controls over which remain to be investigated.

Harley, P.; Greenberg, J.; Niinemets, Ü.; Guenther, A.

2007-08-01

223

Environmental controls over methanol emission from leaves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methanol is found throughout the troposphere, with average concentrations second only to methane among atmospheric hydrocarbons. Proposed global methanol budgets are highly uncertain, but all agree that at least 60% of the total source arises from the terrestrial biosphere and primary emissions from plants. However, the magnitude of these emissions is also highly uncertain, and the environmental factors which control them require further elucidation. Using a temperature-controlled leaf enclosure, we measured methanol emissions from leaves of six plant species by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry, with simultaneous measurements of leaf evapotranspiration and stomatal conductance. Rates of emission at 30°C varied from 0.2 to 38 ?g g (dry mass)-1 h-1, with higher rates measured on young leaves, consistent with the production of methanol via pectin demethylation in expanding foliage. On average, emissions increased by a factor of 2.3 for each 10°C increase in leaf temperature. At constant temperature, emissions were also correlated with co-varying incident photosynthetic photon flux density and rates of stomatal conductance. The data were analyzed using the emission model developed by Niinemets and Reichstein (2003a, b), with the incorporation of a methanol production term that increased exponentially with temperature. It was concluded that control of emissions, during daytime, was shared by leaf temperature and stomatal conductance, although rates of production may also vary diurnally in response to variations in leaf growth rate in expanding leaves. The model, which generally provided reasonable simulations of the measured data during the day, significantly overestimated emissions on two sets of measurements made through the night, suggesting that production rates of methanol were reduced at night, perhaps because leaf growth was reduced or possibly through a direct effect of light on production. Although the short-term dynamics of methanol emissions can be successfully modeled only if stomatal conductance and compound solubility are taken into account, emissions on longer time scales will be determined by rates of methanol production, controls over which remain to be investigated.

Harley, P.; Greenberg, J.; Niinemets, É.; Guenther, A.

2007-12-01

224

Advanced CIDI Emission Control System Development  

SciTech Connect

Ford Motor Company, with ExxonMobil and FEV, participated in the Department of Energy's (DOE) Ultra-Clean Transportation Fuels Program with the goal to develop an innovative emission control system for light-duty diesel vehicles. The focus on diesel engine emissions was a direct result of the improved volumetric fuel economy (up to 50%) and lower CO2 emissions (up to 25%) over comparable gasoline engines shown in Europe. Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) with aqueous urea as the NOx reductant and a Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter (CDPF) were chosen as the primary emission control system components. The program expected to demonstrate more than 90% durable reduction in particulate matter (PM) and NOx emissions on a light-duty truck application, based on the FTP-75 drive cycle. Very low sulfur diesel fuel (<15 ppm-wt) enabled lower PM emissions, reduced fuel economy penalty due to the emission control system and improved long-term system durability. Significant progress was made toward a durable system to meet Tier 2 Bin 5 emission standards on a 6000 lbs light-duty truck. A 40% reduction in engine-out NOx emissions was achieved with a mid-size prototype diesel engine through engine recalibration and increased exhaust gas recirculation. Use of a rapid warm-up strategy and urea SCR provided over 90% further NOx reduction while the CDPF reduced tailpipe PM to gasoline vehicle levels. Development work was conducted to separately improve urea SCR and CDPF system durability, as well as improved oxidation catalyst function. Exhaust gas NOx and ammonia sensors were also developed further. While the final emission control system did not meet Tier 2 Bin 5 NOx after 120k mi of aging on the dynamometer, it did meet the standards for HC, NMOG, and PM, and an improved SCR catalyst was shown to have potential to meet the NOx standard, assuming the DOC durability could be improved further. Models of DOC and SCR function were developed to guide the study of several key design factors for SCR systems and aid in the development of urea control strategy for maximum NOx reduction with minimum NH3 slip. A durable co-fueling system was successfully built and tested, with the help of service station nozzle and dispenser manufacturers, for simultaneous delivery of diesel fuel and aqueous urea to the vehicle. The business case for an aqueous urea infrastructure in the US for light-duty vehicles was explored.

Lambert, Christine

2006-05-31

225

Bleederless Ventilation Systems as a Spontaneous Combustion Control Measure in U.S. Coal Mines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Bureau of Mines conducted a worldwide literature review of bleederless ventilation practices to evaluate their use as a spontaneous combustion control measure in U.S. coal mines. Factors that must be taken into account in the design and use of th...

A. C. Smith W. P. Diamond T. P. Mucho J. A. Organiscak

1994-01-01

226

Developmental Comparisons of the Consequences for Memory of Spontaneous vs. Controlled Imaginal Elaborations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies compared the effects of spontaneous and controlled imagery on reality monitoring decisions. Reality monitoring refers to the decision processes involved in discriminating perceptual memories from imaginal ones. In Experiment 1, 6-year-olds and adults were shown pictures and words and they responded to one of two questions: (1) "What is…

Foley, Mary Ann; And Others

227

Controlled Trial of Chemoprevention Using COX-2 Inhibitors in an Avian Model of Spontaneous Ovarian Carcinogesis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this study was to determine in a controlled chemoprevention trial the ability of a COX-2 inhibitor to inhibit the development of spontaneously arising genital tract adenocarcinoma in the laying hen (Gall us Domesticus) animal model of ova...

M. N. Barnes

2007-01-01

228

Reversible Polarization Control of Single Photon Emission  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present reversible and a-priori control of the polarization of a photon emitted by a single molecule by introducing a nanoscale metal object in its near field. It is experimentally shown that, with the metal close to the emitter, the polarization ratio of the emission can be varied by a factor of 2. The tunability of polarization decays, when the

Robert J. Moerland; Tim H. Taminiau; Lukas Novotny; Hulst van Niek F; Laurens Kuipers

2008-01-01

229

Variable emissivity laser thermal control system  

DOEpatents

A laser thermal control system for a metal vapor laser maintains the wall temperature of the laser at a desired level by changing the effective emissivity of the water cooling jacket. This capability increases the overall efficiency of the laser. 8 figs.

Milner, J.R.

1994-10-25

230

CONTROLLING ODOROUS EMISSIONS FROM IRON FOUNDRIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses the control of odorous emissions from iron foundries. he main process sources of odors in iron foundries are mold and core making, casting, and sand shakeout. he odors are usually caused by chemicals, which may be present as binders and other additives to the...

231

Controlling incinerator emissions: Waste to burn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incineration will remain one of the most viable methods for disposing of municipal, medical and hazardous wastes. Despite the well-accepted advantages of incineration, the combustion process carries with it the risk of releasing air pollutants. Emissions from incinerators can include toxic metals and toxic organics. Controlling toxic metals and toxic organics is both necessary and feasible. Modern technologies are capable

J. Seigies; M. Trichon

1993-01-01

232

FIRED HEATERS: NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSIONS AND CONTROLS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from, and controls for, fired heaters. The petroleum refining and chemical manufacturing industries account for most of fired-heater energy use with an estimated 4600 fired heaters in operation, in these two in...

233

Waste incineration and emission control technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives results of a survey of available waste incineration and emission-control technologies in the U.S., Japan, and Western Europe. Increasing concern over landfills as a waste-management option and the decreasing availability of sites have focused attention on incineration for destruction of hazardous wastes and volume reduction of other wastes in the U.S. Incineration requires the control of air-pollutant

T. G. Brna; C. B. Sedman

1987-01-01

234

Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission Free-Electron Laser with an Energy-Chirped Electron Beam and Undulator Tapering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the first experimental implementation of a method based on simultaneous use of an energy chirp in the electron beam and a tapered undulator, for the generation of ultrashort pulses in a self-amplified spontaneous emission mode free-electron laser (SASE FEL). The experiment, performed at the SPARC FEL test facility, demonstrates the possibility of compensating the nominally detrimental effect of the chirp by a proper taper of the undulator gaps. An increase of more than 1 order of magnitude in the pulse energy is observed in comparison to the untapered case, accompanied by FEL spectra where the typical SASE spiking is suppressed.

Giannessi, L.; Bacci, A.; Bellaveglia, M.; Briquez, F.; Castellano, M.; Chiadroni, E.; Cianchi, A.; Ciocci, F.; Couprie, M. E.; Cultrera, L.; Dattoli, G.; Filippetto, D.; Del Franco, M.; di Pirro, G.; Ferrario, M.; Ficcadenti, L.; Frassetto, F.; Gallo, A.; Gatti, G.; Labat, M.; Marcus, G.; Moreno, M.; Mostacci, A.; Pace, E.; Petralia, A.; Petrillo, V.; Poletto, L.; Quattromini, M.; Rau, J. V.; Ronsivalle, C.; Rosenzweig, J.; Rossi, A. R.; Rossi Albertini, V.; Sabia, E.; Serluca, M.; Spampinati, S.; Spassovsky, I.; Spataro, B.; Surrenti, V.; Vaccarezza, C.; Vicario, C.

2011-04-01

235

Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission Free-Electron Laser with an Energy-Chirped Electron Beam and Undulator Tapering  

SciTech Connect

We report the first experimental implementation of a method based on simultaneous use of an energy chirp in the electron beam and a tapered undulator, for the generation of ultrashort pulses in a self-amplified spontaneous emission mode free-electron laser (SASE FEL). The experiment, performed at the SPARC FEL test facility, demonstrates the possibility of compensating the nominally detrimental effect of the chirp by a proper taper of the undulator gaps. An increase of more than 1 order of magnitude in the pulse energy is observed in comparison to the untapered case, accompanied by FEL spectra where the typical SASE spiking is suppressed.

Giannessi, L.; Ciocci, F.; Dattoli, G.; Del Franco, M.; Petralia, A.; Quattromini, M.; Ronsivalle, C.; Sabia, E.; Spassovsky, I.; Surrenti, V. [ENEA C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi, 45 00044 Frascati (Italy); Bacci, A.; Rossi, A. R. [INFN-LNF, Via E. Fermi, 40 00044 Frascati (Italy); INFN-Mi, Via Celoria, 16 20133 Milano (Italy); Bellaveglia, M.; Castellano, M.; Chiadroni, E.; Cultrera, L.; Filippetto, D.; Di Pirro, G.; Ferrario, M.; Ficcadenti, L. [INFN-LNF, Via E. Fermi, 40 00044 Frascati (Italy)

2011-04-08

236

Quantum-noise quenching in the correlated spontaneous-emission laser as a multiplicative noise process. I. A geometrical argument  

SciTech Connect

We show, via simple geometrical arguments, the quantum-noise quenching in a correlated (spontaneous) emission laser (CEL). This noise quenching is a consequence of the correlation between noise sources which results in a multiplicative noise process. The steady-state distribution for the phase difference between the two electric fields in a CEL is compared and contrasted to that of a standard phase-locked laser. Noise quenching is shown to occur in the case of the CEL via an explicit solution of the Fokker-Planck equation.

Schleich, W.; Scully, M.O.

1988-02-15

237

Io's volcanism controls Jupiter's radio emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abstract Jupiter's sodium nebula showed an enhancement in late May through the beginning of June 2007. This means Io's volcanic activity and the magnetosphere's plasma content increased during this period. On the other hand, Jupiter's radio <span class="hlt">emission</span> called HOM became quiet after the sodium nebula enhancement. The HOM <span class="hlt">emission</span> is considered to be related to the activity of aurorae on Jupiter. These observation results therefore suggest that the increase in plasma supply from Io into Jupiter's magnetosphere weakens its field-aligned current, which generates the radio <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and aurorae on Jupiter. By comparing our observation results to recent model and observation results, we add supporting evidence to the possibility that Io's volcanism <span class="hlt">controls</span> Jupiter's magnetospheric activity.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yoneda, M.; Tsuchiya, F.; Misawa, H.; Bonfond, B.; Tao, C.; Kagitani, M.; Okano, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">238</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5410153"> <span id="translatedtitle">Systematics of <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> of intermediate mass fragments from heavy nuclei</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have used polycarbonate track-recording films to confirm the rare decay mode of /sup 226/Ra by /sup 14/C <span class="hlt">emission</span> and to set stringent upper limits on /sup 14/C-<span class="hlt">emission</span> rates of /sup 221/Fr, /sup 221/Ra, and /sup 225/Ac. The /sup 14/C-<span class="hlt">emission</span> rate exhibits a pronounced odd-even effect. For Ra isotopes the hindrance factor for odd-even parents relative to even-even parents is at least 10 times higher for /sup 14/C <span class="hlt">emission</span> than for ..cap alpha.. <span class="hlt">emission</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Barwick, S.W.; Price, P.B.; Ravn, H.L.; Hourani, E.; Hussonnois, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">239</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.8980E..0XS"> <span id="translatedtitle">Temperature dependences of metal-clad subwavelength semiconductor lasers (MCSELs): geometric invariance and the <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> factor</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We perform two analyses on temperature effects in Metal-Clad Subwavelength Semiconductor Lasers (MCSELs). Firstly, we analyze the temperature dependence of the threshold gain in the infinite waveguide approximation. We show that the dielectric layer of the semiconductor-dielectric-metal composite waveguide (CWG) becomes increasingly important as temperature increases. However, we further show that the optimal geometry of the CWG is nearly invariant with the temperature. Secondly, we relax the infinite waveguide assumption with the fully 3D finite element method, and analyze the temperature dependence of the <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> factor, ?. We identify a cavity geometry that mitigates detuning between the dominant cavity mode and <span class="hlt">emission</span> spectra. Ignoring coupling to freespace modes, we explain that the modified cavity may lead to a MCSEL with large ? (~0.5) for all temperatures.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Smalley, Joseph S. T.; Gu, Qing; Puckett, Matthew; Fainman, Yeshaiahu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">240</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998JAP....84.5360G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Efficient directional <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> from an InGaAs/InP heterostructure with an integral parabolic reflector</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In order to increase the radiative efficiency and directivity of <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> from a lattice-matched InGaAs/InP heterostructure, we have polished the substrate into a parabolic reflector. We combine optical and thermal measurements to obtain the absolute external efficiency over a wide range of carrier densities. Using a simple model, the measurement is used to determine interface, radiative, and Auger recombination rates in the active material. At the optimal density, the quantum efficiency exceeds 60% at room temperature. The divergence of the emitted light is less than 20°. In fact, the beam profile is dominated by a 6° wide lobe that can be swept across the field of <span class="hlt">emission</span> by changing the excitation position. This suggests a way to create an all-electronic scanned light beam.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gfroerer, T. H.; Cornell, E. A.; Wanlass, M. W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">241</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23037073"> <span id="translatedtitle">Study on <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> in complex multilayered plasmonic system via surface integral equation approach with layered medium Green's function.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A rigorous surface integral equation approach is proposed to study the <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> of a quantum emitter embedded in a multilayered plasmonic structure with the presence of arbitrarily shaped metallic nanoscatterers. With the aid of the Fermi's golden rule, the <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> of the emitter can be calculated from the local density of states, which can be further expressed by the imaginary part of the dyadic Green's function of the whole electromagnetic system. To obtain this Green's function numerically, a surface integral equation is established taking into account the scattering from the metallic nanoscatterers. Particularly, the modeling of the planar multilayered structure is simplified by applying the layered medium Green's function to reduce the computational domain and hence the memory requirement. Regarding the evaluation of Sommerfeld integrals in the layered medium Green's function, the discrete complex image method is adopted to accelerate the evaluation process. This work offers an accurate and efficient simulation tool for analyzing complex multilayered plasmonic system, which is commonly encountered in the design of optical elements and devices. PMID:23037073</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chen, Yongpin P; Sha, Wei E I; Choy, Wallace C H; Jiang, Lijun; Chew, Weng Cho</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-08-27</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">242</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/756595"> <span id="translatedtitle">Advanced <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> <span class="hlt">Control</span> Development Program: Phase III</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The primary objective of the Advanced <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> <span class="hlt">Control</span> Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. The project goal is to effectively <span class="hlt">control</span> air toxic <span class="hlt">emissions</span> through the use of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), fabric filters (baghouses - BH), and wet flue gas desulfurization systems (WFGD). Development work concentrated on the capture of trace metals, fine particulate, hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride, with an emphasis on the <span class="hlt">control</span> of mercury. The AECDP project is jointly funded by the US Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development (OCDO), and Babcock and Wilcox, a McDermott company (B and W). This report discusses results of all three phases of the AECDP project with an emphasis on Phase III activities. Following the construction and evaluation of a representative air toxics test facility in Phase I, Phase II focused on characterization of the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of mercury and other air toxics and the <span class="hlt">control</span> of these <span class="hlt">emissions</span> for typical operating conditions of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment. Some general comments that can be made about the <span class="hlt">control</span> of air toxics while burning a high-sulfur bituminous coal are as follows: (1) particulate <span class="hlt">control</span> devices such as ESP's and baghouses do a good job of removing non-volatile trace metals, (2) particulate <span class="hlt">control</span> devices (ESPs and baghouses) effectively remove the particulate-phase mercury, but the particulate-phase mercury was only a small fraction of the total for the coals tested, (3) wet scrubbing can effectively remove hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride, and (4) wet scrubbers show good potential for the removal of mercury when operated under certain conditions, however, for certain applications, system enhancements can be required to achieve high removals when the scrubber is operated downstream of an ESP. Phase III (Advanced Concepts and Comparison Coals) testing was directed at the development of enhanced air toxics <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> strategies to further reduce the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of mercury. Phase III results further supported the findings of previous phases and demonstrated several methods of enhancing mercury <span class="hlt">control</span> for both unscrubbed systems and systems equipped with WFGD. Results confirmed that the addition of sorbents can be used to significantly improve the capture of mercury in downstream particulate collection equipment. In addition, Phase III testing demonstrated three methods of minimizing the potential negative impact of an ESP on downstream <span class="hlt">control</span> of mercury in WFGD systems. These methods included decreased oxidation air flow, the addition of H{sub 2}S into the flue gas at the scrubber inlet, and the addition of EDTA into the absorber reaction tank.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G.T. Amrhein; R.T. Bailey; W. Downs; M.J. Holmes; G.A. Kudlac; D.A. Madden</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">243</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15331614"> <span id="translatedtitle">A new interpretation of <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> sway measures based on a simple model of human postural <span class="hlt">control</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study shows that center-of-pressure (COP) traces that closely resemble physiologically measured COP functions can be produced by an appropriate selection of model parameters in a simple feedback model of the human postural <span class="hlt">control</span> system. Variations in the values of stiffness, damping, time delay, and noise level determine the values of 15 sway measures commonly used to characterize <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> sway. Results from model simulations indicate that there is a high degree of correlation among these sway measures, and the measures cluster into three different groups. Only two principal components accounted for about 92% of the variation among the different sway measures analyzed. This model can be used to formulate hypotheses regarding the cause of postural <span class="hlt">control</span> deficits reported in the literature. This is accomplished using a multidimensional optimization procedure to estimate model parameters from a diverse set of <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> sway measures. These model parameters describe physiologically meaningful features of the postural <span class="hlt">control</span> system as opposed to conventional sway measures that provide only a parametric description of sway. To show the application of this method, we applied it to published data of <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> sway from elderly subjects and contrasted it to the data of young healthy subjects. We found that modest increases in stiffness and damping and a fairly large increase in noise level with aging could account for the variety of sway measures reported in the literature for elderly subjects. PMID:15331614</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Maurer, Christoph; Peterka, Robert J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">244</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21294311"> <span id="translatedtitle">Photoelectric charging of dust particles: Effect of <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> and light induced field <span class="hlt">emission</span> of electrons</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The authors have analyzed the charging of dust particles in a plasma, taking into account the electron/ion currents to the particles, electron/ion generation and recombination, electric field <span class="hlt">emission</span>, photoelectric <span class="hlt">emission</span> and photoelectric field <span class="hlt">emission</span> of electrons under the influence of light irradiation; the irradiance has been assumed to be at a level, which lets the particles retain the negative sign of the charge. Numerical results and discussion conclude the papers.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sodha, M. S.; Dixit, A. [Disha Institute of Management and Technology, Satya Vihar, Vidhan Sabha-Chandrakhuri Marg, Mandir Hasaud, Raipur, 492101 Chattisgarh (India)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-09-07</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">245</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/181794"> <span id="translatedtitle">Constraint on collapse models by limit on <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> X-ray <span class="hlt">emission</span> in Ge</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The continuous <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> localization (CSL) model modfies, Schroedinger`s equation so that the collapse of the state vector is described as a physical process (a special interaction of particles with a universal fluctuating field). A consequence of the model is that an electron in an atom should occasionally get {open_quotes}<span class="hlt">spontaneously</span>{close_quotes} knocked out of the atom. The CSL ionization rate for the 1s electrons in the Ge atom is calculated and compared with an experimental upper limit for the rate of {open_quotes}<span class="hlt">spontaneously</span>{close_quotes} generated x-ray pulses in Ge. This gives, for the first time, an experimental constraint on the parameters which characterize this model (the GRW parameters and the relative collapse rate of electrons and nucleons). It is concluded that the values assigned to the GRW parameters by GRW may be maintained only if the coupling qf electrons to the fluctuating field is 0.35% or less than the coupling of nucleons, suggestive of a mass-proportional (and therefore gravitational) collapse mechanism. For other allowed values of the GRW parameters, it is still argued that nucleons should collapse more rapidly than electrons.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Collett, B.; Pearle, P. [Hamilton College, Clinton, NY (United States); Avignone, F. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)] [and others</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">246</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006OptL...31.1244D"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Controlling</span> bichromatic <span class="hlt">emission</span> in scattering gain media</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is experimentally shown that the competition between the two lasing modes of bichromatic <span class="hlt">emission</span> in a dye solution with nanoparticle scatterers within the diffuse regime can be externally <span class="hlt">controlled</span> by varying only the excitation beam diameter and the radiation detector position. It is established that this feature is a consequence of the changes in the reabsorption process strengths between monomer and dimer dye aggregates. The <span class="hlt">controllable</span> switching of these lasing modes could open the real possibility of implementing previously suggested applications for this effect as optical switches.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">de Souza, Miguel A. F.; Lencina, Alberto; Vaveliuk, Pablo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">247</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JChPh.132m4509S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Photogeneration of charge carrier correlated with amplified <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> in single crystals of a thiophene/phenylene co-oligomer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Thiophene/phenylene co-oligomers have substantial promise for the use of not only organic electronics but also organic optical devices. However, considerably less is known about the correlation between their optical and optoelectronic properties. We have investigated the charge carrier generation in 1,4-bis(5-phenylthiophen-2-yl)benzene (AC5) single crystals by flash-photolysis time-resolved microwave conductivity (TRMC) and transient absorption spectroscopy (TAS). It was found that the dependence of photocarrier generation efficiency on excitation photon density differed from that of <span class="hlt">emission</span> efficiency once amplified <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> (ASE) and resultant spectrally narrowed <span class="hlt">emission</span> occur upon exposure to 355 nm. In contrast, the dependences of <span class="hlt">emission</span> and photocarrier generation efficiencies were identical when ASE was not involved at a different excitation wavelength (193 nm). An approximated analytical solution of rate equation considering ASE or singlet-singlet annihilation was applied to the experiments, exhibiting good agreement. On the basis of TRMC, TAS, and extinction coefficient of radical cation assessed by pulse radiolysis, the minimum charge carrier mobility was estimated, without electrodes, to be 0.12 cm2 V-1 s-1. The dynamics of charge carrier and triplet excited state is discussed, accompanying with examination by time-dependent density functional theory. The present work would open the way to a deeper understanding of the fate of excited state in optically robust organic semiconducting crystals.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Saeki, Akinori; Seki, Shu; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Yamao, Takeshi; Hotta, Shu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">248</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.tohtech.ac.jp/%7Eelecs/ca/kobayashilab_hp/journal.pone.0006256.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Imaging of Ultraweak <span class="hlt">Spontaneous</span> Photon <span class="hlt">Emission</span> from Human Body Displaying Diurnal Rhythm</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The human body literally glimmers. The intensity of the light emitted by the body is 1000 times lower than the sensitivity of our naked eyes. Ultraweak photon <span class="hlt">emission</span> is known as the energy released as light through the changes in energy metabolism. We successfully imaged the diurnal change of this ultraweak photon <span class="hlt">emission</span> with an improved highly sensitive imaging system</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Masaki Kobayashi; Daisuke Kikuchi; Hitoshi Okamura</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">249</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7071828"> <span id="translatedtitle">Homogeneous linewidths of Rhodamine 6G at room temperature from cavity-enhanced <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> rates</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fluorescence lifetimes of Rhodamine 6G in levitated micron-sized droplets have been measured using a time-correlated photon counting technique. The coupling of <span class="hlt">emission</span> into spherical cavity modes of the droplet results in significant <span class="hlt">emission</span> rate enhancements which allow estimation of the homogeneous linewidth at room temperature.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Barnes, M.D.; Whitten, W.B.; Arnold, S.; Ramsey, J.M. (Analytical Chemistry Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-11-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">250</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB279596"> <span id="translatedtitle">Motor Vehicle <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> <span class="hlt">Control</span>. Book Two. Thermostatic Air Cleaner Systems.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The next <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> system we will examine is the Thermostatic Air Cleaner system, abbreviated TAC. The TAC system helps in <span class="hlt">controlling</span> auto <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and also increases vehicle performance and driveability. This book contains: Introduction to emis...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">B. D. Hayes M. T. Maness R. A. Ragazzi R. A. Barrett</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1977-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">251</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1227285"> <span id="translatedtitle">Asbestos <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from baghouse <span class="hlt">controlled</span> sources.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">There is virtually no information published on the absolute efficiency of baghouses in reducing the emmisions of fine particles of asbestos. This lack of information is unfortunate because serious occupational health problems may result from the common practice of recirculating air to conserve energy. <span class="hlt">Emission</span> testing has been conducted at five asbestos processing plants where the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are <span class="hlt">controlled</span> by baghouses. The results showed that the mass removal efficiency frequently exceeded 99.00%. Membrane filter samples of the effluent were examined by optical and electron microscope. It was observed that despite the high mass efficiency, the number of fibers emitted, which were greater than 1.5 mum in length, was about 10(4)-10(5) fibers/m3, while the number of fibers less than 1.5 mum was 10(7)-10(8) fibers/m3. The significance of the size of the fibers in terms of probably health impact is briefly discussed. PMID:1227285</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Harwood, C F; Oestreich, D K; Siebert, P; Stockham, J D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1975-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">252</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/183313"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hot stuff <span class="hlt">controls</span> for VOC <span class="hlt">emissions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">For close to three decades, American industry has paved the way and led the world in <span class="hlt">controlling</span> volatile organic compound (VOC) <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. As more and more systems have been installed, the history of operation for the various types of systems has broadened dramatically, spurring significant technological advances, the traditional technologies and those on the cutting edge of VOC <span class="hlt">control</span>. With the number of technologies available, the environmental professional may have a difficult task choosing the most strategic environmental solution. The conventional, traditional or proven methodology for VOC <span class="hlt">control</span> has been incineration. Other technologies have been used for very specific applications. In deciding the specific type of incineration system to select, the environmental professional will look at a broad spectrum of evaluation factors. These include initial system cost, operational cost, maintenance requirements, reliability factors and most importantly, the projected success of achieving 99% VOC destruction efficiency. This article provides an overview of the basic differences among incineration technologies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yewshenko, P. [Ross Air Systems, Somerville, NJ (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">253</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20719608"> <span id="translatedtitle">Enhancement of <span class="hlt">Spontaneous</span> Erbium <span class="hlt">Emission</span> near the Photonic Band Edge of Distributed Bragg Reflectors Based on a-Si:H/a-SiO{sub x}:H</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Results obtained in an experimental study of <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> from erbium ions in a spectral range corresponding to the lower photonic band edge of distributed Bragg reflectors (1D photonic crystals) are presented. The photonic crystals were constituted of alternating quarter-wave a-Si:H and a-SiO{sub x}:H layers grown by PECVD. Erbium was introduced into the a-Si:H layers by magnetron sputtering of an erbium target in the course of structure growth. The change observed in the intensity of <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> is due to the nonmonotonic behavior of the density of optical modes near the photonic band edge.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Medvedev, A.V.; Feoktistov, N.A.; Pevtsov, A.B.; Golubev, V.G. [Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, 194021 (Russian Federation)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-11-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">254</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=DE87752635"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spontaneous</span> <span class="hlt">Emission</span> in a Double Dielectric Slab for Cerenkov-FEL Operation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The double slab waveguide configuration for a Cerenkov Free Elecron Laser (C-FEL) is discussed, it is shown that it may allow higher <span class="hlt">emission</span> brightness with respect to the single slab configuration. (ERA citation 12:037480)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">F. Ciocci G. Dattoli G. P. Gallerano A. Torre J. E. Walsh</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">255</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvA..89e3807F"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spontaneous</span> quantum <span class="hlt">emission</span> from analog white holes in a nonlinear optical medium</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We use a microscopic quantum optical model to compute the spectrum of quantum vacuum <span class="hlt">emission</span> from strong laser pulses propagating in nonlinear optical media. Similarities and differences with respect to the <span class="hlt">emission</span> of analog white holes as predicted by quantum field theory in curved spacetime are highlighted. Conceptual issues related to the role played by the material dispersion and to the presence or absence of the horizon are clarified. Critical comparison with available experimental data is made.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Finazzi, Stefano; Carusotto, Iacopo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">256</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003JChPh.118.6552K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Averaged kinetic temperature <span class="hlt">controlling</span> algorithm: Application to <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> alloying in microclusters</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A simple algorithm of velocity scaling is proposed for the isothermal simulation of nonequilibrium relaxation processes accompanied with heat generation or absorption. The algorithm <span class="hlt">controls</span> the kinetic temperature averaged over an arbitrary time interval at an arbitrary relaxation rate and at an arbitrary velocity scaling interval. The general conditions of <span class="hlt">controlling</span> temperature are derived analytically and criteria for stable <span class="hlt">control</span> are established. Our algorithm is applied to simulating the effect of substrate on the ``<span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> alloying'' process of metal microclusters [H. Yasuda, H. Mori, M. Komatsu, K. Takeda, and H. Fujita, J. Electron Microsc. 41, 267 (1992)]. The results are compared with the results obtained by the Langevin algorithm in which the kinetic energy of every atom is <span class="hlt">controlled</span> by respective stochastic heat reservoir. In spite of the marked difference between the two algorithms the relaxation dynamics agree very well in quantity over a sufficient wide range of <span class="hlt">control</span> parameters.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kobayashi, Taizo R.; Ikeda, Kensuke S.; Shimizu, Yasushi; Sawada, Shin-Ichi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">257</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=DE90011113"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of direct <span class="hlt">control</span> and market based policies for <span class="hlt">controlling</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> can be achieved by employing direct <span class="hlt">control</span> policies such as performance standards and technology standards or by employing market based policies such as <span class="hlt">emissions</span> trading, <span class="hlt">emissions</span> taxes and marketable permits. This paper describes thes...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. A. Fox, D. A. Hanson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">258</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18193913"> <span id="translatedtitle">Reversible polarization <span class="hlt">control</span> of single photon <span class="hlt">emission</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present reversible and a-priori <span class="hlt">control</span> of the polarization of a photon emitted by a single molecule by introducing a nanoscale metal object in its near field. It is experimentally shown that, with the metal close to the emitter, the polarization ratio of the <span class="hlt">emission</span> can be varied by a factor of 2. The tunability of polarization decays, when the metal is displaced by typically 30 nm. Calculations based on the multiple multipole method agree well with our experiments and predict even further enhancement with a suitable nanoantenna design. PMID:18193913</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Moerland, Robert J; Taminiau, Tim H; Novotny, Lukas; van Hulst, Niek F; Kuipers, Laurens</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">259</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21408325"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spontaneous</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> from a two-level atom in anisotropic one-band photonic crystals: A fractional calculus approach</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Spontaneous</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> (SE) from a two-level atom in an anisotropic photonic crystal (PC) is investigated by the fractional calculus. Physical phenomena of the SE are studied analytically by solving the fractional kinetic equations of the SE. There is a dynamical discrepancy between the SE of anisotropic and isotropic PCs. We find that, contrary to the SE phenomenon of the isotropic PC, the SE near the band edge of an anisotropic PC shows no photon-atom bound state. It is consistent with the experimental results of Barth, Schuster, Gruber, and Cichos [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 243902 (2006)] that the anisotropic property of the system enhances the SE. We also study effects of dispersion curvatures on the changes of the photonic density of states and the appearance of the diffusion fields in the SE.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wu, J.-N.; Huang, C.-H. [Department of Photonics and Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Cheng, S.-C. [Department of Physics, Chinese Culture University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, W.-F. [Department of Photonics and Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Institute of Electro-Optical Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-02-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">260</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ChPhB..20g7803Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Amplified <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> from metal-backed poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-1, 4-phenylenevinylene] film</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigate the amplified <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> (ASE) from an Ag-backed poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV) film with different film thicknesses. The ASE characteristics of Ag-backed MEH-PPV films with different thicknesses show that increasing the film thickness can reduce the influence of the Ag cladding. The threshold, the gain, and the loss of the device with a thickness of 170 nm are comparable to those of a metal-free device. The lasing threshold of this device is about 7.5 times that of a metal-free device. Our findings demonstrate that Ag-backed MEH-PPV film with an appropriate thickness can still be a good polymer gain material for the fabrication of solid-state lasers.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, Bo; Hou, Yan-Bing; Teng, Feng; Lou, Zhi-Dong; Liu, Xiao-Jun; Hu, Bing; Wu, Wen-Bin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" 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showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">261</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920061917&hterms=al2o3&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dal2o3"> <span id="translatedtitle">Amplified <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> measurement of a line-narrowed, tunable, Ti:Al2O3 amplifier using rubidium absorption</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Amplified <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span>, ASE, generated by a Ti:Al2O3 laser amplifier has been measured as a function of pump energy, and thus gain, using the atomic absorption of rubidium, Rb, gas at 0.780 micron. By tuning the Ti:Al2O3 laser, the Rb cell could selectively absorb the narrow spectral bandwidth laser radiation while transmitting the wide spectral bandwidth ASE. Transmission of laser amplifier pulses through a Rb absorption cell, measured at various temperatures, thus allows the measurement of the weak ASE in the vicinity of the strong laser pulse. A model for the transmission of Rb as a function of temperature and wavelength has been developed. The measured transmissions are in good agreement with the transmission model predictions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Barnes, James C.; Barnes, Norman P.; Lockard, George E.; Cross, Patricia L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">262</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhRvA..81b3827W"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spontaneous</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> from a two-level atom in anisotropic one-band photonic crystals: A fractional calculus approach</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Spontaneous</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> (SE) from a two-level atom in an anisotropic photonic crystal (PC) is investigated by the fractional calculus. Physical phenomena of the SE are studied analytically by solving the fractional kinetic equations of the SE. There is a dynamical discrepancy between the SE of anisotropic and isotropic PCs. We find that, contrary to the SE phenomenon of the isotropic PC, the SE near the band edge of an anisotropic PC shows no photon-atom bound state. It is consistent with the experimental results of Barth, Schuster, Gruber, and Cichos [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 243902 (2006)] that the anisotropic property of the system enhances the SE. We also study effects of dispersion curvatures on the changes of the photonic density of states and the appearance of the diffusion fields in the SE.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wu, Jing-Nuo; Huang, Chih-Hsien; Cheng, Szu-Cheng; Hsieh, Wen-Feng</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">263</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NIMPA.745..150E"> <span id="translatedtitle">Prepulse and amplified <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> effects on the interaction of a petawatt class laser with thin solid targets</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">When a finite contrast petawatt laser pulse irradiates a micron-thick foil, a prepulse (including amplified <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span>) creates a preplasma, where an ultrashort relativistically strong portion of the laser pulse (the main pulse) acquires higher intensity due to relativistic self-focusing and undergoes fast depletion transferring energy to fast electrons. If the preplasma thickness is optimal, the main pulse can reach the target accelerating fast ions more efficiently than an ideal, infinite contrast, laser pulse. A simple analytical model of a target with preplasma formation is developed and the radiation pressure dominant acceleration of ions in this target is predicted. The preplasma formation by a nanosecond prepulse is analyzed with dissipative hydrodynamic simulations. The main pulse interaction with the preplasma is studied with multi-parametric particle-in-cell simulations. The optimal conditions for hundreds of MeV ion acceleration are found with accompanying effects important for diagnostics, including high-order harmonics generation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Esirkepov, Timur Zh.; Koga, James K.; Sunahara, Atsushi; Morita, Toshimasa; Nishikino, Masaharu; Kageyama, Kei; Nagatomo, Hideo; Nishihara, Katsunobu; Sagisaka, Akito; Kotaki, Hideyuki; Nakamura, Tatsufumi; Fukuda, Yuji; Okada, Hajime; Pirozhkov, Alexander S.; Yogo, Akifumi; Nishiuchi, Mamiko; Kiriyama, Hiromitsu; Kondo, Kiminori; Kando, Masaki; Bulanov, Sergei V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">264</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6145903"> <span id="translatedtitle">Continuous particulate monitoring for <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">control</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An optical continuous particle monitoring system has been developed to overcome common problems associated with <span class="hlt">emissions</span> monitoring equipment. Opacity monitors generally use a single- or double-pass system to analyze the presence of dust particles in the flue gas stream. The particles scatter and absorb light as it passes through the stack. As the particle content in the gas stream increases due to bag failure or some other problem, the amount of light that is blocked also increases. The opacity monitor compares the amount of lost light energy to the total energy of the light available and translates the signal to percentage of opacity. Opacity monitors are typically installed to meet the requirements set forth by pollution <span class="hlt">control</span> agencies. Most opacity monitors are designed to meet all of the requirements of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 40 CFR, Part 60, Appendix B, Performance Specification. The new continuous particle monitor (CPM) increases the accuracy of <span class="hlt">emission</span> monitoring and overcomes typical problems found in conventional <span class="hlt">emission</span> monitoring devices. The CPM is an optically based, calibratible, continuous dust monitor that uses a microprocessor, transmitter head, and receiver head. When calibrated with an isokinetic sample, a continuous readout of particulate concentration (in mg/m[sup 3]) in the exhaust gas is provided. The system can be used as a filter bag failure system or a long-term <span class="hlt">emission</span> trend analyzer. Formal testing was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the optically based CPM. The monitor was calibrated using particles of a range of compositions, size distributions, and concentrations. The feasibility of using the instrument to measure particle concentration as low as 10 mg/m[sup 3] was examined.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bock, A.H. (BHA Group, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">265</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23612720"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Control</span> of one-dimensional magnetism in graphene via <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> hydrogenation of the grain boundary.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We propose that <span class="hlt">control</span> of one-dimensional (1D) magnetism in graphene could be made easier by <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> hydrogenation of chemically reactive grain boundaries (GBs) in polycrystalline graphenes. Unlike pristine graphene, where hydrogen adsorption favors the formation of zero-dimensional (0D) clusters, the defect cores (pentagon, heptagon and octagon) at the GBs in polycrystalline graphene promote hydrogenation along the GBs. The hydrogenation in polycrystalline graphene starts at the GBs, proceeds gradually towards the grain interior (GI) and results in smooth 1D graphane-graphene interfaces. Our calculations show that the type (ferro- or antiferro-magnetism) and strength of the magnetism can be <span class="hlt">controlled</span> by <span class="hlt">controlling</span> the orientation of GBs. Since GBs in single-layer graphenes can be fabricated in a <span class="hlt">controllable</span> way in experiments, the hydrogenation of GBs could be a unique method to realize large-area magnetic graphenes for future spintronic applications. PMID:23612720</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yin, Wan-Jian; Wei, Su-Huai; Yan, Yanfa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">266</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMSH13A2047N"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spontaneous</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> of magnetic field fluctuations in Solar wind-like suprathermal plasmas</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Heavy ions in solar wind have been observed to flow faster than protons, with temperatures exceeding the mass proportionality respect to protons. The identification and explanation of the physical processes responsible for ion heating may provide the key to explain why the temperature of the outer solar atmosphere and expanding corona forming the solar wind is several orders of magnitude higher than that of the photosphere. Possible explanations of the preferential acceleration and heating of ions often involve linear kinetic theory, which allows for a wide number of heavily damped waves (or higher-order modes), which could play a secondary role in the energization of solar wind plasmas. Also, linear theory predicts instability thresholds in the temperature distribution of protons which are consistent with data from the Solar Wind Experiment (SWE). However, it has also been observed that proton velocity distributions appear to be strongly anisotropic, displaying a pronounced non-Maxwellian profile of particles exceeding thermal energies. These velocity distributions are often modeled with a family of specific functional describing both the low-energy Maxwellian core and the high-energy power-law tails, popularly known in the literature as kappa-distributions. Furthermore, short wavelength magnetic fluctuations with small amplitude are present even in the absence of plasma instabilities. These <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> fluctuations are intimately linked to the linear response of perturbations via the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. The various collective modes of fluctuations are constrained by the structure of the higher-order modes determined by the electromagnetic kinetic dispersion relation. In this work, we examine the propagation and excitation of parallel Alfvén-cyclotron waves in a suprathermal proton solar wind-like plasma, as described by a kappa-like distribution function, by taking care of the often ignored higher-order modes which modify the structure of the <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> emitted electromagnetic fluctuations. Also, we study the emitted magnetic energy for several values of the proton temperature near the instability threshold predicted from linear theory.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Navarro, R.; Munoz, V.; Araneda, J. A.; Vinas, A. F.; Valdivia, J. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">267</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=49240"> <span id="translatedtitle">IDENTIFICATION, ASSESSMENT, AND <span class="hlt">CONTROL</span> OF FUGITIVE PARTICULATE <span class="hlt">EMISSIONS</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The technical manual, designed to assist national, state, and local <span class="hlt">control</span> agency personnel and industry personnel in evaluating fugitive <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> plans and in developing cost-effective <span class="hlt">control</span> strategies, describes the identification, assessment, and <span class="hlt">control</span> of fugitive...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">268</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvA..89e3806M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spectrum of cascade <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span>: General theory including systems with close transition frequencies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The process of a cascade light <span class="hlt">emission</span> by an excited multilevel quantum system has been described exactly. A multiphoton wave function of the system at an arbitrary time has been derived, which allows one to find any characteristic of the emitted field. Using this wave function, we have obtained a general expression for the cascade <span class="hlt">emission</span> spectrum. This expression is of special interest when some transitions have close frequencies; this case has not been treated before. We present several examples of application of the obtained general expression.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Makarov, A. A.; Yudson, V. I.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">269</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6972142"> <span id="translatedtitle">Alternative <span class="hlt">control</span> techniques document: NOx <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from glass manufacturing</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This alternative <span class="hlt">control</span> techniques (ACT) document describes available <span class="hlt">control</span> techniques for reducing NOx <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from glass furnaces. <span class="hlt">Control</span> techniques include low NOx burners, oxy-firing, modified furnace, cullet preheat, electric boost, selective catalytic reduction, and selective noncatalytic reduction. Achievable <span class="hlt">controlled</span> NOx <span class="hlt">emission</span> levels, costs, and cost effectiveness and environmental and energy impacts for these <span class="hlt">controls</span> are discussed. NOx formation and uncontrolled NOx <span class="hlt">emission</span> levels are also discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Neuffer, W.J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">270</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/19080614"> <span id="translatedtitle">Superasymmetric two-center shell model for <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> heavy-ion <span class="hlt">emission</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The single particle levels for the heavy-ion <span class="hlt">emission</span> process are computed. This decay mode is treated like a superasymmetric fission process. The nuclear shape parametrization is characterized by three degrees of freedom. The difficulties encountered in the microscopic determination of the energy scheme at these very large mass asymmetries are presented. Thereby, a new version of the two-center model, especially</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. Mirea</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">271</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5484887"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dynamically correlated <span class="hlt">spontaneous-emission</span> laser: theory and comparison with experiment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A higher-order correlated-<span class="hlt">emission</span> laser (CEL) effect is found theoretically in a Doppler-broadened medium. A full quantum-mechanical account of the CEL in the nonlinear regime shows a large reduction in the beat-signal linewidth. This behavior is confirmed by a recent experiment.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bergou, J.; Orszag, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">272</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/18266243"> <span id="translatedtitle">Suppression of the amplified <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> in chirped-pulse-amplification lasers by clean high-energy seed-pulse injection</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have suppressed the amplified <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> in a femtosecond terawatt Ti:sapphire chirped-pulse-amplification (CPA) laser by injecting clean microjoule seed pulses into the regenerative amplifier. The intensity contrast ratio, which is one of the major difficulties in CPA lasers, was improved from ?105 in the original nanojoule injection case to ?107 in the nanosecond scale.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. Itatani; J. Faure; M. Nantel; G. Mourou; S. Watanabe</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">273</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/19235125"> <span id="translatedtitle">Single Quantum Dot <span class="hlt">Spontaneous</span> <span class="hlt">Emission</span> in a Finite-Size Photonic Crystal Waveguide: Proposal for an Efficient ``On Chip'' Single Photon Gun</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Spontaneous</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> rate enhancements from a single quantum dot embedded in a finite-size, planar photonic-crystal waveguide are investigated. Short waveguide lengths of only 10 to 20 unit cells are found to produce very large Purcell factors associated with a waveguidelike sharp resonance feature in the local density of photon states. Aided by theoretical insight and rigorous computational calculations, we explain</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">V. S. C. Manga Rao; S. Hughes</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">274</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014E%26ES...18a2146Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">The research and implementation of coalfield <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> combustion of carbon <span class="hlt">emission</span> WebGIS based on Silverlight and ArcGIS server</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">As an important sub-topic of the natural process of carbon <span class="hlt">emission</span> data public information platform construction, coalfield <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> combustion of carbon <span class="hlt">emission</span> WebGIS system has become an important study object. In connection with data features of coalfield <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> combustion carbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span> (i.e. a wide range of data, which is rich and complex) and the geospatial characteristics, data is divided into attribute data and spatial data. Based on full analysis of the data, completed the detailed design of the Oracle database and stored on the Oracle database. Through Silverlight rich client technology and the expansion of WCF services, achieved the attribute data of web dynamic query, retrieval, statistical, analysis and other functions. For spatial data, we take advantage of ArcGIS Server and Silverlight-based API to invoke GIS server background published map services, GP services, Image services and other services, implemented coalfield <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> combustion of remote sensing image data and web map data display, data analysis, thematic map production. The study found that the Silverlight technology, based on rich client and object-oriented framework for WCF service, can efficiently constructed a WebGIS system. And then, combined with ArcGIS Silverlight API to achieve interactive query attribute data and spatial data of coalfield <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> emmission, can greatly improve the performance of WebGIS system. At the same time, it provided a strong guarantee for the construction of public information on China's carbon <span class="hlt">emission</span> data.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhu, Z.; Bi, J.; Wang, X.; Zhu, W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">275</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3598897"> <span id="translatedtitle">Failing to Forget: Prospective Memory Commission Errors Can Result from <span class="hlt">Spontaneous</span> Retrieval and Impaired Executive <span class="hlt">Control</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Prospective memory (PM) research typically examines the ability to remember to execute delayed intentions but often ignores the ability to forget finished intentions. We had participants perform (or not perform; <span class="hlt">control</span> group) a PM task and then instructed them that the PM task was finished. We later (re)presented the PM cue. Approximately 25% of participants made a commission error, the erroneous repetition of a PM response following intention completion. Comparisons between the PM groups and <span class="hlt">control</span> group suggested that commission errors occurred in the absence of preparatory monitoring. Response time analyses additionally suggested that some participants experienced fatigue across the ongoing task block, and those who did were more susceptible to making a commission error. These results supported the hypothesis that commission errors can arise from the <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> retrieval of finished intentions and possibly the failure to exert executive <span class="hlt">control</span> to oppose the PM response.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Scullin, Michael K.; Bugg, Julie M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">276</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SuMi...48..485S"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spontaneous</span> and stimulated <span class="hlt">emission</span> of ZnO/ZnMgO asymmetric double quantum wells</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">ZnO/Zn 0.85Mg 0.15O asymmetric double quantum wells (ADQWs) were fabricated on an m-plane Al 2O 3 substrate by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (P-MBE). The ADQW structures were confirmed by comparing the photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the ZnO/Zn 0.85Mg 0.15O MQWs and ZnO/Zn 0.85Mg 0.15O ADQWs. The exciton tunnelling properties of the ADQWs were studied by means of temperature-dependent PL spectra. The carrier tunneling through the thin barrier is conducive to stimulated <span class="hlt">emission</span> in the wide wells (WWs) of the ADQWs. The origin of the stimulated <span class="hlt">emission</span> is exciton-exciton scattering in the WWs of ADQWs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Su, S. C.; Lu, Y. M.; Xing, G. Z.; Wu, T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">277</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvA..87e3837L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spectrum of collective <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> beyond the rotating-wave approximation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The spectrum of cooperative light <span class="hlt">emission</span> from ensembles of multilevel atoms is studied in optical vector theory and without applying the rotating-wave approximation. The effects of counter-rotating terms are included using a unitary transformation method. The spectra are analyzed and interpreted in terms of the radiative eigenmodes of the atom ensemble. We further show how the qualitative features arise from the structure of the underlying two-particle dipole-dipole interaction induced by the the vacuum field. We predict that for a suitable modification of the ensemble properties, the sign of the cooperative Lamb shift can be reversed, while still maintaining strong superradiant <span class="hlt">emission</span>. Finally, we discuss the effects of finite detection resolution and of averaging over many realizations of the random distribution of atoms for given ensemble parameters.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Li, Yong; Evers, Jörg; Feng, Wei; Zhu, Shi-Yao</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">278</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/18976148"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spontaneous</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> of radiation from a discrete sine-Gordon kink</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We use a collective-variable approach to study the <span class="hlt">emission</span> of phonon radiation from a discrete sine-Gordon kink. We find that a kink, trapped and oscillating in the nonlinear Peierls-Nabarro potential well not only radiates phonons smoothly but emits large and sudden bursts of phonon radiation when the frequency of oscillation reaches certain critical values. We show that the bursts occur</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. Boesch; C. R. Willis; M. El-Batanouny</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">279</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/18550524"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ultraviolet <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> and stimulated <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from ZnO microcrystallite thin films at room temperature</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Room-temperature free excition absorption and luminescence are observed in ZnO thin films grown on sapphire substrates by the laser molecular beam epitaxy technique. At moderate optical pumping intensities, an excition-exciton collision induced stimulated <span class="hlt">emission</span> peak is observed at 390 nm. The existence of this peak is related to the presence of closely packed hexagonally shaped microcrystallites in these films. Stimulated</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. Zu; Z. K. Tang; G. K. L. Wong; M. Kawasaki; A. Ohtomo; H. Koinuma; Y. Segawa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">280</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20991090"> <span id="translatedtitle">Influence of pump-phase fluctuations on entanglement generation using a correlated <span class="hlt">spontaneous-emission</span> laser</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, we study the effect of phase fluctuations of the pump field upon the entanglement generation in a two-photon correlated <span class="hlt">emission</span> laser (CEL). We consider initial vacuum and coherent state for the two-cavity modes. In both cases, we find reduction in the entanglement due to the phase fluctuations. However, our results indicate that entanglement generation is highly sensitive to phase fluctuations when we have initial coherent state in the two modes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Qamar, Shahid [Centre for Quantum Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Xiong Han [Institute for Quantum Studies and Department of Physics, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Zubairy, M. Suhail [Centre for Quantum Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Institute for Quantum Studies and Department of Physics, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Texas A and M University at Qatar, Education City, P.O. Box 23874, Doha (Qatar)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-06-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return 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href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">281</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PhRvA..75f2305Q"> <span id="translatedtitle">Influence of pump-phase fluctuations on entanglement generation using a correlated <span class="hlt">spontaneous-emission</span> laser</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, we study the effect of phase fluctuations of the pump field upon the entanglement generation in a two-photon correlated <span class="hlt">emission</span> laser (CEL). We consider initial vacuum and coherent state for the two-cavity modes. In both cases, we find reduction in the entanglement due to the phase fluctuations. However, our results indicate that entanglement generation is highly sensitive to phase fluctuations when we have initial coherent state in the two modes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Qamar, Shahid; Xiong, Han; Zubairy, M. Suhail</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">282</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhRvB..85g5303V"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spontaneous</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> spectra and quantum light-matter interactions from a strongly coupled quantum dot metal-nanoparticle system</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigate the quantum optical properties of a quantum-dot dipole emitter coupled to a finite-size metal nanoparticle using a photon Green-function technique that rigorously quantizes the electromagnetic fields. We first obtain pronounced Purcell factors and photonic Lamb shifts for both a 7- and 20-nm-radius metal nanoparticle, without adopting a dipole approximation. We then consider a quantum-dot photon emitter positioned sufficiently near the metal nanoparticle so that the strong-coupling regime is possible. Accounting for nondipole interactions, quenching, and photon transport from the dot to the detector, we demonstrate that the strong-coupling regime should be observable in the far-field <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> spectrum, even at room temperature. The vacuum-induced <span class="hlt">emission</span> spectra show that the usual vacuum Rabi doublet becomes a rich spectral triplet or quartet with two of the four peaks anticrossing, which survives in spite of significant nonradiative decays. We discuss the emitted light spectrum and the effects of quenching for two different dipole polarizations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">van Vlack, C.; Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Hughes, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">283</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20633463"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of colorpuncture on <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> photon <span class="hlt">emission</span> in a subject suffering from multiple sclerosis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Spontaneous</span> photon signals from four sites of a human subject suffering from multiple sclerosis were detected in 3600 bins of 50 milliseconds by a photo multiplier sensitive in 160-630 nm, before and after a session of colorpuncture treatment. Measurements were made in 22 sessions over a period of 9 months. Each signal was analyzed to determine if it was a quantum signal in a squeezed state. The analysis first generates 10 signals of bin sizes (50 to 500 milliseconds at 50 millisecond intervals) by merging the counts at contiguous bins of the observed signal and then estimates three squeezed state parameters (r, theta and phi) in these ten signals and nine other combinations of signals. All estimations yield r=2.72.10(-10), theta = 101.91 degrees and phi = 69.53 degrees for TolX=10(-8) in every signal of a healthy subject. These are normal values of the parameters. Other values of parameters in a signal of any estimation indicate some ailment. The deviation from the squeezed state description of a signal is quantified by a new property, "coherency index", which appears to be a good indicator of health. A session of colorpuncture treatment changed coherency indices of signals from different sides and provided relief to the subject suffering from multiple sclerosis. The changes in coherency indices and relief were temporary. Changes in coherency indices lasting for longer periods occurred after many sessions of treatment. PMID:20633463</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bajpai, R P; Drexel, M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">284</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=47852"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">CONTROL</span> OF HYDROCARBON <span class="hlt">EMISSIONS</span> FROM GASOLINE LOADING BY REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The report gives results of a study of the capabilities of refrigeration systems, operated at three temperatures, to <span class="hlt">control</span> volatile organic compound (VOC) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from truck loading at bulk gasoline terminals. Achievable VOC <span class="hlt">emission</span> rates were calculated for refrigeration sy...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">285</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3926471"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spontaneous</span> rupture of a hepatic epithelioid angiomyolipoma: damage <span class="hlt">control</span> surgery. A case report</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">SUMMARY Background Angiomyolipoma (AML) is a rare mesenchymal tumor composed by blood vessels, adipose tissue and smooth muscle cells in variable proportions. Although it is most often diagnosed in the kidney, this tumor may originate from any part of the liver. It is often misdiagnosed as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or other benign liver tumor. We describe a case of <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> rupture of hepatic angiomyolipoma in a young woman, with evidence of internal hemorrhage and hemoperitoneum. Case report Liver tumor rupture is a rare but real surgical emergency. In our case it has been managed according to the trauma principles of the damage <span class="hlt">control</span> surgery. At the time of the observation, the patient presented an instable condition, so the decision-making was oriented toward a less invasive first step of liver packing instead of a more aggressive intervention such as one shot hepatic resection. Conclusion Damage <span class="hlt">control</span> surgery with deep parenchymal sutures of the liver and pro-coagulant tissue adhesives packing abbreviates surgical time before the development of critical and irreversible physiological endpoints and permits a more confident second time surgery. This surgical management concept helps to reduce the mortality rate and the incidence of complications not only in traumatic liver damages, it works very well in <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> liver ruptures as well.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">OCCHIONORELLI, S.; DELLACHIESA, L.; STANO, R.; CAPPELLARI, L.; TARTARINI, D.; SEVERI, S.; PALINI, G.M.; PANSINI, G.C.; VASQUEZ, G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">286</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SPIE.8625E..16T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Intersubband <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> from GaN-based THz quantum cascade laser</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We studied on terahertz-quantum cascade lasers (THz-QCLs) using III-Nitride semiconductors, which are promising materials for the realization of the unexplored frequency range from 5 to 12 THz and the higher temperature operation on THz-QCLs, because these compounds have much larger longitudinal optical phonon energies (> 18 THz) than those of conventional GaAs-based materials (~ 9 THz). Firstly, we showed clearly that it is possible to design a GaN-based quantum cascade (QC) structure which operates in the THz range in which population inversion can be obtained, by performing numerical calculations based on a self-consistent rate equation model. Secondly, we succeeded in the stack of QC structure with a large number of periods and the drastic improvement of structural properties of QC structure, by introducing a new growth technique named "a droplet elimination by thermal annealing (DETA)" in which utilized the differences of the properties between metals (Al, Ga) and Nitrides (AlN, GaN) into molecular beam epitaxy. Finally, we for the first time successfully observed <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> electroluminescence due to intersubband transitions with peaks at frequencies from 1.4 to 2.8 THz from GaN/AlGaN QCL devices fabricated with using the DETA technique grown on a GaN substrate and a metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD)-AlN template on a sapphire substrate. In this paper, we demonstrate recent achievements on the quantum design, fabrication technique, and electroluminescence properties of GaN-based QCL structures.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Terashima, W.; Hirayama, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">287</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3436602"> <span id="translatedtitle">Approximate Entropy Values Demonstrate Impaired Neuromotor <span class="hlt">Control</span> of <span class="hlt">Spontaneous</span> Leg Activity in Infants with Myelomeningocele</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Purpose One obstacle to providing early intervention to infants with myelomeningocele (MMC) is the challenge of quantifying impaired neuromotor <span class="hlt">control</span> of movements early in life. Methods We used the nonlinear analysis tool Approximate Entropy (ApEn) to analyze periodicity and complexity of supine <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> lower extremity movements of infants with MMC and typical development (TD) at 1, 3, 6 and 9 months of age. Results Movements of infants with MMC were more regular and repeatable (lower ApEn values) than movements of infants with TD indicating less adaptive and flexible movement patterns. For both groups ApEn values decreased with age, and the movements of infants with MMC were less complex than movements of infants with TD. Further, for infants with MMC, lesion level and age of walking onset correlated negatively with ApEn values. Conclusions Our study begins to demonstrate the feasibility of ApEn to identify impaired neuromotor <span class="hlt">control</span> in infants with MMC.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Smith, Beth A.; Teulier, Caroline; Sansom, Jennifer; Stergiou, Nicholas; Ulrich, Beverly D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">288</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22049100"> <span id="translatedtitle">Theory of <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> of quantum dots in the linear regime.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We develop a fully quantum-mechanical theory for the interaction of light and electron-hole excitations in semiconductor quantum dots. Our theoretical analysis results in an expression for the photoluminescence intensity of quantum dots in the linear regime. Taking into account the single-particle Hamiltonian, the free-photon Hamiltonian, the electron-hole interaction Hamiltonian, and the interaction of carriers with light, and applying the Heisenberg equation of motion to the photon number expectation values, to the carrier distribution functions and to the correlation term between the photon generation (destruction) and electron-hole pair, we obtain a set of luminescence equations. Under quasi-equilibrium conditions, these equations become a closed-set of equations. We solve them analytically, in the linear regime, and we find an approximate solution of the incoherent photoluminescence intensity. The validity of the theoretical analysis is tested by investigating the <span class="hlt">emission</span> spectra in the high-temperature regime, interpreting the experimental findings for the <span class="hlt">emission</span> spectra of a lens-shaped In(0.5)Ga(0.5)As self-assembled quantum dot. Our theoretical predictions for the interlevel spacing as well as for the dephasing time caused by electron-longitudinal optical phonon interactions are in good agreement with the experimental results. PMID:22049100</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zora, A; Simserides, C; Triberis, G P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-10-10</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">289</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=N9428082"> <span id="translatedtitle">Gas Turbine Combustion and <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Control</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The fundamentals of combustion are discussed in the context of gaseous and liquid fuels and gas turbine fuels. Methods for reducing the <span class="hlt">emission</span> of pollutants in gas turbines are considered. These <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are carbon monoxide, unburnt hydrocarbons, smoke...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">B. Schetter</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">290</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=31539"> <span id="translatedtitle">COMPUTER-<span class="hlt">CONTROLLED</span>, REAL-TIME AUTOMOBILE <span class="hlt">EMISSIONS</span> MONITORING SYSTEM</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A minicomputer <span class="hlt">controlled</span> automotive <span class="hlt">emissions</span> sampling and analysis system (the Real-Time System) was developed to determine vehicular modal <span class="hlt">emissions</span> over various test cycles. This data acquisition system can sample real-time <span class="hlt">emissions</span> at a rate of 10 samples/s. A buffer utiliz...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">291</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ApPhL.100v1111M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Surface plasmon polariton-<span class="hlt">controlled</span> tunable quantum-dot <span class="hlt">emission</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The unique properties of surface plasmon polaritons, such as strong field confinement and local field enhancement effects, make them ideal candidates to enhance and shape the <span class="hlt">emission</span> of luminescent nanoparticles. Of these nanoparticles, quantum dots are highly versatile, suitable for vastly different applications due to their size and material tunability. In many cases however, the <span class="hlt">emission</span> wavelength of the quantum dots is fixed after manufacturing, allowing no <span class="hlt">control</span> over the in situ <span class="hlt">emission</span> properties. Here, we show fully optical, in situ tunability of the <span class="hlt">emission</span> wavelength of quantum dots, with shifts of over 30 nm, employing surface plasmon polaritons to <span class="hlt">control</span> the <span class="hlt">emission</span> wavelength.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Moerland, R. J.; Rekola, H. T.; Sharma, G.; Eskelinen, A.-P.; Väkeväinen, A. I.; Törmä, P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">292</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50837045"> <span id="translatedtitle">Enhanced <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> of electric dipole by nano-optical antenna</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We study the characteristics of nano-optical antenna made of two gold nano-particles by three dimensional numerical calculations at visible and near infrared band. To carry the computational burden and guarantee the precision and speed of a 3D FDTD calculation, adaptive mesh refinement technology is used. We first highlight the concrete way of <span class="hlt">controlling</span> over the emitter position to fulfill the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">H. Gao; K. Li; F. M. Kong; H. Xie; J. Zhao</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">293</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23238737"> <span id="translatedtitle">Complexin <span class="hlt">controls</span> <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> and evoked neurotransmitter release by regulating the timing and properties of synaptotagmin activity.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Neurotransmitter release following synaptic vesicle (SV) fusion is the fundamental mechanism for neuronal communication. Synaptic exocytosis is a specialized form of intercellular communication that shares a common SNARE-mediated fusion mechanism with other membrane trafficking pathways. The regulation of synaptic vesicle fusion kinetics and short-term plasticity is critical for rapid encoding and transmission of signals across synapses. Several families of SNARE-binding proteins have evolved to regulate synaptic exocytosis, including Synaptotagmin (SYT) and Complexin (CPX). Here, we demonstrate that Drosophila CPX <span class="hlt">controls</span> evoked fusion occurring via the synchronous and asynchronous pathways. cpx(-/-) mutants show increased asynchronous release, while CPX overexpression largely eliminates the asynchronous component of fusion. We also find that SYT and CPX coregulate the kinetics and Ca(2+) co-operativity of neurotransmitter release. CPX functions as a positive regulator of release in part by coupling the Ca(2+) sensor SYT to the fusion machinery and synchronizing its activity to speed fusion. In contrast, syt(-/-); cpx(-/-) double mutants completely abolish the enhanced <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> release observe in cpx(-/-) mutants alone, indicating CPX acts as a fusion clamp to block premature exocytosis in part by preventing inappropriate activation of the SNARE machinery by SYT. CPX levels also <span class="hlt">control</span> the size of synaptic vesicle pools, including the immediate releasable pool and the ready releasable pool-key elements of short-term plasticity that define the ability of synapses to sustain responses during burst firing. These observations indicate CPX regulates both <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> and evoked fusion by modulating the timing and properties of SYT activation during the synaptic vesicle cycle. PMID:23238737</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jorquera, Ramon A; Huntwork-Rodriguez, Sarah; Akbergenova, Yulia; Cho, Richard W; Littleton, J Troy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-12</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">294</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3530744"> <span id="translatedtitle">Complexin <span class="hlt">Controls</span> <span class="hlt">Spontaneous</span> and Evoked Neurotransmitter Release by Regulating the Timing and Properties of Synaptotagmin Activity</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Neurotransmitter release following synaptic vesicle (SV) fusion is the fundamental mechanism for neuronal communication. Synaptic exocytosis is a specialized form of intercellular communication that shares a common SNARE-mediated fusion mechanism with other membrane trafficking pathways. The regulation of synaptic vesicle fusion kinetics and short-term plasticity is critical for rapid encoding and transmission of signals across synapses. Several families of SNARE-binding proteins have evolved to regulate synaptic exocytosis, including Synaptotagmin (SYT) and Complexin (CPX). Here we demonstrate that Drosophila CPX <span class="hlt">controls</span> evoked fusion occurring via the synchronous and asynchronous pathways. cpx?/? mutants show increased asynchronous release, while CPX overexpression largely eliminates the asynchronous component of fusion. We also find that SYT and CPX co-regulate the kinetics and Ca2+ cooperativity of neurotransmitter release. CPX functions as a positive regulator of release in part by coupling the Ca2+ sensor SYT to the fusion machinery and synchronizing its activity to speed fusion. In contrast, syt?/?; cpx?/? double mutants completely abolish the enhanced <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> release observe in cpx?/? mutants alone, indicating CPX acts as a fusion clamp to block premature exocytosis in part by preventing inappropriate activation of the SNARE machinery by SYT. CPX levels also <span class="hlt">control</span> the size of synaptic vesicle pools, including the immediate releasable pool and the ready releasable pool – key elements of short-term plasticity that define the ability of synapses to sustain responses during burst firing. These observations indicate CPX regulates both <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> and evoked fusion by modulating the timing and properties of SYT activation during the synaptic vesicle cycle.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jorquera, Ramon A.; Huntwork-Rodriguez, Sarah; Akbergenova, Yulia; Cho, Richard W.; Littleton, J. Troy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">295</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19780003129&hterms=shale+gas&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dshale%2Bgas"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Emissions</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> for ground power gas turbines</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The similarities and differences of <span class="hlt">emissions</span> reduction technology for aircraft and ground power gas turbines is described. The capability of this technology to reduce ground power <span class="hlt">emissions</span> to meet existing and proposed <span class="hlt">emissions</span> standards is presented and discussed. Those areas where the developing aircraft gas turbine technology may have direct application to ground power and those areas where the needed technology may be unique to the ground power mission are pointed out. <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> reduction technology varying from simple combustor modifications to the use of advanced combustor concepts, such as catalysis, is described and discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rudney, R. A.; Priem, R. J.; Juhasz, A. J.; Anderson, D. N.; Mroz, T. S.; Mularz, E. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1977-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">296</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24732877"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spontaneous</span> <span class="hlt">Control</span> of HIV Replication, but not HAART-Induced Viral Suppression, Is Associated With Lower Activation of Immune Cells.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">: HIV replication <span class="hlt">control</span> is important to reduce AIDS progression. We determined frequency and activation status of immune cells in <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> HIV <span class="hlt">controllers</span> vs. individuals with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-<span class="hlt">controlled</span> viral load. HIV <span class="hlt">controllers</span> exhibited significantly higher frequency of CD4 T cells and myeloid dendritic cells compared with HAART-<span class="hlt">controlled</span> viral load. Additionally, HIV <span class="hlt">controllers</span> have a significantly lower percentage of cells expressing activation markers on CD4 and CD8 T cells, myeloid dendritic cells, and natural killer cells. These findings suggest that during HIV infection, conservation of a normal frequency and physiological range of immune activation is associated with <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span>, but not HAART-induced, <span class="hlt">control</span> of viral replication. PMID:24732877</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Taborda, Natalia A; Rugeles, María T; Montoya, Carlos J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">297</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB90120106"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Control</span> Options at Leeds Architectural Products.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's <span class="hlt">Control</span> Technology Center evaluated feasible alternatives to <span class="hlt">control</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from a specialty aluminum coating facility in CT. The facility desired to increase its use of hig...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. N. Bolstad</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">298</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol28/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol28-sec266-104.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 266.104 - Standards to <span class="hlt">control</span> organic <span class="hlt">emissions</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...2013-07-01 false Standards to <span class="hlt">control</span> organic <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. 266.104 Section 266...Furnaces § 266.104 Standards to <span class="hlt">control</span> organic <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. (a) DRE standard ...efficiency (DRE) of 99.99% for all organic hazardous constituents in the...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">299</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ApPhL.102g3303L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Enhancement of optical gain and amplified <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> due to waveguide geometry in the conjugated polymer poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report enhanced amplified <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> (ASE) and optical gain performance in a conjugated polymer (CP)-based thin film waveguide (WG) Si(100)/SiO2/poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV) by encapsulating the active layer with a transparent dielectric film of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). With index matched SiO2 and PMMA claddings, symmetric WGs are formed that exhibit increased mode confinement and reduced propagation loss enabling lower ASE threshold (40%) and higher optical gain (50%) compared to Si(100)/SiO2/MEH-PPV/air asymmetric WGs. An extremely large net gain coefficient of 500 cm-1 is achieved under picosecond pulse excitation, which is >4× larger than values previously reported in the literature. Fabrication of symmetric WGs requires no complex processing techniques, thus offering a simple, low-cost approach for effectively <span class="hlt">controlling</span> the ASE behavior of CP-based WGs and related optical devices.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lampert, Zach E.; Papanikolas, John M.; Lewis Reynolds, C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">300</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3729211"> <span id="translatedtitle">Decoupling activation and exhaustion of B cells in <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> <span class="hlt">controllers</span> of HIV infection</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective To define the impact of chronic viremia and associated immune activation on B-cell exhaustion in HIV infection. Design Progressive HIV infection is marked by B-cell anergy and exhaustion coupled with dramatic hypergammaglobulinemia. Although both upregulation of CD95 and loss of CD21 have been used as markers of infection-associated B-cell dysfunction, little is known regarding the specific profiles of dysfunctional B cells and whether persistent viral replication and its associated immune activation play a central role in driving B-cell dysfunction. Methods Multiparameter flow cytometry was used to define the profile of dysfunctional B cells. The changes in the expression of CD21 and CD95 were tracked on B-cell subpopulations in patients with differential <span class="hlt">control</span> of viral replication. Results Although the emergence of exhausted, CD21low tissue-like memory B cells followed similar patterns in both progressors and <span class="hlt">controllers</span>, the frequency of CD21low activated memory B cells was lower in <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> <span class="hlt">controllers</span>. Conclusion Our results suggest that the loss of CD21 and the upregulation of CD95 occur as separate events during the development of B-cell dysfunction. The loss of CD21 is a marker of B-cell exhaustion induced in the absence of appreciable viral replication, whereas the upregulation of CD95 is tightly linked to persistent viral replication and its associated immune activation. Thus, these dysfunctional profiles potentially represent two functionally distinct states within the B-cell compartment.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sciaranghella, Gaia; Tong, Neath; Mahan, Alison E.; Suscovich, Todd J.; Alter, Galit</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span 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</span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">301</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23292038"> <span id="translatedtitle">A prospective <span class="hlt">controlled</span> trial comparing <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> closure and Epifilm® patching in traumatic tympanic membrane perforations.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The objective was to compare the outcomes of <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> closure and hyaluronic acid (HA) ester patching (Epifilm®) in subjects with traumatic tympanic membrane (TM) perforation. This was a prospective, <span class="hlt">controlled</span> study performed at a tertiary teaching and research hospital. During 6-month period, subjects were divided into <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> closure (group A) and HA ester patch-Epifilm® (group B) group. Demographic data, presenting symptoms, closure rate, closure time and audiometric data were evaluated and compared between groups. In total, 155 subjects were evaluated. Group A consisted of 62.6 % (n = 97) of the subjects, whereas group B consisted of 37.4 % (n = 58) of the subjects. Group B had significantly shorter closure times when compared with group A (6.61 ± 4.59 vs. 10.60 ± 5.23 weeks, p = 0.001). When the closure time was evaluated according to perforation size both grade 1 and 2 perforations have significantly shorter closure times when compared with group A (6.33 ± 4.54 vs. 10.80 ± 5.69 weeks, for grade 1 and 6.650 ± 2.07 vs. 10.30 ± 4.32 weeks for grade 2 perforations). Closure rates were not significant between groups (85.6 % for group A and 94.8 % for group B). When the closure rate was evaluated according to perforation size no significant difference exists for grade 1, 2 and 3 perforations between groups. Both air conduction and air-bone gap were significantly improved in both groups. HA ester patch (Epifilm®) is a non-toxic material that can be used in traumatic tympanic membrane perforations. In this study, use of HA ester patching was resulted with earlier closure time but not resulted with higher closure rates. PMID:23292038</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sayin, Ibrahim; Kaya, Kamil Hakan; Ekizo?lu, O?uzhan; Erdim, Ibrahim; Kayhan, Fatma Tülin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">302</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6715137"> <span id="translatedtitle">Three-dimensional simulations of the generation of one Angstrom radiation by a self-amplified <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> free-electron laser</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Three-dimensional numerical simulations of the generation of one Angstrom x-rays by a free-electron laser operating in the self-amplified <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> mode have been performed. Using model electron beam and wiggler parameters, we have investigated the length of wiggler needed to just avoid bandwidth broadening effects associated with gain saturation, and we have also obtained requirements for wiggler field errors to avoid significant loss of performance. 14 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Goldstein, J.C.; Elliott, C.J.; Schmitt, M.J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">303</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5307066"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quantum-noise quenching in the correlated <span class="hlt">spontaneous-emission</span> laser as a multiplicative noise process. II. Rigorous analysis including amplitude noise</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An analytical steady-state distribution for the phase difference psi in a correlated <span class="hlt">spontaneous-emission</span> laser (CEL) is derived based on the amplitude and phase equations of a CEL. This distribution is shown to be an excellent approximation to that obtained from a numerical simulation of the complete set of CEL equations. In particular, the effects of amplitude noise on CEL operation are considered and it is shown that fluctuations in the relative amplitude are also noise quenched.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schleich, W.; Scully, M.O.; von Garssen, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-04-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">304</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890004784&hterms=root+hair&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3D%2522root%2Bhair%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle">Gaseous <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from plants in <span class="hlt">controlled</span> environments</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Plant growth in a <span class="hlt">controlled</span> ecological life support system may entail the build-up over extended time periods of phytotoxic concentrations of volatile organic compounds produced by the plants themselves. Ethylene is a prominent gaseous <span class="hlt">emission</span> of plants, and is the focus of this report. The objective was to determine the rate of ethylene release by spring wheat, white potato, and lettuce during early, middle, and late growth stages, and during both the light and dark segments of the diurnal cycle. Plants grown hydroponically using the nutrient film technique were covered with plexiglass containers for 4 to 6 h. At intervals after enclosure, gas samples were withdrawn with a syringe and analyzed for ethylene with a gas chromatograph. Lettuce produced 10 to 100 times more ethylene than wheat or potato, with production rates ranging from 141 to 158 ng g-dry/wt/h. Wheat produced from 1.7 to 14.3 ng g-dry/wt/h, with senescent wheat producing the least amount and flowering wheat the most. Potatoes produced the least amount of ethylene, with values never exceeding 5 ng g-dry/wt/h. Lettuce and potatoes each produced ethylene at similar rates whether in dark period or light period. Ethylene sequestering of 33 to 43 percent by the plexiglass enclosures indicated that these production estimates may be low by one-third to one-half. These results suggest that concern for ethylene build-up in a contained atmosphere should be greatest when growing lettuce, and less when growing wheat or potato.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dubay, Denis T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">305</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2903552"> <span id="translatedtitle">Correlates of <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> viral <span class="hlt">control</span> among long-term survivors of perinatal HIV-1 infection expressing HLA-B57</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective We sought to identify immunologic and virologic correlates of <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> viral <span class="hlt">control</span> among long-term survivors of perinatal HIV infection expressing the protective HLA-B57 allele. Design The frequency, epitope specificity, and functional attributes of HIV-specific T cells and sequence variation within B57-restricted epitopes were compared between “<span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> <span class="hlt">controllers</span>” who maintained normal CD4 percentages and viral loads <3000 copies/ml without antiretroviral therapy, and “treated progressors” who had initiated HAART. Methods Recognition of HIV optimal epitopes was assessed by IFN? Elispot. Functional characterization of CD8 cells targeting B57 epitopes was performed by staining for cytokine production (intracellular IFN?, IL-2, TNF?) and degranulation. Sequencing of autologous RNA was performed to determine the prevalence of viral escape mutations within B57-restricted epitopes and associated compensatory mutations. Results HLA-B57 remained immunodominant during chronic infection in both <span class="hlt">controllers</span> and progressors, but <span class="hlt">controllers</span> recognized fewer epitopes and targeted epitopes within Gag and RT only, whereas progressors demonstrated a broader response targeting additional proteins. No individual epitope was targeted more frequently by <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> <span class="hlt">controllers</span>. CD8 cytokine production patterns were heterogeneous among individuals and even among different epitopes in the same individual, and did not correlate with <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> viral <span class="hlt">control</span>. Extensive sequence variation within B57 epitopes was observed in both groups, but only progressors displayed additional capsid mutations that are known to offset the viral fitness cost of B57-driven immune escape. Conclusions Among HLA-B57+ long-term survivors, <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> of viremia is not associated with a qualitatively or quantitatively superior T cell response, but with uncompensated fitness-attenuating mutations in the viral capsid.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">TANG, Yanhua; HUANG, SiHong; DUNKLEY-THOMPSON, Jacqueline; STEEL-DUNCAN, Julianne C.; RYLAND, Elizabeth G.; JOHN, M. Anne ST.; HAZRA, Rohan; CHRISTIE, Celia D. C.; FEENEY, Margaret E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">306</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100034945&hterms=formaldehyde+emission&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dformaldehyde%2Bemission"> <span id="translatedtitle">Temperature Dependence of Factors <span class="hlt">Controlling</span> Isoprene <span class="hlt">Emissions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigated the relationship of variability in the formaldehyde (HCHO) columns measured by the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) to isoprene <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in the southeastern United States for 2005-2007. The data show that the inferred, regional-average isoprene <span class="hlt">emissions</span> varied by about 22% during summer and are well correlated with temperature, which is known to influence <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Part of the correlation with temperature is likely associated with other causal factors that are temperature-dependent. We show that the variations in HCHO are convolved with the temperature dependence of surface ozone, which influences isoprene <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, and the dependence of the HCHO column to mixed layer height as OMI's sensitivity to HCHO increases with altitude. Furthermore, we show that while there is an association of drought with the variation in HCHO, drought in the southeastern U.S. is convolved with temperature.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Duncan, Bryan N.; Yoshida, Yasuko; Damon, Megan R.; Douglass, Anne R.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">307</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=73330"> <span id="translatedtitle">AIR TOXICS <span class="hlt">EMISSIONS</span> CHARACTERIZATION, <span class="hlt">CONTROLS</span> & PREVENTION</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The goals of this research are to develop improved techniques to characterize hazardous air pollutant <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from outdoor and indoor sources; use thee techniques to better understand the relative contribution of specific sources to actual human exposure, and identify innovativ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">308</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=104791"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">CONTROLLING</span> NOX <span class="hlt">EMISSION</span> FROM INDUSTRIAL SOURCES</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A number of regulatory actions focused on reducing NOx <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from stationary combustion sources have been taken in the United States in the last decade. These actions include the Acid Rain NOx regulations, the Ozone Transport Commission's NOx ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">309</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22children+autism%22&pg=4&id=EJ894135"> <span id="translatedtitle">Brief Report: Pilot Randomized <span class="hlt">Controlled</span> Trial of Reciprocal Imitation Training for Teaching Elicited and <span class="hlt">Spontaneous</span> Imitation to Children with Autism</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Children with autism exhibit significant deficits in imitation skills. Reciprocal Imitation Training (RIT), a naturalistic imitation intervention, was developed to teach young children with autism to imitate during play. This study used a randomized <span class="hlt">controlled</span> trial to evaluate the efficacy of RIT on elicited and <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> imitation skills in 21…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ingersoll, Brooke</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">310</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23848702"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spontaneous</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> from radiative chiral nematic liquid crystals at the photonic band-gap edge: an investigation into the role of the density of photon states near resonance.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this article, we investigate the <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> properties of radiating molecules embedded in a chiral nematic liquid crystal, under the assumption that the electronic transition frequency is close to the photonic edge mode of the structure, i.e., at resonance. We take into account the transition broadening and the decay of electromagnetic field modes supported by the so-called "mirrorless"cavity. We employ the Jaynes-Cummings Hamiltonian to describe the electron interaction with the electromagnetic field, focusing on the mode with the diffracting polarization in the chiral nematic layer. As known in these structures, the density of photon states, calculated via the Wigner method, has distinct peaks on either side of the photonic band gap, which manifests itself as a considerable modification of the <span class="hlt">emission</span> spectrum. We demonstrate that, near resonance, there are notable differences between the behavior of the density of states and the <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> profile of these structures. In addition, we examine in some detail the case of the logarithmic peak exhibited in the density of states in two-dimensional photonic structures and obtain analytic relations for the Lamb shift and the broadening of the atomic transition in the <span class="hlt">emission</span> spectrum. The dynamical behavior of the atom-field system is described by a system of two first-order differential equations, solved using the Green's-function method and the Fourier transform. The <span class="hlt">emission</span> spectra are then calculated and compared with experimental data. PMID:23848702</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mavrogordatos, Th K; Morris, S M; Wood, S M; Coles, H J; Wilkinson, T D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">311</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5289715"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quantum theory of two-photon correlated-<span class="hlt">spontaneous-emission</span> lasers: Exact atom-field interaction Hamiltonian approach</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A quantum theory of two-photon correlated-<span class="hlt">spontaneous-emission</span> lasers (CEL's) is developed, starting from the exact atom-field interaction Hamiltonian for cascade three-level atoms interacting with a single-mode radiation field. We consider the situation where the active atoms are prepared initially in a coherent superposition of three atomic levels and derive a master equation for the field-density operator by using a quantum theory for coherently pumped lasers. The master equation is transformed into a Fokker-Planck equation for the antinormal-ordering {ital Q} function. The drift coefficients of the Fokker-Planck equation enable us to study the steady-state operation of the two-photon CEL's analytically. We have studied both resonant two-photon CEL for which there is no threshold, and off-resonant two-photon CEL for which there exists a threshold. In both cases the initial atomic coherences provide phase locking, and squeezing in the phase quadrature of the field is found. The off-resonant two-photon CEL can build up from a vacuum when its linear gain is larger than the cavity loss (even without population inversion). Maximum squeezing is found in the no-population-inversion region with the laser intensities far below saturation in both cases, which are more than 90% for the resonant two-photon CEL and nearly 50% for the off-resonant one. Approximate steady-state {ital Q} functions are obtained for the resonant two-photon CEL and, in certain circumstances, for the off-resonant one.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lu, N.; Zhu, S. (Center for Advanced Studies and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (US))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-11-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">312</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.hal.inserm.fr/docs/00/07/99/79/PDF/dehaene_plos.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ongoing <span class="hlt">Spontaneous</span> Activity <span class="hlt">Controls</span> Access to Consciousness: A Neuronal Model for Inattentional Blindness</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Even in the absence of sensory inputs, cortical and thalamic neurons can show structured patterns of ongoing <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> activity, whose origins and functional significance are not well understood. We use computer simulations to explore the conditions under which <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> activity emerges from a simplified model of multiple interconnected thalamocortical columns linked by long-range, top-down excitatory axons, and to examine its</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stanislas Dehaene; Jean-Pierre Changeux</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">313</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/3069210"> <span id="translatedtitle">Experience Curves for Power Plant <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Control</span> Technologies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper examines past experience in <span class="hlt">controlling</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) from coal-fired electric power plants. In particular, we focus on US and worldwide experience with two major environmental <span class="hlt">control</span> technologies: flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) systems for SO2 <span class="hlt">control</span> and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems for NOx <span class="hlt">control</span>. We quantitatively characterise historical trends in the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Edward S. Rubin; Sonia Yeh; David A. Hounshell; Margaret R. Taylor</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">314</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009NJPh...11k5007C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Achieving 'perfect' molecular discrimination via coherent <span class="hlt">control</span> and stimulated <span class="hlt">emission</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We illustrate how stimulated <span class="hlt">emission</span> near threshold can turn modest coherent <span class="hlt">control</span> yields into essentially perfect discrimination between systems. We demonstrate selective two-photon driven superfluorescence in atomic Rb and Na, where the shape of an ultrafast drive laser <span class="hlt">controls</span> which atoms superfluoresce. Furthermore, we demonstrate high contrast selectivity in driving stimulated <span class="hlt">emission</span> from dye molecules in solution by tailoring the shape of the ultrafast drive laser pulse. In both cases, we demonstrate discrimination with a <span class="hlt">control</span> factor of about 104.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Clow, Stephen D.; Hölscher, Uvo C.; Weinacht, Thomas C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">315</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55658623"> <span id="translatedtitle">Coal-fueled diesel technology development <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">control</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">General Electric Environmental Services, Inc. (GEESI), <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> <span class="hlt">Control</span> program activity ranged from <span class="hlt">control</span> concept testing of 10 CFM slipstream from a coal-water-slurry (CWS) fuel single cylinder research diesel engine to the design, installation, and operation of a full-size <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> system for a full-size CWS fuel diesel engine designed for locomotive operation. Early 10 CFM slipstream testing program activity was</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">W. Vankleunen; S. Kaldor; E. Gal; M. Mengel; M. Arnold</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">316</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ApPhL.102a1137C"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Controlling</span> laser <span class="hlt">emission</span> by selecting crystal orientation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Based on the anisotropy of laser crystal, we demonstrate a method of adjusting laser <span class="hlt">emission</span> by selecting crystal orientation. When the light propagating direction varies from a to c axis of Nd:LiGd(MoO4)2 crystal, <span class="hlt">emission</span> wavelength exhibits a sensitive change of 1061 nm --> 1061/1062 + 1068 nm --> 1068 nm. The experimental discipline is well explained by a theoretical study of simulating on the spatial distribution of stimulated <span class="hlt">emission</span> cross-section. This letter manifests that the laser property along non-principal-axis direction is also valuable for research and application, which breaks through the traditional custom of using laser materials processed along principal-axis.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chen, Lijuan; Han, Shujuan; Wang, Zhengping; Wang, Jiyang; Zhang, Huanjin; Yu, Haohai; Han, Shuo; Xu, Xinguang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">317</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JAP...114n3104Y"> <span id="translatedtitle">Correlation of angular light profiles of light-emitting diodes to spatial <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from photonic crystals</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Typically, photonic crystal light-emitting diodes employ shallow nanostructures which only higher-order optical modes can be interacted with. Here, both the shallow photonic crystals and nanohole arrays (etched through active layers) are fabricated, which serve to diffract, respectively, higher and lower optical modes in the active layer. Our results indicate that the photon lifetime can be <span class="hlt">controlled</span> by adjusting the geometry of shallow nanostructures and nanohole arrays. The angular <span class="hlt">emission</span> profiles are thus determined by the dominance of higher- and lower-order mode quality factors in the band structure.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yin, Yu-Feng; Lin, Yen-Chen; Liu, Yi-Chen; Shen, Yi-Chun; Chiang, Hai-Pang; Huang, JianJang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">318</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12966579"> <span id="translatedtitle">High cell density induces <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> bifurcations of dissolved oxygen <span class="hlt">controllers</span> during CHO cell fermentations.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">High cell density cultures of CHO cells growing in a bioreactor under dissolved oxygen <span class="hlt">control</span> were found to undergo <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> bifurcations and a subsequent loss of stability some time into the fermentation. This loss of stability was manifested by sustained and amplified oscillations in the bioreactor dissolved oxygen concentration and in the oxygen gas flow rate to the reactor. To identify potential biological and operational causes for the phenomenon, linear stability analysis was applied in a neighborhood of the experimentally observed bifurcation point. The analysis revealed that two steady state process gains, K(P1) and K(P2), regulated k(l)a and gas phase oxygen concentration inputs, respectively, and the magnitude of K(P1) was found to determine system stability about the bifurcation point. The magnitude of K(P1), and hence the corresponding open-loop steady state gain K(OL1), scaled linearly with the bioreactor cell density, increasing with increasing cell density. These results allowed the generation of a fermentation stability diagram, which partitioned K(C)-N operating space into stable and unstable regions separated by the loci of predicted critically stable <span class="hlt">controller</span> constants, K(C,critical), as a function of bioreactor cell density. This consistency of this operating diagram with experimentally observed changes in system stability was demonstrated. We conclude that time-dependent increases in cell density are the cause of the observed instabilities and that cell density is the critical bifurcation parameter. The results of this study should be readily applicable to the design of a more robust <span class="hlt">controller</span>. PMID:12966579</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chung, John D; Chang, Conway C; Groves, James Ashley</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-10-20</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">319</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5804085"> <span id="translatedtitle">Integrated <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> system for residential CWS furnace</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To meet the <span class="hlt">emission</span> goals set by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC), Tecogen Inc. is developing a novel, integrated <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> system to <span class="hlt">control</span> NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, and particulate <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. At the heart of this system is a unique <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> reactor for the <span class="hlt">control</span> of SO{sub 2}. This reactor provides high sorbent particle residence time within the reactor while doing so in a very compact geometry. In addition to <span class="hlt">controlling</span> SO{sub 2} <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, the reactor provides a means of extracting a substantial amount of the particulates present in the combustion gases. Final cleanup of any fine particulates exiting the reactor, including respirable-sized particulates, is completed with the use of high efficiency bag filters. With SO{sub 2} and particulate <span class="hlt">emissions</span> being dealt with by an <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> reactor and bag filters, the <span class="hlt">control</span> of NO{sub x} <span class="hlt">emissions</span> needs to be addressed. Under a previous contract with PETC (contract No. AC22-87PC79650), Tecogen developed a residential-scale Coal Water Slurry (CWS) combustor. This combustor makes use of centrifugal forces, set up by a predominantly tangential flow field, to separate and confine larger unburned coal particles in the furnace upper chamber. Various partitions are used to retard the axial, downward flow of these particles, and thus maximize their residence time in the hottest section of the combustor. By operating this combustor under staged conditions, the local stoichiometry in the primary zone can be <span class="hlt">controlled</span> in such a manner as to minimize NO{sub x} <span class="hlt">emissions</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Balsavich, J.C. Jr.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">320</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/907727"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sulfur oxide adsorbents and <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">control</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p class="result-summary">High capacity sulfur oxide absorbents utilizing manganese-based octahedral molecular sieve (Mn--OMS) materials are disclosed. An <span class="hlt">emissions</span> reduction system for a combustion exhaust includes a scrubber 24 containing these high capacity sulfur oxide absorbents located upstream from a NOX filter 26 or particulate trap.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Li, Liyu (Richland, WA); King, David L. (Richland, WA)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-12-26</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">321</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26052531"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Controlling</span> NOx <span class="hlt">emission</span> from industrial sources</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A number of regulatory actions focused on reducing NOx <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from stationary combustion sources have been taken in the United States in the last decade. These actions include the Acid Rain NOx regulations, the Ozone Transport Commission's NOx Budget Program, and the NOx SIP Call rulemakings. In addition to these regulations, the recent Interstate Air Quality Rulemaking proposal and other</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. K. Srivastava; W. Nueffer; D. Grano; S. Khan; J. E. Staudt; W. Jozewicz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">322</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24219654"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Controls</span> on methane <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from Alnus glutinosa saplings.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent studies have confirmed significant tree-mediated methane <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in wetlands; however, conditions and processes <span class="hlt">controlling</span> such <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are unclear. Here we identify factors that <span class="hlt">control</span> the <span class="hlt">emission</span> of methane from Alnus glutinosa. Methane fluxes from the soil surface, tree stem surfaces, leaf surfaces and whole mesocosms, pore water methane concentrations and physiological factors (assimilation rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration) were measured from 4-yr old A. glutinosa trees grown under two artificially <span class="hlt">controlled</span> water-table positions. Up to 64% of methane emitted from the high water-table mesocosms was transported to the atmosphere through A. glutinosa. Stem <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from 2 to 22 cm above the soil surface accounted for up to 42% of total tree-mediated methane <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Methane <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were not detected from leaves and no relationship existed between leaf surface area and rates of tree-mediated methane <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Tree stem methane flux strength was <span class="hlt">controlled</span> by the amount of methane dissolved in pore water and the density of stem lenticels. Our data show that stem surfaces dominate methane egress from A. glutinosa, suggesting that leaf area index is not a suitable approach for scaling tree-mediated methane <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from all types of forested wetland. PMID:24219654</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pangala, Sunitha R; Gowing, David J; Hornibrook, Edward R C; Gauci, Vincent</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">323</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=30836"> <span id="translatedtitle">PERFORMANCE OF <span class="hlt">EMISSIONS</span> <span class="hlt">CONTROL</span> SYSTEMS ON MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTORS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The paper reports results of several EPA-supported field evaluations of data on gaseous pollutant <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from modern municipal waste combustors/incinerators and <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> by flue gas cleaning systems. The results are presented in terms of acid gas (HCl and SO2), trace ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">324</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.plantsciences.ucdavis.edu/Agroecology/staff/ecolee/tillage_field.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tillage and Field Scale <span class="hlt">Controls</span> on Greenhouse Gas <span class="hlt">Emissions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">There is a lack of understanding of how associations among soil properties and management-induced changes <span class="hlt">control</span> the variability of greenhouse gas (GHG) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from soil. We performed a labo- ratory investigation to quantify relationships between GHG <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and soil indicators in an irrigated agricultural field under standard tillage (ST) and a field recently converted (2 yr) to no-tillage (NT). Soil</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Juhwan Lee; Johan Six; Amy P. King; Chris van Kessel; Dennis E. Rolston</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">325</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=49382"> <span id="translatedtitle">EVALUATION OF <span class="hlt">EMISSIONS</span> AND <span class="hlt">CONTROL</span> TECHNOLOGY FOR INDUSTRIAL STOKER BOILERS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The report gives results of a three-phase program to evaluate <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and <span class="hlt">control</span> technology for industrial stoker boilers. In Phase I, <span class="hlt">emission</span> characteristics were determined for a variety of coals fired in a 200-kW stoker boiler. It was observed that significant amounts of s...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">326</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41989128"> <span id="translatedtitle">Biogenic <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in Europe. 2. Implications for ozone <span class="hlt">control</span> strategies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">As shown in a companion paper, uncertainties in the <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of isoprene in Europe are significant, quite possibly of the order of 500%, and this uncertainty must be taken into account when assessing the effects of <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> measures in reducing ozone. The EMEP MSC-W model has been used to estimate the effects of 50% reductions in man-made NOx (nitrogen</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">David Simpson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">327</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/61310820"> <span id="translatedtitle">Processing heavy crudes: multicyclones for <span class="hlt">control</span> of petroleum coke <span class="hlt">emissions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">In 1974, the Exxon Co., USA, Billings, Mont., refinery initiated a screening study to assess alternatives for <span class="hlt">control</span> of particulate <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from its fluid coker stack. This study identified multicyclones as having potential for bringing the particulate mass <span class="hlt">emission</span> rate into compliance with anticipated, tightening Montana State air pollution regulations. A pilot plant was built to demonstrate the performance capabilities</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. L. Byers; T. L. Gage</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">328</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=48405"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">CONTROL</span> OF MOTOR VEHICLE <span class="hlt">EMISSIONS</span> - THE U.S. EXPERIENCE</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An historical overview of the U.S. experience with <span class="hlt">controlling</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from highway motor vehicles is presented. he evolution of new motor vehicle <span class="hlt">emissions</span> certification practice, end-of-assembly-line inspection, in-use surveillance and recall, inspection and maintenance, and ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">329</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB218878"> <span id="translatedtitle">Exhaust <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> from a Passenger Car Equipped With a DuPont Exhaust <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Control</span> System Using 1975 Test Procedure.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The exhaust <span class="hlt">emission</span> characteristics of a vehicle equipped with a DuPont exhaust <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> system were measured to provide a comparison with other low <span class="hlt">emission</span> vehicles having the potential for meeting proposed 1975 Federal standards. The vehicle u...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. C. Thomson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1970-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">330</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA462685"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Controlled</span> Trial of Chemoprevention Using COX-2 Inhibitors in an Avian Model of <span class="hlt">Spontaneous</span> Ovarian Carcinogesis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">While a strong rationale for chemoprevention of ovarian carcinoma exists, a mechanism for the comprehensive evaluation of novel compounds is severely impeded by the lack of a validated animal model of <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> ovarian carcinogenesis. At present, there ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. N. Barnes W. D. Berry</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">331</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB81165367"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spray Charging and Trapping Scrubber for Fugitive Particle <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Control</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The paper gives results of theoretical and experimental evaluations of the <span class="hlt">control</span> of fugitive process <span class="hlt">emissions</span> (FPE) with a Spray Charging and Trapping (SCAT) scrubber. Theoretical calculations showed that collection is better than 90% for all particle ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. C. Yung S. Calvert D. C. Drehmel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">332</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB277408"> <span id="translatedtitle">Physical Coal Cleaning for Utility Boiler SO2 <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Control</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The report examines physical coal cleaning as a <span class="hlt">control</span> technique for sulfur oxides <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. It includes an analysis of the availability of low-sulfur coal and of coal cleanable to compliance levels for alternate New Source Performance Standards (NSPS)....</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">E. H. Hall L. Hoffman J. Hoffman R. A. Schilling</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1978-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">333</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50706060"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spontaneous</span> ordering, strain <span class="hlt">control</span> and mutlifunctionality in vertical nanocomposite heteroepitaxial films</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Two-phase nanocomposite heteroepitaxial films with vertical microstructures hold great promise for various (multi)functional (e.g. multiferroic) electronic device applications. With the aim of creating addressable arrays, it is necesary to form <span class="hlt">spontaneously</span> ordered structures over large areas. However, such structures have not, so far, been demonstrated. We have recently shown remarkable <span class="hlt">spontaneously</span> ordered phase assemblies and find that these structures form</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. L. MacManus-Driscoll; A. Fouchet; P. Zerrer; R. Yu; H. Wang; H. Yang; J. Yoon; Q. X. Jia</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">334</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/19275487"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spontaneous</span> Ordering, Strain <span class="hlt">Control</span>, and Multifunctionality in Vertical Nanocomposite Heteroepitaxial Films</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Two-phase nanocomposite heteroepitaxial films with vertical microstructures hold great promise for various (multi)functional (e.g., multiferroic) electronic device applications. With the aim of creating addressable arrays, it is necessary to form <span class="hlt">spontaneously</span> ordered structures over large areas. However, such structures have not, so far, been demonstrated. We have recently produced remarkable <span class="hlt">spontaneously</span> ordered phase assemblies and find that these structures form</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Arnaud Fouchet; Haiyan Wang; Hao Yang; Jongsik Yoon; Quanxi Jia; Judith Macmanus-driscoll</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">335</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60184096"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Control</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from aboveground storage tanks</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted as vapors escape from aboveground organic liquid storage tanks. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates that in the petroleum industry along, in the absence of additional regulation, storage tank VOC <span class="hlt">emissions</span> would reach 231,000 t\\/yr from the gasoline distribution industry and 122,000 t\\/yr from the petroleum refining industry by 1998. Proposed storage tank</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. Brown; P. Dixon</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">336</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20722075"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Controlled</span> and <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> magnetic field generation in a gun-driven spheromak</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment, SSPX [E. B. Hooper, D. Pearlstein, and D. D. Ryutov, Nucl. Fusion 39, 863 (1999)], progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms that generate fields by helicity injection. SSPX injects helicity (linked magnetic flux) from 1 m diameter magnetized coaxial electrodes into a flux-conserving confinement region. <span class="hlt">Control</span> of magnetic fluctuations ({delta}B/B{approx}1% on the midplane edge) yields T{sub e} profiles peaked at >200 eV. Trends indicate a limiting beta ({beta}{sub e}{approx}4%-6%), and so we have been motivated to increase T{sub e} by operating with stronger magnetic field. Two new operating modes are observed to increase the magnetic field: (A) Operation with constant current and <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> gun voltage fluctuations. In this case, the gun is operated continuously at the threshold for ejection of plasma from the gun: stored magnetic energy of the spheromak increases gradually with {delta}B/B{approx}2% and large voltage fluctuations ({delta}V{approx}1 kV), giving a 50% increase in current amplification, I{sub tor}/I{sub gun}. (B) Operation with <span class="hlt">controlled</span> current pulses. In this case, spheromak magnetic energy increases in a stepwise fashion by pulsing the gun, giving the highest magnetic fields observed for SSPX ({approx}0.7 T along the geometric axis). By increasing the time between pulses, a quasisteady sustainment is produced (with periodic good confinement), comparing well with resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations. In each case, the processes that transport the helicity into the spheromak are inductive and exhibit a scaling of field with current that exceeds those previously obtained. We use our newly found scaling to suggest how to achieve higher temperatures with a series of pulses.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Woodruff, S.; Cohen, B.I.; Hooper, E.B.; Mclean, H.S.; Stallard, B.W.; Hill, D.N.; Holcomb, C.T.; Romero-Talamas, C.; Wood, R.D.; Cone, G.; Sovinec, C.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-05-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">337</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15016404"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Controlled</span> and <span class="hlt">Spontaneous</span> Magnetic Field Generation in a Gun-Driven Spheromak</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment, SSPX, progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms that generate fields by helicity injection. SSPX injects helicity (linked magnetic flux) from 1-m diameter magnetized coaxial electrodes into a flux-conserving confinement region. <span class="hlt">Control</span> of magnetic fluctuations ({delta}B/B{approx}1% on the midplane edge) yields T{sub e} profiles peaked at > 200eV. Trends indicate a limiting beta ({beta}{sub e} {approx} 4-6%), and so we have been motivated to increase T{sub e} by operating with stronger magnetic field. Two new operating modes are observed to increase the magnetic field: (A) Operation with constant current and <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> gun voltage fluctuations. In this case, the gun is operated continuously at the threshold for ejection of plasma from the gun: stored magnetic energy of the spheromak increases gradually with {delta}B/B {approx}2% and large voltage fluctuations ({delta}V {approx} 1kV), giving a 50% increase in current amplification, I{sub tor}/I{sub gun}. (B) Operation with <span class="hlt">controlled</span> current pulses. In this case, spheromak magnetic energy increases in a stepwise fashion by pulsing the gun, giving the highest magnetic fields observed for SSPX ({approx}0.7T along the geometric axis). By increasing the time between pulses, a quasi-steady sustainment is produced (with periodic good confinement), comparing well with resistive MHD simulations. In each case, the processes that transport the helicity into the spheromak are inductive and exhibit a scaling of field with current that exceeds those previously obtained. We use our newly found scaling to suggest how to achieve higher temperatures with a series of pulses.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Woodruff, S; Cohen, B I; Hooper, E B; McLean, H S; Stallard, B W; Hill, D N; Holcomb, C T; Romero-Talamas, C; Wood, R D; Cone, G; Sovinec, C R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">338</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60136177"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">CONTROL</span> OF TRACE METAL <span class="hlt">EMISSIONS</span> DURING COAL COMBUSTION</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Emissions</span> of toxic trace metals in the form of metal fumes or submicron particulates from a coal-fired combustion source have received greater environmental and regulatory concern over the past years. Current practice of <span class="hlt">controlling</span> these <span class="hlt">emissions</span> is to collect them at the cold-end of the process by air-pollution <span class="hlt">control</span> devices (APCDs) such as electrostatic precipitators and baghouses. However, trace metal</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">THOMAS C. HO</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">339</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT.......222M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Longitudinally Coherent Single-Spike Radiation from a Self-Amplified <span class="hlt">Spontaneous</span> <span class="hlt">Emission</span> Free-Electron Laser</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This work studies the production and measurement of longitudinally coherent, ultrashort pulses of light from a self-amplified <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> free-electron laser (SASE FEL) by using an energy-chirped electron beam in conjunction with a tapered undulator. This scheme effectively preserves the FEL gain only where an appropriate undulator taper compensates for the detuning experienced by an amplifying radiation spike as it slips forward in the electron beam rest frame. The simultaneous time and frequency-domain measurement of ultrashort pulses of light generated in this manner were made with an advanced transient-grating frequency-resolved optical gating (TG FROG) diagnostic, which has the potential to push ultrashort light pulse measurement at FEL facilities to shorter wavelength regimes. The theoretical framework presented in this dissertation has two components. The FEL theory presented here includes an analysis of the coupled wave and Vlasov equations, which are linearized in the one-dimensional case, and are solved in the frequency domain by the Laplace transform technique. The exponential gain regime for SASE FEL light is explored in detail to clearly identify concepts that are relevant to the energy-chirp and undulator tapering experiment. Some of these concepts are illustrated with fully three-dimensional, time-dependent numerical particle simulations using the FEL code GENESIS for the supportive case of ultrashort, low-charge electron beams. In addition, nonlinear optics, the foundation upon which all FROG diagnostics are built, is briefly explored using two complementary perspectives as they apply to the TG FROG geometry. The experimental section describes in detail the first direct time-domain measurements of a single coherent radiation spike from a SASE FEL amplifier employing the energy-chirped electron beam and tapered undulator technique at the SPARC FEL test facility in Frascati, Italy. Electron beams were accelerated and compressed using the velocity bunching technique, which leaves a residual energy-chirp in the longitudinal phase space. The energy-chirp was compensated by appropriately tapering individual undulator sections. This process was optimized at a resonant wavelength of ? = 530 nm. The ultrashort light pulses that were generated had a temporal full-width at half-maximum of 98 fs and a time-bandwidth product of <italic>TBP</italic> ˜ 1.2, indicating that the Fourier limit was nearly achieved. This experiment provides further insight into methods that can be used to shape the SASE FEL longitudinal profile and enhance coherence properties. In addition, the measurements were taken with an advanced, and relatively simple, TG FROG diagnostic that can potentially be used to measure ultrashort UV pulses at FEL facilities.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Marcus, Gabriel Andrew</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">340</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10182014"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> cost-effectiveness of alternative-fuel vehicles</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Although various legislation and regulations have been adopted to promote the use of alternative-fuel vehicles for curbing urban air pollution problems, there is a lack of systematic comparisons of <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> cost-effectiveness among various alternative-fuel vehicle types. In this paper, life-cycle <span class="hlt">emission</span> reductions and life-cycle costs were estimated for passenger cars fueled with methanol, ethanol, liquefied petroleum gas, compressed natural gas, and electricity. Vehicle <span class="hlt">emission</span> estimates included both exhaust and evaporative <span class="hlt">emissions</span> for air pollutants of hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and air-toxic pollutants of benzene, formaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, and acetaldehyde. Vehicle life-cycle cost estimates accounted for vehicle purchase prices, vehicle life, fuel costs, and vehicle maintenance costs. <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> cost-effectiveness presented in dollars per ton of <span class="hlt">emission</span> reduction was calculated for each alternative-fuel vehicle types from the estimated vehicle life-cycle <span class="hlt">emission</span> reductions and costs. Among various alternative-fuel vehicle types, compressed natural gas vehicles are the most cost-effective vehicle type in <span class="hlt">controlling</span> vehicle <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Dedicated methanol vehicles are the next most cost-effective vehicle type. The cost-effectiveness of electric vehicles depends on improvements in electric vehicle battery technology. With low-cost, high-performance batteries, electric vehicles are more cost-effective than methanol, ethanol, and liquified petroleum gas vehicles.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, Q. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Sperling, D.; Olmstead, J. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Inst. of Transportation Studies</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-06-14</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return 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href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">341</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080004081&hterms=motor+vehicle+emission&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dmotor%2Bvehicle%2Bemission"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Emission</span> current <span class="hlt">control</span> system for multiple hollow cathode devices</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An <span class="hlt">emission</span> current <span class="hlt">control</span> system for balancing the individual <span class="hlt">emission</span> currents from an array of hollow cathodes has current sensors for determining the current drawn by each cathode from a power supply. Each current sensor has an output signal which has a magnitude proportional to the current. The current sensor output signals are averaged, the average value so obtained being applied to a respective <span class="hlt">controller</span> for <span class="hlt">controlling</span> the flow of an ion source material through each cathode. Also applied to each <span class="hlt">controller</span> are the respective sensor output signals for each cathode and a common reference signal. The flow of source material through each hollow cathode is thereby made proportional to the current drawn by that cathode, the average current drawn by all of the cathodes, and the reference signal. Thus, the <span class="hlt">emission</span> current of each cathode is <span class="hlt">controlled</span> such that each is made substantially equal to the <span class="hlt">emission</span> current of each of the other cathodes. When utilized as a component of a multiple hollow cathode ion propulsion motor, the <span class="hlt">emission</span> current <span class="hlt">control</span> system of the invention provides for balancing the thrust of the motor about the thrust axis and also for preventing premature failure of a hollow cathode source due to operation above a maximum rated <span class="hlt">emission</span> current.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Beattie, John R. (Inventor); Hancock, Donald J. (Inventor)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">342</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol9/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol9-sec63-325.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 63.325 - Determination of equivalent <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> technology.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Determination of equivalent <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> technology. 63.325 Section 63.325 Protection...Determination of equivalent <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> technology. (a) Any person requesting...illustrating the <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> technology, its operation and integration...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">343</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol9/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol9-sec63-325.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 63.325 - Determination of equivalent <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> technology.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Determination of equivalent <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> technology. 63.325 Section 63.325 Protection...Determination of equivalent <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> technology. (a) Any person requesting...illustrating the <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> technology, its operation and integration...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">344</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol10/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol10-sec63-325.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 63.325 - Determination of equivalent <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> technology.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Determination of equivalent <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> technology. 63.325 Section 63.325 Protection...Determination of equivalent <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> technology. (a) Any person requesting...illustrating the <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> technology, its operation and integration...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">345</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol34/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol34-sec1060-102.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 1060.102 - What permeation <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> requirements apply for fuel lines?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION <span class="hlt">CONTROLS</span> <span class="hlt">CONTROL</span> OF EVAPORATIVE <span class="hlt">EMISSIONS</span> FROM...102 What permeation <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> requirements apply for fuel lines...<span class="hlt">emissions</span> divided by the wetted internal surface area of the...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">346</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/945635"> <span id="translatedtitle">X-RAY NONLINEAR OPTICAL PROCESSES IN ATOMS USING A SELF-AMPLIFIED <span class="hlt">SPONTANEOUS</span> <span class="hlt">EMISSION</span> FREE-ELECTRON LASER</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">X-ray free electron lasers (xFEL) will open new avenues to the virtually unexplored territory of non-linear interactions of x rays with matter. Initially xFELs will be based on the principle of self-amplified <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> (SASE). Each SASE pulse consists of a number of coherent intensity spikes of random amplitude, i.e. the process is chaotic and pulses are irreproducible. The coherence time of SASE xFELs will be a few femtoseconds for a photon energy near 1 keV. The importance of coherence properties of light in non-linear optical processes was theoretically discovered in the early 1960s. In this contribution we will illustrate the impact of field chaoticity on x-ray non-linear optical processes on neon for photon energies around 1 keV and intensities up to 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}. Resonant and non-resonant processes are discussed. The first process to be addressed is the formation of a double-core hole in neon by photoionization with x rays above 1.25 keV energy. In contrast to the long-wavelength regime, non-linear optical processes in the x-ray regime are characterized in general by sequential single-photon single-electron interactions. Despite this fact, the sequential absorption of multiple x-ray photons depends on the statistical properties of the radiation field. Treating the x rays generated by a SASE FEL as fully chaotic, a quantum-mechanical analysis of inner-shell two-photon absorption is performed. By solving a system of time-dependent rate equations, we demonstrate that double-core hole formation in neon via x-ray two-photon absorption is enhanced by chaotic photon statistics. At an intensity of 10{sup 16} W/cm{sup 2}, the statistical enhancement is about 30%, much smaller than typical values in the optical regime. The second part of this presentation discusses the resonant Auger effect of atomic neon at the 1s-3p transition (at 867.1 eV). For low X-ray intensity, the excitation process 1s {yields} 3p in Neon can be treated perturbatively. The core-hole excited 1s{sup -1} 3p state is embedded in the continuum and decays via Auger-process on the timescale of approximately 5 fs. Increasing the x-ray intensity above 1.5 x 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}, a peak intensity accessible with xFEL sources in the near future, x-ray induced <span class="hlt">emission</span> from 3p back to 1s becomes possible, i.e. Rabi oscillations between these two levels can be induced. For the numerical analysis of this process, an effective two-level model, including a description of the resonant Auger decay process, is employed. The observation of x-ray-driven atomic populations dynamics in the time domain is challenging for chaotic xFEL pulses. In addition to requiring single-shot measurements, sub-femtosecond temporal resolution would be needed. The Rabi oscillations will, however, be imprinted on the kinetic energy distribution of the resonant Auger electron (see Fig. 1). Measuring the resonant Auger-electron line profile will provide information on both atomic population dynamics and x-ray pulse properties.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rohringer, N</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-08-08</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">347</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21361637"> <span id="translatedtitle">Programmable smart electron <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">controller</span> for hot filament.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In electron ionization source, electrons are produced through thermionic <span class="hlt">emission</span> by heating a wire filament, accelerating the electrons by high voltage, and ionizing the analyzed molecules. In such a system, one important parameter is the filament <span class="hlt">emission</span> current that determines the ionization rate; therefore, one needs to regulate this current. On the one hand, fast responses <span class="hlt">control</span> is needed to keep the <span class="hlt">emission</span> current constant, but on the other hand, we need to protect the filament from damage that occurs by large filaments current transients and overheating. To <span class="hlt">control</span> our filament current and <span class="hlt">emission</span> current, we developed a digital circuit based on a digital signal processing <span class="hlt">controller</span> that has several modes of operation. We used a smart algorithm that has a fast response to a small signal and a slow response to a large signal. In addition, we have several protective measures that prevent the current from reaching unsafe values. PMID:21361637</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Flaxer, Eli</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">348</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57418737"> <span id="translatedtitle">Unexpected Diversity of Cellular Immune Responses against Nef and Vif in HIV1Infected Patients Who <span class="hlt">Spontaneously</span> <span class="hlt">Control</span> Viral Replication</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">BackgroundHIV-1-infected individuals who <span class="hlt">spontaneously</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> viral replication represent an example of successful containment of the AIDS virus. Understanding the anti-viral immune responses in these individuals may help in vaccine design. However, immune responses against HIV-1 are normally analyzed using HIV-1 consensus B 15-mers that overlap by 11 amino acids. Unfortunately, this method may underestimate the real breadth of the cellular</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Leandro F. Tarosso; Mariana M. Sauer; Sabri Sanabani; Maria Teresa Giret; Helena I. Tomiyama; John Sidney; Shari M. Piaskowski; Ricardo S. Diaz; Ester C. Sabino; Alessandro Sette; Jorge Kalil-Filho; David I. Watkins; Esper G. Kallas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">349</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-06-19/pdf/2013-14622.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">78 FR 36776 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Control</span> System Performance...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Information Collection Request; Comment Request; <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Control</span> System Performance Warranty Regulations and Voluntary Aftermarket...information collection request (ICR), ``<span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Control</span> System Performance Warranty Regulations and Voluntary...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-06-19</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">350</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1040535"> <span id="translatedtitle">Wavefront Analysis of Nonlinear Self-Amplified <span class="hlt">Spontaneous-Emission</span> Free-Electron Laser Harmonics in the Single-Shot Regime</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The single-shot spatial characteristics of the vacuum ultraviolet self-amplified <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> of a free electron laser (FEL) is measured at different stages of amplification up to saturation with a Hartmann wavefront sensor. We show that the fundamental radiation at 61.5 nm tends towards a single-mode behavior as getting closer to saturation. The measurements are found in good agreement with simulations and theory. A near diffraction limited wavefront was measured. The analysis of Fresnel diffraction through the Hartmann wavefront sensor hole array also provides some further insight for the evaluation of the FEL transverse coherence, of high importance for various applications.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bachelard, R.; Chubar, O.; Mercere, P.; Idir, M.; Couprie, M.E.; Lambert, G.; Zeitoun, Ph.; Kimura, H.; Ohashi, H.; Higashiya, A.; Yabashi, M.; Nagasono, M.; Hara, T. and Ishikawa, T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-06-08</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">351</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol3-sec52-987.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 52.987 - <span class="hlt">Control</span> of hydrocarbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Installation of <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> systems on crude oil storage tanks TK-19-74...and TK-40-74 at the Cotton Valley Solvents Company...pneumatic instrumentation and <span class="hlt">control</span> systems at the Kerr-McGee...Corporation, and Eason Oil Company, Calhoun...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">352</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2009-title40-vol3/pdf/CFR-2009-title40-vol3-sec52-987.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 52.987 - <span class="hlt">Control</span> of hydrocarbon <span class="hlt">emissions</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Installation of <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> systems on crude oil storage tanks TK-19-74...and TK-40-74 at the Cotton Valley Solvents Company...pneumatic instrumentation and <span class="hlt">control</span> systems at the Kerr-McGee...Corporation, and Eason Oil Company, Calhoun...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">353</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/jf/jf0801/2007JF000780/2007JF000780.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Humidity <span class="hlt">control</span> of particle <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in aeolian systems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Humidity is an important <span class="hlt">control</span> of the wind speed required to entrain particles into an air flow and is well known to vary on a global scale, as do dust <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. This paper reports on wind tunnel experiments which quantify this <span class="hlt">control</span> through placing a polymer capacitance sensor immediately at the bed surface. The sensor measured changes in the humidity</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cheryl McKenna Neuman; Steven Sanderson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">354</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=36497"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">CONTROL</span> OF SULFUR <span class="hlt">EMISSIONS</span> FROM OIL SHALE RETORTS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The objectives of this study were to determine the best available <span class="hlt">control</span> technology (BACT) for <span class="hlt">control</span> of sulfur <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from oil shale processing facilities and then to develop a design for a mobile slipstream pilot plant that could be used to test and demonstrate that techno...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">355</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/2783968"> <span id="translatedtitle">Biofiltration: An Innovative Air Pollution <span class="hlt">Control</span> Technology For VOC <span class="hlt">Emissions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Biofiltration is a relatively recent air pollution <span class="hlt">control</span> (APC) technology in which off-gases containing biodegradable volatile organic compounds (VOC) or inorganic air toxics are vented through a biologically active material. This technology has been successfully applied in Germany and The Netherlands in many full-scale applications to <span class="hlt">control</span> odors, VOC and air toxic <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from a wide range of industrial and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gero Leson; Arthur M. Winer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">356</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT.......419S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modeling study of natural <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, source apportionment, and <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> of atmospheric mercury</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mercury (Hg) is a toxic pollutant and is important to understand its cycling in the environment. In this dissertation, a number of modeling investigations were conducted to better understand the <span class="hlt">emission</span> from natural surfaces, the source-receptor relationship of the <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, and <span class="hlt">emission</span> reduction of atmospheric mercury. The first part of this work estimates mercury <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from vegetation, soil and water surfaces using a number of natural <span class="hlt">emission</span> processors and detailed (LAI) Leaf Area Index data from GIS (Geographic Information System) satellite products. East Asian domain was chosen as it contributes nearly 50% of the global anthropogenic mercury <span class="hlt">emissions</span> into the atmosphere. The estimated annual natural mercury <span class="hlt">emissions</span> (gaseous elemental mercury) in the domain are 834 Mg yr-1 with 462 Mg yr-1 contributing from China. Compared to anthropogenic sources, natural sources show greater seasonal variability (highest in simmer). The <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are significant, sometimes dominant, contributors to total mercury <span class="hlt">emission</span> in the regions. The estimates provide possible explanation for the gaps between the anthropogenic <span class="hlt">emission</span> estimates based on activity data and the <span class="hlt">emission</span> inferred from field observations in the regions. To understand the contribution of domestic <span class="hlt">emissions</span> to mercury deposition in the United States, the second part of the work applies the mercury model of Community Multi-scale Air Quality Modeling system (CMAQ-Hg v4.6) to apportion the various <span class="hlt">emission</span> sources attributing to the mercury wet and dry deposition in the 6 United States receptor regions. Contributions to mercury deposition from electric generating units (EGU), iron and steel industry (IRST), industrial point sources excluding EGU and IRST (OIPM), the remaining anthropogenic sources (RA), natural processes (NAT), and out-of-boundary transport (BC) in domain was estimated. The model results for 2005 compared reasonably well to field observations made by MDN (Mercury Deposition Network) and CAMNet (Canadian Atmospheric Mercury Measurement Network). The model estimated a total deposition of 474 Mg yr-1 to the CONUS (Contiguous United States) domain, with two-thirds being dry deposited. Reactive gaseous mercury contributed the most to 60% of deposition. <span class="hlt">Emission</span> speciation distribution is a key factor for local deposition as contribution from large point sources can be as high as 75% near (< 100 km) the <span class="hlt">emission</span> sources, indicating that <span class="hlt">emission</span> reduction may result in direct deposition decrease near the source locations. Among the sources, BC contributes to about 68% to 91% of total deposition. Excluding the BC's contribution, EGU contributes to nearly 50% of deposition caused by CONUS <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in the Northeast, Southeast and East Central regions, while <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from natural processes are more important in the Pacific and West Central regions (contributing up to 40% of deposition). The modeling results implies that implementation of the new <span class="hlt">emission</span> standards proposed by USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) would significantly benefit regions that have larger contributions from EGU sources. <span class="hlt">Control</span> of mercury <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from coal combustion processes has attracted great attention due to its toxicity and the <span class="hlt">emission-control</span> regulations and has lead to advancement in state-of-the-art <span class="hlt">control</span> technologies that alleviate the impact of mercury on ecosystem and human health. This part of the work applies a sorption model to simulate adsorption of mercury in flue gases, onto a confined-bed of activated carbon. The model's performances were studied at various flue gas flow rates, inlet mercury concentrations and adsorption bed temperatures. The process simulated a flue gas, with inlet mercury concentration of 300 ppb, entering at a velocity of 0.3 m s-1 from the bottom into a fixed bed (inside bed diameter of 1 m and 3 m bed height; bed temperature of 25 °C) of activated carbon (particle size of 0.004 m with density of 0.5 g cm-3 and surface area of 90.25 cm2 g -1). The model result demonstrated that a batch of activated carbon </p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shetty, Suraj K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">357</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol34/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol34-sec1060-104.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 1060.104 - What running loss <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> requirements apply?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...OF EVAPORATIVE <span class="hlt">EMISSIONS</span> FROM NEW AND...STATIONARY EQUIPMENT <span class="hlt">Emission</span> Standards and Related Requirements...What running loss <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> requirements...vapors through a carbon canister. If...with respect to exhaust <span class="hlt">emissions</span>,...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">358</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5151448"> <span id="translatedtitle">Method and apparatus for <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">control</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The invention includes process and apparatus for removing pollutants from a gas including fluidizing a bed of particles in a container, introducing a gas containing pollutant into the bed, removing the pollutant through deposition on the particles, <span class="hlt">controlling</span> temperatures in the container by injecting coolant fluid through a coolant nozzle, and reducing clogging or fouling on the coolant nozzle. The process and apparatus includes <span class="hlt">controlling</span> temperatures in the container within narrowly specified ranges of temperatures and providing a constant pressure of coolant fluid and constant pressure of purge gas to the coolant nozzle such that interchangeable selection made between the coolant fluid and purge gas in a time period sufficiently short provides accurate temperature <span class="hlt">control</span> and reduces clogging or fouling on the coolant nozzle.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kempf, T.W.; Corcoran, R.F.; Sikora, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">359</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5843006"> <span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from combustion sources: <span class="hlt">controlled</span> studies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper summarizes Session I papers (given at the EPA Workshop on Characterization of Contaminant <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> from Indoor Sources, Chapel Hill, NC, May 1985) that illustrate the progress made to date on characterizing indoor-combustion <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from unvented space heaters, gas appliances, and sidestream cigarette smoke. The state of knowledge of such <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and their <span class="hlt">controllability</span> is summarized by four general statements: (1) Unvented gas-fired appliances are important sources of indoor CO and NOx, but not of organic <span class="hlt">emissions</span>; (2) Important combustion sources of indoor organics, include smoking and possibly kerosene heaters; (3) The extent of the problems of leakage from vented appliances is simply not known; (4) Indoor combustion sources do not appear to present major problems with <span class="hlt">controllability</span>, if source removal is an acceptable alternative. From an engineering standpoint, the most-challenging issue is burner design changes for unvented appliances.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tucker, W.G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">360</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6343781"> <span id="translatedtitle">Process <span class="hlt">control</span> with optical <span class="hlt">emission</span> spectroscopy in triode ion plating</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Physical vapor deposition (PVD) techniques used to prepare, e.g., hard TiN, HfN, or ZrN coatings include a great variety of processes ranging from reactive evaporation to sputtering and ion plating. In ion plating one effective way to enhance ionization is to use a negatively biased hot filament. The use of an electron emitting filament brings an extra variable to be taken into account in developing the process <span class="hlt">control</span>. In addition, proper <span class="hlt">control</span> of the evaporation source is critical in ensuring reproducible results. With optical <span class="hlt">emission</span> spectroscopy (OES) it should be possible to <span class="hlt">control</span> the coating process more accurately. The stoichiometry and the composition of the growing coating may then be ensured effectively in subsequent runs. In this work the application of optical <span class="hlt">emission</span> spectroscopy for process <span class="hlt">control</span> in triode ion plating is discussed. The composition of the growing coating is determined experimentally using the relative intensities of specific <span class="hlt">emission</span> lines. Changes in the evaporation rate and the gas flow can be seen directly from <span class="hlt">emission</span> line intensities. Even the so-called poisoning of the evaporation source with reactive gas can be detected. Several experimental runs were carried out and afterwards the concentration profiles of the deposited coatings were checked with the nuclear resonance broadening (NRB) method. The results show the usefulness of <span class="hlt">emission</span> spectroscopy in discharge <span class="hlt">control</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Salmenoja, K.; Korhonen, A.S.; Sulonen, M.S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> 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showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">361</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23834017"> <span id="translatedtitle">Anthropogenic mercury flows in India and impacts of <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">controls</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">India is a major emitter of mercury, a pollutant of global importance. However, quantitative information on mercury flows in the country is lacking. Here, we quantify major transfer pathways for anthropogenic mercury, its <span class="hlt">emissions</span> to the environment (air, water, soil), and storage in consumer products and anthropogenic sinks (e.g., landfills) in India in the period 2001-2020, and evaluate the potential influence of six pollution <span class="hlt">control</span> measures. Total mercury <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in India were approximately 415 tonnes in 2001, 310 tonnes in 2010, and are projected to rise to 540 tonnes in 2020. In 2010, 76% of these <span class="hlt">emissions</span> went to the atmosphere. The most important <span class="hlt">emission</span> sources to atmosphere are coal power plants and zinc production. Pesticides were the most important source for <span class="hlt">emissions</span> to soil in 2005 and dental amalgam in later years. Mercury stocks in products rose from 700 tonnes in 2001 to 1125 tonnes in 2010, and in landfills and ash-made structures (e.g., embankments) from 920 tonnes in 2001 to 1450 tonnes in 2010. These stocks are expected to rise further and may be regarded as stored toxicity, which may become a concern in the future. Total mercury <span class="hlt">emissions</span> can be reduced by about 50% by combining pollution <span class="hlt">control</span> measures that target different mercury <span class="hlt">emission</span> sources. PMID:23834017</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Burger Chakraborty, Laura; Qureshi, Asif; Vadenbo, Carl; Hellweg, Stefanie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">362</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005SPIE.6008..185P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Photolithographically <span class="hlt">controlled</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> from photonic crystals</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ion Optics has developed a thin silicon membrane MEMS device that replaces the thermal source, IR filter, IR detector and mechanical chopper in conventional non-dispersive infrared gas sensors. The key enabling technology is a 2-D photonic crystal. The center wavelength and bandwidth of emitted radiation from the photonic crystal depends upon the pattern etched into the surface. Previously we reported designs based on hexagonal arrangements of holes about 2 microns diameter. New results for more intricate designs with deliberate photonic crystal "defects" will be presented. Experimental results will be compared to 3-D electromagnetic models. The 2-D photonic crystal structure consists of an array of air rods produced by self-aligned etching into a thin (100nm) conductor on top of a dielectric membrane. We describe fabrication routes via conventional silicon microlithography and novel approaches including nano-imprinting and transfer molding. We present spectral <span class="hlt">emission</span> and absorption measurements which relate optical intensity to details of photonic crystal design and fabrication.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Puscasu, Irina; Pralle, Martin; McNeal, Mark; Greenwald, Anton; Johnson, Ed; Shah, Ashish A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">363</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/t771528607610652.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Control</span> of mercury vapor <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from combustion flue gas</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Goal, Scope and Background  Mercury (Hg) <span class="hlt">emission</span> from combustion flue gas is a significant environmental concern due to its toxicity and high volatility.\\u000a A number of the research efforts have been carried out in the past decade exploiting mercury <span class="hlt">emission</span>, monitoring and <span class="hlt">control</span>\\u000a from combustion flue gases. Most recently, increasing activities are focused on evaluating the behavior of mercury in coal</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rong Yan; David Tee Liang; Joo Hwa Tay</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">364</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930072203&hterms=CO2+emissions&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DCO2%2Bemissions"> <span id="translatedtitle">Primary production <span class="hlt">control</span> of methane <span class="hlt">emission</span> from wetlands</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Based on simultaneous measurements of CO2 and CH4 exchange in wetlands extending from subarctic peatlands to subtropical marshes, a positive correlation between CH4 <span class="hlt">emission</span> and net ecosystem production is reported. It is suggested that net ecosystem production is a master variable integrating many factors which <span class="hlt">control</span> CH4 <span class="hlt">emission</span> in vegetated wetlands. It is found that about 3 percent of the daily net ecosystem production is emitted back to the atmosphere as CH4. With projected stimulation of primary production and soil microbial activity in wetlands associated with elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration, the potential for increasing CH4 <span class="hlt">emission</span> from inundated wetlands, further enhancing the greenhouse effect, is examined.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Whiting, G. J.; Chanton, J. P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">365</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/35522104"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic behavioural changes in the <span class="hlt">Spontaneously</span> Hyperactive Rat: 3. <span class="hlt">Control</span> by reinforcer rate changes and predictability</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Variable intervals are widely believed to produce steady rates of responding. However, based on the calming effect of unpredictability in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) we hypothesised that an animal model of this disorder, the <span class="hlt">Spontaneously</span> Hyperactive (or Hypertensive) Rat, would become less active following particularly variable sequences of interval-lengths in a variable interval schedule. From a large dataset of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jonathan Williams; Geir Sagvolden; Eric Taylor; Terje Sagvolden</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">366</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24146764"> <span id="translatedtitle">Genetic <span class="hlt">control</span> of <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> arthritis in a four-way advanced intercross line.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Identifying the genetic basis of complex diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, remains a challenge that requires experimental models to reduce the genetic and environmental variability. Numerous loci for arthritis have been identified in induced animal models; however, few <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> models have been genetically studied. Therefore, we generated a four-way advanced intercross line (AIL) from four inbred strains, including BXD2/TyJ which <span class="hlt">spontaneously</span> develops autoimmune arthritis. A genome-wide scan for <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> arthritis was performed in a cohort of 366 mice of the fourth generation (G4) of this cross. Five loci contributing to clinical phenotypes were identified in chromosomes 3, 7, 13, 18, and X. Three of the loci found in this study, confirm previously identified loci; whereas two of them are novel loci. Interesting candidate genes for the loci are highlighted. This study provides a genetic overview of <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> arthritis in mice and aids to solve the genetic etiology of rheumatoid arthritis and to gain a better understanding of the disease. PMID:24146764</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ranea, Laura Mellado; de Castro Marques, Andreia; Möller, Steffen; Gupta, Yask; Ibrahim, Saleh M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">367</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3795728"> <span id="translatedtitle">Genetic <span class="hlt">Control</span> of <span class="hlt">Spontaneous</span> Arthritis in a Four-Way Advanced Intercross Line</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Identifying the genetic basis of complex diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, remains a challenge that requires experimental models to reduce the genetic and environmental variability. Numerous loci for arthritis have been identified in induced animal models; however, few <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> models have been genetically studied. Therefore, we generated a four-way advanced intercross line (AIL) from four inbred strains, including BXD2/TyJ which <span class="hlt">spontaneously</span> develops autoimmune arthritis. A genome-wide scan for <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> arthritis was performed in a cohort of 366 mice of the fourth generation (G4) of this cross. Five loci contributing to clinical phenotypes were identified in chromosomes 3, 7, 13, 18, and X. Three of the loci found in this study, confirm previously identified loci; whereas two of them are novel loci. Interesting candidate genes for the loci are highlighted. This study provides a genetic overview of <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> arthritis in mice and aids to solve the genetic etiology of rheumatoid arthritis and to gain a better understanding of the disease.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ranea, Laura Mellado; de Castro Marques, Andreia; Moller, Steffen; Gupta, Yask; Ibrahim, Saleh M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">368</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=engineering+AND+girls&pg=4&id=EJ984725"> <span id="translatedtitle">Using Transfer of Stimulus <span class="hlt">Control</span> Technology to Promote Generalization and <span class="hlt">Spontaneity</span> of Language</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Children with autism often use newly acquired language in restricted contexts and with limited variability. Instructional tactics that embed generalization technology have shown promise for increasing <span class="hlt">spontaneity</span>, response variation, and the generalized use of language across settings, people, and materials. In this study, we explored the…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Spencer, Trina D.; Higbee, Thomas S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">369</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22639076"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Spontaneous</span> ultra-weak light <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from wheat seedlings are rhythmic and synchronized with the time profile of the local gravimetric tide.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Semi-circadian rhythms of <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> photon <span class="hlt">emission</span> from wheat seedlings germinated and grown in a constant environment (darkened chamber) were found to be synchronized with the rhythm of the local gravimetric (lunisolar) tidal acceleration. Time courses of the photon-count curves were also found to match the growth velocity profile of the seedlings. Pair-wise analyses of the data--growth, photon count, and tidal--by local tracking correlation always revealed significant coefficients (P?>?0.7) for more than 80% of any of the time periods considered. Using fast Fourier transform, the photon-count data revealed periodic components similar to those of the gravimetric tide. Time courses of biophoton <span class="hlt">emissions</span> would appear to be an additional, useful, and innovative tool in both chronobiological and biophysical studies. PMID:22639076</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Moraes, Thiago A; Barlow, Peter W; Klingelé, Emile; Gallep, Cristiano M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">370</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JMoSt1063..213E"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spectroscopic studies, fluorescence quenching by molecular oxygen and amplified <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> of 1,4-bis [2-(2-pyridyl) vinyl] benzene (P2VB) diolefinic laser dye</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The UV-visible electronic absorption spectra, molar absorptivity, fluorescence spectra, fluorescence quantum yield and excited state lifetime of 1,4-bis [2-(2-pyridyl) vinyl] benzene P2VB were measured in different solvents. The fluorescence quenching of P2VB by molecular oxygen was also studied using lifetime measurements. A 2 × 10-4 mol dm-3 solution of P2VB in dimethyl formamide (DMF) gave amplified <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> (ASE) in blue spectral region with <span class="hlt">emission</span> maximum at 420 nm upon pumping by 337.1 nitrogen laser pulse. The photochemical quantum yields (?c) of trans-cis photoisomerization of P2VB were calculated in different organic solvents. The photoreactivity of P2VB are also studied PMMA matrix.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">El-Daly, Samy A.; Ebeid, E. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">371</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2009-title24-vol5/pdf/CFR-2009-title24-vol5-sec3280-308.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">24 CFR 3280.308 - Formaldehyde <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">controls</span> for certain wood products.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Formaldehyde <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">controls</span> for certain wood...Construction Requirements § 3280.308 Formaldehyde <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">controls</span> for certain wood products. (a) Formaldehyde <span class="hlt">emission</span> levels. All...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">372</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title24-vol5/pdf/CFR-2010-title24-vol5-sec3280-308.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">24 CFR 3280.308 - Formaldehyde <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">controls</span> for certain wood products.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formaldehyde <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">controls</span> for certain wood...Construction Requirements § 3280.308 Formaldehyde <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">controls</span> for certain wood products. (a) Formaldehyde <span class="hlt">emission</span> levels. All...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">373</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/663460"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mercury <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> technologies for mixed waste thermal treatment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">EPA has identified wet scrubbing at low mercury feedrates, as well as carbon adsorption via carbon injection into the offgas or via flow through fixed carbon beds, as <span class="hlt">control</span> technologies that can be used to meet the proposed Maximum Achievable <span class="hlt">Control</span> Technology (MACT) rule limit for mercury <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from hazardous waste incinerators. DOE is currently funding demonstrations of gold amalgamation that may also <span class="hlt">control</span> mercury to the desired levels. Performance data from a variety of sources was reviewed to determine ranges of achievable mercury <span class="hlt">control</span>. Preliminary costs were estimated for using these technologies to <span class="hlt">control</span> mercury <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from mixed waste incineration. Mercury <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> for mixed waste incineration may need to be more efficient than for incineration of other hazardous wastes because of higher mercury concentrations in some mixed waste streams. However, mercury <span class="hlt">control</span> performance data for wet scrubbing and carbon adsorption is highly variable. More information is needed to demonstrate <span class="hlt">control</span> efficiencies that are achievable under various design and operating conditions for wet scrubbing, carbon adsorption, and gold amalgamation technologies. Given certain assumptions made in this study, capital costs, operating costs, and lifecycle costs for carbon injection, carbon beds, and gold amalgamation generally vary for different assumed mercury feedrates and for different offgas flowrates. Assuming that these technologies can in fact provide the necessary mercury <span class="hlt">control</span> performance, each of these technologies may be less costly than the others for certain mercury feedrates and the offgas flowrates.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chambers, A.; Knecht, M.; Soelberg, N.; Eaton, D. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.; Roberts, D.; Broderick, T. [ADA Technologies, Englewood, CO (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-12-31</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">374</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5498765"> <span id="translatedtitle">EPA moves to <span class="hlt">control</span> offshore <span class="hlt">emissions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper reports that except for most of the Gulf Coast, the Environmental Protection Agency proposes to hold all U.S. offshore rigs and platforms within about 28 miles from shore to the same standards as onshore facilities. EPA estimated compliance will cost the oil industry $2.2 million/year for all sources on the Outer Continental Shelf. The rule, the first EPA has proposed to <span class="hlt">control</span> air pollution from OCS operations, covers drilling and production off Alaska, the Pacific coast states, the Atlantic coast states, and the Florida Gulf Coast. It does not affect OCS areas off Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Not Available</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-12-09</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">375</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16053116"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Controlling</span> formaldehyde <span class="hlt">emissions</span> with boiler ash.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fluidized wood ash reduces formaldehyde in air from about 20 to <1 ppmv. Methanol is removed to a much lower extent. The efficiency of formaldehyde reduction increases with increasing moisture content of the ash. Sorption of formaldehyde to ash can be substantially accounted for by partitioning to the water contained in the ash followed by rate-<span class="hlt">controlling</span> binding to the ash solids. Adsorption occurs at temperatures of up to 165 degrees C; oxidation predominates thereafter. It is proposed that formaldehyde could be stripped from an air stream in a fluidized bed containing ash, which could then be returned to a boiler to incinerate the formaldehyde. PMID:16053116</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cowan, Jennifer; Abu-Daabes, Malyuba; Banerjee, Sujit</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">376</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994STIN...9517364V"> <span id="translatedtitle">Coal-fueled diesel technology development <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">control</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">General Electric Environmental Services, Inc. (GEESI), <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> <span class="hlt">Control</span> program activity ranged from <span class="hlt">control</span> concept testing of 10 CFM slipstream from a coal-water-slurry (CWS) fuel single cylinder research diesel engine to the design, installation, and operation of a full-size <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> system for a full-size CWS fuel diesel engine designed for locomotive operation. Early 10 CFM slipstream testing program activity was performed to determine <span class="hlt">emissions</span> characteristics and to evaluate <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> concepts such a barrier filtration, granular bed filtration, and cyclone particulate collection for reduction of particulate and gaseous <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Use of sorbent injection into the engine exhaust gas upstream of the barrier filter or use of sorbent media in the granular bed filter were found to provide reduction of exhaust gas SO2 and NO(x) in addition to collection of ash particulate. Emergence of the use of barrier filtration as a most practical <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> concept disclosed a need to improve cleanability of the filter media in order to avoid reduction of turbocharger performance by excessive barrier filter pressure drop. The next progression of program activity, after the slipstream feasibility state, was 500 CFM cold flow testing of <span class="hlt">control</span> system concepts. The successful completion of 500 CFM cold flow testing of the envelope filter led to a subsequent progression to a similar configuration envelope filter designed to operate at 500 CFM hot gas flow from the CWS fuel research diesel engine in the GETS engine test laboratory. This envelope filter included the design aspect proven by cold flow testing as well as optimization of the selection of the installed filter media.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vankleunen, W.; Kaldor, S.; Gal, E.; Mengel, M.; Arnold, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">377</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JPhB...44u5502E"> <span id="translatedtitle">Coherently <span class="hlt">controlled</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> from two atoms dressed via a standing wave laser field</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The influence of the standing wave amplitude on the resonance fluorescence of a three-level system of radiators is discussed. Great attention is devoted to the peculiarities of dressed states in the standing wave and the exchange integrals between two atoms situated in the anti-nodes or the nodes. The correlation functions of emitted photons at two dressed frequencies were obtained. It is shown that in the case when the distance between two atoms is smaller than the wavelength of the field, the emitted photons are strongly correlated. As was observed, for large values of laser field intensity, the <span class="hlt">control</span> of <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> is possible at two frequencies as well as the atom-atom interaction process. The dependence of the fluorescent light spectrum as a function of the position of two atoms dressed in the standing wave is investigated.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Enaki, N. A.; Ciobanu, N.; Orszag, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">378</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981JOM....33c..44F"> <span id="translatedtitle">SO2 <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Control</span>: The Problem and Solutions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the past 10 years sulfur oxide <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> has been a key factor in the economic performance of many smelting operations, and markedly effects the choice of process and the design of new installations. This paper presents a review of pyrometallurgical processes for the production of copper, lead, and zinc. To put the problem in perspective, the review first outlines sulfur <span class="hlt">emission</span> sources and alternate processing techniques, including oxygen enrichment and continuous and flash smelting. Alternate <span class="hlt">control</span> systems, including sulfuric acid, liquid SO2, elemental sulfur, and weak gas scrubbing processes are then described from operational and economic standpoints.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Friedman, Leonard J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">379</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21240219"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cliffside 6 integrated <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> system</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The article takes an inside look into the environmental hardware going into one of the highest profile coal-fired power plants projects in the US, a new 800 MW supercritical coal-fired facility at Cliffside, NC, Unit C6. This is currently under construction and scheduled to be in commercial service in 2012. To evaluate the alternative air quality <span class="hlt">control</span> system (AQCS) options, Duke Energy established a cross-functional team and used a decision analysis process to select the 'best balanced choice'. Alstom's integrated AQCS which combines dry and wet flue gas desulfurization systems was the best balanced choice. Replacing an ESP with a spray dryer absorber achieved major cost savings and eliminated the need for wastewater treatment. 1 ref., 2 photos.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McGinnis, D.G.; Rader, P.C.; Gansley, R.R.; Wang, W. [Duke Energy, Charlotte, NC (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-04-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">380</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....9660P"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">controls</span> of methane <span class="hlt">emission</span> from an Indian mangrove</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mangroves have been rated for a long time as a minor methane source, but recent reports have shown that polluted mangroves may emit substantial amounts of methane. In an Indian mangrove dominated by Avicennia marina we measured annual methane <span class="hlt">emission</span> rates of 10 g methane/year, comparable to those from Northern wetlands. Methane <span class="hlt">emission</span> from a freshwater-influenced area was higher, but lower from a stunted mangrove growing on a hypersaline soil, respectively. Methane <span class="hlt">emission</span> was mediated by the pneumatophores of Avicennia. This was consistent with the methane concentration in the aerenchyma that decreased on average from 350 ppmv in the cable roots to 10 ppmv in the emergent part of the pneumatophores. The number of pneumatophores varied seasonally. During the monsoon floods less pneumatophores emerged from the water, reducing methane fluxes largely. Hence, CH4 <span class="hlt">emission</span> was <span class="hlt">controlled</span> via the pneumatophores by the water level.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Purvaja, R.; Ramesh, R.; Frenzel, P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a 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href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">381</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6907052"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> valve with internal spring</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This patent describe, with an internal combustion engine, a crankcase gas flow <span class="hlt">control</span> device located between the engine crankcase and the engine fuel-air induction. It comprises: a hollow housing defining an inlet at one end, a cylindrical flow passage, a diverging orifice passage and an outlet passage; a slender rod extending coaxially through the cylindrical flow passage and the diverging orifice passage; a tubular valve element within the housing and supported about the slender rod thereby allowing axial movement of the valve element along the rod; a coil-type compression spring extending about the rod and within the tubular valve element, one end of the spring fixedly connected to the rod, the other end of the spring bearing against the tubular valve element tending to move it along the rod toward the housing inlet and away from the diverging orifice passage whereby a gas pressure differential produced between the crankcase and the fuel-air induction causes the valve element to move against the spring force and resultantly the gas flows over the exterior of the valve element without interference by the spring thereby preventing turbulence. The housing has a walled elbow portion between the diverging orifice passage and the outlet whereby the downstream end of the rod is supported by the elbow wall.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Betterton, J.T.; Glover, A.H.; McKee, T.S.; Romanczuk, C.S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-03-06</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">382</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15152660"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modeling the benefits of power plant <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">controls</span> in Massachusetts.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Older fossil-fueled power plants provide a significant portion of <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of criteria air pollutants in the United States, in part because these facilities are not required to meet the same <span class="hlt">emission</span> standards as new sources under the Clean Air Act. Pending regulations for older power plants need information about any potential public health benefits of <span class="hlt">emission</span> reductions, which can be estimated by combining <span class="hlt">emissions</span> information, dispersion modeling, and epidemiologic evidence. In this article, we develop an analytical modeling framework that can evaluate health benefits of <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">controls</span>, and we apply our model to two power plants in Massachusetts. Using the CALPUFF atmospheric dispersion model, we estimate that use of Best Available <span class="hlt">Control</span> Technology (BACT) for NOx and SO2 would lead to maximum annual average secondary particulate matter (PM) concentration reductions of 0.2 microg/m3. When we combine concentration reductions with current health evidence, our central estimate is that the secondary PM reductions from these two power plants would avert 70 deaths per year in a population of 33 million individuals. Although benefit estimates could differ substantially with different interpretations of the health literature, parametric perturbations within CALPUFF and other simple model changes have relatively small impacts from an aggregate risk perspective. While further analysis would be required to reduce uncertainties and expand on our analytical model, our framework can help decision-makers evaluate the magnitude and distribution of benefits under different <span class="hlt">control</span> scenarios. PMID:15152660</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Levy, Jonathan I; Spengler, John D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">383</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004PhDT.......118L"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Emissions</span>, combustion dynamics, and <span class="hlt">control</span> of a multiple swirl combustor</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To achieve single digit NOx <span class="hlt">emission</span> from gas turbine combustors and prevent the combustion dynamics encountered in Lean Premixed Combustion, it is essential to understand the correlations among <span class="hlt">emission</span> characteristics, combustion dynamics, and dynamics and characteristics of swirling flow field. The focus of this dissertation is to investigate the <span class="hlt">emission</span> characteristics and combustion dynamics of multiple swirl dump combustors either in premixing or non-premixed combustion (e.g. Lean Direct Injection), and correlate these combustion characteristics (<span class="hlt">emissions</span>, combustion instability and lean flammability) to the fluids dynamics (flow structures and its evolution). This study covers measurement of velocity flow field, temperature field, and combustion under effects of various parameters, including inlet flow Reynolds number, inlet air temperature, swirl configurations, downstream exhaust nozzle contraction ratios, length of mixing tube. These parameters are tested in both liquid and gaseous fuel combustions. Knowledge obtained through this comprehensive study is applied to passive and active <span class="hlt">controls</span> for improving gas turbine combustion performance in the aid of novel sensor and actuator technologies. <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> and combustion characteristics are shown closely related to the shape and size of central recirculation zone (CRZ), the mean and turbulence velocity and strain rate, and dynamics of large vortical structures. The passive <span class="hlt">controls</span>, mostly geometry factors, affect the combustion characteristics and <span class="hlt">emissions</span> through their influences on flow fields, and consequently temperature and radical fields. Air assist, which is used to adjust the momentum of fuel spray, is effective in reducing NOx and depress combustion oscillation without hurting LBO. Fuel distribution/split is also one important factor for achieving low NOx <span class="hlt">emission</span> and <span class="hlt">control</span> of combustion dynamics. The dynamics of combustion, including flame oscillations close to LBO and acoustic combustion instability, can be characterized by OH*/CH* radical oscillations and phase-locked chemiluminescence imaging. The periodic fluctuation of jet velocity and formation of large vortical structures within CRZ are responsible for combustion instability in multiple swirl combustors.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Li, Guoqiang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">384</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/902083"> <span id="translatedtitle">NOx Sensor for Direct Injection <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Control</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Electricore/Delphi team continues to leverage the electrochemical planar sensor technology that has produced stoichiometric planar and wide range oxygen sensors as the basis for development of a NOx sensor. Zirconia cell technology with an integrated heater will provide the foundation for the sensor structure. Proven materials and packaging technology will help to ensure a cost-effective approach to the manufacture of this sensor. The electronics technique and interface is considered to be an area where new strategies need to be employed to produce higher S/N ratios of the NOx signal with emphasis on signal stability over time for robustness and durability Both continuous mode and pulse mode <span class="hlt">control</span> techniques are being evaluated. Packaging the electronics requires careful design and circuit partitioning so that only the necessary signal conditioning electronics are coupled directly in the wiring harness, while the remainder is situated within the ECM for durability and costs reasons. This task continues to be on hold due to the limitation that the definition of the interface electronics was unavailable until very late in the project. The sense element is based on the amperometric method utilizing integrated alumina and zirconia ceramics. Precious metal electrodes are used to form the integrated heater, the cell electrodes and leads. Inside the actual sense cell structure, it is first necessary to separate NOx from the remaining oxygen constituents of the exhaust, without reducing the NOx. Once separated, the NOx will be measured using a measurement cell. Development or test coupons have been used to facilitate material selection and refinement, cell, diffusion barrier, and chamber development. The sense element currently requires elaborate interconnections. To facilitate a robust durable connection, mechanical and metallurgical connections are under investigation. Materials and process refinements continue to play an important role in the development of the sensor.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Betteridge, William J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-02-28</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">385</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/510368"> <span id="translatedtitle">Enhanced <span class="hlt">control</span> of mercury <span class="hlt">emissions</span> through modified speciation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In anticipation of possible regulations regarding mercury <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, research efforts sponsored by DOE, EPRI, and others are investigating the risks posed by mercury <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, improved techniques for measuring those <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, and possible <span class="hlt">control</span> measures. The focus in the <span class="hlt">control</span> research is on techniques that can be used in conjunction with existing flue-gas-cleanup (FGC) systems in order to minimize additional capital costs and operational complexity. Argonne National Laboratory has supported the DOE Fossil Energy Program for over 15 years with research on advanced environmental <span class="hlt">control</span> technologies. The emphasis in Argonne`s work has been on integrated systems that combine <span class="hlt">control</span> of several pollutants. Specific topics have included spray drying for sulfur dioxide and particulate-matter <span class="hlt">control</span> with high-sulfur coal, combined sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides <span class="hlt">control</span> technologies, and techniques to enhance mercury <span class="hlt">control</span> in existing FGC systems. The latter area has focused on low-cost dry sorbents for use with fabric filters or electrostatic precipitators and techniques for improving the capture of mercury in wet flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. This paper presents results from recent work that has studied the effects of several oxidizing agents in combination with typical flue-gas species (e.g., nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide) on the oxidation of Hg{sup 0}.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Livengood, C.D.; Mendelsohn, M.H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">386</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60675078"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sulfur dioxide <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> in Japanese copper smelters. Information circular</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Japanese copper smelters mostly are located in areas of concentrated industrial activity and high levels of atmospheric pollution. A review of unofficial sulfur dioxide <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> data from major Japanese smelters show capture of 91 to 99.7 percent of the sulfur in the smelter feed. The bulk of Japanese smelting capacity was constructed in the last 10 years. Six of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. B. Rosenbaum; M. Hayashi; G. M. Potter</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1976-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">387</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54193197"> <span id="translatedtitle">Active <span class="hlt">Control</span> of a Low <span class="hlt">Emission</span> Swirl-Stabilised Combustor</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Instability modes were investigated and <span class="hlt">controlled</span> in an experimental low-<span class="hlt">emission</span> swirl stabilised combustor, in which the acoustic boundary conditions were modified to increase its propensity to become unstable. The two operating modes which were studied included a partially premixed-diffusion flame and premixed combustion. The diffusion flame exhibited unstable operation near the lean flammability limit with two destabilised modes, axisymmetric and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">E. J. Gutmark; C. O. Paschereit; W. Weisenstein; B. Paikert</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">388</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60133337"> <span id="translatedtitle">Implementing Strategies for Drying and Pressing Wood Without <span class="hlt">Emissions</span> <span class="hlt">Controls</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Drying and pressing wood for the manufacture of lumber, particleboard, oriented strand board (OSB), veneer and medium density fiberboard (MDF) release volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere. These <span class="hlt">emissions</span> require <span class="hlt">control</span> equipment that are capital-intensive and consume significant quantities of natural gas and electricity. The objective of our work was to understand the mechanisms through which volatile organic compounds</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sujit Banerjee; Terrance Conners</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">389</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/61235749"> <span id="translatedtitle">Diesel exhaust particulate and organic vapor <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">control</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A system for <span class="hlt">controlling</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of particulates and heavy organic vapors in the exhaust gases of diesel engines includes, in a preferred embodiment, a heat exchanger for cooling the engine exhaust gases below the condensation temperature of the organic vapors and their resultant adsorption onto the entrained particulates, and a particulate trap connected to receive the cooled gases from the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mann</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">390</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60022333"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Controlling</span> dust <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from coal-fired boilers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Many coal-fired boilers have been converted to burn cleaner fuels such as natural gas and oil. But escalating fuel costs are causing many plants to re-examine the use of coal as a primary boiler fuel. However, before reconverting to coal, owners must evaluate pertinent environmental regulations and <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> strategies. Two common air pollutants that generally require some type of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. A. Weiss; D. R. Erdmann</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">391</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/43116550"> <span id="translatedtitle">Jovian longitudinal <span class="hlt">control</span> of Io-related radio <span class="hlt">emissions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We propose a theoretical model to explain the <span class="hlt">control</span> that Jupiter's rotational phase exercizes over Io-related radio <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Longitudinal asymmetries in the conductivity and electron content of Jupiter's ionosphere are generated by variations in the mirror altitudes of energetic electrons trapped in Jupiter's magnetosphere. Energetic electrons are absorbed by the atmosphere preferentially in regions where, because of higher-order magnetic moments,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. J. Dessler; T. W. Hill</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">392</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/11852340"> <span id="translatedtitle">Undercarriage fatigue test <span class="hlt">control</span> by acoustic <span class="hlt">emission</span> method</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Acoustic <span class="hlt">emission</span> (AE) monitoring during fatigue and residual strength tests of aircraft undercarriage is discussed. In several variants of loading the processes of crack development are analyzed. It is shown that AE <span class="hlt">control</span> gives possibility to discover fatigue crack initiation, to fix different stages of crack propagation (including stop of crack growth and renew its development), to analyze velocity of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. Banov; S. Doroshko; A. Nasibullin; V. Turko</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">393</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ApPhL.101m2105J"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pronounced Purcell enhancement of <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> in CdTe/ZnTe quantum dots embedded in micropillar cavities</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The coupling of CdTe/ZnTe quantum dot (QD) <span class="hlt">emission</span> to micropillar cavity eigenmodes in the weak coupling regime is demonstrated. We analyze photoluminescence spectra of QDs embedded in monolithic micropillar cavities based on Bragg mirrors which contain MgSe/ZnTe/MgTe superlattices as low-index material. The pillar <span class="hlt">emission</span> shows pronounced cavity eigenmodes, and their spectral shape is in good agreement with simulations. QD <span class="hlt">emission</span> in resonance with the cavity mode is shown to be efficiently guided toward the detector, and an experimental Purcell enhancement by a factor of 5.7 is determined, confirming theoretical expectations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jakubczyk, T.; Pacuski, W.; Smole?ski, T.; Golnik, A.; Florian, M.; Jahnke, F.; Kruse, C.; Hommel, D.; Kossacki, P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">394</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012BGD.....915853M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Revisiting factors <span class="hlt">controlling</span> methane <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from high-arctic tundra</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Among the numerous studies of methane <span class="hlt">emission</span> from northern wetlands the number of measurements carried on at high latitudes (north of the Arctic Circle) is very limited, and within these there is a bias towards studies of the growing season. Here we present results of five years of automatic chamber measurements at a high-arctic location in Zackenberg, NE Greenland covering both the growing seasons and two months of the following freeze-in period. The measurements show clear seasonal dynamics in methane <span class="hlt">emission</span>. The start of the growing season increase in CH4 fluxes were strongly related to the date of snow melt. The greatest variation in fluxes between the study years were observed during the first part of the growing season. Somewhat surprisingly this variability could not be explained by commonly known factors <span class="hlt">controlling</span> methane <span class="hlt">emission</span>, i.e. temperature and water table position. Late in the growing season CH4 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were found to be very similar between the study years (except the extremely dry 2010) despite large differences in climatic factors (temperature and water table). Late-season bursts of CH4 coinciding with soil freezing in the autumn were observed at least during three years between 2006 and 2010. The accumulated <span class="hlt">emission</span> during the freeze-in CH4 bursts was comparable in size with the growing season <span class="hlt">emission</span> for the year 2007, and about one third of the growing season <span class="hlt">emissions</span> for the years 2009 and 2010. In all three cases the CH4 burst was accompanied by a~corresponding episodic increase in CO2 <span class="hlt">emission</span>, which can compose a significant contribution to the annual CO2 flux budget. The most probable mechanism of the late season CH4 and CO2 bursts is physical release of gases, accumulated in the soil during the growing season. In this study we investigate the drivers and links between growing season and late season fluxes. The reported surprising seasonal dynamics of CH4 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> at this site show that there are important occasions where conventional knowledge on factors <span class="hlt">controlling</span> methane <span class="hlt">emissions</span> is overruled by other processes, acting in longer than seasonal time scales. Our findings suggest the importance of multiyear studies with continued focus on shoulder seasons.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mastepanov, M.; Sigsgaard, C.; Tagesson, T.; Ström, L.; Tamstorf, M. P.; Lund, M.; Christensen, T. R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">395</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.6221M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Revisiting factors <span class="hlt">controlling</span> methane <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from high-arctic tundra</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Among the numerous studies of methane <span class="hlt">emission</span> from northern wetlands the number of measurements carried on at high latitudes (north of the Arctic Circle) is very limited, and within these there is a bias towards studies of the growing season. Here we present results of five years of automatic chamber measurements at a high-arctic location in Zackenberg, NE Greenland, covering both the growing seasons and two months of the following freeze-in period. The measurements show clear seasonal dynamics in methane <span class="hlt">emission</span>. In the beginning of the growing season increase in CH4 fluxes was strongly related to the date of snow melt. The greatest variation in fluxes between the study years were observed during the first part of the growing season. Somewhat surprisingly this variability could not be explained by commonly known factors <span class="hlt">controlling</span> methane <span class="hlt">emission</span>, i.e. temperature and water table position. Late in the growing season CH4 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were found to be very similar between the study years (except the extremely dry 2010) despite large differences in climatic factors (temperature and water table). Late-season bursts of CH4 coinciding with soil freezing in the autumn were observed at least during three out of five years 2006 - 2010. The accumulated <span class="hlt">emission</span> during the freeze-in CH4 bursts was comparable in size with the growing season <span class="hlt">emission</span> for the year 2007, and about one third of the growing season <span class="hlt">emissions</span> for the years 2009 and 2010. In all three cases the CH4 burst was accompanied by a corresponding episodic increase in CO2 <span class="hlt">emission</span>, which can compose a significant contribution to the annual CO2 flux budget. The most probable mechanism of the late season CH4 and CO2 bursts is physical release of gases, accumulated in the soil during the growing season. In this study we investigate the drivers and links between growing season and late season fluxes. The reported surprising seasonal dynamics of CH4 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> at this site show that there are important occasions where conventional knowledge on factors <span class="hlt">controlling</span> methane <span class="hlt">emissions</span> is overruled by other processes, acting in longer than seasonal time scales. Our findings suggest the importance of multiyear studies with continued focus on shoulder seasons.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mastepanov, Mikhail; Sigsgaard, Charlotte; Tagesson, Torbern; Strom, Lena; Tamstorf, Mikkel; Lund, Magnus; Christensen, Torben</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">396</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12190556"> <span id="translatedtitle">Polarization <span class="hlt">control</span> of the nonlinear <span class="hlt">emission</span> of semiconductor microcavities.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The degree of circular polarization ( Weierstrass p ) of the nonlinear <span class="hlt">emission</span> in semiconductor microcavities is <span class="hlt">controlled</span> by changing the exciton-cavity detuning. The polariton relaxation towards K approximately 0 cavitylike states is governed by final-state stimulated scattering. The helicity of the <span class="hlt">emission</span> is selected due to the lifting of the degeneracy of the +/-1 spin levels at K approximately 0. At short times after a pulsed excitation Weierstrass p reaches very large values, either positive or negative, as a result of stimulated scattering to the spin level of lowest energy (+1/-1 spin for positive/negative detuning). PMID:12190556</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Martín, M D; Aichmayr, G; Viña, L; André, R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-08-12</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">397</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17337720"> <span id="translatedtitle">TTX-sensitive and TTX-insensitive <span class="hlt">control</span> of <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> gut motility in the developing zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Spontaneous</span> regular gut motility in zebrafish begins around 4 days post fertilisation (d.p.f.) and is modulated by release of acetylcholine and nitric oxide. The role of intrinsic or extrinsic innervation for initiating and propagating the <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> contractions, however, is not well understood. By creating spatiotemporal maps, we could examine <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> motility patterns in zebrafish larvae in vivo at 4 and 7 d.p.f. in more detail. Tetrodotoxin (TTX) was added to elucidate the importance of nervous <span class="hlt">control</span>. Anterograde and retrograde contraction waves originated in the same region, just posterior to the intestinal bulb. This area correlates well with the distribution of Hu (human neuronal protein C/D)-immunoreactive nerve cell bodies. Whereas numerous immunoreactive nerve cells were present in the mid and distal intestine at both 4 and 7 d.p.f., fewer cells were seen anterior to the origin of contractions. The overall frequency of contractions (1.16+/-0.15 cycles min(-1), N=14 at 4 d.p.f.; 1.05+/-0.09 cycles min(-1), N=13 at 7 d.p.f.) and the interval between individual anterograde contraction waves (54.8+/-7.9 s at 4 d.p.f., N=14; 56.9+/-4.4 s, N=13 at 7 d.p.f.) did not differ between the two stages but the properties of the contractions were altered. The distance travelled by each wave increased from 591.0+/-43.8 microm at 4 d.p.f. (N=14) to 719.9+/-33.2 microm at 7 d.p.f. (N=13). By contrast, the velocity decreased from 4 d.p.f. (49.5+/-5.5 microm s(-1), N=12) to 7 d.p.f. (27.8+/-3.6 microm s(-1), N=13). At 4 d.p.f., TTX did not affect any of the parameters whereas at 7 d.p.f. anterograde frequency (<span class="hlt">control</span> 1.07+/-0.12 cycles min(-1), N=8; TTX 0.55+/-0.13 cycles min(-1), N=8) and distance travelled (<span class="hlt">control</span> 685.1+/-45.9 microm, N=8; TTX 318.7+/-88.7 microm, N=6) were decreased. In conclusion, enteric or extrinsic innervation does not seem to be necessary to initiate <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> contractions of the gut in zebrafish larvae. However, later in development, nerves have an increasingly important role as modulators of intestinal activity. PMID:17337720</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Holmberg, Anna; Olsson, Catharina; Hennig, Grant W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">398</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16311824"> <span id="translatedtitle">Air quality assessment and <span class="hlt">control</span> of <span class="hlt">emission</span> rates.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mathematical methods based on the adjoint model approach are given for the air-pollution estimation and <span class="hlt">control</span> in an urban region. A simple advection-diffusion-reaction model and its adjoint are used to illustrate the application of the methods. Dual pollution concentration estimates in ecologically important zones are derived and used to develop two non-optimal strategies and one optimal strategy for <span class="hlt">controlling</span> the <span class="hlt">emission</span> rates of enterprises. A linear convex combination of these strategies represents a new sufficient strategy. A method for detecting the enterprises, which violate the <span class="hlt">emission</span> rates prescribed by a <span class="hlt">control</span>, is given. A method for determining an optimal position for a new enterprise in the region is also described. PMID:16311824</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Skiba, Yuri N; Parra-Guevara, David; Belitskaya, Davydova Valentina</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">399</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5798972"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Controlling</span> dust <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from coal-fired boilers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Many coal-fired boilers have been converted to burn cleaner fuels such as natural gas and oil. But escalating fuel costs are causing many plants to re-examine the use of coal as a primary boiler fuel. However, before reconverting to coal, owners must evaluate pertinent environmental regulations and <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> strategies. Two common air pollutants that generally require some type of <span class="hlt">control</span> are sulfur dioxide and particulate <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Sulfur dioxide <span class="hlt">control</span> for small and medium-sized boilers is usually accomplished by limiting sulfur content in the fuel and using low-sulfur coal. Other sulfur dioxide <span class="hlt">control</span> methods include flue gas desulfurization and fluidized bed combustion. However, these systems require substantial first costs, increased operating and maintenance costs, and special material handling systems, which are generally not cost effective for small or medium-sized boilers. The primary emphasis in this article is on <span class="hlt">controlling</span> particulate <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from small and mediumsized coal-fired, spreader-stoker boilers equipped with mechanical dust-collection systems. However, many of the principles discussed apply to other collection systems as well.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Weiss, C.A.; Erdmann, D.R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-11-08</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">400</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvL.110m4802M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Transform-Limited X-Ray Pulse Generation from a High-Brightness Self-Amplified <span class="hlt">Spontaneous-Emission</span> Free-Electron Laser</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A method to achieve high-brightness self-amplified <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> (HB-SASE) in the free-electron laser (FEL) is described. The method uses repeated nonequal electron beam delays to delocalize the collective FEL interaction and break the radiation coherence length dependence on the FEL cooperation length. The method requires no external seeding or photon optics and so is applicable at any wavelength or repetition rate. It is demonstrated, using linear theory and numerical simulations, that the radiation coherence length can be increased by approximately 2 orders of magnitude over SASE with a corresponding increase in spectral brightness. Examples are shown of HB-SASE generating transform-limited FEL pulses in the soft x-ray and near transform-limited pulses in the hard x-ray. Such pulses may greatly benefit existing applications and may also open up new areas of scientific research.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McNeil, B. W. J.; Thompson, N. R.; Dunning, D. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">401</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17906727"> <span id="translatedtitle">Minimization of the impact of a broad bandwidth high-gain nonlinear preamplifier to the amplified <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> pedestal of the Vulcan petawatt laser facility.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To generate petawatt pulses using the Vulcan Nd:glass laser requires a broad bandwidth high-gain preamplifier. The preamplifier used is an optical parametric amplifier that provides a total gain of 10(8) in three amplification stages. We report on a detailed investigation of the effect of the Vulcan optical parametric chirped pulse amplification (OPCPA) preamplifier on contrast caused by the amplified <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> (ASE) pedestal that extends up to 2 ns before the arrival of the main pulse. The contrast after compression is improved to 4x10(8) of the intensity of the main pulse using near-field apertures between the stages of the OPCPA preamplifier. Further reduction of the level of the ASE pedestal can be achieved at the cost of a reduction in amplified bandwidth by solely phosphate glass amplification after initial preamplification rather than a mixed glass amplification scheme. PMID:17906727</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Musgrave, I O; Hernandez-Gomez, C; Canny, D; Collier, J; Heathcote, R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">402</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ChPhB..20e4208Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Solvent-vapour treatment induced performance enhancement of amplified <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> based on poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1, 4-phenylene vinylene</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this work, performance enhancements of amplified <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> (ASE) from poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1, 4-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV) have been achieved via solvent vapour treatment. Correlations between the morphology of the film and the optical performance of polymer-based ASE are investigated. The active layers are characterised by atomic force microscopy and optical absorption. The results show that the solvent-vapour treatment can induce the MEH-PPV self-organisation into an ordered structure with a smooth surface, leading to enhanced optical gain. Thus the solvent-vapour treatment is a good method for improving the optical properties of the MEH-PPV.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, Bo; Hou, Yan-Bing; Teng, Feng; Lou, Zhi-Dong; Liu, Xiao-Jun; Hu, Bing; Wu, Wen-Bin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">403</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EL....10034003L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ultra-deep stopband induced by <span class="hlt">spontaneous-emission</span>-cancellation-like interference between two side-coupled zero-index-metamaterial-based resonators</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this paper, two side-coupled zero-index-metamaterial-based resonators that mimic the <span class="hlt">spontaneous-emission</span> cancellation (SEC) effect are investigated numerically and experimentally. It is found that an interference-induced stopband as deep as -70 dB can be observed in a microstrip SEC structure whose size is even less than 0.5 cm2. More simulations about the electrical-field distributions demonstrate intuitively the underlying physics, i.e., the destructive interference between two side-coupled zero-index-metamaterial-based resonators. Our method of realizing ultra-deep stopband properties in a miniaturized filter may find potential applications in both microwave and optical-communication systems.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Li, Y. H.; Dong, Z. D.; Sun, Y.; Tan, W.; Jiang, H. T.; Wang, Z. G.; Chen, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">404</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10169046"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Control</span> of mercury <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from coal-fired boilers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This project at Argonne is designed to investigate new concepts leading to advanced <span class="hlt">control</span> technologies for fossil-energy systems. The objective of this new task on air toxics <span class="hlt">control</span> is to develop new or improved, cost-effective <span class="hlt">control</span> technology for the abatement of <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from fossil-fuel combustion plants and to evaluate the possible effects of any captured species on waste disposal. The HAPs to be investigated initially in this task include mercury and arsenic compounds.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">405</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5394089"> <span id="translatedtitle">Processing heavy crudes: multicyclones for <span class="hlt">control</span> of petroleum coke <span class="hlt">emissions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In 1974, the Exxon Co., USA, Billings, Mont., refinery initiated a screening study to assess alternatives for <span class="hlt">control</span> of particulate <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from its fluid coker stack. This study identified multicyclones as having potential for bringing the particulate mass <span class="hlt">emission</span> rate into compliance with anticipated, tightening Montana State air pollution regulations. A pilot plant was built to demonstrate the performance capabilities of the multicyclones in such service. Results of this pilot plant study were favorable and provided the basis for the design and installation of a full-scale, commercial unit. This article presents the results of both the pilot plant study and the performance of the full-scale unit. It is demonstrated that the system developed, tested and installed in refineries can achieve a particulate mass <span class="hlt">emission</span> well within air pollution regulatory requirements with the full-scale unit effluent achieving plume opacities of 0 to 15%. 1 ref.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Byers, R.L.; Gage, T.L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">406</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NJPh...15d3017M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Suitability of nanodiamond nitrogen-vacancy centers for <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> experiments</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond are generally recognized as highly promising as indefinitely stable highly efficient single-photon sources. We report an experimental quantification of the brightness, radiative decay rate, nonradiative decay rate and quantum efficiency of single NV centers in diamond nanocrystals. Our experiments show that the commonly observed large spread in fluorescence decay rates of NV centers in nanodiamond is inconsistent with the common explanation of large nanophotonic mode-density variations in the ultra-small high-index crystals at near-unity quantum efficiency. We report that NV centers in 25 nm nanocrystals are essentially insensitive to local density of optical states (LDOS) variations that we induce at a dielectric interface by using liquids to vary the refractive index, and propose that quantum efficiencies in such nanocrystals are widely distributed between 0 and 20%. For single NV centers in larger 100 nm nanocrystals, we show that decay rate changes can be reversibly induced by nanomechanically approaching a mirror to change the LDOS. Using this scanning mirror method, for the first time we report calibrated quantum efficiencies of NV centers, and show that different but nominally identical nanocrystals have widely distributed quantum efficiencies between 10 and 90%. Our measurements imply that nanocrystals that are to be assembled into hybrid photonic structures for cavity QED should first be individually screened to assess fluorescence properties in detail.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mohtashami, Abbas; Femius Koenderink, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">407</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1036590"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Emissions</span> from premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion and affect on <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> devices</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A light-duty diesel engine has been operated in advanced combustion modes known generally as premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI). The <span class="hlt">emissions</span> have been characterized for several load and speed combinations. Fewer NO{sub x} and particulate matter (PM) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are produced by PCCI, but higher CO and hydrocarbon (HC) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> result. In addition, the nature of the PM differs from conventional combustion; the PM is smaller and has a much higher soluble organic fraction (SOF) content (68% vs. 30% for conventional combustion). Three catalyst technologies were studied to determine the affects of HECC on catalyst performance; the technologies were a lean NO{sub x} trap (LNT), diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), and diesel particulate filter (DPF). The LNT benefited greatly from the reduced NO{sub x} <span class="hlt">emissions</span> associated with PCCI. NO{sub x} capacity requirements are reduced as well as overall tailpipe NO{sub x} levels particularly at low load and temperature conditions where regeneration of the LNT is difficult. The DOC performance requirements for PCCI are more stringent due to the higher CO and HC <span class="hlt">emissions</span>; however, the DOC was effective at <span class="hlt">controlling</span> the higher CO and HC <span class="hlt">emissions</span> at conditions above the light-off temperature. Below light-off, CO and HC <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are problematic. The study of DPF technology focused on the fuel penalties associated with DPF regeneration or 'desoot' due to the different PM loading rates from PCCI vs. conventional combustion. Less frequent desoot events were required from the lower PM from PCCI and, when used in conjunction with an LNT, the lower PM from less frequent LNT regeneration. The lower desoot frequency leads a {approx}3% fuel penalty for a mixture of PCCI and conventional loads vs. {approx}4% for conventional only combustion.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Kass, Michael D [ORNL; Huff, Shean P [ORNL; Barone, Teresa L [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">408</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5548056"> <span id="translatedtitle">Differentiated regulation: a theory with applications to automobile <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">control</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In part one, a model adapted from growth theory is used to study differentiated regulation. Differentiated regulation is found to be particularly unsuitable for the regulation of industries characterized by slow demand growth, slow physical depreciation, slow technical progress, and limited substitutability in the production process. Since many sectors in which differentiated regulation is commonly used have these properties, changes in regulatory design are apparently in order. The second part of the dissertation evaluates the current US automotive-<span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> program, a differentiated regulatory program, and several alternatives. The 1981 regulatory increment is shown to have increased aggregate hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide <span class="hlt">emissions</span> in 1981 to 1985 above the level that would have prevailed had the less-stringent 1980 standards been kept in force. Beyond 1985 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> fall, but by less than forecast using a model that fails investment decisions endogenously. Indeed, the wide disparity in <span class="hlt">emissions</span> rates among cars presently in the vehicle fleet suggests that strategies that accelerate, rather than retard, replacement of high-<span class="hlt">emission</span>-rate vehicles are attractive alternatives to the present policy.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gruenspecht, H.K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">409</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7027069"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Emissions</span> trading -- Market-based approaches offer pollution <span class="hlt">control</span> incentives</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the last several years, market-based'' strategies for achieving air quality goals have joined the traditional command-and-<span class="hlt">control</span>'' approach to air pollution management. The premise behind market approaches is that the right'' to emit air pollutants provided by a permit has monetary value. A market-based approach provides facility operators with incentives to take advantage of the monetary value associated with reducing <span class="hlt">emissions</span> below permitted levels. It has been recognized for some time that applying such a mechanism can be a cost-effective regional air quality management strategy. To date, economic incentives have been exploited somewhat in <span class="hlt">emissions</span> reduction credit programs operating in non-attainment areas, but transactions have been tightly <span class="hlt">controlled</span> by regulatory agencies. Two recently implemented programs have taken to the marketplace the management of <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from specific sources. One is incorporated in the acid rain mitigation provisions of Title 4 of the Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments; the other is the Regional Clean Air Incentives Market (RECLAIM), a program based on reducing ozone. Both Title 4 and RECLAIM are intended to achieve substantial reductions during the next decade in <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) and oxides of nitrogens (NO[sub x]) from selected larger sources.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tombach, I.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">410</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1080792"> <span id="translatedtitle">In Plant Protoplasts, the <span class="hlt">Spontaneous</span> Expression of Defense Reactions and the Responsiveness to Exogenous Elicitors Are under Auxin <span class="hlt">Control</span> 1</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">When auxin was omitted during either the preparation or the culture of tobacco mesophyll protoplasts, as well as during both periods, synthesis of ?-glucanase was <span class="hlt">spontaneously</span> induced. In contrast, when protoplasts were prepared and cultured in the presence of 16 micromolar 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (optimal concentration for protoplast division), the expression of ?-glucanase was maintained close to the minimal level observed in tobacco leaves. This inhibitory effect was only promoted by active auxins (1-naphthaleneacetic acid, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and 3-indoleacetic acid) but not by inactive auxin analogs. Tobacco protoplasts responded to exogenous elicitors from the cell wall of Phytophthora megasperma glycinea (Pmg) by accumulating ?-glucanase in the presence of 16 micromolar 1-naphthaleneacetic acid. At higher auxin concentrations, the elicitor-induced ?-glucanase synthesis was inhibited. Naphthaleneacetic acid concentration (3 × 10?5 molar) required to inhibit by 50% the expression of this defense reaction triggered by a near-optimal elicitor concentration was about 100 times higher than that sufficient to inhibit by 50% the <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> expression in nonelicited protoplasts. This is the first demonstration of an auxin-fungal elicitor interaction in the <span class="hlt">control</span> of a defined defense reaction. The above observations were extended to soybean cell protoplasts. The Pmg elicitor-induced stimulation of the synthesis of pathogenesis related P17 polypeptides and of a 39-kilodalton peptide immunologically related to tobacco ?-glucanase was only observed when the <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> accumulation of these proteins was inhibited in auxin-treated protoplasts. ImagesFigure 1</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jouanneau, Jean-Pierre; Lapous, Danielle; Guern, Jean</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">411</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2121110"> <span id="translatedtitle">The foxa2 Gene <span class="hlt">Controls</span> the Birth and <span class="hlt">Spontaneous</span> Degeneration of Dopamine Neurons in Old Age</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Parkinson disease affects more than 1% of the population over 60 y old. The dominant models for Parkinson disease are based on the use of chemical toxins to kill dopamine neurons, but do not address the risk factors that normally increase with age. Forkhead transcription factors are critical regulators of survival and longevity. The forkhead transcription factor, foxa2, is specifically expressed in adult dopamine neurons and their precursors in the medial floor plate. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments show this gene, foxa2, is required to generate dopamine neurons during fetal development and from embryonic stem cells. Mice carrying only one copy of the foxa2 gene show abnormalities in motor behavior in old age and an associated progressive loss of dopamine neurons. Manipulating forkhead function may regulate both the birth of dopamine neurons and their <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> death, two major goals of regenerative medicine.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Awatramani, Rajeshwar B; McKay, Ronald D. G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">412</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013BGeo...10.5139M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Revisiting factors <span class="hlt">controlling</span> methane <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from high-Arctic tundra</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The northern latitudes are experiencing disproportionate warming relative to the mid-latitudes, and there is growing concern about feedbacks between this warming and methane production and release from high-latitude soils. Studies of methane <span class="hlt">emissions</span> carried out in the Arctic, particularly those with measurements made outside the growing season, are underrepresented in the literature. Here we present results of 5 yr (2006-2010) of automatic chamber measurements at a high-Arctic location in Zackenberg, NE Greenland, covering both the growing seasons and two months of the following freeze-in periods. The measurements show clear seasonal dynamics in methane <span class="hlt">emission</span>. The start of the growing season and the increase in CH4 fluxes were strongly related to the date of snowmelt. Within each particular growing season, CH4 fluxes were highly correlated with the soil temperature (R2 > 0.75), which is probably explained by high seasonality of both variables, and weakly correlated with the water table. The greatest variability in fluxes between the study years was observed during the first part of the growing season. Somewhat surprisingly, this variability could not be explained by commonly known factors <span class="hlt">controlling</span> methane <span class="hlt">emission</span>, i.e. temperature and water table position. Late in the growing season CH4 <span class="hlt">emissions</span> were found to be very similar between the study years (except the extremely dry 2010) despite large differences in climatic factors (temperature and water table). Late-season bursts of CH4 coinciding with soil freezing in the autumn were observed during at least three years. The cumulative <span class="hlt">emission</span> during the freeze-in CH4 bursts was comparable in size with the growing season <span class="hlt">emission</span> for the year 2007, and about one third of the growing season <span class="hlt">emissions</span> for the years 2009 and 2010. In all three cases the CH4 burst was accompanied by a corresponding episodic increase in CO2 <span class="hlt">emission</span>, which can compose a significant contribution to the annual CO2 flux budget. The most probable mechanism of the late-season CH4 and CO2 bursts is physical release of gases accumulated in the soil during the growing season. In this study we discuss possible links between growing season and autumn fluxes. Multiannual dynamics of the subsurface CH4 storage pool are hypothesized to be such a link and an important driver of intearannual variations in the fluxes, capable of overruling the conventionally known short-term <span class="hlt">control</span> factors (temperature and water table). Our findings suggest the importance of multiyear studies with a continued focus on shoulder seasons in Arctic ecosystems.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mastepanov, M.; Sigsgaard, C.; Tagesson, T.; Ström, L.; Tamstorf, M. P.; Lund, M.; Christensen, T. R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">413</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8954041"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of the neuroendocrine <span class="hlt">control</span> of pubertal maturation in girls and boys with <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> puberty and in hypogonadal girls.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Puberty in boys is characterized by a nocturnal increase in mean LH concentration and LH pulse frequency. To determine whether similar mechanisms exist in girls, nocturnal serum LH concentrations were determined in 16 girls with constitutional delay of adolescence or idiopathic short stature who had or have subsequently been shown to have <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> puberty. Mean LH and LH pulse frequency and amplitude were analyzed in 3-h blocks and compared to those in 20 pubertal boys. Girls had an increase in mean LH concentration from 3.6 +/- 0.7 IU/L at 2000-2250 h to 4.8 +/- 0.9 IU/L at 0200-0450 h. LH pulse frequency increased from 0.27 +/- 0.11 pulses/girl.h at 2000-2250 h to 0.54 +/- 0.10 pulses/girl.h at 0200-0450 h. The increase in LH pulse amplitude, from 2.0 +/- 0.8 IU/L at 2000-2250 h to 4.1 +/- 1.1 IU/L at 2300-0150 h, did not achieve statistical significance because many girls had no pulses from 2000-2250 h. With advancing age, the day/night differences in LH concentration and LH pulse frequency disappeared in girls, but were preserved in boys of same pubertal stage. The effect of lack of estrogen on LH pulse characteristics was inferred by analyzing the LH profiles of 15 girls with gonadal dysgenesis who were age-matched to girls with <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> puberty. The girls with gonadal dysgenesis had an increase in mean LH concentration after 0200 h, but LH pulse frequency was rapid in all time blocks; the nocturnal increase in LH concentration was secondary to a significant increase in LH pulse amplitude. Older girls with gonadal dysgenesis had a loss of nighttime augmentation of LH secretion similar to that seen in girls with <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> puberty. These data suggest that the apparent slower LH pulse frequency encountered in girls with <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> puberty during waking hours may be related to estrogen suppression of LH pulse amplitude, which masks the true daytime LH pulse frequency. With or without pubertal estrogen exposure, developmental progression of LH secretion occurs more rapidly in girls than in boys. Thus, intrinsic sex differences exist in the timing and tempo of endocrine <span class="hlt">control</span> of pubertal maturation between boys and girls. PMID:8954041</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cemeroglu, A P; Foster, C M; Warner, R; Kletter, G B; Marshall, J C; Kelch, R P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">414</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=90555"> <span id="translatedtitle">THE IMPACT OF PARTICULATE <span class="hlt">EMISSIONS</span> <span class="hlt">CONTROL</span> ON THE <span class="hlt">CONTROL</span> OF OTHER MWC AIR <span class="hlt">EMISSIONS</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">On December 20, 1989, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed revised new source performance standards for new municipal waste combustion (MWC) units and guidelines for existing sources. The proposed national regulations require tighter particulate matter <span class="hlt">control</span> and a...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">415</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=46546"> <span id="translatedtitle">COMBUSTION <span class="hlt">CONTROL</span> OF PCDD/PCDF <span class="hlt">EMISSIONS</span> FROM MUNICIPAL WASTE INCINERATORS IN NORTH AMERICA</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The paper discusses combustion <span class="hlt">control</span> of <span class="hlt">emissions</span> of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) from municipal waste incinerators in North America. New regulations to <span class="hlt">control</span> air pollution <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from municipal waste incineration have b...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">416</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2009-title40-vol5/pdf/CFR-2009-title40-vol5-sec57-504.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 57.504 - Continuing evaluation of fugitive <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> measures.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...504 Continuing evaluation of fugitive <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> measures. Each NSO shall require the smelter owner...review the effectiveness of the fugitive <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> measures implemented pursuant to § 57.503 in maintaining the...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">417</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol5/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol5-sec57-504.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 57.504 - Continuing evaluation of fugitive <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> measures.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...504 Continuing evaluation of fugitive <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> measures. Each NSO shall require the smelter owner...review the effectiveness of the fugitive <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> measures implemented pursuant to § 57.503 in maintaining the...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">418</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1132388"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> of gas effluents from geothermal power plants.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Geothermal steam at the world's five largest power plants contains from 0.15 to 30% noncondensable gases including CO(2), H(2)S, H(2), CH(4), N(2), H(3)BO(3), and NH(3). At four of the plants the gases are first separated from the steam and then discharged to the environment; at the fifth, the noncondensables exhaust directly to the atmosphere along with spent steam. Some CO(2) and sulfur <span class="hlt">emission</span> rates rival those from fossil-fueled plants on a per megawatt-day basis. The ammonia and boron effluents can interfere with animal and plant life. The effects of sulfur (which emerges as H(2)S but may oxidize to SO(2)) on either ambient air quality or longterm human health are largely unknown. Most geothermal turbines are equipped with direct contact condensers which complicate <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> because they provide two or more pathways for the effluents to reach the environment. Use of direct contact condensers could permit efficient <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> if coupled to processes that produce saleable quantities of purified carbon dioxide and elemental sulfur. PMID:1132388</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Axtmann, R C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1975-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">419</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/348899"> <span id="translatedtitle">Technology for CO{sub 2} <span class="hlt">emission</span> monitoring and <span class="hlt">control</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The authors examined three specific areas relative to CO{sub 2} <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and <span class="hlt">controls</span>: (1) the effect of deregulation of the utility industry on <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, (2) the role of advanced power systems in reducing <span class="hlt">emissions</span>, and (3) developing CO{sub 2} mitigation technologies. In this work the Energy Technologies program office at Los Alamos attempted to initiate an integrated approach that includes a range of tasks involving both point and distributed CO{sub 2} <span class="hlt">control</span>. The authors have examined evolving mitigation (separation and sequestration) technologies for CO{sub 2} disposal. The separation of hydrogen gas from high-temperature CO{sub 2}-containing streams is a critical component of carbon dioxide mitigation technology, and cost-effective point sequestration will require separation of CO{sub 2} from H{sub 2}. They investigated four types of separation techniques: two high-temperature membrane technologies, an intermediate-temperature membrane technology, and a separation technology based on the formation of CO{sub 2} hydrate compounds through reaction of CO{sub 2} with water at near freezing conditions. At Los Alamos, sequestration technologies are being developed along three principal areas: mineral sequestration of CO{sub 2}, the enhancement of natural sinks using biotechnology methods, and the conversion of CO{sub 2} to methanol using high-temperature photolysis.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Joyce, E.L. Jr.; Unkefer, P.J.; Pendergrass, J.H.; Parkinson, W.J.; Loose, V.W.; Brainard, J.R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-12-31</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">420</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20050203998&hterms=the+help&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3D%2528the%2Bhelp%2529"> <span id="translatedtitle">Active <span class="hlt">Control</span> of Combustor Instability Shown to Help Lower <span class="hlt">Emissions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In a quest to reduce the environmental impact of aerospace propulsion systems, extensive research is being done in the development of lean-burning (low fuel-to-air ratio) combustors that can reduce <span class="hlt">emissions</span> throughout the mission cycle. However, these lean-burning combustors have an increased susceptibility to thermoacoustic instabilities, or high-pressure oscillations much like sound waves, that can cause severe high-frequency vibrations in the combustor. These pressure waves can fatigue the combustor components and even the downstream turbine blades. This can significantly decrease the safe operating life of the combustor and turbine. Thus, suppression of the thermoacoustic combustor instabilities is an enabling technology for lean, low-<span class="hlt">emissions</span> combustors. Under the Aerospace Propulsion and Power Base Research and Technology Program, the NASA Glenn Research Center, in partnership with Pratt & Whitney and United Technologies Research Center, is developing technologies for the active <span class="hlt">control</span> of combustion instabilities. With active combustion <span class="hlt">control</span>, the fuel is pulsed to put pressure oscillations into the system. This cancels out the pressure oscillations being produced by the instabilities. Thus, the engine can have lower pollutant <span class="hlt">emissions</span> and long life.The use of active combustion instability <span class="hlt">control</span> to reduce thermo-acoustic-driven combustor pressure oscillations was demonstrated on a single-nozzle combustor rig at United Technologies. This rig has many of the complexities of a real engine combustor (i.e., an actual fuel nozzle and swirler, dilution cooling, etc.). <span class="hlt">Control</span> was demonstrated through modeling, developing, and testing a fuel-delivery system able to the 280-Hz instability frequency. The preceding figure shows the capability of this system to provide high-frequency fuel modulations. Because of the high-shear contrarotating airflow in the fuel injector, there was some concern that the fuel pulses would be attenuated to the point where they would not be effective for <span class="hlt">control</span>. Testing in the combustor rig showed that open-loop pulsing of the fuel was, in fact, able to effectively modulate the combustor pressure. To suppress the combustor pressure oscillations due to thermoacoustic instabilities, it is desirable to time the injection of the fuel so that it interferes with the instability. A closed-loop <span class="hlt">control</span> scheme was developed that uses combustion pressure feedback and a phase-shifting <span class="hlt">controller</span> to time the fuel-injection pulses. Some suppression of the pressure oscillations at the 280-Hz instability frequency was demonstrated (see the next figure). However, the overall peak-to- peak pressure oscillations in the combustor were only mildly reduced. Improvements to <span class="hlt">control</span> hardware and <span class="hlt">control</span> methods are being continued to gain improved closed-loop reduction of the pressure oscillations.pulse the fuel at</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">DeLaat, John C.; Chang, Clarence T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" 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<a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">421</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3560220"> <span id="translatedtitle">Single-photon <span class="hlt">emission</span> computed tomography of <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> liver metastasis from orthotopically implanted human colon cancer cell line stably expressing human sodium/iodide symporter reporter gene</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background We aimed to develop a mouse <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> liver metastasis model from an orthotopically implanted human colon cancer cell line stably expressing a human sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) reporter gene, which can be imaged with single-photon <span class="hlt">emission</span> computed tomography (SPECT) using 99mTcO4?. Methods A recombinant plasmid containing a constitutively driven NIS gene (pcDNA3-NIS) was transfected into the human colon cancer cell line HCT116, and stable cell lines were established. The stable cells were subcutaneously injected into the nude mice. When the diameter reached 10?mm, the xenografts were excised, cut into small fragments, and orthotopically implanted into the cecal walls of another nude mice. 99mTcO4? SPECT/CT imaging was initiated 8?weeks later and repeated every 1 to 2?weeks. Results The production and function of NIS protein was confirmed in vitro by Western blotting and 99mTcO4? uptake assay. On SPECT/CT imaging, focal 99mTcO4? uptake was detected in the liver. Necropsy revealed local growth of the orthotopic colon xenografts with extensive invasion, microscopic serosal metastasis, and metastatic foci in the corresponding hepatic regions showing focal 99mTcO4? uptake. Immunohistochemistry revealed high levels of NIS expression in cells forming liver tumor, indicating that the liver tumor cells originated from the orthotopic colon xenografts. Conclusions The present proof-of-concept study provided a rationale for employing a radionuclide reporter gene for the specific visualization of <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> liver metastasis in living mice. This unique animal model of clinically relevant and externally detectable liver metastasis will be a powerful tool for investigating tumor biology and developing novel therapies for cancer metastasis.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">422</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=35253"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">CONTROL</span> OF AIR <span class="hlt">EMISSIONS</span> FROM MOLYBDENUM ROASTING. VOLUME 1. <span class="hlt">EMISSIONS</span> CHARACTERIZATION AND PARTICULATE <span class="hlt">CONTROL</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The primary objective of this project was to evaluate a baghouse employing Teflon coated fabric bags for particulate recovery and <span class="hlt">control</span>. This system was of great interest because of the corrosion resistance of Teflon coated fabric filters and this unique application in the nonf...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">423</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24367748"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Controlled</span> synthesis and tunable properties of ultrathin silica nanotubes through <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> polycondensation on polyamine fibrils.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper describes a facile approach to a biomimetic rapid fabrication of ultrathin silica nanotubes with a highly uniform diameter of 10 nm and inner hollow of around 3 nm. The synthesis is carried out through a <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> polycondensation of alkoxysilane on polyamine crystalline fibrils that were conveniently produced from the neutralization of a solution of protonated linear polyethyleneimine (LPEI-H(+)) by alkali compounds. A simple mixing the fibrils with alkoxysilane in aqueous solution allowed for the rapid formation of silica to produce LPEI@silica hybrid nanotubes. These 10-nm nanotubes were hierarchically organized in a mat-like morphology with a typical size of 1-2 micrometers. The subsequent removal of organic LPEI via calcination resulted in silica nanotubes that keep this morphology. The morphology, the structure, the pore properties and the formation mechanism of the silica nanotubes were carefully investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller measurements (BET), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Detailed studies demonstrated that the formation of the nanotubes depends on the molar ratio of [OH]/[CH2CH2NH] during the neutralization as well as on the basicity of the alkali compound and on the concentration of the silica source. The synthesis of silica nanotubes established here could be easily applied to a fabrication on the kilogram scale. Silica nanotubes that were obtained from the calcination of hybrid nanotubes of LPEI@silica in an N2 atmosphere showed a distinct photoluminescence centered at 540 nm with a maximum excitation wavelength of 320 nm. Furthermore, LPEI@silica hybrid nanotubes were applied to create silica-carbon composite nanotubes by alternative adsorption of ionic polymers and subsequent carbonization. PMID:24367748</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yuan, Jian-Jun; Zhu, Pei-Xin; Noda, Daisuke; Jin, Ren-Hua</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">424</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3869340"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Controlled</span> synthesis and tunable properties of ultrathin silica nanotubes through <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> polycondensation on polyamine fibrils</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary This paper describes a facile approach to a biomimetic rapid fabrication of ultrathin silica nanotubes with a highly uniform diameter of 10 nm and inner hollow of around 3 nm. The synthesis is carried out through a <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> polycondensation of alkoxysilane on polyamine crystalline fibrils that were conveniently produced from the neutralization of a solution of protonated linear polyethyleneimine (LPEI–H+) by alkali compounds. A simple mixing the fibrils with alkoxysilane in aqueous solution allowed for the rapid formation of silica to produce LPEI@silica hybrid nanotubes. These 10-nm nanotubes were hierarchically organized in a mat-like morphology with a typical size of 1–2 micrometers. The subsequent removal of organic LPEI via calcination resulted in silica nanotubes that keep this morphology. The morphology, the structure, the pore properties and the formation mechanism of the silica nanotubes were carefully investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller measurements (BET), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Detailed studies demonstrated that the formation of the nanotubes depends on the molar ratio of [OH]/[CH2CH2NH] during the neutralization as well as on the basicity of the alkali compound and on the concentration of the silica source. The synthesis of silica nanotubes established here could be easily applied to a fabrication on the kilogram scale. Silica nanotubes that were obtained from the calcination of hybrid nanotubes of LPEI@silica in an N2 atmosphere showed a distinct photoluminescence centered at 540 nm with a maximum excitation wavelength of 320 nm. Furthermore, LPEI@silica hybrid nanotubes were applied to create silica–carbon composite nanotubes by alternative adsorption of ionic polymers and subsequent carbonization.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Yuan, Jian-Jun; Zhu, Pei-Xin; Noda, Daisuke</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">425</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60428121"> <span id="translatedtitle">Practical primer on design of electric arc furnace <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> systems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The paper will cover the methodology for designing environmentally acceptable and cost-effective <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> systems in modern electric arc furnace meltshops. Fundamental requirements for effective direct evacuation <span class="hlt">control</span> (DEC) of electric and ladle furnace melting operations and canopy\\/local hood <span class="hlt">control</span> of secondary <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from electric arc furnace charging and tapping <span class="hlt">emissions</span> will be addressed. The following topics will be included:</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. G. A. Brand; R. W. Manten</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">426</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/456714"> <span id="translatedtitle">Optimizing the mix of strategies for <span class="hlt">control</span> of vehicular <span class="hlt">emissions</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A number of strategies for the <span class="hlt">control</span> of vehicular <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are being considered by the Philippine government to address Metropolitan Manila`s air quality problem. An analytical tool is needed for optimizing criteria pollutant reductions given the budgetary constraints. The simplest approach is to take costs and pollutant removals to be linear with each strategy`s scale of activity, and this is readily solved as a linear programming problem. Another approach is to use a dynamic system of weights which shift with progressive improvements in pollutant <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. The two approaches yield somewhat different results, suggesting the sensitivity of the solution to the assumed weights. The study also illustrates the importance of a sound methodology for evaluating priorities given to different air quality goals. One such methodology may involve a polling of expert panels and the public to gain insight into the relative importance given to competing <span class="hlt">emissions</span> reduction goals. An informal polling of resource agency staff was conducted and discussed in this paper. The authors take the position that proper planning involves tracing intermediate steps to the final outcome and not just focusing on the latter. 17 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lejano, R.P. [Montgomery Watson, Pasadena, CA (United States)] [Montgomery Watson, Pasadena, CA (United States); Ayala, P.M. [California Air Resources Board, El Monte, CA (United States)] [California Air Resources Board, El Monte, CA (United States); Gonzales, E.A. [Environmental Management Bureau, Quezon City (Philippines)] [Environmental Management Bureau, Quezon City (Philippines)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">427</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2896403"> <span id="translatedtitle">Unexpected Diversity of Cellular Immune Responses against Nef and Vif in HIV-1-Infected Patients Who <span class="hlt">Spontaneously</span> <span class="hlt">Control</span> Viral Replication</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background HIV-1-infected individuals who <span class="hlt">spontaneously</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> viral replication represent an example of successful containment of the AIDS virus. Understanding the anti-viral immune responses in these individuals may help in vaccine design. However, immune responses against HIV-1 are normally analyzed using HIV-1 consensus B 15-mers that overlap by 11 amino acids. Unfortunately, this method may underestimate the real breadth of the cellular immune responses against the autologous sequence of the infecting virus. Methodology and Principal Findings Here we compared cellular immune responses against nef and vif-encoded consensus B 15-mer peptides to responses against HLA class I-predicted minimal optimal epitopes from consensus B and autologous sequences in six patients who have <span class="hlt">controlled</span> HIV-1 replication. Interestingly, our analysis revealed that three of our patients had broader cellular immune responses against HLA class I-predicted minimal optimal epitopes from either autologous viruses or from the HIV-1 consensus B sequence, when compared to responses against the 15-mer HIV-1 type B consensus peptides. Conclusion and Significance This suggests that the cellular immune responses against HIV-1 in <span class="hlt">controller</span> patients may be broader than we had previously anticipated.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tarosso, Leandro F.; Sauer, Mariana M.; Sanabani, Sabri; Giret, Maria Teresa; Tomiyama, Helena I.; Sidney, John; Piaskowski, Shari M.; Diaz, Ricardo S.; Sabino, Ester C.; Sette, Alessandro; Kalil-Filho, Jorge; Watkins, David I.; Kallas, Esper G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">428</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013OptEn..52i6112N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Real-time monitoring and fault locating using amplified <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> noise reflection for tree-structured Ethernet passive optical networks</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Nowadays, optical networks are becoming dense while detecting faulty branches in the tree-structured networks has become problematic. Conventional methods are inconvenient as they require an engineer to visit the failure site to check the optical fiber using an optical time-domain reflectometer. An innovative monitoring technique for tree-structured network topology in Ethernet passive optical networks (EPONs) by using the erbium-doped fiber amplifier to amplify the traffic signal is demonstrated, and in the meantime, a residual amplified <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> spectrum is used as the input signal to monitor the optical cable from the central office. Fiber Bragg gratings with distinct center wavelengths are employed to reflect the monitoring signals. Faulty branches of the tree-structured EPONs can be identified using a simple and low-cost receiver. We will show that this technique is capable of providing monitoring range up to 32 optical network units using a power meter with a sensitivity of -65 dBm while maintaining the bit error rate of 10-13.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Naim, Nani Fadzlina; Ab-Rahman, Mohammad Syuhaimi; Kamaruddin, Nur Hasiba; Bakar, Ahmad Ashrif A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">429</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/2022"> <span id="translatedtitle">Automated Boiler Combustion <span class="hlt">Controls</span> for <span class="hlt">Emission</span> Reduction and Efficiency Improvement</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the late 1980s, then President Bush visited Krakow, Poland. The terrible air quality theremotivated him to initiate a USAID-funded program, managed by DOE, entitled ?Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Program.? The primary objective of this program was to encourage the formation of commercial ventures between U.S. and Polish firms to provide equipment and/or services to reduce pollution from low-<span class="hlt">emission</span> sources in Krakow, Poland. This program led to the award of a number of cooperative agreements, including one to <span class="hlt">Control</span> Techtronics International. The technical objective of CTI?s cooperative agreement is to apply combustion <span class="hlt">controls</span> to existing boiler plants in Krakow and transfer knowledge and technology through a joint U.S. and Polish commercial venture. CTI installed automatic combustion <span class="hlt">controls</span> on five coal boilers for the district heating system in Krakow. Three of these were for domestic hot-water boilers, and two were for steam for industrial boilers. The following results have occurred due to the addition of CTI?s combustion <span class="hlt">controls</span> on these five existing boilers: ! 25% energy savings ! 85% reduction in particulate <span class="hlt">emissions</span> The joint venture company CTI-Polska was then established. Eleven additional technical and costing proposals were initiated to upgrade other coal boilers in Krakow. To date, no co-financing has been made available on the Polish side. CTI-Polska continues in operation, serving customers in Russia and Ukraine. Should the market in Poland materialize, the joint venture company is established there to provide equipment and service.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">None</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-12-02</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">430</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JChPh.140j4309H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Far-infrared amplified <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> and collisional energy transfer between the E0_g^ + (3P2) and D0_u^ + (3P2) ion-pair states of I2</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report direct observation of far-infrared amplified <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> from the E0_g^ + (3P2) (vE = 0 - 3) ion-pair state of I2 by using an optical-optical double resonance technique with the B 3?u (0_u^ +) (vB = 19) valence state as the intermediate state. The directional far-infrared <span class="hlt">emission</span> detected in the wavelength range from 19 to 28 ?m was assigned to the vibronic transitions from the E0_g^ + (3P2) ion-pair state to the D0_u^ + (3P2) ion-pair state. The subsequent UV fluorescence from the D0_u^ + (3P2) state was also observed, which consists not only from the vibrational levels populated by the amplified <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> but also from those populated by collisional energy transfer. Analyses of the vibrational distribution in the D0_u^ + (3P2) state revealed that the population transfer through the amplified <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> <span class="hlt">emission</span> was dominant under our experimental conditions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hoshino, Shoma; Araki, Mitsunori; Tsukiyama, Koichi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">431</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60497025"> <span id="translatedtitle">Casthouse <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> system, No. 3 blast furnace, US\\/Kobe Steel Co</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">During blast furnace casting operations, hot metal generates fume and particulate <span class="hlt">emissions</span>. Environmental regulations require that blast furnace casting <span class="hlt">emissions</span> be <span class="hlt">controlled</span>. The casthouse of the No. 3 blast furnace at USS\\/Kobe was completed redesigned and rebuilt during modernization of this facility. A state of the art casthouse <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> system, consisting of hoods and covers evacuated via ductwork to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">T. F. Bernarding; K. K. Krol; R. C. Stinson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">432</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB2000107890"> <span id="translatedtitle">Preliminary Performance and Cost Estimates of Mercury <span class="hlt">Emission</span> <span class="hlt">Control</span> Options for Electric Utility Boilers.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The paper discusses preliminary performance and cost estimates of mercury <span class="hlt">emission</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> options for electric utility boilers. Under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, EPA had to determine whether mercury <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from coal-fired power plants should...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. K. Srivastava C. B. Sedman J. D. Kilgroe</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">433</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=47900"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">CONTROL</span> OF INDUSTRIAL VOC (VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND) <span class="hlt">EMISSIONS</span> BY CATALYTIC INCINERATION. VOLUME 9. QUALITY ASSURANCE</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Radian Corporation, under contract to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, performed site selection, test plan development, and performance tests of catalytic incinerators used for volatile organic compound (VOC) <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> at industrial sites. VOC <span class="hlt">emissions</span> are of co...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">434</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1982lbl..rept....9D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Low <span class="hlt">emissivity</span> and solar <span class="hlt">control</span> coatings on architectural glass</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Methods of depositing thin films on glass using the vacuum coating technic were developed to impede the transfer of heat through glass thus reducing the energy costs for room heating or air conditioning. Heat reflecting so-called low <span class="hlt">emissivity</span> coatings permit a maximum amount of daylight to pass through, but then block the heat that is generated when light strikes an object (greenhouse effect). They are composed of metals like silver or copper sandwiched in selected oxide films or they are transparent semi-conducting monofilms. Double glazed insulating units with coated glass achieve k-values in the order of magnitude 1.8 to 1.5 Watts per squaremeters and degree Kelvin. Maximum available transmittance values at lambda - 550 nm are 85% (single pane), maximum reflectance values are 93% measured at lambda = 8 microns. The corresponding <span class="hlt">emissivities</span> are around 0.1. The investigated low-e films are stable within 1% concerning transmittance and sheet resistance changes when exposed to elevated temperatures in air of up to 150 C. Solar <span class="hlt">control</span> films used to keep out sunheat are sputtered in a reactive gas atmosphere on the base of titanium, stainless steel or chromium. Reflectance values of 32% are achieved at a transmission of e.g. 8%. The shading coefficient b is about 0.27. Large-scale production equipment for sputter deposition of the cited films is introduced.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dachselt, W. D.; Munz, W. D.; Scherer, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">435</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920037020&hterms=1103&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3D1103"> <span id="translatedtitle">Solar <span class="hlt">control</span> of the earth's <span class="hlt">emission</span> of energetic O(+)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Energetic (0.1-16 keV/e) O(+) data obtained in the earth's plasma sheet (between 10 and 23 RE) by an ion mass spectrometer on the ISEE-1 spacecraft are compared statistically with published data on the concurrent solar wind and IMF. The most strongly variable parameter of the plasma sheet O(+) is its density, which is found to be well correlated with certain solar wind parameters, especially with the solar wind flow speed and the IMF component perpendicular to the flow vector. When those two solar wind parameters are combined to form an electric field (-v x B), both the number density and the energy density of the O(+) are found to vary in proportion to the square of that electric field, on average, suggesting that the <span class="hlt">emission</span> of energetic O(+) ions from the earth may be powered by that same field. Based on this and on the previously published correlation with solar activity, it is argued that the <span class="hlt">emission</span> of O(+) is <span class="hlt">controlled</span> by a combination of HF (ionizing) and quasi-static (accelerating) solar electromagnetic fields.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lennartsson, W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">436</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/1083778"> <span id="translatedtitle">Application of microturbines to <span class="hlt">control</span> <span class="hlt">emissions</span> from associated gas</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A system for <span class="hlt">controlling</span> the <span class="hlt">emission</span> of associated gas produced from a reservoir. In an embodiment, the system comprises a gas compressor including a gas inlet in fluid communication with an associated gas source and a gas outlet. The gas compressor adjusts the pressure of the associated gas to produce a pressure-regulated associated gas. In addition, the system comprises a gas cleaner including a gas inlet in fluid communication with the outlet of the gas compressor, a fuel gas outlet, and a waste product outlet. The gas cleaner separates at least a portion of the sulfur and the water from the associated gas to produce a fuel gas. Further, the system comprises a gas turbine including a fuel gas inlet in fluid communication with the fuel gas outlet of the gas cleaner and an air inlet. Still further, the system comprises a choke in fluid communication with the air inlet.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schmidt, Darren D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-16</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">437</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21141428"> <span id="translatedtitle">Carbon bed mercury <span class="hlt">emissions</span> <span class="hlt">control</span> for mixed waste treatment.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mercury has various uses in nuclear fuel reprocessing and other nuclear processes, and so it is often present in radioactive and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes. Compliance with air <span class="hlt">emission</span> regulations such as the Hazardous Waste Combustor (HWC) Maximum Achievable <span class="hlt">Control</span> Technology (MACT) standards can require off-gas mercury removal efficiencies up to 99.999% for thermally treating some mixed waste streams. Test programs have demonstrated this level of off-gas mercury <span class="hlt">control</span> using fixed beds of granular sulfur-impregnated activated carbon. Other results of these tests include (1) the depth of the mercury <span class="hlt">control</span> mass transfer zone was less than 15-30 cm for the operating conditions of these tests; (2) MERSORB carbon can sorb mercury up to 19 wt % of the carbon mass; and (3) the spent carbon retained almost all (98.3-99.99%) of the mercury during Toxicity Characteristic Leachability Procedure (TCLP) tests, but when even a small fraction of the total mercury dissolves, the spent carbon can fail the TCLP test when the spent carbon contains high mercury concentrations. PMID:21141428</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Soelberg, Nick; Enneking, Joe</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">438</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23884718"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of hydration on <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> labor outcomes in nulliparous pregnant women: a multicenter randomized <span class="hlt">controlled</span> trial comparing three methods.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Objective?To evaluate the effect of mode and amount of fluid hydration during labor. Study Design?The authors conducted a randomized <span class="hlt">controlled</span> trial of uncomplicated nulliparous women in <span class="hlt">spontaneous</span> labor at 36 weeks or more gestational age. Women were randomized to receive lactated Ringer solution with 5% dextrose at (1) 125 mL/h intravenously with limited oral intake, (2) 250 mL/h intravenously with limited oral intake, or (3) 25 mL/h intravenously with ad lib