These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Bacterial control of host gene expression through RNA polymerase II  

PubMed Central

The normal flora furnishes the host with ecological barriers that prevent pathogen attack while maintaining tissue homeostasis. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) constitute a highly relevant model of microbial adaptation in which some patients infected with Escherichia coli develop acute pyelonephritis, while other patients with bacteriuria exhibit an asymptomatic carrier state similar to bacterial commensalism. It remains unclear if the lack of destructive inflammation merely reflects low virulence or if carrier strains actively inhibit disease-associated responses in the host. Here, we identify a new mechanism of bacterial adaptation through broad suppression of RNA polymerase II–dependent (Pol II–dependent) host gene expression. Over 60% of all genes were suppressed 24 hours after human inoculation with the prototype asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) strain E. coli 83972, and inhibition was verified by infection of human cells. Specific repressors and activators of Pol II–dependent transcription were modified, Pol II phosphorylation was inhibited, and pathogen-specific signaling was suppressed in cell lines and inoculated patients. An increased frequency of strains inhibiting Pol II was epidemiologically verified in ABU and fecal strains compared with acute pyelonephritis, and a Pol II antagonist suppressed the disease-associated host response. These results suggest that by manipulating host gene expression, ABU strains promote tissue integrity while inhibiting pathology. Such bacterial modulation of host gene expression may be essential to sustain asymptomatic bacterial carriage by ensuring that potentially destructive immune activation will not occur. PMID:23728172

Lutay, Nataliya; Ambite, Ines; Hernandez, Jenny Gronberg; Rydstrom, Gustav; Ragnarsdottir, Bryndis; Puthia, Manoj; Nadeem, Aftab; Zhang, Jingyao; Storm, Petter; Dobrindt, Ulrich; Wullt, Bjorn; Svanborg, Catharina

2013-01-01

2

Genes as Early Responders Regulate Quorum-Sensing and Control Bacterial Cooperation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

Quorum-sensing (QS) allows bacterial communication to coordinate the production of extracellular products essential for population fitness at higher cell densities. It has been generally accepted that a significant time duration is required to reach appropriate cell density to activate the relevant quiescent genes encoding these costly but beneficial public goods. Which regulatory genes are involved and how these genes control bacterial communication at the early phases are largely un-explored. By determining time-dependent expression of QS-related genes of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aerugionsa, we show that the induction of social cooperation could be critically influenced by environmental factors to optimize the density of population. In particular, small regulatory RNAs (RsmY and RsmZ) serving as early responders, can promote the expression of dependent genes (e.g. lasR) to boost the synthesis of intracellular enzymes and coordinate instant cooperative behavior in bacterial cells. These early responders, acting as a rheostat to finely modulate bacterial cooperation, which may be quickly activated under environment threats, but peter off when critical QS dependent genes are fully functional for cooperation. Our findings suggest that RsmY and RsmZ critically control the timing and levels of public goods production, which may have implications in sociomicrobiology and infection control. PMID:25006971

Zhao, Kelei; Li, Yi; Yue, Bisong; Wu, Min

2014-01-01

3

Light-responsive control of bacterial gene expression: precise triggering of the lac promoter activity using photocaged IPTG.  

PubMed

Light can be used to control numerous cellular processes including protein function and interaction as well as gene expression in a non-invasive fashion and with unprecedented spatiotemporal resolution. However, for chemical phototriggers tight, gradual, and homogeneous light response has never been attained in living cells. Here, we report on a light-responsive bacterial T7 RNA polymerase expression system based on a photocaged derivative of the inducer molecule isopropyl-?-d-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). We have comparatively analyzed different Escherichia coli lac promoter-regulated expression systems in batch and microfluidic single-cell cultivation. The lacY-deficient E. coli strain Tuner(DE3) harboring additional plasmid-born copies of the lacI gene exhibited a sensitive and defined response to increasing IPTG concentrations. Photocaged IPTG served as a synthetic photo-switch to convert the E. coli system into an optogenetic expression module allowing for precise and gradual light-triggering of gene expression as demonstrated at the single cell level. PMID:24894989

Binder, Dennis; Grünberger, Alexander; Loeschcke, Anita; Probst, Christopher; Bier, Claus; Pietruszka, Jörg; Wiechert, Wolfgang; Kohlheyer, Dietrich; Jaeger, Karl-Erich; Drepper, Thomas

2014-08-01

4

Dynamics of bacterial gene regulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phenomenon of diauxic growth is a classical problem of bacterial gene regulation. The most well studied example of this phenomenon is the glucose-lactose diauxie, which occurs because the expression of the lac operon is strongly repressed in the presence of glucose. This repression is often explained by appealing to molecular mechanisms such as cAMP activation and inducer exclusion. I will begin by analyzing data showing that these molecular mechanisms cannot explain the strong lac repression because they exert a relatively weak effect. I will then present a minimal model accounting only for enzyme induction and dilution, which yields strong repression despite the absence of catabolite repression and inducer exclusion. The model also explains the growth patterns observed in batch and continuous cultures of various bacterial strains and substrate mixtures. The talk will conclude with a discussion of the experimental evidence regarding positive feedback, the key component of the minimal model.

Narang, Atul

2009-03-01

5

Gene Control  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The development of creatures that appear to have nothing in common is directed by a surprisingly small number of genes. In this video segment, learn about the power of master control genes. Footage from The Secret of Life: Birth, Sex & Death.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2003-09-26

6

Transcriptional regulation shapes the organization of genes on bacterial chromosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transcription factors (TFs) are the key elements responsible for controlling the expression of genes in bacterial genomes and when visualized on a genomic scale form a dense network of transcrip- tional interactions among themselves and with other protein coding genes. Although the structure of transcriptional regulatory networks (TRNs) is well understood, it is not clear what constrains govern them. Here,

Sarath Chandra Janga; Heladia Salgado; Agustino Martinez-Antonio

2009-01-01

7

Horizontal gene transfer and bacterial diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial genomes are extremely dynamic and mosaic in nature. A substantial amount of genetic information is inserted into\\u000a or deleted from such genomes through the process of horizontal transfer. Through the introduction of novel physiological traits\\u000a from distantly related organisms, horizontal gene transfer often causes drastic changes in the ecological and pathogenic character\\u000a of bacterial species and thereby promotes microbial

Chitra Dutta; Archana Pan

2002-01-01

8

Mutations in the Control of Virulence Sensor Gene from Streptococcus pyogenes after Infection in Mice Lead to Clonal Bacterial Variants with Altered Gene Regulatory Activity and Virulence  

PubMed Central

The cluster of virulence sensor (CovS)/responder (CovR) two-component operon (CovRS) regulates ?15% of the genes of the Group A Streptococcal pyogenes (GAS) genome. Bacterial clones containing inactivating mutations in the covS gene have been isolated from patients with virulent invasive diseases. We report herein an assessment of the nature and types of covS mutations that can occur in both virulent and nonvirulent GAS strains, and assess whether a nonvirulent GAS can attain enhanced virulence through this mechanism. A group of mice were infected with a globally-disseminated clonal M1T1 GAS (isolate 5448), containing wild-type (WT) CovRS (5448/CovR+S+), or less virulent engineered GAS strains, AP53/CovR+S+ and Manfredo M5/CovR+S+. SpeB negative GAS clones from wound sites and/or from bacteria disseminated to the spleen were isolated and the covS gene was subjected to DNA sequence analysis. Numerous examples of inactivating mutations were found in CovS in all regions of the gene. The mutations found included frame-shift insertions and deletions, and in-frame small and large deletions in the gene. Many of the mutations found resulted in early translation termination of CovS. Thus, the covS gene is a genomic mutagenic target that gives GAS enhanced virulence. In cases wherein CovS? was discovered, these clonal variants exhibited high lethality, further suggesting that randomly mutated covS genes occur during the course of infection, and lead to the development of a more invasive infection. PMID:24968349

Mayfield, Jeffrey A.; Liang, Zhong; Agrahari, Garima; Lee, Shaun W.; Donahue, Deborah L.; Ploplis, Victoria A.; Castellino, Francis J.

2014-01-01

9

Highly potent dUTPase inhibition by a bacterial repressor protein reveals a novel mechanism for gene expression control.  

PubMed

Transfer of phage-related pathogenicity islands of Staphylococcus aureus (SaPI-s) was recently reported to be activated by helper phage dUTPases. This is a novel function for dUTPases otherwise involved in preservation of genomic integrity by sanitizing the dNTP pool. Here we investigated the molecular mechanism of the dUTPase-induced gene expression control using direct techniques. The expression of SaPI transfer initiating proteins is repressed by proteins called Stl. We found that ?11 helper phage dUTPase eliminates SaPIbov1 Stl binding to its cognate DNA by binding tightly to Stl protein. We also show that dUTPase enzymatic activity is strongly inhibited in the dUTPase:Stl complex and that the dUTPase:dUTP complex is inaccessible to the Stl repressor. Our results disprove the previously proposed G-protein-like mechanism of SaPI transfer activation. We propose that the transfer only occurs if dUTP is cleared from the nucleotide pool, a condition promoting genomic stability of the virulence elements. PMID:25274731

Szabó, Judit E; Németh, Veronika; Papp-Kádár, Veronika; Nyíri, Kinga; Leveles, Ibolya; Bendes, Abris Á; Zagyva, Imre; Róna, Gergely; Pálinkás, Hajnalka L; Besztercei, Balázs; Ozohanics, Olivér; Vékey, Károly; Liliom, Károly; Tóth, Judit; Vértessy, Beáta G

2014-10-29

10

Bacterial symbiosis in arthropods and the control of disease transmission.  

PubMed Central

Bacterial symbionts may be used as vehicles for expressing foreign genes in arthropods. Expression of selected genes can render an arthropod incapable of transmitting a second microorganism that is pathogenic for humans and is an alternative approach to the control of arthropod-borne diseases. We discuss the rationale for this alternative approach, its potential applications and limitations, and the regulatory concerns that may arise from its use in interrupting disease transmission in humans and animals. PMID:9866734

Beard, C. B.; Durvasula, R. V.; Richards, F. F.

1998-01-01

11

Control of gene expression at a bacterial leader RNA, the agn43 gene encoding outer membrane protein Ag43 of Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

The family of agn alleles in Escherichia coli pathovars encodes autotransporters that have been implicated in biofilm formation, autoaggregation, and attachment to cells. The alleles all have long leader RNAs preceding the Ag43 translation initiation codon. Here we present an analysis of the agn43 leader RNA from E. coli K-12. We demonstrate the presence of a rho-independent transcription terminator just 28 bp upstream of the main translation start codon and show that it is functional in vitro. Our data indicate that an as-yet-unknown mechanism of antitermination of transcription must be operative in earlier phases of growth. However, as bacterial cell cultures mature, progressively fewer transcripts are able to bypass this terminator. In the K-12 leader sequence, two in-frame translation initiation codons have been identified, one upstream and the other downstream of the transcription terminator. For optimal agn43 expression, both codons need to be present. Translation from the upstream start codon leads to increased downstream agn43 expression. Our findings have revealed two novel modes of regulation of agn43 expression in the leader RNA in addition to the previously well-characterized regulation of phase variation at the agn43 promoter. PMID:24837285

Wallecha, Anu; Oreh, Heather; van der Woude, Marjan W; deHaseth, Pieter L

2014-08-01

12

Evolutionary relationships of bacterial and archaeal glutamine synthetase genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glutamine synthetase (GS), an essential enzyme in ammonia assimilation and glutamine biosynthesis, has three distinctive types: GSI, GSII and GSIII. Genes for GSI have been found only in bacteria (eubacteria) and archaea (archaebacteria), while GSII genes only occur in eukaryotes and a few soil-dwelling bacteria. GSIII genes have been found in only a few bacterial species. Recently, it has been

J. R. Brown; Y. Masuchi; F. T. Robb; W. F. Doolittlel

1994-01-01

13

Simultaneous Identification of Bacterial Virulence Genes by Negative Selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

An insertional mutagenesis system that uses transposons carrying unique DNA sequence tags was developed for the isolation of bacterial virulence genes. The tags from a mixed population of bacterial mutants representing the inoculum and bacteria recovered from infected hosts were detected by amplification, radiolabeling, and hybridization analysis. When applied to a murine model of typhoid fever caused by Salmonella typhimurium,

Michael Hensel; Jacqueline E. Shea; Colin Gleeson; Michael D. Jones; Emma Dalton; David W. Holden

1995-01-01

14

Inferring Bacterial Genome Flux While Considering Truncated Genes  

PubMed Central

Bacterial gene content variation during the course of evolution has been widely acknowledged and its pattern has been actively modeled in recent years. Gene truncation or gene pseudogenization also plays an important role in shaping bacterial genome content. Truncated genes could also arise from small-scale lateral gene transfer events. Unfortunately, the information of truncated genes has not been considered in any existing mathematical models on gene content variation. In this study, we developed a model to incorporate truncated genes. Maximum-likelihood estimates (MLEs) of the new model reveal fast rates of gene insertions/deletions on recent branches, suggesting a fast turnover of many recently transferred genes. The estimates also suggest that many truncated genes are in the process of being eliminated from the genome. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the ignorance of truncated genes in the estimation does not lead to a systematic bias but rather has a more complicated effect. Analysis using the new model not only provides more accurate estimates on gene gains/losses (or insertions/deletions), but also reduces any concern of a systematic bias from applying simplified models to bacterial genome evolution. Although not a primary purpose, the model incorporating truncated genes could be potentially used for phylogeny reconstruction using gene family content. PMID:20551435

Hao, Weilong; Golding, G. Brian

2010-01-01

15

Optimization and control in bacterial Lag phase  

PubMed Central

The lag phase of bacterial growth is important from a medical and food safety perspective, but difficult to study due to the low density and metabolic rate of cells. A new study by Alon and colleagues reveals that the gene expression program during early lag phase prioritizes carbon source utilization enzymes over genes responsible for biomass accumulation. This cellular strategy ultimately maximizes growth, making the best long-term use of the new nutrient-rich environment. See research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1752-0509/7/136 PMID:24377387

2013-01-01

16

Transport of Magnesium by a Bacterial Nramp-Related Gene  

PubMed Central

Magnesium is an essential divalent metal that serves many cellular functions. While most divalent cations are maintained at relatively low intracellular concentrations, magnesium is maintained at a higher level (?0.5–2.0 mM). Three families of transport proteins were previously identified for magnesium import: CorA, MgtE, and MgtA/MgtB P-type ATPases. In the current study, we find that expression of a bacterial protein unrelated to these transporters can fully restore growth to a bacterial mutant that lacks known magnesium transporters, suggesting it is a new importer for magnesium. We demonstrate that this transport activity is likely to be specific rather than resulting from substrate promiscuity because the proteins are incapable of manganese import. This magnesium transport protein is distantly related to the Nramp family of proteins, which have been shown to transport divalent cations but have never been shown to recognize magnesium. We also find gene expression of the new magnesium transporter to be controlled by a magnesium-sensing riboswitch. Importantly, we find additional examples of riboswitch-regulated homologues, suggesting that they are a frequent occurrence in bacteria. Therefore, our aggregate data discover a new and perhaps broadly important path for magnesium import and highlight how identification of riboswitch RNAs can help shed light on new, and sometimes unexpected, functions of their downstream genes. PMID:24968120

Rodionov, Dmitry A.; Freedman, Benjamin G.; Senger, Ryan S.; Winkler, Wade C.

2014-01-01

17

Mechanical Control of Bacterial Cell Shape  

PubMed Central

In bacteria, cytoskeletal filament bundles such as MreB control the cell morphology and determine whether the cell takes on a spherical or a rod-like shape. Here we use a theoretical model to describe the interplay of cell wall growth, mechanics, and cytoskeletal filaments in shaping the bacterial cell. We predict that growing cells without MreB exhibit an instability that favors rounded cells. MreB can mechanically reinforce the cell wall and prevent the onset of instability. We propose that the overall bacterial shape is determined by a dynamic turnover of cell wall material that is controlled by mechanical stresses in the wall. The model affirms that morphological transformations with and without MreB are reversible, and quantitatively describes the growth of irregular shapes and cells undergoing division. The theory also suggests a unique coupling between mechanics and chemistry that can control organismal shapes in general. PMID:21767484

Jiang, Hongyuan; Si, Fangwei; Margolin, William; Sun, Sean X.

2011-01-01

18

Evolution of bacterial genomes under horizontal gene transfer  

E-print Network

Unraveling the evolutionary forces shaping bacterial diversity can today be tackled using a growing amount of genomic data. While the genome of eukaryotes is highly stable, bacterial genomes from cells of the same species highly vary in gene content. This huge variation in gene content led to the concepts of the distributed genome of bacteria and their pangenome (Tettelin et al.,2005; Ehrlich et al.,2005). We present a population genetic model for gene content evolution which accounts for several mechanisms. Gene uptake from the environment is modeled by events of gene gain along the genealogical tree relating the population. Pseudogenization may lead to deletion of genes and is incoporated by gene loss. These two mechanisms were studied by Huson and Steel (2004) using a fixed phylogenetic tree. Taking the random genealogy given by the coalescent (Kingman, 1982; Hudson, 1983), we studied the resulting genomic diversity already in Baumdicker et al. (2010). In the present paper, we extend the model in order to ...

Baumdicker, Franz

2011-01-01

19

Bacterial blight of soybean: Regulation of a pathogen gene determining host cultivar specificity  

SciTech Connect

Soybean cultivars resistant to Pseudomonas syringae pathovar glycinea (Psg), the causal agent of bacterial blight, exhibit a hypersensitive (necrosis) reaction (HR) to infection. Psg strains carrying the avrB gene elicit the HR in soybean cultivars carrying the resistance gene Rpg1. Psg expressing avrB at a high level and capable of eliciting the HR in the absence of de novo bacterial RNA synthesis have been obtained in in vitro culture. Nutritional signals and regions within the Psg hrp gene cluster, an approximately 20-kilobase genomic region also necessary for pathogenicity, control avrB transcription.

Huynh, T.V.; Dahlbeck, D.; Staskawicz, B.J. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (USA))

1989-09-22

20

Efficient Gene Transfer in Bacterial Cell Chains  

E-print Network

Horizontal gene transfer contributes to evolution and the acquisition of new traits. In bacteria, horizontal gene transfer is often mediated by conjugative genetic elements that transfer directly from cell to cell. Integrative ...

Babic, Ana

21

Bacteriophage-encoded shiga toxin gene in atypical bacterial host  

PubMed Central

Background Contamination from fecal bacteria in recreational waters is a major health concern since bacteria capable of causing human disease can be found in animal feces. The Dog Beach area of Ocean Beach in San Diego, California is a beach prone to closures due to high levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB). A potential source of these FIB could be the canine feces left behind by owners who do not clean up after their pets. We tested this hypothesis by screening the DNA isolated from canine feces for the bacteriophage-encoded stx gene normally found in the virulent strains of the fecal bacterium Escherichia coli. Results Twenty canine fecal samples were collected, processed for total and bacterial fraction DNA, and screened by PCR for the stx gene. The stx gene was detected in the total and bacterial fraction DNA of one fecal sample. Bacterial isolates were then cultivated from the stx-positive fecal sample. Eighty nine of these canine fecal bacterial isolates were screened by PCR for the stx gene. The stx gene was detected in five of these isolates. Sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA gene PCR products from the canine fecal bacterial isolates indicated that they were Enterococcus and not E. coli. Conclusions The bacteriophage-encoded stx gene was found in multiple species of bacteria cultivated from canine fecal samples gathered at the shoreline of the Dog Beach area of Ocean Beach in San Diego, California. The canine fecal bacteria carrying the stx gene were not the typical E. coli host and were instead identified through phylogenetic analyses as Enterococcus. This suggests a large degree of horizontal gene transfer of exotoxin genes in recreational waters. PMID:21733190

2011-01-01

22

Mechanisms of post-transcriptional gene regulation in bacterial biofilms  

PubMed Central

Biofilms are characterized by a dense multicellular community of microorganisms that can be formed by the attachment of bacteria to an inert surface and to each other. The development of biofilm involves the initial attachment of planktonic bacteria to a surface, followed by replication, cell-to-cell adhesion to form microcolonies, maturation, and detachment. Mature biofilms are embedded in a self-produced extracellular polymeric matrix composed primarily of bacterial-derived exopolysaccharides, specialized proteins, adhesins, and occasionally DNA. Because the synthesis and assembly of biofilm matrix components is an exceptionally complex process, the transition between its different phases requires the coordinate expression and simultaneous regulation of many genes by complex genetic networks involving all levels of gene regulation. The finely controlled intracellular level of the chemical second messenger molecule, cyclic-di-GMP is central to the post-transcriptional mechanisms governing the switch between the motile planktonic lifestyle and the sessile biofilm forming state in many bacteria. Several other post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms are known to dictate biofilm development and assembly and these include RNA-binding proteins, small non-coding RNAs, toxin-antitoxin systems, riboswitches, and RNases. Post-transcriptional regulation is therefore a powerful molecular mechanism employed by bacteria to rapidly adjust to the changing environment and to fine tune gene expression to the developmental needs of the cell. In this review, we discuss post-transcriptional mechanisms that influence the biofilm developmental cycle in a variety of pathogenic bacteria. PMID:24724055

Martinez, Luary C.; Vadyvaloo, Viveka

2014-01-01

23

Two type III effector genes of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae control the induction of the host genes OsTFIIAgamma1 and OsTFX1 during bacterial blight of rice.  

PubMed

Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae strain PXO99(A) induces the expression of the host gene Os8N3, which results in increased host susceptibility to bacterial blight of rice. Here, we show that PXO99(A) affects the expression of two additional genes in a type III secretion system-dependent manner, one encoding a bZIP transcription factor (OsTFX1) and the other the small subunit of the transcription factor IIA located on chromosome 1 (OsTFIIAgamma1). Induction of OsTFX1 and OsTFIIAgamma1 depended on the type III effector genes pthXo6 and pthXo7, respectively, both encoding two previously undescribed members of the transcription activator-like (TAL) effector family. pthXo7 is strain-specific and may reflect adaptation to the resistance mediated by xa5, an allele of OsTFIIAgamma5 encoding a second form of the TFIIA small subunit on chromosome 5 of rice. The loss of pthXo6 resulted in reduced pathogen virulence, and ectopic expression of OsTFX1 abrogated the requirement for pthXo6 for full virulence. X. oryzae pv. oryzae therefore modulates the expression of multiple host genes using multiple TAL effectors from a single strain, and evidence supports the hypothesis that expression of the associated host genes contributes to host susceptibility to disease. PMID:17563377

Sugio, Akiko; Yang, Bing; Zhu, Tong; White, Frank F

2007-06-19

24

Genomic islands: tools of bacterial horizontal gene transfer and evolution  

PubMed Central

Bacterial genomes evolve through mutations, rearrangements or horizontal gene transfer. Besides the core genes encoding essential metabolic functions, bacterial genomes also harbour a number of accessory genes acquired by horizontal gene transfer that might be beneficial under certain environmental conditions. The horizontal gene transfer contributes to the diversification and adaptation of microorganisms, thus having an impact on the genome plasticity. A significant part of the horizontal gene transfer is or has been facilitated by genomic islands (GEIs). GEIs are discrete DNA segments, some of which are mobile and others which are not, or are no longer mobile, which differ among closely related strains. A number of GEIs are capable of integration into the chromosome of the host, excision, and transfer to a new host by transformation, conjugation or transduction. GEIs play a crucial role in the evolution of a broad spectrum of bacteria as they are involved in the dissemination of variable genes, including antibiotic resistance and virulence genes leading to generation of hospital ‘superbugs’, as well as catabolic genes leading to formation of new metabolic pathways. Depending on the composition of gene modules, the same type of GEIs can promote survival of pathogenic as well as environmental bacteria. PMID:19178566

Juhas, Mario; van der Meer, Jan Roelof; Gaillard, Muriel; Harding, Rosalind M; Hood, Derek W; Crook, Derrick W

2009-01-01

25

Towards an Informative Mutant Phenotype for Every Bacterial Gene  

PubMed Central

Mutant phenotypes provide strong clues to the functions of the underlying genes and could allow annotation of the millions of sequenced yet uncharacterized bacterial genes. However, it is not known how many genes have a phenotype under laboratory conditions, how many phenotypes are biologically interpretable for predicting gene function, and what experimental conditions are optimal to maximize the number of genes with a phenotype. To address these issues, we measured the mutant fitness of 1,586 genes of the ethanol-producing bacterium Zymomonas mobilis ZM4 across 492 diverse experiments and found statistically significant phenotypes for 89% of all assayed genes. Thus, in Z. mobilis, most genes have a functional consequence under laboratory conditions. We demonstrate that 41% of Z. mobilis genes have both a strong phenotype and a similar fitness pattern (cofitness) to another gene, and are therefore good candidates for functional annotation using mutant fitness. Among 502 poorly characterized Z. mobilis genes, we identified a significant cofitness relationship for 174. For 57 of these genes without a specific functional annotation, we found additional evidence to support the biological significance of these gene-gene associations, and in 33 instances, we were able to predict specific physiological or biochemical roles for the poorly characterized genes. Last, we identified a set of 79 diverse mutant fitness experiments in Z. mobilis that are nearly as biologically informative as the entire set of 492 experiments. Therefore, our work provides a blueprint for the functional annotation of diverse bacteria using mutant fitness. PMID:25112473

Deutschbauer, Adam; Price, Morgan N.; Wetmore, Kelly M.; Tarjan, Daniel R.; Xu, Zhuchen; Shao, Wenjun; Leon, Dacia

2014-01-01

26

Gene and subunit organization of bacterial pyruvate dehydrogenase complexes.  

PubMed

Pyruvate dehydrogenase complexes of bacterial origin are compared with respect to subunit composition, organization of the corresponding genes, and the number and location of lipoyl domains. Special attention is given to two unusual examples of pyruvate dehydrogenase complexes, formed by Zymomonas mobilis and Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. PMID:9655937

Neveling, U; Bringer-Meyer, S; Sahm, H

1998-06-29

27

Bacterial gene transfer by natural genetic transformation in the environment.  

PubMed Central

Natural genetic transformation is the active uptake of free DNA by bacterial cells and the heritable incorporation of its genetic information. Since the famous discovery of transformation in Streptococcus pneumoniae by Griffith in 1928 and the demonstration of DNA as the transforming principle by Avery and coworkers in 1944, cellular processes involved in transformation have been studied extensively by in vitro experimentation with a few transformable species. Only more recently has it been considered that transformation may be a powerful mechanism of horizontal gene transfer in natural bacterial populations. In this review the current understanding of the biology of transformation is summarized to provide the platform on which aspects of bacterial transformation in water, soil, and sediments and the habitat of pathogens are discussed. Direct and indirect evidence for gene transfer routes by transformation within species and between different species will be presented, along with data suggesting that plasmids as well as chromosomal DNA are subject to genetic exchange via transformation. Experiments exploring the prerequisites for transformation in the environment, including the production and persistence of free DNA and factors important for the uptake of DNA by cells, will be compiled, as well as possible natural barriers to transformation. The efficiency of gene transfer by transformation in bacterial habitats is possibly genetically adjusted to submaximal levels. The fact that natural transformation has been detected among bacteria from all trophic and taxonomic groups including archaebacteria suggests that transformability evolved early in phylogeny. Probable functions of DNA uptake other than gene acquisition will be discussed. The body of information presently available suggests that transformation has a great impact on bacterial population dynamics as well as on bacterial evolution and speciation. PMID:7968924

Lorenz, M G; Wackernagel, W

1994-01-01

28

A Discovery Laboratory Investigating Bacterial Gene Regulation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This laboratory exercise introduces students to experimental design and gene regulation using different sugar ("food" sources) and an enzyme assay for beta-glalctosidase to identify different E. coli stains with respect to lac operon mutations, then designing their own experiments to study the various aspects of the lac operon.

Robert Moss (Wofford College;)

1999-01-01

29

Pyramiding B genes in cotton achieves broader but not always higher resistance to bacterial blight.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Near-isogenic lines of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) carrying single, race-specific genes B4, BIn, and b7 for resistance to bacterial blight were used to develop a pyramid of lines with all possible combinations of two and three genes to learn whether the pyramid could achieve broad and high resistance approaching that of L. A. Brinkerhoff's exceptional line Im216. Isogenic strains of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum carrying single avirulence (avr) genes were used to identify plants carrying specific resistance (B) genes. Under field conditions in north-central Oklahoma, pyramid lines exhibited broader resistance to individual races and, consequently, higher resistance to a race mixture. It was predicted that lines carrying two or three B genes would also exhibit higher resistance to race 1, which possesses many avr genes. Although some enhancements were observed, they did not approach the level of resistance of Im216. In a growth chamber, bacterial populations attained by race 1 in and on leaves of the pyramid lines decreased significantly with increasing number of B genes in only one of four experiments. The older lines, Im216 and AcHR, exhibited considerably lower bacterial populations than any of the one-, two-, or three-B-gene lines. A spreading collapse of spray-inoculated AcBIn and AcBInb7 leaves appears to be a defense response (conditioned by BIn) that is out of control. PMID:24655289

Essenberg, Margaret; Bayles, Melanie B; Pierce, Margaret L; Verhalen, Laval M

2014-10-01

30

Metabolic engineering of Arabidopsis for butanetriol production using bacterial genes.  

PubMed

1,2,4-butanetriol (butanetriol) is a useful precursor for the synthesis of the energetic material butanetriol trinitrate and several pharmaceutical compounds. Bacterial synthesis of butanetriol from xylose or arabinose takes place in a pathway that requires four enzymes. To produce butanetriol in plants by expressing bacterial enzymes, we cloned native bacterial or codon optimized synthetic genes under different promoters into a binary vector and stably transformed Arabidopsis plants. Transgenic lines expressing introduced genes were analyzed for the production of butanetriol using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Soil-grown transgenic plants expressing these genes produced up to 20 µg/g of butanetriol. To test if an exogenous supply of pentose sugar precursors would enhance the butanetriol level, transgenic plants were grown in a medium supplemented with either xylose or arabinose and the amount of butanetriol was quantified. Plants expressing synthetic genes in the arabinose pathway showed up to a forty-fold increase in butanetriol levels after arabinose was added to the medium. Transgenic plants expressing either bacterial or synthetic xylose pathways, or the arabinose pathway showed toxicity symptoms when xylose or arabinose was added to the medium, suggesting that a by-product in the pathway or butanetriol affected plant growth. Furthermore, the metabolite profile of plants expressing arabinose and xylose pathways was altered. Our results demonstrate that bacterial pathways that produce butanetriol can be engineered into plants to produce this chemical. This proof-of-concept study for phytoproduction of butanetriol paves the way to further manipulate metabolic pathways in plants to enhance the level of butanetriol production. PMID:24126081

Abdel-Ghany, Salah E; Day, Irene; Heuberger, Adam L; Broeckling, Corey D; Reddy, Anireddy S N

2013-11-01

31

Bacterial Cellular Engineering by Genome Editing and Gene Silencing  

PubMed Central

Genome editing is an important technology for bacterial cellular engineering, which is commonly conducted by homologous recombination-based procedures, including gene knockout (disruption), knock-in (insertion), and allelic exchange. In addition, some new recombination-independent approaches have emerged that utilize catalytic RNAs, artificial nucleases, nucleic acid analogs, and peptide nucleic acids. Apart from these methods, which directly modify the genomic structure, an alternative approach is to conditionally modify the gene expression profile at the posttranscriptional level without altering the genomes. This is performed by expressing antisense RNAs to knock down (silence) target mRNAs in vivo. This review describes the features and recent advances on methods used in genomic engineering and silencing technologies that are advantageously used for bacterial cellular engineering. PMID:24552876

Nakashima, Nobutaka; Miyazaki, Kentaro

2014-01-01

32

Evolution of a Bacterial Regulon Controlling Virulence Homeostasis  

E-print Network

Evolution of a Bacterial Regulon Controlling Virulence and Mg2+ Homeostasis J. Christian Perez1,2¤a governs virulence and Mg2+ homeostasis in several bacterial species. We establish that the ancestral Pho Regulon Controlling Virulence and Mg2+ Homeostasis. PLoS Genet 5(3): e1000428. doi:10.1371/journal

Granada, Universidad de

33

Lineage-Specific Gene Expansions in Bacterial and Archaeal Genomes  

PubMed Central

Gene duplication is an important mechanistic antecedent to the evolution of new genes and novel biochemical functions. In an attempt to assess the contribution of gene duplication to genome evolution in archaea and bacteria, clusters of related genes that appear to have expanded subsequent to the diversification of the major prokaryotic lineages (lineage-specific expansions) were analyzed. Analysis of 21 completely sequenced prokaryotic genomes shows that lineage-specific expansions comprise a substantial fraction (?5%–33%) of their coding capacities. A positive correlation exists between the fraction of the genes taken up by lineage-specific expansions and the total number of genes in a genome. Consistent with the notion that lineage-specific expansions are made up of relatively recently duplicated genes, >90% of the detected clusters consists of only two to four genes. The more common smaller clusters tend to include genes with higher pairwise similarity (as reflected by average score density) than larger clusters. Regardless of size, cluster members tend to be located more closely on bacterial chromosomes than expected by chance, which could reflect a history of tandem gene duplication. In addition to the small clusters, almost all genomes also contain rare large clusters of size ?20. Several examples of the potential adaptive significance of these large clusters are explored. The presence or absence of clusters and their related genes was used as the basis for the construction of a similarity graph for completely sequenced prokaryotic genomes. The topology of the resulting graph seems to reflect a combined effect of common ancestry, horizontal transfer, and lineage-specific gene loss. PMID:11282971

Jordan, I. King; Makarova, Kira S.; Spouge, John L.; Wolf, Yuri I.; Koonin, Eugene V.

2001-01-01

34

Finding gene expression patterns in bacterial biofilms Christophe BELOIN and Jean-Marc GHIGO*  

E-print Network

the identification, through global analysis, of late biofilm functions. Evidence for differential gene expression in biofilms Early evidence of differential gene expression within a bacterial biofilm came from gene fusion1 Finding gene expression patterns in bacterial biofilms Christophe BELOIN and Jean-Marc GHIGO

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

35

Limits of Feedback Control in Bacterial Chemotaxis  

PubMed Central

Inputs to signaling pathways can have complex statistics that depend on the environment and on the behavioral response to previous stimuli. Such behavioral feedback is particularly important in navigation. Successful navigation relies on proper coupling between sensors, which gather information during motion, and actuators, which control behavior. Because reorientation conditions future inputs, behavioral feedback can place sensors and actuators in an operational regime different from the resting state. How then can organisms maintain proper information transfer through the pathway while navigating diverse environments? In bacterial chemotaxis, robust performance is often attributed to the zero integral feedback control of the sensor, which guarantees that activity returns to resting state when the input remains constant. While this property provides sensitivity over a wide range of signal intensities, it remains unclear how other parameters such as adaptation rate and adapted activity affect chemotactic performance, especially when considering that the swimming behavior of the cell determines the input signal. We examine this issue using analytical models and simulations that incorporate recent experimental evidences about behavioral feedback and flagellar motor adaptation. By focusing on how sensory information carried by the response regulator is best utilized by the motor, we identify an operational regime that maximizes drift velocity along chemical concentration gradients for a wide range of environments and sensor adaptation rates. This optimal regime is outside the dynamic range of the motor response, but maximizes the contrast between run duration up and down gradients. In steep gradients, the feedback from chemotactic drift can push the system through a bifurcation. This creates a non-chemotactic state that traps cells unless the motor is allowed to adapt. Although motor adaptation helps, we find that as the strength of the feedback increases individual phenotypes cannot maintain the optimal operational regime in all environments, suggesting that diversity could be beneficial. PMID:24967937

Hernandez-Nunez, Luis; Emonet, Thierry

2014-01-01

36

Limits of feedback control in bacterial chemotaxis.  

PubMed

Inputs to signaling pathways can have complex statistics that depend on the environment and on the behavioral response to previous stimuli. Such behavioral feedback is particularly important in navigation. Successful navigation relies on proper coupling between sensors, which gather information during motion, and actuators, which control behavior. Because reorientation conditions future inputs, behavioral feedback can place sensors and actuators in an operational regime different from the resting state. How then can organisms maintain proper information transfer through the pathway while navigating diverse environments? In bacterial chemotaxis, robust performance is often attributed to the zero integral feedback control of the sensor, which guarantees that activity returns to resting state when the input remains constant. While this property provides sensitivity over a wide range of signal intensities, it remains unclear how other parameters such as adaptation rate and adapted activity affect chemotactic performance, especially when considering that the swimming behavior of the cell determines the input signal. We examine this issue using analytical models and simulations that incorporate recent experimental evidences about behavioral feedback and flagellar motor adaptation. By focusing on how sensory information carried by the response regulator is best utilized by the motor, we identify an operational regime that maximizes drift velocity along chemical concentration gradients for a wide range of environments and sensor adaptation rates. This optimal regime is outside the dynamic range of the motor response, but maximizes the contrast between run duration up and down gradients. In steep gradients, the feedback from chemotactic drift can push the system through a bifurcation. This creates a non-chemotactic state that traps cells unless the motor is allowed to adapt. Although motor adaptation helps, we find that as the strength of the feedback increases individual phenotypes cannot maintain the optimal operational regime in all environments, suggesting that diversity could be beneficial. PMID:24967937

Dufour, Yann S; Fu, Xiongfei; Hernandez-Nunez, Luis; Emonet, Thierry

2014-06-01

37

Small molecule control of bacterial biofilms  

PubMed Central

Bacterial biofilms are defined as a surface attached community of bacteria embedded in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances that they have produced. When in the biofilm state, bacteria are more resistant to antibiotics and the host immune response than are their planktonic counterparts. Biofilms are increasingly recognized as being significant in human disease, accounting for 80% of bacterial infections in the body and diseases associated with bacterial biofilms include: lung infections of cystic fibrosis, colitis, urethritis, conjunctivitis, otitis, endocarditis and periodontitis. Additionally, biofilm infections of indwelling medical devices are of particular concern, as once the device is colonized infection is virtually impossible to eradicate. Given the prominence of biofilms in infectious diseases, there has been an increased effort toward the development of small molecules that will modulate bacterial biofilm development and maintenance. In this review, we highlight the development of small molecules that inhibit and/or disperse bacterial biofilms through non-microbicidal mechanisms. The review discuses the numerous approaches that have been applied to the discovery of lead small molecules that mediate biofilm development. These approaches are grouped into: 1) the identification and development of small molecules that target one of the bacterial signaling pathways involved in biofilm regulation, 2) chemical library screening for compounds with anti-biofilm activity, and 3) the identification of natural products that possess anti-biofilm activity, and the chemical manipulation of these natural products to obtain analogues with increased activity. PMID:22733439

Worthington, Roberta J.; Richards, Justin J.

2012-01-01

38

Bacterial community assembly based on functional genes rather than species  

PubMed Central

The principles underlying the assembly and structure of complex microbial communities are an issue of long-standing concern to the field of microbial ecology. We previously analyzed the community membership of bacterial communities associated with the green macroalga Ulva australis, and proposed a competitive lottery model for colonization of the algal surface in an attempt to explain the surprising lack of similarity in species composition across different algal samples. Here we extend the previous study by investigating the link between community structure and function in these communities, using metagenomic sequence analysis. Despite the high phylogenetic variability in microbial species composition on different U. australis (only 15% similarity between samples), similarity in functional composition was high (70%), and a core of functional genes present across all algal-associated communities was identified that were consistent with the ecology of surface- and host-associated bacteria. These functions were distributed widely across a variety of taxa or phylogenetic groups. This observation of similarity in habitat (niche) use with respect to functional genes, but not species, together with the relative ease with which bacteria share genetic material, suggests that the key level at which to address the assembly and structure of bacterial communities may not be “species” (by means of rRNA taxonomy), but rather the more functional level of genes. PMID:21825123

Burke, Catherine; Steinberg, Peter; Rusch, Doug; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Thomas, Torsten

2011-01-01

39

Lateral organ boundaries 1 is a disease susceptibility gene for citrus bacterial canker disease.  

PubMed

Citrus bacterial canker (CBC) disease occurs worldwide and incurs considerable costs both from control measures and yield losses. Bacteria that cause CBC require one of six known type III transcription activator-like (TAL) effector genes for the characteristic pustule formation at the site of infection. Here, we show that Xanthomonas citri subspecies citri strain Xcc306, with the type III TAL effector gene pthA4 or with the distinct yet biologically equivalent gene pthAw from strain XccA(w), induces two host genes, CsLOB1 and CsSWEET1, in a TAL effector-dependent manner. CsLOB1 is a member of the Lateral Organ Boundaries (LOB) gene family of transcription factors, and CsSWEET1 is a homolog of the SWEET sugar transporter and rice disease susceptibility gene. Both TAL effectors drive expression of CsLOB1 and CsSWEET1 promoter reporter gene fusions when coexpressed in citrus or Nicotiana benthamiana. Artificially designed TAL effectors directed to sequences in the CsLOB1 promoter region, but not the CsSWEET1 promoter, promoted pustule formation and higher bacterial leaf populations. Three additional distinct TAL effector genes, pthA*, pthB, and pthC, also direct pustule formation and expression of CsLOB1. Unlike pthA4 and pthAw, pthB and pthC do not promote the expression of CsSWEET1. CsLOB1 expression was associated with the expression of genes associated with cell expansion. The results indicate that CBC-inciting species of Xanthomonas exploit a single host disease susceptibility gene by altering the expression of an otherwise developmentally regulated gene using any one of a diverse set of TAL effector genes in the pathogen populations. PMID:24474801

Hu, Yang; Zhang, Junli; Jia, Hongge; Sosso, Davide; Li, Ting; Frommer, Wolf B; Yang, Bing; White, Frank F; Wang, Nian; Jones, Jeffrey B

2014-01-28

40

Impacts of bioturbation on temporal variation in bacterial and archaeal nitrogen-cycling gene abundance in coastal sediments.  

PubMed

In marine environments, macrofauna living in or on the sediment surface may alter the structure, diversity and function of benthic microbial communities. In particular, microbial nitrogen (N)-cycling processes may be enhanced by the activity of large bioturbating organisms. Here, we study the effect of the burrowing mud shrimp Upogebia deltaura upon temporal variation in the abundance of genes representing key N-cycling functional guilds. The abundance of bacterial genes representing different N-cycling guilds displayed different temporal patterns in burrow sediments in comparison with surface sediments, suggesting that the burrow provides a unique environment where bacterial gene abundances are influenced directly by macrofaunal activity. In contrast, the abundances of archaeal ammonia oxidizers varied temporally but were not affected by bioturbation, indicating differential responses between bacterial and archaeal ammonia oxidizers to environmental physicochemical controls. This study highlights the importance of bioturbation as a control over the temporal variation in nitrogen-cycling microbial community dynamics within coastal sediments. PMID:24596269

Laverock, B; Tait, K; Gilbert, J A; Osborn, A M; Widdicombe, S

2014-02-01

41

Impacts of bioturbation on temporal variation in bacterial and archaeal nitrogen-cycling gene abundance in coastal sediments  

PubMed Central

In marine environments, macrofauna living in or on the sediment surface may alter the structure, diversity and function of benthic microbial communities. In particular, microbial nitrogen (N)-cycling processes may be enhanced by the activity of large bioturbating organisms. Here, we study the effect of the burrowing mud shrimp Upogebia deltaura upon temporal variation in the abundance of genes representing key N-cycling functional guilds. The abundance of bacterial genes representing different N-cycling guilds displayed different temporal patterns in burrow sediments in comparison with surface sediments, suggesting that the burrow provides a unique environment where bacterial gene abundances are influenced directly by macrofaunal activity. In contrast, the abundances of archaeal ammonia oxidizers varied temporally but were not affected by bioturbation, indicating differential responses between bacterial and archaeal ammonia oxidizers to environmental physicochemical controls. This study highlights the importance of bioturbation as a control over the temporal variation in nitrogen-cycling microbial community dynamics within coastal sediments. PMID:24596269

Laverock, B; Tait, K; Gilbert, J A; Osborn, A M; Widdicombe, S

2014-01-01

42

Distance Matters: The Impact of Gene Proximity in Bacterial Gene Regulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following recent discoveries of colocalization of downstream-regulating genes in living cells, the impact of the spatial distance between such genes on the kinetics of gene product formation is increasingly recognized. We here show from analytical and numerical analysis that the distance between a transcription factor (TF) gene and its target gene drastically affects the speed and reliability of transcriptional regulation in bacterial cells. For an explicit model system, we develop a general theory for the interactions between a TF and a transcription unit. The observed variations in regulation efficiency are linked to the magnitude of the variation of the TF concentration peaks as a function of the binding site distance from the signal source. Our results support the role of rapid binding site search for gene colocalization and emphasize the role of local concentration differences.

Pulkkinen, Otto; Metzler, Ralf

2013-05-01

43

Bacterial Transport and Fate and Its Effect on Horizontal Gene Transfer in Soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogeochemical cycling in ecosystems relies heavily on soil bacterial communities. Bacterial communities adapt to natural or anthropogenic disruptions through mutation and horizontal gene transfer. Horizontal gene transfer alters bacterial communities rapidly by transferring DNA across species. A systematic understanding of bacterial transport and fate and its effects on horizontal gene transfer is critical for predicting and harnessing bacterial adaption and evolution in soil. In this work, a multi-scale approach was applied to study the effects of both flagella and motility on transport and fate of the soil bacterium Azotobacter vinelandii in porous media. Both micromodel and column experiments showed decreasing deposition over time, suggesting that both flagellated and non-flagellated cells were blocked from deposition by previously deposited cells. In later stages, ripening effects were also observed, and they appeared earlier for the non-flagellated strain. Based on the overall clean collector removal efficiencies determined from micromodel and column experiments, the non-motile and non-flagellated strain DJNM deposited the most, while the motile, wild-type strain DJ showed the least deposition. The overall clean collector removal efficiencies was due to decreased deposition of motile cells on the front sides of the collectors (relative to the flow direction). The horizontal gene transfer of extracellular DNA, known as natural transformation, was evaluated with both dissolved and adsorbed extracellular DNA and with motile and non-motile but flagellated strains (DJ and DJ77, respectively). The distinct transport mechanisms of these strains resulted in different natural transformation rates and relationships to the concentration of cells and dissolved extracellular DNA. A modified mass action type relationship with power relationships was established to model the differences in natural transformation between DJ and DJ77. A cell-DNA pairing hypothesis was formulated as a cell and DNA pair together and can eventually develop into a successful transformation reaction depending on time. The paring (Kz) and DNA power relationship (n2) parameters were similar for the two strains. However, the cell concentration power relationship (n1) was 0.77 and 0.39 for DJ and DJ77, respectively. The fact that n1 was smaller than 1 showed that transformation of both DJ and DJ77 suffered from cell concentration increase. The n1 of DJ being 2 times larger than that of DJ77 strongly suggested motility recovered transformation. Our microscopic observations further suggest that the approach of cells to extracellular DNA depends on bacterial motility. Combining microscopic observation of bacterial movement, assays of gene transfer, and macroscopic measurements provides insights into bacterial transport mechanisms and their influence on horizontal gene transfer. Our best opportunity to understand, control and harness bacterial communities stems from a fundamental understanding of bacterial transport and fate in the soil environment.

Lv, N.; Massoudieh, A.; Nguyen, T. H.; Kamai, T.; Zilles, J. L.; Ginn, T. R.; Liang, X.

2013-12-01

44

Horizontal Gene Transfer and The Evolution of Bacterial Cooperation  

PubMed Central

Bacteria frequently exhibit cooperative behaviors but cooperative strains are vulnerable to invasion by cheater strains that reap the benefits of cooperation but do not perform the cooperative behavior themselves. Bacterial genomes often contain mobile genetic elements such as plasmids. When a gene for cooperative behavior exists on a plasmid, cheaters can be forced to cooperate by infection with this plasmid, rescuing cooperation in a population in which mutation or migration has allowed cheaters to arise. Here we introduce a second plasmid that does not code for cooperation and show that the social dilemma repeats itself at the plasmid level in both within-patch and metapopulation scenarios, and under various scenarios of plasmid incompatibility. Our results suggest that although plasmid carriage of cooperative genes can provide a transient defense against defection in structured environments, plasmid and chromosomal defection remain the only stable strategies in an unstructured environment. We discuss our results in the light of recent bioinformatic evidence that cooperative genes are overrepresented on mobile elements. PMID:20825481

Mc Ginty, Sorcha E; Rankin, Daniel J; Brown, Sam P

2011-01-01

45

Environmental and anthropogenic controls over bacterial communities in wetland soils  

PubMed Central

Soil bacteria regulate wetland biogeochemical processes, yet little is known about controls over their distribution and abundance. Bacteria in North Carolina swamps and bogs differ greatly from Florida Everglades fens, where communities studied were unexpectedly similar along a nutrient enrichment gradient. Bacterial composition and diversity corresponded strongly with soil pH, land use, and restoration status, but less to nutrient concentrations, and not with wetland type or soil carbon. Surprisingly, wetland restoration decreased bacterial diversity, a response opposite to that in terrestrial ecosystems. Community level patterns were underlain by responses of a few taxa, especially the Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria, suggesting promise for bacterial indicators of restoration and trophic status. PMID:19004771

Hartman, Wyatt H.; Richardson, Curtis J.; Vilgalys, Rytas; Bruland, Gregory L.

2008-01-01

46

Detecting rare gene transfer events in bacterial populations.  

PubMed

Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) enables bacteria to access, share, and recombine genetic variation, resulting in genetic diversity that cannot be obtained through mutational processes alone. In most cases, the observation of evolutionary successful HGT events relies on the outcome of initially rare events that lead to novel functions in the new host, and that exhibit a positive effect on host fitness. Conversely, the large majority of HGT events occurring in bacterial populations will go undetected due to lack of replication success of transformants. Moreover, other HGT events that would be highly beneficial to new hosts can fail to ensue due to lack of physical proximity to the donor organism, lack of a suitable gene transfer mechanism, genetic compatibility, and stochasticity in tempo-spatial occurrence. Experimental attempts to detect HGT events in bacterial populations have typically focused on the transformed cells or their immediate offspring. However, rare HGT events occurring in large and structured populations are unlikely to reach relative population sizes that will allow their immediate identification; the exception being the unusually strong positive selection conferred by antibiotics. Most HGT events are not expected to alter the likelihood of host survival to such an extreme extent, and will confer only minor changes in host fitness. Due to the large population sizes of bacteria and the time scales involved, the process and outcome of HGT are often not amenable to experimental investigation. Population genetic modeling of the growth dynamics of bacteria with differing HGT rates and resulting fitness changes is therefore necessary to guide sampling design and predict realistic time frames for detection of HGT, as it occurs in laboratory or natural settings. Here we review the key population genetic parameters, consider their complexity and highlight knowledge gaps for further research. PMID:24432015

Nielsen, Kaare M; Bøhn, Thomas; Townsend, Jeffrey P

2014-01-01

47

Nucleoid Proteins Stimulate Stringently Controlled Bacterial Promoters  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report that the H-NS nucleoid protein plays a positive role in the expression of stringently regulated genes in Escherichia coli. Bacteria lacking both H-NS and the paralog StpA show reduced growth rate. Colonies displaying an increased growth rate were isolated, and mapping of a suppressor mutation revealed a base pair substitution in the spoT gene. The spoT(A404E) mutant showed

Jörgen Johansson; Carlos Balsalobre; Su-Yan Wang; Jurate Urbonaviciene; Ding Jun Jin; Berit Sondén; Bernt Eric Uhlin

2000-01-01

48

Method of controlling gene expression  

DOEpatents

A method of controlling expression of a DNA segment under the control of a nod gene promoter which comprises administering to a host containing a nod gene promoter an amount sufficient to control expression of the DNA segment of a compound of the formula: ##STR1## in which each R is independently H or OH, is described.

Peters, Norman K. (Berkeley, CA); Frost, John W. (Menlo Park, CA); Long, Sharon R. (Palo Alto, CA)

1991-12-03

49

Bacterial Genomes as New Gene Homes: The Genealogy of ORFans in E. coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences in gene repertoire among bacterial genomes are usually ascribed to gene loss or to lateral gene transfer from unrelated cellular organisms. However, most bacteria contain large numbers of ORFans, that is, annotated genes that are restricted to a particular genome and that possess no known homologs. The uniqueness of ORFans within a genome has precluded the use of a

Vincent Daubin; Howard Ochman

2004-01-01

50

Gene fragmentation in bacterial draft genomes: extent, consequences and mitigation  

PubMed Central

Background Ongoing technological advances in genome sequencing are allowing bacterial genomes to be sequenced at ever-lower cost. However, nearly all of these new techniques concomitantly decrease genome quality, primarily due to the inability of their relatively short read lengths to bridge certain genomic regions, e.g., those containing repeats. Fragmentation of predicted open reading frames (ORFs) is one possible consequence of this decreased quality. In this study we quantify ORF fragmentation in draft microbial genomes and its effect on annotation efficacy, and we propose a solution to ameliorate this problem. Results A survey of draft-quality genomes in GenBank revealed that fragmented ORFs comprised > 80% of the predicted ORFs in some genomes, and that increased fragmentation correlated with decreased genome assembly quality. In a more thorough analysis of 25 Streptomyces genomes, fragmentation was especially enriched in some protein classes with repeating, multi-modular structures such as polyketide synthases, non-ribosomal peptide synthetases and serine/threonine kinases. Overall, increased genome fragmentation correlated with increased false-negative Pfam and COG annotation rates and increased false-positive KEGG annotation rates. The false-positive KEGG annotation rate could be ameliorated by linking fragmented ORFs using their orthologs in related genomes. Whereas this strategy successfully linked up to 46% of the total ORF fragments in some genomes, its sensitivity appeared to depend heavily on the depth of sampling of a particular taxon's variable genome. Conclusions Draft microbial genomes contain many ORF fragments. Where these correspond to the same gene they have particular potential to confound comparative gene content analyses. Given our findings, and the rapid increase in the number of microbial draft quality genomes, we suggest that accounting for gene fragmentation and its associated biases is important when designing comparative genomic projects. PMID:22233127

2012-01-01

51

Can dead bacterial cells be defined and are genes expressed after cell death?  

PubMed

There is a paucity of knowledge on gene expression in dead bacterial cells. Why would this knowledge be useful? The cells are dead. However, the time duration of gene expression following cell death is often unknown, and possibly in the order of minutes. In addition, it is a challenge to determine if bacterial cells are dead, or viable but non-culturable (VBNC), and what is an agreed upon correct definition of dead bacteria. Cells in the bacterial population or community may die at different rates or times and this complicates both the viability and gene expression analysis. In this article, the definition of dead bacterial cells is discussed and its significance in continued gene expression in cells following death. The definition of living and dead has implications for possible, completely, synthetic bacterial cells that may be capable of growth and division. PMID:22534140

Trevors, J T

2012-07-01

52

Electrokinetic and optical control of bacterial microrobots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the great challenges in microscale science and engineering is the independent manipulation of cells and man-made objects on the micron scale. For such work, motile microorganisms are integrated with engineered systems to construct microbiorobots (MBRs). MBRs are negative photosensitive epoxy (SU-8) microfabricated structures with typical feature sizes ranging from 1 to 100 µm coated with a monolayer of swarmer cells of the bacterium Serratia marcescens. The adherent cells naturally coordinate to propel the microstructures in fluidic environments. In this study, ultraviolet light is used to control rotational motion and direct current electric fields are used to control the two-dimensional movement of MBRs. They are steered in a fully automated fashion using computer-controlled visual servoing, used to transport and manipulate micron-sized objects, and employed as cell-based biosensors. This work is a step toward in vitro mechanical or chemical manipulation of cells as well as controlled assembly of microcomponents.

Steager, Edward B.; Selman Sakar, Mahmut; Kim, Dal Hyung; Kumar, Vijay; Pappas, George J.; Kim, Min Jun

2011-03-01

53

Continuous Control in Bacterial Regulatory Circuits  

PubMed Central

We show that for two well-characterized regulatory circuits in Escherichia coli, Tn10 tetracycline resistance and porin osmoregulation, the transcriptional outputs in individual cells are graded functions of the applied stimuli. These systems are therefore examples of naturally occurring regulatory circuits that exhibit continuous control of transcription. Surprisingly, however, we find that porin osmoregulation is open loop; i.e., the porin expression level does not feed back into the regulatory circuit. This mode of control is particularly interesting for an organism such as E. coli, which proliferates in diverse environments, and raises important questions regarding the biologically relevant inputs and outputs for this system. PMID:15516575

Batchelor, Eric; Silhavy, Thomas J.; Goulian, Mark

2004-01-01

54

Bacterial parasite shows potential in disease control  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online article reports that researchers have sequenced the complete genome of one strain of Wolbachia pipientis and are gaining new insight into the biology and evolution of Wolbachia-host interactions. It discusses practical applications such as disease and pest control.

Bram, Lon; Scientist, Australian L.

55

Bacterial Bioluminescence: Its Control and Ecological Significance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Microbiological Reviews scholarly article (23-page PDF) presents an overview of data relevant to the ecology of bioluminescent bacteria and the functional importance of light emission. The review article discusses the biochemistry of bioluminescence, taxonomic relationships of luminous bacteria, control of the synthesis and activity of the luminescent system, habitats and distribution of luminous bacteria, functions of bioluminescence, and new perspectives. These perspectives and other specific postulates presented in the article provide new approaches for data collection and experimental work.

Hastings, J. Woodland (John Woodland), 1927-; Nealson, Kenneth H.

2010-03-24

56

Circuit-level input integration in bacterial gene regulation.  

PubMed

Gene regulatory circuits can receive multiple simultaneous inputs, which can enter the system through different locations. It is thus necessary to establish how these genetic circuits integrate multiple inputs as a function of their relative entry points. Here, we use the dynamic circuit regulating competence for DNA uptake in Bacillus subtilis as a model system to investigate this issue. Specifically, we map the response of single cells in vivo to a combination of (i) a chemical signal controlling the constitutive expression of key competence genes, and (ii) a genetic perturbation in the form of copy number variation of one of these genes, which mimics the level of stress signals sensed by the bacteria. Quantitative time-lapse fluorescence microscopy shows that a variety of dynamical behaviors can be reached by the combination of the two inputs. Additionally, the integration depends strongly on the relative locations where the two perturbations enter the circuit. Specifically, when the two inputs act upon different circuit elements, their integration generates novel dynamical behavior, whereas inputs affecting the same element do not. An in silico bidimensional bifurcation analysis of a mathematical model of the circuit offers good quantitative agreement with the experimental observations, and sheds light on the dynamical mechanisms leading to the different integrated responses exhibited by the gene regulatory circuit. PMID:23572583

Espinar, Lorena; Dies, Marta; Cagatay, Tolga; Süel, Gürol M; Garcia-Ojalvo, Jordi

2013-04-23

57

Cloning and Characterization of the Zymobacter palmae Pyruvate Decarboxylase Gene (pdc) and Comparison to Bacterial Homologues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) is the key enzyme in all homo-ethanol fermentations. Although widely distributed among plants, yeasts, and fungi, PDC is absent in animals and rare in bacteria (established for only three organisms). Genes encoding the three known bacterial pdc genes have been previously described and expressed as active recombinant proteins. The pdc gene from Zymomonas mobilis has been used

Krishnan Chandra Raj; Lee A. Talarico; Lonnie O. Ingram; Julie A. Maupin-Furlow

2002-01-01

58

Gene Transfer is a Major Factor in Bacterial Evolution Ruiting Lan and Peter R. Reeves  

E-print Network

Gene Transfer is a Major Factor in Bacterial Evolution Ruiting Lan and Peter R. Reeves Department adaptation re- vealed far more extensive gene transfers, examples be- ing the rj& gene cluster which@angis.su.oz.au. Mol. Biol. Evol. 13(1):47-55. 1996 0 1996 by the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. ISSN

Lan, Ruiting

59

Consequences and controls of bacterial sulfate reduction in marine sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial sulfate reduction is an integral part of the geochemical cycles of carbon and sulfur. To better understand the environmental consequences of sulfate reduction and to further clarify the factors controlling this important biogeochemical process, rates of sulfate reduction were measured in Long Island Sound sediments and in controlled laboratory experiments using the ³⁵S-SOâ= radiotracer technique. Four sediment localities (NWC,

Westrich

1983-01-01

60

Peripheral blood RNA gene expression profiling in patients with bacterial meningitis  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The aim of present study was to find genetic pathways activated during infection with bacterial meningitis (BM) and potentially influencing the course of the infection using genome-wide RNA expression profiling combined with pathway analysis and functional annotation of the differential transcription. Methods: We analyzed 21 patients with BM hospitalized in 2008. The control group consisted of 18 healthy subjects. The RNA was extracted from whole blood, globin mRNA was depleted and gene expression profiling was performed using GeneChip Human Gene 1.0 ST Arrays which can assess the transcription of 28,869 genes. Gene expression profile data were analyzed using Bioconductor packages and Bayesian modeling. Functional annotation of the enriched gene sets was used to define the altered genetic networks. We also analyzed whether gene expression profiles depend on the clinical course and outcome. In order to verify the microarray results, the expression levels of ten functionally relevant genes with high statistical significance (CD177, IL1R2, IL18R1, IL18RAP, OLFM4, TLR5, CPA3, FCER1A, IL5RA, and IL7R) were confirmed by quantitative real-time (qRT) PCR. Results: There were 8569 genes displaying differential expression at a significance level of p < 0.05. Following False Discovery Rate (FDR) correction, a total of 5500 genes remained significant at a p-value of < 0.01. Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed the differential expression in 10 selected genes. Functional annotation and network analysis indicated that most of the genes were related to activation of humoral and cellular immune responses (enrichment score 43). Those changes were found in both adults and in children with BM compared to the healthy controls. The gene expression profiles did not significantly depend on the clinical outcome, but there was a strong influence of the specific type of pathogen underlying BM. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that there is a very strong activation of immune response at the transcriptional level during BM and that the type of pathogen influences this transcriptional activation. PMID:23515576

Lill, Margit; Koks, Sulev; Soomets, Ursel; Schalkwyk, Leonard C.; Fernandes, Cathy; Lutsar, Irja; Taba, Pille

2013-01-01

61

Detection of type III secretion genes as a general indicator of bacterial virulence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Type III secretion systems of Gram-negative bacteria are specific export machineries for virulence factors which allow their translocation to eukaryotic cells. Since they correlate with bacterial pathogenicity, their presence is used as a general indicator of bacterial virulence. By comparing the genetic relationship of the major type III secretion systems we found the family of genes encoding the inner-membrane channel

Katja Stuber; Joachim Frey; André P Burnens; Peter Kuhnert

2003-01-01

62

Expression of the bacterial hemoglobin gene from Vitreoscilla stercoraria increases rifamycin B production in Amycolatopsis mediterranei.  

PubMed

It is well known that the culture for rifamycin B production by Amycolatopsis mediterranei requires high levels of dissolved oxygen, particularly in industrial processes. In this study, we report the construction of a vector for the expression of the bacterial hemoglobin gene (vhb) from Vitreoscilla stercoraria in a rifamycin B-overproducing strain of A. mediterranei. The effect was evaluated in the presence and absence of barbital. The vhb gene was cloned under the control of the PermE promoter, the Amycolatopsis lactamdurans plasmid pULVK2 origin of replication, the kanamycin-resistant gene (Km), the erythromycin-resistant gene (ermE) for selection, and ColE1. Industrial fermentation conditions were simulated in shake-flask cultures. Under low aeration, the transformed A. mediterranei strain with the vhb gene showed a 13.9% higher production of rifamycin B in a culture with barbital compared with the parental strain, and 29.5% higher production under the same conditions without barbital. PMID:19111646

Priscila, Guerra; Fernández, Francisco J; Absalón, Angel E; Suarez, Ma del Rocío; Sainoz, Mara; Barrios-González, Javier; Mejía, Armando

2008-11-01

63

Control of beta globin genes.  

PubMed

The developmental changes in expression of the beta like genes from embryonic to adult stages of human life are controlled at least partially at the level of the promoter sequences of these genes and their binding factors, and competition for promoter specific interactions with the locus control region (LCR). In recent years, the control of beta globin genes has also been investigated at the level of chromatin structure involving the chemical modification of histones and their remodelling by DNA dependent ATPases (SMARCA) containing protein complexes. The role of intergenic RNA is also being investigated with renewed interest. Although a wealth of information on the structure/function relationship of the LCR and globin promoters has been gathered over more than two decades, the fundamental nature of the control of these genes at the molecular level is still not completely understood. In the following pages, we intend to briefly describe the progress made in the field and discuss future directions. PMID:17910027

Mahajan, Milind C; Karmakar, Subhradip; Weissman, Sherman M

2007-11-01

64

Bacterial Blight of Soybean: Regulation of a Pathogen Gene Determining Host Cultivar Specificity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soybean cultivars resistant to Pseudomonas syringae pathovar glycinea (Psg), the causal agent of bacterial blight, exhibit a hypersensitive (necrosis) reaction (HR) to infection. Psg strains carrying the avrB gene elicit the HR in soybean cultivars carrying the resistance gene Rpg1. Psg expressing avrB at a high level and capable of eliciting the HR in the absence of de novo bacterial

Thanh V. Huynh; Douglas Dahlbeck; Brian J. Staskawicz

1989-01-01

65

Genes for all metals—a bacterial view of the Periodic Table  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Bacterial chromosomes have genes for transport proteins for inorganic nutrient cations and oxyanions, such as NH4\\u000a +, K+, Mg2+, Co2+, Fe3+, Mn2+, Zn2+ and other trace cations, PO4\\u000a 3-, SO4\\u000a 2- and less abundant oxyanions. Together these account for perhaps a few hundred genes in many bacteria. Bacterial plasmids\\u000a encode resistance systems for toxic metal and metalloid ions including Ag+

S Silver

1998-01-01

66

Interplay of Gene Expression Noise and Ultrasensitive Dynamics Affects Bacterial Operon Organization  

PubMed Central

Bacterial chromosomes are organized into polycistronic cotranscribed operons, but the evolutionary pressures maintaining them are unclear. We hypothesized that operons alter gene expression noise characteristics, resulting in selection for or against maintaining operons depending on network architecture. Mathematical models for 6 functional classes of network modules showed that three classes exhibited decreased noise and 3 exhibited increased noise with same-operon cotranscription of interacting proteins. Noise reduction was often associated with a decreased chance of reaching an ultrasensitive threshold. Stochastic simulations of the lac operon demonstrated that the predicted effects of transcriptional coupling hold for a complex network module. We employed bioinformatic analysis to find overrepresentation of noise-minimizing operon organization compared with randomized controls. Among constitutively expressed physically interacting protein pairs, higher coupling frequencies appeared at lower expression levels, where noise effects are expected to be dominant. Our results thereby suggest an important role for gene expression noise, in many cases interacting with an ultrasensitive switch, in maintaining or selecting for operons in bacterial chromosomes. PMID:22956903

Ray, J. Christian J; Igoshin, Oleg A.

2012-01-01

67

Substrate Diffusion Heterogeneity Controls Bacterial Competition and Coexistence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffusion has long been recognized as a key process affecting bacterial physiological functions ranging from nutrient uptake to removal of metabolic waste products. In the vadose zone, significant convective flows are limited and bacteria rely primarily on diffusion for nutrient supply. Even under relatively "wet" conditions (e.g. matric potentials -20 J/kg), soil water is fragmented and exists as thin liquid films or held in crevices imposing constraints on substrate diffusion. Our objective was to investigate the role of diffusion on soil microbial diversity, by focusing on one of the processes that shapes the structure of bacterial communities: competitive interactions. We used a simplified setup, in which the substrate (citrate) fluxes were controlled by different agar gels thicknesses and spatially heterogeneous diffusive pathways were created by an impermeable film with prescribed hole sizes and patterns. Our competition experiments involved two soil bacteria: Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 and Pseudomonas putida KT2440, which were tagged with different constitutive fluorescent markers, allowing for their on line microscopic detection. The growth parameters on citrate of these strains were thoroughly assessed. B. xenovorans LB400 is the weaker competitor. As a result, this strain was outcompeted by KT2440 under high substrate diffusivity and homogeneous conditions. Conversely, the disadvantage of the weakest competitor was not so marked under low substrate diffusivity condition. These results suggest that dry conditions in soil would provide conditions allowing the sustaining of weak bacterial competitors, resulting in the maintenance of high bacterial diversity.

Dechesne, A.; Or, D.; Smets, B. F.

2005-12-01

68

Expression of the bacterial gdhA gene encoding a NADPH glutamate dehydrogenase in tobacco affects plant growth and development  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effects of genetic modification of nitrogen metabolism via the bacterial glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH)\\u000a on plant growth and metabolism. The gdhA gene from Escherichia coli encoding a NADPH-GDH was expressed in tobacco plants under the control of the 35 S promoter. The specific activity of GDH\\u000a in gdhA plants was 8-fold of that in E. coli. Damage caused

Rafiqa Ameziane; Karen Bernhard; David Lightfoot

2000-01-01

69

Post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in bacterial pathogens by toxin-antitoxin systems  

PubMed Central

Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are small genetic elements ubiquitous in prokaryotic genomes that encode toxic proteins targeting various vital cellular functions. Typically, toxin activity is controlled by adjacently encoded protein or RNA antitoxins and unleashed as a consequence of genetic fluctuations or stressful conditions. Whereas some TA systems interfere with replication or cell wall synthesis, most of them influence transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene regulation. Antitoxin proteins often act as DNA binding transcriptional regulators and many TA toxins exhibit endoribonuclease activity to selectively degrade different RNA species and thus alter gene expression patterns. Some TA RNases cleave tRNA, tmRNAs or rRNAs, whereas most commonly mRNAs either in association with the ribosome or as free transcripts, are targeted. Examples are provided on how TA toxins differentially shape gene expression in bacterial pathogens by creating specialized ribosomes or by altering the transcriptome and how this may be tied in the control of pathogenicity factors. PMID:24524029

Bertram, Ralph; Schuster, Christopher F.

2014-01-01

70

Seasonal changes in nitrogen-cycle gene abundances and in bacterial communities in acidic forest soils.  

PubMed

The abundance of genes related to the nitrogen biogeochemical cycle and the microbial community in forest soils (bacteria, archaea, fungi) were quantitatively analyzed via real-time PCR using 11 sets of specific primers amplifying nifH, bacterial amoA, archaeal amoA, narG, nirS, nirK, norB, nosZ, bacterial 16S rRNA gene, archaeal 16S rRNA gene, and the ITS sequence of fungi. Soils were sampled from Bukhan Mountain from September of 2010 to July of 2011 (7 times). Bacteria were the predominant microbial community in all samples. However, the abundance of archaeal amoA was greater than bacterial amoA throughout the year. The abundances of nifH, nirS, nirK, and norB genes changed in a similar pattern, while narG and nosZ appeared in sensitive to the environmental changes. Clone libraries of bacterial 16S rRNA genes were constructed from summer and winter soil samples and these revealed that Acidobacteria was the most predominant phylum in acidic forest soil environments in both samples. Although a specific correlation of environmental factor and gene abundance was not verified by principle component analysis, our data suggested that the combination of biological, physical, and chemical characteristics of forest soils created distinct conditions favoring the nitrogen biogeochemical cycle and that bacterial communities in undisturbed acidic forest soils were quite stable during seasonal change. PMID:22752898

Jung, Jaejoon; Yeom, Jinki; Han, Jiwon; Kim, Jisun; Park, Woojun

2012-06-01

71

Binding motifs in bacterial gene promoters modulate transcriptional effect of global regulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial gene regulation involves transcription factors (TFs) that influence the expression of many genes. Global regulators, including CRP (cAMP Receptor Protein), ArcA, and FNR, can modulate the transcriptional activity of multiple operons. The similarity of a regulatory element s sequence to a TF s consensus binding site (BS) and the position of the regulatory element in an operon promoter are

Michael Rex Leuze; Tatiana V Karpinets; Alexander S Beliaev; Edward C Uberbacher

2012-01-01

72

Decreasing the effects of horizontal gene transfer on bacterial phylogeny: the Escherichia coli case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phylogenetic reconstructions of bacterial species from DNA sequences are hampered by the existence of horizontal gene transfer. One possible way to overcome the confounding influence of such movement of genes is to identify and remove sequences which are responsible for significant character incongruence when compared to a reference dataset free of horizontal transfer (e.g., multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, restriction fragment length

Patricia Escobar-Páramo; Audrey Sabbagh; Pierre Darlu; Olivier Pradillon; Christelle Vaury; Erick Denamur; Guillaume Lecointre

2004-01-01

73

Tetracycline Resistance Gene Maintenance under Varying Bacterial Growth Rate, Substrate and Oxygen Availability, and Tetracycline  

E-print Network

at lower levels, with ratios of resistance to 16S rDNA genes decreasing by about 2- fold). A higher rateTetracycline Resistance Gene Maintenance under Varying Bacterial Growth Rate, Substrate and Oxygen. J. Alvarez*, GSI Environmental Inc., 2211 Norfolk, Suite 1000, Houston, Texas 77098, United States

Alvarez, Pedro J.

74

A recently transferred cluster of bacterial genes in Trichomonas vaginalis - lateral gene transfer and the fate of acquired genes  

PubMed Central

Background Lateral Gene Transfer (LGT) has recently gained recognition as an important contributor to some eukaryote proteomes, but the mechanisms of acquisition and fixation in eukaryotic genomes are still uncertain. A previously defined norm for LGTs in microbial eukaryotes states that the majority are genes involved in metabolism, the LGTs are typically localized one by one, surrounded by vertically inherited genes on the chromosome, and phylogenetics shows that a broad collection of bacterial lineages have contributed to the transferome. Results A unique 34 kbp long fragment with 27 clustered genes (TvLF) of prokaryote origin was identified in the sequenced genome of the protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis. Using a PCR based approach we confirmed the presence of the orthologous fragment in four additional T. vaginalis strains. Detailed sequence analyses unambiguously suggest that TvLF is the result of one single, recent LGT event. The proposed donor is a close relative to the firmicute bacterium Peptoniphilus harei. High nucleotide sequence similarity between T. vaginalis strains, as well as to P. harei, and the absence of homologs in other Trichomonas species, suggests that the transfer event took place after the radiation of the genus Trichomonas. Some genes have undergone pseudogenization and degradation, indicating that they may not be retained in the future. Functional annotations reveal that genes involved in informational processes are particularly prone to degradation. Conclusions We conclude that, although the majority of eukaryote LGTs are single gene occurrences, they may be acquired in clusters of several genes that are subsequently cleansed of evolutionarily less advantageous genes. PMID:24898731

2014-01-01

75

Essential genes from Arctic bacteria used to construct stable, temperature-sensitive bacterial vaccines.  

PubMed

All bacteria share a set of evolutionarily conserved essential genes that encode products that are required for viability. The great diversity of environments that bacteria inhabit, including environments at extreme temperatures, place adaptive pressure on essential genes. We sought to use this evolutionary diversity of essential genes to engineer bacterial pathogens to be stably temperature-sensitive, and thus useful as live vaccines. We isolated essential genes from bacteria found in the Arctic and substituted them for their counterparts into pathogens of mammals. We found that substitution of nine different essential genes from psychrophilic (cold-loving) bacteria into mammalian pathogenic bacteria resulted in strains that died below their normal-temperature growth limits. Substitution of three different psychrophilic gene orthologs of ligA, which encode NAD-dependent DNA ligase, resulted in bacterial strains that died at 33, 35, and 37 degrees C. One ligA gene was shown to render Francisella tularensis, Salmonella enterica, and Mycobacterium smegmatis temperature-sensitive, demonstrating that this gene functions in both Gram-negative and Gram-positive lineage bacteria. Three temperature-sensitive F. tularensis strains were shown to induce protective immunity after vaccination at a cool body site. About half of the genes that could be tested were unable to mutate to temperature-resistant forms at detectable levels. These results show that psychrophilic essential genes can be used to create a unique class of bacterial temperature-sensitive vaccines for important human pathogens, such as S. enterica and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PMID:20624965

Duplantis, Barry N; Osusky, Milan; Schmerk, Crystal L; Ross, Darrell R; Bosio, Catharine M; Nano, Francis E

2010-07-27

76

Bacterial adaptation of respiration from oxic to microoxic and anoxic conditions: redox control.  

PubMed

Under a shortage of oxygen, bacterial growth can be faced mainly by two ATP-generating mechanisms: (i) by synthesis of specific high-affinity terminal oxidases that allow bacteria to use traces of oxygen or (ii) by utilizing other substrates as final electron acceptors such as nitrate, which can be reduced to dinitrogen gas through denitrification or to ammonium. This bacterial respiratory shift from oxic to microoxic and anoxic conditions requires a regulatory strategy which ensures that cells can sense and respond to changes in oxygen tension and to the availability of other electron acceptors. Bacteria can sense oxygen by direct interaction of this molecule with a membrane protein receptor (e.g., FixL) or by interaction with a cytoplasmic transcriptional factor (e.g., Fnr). A third type of oxygen perception is based on sensing changes in redox state of molecules within the cell. Redox-responsive regulatory systems (e.g., ArcBA, RegBA/PrrBA, RoxSR, RegSR, ActSR, ResDE, and Rex) integrate the response to multiple signals (e.g., ubiquinone, menaquinone, redox active cysteine, electron transport to terminal oxidases, and NAD/NADH) and activate or repress target genes to coordinate the adaptation of bacterial respiration from oxic to anoxic conditions. Here, we provide a compilation of the current knowledge about proteins and regulatory networks involved in the redox control of the respiratory adaptation of different bacterial species to microxic and anoxic environments. PMID:22098259

Bueno, Emilio; Mesa, Socorro; Bedmar, Eulogio J; Richardson, David J; Delgado, Maria J

2012-04-15

77

Transcriptional responses of Italian ryegrass during interaction with Xanthomonas translucens pv. graminis reveal novel candidate genes for bacterial wilt resistance.  

PubMed

Xanthomonas translucens pv. graminis (Xtg) causes bacterial wilt, a severe disease of forage grasses such as Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.). In order to gain a more detailed understanding of the genetic control of resistance mechanisms and to provide prerequisites for marker assisted selection, the partial transcriptomes of two Italian ryegrass genotypes, one resistant and one susceptible to bacterial wilt were compared at four time points after Xtg infection. A cDNA microarray developed from a perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) expressed sequence tag set consisting of 9,990 unique genes was used for transcriptome analysis in Italian ryegrass. An average of 4,487 (45%) of the perennial ryegrass sequences spotted on the cDNA microarray were detected by cross-hybridisation to Italian ryegrass. Transcriptome analyses of the resistant versus the susceptible genotype revealed substantial gene expression differences (>1,200) indicating that great gene expression differences between different Italian ryegrass genotypes exist which potentially contribute to the observed phenotypic divergence in Xtg resistance between the two genotypes. In the resistant genotype, several genes differentially expressed after Xtg inoculation were identified which revealed similarities to transcriptional changes triggered by pathogen-associated molecular patterns in other plant-pathogen interactions. These genes represent candidate genes of particular interest for the development of tools for marker assisted resistance breeding. PMID:20976589

Wichmann, Fabienne; Asp, Torben; Widmer, Franco; Kölliker, Roland

2011-02-01

78

Bacterial quorum sensing inhibitors: attractive alternatives for control of infectious pathogens showing multiple drug resistance.  

PubMed

Quorum sensing (QS) is a bacterial communication process that depends on the bacterial population density. It involves small diffusible signaling molecules which activate the expression of myriad genes that control diverse array of functions like bioluminescence, virulence, biofilm formation, sporulation, to name a few. Since QS is responsible for virulence in the clinically relevant bacteria, inhibition of QS appears to be a promising strategy to control these pathogenic bacteria. With indiscriminate use of antibiotics, there has been an alarming increase in the number of antibiotic resistant pathogens. Antibiotics are no longer the magic bullets they were once thought to be and therefore there is a need for development of new antibiotics and/or other novel strategies to combat the infections caused by multidrug resistant organisms. Quorum sensing inhibition or quorum quenching has been pursued as one of such novel strategies. While antibiotics kill or slow down the growth of bacteria, quorum sensing inhibitors (QSIs) or quorum quenchers (QQs) attenuate bacterial virulence. A large body of work on QS has been carried out in deadly pathogens like Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio fischeri, V. harveyi, Escherichia coli and V. cholerae etc to unravel the mechanisms of QS as well as identify and study QSIs. This review describes various aspects of QS, QSI, different model systems to study these phenomena and recent patents on various QSIs. It suggests QSIs as attractive alternatives for controlling human, animal and plant pathogens and their utility in agriculture and other industries. PMID:23394143

Bhardwaj, Ashima K; Vinothkumar, Kittappa; Rajpara, Neha

2013-04-01

79

Rapid Engineering of Bacterial Reporter Gene Fusions by Using Red Recombination? †  

PubMed Central

Reporter gene fusions are essential tools for the investigation of gene regulation. Such fusions are traditionally generated by transposon mutagenesis and identified by a suitable selection procedure. Alternatively, specific reporter fusions can be generated by cloning of DNA fragments containing promoters or other regulatory elements in reporter plasmids. Here, we describe a novel approach for the rapid generation of reporter gene fusions in single copies at defined positions in bacterial genomes. This technique utilizes the Red recombinase for the homologous recombination of PCR-generated cassettes containing various currently used reporter genes, such as those for ?-galactosidase, luciferase, and green fluorescent protein. The approach allows the generation of transcriptional or translational reporter fusions in a single step without the requirement for recombinant DNA constructs and is applicable to various enterobacterial species. Generation of reporter fusions by Red recombination is rapid, overcomes the current limitations of transposon mutagenesis or reporter plasmids, and offers new options for the study of bacterial gene regulation. PMID:17513596

Gerlach, Roman G.; Holzer, Stefanie U.; Jackel, Daniela; Hensel, Michael

2007-01-01

80

Bacterial gene amplification: implications for the evolution of antibiotic resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent data suggest that, in response to the presence of antibiotics, gene duplication and amplification (GDA) constitutes an important adaptive mechanism in bacteria. For example, resistance to sulphonamide, trimethoprim and ?-lactams can be conferred by increased gene dosage through GDA of antibiotic hydrolytic enzymes, target enzymes or efflux pumps. Furthermore, most types of antibiotic resistance mechanism are deleterious in the

Linus Sandegren; Dan I. Andersson

2009-01-01

81

Isolation of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens S20 and its application in control of eggplant bacterial wilt.  

PubMed

Bacterial strain S20 was isolated and identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens based on physiological and biochemical characteristics and a 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Strain S20 inhibits the growth of Fusarium oxysporum and Ralstonia solanacearum. Some genes associated with the synthesis of some lipopeptides were detected in strain S20 by PCR. Iturins A were identified as the main antagonistic substrates by analysis with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry/collision-induced dissociation (ESI-MS/CID). Four homologues of iturin A (C13-C16) were identified. Pot experiments showed that the application of strain S20 alone could control eggplant wilt with an efficacy of 25.3% during a 40 day experiment. If strain S20 was used with organic fertilizer, the control efficacy against eggplant wilt reached as high as 70.7%. The application of organic fertilizer alone promotes the growth of R. solanacearum, resulting in a higher wilt incidence than that observed in control plants. The application of strain S20 effectively inhibits R. solanacearum in the rhizosphere soil of eggplant. The combined use of strain S20 and organic fertilizer more effectively controlled R. solanacearum in soil than the use of strain S20 alone. The soil count of strain S20 decreased gradually during the course of the experiment after inoculation. Organic fertilizer was beneficial for the survival of the antagonistic bacterial strain S20; a higher level of these bacteria could be maintained. The application of organic fertilizer with strain S20 increased bacterial diversity in rhizosphere soil. PMID:24632400

Chen, Da; Liu, Xin; Li, Chunyu; Tian, Wei; Shen, Qirong; Shen, Biao

2014-05-01

82

Comparative genomics of the bacterial genus Listeria: Genome evolution is characterized by limited gene acquisition and limited gene loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The bacterial genus Listeria contains pathogenic and non-pathogenic species, including the pathogens L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii, both of which carry homologous virulence gene clusters such as the prfA cluster and clusters of internalin genes. Initial evidence for multiple deletions of the prfA cluster during the evolution of Listeria indicates that this genus provides an interesting model for studying

Henk C den Bakker; Craig A Cummings; Vania Ferreira; Paolo Vatta; Renato H Orsi; Lovorka Degoricija; Melissa Barker; Olga Petrauskene; Manohar R Furtado; Martin Wiedmann

2010-01-01

83

Bacterial IMPDH gene used for the selection of mammalian cell transfectants.  

SciTech Connect

Stable cell transfection is used for the expression of exogenous genes or cDNAs in eukaryotic cells. Selection of these transfectants requires a dominant selectable marker. A variety of such markers has been identified and is currently in use. However, many of these are not suitable for all cell types or require unique conditions. Here we describe a simple and versatile dominant selectable marker that involves bacterial IMP dehydrogenase (IMPDH), an enzyme essential for the replication of mammalian and bacterial cells. Although IMPDH is evolutionarily conserved, the bacterial enzyme is orders of magnitude more resistant to the toxic effect of the drug mycophenolic acid, which is an IMPDH inhibitor. We have demonstrated that transfection of human, monkey or Chinese hamster cell lines with an expression vector containing bacterial IMPDH and mycophenolic acid treatment resulted in the selection of colonies with a strikingly increased resistance to mycophenolic acid toxicity. Analysis of cells derived from these colonies indicated that the acquisition of this resistance was associated with bacterial IMPDH protein expression. As a proof of principle, we showed that mammalian cell transfection with a hicistronic IMPDH/GFP expression vector and mycophenolic acid treatment can he used to successfully select transfectants that express the fluorescent protein. These results indicate that bacterial IMPDH is a practical dominant selectable marker that can be used for the selection of transfectants that express exogenous genes or cDNAs in mammalian cells.

Baccam, M.; Huberman, E.; Energy Systems

2003-06-01

84

Interplay of Noisy Gene Expression and Dynamics Explains Patterns of Bacterial Operon Organization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bacterial chromosomes are organized into operons -- sets of genes co-transcribed into polycistronic messenger RNA. Hypotheses explaining the emergence and maintenance of operons include proportional co-regulation, horizontal transfer of intact "selfish" operons, emergence via gene duplication, and co-production of physically interacting proteins to speed their association. We hypothesized an alternative: operons can reduce or increase intrinsic gene expression noise in a manner dependent on the post-translational interactions, thereby resulting in selection for or against operons in depending on the network architecture. We devised five classes of two-gene network modules and show that the effects of operons on intrinsic noise depend on class membership. Two classes exhibit decreased noise with co-transcription, two others reveal increased noise, and the remaining one does not show a significant difference. To test our modeling predictions we employed bioinformatic analysis to determine the relationship gene expression noise and operon organization. The results confirm the overrepresentation of noise-minimizing operon architectures and provide evidence against other hypotheses. Our results thereby suggest a central role for gene expression noise in selecting for or maintaining operons in bacterial chromosomes. This demonstrates how post-translational network dynamics may provide selective pressure for organizing bacterial chromosomes, and has practical consequences for designing synthetic gene networks.

Igoshin, Oleg

2011-03-01

85

Quality control of bacterial mRNA decoding and decay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies in eukaryotes and prokaryotes have revealed that gene expression is not only controlled through altering the rate of transcription but also through varying rates of translation and mRNA decay. Indeed, the expression level of a protein is strongly affected by the steady state level of its mRNA. RNA decay can, along with transcription, play an important role in regulating

Jamie Richards; Thomas Sundermeier; Anton Svetlanov; A. Wali Karzai

2008-01-01

86

The Ecology of Bacterial Genes and the Survival of the New  

PubMed Central

Much of the observed variation among closely related bacterial genomes is attributable to gains and losses of genes that are acquired horizontally as well as to gene duplications and larger amplifications. The genomic flexibility that results from these mechanisms certainly contributes to the ability of bacteria to survive and adapt in varying environmental challenges. However, the duplicability and transferability of individual genes imply that natural selection should operate, not only at the organismal level, but also at the level of the gene. Genes can be considered semiautonomous entities that possess specific functional niches and evolutionary dynamics. The evolution of bacterial genes should respond both to selective pressures that favor competition, mostly among orthologs or paralogs that may occupy the same functional niches, and cooperation, with the majority of other genes coexisting in a given genome. The relative importance of either type of selection is likely to vary among different types of genes, based on the functional niches they cover and on the tightness of their association with specific organismal lineages. The frequent availability of new functional niches caused by environmental changes and biotic evolution should enable the constant diversification of gene families and the survival of new lineages of genes. PMID:22900231

Francino, M. Pilar

2012-01-01

87

Expression of bacterial genes in transgenic tobacco: methods, applications and future prospects  

PubMed Central

Tobacco is the most commonly used plant for expression of transgenes from a variety of organisms, because it is easily grown and transformed, it provides abundant amounts of fresh tissue and has a well-established cell culture system. Many bacterial proteins involved in the synthesis of commercial products are currently engineered for production in tobacco. Bacterial enzymes synthesized in tobacco can enhance protection against abiotic stresses and diseases, and provide a system to test applied strategies such as phytoremediation. Examples of bacterial gene expression in tobacco include production of antigen proteins from several human bacterial pathogens as vaccines, bacterial proteins for enhancing resistance against insects, pathogens and herbicides, and bacterial enzymes for the production of polymers, sugars, and bioethanol. Further improvements in the expression of recombinant proteins and their recovery from tobacco will enhance production and commercial use of these proteins. This review highlights the dynamic use of tobacco in bacterial protein production by examining the most relevant research in this field. PMID:19750137

Jube, Sandro

2009-01-01

88

Overexpression of Bacterial mtlD Gene in Peanut Improves Drought Tolerance through Accumulation of Mannitol  

PubMed Central

In the changing global environmental scenarios, water scarcity and recurrent drought impose huge reductions to the peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) crop yield. In plants, osmotic adjustments associated with efficient free radical scavenging ability during abiotic stress are important components of stress tolerance mechanisms. Mannitol, a compatible solute, is known to scavenge hydroxyl radicals generated during various abiotic stresses, thereby conferring tolerance to water-deficit stress in many plant species. However, peanut plant is not known to synthesize mannitol. Therefore, bacterial mtlD gene coding for mannitol 1-phosphate dehydrogenase under the control of constitutive promoter CaMV35S was introduced and overexpressed in the peanut cv. GG 20 using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. A total of eight independent transgenic events were confirmed at molecular level by PCR, Southern blotting, and RT-PCR. Transgenic lines had increased amount of mannitol and exhibited enhanced tolerance in response to water-deficit stress. Improved performance of the mtlD transgenics was indicated by excised-leaf water loss assay and relative water content under water-deficit stress. Better performance of transgenics was due to the ability of the plants to synthesize mannitol. However, regulation of mtlD gene expression in transgenic plants remains to be elucidated.

Bhauso, Tengale Dipak; Radhakrishnan, Thankappan; Kumar, Abhay; Mishra, Gyan Prakash; Dobaria, Jentilal Ramjibhai; Patel, Kirankumar; Rajam, Manchikatla Venkat

2014-01-01

89

Controlling Plant Pathogens with Bacterial/Fungal Antagonist Combinations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fungal/bacterial antagonist combinations, a seed coated with one of the combinations and a plant protected from plant pathogens by one of the combinations. The invention is also a fungal/bacterial antagonist combination comprising a Trichoderma virens fun...

T. D. Johnson

2004-01-01

90

ZCURVE: a new system for recognizing protein-coding genes in bacterial and archaeal genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new system, ZCURVE 1.0, for finding protein- coding genes in bacterial and archaeal genomes has been proposed. The current algorithm, which is based on the Z curve representation of the DNA sequences, lays stress on the global statistical features of protein-coding genes by taking the frequencies of bases at three codon positions into account. In ZCURVE 1.0, since only

Feng-Biao Guo; Hong-Yu Ou; Chun-Ting Zhang

2003-01-01

91

Clavanin bacterial sepsis control using a novel methacrylate nanocarrier  

PubMed Central

Controlling human pathogenic bacteria is a worldwide problem due to increasing bacterial resistance. This has prompted a number of studies investigating peptides isolated from marine animals as a possible alternative for control of human pathogen infections. Clavanins are antimicrobial peptides isolated from the marine tunicate Styela clava, showing 23 amino acid residues in length, cationic properties, and also high bactericidal activity. In spite of clear benefits from the use of peptides, currently 95% of peptide properties have limited pharmaceutical applicability, such as low solubility and short half-life in the circulatory system. Here, nanobiotechnology was used to encapsulate clavanin A in order to develop nanoantibiotics against bacterial sepsis. Clavanin was nanostructured using EUDRAGIT® L 100-55 and RS 30 D solution (3:1 w:w). Atomic force, scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering showed nanoparticles ranging from 120 to 372 nm in diameter, with a zeta potential of -7.16 mV and a polydispersity index of 0.123. Encapsulation rate of 98% was assessed by reversed-phase chromatography. In vitro bioassays showed that the nanostructured clavanin was partially able to control development of Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Furthermore, nanostructures did not show hemolytic activity. In vivo sepsis bioassays were performed using C57BL6 mice strain inoculated with a polymicrobial suspension. Assays led to 100% survival rate under sub-lethal sepsis assays and 40% under lethal sepsis assays in the presence of nanoformulated clavanin A until the seventh day of the experiment. Data here reported indicated that nanostructured clavanin A form shows improved antimicrobial activity and has the potential to be used to treat polymicrobial infections. PMID:25382976

Saude, Amanda CM; Ombredane, Alicia S; Silva, Osmar N; Barbosa, Joao ARG; Moreno, Susana E; Guerra Araujo, Ana Claudia; Falcao, Rosana; Silva, Luciano P; Dias, Simoni C; Franco, Octavio L

2014-01-01

92

Denitrification gene expression in clay-soil bacterial community  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our contribution in the Italian research project SOILSINK was focused on microbial denitrification gene expression in Mediterranean agricultural soils. In ecosystems with high inputs of nitrogen, such as agricultural soils, denitrification causes a net loss of nitrogen since nitrate is reduced to gaseous forms, which are released into the atmosphere. Moreover, incomplete denitrification can lead to emission of nitrous oxide, a potent greenhouse gas which contributes to global warming and destruction of ozone layer. A critical role in denitrification is played by microorganisms and the ability to denitrify is widespread among a variety of phylogenetically unrelated organisms. Data reported here are referred to wheat cultivation in a clay-rich soil under different environmental impact management (Agugliano, AN, Italy). We analysed the RNA directly extracted from soil to provide information on in situ activities of specific populations. The expression of genes coding for two nitrate reductases (narG and napA), two nitrite reductases (nirS and nirK), two nitric oxide reductases (cnorB and qnorB) and nitrous oxide reductase (nosZ) was analyzed by reverse transcription (RT)-nested PCR. Only napA, nirS, nirK, qnorB and nosZ were detected and fragments sequenced showed high similarity with the corresponding gene sequences deposited in GenBank database. These results suggest the suitability of the method for the qualitative detection of denitrifying bacteria in environmental samples and they offered us the possibility to perform the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analyzes for denitrification genes.. Earlier conclusions showed nirK gene is more widely distributed in soil environment than nirS gene. The results concerning the nosZ expression indicated that microbial activity was clearly present only in no-tilled and no-fertilized soils.

Pastorelli, R.; Landi, S.

2009-04-01

93

Genetic Diversity of Bacterial Communities and Gene Transfer Agents in Northern South China Sea  

PubMed Central

Pyrosequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) amplicons was performed to investigate the unique distribution of bacterial communities in northern South China Sea (nSCS) and evaluate community structure and spatial differences of bacterial diversity. Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes constitute the majority of bacteria. The taxonomic description of bacterial communities revealed that more Chroococcales, SAR11 clade, Acidimicrobiales, Rhodobacterales, and Flavobacteriales are present in the nSCS waters than other bacterial groups. Rhodobacterales were less abundant in tropical water (nSCS) than in temperate and cold waters. Furthermore, the diversity of Rhodobacterales based on the gene transfer agent (GTA) major capsid gene (g5) was investigated. Four g5 gene clone libraries were constructed from samples representing different regions and yielded diverse sequences. Fourteen g5 clusters could be identified among 197 nSCS clones. These clusters were also related to known g5 sequences derived from genome-sequenced Rhodobacterales. The composition of g5 sequences in surface water varied with the g5 sequences in the sampling sites; this result indicated that the Rhodobacterales population could be highly diverse in nSCS. Phylogenetic tree analysis result indicated distinguishable diversity patterns among tropical (nSCS), temperate, and cold waters, thereby supporting the niche adaptation of specific Rhodobacterales members in unique environments. PMID:25364820

Sun, Fu-Lin; Wang, You-Shao; Wu, Mei-Lin; Jiang, Zhao-Yu; Sun, Cui-Ci; Cheng, Hao

2014-01-01

94

Host Response to Respiratory Bacterial Pathogens as Identified by Integrated Analysis of Human Gene Expression Data  

PubMed Central

Respiratory bacterial pathogens are one of the leading causes of infectious death in the world and a major health concern complicated by the rise of multi-antibiotic resistant strains. Therapeutics that modulate host genes essential for pathogen infectivity could potentially avoid multi-drug resistance and provide a wider scope of treatment options. Here, we perform an integrative analysis of published human gene expression data generated under challenges from the gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria pathogens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus pneumoniae, respectively. We applied a previously described differential gene and pathway enrichment analysis pipeline to publicly available host mRNA GEO datasets resulting from exposure to bacterial infection. We found 72 canonical human pathways common between four GEO datasets, representing P. aeruginosa and S. pneumoniae. Although the majority of these pathways are known to be involved with immune response, we found several interesting new interactions such as the SUMO1 pathway that might have a role in bacterial infections. Furthermore, 36 host-bacterial pathways were also shared with our previous results for respiratory virus host gene expression. Based on our pathway analysis we propose several drug-repurposing opportunities supported by the literature. PMID:24086587

Smith, Steven B.; Magid-Slav, Michal; Brown, James R.

2013-01-01

95

A Model of Horizontal Gene Transfer and the Bacterial Phylogeny Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

How much horizontal gene transfer (HGT) between species influences bacterial phylogenomics is a controversial issue. This debate, however, lacks any quantitative assessment of the impact of HGT on phylogenies and of the ability of tree-building methods to cope with such events. I introduce a Markov model of genome evolution with HGT, accounting for the constraints on time—an HGT event can

Nicolas Galtier

2007-01-01

96

The Effect of Nitrogen on Disease Development and Gene Expression in Bacterial and Fungal Plant Pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful colonisation of plants by pathogens requires efficient utilisation of nutrient resources available in host tissues. Several bacterial and fungal genes are specifically induced during pathogenesis and under nitrogen-limiting conditions in vitro. This suggests that a nitrogen-limiting environment may be one of the cues for disease symptom development during growth of the pathogens in planta. Here we review recent literature

Sandor S. Snoeijers; Alejandro Pérez-García; Matthieu H. A. J. Joosten

2000-01-01

97

Cloning and Characterization of the Zymobacter palmae Pyruvate Decarboxylase Gene (pdc) and Comparison to Bacterial Homologues†  

PubMed Central

Pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) is the key enzyme in all homo-ethanol fermentations. Although widely distributed among plants, yeasts, and fungi, PDC is absent in animals and rare in bacteria (established for only three organisms). Genes encoding the three known bacterial pdc genes have been previously described and expressed as active recombinant proteins. The pdc gene from Zymomonas mobilis has been used to engineer ethanol-producing biocatalysts for use in industry. In this paper, we describe a new bacterial pdc gene from Zymobacter palmae. The pattern of codon usage for this gene appears quite similar to that for Escherichia coli genes. In E. coli recombinants, the Z. palmae PDC represented approximately 1/3 of the soluble protein. Biochemical and kinetic properties of the Z. palmae enzyme were compared to purified PDCs from three other bacteria. Of the four bacterial PDCs, the Z. palmae enzyme exhibited the highest specific activity (130 U mg of protein?1) and the lowest Km for pyruvate (0.24 mM). Differences in biochemical properties, thermal stability, and codon usage may offer unique advantages for the development of new biocatalysts for fuel ethanol production. PMID:12039744

Raj, Krishnan Chandra; Talarico, Lee A.; Ingram, Lonnie O.; Maupin-Furlow, Julie A.

2002-01-01

98

Gene silencing using the recessive rice bacterial blight resistance gene xa13 as a new paradigm in plant breeding.  

PubMed

Resistant germplasm resources are valuable for developing resistant varieties in agricultural production. However, recessive resistance genes are usually overlooked in hybrid breeding. Compared with dominant traits, however, they may confer resistance to different pathogenic races or pest biotypes with different mechanisms of action. The recessive rice bacterial blight resistance gene xa13, also involved in pollen development, has been cloned and its resistance mechanism has been recently characterized. This report describes the conversion of bacterial blight resistance mediated by the recessive xa13 gene into a dominant trait to facilitate its use in a breeding program. This was achieved by knockdown of the corresponding dominant allele Xa13 in transgenic rice using recently developed artificial microRNA technology. Tissue-specific promoters were used to exclude most of the expression of artificial microRNA in the anther to ensure that Xa13 functioned normally during pollen development. A battery of highly bacterial blight resistant transgenic plants with normal seed setting rates were acquired, indicating that highly specific gene silencing had been achieved. Our success with xa13 provides a paradigm that can be adapted to other recessive resistance genes. PMID:22218673

Li, Changyan; Wei, Jing; Lin, Yongjun; Chen, Hao

2012-05-01

99

Seasonality and resource availability control bacterial and archaeal communities in soils of a temperate beech forest.  

PubMed

It was hypothesized that seasonality and resource availability altered through tree girdling were major determinants of the phylogenetic composition of the archaeal and bacterial community in a temperate beech forest soil. During a 2-year field experiment, involving girdling of beech trees to intercept the transfer of easily available carbon (C) from the canopy to roots, members of the dominant phylogenetic microbial phyla residing in top soils under girdled versus untreated control trees were monitored at bimonthly intervals through 16S rRNA gene-based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism profiling and quantitative PCR analysis. Effects on nitrifying and denitrifying groups were assessed by measuring the abundances of nirS and nosZ genes as well as bacterial and archaeal amoA genes. Seasonal dynamics displayed by key phylogenetic and nitrogen (N) cycling functional groups were found to be tightly coupled with seasonal alterations in labile C and N pools as well as with variation in soil temperature and soil moisture. In particular, archaea and acidobacteria were highly responsive to soil nutritional and soil climatic changes associated with seasonality, indicating their high metabolic versatility and capability to adapt to environmental changes. For these phyla, significant interrelations with soil chemical and microbial process data were found suggesting their potential, but poorly described contribution to nitrification or denitrification in temperate forest soils. In conclusion, our extensive approach allowed us to get novel insights into effects of seasonality and resource availability on the microbial community, in particular on hitherto poorly studied bacterial phyla and functional groups. PMID:20882059

Rasche, Frank; Knapp, Daniela; Kaiser, Christina; Koranda, Marianne; Kitzler, Barbara; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Richter, Andreas; Sessitsch, Angela

2011-03-01

100

Identification and analysis of bacterial virulence genes in vivo.  

PubMed Central

Signature-tagged mutagenesis is a mutation-based screening method for the identification of virulence genes of microbial pathogens. Genes isolated by this approach fall into three classes: those with known biochemical function, those of suspected function and some whose functions cannot be predicted from database searches. A variety of in vitro and in vivo methods are available to elucidate the function of genes of the second and third classes. We describe the use of some of these approaches to study the function of the Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 type III secretion system of Salmonella typhimurium. This virulence determinant is required for intracellular survival. Secretion by this system is induced by an acidic pH, and its function may be to alter trafficking of the Salmonella-containing vacuole. Use of a temperature-sensitive non-replicating plasmid and competitive index tests with other genes show that in vivo phenotypes do not always correspond to those predicted from in vitro studies. PMID:10874734

Unsworth, K E; Holden, D W

2000-01-01

101

Carboxymethylcellulose film for bacterial wound infection control and healing.  

PubMed

Infection control and wound healing profiles of sodium carboxymethylcellulose (SCMC) films were investigated as a function of their anti-bacterial action, physical structures, polymer molecular weights and carboxymethyl substitution degrees. The films were prepared with in vitro polymer/film and in vivo microbe-colonized wound healing/systemic infection profiles examined. Adhesive high carboxymethyl substituted SCMC films aided healing via attaching to microbes and removing them from wound. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was removed via encapsulating in gelling low molecular weight SCMC film, whereas Staphylococcus aureus was trapped in tight folds of high molecular weight SCMC film. Incomplete microbe removal from wound did not necessary translate to inability to heal as microbe remnant at wound induced fibroblast migration and aided tissue reconstruction. Using no film nonetheless will cause systemic blood infection. SCMC films negate infection and promote wound healing via specific polymer-microbe adhesion, and removal of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa requires films of different polymer characteristics. PMID:25129756

Wong, Tin Wui; Ramli, Nor Amlizan

2014-11-01

102

Multiple micro-predators controlling bacterial communities in the environment.  

PubMed

Predator-prey interactions are a main issue in ecological theory, including multispecies predator-prey relationships and intraguild predation. This knowledge is mainly based on the study of plants and animals, while its relevance for microorganisms is not well understood. The three key groups of micro-predators include protists, predatory bacteria and bacteriophages. They greatly differ in size, in prey specificity, in hunting strategies and in the resulting population dynamics. Yet, their potential to jointly control bacterial populations and reducing biomass in complex environments such as wastewater treatment plants is vast. Here, we present relevant ecological concepts and recent findings on micropredators, and propose that an integrative approach to predation at the microscale should be developed enabling the exploitation of this potential. PMID:24598212

Johnke, Julia; Cohen, Yossi; de Leeuw, Marina; Kushmaro, Ariel; Jurkevitch, Edouard; Chatzinotas, Antonis

2014-06-01

103

The use of nano-sized acicular material, sliding friction, and antisense DNA oligonucleotides to silence bacterial genes  

PubMed Central

Viable bacterial cells impaled with a single particle of a nano-sized acicular material formed when a mixture containing the cells and the material was exposed to a sliding friction field between polystyrene and agar gel; hereafter, we refer to these impaled cells as penetrons. We have used nano-sized acicular material to establish a novel method for bacterial transformation. Here, we generated penetrons that carried antisense DNA adsorbed on nano-sized acicular material (?-sepiolite) by providing sliding friction onto the surface of agar gel; we then investigated whether penetron formation was applicable to gene silencing techniques. Antisense DNA was artificially synthesized as 15 or 90mer DNA oligonucleotides based on the sequences around the translation start codon of target mRNAs. Mixtures of bacterial cells with antisense DNA adsorbed on ?-sepiolite were stimulated by sliding friction on the surface of agar gel for 60 s. Upon formation of Escherichia coli penetrons, ?-lactamase and ?-galactosidase expression was evaluated by counting the numbers of colonies formed on LB agar containing ampicillin and by measuring ?-galactosidase activity respectively. The numbers of ampicillin resistant colonies and the ?-galactosidase activity derived from penetrons bearing antisense DNA (90mer) was repressed to 15% and 25%, respectively, of that of control penetrons which lacked antisense DNA. Biphenyl metabolite, ring cleavage yellow compound produced by Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes penetron treated with antisense oligonucleotide DNA targeted to bphD increased higher than that lacking antisense DNA. This result indicated that expression of bphD in P. pseudoalcaligenes penetrons was repressed by antisense DNA that targeted bphD mRNA. Sporulation rates of Bacillus subtilis penetrons treated with antisense DNA (15mer) targeted to spo0A decreased to 24.4% relative to penetrons lacking antisense DNA. This novel method of gene silencing has substantial promise for elucidation of gene function in bacterial species that have been refractory to experimental introduction of exogenous DNA.

2014-01-01

104

Gain and Loss of Phototrophic Genes Revealed by Comparison of Two Citromicrobium Bacterial Genomes  

PubMed Central

Proteobacteria are thought to have diverged from a phototrophic ancestor, according to the scattered distribution of phototrophy throughout the proteobacterial clade, and so the occurrence of numerous closely related phototrophic and chemotrophic microorganisms may be the result of the loss of genes for phototrophy. A widespread form of bacterial phototrophy is based on the photochemical reaction center, encoded by puf and puh operons that typically are in a ‘photosynthesis gene cluster’ (abbreviated as the PGC) with pigment biosynthesis genes. Comparison of two closely related Citromicrobial genomes (98.1% sequence identity of complete 16S rRNA genes), Citromicrobium sp. JL354, which contains two copies of reaction center genes, and Citromicrobium strain JLT1363, which is chemotrophic, revealed evidence for the loss of phototrophic genes. However, evidence of horizontal gene transfer was found in these two bacterial genomes. An incomplete PGC (pufLMC-puhCBA) in strain JL354 was located within an integrating conjugative element, which indicates a potential mechanism for the horizontal transfer of genes for phototrophy. PMID:22558224

Zheng, Qiang; Zhang, Rui; Fogg, Paul C. M.; Beatty, J. Thomas; Wang, Yu; Jiao, Nianzhi

2012-01-01

105

Identification and phylogenetic sorting of bacterial lineages with universally conserved genes and proteins.  

PubMed

Molecular characterizations of bacteria often employ ribosomal DNA (rDNA) to establish the identity and relationships among organisms, but the use of rRNA sequences can be problematic as the result of alignment ambiguities caused by indels, the lack of informative characters, and varying functional constraints over the molecule. Although protein-coding regions have been used as an alternative to rRNA, there is neither consensus among the genes examined nor ways to rapidly obtain sequence information for such genes from uncharacterized bacterial species. To standardize the set of protein-coding loci assayed in bacterial genomes, we examined over 100 widely distributed genes to identify sets of universal primers for use in the PCR amplification of protein coding regions that are common to virtually all bacteria. From this set, we developed primer sets that each target of 10 genes spanning an array of genomic locations and functional categories. Although many of the primers contain sequence degeneracies that aid in targeting genes across diverse taxa, most are adequate for direct sequencing of amplification products, thereby eliminating intermediate cloning before sequence determination. We foresee the analysis of these protein-coding regions as being complementary to ribosomal DNA for answering questions pertaining to bacterial identification, classification, phylogenetics and evolution. PMID:15186354

Santos, Scott R; Ochman, Howard

2004-07-01

106

Role of starvation genes in the survival of deep subsurface bacterial communities. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The investigation dealt with several aspects of subsurface bacterial survival and their nature. Mutants of Pseudomonas putida, a common environmental bacterium with counterparts in the subsurface, were isolated by transposon mutagenesis. These mutants were highly sensitive to starvation stress. Reporter gene fusions also showed that these genes were starvation genes since they were induced several fold when the cultures were started. Since the regulatory religions (promoters) of starvation genes are of interest in bioremediation and in experiments designed to understand the roles of starvation genes in the maintenance of microbial community structure, the promoter of one of these genes (pstarv1, contained in strain MK107) was characterized in detail. As a preliminary to these studies, the growth characteristics of Pseudomonas putida MK1 and MK107 were compared for cells growing in batch cultures or as an attached monolayer in microstat cultures.

Matin, A. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Microbiology and Immunology; Schmidt, T. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Microbiology; Caldwell, D. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada). Dept. of Microbiology

1998-11-01

107

Horizontal Gene Transfer and the Evolution of Bacterial and Archaeal Population Structure  

PubMed Central

Many bacterial and archaeal lineages have a history of extensive and ongoing horizontal gene transfer and loss, as evidenced by the large differences in genome content even among otherwise closely related isolates. How ecologically cohesive populations might evolve and be maintained under such conditions of rapid gene turnover has remained controversial. Here we synthesize recent literature demonstrating the importance of habitat and niche in structuring horizontal gene transfer. This leads to a model of ecological speciation via gradual genetic isolation triggered by differential habitat association of nascent populations. Further, we hypothesize that subpopulations can evolve through local gene exchange networks by tapping into a gene pool that is adaptive towards local, continuously changing organismic interactions and is, to a large degree, responsible for the observed rapid gene turnover. Overall, these insights help explain how bacteria and archaea form populations that display both ecological cohesion and high genomic diversity. PMID:23332119

Alm, Eric J.; Hanage, William P.

2013-01-01

108

Secondary sigma Factor Controls Transcription of Flagellar and Chemotaxis Genes in Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genes specifying chemotaxis, motility, and flagellar function in Escherichia coli are coordinately regulated and form a large and complex regulon. Despite the importance of these genes in controlling bacterial behavior, little is known of the molecular mechanisms that regulate their expression. We have identified a minor form of E. coli RNA polymerase that specifically transcribes several E. coli chemotaxis\\/flagellar

David N. Arnosti; Michael J. Chamberlin

1989-01-01

109

A Cell Cycle and Nutritional Checkpoint Controlling Bacterial Surface Adhesion  

PubMed Central

In natural environments, bacteria often adhere to surfaces where they form complex multicellular communities. Surface adherence is determined by the biochemical composition of the cell envelope. We describe a novel regulatory mechanism by which the bacterium, Caulobacter crescentus, integrates cell cycle and nutritional signals to control development of an adhesive envelope structure known as the holdfast. Specifically, we have discovered a 68-residue protein inhibitor of holdfast development (HfiA) that directly targets a conserved glycolipid glycosyltransferase required for holdfast production (HfsJ). Multiple cell cycle regulators associate with the hfiA and hfsJ promoters and control their expression, temporally constraining holdfast development to the late stages of G1. HfiA further functions as part of a ‘nutritional override’ system that decouples holdfast development from the cell cycle in response to nutritional cues. This control mechanism can limit surface adhesion in nutritionally sub-optimal environments without affecting cell cycle progression. We conclude that post-translational regulation of cell envelope enzymes by small proteins like HfiA may provide a general means to modulate the surface properties of bacterial cells. PMID:24465221

Fiebig, Aretha; Herrou, Julien; Fumeaux, Coralie; Radhakrishnan, Sunish K.; Viollier, Patrick H.; Crosson, Sean

2014-01-01

110

Both msa genes in Renibacterium salmoninarum are needed for full virulence in bacterial kidney disease.  

PubMed

Renibacterium salmoninarum, a gram-positive diplococcobacillus that causes bacterial kidney disease among salmon and trout, has two chromosomal loci encoding the major soluble antigen (msa) gene. Because the MSA protein is widely suspected to be an important virulence factor, we used insertion-duplication mutagenesis to generate disruptions of either the msa1 or msa2 gene. Surprisingly, expression of MSA protein in broth cultures appeared unaffected. However, the virulence of either mutant in juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) by intraperitoneal challenge was severely attenuated, suggesting that disruption of the msa1 or msa2 gene affected in vivo expression. PMID:16597972

Coady, Alison M; Murray, Anthony L; Elliott, Diane G; Rhodes, Linda D

2006-04-01

111

Reduced Set of Virulence Genes Allows High Accuracy Prediction of Bacterial Pathogenicity in Humans  

PubMed Central

Although there have been great advances in understanding bacterial pathogenesis, there is still a lack of integrative information about what makes a bacterium a human pathogen. The advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies has dramatically increased the amount of completed bacterial genomes, for both known human pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains; this information is now available to investigate genetic features that determine pathogenic phenotypes in bacteria. In this work we determined presence/absence patterns of different virulence-related genes among more than finished bacterial genomes from both human pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains, belonging to different taxonomic groups (i.e: Actinobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, etc.). An accuracy of 95% using a cross-fold validation scheme with in-fold feature selection is obtained when classifying human pathogens and non-pathogens. A reduced subset of highly informative genes () is presented and applied to an external validation set. The statistical model was implemented in the BacFier v1.0 software (freely available at ), that displays not only the prediction (pathogen/non-pathogen) and an associated probability for pathogenicity, but also the presence/absence vector for the analyzed genes, so it is possible to decipher the subset of virulence genes responsible for the classification on the analyzed genome. Furthermore, we discuss the biological relevance for bacterial pathogenesis of the core set of genes, corresponding to eight functional categories, all with evident and documented association with the phenotypes of interest. Also, we analyze which functional categories of virulence genes were more distinctive for pathogenicity in each taxonomic group, which seems to be a completely new kind of information and could lead to important evolutionary conclusions. PMID:22916122

Iraola, Gregorio; Vazquez, Gustavo; Spangenberg, Lucia; Naya, Hugo

2012-01-01

112

Bacterial Community Succession During in situ Uranium Bioremediation: Spatial Similarities Along Controlled Flow Paths  

SciTech Connect

Bacterial community succession was investigated in a field-scale subsurface reactor formed by a series of wells that received weekly ethanol additions to re-circulating groundwater. Ethanol additions stimulated denitrification, metal reduction, sulfate reduction, and U(VI) reduction to sparingly soluble U(IV). Clone libraries of SSU rRNA gene sequences from groundwater samples enabled tracking of spatial and temporal changes over a 1.5 y period. Analyses showed that the communities changed in a manner consistent with geochemical variations that occurred along temporal and spatial scales. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that the levels of nitrate, uranium, sulfide, sulfate, and ethanol strongly correlated with particular bacterial populations. As sulfate and U(VI) levels declined, sequences representative of sulfate-reducers and metal-reducers were detected at high levels. Ultimately, sequences associated with sulfate-reducing populations predominated, and sulfate levels declined as U(VI) remained at low levels. When engineering controls were compared to the population variation via canonical ordination, changes could be related to dissolved oxygen control and ethanol addition. The data also indicated that the indigenous populations responded differently to stimulation for bio-reduction; however, the two bio-stimulated communities became more similar after different transitions in an idiosyncratic manner. The strong associations between particular environmental variables and certain populations provide insight into the establishment of practical and successful remediation strategies in radionuclide-contaminated environments with respect to engineering controls and microbial ecology.

Hwang, Chiachi; Wu, Weimin; Gentry, Terry J.; Carley, Jack; Corbin, Gail A.; Carroll, Sue L.; Watson, David B.; Jardine, Phil M.; Zhou, Jizhong; Criddle, Craig S.; Fields, Matthew W.

2009-05-22

113

Factors Controlling Extremely Productive Heterotrophic Bacterial Communities in Shallow Soda Pools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dilute soda lakes are among the worlds most productive environments and are usually dominated by dense blooms of cyanobacteria. Up to now, there has been little information available on heterotrophic bacterial abundance, production, and their controlling factors in these ecosystems. In the present study the main environmental factors responsible for the control of the heterotrophic bacterial community in five shallow

A. Eiler; A. H. Farnleitner; T. C. Zechmeister; A. Herzig; C. Hurban; W. Wesner; R. Krachler; B. Velimirov; A. K. T. Kirschner

2003-01-01

114

Programmable repression and activation of bacterial gene expression using an engineered CRISPR-Cas system  

E-print Network

The ability to artificially control transcription is essential both to the study of gene function and to the construction of synthetic gene networks with desired properties. Cas9 is an RNA-guided double-stranded DNA nuclease ...

Zhang, Feng

115

Autonomous bacterial localization and gene expression based on nearby cell receptor density  

PubMed Central

Escherichia coli were genetically modified to enable programmed motility, sensing, and actuation based on the density of features on nearby surfaces. Then, based on calculated feature density, these cells expressed marker proteins to indicate phenotypic response. Specifically, site-specific synthesis of bacterial quorum sensing autoinducer-2 (AI-2) is used to initiate and recruit motile cells. In our model system, we rewired E. coli's AI-2 signaling pathway to direct bacteria to a squamous cancer cell line of head and neck (SCCHN), where they initiate synthesis of a reporter (drug surrogate) based on a threshold density of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). This represents a new type of controller for targeted drug delivery as actuation (synthesis and delivery) depends on a receptor density marking the diseased cell. The ability to survey local surfaces and initiate gene expression based on feature density represents a new area-based switch in synthetic biology that will find use beyond the proposed cancer model here. PMID:23340842

Wu, Hsuan-Chen; Tsao, Chen-Yu; Quan, David N; Cheng, Yi; Servinsky, Matthew D; Carter, Karen K; Jee, Kathleen J; Terrell, Jessica L; Zargar, Amin; Rubloff, Gary W; Payne, Gregory F; Valdes, James J; Bentley, William E

2013-01-01

116

Autonomous bacterial localization and gene expression based on nearby cell receptor density.  

PubMed

Escherichia coli were genetically modified to enable programmed motility, sensing, and actuation based on the density of features on nearby surfaces. Then, based on calculated feature density, these cells expressed marker proteins to indicate phenotypic response. Specifically, site-specific synthesis of bacterial quorum sensing autoinducer-2 (AI-2) is used to initiate and recruit motile cells. In our model system, we rewired E. coli's AI-2 signaling pathway to direct bacteria to a squamous cancer cell line of head and neck (SCCHN), where they initiate synthesis of a reporter (drug surrogate) based on a threshold density of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). This represents a new type of controller for targeted drug delivery as actuation (synthesis and delivery) depends on a receptor density marking the diseased cell. The ability to survey local surfaces and initiate gene expression based on feature density represents a new area-based switch in synthetic biology that will find use beyond the proposed cancer model here. PMID:23340842

Wu, Hsuan-Chen; Tsao, Chen-Yu; Quan, David N; Cheng, Yi; Servinsky, Matthew D; Carter, Karen K; Jee, Kathleen J; Terrell, Jessica L; Zargar, Amin; Rubloff, Gary W; Payne, Gregory F; Valdes, James J; Bentley, William E

2013-01-01

117

Bacterial and fungal chitinase chiJ orthologs evolve under different selective constraints following horizontal gene transfer  

PubMed Central

Background Certain bacteria from the genus Streptomyces are currently used as biological control agents against plant pathogenic fungi. Hydrolytic enzymes that degrade fungal cell wall components, such as chitinases, are suggested as one possible mechanism in biocontrol interactions. Adaptive evolution of chitinases are previously reported for plant chitinases involved in defence against fungal pathogens, and in fungal chitinases involved in fungal-fungal interactions. In this study we investigated the molecular evolution of chitinase chiJ in the bacterial genus Streptomyces. In addition, as chiJ orthologs are previously reported in certain fungal species as a result from horizontal gene transfer, we conducted a comparative study of differences in evolutionary patterns between bacterial and fungal taxa. Findings ChiJ contained three sites evolving under strong positive selection and four groups of co-evolving sites. Regions of high amino acid diversity were predicted to be surface-exposed and associated with coil regions that connect certain ?-helices and ?-strands in the family 18 chitinase TIM barrel structure, but not associated with the catalytic cleft. The comparative study with fungal ChiJ orthologs identified three regions that display signs of type 1 functional divergence, where unique adaptations in the bacterial and fungal taxa are driven by positive selection. Conclusions The identified surface-exposed regions of chitinase ChiJ where sequence diversification is driven by positive selection may putatively be related to functional divergence between bacterial and fungal orthologs. These results show that ChiJ orthologs have evolved under different selective constraints following the horizontal gene transfer event. PMID:23095575

2012-01-01

118

Tightly Regulated and Heritable Division Control in Single Bacterial Cells  

PubMed Central

The robust surface adherence property of the aquatic bacterium Caulobacter crescentus permits visualization of single cells in a linear microfluidic culture chamber over an extended number of generations. The division rate of Caulobacter in this continuous-flow culture environment is substantially faster than in other culture apparati and is independent of flow velocity. Analysis of the growth and division of single isogenic cells reveals that the cell cycle control network of this bacterium generates an oscillatory output with a coefficient of variation lower than that of all other bacterial species measured to date. DivJ, a regulator of polar cell development, is necessary for maintaining low variance in interdivision timing, as transposon disruption of divJ significantly increases the coefficient of variation of both interdivision time and the rate of cell elongation. Moreover, interdivision time and cell division arrest are significantly correlated between mother and daughter cells, providing evidence for epigenetic inheritance of cell division behavior in Caulobacter. The single-cell growth/division results reported here suggest that future predictive models of Caulobacter cell cycle regulation should include parameters describing the variance and inheritance properties of this system. PMID:18469083

Siegal-Gaskins, Dan; Crosson, Sean

2008-01-01

119

Mutations in ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transaminase genes in plants or Pseudomonas syringae reduce bacterial virulence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 is a bacterial pathogen of Arabidopsis and tomato that grows in the apoplast. The non-protein amino acid ?-amino butyric acid (GABA) is produced by Arabidopsis and tomato and is the most abundant amino acid in the apoplastic fluid of tomato. The DC3000 genome harbors three genes annotated as gabT GABA transaminases. A DC3000 mutant lacking

Duck Hwan Park; Rossana Mirabella; Philip A. Bronstein; Gail M. Preston; Michel A. Haring; Chun Keun Lim; Alan Collmer; Robert C. Schuurink

2010-01-01

120

Anti-inflammatory effect and prostate gene expression profiling of steryl ferulate on experimental rats with non-bacterial prostatitis.  

PubMed

Steryl ferulate (SF) is a bioactive mixture extracted from rice bran and shows higher inhibitory activity against inflammation than the corresponding free sterols. In this study, the aim was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect and prostate gene expression profiling of SF using a Xiaozhiling-induced non-bacterial prostatitis (NBP) rat model. The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated by prostate weight, prostate index, acid phosphatase, density of lecithin corpuscles (DLC), white blood cell count (WBC), and prostatic histologic section. Prostate gene expression profiling was assessed by a cDNA microarray and validated by quantitative real-time PCR of five selected genes. Pathway analysis and Gene ontology (GO) analysis were applied to determine the roles of these differentially expressed genes involved in these biological pathways or GO terms. SF treatment could significantly inhibit prostate weight, prostate index, total acid phosphatase, prostatic acid phosphatase and WBC, suppress the severity of histological lesion and increase the DLC. Compared with the control group, the SF treatment group contained 238 up-regulated genes and 111 down-regulated genes. GO analysis demonstrated that the most significant expression genes were closely related to the terms of fibrinolysis, inflammatory response, high-density lipoprotein particle, protein-lipid complex, enzyme inhibitor activity, peptidase inhibitor activity and others. Canonical pathway analysis indicated five pathways were significantly regulated, which were associated with inflammation and tumorgenesis. In conclusion, SF may be used as a health supplement to prevent NBP, in that it could inhibit prostate inflammation in NBP patients by affecting the expression of genes in the related GO terms and pathways. PMID:24686498

Hu, Yinzhou; Xiong, Lina; Huang, Weisu; Cai, Huafang; Luo, Yanxi; Zhang, Ying; Lu, Baiyi

2014-06-01

121

Gene Expression in Gut Symbiotic Organ of Stinkbug Affected by Extracellular Bacterial Symbiont  

PubMed Central

The bean bug Riptortus pedestris possesses a specialized symbiotic organ in a posterior region of the midgut, where numerous crypts harbor extracellular betaproteobacterial symbionts of the genus Burkholderia. Second instar nymphs orally acquire the symbiont from the environment, and the symbiont infection benefits the host by facilitating growth and by occasionally conferring insecticide resistance. Here we performed comparative transcriptomic analyses of insect genes expressed in symbiotic and non-symbiotic regions of the midgut dissected from Burkholderia-infected and uninfected R. pedestris. Expression sequence tag analysis of cDNA libraries and quantitative reverse transcription PCR identified a number of insect genes expressed in symbiosis- or aposymbiosis-associated patterns. For example, genes up-regulated in symbiotic relative to aposymbiotic individuals, including many cysteine-rich secreted protein genes and many cathepsin protease genes, are likely to play a role in regulating the symbiosis. Conversely, genes up-regulated in aposymbiotic relative to symbiotic individuals, including a chicken-type lysozyme gene and a defensin-like protein gene, are possibly involved in regulation of non-symbiotic bacterial infections. Our study presents the first transcriptomic data on gut symbiotic organ of a stinkbug, which provides initial clues to understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying the insect-bacterium gut symbiosis and sheds light on several intriguing commonalities between endocellular and extracellular symbiotic associations. PMID:23691247

Futahashi, Ryo; Tanaka, Kohjiro; Tanahashi, Masahiko; Nikoh, Naruo; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo; Lee, Bok Luel; Fukatsu, Takema

2013-01-01

122

Transgenic Resistance Confers Effective Field Level Control of Bacterial Spot Disease in Tomato  

PubMed Central

We investigated whether lines of transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) expressing the Bs2 resistance gene from pepper, a close relative of tomato, demonstrate improved resistance to bacterial spot disease caused by Xanthomonas species in replicated multi-year field trials under commercial type growing conditions. We report that the presence of the Bs2 gene in the highly susceptible VF 36 background reduced disease to extremely low levels, and VF 36-Bs2 plants displayed the lowest disease severity amongst all tomato varieties tested, including commercial and breeding lines with host resistance. Yields of marketable fruit from transgenic lines were typically 2.5 times that of the non-transformed parent line, but varied between 1.5 and 11.5 fold depending on weather conditions and disease pressure. Trials were conducted without application of any copper-based bactericides, presently in wide use despite negative impacts on the environment. This is the first demonstration of effective field resistance in a transgenic genotype based on a plant R gene and provides an opportunity for control of a devastating pathogen while eliminating ineffective copper pesticides. PMID:22870280

Horvath, Diana M.; Stall, Robert E.; Jones, Jeffrey B.; Pauly, Michael H.; Vallad, Gary E.; Dahlbeck, Doug; Staskawicz, Brian J.; Scott, John W.

2012-01-01

123

Emerging or re-emerging bacterial zoonoses: factors of emergence, surveillance and control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surveillance and control of emerging bacterial zoonoses is essential in order to prevent both human and animal deaths and to avoid potential economic disorders created by trade barriers or a ban on free circulation of human or animal populations. An increased risk of exposition to zoonotic agents, the breakdown of the host's defenses, the emergence of bacterial strains resistant to

Jean Blancou; Bruno B. Chomel; Albino Belotto

2005-01-01

124

Genes Lost and Genes Found: Evolution of Bacterial Pathogenesis and Symbiosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, evolutionary biologists have viewed mutations within individual genes as the major source of phenotypic variation leading to adaptation through natural selection, and ultimately generating diversity among species. Although such processes must contribute to the initial development of gene functions and their subsequent fine-tuning, changes in genome repertoire, occurring through gene acquisition and deletion, are the major events underlying the

Howard Ochman; Nancy A. Moran

2001-01-01

125

Epidemiological effect of gene deployment strategies on bacterial blight of rice.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Experiments were conducted in farmers' fields at two locations of the irrigated lowlands of Laguna province in southern Luzon island, Philippines, during the wet seasons of 1993 and 1994. Nine rice populations were studied including pure stands, two-component mixtures, two-gene combinations of backcrossed lines containing varying combinations of the bacterial blight resistance genes Xa-4, xa-5, and Xa-10, and a non-isogenic cultivar containing Xa-4 and partial resistance to bacterial blight. The area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) of both gene combinations studied was significantly less than the single most effective gene of each combination deployed singly. A mixture of a susceptible and a resistant line expressed an AUDPC significantly less than the mean of its component pure stands, but two other mixtures did not. The cultivar IR20, which contains both Xa-4 and partial resistance, reduced the AUDPC by about two-thirds as compared with IR-BB4, which contains Xa-4 and little or no partial resistance. PMID:18945155

Ahmed, H U; Finckh, M R; Alfonso, R F; Mundt, C C

1997-01-01

126

Canine Uterine Bacterial Infection Induces Upregulation of Proteolysis-Related Genes and Downregulation of Homeobox and Zinc Finger Factors  

PubMed Central

Background Bacterial infection with the severe complication of sepsis is a frequent and serious condition, being a major cause of death worldwide. To cope with the plethora of occurring bacterial infections there is therefore an urgent need to identify molecular mechanisms operating during the host response, in order both to identify potential targets for therapeutic intervention and to identify biomarkers for disease. Here we addressed this issue by studying global gene expression in uteri from female dogs suffering from spontaneously occurring uterine bacterial infection. Principal Findings The analysis showed that almost 800 genes were significantly (p<0.05) upregulated (>2-fold) in the uteri of diseased animals. Among these were numerous chemokine and cytokine genes, as well as genes associated with inflammatory cell extravasation, anti-bacterial action, the complement system and innate immune responses, as well as proteoglycan-associated genes. There was also a striking representation of genes associated with proteolysis. Robust upregulation of immunoglobulin components and genes involved in antigen presentation was also evident, indicating elaboration of a strong adaptive immune response. The bacterial infection was also associated with a significant downregulation of almost 700 genes, of which various homeobox and zinc finger transcription factors were highly represented. Conclusions/Significance Together, these finding outline the molecular patterns involved in bacterial infection of the uterus. The study identified altered expression of numerous genes not previously implicated in bacterial disease, and several of these may be evaluated for potential as biomarkers of disease or as therapeutic targets. Importantly, since humans and dogs show genetic similarity and develop diseases that share many characteristics, the molecular events identified here are likely to reflect the corresponding situation in humans afflicted by similar disease. PMID:19956711

Hagman, Ragnvi; Ronnberg, Elin; Pejler, Gunnar

2009-01-01

127

Bacterial origin of a diverse family of UDP-glycosyltransferase genes in the Tetranychus urticae genome.  

PubMed

UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) catalyze the conjugation of a variety of small lipophilic molecules with uridine diphosphate (UDP) sugars, altering them into more water-soluble metabolites. Thereby, UGTs play an important role in the detoxification of xenobiotics and in the regulation of endobiotics. Recently, the genome sequence was reported for the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, a polyphagous herbivore damaging a number of agricultural crops. Although various gene families implicated in xenobiotic metabolism have been documented in T. urticae, UGTs so far have not. We identified 80 UGT genes in the T. urticae genome, the largest number of UGT genes in a metazoan species reported so far. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that lineage-specific gene expansions increased the diversity of the T. urticae UGT repertoire. Genomic distribution, intron-exon structure and structural motifs in the T. urticae UGTs were also described. In addition, expression profiling after host-plant shifts and in acaricide resistant lines supported an important role for UGT genes in xenobiotic metabolism. Expanded searches of UGTs in other arachnid species (Subphylum Chelicerata), including a spider, a scorpion, two ticks and two predatory mites, unexpectedly revealed the complete absence of UGT genes. However, a centipede (Subphylum Myriapoda) and a water flea and a crayfish (Subphylum Crustacea) contain UGT genes in their genomes similar to insect UGTs, suggesting that the UGT gene family might have been lost early in the Chelicerata lineage and subsequently re-gained in the tetranychid mites. Sequence similarity of T. urticae UGTs and bacterial UGTs and their phylogenetic reconstruction suggest that spider mites acquired UGT genes from bacteria by horizontal gene transfer. Our findings show a unique evolutionary history of the T. urticae UGT gene family among other arthropods and provide important clues to its functions in relation to detoxification and thereby host adaptation. PMID:24727020

Ahn, Seung-Joon; Dermauw, Wannes; Wybouw, Nicky; Heckel, David G; Van Leeuwen, Thomas

2014-07-01

128

Transcriptional modulation of bacterial gene expression by subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics  

PubMed Central

Antibiotics such as erythromycin and rifampicin, at low concentrations, alter global bacterial transcription patterns as measured by the stimulation or inhibition of a variety of promoter–lux reporter constructs in a Salmonella typhimurium library. Analysis of a 6,500-clone library indicated that as many as 5% of the promoters may be affected, comprising genes for a variety of functions, as well as a significant fraction of genes with no known function. Studies of a selection of the reporter clones showed that stimulation varied depending on the nature of the antibiotic, the promoter, and what culture medium was used; the response differed on solid as compared with liquid media. Transcription was markedly reduced in antibiotic-resistant hosts, but the presence of mutations deficient in stress responses such as SOS or universal stress did not prevent antibiotic-induced modulation. The results show that small molecules may have contrasting effects on bacteria depending on their concentration: either the modulation of bacterial metabolism by altering transcription patterns or the inhibition of growth by the inhibition of specific target functions. Both activities could play important roles in the regulation of microbial communities. These studies indicate that the detection of pharmaceutically useful natural product inhibitors could be effectively achieved by measuring activation of transcription at low concentrations in high-throughput assays using appropriate bacterial promoter–reporter constructs. PMID:12482953

Goh, Ee-Been; Yim, Grace; Tsui, Wayne; McClure, JoAnn; Surette, Michael G.; Davies, Julian

2002-01-01

129

Bacterial resistance evolution by recruitment of super-integron gene cassettes.  

PubMed

The capture and spread of antibiotic resistance determinants by integrons underlies the rapid evolution of multiple antibiotic resistance among diverse Gram-negative clinical isolates. The association of multiple resistance integrons (MRIs) with mobile DNA elements facilitates their transit across phylogenetic boundaries and augments the potential impact of integrons on bacterial evolution. Recently, ancestral chromosomal versions, the super-integrons (SIs), were found to be genuine components of the genomes of diverse bacterial species. SIs possess evolutionary characteristics and stockpiles of adaptive functions, including cassettes related to antibiotic resistance determinants previously characterized in clinical isolates, which suggest that MRIs and their resistance genes were originally recruited from SIs and their pool of amassed genes. However, the recombination activity of integrons has never been demonstrated in a bacterium other than Escherichia coli. We introduced a naturally occurring MRI (TpR, SulR) on a conjugative plasmid into Vibrio cholerae, a species known to harbour a SI. We show that MRIs can randomly recruit genes directly from the cache of SI cassettes. By applying a selective constraint for the development of antibiotic resistance, we demonstrate bacterial resistance evolution through the recruitment a novel, but phenotypically silent, chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene from the V. cholerae SI and its precise insertion into the MRI. The resulting resistance profile (CmR, TpR, SulR) could then be disseminated by conjugation to other clinically relevant pathogens at high frequency. These results demonstrate that otherwise phenotypically sensitive strains may still be a genetic source for the evolution of resistance to clinically relevant antibiotics through integron-mediated recombination events. PMID:11952913

Rowe-Magnus, Dean A; Guerout, Anne-Marie; Mazel, Didier

2002-03-01

130

Generation of a Complete Single-Gene Knockout Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library of Cowpox Virus and Identification of Its Essential Genes  

PubMed Central

Cowpox virus (CPXV) belongs to the genus Orthopoxvirus in the Poxviridae family. It infects a broad range of vertebrates and can cause zoonotic infections. CPXV has the largest genome among the orthopoxviruses and is therefore considered to have the most complete set of genes of all members of the genus. Since CPXV has also become a model for studying poxvirus genetics and pathogenesis, we created and characterized a complete set of single gene knockout bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones of the CPXV strain Brighton Red. These mutants allow a systematic assessment of the contribution of single CPXV genes to the outcome of virus infection and replication, as well as to the virus host range. A full-length BAC clone of CPXV strain Brighton Red (pBRF) harboring the gene expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein under the control of a viral late promoter was modified by introducing the mrfp1 gene encoding the monomeric red fluorescent protein driven by a synthetic early vaccinia virus promoter. Based on the modified BAC (pBRFseR), a library of targeted knockout mutants for each single viral open reading frame (ORF) was generated. Reconstitution of infectious virus was successful for 109 of the 183 mutant BAC clones, indicating that the deleted genes are not essential for virus replication. In contrast, 74 ORFs were identified as essential because no virus progeny was obtained upon transfection of the mutant BAC clones and in the presence of a helper virus. More than 70% of all late CPXV genes belonged to this latter group of essential genes. PMID:24155400

Xu, Zhiyong; Zikos, Dimitrios; Osterrieder, Nikolaus

2014-01-01

131

Importance of Combinatorial Gene Control  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A hypothetical scheme illustrating how combinations of a few gene regulatory proteins can generate many different cell types during development. In this simple scheme a "decision" to make a new gene regulatory protein (shown as a numbered circle) is made after each cell division. Repetition of this simple rule enables eight cell types (A through H) to be created using only three different regulatory proteins. Each of these hypothetical cell types would then express different genes, as dictated by the combination of gene regulatory proteins that are present within it.

BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Bruce Alberts N:Alberts;Bruce REV:2005-04-16 END:VCARD; BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Dennis Bray N:Bray;Dennis REV:2005-04-16 END:VCARD; BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Alexander Johnson N:Johnson;Alexander REV:2005-04-16 END:VCARD; BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Julian Lewis N:Lewis;Julian REV:2005-04-16 END:VCARD; BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Martin Raff N:Raff;Martin REV:2005-04-16 END:VCARD; BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Keith Roberts N:Roberts;Keith REV:2005-04-16 END:VCARD

1998-07-01

132

Ras GTPase-Like Protein MglA, a Controller of Bacterial Social-Motility in Myxobacteria, Has Evolved to Control Bacterial Predation by Bdellovibrio  

PubMed Central

Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus invade Gram-negative bacteria in a predatory process requiring Type IV pili (T4P) at a single invasive pole, and also glide on surfaces to locate prey. Ras-like G-protein MglA, working with MglB and RomR in the deltaproteobacterium Myxococcus xanthus, regulates adventurous gliding and T4P-mediated social motility at both M. xanthus cell poles. Our bioinformatic analyses suggested that the GTPase activating protein (GAP)-encoding gene mglB was lost in Bdellovibrio, but critical residues for MglABd GTP-binding are conserved. Deletion of mglABd abolished prey-invasion, but not gliding, and reduced T4P formation. MglABd interacted with a previously uncharacterised tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain protein Bd2492, which we show localises at the single invasive pole and is required for predation. Bd2492 and RomR also interacted with cyclic-di-GMP-binding receptor CdgA, required for rapid prey-invasion. Bd2492, RomRBd and CdgA localize to the invasive pole and may facilitate MglA-docking. Bd2492 was encoded from an operon encoding a TamAB-like secretion system. The TamA protein and RomR were found, by gene deletion tests, to be essential for viability in both predatory and non-predatory modes. Control proteins, which regulate bipolar T4P-mediated social motility in swarming groups of deltaproteobacteria, have adapted in evolution to regulate the anti-social process of unipolar prey-invasion in the “lone-hunter” Bdellovibrio. Thus GTP-binding proteins and cyclic-di-GMP inputs combine at a regulatory hub, turning on prey-invasion and allowing invasion and killing of bacterial pathogens and consequent predatory growth of Bdellovibrio. PMID:24721965

Milner, David S.; Till, Rob; Cadby, Ian; Lovering, Andrew L.; Basford, Sarah M.; Saxon, Emma B.; Liddell, Susan; Williams, Laura E.; Sockett, R. Elizabeth

2014-01-01

133

A novel ion-beam-mutation effect application in identification of gene involved in bacterial antagonism to fungal infection of ornamental crops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work is on a novel application of ion beam effect on biological mutation. Bacillus licheniformis (B. licheniformis) is a common soil bacterium with an antagonistic effect on Curcuma alismatifolia Gagnep. and Chrysanthemum indicum Linn. In an attempt to control fungal diseases of local crops by utilizing B. licheniformis, we carried out gene analysis of the bacterium to understand the bacterial antagonistic mechanism. The bacterial cells were bombarded to induce mutations using nitrogen ion beam. After ion bombardment, DNA analysis revealed that the modified polymorphism fragment present in the wild type was missing in a bacterial mutant which lost the antifungal activity. The fragments conserved in the wild type but lost in the mutant bacteria was identified to code for the thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) gene. The gene analysis showed that the TrxR gene from B. licheniformis had the expression of the antagonism to fungi in a synchronous time evolution with the fungus inhibition when the bacteria were co-cultivated with the fungi. The collective results indicate the TrxR gene responsible for the antagonism of bacteria B. licheniformis to fungal infection.

Mahadtanapuk, S.; Teraarusiri, W.; Nanakorn, W.; Yu, L. D.; Thongkumkoon, P.; Anuntalabhochai, S.

2014-05-01

134

[Transcriptional control of ciliary genes].  

PubMed

Cilia are found in many eukaryotic species and share a common microtubule architecture that can nonetheless show very diverse features within one animal. The genesis of cilia and their diversity require the expression of different specific genes. At least two classes of transcription factors are involved in ciliogenesis: the RFX family, essential for the assembly of most cilia and the FOXJ1 transcription factors that are key regulators of motile cilia assembly. These two different families of transcription factors have both specific and common target genes and they can also cooperate for the formation of cilia. In collaboration with cell type specific factors, they also contribute to the specialisation of cilia. As a consequence, the identification of RFX and FOXJ1 target genes has emerged as an efficient strategy to identify novel ciliary genes, and in particular genes potentially implicated in ciliopathies. PMID:25388578

Vieillard, Jennifer; Jerber, Julie; Durand, Bénédicte

2014-11-01

135

Phylogeographic reconstruction of a bacterial species with high levels of lateral gene transfer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Background: Phylogeographic reconstruction of some bacterial populations is hindered by low diversity coupled with high levels of lateral gene transfer. A comparison of recombination levels and diversity at seven housekeeping genes for eleven bacterial species, most of which are commonly cited as having high levels of lateral gene transfer shows that the relative contributions of homologous recombination versus mutation for Burkholderia pseudomallei is over two times higher than for Streptococcus pneumoniae and is thus the highest value yet reported in bacteria. Despite the potential for homologous recombination to increase diversity, B. pseudomallei exhibits a relative lack of diversity at these loci. In these situations, whole genome genotyping of orthologous shared single nucleotide polymorphism loci, discovered using next generation sequencing technologies, can provide very large data sets capable of estimating core phylogenetic relationships. We compared and searched 43 whole genome sequences of B. pseudomallei and its closest relatives for single nucleotide polymorphisms in orthologous shared regions to use in phylogenetic reconstruction. Results: Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of >14,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms yielded completely resolved trees for these 43 strains with high levels of statistical support. These results enable a better understanding of a separate analysis of population differentiation among >1,700 B. pseudomallei isolates as defined by sequence data from seven housekeeping genes. We analyzed this larger data set for population structure and allele sharing that can be attributed to lateral gene transfer. Our results suggest that despite an almost panmictic population, we can detect two distinct populations of B. pseudomallei that conform to biogeographic patterns found in many plant and animal species. That is, separation along Wallace's Line, a biogeographic boundary between Southeast Asia and Australia. Conclusion: We describe an Australian origin for B. pseudomallei, characterized by a single introduction event into Southeast Asia during a recent glacial period, and variable levels of lateral gene transfer within populations. These patterns provide insights into mechanisms of genetic diversification in B. pseudomallei and its closest relatives, and provide a framework for integrating the traditionally separate fields of population genetics and phylogenetics for other bacterial species with high levels of lateral gene transfer. ?? 2009 Pearson et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Pearson, T.; Giffard, P.; Beckstrom-Sternberg, S.; Auerbach, R.; Hornstra, H.; Tuanyok, A.; Price, E.P.; Glass, M.B.; Leadem, B.; Beckstrom-Sternberg, J. S.; Allan, G.J.; Foster, J.T.; Wagner, D.M.; Okinaka, R.T.; Sim, S.H.; Pearson, O.; Wu, Z.; Chang, J.; Kaul, R.; Hoffmaster, A.R.; Brettin, T.S.; Robison, R.A.; Mayo, M.; Gee, J.E.; Tan, P.; Currie, B.J.; Keim, P.

2009-01-01

136

Phylogeographic reconstruction of a bacterial species with high levels of lateral gene transfer  

PubMed Central

Background Phylogeographic reconstruction of some bacterial populations is hindered by low diversity coupled with high levels of lateral gene transfer. A comparison of recombination levels and diversity at seven housekeeping genes for eleven bacterial species, most of which are commonly cited as having high levels of lateral gene transfer shows that the relative contributions of homologous recombination versus mutation for Burkholderia pseudomallei is over two times higher than for Streptococcus pneumoniae and is thus the highest value yet reported in bacteria. Despite the potential for homologous recombination to increase diversity, B. pseudomallei exhibits a relative lack of diversity at these loci. In these situations, whole genome genotyping of orthologous shared single nucleotide polymorphism loci, discovered using next generation sequencing technologies, can provide very large data sets capable of estimating core phylogenetic relationships. We compared and searched 43 whole genome sequences of B. pseudomallei and its closest relatives for single nucleotide polymorphisms in orthologous shared regions to use in phylogenetic reconstruction. Results Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of >14,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms yielded completely resolved trees for these 43 strains with high levels of statistical support. These results enable a better understanding of a separate analysis of population differentiation among >1,700 B. pseudomallei isolates as defined by sequence data from seven housekeeping genes. We analyzed this larger data set for population structure and allele sharing that can be attributed to lateral gene transfer. Our results suggest that despite an almost panmictic population, we can detect two distinct populations of B. pseudomallei that conform to biogeographic patterns found in many plant and animal species. That is, separation along Wallace's Line, a biogeographic boundary between Southeast Asia and Australia. Conclusion We describe an Australian origin for B. pseudomallei, characterized by a single introduction event into Southeast Asia during a recent glacial period, and variable levels of lateral gene transfer within populations. These patterns provide insights into mechanisms of genetic diversification in B. pseudomallei and its closest relatives, and provide a framework for integrating the traditionally separate fields of population genetics and phylogenetics for other bacterial species with high levels of lateral gene transfer. PMID:19922616

2009-01-01

137

Sticky Situations: Key Components That Control Bacterial Surface Attachment  

PubMed Central

The formation of bacterial biofilms is initiated by cells transitioning from the free-swimming mode of growth to a surface. This review is aimed at highlighting the common themes that have emerged in recent research regarding the key components, signals, and cues that aid in the transition and those involved in establishing a more permanent surface association during initial attachment. PMID:22389478

Petrova, Olga E.

2012-01-01

138

High-throughput platform for the discovery of elicitors of silent bacterial gene clusters.  

PubMed

Over the past decade, bacterial genome sequences have revealed an immense reservoir of biosynthetic gene clusters, sets of contiguous genes that have the potential to produce drugs or drug-like molecules. However, the majority of these gene clusters appear to be inactive for unknown reasons prompting terms such as "cryptic" or "silent" to describe them. Because natural products have been a major source of therapeutic molecules, methods that rationally activate these silent clusters would have a profound impact on drug discovery. Herein, a new strategy is outlined for awakening silent gene clusters using small molecule elicitors. In this method, a genetic reporter construct affords a facile read-out for activation of the silent cluster of interest, while high-throughput screening of small molecule libraries provides potential inducers. This approach was applied to two cryptic gene clusters in the pathogenic model Burkholderia thailandensis. The results not only demonstrate a prominent activation of these two clusters, but also reveal that the majority of elicitors are themselves antibiotics, most in common clinical use. Antibiotics, which kill B. thailandensis at high concentrations, act as inducers of secondary metabolism at low concentrations. One of these antibiotics, trimethoprim, served as a global activator of secondary metabolism by inducing at least five biosynthetic pathways. Further application of this strategy promises to uncover the regulatory networks that activate silent gene clusters while at the same time providing access to the vast array of cryptic molecules found in bacteria. PMID:24808135

Seyedsayamdost, Mohammad R

2014-05-20

139

High-throughput platform for the discovery of elicitors of silent bacterial gene clusters  

PubMed Central

Over the past decade, bacterial genome sequences have revealed an immense reservoir of biosynthetic gene clusters, sets of contiguous genes that have the potential to produce drugs or drug-like molecules. However, the majority of these gene clusters appear to be inactive for unknown reasons prompting terms such as “cryptic” or “silent” to describe them. Because natural products have been a major source of therapeutic molecules, methods that rationally activate these silent clusters would have a profound impact on drug discovery. Herein, a new strategy is outlined for awakening silent gene clusters using small molecule elicitors. In this method, a genetic reporter construct affords a facile read-out for activation of the silent cluster of interest, while high-throughput screening of small molecule libraries provides potential inducers. This approach was applied to two cryptic gene clusters in the pathogenic model Burkholderia thailandensis. The results not only demonstrate a prominent activation of these two clusters, but also reveal that the majority of elicitors are themselves antibiotics, most in common clinical use. Antibiotics, which kill B. thailandensis at high concentrations, act as inducers of secondary metabolism at low concentrations. One of these antibiotics, trimethoprim, served as a global activator of secondary metabolism by inducing at least five biosynthetic pathways. Further application of this strategy promises to uncover the regulatory networks that activate silent gene clusters while at the same time providing access to the vast array of cryptic molecules found in bacteria. PMID:24808135

Seyedsayamdost, Mohammad R.

2014-01-01

140

Conserved gene clusters in bacterial genomes provide further support for the primacy of RNA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Five complete bacterial genome sequences have been released to the scientific community. These include four (eu)Bacteria, Haemophilus influenzae, Mycoplasma genitalium, M. pneumoniae, and Synechocystis PCC 6803, as well as one Archaeon, Methanococcus jannaschii. Features of organization shared by these genomes are likely to have arisen very early in the history of the bacteria and thus can be expected to provide further insight into the nature of early ancestors. Results of a genome comparison of these five organisms confirm earlier observations that gene order is remarkably unpreserved. There are, nevertheless, at least 16 clusters of two or more genes whose order remains the same among the four (eu)Bacteria and these are presumed to reflect conserved elements of coordinated gene expression that require gene proximity. Eight of these gene orders are essentially conserved in the Archaea as well. Many of these clusters are known to be regulated by RNA-level mechanisms in Escherichia coli, which supports the earlier suggestion that this type of regulation of gene expression may have arisen very early. We conclude that although the last common ancestor may have had a DNA genome, it likely was preceded by progenotes with an RNA genome.

Siefert, J. L.; Martin, K. A.; Abdi, F.; Widger, W. R.; Fox, G. E.

1997-01-01

141

A polyketide synthase-peptide synthetase gene cluster from an uncultured bacterial symbiont of Paederus beetles  

PubMed Central

Many drug candidates from marine and terrestrial invertebrates are suspected metabolites of uncultured bacterial symbionts. The antitumor polyketides of the pederin family, isolated from beetles and sponges, are an example. Drug development from such sources is commonly hampered by low yields and the difficulty of sustaining invertebrate cultures. To obtain insight into the true producer and find alternative supplies of these rare drug candidates, the putative pederin biosynthesis genes were cloned from total DNA of Paederus fuscipes beetles, which use this compound for chemical defense. Sequence analysis of the gene cluster and adjacent regions revealed the presence of ORFs with typical bacterial architecture and homologies. The ped cluster, which is present only in beetle specimens with high pederin content, is located on a 54-kb region bordered by transposase pseudogenes and encodes a mixed modular polyketide synthase/nonribosomal peptide synthetase. Notably, none of the modules contains regions with homology to acyltransferase domains, but two copies of isolated monodomain acyltransferase genes were found at the upstream end of the cluster. In line with an involvement in pederin biosynthesis, the upstream cluster region perfectly mirrors pederin structure. The unexpected presence of additional polyketide synthase/nonribosomal peptide synthetase modules reveals surprising insights into the evolutionary relationship between pederin-type pathways in beetles and sponges. PMID:12381784

Piel, Jorn

2002-01-01

142

Comparing wastewater chemicals, indicator bacteria concentrations, and bacterial pathogen genes as fecal pollution indicators  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The objective of this study was to compare fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli [EC], and enterococci [ENT]) concentrations with a wide array of typical organic wastewater chemicals and selected bacterial genes as indicators of fecal pollution in water samples collected at or near 18 surface water drinking water intakes. Genes tested included esp (indicating human-pathogenic ENT) and nine genes associated with various animal sources of shiga-toxin-producing EC (STEC). Fecal pollution was indicated by genes and/or chemicals for 14 of the 18 tested samples, with little relation to FIB standards. Of 13 samples with <50 EC 100 mL-1, human pharmaceuticals or chemical indicators of wastewater treatment plant effluent occurred in six, veterinary antibiotics were detected in three, and stx1 or stx2 genes (indicating varying animal sources of STEC) were detected in eight. Only the EC eaeA gene was positively correlated with FIB concentrations. Human-source fecal pollution was indicated by the esp gene and the human pharmaceutical carbamazepine in one of the nine samples that met all FIB recreational water quality standards. Escherichia coli rfbO157 and stx2c genes, which are typically associated with cattle sources and are of potential human health significance, were detected in one sample in the absence of tested chemicals. Chemical and gene-based indicators of fecal contamination may be present even when FIB standards are met, and some may, unlike FIB, indicate potential sources. Application of multiple water quality indicators with variable environmental persistence and fate may yield greater confidence in fecal pollution assessment and may inform remediation decisions. Copyright ?? 2009 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

Haack, S. K.; Duris, J. W.; Fogarty, L. R.; Kolpin, D. W.; Focazio, M. J.; Furlong, E. T.; Meyer, M. T.

2009-01-01

143

Copper control of bacterial nitrous oxide emission and its impact on vitamin B12-dependent metabolism.  

PubMed

Global agricultural emissions of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) have increased by around 20% over the last 100 y, but regulation of these emissions and their impact on bacterial cellular metabolism are poorly understood. Denitrifying bacteria convert nitrate in soils to inert di-nitrogen gas (N2) via N2O and the biochemistry of this process has been studied extensively in Paracoccus denitrificans. Here we demonstrate that expression of the gene encoding the nitrous oxide reductase (NosZ), which converts N2O to N2, is regulated in response to the extracellular copper concentration. We show that elevated levels of N2O released as a consequence of decreased cellular NosZ activity lead to the bacterium switching from vitamin B12-dependent to vitamin B12-independent biosynthetic pathways, through the transcriptional modulation of genes controlled by vitamin B12 riboswitches. This inhibitory effect of N2O can be rescued by addition of exogenous vitamin B12. PMID:24248380

Sullivan, Matthew J; Gates, Andrew J; Appia-Ayme, Corinne; Rowley, Gary; Richardson, David J

2013-12-01

144

Top-down controls on bacterial community structure: microbial network analysis of bacteria, T4-like viruses and protists.  

PubMed

Characterizing ecological relationships between viruses, bacteria and protists in the ocean are critical to understanding ecosystem function, yet these relationships are infrequently investigated together. We evaluated these relationships through microbial association network analysis of samples collected approximately monthly from March 2008 to January 2011 in the surface ocean (0-5 m) at the San Pedro Ocean Time series station. Bacterial, T4-like myoviral and protistan communities were described by Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism of the gene encoding the major capsid protein (g23) and 18S ribosomal DNA, respectively. Concurrent shifts in community structure suggested similar timing of responses to environmental and biological parameters. We linked T4-like myoviral, bacterial and protistan operational taxonomic units by local similarity correlations, which were then visualized as association networks. Network links (correlations) potentially represent synergistic and antagonistic relationships such as viral lysis, grazing, competition or other interactions. We found that virus-bacteria relationships were more cross-linked than protist-bacteria relationships, suggestive of increased taxonomic specificity in virus-bacteria relationships. We also found that 80% of bacterial-protist and 74% of bacterial-viral correlations were positive, with the latter suggesting that at monthly and seasonal timescales, viruses may be following their hosts more often than controlling host abundance. PMID:24196323

Chow, Cheryl-Emiliane T; Kim, Diane Y; Sachdeva, Rohan; Caron, David A; Fuhrman, Jed A

2014-04-01

145

Development of candidate gene markers associated to common bacterial blight resistance in common bean.  

PubMed

Common bacterial blight (CBB), caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli (Xap), is a major yield-limiting factor of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production around the world. Two major CBB-resistant quantitative trait loci (QTL), linked to the sequence characterized amplified region markers BC420 and SU91, are located at chromosomes 6 and 8, respectively. Using map-based cloning approach, four bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones from the BC420-QTL locus and one BAC clone containing SU91 were sequenced by Roche 454 technique and subsequently assembled using merged assemblies from three different programs. Based on the quality of the assembly, only the sequences of BAC 32H6 and 4K7 were used for candidate gene marker (CGM) development and candidate gene (CG) selection. For the BC420-QTL locus, 21 novel genes were predicted in silico by FGENESH using Medicago gene model, whereas 16 genes were identified in the SU91-QTL locus. For each putative gene, one or more primer pairs were designed and tested in the contrasting near isogenic lines. Overall, six and nine polymorphic markers were found in the SU91- and BC420-QTL loci, respectively. Afterwards, association mapping was conducted in a breeding population of 395 dry bean lines to discover marker-trait associations. Two CGMs per each locus showed better association with CBB resistance than the BC420 and SU91 markers, which include BC420-CG10B and BC420-CG14 for BC420_QTL locus, and SU91-CG10 and SU91-CG11 for SU91_QTL locus. The strong associations between CBB resistance and the CGs 10 and 14 from BC420_QTL locus and the CGs 10 and 11 from SU91_QTL locus indicate that the genes 10 and 14 from the BC420 locus are potential CGs underlying the BC420_QTL locus, whereas the genes 10 and 11 from the SU91 locus are potential CGs underlying the SU91_QTL locus. The superiority of SU91-CG11 was further validated in a recombinant inbred line population Sanilac × OAC 09-3. Thus, co-dominant CGMs, BC420-CG14 and SU91-CG11, are recommended to replace BC420 and SU91 for marker-assisted selection of common bean with resistance to CBB. PMID:22798059

Shi, Chun; Yu, Kangfu; Xie, Weilong; Perry, Gregory; Navabi, Alireza; Pauls, K Peter; Miklas, Phillip N; Fourie, Deidré

2012-11-01

146

Emergence of Collective Territorial Defense in Bacterial Communities: Horizontal Gene Transfer Can Stabilize Microbiomes  

PubMed Central

Multispecies bacterial communities such as the microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract can be remarkably stable and resilient even though they consist of cells and species that compete for resources and also produce a large number of antimicrobial agents. Computational modeling suggests that horizontal transfer of resistance genes may greatly contribute to the formation of stable and diverse communities capable of protecting themselves with a battery of antimicrobial agents while preserving a varied metabolic repertoire of the constituent species. In other words horizontal transfer of resistance genes makes a community compatible in terms of exoproducts and capable to maintain a varied and mature metagenome. The same property may allow microbiota to protect a host organism, or if used as a microbial therapy, to purge pathogens and restore a protective environment. PMID:24755769

Szabo, Dora; Pongor, Sandor

2014-01-01

147

Functional and comparative characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae RVB1 and RVB2 genes with bacterial Ruv homologues.  

PubMed

Expression of yeast RuvB-like gene analogues of bacterial RuvB is self-regulated, as episomal overexpression of RVB1 and RVB2 decreases the expression of their chromosomal copies by 85%. Heterozygosity for either gene correlates with lower double-strand break repair of inverted-repeat DNA and decreased survival after UV irradiation, suggesting their haploinsufficiency, while overexpression of the bacterial RuvAB complex improves UV survival in yeast. Rvb2p preferentially binds artificial DNA Holiday junctions like the bacterial RuvAB complex, whereas Rvb1p binds to duplex or cruciform DNA. As both proteins also interact with chromatin, their role in recombination and repair through chromatin remodelling, and their evolutionary relationship to the bacterial homologue, is discussed. PMID:17302941

Radovic, Slobodanka; Rapisarda, Viviana A; Tosato, Valentina; Bruschi, Carlo V

2007-06-01

148

Protein secretion systems in bacterial-host associations, and their description in the Gene Ontology  

PubMed Central

Protein secretion plays a central role in modulating the interactions of bacteria with their environments. This is particularly the case when symbiotic bacteria (whether pathogenic, commensal or mutualistic) are interacting with larger host organisms. In the case of Gram-negative bacteria, secretion requires translocation across the outer as well as the inner membrane, and a diversity of molecular machines have been elaborated for this purpose. A number of secreted proteins are destined to enter the host cell (effectors and toxins), and thus several secretion systems include apparatus to translocate proteins across the plasma membrane of the host also. The Plant-Associated Microbe Gene Ontology (PAMGO) Consortium has been developing standardized terms for describing biological processes and cellular components that play important roles in the interactions of microbes with plant and animal hosts, including the processes of bacterial secretion. Here we survey bacterial secretion systems known to modulate interactions with host organisms and describe Gene Ontology terms useful for describing the components and functions of these systems, and for capturing the similarities among the diverse systems. PMID:19278550

Tseng, Tsai-Tien; Tyler, Brett M; Setubal, Joao C

2009-01-01

149

Multiple Genes Affect Sensitivity of Caenorhabditis elegans to the Bacterial Pathogen Microbacterium nematophilum  

PubMed Central

Interactions with bacteria play a major role in immune responses, ecology, and evolution of all animals, but they have been neglected until recently in the case of C. elegans. We report a genetic investigation of the interaction of C. elegans with the nematode-specific pathogen Microbacterium nematophilum, which colonizes the rectum and causes distinctive tail swelling in its host. A total of 121 mutants with altered response to infection were isolated from selections or screens for a bacterially unswollen (Bus) phenotype, using both chemical and transposon mutagenesis. Some of these correspond to known genes, affecting either bacterial adhesion or colonization (srf-2, srf-3, srf-5) or host swelling response (sur-2, egl-5). Most mutants define 15 new genes (bus-1–bus-6, bus-8, bus-10, bus-12–bus-18). The majority of these mutants exhibit little or no rectal infection when challenged with the pathogen and are probably altered in surface properties such that the bacteria can no longer infect worms. A number have corresponding alterations in lectin staining and cuticle fragility. Most of the uninfectable mutants grow better than wild type in the presence of the pathogen, but the sur-2 mutant is hypersensitive, indicating that the tail-swelling response is associated with a specific defense mechanism against this pathogen. PMID:16079230

Gravato-Nobre, Maria J.; Nicholas, Hannah R.; Nijland, Reindert; O'Rourke, Delia; Whittington, Deborah E.; Yook, Karen J.; Hodgkin, Jonathan

2005-01-01

150

Differential expression of tomato proteinase inhibitor I and II genes during bacterial pathogen invasion and wounding.  

PubMed

Expression of proteinase inhibitor I and II genes was investigated during infection by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, the causal agent of bacterial speck disease in tomato. Inoculation of leaves with P. s. pv. tomato of two inbred tomato lines that are resistant and susceptible to the pathogen resulted in the accumulation of proteinase inhibitor I and II mRNAs in this organ. Our data showed that in the lines used in this study, proteinase inhibitor II mRNAs accumulated in leaves to higher levels than proteinase inhibitor I mRNA in response to P. s. pv. tomato infection and wounding. Proteinase inhibitor II mRNAs accumulated more rapidly in disease-resistant than in disease-susceptible plants. Proteinase inhibitor I mRNAs were first detected in the disease-susceptible line during infection and wounding. In contrast to wounding, the systemic induction of these genes during pathogen ingression was limited. These data show that the plant proteinase inhibitors constitute one of the components of the plant defense system that are induced in response to bacterial pathogen invasion. PMID:1932815

Pautot, V; Holzer, F M; Walling, L L

1991-01-01

151

Facilitation of Bacterial Adaptation to Chlorothalonil-Contaminated Sites by Horizontal Transfer of the Chlorothalonil Hydrolytic Dehalogenase Gene?  

PubMed Central

Horizontal transfer of the chlorothalonil hydrolytic dehalogenase gene (chd) is proposed based on the high conservation of the chd gene and its close association with a novel insertion sequence, ISOcsp1, in 16 isolated chlorothalonil-dechlorinating strains belonging to eight different genera. The ecological role of horizontal gene transfer is assumed to facilitate bacterial adaptation to chlorothalonil-contaminated sites, through detoxification of chlorothalonil to less toxic 2,4,5-trichloro-6-hydroxybenzene-1,3-dicarbonitrile. PMID:21498744

Liang, Bin; Wang, Guangli; Zhao, Yanfu; Chen, Kai; Li, Shunpeng; Jiang, Jiandong

2011-01-01

152

Levels of Bacterial Community Diversity in Four Arid Soils Compared by Cultivation and 16S rRNA Gene Cloning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Techniques based on amplification of 16S rRNA genes for comparing bacterial communities are now widely used in microbial ecology, but calibration of these techniques with traditional tools, such as cultivation, has been conspicuously absent. In this study, we compared levels of bacterial community diversity in two pinyon rhizosphere soil samples and two between-tree (interspace) soil samples by analyzing 179 cultivated

JOHN DUNBAR; SHANNON TAKALA; SUSAN M. BARNS; JODY A. DAVIS; CHERYL R. KUSKE

1999-01-01

153

A conservative region of the mercuric reductase gene (mera) as a molecular marker of bacterial mercury resistance  

PubMed Central

The most common bacterial mercury resistance mechanism is based on the reduction of Hg(II) to Hg0, which is dependent of the mercuric reductase enzyme (MerA) activity. The use of a 431 bp fragment of a conservative region of the mercuric reductase (merA) gene was applied as a molecular marker of this mechanism, allowing the identification of mercury resistant bacterial strains. PMID:24031221

Sotero-Martins, Adriana; de Jesus, Michele Silva; Lacerda, Michele; Moreira, Josino Costa; Filgueiras, Ana Luzia Lauria; Barrocas, Paulo Rubens Guimaraes

2008-01-01

154

Involvement of the cell-specific pigment genes pks and sult in bacterial defense response of sea urchins Strongylocentrotus intermedius.  

PubMed

Bacterial infections are one of the most important problems in mass aquaculture, causing the loss of millions of juvenile organisms. We isolated 22 bacterial strains from the cavity fluid of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus pallidus and used phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences to separate the bacterial strains into 9 genera (Aliivibrio, Bizionia, Colwellia, Olleya, Paenibacillus, Photobacterium, Pseudoalteromonas, Shewanella, and Vibrio). Incubating Strongylocentrotus intermedius larvae with a strain from each of the 9 bacterial genera, we investigated the viability of the larvae, the amount of pigment cells, and the level of polyketide synthase (pks) and sulfotransferase (sult) gene expression. Results of the assay on sea urchin development showed that all bacterial strains, except Pseudoalteromonas and Bizionia, suppressed sea urchin development (resulting in retardation of the embryos' development with cellular disorders) and reduced cell viability. We found that pks expression in the sea urchin larvae after incubation with the bacteria of 9 tested genera was significantly increased, while the sult expression was increased only after the treatment with Pseudoalteromonas and Shewanella. Shikimic acid, which is known to activate the biosynthesis of naphthoquinone pigments, increased the tolerance of the sea urchin embryos to the bacteria. In conclusion, we show that the cell-specific pigment genes pks and sult are involved in the bacterial defense response of sea urchins. PMID:23548362

Kiselev, Konstantin V; Ageenko, Natalya V; Kurilenko, Valeria V

2013-03-26

155

Activating the expression of bacterial cryptic genes by rpoB mutations in RNA polymerase or by rare earth elements.  

PubMed

Since bacteria were found to contain genes encoding enzymes that synthesize a plethora of potential secondary metabolites, interest has grown in the activation of these cryptic pathways. Homologous and heterologous expression of these cryptic secondary metabolite-biosynthetic genes, often "silent" under ordinary laboratory fermentation conditions, may lead to the discovery of novel secondary metabolites. We review current progress on this topic, describing concepts for activating silent genes. We especially focus on genetic manipulation of transcription and translation, as well as the utilization of rare earth elements as a novel method to activate the silent genes. The possible roles of silent genes in bacterial physiology are also discussed. PMID:24127067

Ochi, Kozo; Tanaka, Yukinori; Tojo, Shigeo

2014-02-01

156

RNAi knock-down of the Litopenaeus vannamei Toll gene (LvToll) significantly increases mortality and reduces bacterial clearance after challenge with Vibrio harveyi.  

PubMed

In this study, we used real-time PCR to simultaneously monitor the responses of 12 key genes of the shrimp innate immune system in Litopenaeus vannamei after challenge with Vibrio harveyi. In the proPO activating system, we found that proPO was up-regulated (3.3x control at 36hpi). The hemolymph clotting genes transglutaminase (TGase) and clotting protein were also up-regulated, as were 5 genes in the antimicrobial peptide system (ALF, Crustin, Lyz, PEN2 and PEN4), with only PEN3 showing no significant changes. In the antioxidant defense system, SOD was slightly elevated while GPx was substantially down-regulated. In the pattern recognition receptor system, at 24hpi, the Toll gene (LvToll) showed the highest relative increase in expression level of all the investigated genes (15x greater than the sterile seawater control). In the second part of this study, when LvToll was knocked down by RNAi silencing, there was no effect on either survival rates or bacterial number in unchallenged shrimp. There was also no difference in mortality rates between control shrimp and LvToll-silenced shrimp when these two groups were challenged with a viral pathogen (white spot syndrome virus; WSSV). However, when LvToll-silenced shrimp were challenged by V. harveyi, there was a significant increase in mortality and bacterial CFU counts. We note that the increase in bacterial CFU count occurred even though treatment with EGFP dsRNA had the opposite effect of reducing the CFU counts. We conclude that LvToll is an important factor in the shrimp innate immune response to acute V. harveyi infection, but not to WSSV. PMID:19698743

Han-Ching Wang, Kc; Tseng, Chun-Wei; Lin, Han-You; Chen, I-Tung; Chen, Ya-Hui; Chen, Yi-Min; Chen, Tzong-Yueh; Yang, Huey-Lang

2010-01-01

157

Bacterial Community Structure of Acid-Impacted Lakes: What Controls Diversity?? †  

PubMed Central

Although it is recognized that acidification of freshwater systems results in decreased overall species richness of plants and animals, little is known about the response of aquatic microbial communities to acidification. In this study we examined bacterioplankton community diversity and structure in 18 lakes located in the Adirondack Park (in the state of New York in the United States) that were affected to various degrees by acidic deposition and assessed correlations with 31 physical and chemical parameters. The pH of these lakes ranged from 4.9 to 7.8. These studies were conducted as a component of the Adirondack Effects Assessment Program supported by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Thirty-one independent 16S rRNA gene libraries consisting of 2,135 clones were constructed from epilimnion and hypolimnion water samples. Bacterioplankton community composition was determined by sequencing and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis of the clone libraries. Nineteen bacterial classes representing 95 subclasses were observed, but clone libraries were dominated by representatives of the Actinobacteria and Betaproteobacteria classes. Although the diversity and richness of bacterioplankton communities were positively correlated with pH, the overall community composition assessed by principal component analysis was not. The strongest correlations were observed between bacterioplankton communities and lake depth, hydraulic retention time, dissolved inorganic carbon, and nonlabile monomeric aluminum concentrations. While there was not an overall correlation between bacterioplankton community structure and pH, several bacterial classes, including the Alphaproteobacteria, were directly correlated with acidity. These results indicate that unlike more identifiable correlations between acidity and species richness for higher trophic levels, controls on bacterioplankton community structure are likely more complex, involving both direct and indirect processes. PMID:18245245

Percent, Sascha F.; Frischer, Marc E.; Vescio, Paul A.; Duffy, Ellen B.; Milano, Vincenzo; McLellan, Maggie; Stevens, Brett M.; Boylen, Charles W.; Nierzwicki-Bauer, Sandra A.

2008-01-01

158

[Molecular recognition code between pathogenic bacterial TAL-effectors and host target genes: a review].  

PubMed

As the pathogenic bacterial virulence and avirulence factors, transcription activator like (TAL) effectors of Xanthomonas can resulted in the host diseases or resistance responses. TAL effectors can specifically bind the target DNA of host plant with a novel protein-DNA binding pattern in which two amino acids recognize one nucleotide. The complexities of TAL-DNA binding have the feasibility in use of gene therapy through homologous recombination and site-specific mutation. By using the molecular recognition code between TAL-effectors and host target genes, we can exploit both the susceptible and resistance genes; broad spectrum resistance induced by multiple TAL effectors could also be manipulated. Deeper insight in the area of protein-DNA binding mechanism will benefit the application in the biomedical engineering and agricultural engineering. This article reviews the findings and functions of TAL effectors, the binding specificity and recognition code between TAL-effectors and host target genes. The possible applications and future prospects of the molecular recognition code have been discussed. PMID:22097801

Li, Yanqiang; Wang, Chunlian; Zhao, Kaijun

2011-08-01

159

Hydrogen Peroxide- and Nitric Oxide-mediated Disease Control of Bacterial Wilt in Tomato Plants  

PubMed Central

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in tomato plants by Ralstonia solanacearum infection and the role of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide in tomato bacterial wilt control were demonstrated. During disease development of tomato bacterial wilt, accumulation of superoxide anion (O2?) and H2O2 was observed and lipid peroxidation also occurred in the tomato leaf tissues. High doses of H2O2and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) nitric oxide donor showed phytotoxicity to detached tomato leaves 1 day after petiole feeding showing reduced fresh weight. Both H2O2and SNP have in vitro antibacterial activities against R. solanacearum in a dose-dependent manner, as well as plant protection in detached tomato leaves against bacterial wilt by 106 and 107 cfu/ml of R. solanacearum. H2O2- and SNP-mediated protection was also evaluated in pots using soil-drench treatment with the bacterial inoculation, and relative ‘area under the disease progressive curve (AUDPC)’ was calculated to compare disease protection by H2O2 and/or SNP with untreated control. Neither H2O2 nor SNP protect the tomato seedlings from the bacterial wilt, but H2O2+ SNP mixture significantly decreased disease severity with reduced relative AUDPC. These results suggest that H2O2 and SNP could be used together to control bacterial wilt in tomato plants as bactericidal agents.

Hong, Jeum Kyu; Kang, Su Ran; Kim, Yeon Hwa; Yoon, Dong June; Kim, Do Hoon; Kim, Hyeon Ji; Sung, Chang Hyun; Kang, Han Sol; Choi, Chang Won; Kim, Seong Hwan; Kim, Young Shik

2013-01-01

160

Conservation of transcription start sites within genes across a bacterial genus.  

PubMed

Transcription start sites (TSSs) lying inside annotated genes, on the same or opposite strand, have been observed in diverse bacteria, but the function of these unexpected transcripts is unclear. Here, we use the metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and its relatives to study the evolutionary conservation of unexpected TSSs. Using high-resolution tiling microarrays and 5'-end RNA sequencing, we identified 2,531 TSSs in S. oneidensis MR-1, of which 18% were located inside coding sequences (CDSs). Comparative transcriptome analysis with seven additional Shewanella species revealed that the majority (76%) of the TSSs within the upstream regions of annotated genes (gTSSs) were conserved. Thirty percent of the TSSs that were inside genes and on the sense strand (iTSSs) were also conserved. Sequence analysis around these iTSSs showed conserved promoter motifs, suggesting that many iTSS are under purifying selection. Furthermore, conserved iTSSs are enriched for regulatory motifs, suggesting that they are regulated, and they tend to eliminate polar effects, which confirms that they are functional. In contrast, the transcription of antisense TSSs located inside CDSs (aTSSs) was significantly less likely to be conserved (22%). However, aTSSs whose transcription was conserved often have conserved promoter motifs and drive the expression of nearby genes. Overall, our findings demonstrate that some internal TSSs are conserved and drive protein expression despite their unusual locations, but the majority are not conserved and may reflect noisy initiation of transcription rather than a biological function. Importance: The first step of gene expression is the initiation of transcription from promoters, which have been traditionally thought to be located upstream of genes. Recently, studies showed that in diverse bacteria, promoters are often located inside genes. It has not been clear if these unexpected promoters are important to the organism or if they result from transcriptional noise. Here, we identify and examine promoters in eight related bacterial species. Promoters that lie within genes on the sense strand are often conserved as locations and in their sequences. Furthermore, these promoters often affect the bacterium's growth. Thus, many of these unexpected promoters are likely functional. Fewer promoters that lie within genes on the antisense strand are conserved, but the conserved ones seem to drive the expression of nearby genes. PMID:24987095

Shao, Wenjun; Price, Morgan N; Deutschbauer, Adam M; Romine, Margaret F; Arkin, Adam P

2014-01-01

161

Posttranscriptional control of gene expression: bacterial mRNA degradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many biological processes cannot be fully understood without detailed knowledge of RNA metabolism. The continuous breakdown and resynthesis of prokaryotic mRNA permit rapid production of new kinds of proteins. In this way, mRNA levels can regulate protein synthesis and cellular growth. Analysing mRNA degradation in prokaryotes has been particularly difficult because most mRNA undergo rapid exponential decay. Prokaryotic mRNAs differ

C. M. Arraiano

1993-01-01

162

Assessment of Bacterial bph Gene in Amazonian Dark Earth and Their Adjacent Soils  

PubMed Central

Amazonian Anthrosols are known to harbour distinct and highly diverse microbial communities. As most of the current assessments of these communities are based on taxonomic profiles, the functional gene structure of these communities, such as those responsible for key steps in the carbon cycle, mostly remain elusive. To gain insights into the diversity of catabolic genes involved in the degradation of hydrocarbons in anthropogenic horizons, we analysed the bacterial bph gene community structure, composition and abundance using T-RFLP, 454-pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR essays, respectively. Soil samples were collected in two Brazilian Amazon Dark Earth (ADE) sites and at their corresponding non-anthropogenic adjacent soils (ADJ), under two different land use systems, secondary forest (SF) and manioc cultivation (M). Redundancy analysis of T-RFLP data revealed differences in bph gene structure according to both soil type and land use. Chemical properties of ADE soils, such as high organic carbon and organic matter, as well as effective cation exchange capacity and pH, were significantly correlated with the structure of bph communities. Also, the taxonomic affiliation of bph gene sequences revealed the segregation of community composition according to the soil type. Sequences at ADE sites were mostly affiliated to aromatic hydrocarbon degraders belonging to the genera Streptomyces, Sphingomonas, Rhodococcus, Mycobacterium, Conexibacter and Burkholderia. In both land use sites, shannon's diversity indices based on the bph gene data were higher in ADE than ADJ soils. Collectively, our findings provide evidence that specific properties in ADE soils shape the structure and composition of bph communities. These results provide a basis for further investigations focusing on the bio-exploration of novel enzymes with potential use in the biotechnology/biodegradation industry. PMID:24927167

Brossi, Maria Julia de Lima; Mendes, Lucas William; Germano, Mariana Gomes; Lima, Amanda Barbosa; Tsai, Siu Mui

2014-01-01

163

Assessment of bacterial bph gene in Amazonian dark earth and their adjacent soils.  

PubMed

Amazonian Anthrosols are known to harbour distinct and highly diverse microbial communities. As most of the current assessments of these communities are based on taxonomic profiles, the functional gene structure of these communities, such as those responsible for key steps in the carbon cycle, mostly remain elusive. To gain insights into the diversity of catabolic genes involved in the degradation of hydrocarbons in anthropogenic horizons, we analysed the bacterial bph gene community structure, composition and abundance using T-RFLP, 454-pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR essays, respectively. Soil samples were collected in two Brazilian Amazon Dark Earth (ADE) sites and at their corresponding non-anthropogenic adjacent soils (ADJ), under two different land use systems, secondary forest (SF) and manioc cultivation (M). Redundancy analysis of T-RFLP data revealed differences in bph gene structure according to both soil type and land use. Chemical properties of ADE soils, such as high organic carbon and organic matter, as well as effective cation exchange capacity and pH, were significantly correlated with the structure of bph communities. Also, the taxonomic affiliation of bph gene sequences revealed the segregation of community composition according to the soil type. Sequences at ADE sites were mostly affiliated to aromatic hydrocarbon degraders belonging to the genera Streptomyces, Sphingomonas, Rhodococcus, Mycobacterium, Conexibacter and Burkholderia. In both land use sites, shannon's diversity indices based on the bph gene data were higher in ADE than ADJ soils. Collectively, our findings provide evidence that specific properties in ADE soils shape the structure and composition of bph communities. These results provide a basis for further investigations focusing on the bio-exploration of novel enzymes with potential use in the biotechnology/biodegradation industry. PMID:24927167

Brossi, Maria Julia de Lima; Mendes, Lucas William; Germano, Mariana Gomes; Lima, Amanda Barbosa; Tsai, Siu Mui

2014-01-01

164

Toll-Like Receptor Gene Variants Associated with Bacterial Vaginosis among HIV-1 Infected Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common vaginal disorder in women of reproductive age, especially among women with HIV-1 infection. Several bacterial products including lipopolysaccharides (LPS), lipoteichoic acids (LTA), and peptidoglycans (PGN) are stimulatory ligands for Toll-like receptors (TLRs), and recent evidence indicates the important role of variation in TLR genes for permitting overgrowth of gram negative and BV-type flora. We assessed whether genetic polymorphisms in five TLR genes (TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR6, and TLR9) could be determinants of differential host immune responses to BV in 159 HIV-1-positive African American adolescents enrolled in the Reaching for Excellence in Adolescent Care and Health (REACH) study. BV was assessed biannually and diagnosed either by a Nugent Score of at least 7 of 10, or using the Amsel Criteria. Cox-proportional hazards regression models, adjusted for concurrent Chlamydia and Gonorrhea infections, douching, and absolute CD4 cell count, were used to identify host genetic factors associated with BV. Two SNPs were associated with BV as diagnosed by the Nugent Score and the combined criteria: a minor allele G of rs4986790 (frequency=0.07), which encodes a His to Tyr substitution in TLR4 (HR=1.47, 95% CI 1.15–1.87) and rs187084 (frequency=0.24) on TLR9. The minor allele of rs1898830 (frequency=0.13) was associated with an increased hazard of BV defined by the Amsel criteria (HR=1.86, 95%CI 1.17–2.95). Further studies are warranted to confirm the associations of TLR gene variants and also to understand the underlying pathways and immunogenetic correlates in the context of HIV-1 infection. PMID:23021866

Royse, Kathryn E; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette; McGwin, Gerald; Wilson, Craig M; Tang, Jianming; Shrestha, Sadeep

2012-01-01

165

Binding motifs in bacterial gene promoters modulate transcriptional effect of global regulators  

SciTech Connect

Bacterial gene regulation involves transcription factors (TFs) that influence the expression of many genes. Global regulators, including CRP (cAMP Receptor Protein), ArcA, and FNR, can modulate the transcriptional activity of multiple operons. The similarity of a regulatory element s sequence to a TF s consensus binding site (BS) and the position of the regulatory element in an operon promoter are considered the most important determinants of this TF s regulatory influence. In this study we explore the hypothesis that the number of TFBS half-sites (where a half-site is one half of the palindromic BS consensus sequence, which we shall refer to as a binding motif or a BM) of a global regulator in an operon s promoter plays an important role in the operon s transcriptional regulation. We examine empirical data from transcriptional profiling of the CRP regulon in Shewanella oneidenses MR 1 and Escherichia coli, and of the ArcA regulon in S. oneidenses MR 1. We compare the power of CRP BM counts and of full, symmetrical CRP TFBS characteristics, namely similarity to consensus and location, to predict CRP-induced transcriptional activity. We find that CRP BM counts have a nonlinear effect on CRP-dependent transcriptional activity and predict this activity better than full-length TFBS quality or location. Regression analysis indicates that IHF (Integration Host Factor) and ArcA have synergistic effects on CRP-induced gene transcription, positive and negative, respectively. Based on these results, we propose that the fine-tuning of bacterial transcriptional activity by CRP may involves not only the bending of the operon promoter, facilitated by CRP in cooperation with the histone-like protein IHF, but also the cumulative binding affinity of multiple weak BMs.

Leuze, Michael Rex [ORNL; Karpinets, Tatiana V [ORNL; Syed, Mustafa H [ORNL; Beliaev, Alexander S [ORNL; Uberbacher, Edward C [ORNL

2012-01-01

166

Influence of prophylactic probiotics and selective decontamination on bacterial translocation in patients undergoing pancreatic surgery: a randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

Bacterial translocation (BT) is suspected to play a major role in the development of infections in surgical patients. However, the clinical association between intestinal barrier dysfunction, BT, and septic morbidity has remained unconfirmed. The objective of this study was to study BT in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery and the effects of probiotics, selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD), and standard treatment on intestinal barrier function. In a randomized controlled setting, 30 consecutive patients planned for elective pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD) were allocated to receive perioperatively probiotics, SDD, or standard treatment. To assess intestinal barrier function, intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (mucosal damage) and polyethylene glycol recovery (intestinal permeability) in urine were measured perioperatively. BT was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) harvested early (baseline control) and at the end of surgery ("end-of-surgery" MLNs, after 3h in PPPD patients). Polymerase chain reaction detected bacterial DNA in 18 of 27 end-of-surgery MLNs and in 13 of 23 control MLNs (P = 0.378). Probiotics and SDD had no significant effect on the number of positive MLNs or the change in bacterial DNA during operation. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis showed significantly increased expression of only 4 of 30 inflammatory mediator-related genes in end-of-surgery compared with early sampled MLN (P < 0.05). Polyethylene glycol recovery was unaffected by operation, probiotics and SDD as compared with standard treatment. Intestinal fatty acid-binding protein levels were increased shortly postoperatively only in patients treated with SDD (P = 0.02). Probiotics and SDD did not influence BT, intestinal permeability, or inflammatory mediator expression. Bacterial translocation after abdominal surgery may be part of normal antigen-sampling processes of the gut. PMID:20577144

Diepenhorst, Gwendolyn M P; van Ruler, Oddeke; Besselink, Marc G H; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C; Wijnandts, Paul R; Renooij, Willem; Gouma, Dirk J; Gooszen, Hein G; Boermeester, Marja A

2011-01-01

167

Fine mapping and analysis of a candidate gene in tomato accession PI128216 conferring hypersensitive resistance to bacterial spot race T3.  

PubMed

Bacterial spot caused by Xanthomonas euvesicatoria, X. vesicatoria, X. perforans and X. gardneri is one of the most destructive diseases in tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.) growing in tropical and subtropical regions. Exploring resistance genes from diverse germplasm and incorporating them into cultivated varieties are critical for controlling this disease. The S. pimpinellifolium accession PI128216 was reported to carry the Rx4 gene on chromosome 11 conferring hypersensitivity and field resistance to race T3. To facilitate the use of marker-assisted selection in breeding and map-based cloning of the gene, an F(2) population derived from a cross between the susceptible variety OH88119 and the resistant accession PI128216 was created for fine mapping of the Rx4 gene. Using 18 markers developed through various approaches, we mapped the gene to a 45.1-kb region between two markers pcc17 and pcc14 on chromosome 11. A NBS-LRR class of resistance gene was identified as the candidate for the Rx4 gene based on annotation results from the International Tomato Annotation Group. Comparison of the genomic DNA sequences of the Rx4 alleles in PI128216 and OH88119 revealed a 6-bp insertion/deletion (InDel) and eight SNPs. The InDel marker was successfully used to distinguish resistance and susceptibility in 12 tomato lines. These results will facilitate cloning the Rx4 gene and provide a useful tool for marker-assisted selection of this gene in tomato breeding programs. PMID:22038434

Pei, Chengcheng; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Jieyun; Wang, Yuanyuan; Francis, David M; Yang, Wencai

2012-02-01

168

A Window of Opportunity to Control the Bacterial Pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa Combining Antibiotics and Phages  

PubMed Central

The evolution of antibiotic resistance in bacteria is a global concern and the use of bacteriophages alone or in combined therapies is attracting increasing attention as an alternative. Evolutionary theory predicts that the probability of bacterial resistance to both phages and antibiotics will be lower than to either separately, due for example to fitness costs or to trade-offs between phage resistance mechanisms and bacterial growth. In this study, we assess the population impacts of either individual or combined treatments of a bacteriophage and streptomycin on the nosocomial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We show that combining phage and antibiotics substantially increases bacterial control compared to either separately, and that there is a specific time delay in antibiotic introduction independent of antibiotic dose, that minimizes both bacterial density and resistance to either antibiotics or phage. These results have implications for optimal combined therapeutic approaches. PMID:25259735

Torres-Barcelo, Clara; Arias-Sanchez, Flor I.; Vasse, Marie; Ramsayer, Johan

2014-01-01

169

LETTER TO THE EDITOR Bacterial cooperation controlled by mobile  

E-print Network

the spread of traits that are only temporally beneficial (as in the case of antibiotic resistance Svara evolution. We have previously argued that this pattern could emerge due to changes in population genetic structure driven by gene mobility, and drive the evolution of cooperation by kin selection (Nogueira et al

Rankin, Daniel

170

Ectopic mitotic recombination in Drosophila probed with bacterial beta-galactosidase gene-based reporter transgenes.  

PubMed Central

Plasmids were constructed to investigate homologous mitotic recombination in Drosophila cells. Heteroalleles containing truncated but overlapping segments of the bacterial beta-galactosidase gene (lacZ) were positioned either on separate plasmids or as direct repeats on the same chromosome. Recombination reconstituted a functional lacZgene leading to expression of LacZ+activity detectable by histochemical staining. High extrachromosomal recombination (ECR) frequencies between unlinked heteroalleles were observed upon transient co-transfection into Drosophila melanogaster Schneider line 2 (S2) cells. Stably transfected cells containing the lacZ heteroalleles linked on a chromosome exhibited intrachromosomal recombination (ICR) frequencies two orders of magnitude lower than ECR frequencies. Recombination was inducible by exposing the cells to ethyl methanesulphonate or mitomycin C. Recombination products were characterized by multiplex PCR analysis and unequal sister chromatid recombination was found as the predominant mechanism reconstituting the lacZ gene. To investigate recombination in vivo imaginal disc cells from transgenic larvae carrying the reporter gene on the X chromosome were isolated and stained for LacZ+ activity. The presence of a few LacZ+ clones indicated that mitotic recombination events occurred at frequencies two orders of magnitude lower than the corresponding event in cultured cells and late during larval development. PMID:9380517

Bartsch, S; Ducker, K; Wurgler, F E; Sengstag, C

1997-01-01

171

Evaluating Bias of Illumina-Based Bacterial 16S rRNA Gene Profiles  

PubMed Central

Massively parallel sequencing of 16S rRNA genes enables the comparison of terrestrial, aquatic, and host-associated microbial communities with sufficient sequencing depth for robust assessments of both alpha and beta diversity. Establishing standardized protocols for the analysis of microbial communities is dependent on increasing the reproducibility of PCR-based molecular surveys by minimizing sources of methodological bias. In this study, we tested the effects of template concentration, pooling of PCR amplicons, and sample preparation/interlane sequencing on the reproducibility associated with paired-end Illumina sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes. Using DNA extracts from soil and fecal samples as templates, we sequenced pooled amplicons and individual reactions for both high (5- to 10-ng) and low (0.1-ng) template concentrations. In addition, all experimental manipulations were repeated on two separate days and sequenced on two different Illumina MiSeq lanes. Although within-sample sequence profiles were highly consistent, template concentration had a significant impact on sample profile variability for most samples. Pooling of multiple PCR amplicons, sample preparation, and interlane variability did not influence sample sequence data significantly. This systematic analysis underlines the importance of optimizing template concentration in order to minimize variability in microbial-community surveys and indicates that the practice of pooling multiple PCR amplicons prior to sequencing contributes proportionally less to reducing bias in 16S rRNA gene surveys with next-generation sequencing. PMID:25002428

Kennedy, Katherine; Hall, Michael W.; Lynch, Michael D. J.; Moreno-Hagelsieb, Gabriel

2014-01-01

172

Evaluating Bias of Illumina-Based Bacterial 16S rRNA Gene Profiles.  

PubMed

Massively parallel sequencing of 16S rRNA genes enables the comparison of terrestrial, aquatic, and host-associated microbial communities with sufficient sequencing depth for robust assessments of both alpha and beta diversity. Establishing standardized protocols for the analysis of microbial communities is dependent on increasing the reproducibility of PCR-based molecular surveys by minimizing sources of methodological bias. In this study, we tested the effects of template concentration, pooling of PCR amplicons, and sample preparation/interlane sequencing on the reproducibility associated with paired-end Illumina sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes. Using DNA extracts from soil and fecal samples as templates, we sequenced pooled amplicons and individual reactions for both high (5- to 10-ng) and low (0.1-ng) template concentrations. In addition, all experimental manipulations were repeated on two separate days and sequenced on two different Illumina MiSeq lanes. Although within-sample sequence profiles were highly consistent, template concentration had a significant impact on sample profile variability for most samples. Pooling of multiple PCR amplicons, sample preparation, and interlane variability did not influence sample sequence data significantly. This systematic analysis underlines the importance of optimizing template concentration in order to minimize variability in microbial-community surveys and indicates that the practice of pooling multiple PCR amplicons prior to sequencing contributes proportionally less to reducing bias in 16S rRNA gene surveys with next-generation sequencing. PMID:25002428

Kennedy, Katherine; Hall, Michael W; Lynch, Michael D J; Moreno-Hagelsieb, Gabriel; Neufeld, Josh D

2014-09-15

173

Application of nanotechnology to control bacterial adhesion and patterning on material surfaces  

PubMed Central

Bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation on surfaces raises health hazard issues in the medical environment. Previous studies of bacteria adhesion have focused on observations in their natural/native environments. Recently, surface science has contributed in advancing the understanding of bacterial adhesion by providing ideal platforms that attempt to mimic the bacteria's natural environments, whilst also enabling concurrent control, selectivity and spatial control of bacterial adhesion. In this review, we will look at techniques of how nanotechnology is used to control cell adhesion on a planar scale, in addition to describing the use of nanotools for cell micropatterning. Additionally, it will provide a general background of common methods for nanoscale modification enabling biologist unfamiliar with nanotechnology to enter the field. PMID:24273593

Costello, Cait M.; Yeung, Chun L.; Rawson, Frankie J.; Mendes, Paula M.

2012-01-01

174

Natural Transformation Facilitates Transfer of Transposons, Integrons and Gene Cassettes between Bacterial Species  

PubMed Central

We have investigated to what extent natural transformation acting on free DNA substrates can facilitate transfer of mobile elements including transposons, integrons and/or gene cassettes between bacterial species. Naturally transformable cells of Acinetobacter baylyi were exposed to DNA from integron-carrying strains of the genera Acinetobacter, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Escherichia, Pseudomonas, and Salmonella to determine the nature and frequency of transfer. Exposure to the various DNA sources resulted in acquisition of antibiotic resistance traits as well as entire integrons and transposons, over a 24 h exposure period. DNA incorporation was not solely dependent on integrase functions or the genetic relatedness between species. DNA sequence analyses revealed that several mechanisms facilitated stable integration in the recipient genome depending on the nature of the donor DNA; homologous or heterologous recombination and various types of transposition (Tn21-like and IS26-like). Both donor strains and transformed isolates were extensively characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, integron- and cassette-specific PCRs, DNA sequencing, pulsed field gel electrophoreses (PFGE), Southern blot hybridizations, and by re-transformation assays. Two transformant strains were also genome-sequenced. Our data demonstrate that natural transformation facilitates interspecies transfer of genetic elements, suggesting that the transient presence of DNA in the cytoplasm may be sufficient for genomic integration to occur. Our study provides a plausible explanation for why sequence-conserved transposons, IS elements and integrons can be found disseminated among bacterial species. Moreover, natural transformation of integron harboring populations of competent bacteria revealed that interspecies exchange of gene cassettes can be highly efficient, and independent on genetic relatedness between donor and recipient. In conclusion, natural transformation provides a much broader capacity for horizontal acquisitions of genetic elements and hence, resistance traits from divergent species than previously assumed. PMID:22876180

Domingues, Sara; Harms, Klaus; Fricke, W. Florian; Johnsen, Pal J.; da Silva, Gabriela J.; Nielsen, Kaare Magne

2012-01-01

175

Who possesses drug resistance genes in the aquatic environment?: sulfamethoxazole (SMX) resistance genes among the bacterial community in water environment of Metro-Manila, Philippines  

PubMed Central

Recent evidence has shown that antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are ubiquitous in natural environments, including sites considered pristine. To understand the origin of ARGs and their dynamics, we must first define their actual presence in the natural bacterial assemblage. Here we found varying distribution profiles of sul genes in “colony forming bacterial assemblages” and “natural bacterial assemblages.” Our monitoring for antibiotic contamination revealed that sulfamethoxazole (SMX) is a major contaminant in aquatic environments of Metro-Manila, which would have been derived from human and animal use, and subsequently decreased through the process of outflow from source to the sea. The SMX-resistant bacterial rate evaluated by the colony forming unit showed 10 to 86% of the total colony numbers showed higher rates from freshwater sites compared to marine sites. When sul genes were quantified by qPCR, colony-forming bacteria conveyed sul1 and sul2 genes in freshwater and seawater (10?5–10?2 copy/16S) but not sul3. Among the natural bacterial assemblage, all sul1, sul2, and sul3 were detected (10?5–10?3 copy/16S), whereas all sul genes were at an almost non-detectable level in the freshwater assemblage. This study suggests that sul1 and sul2 are main sul genes in culturable bacteria, whereas sul3 is conveyed by non-culturable bacteria in the sea. As a result marine bacteria possess sul1, sul2 and sul3 genes in the marine environment. PMID:23641240

Suzuki, Satoru; Ogo, Mitsuko; Miller, Todd W.; Shimizu, Akiko; Takada, Hideshige; Siringan, Maria Auxilia T.

2013-01-01

176

{open_quotes}Horizontal{close_quotes} gene transfer from a transgenic potato line to a bacterial pathogen (Erwinia chrysanthemi) occurs - if at all - at an extremely low frequency  

SciTech Connect

The frequency of possible {open_quotes}horizontal{close_quotes} gene transfer between a plant and a tightly associated bacterial pathogen was studied in a model system consisting of transgenic Solanum tuberosum, containing a {beta}-lactamase gene linked to a pBR322 origin of replication, and Erwinia chrysanthemi. This experimental system offers optimal conditions for the detection of possible horizontal gene transfer events, even when they occur at very low frequency. Horizontal gene transfer was not detected under conditions mimicking a {open_quotes}natural{close_quotes} infection. The gradual, stepwise alteration of artificial, positive control conditions to idealized natural conditions, however, allowed the characterization of factors that affected gene transfer, and revealed a gradual decrease of the gene transfer frequency from 6.3 x 10{sup -2} under optimal control conditions to a calculated 2.0 x 10{sub -17} under idealized natural conditions. These data, in combination with other published studies, argue that horizontal gene transfer is so rare as to be essentially irrelevant to any realistic assessment of the risk involved in release experiments involving transgenic plants. 22 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Schlueter, K.; Fuetterer, J.; Potrykus, I. [Institute of Plant Sciences, Zuerich (Switzerland)] [Institute of Plant Sciences, Zuerich (Switzerland)

1995-10-01

177

Genetic networks controlled by the bacterial replication initiator and transcription factor DnaA in Bacillus subtilis  

E-print Network

DnaA is the bacterial replication initiator, which also functions as a transcription factor to regulate gene expression. In B. subtilis, DnaA has previously been shown to repress its own transcription and has also been ...

Washington, Tracy (Tracy Alexander)

2013-01-01

178

Engineering an Enhanced, Thermostable, Monomeric Bacterial Luciferase Gene As a Reporter in Plant Protoplasts  

PubMed Central

The application of the luxCDABE operon of the bioluminescent bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens as a reporter has been published for bacteria, yeast and mammalian cells. We report here the optimization of fused luxAB (the bacterial luciferase heterodimeric enzyme) expression, quantum yield and its application as a reporter gene in plant protoplasts. The fused luxAB gene was mutated by error prone PCR or chemical mutagenesis and screened for enhanced luciferase activity utilizing decanal as substrate. Positive luxAB mutants with superior quantum yield were subsequently shuffled by DNase I digestion and PCR assembly for generation of recombinants with additional increases in luciferase activity in bacteria. The coding sequence of the best recombinant, called eluxAB, was then optimized further to conform to Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) codon usage. A plant expression vector of the final, optimized eluxAB gene (opt-eluxAB) was constructed and transformed into protoplasts of Arabidopsis and maize (Zea mays). Luciferase activity was dramatically increased for opt-eluxAB compared to the original luxAB in Arabidopsis and maize cells. The opt-eluxAB driven by two copies of the 35S promoter expresses significantly higher than that driven by a single copy. These results indicate that the eluxAB gene can be used as a reporter in plant protoplasts. To our knowledge, this is the first report to engineer the bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens luciferase luxAB as a reporter by directed evolution which paved the way for further improving the luxAB reporter in the future. PMID:25271765

Song, Yunhong; Wei, Jinsong; Li, Changfu; Wang, Tietao; Wang, Yao; Zhao, Tianyong; Shen, Xihui

2014-01-01

179

Bacterial Competition Reveals Differential Regulation of the pks Genes by Bacillus subtilis  

PubMed Central

Bacillus subtilis is adaptable to many environments in part due to its ability to produce a broad range of bioactive compounds. One such compound, bacillaene, is a linear polyketide/nonribosomal peptide. The pks genes encode the enzymatic megacomplex that synthesizes bacillaene. The majority of pks genes appear to be organized as a giant operon (>74 kb from pksC-pksR). In previous work (P. D. Straight, M. A. Fischbach, C. T. Walsh, D. Z. Rudner, and R. Kolter, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 104:305–310, 2007, doi:10.1073/pnas.0609073103), a deletion of the pks operon in B. subtilis was found to induce prodiginine production by Streptomyces coelicolor. Here, colonies of wild-type B. subtilis formed a spreading population that induced prodiginine production from Streptomyces lividans, suggesting differential regulation of pks genes and, as a result, bacillaene. While the parent colony showed widespread induction of pks expression among cells in the population, we found the spreading cells uniformly and transiently repressed the expression of the pks genes. To identify regulators that control pks genes, we first determined the pattern of pks gene expression in liquid culture. We next identified mutations in regulatory genes that disrupted the wild-type pattern of pks gene expression. We found that expression of the pks genes requires the master regulator of development, Spo0A, through its repression of AbrB and the stationary-phase regulator, CodY. Deletions of degU, comA, and scoC had moderate effects, disrupting the timing and level of pks gene expression. The observed patterns of expression suggest that complex regulation of bacillaene and other antibiotics optimizes competitive fitness for B. subtilis. PMID:24187085

Vargas-Bautista, Carol; Rahlwes, Kathryn

2014-01-01

180

DNA Sequence Analysis Suggests that Expression of Flagellar and Chemotaxis Genes in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium is Controlled by an Alternative sigma Factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biosynthesis of bacterial flagella involves the coordinated expression of 30 or more genes in several separate operons. We have recently shown that in Bacillus subtilis, the sigma 28 factor is essential for flagellar synthesis, suggesting that transcription of these genes is directly under the control of this alternative sigma factor. In enteric bacteria structural genes for flagellar, chemotaxis, and motility

John D. Helmann; Michael J. Chamberlin

1987-01-01

181

Overexpression of bacterial ethylene-forming enzyme gene in Trichoderma reesei enhanced the production of ethylene  

PubMed Central

In order to efficiently utilize natural cellulose materials to produce ethylene, three expression vectors containing the ethylene-forming enzyme (efe) gene from Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea were constructed. The target gene was respectively controlled by different promoters: cbh I promoter from Trichoderma reesei cellobiohydrolases I gene, gpd promoter from Aspergillus nidulans glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene and pgk I promoter from T. reesei 3-phosphoglycerate kinase I gene. After transforming into T. reesei QM9414, 43 stable transformants were obtained by PCR amplification and ethylene determination. Southern blot analysis of 14 transformants demonstrated that the efe gene was integrated into chromosomal DNA with copy numbers from 1 to 4. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of 6 transformants showed that the heterologous gene was transcribed. By using wheat straw as a carbon source, the ethylene production rates of aforementioned 14 transformants were measured. Transformant C30-3 with pgk I promoter had the highest ethylene production (4,012 nl h-1 l-1). This indicates that agricultural wastes could be used to produce ethylene in recombinant filamentous fungus T. reesei. PMID:20150979

Chen, Xi; Liang, Yong; Hua, Jing; Tao, Li; Qin, Wensheng; Chen, Sanfeng

2010-01-01

182

Multicopy Integration of Heterologous Genes, Using the Lactococcal Group II Intron Targeted to Bacterial Insertion Sequences†  

PubMed Central

Group II introns are mobile genetic elements that can be redirected to invade specific genes. Here we describe the use of the lactococcal group II intron, Ll.ltrB, to achieve multicopy delivery of heterologous genes into the genome of Lactococcus lactis IL1403-UCD without the need for selectable markers. Ll.ltrB was retargeted to invade three transposase genes, the tra gene found in IS904 (tra904), tra981, and tra983, of which 9, 10, and 14 copies, respectively, were present in IL1403-UCD. Intron invasion of tra904, tra981, and tra983 allele groups occurred at high frequencies, and individual segregants possessed anywhere from one to nine copies of intron in the respective tra alleles. To achieve multicopy delivery of a heterologous gene, a green fluorescent protein (GFP) marker was cloned into the tra904-targeted Ll.ltrB, and the resultant intron (Ll.ltrB::GFP) was induced to invade the L. lactis tra904 alleles. Segregants possessing Ll.ltrB::GFP in three, four, five, six, seven, and eight copies in different tra904 alleles were obtained. In general, increasing the chromosomal copy number of Ll.ltrB::GFP resulted in strains expressing successively higher levels of GFP. However, strains possessing the same number of Ll.ltrB::GFP copies within different sets of tra904 alleles exhibited differential GFP expression, and segregants possessing seven or eight copies of Ll.ltrB::GFP grew poorly upon induction, suggesting that GFP expression from certain combinations of alleles was detrimental. The highest level of GFP expression was observed from a specific six-copy variant that produced GFP at a level analogous to that obtained with a multicopy plasmid. In addition, the high level of GFP expression was stable for over 120 generations. This work demonstrates that stable multicopy integration of heterologous genes can be readily achieved in bacterial genomes with group II intron delivery by targeting repeated elements. PMID:16957233

Rawsthorne, Helen; Turner, Kevin N.; Mills, David A.

2006-01-01

183

Transcriptomic and phylogenetic analysis of a bacterial cell cycle reveals strong associations between gene co-expression and evolution  

PubMed Central

Background The genetic network involved in the bacterial cell cycle is poorly understood even though it underpins the remarkable ability of bacteria to proliferate. How such network evolves is even less clear. The major aims of this work were to identify and examine the genes and pathways that are differentially expressed during the Caulobacter crescentus cell cycle, and to analyze the evolutionary features of the cell cycle network. Results We used deep RNA sequencing to obtain high coverage RNA-Seq data of five C. crescentus cell cycle stages, each with three biological replicates. We found that 1,586 genes (over a third of the genome) display significant differential expression between stages. This gene list, which contains many genes previously unknown for their cell cycle regulation, includes almost half of the genes involved in primary metabolism, suggesting that these “house-keeping” genes are not constitutively transcribed during the cell cycle, as often assumed. Gene and module co-expression clustering reveal co-regulated pathways and suggest functionally coupled genes. In addition, an evolutionary analysis of the cell cycle network shows a high correlation between co-expression and co-evolution. Most co-expression modules have strong phylogenetic signals, with broadly conserved genes and clade-specific genes predominating different substructures of the cell cycle co-expression network. We also found that conserved genes tend to determine the expression profile of their module. Conclusion We describe the first phylogenetic and single-nucleotide-resolution transcriptomic analysis of a bacterial cell cycle network. In addition, the study suggests how evolution has shaped this network and provides direct biological network support that selective pressure is not on individual genes but rather on the relationship between genes, which highlights the importance of integrating phylogenetic analysis into biological network studies. PMID:23829427

2013-01-01

184

Paper by J. Craig Venter, Creation of a Bacterial Cell Controlled by a Chemically  

E-print Network

information. 2010, Transfer of the artificial DNA to the living bacteria cells. httpPaper by J. Craig Venter, Creation of a Bacterial Cell Controlled by a Chemically Synthesized for free in June 2010 Supporting Material, 29 pages Podcast Interview with J Craig Venter 2 http

Rudnyi, Evgenii B.

185

Efficacy of Various Fungal and Bacterial Biocontrol Organisms for Control of Fusarium Wilt of Tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

Larkin, R. P., and Fravel, D. R. 1998. Effi cacy of various fungal and bacterial biocontrol organ- isms for control of Fusarium wilt of tomato. Plant Dis. 82: 1022-1028. Numerous fungi and bacteria, including existing biocontrol strains with known activity against soilborne fungal pathogens as well as isolates collected from the roots and rhizosphere of to- mato plants growing in

Robert P. Larkin; Deborah R. Fravel

1998-01-01

186

Finding immune gene expression differences induced by marine bacterial pathogens in the Deep-sea hydrothermal vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The deep-sea hydrothermal vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus lives in a natural environment characterised by extreme conditions of hydrostatic pressure, temperature, pH, high concentrations of heavy metals, methane and hydrogen sulphide. The deep-sea vent biological systems represent thus the opportunity to study and provide new insights into the basic physiological principles that govern the defense mechanisms in vent animals and to understand how they cope with microbial infections. Hence, the importance of understanding this animal's innate defense mechanisms, by examining its differential immune gene expressions toward different pathogenic agents. In the present study, B. azoricus mussels were infected with single suspensions of marine bacterial pathogens, consisting of Vibrio splendidus, Vibrio alginolyticus, or Vibrio anguillarum, and a pool of these Vibrio bacteria. Flavobacterium suspensions were also used as a non-pathogenic bacterium. Gene expression analyses were carried out using gill samples from infected animals by means of quantitative-Polymerase Chain Reaction aimed at targeting several immune genes. We also performed SDS-PAGE protein analyses from the same gill tissues. We concluded that there are different levels of immune gene expression between the 12 h to 24 h exposure times to various bacterial suspensions. Our results from qPCR demonstrated a general pattern of gene expression, decreasing from 12 h over 24 h post-infection. Among the bacteria tested, Flavobacterium is the bacterium inducing the highest gene expression level in 12 h post-infections animals. The 24 h infected animals revealed, however, greater gene expression levels, using V. splendidus as the infectious agent. The SDS-PAGE analysis also pointed at protein profile differences between 12 h and 24 h, particularly evident for proteins of 18-20 KDa molecular mass, where most dissimilarity was found. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that immune genes, as well as experimental infections, clustered in discrete groups in accordance with the gene expression patterns induced by bacterial pathogens.

Martins, E.; Queiroz, A.; Serrão Santos, R.; Bettencourt, R.

2013-11-01

187

Finding immune gene expression differences induced by marine bacterial pathogens in the deep-sea hydrothermal vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The deep-sea hydrothermal vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus lives in a natural environment characterized by extreme conditions of hydrostatic pressure, temperature, pH, high concentrations of heavy metals, methane and hydrogen sulphide. The deep-sea vent biological systems represent thus the opportunity to study and provide new insights into the basic physiological principles that govern the defense mechanisms in vent animals and to understand how they cope with microbial infections. Hence, the importance of understanding this animal's innate defense mechanisms, by examining its differential immune gene expressions toward different pathogenic agents. In the present study, B. azoricus mussels were infected with single suspensions of marine bacterial pathogens, consisting of Vibrio splendidus, Vibrio alginolyticus, or Vibrio anguillarum, and a pool of these Vibrio strains. Flavobacterium suspensions were also used as an irrelevant bacterium. Gene expression analyses were carried out using gill samples from animals dissected at 12 h and 24 h post-infection times by means of quantitative-Polymerase Chain Reaction aimed at targeting several immune genes. We also performed SDS-PAGE protein analyses from the same gill tissues. We concluded that there are different levels of immune gene expression between the 12 h and 24 h exposure times to various bacterial suspensions. Our results from qPCR demonstrated a general pattern of gene expression, decreasing from 12 h over 24 h post-infection. Among the bacteria tested, Flavobacterium is the microorganism species inducing the highest gene expression level in 12 h post-infections animals. The 24 h infected animals revealed, however, greater gene expression levels, using V. splendidus as the infectious agent. The SDS-PAGE analysis also pointed at protein profile differences between 12 h and 24 h, particularly around a protein area, of 18 KDa molecular mass, where most dissimilarities were found. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that immune genes, as well as experimental infections, clustered in discrete groups in accordance with the patterns observed in gene expression changes induced by bacterial pathogens.

Martins, E.; Queiroz, A.; Serrão Santos, R.; Bettencourt, R.

2013-02-01

188

A bacterial view of the periodic table: genes and proteins for toxic inorganic ions.  

PubMed

Essentially all bacteria have genes for toxic metal ion resistances and these include those for Ag+, AsO2-, AsO4(3-), Cd2+ Co2+, CrO4(2-), Cu2+, Hg2+, Ni2+, Pb2+, TeO3(2-), Tl+ and Zn2+. The largest group of resistance systems functions by energy-dependent efflux of toxic ions. Fewer involve enzymatic transformations (oxidation, reduction, methylation, and demethylation) or metal-binding proteins (for example, metallothionein SmtA, chaperone CopZ and periplasmic silver binding protein SilE). Some of the efflux resistance systems are ATPases and others are chemiosmotic ion/proton exchangers. For example, Cd2+-efflux pumps of bacteria are either inner membrane P-type ATPases or three polypeptide RND chemiosmotic complexes consisting of an inner membrane pump, a periplasmic-bridging protein and an outer membrane channel. In addition to the best studied three-polypeptide chemiosmotic system, Czc (Cd2+, Zn2+, and Co2), others are known that efflux Ag+, Cu+, Ni2+, and Zn2+. Resistance to inorganic mercury, Hg2+ (and to organomercurials, such as CH3Hg+ and phenylmercury) involve a series of metal-binding and membrane transport proteins as well as the enzymes mercuric reductase and organomercurial lyase, which overall convert more toxic to less toxic forms. Arsenic resistance and metabolizing systems occur in three patterns, the widely-found ars operon that is present in most bacterial genomes and many plasmids, the more recently recognized arr genes for the periplasmic arsenate reductase that functions in anaerobic respiration as a terminal electron acceptor, and the aso genes for the periplasmic arsenite oxidase that functions as an initial electron donor in aerobic resistance to arsenite. PMID:16133099

Silver, Simon; Phung, Le T

2005-12-01

189

The Evolution of the Bacterial Luciferase Gene Cassette (lux) as a Real-Time Bioreporter  

PubMed Central

The bacterial luciferase gene cassette (lux) is unique among bioluminescent bioreporter systems due to its ability to synthesize and/or scavenge all of the substrate compounds required for its production of light. As a result, the lux system has the unique ability to autonomously produce a luminescent signal, either continuously or in response to the presence of a specific trigger, across a wide array of organismal hosts. While originally employed extensively as a bacterial bioreporter system for the detection of specific chemical signals in environmental samples, the use of lux as a bioreporter technology has continuously expanded over the last 30 years to include expression in eukaryotic cells such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and even human cell lines as well. Under these conditions, the lux system has been developed for use as a biomedical detection tool for toxicity screening and visualization of tumors in small animal models. As the technologies for lux signal detection continue to improve, it is poised to become one of the first fully implantable detection systems for intra-organismal optical detection through direct marriage to an implantable photon-detecting digital chip. This review presents the basic biochemical background that allows the lux system to continuously autobioluminesce and highlights the important milestones in the use of lux-based bioreporters as they have evolved from chemical detection platforms in prokaryotic bacteria to rodent-based tumorigenesis study targets. In addition, the future of lux imaging using integrated circuit microluminometry to image directly within a living host in real-time will be introduced and its role in the development of dose/response therapeutic systems will be highlighted. PMID:22368493

Close, Dan; Xu, Tingting; Smartt, Abby; Rogers, Alexandra; Crossley, Robert; Price, Sarah; Ripp, Steven; Sayler, Gary

2012-01-01

190

[Control of buccal peroxidases by a bacterial NADH-hypothiocyanite oxidoreductase].  

PubMed

Oral peroxidases (myeloperoxidase, sialoperoxidase) catalyze thiocyanate peroxidation into hypothiocyanite which is bacteriostatic or bactericidal against numerous bacterial species. NADH-hypothiocyanite-oxidoreductase is thought to protect bacteria which can express it; up to now, this enzyme activity was never purified. The present study analyzes, on one hand, the susceptibility of periodontal bacteria against hypothiocyanite and, on the other hand, proposes a purification design for the NADH-hypothiocyanite-oxidoreductase from Streptococcus sanguis, a commensal micro-organism of dental surfaces. The data suggest the importance of the bacterial biofilm on dental surfaces for production of antiseptic oxidants and for the control of their toxicity. PMID:9491629

Courtois, P

1996-01-01

191

Biological treatments to control bacterial canker of greenhouse tomatoes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of treatments on Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis in vitro and on young seedlingsinoculated with the pathogen under greenhouseconditions. Lysozyme was bactericidal at 10 g\\/l concentration in vitro. Tomato plantstreated with lysozyme at 10 g\\/l and 100 g\\/lshowed significantly higher plant heightcompared with the inoculated control plants,and plants in these treatments were as tall

Raj Utkhede; Carol Koch

2004-01-01

192

Multiple controls affect arsenite oxidase gene expression in Herminiimonas arsenicoxydans  

PubMed Central

Background Both the speciation and toxicity of arsenic are affected by bacterial transformations, i.e. oxidation, reduction or methylation. These transformations have a major impact on environmental contamination and more particularly on arsenic contamination of drinking water. Herminiimonas arsenicoxydans has been isolated from an arsenic- contaminated environment and has developed various mechanisms for coping with arsenic, including the oxidation of As(III) to As(V) as a detoxification mechanism. Results In the present study, a differential transcriptome analysis was used to identify genes, including arsenite oxidase encoding genes, involved in the response of H. arsenicoxydans to As(III). To get insight into the molecular mechanisms of this enzyme activity, a Tn5 transposon mutagenesis was performed. Transposon insertions resulting in a lack of arsenite oxidase activity disrupted aoxR and aoxS genes, showing that the aox operon transcription is regulated by the AoxRS two-component system. Remarkably, transposon insertions were also identified in rpoN coding for the alternative N sigma factor (?54) of RNA polymerase and in dnaJ coding for the Hsp70 co-chaperone. Western blotting with anti-AoxB antibodies and quantitative RT-PCR experiments allowed us to demonstrate that the rpoN and dnaJ gene products are involved in the control of arsenite oxidase gene expression. Finally, the transcriptional start site of the aoxAB operon was determined using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and a putative -12/-24 ?54-dependent promoter motif was identified upstream of aoxAB coding sequences. Conclusion These results reveal the existence of novel molecular regulatory processes governing arsenite oxidase expression in H. arsenicoxydans. These data are summarized in a model that functionally integrates arsenite oxidation in the adaptive response to As(III) in this microorganism. PMID:20167112

2010-01-01

193

Control of gene expression in trypanosomes.  

PubMed Central

Trypanosomes are protozoan agents of major parasitic diseases such as Chagas' disease in South America and sleeping sickness of humans and nagana disease of cattle in Africa. They are transmitted to mammalian hosts by specific insect vectors. Their life cycle consists of a succession of differentiation and growth phases requiring regulated gene expression to adapt to the changing extracellular environment. Typical of such stage-specific expression is that of the major surface antigens of Trypanosoma brucei, procyclin in the procyclic (insect) form and the variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) in the bloodstream (mammalian) form. In trypanosomes, the regulation of gene expression is effected mainly at posttranscriptional levels, since primary transcription of most of the genes occurs in long polycistronic units and is constitutive. The transcripts are processed by transsplicing and polyadenylation under the influence of intergenic polypyrimidine tracts. These events show some developmental regulation. Untranslated sequences of the mRNAs seem to play a prominent role in the stage-specific control of individual gene expression, through a modulation of mRNA abundance. The VSG and procyclin transcription units exhibit particular features that are probably related to the need for a high level of expression. The promoters and RNA polymerase driving the expression of these units resemble those of the ribosomal genes. Their mutually exclusive expression is ensured by controls operating at several levels, including RNA elongation. Antigenic variation in the bloodstream is achieved through DNA rearrangements or alternative activation of the telomeric VSG gene expression sites. Recent discoveries, such as the existence of a novel nucleotide in telomeric DNA and the generation of point mutations in VSG genes, have shed new light on the mechanisms and consequences of antigenic variation. PMID:7603410

Vanhamme, L; Pays, E

1995-01-01

194

Characterizing the mode of action of Brevibacillus laterosporus B4 for control of bacterial brown strip of rice caused by A. avenae subsp. avenae RS-1.  

PubMed

Biological control efficacy of Brevibacillus laterosporus B4 associated with rice rhizosphere was assessed against bacterial brown stripe of rice caused by Acidovorex avenae subsp. avenae. A biochemical bactericide (chitosan) was used as positive control in this experiment. Result of in vitro analysis indicated that B. laterosporus B4 and its culture filtrates (70%; v/v) exhibited low inhibitory effects than chitosan (5 mg/ml). However, culture suspension of B. laterosporus B4 prepared in 1% saline solution presented significant ability to control bacterial brown stripe in vivo. Bacterization of rice seeds for 24 h yielded a greater response (71.9%) for controlling brown stripe in vivo than chitosan (56%). Studies on mechanisms revealed that B. laterosporus B4 suppressed the biofilm formation and severely disrupted cell membrane integrity of A. avenae subsp. avenae, causing the leakage of intracellular substances. In addition, the expression level of virulence-related genes in pathogen recovered from biocontrol-agent-treated plants showed that the genes responsible for biofilm formation, motility, niche adaptation, membrane functionality and virulence of A. avenae subsp. avenae were down-regulated by B. laterosporus B4 treatment. The biocontrol activity of B. laterosporus B4 was attributed to a substance with protein nature. This protein nature was shown by using ammonium sulfate precipitation and subsequent treatment with protease. The results obtained from this study showed the potential effectiveness of B. laterosporus B4 as biocontrol agent in control of bacterial brown stripe of rice. PMID:23990042

Kakar, Kaleem Ullah; Nawaz, Zarqa; Cui, Z; Almoneafy, Abdlwareth A; Zhu, Bo; Xie, Guan-Lin

2014-02-01

195

Bacterial ghosts (BGs)—Advanced antigen and drug delivery system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial ghosts (BGs) are empty bacterial envelopes of Gram-negative bacteria produced by controlled expression of cloned gene E, forming a lysis tunnel structure within the envelope of the living bacteria. BGs are devoid of cytoplasmic content and possess all bacterial bio-adhesive surface properties in their original state while not posing any infectious threat. BGs are ideally suited as an advanced

Pavol Kudela; Verena Juliana Koller; Werner Lubitz

2010-01-01

196

Influence of Uranium on Bacterial Communities: A Comparison of Natural Uranium-Rich Soils with Controls  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the influence of uranium on the indigenous bacterial community structure in natural soils with high uranium content. Radioactive soil samples exhibiting 0.26% - 25.5% U in mass were analyzed and compared with nearby control soils containing trace uranium. EXAFS and XRD analyses of soils revealed the presence of U(VI) and uranium-phosphate mineral phases, identified as sabugalite and meta-autunite. A comparative analysis of bacterial community fingerprints using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) revealed the presence of a complex population in both control and uranium-rich samples. However, bacterial communities inhabiting uraniferous soils exhibited specific fingerprints that were remarkably stable over time, in contrast to populations from nearby control samples. Representatives of Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria, and seven others phyla were detected in DGGE bands specific to uraniferous samples. In particular, sequences related to iron-reducing bacteria such as Geobacter and Geothrix were identified concomitantly with iron-oxidizing species such as Gallionella and Sideroxydans. All together, our results demonstrate that uranium exerts a permanent high pressure on soil bacterial communities and suggest the existence of a uranium redox cycle mediated by bacteria in the soil. PMID:21998695

Mondani, Laure; Benzerara, Karim; Carriere, Marie; Christen, Richard; Mamindy-Pajany, Yannick; Fevrier, Laureline; Marmier, Nicolas; Achouak, Wafa; Nardoux, Pascal; Berthomieu, Catherine; Chapon, Virginie

2011-01-01

197

Quantification of bacterial RubisCO genes in soils by cbbL targeted real-time PCR.  

PubMed

Soils harbor a high diversity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) large subunit coding genes (cbbL). Real-time PCR was used to quantify this gene in differently managed agricultural soils and soil microhabitats. We developed primers and a TaqMan probe that target the "red-like" RubisCO gene cbbL. Primers and probe were developed based on cbbL sequences of selected bacterial pure cultures and of environmental clones. The amount of cbbL copies in the investigated soils were detected in the range of 6.8x10(6) to 3.4x10(7) "red-like" cbbL copies/g soil. The cbbL genes could be located entirely in the clay and silt fraction, while the coarse sand fractions revealed no detectable level of bacterial RubisCO genes. These results indicate that bacteria with RubisCO coding genes are numerous and widespread in soils, however the functional implication of this gene in soils is not yet clear. PMID:17462765

Selesi, Drazenka; Pattis, Isabelle; Schmid, Michael; Kandeler, Ellen; Hartmann, Anton

2007-06-01

198

Spaceflight Alters Bacterial Gene Expression and Virulence and Reveals Role for Global Regulator Hfq  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comprehensive analysis of both the molecular genetic and phenotypic responses of any organism to the spaceflight environment has never been accomplished due to significant technological and logistical hurdles. Moreover, the effects of spaceflight on microbial pathogenicity and associated infectious disease risks have not been studied. The bacterial pathogen Salmonella typhimurium was grown aboard Space Shuttle mission STS-115 and compared to identical ground control cultures. Global microarray and proteomic analyses revealed 167 transcripts and 73 proteins changed expression with the conserved RNA-binding protein Hfq identified as a likely global regulator involved in the response to this environment. Hfq involvement was confirmed with a ground based microgravity culture model. Spaceflight samples exhibited enhanced virulence in a murine infection model and extracellular matrix accumulation consistent with a biofilm. Strategies to target Hfq and related regulators could potentially decrease infectious disease risks during spaceflight missions and provide novel therapeutic options on Earth.

Wilson, J. W.; Ott, C. M.; zuBentrup, K. Honer; Ramamurthy R.; Quick, L.; Porwollik, S.; Cheng, P.; McClellan, M.; Tsaprailis, G.; Radabaugh, T.; Hunt, A.; Fernandez, D.; Richter, E.; Shah, M.; Kilcoyne, M.; Joshi, L.; Nelman-Gonzalez, M.; Hing, S.; Parra, M.; Dumaras, P.; Norwood, K.; Nickerson, C. A.; Bober, R.; Devich, J.; Ruggles, A.

2007-01-01

199

Gut microbiota promote hematopoiesis to control bacterial infection.  

PubMed

The commensal microbiota impacts specific immune cell populations and their functions at peripheral sites, such as gut mucosal tissues. However, it remains unknown whether gut microbiota control immunity through regulation of hematopoiesis at primary immune sites. We reveal that germ-free mice display reduced proportions and differentiation potential of specific myeloid cell progenitors of both yolk sac and bone marrow origin. Homeostatic innate immune defects may lead to impaired early responses to pathogens. Indeed, following systemic infection with Listeria monocytogenes, germ-free and oral-antibiotic-treated mice display increased pathogen burden and acute death. Recolonization of germ-free mice with a complex microbiota restores defects in myelopoiesis and resistance to Listeria. These findings reveal that gut bacteria direct innate immune cell development via promoting hematopoiesis, contributing to our appreciation of the deep evolutionary connection between mammals and their microbiota. PMID:24629343

Khosravi, Arya; Yáñez, Alberto; Price, Jeremy G; Chow, Andrew; Merad, Miriam; Goodridge, Helen S; Mazmanian, Sarkis K

2014-03-12

200

TGF-? control of stem cell differentiation genes  

PubMed Central

The canonical TGF-?/Smad signaling pathway was delineated in the mid 90’s and enriched over the past decade with many findings about its specificity, regulation, networking, and malfunctions in disease. However, a growing understanding of the chromatin status of a critical class of TGF-? target genes –the genes controlling differentiation of embryonic stem cells– recently prompted a reexamination of this pathway and its critical role in the regulation of stem cell differentiation. The new findings reveal master regulators of the pluripotent state set the stage for Smad-mediated activation of master regulators of the next differentiation stage. Furthermore, a novel branch of the TGF-?/Smad pathway has been identified in which a chromatin-reading Smad complex makes the master differentiation genes accessible to canonical Smad complexes for transcriptional activation. These findings provide exciting new insights into the global role of TGF-? signaling in the regulators of stem cell fate. PMID:22710171

Massague, Joan; Xi, Qiaoran

2012-01-01

201

Intrinsic bioremediability of an aromatic hydrocarbon-polluted groundwater: diversity of bacterial population and toluene monoxygenase genes.  

PubMed

The functional and phylogenetic biodiversity of bacterial communities in a benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX)-polluted groundwater was analysed. To evaluate the feasibility of using an air sparging treatment to enhance bacterial degradative capabilities, the presence of degrading microorganisms was monitored. The amplification of gene fragments corresponding to toluene monooxygenase (tmo), catechol 1,2-dioxygenase, catechol 2,3-dioxygenase and toluene dioxygenase genes in DNA extracted directly from the groundwater samples was associated with the presence of indigenous degrading bacteria. Five months of air injection reduced species diversity in the cultivable community (as calculated by the Shannon-Weaver index), while little change was noted in the degree of biodiversity in the total bacterial community, as characterised by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. BTEX-degrading strains belonged to the genera Pseudomonas, Microbacterium, Azoarcus, Mycobacterium and Bradyrhizobium. The degrading capacities of three strains in batch liquid cultures were also studied. In some of these microorganisms different pathways for toluene degradation seemed to operate simultaneously. Pseudomonas strains of the P24 operational taxonomic unit, able to grow only on catechol and not on BTEX, were the most abundant, and were present in the groundwater community at all stages of treatment, as evidenced both by cultivation approaches and by DGGE profiles. The presence of different tmo-like genes in phylogenetically distant strains of Pseudomonas, Mycobacterium and Bradyrhizobium suggested recent horizontal gene transfer in the groundwater. PMID:14624316

Cavalca, L; Dell'Amico, E; Andreoni, V

2004-05-01

202

Using Bacterial Extract along with Differential Gene Expression in Acropora millepora Larvae to Decouple the Processes of Attachment and Metamorphosis  

PubMed Central

Biofilms of the bacterium Pseudoalteromonas induce metamorphosis of acroporid coral larvae. The bacterial metabolite tetrabromopyrrole (TBP), isolated from an extract of Pseudoalteromonas sp. associated with the crustose coralline alga (CCA) Neogoniolithon fosliei, induced coral larval metamorphosis (100%) with little or no attachment (0–2%). To better understand the molecular events and mechanisms underpinning the induction of Acropora millepora larval metamorphosis, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, migration, adhesion and biomineralisation, two novel coral gene expression assays were implemented. These involved the use of reverse-transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and employed 47 genes of interest (GOI), selected based on putative roles in the processes of settlement and metamorphosis. Substantial differences in transcriptomic responses of GOI were detected following incubation of A. millepora larvae with a threshold concentration and 10-fold elevated concentration of TBP-containing extracts of Pseudoalteromonas sp. The notable and relatively abrupt changes of the larval body structure during metamorphosis correlated, at the molecular level, with significant differences (p<0.05) in gene expression profiles of 24 GOI, 12 hours post exposure. Fourteen of those GOI also presented differences in expression (p<0.05) following exposure to the threshold concentration of bacterial TBP-containing extract. The specificity of the bacterial TBP-containing extract to induce the metamorphic stage in A. millepora larvae without attachment, using a robust, low cost, accurate, ecologically relevant and highly reproducible RT-qPCR assay, allowed partially decoupling of the transcriptomic processes of attachment and metamorphosis. The bacterial TBP-containing extract provided a unique opportunity to monitor the regulation of genes exclusively involved in the process of metamorphosis, contrasting previous gene expression studies that utilized cues, such as crustose coralline algae, biofilms or with GLW-amide neuropeptides that stimulate the entire onset of larval metamorphosis and attachment. PMID:22655067

Siboni, Nachshon; Abrego, David; Seneca, Francois; Motti, Cherie A.; Andreakis, Nikos; Tebben, Jan; Blackall, Linda L.; Harder, Tilmann

2012-01-01

203

Bacterial Bioluminescence Regulates Expression of a Host Cryptochrome Gene in the Squid-Vibrio Symbiosis  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The symbiosis between the squid Euprymna scolopes and its luminous symbiont, Vibrio fischeri, is characterized by daily transcriptional rhythms in both partners and daily fluctuations in symbiont luminescence. In this study, we sought to determine whether symbionts affect host transcriptional rhythms. We identified two transcripts in host tissues (E. scolopes cry1 [escry1] and escry2) that encode cryptochromes, proteins that influence circadian rhythms in other systems. Both genes cycled daily in the head of the squid, with a pattern similar to that of other animals, in which expression of certain cry genes is entrained by environmental light. In contrast, escry1 expression cycled in the symbiont-colonized light organ with 8-fold upregulation coincident with the rhythms of bacterial luminescence, which are offset from the day/night light regime. Colonization of the juvenile light organ by symbionts was required for induction of escry1 cycling. Further, analysis with a mutant strain defective in light production showed that symbiont luminescence is essential for cycling of escry1; this defect could be complemented by presentation of exogenous blue light. However, blue-light exposure alone did not induce cycling in nonsymbiotic animals, but addition of molecules of the symbiont cell envelope to light-exposed animals did recover significant cycling activity, showing that light acts in synergy with other symbiont features to induce cycling. While symbiont luminescence may be a character specific to rhythms of the squid-vibrio association, resident microbial partners could similarly influence well-documented daily rhythms in other systems, such as the mammalian gut. PMID:23549919

Heath-Heckman, Elizabeth A. C.; Peyer, Suzanne M.; Whistler, Cheryl A.; Apicella, Michael A.; Goldman, William E.; McFall-Ngai, Margaret J.

2013-01-01

204

Bacterial bioluminescence regulates expression of a host cryptochrome gene in the squid-Vibrio symbiosis.  

PubMed

The symbiosis between the squid Euprymna scolopes and its luminous symbiont, Vibrio fischeri, is characterized by daily transcriptional rhythms in both partners and daily fluctuations in symbiont luminescence. In this study, we sought to determine whether symbionts affect host transcriptional rhythms. We identified two transcripts in host tissues (E. scolopes cry1 [escry1] and escry2) that encode cryptochromes, proteins that influence circadian rhythms in other systems. Both genes cycled daily in the head of the squid, with a pattern similar to that of other animals, in which expression of certain cry genes is entrained by environmental light. In contrast, escry1 expression cycled in the symbiont-colonized light organ with 8-fold upregulation coincident with the rhythms of bacterial luminescence, which are offset from the day/night light regime. Colonization of the juvenile light organ by symbionts was required for induction of escry1 cycling. Further, analysis with a mutant strain defective in light production showed that symbiont luminescence is essential for cycling of escry1; this defect could be complemented by presentation of exogenous blue light. However, blue-light exposure alone did not induce cycling in nonsymbiotic animals, but addition of molecules of the symbiont cell envelope to light-exposed animals did recover significant cycling activity, showing that light acts in synergy with other symbiont features to induce cycling. While symbiont luminescence may be a character specific to rhythms of the squid-vibrio association, resident microbial partners could similarly influence well-documented daily rhythms in other systems, such as the mammalian gut. PMID:23549919

Heath-Heckman, Elizabeth A C; Peyer, Suzanne M; Whistler, Cheryl A; Apicella, Michael A; Goldman, William E; McFall-Ngai, Margaret J

2013-01-01

205

Mutations in ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transaminase genes in plants or Pseudomonas syringae reduce bacterial virulence.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 is a bacterial pathogen of Arabidopsis and tomato that grows in the apoplast. The non-protein amino acid ?-amino butyric acid (GABA) is produced by Arabidopsis and tomato and is the most abundant amino acid in the apoplastic fluid of tomato. The DC3000 genome harbors three genes annotated as gabT GABA transaminases. A DC3000 mutant lacking all three gabT genes was constructed and found to be unable to utilize GABA as a sole carbon and nitrogen source. In complete minimal media supplemented with GABA, the mutant grew less well than wild-type DC3000 and showed strongly reduced expression of hrpL and avrPto, which encode an alternative sigma factor and effector, respectively, associated with the type III secretion system. The growth of the gabT triple mutant was weakly reduced in Arabidopsis ecotype Landberg erecta (Ler) and strongly reduced in the Ler pop2-1 GABA transaminase-deficient mutant that accumulates higher levels of GABA. Much of the ability to grow on GABA-amended minimal media or in Arabidopsis pop2-1 leaves could be restored to the gabT triple mutant by expression in trans of just gabT2. The ability of DC3000 to elicit the hypersensitive response (HR) in tobacco leaves is dependent upon deployment of the type III secretion system, and the gabT triple mutant was less able than wild-type DC3000 to elicit this HR when bacteria were infiltrated along with GABA at levels of 1 mm or more. GABA may have multiple effects on P. syringae-plant interactions, with elevated levels increasing disease resistance. PMID:21070411

Park, Duck Hwan; Mirabella, Rossana; Bronstein, Philip A; Preston, Gail M; Haring, Michel A; Lim, Chun Keun; Collmer, Alan; Schuurink, Robert C

2010-10-01

206

An exceptional horizontal gene transfer in plastids: gene replacement by a distant bacterial paralog and evidence that haptophyte and cryptophyte plastids are sisters  

PubMed Central

Background Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) to the plant mitochondrial genome has recently been shown to occur at a surprisingly high rate; however, little evidence has been found for HGT to the plastid genome, despite extensive sequencing. In this study, we analyzed all genes from sequenced plastid genomes to unearth any neglected cases of HGT and to obtain a measure of the overall extent of HGT to the plastid. Results Although several genes gave strongly supported conflicting trees under certain conditions, we are confident of HGT in only a single case beyond the rubisco HGT already reported. Most of the conflicts involved near neighbors connected by long branches (e.g. red algae and their secondary hosts), where phylogenetic methods are prone to mislead. However, three genes – clpP, ycf2, and rpl36 – provided strong support for taxa moving far from their organismal position. Further taxon sampling of clpP and ycf2 resulted in rejection of HGT due to long-branch attraction and a serious error in the published plastid genome sequence of Oenothera elata, respectively. A single new case, a bacterial rpl36 gene transferred into the ancestor of the cryptophyte and haptophyte plastids, appears to be a true HGT event. Interestingly, this rpl36 gene is a distantly related paralog of the rpl36 type found in other plastids and most eubacteria. Moreover, the transferred gene has physically replaced the native rpl36 gene, yet flanking genes and intergenic regions show no sign of HGT. This suggests that gene replacement somehow occurred by recombination at the very ends of rpl36, without the level and length of similarity normally expected to support recombination. Conclusion The rpl36 HGT discovered in this study is of considerable interest in terms of both molecular mechanism and phylogeny. The plastid acquisition of a bacterial rpl36 gene via HGT provides the first strong evidence for a sister-group relationship between haptophyte and cryptophyte plastids to the exclusion of heterokont and alveolate plastids. Moreover, the bacterial gene has replaced the native plastid rpl36 gene by an uncertain mechanism that appears inconsistent with existing models for the recombinational basis of gene conversion. PMID:16956407

Rice, Danny W; Palmer, Jeffrey D

2006-01-01

207

A study of iterative type II polyketide synthases, using bacterial genes cloned from soil DNA: a means to access and use genes from uncultured microorganisms.  

PubMed Central

To examine as randomly as possible the role of the beta-ketoacyl and acyl carrier protein (ACP) components of bacterial type II polyketide synthases (PKSs), homologs of the chain-length-factor (CLF) genes were cloned from the environmental community of microorganisms. With PCR primers derived from conserved regions of known ketosynthase (KSalpha) and ACP genes specifying the formation of 16- to 24-carbon polyketides, two CLF (KSbeta) genes were cloned from unclassified streptomycetes isolated from the soil, and two were cloned from soil DNA without the prior isolation of the parent microorganism. The sequence and deduced product of each gene were distinct from those of known KSbeta genes and, by phylogenetic analysis, belonged to antibiotic-producing PKS gene clusters. Hybrid PKS gene cassettes were constructed with each novel KSbeta gene substituted for the actI-ORF2 or tcmL KSbeta subunit genes, along with the respective actI-ORF1 or tcmK KSalpha, tcmM ACP, and tcmN cyclase genes, and were found to produce an octaketide or decaketide product characteristic of the ones known to be made by the heterologous KSalpha gene partner. Since substantially less than 1% of the microorganisms present in soil are thought to be cultivatable by standard methods, this work demonstrates a potential way to gain access to a more extensive range of microbial molecular diversity and to biosynthetic pathways whose products can be tested for biological applications. PMID:9393700

Seow, K T; Meurer, G; Gerlitz, M; Wendt-Pienkowski, E; Hutchinson, C R; Davies, J

1997-01-01

208

The use of the luxA gene of the bacterial luciferase operon as a reporter gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial luciferase can be assayed rapidly and with high sensitivity both in vivo and in vitro. Here we demonstrate that the N-terminal hydrophobic domain of the a catalytic subunit of the luciferase enzyme is indispensable for enzyme activity, although N-terminal translational fusions with full luciferase activity can be obtained. Bacterial luciferase is therefore ideally suited as a reporter enzyme for

Olof Olsson; Csaba Koncz; Aladar A. Szalay

1988-01-01

209

Long-Term Effects from Bacterial Meningitis in Childhood and Adolescence on Postural Control  

PubMed Central

Bacterial meningitis in childhood is associated with cognitive deficiencies, sensorimotor impairments and motor dysfunction later in life. However, the long-term effects on postural control is largely unknown, e.g., whether meningitis subjects as adults fully can utilize visual information and adaptation to enhance stability. Thirty-six subjects (20 women, mean age 19.3 years) treated in childhood or adolescence for bacterial meningitis, and 25 controls (13 women, mean age 25.1 years) performed posturography with eyes open and closed under unperturbed and perturbed standing. The meningitis subjects were screened for subjective vertigo symptoms using a questionnaire, clinically tested with headshake and head thrust test, as well as their hearing was evaluated. Meningitis subjects were significantly more unstable than controls during unperturbed (p?0.014) and perturbed standing, though while perturbed only with eyes open in anteroposterior direction (p?=?0.034) whereas in lateral direction both with eyes open and closed (p<0.001). Meningitis subjects had poorer adaption ability to balance perturbations especially with eyes open, and they frequently reported symptoms of unsteadiness (88% of the subjects) and dizziness (81%), which was found significantly correlated to objectively decreased stability. Out of the 36 subjects only 3 had unilateral hearing impairment. Hence, survivors of childhood bacterial meningitis may suffer long-term disorders affecting postural control, and would greatly benefit if these common late effects became generally known so treatments can be developed and applied. PMID:25405756

Petersen, Hannes; Patel, Mitesh; Ingason, Einar F.; Einarsson, Einar J.; Haraldsson, Ásgeir; Fransson, Per-Anders

2014-01-01

210

Long-term effects from bacterial meningitis in childhood and adolescence on postural control.  

PubMed

Bacterial meningitis in childhood is associated with cognitive deficiencies, sensorimotor impairments and motor dysfunction later in life. However, the long-term effects on postural control is largely unknown, e.g., whether meningitis subjects as adults fully can utilize visual information and adaptation to enhance stability. Thirty-six subjects (20 women, mean age 19.3 years) treated in childhood or adolescence for bacterial meningitis, and 25 controls (13 women, mean age 25.1 years) performed posturography with eyes open and closed under unperturbed and perturbed standing. The meningitis subjects were screened for subjective vertigo symptoms using a questionnaire, clinically tested with headshake and head thrust test, as well as their hearing was evaluated. Meningitis subjects were significantly more unstable than controls during unperturbed (p?0.014) and perturbed standing, though while perturbed only with eyes open in anteroposterior direction (p?=?0.034) whereas in lateral direction both with eyes open and closed (p<0.001). Meningitis subjects had poorer adaption ability to balance perturbations especially with eyes open, and they frequently reported symptoms of unsteadiness (88% of the subjects) and dizziness (81%), which was found significantly correlated to objectively decreased stability. Out of the 36 subjects only 3 had unilateral hearing impairment. Hence, survivors of childhood bacterial meningitis may suffer long-term disorders affecting postural control, and would greatly benefit if these common late effects became generally known so treatments can be developed and applied. PMID:25405756

Petersen, Hannes; Patel, Mitesh; Ingason, Einar F; Einarsson, Einar J; Haraldsson, Asgeir; Fransson, Per-Anders

2014-01-01

211

Bacterial rRNA Genes Associated with Soil Suppressiveness against the Plant-Parasitic Nematode Heterodera schachtii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to identify bacteria involved in soil suppressiveness against the plant-parasitic nematode Heterodera schachtii. Since H. schachtii cysts isolated from the suppressive soil can transfer this beneficial property to nonsuppressive soils, analysis of the cyst-associated microorganisms should lead to the identification of the causal organisms. Our experimental approach was to identify bacterial rRNA genes (rDNA)

Bei Yin; Lea Valinsky; Xuebiao Gao; J. Ole Becker; James Borneman

2003-01-01

212

Enhanced salt stress tolerance in transgenic potato plants ( Solanum tuberosum L.) expressing a bacterial mtl D gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial mannitol 1-phosphate dehydrogenase (mtlD) gene was introduced into potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Transgenic plants were selected on a medium containing 100 mg l?1 kanamycin and confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Southern blotting, and RT-PCR analyses. All of the selected transformants\\u000a accumulated mannitol, a sugar alcohol that is not found in wildtype potato. Experiments designed for testing

Hassan Rahnama; Haghighat Vakilian; Hossain Fahimi; Behzad Ghareyazie

2011-01-01

213

Phylogenetic analysis of bacterial and archaeal arsC gene sequences suggests an ancient, common origin for arsenate reductase  

PubMed Central

Background The ars gene system provides arsenic resistance for a variety of microorganisms and can be chromosomal or plasmid-borne. The arsC gene, which codes for an arsenate reductase is essential for arsenate resistance and transforms arsenate into arsenite, which is extruded from the cell. A survey of GenBank shows that arsC appears to be phylogenetically widespread both in organisms with known arsenic resistance and those organisms that have been sequenced as part of whole genome projects. Results Phylogenetic analysis of aligned arsC sequences shows broad similarities to the established 16S rRNA phylogeny, with separation of bacterial, archaeal, and subsequently eukaryotic arsC genes. However, inconsistencies between arsC and 16S rRNA are apparent for some taxa. Cyanobacteria and some of the ?-Proteobacteria appear to possess arsC genes that are similar to those of Low GC Gram-positive Bacteria, and other isolated taxa possess arsC genes that would not be expected based on known evolutionary relationships. There is no clear separation of plasmid-borne and chromosomal arsC genes, although a number of the Enterobacteriales (?-Proteobacteria) possess similar plasmid-encoded arsC sequences. Conclusion The overall phylogeny of the arsenate reductases suggests a single, early origin of the arsC gene and subsequent sequence divergence to give the distinct arsC classes that exist today. Discrepancies between 16S rRNA and arsC phylogenies support the role of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in the evolution of arsenate reductases, with a number of instances of HGT early in bacterial arsC evolution. Plasmid-borne arsC genes are not monophyletic suggesting multiple cases of chromosomal-plasmid exchange and subsequent HGT. Overall, arsC phylogeny is complex and is likely the result of a number of evolutionary mechanisms. PMID:12877744

Jackson, Colin R; Dugas, Sandra L

2003-01-01

214

Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences reveals distal gut bacterial diversity in wild wolves (Canis lupus).  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to describe the microbial communities in the distal gut of wild wolves (Canis lupus). Fecal samples were collected from three healthy unrelated adult wolves captured at the nearby of Dalai Lake Nature Reserve in Inner Mongolia of China. The diversity of fecal bacteria was investigated by constructing PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene clone libraries using the universal bacterial primers 27 F and 1493 R. A total of 307 non-chimeric near-full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences were analyzed and 65 non-redundant bacteria phylotypes (operational taxonomical units, OTUs) were identified. Seventeen OTUs (26%) showed less than 98% sequence similarity to 16S rRNA gene sequences were reported previously. Five different bacterial phyla were identified, with the majority of OTUs being classified within the phylum Firmicutes (60%), followed by Bacteroidetes (16.9%), Proteobacteria (9.2%), Fusobacteria (9.2%) and Actinobacteria (4.6%). The majority of clones fell within the order Clostridiales (53.8% of OTUs). It was predominantly affiliated with five families: Lachnospiraceae was the most diverse bacterial family in this order, followed by Ruminococcaceae, Clostridiaceae, Peptococcaceae and Peptostreptococcaceae. PMID:20306230

Zhang, Honghai; Chen, Lei

2010-12-01

215

Eye-specification genes in the bacterial light organ of the bobtail squid Euprymna scolopes, and their expression in response to symbiont cues.  

PubMed

The squid Euprymna scolopes has evolved independent sets of tissues capable of light detection, including a complex eye and a photophore or 'light organ', which houses the luminous bacterial symbiont Vibrio fischeri. As the eye and light organ originate from different embryonic tissues, we examined whether the eye-specification genes, pax6, eya, six, and dac, are shared by these two organs, and if so, whether they are regulated in the light organ by symbiosis. We obtained sequences of the four genes with PCR, confirmed orthology with phylogenetic analysis, and determined that each was expressed in the eye and light organ. With in situ hybridization (ISH), we localized the gene transcripts in developing embryos, comparing the patterns of expression in the two organs. The four transcripts localized to similar tissues, including those associated with the visual system ?1/4 into embryogenesis (Naef stage 18) and the light organ ?3/4 into embryogenesis (Naef stage 26). We used ISH and quantitative real-time PCR to examine transcript expression and differential regulation in postembryonic light organs in response to the following colonization conditions: wild-type, luminescent V. fischeri; a mutant strain defective in light production; and as a control, no symbiont. In ISH experiments light organs showed down regulation of the pax6, eya, and six transcripts in response to wild-type V. fischeri. Mutant strains also induced down regulation of the pax6 and eya transcripts, but not of the six transcript. Thus, luminescence was required for down regulation of the six transcript. We discuss these results in the context of symbiont-induced light-organ development. Our study indicates that the eye-specification genes are expressed in light-interacting tissues independent of their embryonic origin and are capable of responding to bacterial cues. These results offer evidence for evolutionary tinkering or the recruitment of eye development genes for use in a light-sensing photophore. PMID:24157521

Peyer, Suzanne M; Pankey, M Sabrina; Oakley, Todd H; McFall-Ngai, Margaret J

2014-02-01

216

Quantification of Yeast and Bacterial Gene Transcripts in Retail Cheeses by Reverse Transcription-Quantitative PCR  

PubMed Central

The cheese microbiota contributes to a large extent to the development of the typical color, flavor, and texture of the final product. Its composition is not well defined in most cases and varies from one cheese to another. The aim of the present study was to establish procedures for gene transcript quantification in cheeses by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. Total RNA was extracted from five smear-ripened cheeses purchased on the retail market, using a method that does not involve prior separation of microbial cells. 16S rRNA and malate:quinone oxidoreductase gene transcripts of Corynebacterium casei, Brevibacterium aurantiacum, and Arthrobacter arilaitensis and 26S rRNA and beta tubulin gene transcripts of Geotrichum candidum and Debaryomyces hansenii could be detected and quantified in most of the samples. Three types of normalization were applied: against total RNA, against the amount of cheese, and against a reference gene. For the first two types of normalization, differences of reverse transcription efficiencies from one sample to another were taken into account by analysis of exogenous control mRNA. No good correlation was found between the abundances of target mRNA or rRNA transcripts and the viable cell concentration of the corresponding species. However, in most cases, no mRNA transcripts were detected for species that did not belong to the dominant species. The applications of gene expression measurement in cheeses containing an undefined microbiota, as well as issues concerning the strategy of normalization and the assessment of amplification specificity, are discussed. PMID:23124230

Straub, Cecile; Castellote, Jessie; Onesime, Djamila; Bonnarme, Pascal; Irlinger, Francoise

2013-01-01

217

Temperature-sensitive bacterial pathogens generated by the substitution of essential genes from cold-loving bacteria: potential use as live vaccines.  

PubMed

Temperature-sensitive (TS) viruses have been used for decades as vaccines capable of limited replication in their hosts. Although attenuated bacteria, such as the Bacille Calmette-Guérin anti-tuberculosis vaccine, have been used for almost a century, it is only recently that there has been progress in using TS bacterial strains as live vaccines. Decades of work on essential bacterial genes and the recent explosion in the number of available bacterial genomic sequences set the groundwork for the identification of essential genes from diverse bacteria. This knowledge has allowed for the substitution of essential genes from cold-loving bacteria into the chromosomes of pathogenic bacteria. Many of these gene substitutions generated TS pathogenic bacterial strains, and some were demonstrated to provide protective immunity in mice. This work opens the possibility of engineering many pathogenic bacteria to create TS strains that can be used as vaccines. PMID:21229224

Duplantis, Barry N; Bosio, Catherine M; Nano, Francis E

2011-05-01

218

Antisense Suppression of a (+)-?-Cadinene Synthase Gene in Cotton Prevents the Induction of This Defense Response Gene during Bacterial Blight Infection But Not Its Constitutive Expression1[w  

PubMed Central

In cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) the enzyme (+)-?-cadinene synthase (CDNS) catalyzes the first committed step in the biosynthesis of cadinane-type sesquiterpenes, such as gossypol, that provide constitutive and inducible protection against pests and diseases. A cotton cDNA clone encoding CDNS (cdn1-C4) was isolated from developing embryos and functionally characterized. Southern analysis showed that CDNS genes belong to a large multigene family, of which five genomic clones were studied, including three pseudogenes and one gene that may represent another subfamily of CDNS. CDNS expression was shown to be induced in cotton infected with either the bacterial blight or verticillium wilt pathogens. Constructs for the constitutive or seed-specific antisense suppression of cdn1-C4 were introduced into cotton by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Gossypol levels were not reduced in the seeds of transformants with either construct, nor was the induction of CDNS expression affected in stems of the constitutive antisense plants infected with Verticillium dahliae Kleb. However, the induction of CDNS mRNA and protein in response to bacterial blight infection of cotyledons was completely blocked in the constitutive antisense plants. These results suggest that cdn1-C4 may be involved specifically in the bacterial blight response and that the CDNS multigene family comprises a complex set of genes differing in their temporal and spatial regulation and responsible for different branches of the cotton sesquiterpene pathway. PMID:15849309

Townsend, Belinda J.; Poole, Andrew; Blake, Christopher J.; Llewellyn, Danny J.

2005-01-01

219

Copy number variation of the beta defensin gene cluster on chromosome 8p influences the bacterial microbiota within the nasopharynx of otitis-prone children.  

PubMed

As there is increasing evidence that aberrant defensin expression is related to susceptibility for infectious disease and inflammatory disorders, we sought to determine if copy number of the beta-defensin gene cluster located on chromosome 8p23.1 (DEFB107, 106, 105, 104, 103, DEFB4 and SPAG11), that shows copy number variation as a block, was associated with susceptibility to otitis media (OM). The gene DEFB103 within this complex encodes human beta defensin-3 (hBD-3), an antimicrobial peptide (AP) expressed by epithelial cells that line the mammalian airway, important for defense of mucosal surfaces and previously shown to have bactericidal activity in vitro against multiple human pathogens, including the three that predominate in OM. To this end, we conducted a retrospective case-control study of 113 OM prone children and 267 controls aged five to sixty months. We identified the copy number of the above defined beta-defensin gene cluster (DEFB-CN) in each study subject by paralogue ratio assays. The mean DEFB-CN was indistinguishable between subjects classified as OM prone based on a recent history of multiple episodes of OM and control subjects who had no history of OM (4.4 ± 0.96 versus 4.4 ± 1.08, respectively: Odds Ratio [OR]: 1.16 (95% CI: 0.61, 2.20). Despite a lack of direct association, we observed a statistically significant correlation between DEFB-CN and nasopharyngeal bacterial colonization patterns. Collectively, our findings suggested that susceptibility to OM might be mediated by genetic variation among individuals, wherein a DEFB-CN less than 4 exerts a marked influence on the microbiota of the nasopharynx, specifically with regard to colonization by the three predominant bacterial pathogens of OM. PMID:24867293

Jones, Eric A; Kananurak, Anchasa; Bevins, Charles L; Hollox, Edward J; Bakaletz, Lauren O

2014-01-01

220

Information dimension analysis of bacterial essential and nonessential genes based on chaos game representation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Essential genes are indispensable for the survival of an organism. Investigating features associated with gene essentiality is fundamental to the prediction and identification of the essential genes. Selecting features associated with gene essentiality is fundamental to predict essential genes with computational techniques. We use fractal theory to make comparative analysis of essential and nonessential genes in bacteria. The information dimensions of essential genes and nonessential genes available in the DEG database for 27 bacteria are calculated based on their gene chaos game representations (CGRs). It is found that weak positive linear correlation exists between information dimension and gene length. Moreover, for genes of similar length, the average information dimension of essential genes is larger than that of nonessential genes. This indicates that essential genes show less regularity and higher complexity than nonessential genes. Our results show that for bacterium with a similar number of essential genes and nonessential genes, the CGR information dimension is helpful for the classification of essential genes and nonessential genes. Therefore, the gene CGR information dimension is very probably a useful gene feature for a genetic algorithm predicting essential genes.

Zhou, Qian; Yu, Yong-ming

2014-11-01

221

Bacteria and Bacterial rRNA Genes Associated with the Development of Colitis in IL-10–/– Mice  

PubMed Central

Background Microorganisms appear to play important yet ill-defined roles in the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This study utilized a novel population-based approach to identify bacteria and bacterial rRNA genes associated with the development of colitis in IL-10–/– mice. Methods Mice were housed in 2 environments: a community mouse facility where the mice were fed nonsterile chow (Room 3) and a limited access facility where the mice were fed sterile chow (Room 4). Every month the disease activity levels were assessed and fecal bacterial compositions were analyzed. At the end of the experiments histological and bacterial analyses were performed on intestinal tissue. Results Although disease activity increased over time in both environments, it progressed at a faster rate in Room 3 than Room 4. Culture and culture-independent bacterial analyses identified several isolates and phylotypes associated with colitis. Two phylotypes (GpC2 and Gp66) were distinguished by their negative associations with disease activity in fecal and tissue samples. Notably, rRNA genes from these phylotypes had high sequence identity (99%) to an rRNA gene from a previously described flagellated Clostridium (Lachnospiraceae bacterium A4). Conclusions The negative associations of these 2 phylotypes (GpC2 and Gp66) suggest that these bacteria were being immunologically targeted, consistent with prior findings that the Lachnospiraceae bacterium A4 bears a prevalent flagellar antigen for disease-associated immunity in murine immune colitis and human Crohn's disease. Identification of these associations suggests that the experimental approach used in this study will have considerable utility in elucidating the host–microbe interactions underlying IBD. PMID:18381614

Presley, Laura L.; Bent, Elizabeth; Wei, Bo; Braun, Jonathan; Schiller, Neal L.; Straus, Daniel S.; Borneman, James

2013-01-01

222

Metabolite profiles of rice cultivars containing bacterial blight-resistant genes are distinctive from susceptible rice.  

PubMed

The metabolic changes of bacterial blight-resistant line C418/Xa23 generated by molecular marker-assisted selection (n= 12), transgenic variety C418-Xa21 generated by using the Agrobacterium-mediated system (n= 12), and progenitor cultivar C418 (n= 12) were monitored using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The validation, discrimination, and establishment of correlative relationships between metabolite signals were performed by cluster analysis, principal component analysis, and partial least squares-discriminant analysis. Significant and unintended changes were observed in 154 components in C418/Xa23 and 48 components in C418-Xa21 compared with C418 (P< 0.05, Fold change > 2.0). The most significant decreases detected (P< 0.001) in both C418/Xa23 and C418-Xa21 were in three amino acids: glycine, tyrosine, and alanine, and four identified metabolites: malic acid, ferulic acid, succinic acid, and glycerol. Linoleic acid was increased specifically in C418/Xa23 which was derived from traditional breeding. This line, possessing a distinctive metabolite profile as a positive control, shows more differences vs. the parental than the transgenic line. Only succinic acid that falls outside the boundaries of natural variability between the two non-transgenic varieties C418 and C418/Xa23 should be further investigated with respect to safety or nutritional impact. PMID:22687573

Wu, Jiao; Yu, Haichuan; Dai, Haofu; Mei, Wenli; Huang, Xin; Zhu, Shuifang; Peng, Ming

2012-08-01

223

Low-shear modeled microgravity: a global environmental regulatory signal affecting bacterial gene expression, physiology, and pathogenesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bacteria inhabit an impressive variety of ecological niches and must adapt constantly to changing environmental conditions. While numerous environmental signals have been examined for their effect on bacteria, the effects of mechanical forces such as shear stress and gravity have only been investigated to a limited extent. However, several important studies have demonstrated a key role for the environmental signals of low shear and/or microgravity in the regulation of bacterial gene expression, physiology, and pathogenesis [Chem. Rec. 1 (2001) 333; Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 54 (2000) 33; Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63 (1997) 4090; J. Ind. Microbiol. 18 (1997) 22; Curr. Microbiol. 34(4) (1997) 199; Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 56(3-4) (2001) 384; Infect Immun. 68(6) (2000) 3147; Cell 109(7) (2002) 913; Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68(11) (2002) 5408; Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 99(21) (2002) 13807]. The response of bacteria to these environmental signals, which are similar to those encountered during prokaryotic life cycles, may provide insight into bacterial adaptations to physiologically relevant conditions. This review focuses on the current and potential future research trends aimed at understanding the effect of the mechanical forces of low shear and microgravity analogues on different bacterial parameters. In addition, this review also discusses the use of microgravity technology to generate physiologically relevant human tissue models for research in bacterial pathogenesis.

Nickerson, Cheryl A.; Ott, C. Mark; Wilson, James W.; Ramamurthy, Rajee; LeBlanc, Carly L.; Honer zu Bentrup, Kerstin; Hammond, Timothy; Pierson, Duane L.

2003-01-01

224

Toxin gene expression by shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli: the role of antibiotics and the bacterial SOS response.  

PubMed Central

Toxin synthesis by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) appears to be coregulated through induction of the integrated bacteriophage that encodes the toxin gene. Phage production is linked to induction of the bacterial SOS response, a ubiquitous response to DNA damage. SOS-inducing antimicrobial agents, particularly the quinolones, trimethoprim, and furazolidone, were shown to induce toxin gene expression in studies of their effects on a reporter STEC strain carrying a chromosome-based stx2::lacZ transcriptional fusion. At antimicrobial levels above those required to inhibit bacterial replication, these agents are potent inducers (up to 140-fold) of the transcription of type 2 Shiga toxin genes (stx2); therefore, they should be avoided in treating patients with potential or confirmed STEC infections. Other agents (20 studied) and incubation conditions produced significant but less striking effects on stx2 transcription; positive and negative influences were observed. SOS-mediated induction of toxin synthesis also provides a mechanism that could exacerbate STEC infections and increase dissemination of stx genes. These features and the use of SOS-inducing antibiotics in clinical practice and animal husbandry may account for the recent emergence of STEC disease. PMID:10998375

Kimmitt, P. T.; Harwood, C. R.; Barer, M. R.

2000-01-01

225

Regulated bioluminescence as a tool for bioremediation process monitoring and control of bacterial cultures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An effective on-line monitoring technique for toxic waste bioremediation using bioluminescent microorganisms has shown great potential for the description and optimization of biological processes. The lux genes of the bacterium Vibrio fischeri are used by this species to produce visible light. The lux genes can be genetically fused to the control region of a catabolic gene, with the result that bioluminescence is produced whenever the catabolic gene is induced. Thus the detection of light from a sample indicates that genetic expression from a specific gene is occurring. This technique was used to monitor biodegradation of specific contaminants from waste sites. For these studies, fusions between the lux genes and the operons for naphthalene and toluene/xylene degradation were constructed. Strains carrying one of these fusions respond sensitively and specifically to target substrates. Bioluminescence from these cultures can be rapidly measured in a nondestructive and noninvasive manner. The potential for this technique in this and other biological systems is discussed.

Burlage, Robert S.; Heitzer, Armin; Digrazia, Philip M.

1991-01-01

226

Expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) genes in channel catfish is highly regulated and time dependent after bacterial challenges.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide is well known for its roles in immune responses. As such, its synthesizing enzymes have been extensively studied from various species including some teleost fish species. However, the NOS genes have not been characterized in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). In this study, we identified and characterized three NOS genes including one NOS1 and two NOS2 genes in channel catfish. Comparing with the NOS genes from other fish species, the catfish NOS genes are highly conserved in their structural features. Phylogenetic and syntenic analyses allowed determination of NOS1 and NOS2 genes of channel catfish and their orthology relationships. Syntenic analysis, as well as the phylogenetic analysis, indicated that the two NOS2 genes of catfish were lineage-specific duplication. The NOS genes were broadly expressed in most tested tissues, with NOS1 being expressed at the highest levels in the brain, NOS2b1 highly expressed in the skin and gill, and NOS2b2 lowly expressed in most of the tested tissues. The most striking findings of this study was that the expression of the NOS genes are highly regulated after bacterial infection, with time-dependent expression patterns that parallel the migration of macrophages. After Edwardsiella ictaluri challenge, dramatically different responses among the three NOS genes were observed. NOS1 was only significantly in the skin early after infection, while NOS2b1 was rapidly upregulated in gill, but more up-regulated in trunk kidney with the progression of the disease, suggesting such differences in gene expression may be reflective of the migration of macrophages among various tissues of the infected fish. In contrast to NOS1 and NOS2b1, NOS2b2 was normally expressed at very low levels, but it is induced in the brain and liver while significantly down-regulated in most other tissues. PMID:24560653

Yao, Jun; Li, Chao; Zhang, Jiaren; Liu, Shikai; Feng, Jianbin; Wang, Ruijia; Li, Yun; Jiang, Chen; Song, Lin; Chen, Ailu; Liu, Zhanjiang

2014-07-01

227

Prevalence of Antibiotic Resistance Genes and Bacterial Community Composition in a River Influenced by a Wastewater Treatment Plant  

PubMed Central

Antibiotic resistance represents a global health problem, requiring better understanding of the ecology of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), their selection and their spread in the environment. Antibiotics are constantly released to the environment through wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents. We investigated, therefore, the effect of these discharges on the prevalence of ARGs and bacterial community composition in biofilm and sediment samples of a receiving river. We used culture-independent approaches such as quantitative PCR to determine the prevalence of eleven ARGs and 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing to examine the composition of bacterial communities. Concentration of antibiotics in WWTP influent and effluent were also determined. ARGs such as qnrS, blaTEM, blaCTX-M, blaSHV, erm(B), sul(I), sul(II), tet(O) and tet(W) were detected in all biofilm and sediment samples analyzed. Moreover, we observed a significant increase in the relative abundance of ARGs in biofilm samples collected downstream of the WWTP discharge. We also found significant differences with respect to community structure and composition between upstream and downstream samples. Therefore, our results indicate that WWTP discharges may contribute to the spread of ARGs into the environment and may also impact on the bacterial communities of the receiving river. PMID:24205347

Marti, Elisabet; Jofre, Juan; Balcazar, Jose Luis

2013-01-01

228

Differential gene expression in bacterial symbionts from loliginid squids demonstrates variation between mutualistic and  

E-print Network

between mutualistic and environmental niches Ricardo C. Guerrero-Ferreira and Michele K. Nishiguchi, and maintenance of bacteria­squid associations. Introduction Bacterial­host interaction during mutualistic

McFall-Ngai, Margaret

229

Spatiotemporal control of gene expression using microfluidics.  

PubMed

Accurate spatiotemporal regulation of genetic expression and cell microenvironment are both essential to epithelial morphogenesis during development, wound healing and cancer. In vivo, this is achieved through the interplay between intrinsic cellular properties and extrinsic signals. Amongst these, morphogen gradients induce specific concentration- and time-dependent gene expression changes that influence a target cell's fate. As systems biology attempts to understand the complex mechanisms underlying morphogenesis, the lack of experimental setup to recapitulate morphogen-induced patterning in vitro has become limiting. For this reason, we developed a versatile microfluidic-based platform to control the spatiotemporal delivery of chemical gradients to tissues grown in Petri dishes. Using this setup combined with a synthetic inducible gene expression system, we were able to restrict a target gene's expression within a confluent epithelium to bands of cells as narrow as four cell diameters with a one cell diameter accuracy. Applied to the targeted delivery of growth factor gradients to a confluent epithelium, this method further enabled the localized induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transitions and associated morphogenetic changes. Our approach paves the way for replicating in vitro the morphogen gradients observed in vivo to determine the relative contributions of known intrinsic and extrinsic factors in differential tissue patterning, during development and cancer. It could also be readily used to spatiotemporally control cell differentiation in ES/iPS cell cultures for re-engineering of complex tissues. Finally, the reversibility of the microfluidic chip assembly allows for pre- and post-treatment sample manipulations and extends the range of patternable samples to animal explants. PMID:24531367

Benedetto, Alexandre; Accetta, Giovanni; Fujita, Yasuyuki; Charras, Guillaume

2014-04-01

230

Successful expression of a novel bacterial gene for pinoresinol reductase and its effect on lignan biosynthesis in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.  

PubMed

Pinoresinol reductase and pinoresinol/lariciresinol reductase play important roles in an early step of lignan biosynthesis in plants. The activities of both enzymes have also been detected in bacteria. In this study, pinZ, which was first isolated as a gene for bacterial pinoresinol reductase, was constitutively expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Higher reductive activity toward pinoresinol was detected in the resultant transgenic plants but not in wild-type plant. Principal component analysis of data from untargeted metabolome analyses of stem, root, and leaf extracts of the wild-type and two independent transgenic lines indicate that pinZ expression caused dynamic metabolic changes in stems, but not in roots and leaves. The metabolome data also suggest that expression of pinZ influenced the metabolisms of lignan and glucosinolates but not so much of neolignans such as guaiacylglycerol-8-O-4'-feruloyl ethers. In-depth quantitative analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) indicated that amounts of pinoresinol and its glucoside form were markedly reduced in the transgenic plant, whereas the amounts of glucoside form of secoisolariciresinol in transgenic roots, leaves, and stems increased. The detected levels of lariciresinol in the transgenic plant following ?-glucosidase treatment also tended to be higher than those in the wild-type plant. Our findings indicate that overexpression of pinZ induces change in lignan compositions and has a major effect not only on lignan biosynthesis but also on biosynthesis of other primary and secondary metabolites. PMID:25056291

Tamura, Masayuki; Tsuji, Yukiko; Kusunose, Tatsuya; Okazawa, Atsushi; Kamimura, Naofumi; Mori, Tetsuya; Nakabayashi, Ryo; Hishiyama, Shojiro; Fukuhara, Yuki; Hara, Hirofumi; Sato-Izawa, Kanna; Muranaka, Toshiya; Saito, Kazuki; Katayama, Yoshihiro; Fukuda, Masao; Masai, Eiji; Kajita, Shinya

2014-10-01

231

Two novel human members of an emerging mammalian gene family related to mono-ADP-ribosylating bacterial toxins  

SciTech Connect

Mono-ADP-ribosylation is one of the posttranslational protein modifications regulating cellular metabolism, e.g., nitrogen fixation, in prokaryotes. Several bacterial toxins mono-ADP-ribosylate and inactivate specific proteins in their animal hosts. Recently, two mammalian GPI-anchored cell surface enzymes with similar activities were cloned (designated ART1 and ART2). We have now identified six related expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in the public database and cloned the two novel human genes from which these are derived (designated ART3 and ART4). The deduced amino acid sequences of the predicted gene products show 28% sequence identity to one another and 32-41% identity vs the muscle and T cell enzymes. They contain signal peptide sequences characteristic of GPI anchorage. Southern Zoo blot analyses suggest the presence of related genes in other mammalian species. By PCR screening of somatic cell hybrids and by in situ hybridization, we have mapped the two genes to human chromosomes 4p14-p15.l and 12q13.2- q13.3. Northern blot analyses show that these genes are specifically expressed in testis and spleen, respectively. Comparison of genomic and cDNA sequences reveals a conserved exon/intron structure, with an unusually large exon encoding the predicted mature membrane proteins. Secondary structure prediction analyses indicate conserved motifs and amino acid residues consistent with a common ancestry of this emerging mammalian enzyme family and bacterial mono(ADP-ribosyl)transferases. It is possible that the four human gene family members identified so far represent the {open_quotes}tip of an iceberg,{close_quote} i.e., a larger family of enzymes that influences the function of target proteins via mono-ADP-ribosylation. 35 refs., 4 figs.

Koch-Nolte, F.; Haag, F.; Braren, R. [Univ. Hospital, Hamburg (Germany)] [and others] [Univ. Hospital, Hamburg (Germany); and others

1997-02-01

232

Bacterial control on the structure of As-Fe oxy-hydroxides in acid mine drainage.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nano-crystalline or amorphous iron oxy-hydroxides are kinetically favored with respect to stable crystalline phases in low temperature environments. Therefore, they frequently occur as transient phases in Earth's surface environments. They exhibit very-high surface areas (few 100 cm2/g) and thus play a key role in the geochemical cycles of minor and trace elements, including toxic elements as arsenic. Natural low-temperature iron oxides also potentially host biological signatures since they can form through various biologically driven reactions. In the present communication, we compare the mineralogy and crystal chemistry of biogenic As-rich iron precipitates synthesized using various acidophilic bacterial strain isolated from an exceptionally arsenic-rich acid mine drainage [1]. XAS, XRD, SEM and TEM investigation of these highly reactive nano-minerals obtained in controlled conditions allows to better constrain their mechanisms of formation. Our data show that the enzymatic oxidation of Fe(II) and/or As(III) play a key role in controlling the nature of the mineral species precipitating in acid mine drainage. We show that the nature of mineral species forming from solutions can be directly determined by the metabolic activity of specific bacterial strains. This influence is thought to be primarily indirect, bacteria controlling the rate of Fe(II) and As(III) oxidation reactions, which in turn leads to various Fe(III) and As(V) super-saturation conditions. These latter parameters are crucial in controlling the structure of nano-crystalline As-Fe low temperature minerals. 1- Morin et al. (2003) Bacterial formation of tooeleite and mixed As(III)/(V)-Fe(III) gels in the Carnoulès acid mine drainage, France. A XANES, XRD and SEM study. Environ. Sci. and Technol. 37,1705-1712.

Morin, G.; Lebrun, S.; Juillot, F.; Casiot, C.; Bruneel, O.; Belin, S.; Proux, O.; Brown, G. E.; Guyot, F.; Calas, G.

2004-12-01

233

Root transcriptome analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana exposed to beneficial Bacillus subtilis FB17 rhizobacteria revealed genes for bacterial recruitment and plant defense independent of malate efflux.  

PubMed

Our previous work has demonstrated that Arabidopsis thaliana can actively recruit beneficial rhizobacteria Bacillus subtilis strain FB17 (hereafter FB17) through an unknown shoot-to-root long-distance signaling pathway post a foliar bacterial pathogen attack. However, it is still not well understood which genetic targets FB17 affects in plants. Microarray analysis of A. thaliana roots treated with FB17 post 24 h of treatment showed 168 and 129 genes that were up- and down-regulated, respectively, compared with the untreated control roots. Those up-regulated include auxin-regulated genes as well as genes involved in metabolism, stress response, and plant defense. In addition, other defense-related genes, as well as cell-wall modification genes were also down-regulated with FB17 colonization. Expression patterns of 20 selected genes were analyzed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR, validating the microarray results. A. thaliana insertion mutants were used against FB17 to further study the functional response of the differentially expressed genes. Five mutants for the up-regulated genes were tested for FB17 colonization, three (at3g28360, at3g20190 and at1g21240) mutants showed decreased FB17 colonization on the roots while increased FB17 titers was seen with three mutants of the down-regulated genes (at3g27980, at4g19690 and at5g56320). Further, these mutants for up-regulated genes and down-regulated genes were foliar infected with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (hereafter PstDC3000) and analyzed for Aluminum activated malate transporter (ALMT1) expression which showed that ALMT1 may be the key regulator for root FB17 colonization. Our microarray showed that under natural condition, FB17 triggers plant responses in a manner similar to known plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and to some extent also suppresses defense-related genes expression in roots, enabling stable colonization. The possible implication of this study opens up a new dialogin terms of how beneficial microbes regulate plant genetic response for mutualistic associations. PMID:23794026

Lakshmanan, Venkatachalam; Castaneda, Rafael; Rudrappa, Thimmaraju; Bais, Harsh P

2013-10-01

234

Culturable bacterial microflora associated with nectarine fruit and their potential for control of brown rot.  

PubMed

Microflora of fruit surfaces have been the best source of antagonists against fungi causing postharvest decay of fruit. However, there is little information on microflora colonizing surfaces of fruits other than grape, apple, and citrus. We characterized bacterial microflora on nectarine fruit surfaces from the early stage of development until harvest. Identification of bacterial strains was made using MIDI (fatty acid methyl ester analysis) and Biolog systems. Biolog identified 35% and MIDI 53% of the strains. Thus results from MIDI were used to determine the frequency of occurrence of genera and species. The most frequently occurring genera were Curtobacterium (21.31%), followed by Pseudomonas (19.99%), Microbacterium (13.57%), Clavibacter (9.69%), Pantoea (6.59%), and Enterobacter (4.26%). The frequency of isolations of some bacteria - for example, the major pseudomonads (Pseudomonas syringae, Pseudomonas putida, and Pseudomonas savastanoi) or Pantoea agglomerans - tended to decline as fruit developed. As Pseudomonas declined, Curtobacterium became more dominant. Time of isolation was a significant factor in the frequency of occurrence of different bacteria, indicating succession of the genera. Throughput screening of the bacterial strains against Monilinia fructicola on nectarine fruit resulted in the detection of strains able to control brown rot. The 10 best-performing antagonistic strains were subjected to secondary screening. Four strains reduced decay severity by more than 50% (51.7%-91.4% reduction) at the high pathogen inoculum concentration of 105 conidia/mL. PMID:20657618

Janisiewicz, Wojciech J; Buyer, Jeffrey S

2010-06-01

235

Chitinase genes revealed and compared in bacterial isolates, DNA extracts and a metagenomic library from a phytopathogen suppressive soil  

SciTech Connect

Soil that is suppressive to disease caused by fungal pathogens is an interesting source to target for novel chitinases that might be contributing towards disease suppression. In this study we screened for chitinase genes, in a phytopathogen-suppressive soil in three ways: (1) from a metagenomic library constructed from microbial cells extracted from soil, (2) from directly extracted DNA and (3) from bacterial isolates with antifungal and chitinase activities. Terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) of chitinase genes revealed differences in amplified chitinase genes from the metagenomic library and the directly extracted DNA, but approximately 40% of the identified chitinase terminal-restriction fragments (TRFs) were found in both sources. All of the chitinase TRFs from the isolates were matched to TRFs in the directly extracted DNA and the metagenomic library. The most abundant chitinase TRF in the soil DNA and the metagenomic library corresponded to the TRF{sup 103} of the isolate, Streptomyces mutomycini and/or Streptomyces clavifer. There were good matches between T-RFLP profiles of chitinase gene fragments obtained from different sources of DNA. However, there were also differences in both the chitinase and the 16S rRNA gene T-RFLP patterns depending on the source of DNA, emphasizing the lack of complete coverage of the gene diversity by any of the approaches used.

Hjort, K.; Bergstrom, M.; Adesina, M.F.; Jansson, J.K.; Smalla, K.; Sjoling, S.

2009-09-01

236

Expression of a Synthesized Gene Encoding Cationic Peptide Cecropin B in Transgenic Tomato Plants Protects against Bacterial Diseases?  

PubMed Central

The cationic lytic peptide cecropin B (CB), isolated from the giant silk moth (Hyalophora cecropia), has been shown to effectively eliminate Gram-negative and some Gram-positive bacteria. In this study, the effects of chemically synthesized CB on plant pathogens were investigated. The S50s (the peptide concentrations causing 50% survival of a pathogenic bacterium) of CB against two major pathogens of the tomato, Ralstonia solanacearum and Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria, were 529.6 ?g/ml and 0.29 ?g/ml, respectively. The CB gene was then fused to the secretory signal peptide (sp) sequence from the barley ?-amylase gene, and the new construct, pBI121-spCB, was used for the transformation of tomato plants. Integration of the CB gene into the tomato genome was confirmed by PCR, and its expression was confirmed by Western blot analyses. In vivo studies of the transgenic tomato plant demonstrated significant resistance to bacterial wilt and bacterial spot. The levels of CB expressed in transgenic tomato plants (?0.05 ?g in 50 mg of leaves) were far lower than the S50 determined in vitro. CB transgenic tomatoes could therefore be a new mode of bioprotection against these two plant diseases with significant agricultural applications. PMID:19966019

Jan, Pey-Shynan; Huang, Hsu-Yuang; Chen, Hueih-Min

2010-01-01

237

Bacillus thuringiensis Suppresses Bacterial wilt Disease Caused by Ralstonia solanacearum with Systemic Induction of Defense-Related Gene Expression in Tomato  

PubMed Central

Bacillus thuringiensis is a naturally abundant Gram-positive bacterium and a well-known, effective bio-insecticide. Recently, B. thuringiensis has attracted considerable attention as a potential biological control agent for the suppression of plant diseases. In this study, the bacterial wilt disease-suppressing activity of B. thuringiensis was examined in tomato plants. Treatment of tomato roots with B. thuringiensis culture followed by challenge inoculation with Ralstonia solanacearum suppressed the development of wilt symptoms to less than one third of the control. This disease suppression in tomato plants was reproduced by pretreating their roots with a cell-free filtrate (CF) that had been fractionated from B. thuringiensis culture by centrifugation and filtration. In tomato plants challenge-inoculated with R. solanacearum after pretreatment with CF, the growth of R. solanacearum in stem tissues clearly decreased, and expression of defense-related genes such as PR-1, acidic chitinase, and ?-1,3-glucanase was induced in stem and leaf tissues. Furthermore, the stem tissues of tomato plants with their roots were pretreated with CF exhibited resistance against direct inoculation with R. solanacearum. Taken together, these results suggest that treatment of tomato roots with the CF of B. thuringiensis systemically suppresses bacterial wilt through systemic activation of the plant defense system. PMID:23257909

Hyakumachi, Mitsuro; Nishimura, Mitsuyoshi; Arakawa, Tatsuyuki; Asano, Shinichiro; Yoshida, Shigenobu; Tsushima, Seiya; Takahashi, Hideki

2013-01-01

238

Control of bacterial biofilm growth on surfaces by nanostructural mechanics and geometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface-associated communities of bacteria, called biofilms, pervade natural and anthropogenic environments. Mature biofilms are resistant to a wide range of antimicrobial treatments and therefore pose persistent pathogenic threats. The use of surface chemistry to inhibit biofilm growth has been found to only transiently affect initial attachment. In this work, we investigate the tunable effects of physical surface properties, including high-aspect-ratio (HAR) surface nanostructure arrays recently reported to induce long-range spontaneous spatial patterning of bacteria on the surface. The functional parameters and length scale regimes that control such artificial patterning for the rod-shaped pathogenic species Pseudomonas aeruginosa are elucidated through a combinatorial approach. We further report a crossover regime of biofilm growth on a HAR nanostructured surface versus the nanostructure effective stiffness. When the 'softness' of the hair-like nanoarray is increased beyond a threshold value, biofilm growth is inhibited as compared to a flat control surface. This result is consistent with the mechanoselective adhesion of bacteria to surfaces. Therefore by combining nanoarray-induced bacterial patterning and modulating the effective stiffness of the nanoarray—thus mimicking an extremely compliant flat surface—bacterial mechanoselective adhesion can be exploited to control and inhibit biofilm growth.

Epstein, A. K.; Hochbaum, A. I.; Kim, Philseok; Aizenberg, J.

2011-12-01

239

A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library of Malus floribunda 821 and contig construction for positional cloning of the apple scab resistance gene Vf  

Microsoft Academic Search

The apple scab resistance gene Vf, originating from the wild species Malus floribunda 821, has been incorporated into a wide variety of apple cultivars through a classical breeding program. With the aim of isolating the Vf gene, a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library consisting of 31 584 clones has been constructed from M. floribunda 821. From the analysis of 88

Mingliang Xu; Junqi Song; Zhukuan Cheng; Jiming Jiang; Schuyler S. Korban

2001-01-01

240

Bacterial diversity in Adirondack mountain lakes as revealed by 16S rRNA gene sequences.  

PubMed

Bacterial communities of seven lakes in the Adirondack Mountains of New York State were characterized by amplification and sequencing of 16S ribosomal DNA. Analysis of over 100 partial sequences revealed a diverse collection of lineages, largely of the class Proteobacteria (19% alpha subdivision, 31% beta subdivision, and 9% gamma subdivision), the phylum Cytophaga-Flavobacteria-Bacteroides (15%), and the order Actinomycetales (18%). Additionally, a number of the sequences were similar to those of the order Verrucomicrobiales. However, few of the sequence types are closely related to those of characterized species. The relative contributions of the groups of sequences differed among the lakes, suggesting that bacterial population structure varies and that it may be possible to relate aquatic bacterial community structure to water chemistry. PMID:9212443

Hiorns, W D; Methé, B A; Nierzwicki-Bauer, S A; Zehr, J P

1997-07-01

241

Bacterial colonization factors control specificity and stability of the gut microbiota.  

PubMed

Mammals harbour a complex gut microbiome, comprising bacteria that confer immunological, metabolic and neurological benefits. Despite advances in sequence-based microbial profiling and myriad studies defining microbiome composition during health and disease, little is known about the molecular processes used by symbiotic bacteria to stably colonize the gastrointestinal tract. We sought to define how mammals assemble and maintain the Bacteroides, one of the most numerically prominent genera of the human microbiome. Here we find that, whereas the gut normally contains hundreds of bacterial species, germ-free mice mono-associated with a single Bacteroides species are resistant to colonization by the same, but not different, species. To identify bacterial mechanisms for species-specific saturable colonization, we devised an in vivo genetic screen and discovered a unique class of polysaccharide utilization loci that is conserved among intestinal Bacteroides. We named this genetic locus the commensal colonization factors (ccf). Deletion of the ccf genes in the model symbiont, Bacteroides fragilis, results in colonization defects in mice and reduced horizontal transmission. The ccf genes of B. fragilis are upregulated during gut colonization, preferentially at the colonic surface. When we visualize microbial biogeography within the colon, B. fragilis penetrates the colonic mucus and resides deep within crypt channels, whereas ccf mutants are defective in crypt association. Notably, the CCF system is required for B. fragilis colonization following microbiome disruption with Citrobacter rodentium infection or antibiotic treatment, suggesting that the niche within colonic crypts represents a reservoir for bacteria to maintain long-term colonization. These findings reveal that intestinal Bacteroides have evolved species-specific physical interactions with the host that mediate stable and resilient gut colonization, and the CCF system represents a novel molecular mechanism for symbiosis. PMID:23955152

Lee, S Melanie; Donaldson, Gregory P; Mikulski, Zbigniew; Boyajian, Silva; Ley, Klaus; Mazmanian, Sarkis K

2013-09-19

242

Designer gene networks: Towards fundamental cellular control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The engineered control of cellular function through the design of synthetic genetic networks is becoming plausible. Here we show how a naturally occurring network can be used as a parts list for artificial network design, and how model formulation leads to computational and analytical approaches relevant to nonlinear dynamics and statistical physics. We first review the relevant work on synthetic gene networks, highlighting the important experimental findings with regard to genetic switches and oscillators. We then present the derivation of a deterministic model describing the temporal evolution of the concentration of protein in a single-gene network. Bistability in the steady-state protein concentration arises naturally as a consequence of autoregulatory feedback, and we focus on the hysteretic properties of the protein concentration as a function of the degradation rate. We then formulate the effect of an external noise source which interacts with the protein degradation rate. We demonstrate the utility of such a formulation by constructing a protein switch, whereby external noise pulses are used to switch the protein concentration between two values. Following the lead of earlier work, we show how the addition of a second network component can be used to construct a relaxation oscillator, whereby the system is driven around the hysteresis loop. We highlight the frequency dependence on the tunable parameter values, and discuss design plausibility. We emphasize how the model equations can be used to develop design criteria for robust oscillations, and illustrate this point with parameter plots illuminating the oscillatory regions for given parameter values. We then turn to the utilization of an intrinsic cellular process as a means of controlling the oscillations. We consider a network design which exhibits self-sustained oscillations, and discuss the driving of the oscillator in the context of synchronization. Then, as a second design, we consider a synthetic network with parameter values near, but outside, the oscillatory boundary. In this case, we show how resonance can lead to the induction of oscillations and amplification of a cellular signal. Finally, we construct a toggle switch from positive regulatory elements, and compare the switching properties for this network with those of a network constructed using negative regulation. Our results demonstrate the utility of model analysis in the construction of synthetic gene regulatory networks.

Hasty, Jeff; Isaacs, Farren; Dolnik, Milos; McMillen, David; Collins, J. J.

2001-03-01

243

A Comparison between Droplet Digital and Quantitative PCR in the Analysis of Bacterial 16S Load in Lung Tissue Samples from Control and COPD GOLD 2  

PubMed Central

Background Low biomass in the bacterial lung tissue microbiome utilizes quantitative PCR (qPCR) 16S bacterial assays at their limit of detection. New technology like droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) could allow for higher sensitivity and accuracy of quantification. These attributes are needed if specific bacteria within the bacterial lung tissue microbiome are to be evaluated as potential contributors to diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We hypothesize that ddPCR is better at quantifying the total bacterial load in lung tissue versus qPCR. Methods Control (n?=?16) and COPD GOLD 2 (n?=?16) tissue samples were obtained from patients who underwent lung resection surgery, were cut on a cryotome, and sections were assigned for use in quantitative histology or for DNA extraction. qPCR and ddPCR were performed on these samples using primers spanning the V2 region on the 16S rRNA gene along with negative controls. Total 16S counts were compared between the two methods. Both methods were assessed for correlations with quantitative histology measurements of the tissue. Results There was no difference in the average total 16S counts (P>0.05) between the two methods. However, the negative controls contained significantly lower counts in the ddPCR (0.55 ± 0.28 16S/uL) than in the qPCR assay (1.00 ± 0.70 16S copies) (P <0.05). The coefficient of variation was significantly lower for the ddPCR assay (0.18 ± 0.14) versus the qPCR assay (0.62 ± 0.29) (P<0.05). Conclusion Overall the ddPCR 16S assay performed better by reducing the background noise in 16S of the negative controls compared with 16S qPCR assay. PMID:25329701

Sze, Marc A.; Abbasi, Meysam; Hogg, James C.; Sin, Don D.

2014-01-01

244

Bacterial ? 2 -macroglobulins: colonization factors acquired by horizontal gene transfer from the metazoan genome?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Invasive bacteria are known to have captured and adapted eukaryotic host genes. They also readily acquire colonizing genes\\u000a from other bacteria by horizontal gene transfer. Closely related species such as Helicobacter pylori and Helicobacter hepaticus, which exploit different host tissues, share almost none of their colonization genes. The protease inhibitor ?2-macroglobulin provides a major metazoan defense against invasive bacteria, trapping

Aidan Budd; Stephanie Blandin; Elena A Levashina; Toby J Gibson

2004-01-01

245

Bacterial Genomes as New Gene Homes: The Genealogy of ORFans in E. coli  

E-print Network

1996). However, in free-living bacteria, such gene loss cannot explain the observed disparities or to lateral gene transfer from unrelated cellular organisms. However, most bacteria contain large numbers. Surprisingly, a sub- stantial fraction of the difference in gene contents in free-living bacteria is due

Ochman, Howard

246

Binding motifs in bacterial gene promoters modulate transcriptional effects of global regulators CRP and ArcA  

SciTech Connect

Bacterial gene regulation involves transcription factors (TF) that bind to DNA recognition sequences in operon promoters. These recognition sequences, many of which are palindromic, are known as regulatory elements or transcription factor binding sites (TFBS). Some TFs are global regulators that can modulate the expression of hundreds of genes. In this study we examine global regulator half-sites, where a half-site, which we shall call a binding motif (BM), is one half of a palindromic TFBS. We explore the hypothesis that the number of BMs plays an important role in transcriptional regulation, examining empirical data from transcriptional profiling of the CRP and ArcA regulons. We compare the power of BM counts and of full TFBS characteristics to predict induced transcriptional activity. We find that CRP BM counts have a nonlinear effect on CRP-dependent transcriptional activity and predict this activity better than full TFBS quality or location.

Leuze, Mike; Karpinets, Tatiana V.; Syed, Mustafa H.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Uberbacher, Edward

2012-05-30

247

A single regulatory gene is sufficient to alter bacterial Mark J. Mandel1  

E-print Network

the environment during each generation, and identification of the relevant symbiotic partner against a myriad- standing the relationships between metazoans and their bacterial symbionts. The analysis of unculturable. Although the genome sequence of squid-symbiotic V. fischeri strain ES114 is known12,13 , we determined here

McFall-Ngai, Margaret

248

Bacterial genes induced within the nodule during the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary During the symbiosis between the bacterium Rhizo- bium meliloti and plants such as alfalfa, the bacteria elicit the formation of nodules on the roots of host plants. The bacteria infect the nodule, enter the cyto- plasm of plant cells and differentiate into a distinct cell type called a bacteroid, which is capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen. To discover bacterial

Valerie Oke; Sharon R. Long

1999-01-01

249

Analysis of bacterial communities on alkaline phosphatase genes in soil supplied with organic matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effects of the application of organic matter (OM) and chemical fertilizer (CF) on soil alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and ALP-harboring bacterial communities in the rhizosphere and bulk soil in an experimental lettuce field in Hokkaido, Japan. The ALP activity was higher in soils with OM than in soils with CF, and activity was higher in the rhizosphere

Michihiko Sakurai; Jun Wasaki; Yuiko Tomizawa; Takuro Shinano; Mitsuru Osaki

2008-01-01

250

Bacterial Diversity in Adirondack Mountain Lakes as Revealed by 16S rRNA Gene Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial communities of seven lakes in the Adirondack Mountains of New York State were characterized by amplification and sequencing of 16S ribosomal DNA. Analysis of over 100 partial sequences revealed a diverse collection of lineages, largely of the class Proteobacteria (19% alpha subdivision, 31% beta subdivision, and 9% gamma subdivision), the phylum Cytophaga-Flavobacteria-Bacteroides (15%), and the order Actinomycetales (18%). Additionally,

WILLIAM D. HIORNS; BARBARA A. METHE; SANDRA A. NIERZWICKI-BAUER; JONATHAN P. ZEHR; Darrin Fresh

1997-01-01

251

Diffusion characteristics and controlled release of bacterial fertilizers from modified calcium alginate capsules.  

PubMed

An indigenous Cellulosimicrobium cellulans GS6 isolate able to solubilize insoluble phosphate complexes in soil is a potential bacterial fertilizer. Enclosure of the phosphate-solubilizing bacterium (PSB) in biodegradable capsules may protect the PSB cells inoculated into soil and, in the meantime, enable the control of cell release that confers long-term fertilizing effects. In this study, calcium alginate (CA) was used as the core matrix to encapsulate cells of C. cellulans GS6. The cell-liberating properties of the CA-based capsules were modified by blending with a variety of supplemental materials (SM), including chitin, cellulose, olive oil, and gelatin. The experimental results showed that the maximum cell-release percentage (MCR%) of the capsules decreased in the order of CA-cellulose>CA-olive oil>CA-chitin>CA-gelatin>CA. Furthermore, a mass transport model was developed to accurately describe the kinetics of cell release results for each capsule. The diffusion coefficient (D(e)) of each capsule was also determined from the model simulation. We found that the estimated D(e) values are positively correlated to the release rate with rare exceptions. Lastly, as our results underscored the crucial roles that the type of capsules plays in the rate and amount of cell release, controlled release of the bacterial fertilizer (C. cellulans GS6 cells) may be achieved via the design of capsule materials. PMID:17482812

Liu, Chien-Hung; Wu, Jane-Yii; Chang, Jo-Shu

2008-04-01

252

Macrophage arginase-1 controls bacterial growth and pathology in hypoxic tuberculosis granulomas  

PubMed Central

Lung granulomas develop upon Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection as a hallmark of human tuberculosis (TB). They are structured aggregates consisting mainly of Mtb-infected and -uninfected macrophages and Mtb-specific T cells. The production of NO by granuloma macrophages expressing nitric oxide synthase-2 (NOS2) via l-arginine and oxygen is a key protective mechanism against mycobacteria. Despite this protection, TB granulomas are often hypoxic, and bacterial killing via NOS2 in these conditions is likely suboptimal. Arginase-1 (Arg1) also metabolizes l-arginine but does not require oxygen as a substrate and has been shown to regulate NOS2 via substrate competition. However, in other infectious diseases in which granulomas occur, such as leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis, Arg1 plays additional roles such as T-cell regulation and tissue repair that are independent of NOS2 suppression. To address whether Arg1 could perform similar functions in hypoxic regions of TB granulomas, we used a TB murine granuloma model in which NOS2 is absent. Abrogation of Arg1 expression in macrophages in this setting resulted in exacerbated lung granuloma pathology and bacterial burden. Arg1 expression in hypoxic granuloma regions correlated with decreased T-cell proliferation, suggesting that Arg1 regulation of T-cell immunity is involved in disease control. Our data argue that Arg1 plays a central role in the control of TB when NOS2 is rendered ineffective by hypoxia. PMID:25201986

Duque-Correa, Maria A.; Kuhl, Anja A.; Rodriguez, Paulo C.; Zedler, Ulrike; Schommer-Leitner, Sandra; Rao, Martin; Weiner, January; Hurwitz, Robert; Qualls, Joseph E.; Kosmiadi, George A.; Murray, Peter J.; Kaufmann, Stefan H. E.; Reece, Stephen T.

2014-01-01

253

Bacterial colonization of the ovarian bursa in dogs with clinically suspected pyometra and in controls.  

PubMed

Septic peritonitis occurs relatively commonly in dogs. Secondary septic peritonitis is usually associated with perforation of intestines or infected viscera, such as the uterus in pyometra cases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bacterial flora in the ovarian bursae of intact bitches as a potential source of contamination. One hundred forty dogs, clinically suspected of pyometra, were prospectively enrolled. The control group consisted of 26 dogs that underwent elective ovariohysterectomies and 18 dogs with mammary gland tumors that were neutered at the time of mastectomy. Bacteriology samples were taken aseptically at the time of surgery from the bursae and the uterus in all dogs. Twenty-two dogs that were clinically suspected of pyometra had sterile uterine content ("mucometra" cases); the remaining 118 had positive uterine cultures ("pyometra" cases) and septic peritoneal fluid was present in 10% of these cases. Of the 118 pyometra cases, 9 had unilateral and 15 had bilateral bacterial colonization of their ovarian bursae. However, the bacteria from the ovarian bursa were similar to those recovered from the uterine pus in only half of the cases. Furthermore, positive bursae were also seen in one mucometra dog (unilateral) and in four control dogs (two unilateral and two bilateral). The data illustrate that the canine ovarian bursa can harbor bacteria. The biological importance of these isolations remains unclear. PMID:25127745

Rubio, Alejandro; Boyen, Filip; Tas, Olaf; Kitshoff, Adriaan; Polis, Ingeborgh; Van Goethem, Bart; de Rooster, Hilde

2014-10-15

254

Survey of culture, goldengate assay, universal biosensor assay, and 16S rRNA Gene sequencing as alternative methods of bacterial pathogen detection.  

PubMed

Cultivation-based assays combined with PCR or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based methods for finding virulence factors are standard methods for detecting bacterial pathogens in stools; however, with emerging molecular technologies, new methods have become available. The aim of this study was to compare four distinct detection technologies for the identification of pathogens in stools from children under 5 years of age in The Gambia, Mali, Kenya, and Bangladesh. The children were identified, using currently accepted clinical protocols, as either controls or cases with moderate to severe diarrhea. A total of 3,610 stool samples were tested by established clinical culture techniques: 3,179 DNA samples by the Universal Biosensor assay (Ibis Biosciences, Inc.), 1,466 DNA samples by the GoldenGate assay (Illumina), and 1,006 DNA samples by sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Each method detected different proportions of samples testing positive for each of seven enteric pathogens, enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), Shigella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella enterica, and Aeromonas spp. The comparisons among detection methods included the frequency of positive stool samples and kappa values for making pairwise comparisons. Overall, the standard culture methods detected Shigella spp., EPEC, ETEC, and EAEC in smaller proportions of the samples than either of the methods based on detection of the virulence genes from DNA in whole stools. The GoldenGate method revealed the greatest agreement with the other methods. The agreement among methods was higher in cases than in controls. The new molecular technologies have a high potential for highly sensitive identification of bacterial diarrheal pathogens. PMID:23884998

Lindsay, Brianna; Pop, Mihai; Antonio, Martin; Walker, Alan W; Mai, Volker; Ahmed, Dilruba; Oundo, Joseph; Tamboura, Boubou; Panchalingam, Sandra; Levine, Myron M; Kotloff, Karen; Li, Shan; Magder, Laurence S; Paulson, Joseph N; Liu, Bo; Ikumapayi, Usman; Ebruke, Chinelo; Dione, Michel; Adeyemi, Mitchell; Rance, Richard; Stares, Mark D; Ukhanova, Maria; Barnes, Bret; Lewis, Ian; Ahmed, Firoz; Alam, Meer Taifur; Amin, Ruhul; Siddiqui, Sabbir; Ochieng, John B; Ouma, Emmanuel; Juma, Jane; Mailu, Eunice; Omore, Richard; O'Reilly, Ciara E; Hannis, James; Manalili, Sheri; Deleon, Jonna; Yasuda, Irene; Blyn, Lawrence; Ranken, Raymond; Li, Feng; Housley, Roberta; Ecker, David J; Hossain, M Anowar; Breiman, Robert F; Morris, J Glenn; McDaniel, Timothy K; Parkhill, Julian; Saha, Debasish; Sampath, Rangarajan; Stine, O Colin; Nataro, James P

2013-10-01

255

Survey of Culture, GoldenGate Assay, Universal Biosensor Assay, and 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing as Alternative Methods of Bacterial Pathogen Detection  

PubMed Central

Cultivation-based assays combined with PCR or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based methods for finding virulence factors are standard methods for detecting bacterial pathogens in stools; however, with emerging molecular technologies, new methods have become available. The aim of this study was to compare four distinct detection technologies for the identification of pathogens in stools from children under 5 years of age in The Gambia, Mali, Kenya, and Bangladesh. The children were identified, using currently accepted clinical protocols, as either controls or cases with moderate to severe diarrhea. A total of 3,610 stool samples were tested by established clinical culture techniques: 3,179 DNA samples by the Universal Biosensor assay (Ibis Biosciences, Inc.), 1,466 DNA samples by the GoldenGate assay (Illumina), and 1,006 DNA samples by sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Each method detected different proportions of samples testing positive for each of seven enteric pathogens, enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), Shigella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella enterica, and Aeromonas spp. The comparisons among detection methods included the frequency of positive stool samples and kappa values for making pairwise comparisons. Overall, the standard culture methods detected Shigella spp., EPEC, ETEC, and EAEC in smaller proportions of the samples than either of the methods based on detection of the virulence genes from DNA in whole stools. The GoldenGate method revealed the greatest agreement with the other methods. The agreement among methods was higher in cases than in controls. The new molecular technologies have a high potential for highly sensitive identification of bacterial diarrheal pathogens. PMID:23884998

Pop, Mihai; Antonio, Martin; Walker, Alan W.; Mai, Volker; Ahmed, Dilruba; Oundo, Joseph; Tamboura, Boubou; Panchalingam, Sandra; Levine, Myron M.; Kotloff, Karen; Li, Shan; Magder, Laurence S.; Paulson, Joseph N.; Liu, Bo; Ikumapayi, Usman; Ebruke, Chinelo; Dione, Michel; Adeyemi, Mitchell; Rance, Richard; Stares, Mark D.; Ukhanova, Maria; Barnes, Bret; Lewis, Ian; Ahmed, Firoz; Alam, Meer Taifur; Amin, Ruhul; Siddiqui, Sabbir; Ochieng, John B.; Ouma, Emmanuel; Juma, Jane; Mailu, Eunice; Omore, Richard; O'Reilly, Ciara E.; Hannis, James; Manalili, Sheri; DeLeon, Jonna; Yasuda, Irene; Blyn, Lawrence; Ranken, Raymond; Li, Feng; Housley, Roberta; Ecker, David J.; Hossain, M. Anowar; Breiman, Robert F.; Morris, J. Glenn; McDaniel, Timothy K.; Parkhill, Julian; Saha, Debasish; Sampath, Rangarajan; Stine, O. Colin; Nataro, James P.

2013-01-01

256

Bacterial Cell Wall Synthesis Gene uppP Is Required for Burkholderia Colonization of the Stinkbug Gut  

PubMed Central

To establish a host-bacterium symbiotic association, a number of factors involved in symbiosis must operate in a coordinated manner. In insects, bacterial factors for symbiosis have been poorly characterized at the molecular and biochemical levels, since many symbionts have not yet been cultured or are as yet genetically intractable. Recently, the symbiotic association between a stinkbug, Riptortus pedestris, and its beneficial gut bacterium, Burkholderia sp., has emerged as a promising experimental model system, providing opportunities to study insect symbiosis using genetically manipulated symbiotic bacteria. Here, in search of bacterial symbiotic factors, we targeted cell wall components of the Burkholderia symbiont by disruption of uppP gene, which encodes undecaprenyl pyrophosphate phosphatase involved in biosynthesis of various bacterial cell wall components. Under culture conditions, the ?uppP mutant showed higher susceptibility to lysozyme than the wild-type strain, indicating impaired integrity of peptidoglycan of the mutant. When administered to the host insect, the ?uppP mutant failed to establish normal symbiotic association: the bacterial cells reached to the symbiotic midgut but neither proliferated nor persisted there. Transformation of the ?uppP mutant with uppP-encoding plasmid complemented these phenotypic defects: lysozyme susceptibility in vitro was restored, and normal infection and proliferation in the midgut symbiotic organ were observed in vivo. The ?uppP mutant also exhibited susceptibility to hypotonic, hypertonic, and centrifugal stresses. These results suggest that peptidoglycan cell wall integrity is a stress resistance factor relevant to the successful colonization of the stinkbug midgut by Burkholderia symbiont. PMID:23747704

Kim, Jiyeun Kate; Lee, Ho Jin; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo; Kitagawa, Wataru; Nikoh, Naruo

2013-01-01

257

Phylogenetic diversity of bacterial symbionts of Solemya hosts based on comparative sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes.  

PubMed Central

The bacterial endosymbionts of two species of the bivalve genus Solemya from the Pacific Ocean, Solemya terraeregina and Solemya pusilla, were characterized. Prokaryotic cells resembling gram-negative bacteria were observed in the gills of both host species by transmission electron microscopy. The ultrastructure of the symbiosis in both host species is remarkably similar to that of all previously described Solemya spp. By using sequence data from 16S rRNA, the identity and evolutionary origins of the S. terraeregina and S. pusilla symbionts were also determined. Direct sequencing of PCR-amplified products from host gill DNA with primers specific for Bacteria 16S rRNA genes gave a single, unambiguous sequence for each of the two symbiont species. In situ hybridization with symbiont-specific oligonucleotide probes confirmed that these gene sequences belong to the bacteria residing in the hosts gills. Phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA gene sequences by both distance and parsimony methods identify the S. terraeregina and S. pusilla symbionts as members of the gamma subdivision of the Proteobacteria. In contrast to symbionts of other bivalve families, which appear to be monophyletic, the S. terraeregina and S. pusilla symbionts share a more recent common ancestry with bacteria associating endosymbiotically with bivalves of the superfamily Lucinacea than with other Solemya symbionts (host species S. velum, S. occidentalis, and S. reidi). Overall, the 16S rRNA gene sequence data suggest that the symbionts of Solemya hosts represent at least two distinct bacterial lineages within the gamma-Proteobacteria. While it is increasingly clear that all extant species of Solemya live in symbiosis with specific bacteria, the associations appear to have multiple evolutionary origins. PMID:8979342

Krueger, D M; Cavanaugh, C M

1997-01-01

258

Diversity of endophytic bacteria in Malaysian plants as revealed by 16S rRNA encoding gene sequence based method of bacterial identification.  

PubMed

Bacterial endophytes do have several potential applications in pharmacy, medicine and agricultural biotech industry. The main objective of this study was to understand types of bacterial endophytes associated with dicotyledonous (dicot) and monocotyledonous (monocot) plant species. Isolation of the endophytic bacteria was performed using surface-sterilized various tissue samples, and identification of the endophytic bacterial isolates (EBIs) was completed using 16S rRNA encoding gene sequence similarity based method. In total, 996 EBIs were isolated and identified from 1055 samples of 31 monocot and 65 dicot plant species from Peninsular Malaysia. The 996 EBIs represented 71 different types of bacterial species. Twelve (12) out of 71 species are reported as endophytes for the first time. We conclude that diverse types of bacterial endophytes are associated with dicot and monocot plants, and could be useful in pharmacy, medicine and agricultural biotechnology for various potential applications. PMID:24396249

Loh, Chye Ying; Tan, Yin Yin; Rohani, Rahim; Weber, Jean-Frédéric F; Bhore, Subhash Janardhan

2013-09-01

259

Orthogonal Control of Endogenous Gene Expression in Mammalian Cells Using Synthetic Ligands  

E-print Network

biology, gene therapy, and developmental biology, and multiple orthogonal gene switches are needed control; gene therapy; synthetic biology Introduction Since their inception, small-molecule controlled temporal suppression and expression of genes within the pathways. In gene therapy, the induction

Zhao, Huimin

260

Analysis of RogB-Controlled Virulence Mechanisms and Gene Expression in Streptococcus agalactiae  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus agalactiae is the leading cause of bacterial sepsis and meningitis in neonates and also the causative agent of different serious infections in immunocompromised adults. The wide range of diseases that are caused by S. agalactiae suggests regulatory mechanisms that control the formation of specific virulence factors in these bacteria. The present study describes a gene from S. agalactiae, designated rogB, encoding a protein with significant similarity to members of the RofA-like protein (RALP) family of transcriptional regulators. Disruption of the rogB gene in the genome of S. agalactiae resulted in mutant strain RGB1, which was impaired in its ability to bind to fibrinogen and fibronectin. Mutant RGB1 also exhibited a reduced adherence to human epithelial cells but did not show an altered invasion of eukaryotic cells. By real-time PCR analysis, mutant RGB1 revealed an increased expression of the cpsA gene, encoding a regulator of capsule gene expression. However, strain RGB1 exhibited a reduced expression of the rogB gene and of two adjacent genes, encoding putative virulence factors in S. agalactiae. Furthermore, mutant RGB1 was impaired in the expression of the fbsA gene, coding for a fibrinogen receptor from S. agalactiae. The altered gene expression in mutant RGB1 could be restored by plasmid-mediated expression of rogB, confirming a RogB deficiency as the cause for the observed changes in virulence gene expression in S. agalactiae. Reporter gene studies with a promotorless luciferase gene fused to fbsA allowed a growth-dependent analysis of fbsA expression in S. agalactiae. These reporter gene studies also suggest that RogB exerts a positive effect on fbsA expression in S. agalactiae. PMID:12933848

Gutekunst, Heike; Eikmanns, Bernhard J.; Reinscheid, Dieter J.

2003-01-01

261

Bacterial diversity in a finished compost and vermicompost: differences revealed by cultivation-independent analyses of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial communities are important catalysts in the production of composts. Here, it was analysed whether the diversity of bacteria in finished composts is stable and specific for the production process. Single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) based on polymerase chain reaction amplified partial 16S rRNA genes was used to profile and analyse bacterial communities found in total DNA extracted from finished composts.

Letizia Fracchia; Anja B. Dohrmann; Maria Giovanna Martinotti; Christoph C. Tebbe

2006-01-01

262

Characterization of transgenic tobacco plants containing bacterial bphC gene and study of their phytoremediation ability.  

PubMed

Genetically modified plants can serve as an efficient tool for remediation of diverse dangerous pollutants of the environment such as pesticides, heavy metals, explosives and persistent organic compounds. Transgenic lines of Nicotiana tabacum containing bacterial bphC gene from the degradation pathway of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were tested. The product of the bphC gene - enzyme 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl-1,2-dioxygenase is responsible for cleaving of the biphenyl ring. The presence of bphC gene in transgenic plants was detected on DNA, RNA and protein level. The expression of the bphC/His gene was verified afterpurification of the enzyme from plants by affinity chromatography followed by a Western blot and immunochemical assay. The enzyme activity of isolated protein was detected. Efficient transformation of 2,3-DHB by transgenic plants was achieved and the lines also exhibited high production of biomass. The transgenic plants were more tolerant to the commercial PCBs mixture Delor 103 than non-transgenic tobacco. And finally, the higher decrease of total PCB content and especially congener 28 in real contaminated soil from a dumpsite was determined after cultivation of transgenic plant in comparison with nontransgenic tobacco. The substrate specificity of transgenic plants was the same as substrate specificity of BphC enzyme. PMID:24933894

Viktorovtá, Jitka; Novakova, Martina; Trbolova, Ladislava; Vrchotova, Blanka; Lovecka, Petra; Mackova, Martina; Macek, Tomas

2014-01-01

263

A general system for generating unlabelled gene replacements in bacterial chromosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general system is described that facilitates gene replacements such that the recombinant strains are not labelled with\\u000a antibiotic resistance genes. The method is based on the conditional replication of derivatives of the lactococcal plasmid\\u000a pWV01, which lacks the repA gene encoding the replication initiation protein. Replacement vectors can be constructed in and isolated from gram-positive\\u000a and gram-negative helper strains

K. Leenhouts; G. Buist; A. Bolhuis; A. ten Berge; J. Kiel; I. Mierau; M. Dabrowska; G. Venema; J. Kok

1996-01-01

264

A recent evolutionary origin of a bacterial small RNA that controls multicellular fruiting body development.  

PubMed

In animals and plants, non-coding small RNAs regulate the expression of many genes at the post-transcriptional level. Recently, many non-coding small RNAs (sRNAs) have also been found to regulate a variety of important biological processes in bacteria, including social traits, but little is known about the phylogenetic or mechanistic origins of such bacterial sRNAs. Here we propose a phylogenetic origin of the myxobacterial sRNA Pxr, which negatively regulates the initiation of fruiting body development in Myxococcus xanthus as a function of nutrient level, and also examine its diversification within the Myxococcocales order. Homologs of pxr were found throughout the Cystobacterineae suborder (with a few possible losses) but not outside this clade, suggesting a single origin of the Pxr regulatory system in the basal Cystobacterineae lineage. Rates of pxr sequence evolution varied greatly across Cystobacterineae sub-clades in a manner not predicted by overall genome divergence. A single copy of pxr was found in most species with 17% of nucleotide positions being polymorphic among them. However three tandem paralogs were present within the genus Cystobacter and these alleles together exhibited an elevated rate of divergence. There appears to have been strong selection for maintenance of a predicted stem-loop structure, as polymorphisms accumulated preferentially at loop or bulge regions or as complementary substitutions within predicted stems. All detected pxr homologs are located in the intergenic region between the ?(54)-dependent response regulator nla19 and a predicted NADH dehydrogenase gene, but other neighboring gene content has diversified. PMID:24418530

Chen, I-Chen Kimberly; Griesenauer, Brad; Yu, Yuen-Tsu Nicco; Velicer, Gregory J

2014-04-01

265

Seasonal Changes in Bacterial and Archaeal Gene Expression Patterns across Salinity Gradients in the  

E-print Network

Matrix Corporation, Mukilteo, Washington, United States of America, 3 Horn Point Laboratory, University of Maryland) relative to freshwater, while little differential gene expression was observed along the river

266

Environmental controlling mechanisms on bacterial abundance in the South China Sea inferred from generalized additive models (GAMs)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We modeled the abundance distribution of heterotrophic bacteria collected from 4 cruises in the northern South China Sea using generalized additive models to infer the underlying mechanisms controlling bacterial abundance and to predict bacterial abundance using environmental parameters that can be easily obtained. We incorporated spatial coordinates, depth, month, chlorophyll (Chl) a concentration, temperature, salinity, nutricline and mixed layer depth in the model, which captures the main features of the observations and explains 88% of the total variation of bacterial abundance. The most important factor affecting bacterial abundance is chlorophyll, followed by salinity and nutricline depth, reflecting the importance of carbon and nutrient sources to bacteria. Bacterial abundance shows a unimodal relationship with temperature and decreases with depth. All the functions are nonlinear. After controlling environmental parameters, bacterial abundances are higher in fall and winter than in spring and summer and usually show an onshore-offshore decreasing gradient, which probably signify transportation pathways of terrestrial organic matter to the sea via atmospheric deposition. Comparisons of variograms between raw data and residuals of the model show that positive autocorrelation at small scales is induced by both environmental similarity and geographic proximity, while the negative autocorrelation at large scales is mostly contributed by environmental similarity in remote water masses.

Chen, Bingzhang; Liu, Hongbin; Huang, Bangqin

2012-08-01

267

Novel Cyclic di-GMP Effectors of the YajQ Protein Family Control Bacterial Virulence  

PubMed Central

Bis-(3?,5?) cyclic di-guanylate (cyclic di-GMP) is a key bacterial second messenger that is implicated in the regulation of many critical processes that include motility, biofilm formation and virulence. Cyclic di-GMP influences diverse functions through interaction with a range of effectors. Our knowledge of these effectors and their different regulatory actions is far from complete, however. Here we have used an affinity pull-down assay using cyclic di-GMP-coupled magnetic beads to identify cyclic di-GMP binding proteins in the plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc). This analysis identified XC_3703, a protein of the YajQ family, as a potential cyclic di-GMP receptor. Isothermal titration calorimetry showed that the purified XC_3703 protein bound cyclic di-GMP with a high affinity (Kd?2 µM). Mutation of XC_3703 led to reduced virulence of Xcc to plants and alteration in biofilm formation. Yeast two-hybrid and far-western analyses showed that XC_3703 was able to interact with XC_2801, a transcription factor of the LysR family. Mutation of XC_2801 and XC_3703 had partially overlapping effects on the transcriptome of Xcc, and both affected virulence. Electromobility shift assays showed that XC_3703 positively affected the binding of XC_2801 to the promoters of target virulence genes, an effect that was reversed by cyclic di-GMP. Genetic and functional analysis of YajQ family members from the human pathogens Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia showed that they also specifically bound cyclic di-GMP and contributed to virulence in model systems. The findings thus identify a new class of cyclic di-GMP effector that regulates bacterial virulence. PMID:25329577

An, Shi-qi; Caly, Delphine L.; McCarthy, Yvonne; Murdoch, Sarah L.; Ward, Joseph; Febrer, Melanie; Dow, J. Maxwell; Ryan, Robert P.

2014-01-01

268

Spatially controlled bacterial adhesion using surface-patterned poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels.  

PubMed

We constructed surface-patterned hydrogels using low-energy focused electron beams to locally crosslink poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) thin films on silanized glass substrates. Derived from electron-beam lithography, this technique was used to create patterned hydrogels with well-defined spatial positions and degrees of swelling. We found that cells of the bacterium Staphylococcus epidermidis adhered to and grew on the silanized glass substrates. These cells did not, however, adhere to surfaces covered by high-swelling lightly crosslinked PEG hydrogels. This finding is consistent with the cell-repulsiveness generally attributed to PEGylated surfaces. In contrast, S. epidermidis cells did adhere to surfaces covered by low-swelling highly crosslinked hydrogels. By creating precise patterns of repulsive hydrogels combined with adhesive hydrogels or with exposed glass substrate, we were able to spatially control the adhesion of S. epidermidis. Significantly, adhesive areas small enough to trap single bacterial cells could be fabricated. The results suggest that the lateral confinement imposed by cell-repulsive hydrogels hindered the cell proliferation and development into larger bacterial colonies. PMID:18842467

Krsko, Peter; Kaplan, Jeffrey B; Libera, Matthew

2009-02-01

269

Soil Bacterial Diversity Screening Using Single 16S rRNA Gene V Regions Coupled with Multi-Million Read Generating Sequencing Technologies  

PubMed Central

The novel multi-million read generating sequencing technologies are very promising for resolving the immense soil 16S rRNA gene bacterial diversity. Yet they have a limited maximum sequence length screening ability, restricting studies in screening DNA stretches of single 16S rRNA gene hypervariable (V) regions. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of properties of four consecutive V regions (V3-6) on commonly applied analytical methodologies in bacterial ecology studies. Using an in silico approach, the performance of each V region was compared with the complete 16S rRNA gene stretch. We assessed related properties of the soil derived bacterial sequence collection of the Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) database and concomitantly performed simulations based on published datasets. Results indicate that overall the most prominent V region for soil bacterial diversity studies was V3, even though it was outperformed in some of the tests. Despite its high performance during most tests, V4 was less conserved along flanking sites, thus reducing its ability for bacterial diversity coverage. V5 performed well in the non-redundant RDP database based analysis. However V5 did not resemble the full-length 16S rRNA gene sequence results as well as V3 and V4 did when the natural sequence frequency and occurrence approximation was considered in the virtual experiment. Although, the highly conserved flanking sequence regions of V6 provide the ability to amplify partial 16S rRNA gene sequences from very diverse owners, it was demonstrated that V6 was the least informative compared to the rest examined V regions. Our results indicate that environment specific database exploration and theoretical assessment of the experimental approach are strongly suggested in 16S rRNA gene based bacterial diversity studies. PMID:22880076

Vasileiadis, Sotirios; Puglisi, Edoardo; Arena, Maria; Cappa, Fabrizio; Cocconcelli, Pier S.; Trevisan, Marco

2012-01-01

270

Temporal and Spatial Coexistence of Archaeal and Bacterial amoA Genes and Gene Transcripts in Lake Lucerne  

PubMed Central

Despite their crucial role in the nitrogen cycle, freshwater ecosystems are relatively rarely studied for active ammonia oxidizers (AO). This study of Lake Lucerne determined the abundance of both amoA genes and gene transcripts of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) over a period of 16 months, shedding more light on the role of both AO in a deep, alpine lake environment. At the surface, at 42?m water depth, and in the water layer immediately above the sediment, AOA generally outnumbered AOB. However, in the surface water during summer stratification, when both AO were low in abundance, AOB were more numerous than AOA. Temporal distribution patterns of AOA and AOB were comparable. Higher abundances of amoA gene transcripts were observed at the onset and end of summer stratification. In summer, archaeal amoA genes and transcripts correlated negatively with temperature and conductivity. Concentrations of ammonium and oxygen did not vary enough to explain the amoA gene and transcript dynamics. The observed herbivorous zooplankton may have caused a hidden flux of mineralized ammonium and a change in abundance of genes and transcripts. At the surface, AO might have been repressed during summer stratification due to nutrient limitation caused by active phytoplankton. PMID:23533328

Vissers, Elisabeth W.; Anselmetti, Flavio S.; Bodelier, Paul L. E.; Muyzer, Gerard; Schleper, Christa; Tourna, Maria; Laanbroek, Hendrikus J.

2013-01-01

271

The effects of individual PCB congeners on the soil bacterial community structure and the abundance of biphenyl dioxygenase genes.  

PubMed

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are toxic environmental contaminants that represent a class of 209 congeners characterized by different degrees of chlorination and substitution patterns. Most of experimental studies about microbial degradation of PCBs have been conducted on PCB mixtures, even though evidence accumulated in bacteria and other organisms shows that exposure to different congeners may have different biological effects. Microcosm experiments were conducted using aerobic agitated soil slurries individually exposed to PCB congeners with different degrees of chlorination: PCB-3, 15, 28, and 77, and the commercial mixture Aroclor 1242. After four weeks of incubation, PCBs were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) showing different transformation extents: With the exception of PCB-15 that was not significantly transformed (7%), biodegradation rates decreased with the degree of chlorination, from 75% for PCB-3 to 22% for PCB-77 and Aroclor 1242. The bacterial abundance, as measured by colony counting and 16S rDNA quantification by real-time PCR, was lower (of about 40%) in soil microcosms exposed to the higher-chlorinated congeners, PCB-28, PCB-77, and Aroclor 1242, as compared to non-exposed soils and soils exposed to the lower-chlorinated congeners, PCB-3 and PCB-15. The relative abundance of different taxonomic groups, as determined by real-time PCR, revealed an increase of ?-Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria in all microcosms exposed to PCBs, as compared with non-exposed soil. In addition, exposure to PCB-77 and Aroclor 1242 resulted in a higher abundance of ?-Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria. Globally, these results suggest that exposure to PCBs (and especially to higher-chlorinated congeners and Aroclor 1242) selected bacterial groups involving most known PCB degraders, i.e., ?-Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria. The quantification of biphenyl dioxygenase (BPH) genes--involved in the aerobic degradation of PCBs--using real-time PCR showed that exposure to all PCB congeners and Aroclor 1242 resulted in a marked increase of two out of the four BPH genes tested, similarly suggesting the selection of PCB-degrading bacteria. This paper showed that exposure to different PCB congeners leads to different structures of the soil bacterial community and BPH genes expression patterns. PMID:19716603

Correa, Paola A; Lin, LianShin; Just, Craig L; Hu, Dingfei; Hornbuckle, Keri C; Schnoor, Jerald L; Van Aken, Benoit

2010-11-01

272

Genes for all metals--a bacterial view of the periodic table. The 1996 Thom Award Lecture.  

PubMed

Bacterial chromosomes have genes for transport proteins for inorganic nutrient cations and oxyanions, such as NH4+, K+, Mg2+, Co2+, Fe3+, Mn2+, Zn2+ and other trace cations, and PO4(3-), SO4(2-) and less abundant oxyanions. Together these account for perhaps a few hundred genes in many bacteria. Bacterial plasmids encode resistance systems for toxic metal and metalloid ions including Ag+, AsO2-, AsO4(3-), Cd2+, Co2+, CrO4(2-), Cu2+, Hg2+, Ni2+, Pb2+, TeO3(2-), Tl+ and Zn2+. Most resistance systems function by energy-dependent efflux of toxic ions. A few involve enzymatic (mostly redox) transformations. Some of the efflux resistance systems are ATPases and others are chemiosmotic ion/proton exchangers. The Cd(2+)-resistance cation pump of Gram-positive bacteria is membrane P-type ATPase, which has been labeled with 32P from [gamma-32P]ATP and drives ATP-dependent Cd2+ (and Zn2+) transport by membrane vesicles. The genes defective in the human hereditary diseases of copper metabolism, Menkes syndrome and Wilson's disease, encode P-type ATPases that are similar to bacterial cadmium ATPases. The arsenic resistance system transports arsenite [As(III)], alternatively with the ArsB polypeptide functioning as a chemiosmotic efflux transporter or with two polypeptides, ArsB and ArsA, functioning as an ATPase. The third protein of the arsenic resistance system is an enzyme that reduces intracellular arsenate [As(V)] to arsenite [As(III)], the substrate of the efflux system. In Gram-negative cells, a three polypeptide complex functions as a chemiosmotic cation/protein exchanger to efflux Cd2+, Zn2+ and Co2+. This pump consists of an inner membrane (CzcA), an outer membrane (CzcC) and a membrane-spanning (CzcB) protein that function together. PMID:9523453

Silver, S

1998-01-01

273

Membrane Proteases in the Bacterial Protein Secretion and Quality Control Pathway  

PubMed Central

Summary: Proteolytic cleavage of proteins that are permanently or transiently associated with the cytoplasmic membrane is crucially important for a wide range of essential processes in bacteria. This applies in particular to the secretion of proteins and to membrane protein quality control. Major progress has been made in elucidating the structure-function relationships of many of the responsible membrane proteases, including signal peptidases, signal peptide hydrolases, FtsH, the rhomboid protease GlpG, and the site 1 protease DegS. These enzymes employ very different mechanisms to cleave substrates at the cytoplasmic and extracytoplasmic membrane surfaces or within the plane of the membrane. This review highlights the different ways that bacterial membrane proteases degrade their substrates, with special emphasis on catalytic mechanisms and substrate delivery to the respective active sites. PMID:22688815

Wang, Peng; van Dijl, Jan Maarten

2012-01-01

274

A phenylalanine rotameric switch for signal-state control in bacterial chemoreceptors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bacterial chemoreceptors are widely used as a model system for elucidating the molecular mechanisms of transmembrane signalling and have provided a detailed understanding of how ligand binding by the receptor modulates the activity of its associated kinase CheA. However, the mechanisms by which conformational signals move between signalling elements within a receptor dimer and how they control kinase activity remain unknown. Here, using long molecular dynamics simulations, we show that the kinase-activating cytoplasmic tip of the chemoreceptor fluctuates between two stable conformations in a signal-dependent manner. A highly conserved residue, Phe396, appears to serve as the conformational switch, because flipping of the stacked aromatic rings of an interacting F396-F396? pair in the receptor homodimer takes place concomitantly with the signal-related conformational changes. We suggest that interacting aromatic residues, which are common stabilizers of protein tertiary structure, might serve as rotameric molecular switches in other biological processes as well.

Ortega, Davi R.; Yang, Chen; Ames, Peter; Baudry, Jerome; Parkinson, John S.; Zhulin, Igor B.

2013-12-01

275

Gene make-up: rapid and massive intron gains after horizontal transfer of a bacterial ?-amylase gene to Basidiomycetes  

PubMed Central

Background Increasing genome data show that introns, a hallmark of eukaryotes, already existed at a high density in the last common ancestor of extant eukaryotes. However, intron content is highly variable among species. The tempo of intron gains and losses has been irregular and several factors may explain why some genomes are intron-poor whereas other are intron-rich. Results We studied the dynamics of intron gains and losses in an ?-amylase gene, whose product breaks down starch and other polysaccharides. It was transferred from an Actinobacterium to an ancestor of Agaricomycotina. This gene underwent further duplications in several species. The results indicate a high rate of intron insertions soon after the gene settled in the fungal genome. A number of these oldest introns, regularly scattered along the gene, remained conserved. Subsequent gains and losses were lineage dependent, with a majority of losses. Moreover, a few species exhibited a high number of both specific intron gains and losses in recent periods. There was little sequence conservation around insertion sites, then probably little information for splicing, whereas splicing sites, inside introns, showed typical and conserved patterns. There was little variation of intron size. Conclusions Since most Basidiomycetes have intron-rich genomes and this richness was ancestral in Fungi, long before the transfer event, we suggest that the new gene was shaped to comply with requirements of the splicing machinery, such as short exon and intron sizes, in order to be correctly processed. PMID:23405862

2013-01-01

276

[On parametric stability of gene networks controlling ontogenetic processes].  

PubMed

The problem of evaluating the parametric stability of three models of pro- and eukaryotic gene networks controlling ontogenetic processes has been defined and solved. Experimental plans of testing gene networks for parametric stability based on the method of generalized threshold models were developed and realized as a software application. We examined the "sensitivity" of the functioning modes to random variations of the parameters in the three model systems: the system of developmental control of phage lambda, the subsystem of morphogenetic control of Arabidopsis thaliana flower, and the gene subnetwork controlling early ontogeny in Drosophila melanogaster. The parametric stability was quantitatively assessed for these models. PMID:12624951

Churaev, R N; Galimzianov, A V

2003-01-01

277

MED: a new non-supervised gene prediction algorithm for bacterial and archaeal genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Despite a remarkable success in the computational prediction of genes in Bacteria and Archaea, a lack of comprehensive understanding\\u000a of prokaryotic gene structures prevents from further elucidation of differences among genomes. It continues to be interesting\\u000a to develop new ab initio algorithms which not only accurately predict genes, but also facilitate comparative studies of prokaryotic genomes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  This paper describes a

Huaiqiu Zhu; Gang-qing Hu; Yi-fan Yang; Jin Wang; Zhen-su She

2007-01-01

278

Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for a bacterial thiaminase I gene and the thiaminase-producing bacterium Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The thiaminase I enzyme produced by the gram-positive bacterium Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus isolated from the viscera of Lake Michigan alewives Alosa pseudoharengus is currently the only defined source of the thiaminase activity linked to thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency in early mortality syndrome (EMS) in the larvae of Great Lakes salmonines. Diets of alewife or isolated strains of P. thiaminolyticus mixed in a semipurified diet and fed to lake trout Salvelinus namaycush have been shown to produce EMS in fry. We utilized quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) to aid in studies of the sources of P. thiaminolyticus and thiaminase I. Quantitative PCR assays were established to detect the thiaminase I gene of P. thiaminolyticus, the 16S rRNA gene from most species of bacteria, and the 16S rRNA gene specifically from P. thiaminolyticus and a few closely related taxa. The Q-PCR assays are linear over at least six orders of magnitude and can detect the thiaminase I gene of P. thiaminolyticus from as few as 1,000 P. thiaminolyticus cells/g of sample or the Paenibacillus 16S rRNA gene from as few as 100 P. thiaminolyticus cells/g of sample. The initial results from alewife viscera samples with high thiaminase activity yielded unexpectedly low densities of P. thiaminolyticus cells; Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus was detectable in 2 of 6 alewife viscera tested at densities on the order of 100 cells/g out of 100,000,000 total bacterial cells/g. The low numbers of P. thiaminolyticus detected suggest that alewives contain additional non-P. thiaminolyticus sources of thiaminase activity.

Richter, C.A.; Wright-Osment, M. K.; Zajicek, J.L.; Honeyfield, D.C.; Tillitt, D.E.

2009-01-01

279

Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for a bacterial thiaminase I gene and the thiaminase-producing bacterium Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus.  

PubMed

The thiaminase I enzyme produced by the gram-positive bacterium Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus isolated from the viscera of Lake Michigan alewives Alosa pseudoharengus is currently the only defined source of the thiaminase activity linked to thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency in early mortality syndrome (EMS) in the larvae of Great Lakes salmonines. Diets of alewife or isolated strains of P. thiaminolyticus mixed in a semipurified diet and fed to lake trout Salvelinus namaycush have been shown to produce EMS in fry. We utilized quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) to aid in studies of the sources of P. thiaminolyticus and thiaminase I. Quantitative PCR assays were established to detect the thiaminase I gene of P. thiaminolyticus, the 16S rRNA gene from most species of bacteria, and the 16S rRNA gene specifically from P. thiaminolyticus and a few closely related taxa. The Q-PCR assays are linear over at least six orders of magnitude and can detect the thiaminase I gene of P. thiaminolyticus from as few as 1,000 P. thiaminolyticus cells/g of sample or the Paenibacillus 16S rRNA gene from as few as 100 P. thiaminolyticus cells/g of sample. The initial results from alewife viscera samples with high thiaminase activity yielded unexpectedly low densities of P. thiaminolyticus cells; Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus was detectable in 2 of 6 alewife viscera tested at densities on the order of 100 cells/g out of 100,000,000 total bacterial cells/g. The low numbers of P. thiaminolyticus detected suggest that alewives contain additional non-P. thiaminolyticus sources of thiaminase activity. PMID:20218497

Richter, Catherine A; Wright-Osment, Maureen K; Zajicek, James L; Honeyfield, Dale C; Tillitt, Donald E

2009-12-01

280

An Acidic PATHOGENESIS-RELATED1 Gene of Oryza grandiglumis is Involved in Disease Resistance Response Against Bacterial Infection  

PubMed Central

Wild rice, Oryza grandiglumis shows hyper-resistance response to pathogen infection. In order to identify genes necessary for defense response in plants, we have carried out a subtractive hybridization coupled with a cDNA macroarray. An acidic PATHOGENESIS-RELATED1 (PR1) gene of the wild rice is highly identical to the acidic PR1 genes of different plant species. The OgPR1a cDNA has an apparent single open reading frame with a predicted molecular mass 40,621 Da and an isoelectic point of 5.14. Both in silico analysis and a transient expression assay in onion epidermal cells revealed that the OgPR1a protein could be localized in intercellular space in plants. The OgPR1a mRNA was strongly transcribed by the exogenous treatment with ethylene and jasmonic acid as well as protein phosphatase inhibitors. Additionally, ectopic expression of the OgPR1a conferred disease resistance on Arabidopsis to the bacterial and fungal infections. PMID:25289005

Shin, Sang Hyun; Pak, Jung-Hun; Kim, Mi Jin; Kim, Hye Jeong; Oh, Ju Sung; Choi, Hong Kyu; Jung, Ho Won; Chung, Young Soo

2014-01-01

281

Analysis of developmental control genes using virus-induced gene silencing.  

PubMed

A consistent challenge in studying the evolution of developmental processes has been the problem of explicitly assessing the function of developmental control genes in diverse species. In recent years, virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) has proved to be remarkably adaptable and efficient in silencing developmental control genes in species across the angiosperms. Here we describe proven protocols for Nicotiana benthamiana and Papaver somniferum, representing a core and basal eudicot species. PMID:23386295

Geuten, Koen; Viaene, Tom; Vekemans, Dries; Kourmpetli, Sofia; Drea, Sinead

2013-01-01

282

Stacking of antimicrobial genes in potato transgenic plants confers increased resistance to bacterial and fungal pathogens.  

PubMed

Solanum tuberosum plants were transformed with three genetic constructions expressing the Nicotiana tabacum AP24 osmotine, Phyllomedusa sauvagii dermaseptin and Gallus gallus lysozyme, and with a double-transgene construction expressing the AP24 and lysozyme sequences. Re-transformation of dermaseptin-transformed plants with the AP24/lysozyme construction allowed selection of plants simultaneously expressing the three transgenes. Potato lines expressing individual transgenes or double- and triple-transgene combinations were assayed for resistance to Erwinia carotovora using whole-plant and tuber infection assays. Resistance levels for both infection tests compared consistently for most potato lines and allowed selection of highly resistant phenotypes. Higher resistance levels were found in lines carrying the dermaseptin and lysozyme sequences, indicating that theses proteins are the major contributors to antibacterial activity. Similar results were obtained in tuber infection tests conducted with Streptomyces scabies. Plant lines showing the higher resistance to bacterial infections were challenged with Phytophthora infestans, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium solani. Considerable levels of resistance to each of these pathogens were evidenced employing semi-quantitative tests based in detached-leaf inoculation, fungal growth inhibition and in vitro plant inoculation. On the basis of these results, we propose that stacking of these transgenes is a promising approach to achieve resistance to both bacterial and fungal pathogens. PMID:22115953

Rivero, Mercedes; Furman, Nicolás; Mencacci, Nicolás; Picca, Pablo; Toum, Laila; Lentz, Ezequiel; Bravo-Almonacid, Fernando; Mentaberry, Alejandro

2012-01-20

283

Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to reveal bacterial pathogen diversity in biosolids.  

PubMed

Given the potential for a variety of bacterial pathogens to occur in variably stabilized sewage sludge (biosolids), an understanding of pathogen diversity and abundance is necessary for accurate assessment of infective risk when these products are land applied. 16S rDNA was PCR amplified from genomic DNA extracted from municipal wastewater residuals (mesophilic- and thermophilic-phased anaerobic digestion (MAD and TPAD), composting (COM)), and agricultural soil (SOIL), and these amplicons were sequenced using massively parallel pyrosequencing technology. Resulting libraries contained an average of 30,893 16S rDNA sequences per sample with an average length of 392 bases. FASTUNIFRAC-based comparisons of population phylogenetic distance demonstrated similarities between the populations of different treatment plants performing the same stabilization method (e.g. different MAD samples), and population differences among samples from different biosolids stabilization methods (COM, MAD, and TPAD). Based on a 0.03 Jukes-Cantor distance to 80 potential bacterial pathogens, all samples contained pathogens and enrichment ranged from 0.02% to 0.1% of sequences. Most (61%) species identified were opportunistic pathogens of the genera Clostridium and Mycobacterium. As risk sciences continue to evolve to address scenarios that include multiple pathogen exposure, the analysis described here can be used to determine the diversity of pathogens in an environmental sample. This work provides guidance for prioritizing subsequent culturable and quantitative analysis, and for the first time, ensuring that potentially significant pathogens are not left out of risk estimations. PMID:20566210

Bibby, Kyle; Viau, Emily; Peccia, Jordan

2010-07-01

284

Construction of an American mink Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) library and sequencing candidate genes important for the fur industry  

PubMed Central

Background Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries continue to be invaluable tools for the genomic analysis of complex organisms. Complemented by the newly and fast growing deep sequencing technologies, they provide an excellent source of information in genomics projects. Results Here, we report the construction and characterization of the CHORI-231 BAC library constructed from a Danish-farmed, male American mink (Neovison vison). The library contains approximately 165,888 clones with an average insert size of 170 kb, representing approximately 10-fold coverage. High-density filters, each consisting of 18,432 clones spotted in duplicate, have been produced for hybridization screening and are publicly available. Overgo probes derived from expressed sequence tags (ESTs), representing 21 candidate genes for traits important for the mink industry, were used to screen the BAC library. These included candidate genes for coat coloring, hair growth and length, coarseness, and some receptors potentially involved in viral diseases in mink. The extensive screening yielded positive results for 19 of these genes. Thirty-five clones corresponding to 19 genes were sequenced using 454 Roche, and large contigs (184 kb in average) were assembled. Knowing the complete sequences of these candidate genes will enable confirmation of the association with a phenotype and the finding of causative mutations for the targeted phenotypes. Additionally, 1577 BAC clones were end sequenced; 2505 BAC end sequences (80% of BACs) were obtained. An excess of 2 Mb has been analyzed, thus giving a snapshot of the mink genome. Conclusions The availability of the CHORI-321 American mink BAC library will aid in identification of genes and genomic regions of interest. We have demonstrated how the library can be used to identify specific genes of interest, develop genetic markers, and for BAC end sequencing and deep sequencing of selected clones. To our knowledge, this is the first report of 454 sequencing of selected BAC clones in mammals and re-assures the suitability of this technique for obtaining the sequence information of genes of interest in small genomics projects. The BAC end sequences described in this paper have been deposited in the GenBank data library [HN339419-HN341884, HN604664-HN604702]. The 454 produced contigs derived from selected clones are deposited with reference numbers [GenBank: JF288166-JF288183 &JF310744]. PMID:21740547

2011-01-01

285

The ``Domino Theory'' of Gene Death: Gradual and Mass Gene Extinction Events in Three Lineages of Obligate Symbiotic Bacterial Pathogens  

E-print Network

extensive genome reduction: Mycobacterium leprae, Shigella flexneri, and Salmonella typhi. We infer additional examples of extensive reductive evolution are Shigella flexneri, a pathogen responsible for many between S. flexneri and Escherichia coli genomes revealed that at least 254 genes have become

Graur, Dan

286

Control of gene expression by cell size  

E-print Network

Polyploidy, increased copy number of whole chromosome sets in the genome, is a common cellular state in evolution, development and disease. Polyploidy enlarges cell size and alters gene expression, producing novel phenotypes ...

Wu, Chia-Yung

2010-01-01

287

Gene targets for fungal and mycotoxin control  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was initially shown that gallic acid, from hydrolysable tannins in the pelliele of walnut kernels, dramatically inhibits\\u000a biosynthesis of aflatoxin byAspergillus flavus. The mechanism of this inhibition was found to take place upstream from the gene cluster, including the regulatory gene,aflR, involved in aflatoxin biosynthesis. Additional research using other antioxidant phenolics showed similar antiaflatoxigenic\\u000a activity to gallic acid. Treatment

J. H. Kim; B. C. Campbell; R. Molyneux; N. Mahoney; K. L. Chan; J. Yu; J. Wilkinson; J. Cary; D. Bhatnagar; T. E. Cleveland

2006-01-01

288

The AS87_04050 Gene Is Involved in Bacterial Lipopolysaccharide Biosynthesis and Pathogenicity of Riemerella anatipestifer  

PubMed Central

Riemerella anatipestifer is reported worldwide as a cause of septicemic and exudative diseases of domestic ducks. In this study, we identified a mutant strain RA2640 by Tn4351 transposon mutagenesis, in which the AS87_04050 gene was inactivated by insertion of the transposon. Southern blot analysis indicated that only one insertion was found in the genome of the mutant strain RA2640. SDS-PAGE followed by silver staining showed that the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) pattern of mutant strain RA2640 was different from its wild-type strain Yb2, suggesting the LPS was defected. In addition, the phenotype of the mutant strain RA2640 was changed to rough-type, evident by altered colony morphology, autoaggregation ability and crystal violet staining characteristics. Bacterial LPS is a key factor in virulence as well as in both innate and acquired host responses to infection. The rough-type mutant strain RA2640 showed higher sensitivity to antibiotics, disinfectants and normal duck serum, and higher capability of adherence and invasion to Vero cells, compared to its wild-type strain Yb2. Moreover, the mutant strain RA2640 lost the agglutination ability of its wild-type strain Yb2 to R. anatipestifer serotype 2 positive sera, suggesting that the O-antigen is defected. Animal experiments indicated that the virulence of the mutant strain RA2640 was attenuated by more than 100,000-fold, compared to its wild-type strain Yb2. These results suggested that the AS87_04050 gene in R. anatipestifer is associated with the LPS biosynthesis and bacterial pathogenicity. PMID:25303276

Wang, Xiaolan; Ding, Chan; Wang, Shaohui; Han, Xiangan; Hou, Wanwan; Yue, Jiaping; Zou, Jiechi; Yu, Shengqing

2014-01-01

289

Mining quorum sensing regulated proteins - Role of bacterial cell-to-cell communication in global gene regulation as assessed by proteomics.  

PubMed

Many bacteria utilize cell-to-cell communication systems that rely on small diffusible signal molecules to monitor the size of their population in a process known as quorum sensing (QS). QS plays a central role in coordinating genes that are generally mediating prokaryotic interactions with its eukaryotic host. In pathogens, this form of gene regulation is, for instance, believed to ensure that the cells remain invisible to the immune system until the pathogen has reached a critical population density sufficient to overwhelm host defenses and to establish an infection. This review summarizes proteome analyses to identify QS-regulated proteins focussing on Gram-negative bacteria interacting with their eukaryotic hosts either as symbionts or as pathogens. In most studies, the power of comparative 2-D PAGE coupled to MS analysis has been employed to recognize and identify QS-controlled proteins. The high number of QS-regulated proteins in the majority of the investigated species strongly supports the importance of QS as global regulatory system and suggests that it also operates via post-transcriptional mechanisms. As QS has been proven to be a central regulator for the expression of pathogenic traits and biofilm formation in various opportunistic pathogens, it represents a highly attractive target for the development of novel antibacterial drugs. Proteomics has also been exploited to validate the target specificity of natural and synthetic QS inhibitors that have a great potential as alternative therapeutics for the treatment of bacterial infections. PMID:21548094

Eberl, Leo; Riedel, Katharina

2011-08-01

290

An intron-encoded protein assists RNA splicing of multiple similar introns of different bacterial genes.  

PubMed

Four group II introns were found in an unusually intron-rich dnaN gene (encoding the beta subunit of DNA polymerase III) of the cyanobacterium Trichodesmium erythraeum, and they have strong similarities to two introns of the RIR gene (encoding ribonucleotide reductase) of the same organism. Of these six introns, only the RIR-3 intron encodes a maturase protein and showed efficient RNA splicing when expressed in Escherichia coli cells. The other five introns do not encode a maturase protein and did not show RNA splicing in E. coli. But these maturase-less introns showed efficient RNA splicing when the RIR-3 intron-encoded maturase protein was co-expressed from a freestanding gene in the same cell. These findings demonstrated that an intron-encoded protein could function as a general maturase for multiple introns of different genes. Major implications may include an intron-mediated co-regulation of the different genes and a resemblance of the evolutionary origin of spliceosomal introns. PMID:16150738

Meng, Qing; Wang, Yanfei; Liu, Xiang-Qin

2005-10-21

291

One-step cloning system for isolation of bacterial lexA-like genes.  

PubMed Central

A system to isolate lexA-like genes of bacteria directly was developed. It is based upon the fact that the presence of a lexA(Def) mutation is lethal to SulA+ cells of Escherichia coli. This system is composed of a SulA- LexA(Def) HsdR- strain and a lexA-conditional killer vector (plasmid pUA165) carrying the wild-type sulA gene of E. coli and a polylinker in which foreign DNA may be inserted. By using this method, the lexA-like genes of Salmonella typhimurium, Erwinia carotovora, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and P. putida were cloned. We also found that the LexA repressor of S. typhimurium presented the highest affinity for the SOS boxes of E. coli in vivo, whereas the LexA protein of P. aeruginosa had the lowest. Likewise, all of these LexA repressors were cleaved by the activated RecA protein of E. coli after DNA damage. Furthermore, under high-stringency conditions, the lexA gene of E. coli hybridized with the lexA genes of S. typhimurium and E. carotovora but not with those of P. aeruginosa and P. putida. Images FIG. 4 PMID:1938926

Calero, S; Garriga, X; Barbe, J

1991-01-01

292

Bacterial Biosynthetic Gene Clusters Encoding the Anti-cancer Haterumalide Class of Molecules  

PubMed Central

Haterumalides are halogenated macrolides with strong antitumor properties, making them attractive targets for chemical synthesis. Unfortunately, current synthetic routes to these molecules are inefficient. The potent haterumalide, oocydin A, was previously identified from two plant-associated bacteria through its high bioactivity against plant pathogenic fungi and oomycetes. In this study, we describe oocydin A (ooc) biosynthetic gene clusters identified by genome sequencing, comparative genomics, and chemical analysis in four plant-associated enterobacteria of the Serratia and Dickeya genera. Disruption of the ooc gene cluster abolished oocydin A production and bioactivity against fungi and oomycetes. The ooc gene clusters span between 77 and 80 kb and encode five multimodular polyketide synthase (PKS) proteins, a hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase cassette and three flavin-dependent tailoring enzymes. The presence of two free-standing acyltransferase proteins classifies the oocydin A gene cluster within the growing family of trans-AT PKSs. The amino acid sequences and organization of the PKS domains are consistent with the chemical predictions and functional peculiarities associated with trans-acyltransferase PKS. Based on extensive in silico analysis of the gene cluster, we propose a biosynthetic model for the production of oocydin A and, by extension, for other members of the haterumalide family of halogenated macrolides exhibiting anti-cancer, anti-fungal, and other interesting biological properties. PMID:23012376

Matilla, Miguel A.; Stockmann, Henning; Leeper, Finian J.; Salmond, George P. C.

2012-01-01

293

The Pto kinase conferring resistance to tomato bacterial speck disease interacts with proteins that bind a cis-element of pathogenesis-related genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In tomato, the Pto kinase confers resistance to bacterial speck disease by recognizing the expression of a corresponding avirulence gene, avrPto, in the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we have identified three genes, Pti4, Pti5 and Pti6, that encode proteins that physically interact with the Pto kinase. Pti4\\/5\\/6 each encode a protein with characteristics that

Jianmin Zhou; Xiaoyan Tang; Gregory B. Martin

1997-01-01

294

Effect of Introns and AT-Rich Sequences on Expression of the Bacterial Hygromycin B Resistance Gene in the Basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune  

PubMed Central

Previously, it was shown that introns are required for efficient mRNA accumulation in Schizophyllum commune and that the presence of AT-rich sequences in the coding region of genes can result in truncation of transcripts in this homobasidiomycete. Here we show that intron-dependent mRNA accumulation and truncation of transcripts are two independent events that both affect expression of the bacterial hygromycin B resistance gene in S. commune. PMID:11133486

Scholtmeijer, Karin; Wosten, Han A. B.; Springer, Jan; Wessels, Joseph G. H.

2001-01-01

295

Identification and Phylogenetic Analysis of Heme Synthesis Genes in Trypanosomatids and Their Bacterial Endosymbionts  

PubMed Central

It has been known for decades that some insect-infecting trypanosomatids can survive in culture without heme supplementation while others cannot, and that this capability is associated with the presence of a betaproteobacterial endosymbiont in the flagellate's cytoplasm. However, the specific mechanisms involved in this process remained obscure. In this work, we sequence and phylogenetically analyze the heme pathway genes from the symbionts and from their hosts, as well as from a number of heme synthesis-deficient Kinetoplastida. Our results show that the enzymes responsible for synthesis of heme are encoded on the symbiont genomes and produced in close cooperation with the flagellate host. Our evidence suggests that this synergistic relationship is the end result of a history of extensive gene loss and multiple lateral gene transfer events in different branches of the phylogeny of the Trypanosomatidae. PMID:21853145

Alves, João M. P.; Voegtly, Logan; Matveyev, Andrey V.; Lara, Ana M.; da Silva, Flávia Maia; Serrano, Myrna G.; Buck, Gregory A.; Teixeira, Marta M. G.; Camargo, Erney P.

2011-01-01

296

From Gene Towards Selective Biomass Valorization: Bacterial ?-Etherases with Catalytic Activity on Lignin-Like Polymers.  

PubMed

Microbial ?-etherases, which selectively cleave the ?-O-4 aryl ether linkage present in lignin, hold great promise for future applications in lignin valorization. However, very few members have been reported so far and little is known about these enzymes. By using a database mining approach, four novel bacterial ?-etherases were identified, recombinantly produced in Escherichia coli, and investigated together with known ?-etherases in the conversion of various lignin and non-lignin-type model compounds. The resulting activities revealed the significant influence of the substituents at the phenyl ring adjacent to the ether bond. Finally, ?-etherase activity on polymeric substrates, measured by using a fluorescently labeled synthetic lignin, was also proven; this underlined the applicability of the enzymes for the conversion of lignin into renewable chemicals. PMID:25186983

Picart, Pere; Müller, Christoph; Mottweiler, Jakob; Wiermans, Lotte; Bolm, Carsten; Domínguez de María, Pablo; Schallmey, Anett

2014-11-01

297

Interplay of Gene Expression Noise and Ultrasensitive Dynamics Affects Bacterial Operon Organization  

E-print Network

Organization J. Christian J. Ray1,2 , Oleg A. Igoshin1,2 * 1 Department of Bioengineering, Rice University. Citation: Ray JCJ, Igoshin OA (2012) Interplay of Gene Expression Noise and Ultrasensitive Dynamics Affects, 2012; Accepted July 16, 2012; Published August 30, 2012 Copyright: Ã? 2012 Ray, Igoshin. This is an open

Igoshin, Oleg

298

The coevolution of toxin and antitoxin genes drives the dynamics of bacterial addiction  

E-print Network

on chromosomes and helps to explain the previously perplexing observation that many TA genes are found study predicts non-transitive `rock-paper-scissors' dynamics to be a feature of intragenomic conflict genetic elements in bacteria provide many interesting examples of intragenomic conflict, charac- terized

Rankin, Daniel

299

Direct Transcriptional Control of the Plasminogen Activator Gene of Yersinia pestis by the Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Horizontal gene transfer events followed by proper regulatory integration of a gene drive rapid evolution of bacterial pathogens. A key event in the evolution of the highly virulent plague bacterium Yersinia pestis was the acquisition of plasmid pPCP1, which carries the plasminogen activator gene, pla. This promoted the bubonic form of the disease by increasing bacterial dissemination from flea bite

Tae-Jong Kim; Sadhana Chauhan; Vladimir L. Motin; Ee-Been Goh; Michele M. Igo; Glenn M. Young

2007-01-01

300

Secondary metabolite gene expression and interplay of bacterial functions in a tropical freshwater cyanobacterial bloom  

PubMed Central

Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (cyanoHABs) appear to be increasing in frequency on a global scale. The Cyanobacteria in blooms can produce toxic secondary metabolites that make freshwater dangerous for drinking and recreation. To characterize microbial activities in a cyanoHAB, transcripts from a eutrophic freshwater reservoir in Singapore were sequenced for six samples collected over one day-night period. Transcripts from the Cyanobacterium Microcystis dominated all samples and were accompanied by at least 533 genera primarily from the Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. Within the Microcystis population, abundant transcripts were from genes for buoyancy, photosynthesis and synthesis of the toxin microviridin, suggesting that these are necessary for competitive dominance in the Reservoir. During the day, Microcystis transcripts were enriched in photosynthesis and energy metabolism while at night enriched pathways included DNA replication and repair and toxin biosynthesis. Microcystis was the dominant source of transcripts from polyketide and non-ribosomal peptide synthase (PKS and NRPS, respectively) gene clusters. Unexpectedly, expression of all PKS/NRPS gene clusters, including for the toxins microcystin and aeruginosin, occurred throughout the day-night cycle. The most highly expressed PKS/NRPS gene cluster from Microcystis is not associated with any known product. The four most abundant phyla in the reservoir were enriched in different functions, including photosynthesis (Cyanobacteria), breakdown of complex organic molecules (Proteobacteria), glycan metabolism (Bacteroidetes) and breakdown of plant carbohydrates, such as cellobiose (Actinobacteria). These results provide the first estimate of secondary metabolite gene expression, functional partitioning and functional interplay in a freshwater cyanoHAB. PMID:24646695

Penn, Kevin; Wang, Jia; Fernando, Samodha C; Thompson, Janelle R

2014-01-01

301

Secondary metabolite gene expression and interplay of bacterial functions in a tropical freshwater cyanobacterial bloom.  

PubMed

Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (cyanoHABs) appear to be increasing in frequency on a global scale. The Cyanobacteria in blooms can produce toxic secondary metabolites that make freshwater dangerous for drinking and recreation. To characterize microbial activities in a cyanoHAB, transcripts from a eutrophic freshwater reservoir in Singapore were sequenced for six samples collected over one day-night period. Transcripts from the Cyanobacterium Microcystis dominated all samples and were accompanied by at least 533 genera primarily from the Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. Within the Microcystis population, abundant transcripts were from genes for buoyancy, photosynthesis and synthesis of the toxin microviridin, suggesting that these are necessary for competitive dominance in the Reservoir. During the day, Microcystis transcripts were enriched in photosynthesis and energy metabolism while at night enriched pathways included DNA replication and repair and toxin biosynthesis. Microcystis was the dominant source of transcripts from polyketide and non-ribosomal peptide synthase (PKS and NRPS, respectively) gene clusters. Unexpectedly, expression of all PKS/NRPS gene clusters, including for the toxins microcystin and aeruginosin, occurred throughout the day-night cycle. The most highly expressed PKS/NRPS gene cluster from Microcystis is not associated with any known product. The four most abundant phyla in the reservoir were enriched in different functions, including photosynthesis (Cyanobacteria), breakdown of complex organic molecules (Proteobacteria), glycan metabolism (Bacteroidetes) and breakdown of plant carbohydrates, such as cellobiose (Actinobacteria). These results provide the first estimate of secondary metabolite gene expression, functional partitioning and functional interplay in a freshwater cyanoHAB. PMID:24646695

Penn, Kevin; Wang, Jia; Fernando, Samodha C; Thompson, Janelle R

2014-09-01

302

GenePRIMP: A software quality control tool  

SciTech Connect

Amrita Pati of the DOE Joint Genome Institute's Genome Biology group describes the software tool GenePRIMP and how it fits into the quality control pipeline for microbial genomics. Further details regarding GenePRIMP appear in a paper published online May 2, 2010 in Nature Methods.

Amrita Pati

2010-05-05

303

Artificial repressors for controlling gene expression in bacteria.  

PubMed

Transcriptional repression is a common approach to control gene expression in synthetic biology applications. Here, an engineered DNA binding protein based upon a transcription activator-like effector (TALE) scaffold was shown to outperform LacI in blocking transcription from a promoter and to repress expression of a downstream gene in an operon. PMID:23230569

Politz, Mark C; Copeland, Matthew F; Pfleger, Brian F

2013-05-14

304

Unique ER Cistromes Control Cell Type-Specific Gene Regulation  

E-print Network

Unique ER Cistromes Control Cell Type-Specific Gene Regulation Susan A. Krum, Gustavo A. Miranda breast cancer cell line with that of the osteoblast-like cell line U2OS-ER by expression microarrays. We-specific E2 regulation of gene expression in MCF7 and U2OS- ER cells, we compared the ER binding sites on DNA

Brown, Myles

305

Reconstructing the evolutionary history of microcephalin, a gene controlling  

E-print Network

regulate brain size during development may be especially relevant. Here, we examine the evolution that genes regulating brain size during development may have the general propensity to contribute to brainReconstructing the evolutionary history of microcephalin, a gene controlling human brain size

Cochran-Stafira, D. Liane

306

GenePRIMP: A software quality control tool  

ScienceCinema

Amrita Pati of the DOE Joint Genome Institute's Genome Biology group describes the software tool GenePRIMP and how it fits into the quality control pipeline for microbial genomics. Further details regarding GenePRIMP appear in a paper published online May 2, 2010 in Nature Methods.

Amrita Pati

2010-09-01

307

Transcription: Gene control by targeted histone acetylation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A transcriptional regulator in yeast, Gcn5p, activates transcription by targeted acetylation of specific lysine residues in the amino-terminal tails of histones. This targete modification is restricted to nucleosomes assembled on the promoters of Gcn5p-responsive genes.

Axel Imhof; Alan P Wolffe

1998-01-01

308

Glucocorticoid control of developmentally regulated adipose genes.  

PubMed

We have analyzed the hormonal basis for the acceleration of differentiation by dexamethasone in the stable adipogenic cell line TA1. These cells, which were derived from 5-azacytidine-treated 10T1/2 mouse embryo fibroblasts, undergo differentiation in culture after reaching confluence. Using cDNA clones corresponding to mRNAs that are induced during adipogenesis, we find that dexamethasone elicits the precocious accumulation of differentiation-specific gene products. This effect appears to be mediated by the glucocorticoid receptor, yet unlike standard steroid inductions, most of the RNAs reach the same maximal levels in the absence of dexamethasone. Glucocorticoids thus may increase the expression of a regulatory factor required for activating the entire set of differentiation-dependent genes. We also describe a gene whose transcription is not only activated during adipogenesis, but is also specifically inducible by dexamethasone in the mature adipocyte. Moreover, the glucocorticoid responsiveness of this gene in differentiated cells appears to be dependent on its prior developmental activation. PMID:3754603

Ringold, G M; Chapman, A B; Knight, D M

1986-01-01

309

Cancer genes and the pathways they control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The revolution in cancer research can be summed up in a single sentence: cancer is, in essence, a genetic disease. In the last decade, many important genes responsible for the genesis of various cancers have been discovered, their mutations precisely identified, and the pathways through which they act characterized. The purposes of this review are to highlight examples of progress

Bert Vogelstein; Kenneth W Kinzler

2004-01-01

310

Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification of Specific Endoglucanase Gene Sequence for Detection of the Bacterial Wilt Pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum  

PubMed Central

The increased globalization of crops production and processing industries also promotes the side-effects of more rapid and efficient spread of plant pathogens. To prevent the associated economic losses, and particularly those related to bacterial diseases where their management relies on removal of the infected material from production, simple, easy-to-perform, rapid and cost-effective tests are needed. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays that target 16S rRNA, fliC and egl genes were compared and evaluated as on-site applications. The assay with the best performance was that targeted to the egl gene, which shows high analytical specificity for diverse strains of the betaproteobacterium Ralstonia solanacearum, including its non-European and non-race 3 biovar 2 strains. The additional melting curve analysis provides confirmation of the test results. According to our extensive assessment, the egl LAMP assay requires minimum sample preparation (a few minutes of boiling) for the identification of pure cultures and ooze from symptomatic material, and it can also be used in a high-throughput format in the laboratory. This provides sensitive and reliable detection of R. solanacearum strains of different phylotypes. PMID:24763488

Pirc, Manca; Llop, Pablo; Ravnikar, Maja; Dreo, Tanja

2014-01-01

311

Differential distribution and abundance of diazotrophic bacterial communities across different soil niches using a gene-targeted clone library approach.  

PubMed

Diazotrophs are key players of the globally important biogeochemical nitrogen cycle, having a significant role in maintaining ecosystem sustainability. Saline soils are pristine and unexplored habitats representing intriguing ecosystems expected to harbour potential diazotrophs capable of adapting in extreme conditions, and these implicated organisms are largely obscure. Differential occurrence of diazotrophs was studied by the nifH gene-targeted clone library approach. Four nifH gene clone libraries were constructed from different soil niches, that is saline soils (low and high salinity; EC 3.8 and 7.1 ds m(-1) ), and agricultural and rhizosphere soil. Additionally, the abundance of diazotrophic community members was assessed using quantitative PCR. Results showed environment-dependent metabolic versatility and the presence of nitrogen-fixing bacteria affiliated with a range of taxa, encompassing members of the Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Cyanobacteria and Firmicutes. The analyses unveiled the dominance of Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria (Pseudomonas, Halorhodospira, Ectothiorhodospira, Bradyrhizobium, Agrobacterium, Amorphomonas) as nitrogen fixers in coastal-saline soil ecosystems, and Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria (Bradyrhizobium, Azohydromonas, Azospirillum, Ideonella) in agricultural/rhizosphere ecosystems. The results revealed a repertoire of novel nitrogen-fixing bacterial guilds particularly in saline soil ecosystems. PMID:25196726

Yousuf, Basit; Kumar, Raghawendra; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

2014-11-01

312

In an early branching metazoan, bacterial colonization of the embryo is controlled by maternal antimicrobial  

E-print Network

the bacterial load, indicating po- tent antimicrobial activity. Unexpectedly, transgenic polyps also revealed antimicrobial peptides Sebastian Fraunea , René Augustina , Friederike Anton-Erxlebena , Jörg Wittlieba bacterial colonization by using maternal antimicrobial peptides. An- timicrobial peptides of the periculin

313

[A trial of the possible joint use of mermithids and bacterial preparations for the control of mosquito larvae].  

PubMed

The action of bacterial insecticides based on Bacillus thuringiensis H-14 and B. sphaericus in a dose of 0.005-2 mg/l on the mermithids Romanomermis iyengari, R. culicivorax and R. jingdeensis was studied. It was shown that though bacterial agents suppressed mermithid preparasite larvae density about 30-40%, the survivors might invade 100% of mosquito larvae. The viability and fertility of adult mermithids did not change under the influence of bactoculicide in doses 5-50 times higher than those used against mosquitoes in practice. In combined field trials of sphaerolarvicide (1.5 kg/ha) and R. iyengari mermithids the infectivity of Anopheles sacharovi larvae reached 96%. Mermithids in combination with bactoculicide and sphaerolarvicide might be useful in integrated control systems because these bacterial agents are harmless for mermithids of all stages in doses useful against mosquito larvae. PMID:1435554

Vladimirova, V V; Pridantsev, E A; Alirzaev, G U; Vo?tsik, A A

1992-01-01

314

Effects of season and experimental warming on the bacterial community in a temperate mountain forest soil assessed by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing  

PubMed Central

Climate warming may induce shifts in soil microbial communities possibly altering the long-term carbon mineralization potential of soils. We assessed the response of the bacterial community in a forest soil to experimental soil warming (+4 °C) in the context of seasonal fluctuations. Three experimental plots were sampled in the fourth year of warming in summer and winter and compared to control plots by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. We sequenced 17 308 amplicons per sample and analysed operational taxonomic units at genetic distances of 0.03, 0.10 and 0.25, with respective Good's coverages of 0.900, 0.977 and 0.998. Diversity indices did not differ between summer, winter, control or warmed samples. Summer and winter samples differed in community structure at a genetic distance of 0.25, corresponding approximately to phylum level. This was mainly because of an increase of Actinobacteria in winter. Abundance patterns of dominant taxa (> 0.06% of all reads) were analysed individually and revealed, that seasonal shifts were coherent among related phylogenetic groups. Seasonal community dynamics were subtle compared to the dynamics of soil respiration. Despite a pronounced respiration response to soil warming, we did not detect warming effects on community structure or composition. Fine-scale shifts may have been concealed by the considerable spatial variation. PMID:22670891

Kuffner, Melanie; Hai, Brigitte; Rattei, Thomas; Melodelima, Christelle; Schloter, Michael; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Jandl, Robert; Schindlbacher, Andreas; Sessitsch, Angela

2012-01-01

315

Ingestion of bacterially expressed double-stranded RNA inhibits gene expression in planarians  

Microsoft Academic Search

population that is present in the adult planarian. The study of these organisms, classic experimental models for investigating metazoan regeneration, has been revitalized by the application of modern molecular biological approaches. The identification of thousands of unique planarian ESTs, coupled with large-scale whole-mount in situ hybridization screens, and the ability to inhibit planarian gene expression through double-stranded RNA-mediated genetic inter-

Phillip A. Newmark; Peter W. Reddien; Francesc Cebria; Alejandro Sanchez Alvarado

2003-01-01

316

Genome-Wide Molecular Clock and Horizontal Gene Transfer in Bacterial Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a simple theoretical framework for identifying orthologous sets of genes that deviate from a clock-like model of evolution. The approach used is based on comparing the evolutionary distances within a set of orthologs to a standard intergenomic distance, which was defined as the median of the distribution of the distances between all one-to-one orthologs. Under the clock-like model,

Pavel S. Novichkov; Marina V. Omelchenko; Mikhail S. Gelfand; Andrei A. Mironov; Yuri I. Wolf; Eugene V. Koonin

2004-01-01

317

Expression of a bacterial gene in plants by using a viral vector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several properties of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) indicate that it could provide a useful vector for gene transfer in higher plants: (1) it has a relatively small double-stranded genome that can be easily manipulated in vitro1-3 (2) cloned viral DNA is infectious when rubbed onto healthy leaves4,5; (3) virus spreads throughout the plant and can be found in most

N. Brisson; J. Paszkowski; J. R. Penswick; B. Gronenborn; I. Potrykus; T. Hohn

1984-01-01

318

Large-Scale Comparative Genomic Ranking of Taxonomically Restricted Genes (TRGs) in Bacterial and Archaeal Genomes  

PubMed Central

Background Lineage-specific, or taxonomically restricted genes (TRGs), especially those that are species and strain-specific, are of special interest because they are expected to play a role in defining exclusive ecological adaptations to particular niches. Despite this, they are relatively poorly studied and little understood, in large part because many are still orphans or only have homologues in very closely related isolates. This lack of homology confounds attempts to establish the likelihood that a hypothetical gene is expressed and, if so, to determine the putative function of the protein. Methodology/Principal Findings We have developed “QIPP” (“Quality Index for Predicted Proteins”), an index that scores the “quality” of a protein based on non-homology-based criteria. QIPP can be used to assign a value between zero and one to any protein based on comparing its features to other proteins in a given genome. We have used QIPP to rank the predicted proteins in the proteomes of Bacteria and Archaea. This ranking reveals that there is a large amount of variation in QIPP scores, and identifies many high-scoring orphans as potentially “authentic” (expressed) orphans. There are significant differences in the distributions of QIPP scores between orphan and non-orphan genes for many genomes and a trend for less well-conserved genes to have lower QIPP scores. Conclusions The implication of this work is that QIPP scores can be used to further annotate predicted proteins with information that is independent of homology. Such information can be used to prioritize candidates for further analysis. Data generated for this study can be found in the OrphanMine at http://www.genomics.ceh.ac.uk/orphan_mine. PMID:17389915

Wilson, Gareth A.; Feil, Edward J.; Lilley, Andrew K.; Field, Dawn

2007-01-01

319

Effect of ultrasound irradiation on bacterial internalization and bacteria-mediated gene transfer to cancer cells.  

PubMed

The present study demonstrates that ultrasound irradiation can facilitate bacteria-mediated gene delivery (bactofection). Escherichia coli modified with avidin were employed as a vehicle for delivery of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene, a model heterologous gene, into the breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Avidin-mediated binding of E. coli to MCF-7 cells enhanced the internalization of E. coli by approximately 17%, irrespective of the use of ultrasound irradiation. Furthermore, the use of ultrasound irradiation increased the internalization by approximately 5%, irrespective of the presence of avidin on the E. coli cell surface. The percentages of GFP-expressing MCF-7 cells at 24h after bactofection were below 0.5% and 2% for the case with only avidin-modification of E. coli cell surface and only ultrasound irradiation, respectively. However, combining avidin modification with the ultrasound treatment increased this value to 8%. Thus, the use of avidin-modified bacteria in conjunction with ultrasound irradiation has potential as an effective strategy for tumor-targeted bactofection. PMID:24373691

Ninomiya, Kazuaki; Yamada, Ryuji; Meisaku, Hitomi; Shimizu, Nobuaki

2014-05-01

320

Lon protease inactivation, or translocation of the lon gene, potentiate bacterial evolution to antibiotic resistance.  

PubMed

Previous work demonstrated that selection for Escherichia coli mutants with low antibiotic resistance frequently resulted in co-selection of lon mutations and that lon(-) mutants evolved higher-level resistance faster than a lon(+) strain. Here we show that lon mutation causes a very low multidrug resistance by inducing the AcrAB-TolC pump via stabilization of the acrAB transcriptional activators MarA and SoxS, which are substrates of the Lon protease. Fast evolution of lon(-) mutants towards higher resistance involves selection of frequent next-step mutations consisting of large duplications including acrAB and the mutated lon gene. Resistance results from the combined effects of acrAB duplication and lon mutation increasing dosage of efflux pump. In contrast, when acrAB duplication occurs as the first step mutation, increased Lon activity caused by lon(+) co-duplication mitigates the effect of acrAB duplication on resistance, and faster evolution towards higher resistance is not observed. As predicted, when the functional lon gene is relocated far from acrAB to prevent their co-duplication, first-step acrAB duplication confers higher resistance, which then allows selection of frequent next-step mutations and results in faster evolution towards higher resistance. Our results demonstrate how order of appearance of mutations and gene location can influence the rate of resistance evolution. PMID:24325250

Nicoloff, Hervé; Andersson, Dan I

2013-12-01

321

Bacterial populations and environmental factors controlling cellulose degradation in an acidic Sphagnum peat.  

PubMed

Northern peatlands represent a major global carbon store harbouring approximately one-third of the global reserves of soil organic carbon. A large proportion of these peatlands consists of acidic Sphagnum-dominated ombrotrophic bogs, which are characterized by extremely low rates of plant debris decomposition. The degradation of cellulose, the major component of Sphagnum-derived litter, was monitored in long-term incubation experiments with acidic (pH 4.0) peat extracts. This process was almost undetectable at 10°C and occurred at low rates at 20°C, while it was significantly accelerated at both temperature regimes by the addition of available nitrogen. Cellulose breakdown was only partially inhibited in the presence of cycloheximide, suggesting that bacteria participated in this process. We aimed to identify these bacteria by a combination of molecular and cultivation approaches and to determine the factors that limit their activity in situ. The indigenous bacterial community in peat was dominated by Alphaproteobacteria and Acidobacteria. The addition of cellulose induced a clear shift in the community structure towards an increase in the relative abundance of the Bacteroidetes. Increasing temperature and nitrogen availability resulted in a selective development of bacteria phylogenetically related to Cytophaga hutchinsonii (94-95% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), which densely colonized microfibrils of cellulose. Among isolates obtained from this community only some subdivision 1 Acidobacteria were capable of degrading cellulose, albeit at a very slow rate. These Acidobacteria represent indigenous cellulolytic members of the microbial community in acidic peat and are easily out-competed by Cytophaga-like bacteria under conditions of increased nitrogen availability. Members of the phylum Firmicutes, known to be key players in cellulose degradation in neutral habitats, were not detected in the cellulolytic community enriched at low pH. PMID:21564458

Pankratov, Timofey A; Ivanova, Anastasia O; Dedysh, Svetlana N; Liesack, Werner

2011-07-01

322

Bacterial community composition during two consecutive NE Monsoon periods in the Arabian Sea studied by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of rRNA genes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Horizontal and vertical variations in bacterial community composition were examined in samples collected during two Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) Arabian Sea cruises in 1995. The cruises, 11 months apart, took place during two consecutive NE Monsoon periods (January and December). Bacteria were harvested by filtration from samples collected in the mixed layer, mid-water, and deep sea at stations across the study area. Total bacterial community genomic DNA was analyzed by PCR amplification of 16S rRNA gene fragments, followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). In total, 20 DGGE bands reflecting unique or varying phylotypes were excised, cloned and sequenced. Amplicons were dominated by bacterial groups commonly found in oceanic waters (e.g., the SAR11 cluster of ?-Proteobacteria and cyanobacteria), but surprisingly none of the sequenced amplicons were related to ?-Proteobacteria or to members of the Cytophaga-Flavobacter-Bacteroides phylum. Amplicons related to magnetotactic bacteria were found for the first time in pelagic oceanic waters. The DGGE banding patterns revealed a dominance of ?15 distinguishable amplicons in all samples. In the mixed layer the bacterial community was dominated by the same ?15 phylotypes at all stations, but unique phylotypes were found with increasing depth. Except for cyanobacteria, comparison of the bacterial community composition in surface waters from January and December 1995 showed only minor differences, despite significant differences in environmental parameters. These data suggest a horizontal homogeneity and some degree of seasonal predictability of bacterial community composition in the Arabian Sea.

Riemann, Lasse; Steward, Grieg F.; Fandino, Laura B.; Campbell, Lisa; Landry, Michael R.; Azam, Farooq

1999-08-01

323

Control of the Human B-Globin Gene  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The diagram shows some of the gene regulatory proteins thought to control expression of this gene during red blood cell development. Some of the gene regulatory proteins shown, such as CP1, are found in many types of cells, while others, such as GATA-1, are present in only a few types of cells, including red blood cell precursors, and are therefore thought to contribute to the cell-type specificity of beta-globin gene expression. As indicated by the bidirectional arrows, several of the binding sites for GATA-1 overlap those of other gene regulatory proteins; it is thought that occupancy of these sites by GATA-1 excludes binding of other proteins. (Adapted from B. Emerson, In Gene Expression: General and Cell-Type Specific (M. Karin, ed.), pp. 116-161. Boston: Birkhauser, 1993.)

BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Bruce Alberts N:Alberts;Bruce REV:2005-04-16 END:VCARD; BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Dennis Bray N:Bray;Dennis REV:2005-04-16 END:VCARD; BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 REV:2005-04-16 END:VCARD; BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Alexander Johnson N:Johnson;Alexander REV:2005-04-16 END:VCARD; BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Julian Lewis N:Lewis;Julian REV:2005-04-16 END:VCARD; BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Martin Raff N:Raff;Martin REV:2005-04-16 END:VCARD

1998-07-01

324

Broad-range PCR, cloning and sequencing of the full 16S rRNA gene for detection of bacterial DNA in synovial fluid samples of Tunisian patients with reactive and undifferentiated arthritis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Broad-range rDNA PCR provides an alternative, cultivation-independent approach for identifying bacterial DNA in reactive and other form of arthritis. The aim of this study was to use broad-range rDNA PCR targeting the 16S rRNA gene in patients with reactive and other forms of arthritis and to screen for the presence of DNA from any given bacterial species in synovial fluid (SF) samples. Methods We examined the SF samples from a total of 27 patients consisting of patients with reactive arthritis (ReA) (n = 5), undifferentiated arthritis (UA) (n = 9), rheumatoid arthritis (n = 7), and osteoarthritis (n = 6) of which the latter two were used as controls. Using broad-range bacterial PCR amplifying a 1400 bp fragment from the 16S rRNA gene, we identified and sequenced at least 24 clones from each SF sample. To identify the corresponding bacteria, DNA sequences were compared to the EMBL (European Molecular Biology Laboratory) database. Results Bacterial DNA was identified in 20 of the 27 SF samples (74, 10%). Analysis of a large number of sequences revealed the presence of DNA from more than one single bacterial species in the SF of all patients studied. The nearly complete sequences of the 1400 bp were obtained for most of the detected species. DNA of bacterial species including Shigella species, Escherichia species, and other coli-form bacteria as well as opportunistic pathogens such as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Achromobacter xylosoxidans were shared in all arthritis patients. Among pathogens described to trigger ReA, DNA from Shigella sonnei was found in ReA and UA patients. We also detected DNA from rarely occurring human pathogens such as Aranicola species and Pantoea ananatis. We also found DNA from bacteria so far not described in human infections such as Bacillus niacini, Paenibacillus humicus, Diaphorobacter species and uncultured bacterium genera incertae sedis OP10. Conclusions Broad-range PCR followed by cloning and sequencing the entire 16S rDNA, allowed the identification of the bacterial DNA environment in the SF samples of arthritic patients. We found a wide spectrum of bacteria including those known to be involved in ReA and others not previously associated with arthritis. PMID:19570210

Siala, Mariam; Gdoura, Radhouane; Fourati, Hela; Rihl, Markus; Jaulhac, Benoit; Younes, Mohamed; Sibilia, Jean; Baklouti, Sofien; Bargaoui, Naceur; Sellami, Slaheddine; Sghir, Abdelghani; Hammami, Adnane

2009-01-01

325

The Prc and RseP proteases control bacterial cell-surface signalling activity.  

PubMed

Extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factors play a key role in the regulation of vital functions in the bacterial response to the environment. In Gram-negative bacteria, activity of these sigma factors is often controlled by cell-surface signalling (CSS), a regulatory system that also involves an outer membrane receptor and a transmembrane anti-sigma factor. To get more insight into the molecular mechanism behind CSS regulation, we have focused on the unique Iut system of Pseudomonas putida. This system contains a hybrid protein containing both a cytoplasmic ECF sigma domain and a periplasmic anti-sigma domain, apparently leading to a permanent interaction between the sigma and anti-sigma factor. We show that the Iut ECF sigma factor regulates the response to aerobactin under iron deficiency conditions and is activated by a proteolytic pathway that involves the sequential action of two proteases: Prc, which removes the periplasmic anti-sigma domain, and RseP, which subsequently removes the transmembrane domain and thereby generates the ECF active transcriptional form. We furthermore demonstrate the role of these proteases in the regulation of classical CSS systems in which the sigma and anti-sigma factors are two different proteins. PMID:24373018

Bastiaansen, Karlijn C; Ibañez, Aurelia; Ramos, Juan L; Bitter, Wilbert; Llamas, María A

2014-08-01

326

Traffic Control of Bacteria-Derived Molecules: A New System of Host-Bacterial Crosstalk  

PubMed Central

Virulent microorganisms, such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses, are recognized by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), including toll-like receptors (TLRs) and nucleotide-binding oligomerization-domain proteins (NODs), and induce inflammatory responses in mammalian hosts. Conversely, commensal bacteria and probiotics, which symbiotically confer health benefits on the host organisms, can lodge in the host intestinal tract without inducing intestinal inflammation. Recent advances in investigations concerning host-microbial interactions have shown that some effector molecules secreted from beneficial bacteria activate cell survival pathways, such as those mediated by p38 MAPK and Akt, and bring health benefits to mammalian hosts. It is noteworthy that such bacteria-derived molecules are taken into the intestinal epithelia through a transport or endocytosis system, thereafter exhibiting their beneficial effects. Understanding this traffic control process can aid in the comprehension of host and microbe interactions and may provide new insight to clarify the pathogenesis of intestinal disorders. This paper highlights the intestinal trafficking systems of bacteria-derived molecules that affect the bacterial functions and modulate epithelial signaling cascades. The latter mechanism may contribute to the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis by improving the host damage induced by virulence factors and various disease states. PMID:23606846

Konishi, Hiroaki; Fujiya, Mikihiro; Kohgo, Yutaka

2013-01-01

327

Reversing Bacterial Resistance to Antibiotics by Phage-Mediated Delivery of Dominant Sensitive Genes  

PubMed Central

Pathogen resistance to antibiotics is a rapidly growing problem, leading to an urgent need for novel antimicrobial agents. Unfortunately, development of new antibiotics faces numerous obstacles, and a method that resensitizes pathogens to approved antibiotics therefore holds key advantages. We present a proof of principle for a system that restores antibiotic efficiency by reversing pathogen resistance. This system uses temperate phages to introduce, by lysogenization, the genes rpsL and gyrA conferring sensitivity in a dominant fashion to two antibiotics, streptomycin and nalidixic acid, respectively. Unique selective pressure is generated to enrich for bacteria that harbor the phages carrying the sensitizing constructs. This selection pressure is based on a toxic compound, tellurite, and therefore does not forfeit any antibiotic for the sensitization procedure. We further demonstrate a possible way of reducing undesirable recombination events by synthesizing dominant sensitive genes with major barriers to homologous recombination. Such synthesis does not significantly reduce the gene's sensitization ability. Unlike conventional bacteriophage therapy, the system does not rely on the phage's ability to kill pathogens in the infected host, but instead, on its ability to deliver genetic constructs into the bacteria and thus render them sensitive to antibiotics prior to host infection. We believe that transfer of the sensitizing cassette by the constructed phage will significantly enrich for antibiotic-treatable pathogens on hospital surfaces. Broad usage of the proposed system, in contrast to antibiotics and phage therapy, will potentially change the nature of nosocomial infections toward being more susceptible to antibiotics rather than more resistant. PMID:22113912

Edgar, Rotem; Friedman, Nir; Molshanski-Mor, Shahar

2012-01-01

328

A bacterial model for expression of mutations in the human ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) gene  

SciTech Connect

OTC is a mitochondrial enzyme catalyzing the formation of citrulline from carbamyl phosphate and ornithine. X-linked deficiency of OTC is the most prevalent genetic defect of ureagenesis. Mutations and polymorphisms in the OTC gene identified in deficient patients have indicated the occurrence of many family-specific, unique alleles. Due to the low frequency of recurrent mutations, distinguishing between deleterious mutations and polymorphisms is difficult. Using a human OTC gene containing plasmid driven by a tac promoter, we have devised a simple and efficient method for expressing mutations in the mature human OTC enzyme. To demonstrate this method, PCR engineered site-directed mutagenesis was employed to generated cDNA fragments which contained either the R151Q or R277W known mutations found in patients with neonatal and late-onset OTC deficiency, respectively. The normal allele for each mutation was also generated by an identical PCR procedure. Digestion with Bgl II- and Sty I-generated mutant and normal replacement cassettes containing the respective mutant and wild type sequences. Upon transformation of JM109 E.coli cells, OTC enzymatic activity was measured at log and stationary phases of growth using a radiochromatographic method. The R141Q mutation abolished enzymatic activity (<0.02% of normal), whereas the R277W mutation expressed partial activity (2.3% of normal). In addition, a PCR-generated mutation, A280V, resulted in 73% loss of catalytic activity. This OTC expression system is clinically applicable for distinguishing between mutations and polymorphisms, and it can be used to investigate the effects of mutations on various domains of the OTC gene.

Tuchman, M.; McCann, M.T.; Qureshi, A.A. [Univ. of Minnesota, Mineapolis (United States)

1994-09-01

329

A bacterial view of the periodic table: genes and proteins for toxic inorganic ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essentially all bacteria have genes for toxic metal ion resistances and these include those for Ag+, AsO2?, AsO43?, Cd2+, Co2+, CrO42?, Cu2+, Hg2+, Ni2+, Pb2+, TeO32?, Tl+ and Zn2+. The largest group of resistance systems functions by energy-dependent efflux of toxic ions. Fewer involve enzymatic transformations\\u000a (oxidation, reduction, methylation, and demethylation) or metal-binding proteins (for example, metallothionein SmtA, chaperone\\u000a CopZ

Simon Silver; Le T. Phung

2005-01-01

330

In situ synthesis of size-controlled, stable silver nanoparticles within ultrashort peptide hydrogels and their anti-bacterial properties.  

PubMed

We have developed a silver-releasing biomaterial with promising potential for wound healing applications. The material is made of ultrashort peptides which can self-assemble in water to form hydrogels. Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were synthesized in situ within the biomaterial, using only UV irradiation and no additional chemical reducing agents. The synthetic strategy allows precise control of the nanoparticle size, with the network of peptide fibers preventing aggregation of Ag NPs. The biomaterial shows increased mechanical strength compared to the hydrogel control. We observed a sustained release of Ag NPs over a period of 14 days. This is a crucial prerequisite for effective anti-bacterial therapy. The ability to inhibit bacterial growth was tested using different bacterial strains, namely gram-negative Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus. Inhibition of bacterial growth was observed for all strains. The best results were obtained for Pseudomonas aeruginosa which is known for exhibiting multidrug resistance. Biocompatibility studies on HDFa cells, using Ag NP-containing hydrogels, did not show any significant influence on cell viability. We propose this silver-releasing hydrogel as an excellent biomaterial with great potential for applications in wound healing due to its low silver content, sustained silver nanoparticle release and biocompatibility. PMID:24933510

Reithofer, Michael R; Lakshmanan, Anupama; Ping, Andy T K; Chin, Jia M; Hauser, Charlotte A E

2014-08-01

331

Structure-Function Analysis of a Broad Specificity Populus trichocarpa Endo-?-glucanase Reveals an Evolutionary Link between Bacterial Licheninases and Plant XTH Gene Products*  

PubMed Central

The large xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolase (XTH) gene family continues to be the focus of much attention in studies of plant cell wall morphogenesis due to the unique catalytic functions of the enzymes it encodes. The XTH gene products compose a subfamily of glycoside hydrolase family 16 (GH16), which also comprises a broad range of microbial endoglucanases and endogalactanases, as well as yeast cell wall chitin/?-glucan transglycosylases. Previous whole-family phylogenetic analyses have suggested that the closest relatives to the XTH gene products are the bacterial licheninases (EC 3.2.1.73), which specifically hydrolyze linear mixed linkage ?(1?3)/?(1?4)-glucans. In addition to their specificity for the highly branched xyloglucan polysaccharide, XTH gene products are distinguished from the licheninases and other GH16 enzyme subfamilies by significant active site loop alterations and a large C-terminal extension. Given these differences, the molecular evolution of the XTH gene products in GH16 has remained enigmatic. Here, we present the biochemical and structural analysis of a unique, mixed function endoglucanase from black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa), which reveals a small, newly recognized subfamily of GH16 members intermediate between the bacterial licheninases and plant XTH gene products. We postulate that this clade comprises an important link in the evolution of the large plant XTH gene families from a putative microbial ancestor. As such, this analysis provides new insights into the diversification of GH16 and further unites the apparently disparate members of this important family of proteins. PMID:23572521

Eklof, Jens M.; Shojania, Shaheen; Okon, Mark; McIntosh, Lawrence P.; Brumer, Harry

2013-01-01

332

Plasmodium falciparum: epigenetic control of var gene regulation and disease.  

PubMed

Plasmodium falciparum, one of the deadliest parasites on earth causes human malaria resulting one million deaths annually. Central to the parasite pathogenicity and morbidity is the switching of parasite virulence (var) gene expression causing host immune evasion. The regulation of Plasmodium var gene expression is poorly understood. The complex life cycle of Plasmodium and mutually exclusive expression pattern of var genes make this disease difficult to control. Recent studies have demonstrated the pivotal role of epigenetic mechanism for control of coordinated expression of var genes, important for various clinical manifestations of malaria. In this review, we discuss about different Plasmodium histones and their various modifications important for gene expression and gene repression.Contribution of epigenetic mechanism to understand the var gene expression is also highlighted. We also describe in details P. falciparum nuclear architecture including heterochromatin, euchromatin and telomeric regions and their importance in subtelomeric and centrally located var gene expression. Finally, we explore the possibility of using Histone Acetyl Transferase (HAT) and Histone Deacetylase (HDAC)inhibitors against multi-drug resistance malaria parasites to provide another line of treatment for malaria. PMID:23150271

Deshmukh, Abhijit S; Srivastava, Sandeep; Dhar, Suman Kumar

2013-01-01

333

The control of size in animals: insights from selector genes  

PubMed Central

Summary How size is controlled during animal development remains a fascinating problem despite decades of research. Here we review key concepts in size biology and develop our thesis that much can be learned by studying how different organ sizes are differentially scaled by homeotic selector genes. A common theme from initial studies using this approach is that morphogen pathways are modified in numerous ways by selector genes to effect size control. We integrate these results with other pathways known to regulate organ size in developing a comprehensive model for organ size control. PMID:18693263

Crickmore, Michael A.; Mann, Richard S.

2008-01-01

334

Multi-chromatic control of mammalian gene expression and signaling  

PubMed Central

The emergence and future of mammalian synthetic biology depends on technologies for orchestrating and custom tailoring complementary gene expression and signaling processes in a predictable manner. Here, we demonstrate for the first time multi-chromatic expression control in mammalian cells by differentially inducing up to three genes in a single cell culture in response to light of different wavelengths. To this end, we developed an ultraviolet B (UVB)-inducible expression system by designing a UVB-responsive split transcription factor based on the Arabidopsis thaliana UVB receptor UVR8 and the WD40 domain of COP1. The system allowed high (up to 800-fold) UVB-induced gene expression in human, monkey, hamster and mouse cells. Based on a quantitative model, we determined critical system parameters. By combining this UVB-responsive system with blue and red light-inducible gene control technology, we demonstrate multi-chromatic multi-gene control by differentially expressing three genes in a single cell culture in mammalian cells, and we apply this system for the multi-chromatic control of angiogenic signaling processes. This portfolio of optogenetic tools enables the design and implementation of synthetic biological networks showing unmatched spatiotemporal precision for future research and biomedical applications. PMID:23625964

Muller, Konrad; Engesser, Raphael; Schulz, Simon; Steinberg, Thorsten; Tomakidi, Pascal; Weber, Cornelia C.; Ulm, Roman; Timmer, Jens; Zurbriggen, Matias D.; Weber, Wilfried

2013-01-01

335

Antibiotic resistance genes in bacterial and bacteriophage fractions of Tunisian and Spanish wastewaters as markers to compare the antibiotic resistance patterns in each population.  

PubMed

The emergence and increased prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the environment may pose a serious global health concern. This study evaluates the abundance of several ARGs in bacterial and bacteriophage DNA via real-time qPCR in samples from five different sampling points in Tunisia; three wastewater treatment plants (WWTP 1, 2 and 3) and wastewater from two abattoirs slaughtering different animals. Results are compared with those obtained in the Barcelona area, in northeast Spain. Eight ARGs were quantified by qPCR from total and phage DNA fraction from the samples. Three ?-lactamases (blaTEM, blaCTX-M cluster 1 and blaCTX-M cluster 9), two quinolone resistance genes (qnrA and qnrS), the mecA gene that confers resistance to methicillin in Staphylococcus aureus, the emerging armA gene, conferring resistance to aminoglycosides and sul1, the most extended gene conferring resistance to sulfonamides, were evaluated. Sul1 and blaTEM were the most prevalent ARGs detected at all five Tunisian sampling points, similarly with the observations in Barcelona. blaCTX-M-9 was more prevalent than blaCTX-M-1 both in bacterial and DNA within phage particles in all samples analysed. mecA and armA were almost absent in Tunisian waters from human or animal origin in contrast with Barcelona that showed a medium prevalence. qnrA was more prevalent than qnrS in bacterial and phage DNA from all sampling points. In conclusion, our study shows that ARGs are found in the bacterial and is reflected in the phage DNA fraction of human and animal wastewaters. The densities of each ARGs vary depending on the ARGs shed by each population and is determined by the characteristics of each area. Thus, the evaluation of ARGs in wastewaters seems to be suitable as marker reflecting the antibiotic resistance patterns of a population. PMID:25127043

Colomer-Lluch, Marta; Calero-Cáceres, William; Jebri, Sihem; Hmaied, Fatma; Muniesa, Maite; Jofre, Juan

2014-12-01

336

Macrobrachium rosenbergii cathepsin L: molecular characterization and gene expression in response to viral and bacterial infections.  

PubMed

Cathepsin L (MrCathL) was identified from a constructed cDNA library of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. MrCathL full-length cDNA is 1161 base pairs (bp) with an ORF of 1026bp which encodes a polypeptide of 342 amino acid (aa) long. The eukaryotic cysteine proteases, histidine and asparagine active site residues were identified in the aa sequence of MrCathL at 143-154, 286-296 and 304-323, respectively. The pair wise clustalW analysis of MrCathL showed the highest similarity (97%) with the homologous cathepsin L from Macrobrachium nipponense and the lowest similarity (70%) from human. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct clusters of the invertebrates and vertebrates cathepsin L in the phylogenetic tree. MrCathL and cathepsin L from M. nipponense were clustered together, formed a sister group to cathepsin L of Penaeus monodon, and finally clustered to Lepeophtheirus salmonis. High level of (P<0.05) MrCathL gene expression was noticed in haemocyte and lowest in eyestalk. Furthermore, the MrCathL gene expression in M. rosenbergii was up-regulated in haemocyte by virus [M. rosenbergii nodovirus (MrNV) and white spot syndrome baculovirus (WSBV)] and bacteria (Vibrio harveyi and Aeromonas hydrophila). The recombinant MrCathL exhibited a wide range of activity in various pH between 3 and 10 and highest at pH 7.5. Cysteine proteinase (stefin A, stefin B and antipain) showed significant influence (100%) on recombinant MrCathL enzyme activity. The relative activity and residual activity of recombinant MrCathL against various metal ions or salts and detergent tested at different concentrations. These results indicated that the metal ions, salts and detergent had an influence on the proteinase activity of recombinant MrCathL. Conclusively, the results of this study imply that MrCathL has high pH stability and is fascinating object for further research on the function of cathepsin L in prawn innate immune system. PMID:23669240

Arockiaraj, Jesu; Gnanam, Annie J; Muthukrishnan, Dhanaraj; Thirumalai, Muthukumaresan Kuppusamy; Pasupuleti, Mukesh; Milton, James; Kasi, Marimuthu

2013-11-01

337

Minimization of chloroplast contamination in 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing of insect herbivore bacterial communities  

PubMed Central

Chloroplast sequence contamination in 16S ribosomal RNA gene (16S) analyses can be particularly problematic when sampling microbial communities in plants and folivorous arthropods. We previously encountered high levels of plastid contamination in herbivorous insect samples when we used the predominant 454 pyrosequencing 16S methodologies described in the literature. 799F, a primer previously found to exclude chloroplast sequences, was modified to enhance its efficacy, and we describe, in detail, our methodology throughout amplicon pyrosequencing. Thirteen versions of 799F were assessed for the exclusion of chloroplast sequences from our samples. We found that a shift in the mismatch between 799F and chloroplast 16S resulted in significant reduction of chloroplast reads. Our results also indicate that amplifying sequences from environmental samples in a two-step PCR process, with the addition of the multiplex identifiers and 454 adapters in a second round of PCR, further improved primer specificity. Primers that included 3? phosphorothioate bonds, which were designed to block primer degradation, did not amplify consistently across samples. The different forward primers do not appear to bias the bacterial communities detected. We provide a methodological framework for reducing chloroplast reads in high-throughput sequencing data sets that can be applied to a number of environmental samples and sequencing techniques. PMID:23968645

Hanshew, Alissa S.; Mason, Charles J.; Raffa, Kenneth F.; Currie, Cameron R.

2014-01-01

338

Photocycle of the flavin-binding photoreceptor AppA, a bacterial transcriptional antirepressor of photosynthesis genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flavoprotein AppA from Rhodobacter sphaeroidescontains an N-terminal domain belonging to a new class of photoreceptors designated BLUF domains. AppA was shown to control photosynthesis gene expression in response to blue light and oxygen tension. We have investigated the photocycle of the AppA BLUF domain by ultrafast fluorescence, femtosecond transient absorption, and nanosecond flash- photolysis spectroscopy. Time-resolved fluorescence experiments revealed

Magdalena Gauden; Sergey Yeremenko; Wouter Laan; Janne A. Ihalainen; Rienk van Grondelle; Klaas J. Hellingwerf; John T. M. Kennis

2005-01-01

339

Gene-pair expression signatures reveal lineage control.  

PubMed

The distinct cell types of multicellular organisms arise owing to constraints imposed by gene regulatory networks on the collective change of gene expression across the genome, creating self-stabilizing expression states, or attractors. We curated human expression data comprising 166 cell types and 2,602 transcription-regulating genes and developed a data-driven method for identifying putative determinants of cell fate built around the concept of expression reversal of gene pairs, such as those participating in toggle-switch circuits. This approach allows us to organize the cell types into their ontogenic lineage relationships. Our method identifies genes in regulatory circuits that control neuronal fate, pluripotency and blood cell differentiation, and it may be useful for prioritizing candidate factors for direct conversion of cell fate. PMID:23603899

Heinäniemi, Merja; Nykter, Matti; Kramer, Roger; Wienecke-Baldacchino, Anke; Sinkkonen, Lasse; Zhou, Joseph Xu; Kreisberg, Richard; Kauffman, Stuart A; Huang, Sui; Shmulevich, Ilya

2013-06-01

340

Spatial Epigenetic Control of Mono- and Bistable Gene Expression  

PubMed Central

Bistability in signaling networks is frequently employed to promote stochastic switch-like transitions between cellular differentiation states. Differentiation can also be triggered by antagonism of activators and repressors mediated by epigenetic processes that constitute regulatory circuits anchored to the chromosome. Their regulatory logic has remained unclear. A reaction–diffusion model reveals that the same reaction mechanism can support both graded monostable and switch-like bistable gene expression, depending on whether recruited repressor proteins generate a single silencing gradient or two interacting gradients that flank a gene. Our experiments confirm that chromosomal recruitment of activator and repressor proteins permits a plastic form of control; the stability of gene expression is determined by the spatial distribution of silencing nucleation sites along the chromosome. The unveiled regulatory principles will help to understand the mechanisms of variegated gene expression, to design synthetic genetic networks that combine transcriptional regulatory motifs with chromatin-based epigenetic effects, and to control cellular differentiation. PMID:20305717

Kelemen, Janos Z.; Ratna, Prasuna; Scherrer, Simone; Becskei, Attila

2010-01-01

341

Image-guided, noninvasive, spatiotemporal control of gene expression  

PubMed Central

Spatiotemporal control of transgene expression is of paramount importance in gene therapy. Here, we demonstrate the use of magnetic resonance temperature imaging (MRI)-guided, high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) in combination with a heat-inducible promoter [heat shock protein 70 (HSP70)] for the in vivo spatiotemporal control of transgene activation. Local gene activation induced by moderate hyperthermia in a transgenic mouse expressing luciferase under the control of the HSP70 promoter showed a high similarity between the local temperature distribution in vivo and the region emitting light. Modulation of gene expression is possible by changing temperature, duration, and location of regional heating. Mild heating protocols (2 min at 43°C) causing no tissue damage were sufficient for significant gene activation. The HSP70 promoter was shown to be induced by the local temperature increase and not by the mechanical effects of ultrasound. Therefore, the combination of MRI-guided HIFU heating and transgenes under control of heat-inducible HSP promoter provides a direct, noninvasive, spatial control of gene expression via local hyperthermia. PMID:19164593

Deckers, Roel; Quesson, Bruno; Arsaut, Josette; Eimer, Sandrine; Couillaud, Franck; Moonen, Chrit T. W.

2009-01-01

342

Comparison of bacterial communities in the Solimões and Negro River tributaries of the Amazon River based on small subunit rRNA gene sequences.  

PubMed

The microbiota of the Amazon River basin has been little studied. We compared the structure of bacterial communities of the Solimões and Negro Rivers, the main Amazon River tributaries, based on analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences. Water was sampled with a 3-L Van Dorn collection bottle; samples were collected at nine different points/depths totaling 27 L of water from each river. Total DNA was extracted from biomass retained by a 0.22-?m filter after sequential filtration of the water through 0.8- and 0.22-?m filters. The 16S rRNA gene was amplified by PCR, cloned and sequenced, and the sequences were analyzed with the PHYLIP and DOTUR programs to obtain the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and to calculate the diversity and richness indices using the SPADE program. Taxonomic affiliation was determined using the naive Bayesian rRNA Classifier of the RDP II (Ribosomal Database Project). We recovered 158 sequences from the Solimões River grouped into 103 OTUs, and 197 sequences from the Negro River library grouped into 90 OTUs by the DOTUR program. The Solimões River was found to have a greater diversity of bacterial genera, and greater estimated richness of 446 OTUs, compared with 242 OTUs from the Negro River, as calculated by ACE estimator. The Negro River has less bacterial diversity, but more 16S rRNA gene sequences belonging to the bacterial genus Polynucleobacter were detected; 56 sequences from this genus were found (about 30% of the total sequences). We suggest that a more in-depth investigation be made to elucidate the role played by these bacteria in the river environment. These differences in bacterial diversity between Solimões and Negro Rivers could be explained by differences in organic matter content and pH of the rivers. PMID:22183948

Peixoto, J C C; Leomil, L; Souza, J V; Peixoto, F B S; Astolfi-Filho, S

2011-01-01

343

Copper resistance gene homologs in pathogenic and saprophytic bacterial species from tomato.  

PubMed

Copper-resistant strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria, Pseudomonas cichorii, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and a yellow Pseudomonas sp. were isolated from tomato plants or seeds. In Southern hybridizations, DNA from each strain showed homology with the copper resistance (cop) operon previously cloned from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato PT23. Homology was associated with plasmid and chromosomal DNA in X. compestris pv. vesicatoria, P. putida, and the yellow Pseudomonas sp. Homology was detected only in the chromosomal DNA of P. cichorii and P. fluorescens. Homology with cop was also detected in chromosomal DNA from copper-sensitive strains of P. cichorii, P. fluorescens, and P. syringae pv. tomato, suggesting that the cop homolog may be indigenous to certain Pseudomonas species and have some function other than copper resistance. No homology was detected in DNA from a copper-sensitive X. campestris pv. vesicatoria strain. Copper-inducible protein products were detected in each copper-resistant bacterium by immunoblot analysis with antibodies raised to the CopB protein from the cop operon. The role of the homologous DNA in copper resistance was confirmed for the X. campestris pv. vesicatoria strain by cloning and transferring the cop homolog to a copper-sensitive strain of X. campestris pv. vesicatoria. The possibility and implications of copper resistance gene exchange between different species and genera of pathogenic and saprophytic bacteria on tomato plants are discussed. PMID:16348118

Cooksey, D A; Azad, H R; Cha, J S; Lim, C K

1990-02-01

344

Modeling and validation of autoinducer-mediated bacterial gene expression in microfluidic environments.  

PubMed

Biosensors exploiting communication within genetically engineered bacteria are becoming increasingly important for monitoring environmental changes. Currently, there are a variety of mathematical models for understanding and predicting how genetically engineered bacteria respond to molecular stimuli in these environments, but as sensors have miniaturized towards microfluidics and are subjected to complex time-varying inputs, the shortcomings of these models have become apparent. The effects of microfluidic environments such as low oxygen concentration, increased biofilm encapsulation, diffusion limited molecular distribution, and higher population densities strongly affect rate constants for gene expression not accounted for in previous models. We report a mathematical model that accurately predicts the biological response of the autoinducer N-acyl homoserine lactone-mediated green fluorescent protein expression in reporter bacteria in microfluidic environments by accommodating these rate constants. This generalized mass action model considers a chain of biomolecular events from input autoinducer chemical to fluorescent protein expression through a series of six chemical species. We have validated this model against experimental data from our own apparatus as well as prior published experimental results. Results indicate accurate prediction of dynamics (e.g., 14% peak time error from a pulse input) and with reduced mean-squared error with pulse or step inputs for a range of concentrations (10??M-30??M). This model can help advance the design of genetically engineered bacteria sensors and molecular communication devices. PMID:25379076

Austin, Caitlin M; Stoy, William; Su, Peter; Harber, Marie C; Bardill, J Patrick; Hammer, Brian K; Forest, Craig R

2014-05-01

345

Mercuric ion reduction and resistance in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants expressing a modified bacterial merA gene.  

PubMed Central

With global heavy metal contamination increasing, plants that can process heavy metals might provide efficient and ecologically sound approaches to sequestration and removal. Mercuric ion reductase, MerA, converts toxic Hg2+ to the less toxic, relatively inert metallic mercury (Hg0) The bacterial merA sequence is rich in CpG dinucleotides and has a highly skewed codon usage, both of which are particularly unfavorable to efficient expression in plants. We constructed a mutagenized merA sequence, merApe9, modifying the flanking region and 9% of the coding region and placing this sequence under control of plant regulatory elements. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana seeds expressing merApe9 germinated, and these seedlings grew, flowered, and set seed on medium containing HgCl2 concentrations of 25-100 microM (5-20 ppm), levels toxic to several controls. Transgenic merApe9 seedlings evolved considerable amounts of Hg0 relative to control plants. The rate of mercury evolution and the level of resistance were proportional to the steady-state mRNA level, confirming that resistance was due to expression of the MerApe9 enzyme. Plants and bacteria expressing merApe9 were also resistant to toxic levels of Au3+. These and other data suggest that there are potentially viable molecular genetic approaches to the phytoremediation of metal ion pollution. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8622910

Rugh, C L; Wilde, H D; Stack, N M; Thompson, D M; Summers, A O; Meagher, R B

1996-01-01

346

Does bacterial gastroenteritis predispose people to functional gastrointestinal disorders? A prospective, community-based, case–control study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) might develop after gastroenteritis. Most previous studies of this relationship have been uncontrolled, and little is known regarding other functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) after gastroenteritis. The primary aim of this study was to determine the frequency of IBS, functional dyspepsia, or functional diarrhea 6 months after bacterial gastroenteritis.METHODS:This was a prospective, community-based, case–control study. Cases had

Sally D. Parry; Rosamund Stansfield; Diana Jelley; Wendy Gregory; Elizabeth Phillips; J. Roger Barton; Mark R. Welfare

2003-01-01

347

Incidence and Persistence of Zoonotic Bacterial and Protozoan Pathogens in a Beef Cattle Feedlot Runoff Control–Vegetative Treatment System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determining the survival of zoonotic pathogens in livestock manure and runoff is critical for understanding the environmental and public health risks associated with these wastes. Th e occurrence and persistence of the bacterial pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Campylobacter spp. in a passive beef cattle feedlot runoff control-vegetative treatment system were examined over a 26-mo period. Incidence of the protozoans

Elaine D. Berry; Bryan L. Woodbury; John A. Nienaber; Roger A. Eigenberg; Jeanette A. Thurston; James E. Wells

2007-01-01

348

Versatility of Fungal and Bacterial Isolates for Biological Control of Damping-Off Disease Caused by Rhizoctonia solaniand Pythiumspp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two fungal and three bacterial isolates were tested for efficacy in control of damping-off disease and survival under a range of conditions. In two experiments withCapsicum annuumseedlings in pasteurized potting medium at 25°C, two binucleateRhizoctoniaisolates (BNR1 and BNR2) were more effective againstRhizoctonia solanianastomosis group 4 (AG 4) than the bacteria,Bacillus amyloliquefaciens,and two isolates ofPseudomonas putida.Inin vitrotests, all five biocontrol isolates

A. R Harris; P. G Adkins

1999-01-01

349

Endophytic bacterial diversity in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) leaves described by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and length heterogeneity-PCR.  

PubMed

Diversity of bacterial endophytes associated with grapevine leaf tissues was analyzed by cultivation and cultivation-independent methods. In order to identify bacterial endophytes directly from metagenome, a protocol for bacteria enrichment and DNA extraction was optimized. Sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene libraries underscored five diverse Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs), showing best sequence matches with gamma-Proteobacteria, family Enterobacteriaceae, with a dominance of the genus Pantoea. Bacteria isolation through cultivation revealed the presence of six OTUs, showing best sequence matches with Actinobacteria, genus Curtobacterium, and with Firmicutes genera Bacillus and Enterococcus. Length Heterogeneity-PCR (LH-PCR) electrophoretic peaks from single bacterial clones were used to setup a database representing the bacterial endophytes identified in association with grapevine tissues. Analysis of healthy and phytoplasma-infected grapevine plants showed that LH-PCR could be a useful complementary tool for examining the diversity of bacterial endophytes especially for diversity survey on a large number of samples. PMID:19763412

Bulgari, Daniela; Casati, Paola; Brusetti, Lorenzo; Quaglino, Fabio; Brasca, Milena; Daffonchio, Daniele; Bianco, Piero Attilio

2009-08-01

350

Gene Control by Large Noncoding RNAs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Large noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as key players in regulating various fundamental cellular processes. Recent reports identify a functional lncRNA, Evf-2, that operates during development to control the expression of specific homeodomain proteins, and they provide important insights into the mechanism of cooperation between a newly discovered nuclear receptor co-repressor protein (SLIRP) and steroid receptor activator RNA. Evf-2 is the first example of lncRNA directly involved in organogenesis in vertebrates.

Ilya Shamovsky (NY;New York University Medical Center, New York REV); Evgeny Nudler (NY;New York University Medical Center, New York REV)

2006-10-03

351

Identification of QTLs controlling gene expression networks defined a priori  

PubMed Central

Background Gene expression microarrays allow the quantification of transcript accumulation for many or all genes in a genome. This technology has been utilized for a range of investigations, from assessments of gene regulation in response to genetic or environmental fluctuation to global expression QTL (eQTL) analyses of natural variation. Current analysis techniques facilitate the statistical querying of individual genes to evaluate the significance of a change in response, also known as differential expression. Since genes are also known to respond as groups due to their membership in networks, effective approaches are needed to investigate transcriptome variation as related to gene network responses. Results We describe a statistical approach that is capable of assessing higher-order a priori defined gene network response, as measured by microarrays. This analysis detected significant network variation between two Arabidopsis thaliana accessions, Bay-0 and Shahdara. By extending this approach, we were able to identify eQTLs controlling network responses for 18 out of 20 a priori-defined gene networks in a recombinant inbred line population derived from accessions Bay-0 and Shahdara. Conclusion This approach has the potential to be expanded to facilitate direct tests of the relationship between phenotypic trait and transcript genetic architecture. The use of a priori definitions for network eQTL identification has enormous potential for providing direction toward future eQTL analyses. PMID:16780591

Kliebenstein, Daniel J; West, Marilyn AL; van Leeuwen, Hans; Loudet, Olivier; Doerge, RW; St Clair, Dina A

2006-01-01

352

Cotton plants transformed with a bacterial degradation gene are protected from accidental spray drift damage by the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The agronomic performance of broad leaved crop plants such as cotton would be greatly improved if genetically-engineered resistance to broadleaf herbicides could both protect the plants from accidental spray drift damage and allow the suppression of problem broadleaf weeds by chemical means. Followingin vitro modification and the addition of plant expression signals, the gene for 2,4-D monooxygenase, a bacterial enzyme

Bruce R. Lyon; Yvonne L. Cousins; Danny J. Llewellyn; Elizabeth S. Dennis

1993-01-01

353

Identification of bacterial species associated with the sheep scab mite (Psoroptes ovis) by using amplified genes coding for 16S rRNA.  

PubMed

This was the first molecular study of the bacterial flora of the sheep scab mite (Psoroptes ovis). A sequence analysis of genes coding for 16S rRNA revealed that Serratia marcescens and bacteria closely related to Staphylococcus intermedius or Staphylococcus chromogens and Alloiococcus otitidis were present. These bacteria were associated with skin lesions, dermatitis, and otitis media caused by P. ovis. PMID:10473440

Hogg, J C; Lehane, M J

1999-09-01

354

Identification of Bacterial Species Associated with the Sheep Scab Mite (Psoroptes ovis) by Using Amplified Genes Coding for 16S rRNA  

PubMed Central

This was the first molecular study of the bacterial flora of the sheep scab mite (Psoroptes ovis). A sequence analysis of genes coding for 16S rRNA revealed that Serratia marcescens and bacteria closely related to Staphylococcus intermedius or Staphylococcus chromogens and Alloiococcus otitidis were present. These bacteria were associated with skin lesions, dermatitis, and otitis media caused by P. ovis. PMID:10473440

Hogg, J. C.; Lehane, M. J.

1999-01-01

355

Phylogenetically Diverse ureC Genes and Their Expression Suggest the Urea Utilization by Bacterial Symbionts in Marine Sponge Xestospongia testudinaria  

PubMed Central

Urea is one of the dominant organic nitrogenous compounds in the oligotrophic oceans. Compared to the knowledge of nitrogen transformation of nitrogen fixation, ammonia oxidization, nitrate and nitrite reduction mediated by sponge-associated microbes, our knowledge of urea utilization in sponges and the phylogenetic diversity of sponge-associated microbes with urea utilization potential is very limited. In this study, Marinobacter litoralis isolated from the marine sponge Xestospongia testudinaria and the slurry of X. testudinaria were found to have urease activity. Subsequently, phylogenetically diverse bacterial ureC genes were detected in the total genomic DNA and RNA of sponge X. testudinaria, i.e., 19 operative taxonomic units (OTUs) in genomic DNA library and 8 OTUs in cDNA library at 90% stringency. Particularly, 6 OTUs were common to both the genomic DNA library and the cDNA library, which suggested that some ureC genes were expressed in this sponge. BLAST and phylogenetic analysis showed that most of the ureC sequences were similar with the urease alpha subunit of members from Proteobacteria, which were the predominant component in sponge X. testudinaria, and the remaining ureC sequences were related to those from Magnetococcus, Cyanobacteria, and Actinobacteria. This study is the first assessment of the role of sponge bacterial symbionts in the regenerated utilization of urea by the detection of transcriptional activity of ureC gene, as well as the phylogenetic diversity of ureC gene of sponge bacterial symbionts. The results suggested the urea utilization by bacterial symbionts in marine sponge X. testudinaria, extending our understanding of nitrogen cycling mediated by sponge-associated microbiota. PMID:23741404

Su, Jing; Jin, Liling; Jiang, Qun; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Fengli; Li, Zhiyong

2013-01-01

356

Controls on bacterial and archaeal community structure and greenhouse gas production in natural, mined, and restored Canadian peatlands  

PubMed Central

Northern peatlands are important global C reservoirs, largely because of their slow rates of microbial C mineralization. Particularly in sites that are heavily influenced by anthropogenic disturbances, there is scant information about microbial ecology and whether or not microbial community structure influences greenhouse gas production. This work characterized communities of bacteria and archaea using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and sequence analysis of 16S rRNA and functional genes across eight natural, mined, or restored peatlands in two locations in eastern Canada. Correlations were explored among chemical properties of peat, bacterial and archaeal community structure, and carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) production rates under oxic and anoxic conditions. Bacteria and archaea similar to those found in other peat soil environments were detected. In contrast to other reports, methanogen diversity was low in our study, with only 2 groups of known or suspected methanogens. Although mining and restoration affected substrate availability and microbial activity, these land-uses did not consistently affect bacterial or archaeal community composition. In fact, larger differences were observed between the two locations and between oxic and anoxic peat samples than between natural, mined, and restored sites, with anoxic samples characterized by less detectable bacterial diversity and stronger dominance by members of the phylum Acidobacteria. There were also no apparent strong linkages between prokaryote community structure and CH4 or CO2 production, suggesting that different organisms exhibit functional redundancy and/or that the same taxa function at very different rates when exposed to different peat substrates. In contrast to other earlier work focusing on fungal communities across similar mined and restored peatlands, bacterial and archaeal communities appeared to be more resistant or resilient to peat substrate changes brought about by these land uses. PMID:23914185

Basiliko, Nathan; Henry, Kevin; Gupta, Varun; Moore, Tim R.; Driscoll, Brian T.; Dunfield, Peter F.

2013-01-01

357

Diversity of bacteriophages infecting Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae in paddy fields and its potential to control bacterial leaf blight of rice.  

PubMed

Bacterial leaf blight (BLB) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is a very serious disease in rice-growing regions of the world. In spite of their economic importance, there are no effective ways of protecting rice plants from this disease. Bacteriophages infecting Xoo affect the population dynamics of the pathogen and consequently the occurrence of the disease. In this study, we investigated the diversity, host range, and infectivity of Xoo phages, and their use as a bicontrol agent on BLB was tested. Among the 34 phages that were isolated from floodwater in paddy fields, 29 belonged to the Myoviridae family, which suggests that the dominant phage in the ecosystem was Myoviridae. The isolated phages were classified into two groups based on plaque size produced on the lawn of Xoo. In general, there was a negative relationship between plaque size and host range, and interestingly the phages having a narrow host range had low efficiency of infectivity. The deduced protein sequence analysis of htf genes indicated that the gene was not a determinant of host specificity. Although the difference in host range and infectivity depending on morphotype needs to be addressed, the results revealed deeper understanding of the interaction between the phages and Xoo strains in floodwater and damp soil environments. The phage mixtures reduced the occurrence of BLB when they were treated with skim milk. The results indicate that the Xoo phages could be used as an alternative control method to increase the control efficacy and reduce the use of agrochemicals. PMID:24651644

Chae, Jong-Chan; Hung, Nguyen Bao; Yu, Sang-Mi; Lee, Ha Kyung; Lee, Yong Hoon

2014-06-28

358

Interaction of genes controlling two allotypes in chickens.  

PubMed

This paper presents the results of the investigations of the newly detected antigen of chicken blood serum, called K2. It was established that the K2 antigen which was identified with isoimmune serum was a beta-globulin with the molecular weight over 200 000. The results of the genetic analysis based on sire-dam-offspring combinations seemed to indicate that the antigen under examination was controlled by a gene hypostatic to the gene controlling the previously described K1 allotype. PMID:63255

Janicka-Mazur, W; Wegrzyn, J; Duniec, M

1976-01-01

359

Abundance and Diversity of Bacterial Nitrifiers and Denitrifiers and Their Functional Genes in Tannery Wastewater Treatment Plants Revealed by High-Throughput Sequencing  

PubMed Central

Biological nitrification/denitrification is frequently used to remove nitrogen from tannery wastewater containing high concentrations of ammonia. However, information is limited about the bacterial nitrifiers and denitrifiers and their functional genes in tannery wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) due to the low-throughput of the previously used methods. In this study, 454 pyrosequencing and Illumina high-throughput sequencing, combined with molecular methods, were used to comprehensively characterize structures and functions of nitrification and denitrification bacterial communities in aerobic and anaerobic sludge of two full-scale tannery WWTPs. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes showed that Proteobacteria and Synergistetes dominated in the aerobic and anaerobic sludge, respectively. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) amoA gene cloning revealed that Nitrosomonas europaea dominated the ammonia-oxidizing community in the WWTPs. Metagenomic analysis showed that the denitrifiers mainly included the genera of Thauera, Paracoccus, Hyphomicrobium, Comamonas and Azoarcus, which may greatly contribute to the nitrogen removal in the two WWTPs. It is interesting that AOB and ammonia-oxidizing archaea had low abundance although both WWTPs demonstrated high ammonium removal efficiency. Good correlation between the qPCR and metagenomic analysis is observed for the quantification of functional genes amoA, nirK, nirS and nosZ, indicating that the metagenomic approach may be a promising method used to comprehensively investigate the abundance of functional genes of nitrifiers and denitrifiers in the environment. PMID:25420093

Wang, Zhu; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Lu, Xin; Liu, Bo; Li, Yan; Long, Chao; Li, Aimin

2014-01-01

360

Immobilization of bacterial luciferase into poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) film for electrochemical control of a bioluminescence reaction.  

PubMed

A poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) film was modified on an indium-tin oxide electrode in order to immobilize bacterial luciferase (BL) on the electrode surface. By using the modified electrode, flavin mononucleotide (FMN) was electrochemically reduced to FMNH(2), which is one of the substrates of the BL luminescence reaction, to control the bioluminescence reaction by BL. The BL reaction in the modified film could be promoted and controlled by the electrochemical generation of FMNH(2). This BL luminescence system was evaluated as a model system for the inhibitory assay of hydrophobic molecules on protein functions. PMID:23059999

Kawanami, Yoji; Yamasaki, Shinya; Yamada, Shuto; Takehara, Kô

2012-01-01

361

Hydrologic Control on Bacterial Nitrogen Fixation in the Holocene Black Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stratified oceans of the Phanerozoic Oceanic Anoxic Events apparently were dominated by bacterial nitrogen fixation. Decreased marine N:P nutrient ratios resulting from increased denitrification and decreased phosphate burial efficiency under anoxic waters drove this nutrient regime. This model is upheld by the presence of cyanobacterial hopanoid biomarkers in sedimentary records and delta15N values indicative of nitrogen fixation. However, in the

J. M. Fulton; M. A. Arthur; K. H. Freeman

2008-01-01

362

Phenotypic Resistance and the Dynamics of Bacterial Escape from Phage Control  

PubMed Central

The canonical view of phage - bacterial interactions in dense, liquid cultures is that the phage will eliminate most of the sensitive cells; genetic resistance will then ascend to restore high bacterial densities. Yet there are various mechanisms by which bacteria may remain sensitive to phages but still attain high densities in their presence – because bacteria enter a transient state of reduced adsorption. Importantly, these mechanisms may be cryptic and inapparent prior to the addition of phage yet result in a rapid rebound of bacterial density after phage are introduced. We describe mathematical models of these processes and suggest how different types of this ‘phenotypic’ resistance may be elucidated. We offer preliminary in vitro studies of a previously characterized E. coli model system and Campylobacter jejuni illustrating apparent phenotypic resistance. As phenotypic resistance may be specific to the receptors used by phages, awareness of its mechanisms may identify ways of improving the choice of phages for therapy. Phenotypic resistance can also explain several enigmas in the ecology of phage-bacterial dynamics. Phenotypic resistance does not preclude the evolution of genetic resistance and may often be an intermediate step to genetic resistance. PMID:24743264

Bull, James J.; Vegge, Christina Skovgaard; Schmerer, Matthew; Chaudhry, Waqas Nasir; Levin, Bruce R.

2014-01-01

363

Considering fungal:bacterial dominance in soils – Methods, controls, and ecosystem implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

An expectation in soil ecology is that a microbial communities’ fungal:bacterial dominance indicates both its response to environmental change and its impact on ecosystem function. We review a selection of the increasing body of literature on this subject and assess the relevance of its expectations by examining the methods used to determine, the impact of environmental factors on, and the

Michael S. Strickland; Johannes Rousk

2010-01-01

364

Evaluation of Fungal and Bacterial Agents for Biological Control of Canada Thistle  

Microsoft Academic Search

From a collection of 287 pathogenic fungi that were isolated from Canada thistle growing in the Canadian prairies, a total of 71 fungal isolates were evaluated for biologi- cal activity on Canada thistle roots using an agar mat bioassay. In addition, the bacterial agent, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tagetis (PST) was evaluated as a biocontrol agent on the weed. The fungal

K. L. BAILEY; S. M. BOYETCHKO; J. DERBY; W. HALL; K. SAWCHYN; T. NELSON; D. R. JOHNSON

365

Tomato mutants altered in bacterial disease resistance provide evidence for a new locus controlling pathogen recognition.  

PubMed

We have employed a genetic approach to study the resistance of tomato to the phytopathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato. Resistance to P. s. tomato depends upon expression of the Pto locus in tomato, which encodes a protein with similarity to serine/threonine protein kinases and recognizes pathogen strains expressing the avirulence gene avrPto. Eleven tomato mutants were isolated with altered resistance to P. s. tomato strains expressing avrPto. We identified mutations both in the Pto resistance locus and in a new locus designated Prf (for Pseudomonas resistance and fenthion sensitivity). The genetic approach allowed us to dissect the roles of these loci in signal transduction in response to pathogen attack. Lines carrying mutations in the Pto locus vary 200-fold in the degree to which they are susceptible to P. s. tomato strains expressing avrPto. The pto mutants retain sensitivity to the organophosphate insecticide fenthion; this trait segregates with Pto in genetic crosses. This result suggested that contrary to previous hypotheses, the Pto locus controls pathogen recognition but not fenthion sensitivity. Interestingly, mutations in the prf locus result in both complete susceptibility to P. s. tomato and insensitivity to fenthion, suggesting that Prf plays a role in tomato signaling in response to both pathogen elicitors and fenthion. Because pto and prf mutations do not alter recognition of Xanthomonas campestris strains expressing avrBsP, an avirulence gene recognized by all tested tomato cultivars, Prf does not play a general role in disease resistance but possibly functions specifically in resistance against P. s. tomato. Genetic analysis of F2 populations from crosses of pto and prf homozygotes indicated that the Pto and Prf loci are tightly linked. PMID:7911348

Salmeron, J M; Barker, S J; Carland, F M; Mehta, A Y; Staskawicz, B J

1994-04-01

366

Controls on Bacterial Concentrations in Sediment Grab Samples from the Hudson River Estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High levels of fecal bacteria resulting from sewage-related pollution are often present in the Hudson River Estuary. Die-off of the fecal bacteria in surface waters is relatively rapid but the fecal bacteria can also attach to particles and settle. It is known that fecal bacteria are present in the shallow sediments but controls on their distribution have not been closely examined. The goal of this work is to examine the relationship between the concentration of fecal indicator bacteria and sediment properties including estimates of sediment age. Forty sediment surface grabs were obtained from the Hudson River Estuary. Twenty samples were collected from near the George Washington Bridge (GWB) and twenty samples from a 15 mile transect near Hudson New York. Concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria were determined by the cultured based Enterolert and Colilert tests (Idexx Laboratories) and molecular based techniques for E. coli and Bacteroides. Sediments were analyzed for total metals, total organic carbon, grain size, and gamma emitting radionuclides including Beryllium-7, Lead-210, and Cesium-137. Enterococcus was present in the samples with a geometric mean of 88 cells/g and a range of 4 to 817 cells /g. Culturable E. Coli was present in the samples with a geometric mean of 168 cells /g and a range of 5 to 2247 cells /g. Enterococcus concentrations were significantly higher (p<0.05) in the northern transect. Molecular based concentrations were determined for the GWB samples and were significantly higher than culture based concentrations. Bacteroides was present in the samples with a geometric mean of 1.1x106 copies/g and a range of 3.9x104 to 4.7x106 copies /g. Molecular E. Coli was present in the samples with a geometric mean of 3.0x106 copies/g and a range of 8.7x104 to 8.9x107 copies /g. The results clearly show that a significant amount of fecal bacteria are present in the sediments. Simple linear correlations between bacterial concentrations and sediment properties have not been observed, but more complex relationships might exist.

Batta, J.; Mailloux, B. J.; Nitsche, F. O.; Kenna, T. C.; Ferguson, A. S.; Cheung, J.; Layton, A.

2010-12-01

367

Bacterial diversity of a Carolina bay as determined by 16S rRNA gene analysis: confirmation of novel taxa.  

PubMed

Carolina bays are naturally occurring shallow elliptical depressions largely fed by rain and shallow ground water. To identify members of the domain Bacteria which inhibit such an environment, we used PCR to construct a library of 16S rRNA genes (16S rDNAs) cloned from DNA extracted from the sediments of Rainbow bay, located on the Savannah River Site, near Aiken, S.C. Oligonucleotides complementary to conserved regions of 16S rDNA were used as primers for PCR, and gel-purified PCR products were cloned into vector pGEM-T. Partial sequencing of the cloned 16S rDNAs revealed an extensive amount of phylogenetic diversity within this system. Of the 35 clones sequenced, 32 were affiliated with five bacterial groups: 11 clustered with the Proteobacteria division (including members of the alpha, beta, and delta subdivisions), 8 clustered with the Acidobacterium subdivision of the Fibrobacter division (as categorized by the Ribosomal Database Project's taxonomic scheme, version 5.0), 7 clustered with the Verrucomicrobium subdivision of the Planctomyces division, 3 clustered with the gram-positive bacteria (Clostridium and relatives subdivision), and 3 clustered with the green nonsulfur bacteria. One sequence branched very deeply from the Bacteria and was found not to be associated with any of the major divisions when phylogenetic trees were constructed. Two clones did not consistently cluster with specific groups and may be chimeric sequences. None of the clones exhibited an exact match to any of the 16S rDNA sequences deposited in the databases, suggesting that most of the bacteria in Rainbow Bay are novel species. In particular, the clones related to the Acidobacterium subdivision and the Verrucomicrobium subdivision confirm the presence of novel taxa discovered previously in other molecular surveys of this type. PMID:9097448

Wise, M G; McArthur, J V; Shimkets, L J

1997-04-01

368

Bacterial diversity of a Carolina bay as determined by 16S rRNA gene analysis: confirmation of novel taxa.  

PubMed Central

Carolina bays are naturally occurring shallow elliptical depressions largely fed by rain and shallow ground water. To identify members of the domain Bacteria which inhibit such an environment, we used PCR to construct a library of 16S rRNA genes (16S rDNAs) cloned from DNA extracted from the sediments of Rainbow bay, located on the Savannah River Site, near Aiken, S.C. Oligonucleotides complementary to conserved regions of 16S rDNA were used as primers for PCR, and gel-purified PCR products were cloned into vector pGEM-T. Partial sequencing of the cloned 16S rDNAs revealed an extensive amount of phylogenetic diversity within this system. Of the 35 clones sequenced, 32 were affiliated with five bacterial groups: 11 clustered with the Proteobacteria division (including members of the alpha, beta, and delta subdivisions), 8 clustered with the Acidobacterium subdivision of the Fibrobacter division (as categorized by the Ribosomal Database Project's taxonomic scheme, version 5.0), 7 clustered with the Verrucomicrobium subdivision of the Planctomyces division, 3 clustered with the gram-positive bacteria (Clostridium and relatives subdivision), and 3 clustered with the green nonsulfur bacteria. One sequence branched very deeply from the Bacteria and was found not to be associated with any of the major divisions when phylogenetic trees were constructed. Two clones did not consistently cluster with specific groups and may be chimeric sequences. None of the clones exhibited an exact match to any of the 16S rDNA sequences deposited in the databases, suggesting that most of the bacteria in Rainbow Bay are novel species. In particular, the clones related to the Acidobacterium subdivision and the Verrucomicrobium subdivision confirm the presence of novel taxa discovered previously in other molecular surveys of this type. PMID:9097448

Wise, M G; McArthur, J V; Shimkets, L J

1997-01-01

369

Efficiency of ciprofloxacin for bacterial control, post-thaw quality, and in vivo fertility of buffalo spermatozoa.  

PubMed

Ciprofloxacin (CP) was evaluated for bacterial control, post-thaw quality, and fertility of buffalo semen. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Proteus sp., Corynebacterium sp., Micrococcus sp., and Staphylococcus sp. were isolated from buffalo semen. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Corynebacterium sp., and Micrococcus sp. were resistant to streptomycin, whereas P. aeruginosa and Proteus sp. were resistant to penicillin. All bacteria were susceptible to CP. In vitro dose toxicity was assessed in sodium citrate buffer containing 0, 200 to 2000 ?g/mL of CP. CP up to 1000 ?g/mL was found nontoxic to motility and viability of buffalo sperm. For post-thaw quality, buffalo semen was frozen in Tris-citric acid extender containing streptomycin-penicillin (SP; 1000 ?g/mL-1000 IU/mL) or CP 600 ?g/mL and was assessed for total aerobic bacterial count (post-thaw), motility, plasma membrane integrity, viability at 0, 2, and 4 hours post-thaw. At 4 hours post-thaw, plasma membrane integrity (%) was higher (P < 0.05) in extender containing CP than SP. Total aerobic bacterial count was 0.00 in extender containing CP compared with 0.07 × 10(4) cfu/mL with SP. To assess the in vivo fertility rate, semen (two bulls) frozen in Tris-citric acid extender containing SP or CP was used to inseminate, and 400 inseminations (200/group) were recorded. Higher (P ? 0.05) fertility rate was recorded with CP (55%) compared with SP (41%). In conclusion, use of CP in extender was efficient to control the bacterial contamination without compromising the post-thaw quality and fertility of cryopreserved water buffalo bull semen. PMID:23746693

Akhter, S; Ansari, M S; Rakha, B A; Andrabi, S M H; Qadeer, S; Iqbal, R; Ullah, N

2013-09-01

370

Application of targeted metagenomics to explore abundance and diversity of CO?-fixing bacterial community using cbbL gene from the rhizosphere of Arachis hypogaea.  

PubMed

Sequestration of CO(2) by autotrophic bacteria is a key process of biogeochemical carbon cycling in soil ecosystem. Rhizosphere is a rich niche of microbial activity and diversity, influenced by change in atmospheric CO(2). Structural changes in rhizosphere composition influence microbial communities and the nutrient cycling. In the present study, the bacterial diversity and population dynamics were established using cbbL and 16S rRNA gene targeted metagenomics approach from the rhizosphere of Arachis hypogaea. A total of 108 cbbL clones were obtained from the rhizospheric soil which revealed predominance of cbbL sequences affiliated to Rhizobium leguminosarum, Bradyrhizobium sp., Sinorhizobium meliloti, Ochrobactrum anthropi and a variety of uncultured cbbL harboring bacteria. The 16S rRNA gene clone library exhibited the dominance of Firmicutes (34.4%), Proteobacteria (18.3%), Actinobacteria (17.2%) and Bacteroidetes (16.1%). About 43% nucleotide sequences of 16S rRNA gene clone library were novel genera which showed <95% homology with published sequences. Gene copy number of cbbL and 16S rRNA genes, determined by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT PCR), was 9.38 ± 0.75 × 10(7) and 5.43 ± 0.79 × 10(8) (per g dry soil), respectively. The results exhibited bacterial community structure with high bacterial diversity and abundance of CO(2)-fixing bacteria, which can be explored further for their role in carbon cycling, sustainable agriculture and environment management. PMID:22766402

Yousuf, Basit; Keshri, Jitendra; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

2012-09-10

371

Characterization of the Bacteroides fragilis bfr Gene Product Identifies a Bacterial DPS-Like Protein and Suggests Evolutionary Links in the Ferritin Superfamily  

PubMed Central

A factor contributing to the pathogenicity of Bacteroides fragilis, the most common anaerobic species isolated from clinical infections, is the bacterium's extreme aerotolerance, which allows survival in oxygenated tissues prior to anaerobic abscess formation. We investigated the role of the bacterioferritin-related (bfr) gene in the B. fragilis oxidative stress response. The bfr mRNA levels are increased in stationary phase or in response to O2 or iron. In addition, bfr null mutants exhibit reduced aerotolerance, and the bfr gene product protects DNA from hydroxyl radical cleavage in vitro. Crystallographic studies revealed a protein with a dodecameric structure and greater similarity to an archaeal DNA protection in starved cells (DPS)-like protein than to the 24-subunit bacterioferritins. Similarity to the DPS-like (DPSL) protein extends to the subunit and includes a pair of conserved cysteine residues juxtaposed to a buried dimetal binding site within the four-helix bundle. Compared to archaeal DPSLs, however, this bacterial DPSL protein contains several unique features, including a significantly different conformation in the C-terminal tail that alters the number and location of pores leading to the central cavity and a conserved metal binding site on the interior surface of the dodecamer. Combined, these characteristics confirm this new class of miniferritin in the bacterial domain, delineate the similarities and differences between bacterial DPSL proteins and their archaeal homologs, allow corrected annotations for B. fragilis bfr and other dpsl genes within the bacterial domain, and suggest an evolutionary link within the ferritin superfamily that connects dodecameric DPS to the (bacterio)ferritin 24-mer. PMID:22020642

Gauss, George H.; Reott, Michael A.; Rocha, Edson R.; Young, Mark J.; Douglas, Trevor

2012-01-01

372

EVIDENCE FOR THE EXISTENCE OF GENES CONTROLLING SHAPE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing significance for genetics of the problems involved in growth, development, and differentiation has stimulated inquiry into the genetic basis of these processes. There is every reason to believe that size characters are amenable to genetic analysis, though the method of opera- tion of the genes controlling them is by no means understood. Certain quantitative traits, such as total

EDMUND W. SINNOTT

373

Altered Target Gene Regulation Controlled by Estrogen Receptor-Concentration  

E-print Network

Altered Target Gene Regulation Controlled by Estrogen Receptor- Concentration Amy M. Fowler of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 Estrogen receptor- (ER ) is a transcriptional ac- tivator whose concentration is tightly regulated by the cellular environment. In breast tumors of post- menopausal women

Alarid, Elaine T.

374

Bacterial population changes in a membrane bioreactor for graywater treatment monitored by denaturing gradient gel electrophoretic analysis of 16S rRNA gene fragments.  

PubMed

The bacterial population of a graywater treatment system was monitored over the course of 100 days, along with several wastewater biochemical parameters. The graywater treatment system employed an 1,800-liter membrane bioreactor (MBR) to process the waste, with essentially 100% recycling of the biomass. Graywater feed consisting of 10% galley water and 90% laundry water, selected to approximate the graywater composition on board U.S. Navy ships, was collected offsite. Five-day biological oxygen demand (BOD(5)), oils and greases (O/G), nitrogen, and phosphorus were monitored in the feed and were found to vary greatly day to day. Changes in the bacterial population were monitored by PCR amplification of region 332 to 518 (Escherichia coli numbering) of the 16S rRNA gene and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of the resultant PCR products. DGGE analysis indicated a diverse and unstable bacterial population throughout the 100-day period, with spikes in feed strength causing significant changes in community structure. Long-term similarity between the communities was 0 to 25%, depending on the method of analysis. In spite of the unstable bacterial population, the MBR system was able to meet effluent quality parameters approximately 90% of the time. PMID:12571004

Stamper, David M; Walch, Marianne; Jacobs, Rachel N

2003-02-01

375

Massive parallel 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing reveals highly diverse fecal bacterial and fungal communities in healthy dogs and cats.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the fecal microbiota of 12 healthy pet dogs and 12 pet cats using bacterial and fungal tag-encoded FLX-Titanium amplicon pyrosequencing. A total of 120,406 pyrosequencing reads for bacteria (mean 5017) and 5359 sequences (one pool each for dogs and cats) for fungi were analyzed. Additionally, group-specific 16S rRNA gene clone libraries for Bifidobacterium spp. and lactic acid-producing bacteria (LAB) were constructed. The most abundant bacterial phylum was Firmicutes, followed by Bacteroidetes in dogs and Actinobacteria in cats. The most prevalent bacterial class in dogs and cats was Clostridia, dominated by the genera Clostridium (clusters XIVa and XI) and Ruminococcus. At the genus level, 85 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified in dogs and 113 OTUs in cats. Seventeen LAB and eight Bifidobacterium spp. were detected in canine feces. Ascomycota was the only fungal phylum detected in cats, while Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Glomeromycota, and Zygomycota were identified in dogs. Nacaseomyces was the most abundant fungal genus in dogs; Saccharomyces and Aspergillus were predominant in cats. At the genus level, 33 different fungal OTUs were observed in dogs and 17 OTUs in cats. In conclusion, this study revealed a highly diverse bacterial and fungal microbiota in canine and feline feces. PMID:21261668

Handl, Stefanie; Dowd, Scot E; Garcia-Mazcorro, Jose F; Steiner, Jörg M; Suchodolski, Jan S

2011-05-01

376

Bacterial Community Composition in the Gut Content and Ambient Sediment of Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus Revealed by 16S rRNA Gene Pyrosequencing  

PubMed Central

The composition of the bacterial communities in the contents of the foregut and hindgut of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus and in the ambient surface sediment was surveyed by 16S rRNA gene 454-pyrosequencing. A total of 188,623 optimized reads and 15,527 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained from the ten gut contents samples and four surface sediment samples. The sequences in the sediments, foregut contents, and hindgut contents were assigned to 38.0±4.7, 31.2±6.2 and 27.8±6.5 phyla, respectively. The bacterial richness and Shannon diversity index were both higher in the ambient sediments than in the gut contents. Proteobacteria was the predominant phylum in both the gut contents and sediment samples. The predominant classes in the foregut, hindgut, and ambient sediment were Holophagae and Gammaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria and Deltaproteobacteria, respectively. The potential probiotics, including sequences related to Bacillus, lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, and Streptococcus) and Pseudomonas were detected in the gut of A. japonicus. Principle component analysis and heatmap figure showed that the foregut, hindgut, and ambient sediment respectively harbored different characteristic bacterial communities. Selective feeding of A. japonicus may be the primary source of the different bacterial communities between the foregut contents and ambient sediments. PMID:24967593

Gao, Fei; Li, Fenghui; Tan, Jie; Yan, Jingping; Sun, Huiling

2014-01-01

377

A Pilot Study of Bacterial Genes with Disrupted ORFs Reveals a Surprising Profusion of Protein Sequence Recoding Mediated by Ribosomal Frameshifting and Transcriptional Realignment  

PubMed Central

Bacterial genome annotations contain a number of coding sequences (CDSs) that, in spite of reading frame disruptions, encode a single continuous polypeptide. Such disruptions have different origins: sequencing errors, frameshift, or stop codon mutations, as well as instances of utilization of nontriplet decoding. We have extracted over 1,000 CDSs with annotated disruptions and found that about 75% of them can be clustered into 64 groups based on sequence similarity. Analysis of the clusters revealed deep phylogenetic conservation of open reading frame organization as well as the presence of conserved sequence patterns that indicate likely utilization of the nonstandard decoding mechanisms: programmed ribosomal frameshifting (PRF) and programmed transcriptional realignment (PTR). Further enrichment of these clusters with additional homologous nucleotide sequences revealed over 6,000 candidate genes utilizing PRF or PTR. Analysis of the patterns of conservation apparently associated with nontriplet decoding revealed the presence of both previously characterized frameshift-prone sequences and a few novel ones. Since the starting point of our analysis was a set of genes with already annotated disruptions, it is highly plausible that in this study, we have identified only a fraction of all bacterial genes that utilize PRF or PTR. In addition to the identification of a large number of recoded genes, a surprising observation is that nearly half of them are expressed via PTR—a mechanism that, in contrast to PRF, has not yet received substantial attention. PMID:21673094

Sharma, Virag; Firth, Andrew E.; Antonov, Ivan; Fayet, Olivier; Atkins, John F.; Borodovsky, Mark; Baranov, Pavel V.

2011-01-01

378

Conserved Bacterial RNase YbeY Plays Key Roles in 70S Ribosome Quality Control and 16S rRNA Maturation  

PubMed Central

Quality control of ribosomes is critical for cellular function since protein mistranslation leads to severe physiological consequences. We report the first evidence of a ribosome quality control system in bacteria that operates at the level of 70S to remove defective ribosomes. YbeY, a previously unidentified endoribonuclease, and the exonuclease RNase R act together by a process mediated specifically by the 30S ribosomal subunit, to degrade defective 70S ribosomes but not properly matured 70S ribosomes or individual subunits. Furthermore, there is essentially no fully matured 16S rRNA in a ?ybeY mutant at 45°C, making YbeY the first endoribonuclease to be implicated in the critically important processing of the 16S rRNA 3' terminus. These key roles in ribosome quality control and maturation indicate why YbeY is a member of the minimal bacterial gene set and suggest that it could be a potential target for antibacterial drugs. PMID:23273979

Jacob, Asha Ivy; Köhrer, Caroline; Davies, Bryan William; RajBhandary, Uttam Lal; Walker, Graham Charles

2012-01-01

379

Controls on stable sulfur isotope fractionation during bacterial sulfate reduction in Arctic sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfur isotope fractionation experiments during bacterial sulfate reduction were performed with recently isolated strains of cold-adapted sulfate-reducing bacteria from Arctic marine sediments with year-round temperatures below 2°C. The bacteria represent quantitatively important members of a high-latitude anaerobic microbial community. In the experiments, cell-specific sulfate reduction rates decreased with decreasing temperature and were only slightly higher than the inferred cell-specific sulfate

Volker Brüchert; Christian Knoblauch; Bo Barker Jørgensen

2001-01-01