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Sample records for controls bacterial genes

  1. Computational design of a Zn2+ receptor that controls bacterial gene expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwyer, M. A.; Looger, L. L.; Hellinga, H. W.

    2003-09-01

    The control of cellular physiology and gene expression in response to extracellular signals is a basic property of living systems. We have constructed a synthetic bacterial signal transduction pathway in which gene expression is controlled by extracellular Zn2+. In this system a computationally designed Zn2+-binding periplasmic receptor senses the extracellular solute and triggers a two-component signal transduction pathway via a chimeric transmembrane protein, resulting in transcriptional up-regulation of a -galactosidase reporter gene. The Zn2+-binding site in the designed receptor is based on a four-coordinate, tetrahedral primary coordination sphere consisting of histidines and glutamates. In addition, mutations were introduced in a secondary coordination sphere to satisfy the residual hydrogen-bonding potential of the histidines coordinated to the metal. The importance of the secondary shell interactions is demonstrated by their effect on metal affinity and selectivity, as well as protein stability. Three designed protein sequences, comprising two distinct metal-binding positions, were all shown to bind Zn2+ and to function in the cell-based assay, indicating the generality of the design methodology. These experiments demonstrate that biological systems can be manipulated with computationally designed proteins that have drastically altered ligand-binding specificities, thereby extending the repertoire of genetic control by extracellular signals.

  2. Light-responsive control of bacterial gene expression: precise triggering of the lac promoter activity using photocaged IPTG.

    PubMed

    Binder, Dennis; Grünberger, Alexander; Loeschcke, Anita; Probst, Christopher; Bier, Claus; Pietruszka, Jörg; Wiechert, Wolfgang; Kohlheyer, Dietrich; Jaeger, Karl-Erich; Drepper, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    Light can be used to control numerous cellular processes including protein function and interaction as well as gene expression in a non-invasive fashion and with unprecedented spatiotemporal resolution. However, for chemical phototriggers tight, gradual, and homogeneous light response has never been attained in living cells. Here, we report on a light-responsive bacterial T7 RNA polymerase expression system based on a photocaged derivative of the inducer molecule isopropyl-?-d-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). We have comparatively analyzed different Escherichia coli lac promoter-regulated expression systems in batch and microfluidic single-cell cultivation. The lacY-deficient E. coli strain Tuner(DE3) harboring additional plasmid-born copies of the lacI gene exhibited a sensitive and defined response to increasing IPTG concentrations. Photocaged IPTG served as a synthetic photo-switch to convert the E. coli system into an optogenetic expression module allowing for precise and gradual light-triggering of gene expression as demonstrated at the single cell level. PMID:24894989

  3. Dynamics of bacterial gene regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narang, Atul

    2009-03-01

    The phenomenon of diauxic growth is a classical problem of bacterial gene regulation. The most well studied example of this phenomenon is the glucose-lactose diauxie, which occurs because the expression of the lac operon is strongly repressed in the presence of glucose. This repression is often explained by appealing to molecular mechanisms such as cAMP activation and inducer exclusion. I will begin by analyzing data showing that these molecular mechanisms cannot explain the strong lac repression because they exert a relatively weak effect. I will then present a minimal model accounting only for enzyme induction and dilution, which yields strong repression despite the absence of catabolite repression and inducer exclusion. The model also explains the growth patterns observed in batch and continuous cultures of various bacterial strains and substrate mixtures. The talk will conclude with a discussion of the experimental evidence regarding positive feedback, the key component of the minimal model.

  4. Control of bacterial spores.

    PubMed

    Brown, K L

    2000-01-01

    Bacterial spores are much more resistant than their vegetative counterparts. The most dangerous spore-former is Clostridium botulinum which produces a potent neurotoxin that can prove fatal. The most common food poisoning from a spore-former is caused by C. perfringens. Other food poisoning spore-formers include Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis and B. licheniformis. There are a number of non-pathogenic spore-formers including butyric and thermophilic anaerobes that cause significant economic losses to food producers. Some unusual spoilage complaints have been reported, for example, B. sporothermodurans in UHT milk, Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris in apple and orange juice and Desulfotomaculum nigrificans in hot vending machines. Control of spore-formers requires an understanding of both the resistance and outgrowth characteristics of the spores. PMID:10885113

  5. Large Variations in Bacterial Ribosomal RNA Genes

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Kyungtaek; Furuta, Yoshikazu; Kobayashi, Ichizo

    2012-01-01

    Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, essential to all forms of life, have been viewed as highly conserved and evolutionarily stable, partly because very little is known about their natural variations. Here, we explored large-scale variations of rRNA genes through bioinformatic analyses of available complete bacterial genomic sequences with an emphasis on formation mechanisms and biological significance. Interestingly, we found bacterial genomes in which no 16S rRNA genes harbor the conserved core of the anti–Shine-Dalgarno sequence (5?-CCTCC-3?). This loss was accompanied by elimination of Shine-Dalgarno–like sequences upstream of their protein-coding genes. Those genomes belong to 1 or 2 of the following categories: primary symbionts, hemotropic Mycoplasma, and Flavobacteria. We also found many rearranged rRNA genes and reconstructed their history. Conjecturing the underlying mechanisms, such as inversion, partial duplication, transposon insertion, deletion, and substitution, we were able to infer their biological significance, such as co-orientation of rRNA transcription and chromosomal replication, lateral transfer of rRNA gene segments, and spread of rRNA genes with an apparent structural defect through gene conversion. These results open the way to understanding dynamic evolutionary changes of rRNA genes and the translational machinery. PMID:22446745

  6. Gene flow and bacterial transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, B.

    1993-07-01

    It is common knowledge that Salmonella which should be removed during the processing of sewage can persist is sewage sludge that is sprayed as agricultural fertilizer. Currently, researchers have found that Salmonella may become nonculturable by conventional means, while remaining viable. The issue raised by this article is the knowledge of lateral gene flow as secure as scientist suppose The author sites several research papers that suggest that intergeneric transformation can and does take place in marine environments such as tropical and subtropical estuaries.

  7. Bacterial Ice Crystal Controlling Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Lorv, Janet S. H.; Rose, David R.; Glick, Bernard R.

    2014-01-01

    Across the world, many ice active bacteria utilize ice crystal controlling proteins for aid in freezing tolerance at subzero temperatures. Ice crystal controlling proteins include both antifreeze and ice nucleation proteins. Antifreeze proteins minimize freezing damage by inhibiting growth of large ice crystals, while ice nucleation proteins induce formation of embryonic ice crystals. Although both protein classes have differing functions, these proteins use the same ice binding mechanisms. Rather than direct binding, it is probable that these protein classes create an ice surface prior to ice crystal surface adsorption. Function is differentiated by molecular size of the protein. This paper reviews the similar and different aspects of bacterial antifreeze and ice nucleation proteins, the role of these proteins in freezing tolerance, prevalence of these proteins in psychrophiles, and current mechanisms of protein-ice interactions. PMID:24579057

  8. LATERAL GENE TRANSFER AND THE HISTORY OF BACTERIAL GENOMES

    SciTech Connect

    Howard Ochman

    2006-02-22

    The aims of this research were to elucidate the role and extent of lateral transfer in the differentiation of bacterial strains and species, and to assess the impact of gene transfer on the evolution of bacterial genomes. The ultimate goal of the project is to examine the dynamics of a core set of protein-coding genes (i.e., those that are distributed universally among Bacteria) by developing conserved primers that would allow their amplification and sequencing in any bacterial taxa. In addition, we adopted a bioinformatic approach to elucidate the extent of lateral gene transfer in sequenced genome.

  9. Stable expression of a bacterial GUS gene in vegetatively propagated transgenic pear lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The stability of a transgene in the genomes of in vitro propagated transgenic pear lines was assessed. A bacterial GUS reporter gene under the control of an Arabidopsis sucrose transporter gene promoter was introduced into pear cultivar ‘Old Home’ through Agrobacterium-mediated leaf-explant transfo...

  10. A new experimental approach for studying bacterial genomic island evolution identifies island genes with bacterial host-specific expression patterns

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, James W; Nickerson, Cheryl A

    2006-01-01

    Background Genomic islands are regions of bacterial genomes that have been acquired by horizontal transfer and often contain blocks of genes that function together for specific processes. Recently, it has become clear that the impact of genomic islands on the evolution of different bacterial species is significant and represents a major force in establishing bacterial genomic variation. However, the study of genomic island evolution has been mostly performed at the sequence level using computer software or hybridization analysis to compare different bacterial genomic sequences. We describe here a novel experimental approach to study the evolution of species-specific bacterial genomic islands that identifies island genes that have evolved in such a way that they are differentially-expressed depending on the bacterial host background into which they are transferred. Results We demonstrate this approach by using a "test" genomic island that we have cloned from the Salmonella typhimurium genome (island 4305) and transferred to a range of Gram negative bacterial hosts of differing evolutionary relationships to S. typhimurium. Systematic analysis of the expression of the island genes in the different hosts compared to proper controls allowed identification of genes with genera-specific expression patterns. The data from the analysis can be arranged in a matrix to give an expression "array" of the island genes in the different bacterial backgrounds. A conserved 19-bp DNA site was found upstream of at least two of the differentially-expressed island genes. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic analysis of horizontally-transferred genomic island gene expression in a broad range of Gram negative hosts. We also present evidence in this study that the IS200 element found in island 4305 in S. typhimurium strain LT2 was inserted after the island had already been acquired by the S. typhimurium lineage and that this element is likely not involved in the integration or excision of island 4305. Conclusion The "clone-and-transfer" approach of evolutionary study identifies genes whose expression patterns indicate the existence of genera-specific regulatory mechanisms that influence the expression of horizontally-transferred DNA sections. The results provide key information that can be used to facilitate the identification of these regulatory mechanisms. PMID:16396675

  11. Bacterial blight of soybean: Regulation of a pathogen gene determining host cultivar specificity

    SciTech Connect

    Huynh, T.V.; Dahlbeck, D.; Staskawicz, B.J. )

    1989-09-22

    Soybean cultivars resistant to Pseudomonas syringae pathovar glycinea (Psg), the causal agent of bacterial blight, exhibit a hypersensitive (necrosis) reaction (HR) to infection. Psg strains carrying the avrB gene elicit the HR in soybean cultivars carrying the resistance gene Rpg1. Psg expressing avrB at a high level and capable of eliciting the HR in the absence of de novo bacterial RNA synthesis have been obtained in in vitro culture. Nutritional signals and regions within the Psg hrp gene cluster, an approximately 20-kilobase genomic region also necessary for pathogenicity, control avrB transcription.

  12. Bacteriophage-encoded shiga toxin gene in atypical bacterial host

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Contamination from fecal bacteria in recreational waters is a major health concern since bacteria capable of causing human disease can be found in animal feces. The Dog Beach area of Ocean Beach in San Diego, California is a beach prone to closures due to high levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB). A potential source of these FIB could be the canine feces left behind by owners who do not clean up after their pets. We tested this hypothesis by screening the DNA isolated from canine feces for the bacteriophage-encoded stx gene normally found in the virulent strains of the fecal bacterium Escherichia coli. Results Twenty canine fecal samples were collected, processed for total and bacterial fraction DNA, and screened by PCR for the stx gene. The stx gene was detected in the total and bacterial fraction DNA of one fecal sample. Bacterial isolates were then cultivated from the stx-positive fecal sample. Eighty nine of these canine fecal bacterial isolates were screened by PCR for the stx gene. The stx gene was detected in five of these isolates. Sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA gene PCR products from the canine fecal bacterial isolates indicated that they were Enterococcus and not E. coli. Conclusions The bacteriophage-encoded stx gene was found in multiple species of bacteria cultivated from canine fecal samples gathered at the shoreline of the Dog Beach area of Ocean Beach in San Diego, California. The canine fecal bacteria carrying the stx gene were not the typical E. coli host and were instead identified through phylogenetic analyses as Enterococcus. This suggests a large degree of horizontal gene transfer of exotoxin genes in recreational waters. PMID:21733190

  13. [Effects of transgenic cotton expressing chitinase and glucanase genes on the diversity of soil bacterial community].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhifang; Feng, Zili; Zhao, Lihong; Shi, Yongqiang; Feng, Hongjie; Zhu, Heqin

    2015-08-01

    The transgenic cotton expressing chitinase and glucanase genes was studied using nontransgenic cotton as a control. Specifically, the effects of exogenous genes on bacterial community diversity in rhizospheres of cotton at stages of seedling, budding, boll forming and boll opening were evaluated through comparing the number of cultivable bacteria and analyzing 16S rRNA gene clone libraries. The results showed that the number of cultivable bacteria was not affected by exogenous genes but the cotton growth period, and the number peaked at the stage of boll forming with vigorous metabolism. The 16S rRNA gene clone library prepared from soil bacteria in rhizospheres of transgenic and nontransgenic cotton at different stages contained 2400 clones which covered 283 genera. Among them, Acidobacterium was the most dominant group which contained 642 clones, followed by unclassified bacterium and Flavisolibacter. Compared with nontransgenic cotton, the rhizosphere bacterial diversity of transgenic cotton exhibited lower level at the same growth stage, however, their common bacterial communities increased with growth and development. Our results suggest that chitinase and glucanase genes decrease the rhizosphere bacterial diversity at distinct degrees, however, the difference of bacterial diversity between transgenic and nontransgenic cotton reduces gradually with the extension of cultivation period. PMID:26266785

  14. Gene identication in bacterial and organellar genomes using GeneScan

    E-print Network

    Ramaswamy, Ram

    Gene identi®cation in bacterial and organellar genomes using GeneScan Ramaswamy Ramakrishnaa, 110 067, India Received 23 June 1998; accepted 13 November 1998 Abstract The performance of the GeneScan algorithm for gene identi®cation has been improved by incorporation of a directed iterative scanning

  15. Control of bacterial exoelectrogenesis by c-AMP-GMP

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, James W.; Sudarsan, Narasimhan; Phillips, Grace E.; Stav, Shira; Lünse, Christina E.; McCown, Phillip J.; Breaker, Ronald R.

    2015-01-01

    Major changes in bacterial physiology including biofilm and spore formation involve signaling by the cyclic dinucleotides c-di-GMP and c-di-AMP. Recently, another second messenger dinucleotide, c-AMP-GMP, was found to control chemotaxis and colonization by Vibrio cholerae. We have identified a superregulon of genes controlled by c-AMP-GMP in numerous Deltaproteobacteria, including Geobacter species that use extracellular insoluble metal oxides as terminal electron acceptors. This exoelectrogenic process has been studied for its possible utility in energy production and bioremediation. Many genes involved in adhesion, pilin formation, and others that are important for exoelectrogenesis are controlled by members of a variant riboswitch class that selectively bind c-AMP-GMP. These RNAs constitute, to our knowledge, the first known specific receptors for c-AMP-GMP and reveal that this molecule is used by many bacteria to control specialized physiological processes. PMID:25848023

  16. Towards an Informative Mutant Phenotype for Every Bacterial Gene

    PubMed Central

    Deutschbauer, Adam; Price, Morgan N.; Wetmore, Kelly M.; Tarjan, Daniel R.; Xu, Zhuchen; Shao, Wenjun; Leon, Dacia

    2014-01-01

    Mutant phenotypes provide strong clues to the functions of the underlying genes and could allow annotation of the millions of sequenced yet uncharacterized bacterial genes. However, it is not known how many genes have a phenotype under laboratory conditions, how many phenotypes are biologically interpretable for predicting gene function, and what experimental conditions are optimal to maximize the number of genes with a phenotype. To address these issues, we measured the mutant fitness of 1,586 genes of the ethanol-producing bacterium Zymomonas mobilis ZM4 across 492 diverse experiments and found statistically significant phenotypes for 89% of all assayed genes. Thus, in Z. mobilis, most genes have a functional consequence under laboratory conditions. We demonstrate that 41% of Z. mobilis genes have both a strong phenotype and a similar fitness pattern (cofitness) to another gene, and are therefore good candidates for functional annotation using mutant fitness. Among 502 poorly characterized Z. mobilis genes, we identified a significant cofitness relationship for 174. For 57 of these genes without a specific functional annotation, we found additional evidence to support the biological significance of these gene-gene associations, and in 33 instances, we were able to predict specific physiological or biochemical roles for the poorly characterized genes. Last, we identified a set of 79 diverse mutant fitness experiments in Z. mobilis that are nearly as biologically informative as the entire set of 492 experiments. Therefore, our work provides a blueprint for the functional annotation of diverse bacteria using mutant fitness. PMID:25112473

  17. Towards an informative mutant phenotype for every bacterial gene

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Deutschbauer, Adam; Price, Morgan N.; Wetmore, Kelly M.; Tarjan, Daniel R.; Xu, Zhuchen; Shao, Wenjen; Leon, Dacia; Arkin, Adam P.; Skerker, Jeffrey M.

    2014-08-11

    Mutant phenotypes provide strong clues to the functions of the underlying genes and could allow annotation of the millions of sequenced yet uncharacterized bacterial genes. However, it is not known how many genes have a phenotype under laboratory conditions, how many phenotypes are biologically interpretable for predicting gene function, and what experimental conditions are optimal to maximize the number of genes with a phenotype. To address these issues, we measured the mutant fitness of 1,586 genes of the ethanol-producing bacterium Zymomonas mobilis ZM4 across 492 diverse experiments and found statistically significant phenotypes for 89% of all assayed genes. Thus, inmore »Z. mobilis, most genes have a functional consequence under laboratory conditions. We demonstrate that 41% of Z. mobilis genes have both a strong phenotype and a similar fitness pattern (cofitness) to another gene, and are therefore good candidates for functional annotation using mutant fitness. Among 502 poorly characterized Z. mobilis genes, we identified a significant cofitness relationship for 174. For 57 of these genes without a specific functional annotation, we found additional evidence to support the biological significance of these gene-gene associations, and in 33 instances, we were able to predict specific physiological or biochemical roles for the poorly characterized genes. Last, we identified a set of 79 diverse mutant fitness experiments in Z. mobilis that are nearly as biologically informative as the entire set of 492 experiments. Therefore, our work provides a blueprint for the functional annotation of diverse bacteria using mutant fitness.« less

  18. Reversing Gene Erosion--Reconstructing Ancestral Bacterial Genomes from Gene-Content and Order Data

    E-print Network

    Moret, Bernard

    fastidiosa Pseudomonas aeruginosa Vibrio cholerae Buchnera aphidicola Wigglesworthia brevipalpis EscherichiaReversing Gene Erosion--Reconstructing Ancestral Bacterial Genomes from Gene-Content and Order Data into the other) and in terms of genomes at internal nodes, on small, duplication-free genomes. Current gene

  19. Reversing Gene Erosion---Reconstructing Ancestral Bacterial Genomes from GeneContent and Order Data

    E-print Network

    Moret, Bernard

    fastidiosa Pseudomonas aeruginosa Vibrio cholerae Buchnera aphidicola Wigglesworthia brevipalpis EscherichiaReversing Gene Erosion---Reconstructing Ancestral Bacterial Genomes from Gene­Content and Order into the other) and in terms of genomes at internal nodes, on small, duplication­free genomes. Current gene

  20. Bacterial gene transfer by natural genetic transformation in the environment.

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, M G; Wackernagel, W

    1994-01-01

    Natural genetic transformation is the active uptake of free DNA by bacterial cells and the heritable incorporation of its genetic information. Since the famous discovery of transformation in Streptococcus pneumoniae by Griffith in 1928 and the demonstration of DNA as the transforming principle by Avery and coworkers in 1944, cellular processes involved in transformation have been studied extensively by in vitro experimentation with a few transformable species. Only more recently has it been considered that transformation may be a powerful mechanism of horizontal gene transfer in natural bacterial populations. In this review the current understanding of the biology of transformation is summarized to provide the platform on which aspects of bacterial transformation in water, soil, and sediments and the habitat of pathogens are discussed. Direct and indirect evidence for gene transfer routes by transformation within species and between different species will be presented, along with data suggesting that plasmids as well as chromosomal DNA are subject to genetic exchange via transformation. Experiments exploring the prerequisites for transformation in the environment, including the production and persistence of free DNA and factors important for the uptake of DNA by cells, will be compiled, as well as possible natural barriers to transformation. The efficiency of gene transfer by transformation in bacterial habitats is possibly genetically adjusted to submaximal levels. The fact that natural transformation has been detected among bacteria from all trophic and taxonomic groups including archaebacteria suggests that transformability evolved early in phylogeny. Probable functions of DNA uptake other than gene acquisition will be discussed. The body of information presently available suggests that transformation has a great impact on bacterial population dynamics as well as on bacterial evolution and speciation. PMID:7968924

  1. Pyramiding B genes in cotton achieves broader but not always higher resistance to bacterial blight.

    PubMed

    Essenberg, Margaret; Bayles, Melanie B; Pierce, Margaret L; Verhalen, Laval M

    2014-10-01

    ABSTRACT Near-isogenic lines of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) carrying single, race-specific genes B4, BIn, and b7 for resistance to bacterial blight were used to develop a pyramid of lines with all possible combinations of two and three genes to learn whether the pyramid could achieve broad and high resistance approaching that of L. A. Brinkerhoff's exceptional line Im216. Isogenic strains of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum carrying single avirulence (avr) genes were used to identify plants carrying specific resistance (B) genes. Under field conditions in north-central Oklahoma, pyramid lines exhibited broader resistance to individual races and, consequently, higher resistance to a race mixture. It was predicted that lines carrying two or three B genes would also exhibit higher resistance to race 1, which possesses many avr genes. Although some enhancements were observed, they did not approach the level of resistance of Im216. In a growth chamber, bacterial populations attained by race 1 in and on leaves of the pyramid lines decreased significantly with increasing number of B genes in only one of four experiments. The older lines, Im216 and AcHR, exhibited considerably lower bacterial populations than any of the one-, two-, or three-B-gene lines. A spreading collapse of spray-inoculated AcBIn and AcBInb7 leaves appears to be a defense response (conditioned by BIn) that is out of control. PMID:24655289

  2. Genes Necessary for Bacterial Magnetite Biomineralization Identified by Transposon Mutagenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nash, C. Z.; Komeili, A.; Newman, D. K.; Kirschvink, J. L.

    2004-12-01

    Magnetic bacteria synthesize nanoscale crystals of magnetite in intracellular, membrane-bounded organelles (magnetosomes). These crystals are preserved in the fossil record at least as far back as the late Neoproterozoic and have been tentatively identified in much older rocks (1). This fossil record may provide deep time calibration points for molecular evolution studies once the genes involved in biologically controlled magnetic mineralization (BCMM) are known. Further, a genetic and biochemical understanding of BCMM will give insight into the depositional environment and biogeochemical cycles in which magnetic bacteria play a role. The BCMM process is not well understood, though proteins have been identified from the magnetosome membrane and genetic manipulation and biochemical characterization of these proteins are underway. Most of the proteins currently thought to be involved are encoded within the mam cluster, a large cluster of genes whose products localize to the magnetosome membrane and are conserved among magnetic bacteria (2). In an effort to identify all of the genes necessary for bacterial BCMM, we undertook a transposon mutagenesis of Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1. Non-magnetic mutants (MNMs) were identified by growth in liquid culture followed by a magnetic assay. The insertion site of the transposon was identified two ways. First MNMs were screened with a PCR assay to determine if the transposon had inserted into the mam cluster. Second, the transposon was rescued from the mutant DNA and cloned for sequencing. The majority insertion sites are located within the mam cluster. Insertion sites also occur in operons which have not previously been suspected to be involved in magnetite biomineralization. None of the insertion sites have occurred within genes reported from previous transposon mutagenesis studies of AMB-1 (3, 4). Two of the non-mam cluster insertion sites occur in operons containing genes conserved particularly between MS-1 and MC-1. We are undertaking a complementation strategy to demonstrate the necessity of these novel genes in BCMM as well as characterizing the phenotypes of the mutants. 1. S. B. R. Chang, J. F. Stolz, J. L. Kirschvink, S. M. Awramik, Precambrian Res. 43, 305-315 (1989). 2. K. Grünberg, C. Wawer, B. M. Tebo, D. Schüler, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67, 4573-4582 (2001). 3. A. T. Wahyudi, H. Takeyama, T. Matsunaga, Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 91-3, 147-154 (2001). 4. T. Matsunaga, C. Nakamura, J. G. Burgess, K. Sode, J. Bacteriol. 174, 2748-2753 (1992).

  3. Predicting bacterial essential genes using only sequence composition information.

    PubMed

    Ning, L W; Lin, H; Ding, H; Huang, J; Rao, N; Guo, F B

    2014-01-01

    Essential genes are those genes that are needed by organisms at any time and under any conditions. It is very important for us to identify essential genes from bacterial genomes because of their vital role in synthetic biology and biomedical practices. In this paper, we developed a support vector machine (SVM)-based method to predict essential genes of bacterial genomes using only compositional features. These features are all derived from the primary sequences, i.e., nucleotide sequences and protein sequences. After training on the multiple samplings of the labeled (essential or not essential) features using a library for SVM, we obtained an average area under the ROC curve (AUC) of about 0.82 in a 5-fold cross-validation for Escherichia coli and about 0.74 for Mycoplasma pulmonis. We further evaluated the performance of the method proposed using the dataset consisting of 16 bacterial genomes, and an average AUC of 0.76 was achieved. Based on this training dataset, a model for essential gene prediction was established. Another two independent genomes, Shewanella oneidensis RW1 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL1344 were used to evalutate the model. Results showed that the AUC sores were 0.77 and 0.81, respectively. For the convenience of the vast majority of experimental scientists, a web server has been constructed, which is freely available at http://cefg.uestc.edu.cn:9999/egp. PMID:25036505

  4. Gene calling and bacterial genome annotation with BG7.

    PubMed

    Tobes, Raquel; Pareja-Tobes, Pablo; Manrique, Marina; Pareja-Tobes, Eduardo; Kovach, Evdokim; Alekhin, Alexey; Pareja, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    New massive sequencing technologies are providing many bacterial genome sequences from diverse taxa but a refined annotation of these genomes is crucial for obtaining scientific findings and new knowledge. Thus, bacterial genome annotation has emerged as a key point to investigate in bacteria. Any efficient tool designed specifically to annotate bacterial genomes sequenced with massively parallel technologies has to consider the specific features of bacterial genomes (absence of introns and scarcity of nonprotein-coding sequence) and of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies (presence of errors and not perfectly assembled genomes). These features make it convenient to focus on coding regions and, hence, on protein sequences that are the elements directly related with biological functions. In this chapter we describe how to annotate bacterial genomes with BG7, an open-source tool based on a protein-centered gene calling/annotation paradigm. BG7 is specifically designed for the annotation of bacterial genomes sequenced with NGS. This tool is sequence error tolerant maintaining their capabilities for the annotation of highly fragmented genomes or for annotating mixed sequences coming from several genomes (as those obtained through metagenomics samples). BG7 has been designed with scalability as a requirement, with a computing infrastructure completely based on cloud computing (Amazon Web Services). PMID:25343866

  5. Bacterial bioluminescence: organization, regulation, and application of the lux genes.

    PubMed

    Meighen, E A

    1993-08-01

    Significant advances have been made in the characterization of luciferases and other lux-specific proteins as well as the lux genes from a number of different species of marine and terrestrial luminescent bacteria. A common lux gene organization (luxCDAB..E) modulated by the presence of specific genes involved in regulation and flavin binding and metabolism (luxF-I,L,R,Y) has been found with the luciferase genes (luxAB) flanked by the genes involved in synthesis of its fatty aldehyde substrate (luxCDE). For many species, light intensity per cell is highly dependent on cellular growth resulting in a spectacular autoinduction of luminescence at high cell density. Consequently, the bacterial lux system is of particular interest as it can serve as an excellent model for more general signal transduction systems involved in developmental processes, intercellular communication, and even symbioses. Identification of the lux autoinducers and regulatory proteins of Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio fischeri has provided the biochemical and genetic basis for dissection of the luminescent system. Isolation of the lux genes and the ability to transfer these genes into prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms have greatly expanded the scope and potential uses of bacterial bioluminescence as a safe, rapid, and sensitive sensor for a wide variety of compounds and metabolic processes. PMID:8370470

  6. Towards an informative mutant phenotype for every bacterial gene

    SciTech Connect

    Deutschbauer, Adam; Price, Morgan N.; Wetmore, Kelly M.; Tarjan, Daniel R.; Xu, Zhuchen; Shao, Wenjen; Leon, Dacia; Arkin, Adam P.; Skerker, Jeffrey M.

    2014-08-11

    Mutant phenotypes provide strong clues to the functions of the underlying genes and could allow annotation of the millions of sequenced yet uncharacterized bacterial genes. However, it is not known how many genes have a phenotype under laboratory conditions, how many phenotypes are biologically interpretable for predicting gene function, and what experimental conditions are optimal to maximize the number of genes with a phenotype. To address these issues, we measured the mutant fitness of 1,586 genes of the ethanol-producing bacterium Zymomonas mobilis ZM4 across 492 diverse experiments and found statistically significant phenotypes for 89% of all assayed genes. Thus, in Z. mobilis, most genes have a functional consequence under laboratory conditions. We demonstrate that 41% of Z. mobilis genes have both a strong phenotype and a similar fitness pattern (cofitness) to another gene, and are therefore good candidates for functional annotation using mutant fitness. Among 502 poorly characterized Z. mobilis genes, we identified a significant cofitness relationship for 174. For 57 of these genes without a specific functional annotation, we found additional evidence to support the biological significance of these gene-gene associations, and in 33 instances, we were able to predict specific physiological or biochemical roles for the poorly characterized genes. Last, we identified a set of 79 diverse mutant fitness experiments in Z. mobilis that are nearly as biologically informative as the entire set of 492 experiments. Therefore, our work provides a blueprint for the functional annotation of diverse bacteria using mutant fitness.

  7. Bacterial Cellular Engineering by Genome Editing and Gene Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Nakashima, Nobutaka; Miyazaki, Kentaro

    2014-01-01

    Genome editing is an important technology for bacterial cellular engineering, which is commonly conducted by homologous recombination-based procedures, including gene knockout (disruption), knock-in (insertion), and allelic exchange. In addition, some new recombination-independent approaches have emerged that utilize catalytic RNAs, artificial nucleases, nucleic acid analogs, and peptide nucleic acids. Apart from these methods, which directly modify the genomic structure, an alternative approach is to conditionally modify the gene expression profile at the posttranscriptional level without altering the genomes. This is performed by expressing antisense RNAs to knock down (silence) target mRNAs in vivo. This review describes the features and recent advances on methods used in genomic engineering and silencing technologies that are advantageously used for bacterial cellular engineering. PMID:24552876

  8. Replication and Control of Circular Bacterial Plasmids

    PubMed Central

    del Solar, Gloria; Giraldo, Rafael; Ruiz-Echevarría, María Jesús; Espinosa, Manuel; Díaz-Orejas, Ramón

    1998-01-01

    An essential feature of bacterial plasmids is their ability to replicate as autonomous genetic elements in a controlled way within the host. Therefore, they can be used to explore the mechanisms involved in DNA replication and to analyze the different strategies that couple DNA replication to other critical events in the cell cycle. In this review, we focus on replication and its control in circular plasmids. Plasmid replication can be conveniently divided into three stages: initiation, elongation, and termination. The inability of DNA polymerases to initiate de novo replication makes necessary the independent generation of a primer. This is solved, in circular plasmids, by two main strategies: (i) opening of the strands followed by RNA priming (theta and strand displacement replication) or (ii) cleavage of one of the DNA strands to generate a 3?-OH end (rolling-circle replication). Initiation is catalyzed most frequently by one or a few plasmid-encoded initiation proteins that recognize plasmid-specific DNA sequences and determine the point from which replication starts (the origin of replication). In some cases, these proteins also participate directly in the generation of the primer. These initiators can also play the role of pilot proteins that guide the assembly of the host replisome at the plasmid origin. Elongation of plasmid replication is carried out basically by DNA polymerase III holoenzyme (and, in some cases, by DNA polymerase I at an early stage), with the participation of other host proteins that form the replisome. Termination of replication has specific requirements and implications for reinitiation, studies of which have started. The initiation stage plays an additional role: it is the stage at which mechanisms controlling replication operate. The objective of this control is to maintain a fixed concentration of plasmid molecules in a growing bacterial population (duplication of the plasmid pool paced with duplication of the bacterial population). The molecules involved directly in this control can be (i) RNA (antisense RNA), (ii) DNA sequences (iterons), or (iii) antisense RNA and proteins acting in concert. The control elements maintain an average frequency of one plasmid replication per plasmid copy per cell cycle and can “sense” and correct deviations from this average. Most of the current knowledge on plasmid replication and its control is based on the results of analyses performed with pure cultures under steady-state growth conditions. This knowledge sets important parameters needed to understand the maintenance of these genetic elements in mixed populations and under environmental conditions. PMID:9618448

  9. Robust perfect adaptation in bacterial chemotaxis through integral feedback control

    E-print Network

    Fernando, Chrisantha

    Robust perfect adaptation in bacterial chemotaxis through integral feedback control Tau-Mu Yi evidence that the precision of adap- tation in bacterial chemotaxis is robust to dramatic changes, the signaling apparatus mediating bacterial chemotaxis exhibits perfect ad- aptation to chemoattractants

  10. Bacterial reference genes for gene expression studies by RT-qPCR: survey and analysis.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Danilo J P; Santos, Carolina S; Pacheco, Luis G C

    2015-09-01

    The appropriate choice of reference genes is essential for accurate normalization of gene expression data obtained by the method of reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). In 2009, a guideline called the Minimum Information for Publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments (MIQE) highlighted the importance of the selection and validation of more than one suitable reference gene for obtaining reliable RT-qPCR results. Herein, we searched the recent literature in order to identify the bacterial reference genes that have been most commonly validated in gene expression studies by RT-qPCR (in the first 5 years following publication of the MIQE guidelines). Through a combination of different search parameters with the text mining tool MedlineRanker, we identified 145 unique bacterial genes that were recently tested as candidate reference genes. Of these, 45 genes were experimentally validated and, in most of the cases, their expression stabilities were verified using the software tools geNorm and NormFinder. It is noteworthy that only 10 of these reference genes had been validated in two or more of the studies evaluated. An enrichment analysis using Gene Ontology classifications demonstrated that genes belonging to the functional categories of DNA Replication (GO: 0006260) and Transcription (GO: 0006351) rendered a proportionally higher number of validated reference genes. Three genes in the former functional class were also among the top five most stable genes identified through an analysis of gene expression data obtained from the Pathosystems Resource Integration Center. These results may provide a guideline for the initial selection of candidate reference genes for RT-qPCR studies in several different bacterial species. PMID:26149127

  11. Gene regulation mediates host specificity of a bacterial pathogen.

    PubMed

    Killiny, Nabil; Almeida, Rodrigo P P

    2011-12-01

    Many bacterial plant pathogens have a gene-for-gene relationship that determines host specificity. However, there are pathogens such as the xylem-limited bacterium Xylella fastidiosa that do not carry genes considered essential for the gene-for-gene model, such as those coding for a type III secretion system and effector molecules. Nevertheless, X.?fastidiosa subspecies are host specific. A comparison of symptom development and host colonization after infection of plants with several mutant strains in two hosts, grapevines and almonds, indicated that X.?fastidiosa virulence mechanisms are similar in those plants. Thus, we tested if modification of gene regulation patterns, by affecting the production of a cell-cell signalling molecule (DSF), impacted host specificity in X.?fastidiosa. Results show that disruption of the rpfF locus, required for DSF synthesis, in a strain incapable of causing disease in grapevines, leads to symptom development in that host. These data are indicative that the core machinery required for the colonization of grapevines is present in that strain, and that changes in gene regulation alone can lead X.?fastidiosa to exploit a novel host. The study of the evolution and mechanisms of host specificity mediated by gene regulation at the genome level could lead to important insights on the emergence of new diseases. PMID:23761371

  12. Protein quality control in the bacterial periplasm

    PubMed Central

    Miot, Marika; Betton, Jean-Michel

    2004-01-01

    The proper functioning of extracytoplasmic proteins requires their export to, and productive folding in, the correct cellular compartment. All proteins in Escherichia coli are initially synthesized in the cytoplasm, then follow a pathway that depends upon their ultimate cellular destination. Many proteins destined for the periplasm are synthesized as precursors carrying an N-terminal signal sequence that directs them to the general secretion machinery at the inner membrane. After translocation and signal sequence cleavage, the newly exported mature proteins are folded and assembled in the periplasm. Maintaining quality control over these processes depends on chaperones, folding catalysts, and proteases. This article summarizes the general principles which control protein folding in the bacterial periplasm by focusing on the periplasmic maltose-binding protein. PMID:15132751

  13. Lateral organ boundaries 1 is a disease susceptibility gene for citrus bacterial canker disease

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yang; Zhang, Junli; Jia, Hongge; Sosso, Davide; Li, Ting; Frommer, Wolf B.; Yang, Bing; White, Frank F.; Wang, Nian; Jones, Jeffrey B.

    2014-01-01

    Citrus bacterial canker (CBC) disease occurs worldwide and incurs considerable costs both from control measures and yield losses. Bacteria that cause CBC require one of six known type III transcription activator-like (TAL) effector genes for the characteristic pustule formation at the site of infection. Here, we show that Xanthomonas citri subspecies citri strain Xcc306, with the type III TAL effector gene pthA4 or with the distinct yet biologically equivalent gene pthAw from strain XccAw, induces two host genes, CsLOB1 and CsSWEET1, in a TAL effector-dependent manner. CsLOB1 is a member of the Lateral Organ Boundaries (LOB) gene family of transcription factors, and CsSWEET1 is a homolog of the SWEET sugar transporter and rice disease susceptibility gene. Both TAL effectors drive expression of CsLOB1 and CsSWEET1 promoter reporter gene fusions when coexpressed in citrus or Nicotiana benthamiana. Artificially designed TAL effectors directed to sequences in the CsLOB1 promoter region, but not the CsSWEET1 promoter, promoted pustule formation and higher bacterial leaf populations. Three additional distinct TAL effector genes, pthA*, pthB, and pthC, also direct pustule formation and expression of CsLOB1. Unlike pthA4 and pthAw, pthB and pthC do not promote the expression of CsSWEET1. CsLOB1 expression was associated with the expression of genes associated with cell expansion. The results indicate that CBC-inciting species of Xanthomonas exploit a single host disease susceptibility gene by altering the expression of an otherwise developmentally regulated gene using any one of a diverse set of TAL effector genes in the pathogen populations. PMID:24474801

  14. Lateral organ boundaries 1 is a disease susceptibility gene for citrus bacterial canker disease.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yang; Zhang, Junli; Jia, Hongge; Sosso, Davide; Li, Ting; Frommer, Wolf B; Yang, Bing; White, Frank F; Wang, Nian; Jones, Jeffrey B

    2014-01-28

    Citrus bacterial canker (CBC) disease occurs worldwide and incurs considerable costs both from control measures and yield losses. Bacteria that cause CBC require one of six known type III transcription activator-like (TAL) effector genes for the characteristic pustule formation at the site of infection. Here, we show that Xanthomonas citri subspecies citri strain Xcc306, with the type III TAL effector gene pthA4 or with the distinct yet biologically equivalent gene pthAw from strain XccA(w), induces two host genes, CsLOB1 and CsSWEET1, in a TAL effector-dependent manner. CsLOB1 is a member of the Lateral Organ Boundaries (LOB) gene family of transcription factors, and CsSWEET1 is a homolog of the SWEET sugar transporter and rice disease susceptibility gene. Both TAL effectors drive expression of CsLOB1 and CsSWEET1 promoter reporter gene fusions when coexpressed in citrus or Nicotiana benthamiana. Artificially designed TAL effectors directed to sequences in the CsLOB1 promoter region, but not the CsSWEET1 promoter, promoted pustule formation and higher bacterial leaf populations. Three additional distinct TAL effector genes, pthA*, pthB, and pthC, also direct pustule formation and expression of CsLOB1. Unlike pthA4 and pthAw, pthB and pthC do not promote the expression of CsSWEET1. CsLOB1 expression was associated with the expression of genes associated with cell expansion. The results indicate that CBC-inciting species of Xanthomonas exploit a single host disease susceptibility gene by altering the expression of an otherwise developmentally regulated gene using any one of a diverse set of TAL effector genes in the pathogen populations. PMID:24474801

  15. Distance matters: the impact of gene proximity in bacterial gene regulation

    E-print Network

    Otto Pulkkinen; Ralf Metzler

    2013-05-13

    Following recent discoveries of colocalization of downstream-regulating genes in living cells, the impact of the spatial distance between such genes on the kinetics of gene product formation is increasingly recognized. We here show from analytical and numerical analysis that the distance between a transcription factor (TF) gene and its target gene drastically affects the speed and reliability of transcriptional regulation in bacterial cells. For an explicit model system we develop a general theory for the interactions between a TF and a transcription unit. The observed variations in regulation efficiency are linked to the magnitude of the variation of the TF concentration peaks as a function of the binding site distance from the signal source. Our results support the role of rapid binding site search for gene colocalization and emphasize the role of local concentration differences.

  16. Chromosomal position shift of a regulatory gene alters the bacterial phenotype.

    PubMed

    Gerganova, Veneta; Berger, Michael; Zaldastanishvili, Elisabed; Sobetzko, Patrick; Lafon, Corinne; Mourez, Michael; Travers, Andrew; Muskhelishvili, Georgi

    2015-09-30

    Recent studies strongly suggest that in bacterial cells the order of genes along the chromosomal origin-to-terminus axis is determinative for regulation of the growth phase-dependent gene expression. The prediction from this observation is that positional displacement of pleiotropic genes will affect the genetic regulation and hence, the cellular phenotype. To test this prediction we inserted the origin-proximal dusB-fis operon encoding the global regulator FIS in the vicinity of replication terminus on both arms of the Escherichia coli chromosome. We found that the lower fis gene dosage in the strains with terminus-proximal dusB-fis operons was compensated by increased fis expression such that the intracellular concentration of FIS was homeostatically adjusted. Nevertheless, despite unchanged FIS levels the positional displacement of dusB-fis impaired the competitive growth fitness of cells and altered the state of the overarching network regulating DNA topology, as well as the cellular response to environmental stress, hazardous substances and antibiotics. Our finding that the chromosomal repositioning of a regulatory gene can determine the cellular phenotype unveils an important yet unexplored facet of the genetic control mechanisms and paves the way for novel approaches to manipulate bacterial physiology. PMID:26170236

  17. Small molecule control of bacterial biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Worthington, Roberta J.; Richards, Justin J.

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are defined as a surface attached community of bacteria embedded in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances that they have produced. When in the biofilm state, bacteria are more resistant to antibiotics and the host immune response than are their planktonic counterparts. Biofilms are increasingly recognized as being significant in human disease, accounting for 80% of bacterial infections in the body and diseases associated with bacterial biofilms include: lung infections of cystic fibrosis, colitis, urethritis, conjunctivitis, otitis, endocarditis and periodontitis. Additionally, biofilm infections of indwelling medical devices are of particular concern, as once the device is colonized infection is virtually impossible to eradicate. Given the prominence of biofilms in infectious diseases, there has been an increased effort toward the development of small molecules that will modulate bacterial biofilm development and maintenance. In this review, we highlight the development of small molecules that inhibit and/or disperse bacterial biofilms through non-microbicidal mechanisms. The review discuses the numerous approaches that have been applied to the discovery of lead small molecules that mediate biofilm development. These approaches are grouped into: 1) the identification and development of small molecules that target one of the bacterial signaling pathways involved in biofilm regulation, 2) chemical library screening for compounds with anti-biofilm activity, and 3) the identification of natural products that possess anti-biofilm activity, and the chemical manipulation of these natural products to obtain analogues with increased activity. PMID:22733439

  18. Method of controlling gene expression

    DOEpatents

    Peters, Norman K. (Berkeley, CA); Frost, John W. (Menlo Park, CA); Long, Sharon R. (Palo Alto, CA)

    1991-12-03

    A method of controlling expression of a DNA segment under the control of a nod gene promoter which comprises administering to a host containing a nod gene promoter an amount sufficient to control expression of the DNA segment of a compound of the formula: ##STR1## in which each R is independently H or OH, is described.

  19. The coevolution of toxin and antitoxin genes drives the dynamics of bacterial addiction

    E-print Network

    Rankin, Daniel

    The coevolution of toxin and antitoxin genes drives the dynamics of bacterial addiction complexes Bacterial genomes commonly contain `addiction' gene complexes that code for both a toxin and a corre. We develop a theoretical model to explore a number of evolutionary puzzles posed by toxin

  20. Detecting rare gene transfer events in bacterial populations.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Kaare M; Bøhn, Thomas; Townsend, Jeffrey P

    2014-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) enables bacteria to access, share, and recombine genetic variation, resulting in genetic diversity that cannot be obtained through mutational processes alone. In most cases, the observation of evolutionary successful HGT events relies on the outcome of initially rare events that lead to novel functions in the new host, and that exhibit a positive effect on host fitness. Conversely, the large majority of HGT events occurring in bacterial populations will go undetected due to lack of replication success of transformants. Moreover, other HGT events that would be highly beneficial to new hosts can fail to ensue due to lack of physical proximity to the donor organism, lack of a suitable gene transfer mechanism, genetic compatibility, and stochasticity in tempo-spatial occurrence. Experimental attempts to detect HGT events in bacterial populations have typically focused on the transformed cells or their immediate offspring. However, rare HGT events occurring in large and structured populations are unlikely to reach relative population sizes that will allow their immediate identification; the exception being the unusually strong positive selection conferred by antibiotics. Most HGT events are not expected to alter the likelihood of host survival to such an extreme extent, and will confer only minor changes in host fitness. Due to the large population sizes of bacteria and the time scales involved, the process and outcome of HGT are often not amenable to experimental investigation. Population genetic modeling of the growth dynamics of bacteria with differing HGT rates and resulting fitness changes is therefore necessary to guide sampling design and predict realistic time frames for detection of HGT, as it occurs in laboratory or natural settings. Here we review the key population genetic parameters, consider their complexity and highlight knowledge gaps for further research. PMID:24432015

  1. Detecting rare gene transfer events in bacterial populations

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Kaare M.; Bøhn, Thomas; Townsend, Jeffrey P.

    2014-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) enables bacteria to access, share, and recombine genetic variation, resulting in genetic diversity that cannot be obtained through mutational processes alone. In most cases, the observation of evolutionary successful HGT events relies on the outcome of initially rare events that lead to novel functions in the new host, and that exhibit a positive effect on host fitness. Conversely, the large majority of HGT events occurring in bacterial populations will go undetected due to lack of replication success of transformants. Moreover, other HGT events that would be highly beneficial to new hosts can fail to ensue due to lack of physical proximity to the donor organism, lack of a suitable gene transfer mechanism, genetic compatibility, and stochasticity in tempo-spatial occurrence. Experimental attempts to detect HGT events in bacterial populations have typically focused on the transformed cells or their immediate offspring. However, rare HGT events occurring in large and structured populations are unlikely to reach relative population sizes that will allow their immediate identification; the exception being the unusually strong positive selection conferred by antibiotics. Most HGT events are not expected to alter the likelihood of host survival to such an extreme extent, and will confer only minor changes in host fitness. Due to the large population sizes of bacteria and the time scales involved, the process and outcome of HGT are often not amenable to experimental investigation. Population genetic modeling of the growth dynamics of bacteria with differing HGT rates and resulting fitness changes is therefore necessary to guide sampling design and predict realistic time frames for detection of HGT, as it occurs in laboratory or natural settings. Here we review the key population genetic parameters, consider their complexity and highlight knowledge gaps for further research. PMID:24432015

  2. Expression of the Bs2 pepper gene confers resistance to bacterial spot disease in tomato.

    PubMed

    Tai, T H; Dahlbeck, D; Clark, E T; Gajiwala, P; Pasion, R; Whalen, M C; Stall, R E; Staskawicz, B J

    1999-11-23

    The Bs2 resistance gene of pepper specifically recognizes and confers resistance to strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria that contain the corresponding bacterial avirulence gene, avrBs2. The involvement of avrBs2 in pathogen fitness and its prevalence in many X. campestris pathovars suggests that the Bs2 gene may be durable in the field and provide resistance when introduced into other plant species. Employing a positional cloning strategy, the Bs2 locus was isolated and the gene was identified by coexpression with avrBs2 in an Agrobacterium-mediated transient assay. A single candidate gene, predicted to encode motifs characteristic of the nucleotide binding site-leucine-rich repeat class of resistance genes, was identified. This gene specifically controlled the hypersensitive response when transiently expressed in susceptible pepper and tomato lines and in a nonhost species, Nicotiana benthamiana, and was designated as Bs2. Functional expression of Bs2 in stable transgenic tomatoes supports its use as a source of resistance in other Solanaceous plant species. PMID:10570214

  3. Bacterial plasmids: autonomous replication and vehicles for gene cloning.

    PubMed

    Helinski, D R

    1979-11-01

    The use of recombinant DNA techniques in the analysis of the structure and replication of bacterial plasmids has provided much information on the properties of these genetic elements and has led to the construction of plasmid elements that are potentially very useful as gene cloning vehicles in Escherichia coli and other gram-negative bacteria. The genetic and molecular properties of plasmids mini-F, ColE1, and RK2 are described with particular emphasis on the origin and direction of replication and the identification of genetic regions essential for maintenance of these elements in the extra-chromosomal state. Low molecular weight derivatives of each of these plasmids have been obtained and a restriction enzyme map determined for these various derivatives. A hybrid DNA molecule consisting of a low molecular weight derivative of ColE1 joined to a segment of bacteriophage DNA has been constructed and shown to be capable of existing either as a plasmid element or packaged as an infectious viral particle. Finally, several of the low molecular weight derivatives of these plasmids described have certain advantages as vehicles for the cloning of DNA including derivatives of he broad host range plasmid RK2 that may be useful for gene cloning in gram-negative bacteria distantly related to E. coli. PMID:115636

  4. Gene networks controlling petal organogenesis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tengbo; Irish, Vivian F

    2016-01-01

    One of the biggest unanswered questions in developmental biology is how growth is controlled. Petals are an excellent organ system for investigating growth control in plants: petals are dispensable, have a simple structure, and are largely refractory to environmental perturbations that can alter their size and shape. In recent studies, a number of genes controlling petal growth have been identified. The overall picture of how such genes function in petal organogenesis is beginning to be elucidated. This review will focus on studies using petals as a model system to explore the underlying gene networks that control organ initiation, growth, and final organ morphology. PMID:26428062

  5. Measuring gene expression in single bacterial cells: recent advances in methods and micro-devices.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xu; Gao, Weimin; Wang, Jiangxin; Chao, Shih-Hui; Zhang, Weiwen; Meldrum, Deirdre R

    2015-12-01

    Populations of bacterial cells that grow under the same conditions and/or environments are often considered to be uniform and thus can be described by ensemble average values of their physiologic, phenotypic, genotypic or other parameters. However, recent evidence suggests that cell-to-cell differences at the gene expression level could be an order of magnitude greater than previously thought even for isogenic bacterial populations. Such gene expression or transcriptional-level heterogeneity determines not only the fate of individual bacterial cells in a population but could also affect the ultimate fate of the population itself. Although techniques for single-cell gene expression measurement in eukaryotic cells have been successfully implemented for a decade or so, they have only recently become available for single bacterial cells. This is due to the difficulty of efficient lysis of most bacterial cells, as well as short half-life time (low stability) of bacterial mRNA. In this article, we review the recent progress and challenges associated with analyzing gene expression levels in single bacterial cells using various semi-quantitative and quantitative methods. In addition, a review of the recent progress in applying microfluidic devices to isolate single bacterial cells for gene expression analysis is also included. PMID:24708071

  6. Gene Transfer is a Major Factor in Bacterial Evolution Ruiting Lan and Peter R. Reeves

    E-print Network

    Lan, Ruiting

    Gene Transfer is a Major Factor in Bacterial Evolution Ruiting Lan and Peter R. Reeves Department of Microbiology, University of Sydney Lateral gene transfer in four strains of Salmonella enterica has been-1,286 kb, respectively. Several lines of evidence indicate that most of this DNA is from genes not present

  7. Genes Encoding Phospholipases A2 Mediate Insect Nodulation Reactions to Bacterial Challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We propose that expression of four genes encoding secretory phospholipases A2 (sPLA2) mediates insect nodulation responses to bacterial infection. Nodulation is the quantitatively predominant cellular defense reaction to bacterial infection. This reaction is mediated by eicosanoids, the biosynthesis...

  8. Essentiality drives the orientation bias of bacterial genes in a continuous manner.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wen-Xin; Luo, Cheng-Si; Deng, Yan-Yan; Guo, Feng-Biao

    2015-01-01

    Studies had found that bacterial genes are preferentially located on the leading strands. Subsequently, the preferences of essential genes and highly expressed genes were compared by classifying all genes into four groups, which showed that the former has an exclusive influence on orientation. However, only some functional classes of essential genes have this orientation bias. Nevertheless, previous studies only performed comparative analyzes by differentiating the orientation bias extent of two types of genes. Thus, it is unclear whether the influence of essentiality on strand bias works continuously. Herein, we found a significant correlation between essentiality and orientation bias extent in 19 of 21 analyzed bacterial genomes, based on quantitative measurement of gene essentiality (or fitness). The correlation coefficient was much higher than that derived from binary essentiality measures (essential or non-essential). This suggested that genes with relatively lower essentiality, i.e., conditionally essential genes, also have some orientation bias, although it is weaker than that of absolutely essential genes. The results demonstrated the continuous influence of essentiality on orientation bias and provided details on this visible structural feature of bacterial genomes. It also proved that Geptop and IFIM could serve as useful resources of bacterial gene essentiality, particularly for quantitative analysis. PMID:26560889

  9. Essentiality drives the orientation bias of bacterial genes in a continuous manner

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Wen-Xin; Luo, Cheng-Si; Deng, Yan-Yan; Guo, Feng-Biao

    2015-01-01

    Studies had found that bacterial genes are preferentially located on the leading strands. Subsequently, the preferences of essential genes and highly expressed genes were compared by classifying all genes into four groups, which showed that the former has an exclusive influence on orientation. However, only some functional classes of essential genes have this orientation bias. Nevertheless, previous studies only performed comparative analyzes by differentiating the orientation bias extent of two types of genes. Thus, it is unclear whether the influence of essentiality on strand bias works continuously. Herein, we found a significant correlation between essentiality and orientation bias extent in 19 of 21 analyzed bacterial genomes, based on quantitative measurement of gene essentiality (or fitness). The correlation coefficient was much higher than that derived from binary essentiality measures (essential or non-essential). This suggested that genes with relatively lower essentiality, i.e., conditionally essential genes, also have some orientation bias, although it is weaker than that of absolutely essential genes. The results demonstrated the continuous influence of essentiality on orientation bias and provided details on this visible structural feature of bacterial genomes. It also proved that Geptop and IFIM could serve as useful resources of bacterial gene essentiality, particularly for quantitative analysis. PMID:26560889

  10. Constitutive presence of antibiotic resistance genes within the bacterial community of a large subalpine lake.

    PubMed

    Di Cesare, Andrea; Eckert, Ester M; Teruggi, Alessia; Fontaneto, Diego; Bertoni, Roberto; Callieri, Cristiana; Corno, Gianluca

    2015-08-01

    The fate of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in environmental microbial communities is of primary concern as prodromal of a potential transfer to pathogenic bacteria. Although of diverse origin, the persistence of ARGs in aquatic environments is highly influenced by anthropic activities, allowing potential control actions in well-studied environments. However, knowledge of abundance and space-time distribution of ARGs in ecosystems is still scarce. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we investigated the presence and the abundance of twelve ARGs (against tetracyclines, ?-lactams, aminoglycosides, quinolones and sulphonamides) at different sampling sites, depths and seasons, in Lake Maggiore, a large subalpine lake, and in the area of its watershed. We then evaluated the correlation between each ARG and a number of ecological parameters in the water column in the deepest part of the lake. Our results suggest the constitutive presence of at least four ARGs within the bacterial community with a high proportion of bacteria potentially resistant to tetracyclines and sulphonamides. The presence of these ARGs was independent of the total bacterial density and temperature. The dynamics of tet(A) and sulII genes were, however, positively correlated with dissolved oxygen and negatively to chlorophyll a, suggesting that the resistant microbes inhabit specific niches. These observations indicate that the lake is a reservoir of antibiotic resistances, highlighting the need of a deeper understanding of the sources of ARGs and the factors allowing their persistence in waters. PMID:26118321

  11. A system for the targeted amplification of bacterial gene clusters multiplies antibiotic yield in Streptomyces coelicolor

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Takeshi; Burian, Jan; Yanai, Koji; Bibb, Mervyn J.; Thompson, Charles J.

    2011-01-01

    Gene clusters found in bacterial species classified as Streptomyces encode the majority of known antibiotics as well as many pharmaceutically active compounds. A site-specific recombination system similar to those that mediate plasmid conjugation was engineered to catalyze tandem amplification of one of these gene clusters in a heterologous Streptomyces species. Three genetic elements were known to be required for DNA amplification in S. kanamyceticus: the oriT-like recombination sites RsA and RsB, and ZouA, a site-specific relaxase similar to TraA proteins that catalyze plasmid transfer. We inserted RsA and RsB sequences into the S. coelicolor genome flanking a cluster of 22 genes (act) responsible for biosynthesis of the polyketide antibiotic actinorhodin. Recombination between RsA and RsB generated zouA-dependent DNA amplification resulting in 4–12 tandem copies of the act gene cluster averaging nine repeats per genome. This resulted in a 20-fold increase in actinorhodin production compared with the parental strain. To determine whether the recombination event required taxon-specific genetic effectors or generalized bacterial recombination (recA), it was also analyzed in the heterologous host Escherichia coli. zouA was expressed under the control of an inducible promoter in wild-type and recA mutant strains. A plasmid was constructed with recombination sites RsA and RsB bordering a drug resistance marker. Induction of zouA expression generated hybrid RsB/RsA sites, evidence of site-specific recombination that occurred independently of recA. ZouA-mediated DNA amplification promises to be a valuable tool for increasing the activities of commercially important biosynthetic, degradative, and photosynthetic pathways in a wide variety of organisms. PMID:21903924

  12. Post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in bacterial pathogens by toxin-antitoxin systems

    PubMed Central

    Bertram, Ralph; Schuster, Christopher F.

    2014-01-01

    Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are small genetic elements ubiquitous in prokaryotic genomes that encode toxic proteins targeting various vital cellular functions. Typically, toxin activity is controlled by adjacently encoded protein or RNA antitoxins and unleashed as a consequence of genetic fluctuations or stressful conditions. Whereas some TA systems interfere with replication or cell wall synthesis, most of them influence transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene regulation. Antitoxin proteins often act as DNA binding transcriptional regulators and many TA toxins exhibit endoribonuclease activity to selectively degrade different RNA species and thus alter gene expression patterns. Some TA RNases cleave tRNA, tmRNAs or rRNAs, whereas most commonly mRNAs either in association with the ribosome or as free transcripts, are targeted. Examples are provided on how TA toxins differentially shape gene expression in bacterial pathogens by creating specialized ribosomes or by altering the transcriptome and how this may be tied in the control of pathogenicity factors. PMID:24524029

  13. Feedback Control Architecture and the Bacterial Chemotaxis Network

    E-print Network

    Maini, Philip K.

    of the E. coli proteins, resulting in more complex pathways. In this paper we investigate the configuration of the chemotaxis proteins found in E. coli. Multiple proteins could produce different possible feedback, August E, McSharry PE, Maini PK, et al. (2011) Feedback Control Architecture and the Bacterial Chemotaxis

  14. A recently transferred cluster of bacterial genes in Trichomonas vaginalis - lateral gene transfer and the fate of acquired genes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lateral Gene Transfer (LGT) has recently gained recognition as an important contributor to some eukaryote proteomes, but the mechanisms of acquisition and fixation in eukaryotic genomes are still uncertain. A previously defined norm for LGTs in microbial eukaryotes states that the majority are genes involved in metabolism, the LGTs are typically localized one by one, surrounded by vertically inherited genes on the chromosome, and phylogenetics shows that a broad collection of bacterial lineages have contributed to the transferome. Results A unique 34 kbp long fragment with 27 clustered genes (TvLF) of prokaryote origin was identified in the sequenced genome of the protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis. Using a PCR based approach we confirmed the presence of the orthologous fragment in four additional T. vaginalis strains. Detailed sequence analyses unambiguously suggest that TvLF is the result of one single, recent LGT event. The proposed donor is a close relative to the firmicute bacterium Peptoniphilus harei. High nucleotide sequence similarity between T. vaginalis strains, as well as to P. harei, and the absence of homologs in other Trichomonas species, suggests that the transfer event took place after the radiation of the genus Trichomonas. Some genes have undergone pseudogenization and degradation, indicating that they may not be retained in the future. Functional annotations reveal that genes involved in informational processes are particularly prone to degradation. Conclusions We conclude that, although the majority of eukaryote LGTs are single gene occurrences, they may be acquired in clusters of several genes that are subsequently cleansed of evolutionarily less advantageous genes. PMID:24898731

  15. Gene Loss Dominates As a Source of Genetic Variation within Clonal Pathogenic Bacterial Species

    PubMed Central

    Bolotin, Evgeni; Hershberg, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Some of the most dangerous pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Yersinia pestis evolve clonally. This means that little or no recombination occurs between strains belonging to these species. Paradoxically, although different members of these species show extreme sequence similarity of orthologous genes, some show considerable intraspecies phenotypic variation, the source of which remains elusive. To examine the possible sources of phenotypic variation within clonal pathogenic bacterial species, we carried out an extensive genomic and pan-genomic analysis of the sources of genetic variation available to a large collection of clonal and nonclonal pathogenic bacterial species. We show that while nonclonal species diversify through a combination of changes to gene sequences, gene loss and gene gain, gene loss completely dominates as a source of genetic variation within clonal species. Indeed, gene loss is so prevalent within clonal species as to lead to levels of gene content variation comparable to those found in some nonclonal species that are much more diverged in their gene sequences and that acquire a substantial number of genes horizontally. Gene loss therefore needs to be taken into account as a potential dominant source of phenotypic variation within clonal bacterial species. PMID:26163675

  16. Gene Loss Dominates As a Source of Genetic Variation within Clonal Pathogenic Bacterial Species.

    PubMed

    Bolotin, Evgeni; Hershberg, Ruth

    2015-08-01

    Some of the most dangerous pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Yersinia pestis evolve clonally. This means that little or no recombination occurs between strains belonging to these species. Paradoxically, although different members of these species show extreme sequence similarity of orthologous genes, some show considerable intraspecies phenotypic variation, the source of which remains elusive. To examine the possible sources of phenotypic variation within clonal pathogenic bacterial species, we carried out an extensive genomic and pan-genomic analysis of the sources of genetic variation available to a large collection of clonal and nonclonal pathogenic bacterial species. We show that while nonclonal species diversify through a combination of changes to gene sequences, gene loss and gene gain, gene loss completely dominates as a source of genetic variation within clonal species. Indeed, gene loss is so prevalent within clonal species as to lead to levels of gene content variation comparable to those found in some nonclonal species that are much more diverged in their gene sequences and that acquire a substantial number of genes horizontally. Gene loss therefore needs to be taken into account as a potential dominant source of phenotypic variation within clonal bacterial species. PMID:26163675

  17. Multiple conversion between the genes encoding bacterial class-I release factors

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Sohta A.; Kamikawa, Ryoma; Inagaki, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria require two class-I release factors, RF1 and RF2, that recognize stop codons and promote peptide release from the ribosome. RF1 and RF2 were most likely established through gene duplication followed by altering their stop codon specificities in the common ancestor of extant bacteria. This scenario expects that the two RF gene families have taken independent evolutionary trajectories after the ancestral gene duplication event. However, we here report two independent cases of conversion between RF1 and RF2 genes (RF1-RF2 gene conversion), which were severely examined by procedures incorporating the maximum-likelihood phylogenetic method. In both cases, RF1-RF2 gene conversion was predicted to occur in the region encoding nearly entire domain 3, of which functions are common between RF paralogues. Nevertheless, the ‘direction’ of gene conversion appeared to be opposite from one another—from RF2 gene to RF1 gene in one case, while from RF1 gene to RF2 gene in the other. The two cases of RF1-RF2 gene conversion prompt us to propose two novel aspects in the evolution of bacterial class-I release factors: (i) domain 3 is interchangeable between RF paralogues, and (ii) RF1-RF2 gene conversion have occurred frequently in bacterial genome evolution. PMID:26257102

  18. Biodegradation of atrazine by three transgenic grasses and alfalfa expressing a modified bacterial atrazine chlorohydrolase gene.

    PubMed

    Vail, Andrew W; Wang, Ping; Uefuji, Hirotaka; Samac, Deborah A; Vance, Carroll P; Wackett, Lawrence P; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    The widespread use of atrazine and other s-triazine herbicides to control weeds in agricultural production fields has impacted surface and groundwater in the United States and elsewhere. We previously reported the cloning, sequencing, and expression of six genes involved in the atrazine biodegradation pathway of Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP, which is initiated by atzA, encoding atrazine chlorohydrolase. Here we explored the use of enhanced expression of a modified bacterial atrazine chlorohydrolase, p-AtzA, in transgenic grasses (tall fescue, perennial ryegrass, and switchgrass) and the legume alfalfa for the biodegradation of atrazine. Enhanced expression of p-AtzA was obtained by using combinations of the badnavirus promoter, the maize alcohol dehydrogenase first intron, and the maize ubiquitin promoter. For alfalfa, we used the first intron of the 5'-untranslated region tobacco alcohol dehydrogenase gene and the cassava vein mosaic virus promoter. Resistance of plants to atrazine in agar-based and hydroponic growth assays was correlated with in vivo levels of gene expression and atrazine degradation. The in planta expression of p-atzA enabled transgenic tall fescue to transform atrazine into hydroxyatrazine and other metabolites. Results of our studies highlight the potential use of transgenic plants for bioremediating atrazine in the environment. PMID:25432082

  19. Tandem riboswitch architectures exhibit complex gene control functions.

    PubMed

    Sudarsan, Narasimhan; Hammond, Ming C; Block, Kirsten F; Welz, Rüdiger; Barrick, Jeffrey E; Roth, Adam; Breaker, Ronald R

    2006-10-13

    Riboswitches are structured RNAs typically located in the 5' untranslated regions of bacterial mRNAs that bind metabolites and control gene expression. Most riboswitches sense one metabolite and function as simple genetic switches. However, we found that the 5' region of the Bacillus clausii metE messenger RNA includes two riboswitches that respond to S-adenosylmethionine and coenzyme B12. This tandem arrangement yields a composite gene control system that functions as a two-input Boolean NOR logic gate. These findings and the discovery of additional tandem riboswitch architectures reveal how simple RNA elements can be assembled to make sophisticated genetic decisions without involving protein factors. PMID:17038623

  20. Controlled Bacterial Lysis for Electron Tomography of Native Cell Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xiaofeng; Himes, Benjamin; Ke, Danxia; Rice, William J.; Ning, Jiying; Zhang, Peijun

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Cryo-electron tomography (cryoET) has become a powerful tool for direct visualization of 3D structures of native biological specimens at molecular resolution, but its application is limited to thin specimens (<300 nm). Recently, vitreous sectioning and cryo-FIB milling technologies were developed to physically reduce the specimen thickness; however, cryoET analysis of membrane protein complexes within native cell membranes remains a great challenge. Here, we use phage ?X174 lysis gene E to rapidly produce native, intact, bacterial cell membranes for high resolution cryoET. We characterized E gene-induced cell lysis using FIB/SEM and cryoEM and show that the bacteria cytoplasm was largely depleted through spot lesion, producing ghosts with the cell membranes intact. We further demonstrate the utility of E-gene-induced lysis for cryoET using the bacterial chemotaxis receptor signaling complex array. The described method should have a broad application for structural and functional studies of native, intact cell membranes and membrane protein complexes. PMID:25456413

  1. A Bacterial Signal Transduction System Controls Genetic Exchange and Motility

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Andrew S.; Beatty, J. Thomas

    2002-01-01

    The bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus is capable of an unusual form of genetic exchange, mediated by a transducing bacteriophage-like particle called the gene transfer agent (GTA). GTA production by R. capsulatus is controlled at the level of transcription by a cellular two-component signal transduction system that includes a putative histidine kinase (CckA) and response regulator (CtrA). We found that, in addition to regulating genetic exchange by R. capsulatus, this signal transduction system controls motility. As with the regulation of GTA production, the control of motility by CckA and CtrA occurs through modulation of gene transcription. Disruptions of the cckA and ctrA genes resulted in a loss of class II, class III, and class IV flagellar gene transcripts, suggesting that cckA and ctrA function in motility as class I flagellar genes. We also found that, analogous to the GTA genes, transcription of R. capsulatus flagellar genes appears to be growth phase dependent: class II flagellar gene transcripts are maximal in the mid-log phase of the culture growth cycle, whereas class III gene transcripts are maximal in the late-log phase of growth. We speculate that coordinate regulation of motility and GTA-mediated genetic exchange in R. capsulatus exists because these two processes are complementary mechanisms for cells to cope with unfavorable conditions in natural environments. PMID:11807050

  2. Sewage Treatment by Controlled Eutrophication: Bacterial Study

    PubMed Central

    Songer, J. Glenn; Smith, Rodney F.; Trieff, N. M.

    1974-01-01

    Several groups of bacteria were isolated and identified in an evaluation of the microbiological properties of a sewage treatment system involving the process of controlled eutrophication in a marine setting (J. G. Songer, N. M. Trieff, R. F. Smith, and D. Grajcer, 1974). Fecal coliforms, enterococci, Salmonellae, Shigellae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Vibrio alginolyticus were studied at three stages of the treatment process. Significant reductions in fecal coliforms (P < 0.01) and enterococci (P < 0.01) were noted from raw sewage to effluent. Salmonellae and Shigellae were not detected at any stage, nor was V. parahaemolyticus. V. alginolyticus was isolated from the effluent only, reflecting the halophilic nature of the organism; low concentrations in raw sewage increased in the more saline effluent. Brine shrimp (Artemia salina), the herbivores in this system, were tested and found to have extremely low numbers of the organisms under study associated with them. Findings point further toward the use of this system as a combined mariculture-sewage treatment facility. PMID:4608162

  3. Bioinformatic Analysis Reveals High Diversity of Bacterial Genes for Laccase-Like Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Ausec, Luka; Zakrzewski, Martha; Goesmann, Alexander; Schlüter, Andreas; Mandic-Mulec, Ines

    2011-01-01

    Fungal laccases have been used in various fields ranging from processes in wood and paper industries to environmental applications. Although a few bacterial laccases have been characterized in recent years, prokaryotes have largely been neglected as a source of novel enzymes, in part due to the lack of knowledge about the diversity and distribution of laccases within Bacteria. In this work genes for laccase-like enzymes were searched for in over 2,200 complete and draft bacterial genomes and four metagenomic datasets, using the custom profile Hidden Markov Models for two- and three- domain laccases. More than 1,200 putative genes for laccase-like enzymes were retrieved from chromosomes and plasmids of diverse bacteria. In 76% of the genes, signal peptides were predicted, indicating that these bacterial laccases may be exported from the cytoplasm, which contrasts with the current belief. Moreover, several examples of putatively horizontally transferred bacterial laccase genes were described. Many metagenomic sequences encoding fragments of laccase-like enzymes could not be phylogenetically assigned, indicating considerable novelty. Laccase-like genes were also found in anaerobic bacteria, autotrophs and alkaliphiles, thus opening new hypotheses regarding their ecological functions. Bacteria identified as carrying laccase genes represent potential sources for future biotechnological applications. PMID:22022440

  4. The propagation of perturbations in rewired bacterial gene networks.

    PubMed

    Baumstark, Rebecca; Hänzelmann, Sonja; Tsuru, Saburo; Schaerli, Yolanda; Francesconi, Mirko; Mancuso, Francesco M; Castelo, Robert; Isalan, Mark

    2015-01-01

    What happens to gene expression when you add new links to a gene regulatory network? To answer this question, we profile 85 network rewirings in E. coli. Here we report that concerted patterns of differential expression propagate from reconnected hub genes. The rewirings link promoter regions to different transcription factor and ?-factor genes, resulting in perturbations that span four orders of magnitude, changing up to ?70% of the transcriptome. Importantly, factor connectivity and promoter activity both associate with perturbation size. Perturbations from related rewirings have more similar transcription profiles and a statistical analysis reveals ?20 underlying states of the system, associating particular gene groups with rewiring constructs. We examine two large clusters (ribosomal and flagellar genes) in detail. These represent alternative global outcomes from different rewirings because of antagonism between these major cell states. This data set of systematically related perturbations enables reverse engineering and discovery of underlying network interactions. PMID:26670742

  5. Evolutionary conservation analysis between the essential and nonessential genes in bacterial genomes

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Hao; Gao, Feng; Lin, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Essential genes are thought to be critical for the survival of the organisms under certain circumstances, and the natural selection acting on essential genes is expected to be stricter than on nonessential ones. Up to now, essential genes have been identified in approximately thirty bacterial organisms by experimental methods. In this paper, we performed a comprehensive comparison between the essential and nonessential genes in the genomes of 23 bacterial species based on the Ka/Ks ratio, and found that essential genes are more evolutionarily conserved than nonessential genes in most of the bacteria examined. Furthermore, we also analyzed the conservation by functional clusters with the clusters of orthologous groups (COGs), and found that the essential genes in the functional categories of G (Carbohydrate transport and metabolism), H (Coenzyme transport and metabolism), I (Transcription), J (Translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis), K (Lipid transport and metabolism) and L (Replication, recombination and repair) tend to be more evolutionarily conserved than the corresponding nonessential genes in bacteria. The results suggest that the essential genes in these subcategories are subject to stronger selective pressure than the nonessential genes, and therefore, provide more insights of the evolutionary conservation for the essential and nonessential genes in complex biological processes. PMID:26272053

  6. Statistical Analysis of Hurst Exponents of Essential/Nonessential Genes in 33 Bacterial Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao; Wang, Baojin; Xu, Luo

    2015-01-01

    Methods for identifying essential genes currently depend predominantly on biochemical experiments. However, there is demand for improved computational methods for determining gene essentiality. In this study, we used the Hurst exponent, a characteristic parameter to describe long-range correlation in DNA, and analyzed its distribution in 33 bacterial genomes. In most genomes (31 out of 33) the significance levels of the Hurst exponents of the essential genes were significantly higher than for the corresponding full-gene-set, whereas the significance levels of the Hurst exponents of the nonessential genes remained unchanged or increased only slightly. All of the Hurst exponents of essential genes followed a normal distribution, with one exception. We therefore propose that the distribution feature of Hurst exponents of essential genes can be used as a classification index for essential gene prediction in bacteria. For computer-aided design in the field of synthetic biology, this feature can build a restraint for pre- or post-design checking of bacterial essential genes. Moreover, considering the relationship between gene essentiality and evolution, the Hurst exponents could be used as a descriptive parameter related to evolutionary level, or be added to the annotation of each gene. PMID:26067107

  7. 13. CONTROL ROOM OF GENE PUMPING STATION. CONTROL CUBICLES ARRAYED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. CONTROL ROOM OF GENE PUMPING STATION. CONTROL CUBICLES ARRAYED BEHIND MANAGER'S ART DECO-STYLE CONTROL DESK, WITH CONTROL CUBICLE 1 AT FAR RIGHT AND CONTROL CUBICLE 9 AT FAR LEFT. - Gene Pump Plant, South of Gene Wash Reservoir, 2 miles west of Whitsett Pump Plant, Parker Dam, San Bernardino County, CA

  8. Adhesion controls bacterial actin polymerization-based movement.

    PubMed

    Soo, Frederick S; Theriot, Julie A

    2005-11-01

    As part of its infectious life cycle, the bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes propels itself through the host-cell cytoplasm by triggering the polymerization of host-cell actin near the bacterial surface, harnessing the activity of several cytoskeletal proteins used during actin-based cell crawling. To distinguish among several classes of biophysical models of actin-based bacterial movement, we used a high-throughput tracking technique to record the movement of many individual bacteria during temperature shifts. The speed of each bacterium varied strongly with temperature, closely following the Arrhenius rate law. Among bacteria, the prefactor A of the Arrhenius dependence unexpectedly varied exponentially with apparent activation energy, E(a), over a wide range (8-21 kcal/mol), reminiscent of the "rate compensation effect" of classical catalytic reactions. Average E(a) were increased for mutant bacteria deficient in binding Ena/VASP proteins and bacteria moving in diluted extract. These two effects were additive. The observed temperature and rate compensation effects are consistent with a class of simple kinetic models in which the bacterium advances through the thermally driven, cooperative breakage of groups of adhesive bonds on its surface. The estimated number of coupled adhesive bonds N on the bacterial surface varies between 10 and 40 bonds. In contrast to other models, this model correctly predicts an experimentally observed negative correlation between bacterial speed and actin gel density. The idea that speed depends on adhesion, rather than polymerization, suggests several alternative mechanisms by which known cytoskeletal regulatory proteins could control cellular movement. PMID:16251274

  9. Genomic analyses of bacterial porin-cytochrome gene clusters

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Liang; Fredrickson, James K.; Zachara, John M.

    2014-01-01

    The porin-cytochrome (Pcc) protein complex is responsible for trans-outer membrane electron transfer during extracellular reduction of Fe(III) by the dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA. The identified and characterized Pcc complex of G. sulfurreducens PCA consists of a porin-like outer-membrane protein, a periplasmic 8-heme c-type cytochrome (c-Cyt) and an outer-membrane 12-heme c-Cyt, and the genes encoding the Pcc proteins are clustered in the same regions of genome (i.e., the pcc gene clusters) of G. sulfurreducens PCA. A survey of additionally microbial genomes has identified the pcc gene clusters in all sequenced Geobacter spp. and other bacteria from six different phyla, including Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans 2CP-1, A. dehalogenans 2CP-C, Anaeromyxobacter sp. K, Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis, Denitrovibrio acetiphilus DSM 12809, Desulfurispirillum indicum S5, Desulfurivibrio alkaliphilus AHT2, Desulfurobacterium thermolithotrophum DSM 11699, Desulfuromonas acetoxidans DSM 684, Ignavibacterium album JCM 16511, and Thermovibrio ammonificans HB-1. The numbers of genes in the pcc gene clusters vary, ranging from two to nine. Similar to the metal-reducing (Mtr) gene clusters of other Fe(III)-reducing bacteria, such as Shewanella spp., additional genes that encode putative c-Cyts with predicted cellular localizations at the cytoplasmic membrane, periplasm and outer membrane often associate with the pcc gene clusters. This suggests that the Pcc-associated c-Cyts may be part of the pathways for extracellular electron transfer reactions. The presence of pcc gene clusters in the microorganisms that do not reduce solid-phase Fe(III) and Mn(IV) oxides, such as D. alkaliphilus AHT2 and I. album JCM 16511, also suggests that some of the pcc gene clusters may be involved in extracellular electron transfer reactions with the substrates other than Fe(III) and Mn(IV) oxides. PMID:25505896

  10. Genomic analyses of bacterial porin-cytochrome gene clusters

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Shi, Liang; Fredrickson, James K.; Zachara, John M.

    2014-11-26

    In this study, the porin-cytochrome (Pcc) protein complex is responsible for trans-outer membrane electron transfer during extracellular reduction of Fe(III) by the dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA. The identified and characterized Pcc complex of G. sulfurreducens PCA consists of a porin-like outer-membrane protein, a periplasmic 8-heme c type cytochrome (c-Cyt) and an outer-membrane 12-heme c-Cyt, and the genes encoding the Pcc proteins are clustered in the same regions of genome (i.e., the pcc gene clusters) of G. sulfurreducens PCA. A survey of additionally microbial genomes has identified the pcc gene clusters in all sequenced Geobacter spp. and other bacteriamore »from six different phyla, including Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans 2CP-1, A. dehalogenans 2CP-C, Anaeromyxobacter sp. K, Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis, Denitrovibrio acetiphilus DSM 12809, Desulfurispirillum indicum S5, Desulfurivibrio alkaliphilus AHT2, Desulfurobacterium thermolithotrophum DSM 11699, Desulfuromonas acetoxidans DSM 684, Ignavibacterium album JCM 16511, and Thermovibrio ammonificans HB-1. The numbers of genes in the pcc gene clusters vary, ranging from two to nine. Similar to the metal-reducing (Mtr) gene clusters of other Fe(III)-reducing bacteria, such as Shewanella spp., additional genes that encode putative c-Cyts with predicted cellular localizations at the cytoplasmic membrane, periplasm and outer membrane often associate with the pcc gene clusters. This suggests that the Pcc-associated c-Cyts may be part of the pathways for extracellular electron transfer reactions. The presence of pcc gene clusters in the microorganisms that do not reduce solid-phase Fe(III) and Mn(IV) oxides, such as D. alkaliphilus AHT2 and I. album JCM 16511, also suggests that some of the pcc gene clusters may be involved in extracellular electron transfer reactions with the substrates other than Fe(III) and Mn(IV) oxides.« less

  11. The Ecology of Bacterial Genes and the Survival of the New

    PubMed Central

    Francino, M. Pilar

    2012-01-01

    Much of the observed variation among closely related bacterial genomes is attributable to gains and losses of genes that are acquired horizontally as well as to gene duplications and larger amplifications. The genomic flexibility that results from these mechanisms certainly contributes to the ability of bacteria to survive and adapt in varying environmental challenges. However, the duplicability and transferability of individual genes imply that natural selection should operate, not only at the organismal level, but also at the level of the gene. Genes can be considered semiautonomous entities that possess specific functional niches and evolutionary dynamics. The evolution of bacterial genes should respond both to selective pressures that favor competition, mostly among orthologs or paralogs that may occupy the same functional niches, and cooperation, with the majority of other genes coexisting in a given genome. The relative importance of either type of selection is likely to vary among different types of genes, based on the functional niches they cover and on the tightness of their association with specific organismal lineages. The frequent availability of new functional niches caused by environmental changes and biotic evolution should enable the constant diversification of gene families and the survival of new lineages of genes. PMID:22900231

  12. Bacterial IMPDH gene used for the selection of mammalian cell transfectants.

    SciTech Connect

    Baccam, M.; Huberman, E.; Energy Systems

    2003-06-01

    Stable cell transfection is used for the expression of exogenous genes or cDNAs in eukaryotic cells. Selection of these transfectants requires a dominant selectable marker. A variety of such markers has been identified and is currently in use. However, many of these are not suitable for all cell types or require unique conditions. Here we describe a simple and versatile dominant selectable marker that involves bacterial IMP dehydrogenase (IMPDH), an enzyme essential for the replication of mammalian and bacterial cells. Although IMPDH is evolutionarily conserved, the bacterial enzyme is orders of magnitude more resistant to the toxic effect of the drug mycophenolic acid, which is an IMPDH inhibitor. We have demonstrated that transfection of human, monkey or Chinese hamster cell lines with an expression vector containing bacterial IMPDH and mycophenolic acid treatment resulted in the selection of colonies with a strikingly increased resistance to mycophenolic acid toxicity. Analysis of cells derived from these colonies indicated that the acquisition of this resistance was associated with bacterial IMPDH protein expression. As a proof of principle, we showed that mammalian cell transfection with a hicistronic IMPDH/GFP expression vector and mycophenolic acid treatment can he used to successfully select transfectants that express the fluorescent protein. These results indicate that bacterial IMPDH is a practical dominant selectable marker that can be used for the selection of transfectants that express exogenous genes or cDNAs in mammalian cells.

  13. Retroviral transfer of a bacterial alkyltransferase gene into murine bone marrow protects against chloroethylnitrosourea cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Harris, L C; Marathi, U K; Edwards, C C; Houghton, P J; Srivastava, D K; Vanin, E F; Sorrentino, B P; Brent, T P

    1995-11-01

    The chloroethylnitrosoureas (CENUs) are important antineoplastic drugs for which clinical utility has been restricted by the development of severe delayed myelosuppression in most patients. To investigate the potential of DNA repair proteins to reduce bone marrow sensitivity to the CENUs, we transferred the Escherichia coli ada gene, which encodes a Mr 39,000 O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (ATase), into murine bone marrow cells by the use of a high-titer ecotropic retrovirus. The ada-encoded ATase is resistant to O6-benzylguanine (O6-BG), a potent inhibitor of the mammalian ATases, thus affording the bone marrow an additional level of protection against CENUs. In methylcellulose cultures, ada-infected hematopoietic progenitor cells were twice as resistant as uninfected cells to the toxic effects of 1, 3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) following treatment with O6-BG. Although showing no obvious protective effects against leukopenia, overexpression of the bacterial ATase activity reduced the severity of anemia and thrombocytopenia in mice treated with O6-BG and BCNU. These effects, which were maximal at a BCNU dose of 12.5 mg/kg, were associated with improved survival when BCNU was given at this dose. At lower BCNU doses cytotoxicity was limited in both transduced and control mice, and at higher doses the protective effect was saturated due to cytotoxicity. These results suggest that ada gene therapy may be a feasible approach to amelioration of delayed myelosuppression following O6-BG plus CENU combination chemotherapy. PMID:9815932

  14. Overexpression of bacterial mtlD gene in peanut improves drought tolerance through accumulation of mannitol.

    PubMed

    Bhauso, Tengale Dipak; Radhakrishnan, Thankappan; Kumar, Abhay; Mishra, Gyan Prakash; Dobaria, Jentilal Ramjibhai; Patel, Kirankumar; Rajam, Manchikatla Venkat

    2014-01-01

    In the changing global environmental scenarios, water scarcity and recurrent drought impose huge reductions to the peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) crop yield. In plants, osmotic adjustments associated with efficient free radical scavenging ability during abiotic stress are important components of stress tolerance mechanisms. Mannitol, a compatible solute, is known to scavenge hydroxyl radicals generated during various abiotic stresses, thereby conferring tolerance to water-deficit stress in many plant species. However, peanut plant is not known to synthesize mannitol. Therefore, bacterial mtlD gene coding for mannitol 1-phosphate dehydrogenase under the control of constitutive promoter CaMV35S was introduced and overexpressed in the peanut cv. GG 20 using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. A total of eight independent transgenic events were confirmed at molecular level by PCR, Southern blotting, and RT-PCR. Transgenic lines had increased amount of mannitol and exhibited enhanced tolerance in response to water-deficit stress. Improved performance of the mtlD transgenics was indicated by excised-leaf water loss assay and relative water content under water-deficit stress. Better performance of transgenics was due to the ability of the plants to synthesize mannitol. However, regulation of mtlD gene expression in transgenic plants remains to be elucidated. PMID:25436223

  15. Bacterial quorum sensing inhibitors: attractive alternatives for control of infectious pathogens showing multiple drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Ashima K; Vinothkumar, Kittappa; Rajpara, Neha

    2013-04-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a bacterial communication process that depends on the bacterial population density. It involves small diffusible signaling molecules which activate the expression of myriad genes that control diverse array of functions like bioluminescence, virulence, biofilm formation, sporulation, to name a few. Since QS is responsible for virulence in the clinically relevant bacteria, inhibition of QS appears to be a promising strategy to control these pathogenic bacteria. With indiscriminate use of antibiotics, there has been an alarming increase in the number of antibiotic resistant pathogens. Antibiotics are no longer the magic bullets they were once thought to be and therefore there is a need for development of new antibiotics and/or other novel strategies to combat the infections caused by multidrug resistant organisms. Quorum sensing inhibition or quorum quenching has been pursued as one of such novel strategies. While antibiotics kill or slow down the growth of bacteria, quorum sensing inhibitors (QSIs) or quorum quenchers (QQs) attenuate bacterial virulence. A large body of work on QS has been carried out in deadly pathogens like Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio fischeri, V. harveyi, Escherichia coli and V. cholerae etc to unravel the mechanisms of QS as well as identify and study QSIs. This review describes various aspects of QS, QSI, different model systems to study these phenomena and recent patents on various QSIs. It suggests QSIs as attractive alternatives for controlling human, animal and plant pathogens and their utility in agriculture and other industries. PMID:23394143

  16. Identifying essential genes in bacterial metabolic networks with machine learning methods

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Identifying essential genes in bacteria supports to identify potential drug targets and an understanding of minimal requirements for a synthetic cell. However, experimentally assaying the essentiality of their coding genes is resource intensive and not feasible for all bacterial organisms, in particular if they are infective. Results We developed a machine learning technique to identify essential genes using the experimental data of genome-wide knock-out screens from one bacterial organism to infer essential genes of another related bacterial organism. We used a broad variety of topological features, sequence characteristics and co-expression properties potentially associated with essentiality, such as flux deviations, centrality, codon frequencies of the sequences, co-regulation and phyletic retention. An organism-wise cross-validation on bacterial species yielded reliable results with good accuracies (area under the receiver-operator-curve of 75% - 81%). Finally, it was applied to drug target predictions for Salmonella typhimurium. We compared our predictions to the viability of experimental knock-outs of S. typhimurium and identified 35 enzymes, which are highly relevant to be considered as potential drug targets. Specifically, we detected promising drug targets in the non-mevalonate pathway. Conclusions Using elaborated features characterizing network topology, sequence information and microarray data enables to predict essential genes from a bacterial reference organism to a related query organism without any knowledge about the essentiality of genes of the query organism. In general, such a method is beneficial for inferring drug targets when experimental data about genome-wide knockout screens is not available for the investigated organism. PMID:20438628

  17. Genomic analyses of bacterial porin-cytochrome gene clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Liang; Fredrickson, James K.; Zachara, John M.

    2014-11-26

    In this study, the porin-cytochrome (Pcc) protein complex is responsible for trans-outer membrane electron transfer during extracellular reduction of Fe(III) by the dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA. The identified and characterized Pcc complex of G. sulfurreducens PCA consists of a porin-like outer-membrane protein, a periplasmic 8-heme c type cytochrome (c-Cyt) and an outer-membrane 12-heme c-Cyt, and the genes encoding the Pcc proteins are clustered in the same regions of genome (i.e., the pcc gene clusters) of G. sulfurreducens PCA. A survey of additionally microbial genomes has identified the pcc gene clusters in all sequenced Geobacter spp. and other bacteria from six different phyla, including Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans 2CP-1, A. dehalogenans 2CP-C, Anaeromyxobacter sp. K, Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis, Denitrovibrio acetiphilus DSM 12809, Desulfurispirillum indicum S5, Desulfurivibrio alkaliphilus AHT2, Desulfurobacterium thermolithotrophum DSM 11699, Desulfuromonas acetoxidans DSM 684, Ignavibacterium album JCM 16511, and Thermovibrio ammonificans HB-1. The numbers of genes in the pcc gene clusters vary, ranging from two to nine. Similar to the metal-reducing (Mtr) gene clusters of other Fe(III)-reducing bacteria, such as Shewanella spp., additional genes that encode putative c-Cyts with predicted cellular localizations at the cytoplasmic membrane, periplasm and outer membrane often associate with the pcc gene clusters. This suggests that the Pcc-associated c-Cyts may be part of the pathways for extracellular electron transfer reactions. The presence of pcc gene clusters in the microorganisms that do not reduce solid-phase Fe(III) and Mn(IV) oxides, such as D. alkaliphilus AHT2 and I. album JCM 16511, also suggests that some of the pcc gene clusters may be involved in extracellular electron transfer reactions with the substrates other than Fe(III) and Mn(IV) oxides.

  18. Differential expression of 10 sweetpotato peroxidase genes in response to bacterial pathogen, Pectobacterium chrysanthemi.

    PubMed

    Jang, In-Chang; Park, Soo-Young; Kim, Kee-Yeun; Kwon, Suk-Yoon; Kim, Jong-Guk; Kwak, Sang-Soo

    2004-05-01

    To understand the function of each peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7) in terms of biotic stress, changes in POD specific activity and expression of 10 POD genes were investigated in four cultivars of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) after infection with Pectobacterium chrysanthemi. POD specific activity (units mg(-1) protein) increased from 16 h after inoculation (HAI) in three varieties. POD activities of two cultivars, Shinwhangmi and White Star, reached a maximum level at 24 HAI by about three times compared to mock treatment (MT), and then decreased, whereas those of Zami and Yulmi continuously increased until 36 HAI. Native gel analysis revealed that one POD isoenzyme with a high electrophoretic mobility significantly increased in response to pathogen infection in all cultivars. Additionally, 10 POD genes displayed differential expression patterns upon bacterial infection by northern analysis. Several POD genes such as swpa2, swpa3, swpa4, swpa5, swpb1 were induced upon bacterial infection, but other genes were not. Particularly, swpa4 gene was markedly expressed in response to bacterial infection in four different cultivars, suggesting that this gene has a stress-inducible promoter. These results indicate that some specific POD isoenzymes are involved in defense in relation to pathogenesis of P. chrysanthemi in sweetpotato plants. PMID:15191750

  19. Identification and expression profiles of multiple genes in Nile tilapia in response to bacterial infections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To understand the molecular mechanisms involved in response of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to bacterial infection, suppression subtractive cDNA hybridization technique was used to identify upregulated genes in the posterior kidney of Nile tilapia at 6h post infection with Aeromonas hydrophi...

  20. Tetracycline Resistance Gene Maintenance under Varying Bacterial Growth Rate, Substrate and Oxygen Availability, and Tetracycline

    E-print Network

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    Tetracycline Resistance Gene Maintenance under Varying Bacterial Growth Rate, Substrate and Oxygen Availability, and Tetracycline Concentration Michal Rysz, William R. Mansfield, John D. Fortner,§ and Pedro J on continuous culture and batch experiments to determine how tetracycline (TC), aerobic vs anaerobic conditions

  1. Programmable repression and activation of bacterial gene expression using an engineered CRISPR-Cas

    E-print Network

    Ramsey, Justin

    Programmable repression and activation of bacterial gene expression using an engineered CRISPR nuclease that participates in the CRISPR-Cas immune defense against prokaryotic viruses. We describe palindromic repeat (CRISPR) loci, which encode a prokaryotic immune system, has revealed the existence

  2. Supplementary information for Characterizing bacterial gene circuit dynamics with optically programmed

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    Supplementary information for Characterizing bacterial gene circuit dynamics with optically J. Tabor Table of Contents Supplementary Figure 1. Maps of plasmids used in this study. 1.1038/nmeth.2884 #12;1 Supplementary Figure 1. Maps of plasmids used in this study. Nature Methods: doi:10

  3. Development of bacterial spot on near-isogenic lines of bell pepper carrying gene pyramids composed of defeated major resistance genes.

    PubMed

    Kousik, C S; Ritchie, D F

    1999-11-01

    ABSTRACT Disease severity caused by races 1 through 6 of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria on eight near-isogenic lines (isolines) of Early Calwonder (ECW) with three major resistance genes (Bs1, Bs2, and Bs3) in different combinations was evaluated in the greenhouse and field. Strains representing races 1, 3, 4, and 6 caused similar high levels of disease severity, followed by races 2 and 5 on susceptible ECW. Race 3 caused severe disease on all isolines lacking resistance gene Bs2. Race 4, which defeats Bs1 and Bs2, caused less disease on isoline ECW-12R (carries Bs1 + Bs2), than on isolines ECW, ECW-10R (carries Bs1), and ECW-20R (carries Bs2). Similar results were obtained with race 4 strains in field studies conducted during 1997 and 1998. In greenhouse studies, race 6, which defeats all three major genes, caused less disease on isoline ECW-13R (carries Bs1 + Bs3) and ECW-123R (carries Bs1 + Bs2 + Bs3) than on isolines ECW, ECW-10R, ECW-20R, and ECW-30R (carries Bs3), but not on ECW-23R (carries Bs2 + Bs3). In greenhouse studies with commercial hybrids, strains of races 4 and 6 caused less disease on Boynton Bell (carries Bs1 + Bs2) than on Camelot (carries no known resistance genes), King Arthur (carries Bs1), and X3R Camelot (carries Bs2). Race 6 caused less disease on hybrid R6015 (carries Bs1 + Bs2 + Bs3) and Sentinel (carries Bs1 + Bs3) than on Camelot. Residual effects were not as evident in field studies with race 6 strains. Defeated major resistance genes deployed in specific gene combinations (i.e., gene pyramids) were associated with less area under the disease progress curve than when genes were deployed individually in isolines of ECW or commercial hybrids. Successful management of bacterial spot of pepper is achieved incrementally by integrating multiple tactics. Although there is evidence of residual effects from defeated genes, these effects alone likely will not provide acceptable bacterial spot control in commercial production fields. However, when combined with sanitation practices and a judicious spray program, pyramids of defeated resistance genes may aid in reducing the risk of major losses due to bacterial spot. PMID:18944663

  4. Isolation of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens S20 and its application in control of eggplant bacterial wilt.

    PubMed

    Chen, Da; Liu, Xin; Li, Chunyu; Tian, Wei; Shen, Qirong; Shen, Biao

    2014-05-01

    Bacterial strain S20 was isolated and identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens based on physiological and biochemical characteristics and a 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Strain S20 inhibits the growth of Fusarium oxysporum and Ralstonia solanacearum. Some genes associated with the synthesis of some lipopeptides were detected in strain S20 by PCR. Iturins A were identified as the main antagonistic substrates by analysis with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry/collision-induced dissociation (ESI-MS/CID). Four homologues of iturin A (C13-C16) were identified. Pot experiments showed that the application of strain S20 alone could control eggplant wilt with an efficacy of 25.3% during a 40 day experiment. If strain S20 was used with organic fertilizer, the control efficacy against eggplant wilt reached as high as 70.7%. The application of organic fertilizer alone promotes the growth of R. solanacearum, resulting in a higher wilt incidence than that observed in control plants. The application of strain S20 effectively inhibits R. solanacearum in the rhizosphere soil of eggplant. The combined use of strain S20 and organic fertilizer more effectively controlled R. solanacearum in soil than the use of strain S20 alone. The soil count of strain S20 decreased gradually during the course of the experiment after inoculation. Organic fertilizer was beneficial for the survival of the antagonistic bacterial strain S20; a higher level of these bacteria could be maintained. The application of organic fertilizer with strain S20 increased bacterial diversity in rhizosphere soil. PMID:24632400

  5. A functional gene array for detection of bacterial virulence elements

    SciTech Connect

    Jaing, C

    2007-11-01

    We report our development of the first of a series of microarrays designed to detect pathogens with known mechanisms of virulence and antibiotic resistance. By targeting virulence gene families as well as genes unique to specific biothreat agents, these arrays will provide important data about the pathogenic potential and drug resistance profiles of unknown organisms in environmental samples. To validate our approach, we developed a first generation array targeting genes from Escherichia coli strains K12 and CFT073, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus. We determined optimal probe design parameters for microorganism detection and discrimination, measured the required target concentration, and assessed tolerance for mismatches between probe and target sequences. Mismatch tolerance is a priority for this application, due to DNA sequence variability among members of gene families. Arrays were created using the NimbleGen Maskless Array Synthesizer at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Purified genomic DNA from combinations of one or more of the four target organisms, pure cultures of four related organisms, and environmental aerosol samples with spiked-in genomic DNA were hybridized to the arrays. Based on the success of this prototype, we plan to design further arrays in this series, with the goal of detecting all known virulence and antibiotic resistance gene families in a greatly expanded set of organisms.

  6. Bacterial Community Diversity of Oil-Contaminated Soils Assessed by High Throughput Sequencing of 16S rRNA Genes

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Mu; Zi, Xiaoxue; Wang, Qiuyu

    2015-01-01

    Soil bacteria play a major role in ecological and biodegradable function processes in oil-contaminated soils. Here, we assessed the bacterial diversity and changes therein in oil-contaminated soils exposed to different periods of oil pollution using 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. No less than 24,953 valid reads and 6246 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained from all five studied samples. OTU richness was relatively higher in contaminated soils than clean samples. Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Planctomycetes and Proteobacteria were the dominant phyla among all the soil samples. The heatmap plot depicted the relative percentage of each bacterial family within each sample and clustered five samples into two groups. For the samples, bacteria in the soils varied at different periods of oil exposure. The oil pollution exerted strong selective pressure to propagate many potentially petroleum degrading bacteria. Redundancy analysis (RDA) indicated that organic matter was the highest determinant factor for explaining the variations in community compositions. This suggests that compared to clean soils, oil-polluted soils support more diverse bacterial communities and soil bacterial community shifts were mainly controlled by organic matter and exposure time. These results provide some useful information for bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil in the future. PMID:26404329

  7. Denitrification gene expression in clay-soil bacterial community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastorelli, R.; Landi, S.

    2009-04-01

    Our contribution in the Italian research project SOILSINK was focused on microbial denitrification gene expression in Mediterranean agricultural soils. In ecosystems with high inputs of nitrogen, such as agricultural soils, denitrification causes a net loss of nitrogen since nitrate is reduced to gaseous forms, which are released into the atmosphere. Moreover, incomplete denitrification can lead to emission of nitrous oxide, a potent greenhouse gas which contributes to global warming and destruction of ozone layer. A critical role in denitrification is played by microorganisms and the ability to denitrify is widespread among a variety of phylogenetically unrelated organisms. Data reported here are referred to wheat cultivation in a clay-rich soil under different environmental impact management (Agugliano, AN, Italy). We analysed the RNA directly extracted from soil to provide information on in situ activities of specific populations. The expression of genes coding for two nitrate reductases (narG and napA), two nitrite reductases (nirS and nirK), two nitric oxide reductases (cnorB and qnorB) and nitrous oxide reductase (nosZ) was analyzed by reverse transcription (RT)-nested PCR. Only napA, nirS, nirK, qnorB and nosZ were detected and fragments sequenced showed high similarity with the corresponding gene sequences deposited in GenBank database. These results suggest the suitability of the method for the qualitative detection of denitrifying bacteria in environmental samples and they offered us the possibility to perform the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analyzes for denitrification genes.. Earlier conclusions showed nirK gene is more widely distributed in soil environment than nirS gene. The results concerning the nosZ expression indicated that microbial activity was clearly present only in no-tilled and no-fertilized soils.

  8. Fate of tetracycline, sulfonamide and fluoroquinolone resistance genes and the changes in bacterial diversity during composting of swine manure.

    PubMed

    Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Xu, Delin; Zhao, Zhenyong; Wong, Jonathan W C

    2012-12-01

    This study monitored the abundance of antibiotic resistant genes (ARGs) and the bacterial diversity during composting of swine manure spiked with chlortetracycline, sulfadiazine and ciprofloxacin at two different levels and a control without antibiotics. Resistance genes of tetracycline (tetQ, tetW, tetC, tetG, tetZ and tetY), sulfonamide (sul1, sul2, dfrA1 and dfrA7) and fluoroquinolone (gyrA and parC) represented 0.02-1.91%, 0.67-10.28% and 0.00005-0.0002%, respectively, of the total 16S rDNA copies in the initial composting mass. After 28-42 days of composting, these ARGs, except parC, were undetectable in the composting mass indicating that composting is a potential method of manure management. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of bacterial 16S rDNA of the composting mass indicated that the addition of antibiotics up to 100, 20 and 20mg/kg of chlortetracycline, sulfadiazine and ciprofloxacin, respectively, elicited only a transient perturbation and the bacterial diversity was restored in due course of composting. PMID:22537403

  9. A dual switch controls bacterial enhancer-dependent transcription.

    PubMed

    Wiesler, Simone C; Burrows, Patricia C; Buck, Martin

    2012-11-01

    Bacterial RNA polymerases (RNAPs) are targets for antibiotics. Myxopyronin binds to the RNAP switch regions to block structural rearrangements needed for formation of open promoter complexes. Bacterial RNAPs containing the major variant ?(54) factor are activated by enhancer-binding proteins (bEBPs) and transcribe genes whose products are needed in pathogenicity and stress responses. We show that (i) enhancer-dependent RNAPs help Escherichia coli to survive in the presence of myxopyronin, (ii) enhancer-dependent RNAPs partially resist inhibition by myxopyronin and (iii) ATP hydrolysis catalysed by bEBPs is obligatory for functional interaction of the RNAP switch regions with the transcription start site. We demonstrate that enhancer-dependent promoters contain two barriers to full DNA opening, allowing tight regulation of transcription initiation. bEBPs engage in a dual switch to (i) allow propagation of nucleated DNA melting from an upstream DNA fork junction and (ii) complete the formation of the transcription bubble and downstream DNA fork junction at the RNA synthesis start site, resulting in switch region-dependent RNAP clamp closure and open promoter complex formation. PMID:22965125

  10. A dual switch controls bacterial enhancer-dependent transcription

    PubMed Central

    Wiesler, Simone C.; Burrows, Patricia C.; Buck, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial RNA polymerases (RNAPs) are targets for antibiotics. Myxopyronin binds to the RNAP switch regions to block structural rearrangements needed for formation of open promoter complexes. Bacterial RNAPs containing the major variant ?54 factor are activated by enhancer-binding proteins (bEBPs) and transcribe genes whose products are needed in pathogenicity and stress responses. We show that (i) enhancer-dependent RNAPs help Escherichia coli to survive in the presence of myxopyronin, (ii) enhancer-dependent RNAPs partially resist inhibition by myxopyronin and (iii) ATP hydrolysis catalysed by bEBPs is obligatory for functional interaction of the RNAP switch regions with the transcription start site. We demonstrate that enhancer-dependent promoters contain two barriers to full DNA opening, allowing tight regulation of transcription initiation. bEBPs engage in a dual switch to (i) allow propagation of nucleated DNA melting from an upstream DNA fork junction and (ii) complete the formation of the transcription bubble and downstream DNA fork junction at the RNA synthesis start site, resulting in switch region-dependent RNAP clamp closure and open promoter complex formation. PMID:22965125

  11. Mode of regulation and the insulation of bacterial gene expression.

    PubMed

    Sasson, Vered; Shachrai, Irit; Bren, Anat; Dekel, Erez; Alon, Uri

    2012-05-25

    A gene can be said to be insulated from environmental variations if its expression level depends only on its cognate inducers, and not on variations in conditions. We tested the insulation of the lac promoter of E. coli and of synthetic constructs in which the transcription factor CRP acts as either an activator or a repressor, by measuring their input function-their expression as a function of inducers-in different growth conditions. We find that the promoter activities show sizable variation across conditions of 10%-100% (SD/mean). When the promoter is bound to its cognate regulator(s), variation across conditions is smaller than when it is unbound. Thus, mode of regulation affects insulation: activators seem to show better insulation at high expression levels, and repressors at low expression levels. This may explain the Savageau demand rule, in which E. coli genes needed often in the natural environment tend to be regulated by activators, and rarely needed genes by repressors. The present approach can be used to study insulation in other genes and organisms. PMID:22633488

  12. Role of starvation genes in the survival of deep subsurface bacterial communities. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Matin, A.; Schmidt, T.; Caldwell, D.

    1998-11-01

    The investigation dealt with several aspects of subsurface bacterial survival and their nature. Mutants of Pseudomonas putida, a common environmental bacterium with counterparts in the subsurface, were isolated by transposon mutagenesis. These mutants were highly sensitive to starvation stress. Reporter gene fusions also showed that these genes were starvation genes since they were induced several fold when the cultures were started. Since the regulatory religions (promoters) of starvation genes are of interest in bioremediation and in experiments designed to understand the roles of starvation genes in the maintenance of microbial community structure, the promoter of one of these genes (pstarv1, contained in strain MK107) was characterized in detail. As a preliminary to these studies, the growth characteristics of Pseudomonas putida MK1 and MK107 were compared for cells growing in batch cultures or as an attached monolayer in microstat cultures.

  13. Laccase activity is proportional to the abundance of bacterial laccase-like genes in soil from subtropical arable land.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shuzhen; Su, Yirong; Dong, Mingzhe; He, Xunyang; Kumaresan, Deepak; O'Donnell, Anthony G; Wu, Jinshui; Chen, Xiangbi

    2015-12-01

    Laccase enzymes produced by both soil bacteria and fungi play important roles in refractory organic matter turnover in terrestrial ecosystems. We investigated the abundance and diversity of fungal laccase genes and bacterial laccase-like genes in soil from subtropical arable lands, and identified which microbial group was associated with laccase activity. Compared with fungal laccase genes, the bacterial laccase-like genes had greater abundance, richness and Shannon-Wiener diversity. More importantly, laccase activity can be explained almost exclusively by the bacterial laccase-like genes, and their abundance had significant linear relationship with laccase activity. Thus, bacterial laccase-like gene has great potential to be used as a sensitive indicator of laccase enzyme for refractory organic matter turnover in subtropical arable lands. PMID:26354020

  14. Both msa genes in Renibacterium salmoninarum are needed for full virulence in bacterial kidney disease

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coady, A.M.; Murray, A.L.; Elliott, D.G.; Rhodes, L.D.

    2006-01-01

    Renibacterium salmoninarum, a gram-positive diplococcobacillus that causes bacterial kidney disease among salmon and trout, has two chromosomal loci encoding the major soluble antigen (msa) gene. Because the MSA protein is widely suspected to be an important virulence factor, we used insertion-duplication mutagenesis to generate disruptions of either the msa1 or msa2 gene. Surprisingly, expression of MSA protein in broth cultures appeared unaffected. However, the virulence of either mutant in juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) by intraperitoneal challenge was severely attenuated, suggesting that disruption of the msa1 or msa2 gene affected in vivo expression. Copyright ?? 2006, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Phylogeny of Bacterial and Archaeal Genomes Using Conserved Genes: Supertrees and Supermatrices

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Jenna Morgan; Darling, Aaron E.; Eisen, Jonathan A.

    2013-01-01

    Over 3000 microbial (bacterial and archaeal) genomes have been made publically available to date, providing an unprecedented opportunity to examine evolutionary genomic trends and offering valuable reference data for a variety of other studies such as metagenomics. The utility of these genome sequences is greatly enhanced when we have an understanding of how they are phylogenetically related to each other. Therefore, we here describe our efforts to reconstruct the phylogeny of all available bacterial and archaeal genomes. We identified 24, single-copy, ubiquitous genes suitable for this phylogenetic analysis. We used two approaches to combine the data for the 24 genes. First, we concatenated alignments of all genes into a single alignment from which a Maximum Likelihood (ML) tree was inferred using RAxML. Second, we used a relatively new approach to combining gene data, Bayesian Concordance Analysis (BCA), as implemented in the BUCKy software, in which the results of 24 single-gene phylogenetic analyses are used to generate a “primary concordance” tree. A comparison of the concatenated ML tree and the primary concordance (BUCKy) tree reveals that the two approaches give similar results, relative to a phylogenetic tree inferred from the 16S rRNA gene. After comparing the results and the methods used, we conclude that the current best approach for generating a single phylogenetic tree, suitable for use as a reference phylogeny for comparative analyses, is to perform a maximum likelihood analysis of a concatenated alignment of conserved, single-copy genes. PMID:23638103

  16. Could bacteriophages transfer antibiotic resistance genes from environmental bacteria to human-body associated bacterial populations?

    PubMed Central

    Muniesa, Maite; Colomer-Lluch, Marta; Jofre, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Environments without any contact with anthropogenic antibiotics show a great abundance of antibiotic resistance genes that use to be chromosomal and are part of the core genes of the species that harbor them. Some of these genes are shared with human pathogens where they appear in mobile genetic elements. Diversity of antibiotic resistance genes in non-contaminated environments is much greater than in human and animal pathogens, and in environments contaminated with antibiotic from anthropogenic activities. This suggests the existence of some bottleneck effect for the mobilization of antibiotic resistance genes among different biomes. Bacteriophages have characteristics that make them suitable vectors between different biomes, and as well for transferring genes from biome to biome. Recent metagenomic studies and detection of bacterial genes by genomic techniques in the bacteriophage fraction of different microbiota provide indirect evidences that the mobilization of genes mediated by phages, including antibiotic resistance genes, is far more relevant than previously thought. Our hypothesis is that bacteriophages might be of critical importance for evading one of the bottlenecks, the lack of ecological connectivity that modulates the pass of antibiotic resistance genes from natural environments such as waters and soils, to animal and human microbiomes. This commentary concentrates on the potential importance of bacteriophages in transferring resistance genes from the environment to human and animal body microbiomes, but there is no doubt that transduction occurs also in body microbiomes. PMID:24195016

  17. Direct Detection and Quantification of Bacterial Genes Associated with Inflammation in DNA Isolated from Stool

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Moreno, Ramón; Robledo, Iraida E.; Baerga-Ortiz, Abel

    2014-01-01

    Although predominantly associated with health benefits, the gut microbiota has also been shown to harbor genes that promote inflammation. In this work, we report a method for the direct detection and quantification of these pro-inflammatory bacterial genes by PCR and qPCR in DNA extracted from human stool samples. PCR reactions were performed to detect (i) the pks island genes, (ii) tcpC, which is present in some strains of Escherichia coli and (iii) gelE presented in some strains of Enterococcus faecalis. Additionally, we screened for the presence of the following genes encoding cyclomodulins that disrupted mammalian cell division: (iv) cdt (which encodes the cytolethal distending toxin) and (v) cnf-1 (which encodes the cytotoxic necrotizing factor-1). Our results show that 20% of the samples (N = 41) tested positive for detectable amounts of pks island genes, whereas 10% of individuals were positive for tcpC or gelE and only one individual was found to harbor the cnf-1 gene. Of the 13 individuals that were positive for at least one of the pro-inflammatory genes, 5 were found to harbor more than one. A quantitative version of the assay, which used real-time PCR, revealed the pro-inflammatory genes to be in high copy numbers: up to 1.3 million copies per mg of feces for the pks island genes. Direct detection of specific genes in stool could prove useful toward screening for the presence of pro-inflammatory bacterial genes in individuals with inflammatory bowel diseases or colorectal cancer. PMID:25635239

  18. Programmable repression and activation of bacterial gene expression using an engineered CRISPR-Cas system

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Feng

    The ability to artificially control transcription is essential both to the study of gene function and to the construction of synthetic gene networks with desired properties. Cas9 is an RNA-guided double-stranded DNA nuclease ...

  19. Impulse Control: Temporal Dynamics in Gene Transcription

    E-print Network

    Yosef, Nir

    Regulatory circuits controlling gene expression constantly rewire to adapt to environmental stimuli, differentiation cues, and disease. We review our current understanding of the temporal dynamics of gene expression in ...

  20. The inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) susceptibility genes NOD1 and NOD2 have conserved anti-bacterial roles in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Oehlers, Stefan H; Flores, Maria Vega; Hall, Chris J; Swift, Simon; Crosier, Kathryn E; Crosier, Philip S

    2011-11-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), in the form of Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC), is a debilitating chronic immune disorder of the intestine. A complex etiology resulting from dysfunctional interactions between the intestinal immune system and its microflora, influenced by host genetic susceptibility, makes disease modeling challenging. Mutations in NOD2 have the highest disease-specific risk association for CD, and a related gene, NOD1, is associated with UC. NOD1 and NOD2 encode intracellular bacterial sensor proteins acting as innate immune triggers, and represent promising therapeutic targets. The zebrafish has the potential to aid in modeling genetic and environmental aspects of IBD pathogenesis. Here, we report the characterization of the Nod signaling components in the zebrafish larval intestine. The nod1 and nod2 genes are expressed in intestinal epithelial cells and neutrophils together with the Nod signaling pathway genes ripk2, a20, aamp, cd147, centaurin b1, erbin and grim-19. Using a zebrafish embryo Salmonella infection model, morpholino-mediated depletion of Nod1 or Nod2 reduced the ability of embryos to control systemic infection. Depletion of Nod1 or Nod2 decreased expression of dual oxidase in the intestinal epithelium and impaired the ability of larvae to reduce intracellular bacterial burden. This work highlights the potential use of zebrafish larvae in the study of components of IBD pathogenesis. PMID:21729873

  1. Why Are Genes Encoded on the Lagging Strand of the Bacterial Genome?

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaoshu; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2013-01-01

    Genomic DNA is used as the template for both replication and transcription, whose machineries may collide and result in mutagenesis, among other damages. Because head-on collisions are more deleterious than codirectional collisions, genes should be preferentially encoded on the leading strand to avoid head-on collisions, as is observed in most bacterial genomes examined. However, why are there still lagging strand encoded genes? Paul et al. recently proposed that these genes take advantage of the increased mutagenesis resulting from head-on collisions and are thus adaptively encoded on the lagging strand. We show that the evidence they provided is invalid and that the existence of lagging strand encoded genes is explainable by a balance between deleterious mutations that bring genes from the leading to the lagging strand and purifying selection purging such mutants. Therefore, the adaptive hypothesis is neither theoretically needed nor empirically supported. PMID:24273314

  2. Direct Amplification of rRNA Genes in Diagnosis of Bacterial Infections

    PubMed Central

    Rantakokko-Jalava, Kaisu; Nikkari, Simo; Jalava, Jari; Eerola, Erkki; Skurnik, Mikael; Meurman, Olli; Ruuskanen, Olli; Alanen, Anna; Kotilainen, Esa; Toivanen, Paavo; Kotilainen, Pirkko

    2000-01-01

    A broad-range bacterial PCR targeting rRNA genes (rDNAs) was used to directly analyze 536 clinical samples obtained from 459 hospitalized patients during a 4-year study period. The molecular diagnosis based on DNA sequencing of the PCR product was compared to that obtained by bacterial culture. The bacteriological diagnosis was concordant for 447 (83%) specimens. Broad-range rDNA PCR was the only method that yielded an etiologic diagnosis for 11 (2.4%) of 459 patients. Compared to culture and clinical assessment, the sensitivity of the PCR method combined with sequencing was 74.2%, and the specificity was between 98.7 and 99.6%. At present, the described molecular approach proved superior to bacterial culture in two clinical situations: infections caused by bacteria with unusual growth requirements and specimens taken during antimicrobial treatment of the patient. PMID:10618059

  3. Autonomous bacterial localization and gene expression based on nearby cell receptor density.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hsuan-Chen; Tsao, Chen-Yu; Quan, David N; Cheng, Yi; Servinsky, Matthew D; Carter, Karen K; Jee, Kathleen J; Terrell, Jessica L; Zargar, Amin; Rubloff, Gary W; Payne, Gregory F; Valdes, James J; Bentley, William E

    2013-01-01

    Escherichia coli were genetically modified to enable programmed motility, sensing, and actuation based on the density of features on nearby surfaces. Then, based on calculated feature density, these cells expressed marker proteins to indicate phenotypic response. Specifically, site-specific synthesis of bacterial quorum sensing autoinducer-2 (AI-2) is used to initiate and recruit motile cells. In our model system, we rewired E. coli's AI-2 signaling pathway to direct bacteria to a squamous cancer cell line of head and neck (SCCHN), where they initiate synthesis of a reporter (drug surrogate) based on a threshold density of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). This represents a new type of controller for targeted drug delivery as actuation (synthesis and delivery) depends on a receptor density marking the diseased cell. The ability to survey local surfaces and initiate gene expression based on feature density represents a new area-based switch in synthetic biology that will find use beyond the proposed cancer model here. PMID:23340842

  4. Expression of tumor suppressor genes in channel catfish after bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Mu, Weijie; Yao, Jun; Zhang, Jiaren; Liu, Shikai; Wen, Haishen; Feng, Jianbin; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2015-01-01

    Tumor suppressor genes are negative regulators of tumor formation. While their anti-tumor functions have been well studied, they have been found to be also involved in immune responses and innate immunity. In this study, 21 tumor suppressor genes in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were characterized. Phylogenetic and syntenic analyses allowed annotation of all 21 catfish tumor suppressor genes. The expression profiles of the 21 catfish tumor suppressor genes were determined using the RNA-Seq datasets. After Edwardsiella ictaluri infection, expression of five of the 21 tumor suppressor genes was up-regulated at 3?days in the intestine, and four of the 21 genes were up-regulated in the liver 14 days post-infection. With Flavobacterium columnare infection, seven genes were up-regulated in the gill at 48?h post-infection. These results expanded our knowledge on the tumor suppressor genes in teleosts, setting a foundation for future studies to unravel functions of tumor suppressor genes in response to stresses, particularly after bacterial disease infections. PMID:25453578

  5. Bacterial Community Succession During in situ Uranium Bioremediation: Spatial Similarities Along Controlled Flow Paths

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Chiachi; Wu, Weimin; Gentry, Terry J.; Carley, Jack; Corbin, Gail A.; Carroll, Sue L.; Watson, David B.; Jardine, Phil M.; Zhou, Jizhong; Criddle, Craig S.; Fields, Matthew W.

    2009-05-22

    Bacterial community succession was investigated in a field-scale subsurface reactor formed by a series of wells that received weekly ethanol additions to re-circulating groundwater. Ethanol additions stimulated denitrification, metal reduction, sulfate reduction, and U(VI) reduction to sparingly soluble U(IV). Clone libraries of SSU rRNA gene sequences from groundwater samples enabled tracking of spatial and temporal changes over a 1.5 y period. Analyses showed that the communities changed in a manner consistent with geochemical variations that occurred along temporal and spatial scales. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that the levels of nitrate, uranium, sulfide, sulfate, and ethanol strongly correlated with particular bacterial populations. As sulfate and U(VI) levels declined, sequences representative of sulfate-reducers and metal-reducers were detected at high levels. Ultimately, sequences associated with sulfate-reducing populations predominated, and sulfate levels declined as U(VI) remained at low levels. When engineering controls were compared to the population variation via canonical ordination, changes could be related to dissolved oxygen control and ethanol addition. The data also indicated that the indigenous populations responded differently to stimulation for bio-reduction; however, the two bio-stimulated communities became more similar after different transitions in an idiosyncratic manner. The strong associations between particular environmental variables and certain populations provide insight into the establishment of practical and successful remediation strategies in radionuclide-contaminated environments with respect to engineering controls and microbial ecology.

  6. Gene targeting by the TAL effector PthXo2 reveals cryptic resistance gene for bacterial blight of rice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Junhui; Peng, Zhao; Long, Juying; Sosso, Davide; Liu, Bo; Eom, Joon-Seob; Huang, Sheng; Liu, Sanzhen; Vera Cruz, Casiana; Frommer, Wolf B; White, Frank F; Yang, Bing

    2015-05-01

    Bacterial blight of rice is caused by the ?-proteobacterium Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, which utilizes a group of type III TAL (transcription activator-like) effectors to induce host gene expression and condition host susceptibility. Five SWEET genes are functionally redundant to support bacterial disease, but only two were experimentally proven targets of natural TAL effectors. Here, we report the identification of the sucrose transporter gene OsSWEET13 as the disease-susceptibility gene for PthXo2 and the existence of cryptic recessive resistance to PthXo2-dependent X. oryzae pv. oryzae due to promoter variations of OsSWEET13 in japonica rice. PthXo2-containing strains induce OsSWEET13 in indica rice IR24 due to the presence of an unpredicted and undescribed effector binding site not present in the alleles in japonica rice Nipponbare and Kitaake. The specificity of effector-associated gene induction and disease susceptibility is attributable to a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), which is also found in a polymorphic allele of OsSWEET13 known as the recessive resistance gene xa25 from the rice cultivar Minghui 63. The mutation of OsSWEET13 with CRISPR/Cas9 technology further corroborates the requirement of OsSWEET13 expression for the state of PthXo2-dependent disease susceptibility to X. oryzae pv. oryzae. Gene profiling of a collection of 104 strains revealed OsSWEET13 induction by 42 isolates of X. oryzae pv. oryzae. Heterologous expression of OsSWEET13 in Nicotiana benthamiana leaf cells elevates sucrose concentrations in the apoplasm. The results corroborate a model whereby X. oryzae pv. oryzae enhances the release of sucrose from host cells in order to exploit the host resources. PMID:25824104

  7. CONJUGAL GENE TRANSFER IN THE RHIZOSPHERE OF WATER GRASS (ECHINOCHLORA CRUSGALLI): INFLUENCE OF ROOT EXUDATE AND BACTERIAL ACTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The premise that genetic exchange is primarily localized in niches characterized by dense bacterial populations and high availability of growth substrates was tested by relating conjugal gene transfer of an RP4 derivative to availability of root exudates and bacterial metabolic a...

  8. Carboxymethylcellulose film for bacterial wound infection control and healing.

    PubMed

    Wong, Tin Wui; Ramli, Nor Amlizan

    2014-11-01

    Infection control and wound healing profiles of sodium carboxymethylcellulose (SCMC) films were investigated as a function of their anti-bacterial action, physical structures, polymer molecular weights and carboxymethyl substitution degrees. The films were prepared with in vitro polymer/film and in vivo microbe-colonized wound healing/systemic infection profiles examined. Adhesive high carboxymethyl substituted SCMC films aided healing via attaching to microbes and removing them from wound. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was removed via encapsulating in gelling low molecular weight SCMC film, whereas Staphylococcus aureus was trapped in tight folds of high molecular weight SCMC film. Incomplete microbe removal from wound did not necessary translate to inability to heal as microbe remnant at wound induced fibroblast migration and aided tissue reconstruction. Using no film nonetheless will cause systemic blood infection. SCMC films negate infection and promote wound healing via specific polymer-microbe adhesion, and removal of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa requires films of different polymer characteristics. PMID:25129756

  9. A benefit of high temperature: increased effectiveness of a rice bacterial blight disease resistance gene

    E-print Network

    Garrett, Karen A.

    single disease resistance (R) genes imposes a strong selection for virulence in pathogen populations-mediated disease control because high temperatures often promote disease development and reduce R gene effectiveness. Here, performance of one rice bac- terial blight disease R gene was assessed in field and growth

  10. High-resolution genetic mapping of rice bacterial blight resistance gene Xa23.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunlian; Fan, Yinglun; Zheng, Chongke; Qin, Tengfei; Zhang, Xiaoping; Zhao, Kaijun

    2014-10-01

    Bacterial blight (BB) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is the most devastating bacterial disease of rice (Oryza sativa L.), a staple food crop that feeds half of the world's population. In management of this disease, the most economical and effective approach is cultivating resistant varieties. Due to rapid change of pathogenicity in the pathogen, it is necessary to identify and characterize more host resistance genes for breeding new resistant varieties. We have previously identified the BB resistance (R) gene Xa23 that confers the broadest resistance to Xoo strains isolated from different rice-growing regions and preliminarily mapped the gene within a 1.7 cm region on the long arm of rice chromosome 11. Here, we report fine genetic mapping and in silico analysis of putative candidate genes of Xa23. Based on F2 mapping populations derived from crosses between Xa23-containing rice line CBB23 and susceptible varieties JG30 or IR24, six new STS markers Lj36, Lj46, Lj138, Lj74, A83B4, and Lj13 were developed. Linkage analysis revealed that the new markers were co-segregated with or closely linked to the Xa23 locus. Consequently, the Xa23 gene was mapped within a 0.4 cm region between markers Lj138 and A83B4, in which the co-segregating marker Lj74 was identified. The corresponding physical distance between Lj138 and A83B4 on Nipponbare genome is 49.8 kb. Six Xa23 candidate genes have been annotated, including four candidate genes encoding hypothetical proteins and the other two encoding a putative ADP-ribosylation factor protein and a putative PPR protein. These results will facilitate marker-assisted selection of Xa23 in rice breeding and molecular cloning of this valuable R gene. PMID:24715026

  11. Decreasing the effects of horizontal gene transfer on bacterial phylogeny: the Escherichia coli case study.

    PubMed

    Escobar-Páramo, Patricia; Sabbagh, Audrey; Darlu, Pierre; Pradillon, Olivier; Vaury, Christelle; Denamur, Erick; Lecointre, Guillaume

    2004-01-01

    Phylogenetic reconstructions of bacterial species from DNA sequences are hampered by the existence of horizontal gene transfer. One possible way to overcome the confounding influence of such movement of genes is to identify and remove sequences which are responsible for significant character incongruence when compared to a reference dataset free of horizontal transfer (e.g., multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, restriction fragment length polymorphism, or random amplified polymorphic DNA) using the incongruence length difference (ILD) test of Farris et al. [Cladistics 10 (1995) 315]. As obtaining this "whole genome dataset" prior to the reconstruction of a phylogeny is clearly troublesome, we have tested alternative approaches allowing the release from such reference dataset, designed for a species with modest level of horizontal gene transfer, i.e., Escherichia coli. Eleven different genes available or sequenced in this work were studied in a set of 30 E. coli reference (ECOR) strains. Either using ILD to test incongruence between each gene against the all remaining (in this case 10) genes in order to remove sequences responsible for significant incongruence, or using just a simultaneous analysis without removals, gave robust phylogenies with slight topological differences. The use of the ILD test remains a suitable method for estimating the level of horizontal gene transfer in bacterial species. Supertrees also had suitable properties to extract the phylogeny of strains, because the way they summarize taxonomic congruence clearly limits the impact of individual gene transfers on the global topology. Furthermore, this work allowed a significant improvement of the accuracy of the phylogeny within E. coli. PMID:15022774

  12. A Cell Cycle and Nutritional Checkpoint Controlling Bacterial Surface Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Fiebig, Aretha; Herrou, Julien; Fumeaux, Coralie; Radhakrishnan, Sunish K.; Viollier, Patrick H.; Crosson, Sean

    2014-01-01

    In natural environments, bacteria often adhere to surfaces where they form complex multicellular communities. Surface adherence is determined by the biochemical composition of the cell envelope. We describe a novel regulatory mechanism by which the bacterium, Caulobacter crescentus, integrates cell cycle and nutritional signals to control development of an adhesive envelope structure known as the holdfast. Specifically, we have discovered a 68-residue protein inhibitor of holdfast development (HfiA) that directly targets a conserved glycolipid glycosyltransferase required for holdfast production (HfsJ). Multiple cell cycle regulators associate with the hfiA and hfsJ promoters and control their expression, temporally constraining holdfast development to the late stages of G1. HfiA further functions as part of a ‘nutritional override’ system that decouples holdfast development from the cell cycle in response to nutritional cues. This control mechanism can limit surface adhesion in nutritionally sub-optimal environments without affecting cell cycle progression. We conclude that post-translational regulation of cell envelope enzymes by small proteins like HfiA may provide a general means to modulate the surface properties of bacterial cells. PMID:24465221

  13. Ubiquity and Diversity of Heterotrophic Bacterial nasA Genes in Diverse Marine Environments

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xuexia; Dang, Hongyue; Jiao, Nianzhi

    2015-01-01

    Nitrate uptake by heterotrophic bacteria plays an important role in marine N cycling. However, few studies have investigated the diversity of environmental nitrate assimilating bacteria (NAB). In this study, the diversity and biogeographical distribution of NAB in several global oceans and particularly in the western Pacific marginal seas were investigated using both cultivation and culture-independent molecular approaches. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA and nasA (encoding the large subunit of the assimilatory nitrate reductase) gene sequences indicated that the cultivable NAB in South China Sea belonged to the ?-Proteobacteria, ?-Proteobacteria and CFB (Cytophaga-Flavobacteria-Bacteroides) bacterial groups. In all the environmental samples of the present study, ?-Proteobacteria, ?-Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were found to be the dominant nasA-harboring bacteria. Almost all of the ?-Proteobacteria OTUs were classified into three Roseobacter-like groups (I to III). Clone library analysis revealed previously underestimated nasA diversity; e.g. the nasA gene sequences affiliated with ?-Proteobacteria, ?-Proteobacteria and Lentisphaerae were observed in the field investigation for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. The geographical and vertical distributions of seawater nasA-harboring bacteria indicated that NAB were highly diverse and ubiquitously distributed in the studied marginal seas and world oceans. Niche adaptation and separation and/or limited dispersal might mediate the NAB composition and community structure in different water bodies. In the shallow-water Kueishantao hydrothermal vent environment, chemolithoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria were the primary NAB, indicating a unique nitrate-assimilating community in this extreme environment. In the coastal water of the East China Sea, the relative abundance of Alteromonas and Roseobacter-like nasA gene sequences responded closely to algal blooms, indicating that NAB may be active participants contributing to the bloom dynamics. Our statistical results suggested that salinity, temperature and nitrate may be some of the key environmental factors controlling the composition and dynamics of the marine NAB communities. PMID:25647610

  14. Ubiquity and diversity of heterotrophic bacterial nasA genes in diverse marine environments.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xuexia; Dang, Hongyue; Jiao, Nianzhi

    2015-01-01

    Nitrate uptake by heterotrophic bacteria plays an important role in marine N cycling. However, few studies have investigated the diversity of environmental nitrate assimilating bacteria (NAB). In this study, the diversity and biogeographical distribution of NAB in several global oceans and particularly in the western Pacific marginal seas were investigated using both cultivation and culture-independent molecular approaches. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA and nasA (encoding the large subunit of the assimilatory nitrate reductase) gene sequences indicated that the cultivable NAB in South China Sea belonged to the ?-Proteobacteria, ?-Proteobacteria and CFB (Cytophaga-Flavobacteria-Bacteroides) bacterial groups. In all the environmental samples of the present study, ?-Proteobacteria, ?-Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were found to be the dominant nasA-harboring bacteria. Almost all of the ?-Proteobacteria OTUs were classified into three Roseobacter-like groups (I to III). Clone library analysis revealed previously underestimated nasA diversity; e.g. the nasA gene sequences affiliated with ?-Proteobacteria, ?-Proteobacteria and Lentisphaerae were observed in the field investigation for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. The geographical and vertical distributions of seawater nasA-harboring bacteria indicated that NAB were highly diverse and ubiquitously distributed in the studied marginal seas and world oceans. Niche adaptation and separation and/or limited dispersal might mediate the NAB composition and community structure in different water bodies. In the shallow-water Kueishantao hydrothermal vent environment, chemolithoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria were the primary NAB, indicating a unique nitrate-assimilating community in this extreme environment. In the coastal water of the East China Sea, the relative abundance of Alteromonas and Roseobacter-like nasA gene sequences responded closely to algal blooms, indicating that NAB may be active participants contributing to the bloom dynamics. Our statistical results suggested that salinity, temperature and nitrate may be some of the key environmental factors controlling the composition and dynamics of the marine NAB communities. PMID:25647610

  15. Bacterial Canker Control for Sweet Cherries Gary Thornton and Jim Nugent

    E-print Network

    1 Bacterial Canker Control for Sweet Cherries Gary Thornton and Jim Nugent District Fruit IPM Agent in the control of Bacterial Canker is a controversial subject. Some growers swear that it helps and other growers with the results so far, then continue the practice. Keep in mind though, that the severity of this disease

  16. Mechanisms of control of gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, B.; Gage, L.P.; Siddiqui, M.A.Q.; Skalka, A.M.; Weissbach, H.

    1987-01-01

    This book examines an array of topics on the regulation of gene expression, including an examination of DNA-protein interactions and the role of oncogene proteins in normal and abnormal cellular responses. The book focuses on the control of mRNA transcription in eykaryotes and delineates other areas including gene regulation in prokaryotes and control of stable RNA synthesis.

  17. Physicochemical control of bacterial and protist community composition and diversity in Antarctic sea ice.

    PubMed

    Torstensson, Anders; Dinasquet, Julie; Chierici, Melissa; Fransson, Agneta; Riemann, Lasse; Wulff, Angela

    2015-10-01

    Due to climate change, sea ice experiences changes in terms of extent and physical properties. In order to understand how sea ice microbial communities are affected by changes in physicochemical properties of the ice, we used 454-sequencing of 16S and 18S rRNA genes to examine environmental control of microbial diversity and composition in Antarctic sea ice. We observed a high diversity and richness of bacteria, which were strongly negatively correlated with temperature and positively with brine salinity. We suggest that bacterial diversity in sea ice is mainly controlled by physicochemical properties of the ice, such as temperature and salinity, and that sea ice bacterial communities are sensitive to seasonal and environmental changes. For the first time in Antarctic interior sea ice, we observed a strong eukaryotic dominance of the dinoflagellate phylotype SL163A10, comprising 63% of the total sequences. This phylotype is known to be kleptoplastic and could be a significant primary producer in sea ice. We conclude that mixotrophic flagellates may play a greater role in the sea ice microbial ecosystem than previously believed, and not only during the polar night but also during summer when potential food sources are abundant. PMID:25845501

  18. A novel ion-beam-mutation effect application in identification of gene involved in bacterial antagonism to fungal infection of ornamental crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahadtanapuk, S.; Teraarusiri, W.; Nanakorn, W.; Yu, L. D.; Thongkumkoon, P.; Anuntalabhochai, S.

    2014-05-01

    This work is on a novel application of ion beam effect on biological mutation. Bacillus licheniformis (B. licheniformis) is a common soil bacterium with an antagonistic effect on Curcuma alismatifolia Gagnep. and Chrysanthemum indicum Linn. In an attempt to control fungal diseases of local crops by utilizing B. licheniformis, we carried out gene analysis of the bacterium to understand the bacterial antagonistic mechanism. The bacterial cells were bombarded to induce mutations using nitrogen ion beam. After ion bombardment, DNA analysis revealed that the modified polymorphism fragment present in the wild type was missing in a bacterial mutant which lost the antifungal activity. The fragments conserved in the wild type but lost in the mutant bacteria was identified to code for the thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) gene. The gene analysis showed that the TrxR gene from B. licheniformis had the expression of the antagonism to fungi in a synchronous time evolution with the fungus inhibition when the bacteria were co-cultivated with the fungi. The collective results indicate the TrxR gene responsible for the antagonism of bacteria B. licheniformis to fungal infection.

  19. Bacterial origin of a diverse family of UDP-glycosyltransferase genes in the Tetranychus urticae genome.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Seung-Joon; Dermauw, Wannes; Wybouw, Nicky; Heckel, David G; Van Leeuwen, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) catalyze the conjugation of a variety of small lipophilic molecules with uridine diphosphate (UDP) sugars, altering them into more water-soluble metabolites. Thereby, UGTs play an important role in the detoxification of xenobiotics and in the regulation of endobiotics. Recently, the genome sequence was reported for the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, a polyphagous herbivore damaging a number of agricultural crops. Although various gene families implicated in xenobiotic metabolism have been documented in T. urticae, UGTs so far have not. We identified 80 UGT genes in the T. urticae genome, the largest number of UGT genes in a metazoan species reported so far. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that lineage-specific gene expansions increased the diversity of the T. urticae UGT repertoire. Genomic distribution, intron-exon structure and structural motifs in the T. urticae UGTs were also described. In addition, expression profiling after host-plant shifts and in acaricide resistant lines supported an important role for UGT genes in xenobiotic metabolism. Expanded searches of UGTs in other arachnid species (Subphylum Chelicerata), including a spider, a scorpion, two ticks and two predatory mites, unexpectedly revealed the complete absence of UGT genes. However, a centipede (Subphylum Myriapoda) and a water flea and a crayfish (Subphylum Crustacea) contain UGT genes in their genomes similar to insect UGTs, suggesting that the UGT gene family might have been lost early in the Chelicerata lineage and subsequently re-gained in the tetranychid mites. Sequence similarity of T. urticae UGTs and bacterial UGTs and their phylogenetic reconstruction suggest that spider mites acquired UGT genes from bacteria by horizontal gene transfer. Our findings show a unique evolutionary history of the T. urticae UGT gene family among other arthropods and provide important clues to its functions in relation to detoxification and thereby host adaptation. PMID:24727020

  20. Code-assisted discovery of TAL effector targets in bacterial leaf streak of rice reveals contrast with bacterial blight and a novel susceptibility gene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors found in Xanthomonas spp. promote bacterial growth and plant susceptibility by binding specific DNA sequences or, effector-binding elements (EBEs), and inducing host gene expression. In this study, we have found substantially different transcriptional pro...

  1. Exposure to West Nile Virus Increases Bacterial Diversity and Immune Gene Expression in Culex pipiens

    PubMed Central

    Zink, Steven D.; Van Slyke, Greta A.; Palumbo, Michael J.; Kramer, Laura D.; Ciota, Alexander T.

    2015-01-01

    Complex interactions between microbial residents of mosquitoes and arboviruses are likely to influence many aspects of vectorial capacity and could potentially have profound effects on patterns of arbovirus transmission. Such interactions have not been well studied for West Nile virus (WNV; Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) and Culex spp. mosquitoes. We utilized next-generation sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA bacterial genes derived from Culex pipiens Linnaeus following WNV exposure and/or infection and compared bacterial populations and broad immune responses to unexposed mosquitoes. Our results demonstrate that WNV infection increases the diversity of bacterial populations and is associated with up-regulation of classical invertebrate immune pathways including RNA interference (RNAi), Toll, and Jak-STAT (Janus kinase-Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription). In addition, WNV exposure alone, without the establishment of infection, results in similar alterations to microbial and immune signatures, although to a lesser extent. Multiple bacterial genera were found in greater abundance in WNV-exposed and/or infected mosquitoes, yet the most consistent and notable was the genus Serratia. PMID:26516902

  2. Exposure to West Nile Virus Increases Bacterial Diversity and Immune Gene Expression in Culex pipiens.

    PubMed

    Zink, Steven D; Van Slyke, Greta A; Palumbo, Michael J; Kramer, Laura D; Ciota, Alexander T

    2015-01-01

    Complex interactions between microbial residents of mosquitoes and arboviruses are likely to influence many aspects of vectorial capacity and could potentially have profound effects on patterns of arbovirus transmission. Such interactions have not been well studied for West Nile virus (WNV; Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) and Culex spp. mosquitoes. We utilized next-generation sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA bacterial genes derived from Culex pipiens Linnaeus following WNV exposure and/or infection and compared bacterial populations and broad immune responses to unexposed mosquitoes. Our results demonstrate that WNV infection increases the diversity of bacterial populations and is associated with up-regulation of classical invertebrate immune pathways including RNA interference (RNAi), Toll, and Jak-STAT (Janus kinase-Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription). In addition, WNV exposure alone, without the establishment of infection, results in similar alterations to microbial and immune signatures, although to a lesser extent. Multiple bacterial genera were found in greater abundance inWNV-exposed and/or infected mosquitoes, yet the most consistent and notable was the genus Serratia. PMID:26516902

  3. Assessing the Probability of Detection of Horizontal Gene Transfer Events in Bacterial Populations

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Jeffrey P.; Bøhn, Thomas; Nielsen, Kaare Magne

    2012-01-01

    Experimental approaches to identify horizontal gene transfer (HGT) events of non-mobile DNA in bacteria have typically relied on detection of the initial transformants or their immediate offspring. However, rare HGT events occurring in large and structured populations are unlikely to be detected in a short time frame. Population genetic modeling of the growth dynamics of bacterial genotypes is therefore necessary to account for natural selection and genetic drift during the time lag and to predict realistic time frames for detection with a given sampling design. Here we draw on statistical approaches to population genetic theory to construct a cohesive probabilistic framework for investigation of HGT of exogenous DNA into bacteria. In particular, the stochastic timing of rare HGT events is accounted for. Integrating over all possible event timings, we provide an equation for the probability of detection, given that HGT actually occurred. Furthermore, we identify the key variables determining the probability of detecting HGT events in four different case scenarios that are representative of bacterial populations in various environments. Our theoretical analysis provides insight into the temporal aspects of dissemination of genetic material, such as antibiotic resistance genes or transgenes present in genetically modified organisms. Due to the long time scales involved and the exponential growth of bacteria with differing fitness, quantitative analyses incorporating bacterial generation time, and levels of selection, such as the one presented here, will be a necessary component of any future experimental design and analysis of HGT as it occurs in natural settings. PMID:22363321

  4. Use Of Low Light Image Microscopy To Monitor Genetically Engineered Bacterial Luciferase Gene Expression In Living Cells And Gene Activation Throughout The Development Of A Transgenic Organism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langridge, W. H.; Escher, Alan P.; Baga, M.; O'Kane, Dennis J.; Wampler, John E.; Koncz, C.; Schell, John D.; Szalay, A. A.

    1989-12-01

    Procaryotic and eucaryotic expression vectors which contain a marker gene for selection of transformants linked to genes encoding bacterial luciferase for detection of promoter activated gene expression in vivo were used to transform the appropriate host organisms and drug resistant colonies, cells, or calli were obtained. Bacterial luciferase expression was measured by a luminescence assay for quantitative determination of promoter activation. The cellular localization of bacteria inside the host plant cell cytoplasm was achieved in a single infected plant cell based on the light emitting ability of the genetically engineered bacteria. In addition, the bacterial luciferase marker gene fusions were used to monitor cell type, tissue, and organ specific gene expression in transgenic plants in vivo. To monitor physiological changes during ontogeny of a transformed plant, low light video microscopy, aided by real time image processing techniques developed specifically to enhance extreme low light images, was successfully applied.

  5. Bacterial Dimethylsulfoniopropionate Degradation Genes in the Oligotrophic North Pacific Subtropical Gyre

    PubMed Central

    Varaljay, Vanessa A.; Gifford, Scott M.; Wilson, Samuel T.; Sharma, Shalabh; Karl, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) is an organic sulfur compound that is rapidly metabolized by marine bacteria either by cleavage to dimethylsulfide (DMS) or demethylation to 3-methiolpropionate. The abundance and diversity of genes encoding bacterial DMS production (dddP) and demethylation (dmdA) were measured in the North Pacific subtropical gyre (NPSG) between May 2008 and February 2009 at Station ALOHA (22°45?N, 158°00?W) at two depths: 25 m and the deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM; ?100 m). The highest abundance of dmdA genes was in May 2008 at 25 m, with ?16.5% of cells harboring a gene in one of the eight subclades surveyed, while the highest abundance of dddP genes was in July 2008 at 25 m, with ?2% of cells harboring a gene. The dmdA gene pool was consistently dominated by homologs from SAR11 subclades, which was supported by findings in metagenomic data sets derived from Station ALOHA. Expression of the SAR11 dmdA genes was low, with typical transcript:gene ratios between 1:350 and 1:1,400. The abundance of DMSP genes was statistically different between 25 m and the DCM and correlated with a number of environmental variables, including primary production, photosynthetically active radiation, particulate DMSP, and DMS concentrations. At 25 m, dddP abundance was positively correlated with pigments that are diagnostic of diatoms; at the DCM, dmdA abundance was positively correlated with temperature. Based on gene abundance, we hypothesize that SAR11 bacterioplankton dominate DMSP cycling in the oligotrophic NPSG, with lesser but consistent involvement of other members of the bacterioplankton community. PMID:22327587

  6. Phylogeographic reconstruction of a bacterial species with high levels of lateral gene transfer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearson, T.; Giffard, P.; Beckstrom-Sternberg, S.; Auerbach, R.; Hornstra, H.; Tuanyok, A.; Price, E.P.; Glass, M.B.; Leadem, B.; Beckstrom-Sternberg, J. S.; Allan, G.J.; Foster, J.T.; Wagner, D.M.; Okinaka, R.T.; Sim, S.H.; Pearson, O.; Wu, Z.; Chang, J.; Kaul, R.; Hoffmaster, A.R.; Brettin, T.S.; Robison, R.A.; Mayo, M.; Gee, J.E.; Tan, P.; Currie, B.J.; Keim, P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Phylogeographic reconstruction of some bacterial populations is hindered by low diversity coupled with high levels of lateral gene transfer. A comparison of recombination levels and diversity at seven housekeeping genes for eleven bacterial species, most of which are commonly cited as having high levels of lateral gene transfer shows that the relative contributions of homologous recombination versus mutation for Burkholderia pseudomallei is over two times higher than for Streptococcus pneumoniae and is thus the highest value yet reported in bacteria. Despite the potential for homologous recombination to increase diversity, B. pseudomallei exhibits a relative lack of diversity at these loci. In these situations, whole genome genotyping of orthologous shared single nucleotide polymorphism loci, discovered using next generation sequencing technologies, can provide very large data sets capable of estimating core phylogenetic relationships. We compared and searched 43 whole genome sequences of B. pseudomallei and its closest relatives for single nucleotide polymorphisms in orthologous shared regions to use in phylogenetic reconstruction. Results: Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of >14,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms yielded completely resolved trees for these 43 strains with high levels of statistical support. These results enable a better understanding of a separate analysis of population differentiation among >1,700 B. pseudomallei isolates as defined by sequence data from seven housekeeping genes. We analyzed this larger data set for population structure and allele sharing that can be attributed to lateral gene transfer. Our results suggest that despite an almost panmictic population, we can detect two distinct populations of B. pseudomallei that conform to biogeographic patterns found in many plant and animal species. That is, separation along Wallace's Line, a biogeographic boundary between Southeast Asia and Australia. Conclusion: We describe an Australian origin for B. pseudomallei, characterized by a single introduction event into Southeast Asia during a recent glacial period, and variable levels of lateral gene transfer within populations. These patterns provide insights into mechanisms of genetic diversification in B. pseudomallei and its closest relatives, and provide a framework for integrating the traditionally separate fields of population genetics and phylogenetics for other bacterial species with high levels of lateral gene transfer. ?? 2009 Pearson et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  7. Conserved gene clusters in bacterial genomes provide further support for the primacy of RNA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siefert, J. L.; Martin, K. A.; Abdi, F.; Widger, W. R.; Fox, G. E.

    1997-01-01

    Five complete bacterial genome sequences have been released to the scientific community. These include four (eu)Bacteria, Haemophilus influenzae, Mycoplasma genitalium, M. pneumoniae, and Synechocystis PCC 6803, as well as one Archaeon, Methanococcus jannaschii. Features of organization shared by these genomes are likely to have arisen very early in the history of the bacteria and thus can be expected to provide further insight into the nature of early ancestors. Results of a genome comparison of these five organisms confirm earlier observations that gene order is remarkably unpreserved. There are, nevertheless, at least 16 clusters of two or more genes whose order remains the same among the four (eu)Bacteria and these are presumed to reflect conserved elements of coordinated gene expression that require gene proximity. Eight of these gene orders are essentially conserved in the Archaea as well. Many of these clusters are known to be regulated by RNA-level mechanisms in Escherichia coli, which supports the earlier suggestion that this type of regulation of gene expression may have arisen very early. We conclude that although the last common ancestor may have had a DNA genome, it likely was preceded by progenotes with an RNA genome.

  8. Transgenic Resistance Confers Effective Field Level Control of Bacterial Spot Disease in Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, Diana M.; Stall, Robert E.; Jones, Jeffrey B.; Pauly, Michael H.; Vallad, Gary E.; Dahlbeck, Doug; Staskawicz, Brian J.; Scott, John W.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether lines of transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) expressing the Bs2 resistance gene from pepper, a close relative of tomato, demonstrate improved resistance to bacterial spot disease caused by Xanthomonas species in replicated multi-year field trials under commercial type growing conditions. We report that the presence of the Bs2 gene in the highly susceptible VF 36 background reduced disease to extremely low levels, and VF 36-Bs2 plants displayed the lowest disease severity amongst all tomato varieties tested, including commercial and breeding lines with host resistance. Yields of marketable fruit from transgenic lines were typically 2.5 times that of the non-transformed parent line, but varied between 1.5 and 11.5 fold depending on weather conditions and disease pressure. Trials were conducted without application of any copper-based bactericides, presently in wide use despite negative impacts on the environment. This is the first demonstration of effective field resistance in a transgenic genotype based on a plant R gene and provides an opportunity for control of a devastating pathogen while eliminating ineffective copper pesticides. PMID:22870280

  9. Comparing wastewater chemicals, indicator bacteria concentrations, and bacterial pathogen genes as fecal pollution indicators

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haack, S.K.; Duris, J.W.; Fogarty, L.R.; Kolpin, D.W.; Focazio, M.J.; Furlong, E.T.; Meyer, M.T.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli [EC], and enterococci [ENT]) concentrations with a wide array of typical organic wastewater chemicals and selected bacterial genes as indicators of fecal pollution in water samples collected at or near 18 surface water drinking water intakes. Genes tested included esp (indicating human-pathogenic ENT) and nine genes associated with various animal sources of shiga-toxin-producing EC (STEC). Fecal pollution was indicated by genes and/or chemicals for 14 of the 18 tested samples, with little relation to FIB standards. Of 13 samples with <50 EC 100 mL-1, human pharmaceuticals or chemical indicators of wastewater treatment plant effluent occurred in six, veterinary antibiotics were detected in three, and stx1 or stx2 genes (indicating varying animal sources of STEC) were detected in eight. Only the EC eaeA gene was positively correlated with FIB concentrations. Human-source fecal pollution was indicated by the esp gene and the human pharmaceutical carbamazepine in one of the nine samples that met all FIB recreational water quality standards. Escherichia coli rfbO157 and stx2c genes, which are typically associated with cattle sources and are of potential human health significance, were detected in one sample in the absence of tested chemicals. Chemical and gene-based indicators of fecal contamination may be present even when FIB standards are met, and some may, unlike FIB, indicate potential sources. Application of multiple water quality indicators with variable environmental persistence and fate may yield greater confidence in fecal pollution assessment and may inform remediation decisions. Copyright ?? 2009 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparative genomics of the bacterial genus Listeria: Genome evolution is characterized by limited gene acquisition and limited gene loss

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The bacterial genus Listeria contains pathogenic and non-pathogenic species, including the pathogens L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii, both of which carry homologous virulence gene clusters such as the prfA cluster and clusters of internalin genes. Initial evidence for multiple deletions of the prfA cluster during the evolution of Listeria indicates that this genus provides an interesting model for studying the evolution of virulence and also presents practical challenges with regard to definition of pathogenic strains. Results To better understand genome evolution and evolution of virulence characteristics in Listeria, we used a next generation sequencing approach to generate draft genomes for seven strains representing Listeria species or clades for which genome sequences were not available. Comparative analyses of these draft genomes and six publicly available genomes, which together represent the main Listeria species, showed evidence for (i) a pangenome with 2,032 core and 2,918 accessory genes identified to date, (ii) a critical role of gene loss events in transition of Listeria species from facultative pathogen to saprotroph, even though a consistent pattern of gene loss seemed to be absent, and a number of isolates representing non-pathogenic species still carried some virulence associated genes, and (iii) divergence of modern pathogenic and non-pathogenic Listeria species and strains, most likely circa 47 million years ago, from a pathogenic common ancestor that contained key virulence genes. Conclusions Genome evolution in Listeria involved limited gene loss and acquisition as supported by (i) a relatively high coverage of the predicted pan-genome by the observed pan-genome, (ii) conserved genome size (between 2.8 and 3.2 Mb), and (iii) a highly syntenic genome. Limited gene loss in Listeria did include loss of virulence associated genes, likely associated with multiple transitions to a saprotrophic lifestyle. The genus Listeria thus provides an example of a group of bacteria that appears to evolve through a loss of virulence rather than acquisition of virulence characteristics. While Listeria includes a number of species-like clades, many of these putative species include clades or strains with atypical virulence associated characteristics. This information will allow for the development of genetic and genomic criteria for pathogenic strains, including development of assays that specifically detect pathogenic Listeria strains. PMID:21126366

  11. Novel terpenes generated by heterologous expression of bacterial terpene synthase genes in an engineered Streptomyces host.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yuuki; Arima, Shiho; Nagamitsu, Tohru; Johmoto, Kohei; Uekusa, Hidehiro; Eguchi, Tadashi; Shin-ya, Kazuo; Cane, David E; Ikeda, Haruo

    2015-06-01

    Mining of bacterial genome data has revealed numerous presumptive terpene synthases. Heterologous expression of several putative terpene synthase genes in an engineered Streptomyces host has revealed 13 newly discovered terpenes whose GC-MS and NMR data did not match with any known compounds in spectroscopic databases. Each of the genes encoding the corresponding terpene synthases were silent in their parent microorganisms. Heterologous expression and detailed NMR spectroscopic analysis allowed assignment of the structures of 13 new cyclic terpenes. Among these newly identified compounds, two were found to be linear triquinane sesquiterpenes that have never previously been isolated from bacteria or any other source. The remaining 11 new compounds were shown to be diterpene hydrocarbons and alcohol, including hydropyrene (1), hydropyrenol (2), tsukubadiene (11) and odyverdienes A (12) and B (13) each displaying a novel diterpene skeleton that had not previously been reported. PMID:25605043

  12. Emergence of Collective Territorial Defense in Bacterial Communities: Horizontal Gene Transfer Can Stabilize Microbiomes

    PubMed Central

    Szabó, Dóra; Pongor, Sándor

    2014-01-01

    Multispecies bacterial communities such as the microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract can be remarkably stable and resilient even though they consist of cells and species that compete for resources and also produce a large number of antimicrobial agents. Computational modeling suggests that horizontal transfer of resistance genes may greatly contribute to the formation of stable and diverse communities capable of protecting themselves with a battery of antimicrobial agents while preserving a varied metabolic repertoire of the constituent species. In other words horizontal transfer of resistance genes makes a community compatible in terms of exoproducts and capable to maintain a varied and mature metagenome. The same property may allow microbiota to protect a host organism, or if used as a microbial therapy, to purge pathogens and restore a protective environment. PMID:24755769

  13. Ras GTPase-like protein MglA, a controller of bacterial social-motility in Myxobacteria, has evolved to control bacterial predation by Bdellovibrio.

    PubMed

    Milner, David S; Till, Rob; Cadby, Ian; Lovering, Andrew L; Basford, Sarah M; Saxon, Emma B; Liddell, Susan; Williams, Laura E; Sockett, R Elizabeth

    2014-04-01

    Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus invade Gram-negative bacteria in a predatory process requiring Type IV pili (T4P) at a single invasive pole, and also glide on surfaces to locate prey. Ras-like G-protein MglA, working with MglB and RomR in the deltaproteobacterium Myxococcus xanthus, regulates adventurous gliding and T4P-mediated social motility at both M. xanthus cell poles. Our bioinformatic analyses suggested that the GTPase activating protein (GAP)-encoding gene mglB was lost in Bdellovibrio, but critical residues for MglA(Bd) GTP-binding are conserved. Deletion of mglA(Bd) abolished prey-invasion, but not gliding, and reduced T4P formation. MglA(Bd) interacted with a previously uncharacterised tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain protein Bd2492, which we show localises at the single invasive pole and is required for predation. Bd2492 and RomR also interacted with cyclic-di-GMP-binding receptor CdgA, required for rapid prey-invasion. Bd2492, RomR(Bd) and CdgA localize to the invasive pole and may facilitate MglA-docking. Bd2492 was encoded from an operon encoding a TamAB-like secretion system. The TamA protein and RomR were found, by gene deletion tests, to be essential for viability in both predatory and non-predatory modes. Control proteins, which regulate bipolar T4P-mediated social motility in swarming groups of deltaproteobacteria, have adapted in evolution to regulate the anti-social process of unipolar prey-invasion in the "lone-hunter" Bdellovibrio. Thus GTP-binding proteins and cyclic-di-GMP inputs combine at a regulatory hub, turning on prey-invasion and allowing invasion and killing of bacterial pathogens and consequent predatory growth of Bdellovibrio. PMID:24721965

  14. Ras GTPase-Like Protein MglA, a Controller of Bacterial Social-Motility in Myxobacteria, Has Evolved to Control Bacterial Predation by Bdellovibrio

    PubMed Central

    Milner, David S.; Till, Rob; Cadby, Ian; Lovering, Andrew L.; Basford, Sarah M.; Saxon, Emma B.; Liddell, Susan; Williams, Laura E.; Sockett, R. Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus invade Gram-negative bacteria in a predatory process requiring Type IV pili (T4P) at a single invasive pole, and also glide on surfaces to locate prey. Ras-like G-protein MglA, working with MglB and RomR in the deltaproteobacterium Myxococcus xanthus, regulates adventurous gliding and T4P-mediated social motility at both M. xanthus cell poles. Our bioinformatic analyses suggested that the GTPase activating protein (GAP)-encoding gene mglB was lost in Bdellovibrio, but critical residues for MglABd GTP-binding are conserved. Deletion of mglABd abolished prey-invasion, but not gliding, and reduced T4P formation. MglABd interacted with a previously uncharacterised tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain protein Bd2492, which we show localises at the single invasive pole and is required for predation. Bd2492 and RomR also interacted with cyclic-di-GMP-binding receptor CdgA, required for rapid prey-invasion. Bd2492, RomRBd and CdgA localize to the invasive pole and may facilitate MglA-docking. Bd2492 was encoded from an operon encoding a TamAB-like secretion system. The TamA protein and RomR were found, by gene deletion tests, to be essential for viability in both predatory and non-predatory modes. Control proteins, which regulate bipolar T4P-mediated social motility in swarming groups of deltaproteobacteria, have adapted in evolution to regulate the anti-social process of unipolar prey-invasion in the “lone-hunter” Bdellovibrio. Thus GTP-binding proteins and cyclic-di-GMP inputs combine at a regulatory hub, turning on prey-invasion and allowing invasion and killing of bacterial pathogens and consequent predatory growth of Bdellovibrio. PMID:24721965

  15. Growth phase dependence of the activation of a bacterial gene for carotenoid synthesis by blue light.

    PubMed Central

    Fontes, M; Ruiz-Vázquez, R; Murillo, F J

    1993-01-01

    Myxococcus xanthus responds to blue light by producing carotenoid pigments. A mutation at a gene named carC is known to block the metabolism of phytoene, a carotenoid precursor, and this gene has now been cloned and sequenced. We show here that gene carC, which is homologous to phytoene dehydrogenase genes from other organisms, is tightly regulated by light through a mechanism that operates only when the cells have reached the stationary phase or are starved of a carbon source. A genetic element that mediates the effect of the growth phase has been identified. Gene carC is integrated with another unlinked carotenogenic gene in a single 'light regulon' controlled by common trans-acting genetic elements. A potential -35 site for the binding of sigma factors has been found upstream of the carC transcriptional start. However, the -10 region shows no similarity with analogous sites at promoters of other Gram-negative bacteria. Images PMID:8467787

  16. Bacterial pathogen gene abundance and relation to recreational water quality at seven Great Lakes beaches.

    PubMed

    Oster, Ryan J; Wijesinghe, Rasanthi U; Haack, Sheridan K; Fogarty, Lisa R; Tucker, Taaja R; Riley, Stephen C

    2014-12-16

    Quantitative assessment of bacterial pathogens, their geographic variability, and distribution in various matrices at Great Lakes beaches are limited. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used to test for genes from E. coli O157:H7 (eaeO157), shiga-toxin producing E. coli (stx2), Campylobacter jejuni (mapA), Shigella spp. (ipaH), and a Salmonella enterica-specific (SE) DNA sequence at seven Great Lakes beaches, in algae, water, and sediment. Overall, detection frequencies were mapA>stx2>ipaH>SE>eaeO157. Results were highly variable among beaches and matrices; some correlations with environmental conditions were observed for mapA, stx2, and ipaH detections. Beach seasonal mean mapA abundance in water was correlated with beach seasonal mean log10 E. coli concentration. At one beach, stx2 gene abundance was positively correlated with concurrent daily E. coli concentrations. Concentration distributions for stx2, ipaH, and mapA within algae, sediment, and water were statistically different (Non-Detect and Data Analysis in R). Assuming 10, 50, or 100% of gene copies represented viable and presumably infective cells, a quantitative microbial risk assessment tool developed by Michigan State University indicated a moderate probability of illness for Campylobacter jejuni at the study beaches, especially where recreational water quality criteria were exceeded. Pathogen gene quantification may be useful for beach water quality management. PMID:25423586

  17. Sulfonamide and tetracycline resistance genes in total- and culturable-bacterial assemblages in South African aquatic environments

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Satoru; Ogo, Mitsuko; Koike, Tatsuya; Takada, Hideshige; Newman, Brent

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistant bacteria are ubiquitous in the natural environment. The introduction of e?uent derived antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) into aquatic environments is of concern in the spreading of genetic risk. This study showed the prevalence of sulfonamide and tetracycline resistance genes, sul1, sul2, sul3, and tet(M), in the total bacterial assemblage and colony forming bacterial assemblage in river and estuarine water and sewage treatment plants (STP) in South Africa. There was no correlation between antibiotic concentrations and ARGs, suggesting the targeted ARGs are spread in a wide area without connection to selection pressure. Among sul genes, sul1 and sul2 were major genes in the total (over 10-2 copies/16S) and colony forming bacteria assemblages (?10-1 copies/16S). In urban waters, the sul3 gene was mostly not detectable in total and culturable assemblages, suggesting sul3 is not abundant. tet(M) was found in natural assemblages with 10-3 copies/16S level in STP, but was not detected in colony forming bacteria, suggesting the non-culturable (yet-to-be cultured) bacterial community in urban surface waters and STP e?uent possess the tet(M) gene. Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) resistant (SMXr) and oxytetracycline (OTC) resistant (OTCr) bacterial communities in urban waters possessed not only sul1 and sul2 but also sul3 and tet(M) genes. These genes are widely distributed in SMXr and OTCr bacteria. In conclusion, urban river and estuarine water and STP e?uent in the Durban area were highly contaminated with ARGs, and the yet-to-be cultured bacterial community may act as a non-visible ARG reservoir in certain situations. PMID:26300864

  18. Identification and Expression Analysis of a Gene Encoding a Bacterial-Type Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase from Arabidopsis and Rice1

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Rosario; Cejudo, Francisco Javier

    2003-01-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) is distributed in plants and bacteria but is not found in fungi and animal cells. Important motifs for enzyme activity and structure are conserved in plant and bacterial PEPCs, with the exception of a phosphorylation domain present at the N terminus of all plant PEPCs reported so far, which is absent in the bacterial enzymes. Here, we describe a gene from Arabidopsis, stated as Atppc4, encoding a PEPC, which shows more similarity to Escherichia coli than to plant PEPCs. Interestingly, this enzyme lacks the phosphorylation domain, hence indicating that it is a bacterial-type PEPC. Three additional PEPC genes are present in Arabidopsis, stated as Atppc1, Atppc2, and Atppc3, encoding typical plant-type enzymes. As most plant PEPC genes, Atppc1, Atppc2, and Atppc3 are formed by 10 exons interrupted by nine introns. In contrast, Atppc4 gene has an unusual structure formed by 20 exons. A bacterial-type PEPC gene was also identified in rice (Oryza sativa), stated as Osppc-b, therefore showing the presence of this type of PEPC in monocots. The phylogenetic analysis suggests that both plant-type and bacterial-type PEPCs diverged early during the evolution of plants from a common ancestor, probably the PEPC from ?-proteobacteria. The diversity of plant-type PEPCs in C3, C4, and Crassulacean acid metabolism plants is indicative of the evolutionary success of the regulation by phosphorylation of this enzyme. Although at a low level, the bacterial-type PEPC genes are expressed in Arabidopsis and rice. PMID:12805623

  19. Assessment of Bacterial bph Gene in Amazonian Dark Earth and Their Adjacent Soils

    PubMed Central

    Brossi, Maria Julia de Lima; Mendes, Lucas William; Germano, Mariana Gomes; Lima, Amanda Barbosa; Tsai, Siu Mui

    2014-01-01

    Amazonian Anthrosols are known to harbour distinct and highly diverse microbial communities. As most of the current assessments of these communities are based on taxonomic profiles, the functional gene structure of these communities, such as those responsible for key steps in the carbon cycle, mostly remain elusive. To gain insights into the diversity of catabolic genes involved in the degradation of hydrocarbons in anthropogenic horizons, we analysed the bacterial bph gene community structure, composition and abundance using T-RFLP, 454-pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR essays, respectively. Soil samples were collected in two Brazilian Amazon Dark Earth (ADE) sites and at their corresponding non-anthropogenic adjacent soils (ADJ), under two different land use systems, secondary forest (SF) and manioc cultivation (M). Redundancy analysis of T-RFLP data revealed differences in bph gene structure according to both soil type and land use. Chemical properties of ADE soils, such as high organic carbon and organic matter, as well as effective cation exchange capacity and pH, were significantly correlated with the structure of bph communities. Also, the taxonomic affiliation of bph gene sequences revealed the segregation of community composition according to the soil type. Sequences at ADE sites were mostly affiliated to aromatic hydrocarbon degraders belonging to the genera Streptomyces, Sphingomonas, Rhodococcus, Mycobacterium, Conexibacter and Burkholderia. In both land use sites, shannon's diversity indices based on the bph gene data were higher in ADE than ADJ soils. Collectively, our findings provide evidence that specific properties in ADE soils shape the structure and composition of bph communities. These results provide a basis for further investigations focusing on the bio-exploration of novel enzymes with potential use in the biotechnology/biodegradation industry. PMID:24927167

  20. Assessment of bacterial bph gene in Amazonian dark earth and their adjacent soils.

    PubMed

    Brossi, Maria Julia de Lima; Mendes, Lucas William; Germano, Mariana Gomes; Lima, Amanda Barbosa; Tsai, Siu Mui

    2014-01-01

    Amazonian Anthrosols are known to harbour distinct and highly diverse microbial communities. As most of the current assessments of these communities are based on taxonomic profiles, the functional gene structure of these communities, such as those responsible for key steps in the carbon cycle, mostly remain elusive. To gain insights into the diversity of catabolic genes involved in the degradation of hydrocarbons in anthropogenic horizons, we analysed the bacterial bph gene community structure, composition and abundance using T-RFLP, 454-pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR essays, respectively. Soil samples were collected in two Brazilian Amazon Dark Earth (ADE) sites and at their corresponding non-anthropogenic adjacent soils (ADJ), under two different land use systems, secondary forest (SF) and manioc cultivation (M). Redundancy analysis of T-RFLP data revealed differences in bph gene structure according to both soil type and land use. Chemical properties of ADE soils, such as high organic carbon and organic matter, as well as effective cation exchange capacity and pH, were significantly correlated with the structure of bph communities. Also, the taxonomic affiliation of bph gene sequences revealed the segregation of community composition according to the soil type. Sequences at ADE sites were mostly affiliated to aromatic hydrocarbon degraders belonging to the genera Streptomyces, Sphingomonas, Rhodococcus, Mycobacterium, Conexibacter and Burkholderia. In both land use sites, shannon's diversity indices based on the bph gene data were higher in ADE than ADJ soils. Collectively, our findings provide evidence that specific properties in ADE soils shape the structure and composition of bph communities. These results provide a basis for further investigations focusing on the bio-exploration of novel enzymes with potential use in the biotechnology/biodegradation industry. PMID:24927167

  1. Binding motifs in bacterial gene promoters modulate transcriptional effect of global regulators

    SciTech Connect

    Leuze, Michael Rex; Karpinets, Tatiana V; Syed, Mustafa H; Beliaev, Alexander S; Uberbacher, Edward C

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial gene regulation involves transcription factors (TFs) that influence the expression of many genes. Global regulators, including CRP (cAMP Receptor Protein), ArcA, and FNR, can modulate the transcriptional activity of multiple operons. The similarity of a regulatory element s sequence to a TF s consensus binding site (BS) and the position of the regulatory element in an operon promoter are considered the most important determinants of this TF s regulatory influence. In this study we explore the hypothesis that the number of TFBS half-sites (where a half-site is one half of the palindromic BS consensus sequence, which we shall refer to as a binding motif or a BM) of a global regulator in an operon s promoter plays an important role in the operon s transcriptional regulation. We examine empirical data from transcriptional profiling of the CRP regulon in Shewanella oneidenses MR 1 and Escherichia coli, and of the ArcA regulon in S. oneidenses MR 1. We compare the power of CRP BM counts and of full, symmetrical CRP TFBS characteristics, namely similarity to consensus and location, to predict CRP-induced transcriptional activity. We find that CRP BM counts have a nonlinear effect on CRP-dependent transcriptional activity and predict this activity better than full-length TFBS quality or location. Regression analysis indicates that IHF (Integration Host Factor) and ArcA have synergistic effects on CRP-induced gene transcription, positive and negative, respectively. Based on these results, we propose that the fine-tuning of bacterial transcriptional activity by CRP may involves not only the bending of the operon promoter, facilitated by CRP in cooperation with the histone-like protein IHF, but also the cumulative binding affinity of multiple weak BMs.

  2. {open_quotes}Horizontal{close_quotes} gene transfer from a transgenic potato line to a bacterial pathogen (Erwinia chrysanthemi) occurs - if at all - at an extremely low frequency

    SciTech Connect

    Schlueter, K.; Fuetterer, J.; Potrykus, I.

    1995-10-01

    The frequency of possible {open_quotes}horizontal{close_quotes} gene transfer between a plant and a tightly associated bacterial pathogen was studied in a model system consisting of transgenic Solanum tuberosum, containing a {beta}-lactamase gene linked to a pBR322 origin of replication, and Erwinia chrysanthemi. This experimental system offers optimal conditions for the detection of possible horizontal gene transfer events, even when they occur at very low frequency. Horizontal gene transfer was not detected under conditions mimicking a {open_quotes}natural{close_quotes} infection. The gradual, stepwise alteration of artificial, positive control conditions to idealized natural conditions, however, allowed the characterization of factors that affected gene transfer, and revealed a gradual decrease of the gene transfer frequency from 6.3 x 10{sup -2} under optimal control conditions to a calculated 2.0 x 10{sub -17} under idealized natural conditions. These data, in combination with other published studies, argue that horizontal gene transfer is so rare as to be essentially irrelevant to any realistic assessment of the risk involved in release experiments involving transgenic plants. 22 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Genes and Co-Expression Modules Common to Drought and Bacterial Stress Responses in Arabidopsis and Rice

    PubMed Central

    Shaik, Rafi; Ramakrishna, Wusirika

    2013-01-01

    Plants are simultaneously exposed to multiple stresses resulting in enormous changes in the molecular landscape within the cell. Identification and characterization of the synergistic and antagonistic components of stress response mechanisms contributing to the cross talk between stresses is of high priority to explore and enhance multiple stress responses. To this end, we performed meta-analysis of drought (abiotic), bacterial (biotic) stress response in rice and Arabidopsis by analyzing a total of 386 microarray samples belonging to 20 microarray studies and identified approximately 3100 and 900 DEGs in rice and Arabidopsis, respectively. About 38.5% (1214) and 28.7% (272) DEGs were common to drought and bacterial stresses in rice and Arabidopsis, respectively. A majority of these common DEGs showed conserved expression status in both stresses. Gene ontology enrichment analysis clearly demarcated the response and regulation of various plant hormones and related biological processes. Fatty acid metabolism and biosynthesis of alkaloids were upregulated and, nitrogen metabolism and photosynthesis was downregulated in both stress conditions. WRKY transcription family genes were highly enriched in all upregulated gene sets while ‘CO-like’ TF family showed inverse relationship of expression between drought and bacterial stresses. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis divided DEG sets into multiple modules that show high co-expression and identified stress specific hub genes with high connectivity. Detection of consensus modules based on DEGs common to drought and bacterial stress revealed 9 and 4 modules in rice and Arabidopsis, respectively, with conserved and reversed co-expression patterns. PMID:24130868

  4. Construction of bacterial ghosts for transfer and expression of a chimeric hepatitis C virus gene in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Miri, M R; Behzad-Behbahani, A; Fardaei, M; Farhadi, A; Talebkhan, Y; Mohammadi, M; Tayebinia, M; Farokhinejad, F; Alavi, P; Fanian, M; Zare, F; Saberzade, J; Nikouyan, N; Okhovat, M A; Ranjbaran, R; Rafiei Dehbidi, G; Naderi, S

    2015-12-01

    The bacterial ghost (BG) production is a field of biotechnology for applications in vaccine and drug delivery. We assessed the capacity of BG for delivery of a recombinant gene encoded for both cell mediated and antibody dependent epitopes of hepatitis C virus (HCV) into murine macrophages. Escherichia coli (E. coli) cells were transformed with the lysis plasmid (pHH43). To produce chimeric gene, NS3 (non-structural protein 3) and core regions of HCV genome were fused together by splicing by overlap extension (SOEing) PCR and were cloned into plasmid pEGFP-C1. Bacterial ghosts were loaded with recombinant pEGFP-C1 and then were transferred to murine macrophages (RAW 264.7). To investigate plasmid transfection and chimeric mRNA transcription, fluorescent microscopy and RT-PCR were used. In vitro studies indicated that bacterial ghosts loaded with pEGFP-C1 plasmid were efficiently taken up by murine macrophages and indicated a high transfection rate (62%), as shown by fluorescent microscopy. RT-PCR from extracted intracellular mRNAs for chimeric Core-NS3 gene showed a specific 607bp fragment of the gene. The sequence analysis of purified PCR products demonstrated the expected unique mRNA sequence. We constructed a chimeric HCV gene containing both cell mediated and antibody dependent epitopes with a significant expression in murine macrophages delivered by bacterial ghost. PMID:26578242

  5. Evaluating Bias of Illumina-Based Bacterial 16S rRNA Gene Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Katherine; Hall, Michael W.; Lynch, Michael D. J.; Moreno-Hagelsieb, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Massively parallel sequencing of 16S rRNA genes enables the comparison of terrestrial, aquatic, and host-associated microbial communities with sufficient sequencing depth for robust assessments of both alpha and beta diversity. Establishing standardized protocols for the analysis of microbial communities is dependent on increasing the reproducibility of PCR-based molecular surveys by minimizing sources of methodological bias. In this study, we tested the effects of template concentration, pooling of PCR amplicons, and sample preparation/interlane sequencing on the reproducibility associated with paired-end Illumina sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes. Using DNA extracts from soil and fecal samples as templates, we sequenced pooled amplicons and individual reactions for both high (5- to 10-ng) and low (0.1-ng) template concentrations. In addition, all experimental manipulations were repeated on two separate days and sequenced on two different Illumina MiSeq lanes. Although within-sample sequence profiles were highly consistent, template concentration had a significant impact on sample profile variability for most samples. Pooling of multiple PCR amplicons, sample preparation, and interlane variability did not influence sample sequence data significantly. This systematic analysis underlines the importance of optimizing template concentration in order to minimize variability in microbial-community surveys and indicates that the practice of pooling multiple PCR amplicons prior to sequencing contributes proportionally less to reducing bias in 16S rRNA gene surveys with next-generation sequencing. PMID:25002428

  6. Transgenic banana plants expressing Xanthomonas wilt resistance genes revealed a stable non-target bacterial colonization structure.

    PubMed

    Nimusiima, Jean; Köberl, Martina; Tumuhairwe, John Baptist; Kubiriba, Jerome; Staver, Charles; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Africa is among the continents where the battle over genetically modified crops is currently being played out. The impact of GM in Africa could potentially be very positive. In Uganda, researchers have developed transgenic banana lines resistant to banana Xanthomonas wilt. The transgenic lines expressing hrap and pflp can provide a timely solution to the pandemic. However, the impact of the transgenes expression on non-target microorganisms has not yet been investigated. To study this effect, transgenic and control lines were grown under field conditions and their associated microbiome was investigated by 16S rRNA gene profiling combining amplicon sequencing and molecular fingerprinting. Three years after sucker planting, no statistically significant differences between transgenic lines and their non-modified predecessors were detected for their associated bacterial communities. The overall gammaproteobacterial rhizosphere microbiome was highly dominated by Xanthomonadales, while Pseudomonadales and Enterobacteriales were accumulated in the pseudostem. Shannon indices revealed much higher diversity in the rhizosphere than in the pseudostem endosphere. However, the expression of the transgenes did not result in changes in the diversity of Gammaproteobacteria, the closest relatives of the target pathogen. In this field experiment, the expression of the resistance genes appears to have no consequences for non-target rhizobacteria and endophytes. PMID:26657016

  7. Transgenic banana plants expressing Xanthomonas wilt resistance genes revealed a stable non-target bacterial colonization structure

    PubMed Central

    Nimusiima, Jean; Köberl, Martina; Tumuhairwe, John Baptist; Kubiriba, Jerome; Staver, Charles; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Africa is among the continents where the battle over genetically modified crops is currently being played out. The impact of GM in Africa could potentially be very positive. In Uganda, researchers have developed transgenic banana lines resistant to banana Xanthomonas wilt. The transgenic lines expressing hrap and pflp can provide a timely solution to the pandemic. However, the impact of the transgenes expression on non-target microorganisms has not yet been investigated. To study this effect, transgenic and control lines were grown under field conditions and their associated microbiome was investigated by 16S rRNA gene profiling combining amplicon sequencing and molecular fingerprinting. Three years after sucker planting, no statistically significant differences between transgenic lines and their non-modified predecessors were detected for their associated bacterial communities. The overall gammaproteobacterial rhizosphere microbiome was highly dominated by Xanthomonadales, while Pseudomonadales and Enterobacteriales were accumulated in the pseudostem. Shannon indices revealed much higher diversity in the rhizosphere than in the pseudostem endosphere. However, the expression of the transgenes did not result in changes in the diversity of Gammaproteobacteria, the closest relatives of the target pathogen. In this field experiment, the expression of the resistance genes appears to have no consequences for non-target rhizobacteria and endophytes. PMID:26657016

  8. Rapid pair-wise synteny analysis of large bacterial genomes using web-based GeneOrder4.0

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The growing whole genome sequence databases necessitate the development of user-friendly software tools to mine these data. Web-based tools are particularly useful to wet-bench biologists as they enable platform-independent analysis of sequence data, without having to perform complex programming tasks and software compiling. Findings GeneOrder4.0 is a web-based "on-the-fly" synteny and gene order analysis tool for comparative bacterial genomics (ca. 8 Mb). It enables the visualization of synteny by plotting protein similarity scores between two genomes and it also provides visual annotation of "hypothetical" proteins from older archived genomes based on more recent annotations. Conclusions The web-based software tool GeneOrder4.0 is a user-friendly application that has been updated to allow the rapid analysis of synteny and gene order in large bacterial genomes. It is developed with the wet-bench researcher in mind. PMID:20178631

  9. Impact of bacterial biocontrol agents on aflatoxin biosynthetic genes, aflD and aflR expression, and phenotypic aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus under different environmental and nutritional regimes.

    PubMed

    Al-Saad, Labeed A; Al-Badran, Adnan I; Al-Jumayli, Sami A; Magan, Naresh; Rodríguez, Alicia

    2016-01-18

    The objectives of this study were to examine the efficacy of four bacterial antagonists against Aspergillus flavus using 50:50 ratio of bacterial cells/conidia for the control of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) production on two different nutritional matrices, nutrient and maize-based media at different water availabilities (0.98, 0.94 water activity (aw) on nutrient medium; 0.995, 0.98 aw on maize meal agar medium) at 35°C. The indicators of efficacy used were the relative expression of one structural and regulatory gene in the biosynthetic pathway (aflD and aflR respectively) and the production of AFB1. These studies showed that some of the bacterial species could significantly inhibit the relative expression of the aflD and aflR genes at both 0.98 and 0.94 aw on nutrient agar. On maize-based media some of the bacterial antagonists reduced the activity of both genes at 0.94 aw and some at 0.995 aw. However, the results for AFB1 production were not consistent with the effects on gene expression. Some bacterial species stimulated AFB1 production on both nutrient and maize-based media regardless of aw. However, some bacterial treatments did inhibit AFB1 production significantly when compared to the control. Overall, this study suggests that temporal studies are required on the biosynthetic genes under different environmental and nutritional conditions to evaluate the potential of antagonists to control AFB1. PMID:26513252

  10. Light without substrate amendment: the bacterial luciferase gene cassette as a mammalian bioreporter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close, Dan M.; Xu, Tingting; Smartt, Abby E.; Jegier, Pat; Ripp, Steven A.; Sayler, Gary S.

    2011-06-01

    Bioluminescent production represents a facile method for bioreporter detection in mammalian tissues. The lack of endogenous bioluminescent reactions in these tissues allows for high signal to noise ratios even at low signal strength compared to fluorescent signal detection. While the luciferase enzymes commonly employed for bioluminescent detection are those from class Insecta (firefly and click beetle luciferases), these are handicapped in that they require concurrent administration of a luciferin compound to elicit a bioluminescent signal. The bacterial luciferase (lux) gene cassette offers the advantages common to other bioluminescent proteins, but is simultaneously capable of synthesizing its own luciferin substrates using endogenously available cellular compounds. The longstanding shortcoming of the lux cassette has been its recalcitrance to function in the mammalian cellular environment. This paper will present an overview of the work completed to date to overcome this limitation and provide examples of mammalian lux-based bioreporter technologies that could provide the framework for advanced, biomedically relevant real-time sensor development.

  11. Secondary Metabolites Control the Associated Bacterial Communities of Saprophytic Basidiomycotina Fungi

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Maira Peres; Türck, Patrick; Abraham, Wolf-Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Fungi grow under humid conditions and are, therefore, prone to biofilm infections. A 16S rRNA fingerprint analysis was performed on 49 sporocarps of Basidiomycotina in order to determine whether they are able to control these biofilms. Ninety-five bacterial phylotypes, comprising 4 phyla and 10 families, were identified. While ectomycorrhizal fungi harbored the highest bacterial diversity, saprophytic fungi showed little or no association with bacteria. Seven fungal species were screened for antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities. Biofilm formation and bacterial growth was inhibited by extracts obtained from saprophytic fungi, which confirmed the hypothesis that many fungi modulate biofilm colonization on their sporocarps. PMID:25904019

  12. Identification and transcriptional profile of multiple genes in the posterior kidney of Nile tilapia at 6h post bacterial infections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To understand the molecular mechanisms involved in response of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to bacterial infection, suppression subtractive cDNA hybridization technique was used to identify upregulated genes in the posterior kidney of Nile tilapia at 6h post infection with Aeromonas hydrophi...

  13. Phylogeny Inference of Closely Related Bacterial Genomes: Combining the Features of Both Overlapping Genes and Collinear Genomic Regions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan-Cong; Lin, Kui

    2015-01-01

    Overlapping genes (OGs) represent one type of widespread genomic feature in bacterial genomes and have been used as rare genomic markers in phylogeny inference of closely related bacterial species. However, the inference may experience a decrease in performance for phylogenomic analysis of too closely or too distantly related genomes. Another drawback of OGs as phylogenetic markers is that they usually take little account of the effects of genomic rearrangement on the similarity estimation, such as intra-chromosome/genome translocations, horizontal gene transfer, and gene losses. To explore such effects on the accuracy of phylogeny reconstruction, we combine phylogenetic signals of OGs with collinear genomic regions, here called locally collinear blocks (LCBs). By putting these together, we refine our previous metric of pairwise similarity between two closely related bacterial genomes. As a case study, we used this new method to reconstruct the phylogenies of 88 Enterobacteriale genomes of the class Gammaproteobacteria. Our results demonstrated that the topological accuracy of the inferred phylogeny was improved when both OGs and LCBs were simultaneously considered, suggesting that combining these two phylogenetic markers may reduce, to some extent, the influence of gene loss on phylogeny inference. Such phylogenomic studies, we believe, will help us to explore a more effective approach to increasing the robustness of phylogeny reconstruction of closely related bacterial organisms. PMID:26715828

  14. Engineering an Enhanced, Thermostable, Monomeric Bacterial Luciferase Gene As a Reporter in Plant Protoplasts

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yunhong; Wei, Jinsong; Li, Changfu; Wang, Tietao; Wang, Yao; Zhao, Tianyong; Shen, Xihui

    2014-01-01

    The application of the luxCDABE operon of the bioluminescent bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens as a reporter has been published for bacteria, yeast and mammalian cells. We report here the optimization of fused luxAB (the bacterial luciferase heterodimeric enzyme) expression, quantum yield and its application as a reporter gene in plant protoplasts. The fused luxAB gene was mutated by error prone PCR or chemical mutagenesis and screened for enhanced luciferase activity utilizing decanal as substrate. Positive luxAB mutants with superior quantum yield were subsequently shuffled by DNase I digestion and PCR assembly for generation of recombinants with additional increases in luciferase activity in bacteria. The coding sequence of the best recombinant, called eluxAB, was then optimized further to conform to Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) codon usage. A plant expression vector of the final, optimized eluxAB gene (opt-eluxAB) was constructed and transformed into protoplasts of Arabidopsis and maize (Zea mays). Luciferase activity was dramatically increased for opt-eluxAB compared to the original luxAB in Arabidopsis and maize cells. The opt-eluxAB driven by two copies of the 35S promoter expresses significantly higher than that driven by a single copy. These results indicate that the eluxAB gene can be used as a reporter in plant protoplasts. To our knowledge, this is the first report to engineer the bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens luciferase luxAB as a reporter by directed evolution which paved the way for further improving the luxAB reporter in the future. PMID:25271765

  15. Housefly Larva Vermicomposting Efficiently Attenuates Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Swine Manure, with Concomitant Bacterial Population Changes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hang; Li, Hongyi; Gilbert, Jack A; Li, Haibo; Wu, Longhua; Liu, Meng; Wang, Liling; Zhou, Qiansheng; Yuan, Junxiang; Zhang, Zhijian

    2015-11-15

    Manure from swine treated with antimicrobials as feed additives is a major source for the expansion of the antibiotic resistance gene (ARG) reservoir in the environment. Vermicomposting via housefly larvae (Musca domestica) can be efficiently used to treat manure and regenerate biofertilizer, but few studies have investigated its effect on ARG attenuation. Here, we tracked the abundances of 9 ARGs and the composition and structure of the bacterial communities in manure samples across 6 days of full-scale manure vermicomposting. On day 6, the abundances of genes encoding tetracycline resistance [tet(M), tet(O), tet(Q), and tet(W)] were reduced (P < 0.05), while those of genes encoding sulfonamide resistance (sul1 and sul2) were increased (P < 0.05) when normalized to 16S rRNA. The abundances of tetracycline resistance genes were correlated (P < 0.05) with the changing concentrations of tetracyclines in the manure. The overall diversity and richness of the bacteria significantly decreased during vermicomposting, accompanied by a 100 times increase in the relative abundance of Flavobacteriaceae spp. Variations in the abundances of ARGs were correlated with the changing microbial community structure and the relative abundances of the family Ruminococcaceae, class Bacilli, or phylum Proteobacteria. Vermicomposting, as a waste management practice, can reduce the overall abundance of ARGs. More research is warranted to assess the use of this waste management practice as a measure to attenuate the dissemination of antimicrobial residues and ARGs from livestock production before vermicompost can be safely used as biofertilizer in agroecosystems. PMID:26296728

  16. Hydrogen Peroxide- and Nitric Oxide-mediated Disease Control of Bacterial Wilt in Tomato Plants

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jeum Kyu; Kang, Su Ran; Kim, Yeon Hwa; Yoon, Dong June; Kim, Do Hoon; Kim, Hyeon Ji; Sung, Chang Hyun; Kang, Han Sol; Choi, Chang Won; Kim, Seong Hwan; Kim, Young Shik

    2013-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in tomato plants by Ralstonia solanacearum infection and the role of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide in tomato bacterial wilt control were demonstrated. During disease development of tomato bacterial wilt, accumulation of superoxide anion (O2?) and H2O2 was observed and lipid peroxidation also occurred in the tomato leaf tissues. High doses of H2O2and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) nitric oxide donor showed phytotoxicity to detached tomato leaves 1 day after petiole feeding showing reduced fresh weight. Both H2O2and SNP have in vitro antibacterial activities against R. solanacearum in a dose-dependent manner, as well as plant protection in detached tomato leaves against bacterial wilt by 106 and 107 cfu/ml of R. solanacearum. H2O2- and SNP-mediated protection was also evaluated in pots using soil-drench treatment with the bacterial inoculation, and relative ‘area under the disease progressive curve (AUDPC)’ was calculated to compare disease protection by H2O2 and/or SNP with untreated control. Neither H2O2 nor SNP protect the tomato seedlings from the bacterial wilt, but H2O2+ SNP mixture significantly decreased disease severity with reduced relative AUDPC. These results suggest that H2O2 and SNP could be used together to control bacterial wilt in tomato plants as bactericidal agents. PMID:25288967

  17. Transcriptomic and phylogenetic analysis of a bacterial cell cycle reveals strong associations between gene co-expression and evolution

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The genetic network involved in the bacterial cell cycle is poorly understood even though it underpins the remarkable ability of bacteria to proliferate. How such network evolves is even less clear. The major aims of this work were to identify and examine the genes and pathways that are differentially expressed during the Caulobacter crescentus cell cycle, and to analyze the evolutionary features of the cell cycle network. Results We used deep RNA sequencing to obtain high coverage RNA-Seq data of five C. crescentus cell cycle stages, each with three biological replicates. We found that 1,586 genes (over a third of the genome) display significant differential expression between stages. This gene list, which contains many genes previously unknown for their cell cycle regulation, includes almost half of the genes involved in primary metabolism, suggesting that these “house-keeping” genes are not constitutively transcribed during the cell cycle, as often assumed. Gene and module co-expression clustering reveal co-regulated pathways and suggest functionally coupled genes. In addition, an evolutionary analysis of the cell cycle network shows a high correlation between co-expression and co-evolution. Most co-expression modules have strong phylogenetic signals, with broadly conserved genes and clade-specific genes predominating different substructures of the cell cycle co-expression network. We also found that conserved genes tend to determine the expression profile of their module. Conclusion We describe the first phylogenetic and single-nucleotide-resolution transcriptomic analysis of a bacterial cell cycle network. In addition, the study suggests how evolution has shaped this network and provides direct biological network support that selective pressure is not on individual genes but rather on the relationship between genes, which highlights the importance of integrating phylogenetic analysis into biological network studies. PMID:23829427

  18. Biodegradation of atrazine by three transgenic grasses and alfalfa expressing a modified bacterial atrazine chlorohydrolase gene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The widespread use of atrazine and other s-triazine herbicides to control weeds in agricultural production fields has impacted surface and ground water in the United States and elsewhere. We previously reported the cloning, sequencing, and expression of six genes involved in the atrazine biodegradat...

  19. The Oral Bacterial Communities of Children with Well-Controlled HIV Infection and without HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Brittany E.; Mongodin, Emmanuel F.; Jones, Cheron E.; Chung, Michelle; Fraser, Claire M.; Tate, Anupama; Zeichner, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    The oral microbial community (microbiota) plays a critical role in human health and disease. Alterations in the oral microbiota may be associated with disorders such as gingivitis, periodontitis, childhood caries, alveolar osteitis, oral candidiasis and endodontic infections. In the immunosuppressed population, the spectrum of potential oral disease is even broader, encompassing candidiasis, necrotizing gingivitis, parotid gland enlargement, Kaposi’s sarcoma, oral warts and other diseases. Here, we used 454 pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes to examine the oral microbiome of saliva, mucosal and tooth samples from HIV-positive and negative children. Patient demographics and clinical characteristics were collected from a cross-section of patients undergoing routine dental care. Multiple specimens from different sampling sites in the mouth were collected for each patient. The goal of the study was to observe the potential diversity of the oral microbiota among individual patients, sample locations, HIV status and various dental characteristics. We found that there were significant differences in the microbiome among the enrolled patients, and between sampling locations. The analysis was complicated by uneven enrollment in the patient cohorts, with only five HIV-negative patients enrolled in the study and by the rapid improvement in the health of HIV-infected children between the time the study was conceived and completed. The generally good oral health of the HIV-negative patients limited the number of dental plaque samples that could be collected. We did not identify significant differences between well-controlled HIV-positive patients and HIV-negative controls, suggesting that well-controlled HIV-positive patients essentially harbor similar oral flora compared to patients without HIV. Nor were significant differences in the oral microbiota identified between different teeth or with different dental characteristics. Additional studies are needed to better characterize the oral microbiome in children and those with poorly-controlled HIV infections. PMID:26146997

  20. Multiple controls affect arsenite oxidase gene expression in Herminiimonas arsenicoxydans

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Both the speciation and toxicity of arsenic are affected by bacterial transformations, i.e. oxidation, reduction or methylation. These transformations have a major impact on environmental contamination and more particularly on arsenic contamination of drinking water. Herminiimonas arsenicoxydans has been isolated from an arsenic- contaminated environment and has developed various mechanisms for coping with arsenic, including the oxidation of As(III) to As(V) as a detoxification mechanism. Results In the present study, a differential transcriptome analysis was used to identify genes, including arsenite oxidase encoding genes, involved in the response of H. arsenicoxydans to As(III). To get insight into the molecular mechanisms of this enzyme activity, a Tn5 transposon mutagenesis was performed. Transposon insertions resulting in a lack of arsenite oxidase activity disrupted aoxR and aoxS genes, showing that the aox operon transcription is regulated by the AoxRS two-component system. Remarkably, transposon insertions were also identified in rpoN coding for the alternative N sigma factor (?54) of RNA polymerase and in dnaJ coding for the Hsp70 co-chaperone. Western blotting with anti-AoxB antibodies and quantitative RT-PCR experiments allowed us to demonstrate that the rpoN and dnaJ gene products are involved in the control of arsenite oxidase gene expression. Finally, the transcriptional start site of the aoxAB operon was determined using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and a putative -12/-24 ?54-dependent promoter motif was identified upstream of aoxAB coding sequences. Conclusion These results reveal the existence of novel molecular regulatory processes governing arsenite oxidase expression in H. arsenicoxydans. These data are summarized in a model that functionally integrates arsenite oxidation in the adaptive response to As(III) in this microorganism. PMID:20167112

  1. Characterization of a novel gene involved in cadmium accumulation screened from sponge-associated bacterial metagenome.

    PubMed

    Mori, Tetsushi; Iwamoto, Koji; Wakaoji, Satoshi; Araie, Hiroya; Kohara, Yotaro; Okamura, Yoshiko; Shiraiwa, Yoshihiro; Takeyama, Haruko

    2016-02-01

    Metagenome research has brought much attention for the identification of important and novel genes of industrial and pharmaceutical value. Here, using a metagenome library constructed from bacteria associated with the marine sponge, Styllisa massa, a high-throughput screening technique using radioisotope was implemented to screen for cadmium (Cd) binding or accumulation genes. From a total of 3301 randomly selected clones, a clone 247-11C was identified as harboring an open reading frame (ORF) showing Cd accumulation characteristics. The ORF, termed as ORF5, was further analyzed by protein functional studies to reveal the presence of a protein, Cdae-1. Cdae-1, composed of a signal peptide and domain harboring an E(G/A)KCG pentapeptide motif, enhanced Cd accumulation when expressed in Escherichia coli. Although showing no direct binding to Cd in vitro, the presence of important amino acid residues related to Cd detoxification suggests that Cdae-1 may possess a different mechanism from known Cd binding proteins such as metallothioneins (MTs) and phytochelatins (PCs). In summary, using the advantage of bacterial metagenomes, our findings in this work suggest the first report on the identification of a unique protein involved in Cd accumulation from bacteria associated with a marine sponge. PMID:26484790

  2. Finding immune gene expression differences induced by marine bacterial pathogens in the deep-sea hydrothermal vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, E.; Queiroz, A.; Serrão Santos, R.; Bettencourt, R.

    2013-02-01

    The deep-sea hydrothermal vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus lives in a natural environment characterized by extreme conditions of hydrostatic pressure, temperature, pH, high concentrations of heavy metals, methane and hydrogen sulphide. The deep-sea vent biological systems represent thus the opportunity to study and provide new insights into the basic physiological principles that govern the defense mechanisms in vent animals and to understand how they cope with microbial infections. Hence, the importance of understanding this animal's innate defense mechanisms, by examining its differential immune gene expressions toward different pathogenic agents. In the present study, B. azoricus mussels were infected with single suspensions of marine bacterial pathogens, consisting of Vibrio splendidus, Vibrio alginolyticus, or Vibrio anguillarum, and a pool of these Vibrio strains. Flavobacterium suspensions were also used as an irrelevant bacterium. Gene expression analyses were carried out using gill samples from animals dissected at 12 h and 24 h post-infection times by means of quantitative-Polymerase Chain Reaction aimed at targeting several immune genes. We also performed SDS-PAGE protein analyses from the same gill tissues. We concluded that there are different levels of immune gene expression between the 12 h and 24 h exposure times to various bacterial suspensions. Our results from qPCR demonstrated a general pattern of gene expression, decreasing from 12 h over 24 h post-infection. Among the bacteria tested, Flavobacterium is the microorganism species inducing the highest gene expression level in 12 h post-infections animals. The 24 h infected animals revealed, however, greater gene expression levels, using V. splendidus as the infectious agent. The SDS-PAGE analysis also pointed at protein profile differences between 12 h and 24 h, particularly around a protein area, of 18 KDa molecular mass, where most dissimilarities were found. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that immune genes, as well as experimental infections, clustered in discrete groups in accordance with the patterns observed in gene expression changes induced by bacterial pathogens.

  3. Finding immune gene expression differences induced by marine bacterial pathogens in the Deep-sea hydrothermal vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, E.; Queiroz, A.; Serrão Santos, R.; Bettencourt, R.

    2013-11-01

    The deep-sea hydrothermal vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus lives in a natural environment characterised by extreme conditions of hydrostatic pressure, temperature, pH, high concentrations of heavy metals, methane and hydrogen sulphide. The deep-sea vent biological systems represent thus the opportunity to study and provide new insights into the basic physiological principles that govern the defense mechanisms in vent animals and to understand how they cope with microbial infections. Hence, the importance of understanding this animal's innate defense mechanisms, by examining its differential immune gene expressions toward different pathogenic agents. In the present study, B. azoricus mussels were infected with single suspensions of marine bacterial pathogens, consisting of Vibrio splendidus, Vibrio alginolyticus, or Vibrio anguillarum, and a pool of these Vibrio bacteria. Flavobacterium suspensions were also used as a non-pathogenic bacterium. Gene expression analyses were carried out using gill samples from infected animals by means of quantitative-Polymerase Chain Reaction aimed at targeting several immune genes. We also performed SDS-PAGE protein analyses from the same gill tissues. We concluded that there are different levels of immune gene expression between the 12 h to 24 h exposure times to various bacterial suspensions. Our results from qPCR demonstrated a general pattern of gene expression, decreasing from 12 h over 24 h post-infection. Among the bacteria tested, Flavobacterium is the bacterium inducing the highest gene expression level in 12 h post-infections animals. The 24 h infected animals revealed, however, greater gene expression levels, using V. splendidus as the infectious agent. The SDS-PAGE analysis also pointed at protein profile differences between 12 h and 24 h, particularly evident for proteins of 18-20 KDa molecular mass, where most dissimilarity was found. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that immune genes, as well as experimental infections, clustered in discrete groups in accordance with the gene expression patterns induced by bacterial pathogens.

  4. Fabrication of microtemplates for the control of bacterial immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Miyahara, Yasuhiro; Mitamura, Koji; Saito, Nagahiro; Takai, Osamu

    2009-09-15

    The authors described a region-selective immobilization methods of bacteria by using superhydrophobic/superhydrophilic and superhydrophobic/poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) micropatterns for culture scaffold templates. In the case of superhydrophobic/superhydrophilic micropatterns, the superhydrophobic surface was prepared first by microwave-plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPECVD) from trimethylmethoxysilane. Then the superhydrophilic regions were fabricated by irradiating the superhydrophobic surface with vuv light through a stencil mask. In the case of the superhydrophobic/PEG micropatterned surfaces, PEG surfaces were fabricated first by chemical reaction of ester groups of p-nitrophenyl PEG with NH{sub 2} group of NH{sub 2}-terminated self assembled monolayer from n-6-hexyl-3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane. The superhydrophobic regions were fabricated by MPECVD thorough a stencil mask. In this study four bacteria were selected from viewpoint of peptidoglycan cell wall (E. coli versus B. subtilis), extracellular polysaccharide (E.coli versus P. stutzeri, P. aeruginosa), and growth rate (P. stutzeri versus P. aeruginosa). The former micropattern brought discrete adhesions of E. coli and B. subtilis specifically on the hydrophobic regions, Furthermore, using the superhydrophobic/PEG micropattern, adhesion of bacteria expanded for E. coli, B. subtilis, P. stutzeri, and P. aeruginosa. They observed a high bacterial adhesion onto superhydrophobic surfaces and the inhibitive effect of bacterial adhesion on PEG surfaces.

  5. Genetic networks controlled by the bacterial replication initiator and transcription factor DnaA in Bacillus subtilis

    E-print Network

    Washington, Tracy (Tracy Alexander)

    2013-01-01

    DnaA is the bacterial replication initiator, which also functions as a transcription factor to regulate gene expression. In B. subtilis, DnaA has previously been shown to repress its own transcription and has also been ...

  6. Two host clades, two bacterial arsenals: evolution through gene losses in facultative endosymbionts.

    PubMed

    Rollat-Farnier, Pierre-Antoine; Santos-Garcia, Diego; Rao, Qiong; Sagot, Marie-France; Silva, Francisco J; Henri, Hélène; Zchori-Fein, Einat; Latorre, Amparo; Moya, Andrés; Barbe, Valérie; Liu, Shu-Sheng; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Vavre, Fabrice; Mouton, Laurence

    2015-03-01

    Bacterial endosymbiosis is an important evolutionary process in insects, which can harbor both obligate and facultative symbionts. The evolution of these symbionts is driven by evolutionary convergence, and they exhibit among the tiniest genomes in prokaryotes. The large host spectrum of facultative symbionts and the high diversity of strategies they use to infect new hosts probably impact the evolution of their genome and explain why they undergo less severe genomic erosion than obligate symbionts. Candidatus Hamiltonella defensa is suitable for the investigation of the genomic evolution of facultative symbionts because the bacteria are engaged in specific relationships in two clades of insects. In aphids, H. defensa is found in several species with an intermediate prevalence and confers protection against parasitoids. In whiteflies, H. defensa is almost fixed in some species of Bemisia tabaci, which suggests an important role of and a transition toward obligate symbiosis. In this study, comparisons of the genome of H. defensa present in two B. tabaci species (Middle East Asia Minor 1 and Mediterranean) and in the aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum revealed that they belong to two distinct clades and underwent specific gene losses. In aphids, it contains highly virulent factors that could allow protection and horizontal transfers. In whiteflies, the genome lost these factors and seems to have a limited ability to acquire genes. However it contains genes that could be involved in the production of essential nutrients, which is consistent with a primordial role for this symbiont. In conclusion, although both lineages of H. defensa have mutualistic interactions with their hosts, their genomes follow distinct evolutionary trajectories that reflect their phenotype and could have important consequences on their evolvability. PMID:25714744

  7. Application of nanotechnology to control bacterial adhesion and patterning on material surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Costello, Cait M.; Yeung, Chun L.; Rawson, Frankie J.; Mendes, Paula M.

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation on surfaces raises health hazard issues in the medical environment. Previous studies of bacteria adhesion have focused on observations in their natural/native environments. Recently, surface science has contributed in advancing the understanding of bacterial adhesion by providing ideal platforms that attempt to mimic the bacteria's natural environments, whilst also enabling concurrent control, selectivity and spatial control of bacterial adhesion. In this review, we will look at techniques of how nanotechnology is used to control cell adhesion on a planar scale, in addition to describing the use of nanotools for cell micropatterning. Additionally, it will provide a general background of common methods for nanoscale modification enabling biologist unfamiliar with nanotechnology to enter the field. PMID:24273593

  8. 14. GENE PUMPING STATION CONTROL ROOM AS SEEN FROM MAIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. GENE PUMPING STATION CONTROL ROOM AS SEEN FROM MAIN STATION MANAGER'S CONTROL DESK. ELECTRICAL CONTROL INDICATORS AND CONTROLS FOR REGULATING ELECTRICITY INTO PLANT AS WELL AS SYNCHRONIZING STARTUP OF PUMPS. - Gene Pump Plant, South of Gene Wash Reservoir, 2 miles west of Whitsett Pump Plant, Parker Dam, San Bernardino County, CA

  9. The Evolution of the Bacterial Luciferase Gene Cassette (lux) as a Real-Time Bioreporter

    PubMed Central

    Close, Dan; Xu, Tingting; Smartt, Abby; Rogers, Alexandra; Crossley, Robert; Price, Sarah; Ripp, Steven; Sayler, Gary

    2012-01-01

    The bacterial luciferase gene cassette (lux) is unique among bioluminescent bioreporter systems due to its ability to synthesize and/or scavenge all of the substrate compounds required for its production of light. As a result, the lux system has the unique ability to autonomously produce a luminescent signal, either continuously or in response to the presence of a specific trigger, across a wide array of organismal hosts. While originally employed extensively as a bacterial bioreporter system for the detection of specific chemical signals in environmental samples, the use of lux as a bioreporter technology has continuously expanded over the last 30 years to include expression in eukaryotic cells such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and even human cell lines as well. Under these conditions, the lux system has been developed for use as a biomedical detection tool for toxicity screening and visualization of tumors in small animal models. As the technologies for lux signal detection continue to improve, it is poised to become one of the first fully implantable detection systems for intra-organismal optical detection through direct marriage to an implantable photon-detecting digital chip. This review presents the basic biochemical background that allows the lux system to continuously autobioluminesce and highlights the important milestones in the use of lux-based bioreporters as they have evolved from chemical detection platforms in prokaryotic bacteria to rodent-based tumorigenesis study targets. In addition, the future of lux imaging using integrated circuit microluminometry to image directly within a living host in real-time will be introduced and its role in the development of dose/response therapeutic systems will be highlighted. PMID:22368493

  10. Characterization of the gene encoding the autotrophic ATP sulfurylase from the bacterial endosymbiont of the hydrothermal vent tubeworm Riftia pachyptila.

    PubMed Central

    Laue, B E; Nelson, D C

    1994-01-01

    ATP sulfurylase is a key enzyme in the energy-generating sulfur oxidation pathways of many chemoautotrophic bacteria. The utilization of reduced sulfur compounds to fuel CO2 fixation by the still-uncultured bacterial endosymbionts provides the basis of nutrition in invertebrates, such as the tubeworm Riftia pachyptila, found at deep-sea hydrothermal vents. The symbiont-containing trophosome tissue contains high levels of ATP sulfurylase activity, facilitating the recent purification of the enzyme. The gene encoding the ATP sulfurylase from the Riftia symbiont (sopT) has now been cloned and sequenced by using the partial amino acid sequence of the purified protein. Characterization of the sopT gene has unequivocally shown its bacterial origin. This is the first ATP sulfurylase gene to be cloned and sequenced from a sulfur-oxidizing bacterium. The deduced amino acid sequence was compared to those of ATP sulfurylases reported from organisms which assimilate sulfate, resulting in the discovery that there is substantial homology with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae MET3 gene product but none with the products of the cysDN genes from Escherichia coli nor with the nodP and nodQ genes from Rhizobium meliloti. This and emerging evidence from other sources suggests that E. coli may be atypical, even among prokaryotic sulfate assimilators, in the enzyme it employs for adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate formation. The sopT gene probe also was shown to specifically identify chemoautotrophic bacteria which utilize ATP sulfurylase to oxidize sulfur compounds. Images PMID:8206850

  11. TGF-? control of stem cell differentiation genes

    PubMed Central

    Massagué, Joan; Xi, Qiaoran

    2012-01-01

    The canonical TGF-?/Smad signaling pathway was delineated in the mid 90’s and enriched over the past decade with many findings about its specificity, regulation, networking, and malfunctions in disease. However, a growing understanding of the chromatin status of a critical class of TGF-? target genes –the genes controlling differentiation of embryonic stem cells– recently prompted a reexamination of this pathway and its critical role in the regulation of stem cell differentiation. The new findings reveal master regulators of the pluripotent state set the stage for Smad-mediated activation of master regulators of the next differentiation stage. Furthermore, a novel branch of the TGF-?/Smad pathway has been identified in which a chromatin-reading Smad complex makes the master differentiation genes accessible to canonical Smad complexes for transcriptional activation. These findings provide exciting new insights into the global role of TGF-? signaling in the regulators of stem cell fate. PMID:22710171

  12. Decision tools for bacterial blight resistance gene deployment in rice-based agricultural ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Dossa, Gerbert S.; Sparks, Adam; Cruz, Casiana Vera; Oliva, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Attempting to achieve long-lasting and stable resistance using uniformly deployed rice varieties is not a sustainable approach. The real situation appears to be much more complex and dynamic, one in which pathogens quickly adapt to resistant varieties. To prevent disease epidemics, deployment should be customized and this decision will require interdisciplinary actions. This perspective article aims to highlight the current progress on disease resistance deployment to control bacterial blight in rice. Although the model system rice-Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae has distinctive features that underpin the need for a case-by-case analysis, strategies to integrate those elements into a unique decision tool could be easily extended to other crops. PMID:25999970

  13. Spaceflight Alters Bacterial Gene Expression and Virulence and Reveals Role for Global Regulator Hfq

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Ott, C. M.; zuBentrup, K. Honer; Ramamurthy R.; Quick, L.; Porwollik, S.; Cheng, P.; McClellan, M.; Tsaprailis, G.; Radabaugh, T.; Hunt, A.; Fernandez, D.; Richter, E.; Shah, M.; Kilcoyne, M.; Joshi, L.; Nelman-Gonzalez, M.; Hing, S.; Parra, M.; Dumaras, P.; Norwood, K.; Nickerson, C. A.; Bober, R.; Devich, J.; Ruggles, A.

    2007-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis of both the molecular genetic and phenotypic responses of any organism to the spaceflight environment has never been accomplished due to significant technological and logistical hurdles. Moreover, the effects of spaceflight on microbial pathogenicity and associated infectious disease risks have not been studied. The bacterial pathogen Salmonella typhimurium was grown aboard Space Shuttle mission STS-115 and compared to identical ground control cultures. Global microarray and proteomic analyses revealed 167 transcripts and 73 proteins changed expression with the conserved RNA-binding protein Hfq identified as a likely global regulator involved in the response to this environment. Hfq involvement was confirmed with a ground based microgravity culture model. Spaceflight samples exhibited enhanced virulence in a murine infection model and extracellular matrix accumulation consistent with a biofilm. Strategies to target Hfq and related regulators could potentially decrease infectious disease risks during spaceflight missions and provide novel therapeutic options on Earth.

  14. Bacterial gene profiling assay applied as an alternative method for mode of action classification: pilot study using chlorinated anilines.

    PubMed

    Dom, Nathalie; Nobels, Ingrid; Knapen, Dries; Blust, Ronny

    2011-05-01

    Polar narcotic structural analogues (e.g., chlorinated anilines with a differing degree of chlorosubstitution, such as aniline, 4-chloroaniline, 3,5-dichloroaniline, and 2,3,4-trichloroaniline) are assumed to induce their toxic effects via the same predominant mode of action (MOA; membrane damage) at equitoxic exposure concentrations. In this study, a bacterial gene profiling assay consisting of 14 general stress genes was used to test this hypothesis for these four compounds. Although we found a consistent induction of membrane damage, the response cascade and the extent of the response differed among the different chemical treatments. The higher chlorosubstituted anilines also triggered significantly more genes involved in other general stress MOA classes (oxidative stress and protein perturbation). These findings illustrate that, along with the commonly used physicochemistry-based MOA categorization methods, alternative tests such as the bacterial gene profiling assay can yield valuable biological information on the MOA of a certain chemical or group of chemicals that is crucial in high-quality environmental risk assessment. In a second phase, the experimental gene profiling data sets of the chlorinated anilines were analyzed and weighed against existing data on other polar and non polar narcotic compounds to obtain a broader comparison in which the predefined chemical MOAs (narcosis and polar narcosis) were contrasted with the biological MOAs (gene expression profiles). Although additional optimization of the assay is needed, our results show that the bacterial gene profiling assay opens new perspectives for biology-based chemical grouping, thereby further enabling targeted MOA-based risk assessment. PMID:21309029

  15. Tissue- and cell-specific expression of mouse xanthine oxidoreductase gene in vivo: regulation by bacterial lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed Central

    Kurosaki, M; Li Calzi, M; Scanziani, E; Garattini, E; Terao, M

    1995-01-01

    The expression of the xanthine oxidoreductase gene was studied in various mouse organs and tissues, under basal conditions and on treatment with bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Levels of xanthine oxidoreductase protein and mRNA were compared in order to understand the molecular mechanisms regulating the expression of this enzyme system. The highest amounts of xanthine oxidoreductase and the respective mRNA are observed in the duodenum and jejunum, where the protein is present in an unusual form because of a specific proteolytic cleavage of the primary translation product present in all locations. Under basal conditions, multiple tissue-specific mechanisms of xanthine oxidoreductase regulation are evident. Lipopolysaccharide increases enzyme activity in some, but not all tissues, mainly via modulation of the respective transcript, although translational and post-translational mechanisms are also active. In situ hybridization studies on tissue sections obtained from mice under control conditions or with lipopolysaccharide treatment demonstrate that xanthine oxidoreductase is present in hepatocytes, predominantly in the proximal tubules of the kidney, epithelial layer of the gastrointestinal mucosa, the alveolar compartment of the lung, the pulpar region of the spleen and the vascular component of the heart. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7864814

  16. Recent Trends in Control Methods for Bacterial Wilt Diseases Caused by Ralstonia solanacearum

    PubMed Central

    Yuliar; Nion, Yanetri Asi; Toyota, Koki

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have described the development of control methods against bacterial wilt diseases caused by Ralstonia solanacearum. This review focused on recent advances in control measures, such as biological, physical, chemical, cultural, and integral measures, as well as biocontrol efficacy and suppression mechanisms. Biological control agents (BCAs) have been dominated by bacteria (90%) and fungi (10%). Avirulent strains of R. solanacearum, Pseudomonas spp., Bacillus spp., and Streptomyces spp. are well-known BCAs. New or uncommon BCAs have also been identified such as Acinetobacter sp., Burkholderia sp., and Paenibacillus sp. Inoculation methods for BCAs affect biocontrol efficacy, such as pouring or drenching soil, dipping of roots, and seed coatings. The amendment of different organic matter, such as plant residue, animal waste, and simple organic compounds, have frequently been reported to suppress bacterial wilt diseases. The combined application of BCAs and their substrates was shown to more effectively suppress bacterial wilt in the tomato. Suppression mechanisms are typically attributed to the antibacterial metabolites produced by BCAs or those present in natural products; however, the number of studies related to host resistance to the pathogen is increasing. Enhanced/modified soil microbial communities are also indirectly involved in disease suppression. New promising types of control measures include biological soil disinfection using substrates that release volatile compounds. This review described recent advances in different control measures. We focused on the importance of integrated pest management (IPM) for bacterial wilt diseases. PMID:25762345

  17. Using DGGE and 16S rRNA Gene Sequence Analysis to Evaluate Changes in Oral Bacterial Composition

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, Zhou; TRIVEDI, Harsh M.; CHHUN, Nok; BARNES, Virginia M.; SAXENA, Deepak; XU, Tao; LI, Yihong

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether a standard dental prophylaxis followed by tooth brushing with an antibacterial dentifrice will affect the oral bacterial community, as determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) combined with 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Methods Twenty-four healthy adults were instructed to brush their teeth using commercial dentifrice for 1 week during a washout period. An initial set of pooled supragingival plaque samples was collected from each participant at baseline (0 h) before prophylaxis treatment. The subjects were given a clinical examination and dental prophylaxis and asked to brush for 1 min with a dentifrice containing 0.3% triclosan/2.0% PVM/MA copolymer/0.243% sodium fluoride (Colgate Total). On the following day, a second set of pooled supragingival plaque samples (24 h) was collected. Total bacterial genomic DNA was isolated from the samples. Differences in the microbial composition before and after the prophylactic procedure and tooth brushing were assessed by comparing the DGGE profiles of PCR-amplified and 16S rRNA gene segments sequence analysis. Results Two distinct clusters of DGGE profiles were found, suggesting that a shift in the microbial composition had occurred 24 h after the prophylaxis and brushing. A detailed sequencing analysis of 16S rRNA gene segments further identified six phyla and 29 genera, including known and unknown bacterial species. Importantly, an increase in bacterial diversity was observed after 24 h, including members of the Streptococcaceae family, Prevotella, Corynebacterium, TM7 and other commensal bacteria. Conclusion The results suggest that the use of a standard prophylaxis followed by the use of the dentifrice containing 0.3% triclosan/2.0% PVM/MA copolymer/0.243% sodium fluoride may promote a healthier composition within the oral bacterial community. PMID:22319750

  18. Bacterial Bioluminescence Regulates Expression of a Host Cryptochrome Gene in the Squid-Vibrio Symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Heath-Heckman, Elizabeth A. C.; Peyer, Suzanne M.; Whistler, Cheryl A.; Apicella, Michael A.; Goldman, William E.; McFall-Ngai, Margaret J.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The symbiosis between the squid Euprymna scolopes and its luminous symbiont, Vibrio fischeri, is characterized by daily transcriptional rhythms in both partners and daily fluctuations in symbiont luminescence. In this study, we sought to determine whether symbionts affect host transcriptional rhythms. We identified two transcripts in host tissues (E. scolopes cry1 [escry1] and escry2) that encode cryptochromes, proteins that influence circadian rhythms in other systems. Both genes cycled daily in the head of the squid, with a pattern similar to that of other animals, in which expression of certain cry genes is entrained by environmental light. In contrast, escry1 expression cycled in the symbiont-colonized light organ with 8-fold upregulation coincident with the rhythms of bacterial luminescence, which are offset from the day/night light regime. Colonization of the juvenile light organ by symbionts was required for induction of escry1 cycling. Further, analysis with a mutant strain defective in light production showed that symbiont luminescence is essential for cycling of escry1; this defect could be complemented by presentation of exogenous blue light. However, blue-light exposure alone did not induce cycling in nonsymbiotic animals, but addition of molecules of the symbiont cell envelope to light-exposed animals did recover significant cycling activity, showing that light acts in synergy with other symbiont features to induce cycling. While symbiont luminescence may be a character specific to rhythms of the squid-vibrio association, resident microbial partners could similarly influence well-documented daily rhythms in other systems, such as the mammalian gut. PMID:23549919

  19. Mutations in ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transaminase genes in plants or Pseudomonas syringae reduce bacterial virulence.

    PubMed

    Park, Duck Hwan; Mirabella, Rossana; Bronstein, Philip A; Preston, Gail M; Haring, Michel A; Lim, Chun Keun; Collmer, Alan; Schuurink, Robert C

    2010-10-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 is a bacterial pathogen of Arabidopsis and tomato that grows in the apoplast. The non-protein amino acid ?-amino butyric acid (GABA) is produced by Arabidopsis and tomato and is the most abundant amino acid in the apoplastic fluid of tomato. The DC3000 genome harbors three genes annotated as gabT GABA transaminases. A DC3000 mutant lacking all three gabT genes was constructed and found to be unable to utilize GABA as a sole carbon and nitrogen source. In complete minimal media supplemented with GABA, the mutant grew less well than wild-type DC3000 and showed strongly reduced expression of hrpL and avrPto, which encode an alternative sigma factor and effector, respectively, associated with the type III secretion system. The growth of the gabT triple mutant was weakly reduced in Arabidopsis ecotype Landberg erecta (Ler) and strongly reduced in the Ler pop2-1 GABA transaminase-deficient mutant that accumulates higher levels of GABA. Much of the ability to grow on GABA-amended minimal media or in Arabidopsis pop2-1 leaves could be restored to the gabT triple mutant by expression in trans of just gabT2. The ability of DC3000 to elicit the hypersensitive response (HR) in tobacco leaves is dependent upon deployment of the type III secretion system, and the gabT triple mutant was less able than wild-type DC3000 to elicit this HR when bacteria were infiltrated along with GABA at levels of 1 mm or more. GABA may have multiple effects on P. syringae-plant interactions, with elevated levels increasing disease resistance. PMID:21070411

  20. Population-Dynamic Modeling of Bacterial Horizontal Gene Transfer by Natural Transformation.

    PubMed

    Mao, Junwen; Lu, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Natural transformation is a major mechanism of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) and plays an essential role in bacterial adaptation, evolution, and speciation. Although its molecular underpinnings have been increasingly revealed, natural transformation is not well characterized in terms of its quantitative ecological roles. Here, by using Neisseria gonorrhoeae as an example, we developed a population-dynamic model for natural transformation and analyzed its dynamic characteristics with nonlinear tools and simulations. Our study showed that bacteria capable of natural transformation can display distinct population behaviors ranging from extinction to coexistence and to bistability, depending on their HGT rate and selection coefficient. With the model, we also illustrated the roles of environmental DNA sources-active secretion and passive release-in impacting population dynamics. Additionally, by constructing and utilizing a stochastic version of the model, we examined how noise shapes the steady and dynamic behaviors of the system. Notably, we found that distinct waiting time statistics for HGT events, namely a power-law distribution, an exponential distribution, and a mix of the both, are associated with the dynamics in the regimes of extinction, coexistence, and bistability accordingly. This work offers a quantitative illustration of natural transformation by revealing its complex population dynamics and associated characteristics, therefore advancing our ecological understanding of natural transformation as well as HGT in general. PMID:26745428

  1. A Molecular-Level Landscape of Diet-Gut Microbiome Interactions: Toward Dietary Interventions Targeting Bacterial Genes

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Yueqiong; Li, Jun

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT As diet is considered the major regulator of the gut ecosystem, the overall objective of this work was to demonstrate that a detailed knowledge of the phytochemical composition of food could add to our understanding of observed changes in functionality and activity of the gut microbiota. We used metatranscriptomic data from a human dietary intervention study to develop a network that consists of >400 compounds present in the administered plant-based diet linked to 609 microbial targets in the gut. Approximately 20% of the targeted bacterial proteins showed significant changes in their gene expression levels, while functional and topology analyses revealed that proteins in metabolic networks with high centrality are the most “vulnerable” targets. This global view and the mechanistic understanding of the associations between microbial gene expression and dietary molecules could be regarded as a promising methodological approach for targeting specific bacterial proteins that impact human health. PMID:26507230

  2. Eye-specification genes in the bacterial light organ of the bobtail squid Euprymna scolopes, and their expression in response to symbiont cues

    PubMed Central

    Peyer, Suzanne M.; Pankey, M. Sabrina; Oakley, Todd H.; McFall-Ngai, Margaret J.

    2014-01-01

    The squid Euprymna scolopes has evolved independent sets of tissues capable of light detection, including a complex eye and a photophore or ‘light organ’, which houses the luminous bacterial symbiont Vibrio fischeri. As the eye and light organ originate from different embryonic tissues, we examined whether the eye-specification genes, pax6, eya, six, and dac, are shared by these two organs, and if so, whether they are regulated in the light organ by symbiosis. We obtained sequences of the four genes with PCR, confirmed orthology with phylogenetic analysis, and determined that each was expressed in the eye and light organ. With in situ hybridization (ISH), we localized the gene transcripts in developing embryos, comparing the patterns of expression in the two organs. The four transcripts localized to similar tissues, including those associated with the visual system ~1/4 into embryogenesis (Naef stage 18) and the light organ ~3/4 into embryogenesis (Naef stage 26). We used ISH and quantitative real-time PCR to examine transcript expression and differential regulation in postembryonic light organs in response to the following colonization conditions: wild-type, luminescent V. fischeri; a mutant strain defective in light production; and as a control, no symbiont. In ISH experiments light organs showed down regulation of the pax6, eya, and six transcripts in response to wild-type V. fischeri. Mutant strains also induced down regulation of the pax6 and eya transcripts, but not of the six transcript. Thus, luminescence was required for down regulation of the six transcript. We discuss these results in the context of symbiont-induced light-organ development. Our study indicates that the eye-specification genes are expressed in light-interacting tissues independent of their embryonic origin and are capable of responding to bacterial cues. These results offer evidence for evolutionary tinkering or the recruitment of eye development genes for use in a light-sensing photophore. PMID:24157521

  3. A keystone predator controls bacterial diversity in the pitcher-plant (Sarracenia purpurea) microecosystem

    E-print Network

    Pringle, Anne

    - filled leaves of the carnivorous pitcher-plant Sarrace- nia purpurea includes arthropods, protozoa of such systems available for field studies. That makes the model ecosystem of the carnivorous pitcher- plantA keystone predator controls bacterial diversity in the pitcher-plant (Sarracenia purpurea

  4. In an early branching metazoan, bacterial colonization of the embryo is controlled by maternal antimicrobial

    E-print Network

    In an early branching metazoan, bacterial colonization of the embryo is controlled by maternal) Early embryos of many organisms develop outside the mother and are immediately confronted with myriads and in early embryos. If overexpressed in hydra ectodermal epithelial cells, periculin1a drastically reduces

  5. Factors influencing efficacy of plastic shelters for control of bacterial blight of lilac

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plastic shelters are thought to manage bacterial blight by protecting plants from rain and/or frost. In February to April 2008 and 2009, we studied the contribution of frost protection to efficacy of this cultural control practice. Lilacs in 1-gallon pots were exposed to four treatments: 1) plants...

  6. INFLUENCE OF ROOT EXUDATES AND BACTERIAL METABOLIC ACTIVITY ON APPARENT CONJUGAL GENE TRANSFER FREQUENCIES IN THE RHIZOSPHERE OF WATER GRASS (ECHINOCLORA CRUSGALLI)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The premise that genetic exchange is primarily localized in niches characterized by dense bacterial populations and high availability of growth substrates was tested by relating conjugal gene transfer of an RP4 derivative to availability of root exudates and bacterial metabolic a...

  7. Genome-Wide Identification of Hsp40 Genes in Channel Catfish and Their Regulated Expression after Bacterial Infection

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chao; Yao, Jun; Jiang, Chen; Li, Yun; Liu, Shikai; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2014-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) consist of a large group of chaperones whose expression is induced by high temperature, hypoxia, infection and a number of other stresses. Among all the HSPs, Hsp40 is the largest HSP family, which bind to Hsp70 ATPase domain in assisting protein folding. In this study, we identified 57 hsp40s in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) through in silico analysis using RNA-Seq and genome databases. These genes can be classified into three different types, Type I, II and III, based on their structural similarities. Phylogenetic and syntenic analyses provided strong evidence in supporting the orthologies of these HSPs. Meta-analyses of RNA-Seq datasets were conducted to analyze expression profile of Hsp40s following bacterial infection. Twenty seven hsp40s were found to be significantly up- or down-regulated in the liver after infection with E. ictaluri; 19 hsp40s were found to be significantly regulated in the intestine after infection with E. ictaluri; and 19 hsp40s were found to be significantly regulated in the gill following infection with F. columnare. Altogether, a total of 42 Hsp40 genes were regulated under disease situations involving three tissues and two bacterial infections. The significant regulated expression of Hsp40 genes after bacterial infection suggested their involvement in disease defenses in catfish. PMID:25542027

  8. Quantification of yeast and bacterial gene transcripts in retail cheeses by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Monnet, Christophe; Straub, Cécile; Castellote, Jessie; Onesime, Djamila; Bonnarme, Pascal; Irlinger, Françoise

    2013-01-01

    The cheese microbiota contributes to a large extent to the development of the typical color, flavor, and texture of the final product. Its composition is not well defined in most cases and varies from one cheese to another. The aim of the present study was to establish procedures for gene transcript quantification in cheeses by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. Total RNA was extracted from five smear-ripened cheeses purchased on the retail market, using a method that does not involve prior separation of microbial cells. 16S rRNA and malate:quinone oxidoreductase gene transcripts of Corynebacterium casei, Brevibacterium aurantiacum, and Arthrobacter arilaitensis and 26S rRNA and beta tubulin gene transcripts of Geotrichum candidum and Debaryomyces hansenii could be detected and quantified in most of the samples. Three types of normalization were applied: against total RNA, against the amount of cheese, and against a reference gene. For the first two types of normalization, differences of reverse transcription efficiencies from one sample to another were taken into account by analysis of exogenous control mRNA. No good correlation was found between the abundances of target mRNA or rRNA transcripts and the viable cell concentration of the corresponding species. However, in most cases, no mRNA transcripts were detected for species that did not belong to the dominant species. The applications of gene expression measurement in cheeses containing an undefined microbiota, as well as issues concerning the strategy of normalization and the assessment of amplification specificity, are discussed. PMID:23124230

  9. Integrated Control of Fire Blight with Bacterial Antagonists and Oxytetracycline

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Pacific Northwest of the United States, the antibiotic streptomycin provided excellent control of fire blight until resistant isolates of Erwinia amylovora were prevalent. Oxytetracycline (Mycoshield) is now sprayed as an alternative antibiotic. We found that the duration of inhibitory acti...

  10. Gene expression regulation in retinal pigment epithelial cells induced by viral RNA and viral/bacterial DNA

    PubMed Central

    Brosig, Anton; Kuhrt, Heidrun; Wiedemann, Peter; Kohen, Leon; Bringmann, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is associated with systemic and local inflammation. Various studies suggested that viral or bacterial infection may aggravate retinal inflammation in the aged retina. We compared the effects of synthetic viral RNA (poly(I:C)) and viral/bacterial DNA (CpG-ODN) on the expression of genes known to be involved in the development of AMD in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. Methods Cultured human RPE cells were stimulated with poly(I:C; 500 µg/ml) or CpG-ODN (500 nM). Alterations in gene expression and protein secretion were determined with real-time RT–PCR and ELISA, respectively. Phosphorylation of signal transduction molecules was revealed by western blotting. Results Poly(I:C) induced gene expression of the pattern recognition receptor TLR3, transcription factors (HIF-1?, p65/NF-?B), the angiogenic factor bFGF, inflammatory factors (IL-1?, IL-6, TNF?, MCP-1, MIP-2), and complement factors (C5, C9, CFB). Poly(I:C) also induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK proteins, and the secretion of bFGF and TNF? from the cells. CpG-ODN induced moderate gene expression of transcription factors (p65/NF-?B, NFAT5) and complement factors (C5, C9), while it had no effect on the expression of various TLR, angiogenic factor, and inflammatory factor genes. The activities of various signal transduction pathways and transcription factors were differentially involved in mediating the poly(I:C)-induced transcriptional activation of distinct genes. Conclusions The widespread effects of viral RNA, and the restricted effects of viral/bacterial DNA, on the gene expression pattern of RPE cells may suggest that viral RNA rather than viral/bacterial DNA induces physiologic alterations of RPE cells, which may aggravate inflammation in the aged retina. The data also suggest that selective inhibition of distinct signal transduction pathways or individual transcription factors may not be effective to inhibit viral retinal inflammation. PMID:26330750

  11. Dominant gene for common bean resistance to common bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The common bacterial blight pathogen [Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli (Xap)] is a limiting factor for common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production worldwide and resistance to the pathogen in most commercial cultivars is inadequate. Variability in virulence of the bacterial pathogen has been ob...

  12. Non-coding-regulatory regions of human brain genes delineated by bacterial artificial chromosome knock-in mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The next big challenge in human genetics is understanding the 98% of the genome that comprises non-coding DNA. Hidden in this DNA are sequences critical for gene regulation, and new experimental strategies are needed to understand the functional role of gene-regulation sequences in health and disease. In this study, we build upon our HuGX ('high-throughput human genes on the X chromosome’) strategy to expand our understanding of human gene regulation in vivo. Results In all, ten human genes known to express in therapeutically important brain regions were chosen for study. For eight of these genes, human bacterial artificial chromosome clones were identified, retrofitted with a reporter, knocked single-copy into the Hprt locus in mouse embryonic stem cells, and mouse strains derived. Five of these human genes expressed in mouse, and all expressed in the adult brain region for which they were chosen. This defined the boundaries of the genomic DNA sufficient for brain expression, and refined our knowledge regarding the complexity of gene regulation. We also characterized for the first time the expression of human MAOA and NR2F2, two genes for which the mouse homologs have been extensively studied in the central nervous system (CNS), and AMOTL1 and NOV, for which roles in CNS have been unclear. Conclusions We have demonstrated the use of the HuGX strategy to functionally delineate non-coding-regulatory regions of therapeutically important human brain genes. Our results also show that a careful investigation, using publicly available resources and bioinformatics, can lead to accurate predictions of gene expression. PMID:24124870

  13. Accumulation of clinically relevant antibiotic-resistance genes, bacterial load, and metals in freshwater lake sediments in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Devarajan, Naresh; Laffite, Amandine; Graham, Neil D; Meijer, Maria; Prabakar, Kandasamy; Mubedi, Josué I; Elongo, Vicky; Mpiana, Pius T; Ibelings, Bastiaan Willem; Wildi, Walter; Poté, John

    2015-06-01

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) receive the effluents from various sources (communities, industrial, and hospital effluents) and are recognized as reservoir for antibiotic-resistance genes (ARGs) that are associated with clinical pathogens. The aquatic environment is considered a hot-spot for horizontal gene transfer, and lake sediments offer the opportunity for reconstructing the pollution history and evaluating the impacts. In this context, variation with depth and time of the total bacterial load, the abundance of faecal indicator bacteria (FIB; E. coli and Enterococcus spp. (ENT)), Pseudomonas spp., and ARGs (blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCTX-M, blaNDM, and aadA) were quantified in sediment profiles of different parts of Lake Geneva using quantitative PCR. The abundance of bacterial marker genes was identified in sediments contaminated by WWTP following eutrophication of the lake. Additionally, ARGs, including the extended-spectrum ß-lactam- and aminoglycoside-resistance genes, were identified in the surface sediments. The ARG and FIB abundance strongly correlated (r ? 0.403, p < 0.05, n = 34) with organic matter and metal concentrations in the sediments, indicating a common and contemporary source of contamination. The contamination of sediments by untreated or partially treated effluent water can affect the quality of ecosystem. Therefore, the reduction of contaminants from the source is recommended for further improvement of water quality. PMID:25933054

  14. Low-shear modeled microgravity: a global environmental regulatory signal affecting bacterial gene expression, physiology, and pathogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickerson, Cheryl A.; Ott, C. Mark; Wilson, James W.; Ramamurthy, Rajee; LeBlanc, Carly L.; Honer zu Bentrup, Kerstin; Hammond, Timothy; Pierson, Duane L.

    2003-01-01

    Bacteria inhabit an impressive variety of ecological niches and must adapt constantly to changing environmental conditions. While numerous environmental signals have been examined for their effect on bacteria, the effects of mechanical forces such as shear stress and gravity have only been investigated to a limited extent. However, several important studies have demonstrated a key role for the environmental signals of low shear and/or microgravity in the regulation of bacterial gene expression, physiology, and pathogenesis [Chem. Rec. 1 (2001) 333; Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 54 (2000) 33; Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63 (1997) 4090; J. Ind. Microbiol. 18 (1997) 22; Curr. Microbiol. 34(4) (1997) 199; Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 56(3-4) (2001) 384; Infect Immun. 68(6) (2000) 3147; Cell 109(7) (2002) 913; Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68(11) (2002) 5408; Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 99(21) (2002) 13807]. The response of bacteria to these environmental signals, which are similar to those encountered during prokaryotic life cycles, may provide insight into bacterial adaptations to physiologically relevant conditions. This review focuses on the current and potential future research trends aimed at understanding the effect of the mechanical forces of low shear and microgravity analogues on different bacterial parameters. In addition, this review also discusses the use of microgravity technology to generate physiologically relevant human tissue models for research in bacterial pathogenesis.

  15. GPo1 alkB gene expression for improvement of the degradation of diesel oil by a bacterial consortium

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Qun; He, Ying; Hou, Deng-Yong; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Shen, Xian-Rong

    2015-01-01

    To facilitate the biodegradation of diesel oil, an oil biodegradation bacterial consortium was constructed. The alkane hydroxylase (alkB) gene of Pseudomonas putida GPo1 was constructed in a pCom8 expression vector, and the pCom8-GPo1 alkB plasmid was transformed into Escherichia coli DH5?. The AlkB protein was expressed by diesel oil induction and detected through SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The culture of the recombinant (pCom8-GPo1 alkB/E. coli DH5?) with the oil biodegradation bacterial consortium increased the degradation ratio of diesel oil at 24 h from 31% to 50%, and the facilitation rates were increased as the proportion of pCom8-GPo1 alkB/E. coli DH5? to the consortium increased. The results suggested that the expression of the GPo1 gene in E. coli DH5? could enhance the function of diesel oil degradation by the bacterial consortium. PMID:26413044

  16. GPo1 alkB gene expression for improvement of the degradation of diesel oil by a bacterial consortium.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qun; He, Ying; Hou, Deng-Yong; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Shen, Xian-Rong

    2015-01-01

    To facilitate the biodegradation of diesel oil, an oil biodegradation bacterial consortium was constructed. The alkane hydroxylase (alkB) gene of Pseudomonas putida GPo1 was constructed in a pCom8 expression vector, and the pCom8-GPo1 alkB plasmid was transformed into Escherichia coli DH5?. The AlkB protein was expressed by diesel oil induction and detected through SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The culture of the recombinant (pCom8-GPo1 alkB/E. coli DH5?) with the oil biodegradation bacterial consortium increased the degradation ratio of diesel oil at 24 h from 31% to 50%, and the facilitation rates were increased as the proportion of pCom8-GPo1 alkB/E. coli DH5? to the consortium increased. The results suggested that the expression of the GPo1 gene in E. coli DH5? could enhance the function of diesel oil degradation by the bacterial consortium. PMID:26413044

  17. Random inducible controlled expression (RICE) for identification of mycobacterial virulence genes.

    PubMed

    Janagama, Harish K; Hassounah, Hany A; Cirillo, Suat L G; Cirillo, Jeffrey D

    2011-12-01

    We have developed Random Inducible Controlled Expression (RICE), a high throughput genetic approach to identify regulated virulence pathways in pathogenic mycobacteria. RICE allows expression of bacterial genes under conditions where they are normally off, e.g. under laboratory growth conditions, via the use of an inducible or constitutive promoter as well as gene dosage effects due to the presence of the gene on a plasmid. Mycobacterial genomic DNA can be digested to yield random fragments for cloning into a suicide expression vector downstream of a mycobacterial promoter or with their own promoter on a replicating plasmid increasing expression by gene dosage effects. The plasmid DNA is normally amplified in Escherichia coli and delivered into mycobacteria to select for recombinants or plasmid transformants. The resulting library is then directly screened for enhanced host cell interactions in functional assays that evaluate the efficiency of adherence, entry and replication inside host cells. This approach has resulted in identification of several virulence factors from pathogenic mycobacteria. Our analysis of one such locus identified by RICE, the mycobacterial enhanced entry locus (mel2), found that the genes present facilitate bacterial persistence inside the host by protecting the pathogen against oxidative damage. Thus, we have developed a genetic strategy that offers several advantages: (i) it allows identification of bacterial genetic elements that have a direct role during host-pathogen interactions (ii) it can be used to identify virulence factors in a broad range of pathogens and (iii) it can reveal genes that are only induced at specific stages of infection. PMID:22079212

  18. New insight into the molecular control of bacterial functional amyloids

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Jonathan D.; Matthews, Steve J.

    2015-01-01

    Amyloid protein structure has been discovered in a variety of functional or pathogenic contexts. What distinguishes the former from the latter is that functional amyloid systems possess dedicated molecular control systems that determine the timing, location, and structure of the fibers. Failure to guide this process can result in cytotoxicity, as observed in several pathologies like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Disease. Many gram-negative bacteria produce an extracellular amyloid fiber known as curli via a multi-component secretion system. During this process, aggregation-prone, semi-folded curli subunits have to cross the periplasm and outer-membrane and self-assemble into surface-attached fibers. Two recent breakthroughs have provided molecular details regarding periplasmic chaperoning and subunit secretion. This review offers a combined perspective on these first mechanistic insights into the curli system. PMID:25905048

  19. Seasonal Changes in Bacterial and Archaeal Gene Expression Patterns across Salinity Gradients in the Columbia River Coastal Margin

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Maria W.; Herfort, Lydie; Tyrol, Kaitlin; Suciu, Dominic; Campbell, Victoria; Crump, Byron C.; Peterson, Tawnya D.; Zuber, Peter; Baptista, Antonio M.; Simon, Holly M.

    2010-01-01

    Through their metabolic activities, microbial populations mediate the impact of high gradient regions on ecological function and productivity of the highly dynamic Columbia River coastal margin (CRCM). A 2226-probe oligonucleotide DNA microarray was developed to investigate expression patterns for microbial genes involved in nitrogen and carbon metabolism in the CRCM. Initial experiments with the environmental microarrays were directed toward validation of the platform and yielded high reproducibility in multiple tests. Bioinformatic and experimental validation also indicated that >85% of the microarray probes were specific for their corresponding target genes and for a few homologs within the same microbial family. The validated probe set was used to query gene expression responses by microbial assemblages to environmental variability. Sixty-four samples from the river, estuary, plume, and adjacent ocean were collected in different seasons and analyzed to correlate the measured variability in chemical, physical and biological water parameters to differences in global gene expression profiles. The method produced robust seasonal profiles corresponding to pre-freshet spring (April) and late summer (August). Overall relative gene expression was high in both seasons and was consistent with high microbial abundance measured by total RNA, heterotrophic bacterial production, and chlorophyll a. Both seasonal patterns involved large numbers of genes that were highly expressed relative to background, yet each produced very different gene expression profiles. April patterns revealed high differential gene expression in the coastal margin samples (estuary, plume and adjacent ocean) relative to freshwater, while little differential gene expression was observed along the river-to-ocean transition in August. Microbial gene expression profiles appeared to relate, in part, to seasonal differences in nutrient availability and potential resource competition. Furthermore, our results suggest that highly-active particle-attached microbiota in the Columbia River water column may perform dissimilatory nitrate reduction (both dentrification and DNRA) within anoxic particle microniches. PMID:20967204

  20. A bacterial gene homologous to ABC transporters protect Oenococcus oeni from ethanol and other stress factors in wine.

    PubMed

    Bourdineaud, J-P; Nehmé, B; Tesse, S; Lonvaud-Funel, A

    2004-04-01

    The wine lactic acid bacteria Oenococcus oeni has to cope with harsh environmental conditions including an acidic pH, a high alcoholic content, non-optimal growth temperatures, and growth inhibitory compounds such as fatty acids, phenolic acids and tannins. We here describe characterisation and cloning of the O. oeni omrA gene encoding a protein belonging to the ATP-binding cassette superfamily of transporters. The OmrA protein displays the highest sequence similarity with the subfamily of ATP-dependent multidrug resistance (MDR) proteins, most notably the bacterial Lactococcus lactis LmrA homologue of the human MDR1 P-glycoprotein. The omrA gene proved to be a stress-responsive gene since its expression was increased at high temperature or under osmotic shock. The OmrA protein function was tested in Escherichia coli, and consistent with the omrA gene expression pattern, OmrA conferred protection to bacteria grown on a high salt medium. OmrA also triggered bacterial resistance to sodium laurate, wine and ethanol toxicity. The homologous LmrA protein featured the same stress-protective pattern than OmrA when expressed in E. coli, and the contribution to resistance of both OmrA and LmrA transporters was decreased by verapamil, a well-known inhibitor of the human MDR1 protein. Genes homologous to omrA were detected in other wine lactic acid bacteria, suggesting that this type of genes might constitute a well-conserved stress-protective molecular device. PMID:15033264

  1. Two novel human members of an emerging mammalian gene family related to mono-ADP-ribosylating bacterial toxins

    SciTech Connect

    Koch-Nolte, F.; Haag, F.; Braren, R.

    1997-02-01

    Mono-ADP-ribosylation is one of the posttranslational protein modifications regulating cellular metabolism, e.g., nitrogen fixation, in prokaryotes. Several bacterial toxins mono-ADP-ribosylate and inactivate specific proteins in their animal hosts. Recently, two mammalian GPI-anchored cell surface enzymes with similar activities were cloned (designated ART1 and ART2). We have now identified six related expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in the public database and cloned the two novel human genes from which these are derived (designated ART3 and ART4). The deduced amino acid sequences of the predicted gene products show 28% sequence identity to one another and 32-41% identity vs the muscle and T cell enzymes. They contain signal peptide sequences characteristic of GPI anchorage. Southern Zoo blot analyses suggest the presence of related genes in other mammalian species. By PCR screening of somatic cell hybrids and by in situ hybridization, we have mapped the two genes to human chromosomes 4p14-p15.l and 12q13.2- q13.3. Northern blot analyses show that these genes are specifically expressed in testis and spleen, respectively. Comparison of genomic and cDNA sequences reveals a conserved exon/intron structure, with an unusually large exon encoding the predicted mature membrane proteins. Secondary structure prediction analyses indicate conserved motifs and amino acid residues consistent with a common ancestry of this emerging mammalian enzyme family and bacterial mono(ADP-ribosyl)transferases. It is possible that the four human gene family members identified so far represent the {open_quotes}tip of an iceberg,{close_quote} i.e., a larger family of enzymes that influences the function of target proteins via mono-ADP-ribosylation. 35 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Controlling bacterial behavior with indole-containing natural products and derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Melander, Roberta J.; Minvielle, Marine J.; Melander, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Indole has recently been implicated as an important small molecule signal utilized by many bacteria to coordinate various forms of behavior. Indole plays a role in numerous bacterial processes, including: biofilm formation and maintenance, virulence factor production, antibiotic resistance and persister cell formation. Intercepting indole-signaling pathways with appropriately designed small molecules provides a n opportunity to control unwanted bacterial behaviors, and is an attractive anti-virulence therapeutic strategy. In this review, we give an overview of the process controlled by indole signaling, and summarize current efforts to design indole-containing small molecules to intercept these pathways, and detail the synthetic efforts towards accessing indole derived bioactive small molecules. PMID:25267859

  3. Description of Drinking Water Bacterial Communities Using 16S rRNA Gene Sequence Analyses

    EPA Science Inventory

    Descriptions of bacterial communities inhabiting water distribution systems (WDS) have mainly been accomplished using culture-based approaches. Due to the inherent selective nature of culture-based approaches, the majority of bacteria inhabiting WDS remain uncharacterized. The go...

  4. Chitinase genes revealed and compared in bacterial isolates, DNA extracts and a metagenomic library from a phytopathogen suppressive soil

    SciTech Connect

    Hjort, K.; Bergstrom, M.; Adesina, M.F.; Jansson, J.K.; Smalla, K.; Sjoling, S.

    2009-09-01

    Soil that is suppressive to disease caused by fungal pathogens is an interesting source to target for novel chitinases that might be contributing towards disease suppression. In this study we screened for chitinase genes, in a phytopathogen-suppressive soil in three ways: (1) from a metagenomic library constructed from microbial cells extracted from soil, (2) from directly extracted DNA and (3) from bacterial isolates with antifungal and chitinase activities. Terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) of chitinase genes revealed differences in amplified chitinase genes from the metagenomic library and the directly extracted DNA, but approximately 40% of the identified chitinase terminal-restriction fragments (TRFs) were found in both sources. All of the chitinase TRFs from the isolates were matched to TRFs in the directly extracted DNA and the metagenomic library. The most abundant chitinase TRF in the soil DNA and the metagenomic library corresponded to the TRF{sup 103} of the isolate, Streptomyces mutomycini and/or Streptomyces clavifer. There were good matches between T-RFLP profiles of chitinase gene fragments obtained from different sources of DNA. However, there were also differences in both the chitinase and the 16S rRNA gene T-RFLP patterns depending on the source of DNA, emphasizing the lack of complete coverage of the gene diversity by any of the approaches used.

  5. The omp2 gene locus of Brucella abortus encodes two homologous outer membrane proteins with properties characteristic of bacterial porins.

    PubMed Central

    Marquis, H; Ficht, T A

    1993-01-01

    In Brucella abortus, a gene encoding a major cell envelope protein, omp2, is duplicated within a short segment of the large chromosomal DNA. Although both genes contain open reading frames, encoding proteins of high identity, expression from only one, omp2b, has been detected in laboratory-grown B. abortus. In the present study, we wished to determine whether omp2b encodes the previously studied Brucella porin and to characterize the omp2a gene product. Experiments were performed with Escherichia coli transformants expressing either omp2a or omp2b. Our results indicated that both gene products localized to the outer membrane of E. coli. Initial rates of transport of [14C]maltose and growth rates in the presence of maltodextrins of defined size indicated an increased hydrophilic permeability of transformants expressing omp2a. These cells were also shown to grow on maltotetraose, a molecule with a molecular mass of 667 Da. Activity consistent with the formation of pores could not be demonstrated in transformants expressing omp2b. However, Omp2b formed oligomers resistant to heat denaturation up to 70 degrees C in sodium dodecyl sulfate buffer, a property characteristic of bacterial porins. Overall, these results suggest that the omp2a gene product has pore-forming activity and that the omp2b gene encodes the previously characterized Brucella porin. Images PMID:7689540

  6. BB Seminar: Detecting gene-gene interactions in genome-wide case-control studies

    Cancer.gov

    Gene-gene interactions have long been recognized to be fundamentally important to understand genetic causes of complex disease traits. At present, identifying gene-gene interactions from genome-wide case-control studies is computationally and methodologically challenging. In this talk, we introduce a new method, named Boolean Operation based Screening and Testing(BOOST). To discover unknown gene-gene interactions that underlie complex diseases, BOOST allows examining all pair-wise interactions in genome-wide case-control studies in a remarkably fast manner.

  7. Expression of a synthesized gene encoding cationic peptide cecropin B in transgenic tomato plants protects against bacterial diseases.

    PubMed

    Jan, Pey-Shynan; Huang, Hsu-Yuang; Chen, Hueih-Min

    2010-02-01

    The cationic lytic peptide cecropin B (CB), isolated from the giant silk moth (Hyalophora cecropia), has been shown to effectively eliminate Gram-negative and some Gram-positive bacteria. In this study, the effects of chemically synthesized CB on plant pathogens were investigated. The S(50)s (the peptide concentrations causing 50% survival of a pathogenic bacterium) of CB against two major pathogens of the tomato, Ralstonia solanacearum and Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria, were 529.6 microg/ml and 0.29 microg/ml, respectively. The CB gene was then fused to the secretory signal peptide (sp) sequence from the barley alpha-amylase gene, and the new construct, pBI121-spCB, was used for the transformation of tomato plants. Integration of the CB gene into the tomato genome was confirmed by PCR, and its expression was confirmed by Western blot analyses. In vivo studies of the transgenic tomato plant demonstrated significant resistance to bacterial wilt and bacterial spot. The levels of CB expressed in transgenic tomato plants ( approximately 0.05 microg in 50 mg of leaves) were far lower than the S(50) determined in vitro. CB transgenic tomatoes could therefore be a new mode of bioprotection against these two plant diseases with significant agricultural applications. PMID:19966019

  8. The effects of pneumoperitoneum and controlled ventilation on peritoneal lymphatic bacterial clearance: experimental results in rats

    PubMed Central

    Casaroli, Armando Angelo; Mimica, Lycia M. J.; Fontes, Belchor; Rasslan, Samir

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of pneumoperitoneum, both alone and in combination with controlled ventilation, on peritoneal lymphatic bacterial clearance using a rat bacterial peritonitis model. METHOD: A total of 69 male Wistar rats were intraperitoneally inoculated with an Escherichia coli solution (109 colony-forming units (cfu)/mL) and divided into three groups of 23 animals each: A (control group), B (pneumoperitoneum under 5 mmHg of constant pressure), and C (endotracheal intubation, controlled ventilation, and pneumoperitoneum as in Group B). The animals were sacrificed after 30 min under these conditions, and blood, mediastinal ganglia, lungs, peritoneum, liver, and spleen cultures were performed. RESULTS: Statistical analyses comparing the number of cfu/sample in each of the cultures showed that no differences existed between the three groups. CONCLUSION: Based on our results, we concluded that pneumoperitoneum, either alone or in association with mechanical ventilation, did not modify the bacterial clearance through the diaphragmatic lymphatic system of the peritoneal cavity. PMID:22179170

  9. The Phytohormone Ethylene Enhances Cellulose Production, Regulates CRP/FNRKx Transcription and Causes Differential Gene Expression within the Bacterial Cellulose Synthesis Operon of Komagataeibacter (Gluconacetobacter) xylinus ATCC 53582

    PubMed Central

    Augimeri, Richard V.; Strap, Janice L.

    2015-01-01

    Komagataeibacter (formerly Gluconacetobacter) xylinus ATCC 53582 is a plant-associated model organism for bacterial cellulose (BC) biosynthesis. This bacterium inhabits the carposphere where it interacts with fruit through the bi-directional transfer of phytohormones. The majority of research regarding K. xylinus has been focused on identifying and characterizing structural and regulatory factors that control BC biosynthesis, but its ecophysiology has been generally overlooked. Ethylene is a phytohormone that regulates plant development in a variety of ways, but is most commonly known for its positive role on fruit ripening. In this study, we utilized ethephon (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid) to produce in situ ethylene to investigate the effects of this phytohormone on BC production and the expression of genes known to be involved in K. xylinus BC biosynthesis (bcsA, bcsB, bcsC, bcsD, cmcAx, ccpAx and bglAx). Using pellicle assays and reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), we demonstrate that ethephon-derived ethylene enhances BC directly in K. xylinus by up-regulating the expression of bcsA and bcsB, and indirectly though the up-regulation of cmcAx, ccpAx, and bglAx. We confirm that IAA directly decreases BC biosynthesis by showing that IAA down-regulates bcsA expression. Similarly, we confirm that ABA indirectly influences BC biosynthesis by showing it does not affect the expression of bcs operon genes. In addition, we are the first to report the ethylene and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) induced differential expression of genes within the bacterial cellulose synthesis (bcs) operon. Using bioinformatics we have identified a novel phytohormone-regulated CRP/FNRKx transcription factor and provide evidence that it influences BC biosynthesis in K. xylinus. Lastly, utilizing current and previous data, we propose a model for the phytohormone-mediated fruit-bacteria interactions that K. xylinus experiences in nature.

  10. Refined identification of Vibrio bacterial flora from Acanthasther planci based on biochemical profiling and analysis of housekeeping genes.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Posada, J A; Pratchett, M; Cano-Gomez, A; Arango-Gomez, J D; Owens, L

    2011-09-01

    We used a polyphasic approach for precise identification of bacterial flora (Vibrionaceae) isolated from crown-of-thorns starfish (COTS) from Lizard Island (Great Barrier Reef, Australia) and Guam (U.S.A., Western Pacific Ocean). Previous 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic analysis was useful to allocate and identify isolates within the Photobacterium, Splendidus and Harveyi clades but failed in the identification of Vibrio harveyi-like isolates. Species of the V harveyi group have almost indistinguishable phenotypes and genotypes, and thus, identification by standard biochemical tests and 16S rRNA gene analysis is commonly inaccurate. Biochemical profiling and sequence analysis of additional topA and mreB housekeeping genes were carried out for definitive identification of 19 bacterial isolates recovered from sick and wild COTS. For 8 isolates, biochemical profiles and topA and mreB gene sequence alignments with the closest relatives (GenBank) confirmed previous 16S rRNA-based identification: V. fortis and Photobacterium eurosenbergii species (from wild COTS), and V natriegens (from diseased COTS). Further phylogenetic analysis based on topA and mreB concatenated sequences served to identify the remaining 11 V harveyi-like isolates: V. owensii and V. rotiferianus (from wild COTS), and V. owensii, V. rotiferianus, and V. harveyi (from diseased COTS). This study further confirms the reliability of topA-mreB gene sequence analysis for identification of these close species, and it reveals a wider distribution range of the potentially pathogenic V. harveyi group. PMID:22013751

  11. Regulated bioluminescence as a tool for bioremediation process monitoring and control of bacterial cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlage, Robert S.; Heitzer, Armin; Digrazia, Philip M.

    1991-01-01

    An effective on-line monitoring technique for toxic waste bioremediation using bioluminescent microorganisms has shown great potential for the description and optimization of biological processes. The lux genes of the bacterium Vibrio fischeri are used by this species to produce visible light. The lux genes can be genetically fused to the control region of a catabolic gene, with the result that bioluminescence is produced whenever the catabolic gene is induced. Thus the detection of light from a sample indicates that genetic expression from a specific gene is occurring. This technique was used to monitor biodegradation of specific contaminants from waste sites. For these studies, fusions between the lux genes and the operons for naphthalene and toluene/xylene degradation were constructed. Strains carrying one of these fusions respond sensitively and specifically to target substrates. Bioluminescence from these cultures can be rapidly measured in a nondestructive and noninvasive manner. The potential for this technique in this and other biological systems is discussed.

  12. Evaluation of bacterial communities by bacteriome analysis targeting 16S rRNA genes and quantitative analysis of ammonia monooxygenase gene in different types of compost.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Rika; Ishii, Kazuo; Maeda, Isamu; Kozaki, Toshinori; Iwabuchi, Kazunori; Saito, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    Biofiltration technology based on microbial degradation and assimilation is used for the removal of malodorous compounds, such as ammonia. Microbes that degrade malodorous and/or organic substances are involved in composting and are retained after composting; therefore, mature composts can serve as an ideal candidate for a biofilter medium. In this study, we focused on different types of raw compost materials, as these are important factors determining the bacterial community profile and the chemical component of the compost. Therefore, bacterial community profiles, the abundance of the bacterial ammonia monooxygenase gene (amoA), and the quantities of chemical components were analyzed in composts produced from either food waste or cattle manure. The community profiles with the lowest beta diversity were obtained from single type of cattle manure compost. However, cattle manure composts showed greater alpha diversity, contained higher amounts of various rRNA gene fragments than those of food waste composts and contained the amoA gene by relative quantification, and Proteobacteria were abundantly found and nitrifying bacteria were detected in it. Nitrifying bacteria are responsible for ammonia oxidation and mainly belong to the Proteobacteria or Nitrospira phyla. The quantities of chemical components, such as salt, phosphorus, and nitrogen, differed between the cattle manure and food waste composts, indicating that the raw materials provided different fermentation environments that were crucial for the formation of different community profiles. The results also suggest that cattle manure might be a more suitable raw material for the production of composts to be used in the biofiltration of ammonia. PMID:26111599

  13. Designer gene networks: Towards fundamental cellular control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasty, Jeff; Isaacs, Farren; Dolnik, Milos; McMillen, David; Collins, J. J.

    2001-03-01

    The engineered control of cellular function through the design of synthetic genetic networks is becoming plausible. Here we show how a naturally occurring network can be used as a parts list for artificial network design, and how model formulation leads to computational and analytical approaches relevant to nonlinear dynamics and statistical physics. We first review the relevant work on synthetic gene networks, highlighting the important experimental findings with regard to genetic switches and oscillators. We then present the derivation of a deterministic model describing the temporal evolution of the concentration of protein in a single-gene network. Bistability in the steady-state protein concentration arises naturally as a consequence of autoregulatory feedback, and we focus on the hysteretic properties of the protein concentration as a function of the degradation rate. We then formulate the effect of an external noise source which interacts with the protein degradation rate. We demonstrate the utility of such a formulation by constructing a protein switch, whereby external noise pulses are used to switch the protein concentration between two values. Following the lead of earlier work, we show how the addition of a second network component can be used to construct a relaxation oscillator, whereby the system is driven around the hysteresis loop. We highlight the frequency dependence on the tunable parameter values, and discuss design plausibility. We emphasize how the model equations can be used to develop design criteria for robust oscillations, and illustrate this point with parameter plots illuminating the oscillatory regions for given parameter values. We then turn to the utilization of an intrinsic cellular process as a means of controlling the oscillations. We consider a network design which exhibits self-sustained oscillations, and discuss the driving of the oscillator in the context of synchronization. Then, as a second design, we consider a synthetic network with parameter values near, but outside, the oscillatory boundary. In this case, we show how resonance can lead to the induction of oscillations and amplification of a cellular signal. Finally, we construct a toggle switch from positive regulatory elements, and compare the switching properties for this network with those of a network constructed using negative regulation. Our results demonstrate the utility of model analysis in the construction of synthetic gene regulatory networks.

  14. Survey of Culture, GoldenGate Assay, Universal Biosensor Assay, and 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing as Alternative Methods of Bacterial Pathogen Detection

    PubMed Central

    Pop, Mihai; Antonio, Martin; Walker, Alan W.; Mai, Volker; Ahmed, Dilruba; Oundo, Joseph; Tamboura, Boubou; Panchalingam, Sandra; Levine, Myron M.; Kotloff, Karen; Li, Shan; Magder, Laurence S.; Paulson, Joseph N.; Liu, Bo; Ikumapayi, Usman; Ebruke, Chinelo; Dione, Michel; Adeyemi, Mitchell; Rance, Richard; Stares, Mark D.; Ukhanova, Maria; Barnes, Bret; Lewis, Ian; Ahmed, Firoz; Alam, Meer Taifur; Amin, Ruhul; Siddiqui, Sabbir; Ochieng, John B.; Ouma, Emmanuel; Juma, Jane; Mailu, Eunice; Omore, Richard; O'Reilly, Ciara E.; Hannis, James; Manalili, Sheri; DeLeon, Jonna; Yasuda, Irene; Blyn, Lawrence; Ranken, Raymond; Li, Feng; Housley, Roberta; Ecker, David J.; Hossain, M. Anowar; Breiman, Robert F.; Morris, J. Glenn; McDaniel, Timothy K.; Parkhill, Julian; Saha, Debasish; Sampath, Rangarajan; Stine, O. Colin; Nataro, James P.

    2013-01-01

    Cultivation-based assays combined with PCR or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based methods for finding virulence factors are standard methods for detecting bacterial pathogens in stools; however, with emerging molecular technologies, new methods have become available. The aim of this study was to compare four distinct detection technologies for the identification of pathogens in stools from children under 5 years of age in The Gambia, Mali, Kenya, and Bangladesh. The children were identified, using currently accepted clinical protocols, as either controls or cases with moderate to severe diarrhea. A total of 3,610 stool samples were tested by established clinical culture techniques: 3,179 DNA samples by the Universal Biosensor assay (Ibis Biosciences, Inc.), 1,466 DNA samples by the GoldenGate assay (Illumina), and 1,006 DNA samples by sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Each method detected different proportions of samples testing positive for each of seven enteric pathogens, enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), Shigella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella enterica, and Aeromonas spp. The comparisons among detection methods included the frequency of positive stool samples and kappa values for making pairwise comparisons. Overall, the standard culture methods detected Shigella spp., EPEC, ETEC, and EAEC in smaller proportions of the samples than either of the methods based on detection of the virulence genes from DNA in whole stools. The GoldenGate method revealed the greatest agreement with the other methods. The agreement among methods was higher in cases than in controls. The new molecular technologies have a high potential for highly sensitive identification of bacterial diarrheal pathogens. PMID:23884998

  15. Survey of culture, goldengate assay, universal biosensor assay, and 16S rRNA Gene sequencing as alternative methods of bacterial pathogen detection.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Brianna; Pop, Mihai; Antonio, Martin; Walker, Alan W; Mai, Volker; Ahmed, Dilruba; Oundo, Joseph; Tamboura, Boubou; Panchalingam, Sandra; Levine, Myron M; Kotloff, Karen; Li, Shan; Magder, Laurence S; Paulson, Joseph N; Liu, Bo; Ikumapayi, Usman; Ebruke, Chinelo; Dione, Michel; Adeyemi, Mitchell; Rance, Richard; Stares, Mark D; Ukhanova, Maria; Barnes, Bret; Lewis, Ian; Ahmed, Firoz; Alam, Meer Taifur; Amin, Ruhul; Siddiqui, Sabbir; Ochieng, John B; Ouma, Emmanuel; Juma, Jane; Mailu, Eunice; Omore, Richard; O'Reilly, Ciara E; Hannis, James; Manalili, Sheri; Deleon, Jonna; Yasuda, Irene; Blyn, Lawrence; Ranken, Raymond; Li, Feng; Housley, Roberta; Ecker, David J; Hossain, M Anowar; Breiman, Robert F; Morris, J Glenn; McDaniel, Timothy K; Parkhill, Julian; Saha, Debasish; Sampath, Rangarajan; Stine, O Colin; Nataro, James P

    2013-10-01

    Cultivation-based assays combined with PCR or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based methods for finding virulence factors are standard methods for detecting bacterial pathogens in stools; however, with emerging molecular technologies, new methods have become available. The aim of this study was to compare four distinct detection technologies for the identification of pathogens in stools from children under 5 years of age in The Gambia, Mali, Kenya, and Bangladesh. The children were identified, using currently accepted clinical protocols, as either controls or cases with moderate to severe diarrhea. A total of 3,610 stool samples were tested by established clinical culture techniques: 3,179 DNA samples by the Universal Biosensor assay (Ibis Biosciences, Inc.), 1,466 DNA samples by the GoldenGate assay (Illumina), and 1,006 DNA samples by sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Each method detected different proportions of samples testing positive for each of seven enteric pathogens, enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), Shigella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella enterica, and Aeromonas spp. The comparisons among detection methods included the frequency of positive stool samples and kappa values for making pairwise comparisons. Overall, the standard culture methods detected Shigella spp., EPEC, ETEC, and EAEC in smaller proportions of the samples than either of the methods based on detection of the virulence genes from DNA in whole stools. The GoldenGate method revealed the greatest agreement with the other methods. The agreement among methods was higher in cases than in controls. The new molecular technologies have a high potential for highly sensitive identification of bacterial diarrheal pathogens. PMID:23884998

  16. Bacterial growth, detachment and cell size control on polyethylene terephthalate surfaces.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liyun; Fan, Daming; Chen, Wei; Terentjev, Eugene M

    2015-01-01

    In medicine and food industry, bacterial colonisation on surfaces is a common cause of infections and severe illnesses. However, the detailed quantitative information about the dynamics and the mechanisms involved in bacterial proliferation on solid substrates is still lacking. In this study we investigated the adhesion and detachment, the individual growth and colonisation, and the cell size control of Escherichia coli (E. coli) MG1655 on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) surfaces. The results show that the bacterial growth curve on PET exhibits the distinct lag and log phases, but the generation time is more than twice longer than in bulk medium. Single cells in the lag phase are more likely to detach than clustered ones in the log phase; clustered bacteria in micro-colonies have stronger adhesive bonds with surfaces and their neighbours with the progressing colonisation. We show that the cell size is under the density-dependent pathway control: when the adherent cells are at low density, the culture medium is responsible for coordinating cell division and cell size; when the clustered cells are at high population density, we demonstrate that the effect of quorum sensing causes the cell size decrease as the cell density on surfaces increases. PMID:26464114

  17. Controlled release evaluation of bacterial fertilizer using polymer composites as matrix.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chin-San

    2008-11-24

    The use of polybutylene succinate (PBSU)/starch-type composite as biodegradable matrix material for the controlled release of bacterial fertilizer was evaluated. The composites were prepared by a melting-blending method and various methods/instruments were applied to characterize composites and PBSU. The mechanical properties of the PBSU/starch composite were worse than PBSU alone because the former had poor compatibility between starch and the polymer matrix. Much better dispersion and homogeneity were observed in the composite when PBSU was replaced by acrylic acid grafted PBSU (PBSU-g-AA), hence leading to better mechanical properties of PBSU-g-AA/starch. Furthermore, PBSU-g-AA/starch was more easily processed. The bacterial fertilizer was encapsulated in PBSU and PBSU-g-AA/starch matrix. Increased blending of starch increased the biodegradability of matrix and the amount and rate of cell release from matrix suggesting that this composite is a promising candidate material for 'controlled release' bacterial fertilizer. PMID:18796320

  18. Bacterial growth, detachment and cell size control on polyethylene terephthalate surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liyun; Fan, Daming; Chen, Wei; Terentjev, Eugene M.

    2015-01-01

    In medicine and food industry, bacterial colonisation on surfaces is a common cause of infections and severe illnesses. However, the detailed quantitative information about the dynamics and the mechanisms involved in bacterial proliferation on solid substrates is still lacking. In this study we investigated the adhesion and detachment, the individual growth and colonisation, and the cell size control of Escherichia coli (E. coli) MG1655 on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) surfaces. The results show that the bacterial growth curve on PET exhibits the distinct lag and log phases, but the generation time is more than twice longer than in bulk medium. Single cells in the lag phase are more likely to detach than clustered ones in the log phase; clustered bacteria in micro-colonies have stronger adhesive bonds with surfaces and their neighbours with the progressing colonisation. We show that the cell size is under the density-dependent pathway control: when the adherent cells are at low density, the culture medium is responsible for coordinating cell division and cell size; when the clustered cells are at high population density, we demonstrate that the effect of quorum sensing causes the cell size decrease as the cell density on surfaces increases. PMID:26464114

  19. A controllable bacterial lysis system to enhance biological safety of live attenuated Vibrio anguillarum vaccine.

    PubMed

    Chu, Teng; Guan, Lingyu; Shang, Pengfei; Wang, Qiyao; Xiao, Jingfan; Liu, Qin; Zhang, Yuanxing

    2015-08-01

    Bacterial strains used as backbone for the generation of vaccine prototypes should exhibit an adequate and stable safety profile. Given the fact that live attenuated vaccines often contain some potential risks in virulence recovery and spread infections, new approaches are greatly needed to improve their biological safety. Here, a critically iron-regulated promoter PviuA was screened from Vibrio anguillarum, which was demonstrated to respond to iron-limitation signal both in vitro and in vivo. By using PviuA as a regulatory switch to control the expression of phage P22 lysis cassette 13-19-15, a novel in vivo inducible bacterial lysis system was established in V. anguillarum. This system was proved to be activated by iron-limitation signals and then effectively lyse V. anguillarum both in vitro and in vivo. Further, this controllable bacterial lysis system, after being transformed into a live attenuated V. anguillarum vaccine strain MVAV6203, was confirmed to significantly improve biological safety of the live attenuated vaccine without impairing its immune protection efficacy. PMID:26052008

  20. The control of size in animals: insights from selector genes

    E-print Network

    these structures attain their different sizes will point to the genes and pathways used by nature to manipulate status of the tissue in which they are expressed.(3) By manipulating selector genes, it is possibleThe control of size in animals: insights from selector genes Michael A. Crickmore1 * and Richard S

  1. Binding motifs in bacterial gene promoters modulate transcriptional effects of global regulators CRP and ArcA

    SciTech Connect

    Leuze, Mike; Karpinets, Tatiana V.; Syed, Mustafa H.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Uberbacher, Edward

    2012-05-30

    Bacterial gene regulation involves transcription factors (TF) that bind to DNA recognition sequences in operon promoters. These recognition sequences, many of which are palindromic, are known as regulatory elements or transcription factor binding sites (TFBS). Some TFs are global regulators that can modulate the expression of hundreds of genes. In this study we examine global regulator half-sites, where a half-site, which we shall call a binding motif (BM), is one half of a palindromic TFBS. We explore the hypothesis that the number of BMs plays an important role in transcriptional regulation, examining empirical data from transcriptional profiling of the CRP and ArcA regulons. We compare the power of BM counts and of full TFBS characteristics to predict induced transcriptional activity. We find that CRP BM counts have a nonlinear effect on CRP-dependent transcriptional activity and predict this activity better than full TFBS quality or location.

  2. Diversity of endophytic bacteria in Malaysian plants as revealed by 16S rRNA encoding gene sequence based method of bacterial identification?

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Chye Ying; Tan, Yin Yin; Rohani, Rahim; Weber, Jean-Frédéric F.; Bhore, Subhash Janardhan

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial endophytes do have several potential applications in pharmacy, medicine and agricultural biotech industry. The main objective of this study was to understand types of bacterial endophytes associated with dicotyledonous (dicot) and monocotyledonous (monocot) plant species. Isolation of the endophytic bacteria was performed using surface-sterilized various tissue samples, and identification of the endophytic bacterial isolates (EBIs) was completed using 16S rRNA encoding gene sequence similarity based method. In total, 996 EBIs were isolated and identified from 1055 samples of 31 monocot and 65 dicot plant species from Peninsular Malaysia. The 996 EBIs represented 71 different types of bacterial species. Twelve (12) out of 71 species are reported as endophytes for the first time. We conclude that diverse types of bacterial endophytes are associated with dicot and monocot plants, and could be useful in pharmacy, medicine and agricultural biotechnology for various potential applications. PMID:24396249

  3. Influence of Rice Development on the Function of Bacterial Blight Resistance Genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disease resistance genes most commonly used in breeding programs are single, dominant, resistance (R) genes with relative effectiveness influenced by plant developmental stage. Knowing the developmental stages at which an R gene is functional is important for disease management. In rice, resistanc...

  4. Quantitative PCR Monitoring of Antibiotic Resistance Genes and Bacterial Pathogens in Three European Artificial Groundwater Recharge Systems? †

    PubMed Central

    Böckelmann, Uta; Dörries, Hans-Henno; Ayuso-Gabella, M. Neus; Salgot de Marçay, Miquel; Tandoi, Valter; Levantesi, Caterina; Masciopinto, Costantino; Van Houtte, Emmanuel; Szewzyk, Ulrich; Wintgens, Thomas; Grohmann, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    Aquifer recharge presents advantages for integrated water management in the anthropic cycle, namely, advanced treatment of reclaimed water and additional dilution of pollutants due to mixing with natural groundwater. Nevertheless, this practice represents a health and environmental hazard because of the presence of pathogenic microorganisms and chemical contaminants. To assess the quality of water extracted from recharged aquifers, the groundwater recharge systems in Torreele, Belgium, Sabadell, Spain, and Nardò, Italy, were investigated for fecal-contamination indicators, bacterial pathogens, and antibiotic resistance genes over the period of 1 year. Real-time quantitative PCR assays for Helicobacter pylori, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, human pathogens with long-time survival capacity in water, and for the resistance genes ermB, mecA, blaSHV-5, ampC, tetO, and vanA were adapted or developed for water samples differing in pollutant content. The resistance genes and pathogen concentrations were determined at five or six sampling points for each recharge system. In drinking and irrigation water, none of the pathogens were detected. tetO and ermB were found frequently in reclaimed water from Sabadell and Nardò. mecA was detected only once in reclaimed water from Sabadell. The three aquifer recharge systems demonstrated different capacities for removal of fecal contaminators and antibiotic resistance genes. Ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis in the Torreele plant proved to be very efficient barriers for the elimination of both contaminant types, whereas aquifer passage followed by UV treatment and chlorination at Sabadell and the fractured and permeable aquifer at Nardò posed only partial barriers for bacterial contaminants. PMID:19011075

  5. Efficient Gene Editing in Pluripotent Stem Cells by Bacterial Injection of Transcription Activator-Like Effector Nuclease Proteins.

    PubMed

    Jia, Jingyue; Bai, Fang; Jin, Yongxin; Santostefano, Katherine E; Ha, Un-Hwan; Wu, Donghai; Wu, Weihui; Terada, Naohiro; Jin, Shouguang

    2015-08-01

    The type III secretion system (T3SS) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a powerful tool for direct protein delivery into mammalian cells and has successfully been used to deliver various exogenous proteins into mammalian cells. In the present study, transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) proteins have been efficiently delivered using the P. aeruginosa T3SS into mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs), human ESCs (hESCs), and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) for genome editing. This bacterial delivery system offers an alternative method of TALEN delivery that is highly efficient in cleavage of the chromosomal target and presumably safer by avoiding plasmid DNA introduction. We combined the method of bacterial T3SS-mediated TALEN protein injection and transfection of an oligonucleotide template to effectively generate precise genetic modifications in the stem cells. Initially, we efficiently edited a single-base in the gfp gene of a mESC line to silence green fluorescent protein (GFP) production. The resulting GFP-negative mESC was cloned from a single cell and subsequently mutated back to a GFP-positive mESC line. Using the same approach, the gfp gene was also effectively knocked out in hESCs. In addition, a defined single-base edition was effectively introduced into the X-chromosome-linked HPRT1 gene in hiPSCs, generating an in vitro model of Lesch-Nyhan syndrome. T3SS-mediated TALEN protein delivery provides a highly efficient alternative for introducing precise gene editing within pluripotent stem cells for the purpose of disease genotype-phenotype relationship studies and cellular replacement therapies. PMID:26062981

  6. Use of 16S rRNA Gene for Identification of a Broad Range of Clinically Relevant Bacterial Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Ramya; Karaoz, Ulas; Volegova, Marina; MacKichan, Joanna; Kato-Maeda, Midori; Miller, Steve; Nadarajan, Rohan; Brodie, Eoin L.; Lynch, Susan V.

    2015-01-01

    According to World Health Organization statistics of 2011, infectious diseases remain in the top five causes of mortality worldwide. However, despite sophisticated research tools for microbial detection, rapid and accurate molecular diagnostics for identification of infection in humans have not been extensively adopted. Time-consuming culture-based methods remain to the forefront of clinical microbial detection. The 16S rRNA gene, a molecular marker for identification of bacterial species, is ubiquitous to members of this domain and, thanks to ever-expanding databases of sequence information, a useful tool for bacterial identification. In this study, we assembled an extensive repository of clinical isolates (n = 617), representing 30 medically important pathogenic species and originally identified using traditional culture-based or non-16S molecular methods. This strain repository was used to systematically evaluate the ability of 16S rRNA for species level identification. To enable the most accurate species level classification based on the paucity of sequence data accumulated in public databases, we built a Naïve Bayes classifier representing a diverse set of high-quality sequences from medically important bacterial organisms. We show that for species identification, a model-based approach is superior to an alignment based method. Overall, between 16S gene based and clinical identities, our study shows a genus-level concordance rate of 96% and a species-level concordance rate of 87.5%. We point to multiple cases of probable clinical misidentification with traditional culture based identification across a wide range of gram-negative rods and gram-positive cocci as well as common gram-negative cocci. PMID:25658760

  7. Use of 16S rRNA gene for identification of a broad range of clinically relevant bacterial pathogens

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivasan, Ramya; Karaoz, Ulas; Volegova, Marina; MacKichan, Joanna; Kato-Maeda, Midori; Miller, Steve; Nadarajan, Rohan; Brodie, Eoin L.; Lynch, Susan V.; Heimesaat, Markus M.

    2015-02-06

    According to World Health Organization statistics of 2011, infectious diseases remain in the top five causes of mortality worldwide. However, despite sophisticated research tools for microbial detection, rapid and accurate molecular diagnostics for identification of infection in humans have not been extensively adopted. Time-consuming culture-based methods remain to the forefront of clinical microbial detection. The 16S rRNA gene, a molecular marker for identification of bacterial species, is ubiquitous to members of this domain and, thanks to ever-expanding databases of sequence information, a useful tool for bacterial identification. In this study, we assembled an extensive repository of clinical isolates (n = 617), representing 30 medically important pathogenic species and originally identified using traditional culture-based or non-16S molecular methods. This strain repository was used to systematically evaluate the ability of 16S rRNA for species level identification. To enable the most accurate species level classification based on the paucity of sequence data accumulated in public databases, we built a Naïve Bayes classifier representing a diverse set of high-quality sequences from medically important bacterial organisms. We show that for species identification, a model-based approach is superior to an alignment based method. Overall, between 16S gene based and clinical identities, our study shows a genus-level concordance rate of 96% and a species-level concordance rate of 87.5%. We point to multiple cases of probable clinical misidentification with traditional culture based identification across a wide range of gram-negative rods and gram-positive cocci as well as common gram-negative cocci.

  8. Use of 16S rRNA gene for identification of a broad range of clinically relevant bacterial pathogens

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Srinivasan, Ramya; Karaoz, Ulas; Volegova, Marina; MacKichan, Joanna; Kato-Maeda, Midori; Miller, Steve; Nadarajan, Rohan; Brodie, Eoin L.; Lynch, Susan V.; Heimesaat, Markus M.

    2015-02-06

    According to World Health Organization statistics of 2011, infectious diseases remain in the top five causes of mortality worldwide. However, despite sophisticated research tools for microbial detection, rapid and accurate molecular diagnostics for identification of infection in humans have not been extensively adopted. Time-consuming culture-based methods remain to the forefront of clinical microbial detection. The 16S rRNA gene, a molecular marker for identification of bacterial species, is ubiquitous to members of this domain and, thanks to ever-expanding databases of sequence information, a useful tool for bacterial identification. In this study, we assembled an extensive repository of clinical isolates (n =more »617), representing 30 medically important pathogenic species and originally identified using traditional culture-based or non-16S molecular methods. This strain repository was used to systematically evaluate the ability of 16S rRNA for species level identification. To enable the most accurate species level classification based on the paucity of sequence data accumulated in public databases, we built a Naïve Bayes classifier representing a diverse set of high-quality sequences from medically important bacterial organisms. We show that for species identification, a model-based approach is superior to an alignment based method. Overall, between 16S gene based and clinical identities, our study shows a genus-level concordance rate of 96% and a species-level concordance rate of 87.5%. We point to multiple cases of probable clinical misidentification with traditional culture based identification across a wide range of gram-negative rods and gram-positive cocci as well as common gram-negative cocci.« less

  9. Bacterial Genome Instability

    PubMed Central

    Darmon, Elise

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Bacterial genomes are remarkably stable from one generation to the next but are plastic on an evolutionary time scale, substantially shaped by horizontal gene transfer, genome rearrangement, and the activities of mobile DNA elements. This implies the existence of a delicate balance between the maintenance of genome stability and the tolerance of genome instability. In this review, we describe the specialized genetic elements and the endogenous processes that contribute to genome instability. We then discuss the consequences of genome instability at the physiological level, where cells have harnessed instability to mediate phase and antigenic variation, and at the evolutionary level, where horizontal gene transfer has played an important role. Indeed, this ability to share DNA sequences has played a major part in the evolution of life on Earth. The evolutionary plasticity of bacterial genomes, coupled with the vast numbers of bacteria on the planet, substantially limits our ability to control disease. PMID:24600039

  10. Bacterial control on the structure of As-Fe oxy-hydroxides in acid mine drainage.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morin, G.; Lebrun, S.; Juillot, F.; Casiot, C.; Bruneel, O.; Belin, S.; Proux, O.; Brown, G. E.; Guyot, F.; Calas, G.

    2004-12-01

    Nano-crystalline or amorphous iron oxy-hydroxides are kinetically favored with respect to stable crystalline phases in low temperature environments. Therefore, they frequently occur as transient phases in Earth's surface environments. They exhibit very-high surface areas (few 100 cm2/g) and thus play a key role in the geochemical cycles of minor and trace elements, including toxic elements as arsenic. Natural low-temperature iron oxides also potentially host biological signatures since they can form through various biologically driven reactions. In the present communication, we compare the mineralogy and crystal chemistry of biogenic As-rich iron precipitates synthesized using various acidophilic bacterial strain isolated from an exceptionally arsenic-rich acid mine drainage [1]. XAS, XRD, SEM and TEM investigation of these highly reactive nano-minerals obtained in controlled conditions allows to better constrain their mechanisms of formation. Our data show that the enzymatic oxidation of Fe(II) and/or As(III) play a key role in controlling the nature of the mineral species precipitating in acid mine drainage. We show that the nature of mineral species forming from solutions can be directly determined by the metabolic activity of specific bacterial strains. This influence is thought to be primarily indirect, bacteria controlling the rate of Fe(II) and As(III) oxidation reactions, which in turn leads to various Fe(III) and As(V) super-saturation conditions. These latter parameters are crucial in controlling the structure of nano-crystalline As-Fe low temperature minerals. 1- Morin et al. (2003) Bacterial formation of tooeleite and mixed As(III)/(V)-Fe(III) gels in the Carnoulès acid mine drainage, France. A XANES, XRD and SEM study. Environ. Sci. and Technol. 37,1705-1712.

  11. Violacein as a genetically-controlled, enzymatically amplified and photobleaching-resistant chromophore for optoacoustic bacterial imaging

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yuanyuan; Sigmund, Felix; Reber, Josefine; Luís Deán-Ben, Xosé; Glasl, Sarah; Kneipp, Moritz; Estrada, Héctor; Razansky, Daniel; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Westmeyer, Gil G.

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in genetically expressed reporters for in vivo studies of bacterial colonization in the context of infectious disease research, studies of the bacterial microbiome or cancer imaging and treatment. To empower non-invasive high-resolution bacterial tracking with deep tissue penetration, we herein use the genetically controlled biosynthesis of the deep-purple pigment Violacein as a photobleaching-resistant chromophore label for in vivo optoacoustic (photoacoustic) imaging in the near-infrared range. We demonstrate that Violacein-producing bacteria can be imaged with high contrast-to-noise in strongly vascularized xenografted murine tumors and further observe that Violacein shows anti-tumoral activity. Our experiments thus identify Violacein as a robust bacterial label for non-invasive optoacoustic imaging with high potential for basic research and future theranostic applications in bacterial tumor targeting. PMID:26091543

  12. Two genes with similarity to bacterial response regulators are rapidly and specifically induced by cytokinin in Arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandstatter, I.; Kieber, J. J.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Cytokinins are central regulators of plant growth and development, but little is known about their mode of action. By using differential display, we identified a gene, IBC6 (for induced by cytokinin), from etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings, that is induced rapidly by cytokinin. The steady state level of IBC6 mRNA was elevated within 10 min by the exogenous application of cytokinin, and this induction did not require de novo protein synthesis. IBC6 was not induced by other plant hormones or by light. A second Arabidopsis gene with a sequence highly similar to IBC6 was identified. This IBC7 gene also was induced by cytokinin, although with somewhat slower kinetics and to a lesser extent. The pattern of expression of the two genes was similar, with higher expression in leaves, rachises, and flowers and lower transcript levels in roots and siliques. Sequence analysis revealed that IBC6 and IBC7 are similar to the receiver domain of bacterial two-component response regulators. This homology, coupled with previously published work on the CKI1 histidine kinase homolog, suggests that these proteins may play a role in early cytokinin signaling.

  13. Variability in abundance of the Bacterial and Archaeal 16S rRNA and amoA genes in water columns of northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H.; Yang, C.; Chen, S.; Xie, W.; Wang, P.; Zhang, C. L.

    2014-12-01

    Recent advances in marine microbial ecology have shown that ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (AOA) are more abundant than ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), although total Bacteria are more abundant than total Archaea in marine environments. This study aimed to examine the spatial distribution and abundance of planktonic archaeal and bacterial 16S rRNA- and amoA genes in the northern South China Sea. Water samples were collected at different depths at six stations (maximum depth ranging from 1800 m to 3200 m?with four stations (B2, B3, B6, B7) located along a transect from the northeastern continental slope to the Bashi Strait and the other two (D3, D5) located southwest of this transect. Quantitative PCR of the 16S rRNA- and amoA genes was used to estimate the abundances of total Archaea, total Bacteria, and AOA and AOB, respectively. At the B series stations, the abundance of bacterial 16S rRNA gene was twofold to 36fold higher than that of the archaeal 16S rRNA gene while fivefold lower to sixfold higher at the two D stations, with both genes showing peak values slightly below sea surface (5-75 m depths) at all stations. The archaeal amoA gene had similar variations with the archaeal 16S rRNA gene, but was 1-4 orders of magnitude lower than the archaeal 16S rRNA gene at all stations. Bacterial amoA gene was below the detection at all stations. Our results also show the difference in depth profiles among these stations, which may be caused by the difference in water movement between these regions. The non-detection of bacterial amoA gene indicates that ammonia-oxidizing Archaea are the dominant group of microorganisms in nitrification of the South China Sea, which is consistent with observations in other oceans.

  14. PPARs in the Control of Uncoupling Proteins Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Villarroya, Francesc; Iglesias, Roser; Giralt, Marta

    2007-01-01

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are mitochondrial membrane transporters involved in the control of energy conversion in mitochondria. Experimental and genetic evidence relate dysfunctions of UCPs with metabolic syndrome and obesity. The PPAR subtypes mediate to a large extent the transcriptional regulation of the UCP genes, with a distinct relevance depending on the UCP gene and the tissue in which it is expressed. UCP1 gene is under the dual control of PPAR? and PPAR? in relation to brown adipocyte differentiation and lipid oxidation, respectively. UCP3 gene is regulated by PPAR? and PPAR? in the muscle, heart, and adipose tissues. UCP2 gene is also under the control of PPARs even in tissues in which it is the predominantly expressed UCP (eg, the pancreas and liver). This review summarizes the current understanding of the role of PPARs in UCPs gene expression in normal conditions and also in the context of type-2 diabetes or obesity. PMID:17389766

  15. Candidate genes revealed by a genome scan for mosquito resistance to a bacterial insecticide: sequence and gene expression variations

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Genome scans are becoming an increasingly popular approach to study the genetic basis of adaptation and speciation, but on their own, they are often helpless at identifying the specific gene(s) or mutation(s) targeted by selection. This shortcoming is hopefully bound to disappear in the near future, thanks to the wealth of new genomic resources that are currently being developed for many species. In this article, we provide a foretaste of this exciting new era by conducting a genome scan in the mosquito Aedes aegypti with the aim to look for candidate genes involved in resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) insecticidal toxins. Results The genome of a Bti-resistant and a Bti-susceptible strains was surveyed using about 500 MITE-based molecular markers, and the loci showing the highest inter-strain genetic differentiation were sequenced and mapped on the Aedes aegypti genome sequence. Several good candidate genes for Bti-resistance were identified in the vicinity of these highly differentiated markers. Two of them, coding for a cadherin and a leucine aminopeptidase, were further examined at the sequence and gene expression levels. In the resistant strain, the cadherin gene displayed patterns of nucleotide polymorphisms consistent with the action of positive selection (e.g. an excess of high compared to intermediate frequency mutations), as well as a significant under-expression compared to the susceptible strain. Conclusion Both sequence and gene expression analyses agree to suggest a role for positive selection in the evolution of this cadherin gene in the resistant strain. However, it is unlikely that resistance to Bti is conferred by this gene alone, and further investigation will be needed to characterize other genes significantly associated with Bti resistance in Ae. aegypti. Beyond these results, this article illustrates how genome scans can build on the body of new genomic information (here, full genome sequence and MITE characterization) to finally hold their promises and help pinpoint candidate genes for adaptation and speciation. PMID:19930593

  16. Control of bacterial biofilm growth on surfaces by nanostructural mechanics and geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epstein, A. K.; Hochbaum, A. I.; Kim, Philseok; Aizenberg, J.

    2011-12-01

    Surface-associated communities of bacteria, called biofilms, pervade natural and anthropogenic environments. Mature biofilms are resistant to a wide range of antimicrobial treatments and therefore pose persistent pathogenic threats. The use of surface chemistry to inhibit biofilm growth has been found to only transiently affect initial attachment. In this work, we investigate the tunable effects of physical surface properties, including high-aspect-ratio (HAR) surface nanostructure arrays recently reported to induce long-range spontaneous spatial patterning of bacteria on the surface. The functional parameters and length scale regimes that control such artificial patterning for the rod-shaped pathogenic species Pseudomonas aeruginosa are elucidated through a combinatorial approach. We further report a crossover regime of biofilm growth on a HAR nanostructured surface versus the nanostructure effective stiffness. When the 'softness' of the hair-like nanoarray is increased beyond a threshold value, biofilm growth is inhibited as compared to a flat control surface. This result is consistent with the mechanoselective adhesion of bacteria to surfaces. Therefore by combining nanoarray-induced bacterial patterning and modulating the effective stiffness of the nanoarray—thus mimicking an extremely compliant flat surface—bacterial mechanoselective adhesion can be exploited to control and inhibit biofilm growth.

  17. Abundance and Distribution of Dimethylsulfoniopropionate Degradation Genes and the Corresponding Bacterial Community Structure at Dimethyl Sulfide Hot Spots in the Tropical and Subtropical Pacific Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Shotaro; Omori, Yuko; Wong, Shu-Kuan; Ijichi, Minoru; Kaneko, Ryo; Kameyama, Sohiko; Tanimoto, Hiroshi; Hamasaki, Koji

    2015-01-01

    Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) is mainly produced by marine phytoplankton but is released into the microbial food web and degraded by marine bacteria to dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and other products. To reveal the abundance and distribution of bacterial DMSP degradation genes and the corresponding bacterial communities in relation to DMS and DMSP concentrations in seawater, we collected surface seawater samples from DMS hot spot sites during a cruise across the Pacific Ocean. We analyzed the genes encoding DMSP lyase (dddP) and DMSP demethylase (dmdA), which are responsible for the transformation of DMSP to DMS and DMSP assimilation, respectively. The averaged abundance (±standard deviation) of these DMSP degradation genes relative to that of the 16S rRNA genes was 33% ± 12%. The abundances of these genes showed large spatial variations. dddP genes showed more variation in abundances than dmdA genes. Multidimensional analysis based on the abundances of DMSP degradation genes and environmental factors revealed that the distribution pattern of these genes was influenced by chlorophyll a concentrations and temperatures. dddP genes, dmdA subclade C/2 genes, and dmdA subclade D genes exhibited significant correlations with the marine Roseobacter clade, SAR11 subgroup Ib, and SAR11 subgroup Ia, respectively. SAR11 subgroups Ia and Ib, which possessed dmdA genes, were suggested to be the main potential DMSP consumers. The Roseobacter clade members possessing dddP genes in oligotrophic subtropical regions were possible DMS producers. These results suggest that DMSP degradation genes are abundant and widely distributed in the surface seawater and that the marine bacteria possessing these genes influence the degradation of DMSP and regulate the emissions of DMS in subtropical gyres of the Pacific Ocean. PMID:25862229

  18. Isolating the effects of storm events on arctic aquatic bacteria: temperature, nutrients, and community composition as controls on bacterial productivity

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Heather E.; Crump, Byron C.; Kling, George W.

    2015-01-01

    Storm events can pulse nutrients and carbon from soils and provide an important subsidy to food webs in oligotrophic streams and lakes. Bacterial nutrient limitation and the potential response of stream aquatic bacteria to storm events was investigated in arctic tundra environments by manipulating both water temperature and inorganic nutrient concentrations in short (up to 4 days) and long duration (up to 2 weeks) laboratory mesocosm experiments. Inorganic N and P additions increased bacterial production (14C-labeled leucine uptake) up to seven times over controls, and warmer incubation temperatures increased the speed of this response to added nutrients. Bacterial cell numbers also increased in response to temperature and nutrient additions with cell-specific carbon uptake initially increasing and then declining after 2 days. Bacterial community composition (BCC; determined by means of 16S denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprinting) shifted rapidly in response to changes in incubation temperature and the addition of nutrients, within 2 days in some cases. While the bacteria in these habitats responded to nutrient additions with rapid changes in productivity and community composition, water temperature controlled the speed of the metabolic response and affected the resultant change in bacterial community structure, constraining the potential responses to pulsed nutrient subsidies associated with storm events. In all cases, at higher nutrient levels and temperatures the effect of initial BCC on bacterial activity was muted, suggesting a consistent, robust interaction of temperature, and nutrients controlling activity in these aquatic systems. PMID:25873916

  19. Isolating the effects of storm events on arctic aquatic bacteria: temperature, nutrients, and community composition as controls on bacterial productivity.

    PubMed

    Adams, Heather E; Crump, Byron C; Kling, George W

    2015-01-01

    Storm events can pulse nutrients and carbon from soils and provide an important subsidy to food webs in oligotrophic streams and lakes. Bacterial nutrient limitation and the potential response of stream aquatic bacteria to storm events was investigated in arctic tundra environments by manipulating both water temperature and inorganic nutrient concentrations in short (up to 4 days) and long duration (up to 2 weeks) laboratory mesocosm experiments. Inorganic N and P additions increased bacterial production ((14)C-labeled leucine uptake) up to seven times over controls, and warmer incubation temperatures increased the speed of this response to added nutrients. Bacterial cell numbers also increased in response to temperature and nutrient additions with cell-specific carbon uptake initially increasing and then declining after 2 days. Bacterial community composition (BCC; determined by means of 16S denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprinting) shifted rapidly in response to changes in incubation temperature and the addition of nutrients, within 2 days in some cases. While the bacteria in these habitats responded to nutrient additions with rapid changes in productivity and community composition, water temperature controlled the speed of the metabolic response and affected the resultant change in bacterial community structure, constraining the potential responses to pulsed nutrient subsidies associated with storm events. In all cases, at higher nutrient levels and temperatures the effect of initial BCC on bacterial activity was muted, suggesting a consistent, robust interaction of temperature, and nutrients controlling activity in these aquatic systems. PMID:25873916

  20. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for a bacterial thiaminase I gene and the thiaminase-producing bacterium Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richter, C.A.; Wright-Osment, Maureen K.; Zajicek, J.L.; Honeyfield, D.C.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2009-01-01

    The thiaminase I enzyme produced by the gram-positive bacterium Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus isolated from the viscera of Lake Michigan alewives Alosa pseudoharengus is currently the only defined source of the thiaminase activity linked to thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency in early mortality syndrome (EMS) in the larvae of Great Lakes salmonines. Diets of alewife or isolated strains of P. thiaminolyticus mixed in a semipurified diet and fed to lake trout Salvelinus namaycush have been shown to produce EMS in fry. We utilized quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) to aid in studies of the sources of P. thiaminolyticus and thiaminase I. Quantitative PCR assays were established to detect the thiaminase I gene of P. thiaminolyticus, the 16S rRNA gene from most species of bacteria, and the 16S rRNA gene specifically from P. thiaminolyticus and a few closely related taxa. The Q-PCR assays are linear over at least six orders of magnitude and can detect the thiaminase I gene of P. thiaminolyticus from as few as 1,000 P. thiaminolyticus cells/g of sample or the Paenibacillus 16S rRNA gene from as few as 100 P. thiaminolyticus cells/g of sample. The initial results from alewife viscera samples with high thiaminase activity yielded unexpectedly low densities of P. thiaminolyticus cells; Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus was detectable in 2 of 6 alewife viscera tested at densities on the order of 100 cells/g out of 100,000,000 total bacterial cells/g. The low numbers of P. thiaminolyticus detected suggest that alewives contain additional non-P. thiaminolyticus sources of thiaminase activity.

  1. Organization and control of genes encoding catabolic enzymes in Rhizobiaceae

    SciTech Connect

    Parke, D.; Ornston, L.N.

    1993-03-01

    Rhizobiaceae, a diverse bacterial group comprising rhizobia and agrobacteria, symbiotic partnership with plants form nitrogen-fixing nodules on plant roots or are plant pathogens. Phenolic compounds produced by plants serve as inducers of rhizobial nodulation genes and agrobacterial virulence genes reflect their capacity to utilize numerous aromatics, including phenolics, as a source of carbon and energy. In many microbes the aerobic degradation of numerous aromatic compounds to tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates is achieved by the [beta]-ketoadipate pathway. Our initial studies focused on the organization and regulation of the ketoadipate pathway in Agrobacterium tumefaciens. We have cloned, identified and characterized a novel regulatory gene that modulates expression of an adjacent pca (protocatechuate) structural gene, pcaD. Regulation of pcaD is mediated by the regulatory gene, termed pcaQ, in concert with the intermediate [beta]-carboxy-cis,cis-muconate. [beta]-carboxy-cis,cismuconate is an unstable chemical, not marketed commercially, and it is unlikely to permeate Escherichia coli cells if supplied in media. Because of these factors, characterization of pcaQ in E. coli required an in vivo delivery system for [beta]-carboxycis,cis-muconate. This was accomplished by designing an E. coli strain that expressed an Acinetobacter calcoaceticus pcaA gene for conversion of protocatechuate to [beta]-carboxy-cis,cis-muconate.

  2. Discovery of bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase (PhaC)-encoding genes from seasonal Baltic Sea ice and cold estuarine waters.

    PubMed

    Pärnänen, Katariina; Karkman, Antti; Virta, Marko; Eronen-Rasimus, Eeva; Kaartokallio, Hermanni

    2015-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are macromolecules produced by bacteria as means for storing carbon and energy in intracellular granules. PHAs have physical properties similar to those of plastics and have become of interest to industry as materials for environmentally friendly bioplastic production. There is an ongoing search for new PHA-producing bacterial strains and PHA-synthesizing enzymes tolerating extreme conditions to find ways of producing PHAs at cold temperatures and high solute concentrations. Moreover, the study of PHA producers in the sea-ice biome can aid in understanding the microbial ecology of carbon cycling in ice-associated ecosystems. In this study, PHA producers and PHA synthase genes were examined under the extreme environmental conditions of sea ice and cold seawater to find evidence of PHA production in an environment requiring adaptation to high salinity and cold temperatures. Sea ice and cold estuarine water samples were collected from the northern Baltic Sea and evidence of PHA production was gathered, using microscopy with Nile Blue A staining of PHA-granules and PCR assays detecting PHA-synthesis genes. The PHA granules and PHA synthases were found at all sampling locations, in both sea ice and water, and throughout the sampling period spanning over 10 years. Our study shows, for the first time, that PHA synthesis occurs in Baltic Sea cold-adapted bacteria in their natural environment, which makes the Baltic Sea and its cold environments an interesting choice in the quest for PHA-synthesizing bacteria and synthesis genes. PMID:25280551

  3. An Acidic PATHOGENESIS-RELATED1 Gene of Oryza grandiglumis is Involved in Disease Resistance Response Against Bacterial Infection

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Sang Hyun; Pak, Jung-Hun; Kim, Mi Jin; Kim, Hye Jeong; Oh, Ju Sung; Choi, Hong Kyu; Jung, Ho Won; Chung, Young Soo

    2014-01-01

    Wild rice, Oryza grandiglumis shows hyper-resistance response to pathogen infection. In order to identify genes necessary for defense response in plants, we have carried out a subtractive hybridization coupled with a cDNA macroarray. An acidic PATHOGENESIS-RELATED1 (PR1) gene of the wild rice is highly identical to the acidic PR1 genes of different plant species. The OgPR1a cDNA has an apparent single open reading frame with a predicted molecular mass 40,621 Da and an isoelectic point of 5.14. Both in silico analysis and a transient expression assay in onion epidermal cells revealed that the OgPR1a protein could be localized in intercellular space in plants. The OgPR1a mRNA was strongly transcribed by the exogenous treatment with ethylene and jasmonic acid as well as protein phosphatase inhibitors. Additionally, ectopic expression of the OgPR1a conferred disease resistance on Arabidopsis to the bacterial and fungal infections. PMID:25289005

  4. Mining quorum sensing regulated proteins - Role of bacterial cell-to-cell communication in global gene regulation as assessed by proteomics.

    PubMed

    Eberl, Leo; Riedel, Katharina

    2011-08-01

    Many bacteria utilize cell-to-cell communication systems that rely on small diffusible signal molecules to monitor the size of their population in a process known as quorum sensing (QS). QS plays a central role in coordinating genes that are generally mediating prokaryotic interactions with its eukaryotic host. In pathogens, this form of gene regulation is, for instance, believed to ensure that the cells remain invisible to the immune system until the pathogen has reached a critical population density sufficient to overwhelm host defenses and to establish an infection. This review summarizes proteome analyses to identify QS-regulated proteins focussing on Gram-negative bacteria interacting with their eukaryotic hosts either as symbionts or as pathogens. In most studies, the power of comparative 2-D PAGE coupled to MS analysis has been employed to recognize and identify QS-controlled proteins. The high number of QS-regulated proteins in the majority of the investigated species strongly supports the importance of QS as global regulatory system and suggests that it also operates via post-transcriptional mechanisms. As QS has been proven to be a central regulator for the expression of pathogenic traits and biofilm formation in various opportunistic pathogens, it represents a highly attractive target for the development of novel antibacterial drugs. Proteomics has also been exploited to validate the target specificity of natural and synthetic QS inhibitors that have a great potential as alternative therapeutics for the treatment of bacterial infections. PMID:21548094

  5. Genetic diversity of the conserved motifs of six bacterial leaf blight resistance genes in a set of rice landraces

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bacterial leaf blight (BLB) caused by the vascular pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is one of the most serious diseases leading to crop failure in rice growing countries. A total of 37 resistance genes against Xoo has been identified in rice. Of these, ten BLB resistance genes have been mapped on rice chromosomes, while 6 have been cloned, sequenced and characterized. Diversity analysis at the resistance gene level of this disease is scanty, and the landraces from West Bengal and North Eastern states of India have received little attention so far. The objective of this study was to assess the genetic diversity at conserved domains of 6 BLB resistance genes in a set of 22 rice accessions including landraces and check genotypes collected from the states of Assam, Nagaland, Mizoram and West Bengal. Results In this study 34 pairs of primers were designed from conserved domains of 6 BLB resistance genes; Xa1, xa5, Xa21, Xa21(A1), Xa26 and Xa27. The designed primer pairs were used to generate PCR based polymorphic DNA profiles to detect and elucidate the genetic diversity of the six genes in the 22 diverse rice accessions of known disease phenotype. A total of 140 alleles were identified including 41 rare and 26 null alleles. The average polymorphism information content (PIC) value was 0.56/primer pair. The DNA profiles identified each of the rice landraces unequivocally. The amplified polymorphic DNA bands were used to calculate genetic similarity of the rice landraces in all possible pair combinations. The similarity among the rice accessions ranged from 18% to 89% and the dendrogram produced from the similarity values was divided into 2 major clusters. The conserved domains identified within the sequenced rare alleles include Leucine-Rich Repeat, BED-type zinc finger domain, sugar transferase domain and the domain of the carbohydrate esterase 4 superfamily. Conclusions This study revealed high genetic diversity at conserved domains of six BLB resistance genes in a set of 22 rice accessions. The inclusion of more genotypes from remote ecological niches and hotspots holds promise for identification of further genetic diversity at the BLB resistance genes. PMID:25016378

  6. Diffusion characteristics and controlled release of bacterial fertilizers from modified calcium alginate capsules.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chien-Hung; Wu, Jane-Yii; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2008-04-01

    An indigenous Cellulosimicrobium cellulans GS6 isolate able to solubilize insoluble phosphate complexes in soil is a potential bacterial fertilizer. Enclosure of the phosphate-solubilizing bacterium (PSB) in biodegradable capsules may protect the PSB cells inoculated into soil and, in the meantime, enable the control of cell release that confers long-term fertilizing effects. In this study, calcium alginate (CA) was used as the core matrix to encapsulate cells of C. cellulans GS6. The cell-liberating properties of the CA-based capsules were modified by blending with a variety of supplemental materials (SM), including chitin, cellulose, olive oil, and gelatin. The experimental results showed that the maximum cell-release percentage (MCR%) of the capsules decreased in the order of CA-cellulose>CA-olive oil>CA-chitin>CA-gelatin>CA. Furthermore, a mass transport model was developed to accurately describe the kinetics of cell release results for each capsule. The diffusion coefficient (D(e)) of each capsule was also determined from the model simulation. We found that the estimated D(e) values are positively correlated to the release rate with rare exceptions. Lastly, as our results underscored the crucial roles that the type of capsules plays in the rate and amount of cell release, controlled release of the bacterial fertilizer (C. cellulans GS6 cells) may be achieved via the design of capsule materials. PMID:17482812

  7. Optogenetic Control of Gene Expression in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Yick-Bun; Alekseyenko, Olga V.; Kravitz, Edward A.

    2015-01-01

    To study the molecular mechanism of complex biological systems, it is important to be able to artificially manipulate gene expression in desired target sites with high precision. Based on the light dependent binding of cryptochrome 2 and a cryptochrome interacting bHLH protein, we developed a split lexA transcriptional activation system for use in Drosophila that allows regulation of gene expression in vivo using blue light or two-photon excitation. We show that this system offers high spatiotemporal resolution by inducing gene expression in tissues at various developmental stages. In combination with two-photon excitation, gene expression can be manipulated at precise sites in embryos, potentially offering an important tool with which to examine developmental processes. PMID:26383635

  8. Control of gene expression by cell size

    E-print Network

    Wu, Chia-Yung

    2010-01-01

    Polyploidy, increased copy number of whole chromosome sets in the genome, is a common cellular state in evolution, development and disease. Polyploidy enlarges cell size and alters gene expression, producing novel phenotypes ...

  9. Optogenetic Control of Gene Expression in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yick-Bun; Alekseyenko, Olga V; Kravitz, Edward A

    2015-01-01

    To study the molecular mechanism of complex biological systems, it is important to be able to artificially manipulate gene expression in desired target sites with high precision. Based on the light dependent binding of cryptochrome 2 and a cryptochrome interacting bHLH protein, we developed a split lexA transcriptional activation system for use in Drosophila that allows regulation of gene expression in vivo using blue light or two-photon excitation. We show that this system offers high spatiotemporal resolution by inducing gene expression in tissues at various developmental stages. In combination with two-photon excitation, gene expression can be manipulated at precise sites in embryos, potentially offering an important tool with which to examine developmental processes. PMID:26383635

  10. 16S rRNA Gene Pyrosequencing Reveals Bacterial Dysbiosis in the Duodenum of Dogs with Idiopathic Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Suchodolski, Jan S.; Dowd, Scot E.; Wilke, Vicky; Steiner, Jörg M.; Jergens, Albert E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Canine idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is believed to be caused by a complex interaction of genetic, immunologic, and microbial factors. While mucosa-associated bacteria have been implicated in the pathogenesis of canine IBD, detailed studies investigating the enteric microbiota using deep sequencing techniques are lacking. The objective of this study was to evaluate mucosa-adherent microbiota in the duodenum of dogs with spontaneous idiopathic IBD using 16 S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Methodology/Principal Findings Biopsy samples of small intestinal mucosa were collected endoscopically from healthy dogs (n?=?6) and dogs with moderate IBD (n?=?7) or severe IBD (n?=?7) as assessed by a clinical disease activity index. Total RNA was extracted from biopsy specimens and 454-pyrosequencing of the 16 S rRNA gene was performed on aliquots of cDNA from each dog. Intestinal inflammation was associated with significant differences in the composition of the intestinal microbiota when compared to healthy dogs. PCoA plots based on the unweighted UniFrac distance metric indicated clustering of samples between healthy dogs and dogs with IBD (ANOSIM, p<0.001). Proportions of Fusobacteria (p?=?0.010), Bacteroidaceae (p?=?0.015), Prevotellaceae (p?=?0.022), and Clostridiales (p?=?0.019) were significantly more abundant in healthy dogs. In contrast, specific bacterial genera within Proteobacteria, including Diaphorobacter (p?=?0.044) and Acinetobacter (p?=?0.040), were either more abundant or more frequently identified in IBD dogs. Conclusions/Significance In conclusion, dogs with spontaneous IBD exhibit alterations in microbial groups, which bear resemblance to dysbiosis reported in humans with chronic intestinal inflammation. These bacterial groups may serve as useful targets for monitoring intestinal inflammation. PMID:22720094

  11. GenePRIMP: A software quality control tool

    SciTech Connect

    Amrita Pati

    2010-05-05

    Amrita Pati of the DOE Joint Genome Institute's Genome Biology group describes the software tool GenePRIMP and how it fits into the quality control pipeline for microbial genomics. Further details regarding GenePRIMP appear in a paper published online May 2, 2010 in Nature Methods.

  12. GenePRIMP: A software quality control tool

    ScienceCinema

    Amrita Pati

    2010-09-01

    Amrita Pati of the DOE Joint Genome Institute's Genome Biology group describes the software tool GenePRIMP and how it fits into the quality control pipeline for microbial genomics. Further details regarding GenePRIMP appear in a paper published online May 2, 2010 in Nature Methods.

  13. Regulated bioluminescence as a tool for bioremediation process monitoring and control of bacterial cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Burlage, R.S. ); Heitzer, A.; DiGrazia, P.M. . Center for Environmental Biotechnology)

    1991-01-01

    An effective on-line monitoring technique for toxic waste bioremediation using bioluminescent microorganisms has demonstrated great potential for the description and optimization of biological processes. The lux genes of the bacterium Vibrio Fascheri are used by this species to produce visible light. The lux genes can be genetically fused to the control region of a catabolic gene, with the result that bioluminescence is produced whenever the catabolic gene is induced. Thus the detection of light from a sample (monoculture, consortium, or bioreactor) indicates that genetic expression from a specific gene is occurring. We have used this technique to monitor biodegradation of specific contaminants from waste sites. For these studies, fusions between the lux genes and the operons for naphthalene (nah) and toluene/xylene (xyl) degradation were constructed. Strains carrying one of these fusions respond sensitively and specifically to target substrates. Bioluminescence from these cultures can be rapidly measured in a non-destructive and non-invasive manner. The potential for this technique in this and other biological systems is discussed. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Regulated bioluminescence as a tool for bioremediation process monitoring and control of bacterial cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Burlage, R.S.; Heitzer, A.; DiGrazia, P.M.

    1991-12-01

    An effective on-line monitoring technique for toxic waste bioremediation using bioluminescent microorganisms has demonstrated great potential for the description and optimization of biological processes. The lux genes of the bacterium Vibrio Fascheri are used by this species to produce visible light. The lux genes can be genetically fused to the control region of a catabolic gene, with the result that bioluminescence is produced whenever the catabolic gene is induced. Thus the detection of light from a sample (monoculture, consortium, or bioreactor) indicates that genetic expression from a specific gene is occurring. We have used this technique to monitor biodegradation of specific contaminants from waste sites. For these studies, fusions between the lux genes and the operons for naphthalene (nah) and toluene/xylene (xyl) degradation were constructed. Strains carrying one of these fusions respond sensitively and specifically to target substrates. Bioluminescence from these cultures can be rapidly measured in a non-destructive and non-invasive manner. The potential for this technique in this and other biological systems is discussed. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  15. In situ assembly of antifouling/bacterial silver nanoparticle-hydrogel composites with controlled particle release and matrix softening.

    PubMed

    Baek, Kwanghyun; Liang, Jing; Lim, Wan Ting; Zhao, Huimin; Kim, Dong Hyun; Kong, Hyunjoon

    2015-07-22

    Controlling bacterial contamination has been a major challenge for protecting human health and welfare. In this context, hydrogels loaded with silver nanoparticles have been used to prevent biofilm formation on substrates of interest. However, such gel composites are often plagued by rapid loss of silver nanoparticles and matrix softening, and thus the gel becomes less effective for antifouling. To this end, this study demonstrates that in situ photoreaction of an aqueous mixture of silver nitrates, poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate, and vinylpyrrolidone results in a silver nanoparticle-laden hydrogel composite with minimal nanoparticle loss and matrix softening due to enhanced binding between nanoparticles and the gel. The resulting gel composite successfully inhibits the bacterial growth in media and the bacterial adhesion to surfaces of interest. We suggest that the results of this study serve to advance quality of materials with antifouling/bacterial activities. PMID:26046485

  16. Comparative tissue expression of American lobster (Homarus americanus) immune genes during bacterial and scuticociliate challenge.

    PubMed

    Clark, K Fraser; Acorn, Adam R; Wang, Haili; Greenwood, Spencer J

    2015-12-01

    The American lobster (Homarus americanus) fishery is the most economically significant fishery in Canada; although comparatively little is known about the lobsters' response to pathogenic challenge. This is the first study to investigate the expression of immune genes in tissues outside of the lobster hepatopancreas in response to challenges by the Gram-positive bacteria, Aerococcus viridans var. homari or the scuticociliate parasite, Anophryoides haemophila. The hepatopancreas has been regarded as the major humoral immune organ in crustaceans, but the contribution of other organs and tissues to the molecular immune response has largely been overlooked. This study used RT-qPCR to monitor the gene expression of several immune genes including three anti-lipopolysaccharide isoforms (ALF) Homame ALF-B1, Homame ALF-C1 and ALFHa-1, acute phase serum amyloid protein A (SAA), as well as thioredoxin and hexokinase, in antennal gland and gill tissues. Our findings indicate that the gene expression of the SAA and all ALF isoforms in the antennal gland and gill tissues increased in response to pathogenic challenge. However, there was differential expression of individual ALF isoforms that were dependent on both the tissue, and the pathogen used in the challenge. The gene expression changes of several immune genes were found to be higher in the antennal gland than have been previously reported for the hepatopancreas. This study demonstrates that increased immune gene expression from the gill and antennal gland over the course of pathogen induced disease contributes to the immune response of H. americanus. PMID:26551049

  17. Characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus gene products with antisera against bacterially synthesized fusion proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Strebel, K.; Beck, E.; Strohmaier, K.; Schaller, H.

    1986-03-01

    Defined segments of the cloned foot-and-mouth disease virus genome corresponding to all parts of the coding region were expressed in Escherichia coli as fusions to the N-terminal part of the MS2-polymerase gene under the control of the inducible lambdaPL promoter. All constructs yielded large amounts of proteins, which were purified and used to raise sequence-specific antisera in rabbits. These antisera were used to identify the corresponding viral gene products in /sup 35/S-labeled extracts from foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected BHK cells. This allowed us to locate unequivocally all mature foot-and-mouth disease virus gene products in the nucleotide sequence, to identify precursor-product relationships, and to detect several foot-and mouth disease virus gene products not previously identified in vivo or in vitro.

  18. Regulation of an intergenic transcript controls adjacent gene transcription

    E-print Network

    Winston, Fred

    Regulation of an intergenic transcript controls adjacent gene transcription in Saccharomyces Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA Recent studies have revealed that transcription of noncoding, intergenic DNA is abundant among eukaryotes. However, the functions of this transcription

  19. OPTIMAL PERTURBATION CONTROL OF GENE REGULATORY NETWORKS Nidhal Bouaynaya1

    E-print Network

    Bouaynaya, Nidhal

    solvers. We apply the proposed control to the Human melanoma gene regulatory network and show characterization of the effect on the steady-state distribution caused by perturbation of the regula- tory network

  20. UI researchers identify key gene that controls emergence of salmonella.

    E-print Network

    Bashir, Rashid

    UI researchers identify key gene that controls emergence of salmonella. New service offers parents while obtaining my de- gree," Meyer said. "I didn't have to pick up my entire life and move downstate

  1. Control of globin gene expression during development and erythroid differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Stamatoyannopoulos, George

    2010-01-01

    Extensive studies during the last 30 years have led to considerable understanding of cellular and molecular control of hemoglobin switching. Cell biology studies in the 1970s defined the control of globin genes during erythroid differentiation and led to development of therapies for sickle cell disease. Molecular investigations of the last 20 years have delineated the two basic mechanisms that control globin gene activity during development—autonomous silencing and gene competition. Studies of hemoglobin switching have provided major insights on the control of gene loci by remote regulatory elements. Research in this field has an impact on understanding regulatory mechanisms in general and is of particular importance for eventual development of molecular cures for sickle cell disease and ? thalassemia. PMID:15730849

  2. Bacterial diversity among small-subunit rRNA gene clones and cellular isolates from the same seawater sample

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, M.T.; Rappe, M.S.; Haimberger, Z.W.

    1997-03-01

    Numerous investigations applying the cloning and sequencing of rRNA genes (rDNAs) to the study of marine bacterioplankton diversity have shown that the sequences of genes cloned directly from environmental DNA do not correspond to the genes of cultured marine taxa. These results have been interpreted as support for the hypothesis that the most abundant heterotrophic marine bacterioplankton species are not readily culturable by commonly used methods. However, an alternative explanation is that marine bacterioplankton can be easily cultured but are not well represented in sequence databases. To further examine this question, we compared the small-subunit (SSU) rDNAs of 127 cellular clones isolated from a water sample collected off the Oregon coast to 58 bacterial SSU rDNAs cloned from environmental DNAs from the same water sample. The results revealed little overlap between partial SSU rDNA sequences from the cellular clones and the environmental clone library. An exception was the SSU rDNA sequence recovered from a cellular clone belonging to the Pseudomonas subgroup of the {gamma} subclass of the class Proteobacteria, which was related to a single gene cloned directly from the same water sample (OCS181) (similarity, 94.6%). In addition, partial SSU rDNA sequences from three of the cultured strains matched a novel rDNA clone related to the {gamma} subclass of the Proteobacteria found previously in an environmental clone library from marine aggregates (AGG53) (similarity, 94.3 to 99.6%). Our results support the hypothesis that many of the most abundant bacterioplankton species are not readily culturable by standard methods but also show that heterotrophic bacterioplankton that are culturable on media with high organic contents include many strains for which SSU rDNA sequences are not available in sequence databases. 34 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Salix purpurea Stimulates the Expression of Specific Bacterial Xenobiotic Degradation Genes in a Soil Contaminated with Hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Pagé, Antoine P.; Yergeau, Étienne; Greer, Charles W.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to uncover Salix purpurea-microbe xenobiotic degradation systems that could be harnessed in rhizoremediation, and to identify microorganisms that are likely involved in these partnerships. To do so, we tested S. purpurea‘s ability to stimulate the expression of 10 marker microbial oxygenase genes in a soil contaminated with hydrocarbons. In what appeared to be a detoxification rhizosphere effect, transcripts encoding for alkane 1-monooxygenases, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, laccase/polyphenol oxidases, and biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenase small subunits were significantly more abundant in the vicinity of the plant's roots than in bulk soil. This gene expression induction is consistent with willows' known rhizoremediation capabilities, and suggests the existence of S. purpurea-microbe systems that target many organic contaminants of interest (i.e. C4-C16 alkanes, fluoranthene, anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, biphenyl, polychlorinated biphenyls). An enhanced expression of the 4 genes was also observed within the bacterial orders Actinomycetales, Rhodospirillales, Burkholderiales, Alteromonadales, Solirubrobacterales, Caulobacterales, and Rhizobiales, which suggest that members of these taxa are active participants in the exposed partnerships. Although the expression of the other 6 marker genes did not appear to be stimulated by the plant at the community level, signs of additional systems that rest on their expression by members of the orders Solirubrobacterales, Sphingomonadales, Actinomycetales, and Sphingobacteriales were observed. Our study presents the first transcriptomics-based identification of microbes whose xenobiotic degradation activity in soil appears stimulated by a plant. It paints a portrait that contrasts with the current views on these consortia's composition, and opens the door for the development of laboratory test models geared towards the identification of root exudate characteristics that limit the efficiency of current willow-based rhizoremediation applications. PMID:26161539

  4. A recent evolutionary origin of a bacterial small RNA that controls multicellular fruiting body development.

    PubMed

    Chen, I-Chen Kimberly; Griesenauer, Brad; Yu, Yuen-Tsu Nicco; Velicer, Gregory J

    2014-04-01

    In animals and plants, non-coding small RNAs regulate the expression of many genes at the post-transcriptional level. Recently, many non-coding small RNAs (sRNAs) have also been found to regulate a variety of important biological processes in bacteria, including social traits, but little is known about the phylogenetic or mechanistic origins of such bacterial sRNAs. Here we propose a phylogenetic origin of the myxobacterial sRNA Pxr, which negatively regulates the initiation of fruiting body development in Myxococcus xanthus as a function of nutrient level, and also examine its diversification within the Myxococcocales order. Homologs of pxr were found throughout the Cystobacterineae suborder (with a few possible losses) but not outside this clade, suggesting a single origin of the Pxr regulatory system in the basal Cystobacterineae lineage. Rates of pxr sequence evolution varied greatly across Cystobacterineae sub-clades in a manner not predicted by overall genome divergence. A single copy of pxr was found in most species with 17% of nucleotide positions being polymorphic among them. However three tandem paralogs were present within the genus Cystobacter and these alleles together exhibited an elevated rate of divergence. There appears to have been strong selection for maintenance of a predicted stem-loop structure, as polymorphisms accumulated preferentially at loop or bulge regions or as complementary substitutions within predicted stems. All detected pxr homologs are located in the intergenic region between the ?(54)-dependent response regulator nla19 and a predicted NADH dehydrogenase gene, but other neighboring gene content has diversified. PMID:24418530

  5. Validation of endogenous control reference genes for normalizing gene expression studies in endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ayakannu, Thangesweran; Taylor, Anthony H; Willets, Jonathon M; Brown, Laurence; Lambert, David G; McDonald, John; Davies, Quentin; Moss, Esther L; Konje, Justin C

    2015-09-01

    Real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) is a powerful technique used for the relative quantification of target genes, using reference (housekeeping) genes for normalization to ensure the generation of accurate and robust data. A systematic examination of the suitability of endogenous reference genes for gene expression studies in endometrial cancer tissues is absent. The aims of this study were therefore to identify and evaluate from the thirty-two possible reference genes from a TaqMan(®) array panel their suitability as an internal control gene. The mathematical software packages geNorm qBasePLUS identified Pumilio homolog 1 (Drosophila) (PUM1), ubiquitin C (UBC), phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK1), mitochondrial ribosomal protein L19 (MRPL19) and peptidylpropyl isomerase A (cyclophilin A) (PPIA) as the best reference gene combination, whilst NormFinder identified MRPL19 as the best single reference gene, with importin 8 (IPO8) and PPIA being the best combination of two reference genes. BestKeeper ranked MRPL19 as the most stably expressed gene. In addition, the study was validated by examining the relative expression of a test gene, which encodes the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1). A significant difference in CB1 mRNA expression between malignant and normal endometrium using MRPL19, PPIA, and IP08 in combination was observed. The use of MRPL19, IPO8 and PPIA was identified as the best reference gene combination for the normalization of gene expression levels in endometrial carcinoma. This study demonstrates that the arbitrary selection of endogenous control reference genes for normalization in qRT-PCR studies of endometrial carcinoma, without validation, risks the production of inaccurate data and should therefore be discouraged. PMID:26124453

  6. Novel cyclic di-GMP effectors of the YajQ protein family control bacterial virulence.

    PubMed

    An, Shi-qi; Caly, Delphine L; McCarthy, Yvonne; Murdoch, Sarah L; Ward, Joseph; Febrer, Melanie; Dow, J Maxwell; Ryan, Robert P

    2014-10-01

    Bis-(3',5') cyclic di-guanylate (cyclic di-GMP) is a key bacterial second messenger that is implicated in the regulation of many critical processes that include motility, biofilm formation and virulence. Cyclic di-GMP influences diverse functions through interaction with a range of effectors. Our knowledge of these effectors and their different regulatory actions is far from complete, however. Here we have used an affinity pull-down assay using cyclic di-GMP-coupled magnetic beads to identify cyclic di-GMP binding proteins in the plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc). This analysis identified XC_3703, a protein of the YajQ family, as a potential cyclic di-GMP receptor. Isothermal titration calorimetry showed that the purified XC_3703 protein bound cyclic di-GMP with a high affinity (K(d)?2 µM). Mutation of XC_3703 led to reduced virulence of Xcc to plants and alteration in biofilm formation. Yeast two-hybrid and far-western analyses showed that XC_3703 was able to interact with XC_2801, a transcription factor of the LysR family. Mutation of XC_2801 and XC_3703 had partially overlapping effects on the transcriptome of Xcc, and both affected virulence. Electromobility shift assays showed that XC_3703 positively affected the binding of XC_2801 to the promoters of target virulence genes, an effect that was reversed by cyclic di-GMP. Genetic and functional analysis of YajQ family members from the human pathogens Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia showed that they also specifically bound cyclic di-GMP and contributed to virulence in model systems. The findings thus identify a new class of cyclic di-GMP effector that regulates bacterial virulence. PMID:25329577

  7. Inference of Quantitative Models of Bacterial Promoters from Time-Series Reporter Gene Data

    PubMed Central

    Stefan, Diana; Pinel, Corinne; Pinhal, Stéphane; Cinquemani, Eugenio; Geiselmann, Johannes; de Jong, Hidde

    2015-01-01

    The inference of regulatory interactions and quantitative models of gene regulation from time-series transcriptomics data has been extensively studied and applied to a range of problems in drug discovery, cancer research, and biotechnology. The application of existing methods is commonly based on implicit assumptions on the biological processes under study. First, the measurements of mRNA abundance obtained in transcriptomics experiments are taken to be representative of protein concentrations. Second, the observed changes in gene expression are assumed to be solely due to transcription factors and other specific regulators, while changes in the activity of the gene expression machinery and other global physiological effects are neglected. While convenient in practice, these assumptions are often not valid and bias the reverse engineering process. Here we systematically investigate, using a combination of models and experiments, the importance of this bias and possible corrections. We measure in real time and in vivo the activity of genes involved in the FliA-FlgM module of the E. coli motility network. From these data, we estimate protein concentrations and global physiological effects by means of kinetic models of gene expression. Our results indicate that correcting for the bias of commonly-made assumptions improves the quality of the models inferred from the data. Moreover, we show by simulation that these improvements are expected to be even stronger for systems in which protein concentrations have longer half-lives and the activity of the gene expression machinery varies more strongly across conditions than in the FliA-FlgM module. The approach proposed in this study is broadly applicable when using time-series transcriptome data to learn about the structure and dynamics of regulatory networks. In the case of the FliA-FlgM module, our results demonstrate the importance of global physiological effects and the active regulation of FliA and FlgM half-lives for the dynamics of FliA-dependent promoters. PMID:25590141

  8. The pepper GNA-related lectin and PAN domain protein gene, CaGLP1, is required for plant cell death and defense signaling during bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nak Hyun; Lee, Dong Hyuk; Choi, Du Seok; Hwang, Byung Kook

    2015-12-01

    Carbohydrate-binding proteins, commonly referred to as lectins or agglutinins, function in defense responses to microbial pathogens. Pepper (Capsicum annuum) GNA-related lectin and PAN-domain protein gene CaGLP1 was isolated and functionally characterized from pepper leaves infected with Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv). CaGLP1 contained an amine-terminus prokaryotic membrane lipoprotein lipid attachment site, a Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA)-related lectin domain responsible for the recognition of high-mannose N-glycans, and a carboxyl-terminus PAN/apple domain. RNA gel blot and immunoblot analyses determined that CaGLP1 was strongly induced in pepper by compatible and incompatible Xcv infection. CaGLP1 protein localized primarily to the plasma membrane and exhibited mannose-binding specificity. CaGLP1-silenced pepper plants were more susceptible to compatible or incompatible Xcv infection compared with that of non-silenced control plants. CaGLP1 silencing in pepper leaves did not accumulate H2O2 and induce cell death during incompatible Xcv infection. Defense-related CaDEF1 (defensin) gene expression was significantly reduced in CaGLP1-silenced pepper plants. CaGLP1-overexpression in Arabidopsis thaliana enhanced resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. Defense-related AtPDF1.2 expression was elevated in CaGLP1-overexpression lines. Together, these results suggest that CaGLP1 is required for plant cell death and defense responses through the reactive oxygen species burst and downstream defense-related gene expression in response to bacterial pathogen challenge. PMID:26706081

  9. Mechanism for gene control by a natural allosteric group I ribozyme.

    PubMed

    Chen, Andy G Y; Sudarsan, Narasimhan; Breaker, Ronald R

    2011-11-01

    An allosteric ribozyme consisting of a metabolite-sensing riboswitch and a group I self-splicing ribozyme was recently found in the pathogenic bacterium Clostridium difficile. The riboswitch senses the bacterial second messenger c-di-GMP, thereby controlling 5'-splice site choice by the downstream ribozyme. The proximity of this allosteric ribozyme to the open reading frame (ORF) for CD3246 suggests that coenzyme-mediated regulation of splicing controls expression of this putative virulence gene. In the presence of c-di-GMP, the allosteric ribozyme in the CD3246 precursor transcript generates a spliced transcript that retains the riboswitch aptamer. In the absence of c-di-GMP, the ribozyme mediates an alternative GTP attack that results in a truncated transcript (alternative GTP-attack product). Using reporter assays in Escherichia coli, we investigated the difference in gene expression between the spliced product and the alternative GTP-attack product. We provide evidence that CD3246 gene expression is activated if allosteric ribozyme splicing creates a ribosome binding site (RBS) for translation from a UUG start codon. In addition, biochemical and genetic analyses reveal that the riboswitch may further control CD3246 expression by revealing or occluding this newly formed RBS. Therefore, this architecture provides the riboswitch with a mechanism for extended regulation after splicing has occurred or as a backup mechanism for suppression of translation in the event of misregulated splicing. PMID:21960486

  10. Cloning and expression analysis of a ubiquitin gene ( Ub L40 ) in the haemocytes of Crassostrea hongkongensis under bacterial challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Dingkun; Zhang, Yang; Yu, Ziniu

    2011-01-01

    Ubiquitin, a highly conserved stress-related protein, is assigned multiple functions, such as DNA processing, protein degradation, and ribosome synthesis. The Crassostrea hongkongensis ubiquitin gene (designated ChUb L40 ) was cloned by a combination of suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The full-length cDNA of ChUb L40 is 496 bp in length, consisting of a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 34 bp, a 3'-UTR of 75 bp and an open reading frame of 387 bp encoding a ubiquitin fusion protein of 128 amino acids. Analysis of the amino acid sequence of ChUb L40 reveals that Ub L40 is highly conservative during evolution. The expression patterns of ChUb L40 gene in various tissues were examined by real-time PCR. The expression level of ChUb L40 in haemocytes is down-regulated at 4 h and gradually returned to its original level from 6 h to 24 h after Vibrio alginolyticus challenge. Our results suggest that ChUb L40 is ubiquitously expressed and plays an important role in immune defense against bacterial challenge.

  11. Effects of 2.45 GHz electromagnetic fields with a wide range of SARs on bacterial and HPRT gene mutations.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Shin; Takashima, Yoshio; Sakurai, Tomonori; Suzuki, Yukihisa; Taki, Masao; Miyakoshi, Junji

    2007-01-01

    Present day use of mobile phones is ubiquitous. This causes some concern for human health due to exposure to high-frequency electromagnetic fields (HFEMF) from mobile phones. Consequently, we have examined the effects of 2.45 GHz electromagnetic fields on bacterial mutations and the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) gene mutations. Using the Ames test, bacteria were exposed to HFEMF for 30 min at specific absorption rates (SARs) from 5 to 200 W/kg. In all strains, there was no significant difference in the frequency of revertant colonies between sham exposure and HFEMF-exposed groups. In examination of mutations of the HPRT gene, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cells were exposed to HFEMF for 2 h at SARs from 5 to 200 W/kg. We detected a combination effect of simultaneous exposure to HFEMF and bleomycin at the respective SARs. A statistically significant difference was observed between the cells exposed to HFEMF at the SAR of 200 W/kg. Cells treated with the combination of HFEMF at SARs from 50 to 200 W/kg and bleomycin exhibited increased HPRT mutations. As the exposure to HFEMF induced an increase in temperature, these increases of mutation frequency may be a result of activation of bleomycin by heat. We consider that the increase of mutation frequency may be due to a thermal effect. PMID:17179647

  12. Towards a tolerance toolkit: Gene expression signatures enabling the emergence of resistant bacterial strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, Keesha; Chatterjee, Anushree

    2014-03-01

    Microbial pathogens are able to rapidly acquire tolerance to chemical toxins. Developing next-generation antibiotics that impede the emergence of resistance will help avoid a world-wide health crisis. Conversely, the ability to induce rapid tolerance gains could lead to high-yielding strains for sustainable production of biofuels and commodity chemicals. Achieving these goals requires an understanding of the general mechanisms allowing microbes to become resistant to diverse toxins. We apply top-down and bottom-up methodologies to identify biological network changes leading to adaptation and tolerance. Using a top-down approach, we perform evolution experiments to isolate resistant strains, collect samples for transcriptomic and proteomic analysis, and use the omics data to inform mathematical gene regulatory models. Using a bottom-up approach, we build and test synthetic genetic devices that enable increased or decreased expression of selected genes. Unique patterns in gene expression are identified in cultures actively gaining resistance, especially in pathways known to be involved with stress response, efflux, and mutagenesis. Genes correlated with tolerance could potentially allow the design of resistance-free antibiotics or robust chemical production strains.

  13. Differential gene expression in bacterial symbionts from loliginid squids demonstrates variation between mutualistic and

    E-print Network

    McFall-Ngai, Margaret

    interactions between symbiotic and free-living stages of the symbiont. The environmentally transmitted-living stages. Selective capture of transcribed sequences (SCOTS) was used to differentiate genes expressed microphages and during their free-living state. Likewise, studies on Salmonella typhimurium showed variation

  14. A Benefit of High Temperature: Increased Effectiveness of a Rice Bacterial Blight Disease Resistance Gene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High temperatures promote development of many plant diseases and reduce effectiveness of disease resistance (R) genes. In many rice producing countries, two crops of rice are produced, with more disease occurring in the season with higher day/night temperatures. While studying the factors that influ...

  15. Influence of temperature regimes on resistance gene-mediated response to rice bacterial blight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing temperatures could reduce yield growth rate of rice by 10% in several rice production areas. Similarly, higher temperatures are predicted to accelerate the breakdown of plant disease resistance through higher disease pressure or altered resistance (R) gene effectiveness in many host-path...

  16. Key respiratory genes elucidate bacterial community respiration in a seasonally anoxic estuary.

    PubMed

    Eggleston, Erin M; Lee, Dong Y; Owens, Michael S; Cornwell, Jeffrey C; Crump, Byron C; Hewson, Ian

    2015-07-01

    Intense annual spring phytoplankton blooms and thermohaline stratification lead to anoxia in Chesapeake Bay bottom waters. Once oxygen becomes depleted in the system, microbial communities use energetically favourable alternative electron acceptors for respiration. The extent to which changes in respiration are reflected in community gene expression have only recently been investigated. Metatranscriptomes prepared from near-bottom water plankton over a 4-month time series in central Chesapeake Bay demonstrated changes consistent with terminal electron acceptor availability. The frequency of respiration-related genes in metatranscriptomes was examined by BLASTx against curated databases of genes intimately and exclusively involved in specific electron acceptor utilization pathways. The relative expression of genes involved in denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium were coincident with changes in nitrate, nitrite and ammonium concentrations. Dissimilatory iron and manganese reduction transcript ratios increase during anoxic conditions and corresponded with the highest soluble reactive phosphate and manganese concentrations. The sulfide concentration peaked in late July and early August and also matched dissimilatory sulfate reduction transcript ratios. We show that rather than abrupt transitions between terminal electron acceptors, there is substantial overlap in time and space of these various anaerobic respiratory processes in Chesapeake Bay. PMID:25470994

  17. Secondary metabolite gene expression and interplay of bacterial functions in a tropical freshwater cyanobacterial bloom

    PubMed Central

    Penn, Kevin; Wang, Jia; Fernando, Samodha C; Thompson, Janelle R

    2014-01-01

    Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (cyanoHABs) appear to be increasing in frequency on a global scale. The Cyanobacteria in blooms can produce toxic secondary metabolites that make freshwater dangerous for drinking and recreation. To characterize microbial activities in a cyanoHAB, transcripts from a eutrophic freshwater reservoir in Singapore were sequenced for six samples collected over one day-night period. Transcripts from the Cyanobacterium Microcystis dominated all samples and were accompanied by at least 533 genera primarily from the Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. Within the Microcystis population, abundant transcripts were from genes for buoyancy, photosynthesis and synthesis of the toxin microviridin, suggesting that these are necessary for competitive dominance in the Reservoir. During the day, Microcystis transcripts were enriched in photosynthesis and energy metabolism while at night enriched pathways included DNA replication and repair and toxin biosynthesis. Microcystis was the dominant source of transcripts from polyketide and non-ribosomal peptide synthase (PKS and NRPS, respectively) gene clusters. Unexpectedly, expression of all PKS/NRPS gene clusters, including for the toxins microcystin and aeruginosin, occurred throughout the day-night cycle. The most highly expressed PKS/NRPS gene cluster from Microcystis is not associated with any known product. The four most abundant phyla in the reservoir were enriched in different functions, including photosynthesis (Cyanobacteria), breakdown of complex organic molecules (Proteobacteria), glycan metabolism (Bacteroidetes) and breakdown of plant carbohydrates, such as cellobiose (Actinobacteria). These results provide the first estimate of secondary metabolite gene expression, functional partitioning and functional interplay in a freshwater cyanoHAB. PMID:24646695

  18. Analysis of Bacterial Community Structure in Sulfurous-Oil-Containing Soils and Detection of Species Carrying Dibenzothiophene Desulfurization (dsz) Genes

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Gabriela Frois; Rosado, Alexandre Soares; Seldin, Lucy; de Araujo, Welington; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2001-01-01

    The selective effects of sulfur-containing hydrocarbons, with respect to changes in bacterial community structure and selection of desulfurizing organisms and genes, were studied in soil. Samples taken from a polluted field soil (A) along a concentration gradient of sulfurous oil and from soil microcosms treated with dibenzothiophene (DBT)-containing petroleum (FSL soil) were analyzed. Analyses included plate counts of total bacteria and of DBT utilizers, molecular community profiling via soil DNA-based PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), and detection of genes that encode enzymes involved in the desulfurization of hydrocarbons, i.e., dszA, dszB, and dszC.Data obtained from the A soil showed no discriminating effects of oil levels on the culturable bacterial numbers on either medium used. Generally, counts of DBT degraders were 10- to 100-fold lower than the total culturable counts. However, PCR-DGGE showed that the numbers of bands detected in the molecular community profiles decreased with increasing oil content of the soil. Analysis of the sequences of three prominent bands of the profiles generated with the highly polluted soil samples suggested that the underlying organisms were related to Actinomyces sp., Arthrobacter sp., and a bacterium of uncertain affiliation. dszA, dszB, and dszC genes were present in all A soil samples, whereas a range of unpolluted soils gave negative results in this analysis. Results from the study of FSL soil revealed minor effects of the petroleum-DBT treatment on culturable bacterial numbers and clear effects on the DBT-utilizing communities. The molecular community profiles were largely stable over time in the untreated soil, whereas they showed a progressive change over time following treatment with DBT-containing petroleum. Direct PCR assessment revealed the presence of dszB-related signals in the untreated FSL soil and the apparent selection of dszA- and dszC-related sequences by the petroleum-DBT treatment. PCR-DGGE applied to sequential enrichment cultures in DBT-containing sulfur-free basal salts medium prepared from the A and treated FSL soils revealed the selection of up to 10 distinct bands. Sequencing a subset of these bands provided evidence for the presence of organisms related to Pseudomonas putida, a Pseudomonas sp., Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Rhodococcus erythropolis. Several of 52 colonies obtained from the A and FSL soils on agar plates with DBT as the sole sulfur source produced bands that matched the migration of bands selected in the enrichment cultures. Evidence for the presence of dszB in 12 strains was obtained, whereas dszA and dszC genes were found in only 7 and 6 strains, respectively. Most of the strains carrying dszA or dszC were classified as R. erythropolis related, and all revealed the capacity to desulfurize DBT. A comparison of 37 dszA sequences, obtained via PCR from the A and FSL soils, from enrichments of these soils, and from isolates, revealed the great similarity of all sequences to the canonical (R. erythropolis strain IGTS8) dszA sequence and a large degree of internal conservation. The 37 sequences recovered were grouped in three clusters. One group, consisting of 30 sequences, was minimally 98% related to the IGTS8 sequence, a second group of 2 sequences was slightly different, and a third group of 5 sequences was 95% similar. The first two groups contained sequences obtained from both soil types and enrichment cultures (including isolates), but the last consisted of sequences obtained directly from the polluted A soil. PMID:11229891

  19. Yeast Kluyveromyces lactis as host for expression of the bacterial lipase: cloning and adaptation of the new lipase gene from Serratia sp.

    PubMed

    Šiekštel?, Rimantas; Veteikyt?, Aušra; Tvaska, Bronius; Matijošyt?, Inga

    2015-10-01

    Many microbial lipases have been successfully expressed in yeasts, but not in industrially attractive Kluyveromyces lactis, which among other benefits can be cultivated on a medium supplemented with whey--cheap and easily available industrial waste. A new bacterial lipase from Serratia sp. was isolated and for the first time expressed into the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis by heterologous protein expression system based on a strong promoter of Kluyveromyces marxianus triosephosphate isomerase gene and signal peptide of Kluyveromyces marxianus endopolygalacturonase gene. In addition, the bacterial lipase gene was synthesized de novo by taking into account a codon usage bias optimal for K. lactis and was expressed into the yeast K. lactis also. Both resulting strains were characterized by high output level of the target protein secreted extracellularly. Secreted lipases were characterized for activity and stability. PMID:26254038

  20. Broad-range PCR, cloning and sequencing of the full 16S rRNA gene for detection of bacterial DNA in synovial fluid samples of Tunisian patients with reactive and undifferentiated arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Siala, Mariam; Gdoura, Radhouane; Fourati, Hela; Rihl, Markus; Jaulhac, Benoit; Younes, Mohamed; Sibilia, Jean; Baklouti, Sofien; Bargaoui, Naceur; Sellami, Slaheddine; Sghir, Abdelghani; Hammami, Adnane

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Broad-range rDNA PCR provides an alternative, cultivation-independent approach for identifying bacterial DNA in reactive and other form of arthritis. The aim of this study was to use broad-range rDNA PCR targeting the 16S rRNA gene in patients with reactive and other forms of arthritis and to screen for the presence of DNA from any given bacterial species in synovial fluid (SF) samples. Methods We examined the SF samples from a total of 27 patients consisting of patients with reactive arthritis (ReA) (n = 5), undifferentiated arthritis (UA) (n = 9), rheumatoid arthritis (n = 7), and osteoarthritis (n = 6) of which the latter two were used as controls. Using broad-range bacterial PCR amplifying a 1400 bp fragment from the 16S rRNA gene, we identified and sequenced at least 24 clones from each SF sample. To identify the corresponding bacteria, DNA sequences were compared to the EMBL (European Molecular Biology Laboratory) database. Results Bacterial DNA was identified in 20 of the 27 SF samples (74, 10%). Analysis of a large number of sequences revealed the presence of DNA from more than one single bacterial species in the SF of all patients studied. The nearly complete sequences of the 1400 bp were obtained for most of the detected species. DNA of bacterial species including Shigella species, Escherichia species, and other coli-form bacteria as well as opportunistic pathogens such as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Achromobacter xylosoxidans were shared in all arthritis patients. Among pathogens described to trigger ReA, DNA from Shigella sonnei was found in ReA and UA patients. We also detected DNA from rarely occurring human pathogens such as Aranicola species and Pantoea ananatis. We also found DNA from bacteria so far not described in human infections such as Bacillus niacini, Paenibacillus humicus, Diaphorobacter species and uncultured bacterium genera incertae sedis OP10. Conclusions Broad-range PCR followed by cloning and sequencing the entire 16S rDNA, allowed the identification of the bacterial DNA environment in the SF samples of arthritic patients. We found a wide spectrum of bacteria including those known to be involved in ReA and others not previously associated with arthritis. PMID:19570210

  1. A phenylalanine rotameric switch for signal-state control in bacterial chemoreceptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Davi R.; Yang, Chen; Ames, Peter; Baudry, Jerome; Parkinson, John S.; Zhulin, Igor B.

    2013-12-01

    Bacterial chemoreceptors are widely used as a model system for elucidating the molecular mechanisms of transmembrane signalling and have provided a detailed understanding of how ligand binding by the receptor modulates the activity of its associated kinase CheA. However, the mechanisms by which conformational signals move between signalling elements within a receptor dimer and how they control kinase activity remain unknown. Here, using long molecular dynamics simulations, we show that the kinase-activating cytoplasmic tip of the chemoreceptor fluctuates between two stable conformations in a signal-dependent manner. A highly conserved residue, Phe396, appears to serve as the conformational switch, because flipping of the stacked aromatic rings of an interacting F396-F396? pair in the receptor homodimer takes place concomitantly with the signal-related conformational changes. We suggest that interacting aromatic residues, which are common stabilizers of protein tertiary structure, might serve as rotameric molecular switches in other biological processes as well.

  2. [Sequence analysis of bacterial transposon in NHX gene of Populus euphratica].

    PubMed

    Li, Jin-Yao; Ma, Ji; Cai, Lun; Zeng, You-Ling; Mei, Xin-Di; Zhang, Fu-Chun

    2003-09-01

    The United Nations Environment Program estimates that approximately 20% of agricultural land and 50% of cropland in the world is salt-stressed. The gene NHX (Na+/H+ exchanger) encodes functional protein that catalyzes the countertransport of Na+ and H+ across membranes and may play an important role in plant salt tolerance. To clone the NHX from the wild plant Populus euphratica collected in Tarim basin and Xinjiang Wujiaqu district into a T-vector, designed primer was used to amplify 1kb NHX cDNA fragment with RT-PCR. Total RNA was extracted from Populus euphratica tissue (plant tissue was collected from Tarim basin and Xinjiang Wujiaqu district and stored in liquid nitrogen) according to the Plant RNA Mini Kits of Omega. First cDNAs were synthesized from 1 microg total RNA of Populus euphratica seedling. A pair of primers were used to perform RT-PCR. The amplified DNA fragment was purified and cloned into pMD18-T vector. However, 1kb and 2.3kb fragment were obtained from Tarim basin and Xinjiang Wujiaqu district and named as PtNHX and PwNHX, respectively. Sequence analysis reveals that the cloned PtNHX fragment of Populus euphratica contains partial NHX coding region with 98%, 86%, 84% and 80% identity comparing with Atriplex gemelini, Suaeda maritima, Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa, respectively. This analysis suggests that NHX gene would be highly conserved in terms of evolution in plant; and it also suggests that the NHX gene of Populus euphratica also would have the similarity with that of Arabidopsis. It may be of great importance in improvement of the plant salt tolerance and breed of crop. At the same time, sequence analysis shows that PwNHX gene includes a coding region about 1350bp with 99% identity comparing with transposon Tn10 IS10-left transposase of Shigella flexneri. On the one hand, the NHX gene may lose its function because it was inserted a fragment in coding region. On the other hand, its product may play a important role in salt tolerance. Populus grow in saline soil. It speculates that it may have other salt tolerance mechanism in Populus. The transposon can be used as transposon tagging to clone other genes and it will help us to understand farther the salt tolerance mechanism. PMID:15969097

  3. Pathogenic Bacterial Species Associated with Endodontic Infection Evade Innate Immune Control by Disabling Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Aritsune; Jin, Jun-O; Johnston, Christopher D.; Yamazaki, Hajime; Houri-Haddad, Yael

    2014-01-01

    Endodontic infections, in which oral bacteria access the tooth pulp chamber, are common and do not resolve once established. To investigate the effects of these infections on the innate immune response, we established a mouse subcutaneous chamber model, where a mixture of four oral pathogens commonly associated with these infections (endodontic pathogens [EP]), i.e., Fusobacterium nucleatum, Streptococcus intermedius, Parvimonas micra, and Prevotella intermedia, was inoculated into subcutaneously implanted titanium chambers. Cells that infiltrated the chamber after these infections were primarily neutrophils; however, these neutrophils were unable to control the infection. Infection with a nonpathogenic oral bacterial species, Streptococcus mitis, resulted in well-controlled infection, with bacterial numbers reduced by 4 to 5 log units after 7 days. Propidium iodide (PI) staining of the chamber neutrophils identified three distinct populations: neutrophils from EP-infected chambers were intermediate in PI staining, while cells in chambers from mice infected with S. mitis were PI positive (apoptotic) or negative (live). Strikingly, neutrophils from EP-infected chambers were severely impaired in their ability to phagocytose and to generate reactive oxygen species in vitro after removal from the chamber compared to cells from S. mitis-infected chambers. The mechanism of neutrophil impairment was necrotic cell death as determined by morphological analyses. P. intermedia alone could induce a similar neutrophil phenotype. We conclude that the endodontic pathogens, particularly P. intermedia, can efficiently disable and kill infiltrating neutrophils, allowing these infections to become established. These results can help explain the persistence of endodontic infections and demonstrate a new virulence mechanism associated with P. intermedia. PMID:25024367

  4. Pathogenic bacterial species associated with endodontic infection evade innate immune control by disabling neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Aritsune; Jin, Jun-O; Johnston, Christopher D; Yamazaki, Hajime; Houri-Haddad, Yael; Rittling, Susan R

    2014-10-01

    Endodontic infections, in which oral bacteria access the tooth pulp chamber, are common and do not resolve once established. To investigate the effects of these infections on the innate immune response, we established a mouse subcutaneous chamber model, where a mixture of four oral pathogens commonly associated with these infections (endodontic pathogens [EP]), i.e., Fusobacterium nucleatum, Streptococcus intermedius, Parvimonas micra, and Prevotella intermedia, was inoculated into subcutaneously implanted titanium chambers. Cells that infiltrated the chamber after these infections were primarily neutrophils; however, these neutrophils were unable to control the infection. Infection with a nonpathogenic oral bacterial species, Streptococcus mitis, resulted in well-controlled infection, with bacterial numbers reduced by 4 to 5 log units after 7 days. Propidium iodide (PI) staining of the chamber neutrophils identified three distinct populations: neutrophils from EP-infected chambers were intermediate in PI staining, while cells in chambers from mice infected with S. mitis were PI positive (apoptotic) or negative (live). Strikingly, neutrophils from EP-infected chambers were severely impaired in their ability to phagocytose and to generate reactive oxygen species in vitro after removal from the chamber compared to cells from S. mitis-infected chambers. The mechanism of neutrophil impairment was necrotic cell death as determined by morphological analyses. P. intermedia alone could induce a similar neutrophil phenotype. We conclude that the endodontic pathogens, particularly P. intermedia, can efficiently disable and kill infiltrating neutrophils, allowing these infections to become established. These results can help explain the persistence of endodontic infections and demonstrate a new virulence mechanism associated with P. intermedia. PMID:25024367

  5. Use of genomics to identify bacterial undecaprenyl pyrophosphate synthetase: cloning, expression, and characterization of the essential uppS gene.

    PubMed

    Apfel, C M; Takács, B; Fountoulakis, M; Stieger, M; Keck, W

    1999-01-01

    The prenyltransferase undecaprenyl pyrophosphate synthetase (di-trans,poly-cis-decaprenylcistransferase; EC 2.5.1.31) was purified from the soluble fraction of Escherichia coli by TSK-DEAE, ceramic hydroxyapatite, TSK-ether, Superdex 200, and heparin-Actigel chromatography. The protein was labeled with the photolabile analogue of the farnesyl pyrophosphate analogue (E, E)-[1-3H]-(2-diazo-3-trifluoropropionyloxy)geranyl diphosphate and was detected on a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel as a protein with an apparent molecular mass of 29 kDa. This protein band was cut out from the gel, trypsin digested, and subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometric analysis. Comparison of the experimental data with computer-simulated trypsin digest data for all E. coli proteins yielded a single match with a protein of unassigned function (SWISS-PROT Q47675; YAES_ECOLI). Sequences with strong similarity indicative of homology to this protein were identified in 25 bacterial species, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and in Caenorhabditis elegans. The homologous genes (uppS) were cloned from E. coli, Haemophilus influenzae, and Streptococcus pneumoniae, expressed in E. coli as amino-terminal His-tagged fusion proteins, and purified over a Ni2+ affinity column. An untagged version of the E. coli uppS gene was also cloned and expressed, and the protein purified in two chromatographic steps. We were able to detect Upp synthetase activity for all purified enzymes. Further, biochemical characterization revealed no differences between the recombinant untagged E. coli Upp synthetase and the three His-tagged fusion proteins. All enzymes were absolutely Triton X-100 and MgCl2 dependent. With the use of a regulatable gene disruption system, we demonstrated that uppS is essential for growth in S. pneumoniae R6. PMID:9882662

  6. Mammalian cell entry genes in Streptomyces may provide clues to the evolution of bacterial virulence

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Laura C.; Seipke, Ryan F.; Prieto, Pilar; Willemse, Joost; van Wezel, Gilles P.; Hutchings, Matthew I.; Hoskisson, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of virulence is key to appreciating the role specific loci play in pathogenicity. Streptomyces species are generally non-pathogenic soil saprophytes, yet within their genome we can find homologues of virulence loci. One example of this is the mammalian cell entry (mce) locus, which has been characterised in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. To investigate the role in Streptomyces we deleted the mce locus and studied its impact on cell survival, morphology and interaction with other soil organisms. Disruption of the mce cluster resulted in virulence towards amoebae (Acanthamoeba polyphaga) and reduced colonization of plant (Arabidopsis) models, indicating these genes may play an important role in Streptomyces survival in the environment. Our data suggest that loss of mce in Streptomyces spp. may have profound effects on survival in a competitive soil environment, and provides insight in to the evolution and selection of these genes as virulence factors in related pathogenic organisms. PMID:23346366

  7. Conservation of Transcription Start Sites within Genes across a Bacterial Genus

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Wenjun; Price, Morgan N.; Deutschbauer, Adam M.; Romine, Margaret F.; Arkin, Adam P.

    2014-07-01

    Transcription start sites (TSSs) lying inside annotated genes, on the same or opposite strand, have been observed in diverse bacteria, but the function of these unexpected transcripts is unclear. Here, we use the metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and its relatives to study the evolutionary conservation of unexpected TSSs. Using high-resolution tiling microarrays and 5?-end RNA sequencing, we identified 2,531 TSSs in S. oneidensis MR-1, of which 18% were located inside coding sequences (CDSs). Comparative transcriptome analysis with seven additional Shewanella species revealed that the majority (76%) of the TSSs within the upstream regions of annotated genes (gTSSs) were conserved. Thirty percent of the TSSs that were inside genes and on the sense strand (iTSSs) were also conserved. Sequence analysis around these iTSSs showed conserved promoter motifs, suggesting that many iTSS are under purifying selection. Furthermore, conserved iTSSs are enriched for regulatory motifs, suggesting that they are regulated, and they tend to eliminate polar effects, which confirms that they are functional. In contrast, the transcription of antisense TSSs located inside CDSs (aTSSs) was significantly less likely to be conserved (22%). However, aTSSs whose transcription was conserved often have conserved promoter motifs and drive the expression of nearby genes. Overall, our findings demonstrate that some internal TSSs are conserved and drive protein expression despite their unusual locations, but the majority are not conserved and may reflect noisy initiation of transcription rather than a biological function.

  8. Activation of Dormant Bacterial Genes by Nonomuraea sp. Strain ATCC 39727 Mutant-Type RNA Polymerase? †

    PubMed Central

    Talà, Adelfia; Wang, Guojun; Zemanova, Martina; Okamoto, Susumu; Ochi, Kozo; Alifano, Pietro

    2009-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that the ability of actinomycetes to produce antibiotics and other bioactive secondary metabolites has been underestimated due to the presence of cryptic gene clusters. The activation of dormant genes is therefore one of the most important areas of experimental research for the discovery of drugs in these organisms. The recent observation that several actinomycetes possess two RNA polymerase ?-chain genes (rpoB) has opened up the possibility, explored in this study, of developing a new strategy to activate dormant gene expression in bacteria. Two rpoB paralogs, rpoB(S) and rpoB(R), provide Nonomuraea sp. strain ATCC 39727 with two functionally distinct and developmentally regulated RNA polymerases. The product of rpoB(R), the expression of which increases after transition to stationary phase, is characterized by five amino acid substitutions located within or close to the so-called rifampin resistance clusters that play a key role in fundamental activities of RNA polymerase. Here, we report that rpoB(R) markedly activated antibiotic biosynthesis in the wild-type Streptomyces lividans strain 1326 and also in strain KO-421, a relaxed (rel) mutant unable to produce ppGpp. Site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated that the rpoB(R)-specific missense H426N mutation was essential for the activation of secondary metabolism. Our observations also indicated that mutant-type or duplicated, rpoB often exists in nature among rare actinomycetes and will thus provide a basis for further basic and applied research. PMID:19047343

  9. A Kernel Regression Approach to Gene-Gene Interaction Detection for Case-Control Studies

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Nicholas B.; Schaid, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Gene-gene interactions are increasingly being addressed as a potentially important contributor to the variability of complex traits. Consequently, attentions have moved beyond single locus analysis of association to more complex genetic models. While several single-marker approaches toward interaction analysis have been developed, such methods suffer from very high testing dimensionality and do not take advantage of existing information, notably the definition of genes as functional units. Here we propose a comprehensive family of gene-level score tests for identifying genetic elements of disease risk, in particular pair-wise gene-gene interactions. Using kernel machine methods, we devise score-based variance component tests under a generalized linear mixed model framework. We conducted simulations based upon coalescent genetic models to evaluate the performance of our approach under a variety of disease models. These simulations indicate that our methods are generally higher powered than alternative gene-level approaches and at worst competitive with exhaustive SNP-level analyses. Furthermore, we observe that simulated epistatic effects resulted in significant marginal testing results for the involved genes regardless of whether or not true main effects were present. We detail the benefits of our methods and discuss potential genome-wide analysis strategies for gene-gene interaction analysis in a case-control study design. PMID:23868214

  10. Rv3351c, a Mycobacterium tuberculosis gene that affects bacterial growth and alveolar epithelial cell viability.

    PubMed

    Pavlicek, Rebecca L; Fine-Coulson, Kari; Gupta, Tuhina; Quinn, Frederick D; Posey, James E; Willby, Melisa; Castro-Garza, Jorge; Karls, Russell K

    2015-12-01

    Despite the interactions known to occur between various lower respiratory tract pathogens and alveolar epithelial cells (AECs), few reports examine factors influencing the interplay between Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli and AECs during infection. Importantly, in vitro studies have demonstrated that the M. tuberculosis hbha and esxA gene products HBHA and ESAT6 directly or indirectly influence AEC survival. In this report, we identify Rv3351c as another M. tuberculosis gene that impacts the fate of both the pathogen and AEC host. Intracellular replication of an Rv3351c mutant in the human AEC type II pneumocyte cell line A549 was markedly reduced relative to the complemented mutant and parent strain. Deletion of Rv3351c diminished the release of lactate dehydrogenase and decreased uptake of trypan blue vital stain by host cells infected with M. tuberculosis bacilli, suggesting attenuated cytotoxic effects. Interestingly, an isogenic hbha mutant displayed reductions in AEC killing similar to those observed for the Rv3351c mutant. This opens the possibility that multiple M. tuberculosis gene products interact with AECs. We also observed that Rv3351c aids intracellular replication and survival of M. tuberculosis in macrophages. This places Rv3351c in the same standing as HBHA and ESAT6, which are important factors in AECs and macrophages. Defining the mechanism(s) by which Rv3351c functions to aid pathogen survival within the host may lead to new drug or vaccine targets. PMID:26492080

  11. Adaptive horizontal transfer of a bacterial gene to an invasive insect pest of coffee

    PubMed Central

    Acuña, Ricardo; Padilla, Beatriz E.; Flórez-Ramos, Claudia P.; Rubio, José D.; Herrera, Juan C.; Benavides, Pablo; Lee, Sang-Jik; Yeats, Trevor H.; Egan, Ashley N.; Doyle, Jeffrey J.; Rose, Jocelyn K. C.

    2012-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) involves the nonsexual transmission of genetic material across species boundaries. Although often detected in prokaryotes, examples of HGT involving animals are relatively rare, and any evolutionary advantage conferred to the recipient is typically obscure. We identified a gene (HhMAN1) from the coffee berry borer beetle, Hypothenemus hampei, a devastating pest of coffee, which shows clear evidence of HGT from bacteria. HhMAN1 encodes a mannanase, representing a class of glycosyl hydrolases that has not previously been reported in insects. Recombinant HhMAN1 protein hydrolyzes coffee berry galactomannan, the major storage polysaccharide in this species and the presumed food of H. hampei. HhMAN1 was found to be widespread in a broad biogeographic survey of H. hampei accessions, indicating that the HGT event occurred before radiation of the insect from West Africa to Asia and South America. However, the gene was not detected in the closely related species H. obscurus (the tropical nut borer or “false berry borer”), which does not colonize coffee beans. Thus, HGT of HhMAN1 from bacteria represents a likely adaptation to a specific ecological niche and may have been promoted by intensive agricultural practices. PMID:22371593

  12. Structure-Function Analysis of a Broad Specificity Populus trichocarpa Endo-?-glucanase Reveals an Evolutionary Link between Bacterial Licheninases and Plant XTH Gene Products*

    PubMed Central

    Eklöf, Jens M.; Shojania, Shaheen; Okon, Mark; McIntosh, Lawrence P.; Brumer, Harry

    2013-01-01

    The large xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolase (XTH) gene family continues to be the focus of much attention in studies of plant cell wall morphogenesis due to the unique catalytic functions of the enzymes it encodes. The XTH gene products compose a subfamily of glycoside hydrolase family 16 (GH16), which also comprises a broad range of microbial endoglucanases and endogalactanases, as well as yeast cell wall chitin/?-glucan transglycosylases. Previous whole-family phylogenetic analyses have suggested that the closest relatives to the XTH gene products are the bacterial licheninases (EC 3.2.1.73), which specifically hydrolyze linear mixed linkage ?(1?3)/?(1?4)-glucans. In addition to their specificity for the highly branched xyloglucan polysaccharide, XTH gene products are distinguished from the licheninases and other GH16 enzyme subfamilies by significant active site loop alterations and a large C-terminal extension. Given these differences, the molecular evolution of the XTH gene products in GH16 has remained enigmatic. Here, we present the biochemical and structural analysis of a unique, mixed function endoglucanase from black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa), which reveals a small, newly recognized subfamily of GH16 members intermediate between the bacterial licheninases and plant XTH gene products. We postulate that this clade comprises an important link in the evolution of the large plant XTH gene families from a putative microbial ancestor. As such, this analysis provides new insights into the diversification of GH16 and further unites the apparently disparate members of this important family of proteins. PMID:23572521

  13. The systemic control of circadian gene expression.

    PubMed

    Gerber, A; Saini, C; Curie, T; Emmenegger, Y; Rando, G; Gosselin, P; Gotic, I; Gos, P; Franken, P; Schibler, U

    2015-09-01

    The mammalian circadian timing system consists of a central pacemaker in the brain's suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and subsidiary oscillators in nearly all body cells. The SCN clock, which is adjusted to geophysical time by the photoperiod, synchronizes peripheral clocks through a wide variety of systemic cues. The latter include signals depending on feeding cycles, glucocorticoid hormones, rhythmic blood-borne signals eliciting daily changes in actin dynamics and serum response factor (SRF) activity, and sensors of body temperature rhythms, such as heat shock transcription factors and the cold-inducible RNA-binding protein CIRP. To study these systemic signalling pathways, we designed and engineered a novel, highly photosensitive apparatus, dubbed RT-Biolumicorder. This device enables us to record circadian luciferase reporter gene expression in the liver and other organs of freely moving mice over months in real time. Owing to the multitude of systemic signalling pathway involved in the phase resetting of peripheral clocks the disruption of any particular one has only minor effects on the steady state phase of circadian gene expression in organs such as the liver. Nonetheless, the implication of specific pathways in the synchronization of clock gene expression can readily be assessed by monitoring the phase-shifting kinetics using the RT-Biolumicorder. PMID:26332965

  14. Two HMGB1 genes from grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella mediate immune responses to viral/bacterial PAMPs and GCRV challenge.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunrong; Peng, Limin; Su, Jianguo

    2013-03-01

    High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a nuclear weapon in the immune arsenal and a master regulator of innate immunity, at the crossroads between innate and adaptive immunity. To clarify the immune characterizations of HMGB1 in fishes, two co-orthologs of HMGB1 (CiHMGB1a and CiHMGB1b) were identified in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella by local EST database searching and RACE techniques. mRNA expressions of the two HMGB1 genes are widespread in fifteen tissues investigated. The transcripts of CiHMGB1a and CiHMGB1b were significantly up-regulated and reached peak at 24h post GCRV challenge in spleen and head kidney tissues (P<0.05). The modulations are slow post-bacterial PAMP stimulations by contrast with those after viral PAMP or GCRV challenge. They are inhibited by bacterial PAMPs, but are enhanced by viral PAMP or virus. mRNA expression of CiHMGB1a is high and strongly modulated by nucleic acids and transcription of CiHMGB1b is low and mildly regulated by nucleic acids and capsids of GCRV. The over-expression vectors were constructed and transfected into C. idella kidney cell line to obtain stably expressing recombinant proteins. In HMGB1 over-expressed cells, mRNA expressions of IPS-1, MyD88 and Mx1 were down-regulated, whereas TRIF was found to be up-regulated and IFN-I showed no change in its expression. After GCRV challenge, the transcripts of IPS-1, MyD88 and Mx1 were up-regulated, while IFN-I showed down-regulation, and TRIF showed up-regulation after an initial phase of decline. The titer assay demonstrated no antiviral activity of HMGB1s. The results indicated mRNA expressions of HMGB1a and HMGB1b are enhanced by GCRV or viral PAMP, and are inhibited by bacterial PAMPs; HMGB1a and HMGB1b collaborate with each other and play important roles in modulating the innate immune responses, although without direct antiviral effect; the immune network triggered by HMGB1 work together in concert to maintain homeostasis. PMID:23228458

  15. Metabolism of 2,4-dichlorophenol in tobacco engineered with bacterial degradative genes

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, E.J.; Sekine, M.; Gordon, M.P. )

    1990-05-01

    The potential use of plants in toxic waste remediation has been overlooked. While chlorophenols are relatively slowly metabolized in Nicotiana tabacum var. Xanthi leaf extracts, chlorocatechols are rapidly metabolized, presumably by polyphenol oxidases. Our initial focus has been the fate of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4DCP) in var. Xanthi plants which express a bacterial 2,4DCP hydroxylase, which converts 2,4DCP to 3,5-dichlorocatechol. The roots of wild type and 2,4DCP hydroxylase transgenic plants growing in hydroponics were exposed to {sup 14}C-2,4DCP. Approximately 95% of {sup 14}C-2,4DCP metabolites remained in the roots when exposed to 2,4DCP. Upon extraction of root tissue, three major metabolites were found in untransformed plants and four major metabolites in transformed plants. Upon digestion with beta-D-glucosidase, these metabolites disappeared concomitant with the appearance of free 2,4DCP in wild type plants and 2,4DCP and 3,5-dichlorocatechol in transgenic plants. It is apparent that the chlorophenols are not readily available substrates for polyphenol oxidases in whole plants.

  16. Dose-response relationships and statistical performance of a battery of bacterial gene profiling assays.

    PubMed

    Dardenne, F; Nobels, I; De Coen, W; Blust, R

    2007-05-01

    Because of increasing awareness and legislative demands, there is a demand for the development and use of biological assays for the assessment of the toxicity of chemicals, environmental samples. Recently, a growing number of bacterial reporter assays have been developed and implemented. Nevertheless, little data is published on the performance of these assays in terms of analytical parameters. We present results on a battery of 14 transgenic Escherichia coli strains carrying different promoter::reporter fusions. Growth characteristics and basal expression levels were modeled and fitted, data show that growth curves should be taken into account during test development. Our study shows that the induction profiles reflect the mode of action, e.g., paraquat clearly induces the soxRS operon. The sensitivity of the assay compares well to that of whole organism tests, e.g., fish and Daphnia for polar organics. Metal toxicity is detected less efficiently, e.g., cadmium is detected near the LC50 of carp, considered a relatively insensitive species towards cadmium. The assay variability ranges from 10 to 40% depending on the strain, comparable to that of other bioassays. The variability was shown to be determined by the intrinsic traits of the promoter-strain combination, not by operating conditions. PMID:17225096

  17. Cloning and characterization of a hsp70 gene from Asiatic hard clam Meretrix meretrix which is involved in the immune response against bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Yue, Xin; Liu, Baozhong; Sun, Li; Tang, Baojun

    2011-03-01

    In the present study, a 71.43 kDa heat shock protein cDNA was cloned from Asiatic hard clam Meretrix meretrix. The cDNA was 2292 bp, containing an open reading frame (ORF) of 1959 bp, which encodes a protein of 652 amino acids with a theoretical molecular weight of 71.43 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.32. Based on the amino acid sequence analysis and phylogenetic analysis, this hsp70 cDNA is a member of cytoplasmic hsc70 (constitutive genes) subfamily in the hsp70 family, and is designated as MmeHsc71. Quantitative RT-PCR was carried out to compare the spatial and temporal expression patterns of MmeHsc71 in the mRNA level between control clams and Vibrio parahaemolyticus-infected clams. Spatially, MmeHsc71 mRNA was found in all tested tissues, including foot, hepatopancreas, mantle and gill. MmeHsc71 mRNA expression level in hepatopancreas and gill displayed a significant increase in vibrio-challenged clams at 24h post-infection compared to control clams (P < 0.05). Temporally, there was a significant increase of MmeHsc71 mRNA level in hepathopancreas of vibrio-challenged clams compared to control clams at 6, 12, and 24h post-challenge, respectively. The result of quantitative immunofluorescence also indicated that there was obvious increase of MmeHsc71 in hepatopancreas of vibrio-challenged clams compared to control clams in protein level at 24h post-infection. The results suggested that MmeHsc71 may play an important role in mediating the immune responses of M. meretrix to bacterial challenge. PMID:21215805

  18. Integration of selective breeding and vaccination to improve disease resistance in aquaculture: Application to control bacterial cold water disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) is a frequent cause of elevated mortality in rainbow trout and the development of effective control strategies is a priority within the U.S. A goal of the NCCCWA breeding program is to produce germplasm with superior growth and survival following exposure to infe...

  19. Impact of the Spatial Heterogeneity of the Spermosphere and Rhizosphere on Performance of Bacterial Biological Control Agents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The spermosphere and rhizosphere environments are the critical interfaces where many plant-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions occurs that lead to plant disease and the suppression of plant disease by bacterial and other biological control agents. We discuss the spatial heterogeneity of the ph...

  20. Journal of Theoretical Biology 238 (2006) 780794 Epidemiology and disease-control under gene-for-gene

    E-print Network

    Sasaki, Akira

    2006-01-01

    damages caused by epidemic outbreaks of the pathogen. We examine both single-locus and two-locus gene- for avirulent and virulent races prevents the fatal outbreak of the virulent race (the super-race) that can that infected the plant cells. Viral, bacterial, and fungal infections of a plant induce hypersensitive response

  1. The pepper MLO gene, CaMLO2, is involved in the susceptibility cell-death response and bacterial and oomycete proliferation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Sung; Hwang, Byung Kook

    2012-12-01

    Loss-of-function alleles of the mildew resistance locus O (MLO) gene provide broad-spectrum powdery mildew disease resistance. Here, we identified a pepper (Capsicum annuum) MLO gene (CaMLO2) that is transcriptionally induced by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) infection. Topology and subcellular localization analyses reveal that CaMLO2 is a plasma membrane-anchored and amphiphilic Ca²?-dependent calmodulin-binding protein. CaMLO2 expression is up-regulated by Xcv and salicylic acid, as well as abiotic stresses. Silencing of CaMLO2 in pepper plants confers enhanced resistance against virulent Xcv, but not against avirulent Xcv. This resistance is accompanied by a compromised susceptibility cell-death response and reduced bacterial growth, as well as an accelerated reactive oxygen species burst. Virulent Xcv infection drastically induces expression of the salicylic acid-dependent defense marker gene CaPR1 in CaMLO2-silenced leaves. CaMLO2 over-expression in Arabidopsis enhances susceptibility to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato and Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis. Leaves of plants over-expressing CaMLO2 exhibit a susceptibility cell-death response and high bacterial growth during virulent Pst DC3000 infection. These are accompanied by enhanced electrolyte leakage but compromised induction of some defense response genes and the reactive oxygen species. Together, our results suggest that CaMLO2 is involved in the susceptibility cell-death response and bacterial and oomycete proliferation in pepper and Arabidopsis. PMID:22913752

  2. Dynamics of fecal indicator bacteria, bacterial pathogen genes, and organic wastewater contaminants in the Little Calumet River: Portage Burns Waterway, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haack, Sheridan K.; Duris, Joseph W.

    2013-01-01

    Little information exists on the co-occurrence of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), bacterial pathogens, and organic wastewater-associated chemicals (OWCs) within Great Lakes tributaries. Fifteen watershed sites and one beach site adjacent to the Little Calumet River–Portage Burns Waterway (LCRPBW) on Lake Michigan were tested on four dates for pH, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, chloride, color, ammonia- and nitrate-nitrogen, soluble phosphorus, sulfate, turbidity, and atrazine; for concentrations of FIB; and for genes indicating the presence of human-pathogenic enterococci (ENT) and of Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (EC) from various animal sources. Nineteen samples were also tested for 60 OWCs. Half of the watershed samples met EC recreational water quality standards; none met ENT standards. Human-wastewater-associated OWC detections were correlated with human-influence indicators such as population/km2, chloride concentrations, and the presence of WWTP effluents, but EC and ENT concentrations were not. Bacterial pathogen genes indicated rural human and several potential animal sources. OWCs of human or ecosystem health concern (musk fragrances AHTN and HHCB, alkylphenols, carbamazepine) and 3 bacterial pathogen genes were detected at the mouth of the LCRPBW, but no such OWCs and only 1 pathogen gene were detected at the beach. The LCRPBW has significant potential to deliver FIB, potential bacterial pathogens, and OWCs of human or ecosystem health concern to the nearshore of Lake Michigan, under conditions enhancing nearshore transport of the river plume. Nearshore mixing of lake and river water, and the lack of relationship between OWCs and FIB or pathogen genes, pose numerous challenges for watershed and nearshore assessment and remediation.

  3. A Three-protein Charge Zipper Stabilizes a Complex Modulating Bacterial Gene Silencing.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Tiago N; García, Jesús; Bernadó, Pau; Millet, Oscar; Pons, Miquel

    2015-08-28

    The Hha/YmoA nucleoid-associated proteins help selectively silence horizontally acquired genetic material, including pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance genes and their maintenance in the absence of selective pressure. Members of the Hha family contribute to gene silencing by binding to the N-terminal dimerization domain of H-NS and modifying its selectivity. Hha-like proteins and the H-NS N-terminal domain are unusually rich in charged residues, and their interaction is mostly electrostatic-driven but, nonetheless, highly selective. The NMR-based structural model of the complex between Hha/YmoA and the H-NS N-terminal dimerization domain reveals that the origin of the selectivity is the formation of a three-protein charge zipper with interdigitated complementary charged residues from Hha and the two units of the H-NS dimer. The free form of YmoA shows collective microsecond-millisecond dynamics that can by measured by NMR relaxation dispersion experiments and shows a linear dependence with the salt concentration. The number of residues sensing the collective dynamics and the population of the minor form increased in the presence of H-NS. Additionally, a single residue mutation in YmoA (D43N) abolished H-NS binding and the dynamics of the apo-form, suggesting the dynamics and binding are functionally related. PMID:26085102

  4. Optimal control of gene expression for fast proteome adaptation to environmental change

    PubMed Central

    Pavlov, Michael Y.; Ehrenberg, Måns

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial populations growing in a changing world must adjust their proteome composition in response to alterations in the environment. Rapid proteome responses to growth medium changes are expected to increase the average growth rate and fitness value of these populations. Little is known about the dynamics of proteome change, e.g., whether bacteria use optimal strategies of gene expression for rapid proteome adjustments and if there are lower bounds to the time of proteome adaptation in response to growth medium changes. To begin answering these types of questions, we modeled growing bacteria as stoichiometrically coupled networks of metabolic pathways. These are balanced during steady-state growth in a constant environment but are initially unbalanced after rapid medium shifts due to a shortage of enzymes required at higher concentrations in the new environment. We identified an optimal strategy for rapid proteome adjustment in the absence of protein degradation and found a lower bound to the time of proteome adaptation after medium shifts. This minimal time is determined by the ratio between the Kullback–Leibler distance from the pre- to the postshift proteome and the postshift steady-state growth rate. The dynamics of optimally controlled proteome adaptation has a simple analytical solution. We used detailed numerical modeling to demonstrate that realistic bacterial control systems can emulate this optimal strategy for rapid proteome adaptation. Our results may provide a conceptual link between the physiology and population genetics of growing bacteria. PMID:24297927

  5. Transcriptome Profiling of a Toxic Dinoflagellate Reveals a Gene-Rich Protist and a Potential Impact on Gene Expression Due to Bacterial Presence

    PubMed Central

    Moustafa, Ahmed; Evans, Andrew N.; Kulis, David M.; Hackett, Jeremiah D.; Erdner, Deana L.; Anderson, Donald M.; Bhattacharya, Debashish

    2010-01-01

    Background Dinoflagellates are unicellular, often photosynthetic protists that play a major role in the dynamics of the Earth's oceans and climate. Sequencing of dinoflagellate nuclear DNA is thwarted by their massive genome sizes that are often several times that in humans. However, modern transcriptomic methods offer promising approaches to tackle this challenging system. Here, we used massively parallel signature sequencing (MPSS) to understand global transcriptional regulation patterns in Alexandrium tamarense cultures that were grown under four different conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings We generated more than 40,000 unique short expression signatures gathered from the four conditions. Of these, about 11,000 signatures did not display detectable differential expression patterns. At a p-value < 1E-10, 1,124 signatures were differentially expressed in the three treatments, xenic, nitrogen-limited, and phosphorus-limited, compared to the nutrient-replete control, with the presence of bacteria explaining the largest set of these differentially expressed signatures. Conclusions/Significance Among microbial eukaryotes, dinoflagellates contain the largest number of genes in their nuclear genomes. These genes occur in complex families, many of which have evolved via recent gene duplication events. Our expression data suggest that about 73% of the Alexandrium transcriptome shows no significant change in gene expression under the experimental conditions used here and may comprise a “core” component for this species. We report a fundamental shift in expression patterns in response to the presence of bacteria, highlighting the impact of biotic interaction on gene expression in dinoflagellates. PMID:20300646

  6. Structure and function of pseudoknots involved in gene expression control

    PubMed Central

    Peselis, Alla; Serganov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Natural RNA molecules can have a high degree of structural complexity but even the most complexly-folded RNAs are assembled from simple structural building blocks. Among the simplest RNA elements are double-stranded helices that participate in the formation of different folding topologies and constitute the major fraction of RNA structures. One common folding motif of RNA is a pseudoknot, defined as a bipartite helical structure formed by base-pairing of the apical loop in the stem-loop structure with an outside sequence. Pseudoknots constitute integral parts of the RNA structures essential for various cellular activities. Among many functions of pseudoknotted RNAs is feedback regulation of gene expression, carried out through specific recognition of various molecules. Pseudoknotted RNAs autoregulate ribosomal and phage protein genes in response to downstream encoded proteins, while many metabolic and transport genes are controlled by cellular metabolites interacting with pseudoknotted RNA elements from the riboswitch family. Modulation of some genes also depends on metabolite-induced mRNA cleavage performed by pseudoknotted ribozymes. Several regulatory pseudoknots have been characterized biochemically and structurally in great detail. These studies have demonstrated a plethora of pseudoknot-based folds and have begun uncovering diverse molecular principles of the ligand-dependent gene expression control. The pseudoknot-mediated mechanisms of gene control and many unexpected and interesting features of the regulatory pseudoknots have significantly advanced our understanding of the genetic circuits and laid the foundation for modulation of their outcomes. PMID:25044223

  7. Translational control of small heat shock genes in mesophilic and thermophilic cyanobacteria by RNA thermometers

    PubMed Central

    Cimdins, Annika; Klinkert, Birgit; Aschke-Sonnenborn, Ursula; Kaiser, Friederike M; Kortmann, Jens; Narberhaus, Franz

    2014-01-01

    Cyanobacteria constitute a heterogeneous phylum of oxygen-producing, photosynthetic prokaryotes. They are susceptible to various stress conditions like heat, salt, or light stress, all inducing the cyanobacterial heat shock response (HSR). Cyanobacterial small heat shock proteins (sHsps) are known to preserve thylakoid membrane integrity under stress conditions, thereby protecting the photosynthesis machinery. In Synechocystis sp PCC 6803, synthesis of the sHsp Hsp17 is regulated by an RNA thermometer (RNAT) in the 5?-untranslated region (5?-UTR) of the hsp17 mRNA. RNATs are direct temperature sensors that control expression of many bacterial heat shock and virulence genes. They hinder translation at low temperatures by base pairing, thus blocking ribosome access to the mRNA.   To explore the temperature range in which RNATs act, we studied various RNAT candidates upstream of sHsp genes from mesophilic and thermophilic cyanobacteria. The mesophilic cyanobacteria Anabaena variabilis and Nostoc sp chromosomally encode two sHsps each. Reporter gene studies suggested RNAT-mediated post-transcriptional regulation of shsp expression in both organisms. Detailed structural analysis of the two A. variabilis candidates revealed two novel RNAT types. The first, avashort, regulates translation primarily by masking of the AUG translational start codon. The second, featuring an extended initial hairpin, thus named avalong, presumably makes use of complex tertiary interaction. The 5?-UTR of the small heat shock gene hspA in the thermophile Thermosynechococcus elongatus is predicted to adopt an extended secondary structure. Structure probing revealed that the ribosome binding site was blocked at temperatures below 55 °C. The results of this study demonstrate that cyanobacteria commonly use RNATs to control expression of their small heat shock genes. PMID:24755616

  8. Impact of urbanization and agriculture on the occurrence of bacterial pathogens and stx genes in coastal waterbodies of central California.

    PubMed

    Walters, Sarah P; Thebo, Anne L; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2011-02-01

    Fecal pollution enters coastal waters through multiple routes, many of which originate from land-based activities. Runoff from pervious and impervious land surfaces transports pollutants from land to sea and can cause impairment of coastal ocean waters. To understand how land use practices and water characteristics influence concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and pathogens in natural waters, fourteen coastal streams, rivers, and tidal lagoons, surrounded by variable land use and animal densities, were sampled every six weeks over two years (2008 & 2009). Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB; Escherichia coli and Enterococci) and Salmonella concentrations, the occurrence of Bacteroidales human, ruminant, and pig-specific fecal markers, E. coli O157:H7, and Shiga toxin (stx) genes present in E. coli, were measured. In addition, environmental and climatic variables (e.g., temperature, salinity, rainfall), as well as human and livestock population densities and land cover were quantified. Concentrations of FIB and Salmonella were correlated with each other, but the occurrence of host-specific Bacteroidales markers did not correlate with FIB or pathogens. FIB and Salmonella concentrations, as well as the occurrence of E. coli harboring stx genes, were positively associated with the fraction of the surrounding subwatershed that was urban, while the occurrence of E. coli O157:H7 was positively associated with the agricultural fraction. FIB and Salmonella concentrations were negatively correlated to salinity and temperature, and positively correlated to rainfall. Areal loading rates of FIB, Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 to the coastal ocean were calculated for stream and river sites and varied with land cover, salinity, temperature, and rainfall. Results suggest that FIB and pathogen concentrations are influenced, in part, by their flux from the land, which is exacerbated during rainfall; once waterborne, bacterial persistence is affected by water temperature and salinity. PMID:21168181

  9. Control of alphavirus-based gene expression using engineered riboswitches.

    PubMed

    Bell, Christie L; Yu, Dong; Smolke, Christina D; Geall, Andrew J; Beard, Clayton W; Mason, Peter W

    2015-09-01

    Alphavirus-based replicons are a promising nucleic acid vaccine platform characterized by robust gene expression and immune responses. To further explore their use in vaccination, replicons were engineered to allow conditional control over their gene expression. Riboswitches, comprising a ribozyme actuator and RNA aptamer sensor, were engineered into the replicon 3' UTR. Binding of ligand to aptamer modulates ribozyme activity and, therefore, gene expression. Expression from DNA-launched and VRP-packaged replicons containing riboswitches was successfully regulated, achieving a 47-fold change in expression and modulation of the resulting type I interferon response. Moreover, we developed a novel control architecture where riboswitches were integrated into the 3' and 5' UTR of the subgenomic RNA region of the TC-83 virus, leading to an 1160-fold regulation of viral replication. Our studies demonstrate that the use of riboswitches for control of RNA replicon expression and viral replication holds promise for development of novel and safer vaccination strategies. PMID:26005949

  10. A predictive biophysical model of translational coupling to coordinate and control protein expression in bacterial operons

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Tian; Salis, Howard M.

    2015-01-01

    Natural and engineered genetic systems require the coordinated expression of proteins. In bacteria, translational coupling provides a genetically encoded mechanism to control expression level ratios within multi-cistronic operons. We have developed a sequence-to-function biophysical model of translational coupling to predict expression level ratios in natural operons and to design synthetic operons with desired expression level ratios. To quantitatively measure ribosome re-initiation rates, we designed and characterized 22 bi-cistronic operon variants with systematically modified intergenic distances and upstream translation rates. We then derived a thermodynamic free energy model to calculate de novo initiation rates as a result of ribosome-assisted unfolding of intergenic RNA structures. The complete biophysical model has only five free parameters, but was able to accurately predict downstream translation rates for 120 synthetic bi-cistronic and tri-cistronic operons with rationally designed intergenic regions and systematically increased upstream translation rates. The biophysical model also accurately predicted the translation rates of the nine protein atp operon, compared to ribosome profiling measurements. Altogether, the biophysical model quantitatively predicts how translational coupling controls protein expression levels in synthetic and natural bacterial operons, providing a deeper understanding of an important post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism and offering the ability to rationally engineer operons with desired behaviors. PMID:26117546

  11. Control of Middle Ear Inflammatory and Ion Homeostasis Genes by Transtympanic Glucocorticoid and Mineralocorticoid Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Lighthall, Jessyka G.; Kempton, J. Beth; Hausman, Frances; MacArthur, Carol J.; Trune, Dennis R.

    2015-01-01

    Hypothesis Transtympanic steroid treatment will induce changes in ion homeostasis and inflammatory gene expression to decrease middle ear inflammation due to bacterial inoculation. Background Otitis media is common, but treatment options are limited to systemic antibiotic therapy or surgical intervention. Systemic glucocorticoid treatment of mice decreases inflammation and improves fluid clearance. However, transtympanic delivery of glucocorticoids or mineralocorticoid has not been explored to determine if direct steroid application is beneficial. Methods Balb/c mice received transtympanic inoculation of heat-killed Haemophilus influenzae (H flu), followed by transtympanic treatment with either prednisolone or aldosterone. Mice given PBS instead of steroid and untreated mice were used as controls. Four hours after steroid treatment, middle ears were harvested for mRNA extraction and 24 hours after inoculation middle ears were harvested and examined for measures of inflammation. Results H flu inoculation caused the increased expression of nearly all inflammatory cytokine genes and induced changes in expression of several genes related to cellular junctions and transport channels. Both steroids generally reversed the expression of inflammatory genes and caused ion and water regulatory genes to return to normal or near normal levels. Histologic evaluation of middle ears showed improved fluid and inflammatory cell clearance. Conclusion Improvement in middle ear inflammation was noted with both the glucocorticoid prednisolone and the mineralocorticoid aldosterone. This was due to reversal of inflammation-induced changes in middle ear cytokine genes, as well as those involved in ion and water homeostasis. Because glucocorticoids bind to the mineralocorticoid receptor, but not the reverse, it is concluded that much of the reduction of fluid and other inflammation measures was due to these steroids impact on ion and water transport channels. Further research is necessary to determine if this alternative mineralocorticoid treatment for otitis media will be clinically effective with fewer side effects than glucocorticoids. PMID:25811752

  12. Self-Assembled Functional Nanostructure of Plasmid DNA with Ionic Liquid [Bmim][PF?]: Enhanced Efficiency in Bacterial Gene Transformation.

    PubMed

    Soni, Sarvesh K; Sarkar, Sampa; Mirzadeh, Nedaossadat; Selvakannan, P R; Bhargava, Suresh K

    2015-04-28

    The electrostatic interaction between the negatively charged phosphate groups of plasmid DNA and the cationic part of hydrophobic ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([Bmim][PF6]), initiates spontaneous self-assembly to form the functional nanostructures made up of DNA and ionic liquid (IL). These functional nanostructures were demonstrated as promising synthetic nonviral vectors for the efficient bacterial pGFP gene transformation in cells. In particular, the functional nanostructures that were made up of 1 ?L of IL ([Bmim][PF6]) and 1 ?g of plasmid DNA can increase the transformation efficiency by 300-400% in microbial systems, without showing any toxicity for E. coli DH5? cells. (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopic analysis revealed that the electrostatic interaction between negatively charged phosphate oxygen and cationic Bmim(+) tends to initiate the self-assembly process. Thermogravimetric analysis of the DNA-IL functional nanostructures showed that these nanostructures consist of ?16 wt % ionic liquid, which is considered to provide the stability to the plasmid DNA that eventually enhanced the transformation efficiency. PMID:25843437

  13. Minimization of chloroplast contamination in 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing of insect herbivore bacterial communities

    PubMed Central

    Hanshew, Alissa S.; Mason, Charles J.; Raffa, Kenneth F.; Currie, Cameron R.

    2014-01-01

    Chloroplast sequence contamination in 16S ribosomal RNA gene (16S) analyses can be particularly problematic when sampling microbial communities in plants and folivorous arthropods. We previously encountered high levels of plastid contamination in herbivorous insect samples when we used the predominant 454 pyrosequencing 16S methodologies described in the literature. 799F, a primer previously found to exclude chloroplast sequences, was modified to enhance its efficacy, and we describe, in detail, our methodology throughout amplicon pyrosequencing. Thirteen versions of 799F were assessed for the exclusion of chloroplast sequences from our samples. We found that a shift in the mismatch between 799F and chloroplast 16S resulted in significant reduction of chloroplast reads. Our results also indicate that amplifying sequences from environmental samples in a two-step PCR process, with the addition of the multiplex identifiers and 454 adapters in a second round of PCR, further improved primer specificity. Primers that included 3? phosphorothioate bonds, which were designed to block primer degradation, did not amplify consistently across samples. The different forward primers do not appear to bias the bacterial communities detected. We provide a methodological framework for reducing chloroplast reads in high-throughput sequencing data sets that can be applied to a number of environmental samples and sequencing techniques. PMID:23968645

  14. [Characterizing Beijing's Airborne Bacterial Communities in PM2.5 and PM1 Samples During Haze Pollution Episodes Using 16S rRNA Gene Analysis Method].

    PubMed

    Wang, Bu-ying; Lang, Ji-dong; Zhang, Li-na; Fang, Jian-huo; Cao, Chen; Hao, Ji-ming; Zhu, Ting; Tian, Geng; Jiang, Jing-kun

    2015-08-01

    During 8th-14th Jan., 2013, severe particulate matter (PM) pollution episodes happened in Beijing. These air pollution events lead to high risks for public health. In addition to various PM chemical compositions, biological components in the air may also impose threaten. Little is known about airborne microbial community in such severe air pollution conditions. PM2.5 and PM10 samples were collected during that 7-day pollution period. The 16S rRNA gene V3 amplification and the MiSeq sequencing were performed for analyzing these samples. It is found that there is no significant difference at phylum level for PM2.5 bacterial communities during that 7-day pollution period both at phylum and at genus level. At genus level, Arthrobacter and Frankia are the major airborne microbes presented in Beijing winter.samples. At genus level, there are 39 common genera (combined by first 50 genera bacterial of the two analysis) between the 16S rRNA gene analysis and those are found by Metagenomic analysis on the same PM samples. Frankia and Paracoccus are relatively more abundant in 16S rRNA gene data, while Kocuria and Geodermatophilus are relatively more abundant in Meta-data. PM10 bacterial communities are similar to those of PM2.5 with some noticeable differences, i.e., at phylum level, more Firmicutes and less Actinobacteria present in PM10 samples than in PM2.5 samples, while at genus level, more Clostridium presents in PM10 samples. The findings in Beijing were compared with three 16S rRNA gene studies in other countries. Although the sampling locations and times are different from each other, compositions of bacterial community are similar for those sampled at the ground atmosphere. Airborne microbial communities near the ground surface are different from those sampled in the upper troposphere. PMID:26591997

  15. Thiamine derivatives bind messenger RNAs directly to regulate bacterial gene expression.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Wade; Nahvi, Ali; Breaker, Ronald R

    2002-10-31

    Although proteins fulfil most of the requirements that biology has for structural and functional components such as enzymes and receptors, RNA can also serve in these capacities. For example, RNA has sufficient structural plasticity to form ribozyme and receptor elements that exhibit considerable enzymatic power and binding specificity. Moreover, these activities can be combined to create allosteric ribozymes that are modulated by effector molecules. It has also been proposed that certain messenger RNAs might use allosteric mechanisms to mediate regulatory responses depending on specific metabolites. We report here that mRNAs encoding enzymes involved in thiamine (vitamin B(1)) biosynthesis in Escherichia coli can bind thiamine or its pyrophosphate derivative without the need for protein cofactors. The mRNA-effector complex adopts a distinct structure that sequesters the ribosome-binding site and leads to a reduction in gene expression. This metabolite-sensing regulatory system provides an example of a 'riboswitch' whose evolutionary origin might pre-date the emergence of proteins. PMID:12410317

  16. Copper resistance gene homologs in pathogenic and saprophytic bacterial species from tomato.

    PubMed

    Cooksey, D A; Azad, H R; Cha, J S; Lim, C K

    1990-02-01

    Copper-resistant strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria, Pseudomonas cichorii, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and a yellow Pseudomonas sp. were isolated from tomato plants or seeds. In Southern hybridizations, DNA from each strain showed homology with the copper resistance (cop) operon previously cloned from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato PT23. Homology was associated with plasmid and chromosomal DNA in X. compestris pv. vesicatoria, P. putida, and the yellow Pseudomonas sp. Homology was detected only in the chromosomal DNA of P. cichorii and P. fluorescens. Homology with cop was also detected in chromosomal DNA from copper-sensitive strains of P. cichorii, P. fluorescens, and P. syringae pv. tomato, suggesting that the cop homolog may be indigenous to certain Pseudomonas species and have some function other than copper resistance. No homology was detected in DNA from a copper-sensitive X. campestris pv. vesicatoria strain. Copper-inducible protein products were detected in each copper-resistant bacterium by immunoblot analysis with antibodies raised to the CopB protein from the cop operon. The role of the homologous DNA in copper resistance was confirmed for the X. campestris pv. vesicatoria strain by cloning and transferring the cop homolog to a copper-sensitive strain of X. campestris pv. vesicatoria. The possibility and implications of copper resistance gene exchange between different species and genera of pathogenic and saprophytic bacteria on tomato plants are discussed. PMID:16348118

  17. Abundance and Diversity of Bacterial Nitrifiers and Denitrifiers and Their Functional Genes in Tannery Wastewater Treatment Plants Revealed by High-Throughput Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhu; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Lu, Xin; Liu, Bo; Li, Yan; Long, Chao; Li, Aimin

    2014-01-01

    Biological nitrification/denitrification is frequently used to remove nitrogen from tannery wastewater containing high concentrations of ammonia. However, information is limited about the bacterial nitrifiers and denitrifiers and their functional genes in tannery wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) due to the low-throughput of the previously used methods. In this study, 454 pyrosequencing and Illumina high-throughput sequencing, combined with molecular methods, were used to comprehensively characterize structures and functions of nitrification and denitrification bacterial communities in aerobic and anaerobic sludge of two full-scale tannery WWTPs. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes showed that Proteobacteria and Synergistetes dominated in the aerobic and anaerobic sludge, respectively. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) amoA gene cloning revealed that Nitrosomonas europaea dominated the ammonia-oxidizing community in the WWTPs. Metagenomic analysis showed that the denitrifiers mainly included the genera of Thauera, Paracoccus, Hyphomicrobium, Comamonas and Azoarcus, which may greatly contribute to the nitrogen removal in the two WWTPs. It is interesting that AOB and ammonia-oxidizing archaea had low abundance although both WWTPs demonstrated high ammonium removal efficiency. Good correlation between the qPCR and metagenomic analysis is observed for the quantification of functional genes amoA, nirK, nirS and nosZ, indicating that the metagenomic approach may be a promising method used to comprehensively investigate the abundance of functional genes of nitrifiers and denitrifiers in the environment. PMID:25420093

  18. Uptake and expression of bacterial and cyanobacterial genes by isolated cucumber etioplasts

    SciTech Connect

    Daniell, H.; McFadden, B.A.

    1987-09-01

    The uptake and expression by plastids isolated from dark-grown cucumber cotyledons (etioplasts) of two pUC derivatives, pCS75 and pUC9-CM, respectively carrying genes for the large and small subunits of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase of Anacystis nidulans or chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, is reported. Untreated etioplasts take up only 3% as much DNA as that taken up by EDTA-washed etioplasts after 2 hr of incubation with nick-translated (/sup 32/P)-pCS75. The presence or absence of light does not affect DNA uptake, binding, or breakdown by etioplasts. Calcium or magnesium ions inhibit DNA uptake by 86% but enhance binding and breakdown of donor DNA by EDTA-treated etioplasts. Uncouplers that abolish membrane potential, transmembrane proton gradient, or both do not affect DNA uptake, binding, or breakdown by etioplasts. However, both DNA uptake and binding are severely inhibited by ATP. After the incubation of EDTA-treated etioplasts with pCS75, immunoprecipitation using antiserum to the small subunit of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase from A. nidulans reveals the synthesis of small subunits. Treatment of etioplasts with 10 mM EDTA shows a 10-min duration to be optimal for the expression of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase encoded by pUC9-CM. A progressive increase in the expression of this enzyme is observed with an increase in the concentration of pUC9-CM in the DNA uptake medium. The plasmid-dependent incorporation of (/sup 35/S) methionine by EDTA-treated organelles declines markedly during cotyledon greening in vivo.

  19. Phage–host interplay: examples from tailed phages and Gram-negative bacterial pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Chaturongakul, Soraya; Ounjai, Puey

    2014-01-01

    Complex interactions between bacteriophages and their bacterial hosts play significant roles in shaping the structure of environmental microbial communities, not only by genetic transduction but also by modification of bacterial gene expression patterns. Survival of phages solely depends on their ability to infect their bacterial hosts, most importantly during phage entry. Successful dynamic adaptation of bacteriophages when facing selective pressures, such as host adaptation and resistance, dictates their abundance and diversification. Co-evolution of the phage tail fibers and bacterial receptors determine bacterial host ranges, mechanisms of phage entry, and other infection parameters. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the physical interactions between tailed bacteriophages and bacterial pathogens (e.g., Salmonella enterica and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and the influences of the phage on host gene expression. Understanding these interactions can offer insights into phage–host dynamics and suggest novel strategies for the design of bacterial pathogen biological controls. PMID:25191318

  20. A Novel Bacterial Pathogen of Biomphalaria glabrata: A Potential Weapon for Schistosomiasis Control?

    PubMed Central

    Duval, David; Galinier, Richard; Mouahid, Gabriel; Toulza, Eve; Allienne, Jean François; Portela, Julien; Calvayrac, Christophe; Rognon, Anne; Arancibia, Nathalie; Mitta, Guillaume; Théron, André; Gourbal, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis is the second-most widespread tropical parasitic disease after malaria. Various research strategies and treatment programs for achieving the objective of eradicating schistosomiasis within a decade have been recommended and supported by the World Health Organization. One of these approaches is based on the control of snail vectors in endemic areas. Previous field studies have shown that competitor or predator introduction can reduce snail numbers, but no systematic investigation has ever been conducted to identify snail microbial pathogens and evaluate their molluscicidal effects. Methodology/Principal findings In populations of Biomphalaria glabrata snails experiencing high mortalities, white nodules were visible on snail bodies. Infectious agents were isolated from such nodules. Only one type of bacteria, identified as a new species of Paenibacillus named Candidatus Paenibacillus glabratella, was found, and was shown to be closely related to P. alvei through 16S and Rpob DNA analysis. Histopathological examination showed extensive bacterial infiltration leading to overall tissue disorganization. Exposure of healthy snails to Paenibacillus-infected snails caused massive mortality. Moreover, eggs laid by infected snails were also infected, decreasing hatching but without apparent effects on spawning. Embryonic lethality was correlated with the presence of pathogenic bacteria in eggs. Conclusions/Significance This is the first account of a novel Paenibacillus strain, Ca. Paenibacillus glabratella, as a snail microbial pathogen. Since this strain affects both adult and embryonic stages and causes significant mortality, it may hold promise as a biocontrol agent to limit schistosomiasis transmission in the field. PMID:25719489

  1. Composite films of poly(vinyl alcohol)-chitosan-bacterial cellulose for drug controlled release.

    PubMed

    Pavaloiu, Ramona-Daniela; Stoica-Guzun, Anicuta; Stroescu, Marta; Jinga, Sorin Ion; Dobre, Tanase

    2014-07-01

    Mono and multilayer composite films of poly(vinyl alcohol)-chitosan-bacterial cellulose (PVA/chitosan/BC) have been prepared to achieve controlled release of ibuprofen sodium salt (IbuNa) as model drug. The composite films have been characterized by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Surface morphology was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Equilibrium swelling was measured in water at two different pH values and in vitro release of IbuNa in pH 1.2 and pH 7.4 media was studied. The release experiments revealed that drug release is pH sensitive. The release kinetics of IbuNa could be described by the Fickian model of diffusion with a good agreement. The IbuNa release rate was decreasing for all the films as the BC concentration was increased in the films composition, the decrease being higher for the multilayer films. PMID:24769089

  2. EVALUATION OF BIOTIC AND TREATMENT FACTORS RELATING TO BACTERIAL CONTROL OF ZEBRA MUSSELS

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2002-04-30

    Testing over the last quarter has indicated the following regarding control of zebra mussels with bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL0145A: (1) the concentration of bacteria suspended in water is directly correlated with mussel kill; (2) the ratio of bacterial mass per mussel, if too low, could limit mussel kill; a treatment must be done at a high enough ratio so that mussels do not deplete all the suspended bacteria before the end of the desired exposure period; (3) bacteria appear to lose almost all their toxicity after suspension for 24 hr in highly oxygenated water; (4) in a recirculating pipe system, the same percentage mussel kill will be achieved irrespective of whether all the bacteria are applied at once or divided up and applied intermittently in smaller quantities over a 10-hr period. Since this is the fourth quarterly report, a summation of all test results over the last twelve months is provided as a table in this report. The table includes the above-mentioned fourth-quarter results.

  3. Redox-Active Antibiotics Control Gene Expression and Community Behavior

    E-print Network

    Dietrich, Lars

    R is well-characterized in the enteric bacteria Escherichia coli and Salmo- nella enterica serovar of the domain Bacteria. A BLAST search for E. coli SoxR and SoxS was performed, and SoxS was found onlyRedox-Active Antibiotics Control Gene Expression and Community Behavior in Divergent Bacteria Lars

  4. Evaluation of environmental bacterial contamination and procedures to control cross infection in a sample of Italian dental surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Monarca, S.; Grottolo, M.; Renzi, D.; Paganelli, C.; Sapelli, P.; Zerbini, I.; Nardi, G.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To perform a pilot study on bacterial contamination in some dental surgeries (n=51) in a local health unit in Brescia (Lombardy Region, Italy) and to evaluate the procedures to control cross infection used by the personnel to reduce the risk of infection in dental practice.?METHODS—A survey was carried out by interviewing 133 dental personnel with a questionnaire on the procedures used to control infection. The autoclaves, chemical baths (chemiclaves), and ovens present in the surgeries were tested for sterilisation efficiency with a spore test, and already packed and sterilised instruments were randomly sampled and tested for sterility. Microbial contamination of air, surface, and dental unit water samples were also studied.?RESULTS—The dental personnel did not generally follow the principal procedures for infection control: 30% of personnel were not vaccinated against hepatitis B virus, infected instruments were often not decontaminated, periodic checks of autoclave efficiency were lacking, and the knowledge of disinfection mechanisms and procedures was incomplete. High bacteriological contamination of water at dental surgeries was often found and total bacteriological counts in air samples were high. Surface studies showed widespread bacterial contamination.?CONCLUSIONS—On the basis of these results, an educational programme for the prevention of infective hazards has been prepared and carried out. The results of this pilot study will be used for planning a national survey.???Keywords: dental surgeries; bacterial contamination; cross infection control procedures PMID:11024194

  5. Characterization of the Bacteroides fragilis bfr Gene Product Identifies a Bacterial DPS-Like Protein and Suggests Evolutionary Links in the Ferritin Superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Gauss, George H.; Reott, Michael A.; Rocha, Edson R.; Young, Mark J.; Douglas, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    A factor contributing to the pathogenicity of Bacteroides fragilis, the most common anaerobic species isolated from clinical infections, is the bacterium's extreme aerotolerance, which allows survival in oxygenated tissues prior to anaerobic abscess formation. We investigated the role of the bacterioferritin-related (bfr) gene in the B. fragilis oxidative stress response. The bfr mRNA levels are increased in stationary phase or in response to O2 or iron. In addition, bfr null mutants exhibit reduced aerotolerance, and the bfr gene product protects DNA from hydroxyl radical cleavage in vitro. Crystallographic studies revealed a protein with a dodecameric structure and greater similarity to an archaeal DNA protection in starved cells (DPS)-like protein than to the 24-subunit bacterioferritins. Similarity to the DPS-like (DPSL) protein extends to the subunit and includes a pair of conserved cysteine residues juxtaposed to a buried dimetal binding site within the four-helix bundle. Compared to archaeal DPSLs, however, this bacterial DPSL protein contains several unique features, including a significantly different conformation in the C-terminal tail that alters the number and location of pores leading to the central cavity and a conserved metal binding site on the interior surface of the dodecamer. Combined, these characteristics confirm this new class of miniferritin in the bacterial domain, delineate the similarities and differences between bacterial DPSL proteins and their archaeal homologs, allow corrected annotations for B. fragilis bfr and other dpsl genes within the bacterial domain, and suggest an evolutionary link within the ferritin superfamily that connects dodecameric DPS to the (bacterio)ferritin 24-mer. PMID:22020642

  6. Towards resolving the transcription factor network controlling myelin gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Fulton, Debra L.; Denarier, Eric; Friedman, Hana C.; Wasserman, Wyeth W.; Peterson, Alan C.

    2011-01-01

    In the central nervous system (CNS), myelin is produced from spirally-wrapped oligodendrocyte plasma membrane and, as exemplified by the debilitating effects of inherited or acquired myelin abnormalities in diseases such as multiple sclerosis, it plays a critical role in nervous system function. Myelin sheath production coincides with rapid up-regulation of numerous genes. The complexity of their subsequent expression patterns, along with recently recognized heterogeneity within the oligodendrocyte lineage, suggest that the regulatory networks controlling such genes drive multiple context-specific transcriptional programs. Conferring this nuanced level of control likely involves a large repertoire of interacting transcription factors (TFs). Here, we combined novel strategies of computational sequence analyses with in vivo functional analysis to establish a TF network model of coordinate myelin-associated gene transcription. Notably, the network model captures regulatory DNA elements and TFs known to regulate oligodendrocyte myelin gene transcription and/or oligodendrocyte development, thereby validating our approach. Further, it links to numerous TFs with previously unsuspected roles in CNS myelination and suggests collaborative relationships amongst both known and novel TFs, thus providing deeper insight into the myelin gene transcriptional network. PMID:21729871

  7. Remote detection of human toxicants in real time using a human-optimized, bioluminescent bacterial luciferase gene cassette bioreporter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close, Dan; Webb, James; Ripp, Steven; Patterson, Stacey; Sayler, Gary

    2012-06-01

    Traditionally, human toxicant bioavailability screening has been forced to proceed in either a high throughput fashion using prokaryotic or lower eukaryotic targets with minimal applicability to humans, or in a more expensive, lower throughput manner that uses fluorescent or bioluminescent human cells to directly provide human bioavailability data. While these efforts are often sufficient for basic scientific research, they prevent the rapid and remote identification of potentially toxic chemicals required for modern biosecurity applications. To merge the advantages of high throughput, low cost screening regimens with the direct bioavailability assessment of human cell line use, we re-engineered the bioluminescent bacterial luciferase gene cassette to function autonomously (without exogenous stimulation) within human cells. Optimized cassette expression provides for fully endogenous bioluminescent production, allowing continuous, real time monitoring of the bioavailability and toxicology of various compounds in an automated fashion. To access the functionality of this system, two sets of bioluminescent human cells were developed. The first was programed to suspend bioluminescent production upon toxicological challenge to mimic the non-specific detection of a toxicant. The second induced bioluminescence upon detection of a specific compound to demonstrate autonomous remote target identification. These cells were capable of responding to ?M concentrations of the toxicant n-decanal, and allowed for continuous monitoring of cellular health throughout the treatment process. Induced bioluminescence was generated through treatment with doxycycline and was detectable upon dosage at a 100 ng/ml concentration. These results demonstrate that leveraging autonomous bioluminescence allows for low-cost, high throughput direct assessment of toxicant bioavailability.

  8. Bacterial diversity of a Carolina Bay as determined by 16S rRNA gene analysis: Confirmation of novel taxa

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, M.G.; Shimkets, L.J.; McArthur, J.V.

    1997-04-01

    Carolina bays are naturally occurring shallow elliptical depressions largely fed by rain and shallow ground water. To identify members of the domain Bacteria which inhabit such an environment, we used PCR to construct a library of 16S rRNA genes (16S rDNAs) cloned from DNA extracted from the sediments of Rainbow Bay, located on the Savannah River Site, near Aiken, S.C. Oligonucleotides complementary to conserved regions of 16S rDNA were used as primers for PCR, and gel-purified PCR products were cloned into vector pGEM-T. Partial sequencing of the cloned 16S rDNAs revealed an extensive amount of phylogenetic diversity within this system. Of the 35 clones sequenced, 32 were affiliated with five bacterial groups: 11 clustered with the Proteobacteria division (including members of the alpha, beta, and delta subdivisions), 8 clustered with the Acidobacterium subdivision of the Fibrobacter division (as categorized by the Ribosomal Database Project`s taxonomic scheme, version 5.0), 7 clustered with the Verrucomicrobium subdivision of the Planctomyces division, 3 clustered with the gram-positive bacteria (Clostridium and relatives subdivision), and 3 clustered with the green nonsulfur bacteria. One sequence branched very deeply from the Bacteria and was found not to be associated with any of the major divisions when phylogenetic trees were constructed. Two clones did not consistently cluster with specific groups and may be chimeric sequences. None of the clones exhibited an exact match to any of the 16S rDNA sequences deposited in the databases, suggesting that most of the bacteria in Rainbow Bay are novel species. In particular, the clones related to the Acidobacterium subdivision and the Verrucomicrobium subdivision confirm the presence of novel taxa discovered previously in other molecular surveys of this type. 50 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Bacterial diversity and real-time PCR based assessment of linA and linB gene distribution at hexachlorocyclohexane contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Lal, Devi; Jindal, Swati; Kumari, Hansi; Jit, Simran; Nigam, Aeshna; Sharma, Pooja; Kumari, Kirti; Lal, Rup

    2015-03-01

    The disposal of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) muck has created large number of HCH dumpsites all over the world from where the harmful HCH isomers are leaking into the environment. Bacteria have evolved at such contaminated sites that have the ability to degrade HCH. Degradation of various HCH isomers in bacterial strains is mediated primarily by two genes: linA and linB which encode dehydrochlorinase and haloalkane dehalogenase respectively. In this study we explored one such highly contaminated HCH dumpsite located in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India. To assess the biostimulation potential of the contaminated site, microbial diversity study and real-time PCR based quantification of lin genes was carried out. The soil samples from dumpsite and surrounding areas were found to be highly contaminated with HCH residue levels as high as 1.8?×?10(5) ?mg?kg(-1). The residues were detected in areas upto 13?km from the dumpsite. Sphingomonads, Chromohalobacter, and Marinobacter were the dominant genera present at the dump-site. Role of Sphingomonads in HCH degradation has been well documented. The highest copy numbers of linA and linB genes as determined using real-time PCR were 6.2?×?10(4) and 5.3?×?10(5), respectively, were found in sample from the dump site. The presence of Sphingomonads, linA, and linB genes from HCH contaminated soil indicates the presence of indigenous bacterial communities capable of HCH degradation. PMID:24002962

  10. Resource Availability and Spatial Heterogeneity Control Bacterial Community Response to Nutrient Enrichment in Lakes

    PubMed Central

    Jankowski, KathiJo; Schindler, Daniel E.; Horner-Devine, M. Claire

    2014-01-01

    The diversity and composition of ecological communities often co-vary with ecosystem productivity. However, the relative importance of productivity, or resource abundance, versus the spatial distribution of resources in shaping those ecological patterns is not well understood, particularly for the bacterial communities that underlie most important ecosystem functions. Increasing ecosystem productivity in lakes has been shown to influence the composition and ecology of bacterial communities, but existing work has only evaluated the effect of increasing resource supply and not heterogeneity in how those resources are distributed. We quantified how bacterial communities varied with the trophic status of lakes and whether community responses differed in surface and deep habitats in response to heterogeneity in nutrient resources. Using ARISA fingerprinting, we found that bacterial communities were more abundant, richer, and more distinct among habitats as lake trophic state and vertical heterogeneity in nutrients increased, and that spatial resource variation produced habitat specific responses of bacteria in response to increased productivity. Furthermore, changes in communities in high nutrient lakes were not produced by turnover in community composition but from additional taxa augmenting core bacterial communities found in lower productivity lakes. These data suggests that bacterial community responses to nutrient enrichment in lakes vary spatially and are likely influenced disproportionately by rare taxa. PMID:24489823

  11. Bacterial Community Composition in the Gut Content and Ambient Sediment of Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus Revealed by 16S rRNA Gene Pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Fei; Li, Fenghui; Tan, Jie; Yan, Jingping; Sun, Huiling

    2014-01-01

    The composition of the bacterial communities in the contents of the foregut and hindgut of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus and in the ambient surface sediment was surveyed by 16S rRNA gene 454-pyrosequencing. A total of 188,623 optimized reads and 15,527 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained from the ten gut contents samples and four surface sediment samples. The sequences in the sediments, foregut contents, and hindgut contents were assigned to 38.0±4.7, 31.2±6.2 and 27.8±6.5 phyla, respectively. The bacterial richness and Shannon diversity index were both higher in the ambient sediments than in the gut contents. Proteobacteria was the predominant phylum in both the gut contents and sediment samples. The predominant classes in the foregut, hindgut, and ambient sediment were Holophagae and Gammaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria and Deltaproteobacteria, respectively. The potential probiotics, including sequences related to Bacillus, lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, and Streptococcus) and Pseudomonas were detected in the gut of A. japonicus. Principle component analysis and heatmap figure showed that the foregut, hindgut, and ambient sediment respectively harbored different characteristic bacterial communities. Selective feeding of A. japonicus may be the primary source of the different bacterial communities between the foregut contents and ambient sediments. PMID:24967593

  12. Bacterial Population Changes in a Membrane Bioreactor for Graywater Treatment Monitored by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoretic Analysis of 16S rRNA Gene Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Stamper, David M.; Walch, Marianne; Jacobs, Rachel N.

    2003-01-01

    The bacterial population of a graywater treatment system was monitored over the course of 100 days, along with several wastewater biochemical parameters. The graywater treatment system employed an 1,800-liter membrane bioreactor (MBR) to process the waste, with essentially 100% recycling of the biomass. Graywater feed consisting of 10% galley water and 90% laundry water, selected to approximate the graywater composition on board U.S. Navy ships, was collected offsite. Five-day biological oxygen demand (BOD5), oils and greases (O/G), nitrogen, and phosphorus were monitored in the feed and were found to vary greatly day to day. Changes in the bacterial population were monitored by PCR amplification of region 332 to 518 (Escherichia coli numbering) of the 16S rRNA gene and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of the resultant PCR products. DGGE analysis indicated a diverse and unstable bacterial population throughout the 100-day period, with spikes in feed strength causing significant changes in community structure. Long-term similarity between the communities was 0 to 25%, depending on the method of analysis. In spite of the unstable bacterial population, the MBR system was able to meet effluent quality parameters approximately 90% of the time. PMID:12571004

  13. The Pto kinase conferring resistance to tomato bacterial speck disease interacts with proteins that bind a cis-element of pathogenesis-related genes.

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, J; Tang, X; Martin, G B

    1997-01-01

    In tomato, the Pto kinase confers resistance to bacterial speck disease by recognizing the expression of a corresponding avirulence gene, avrPto, in the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we have identified three genes, Pti4, Pti5 and Pti6, that encode proteins that physically interact with the Pto kinase. Pti4/5/6 each encode a protein with characteristics that are typical of transcription factors and are similar to the tobacco ethylene-responsive element-binding proteins (EREBPs). Using a gel mobility-shift assay, we demonstrate that, similarly to EREBPs, Pti4/5/6 specifically recognize and bind to a DNA sequence that is present in the promoter region of a large number of genes encoding 'pathogenesis-related' (PR) proteins. Expression of several PR genes and a tobacco EREBP gene is specifically enhanced upon Pto-avrPto recognition in tobacco. These observations establish a direct connection between a disease resistance gene and the specific activation of plant defense genes. PMID:9214637

  14. Thirty-minute screening of antibiotic resistance genes in bacterial isolates with minimal sample preparation in static self-dispensing 64 and 384 assay cards.

    PubMed

    Kosti?, Tanja; Ellis, Michael; Williams, Maggie R; Stedtfeld, Tiffany M; Kaneene, John B; Stedtfeld, Robert D; Hashsham, Syed A

    2015-09-01

    In a clinical setting, molecular assays such as polymerase chain reaction offer a rapid means to infer or confirm identity and therapeutic decisions. Accordingly, a number of molecular assays targeting identity and antibiotic resistance (AR) genes have been developed; however, these methods can be technically complex and relatively expensive. Herein, we describe a diagnostic concept utilizing isothermal amplification technology with non-purified heat-lysed cells and self-dispensing cards for testing multiple primers in parallel. This proof-of-concept study, performed with Staphylococcus aureus isolates and associated AR genes, was compared with culture-based susceptibility and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Results demonstrate reduced sample processing steps resulting in a turnaround time (starting from bacterial culture to ending in the antibiotic resistance gene profile) in less than 30 min. For antibiotics tested in which an associated AR gene was targeted on the Gene-Z card, 69% (18/26) of culture-based resistance events were positive for related AR genes. A comparison of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and qPCR assays targeting the same antibiotic resistance genes showed a 98.2% agreement in terms of presence and absence calls. Identity-based discrepancies between conventional (phenotypic) and molecular (genotypic) results were further resolved, and we were able to demonstrate higher accuracy in identification with the molecular analysis. PMID:26227406

  15. Isolation, characterization and community diversity of indigenous putative toluene-degrading bacterial populations with catechol-2,3-dioxygenase genes in contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Olapade, Ola A; Ronk, Adam J

    2015-01-01

    Indigenous bacterial assemblages with putative hydrocarbon-degrading capabilities were isolated, characterized and screened for the presence of the catechol-2,3-dioxygenase (C23O) gene after exposure to toluene in two different (i.e., pristine and conditioned) soil communities. The indigenous bacterial populations were exposed to the hydrocarbon substrate by the addition of toluene concentrations, ranging from 0.5 % to 10 % V/W in 10 g of each soil and incubated at 30 °C for upwards of 12 days. In total, 25 isolates (11 in pristine soil and 14 in conditioned soil) were phenotypically characterized according to standard microbiological methods and also screened for the 238-bp C23O gene fragment. Additionally, 16S rRNA analysis of the isolates identified some of them as belonging to the genera Bacillus, Exiguobacterium, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas. Furthermore, the two clone libraries that were constructed from these toluene-contaminated soils also revealed somewhat disparate phylotypes (i.e., 70 % Actinobacteria and Firmicutes to 30 % Proteobacteria in conditioned soil, whereas in pristine soil: 66 % Actinobacteria and Firmicutes; 21 % Proteobacteria and 13 % Bacteroidetes). The differences observed in bacterial phylotypes between these two soil communities may probably be associated with previous exposure to hydrocarbon sources by indigenous populations in the conditioned soil as compared to the pristine soil. PMID:25052383

  16. Mountain pine beetles colonizing historical and naive host trees are associated with a bacterial community highly enriched in genes contributing to terpene metabolism.

    PubMed

    Adams, Aaron S; Aylward, Frank O; Adams, Sandye M; Erbilgin, Nadir; Aukema, Brian H; Currie, Cameron R; Suen, Garret; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2013-06-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a subcortical herbivore native to western North America that can kill healthy conifers by overcoming host tree defenses, which consist largely of high terpene concentrations. The mechanisms by which these beetles contend with toxic compounds are not well understood. Here, we explore a component of the hypothesis that beetle-associated bacterial symbionts contribute to the ability of D. ponderosae to overcome tree defenses by assisting with terpene detoxification. Such symbionts may facilitate host tree transitions during range expansions currently being driven by climate change. For example, this insect has recently breached the historical geophysical barrier of the Canadian Rocky Mountains, providing access to näive tree hosts and unprecedented connectivity to eastern forests. We use culture-independent techniques to describe the bacterial community associated with D. ponderosae beetles and their galleries from their historical host, Pinus contorta, and their more recent host, hybrid P. contorta-Pinus banksiana. We show that these communities are enriched with genes involved in terpene degradation compared with other plant biomass-processing microbial communities. These pine beetle microbial communities are dominated by members of the genera Pseudomonas, Rahnella, Serratia, and Burkholderia, and the majority of genes involved in terpene degradation belong to these genera. Our work provides the first metagenome of bacterial communities associated with a bark beetle and is consistent with a potential microbial contribution to detoxification of tree defenses needed to survive the subcortical environment. PMID:23542624

  17. An Internal Reference Control Duplex Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for Detecting Bacterial Contamination in Blood Products

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jin-ju; Tian, Jing-jing; Wei, Shuang-shi; Duan, Sheng-bao; Wang, Hong-mei; Chen, Ye-zhou; Ding, Shao-hua; Zhang, Chun; Meng, Qing-lin; Li, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) enables effective and sensitive screening for infectious risk in the field of blood safety. However, when using RT-PCR to detect bacterial contamination, several intractable points must be considered, one of which is the lack of appropriate quality control. In this study, we developed a simplified RT-PCR assay in which the same primer set and two distinct probes were used to detect both, an internal reference control and the target in a reaction. The copy number of the internal reference control represents the positive detection limit of the assay; therefore, when the threshold-cycle value of the target is less than or equal to that of the internal reference control, the result obtained for the target can be considered to be a true positive. When human gDNA was spiked with Escherichia coli gDNA and the detection limit for the internal reference control was set to five copies, the measured detection limit for E. coli gDNA was two copies. The internal reference control duplex RT-PCR assay showed high efficiency (0.91–1.02), high linearity (R2 > 0.99), and good reproducibility in intra- and inter-assay comparisons. Lastly, when human platelet-rich plasma samples were spiked with E. coli or other bacterial species, all species were detected efficiently, and the results of a two-sample pooled t test showed that the limit of detection for E. coli was 1 cfu/mL. Here, we present a synthetic internal reference control molecule and a new statistical method for improving the reliability of RT-PCR assays when screening for bacterial contamination in blood products. PMID:26230627

  18. Motif for controllable toggle switch in gene regulatory networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chen; Bin, Ao; Ye, Weiming; Fan, Ying; Di, Zengru

    2015-02-01

    Toggle switch as a common phenomenon in gene regulatory networks has been recognized important for biological functions. Despite much effort dedicated to understanding the toggle switch and designing synthetic biology circuit to achieve the biological function, we still lack a comprehensive understanding of the intrinsic dynamics behind such phenomenon and the minimum structure that is imperative for producing toggle switch. In this paper, we discover a minimum structure, a motif that enables a controllable toggle switch. In particular, the motif consists of a transformative double negative feedback loop (DNFL) that is regulated by an additional driver node. By enumerating all possible regulatory configurations from the driver node, we identify two types of motifs associated with the toggle switch that is captured by the existence of bistable states. The toggle switch is controllable in the sense that the gap between the bistable states is adjustable as determined by the regulatory strength from the driver nodes. We test the effect of the motifs in self-oscillating gene regulatory network (SON) with respect to the interplay between the motifs and the other genes, and find that the switching dynamics of the whole network can be successfully controlled insofar as the network contains a single motif. Our findings are important to uncover the underlying nonlinear dynamics of controllable toggle switch and can have implications in devising biology circuit in the field of synthetic biology.

  19. Epigenetic control of skin differentiation genes by phytocannabinoids

    PubMed Central

    Pucci, Mariangela; Rapino, Cinzia; Di Francesco, Andrea; Dainese, Enrico; D'Addario, Claudio; Maccarrone, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Endocannabinoid signalling has been shown to have a role in the control of epidermal physiology, whereby anandamide is able to regulate the expression of skin differentiation genes through DNA methylation. Here, we investigated the possible epigenetic regulation of these genes by several phytocannabinoids, plant-derived cannabinoids that have the potential to be novel therapeutics for various human diseases. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The effects of cannabidiol, cannabigerol and cannabidivarin on the expression of skin differentiation genes keratins 1 and 10, involucrin and transglutaminase 5, as well as on DNA methylation of keratin 10 gene, were investigated in human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells). The effects of these phytocannabinoids on global DNA methylation and the activity and expression of four major DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1, 3a, 3b and 3L) were also examined. KEY RESULTS Cannabidiol and cannabigerol significantly reduced the expression of all the genes tested in differentiated HaCaT cells, by increasing DNA methylation of keratin 10 gene, but cannabidivarin was ineffective. Remarkably, cannabidiol reduced keratin 10 mRNA through a type-1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptor-dependent mechanism, whereas cannabigerol did not affect either CB1 or CB2 receptors of HaCaT cells. In addition, cannabidiol, but not cannabigerol, increased global DNA methylation levels by selectively enhancing DNMT1 expression, without affecting DNMT 3a, 3b or 3L. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These findings show that the phytocannabinoids cannabidiol and cannabigerol are transcriptional repressors that can control cell proliferation and differentiation. This indicates that they (especially cannabidiol) have the potential to be lead compounds for the development of novel therapeutics for skin diseases. PMID:23869687

  20. Transcriptomics of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae in response to the bacterial antagonist Lysobacter enzymogenes reveals candidate fungal defense response genes.

    PubMed

    Mathioni, Sandra M; Patel, Nrupali; Riddick, Bianca; Sweigard, James A; Czymmek, Kirk J; Caplan, Jeffrey L; Kunjeti, Sridhara G; Kunjeti, Saritha; Raman, Vidhyavathi; Hillman, Bradley I; Kobayashi, Donald Y; Donofrio, Nicole M

    2013-01-01

    Plants and animals have evolved a first line of defense response to pathogens called innate or basal immunity. While basal defenses in these organisms are well studied, there is almost a complete lack of understanding of such systems in fungal species, and more specifically, how they are able to detect and mount a defense response upon pathogen attack. Hence, the goal of the present study was to understand how fungi respond to biotic stress by assessing the transcriptional profile of the rice blast pathogen, Magnaporthe oryzae, when challenged with the bacterial antagonist Lysobacter enzymogenes. Based on microscopic observations of interactions between M. oryzae and wild-type L. enzymogenes strain C3, we selected early and intermediate stages represented by time-points of 3 and 9 hours post-inoculation, respectively, to evaluate the fungal transcriptome using RNA-seq. For comparative purposes, we also challenged the fungus with L. enzymogenes mutant strain DCA, previously demonstrated to be devoid of antifungal activity. A comparison of transcriptional data from fungal interactions with the wild-type bacterial strain C3 and the mutant strain DCA revealed 463 fungal genes that were down-regulated during attack by C3; of these genes, 100 were also found to be up-regulated during the interaction with DCA. Functional categorization of genes in this suite included those with roles in carbohydrate metabolism, cellular transport and stress response. One gene in this suite belongs to the CFEM-domain class of fungal proteins. Another CFEM class protein called PTH11 has been previously characterized, and we found that a deletion in this gene caused advanced lesion development by C3 compared to its growth on the wild-type fungus. We discuss the characterization of this suite of 100 genes with respect to their role in the fungal defense response. PMID:24098512

  1. Quantitative dynamic modelling of the gene regulatory network controlling adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yin; Li, Rudong; Ji, Chunguang; Shi, Shuliang; Cheng, Yufan; Sun, Hong; Li, Yixue

    2014-01-01

    Gene regulatory networks (GRNs) coherently coordinate the expressions of genes and control the behaviors of cellular systems. The complexity in modeling a quantitative GRN usually results from inaccurate parameter estimation, which is mostly due to small sample sizes. For better modeling of GRNs, we have designed a small-sample iterative optimization algorithm (SSIO) to quantitatively model GRNs with nonlinear regulatory relationships. The algorithm utilizes gene expression data as the primary input and it can be applied in case of small-sized samples. Using SSIO, we have quantitatively constructed the dynamic models for the GRNs controlling human and mouse adipogenesis. Compared with two other commonly-used methods, SSIO shows better performance with relatively lower residual errors, and it generates rational predictions on the adipocyte responses to external signals and steady-states. Sensitivity analysis further indicates the validity of our method. Several differences are observed between the GRNs of human and mouse adipocyte differentiations, suggesting the differences in regulatory efficiencies of the transcription factors between the two species. In addition, we use SSIO to quantitatively determine the strengths of the regulatory interactions as well as to optimize regulatory models. The results indicate that SSIO facilitates better investigation and understanding of gene regulatory processes. PMID:25333650

  2. A keystone predator controls bacterial diversity in the pitcher-plant (Sarracenia purpurea) microecosystem.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Celeste N; Day, Stephanie; Wolfe, Benjamin E; Ellison, Aaron M; Kolter, Roberto; Pringle, Anne

    2008-09-01

    The community of organisms inhabiting the water-filled leaves of the carnivorous pitcher-plant Sarracenia purpurea includes arthropods, protozoa and bacteria, and serves as a model system for studies of food web dynamics. Despite the wealth of data collected by ecologists and zoologists on this food web, very little is known about the bacterial assemblage in this microecosystem. We used terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis to quantify bacterial diversity within the pitchers as a function of pitcher size, pH of the pitcher fluid and the presence of the keystone predator in this food web, larvae of the pitcher-plant mosquito Wyeomyia smithii. Results were analysed at two spatial scales: within a single bog and across three isolated bogs. Pitchers were sterile before they opened and composition of the bacterial assemblage was more variable between different bogs than within bogs. Measures of bacterial richness and diversity were greater in the presence of W. smithii and increased with increasing pitcher size. Our results suggest that fundamental ecological concepts derived from macroscopic food webs can also be used to predict the bacterial assemblages in pitcher plants. PMID:18479443

  3. Distribution, diversity and abundance of bacterial laccase-like genes in different particle size fractions of sediments in a subtropical mangrove ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ling; Zhou, Zhi-Chao; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the diversity and abundance of bacterial lacasse-like genes in different particle size fractions, namely sand, silt, and clay of sediments in a subtropical mangrove ecosystem. Moreover, the effects of nutrient conditions on bacterial laccase-like communities as well as the correlation between nutrients and, both the abundance and diversity indices of laccase-like bacteria in particle size fractions were also studied. Compared to bulk sediments, Bacteroidetes, Caldithrix, Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi were dominated in all 3 particle-size fractions of intertidal sediment (IZ), but Actinobacteria and Firmicutes were lost after the fractionation procedures used. The diversity index of IZ fractions decreased in the order of bulk > clay > silt > sand. In fractions of mangrove forest sediment (MG), Verrucomicrobia was found in silt, and both Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes appeared in clay, but no new species were found in sand. The declining order of diversity index in MG fractions was clay > silt > sand > bulk. Furthermore, the abundance of lacasse-like bacteria varied with different particle-size fractions significantly (p < 0.05), and decreased in the order of sand > clay > silt in both IZ and MG fractions. Additionally, nutrient availability was found to significantly affect the diversity and community structure of laccase-like bacteria (p < 0.05), while the total organic carbon contents were positively related to the abundance of bacterial laccase-like genes in particle size fractions (p < 0.05). Therefore, this study further provides evidence that bacterial laccase plays a vital role in turnover of sediment organic matter and cycling of nutrients. PMID:25822201

  4. Many Means to a Common End: the Intricacies of (p)ppGpp Metabolism and Its Control of Bacterial Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Gaca, Anthony O.; Colomer-Winter, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    In nearly all bacterial species examined so far, amino acid starvation triggers the rapid accumulation of the nucleotide second messenger (p)ppGpp, the effector of the stringent response. While for years the enzymes involved in (p)ppGpp metabolism and the significance of (p)ppGpp accumulation to stress survival were considered well defined, a recent surge of interest in the field has uncovered an unanticipated level of diversity in how bacteria metabolize and utilize (p)ppGpp to rapidly synchronize a variety of biological processes important for growth and stress survival. In addition to the classic activation of the stringent response, it has become evident that (p)ppGpp exerts differential effects on cell physiology in an incremental manner rather than simply acting as a biphasic switch that controls growth or stasis. Of particular interest is the intimate relationship of (p)ppGpp with persister cell formation and virulence, which has spurred the pursuit of (p)ppGpp inhibitors as a means to control recalcitrant infections. Here, we present an overview of the enzymes responsible for (p)ppGpp metabolism, elaborate on the intricacies that link basal production of (p)ppGpp to bacterial homeostasis, and discuss the implications of targeting (p)ppGpp synthesis as a means to disrupt long-term bacterial survival strategies. PMID:25605304

  5. Bacterial Community Composition in Central European Running Waters Examined by Temperature Gradient Gel Electrophoresis and Sequence Analysis of 16S rRNA Genes? †

    PubMed Central

    Beier, Sara; Witzel, Karl-Paul; Marxsen, Jürgen

    2008-01-01

    The bacterial community composition in small streams and a river in central Germany was examined by temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) with PCR products of 16S rRNA gene fragments and sequence analysis. Complex TGGE band patterns suggested high levels of diversity of bacterial species in all habitats of these environments. Cluster analyses demonstrated distinct differences among the communities in stream and spring water, sandy sediments, biofilms on stones, degrading leaves, and soil. The differences between stream water and sediment were more significant than those between sites within the same habitat along the stretch from the stream source to the mouth. TGGE data from an entire stream course suggest that, in the upper reach of the stream, a special suspended bacterial community is already established and changes only slightly downstream. The bacterial communities in water and sediment in an acidic headwater with a pH below 5 were highly similar to each other but deviated distinctly from the communities at the other sites. As ascertained by nucleotide sequence analysis, stream water communities were dominated by Betaproteobacteria (one-third of the total bacteria), whereas sediment communities were composed mainly of Betaproteobacteria and members of the Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria group (each accounting for about 25% of bacteria). Sequences obtained from bacteria from water samples indicated the presence of typical cosmopolitan freshwater organisms. TGGE bands shared between stream and soil samples, as well as sequences found in bacteria from stream samples that were related to those of soil bacteria, demonstrated the occurrence of some species in both stream and soil habitats. Changes in bacterial community composition were correlated with geographic distance along a stream, but in comparisons of different streams and rivers, community composition was correlated only with environmental conditions. PMID:18024682

  6. Intercellular and intracellular signalling systems that globally control the expression of virulence genes in plant pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ham, Jong Hyun

    2013-04-01

    Plant pathogenic bacteria utilize complex signalling systems to control the expression of virulence genes at the cellular level and within populations. Quorum sensing (QS), an important intercellular communication mechanism, is mediated by different types of small molecules, including N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs), fatty acids and small proteins. AHL-mediated signalling systems dependent on the LuxI and LuxR family proteins play critical roles in the virulence of a wide range of Gram-negative plant pathogenic bacteria belonging to the Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria. Xanthomonas spp. and Xylella fastidiosa, members of the Gammaproteobacteria, however, possess QS systems that are mediated by fatty acid-type diffusible signal factors (DSFs). Recent studies have demonstrated that Ax21, a 194-amino-acid protein in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, plays dual functions in activating a rice innate immune pathway through binding to the rice XA21 pattern recognition receptor and in regulating bacterial virulence and biofilm formation as a QS signal molecule. In xanthomonads, DSF-mediated QS systems are connected with the signalling pathways mediated by cyclic diguanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP), which functions as a second messenger for the control of virulence gene expression in these bacterial pathogens. PMID:23186372

  7. Spatiotemporal control of gene expression with pulse-generating networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Subhayu; Mehreja, Rishabh; Thiberge, Stephan; Chen, Ming-Tang; Weiss, Ron

    2004-04-01

    One of the important challenges in the emerging field of synthetic biology is designing artificial networks that achieve coordinated behavior in cell communities. Here we present a synthetic multicellular bacterial system where receiver cells exhibit transient gene expression in response to a long-lasting signal from neighboring sender cells. The engineered sender cells synthesize an inducer, an acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL), which freely diffuses to spatially proximate receiver cells. The receiver cells contain a pulse-generator circuit that incorporates a feed-forward regulatory motif. The circuit responds to a long-lasting increase in the level of AHL by transiently activating, and then repressing, the expression of a GFP. Based on simulation models, we engineered variants of the pulse-generator circuit that exhibit different quantitative responses such as increased duration and intensity of the pulse. As shown by our models and experiments, the maximum amplitude and timing of the pulse depend not only on the final inducer concentration, but also on its rate of increase. The ability to differentiate between various rates of increase in inducer concentrations affords the system a unique spatiotemporal behavior for cells grown on solid media. Specifically, receiver cells can respond to communication from nearby sender cells while completely ignoring communication from senders cells further away, despite the fact that AHL concentrations eventually reach high levels everywhere. Because of the resemblance to naturally occurring feed-forward motifs, the pulse generator can serve as a model to improve our understanding of such systems. synthetic biology | cell-cell signaling | gene regulation | feed-forward

  8. Diversity and abundance of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences in forestomach of alpacas (Lama pacos) and sheep (Ovis aries).

    PubMed

    Pei, Cai-Xia; Liu, Qiang; Dong, Chang-Sheng; Li, HongQuan; Jiang, Jun-Bing; Gao, Wen-Jun

    2010-08-01

    Two bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were constructed from the forestomach of alpacas and sheep fed alfalfa. After the amplification using the universal 16S rRNA gene primers, equal quantities of PCR products from the same species were mixed and used to construct the two libraries. Sequence analysis showed that the 60 clones from alpacas were divided into 27 phylotypes with 25% clones affiliated with Eubacterium sp. F1. The 60 clones from sheep were divided into 21 phylotypes with 7 phylotypes affiliated with Prevotella ruminicola (40% clones). Clones closely related to Clostridium proteoclasticum, Eubacterium sp. F1, Clostridium cellobioparum, Mogibacterium neglectum, Eubacterium ventriosum, Clostridiaceae bacterium WN011, Clostridium coccoides, Clostridium orbiscindens, Eubacterium sp. F1, Cytophaga sp. Dex80-37, Treponema bryantii and Pelotomaculum sp. FP were only found in the forestomach of alpacas, and those to Anaerovorax odorimutans, Treponema zioleckii, Bifidobacterium indicum, Paludibacter propionicigenes, Paraprevotella clara, Eubacterium siraeum, Desulfotomaculum sp. CYP1, Clostridium bolteae, Clostridium termitidis and Clostridiaceae bacterium DJF_LS40 only in the rumen of sheep. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that the forestomach of alpacas had significantly lower density of bacteria, with bacterial 16S rRNA gene copies (6.89 [Log10 (copies per gram of wet weight)]), than that of sheep (7.71, P<0.01). The two clone libraries also appeared different in Shannon index (library from alpacas 3.30 and from sheep 3.04). Our results showed that there were apparent differences in the bacterial diversity and abundance in the forestomach between alpacas and sheep. PMID:20558310

  9. [ANALYSIS OF THE ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME GENE POLYMORPHISM AND ARTERIAL HYPOTENSION IN PREMATURE INFANTS WITH EARLY ONSET BACTERIAL INFECTIONS].

    PubMed

    Kovaleva, E; Pokhylko, V; Chernyavskaya, Yu; Kalyuzka, E; Poltoropavlov, V

    2015-11-01

    The rate of neonatal sepsis is not reduced varying inversely proportional to the gestational age at birth, and may reach 60% in the most immature infants. The high mortality rate of this disease and adverse neurological effects are associated with the development of cardiovascular changes and shock. The main leadership role in the regulation of blood pressure and blood volume in the body plays a renin-angiotensin system. Synthesis of angiotensin-converting enzyme is regulated by the ACE gene. The aim of the study was to identify and analyze the associations between the development of arterial hypotension in premature infants and insertion-deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the ACE gene. We conducted a prospective cohort study, which included 118 prematurely born children with early onset bacterial infections (n=57 with clinical manifestations in the form of hypotension, n=61 without hypotension). Both groups were genotyped to determine the insertion-deletion polymorphism ACE gene. We compared the clinical, laboratory and instrumental parameters in premature infants with hypotension and II, ID, DD genotype of the ACE gene. Also an analysis of the associations between different genotypes of ACE gene and the development of arterial hypotension in prematurely born children was conducted. The distribution of neonates in relation to the three polymorphic variants of ACE gene with respect to I/D polymorphism was identical among the study groups. The study found that children with a variety of I/D polymorphic variants of ACE gene had no significant differences in hemodynamic parameters. The rate of hemodynamic support use did not differ in both groups. The study of the associations between the ACE gene polymorphism and major ultrasound, Doppler indices that characterized both systemic and organ hemodynamics, revealed no significant differences in mean values ??of all the criteria that have been studied. It can be concluded no effect of I/D polymorphism of ACE gene on the occurrence of hemodynamic disorders in premature born children with early onset bacterial infections. PMID:26656553

  10. PCR amplfication on a microarray of gel-immobilized oligonucleotides : detection of bacterial toxin- and drug-resistent genes and their mutations.

    SciTech Connect

    Strizhkov, B. N.; Drobyshev, A. L.; Mikhailovich, V. M.; Mirzabekov, A. D.; Biochip Technology Center; Engelhardt Inst. of Molecular Biology

    2000-10-01

    PCR amplification on a microarray of gel-immobilized primers (microchip) has been developed. One of a pair of PCR primers was immobilized inside a separate microchip polyacrylamide porous gel pad of 0.1 x 0.1 x 0.02 (or 0.04) micron in size and 0.2 (or 0.4) nL in volume. The amplification was carried out simultaneously both in solution covering the microchip array and inside gel pads. Each gel pad contained the immobilized forward primers, while the fluorescently labeled reverse primers, as well as all components of the amplification reaction, diffused into the gel pads from the solution. To increase the amplification efficiency, the forward primers were also added into the solution. The kinetics of amplification was measured in real time in parallel for all gel pads with a fluorescent microscope equipped with a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. The accuracy of the amplification was assessed by using the melting curves obtained for the duplexes formed by the labeled amplification product and the gel-immobilized primers during the amplification process; alternatively, the duplexes were produced by hybridization of the extended immobilized primers with labeled oligonucleotide probes. The on-chip amplification was applied to detect the anthrax toxin genes and the plasmid-borne beta-lactamase gene responsible for bacterial ampicillin resistance. The allele-specific type of PCR amplification was used to identify the Shiga toxin gene and discriminate it from the Shiga-like one. The genomic mutations responsible for rifampicin resistance of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains were detected by the same type of PCR amplification of the rpoB gene fragment isolated from sputum of tuberculosis patients. The on-chip PCR amplification has been shown to be a rapid, inexpensive and powerful tool to test genes responsible for bacterial toxin production and drug resistance, as well as to reveal point nucleotide mutations.

  11. Plasmid vector with temperature-controlled gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Kravchenko, V.V.; Yamshchikov, V.F.; Pletnev, A.G.

    1986-02-01

    In plasmid pBR327, a fragment 169 b.p. long including promotor p/sub 3/ of the bla gene has been deleted. The deletional derivative so obtained (pSP2) has been used to construct a recombinant plasmid bearing a fragment of phage lambda DNA with the p/sub R/ promotor and the gene of the temperature-sensitive repressor cI. It has been shown that the plasmid vector so constructed (pCE119) with promotor cR performs repressor-cI-controlled transcription of the bla gene, as a result of which induction for an hour at 42/sup 0/C leads to an almost 100-fold increase in the amount of product of the bla gene as compared with that at 32/sup 0/C. The possibility of the use of plasmid cPE119 for the expression of other genes has been demonstrated for the case of the semisynthetic ..beta..-galactosidase gene of E. coli. In this case, on induction of the cells with recombinant plasmid pCEZ12 for 3 hours at 42/sup 0/C, a 300-fold increase in the amount of active ..beta..-galactosidase, as compared with that at 32/sup 0/C, was observed. It is important to point out that under these conditions (at 42/sup 0/C), at least 99% of the cells containing the plasmid retain the phenotype lacZ/sup +/, which indicates the stability of the proposed vector system

  12. Bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoates.

    PubMed

    Lee, S Y

    1996-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are polyesters of hydroxyalkanoates (HAs) synthesized by numerous bacteria as intracellular carbon and energy storage compounds and accumulated as granules in the cytoplasm of cells. More than 80 HAs have been detected as constituents of PHAs, which allows these thermoplastic materials to have various mechanical properties resembling hard crystalline polymer or elastic rubber depending on the incorporated monomer units. Even though PHAs have been recognized as good candidates for biodegradable plastics, their high price compared with conventional plastics has limited their use in a wide range of applications. A number of bacteria including Alcaligenes eutrophus, Alcaligenes latus, Azotobacter vinelandii, methylotrophs, pseudomonads, and recombinant Escherichia coli have been employed for the production of PHAs, and the productivity of greater than 2 g PHA/L/h has been achieved. Recent advances in understanding metabolism, molecular biology, and genetics of the PHA-synthesizing bacteria and cloning of more than 20 different PHA biosynthesis genes allowed construction of various recombinant strains that were able to synthesize polyesters having different monomer units and/or to accumulate much more polymers. Also, genetically engineered plants harboring the bacterial PHA biosynthesis genes are being developed for the economical production of PHAs. Improvements in fermentation/separation technology and the development of bacterial strains or plants that more efficiently synthesize PHAs will bring the costs down to make PHAs competitive with the conventional plastics. PMID:18623547

  13. Genome-wide identification and characterization of TRAF genes in the Yesso scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis) and their distinct expression patterns in response to bacterial challenge.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Wang, Ruijia; Wang, Shuyue; Zhang, Mengran; Ma, Xiaoli; Liu, Pingping; Zhang, Meiwei; Hu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Lingling; Wang, Shi; Bao, Zhenmin

    2015-11-01

    The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor associated factors (TRAFs) are the major signal transducers for the TNF receptor superfamily and the interleukin-1 receptor/Toll-like receptor (IL-1R/TLR) superfamily, which regulate a variety of cellular activities and innate immune responses. TRAF genes have been extensively studied in various species, including vertebrates and invertebrates. However, as one of the key component of NF-?B pathway, TRAF genes have not been systematically characterized in marine invertebrates. In this study, we identified and characterized five TRAF genes, PyTRAF2, PyTRAF3, PyTRAF4, PyTRAF6 and PyTRAF7, in the Yesso scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis). Phylogenetic and protein structural analyses were conducted to determine their identities and evolutionary relationships. In comparison with the TRAF genes from vertebrate species, the structural features were all relatively conserved in the PyTRAF genes. To gain insights into the roles of TRAF genes during scallop innate immune responses, quantitative real-time PCR was used to investigate the expression profiles in the different stages of scallop development, in the healthy adult tissues, and in the hemocytes after bacterial infection with Micrococcus luteus and Vibrio anguillarum. Based on the qRT-PCR analysis, the expression of most of the PyTRAFs was significantly induced in the acute phases (3-6 h) after infection with Gram-positive (M. luteus) and Gram-negative (V. anguillarum) bacteria, and many more dramatic changes in PyTRAFs expression were observed after V. anguillarum challenge. Notably, the strong response in the up-regulation of PyTRAF6 post-bacterial challenge was distinct from that previously reported in scallops and crabs but was similar to that of other shellfish, Echinodermata and even teleost fish. The high level expressions of PyTRAFs in the hemocytes and the gill, and their specific expression patterns after challenges provide insights into the versatile roles and responses of TRAFs in the innate immune system against Gram-negative bacterial pathogens in bivalves. PMID:26434715

  14. Controls on Bacterial Concentrations in Sediment Grab Samples from the Hudson River Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batta, J.; Mailloux, B. J.; Nitsche, F. O.; Kenna, T. C.; Ferguson, A. S.; Cheung, J.; Layton, A.

    2010-12-01

    High levels of fecal bacteria resulting from sewage-related pollution are often present in the Hudson River Estuary. Die-off of the fecal bacteria in surface waters is relatively rapid but the fecal bacteria can also attach to particles and settle. It is known that fecal bacteria are present in the shallow sediments but controls on their distribution have not been closely examined. The goal of this work is to examine the relationship between the concentration of fecal indicator bacteria and sediment properties including estimates of sediment age. Forty sediment surface grabs were obtained from the Hudson River Estuary. Twenty samples were collected from near the George Washington Bridge (GWB) and twenty samples from a 15 mile transect near Hudson New York. Concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria were determined by the cultured based Enterolert and Colilert tests (Idexx Laboratories) and molecular based techniques for E. coli and Bacteroides. Sediments were analyzed for total metals, total organic carbon, grain size, and gamma emitting radionuclides including Beryllium-7, Lead-210, and Cesium-137. Enterococcus was present in the samples with a geometric mean of 88 cells/g and a range of 4 to 817 cells /g. Culturable E. Coli was present in the samples with a geometric mean of 168 cells /g and a range of 5 to 2247 cells /g. Enterococcus concentrations were significantly higher (p<0.05) in the northern transect. Molecular based concentrations were determined for the GWB samples and were significantly higher than culture based concentrations. Bacteroides was present in the samples with a geometric mean of 1.1x106 copies/g and a range of 3.9x104 to 4.7x106 copies /g. Molecular E. Coli was present in the samples with a geometric mean of 3.0x106 copies/g and a range of 8.7x104 to 8.9x107 copies /g. The results clearly show that a significant amount of fecal bacteria are present in the sediments. Simple linear correlations between bacterial concentrations and sediment properties have not been observed, but more complex relationships might exist.

  15. Top-down Controls on Bacterial Transport in Oxic and Suboxic Subsurface Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, K.; Dobbs, F. C.

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess the impact of top-down processes (protistan grazing and viral infection) on bacterial transport through a shallow, unconfined, sandy aquifer at the Department of Energy study site in Oyster, Virginia. A cultured, adhesion-deficient, viably stained, indigenous bacterial strain (DA001) was injected during a field experiment performed at an oxic site in October 1999, while DA001 and an iron-reducing bacterial strain (OY107) were co-injected at a nearby suboxic site in July 2001. Groundwater samples were collected before and after injection and abundance of protists and virus-like particles (the latter at the oxic site only) was determined. Three major groups of protists (flagellates, amoebae, and ciliates) were found at both sites during the experiments, with flagellate abundance greatly dominating the others. Following bacterial injections, concentrations up to 5000 and 3000 protists per ml were observed at the oxic and suboxic sites, respectively. However, removal of bacteria in groundwater by predation, estimated with a mass balance approach, was apparently minimal. Elevated hydraulic gradients during the injections may explain the estimated low impact of predation. The abundance of virus-like particles increased as much as six-fold in the month following injection of DA001 at the oxic site, yet plaque assays revealed no evidence supporting lytic infection of the injected bacteria.

  16. Inconsequential effect of nutritional treatments on Huanglongbing control, fruit quality, bacterial titer and disease progress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of an enhanced nutritional programs (ENPs) to minimize the deleterious effects of the vector transmitted bacterial disease, citrus huanglongbing (HLB) caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las), has been a topic of considerable discussion and debate since the discovery of HLB in Flori...

  17. Flamenco, a gene controlling the gypsy retrovirus of drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Prud`homme, N.; Gans, M.; Masson, M.; Terzian, C.; Bucheton, A.

    1995-02-01

    Gypsy is an endogenous retrovirus of Drosophila melanogaster. It is table and does not transpose with detectable frequencies in most Drosophila strains. However, we have characterized unstable strains, known as MG, in which it transposes at high frequency. These stocks contain more copies of gypsy than usual stocks. Transposition results in mutations in several genes such as ovo and cut. They are stable and are due to gypsy insertions. Integrations into the ovo{sup D1} female sterile-dominant mutation result in a null allele of the gene and occurrence of fertile females. This phenomenon, known as the ovo{sup D1} reversion assay, can be used to quantitate gypsy activity. We have shown that the properties of MG strains result from mutation of a host gene that we called flamenco (flam). It has a strict maternal effect on gypsy mobilization: transposition occurs at high frequency only in the germ line of the progeny of females homozygous for mutations of the gene. It is located at position 65.9 (20A1-3) on the X chromosome. The mutant allele present in MG strains is essentially recessive. Flamenco seems to control the infective properties of gypsy. 40 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Identification of quorum sensing-controlled genes in Burkholderia ambifaria

    PubMed Central

    Chapalain, Annelise; Vial, Ludovic; Laprade, Natacha; Dekimpe, Valérie; Perreault, Jonathan; Déziel, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) comprises strains with a virulence potential toward immunocompromised patients as well as plant growth–promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Owing to the link between quorum sensing (QS) and virulence, most studies among Bcc species have been directed toward QS of pathogenic bacteria. We have investigated the QS of B. ambifaria, a PGPR only infrequently recovered from patients. The cepI gene, responsible for the synthesis of the main signaling molecule N-octanoylhomoserine lactone (C8-HSL), was inactivated. Phenotypes of the B. ambifaria cepI mutant we observed, such as increased production of siderophores and decreased proteolytic and antifungal activities, are in agreement with those of other Bcc cepI mutants. The cepI mutant was then used as background strain for a whole-genome transposon-insertion mutagenesis strategy, allowing the identification of 20 QS-controlled genes, corresponding to 17 loci. The main functions identified are linked to antifungal and antimicrobial properties, as we have identified QS-controlled genes implicated in the production of pyrrolnitrin, burkholdines (occidiofungin-like molecules), and enacyloxins. This study provides insights in the QS-regulated functions of a PGPR, which could lead to beneficial potential biotechnological applications. PMID:23382083

  19. Artificially Constructed Quorum-Sensing Circuits Are Used for Subtle Control of Bacterial Population Density

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhaoshou; Wu, Xin; Peng, Jianghai; Hu, Yidan; Fang, Baishan; Huang, Shiyang

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio fischeri is a typical quorum-sensing bacterium for which lux box, luxR, and luxI have been identified as the key elements involved in quorum sensing. To decode the quorum-sensing mechanism, an artificially constructed cell–cell communication system has been built. In brief, the system expresses several programmed cell-death BioBricks and quorum-sensing genes driven by the promoters lux pR and PlacO-1 in Escherichia coli cells. Their transformation and expression was confirmed by gel electrophoresis and sequencing. To evaluate its performance, viable cell numbers at various time periods were investigated. Our results showed that bacteria expressing killer proteins corresponding to ribosome binding site efficiency of 0.07, 0.3, 0.6, or 1.0 successfully sensed each other in a population-dependent manner and communicated with each other to subtly control their population density. This was also validated using a proposed simple mathematical model. PMID:25119347

  20. Artificially constructed quorum-sensing circuits are used for subtle control of bacterial population density.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaoshou; Wu, Xin; Peng, Jianghai; Hu, Yidan; Fang, Baishan; Huang, Shiyang

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio fischeri is a typical quorum-sensing bacterium for which lux box, luxR, and luxI have been identified as the key elements involved in quorum sensing. To decode the quorum-sensing mechanism, an artificially constructed cell-cell communication system has been built. In brief, the system expresses several programmed cell-death BioBricks and quorum-sensing genes driven by the promoters lux pR and PlacO-1 in Escherichia coli cells. Their transformation and expression was confirmed by gel electrophoresis and sequencing. To evaluate its performance, viable cell numbers at various time periods were investigated. Our results showed that bacteria expressing killer proteins corresponding to ribosome binding site efficiency of 0.07, 0.3, 0.6, or 1.0 successfully sensed each other in a population-dependent manner and communicated with each other to subtly control their population density. This was also validated using a proposed simple mathematical model. PMID:25119347

  1. Structural characteristics of ScBx genes controlling the biosynthesis of hydroxamic acids in rye (Secale cereale L.).

    PubMed

    Bakera, Beata; Makowska, Bogna; Groszyk, Jolanta; Nizio?ek, Micha?; Orczyk, Wac?aw; Bolibok-Br?goszewska, Hanna; Hromada-Judycka, Aneta; Rakoczy-Trojanowska, Monika

    2015-08-01

    Benzoxazinoids (BX) are major secondary metabolites of gramineous plants that play an important role in disease resistance and allelopathy. They also have many other unique properties including anti-bacterial and anti-fungal activity, and the ability to reduce alfa-amylase activity. The biosynthesis and modification of BX are controlled by the genes Bx1 ÷ Bx10, GT and glu, and the majority of these Bx genes have been mapped in maize, wheat and rye. However, the genetic basis of BX biosynthesis remains largely uncharacterized apart from some data from maize and wheat. The aim of this study was to isolate, sequence and characterize five genes (ScBx1, ScBx2, ScBx3, ScBx4 and ScBx5) encoding enzymes involved in the synthesis of DIBOA, an important defense compound of rye. Using a modified 3D procedure of BAC library screening, seven BAC clones containing all of the ScBx genes were isolated and sequenced. Bioinformatic analyses of the resulting contigs were used to examine the structure and other features of these genes, including their promoters, introns and 3'UTRs. Comparative analysis showed that the ScBx genes are similar to those of other Poaceae species, especially to the TaBx genes. The polymorphisms present both in the coding sequences and non-coding regions of ScBx in relation to other Bx genes are predicted to have an impact on the expression, structure and properties of the encoded proteins. PMID:25666974

  2. BOOST: A fast approach to detecting gene-gene interactions in genome-wide case-control studies

    E-print Network

    Wan, Xiang; Yang, Qiang; Xue, Hong; Fan, Xiaodan; Tang, Nelson L S; Yu, Weichuan

    2010-01-01

    Gene-gene interactions have long been recognized to be fundamentally important to understand genetic causes of complex disease traits. At present, identifying gene-gene interactions from genome-wide case-control studies is computationally and methodologically challenging. In this paper, we introduce a simple but powerful method, named `BOolean Operation based Screening and Testing'(BOOST). To discover unknown gene-gene interactions that underlie complex diseases, BOOST allows examining all pairwise interactions in genome-wide case-control studies in a remarkably fast manner. We have carried out interaction analyses on seven data sets from the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC). Each analysis took less than 60 hours on a standard 3.0 GHz desktop with 4G memory running Windows XP system. The interaction patterns identified from the type 1 diabetes data set display significant difference from those identified from the rheumatoid arthritis data set, while both data sets share a very similar hit region...

  3. Control of gene expression by modulated self-assembly

    E-print Network

    Vilar, Jose M G

    2011-01-01

    Numerous transcription factors self-assemble into different order oligomeric species in a way that is actively regulated by the cell. Until now, no general functional role has been identified for this widespread process. Here we capture the effects of modulated self-assembly in gene expression with a novel quantitative framework. We show that this mechanism provides precision and flexibility, two seemingly antagonistic properties, to the sensing of diverse cellular signals by systems that share common elements present in transcription factors like p53, NF-kappaB, STATs, Oct, and RXR. Applied to the nuclear hormone receptor RXR, this framework accurately reproduces a broad range of classical, previously unexplained, sets of gene expression data and corroborates the existence of a precise functional regime with flexible properties that can be controlled both at a genome-wide scale and at the individual promoter level.

  4. Control of gene expression by modulated self-assembly

    E-print Network

    Jose M. G. Vilar; Leonor Saiz

    2011-05-25

    Numerous transcription factors self-assemble into different order oligomeric species in a way that is actively regulated by the cell. Until now, no general functional role has been identified for this widespread process. Here we capture the effects of modulated self-assembly in gene expression with a novel quantitative framework. We show that this mechanism provides precision and flexibility, two seemingly antagonistic properties, to the sensing of diverse cellular signals by systems that share common elements present in transcription factors like p53, NF-kappaB, STATs, Oct, and RXR. Applied to the nuclear hormone receptor RXR, this framework accurately reproduces a broad range of classical, previously unexplained, sets of gene expression data and corroborates the existence of a precise functional regime with flexible properties that can be controlled both at a genome-wide scale and at the individual promoter level.

  5. Bacterial ghosts as a delivery system for zona pellucida-2 fertility control vaccines for brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula).

    PubMed

    Walcher, Petra; Cui, Xianlan; Arrow, Jane A; Scobie, Susie; Molinia, Frank C; Cowan, Phil E; Lubitz, Werner; Duckworth, Janine A

    2008-12-01

    The introduced brushtail possum is a serious pest in New Zealand and there is much interest in the development of an immunocontraceptive vaccine for population control. Immunisation of female possums against recombinant possum zona pellucida protein-2 (ZP2) is known to reduce embryo production by 72-75% but successful development of fertility control will depend on a delivery system that is effective for field use. Bacterial ghost vaccine technology is a promising system to formulate a non-living vaccine for bait or aerosol delivery. The N-terminal (amino acid residues 41-316, ZP2N) and C-terminal (amino acid residues 308-636, ZP2C) regions of possum ZP2 were fused to maltose-binding protein and expressed in the periplasmic space of Escherichia coli NM522 bacterial ghosts. Female possums (n=20 per treatment group) were immunised with 20mg of either plain ghosts, ZP2N ghosts, or ZP2C ghosts in phosphate-buffered saline applied to the nostrils and eyes (nasal/conjunctival mucosa) at weeks 0, 2 and 4. Effects of immunisation on fertility were assessed following superovulation and artificial insemination. Both constructs evoked humoral (antibody) and cell-mediated immune responses in possums and significantly fewer eggs were fertilised in females immunised against ZP2C ghosts. Results in this study indicate that bacterial ghosts containing possum ZP antigens can reduce possum fertility when delivered by mucosal immunisation and offer a promising delivery system for fertility control of wild possum populations. PMID:18948157

  6. Pattern Triggered Immunity (PTI) in Tobacco: Isolation of Activated Genes Suggests Role of the Phenylpropanoid Pathway in Inhibition of Bacterial Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Szatmári, Ágnes; Zvara, Ágnes; Móricz, Ágnes M.; Besenyei, Eszter; Szabó, Erika; Ott, Péter G.; Puskás, László G.; Bozsó, Zoltán

    2014-01-01

    Background Pattern Triggered Immunity (PTI) or Basal Resistance (BR) is a potent, symptomless form of plant resistance. Upon inoculation of a plant with non-pathogens or pathogenicity-mutant bacteria, the induced PTI will prevent bacterial proliferation. Developed PTI is also able to protect the plant from disease or HR (Hypersensitive Response) after a challenging infection with pathogenic bacteria. Our aim was to reveal those PTI-related genes of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) that could possibly play a role in the protection of the plant from disease. Methodology/Principal Findings Leaves were infiltrated with Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae hrcC- mutant bacteria to induce PTI, and samples were taken 6 and 48 hours later. Subtraction Suppressive Hybridization (SSH) resulted in 156 PTI-activated genes. A cDNA microarray was generated from the SSH clone library. Analysis of hybridization data showed that in the early (6 hpi) phase of PTI, among others, genes of peroxidases, signalling elements, heat shock proteins and secondary metabolites were upregulated, while at the late phase (48 hpi) the group of proteolysis genes was newly activated. Microarray data were verified by real time RT-PCR analysis. Almost all members of the phenyl-propanoid pathway (PPP) possibly leading to lignin biosynthesis were activated. Specific inhibition of cinnamic-acid-4-hydroxylase (C4H), rate limiting enzyme of the PPP, decreased the strength of PTI - as shown by the HR-inhibition and electrolyte leakage tests. Quantification of cinnamate and p-coumarate by thin-layer chromatography (TLC)-densitometry supported specific changes in the levels of these metabolites upon elicitation of PTI. Conclusions/Significance We believe to provide first report on PTI-related changes in the levels of these PPP metabolites. Results implicated an actual role of the upregulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway in the inhibition of bacterial pathogenic activity during PTI. PMID:25101956

  7. Ajoene, a sulfur-rich molecule from garlic, inhibits genes controlled by quorum sensing.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Tim Holm; van Gennip, Maria; Phipps, Richard Kerry; Shanmugham, Meenakshi Sundaram; Christensen, Louise Dahl; Alhede, Morten; Skindersoe, Mette Eline; Rasmussen, Thomas Bovbjerg; Friedrich, Karlheinz; Uthe, Friedrich; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Moser, Claus; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Eberl, Leo; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Tanner, David; Høiby, Niels; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Givskov, Michael

    2012-05-01

    In relation to emerging multiresistant bacteria, development of antimicrobials and new treatment strategies of infections should be expected to become a high-priority research area. Quorum sensing (QS), a communication system used by pathogenic bacteria like Pseudomonas aeruginosa to synchronize the expression of specific genes involved in pathogenicity, is a possible drug target. Previous in vitro and in vivo studies revealed a significant inhibition of P. aeruginosa QS by crude garlic extract. By bioassay-guided fractionation of garlic extracts, we determined the primary QS inhibitor present in garlic to be ajoene, a sulfur-containing compound with potential as an antipathogenic drug. By comprehensive in vitro and in vivo studies, the effect of synthetic ajoene toward P. aeruginosa was elucidated. DNA microarray studies of ajoene-treated P. aeruginosa cultures revealed a concentration-dependent attenuation of a few but central QS-controlled virulence factors, including rhamnolipid. Furthermore, ajoene treatment of in vitro biofilms demonstrated a clear synergistic, antimicrobial effect with tobramycin on biofilm killing and a cease in lytic necrosis of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Furthermore, in a mouse model of pulmonary infection, a significant clearing of infecting P. aeruginosa was detected in ajoene-treated mice compared to a nontreated control group. This study adds to the list of examples demonstrating the potential of QS-interfering compounds in the treatment of bacterial infections. PMID:22314537

  8. The Mineralosphere Concept: Mineralogical Control of the Distribution and Function of Mineral-associated Bacterial Communities.

    PubMed

    Uroz, Stephane; Kelly, Laura Catherine; Turpault, Marie-Pierre; Lepleux, Cendrella; Frey-Klett, Pascale

    2015-12-01

    Soil is composed of a mosaic of different rocks and minerals, usually considered as an inert substrata for microbial colonization. However, recent findings suggest that minerals, in soils and elsewhere, favour the development of specific microbial communities according to their mineralogy, nutritive content, and weatherability. Based upon recent studies, we highlight how bacterial communities are distributed on the surface of, and in close proximity to, minerals. We also consider the potential role of the mineral-associated bacterial communities in mineral weathering and nutrient cycling in soils, with a specific focus on nutrient-poor and acidic forest ecosystems. We propose to define this microbial habitat as the mineralosphere, where key drivers of the microbial communities are the physicochemical properties of the minerals. PMID:26549581

  9. Gasmin (BV2-5), a polydnaviral-acquired gene in Spodoptera exigua. Trade-off in the defense against bacterial and viral infections.

    PubMed

    Gasmi, Laila; Jakubowska, Agata K; Herrero, Salvador

    2016-03-01

    Thousands of Hymenopteran endoparasitoids have developed a unique symbiotic relationship with viruses named polydnavirus (PDVs). These viruses immunocompromise the lepidopteran host allowing the survival of the wasp eggs. In a previous work, we have shown the horizontal transfer of some polydnaviral genes into the genome of the Lepidoptera, Spodoptera exigua. One of these genes, BV2-5 (named gasmin) interferes with actin polymerization, negatively affecting the multiplication of baculovirus in cell culture. In this work, we have focused in the study of the effect of Gasmin expression on different aspects of the baculovirus production. In addition, and since actin polymerization is crucial for phagocytosis, we have studied the effect of Gasmin expression on the larval interaction with bacterial pathogens. Over-expression of Gasmin on hemocytes significantly reduces their capacity to phagocytize the pathogenic bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis. According to these results, gasmin domestication negatively affects baculovirus replication, but increases larvae susceptibility to bacterial infections as pay off. Although the effect of Gasmin on the insect interaction with other pathogens or parasitoids remain unknown, the opposite effects described here could shape the biological history of this species based on the abundance of certain type of pathogens as suggested by the presence of truncated forms of this protein in several regions of the world. PMID:26658027

  10. Bacterial Diversity Studies Using the 16S rRNA Gene Provide a Powerful Research-Based Curriculum for Molecular Biology Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    BOOMER, SARAH M.; LODGE, DANIEL P.; DUTTON, BRYAN E.

    2002-01-01

    We have developed a ten-week curriculum for molecular biology that uses 16S ribosomal RNA genes to characterize and compare novel bacteria from hot spring communities in Yellowstone National Park. The 16S rRNA approach bypasses selective culture-based methods. Our molecular biology course offered the opportunity for students to learn broadly applicable methods while contributing to a long-term research project. Specifically, students isolated and characterized clones that contained novel 16S rRNA inserts using restriction enzyme, DNA sequencing, and computer-based phylogenetic methods. In both classes, students retrieved novel bacterial 16S rRNA genes, several of which were most similar to Green Nonsulfur bacterial isolates. During class, we evaluated student performance and mastery of skills and concepts using quizzes, formal lab notebooks, and a broad project assignment. For this report, we also assessed student performance alongside data quality and discussed the significance, our goal being to improve both research and teaching methods. PMID:23653546

  11. Bacterial Community Dynamics during Production of Registered Designation of Origin Salers Cheese as Evaluated by 16S rRNA Gene Single-Strand Conformation Polymorphism Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Duthoit, Frédérique; Godon, Jean-Jacques; Montel, Marie-Christine

    2003-01-01

    Microbial dynamics during processing and ripening of traditional cheeses such as registered designation of origin Salers cheese, an artisanal cheese produced in France, play an important role in the elaboration of sensory qualities. The aim of the present study was to obtain a picture of the dynamics of the microbial ecosystem of RDO Salers cheese by using culture-independent methods. This included DNA extraction, PCR, and single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. Bacterial and high-GC% gram-positive bacterial primers were used to amplify V2 or V3 regions of the 16S rRNA gene. SSCP patterns revealed changes during the manufacturing of the cheese. Patterns of the ecosystems of cheeses that were provided by three farmers were also quite different. Cloning and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene revealed sequences related to lactic acid bacteria (Lactococcus lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus, Enterococcus faecium, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus pentosus), which were predominant during manufacturing and ripening. Bacteria belonging to the high-GC% gram-positive group (essentially corynebacteria) were found by using specific primers. The present molecular approach can effectively describe the ecosystem of artisanal dairy products. PMID:12839752

  12. Controlled Self-Assembly of Rodlike Bacterial Pili Particles into Ordered Lattices**

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Binrui; Xu, Hong; Mao, Chuanbin

    2011-01-01

    Pili pickup sticks: Rodlike type 1 bacterial pili particles (see picture, red) self-assemble into highly ordered nanostructures through molecular recognition in the presence of suitable inducers. 1D bundles, 2D double-layer lattices, and 3D multilayer lattices were produced by varying the nature and concentration of the inducers. The self-assembled pili serve as templates for nucleating and organizing inorganic nanomaterials such as silica. PMID:21626633

  13. Bacterial gastroenteritis

    MedlinePLUS

    Infectious diarrhea - bacterial gastroenteritis; Acute gastroenteritis; Gastroenteritis - bacterial ... the sickness. All types of food poisoning cause diarrhea . Other symptoms include: Abdominal cramps Abdominal pain Bloody ...

  14. Different bacterial communities in heat and gamma irradiation treated replant disease soils revealed by 16S rRNA gene analysis – contribution to improved aboveground apple plant growth?

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Bunlong; Winkelmann, Traud; Ding, Guo-Chun; Smalla, Kornelia

    2015-01-01

    Replant disease (RD) severely affects apple production in propagation tree nurseries and in fruit orchards worldwide. This study aimed to investigate the effects of soil disinfection treatments on plant growth and health in a biotest in two different RD soil types under greenhouse conditions and to link the plant growth status with the bacterial community composition at the time of plant sampling. In the biotest performed we observed that the aboveground growth of apple rootstock M26 plants after 8 weeks was improved in the two RD soils either treated at 50°C or with gamma irradiation compared to the untreated RD soils. Total community DNA was extracted from soil loosely adhering to the roots and quantitative real-time PCR revealed no pronounced differences in 16S rRNA gene copy numbers. 16S rRNA gene-based bacterial community analysis by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and 454-pyrosequencing revealed significant differences in the bacterial community composition even after 8 weeks of plant growth. In both soils, the treatments affected different phyla but only the relative abundance of Acidobacteria was reduced by both treatments. The genera Streptomyces, Bacillus, Paenibacillus, and Sphingomonas had a higher relative abundance in both heat treated soils, whereas the relative abundance of Mucilaginibacter, Devosia, and Rhodanobacter was increased in the gamma-irradiated soils and only the genus Phenylobacterium was increased in both treatments. The increased abundance of genera with potentially beneficial bacteria, i.e., potential degraders of phenolic compounds might have contributed to the improved plant growth in both treatments. PMID:26635733

  15. Genomes & Developmental Control Detection of broadly expressed neuronal genes in C. elegans

    E-print Network

    Ruvinsky, Ilya

    ). These features are likely determined by genes, called pan-neuronal genes, uniquely expressed in all (or nearlyGenomes & Developmental Control Detection of broadly expressed neuronal genes in C. elegans Ilya 2006 Available online 15 September 2006 Abstract The genes that are expressed in most or all types

  16. Mutations in y-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transaminase genes in plants or Pseudomonas syringae reduce bacterial virulence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 is a bacterial pathogen of Arabidopsis and tomato that grows in the apoplast. The non-protein amino acid '-amino butyric acid (GABA) is produced by Arabidopsis and tomato and is the most abundant amino acid in the apoplastic fluid of tomato. The DC3000 genome h...

  17. Evidence of major genes affecting bacterial cold water disease resistance in rainbow trout using Bayesian methods of complex segregation analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) causes significant economic loss in salmonid aquaculture. We previously detected genetic variation for BCWD resistance in our rainbow trout population, and a family-based selection program to improve resistance was initiated at the NCCCWA in 2005. The main objec...

  18. Design of a Comprehensive Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Experiment: Phase Variation Caused by Recombinational Regulation of Bacterial Gene Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheng, Xiumei; Xu, Shungao; Lu, Renyun; Isaac, Dadzie; Zhang, Xueyi; Zhang, Haifang; Wang, Huifang; Qiao, Zheng; Huang, Xinxiang

    2014-01-01

    Scientific experiments are indispensable parts of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. In this study, a comprehensive Biochemistry and Molecular Biology experiment about "Salmonella enterica" serovar Typhi Flagellar phase variation has been designed. It consisted of three parts, namely, inducement of bacterial Flagellar phase variation,…

  19. Relationship between bacterial diversity and function under biotic control: the soil pesticide degraders as a case study.

    PubMed

    Monard, Cécile; Vandenkoornhuyse, Philippe; Le Bot, Barbara; Binet, Françoise

    2011-06-01

    In soil, the way biotic parameters impact the relationship between bacterial diversity and function is still unknown. To understand these interactions better, we used RNA-based stable-isotope probing to study the diversity of active atrazine-degrading bacteria in relation to atrazine degradation and to explore the impact of earthworm-soil engineering with respect to this relationship. Bulk soil, burrow linings and earthworm casts were incubated with (13)C-atrazine. The pollutant degradation was quantified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for 8 days, whereas active atrazine degraders were identified at 2 and 8 days by sequencing the 16S ribosomal RNA in the (13)C-RNA fractions from the three soil microsites. An original diversity of atrazine degraders was found. Earthworm soil engineering greatly modified the taxonomic composition of atrazine degraders with dominance of ?-, ?- and ?-proteobacteria in burrow linings and of Actinobacteria in casts. Earthworm soil bioturbation increased the ?-diversity of atrazine degraders over the soil microsites generated. Atrazine degradation was enhanced in burrow linings in which primary atrazine degraders, closely related to Pelomonas aquatica, were detected only 2 days after atrazine addition. Atrazine degradation efficiency was not linearly related to the species richness of degraders but likely relied on keystone species. By enhancing soil heterogeneity, earthworms sustained high phylogenetic bacterial diversity and exerted a biotic control on the bacterial diversity-function relationships. Our findings call for future investigations to assess the ecological significance of biotic controls on the relationships between diversity and function on ecosystem properties and services (for example, soil detoxification) at larger scales. PMID:21160539

  20. Relationship between bacterial diversity and function under biotic control: the soil pesticide degraders as a case study

    PubMed Central

    Monard, Cécile; Vandenkoornhuyse, Philippe; Le Bot, Barbara; Binet, Françoise

    2011-01-01

    In soil, the way biotic parameters impact the relationship between bacterial diversity and function is still unknown. To understand these interactions better, we used RNA-based stable-isotope probing to study the diversity of active atrazine-degrading bacteria in relation to atrazine degradation and to explore the impact of earthworm-soil engineering with respect to this relationship. Bulk soil, burrow linings and earthworm casts were incubated with 13C-atrazine. The pollutant degradation was quantified by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry for 8 days, whereas active atrazine degraders were identified at 2 and 8 days by sequencing the 16S ribosomal RNA in the 13C-RNA fractions from the three soil microsites. An original diversity of atrazine degraders was found. Earthworm soil engineering greatly modified the taxonomic composition of atrazine degraders with dominance of ?-, ?- and ?-proteobacteria in burrow linings and of Actinobacteria in casts. Earthworm soil bioturbation increased the ?-diversity of atrazine degraders over the soil microsites generated. Atrazine degradation was enhanced in burrow linings in which primary atrazine degraders, closely related to Pelomonas aquatica, were detected only 2 days after atrazine addition. Atrazine degradation efficiency was not linearly related to the species richness of degraders but likely relied on keystone species. By enhancing soil heterogeneity, earthworms sustained high phylogenetic bacterial diversity and exerted a biotic control on the bacterial diversity–function relationships. Our findings call for future investigations to assess the ecological significance of biotic controls on the relationships between diversity and function on ecosystem properties and services (for example, soil detoxification) at larger scales. PMID:21160539

  1. Molecular mechanisms controlling CFTR gene expression in the airway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhaolin; Ott, Christopher J; Lewandowska, Marzena A; Leir, Shih-Hsing; Harris, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The low levels of CFTR gene expression and paucity of CFTR protein in human airway epithelial cells are not easily reconciled with the pivotal role of the lung in cystic fibrosis pathology. Previous data suggested that the regulatory mechanisms controlling CFTR gene expression might be different in airway epithelium in comparison to intestinal epithelium where CFTR mRNA and protein is much more abundant. Here we examine chromatin structure and modification across the CFTR locus in primary human tracheal (HTE) and bronchial (NHBE) epithelial cells and airway cell lines including 16HBE14o- and Calu3. We identify regions of open chromatin that appear selective for primary airway epithelial cells and show that several of these are enriched for a histone modification (H3K4me1) that is characteristic of enhancers. Consistent with these observations, three of these sites encompass elements that have cooperative enhancer function in reporter gene assays in 16HBE14o- cells. Finally, we use chromosome conformation capture (3C) to examine the three-dimensional structure of nearly 800 kb of chromosome 7 encompassing CFTR and observe long-range interactions between the CFTR promoter and regions far outside the locus in cell types that express high levels of CFTR. PMID:21895967

  2. Temporal and spatial control of gene expression in horticultural crops

    PubMed Central

    Dutt, Manjul; Dhekney, Sadanand A; Soriano, Leonardo; Kandel, Raju; Grosser, Jude W

    2014-01-01

    Biotechnology provides plant breeders an additional tool to improve various traits desired by growers and consumers of horticultural crops. It also provides genetic solutions to major problems affecting horticultural crops and can be a means for rapid improvement of a cultivar. With the availability of a number of horticultural genome sequences, it has become relatively easier to utilize these resources to identify DNA sequences for both basic and applied research. Promoters play a key role in plant gene expression and the regulation of gene expression. In recent years, rapid progress has been made on the isolation and evaluation of plant-derived promoters and their use in horticultural crops, as more and more species become amenable to genetic transformation. Our understanding of the tools and techniques of horticultural plant biotechnology has now evolved from a discovery phase to an implementation phase. The availability of a large number of promoters derived from horticultural plants opens up the field for utilization of native sequences and improving crops using precision breeding. In this review, we look at the temporal and spatial control of gene expression in horticultural crops and the usage of a variety of promoters either isolated from horticultural crops or used in horticultural crop improvement. PMID:26504550

  3. Enrichment of provitamin A content in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by introduction of the bacterial carotenoid biosynthetic genes CrtB and CrtI

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cheng; Zeng, Jian; Li, Yin; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

    2014-01-01

    Carotenoid content is a primary determinant of wheat nutritional value and affects its end-use quality. Wheat grains contain very low carotenoid levels and trace amounts of provitamin A content. In order to enrich the carotenoid content in wheat grains, the bacterial phytoene synthase gene (CrtB) and carotene desaturase gene (CrtI) were transformed into the common wheat cultivar Bobwhite. Expression of CrtB or CrtI alone slightly increased the carotenoid content in the grains of transgenic wheat, while co-expression of both genes resulted in a darker red/yellow grain phenotype, accompanied by a total carotenoid content increase of approximately 8-fold achieving 4.76 ?g g–1 of seed dry weight, a ?-carotene increase of 65-fold to 3.21 ?g g–1 of seed dry weight, and a provitamin A content (sum of ?-carotene, ?-carotene, and ?-cryptoxanthin) increase of 76-fold to 3.82 ?g g–1 of seed dry weight. The high provitamin A content in the transgenic wheat was stably inherited over four generations. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that enhancement of provitamin A content in transgenic wheat was also a result of the highly coordinated regulation of endogenous carotenoid biosynthetic genes, suggesting a metabolic feedback regulation in the wheat carotenoid biosynthetic pathway. These transgenic wheat lines are not only valuable for breeding wheat varieties with nutritional benefits for human health but also for understanding the mechanism regulating carotenoid biosynthesis in wheat endosperm. PMID:24692648

  4. Enrichment of provitamin A content in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by introduction of the bacterial carotenoid biosynthetic genes CrtB and CrtI.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng; Zeng, Jian; Li, Yin; Hu, Wei; Chen, Ling; Miao, Yingjie; Deng, Pengyi; Yuan, Cuihong; Ma, Cheng; Chen, Xi; Zang, Mingli; Wang, Qiong; Li, Kexiu; Chang, Junli; Wang, Yuesheng; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

    2014-06-01

    Carotenoid content is a primary determinant of wheat nutritional value and affects its end-use quality. Wheat grains contain very low carotenoid levels and trace amounts of provitamin A content. In order to enrich the carotenoid content in wheat grains, the bacterial phytoene synthase gene (CrtB) and carotene desaturase gene (CrtI) were transformed into the common wheat cultivar Bobwhite. Expression of CrtB or CrtI alone slightly increased the carotenoid content in the grains of transgenic wheat, while co-expression of both genes resulted in a darker red/yellow grain phenotype, accompanied by a total carotenoid content increase of approximately 8-fold achieving 4.76 ?g g(-1) of seed dry weight, a ?-carotene increase of 65-fold to 3.21 ?g g(-1) of seed dry weight, and a provitamin A content (sum of ?-carotene, ?-carotene, and ?-cryptoxanthin) increase of 76-fold to 3.82 ?g g(-1) of seed dry weight. The high provitamin A content in the transgenic wheat was stably inherited over four generations. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that enhancement of provitamin A content in transgenic wheat was also a result of the highly coordinated regulation of endogenous carotenoid biosynthetic genes, suggesting a metabolic feedback regulation in the wheat carotenoid biosynthetic pathway. These transgenic wheat lines are not only valuable for breeding wheat varieties with nutritional benefits for human health but also for understanding the mechanism regulating carotenoid biosynthesis in wheat endosperm. PMID:24692648

  5. Distinct roles of the pepper pathogen-induced membrane protein gene CaPIMP1 in bacterial disease resistance and oomycete disease susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jeum Kyu; Choi, Du Seok; Kim, Sang Hee; Yi, Seung Yeon; Kim, Young Jin; Hwang, Byung Kook

    2008-08-01

    Plant integral membrane proteins have essential roles in diverse internal and external physiological processes as signal receptors or ion transporters. The pepper CaPIMP1 gene encoding a putative integral membrane protein with four transmembrane domains was isolated and functionally characterized from pepper leaves infected with the avirulent strain Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv). CaPIMP1-green fluorescence protein (GFP) fusions localized to the plasma membrane in onion cells, as observed by confocal microscopy. CaPIMP1 was expressed in an organ-specific manner in healthy pepper plants. Infection with Xcv induced differential accumulation of CaPIMP1 transcripts in pepper leaf tissues during compatible and incompatible interactions. The function of CaPIMP1 was examined by using the virus-induced gene silencing technique in pepper plants and by overexpression in Arabidopsis. CaPIMP1-silenced pepper plants were highly susceptible to Xcv infection and expressed lower levels of the defense-related gene CaSAR82A. CaPIMP1 overexpression (CaPIMP1-OX) in transgenic Arabidopsis conferred enhanced resistance to P. syringae pv. tomato infection, accompanied by enhanced AtPDF1.2 gene expression. In contrast, CaPIMP1-OX plants were highly susceptible to the biotrophic oomycete Hyaloperonospora parasitica. Taken together, we propose that CaPIMP1 plays distinct roles in both bacterial disease resistance and oomycete disease susceptibility. PMID:18506481

  6. Development of a dual-internal-reference technique to improve accuracy when determining bacterial 16S rRNA:16S rRNA gene ratio with application to Escherichia coli liquid and aerosol samples.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Huajun; Krumins, Valdis; Fennell, Donna E; Mainelis, Gediminas

    2015-10-01

    Accurate enumeration of rRNA content in microbial cells, e.g. by using the 16S rRNA:16S rRNA gene ratio, is critical to properly understand its relationship to microbial activities. However, few studies have considered possible methodological artifacts that may contribute to the variability of rRNA analysis results. In this study, a technique utilizing genomic DNA and 16S rRNA from an exogenous species (Pseudomonas fluorescens) as dual internal references was developed to improve accuracy when determining the 16S rRNA:16S rRNA gene ratio of a target organism, Escherichia coli. This technique was able to adequately control the variability in sample processing and analysis procedures due to nucleic acid (DNA and RNA) losses, inefficient reverse transcription of RNA, and inefficient PCR amplification. The measured 16S rRNA:16S rRNA gene ratio of E. coli increased by 2-3 fold when E. coli 16S rRNA gene and 16S rRNA quantities were normalized to the sample-specific fractional recoveries of reference (P. fluorescens) 16S rRNA gene and 16S rRNA, respectively. In addition, the intra-sample variation of this ratio, represented by coefficients of variation from replicate samples, decreased significantly after normalization. This technique was applied to investigate the temporal variation of 16S rRNA:16S rRNA gene ratio of E. coli during its non-steady-state growth in a complex liquid medium, and to E. coli aerosols when exposed to particle-free air after their collection on a filter. The 16S rRNA:16S rRNA gene ratio of E. coli increased significantly during its early exponential phase of growth; when E. coli aerosols were exposed to extended filtration stress after sample collection, the ratio also increased. In contrast, no significant temporal trend in E. coli 16S rRNA:16S rRNA gene ratio was observed when the determined ratios were not normalized based on the recoveries of dual references. The developed technique could be widely applied in studies of relationship between cellular rRNA abundance and bacterial activity. PMID:26241659

  7. Leaching of Zinc Sulfide by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans: Experiments with a Controlled Redox Potential Indicate No Direct Bacterial Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, T. A.; Crundwell, F. K.

    1998-01-01

    The role of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans in bacterial leaching of mineral sulfides is controversial. Much of the controversy is due to the fact that the solution conditions, especially the concentrations of ferric and ferrous ions, change during experiments. The role of the bacteria would be more easily discernible if the concentrations of ferric and ferrous ions were maintained at set values throughout the experimental period. In this paper we report results obtained by using the constant redox potential apparatus described previously (P. I. Harvey and F. K. Crundwell, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63:2586–2592, 1997). This apparatus is designed to control the redox potential in the leaching compartment of an electrolytic cell by reduction or oxidation of dissolved iron. By controlling the redox potential the apparatus maintains the concentrations of ferrous and ferric ions at their initial values. Experiments were conducted in the presence of T. ferrooxidans and under sterile conditions. Analysis of the conversion of zinc sulfide in the absence of the bacteria and analysis of the conversion of zinc sulfate in the presence of the bacteria produced the same results. This indicates that the only role of the bacteria under the conditions used is regeneration of ferric ions in solution. In this work we found no evidence that there is a direct mechanism for bacterial leaching. PMID:9758769

  8. An autonomous molecular computer for logical control of gene expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benenson, Yaakov; Gil, Binyamin; Ben-Dor, Uri; Adar, Rivka; Shapiro, Ehud

    2004-05-01

    Early biomolecular computer research focused on laboratory-scale, human-operated computers for complex computational problems. Recently, simple molecular-scale autonomous programmable computers were demonstrated allowing both input and output information to be in molecular form. Such computers, using biological molecules as input data and biologically active molecules as outputs, could produce a system for `logical' control of biological processes. Here we describe an autonomous biomolecular computer that, at least in vitro, logically analyses the levels of messenger RNA species, and in response produces a molecule capable of affecting levels of gene expression. The computer operates at a concentration of close to a trillion computers per microlitre and consists of three programmable modules: a computation module, that is, a stochastic molecular automaton; an input module, by which specific mRNA levels or point mutations regulate software molecule concentrations, and hence automaton transition probabilities; and an output module, capable of controlled release of a short single-stranded DNA molecule. This approach might be applied in vivo to biochemical sensing, genetic engineering and even medical diagnosis and treatment. As a proof of principle we programmed the computer to identify and analyse mRNA of disease-related genes associated with models of small-cell lung cancer and prostate cancer, and to produce a single-stranded DNA molecule modelled after an anticancer drug.

  9. Harnessing autophagy for cell fate control gene therapy

    PubMed Central

    Felizardo, Tania C.; Foley, Jason; Steed, Kevin; Dropulic, Boro; Amarnath, Shoba; Medin, Jeffrey A.; Fowler, Daniel H.

    2013-01-01

    We hypothesized that rapamycin, through induction of autophagy and promotion of an antiapoptotic phenotype, would permit lentiviral (LV)-based transgene delivery to human T-Rapa cells, which are being tested in phase II clinical trials in the setting of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Manufactured T-Rapa cells were exposed to supernatant enriched for a LV vector encoding a fusion protein consisting of truncated CD19 (for cell surface marking) and DTYMK/TMPK?, which provides “cell-fate control” due to its ability to phosphorylate (activate) AZT prodrug. LV-transduction in rapamycin-treated T-Rapa cells: (1) resulted in mitochondrial autophagy and a resultant antiapoptotic phenotype, which was reversed by the autophagy inhibitor 3-MA; (2) yielded changes in MAP1LC3B and SQSTM1 expression, which were reversed by 3-MA; and (3) increased T-Rapa cell expression of the CD19-DTYMK? fusion protein, despite their reduced proliferative status. Importantly, although the transgene-expressing T-Rapa cells expressed an antiapoptotic phenotype, they were highly susceptible to cell death via AZT exposure both in vitro and in vivo (in a human-into-mouse xenogeneic transplantation model). Therefore, rapamycin induction of T cell autophagy can be used for gene therapy applications, including the CD19-DTYMK? cell-fate control axis to improve the safety of T cell immuno-gene therapy. PMID:23633667

  10. The application of biofilm science to the study and control of chronic bacterial infections

    PubMed Central

    Costerton, William; Veeh, Richard; Shirtliff, Mark; Pasmore, Mark; Post, Christopher; Ehrlich, Garth

    2003-01-01

    Unequivocal direct observations have established that the bacteria that cause device-related and other chronic infections grow in matrix-enclosed biofilms. The diagnostic and therapeutic strategies that have served us so well in the partial eradication of acute epidemic bacterial diseases have not yielded accurate data or favorable outcomes when applied to these biofilm diseases. We discuss the potential benefits of the application of the new methods and concepts developed by biofilm science and engineering to the clinical management of infectious diseases. PMID:14617746

  11. Bacterial Sigma Factors as Targets for Engineered or Synthetic Transcriptional Control

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Lakshmi; Zhang, Yan; Lin, Zhanglin

    2014-01-01

    Sigma (?) factors are the predominant constituents of transcription regulation in bacteria. ? Factors recruit the core RNA polymerase to recognize promoters with specific DNA sequences. Recently, engineering of transcriptional regulators has become a significant tool for strain engineering. The present review summarizes the recent advances in ? factor based engineering or synthetic design. The manipulation of ? factors presents insights into the bacterial stress tolerance and metabolite productivity. We envision more synthetic design based on ? factors that can be used to tune the regulatory network of bacteria. PMID:25232540

  12. Genetic control of eosinophilia in mice: gene(s) expressed in bone marrow-derived cells control high responsiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Vadas, M.A.

    1982-02-01

    A heterogeneity in the capacity of strains of mice to mount eosinophilia is described. BALB/c and C3H are eosinophil high responder strains (EO-HR) and CBA and A/J are eosinophil low responder strains (EO-LR), judged by the response of blood eosinophils to Ascaris suum, and the response of blood, bone marrow, and spleen eosinophils to keyhole limpet hemocyanin given 2 days after 150 mg/kg cyclophosphamide. Some of the gene(s) for high responsiveness appear to be dominant because (EO-HR x EO-LR)F/sub 1/ mice were intermediate to high responders. This gene is expressed in bone marrow-derived cells because radiation chimeras of the type EO-HR..-->..F/sub 1/ were high responders and EO-LR..-->..F/sub 1/ were low responders. This description of a genetic control of eosinophilia in mice may be useful in understanding the role of this cell in parasite immunity and allergy.

  13. Bacterial Antagonists of Fungal Pathogens Also Control Root-Knot Nematodes by Induced Systemic Resistance of Tomato Plants

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Mohamed; Heuer, Holger; Hallmann, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    The potential of bacterial antagonists of fungal pathogens to control the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita was investigated under greenhouse conditions. Treatment of tomato seeds with several strains significantly reduced the numbers of galls and egg masses compared with the untreated control. Best performed Bacillus subtilis isolates Sb4-23, Mc5-Re2, and Mc2-Re2, which were further studied for their mode of action with regard to direct effects by bacterial metabolites or repellents, and plant mediated effects. Drenching of soil with culture supernatants significantly reduced the number of egg masses produced by M. incognita on tomato by up to 62% compared to the control without culture supernatant. Repellence of juveniles by the antagonists was shown in a linked twin-pot set-up, where a majority of juveniles penetrated roots on the side without inoculated antagonists. All tested biocontrol strains induced systemic resistance against M. incognita in tomato, as revealed in a split-root system where the bacteria and the nematodes were inoculated at spatially separated roots of the same plant. This reduced the production of egg masses by up to 51%, while inoculation of bacteria and nematodes in the same pot had only a minor additive effect on suppression of M. incognita compared to induced systemic resistance alone. Therefore, the plant mediated effect was the major reason for antagonism rather than direct mechanisms. In conclusion, the bacteria known for their antagonistic potential against fungal pathogens also suppressed M. incognita. Such “multi-purpose” bacteria might provide new options for control strategies, especially with respect to nematode-fungus disease complexes that cause synergistic yield losses. PMID:24587352

  14. Global footprints of purifying selection on Toll-like receptor genes primarily associated with response to bacterial infections in humans.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Souvik; Ganguli, Debdutta; Majumder, Partha P

    2014-03-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are directly involved in host-pathogen interactions. Polymorphisms in these genes are associated with susceptibility to infectious diseases. To understand the influence of environment and pathogen diversity on the evolution of TLR genes, we have undertaken a large-scale population-genetic study. Our study included two hunter-gatherer tribal populations and one urbanized nontribal population from India with distinct ethnicities (n = 266) and 14 populations inhabiting four different continents (n = 1,092). From the data on DNA sequences of cell-surface TLR genes, we observed an excess of rare variants and a large number of low frequency haplotypes in each gene. Nonsynonymous changes were few in every population and the commonly used statistical tests for detecting natural selection provided evidence of purifying selection. The evidence of purifying selection acting on the cell-surface TLRs of the innate immune system is not consistent with Haldane's theory of coevolution of immunity genes, at least of innate immunity genes, with pathogens. Our study provides evidence that genes of the cell-surface TLRs, that is, TLR2 and TLR4, have been so optimized to defend the host against microbial infections that new mutations in these genes are quickly eliminated. PMID:24554585

  15. Evaluation of a bacterial algal control agent in tank-based experiments.

    PubMed

    Schmack, M; Chambers, J; Dallas, S

    2012-05-01

    A bacterial-based bioremediation product, LakeRelief™ by Novozymes (Waterguru LakeRelief, 2011), was tested in a series of experiments between October 2008 and March 2009 to evaluate its suitability as a short-term intervention technique to reduce algal blooms in the Swan-Canning River system. Results from fibreglass tank experiments (1100 L) suggested that the product did not actively attack and lyse algal cells. The product decreased NH(4) and NO(x) concentrations in treated tanks, both aerated and non-aerated. Product application decreased PO(4) concentrations in non-aerated tanks but not in aerated tanks. The product appeared to suppress algal growth in non-aerated tanks over short periods (several days). Algal growth regularly diminished after product application but reappeared shortly afterwards. Aeration had a negative effect on bacterial proliferation in the tanks, possibly through alteration of environmental conditions (e.g. water mixing). As a consequence of the environmental conditions in the tanks being counterproductive to the development of a representative microbial composition, several aspects regarding the product's effectiveness could not be assessed satisfactorily in the tank experiments. The importance of long-term nutrient immobilisation into a well developed food web and the subsequent nutrient removal through removal of the top order organisms is highlighted. PMID:22386889

  16. Bacterial Factors Associated with Lethal Outcome of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Infection: Genomic Case-Control Studies

    PubMed Central

    Donnenberg, Michael S.; Hazen, Tracy H.; Farag, Tamer H.; Panchalingam, Sandra; Antonio, Martin; Hossain, Anowar; Mandomando, Inacio; Ochieng, John Benjamin; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan; Tamboura, Boubou; Zaidi, Anita; Levine, Myron M.; Kotloff, Karen; Rasko, David A.; Nataro, James P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Typical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (tEPEC) strains were associated with mortality in the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS). Genetic differences in tEPEC strains could underlie some of the variability in clinical outcome. Methods We produced draft genome sequences of all available tEPEC strains from GEMS lethal infections (LIs) and of closely matched EPEC strains from GEMS subjects with non-lethal symptomatic infections (NSIs) and asymptomatic infections (AIs) to identify gene clusters (potential protein encoding sequences sharing ?90% nucleotide sequence identity) associated with lethality. Results Among 14,412 gene clusters identified, the presence or absence of 392 was associated with clinical outcome. As expected, more gene clusters were associated with LI versus AI than LI versus NSI. The gene clusters more prevalent in strains from LI than those from NSI and AI included those encoding proteins involved in O-antigen biogenesis, while clusters encoding type 3 secretion effectors EspJ and OspB were among those more prevalent in strains from non-lethal infections. One gene cluster encoding a variant of an NleG ubiquitin ligase was associated with LI versus AI, while two other nleG clusters had the opposite association. Similar associations were found for two nleG gene clusters in an additional, larger sample of NSI and AI GEMS strains. Conclusions Particular genes are associated with lethal tEPEC infections. Further study of these factors holds potential to unravel the mechanisms underlying severe disease and to prevent adverse outcomes. PMID:25978422

  17. The bacterial alarmone (p)ppGpp is required for virulence and controls cell size and survival of Pseudomonas syringae on plants.

    PubMed

    Chatnaparat, Tiyakhon; Li, Zhong; Korban, Schuyler S; Zhao, Youfu

    2015-11-01

    The stringent response, mediated by second messenger (p)ppGpp, results in swift and massive transcriptional reprogramming under nutrient limited conditions. In this study, the role of (p)ppGpp on virulence of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae?B728a (PssB728a) was investigated. The virulence of the relA/spoT (ppGpp(0) ) double mutant was completely impaired on bean, and bacterial growth was significantly reduced, suggesting that (p)ppGpp is required for full virulence of P.?syringae. Expression of T3SS and other virulence genes was reduced in ppGpp(0) mutants. In addition, ppGpp deficiency resulted in loss of swarming motility, reduction of pyoverdine production, increased sensitivity to oxidative stress and antibiotic tolerance, as well as reduced ability to utilize ?-amino butyric acid. Increased levels of ppGpp resulted in reduced cell size of PssB728a when grown in a minimal medium and on plant surfaces, while most ppGpp(0) mutant cells were not viable on plant surfaces 24?h after spray inoculation, suggesting that ppGpp-mediated stringent response temporarily limits cell growth, and might control cell survival on plants by limiting their growth. These results demonstrated that ppGpp-mediated stringent response plays a central role in P.?syringae virulence and survival and indicated that ppGpp serves as a global signal for regulating various virulence traits in PssB728a. PMID:25626964

  18. "PP2C7s", Genes Most Highly Elaborated in Photosynthetic Organisms, Reveal the Bacterial Origin and Stepwise Evolution of PPM/PP2C Protein Phosphatases

    PubMed Central

    Kerk, David; Silver, Dylan; Uhrig, R. Glen; Moorhead, Greg B. G.

    2015-01-01

    Mg+2/Mn+2-dependent type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs) are ubiquitous in eukaryotes, mediating diverse cellular signaling processes through metal ion catalyzed dephosphorylation of target proteins. We have identified a distinct PP2C sequence class (“PP2C7s”) which is nearly universally distributed in Eukaryotes, and therefore apparently ancient. PP2C7s are by far most prominent and diverse in plants and green algae. Combining phylogenetic analysis, subcellular localization predictions, and a distillation of publically available gene expression data, we have traced the evolutionary trajectory of this gene family in photosynthetic eukaryotes, demonstrating two major sequence assemblages featuring a succession of increasingly derived sub-clades. These display predominant expression moving from an ancestral pattern in photosynthetic tissues toward non-photosynthetic, specialized and reproductive structures. Gene co-expression network composition strongly suggests a shifting pattern of PP2C7 gene functions, including possible regulation of starch metabolism for one homologue set in Arabidopsis and rice. Distinct plant PP2C7 sub-clades demonstrate novel amino terminal protein sequences upon motif analysis, consistent with a shifting pattern of regulation of protein function. More broadly, neither the major events in PP2C sequence evolution, nor the origin of the diversity of metal binding characteristics currently observed in different PP2C lineages, are clearly understood. Identification of the PP2C7 sequence clade has allowed us to provide a better understanding of both of these issues. Phylogenetic analysis and sequence comparisons using Hidden Markov Models strongly suggest that PP2Cs originated in Bacteria (Group II PP2C sequences), entered Eukaryotes through the ancestral mitochondrial endosymbiosis, elaborated in Eukaryotes, then re-entered Bacteria through an inter-domain gene transfer, ultimately producing bacterial Group I PP2C sequences. A key evolutionary event, occurring first in ancient Eukaryotes, was the acquisition of a conserved aspartate in classic Motif 5. This has been inherited subsequently by PP2C7s, eukaryotic PP2Cs and bacterial Group I PP2Cs, where it is crucial to the formation of a third metal binding pocket, and catalysis. PMID:26241330

  19. Genetic effects of ELISA-based segregation for control of bacterial kidney disease in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hard, J.J.; Elliott, D.G.; Pascho, R.J.; Chase, D.M.; Park, L.K.; Winton, J.R.; Campton, D.E.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated genetic variation in ability of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) to resist two bacterial pathogens: Renibacterium salmoninarum, the agent of bacterial kidney disease (BKD), and Listonella anguillarum, an agent of vibriosis. After measuring R. salmoninarum antigen in 499 adults by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), we mated each of 12 males with high or low antigen levels to two females with low to moderate levels and exposed subsets of their progeny to each pathogen separately. We found no correlation between R. salmoninarum antigen level in parents and survival of their progeny following pathogen exposure. We estimated high heritability for resistance to R. salmoninarum (survival h2 = 0.890 ?? 0.256 (mean ?? standard error)) independent of parental antigen level, but low heritability for resistance to L. anguillarum (h2 = 0.128 ?? 0.078). The genetic correlation between these survivals (rA = -0.204 ?? 0.309) was near zero. The genetic and phenotypic correlations between survival and antigen levels among surviving progeny exposed to R. salmoninarum were both negative (rA = -0.716 ?? 0.140; rP = -0.378 ?? 0.041), indicating that variation in antigen level is linked to survival. These results suggest that selective culling of female broodstock with high antigen titers, which is effective in controlling BKD in salmon hatcheries, will not affect resistance of their progeny. ?? 2006 NRC.

  20. Evaluation of endogenous control gene(s) for gene expression studies in human blood exposed to 60Co ?-rays ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Vaiphei, S Thangminlal; Keppen, Joshua; Nongrum, Saibadaiahun; Chaubey, R C; Kma, L; Sharan, R N

    2015-01-01

    In gene expression studies, it is critical to normalize data using a stably expressed endogenous control gene in order to obtain accurate and reliable results. However, we currently do not have a universally applied endogenous control gene for normalization of data for gene expression studies, particularly those involving (60)Co ?-ray-exposed human blood samples. In this study, a comparative assessment of the gene expression of six widely used housekeeping endogenous control genes, namely 18S, ACTB, B2M, GAPDH, MT-ATP6 and CDKN1A, was undertaken for a range of (60)Co ?-ray doses (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 Gy) at 8.4 Gy min(-1) at 0 and 24 h post-irradiation time intervals. Using the NormFinder algorithm, real-time PCR data obtained from six individuals (three males and three females) were analyzed with respect to the threshold cycle (Ct) value and abundance, ?Ct pair-wise comparison, intra- and inter-group variability assessments, etc. GAPDH, either alone or in combination with 18S, was found to be the most suitable endogenous control gene and should be used in gene expression studies, especially those involving qPCR of ?-ray-exposed human blood samples. PMID:25271263

  1. Base-specific fragmentation of amplified 16S rRNA genes analyzed by mass spectrometry: A tool for rapid bacterial identification

    PubMed Central

    von Wintzingerode, Friedrich; Böcker, Sebastian; Schlötelburg, Cord; Chiu, Norman H. L.; Storm, Niels; Jurinke, Christian; Cantor, Charles R.; Göbel, Ulf B.; van den Boom, Dirk

    2002-01-01

    A rapid approach to the 16S rRNA gene (16S rDNA)-based bacterial identification has been developed that combines uracil-DNA-glycosylase (UDG)-mediated base-specific fragmentation of PCR products with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). 16S rDNA signature sequences were PCR-amplified from both cultured and as-yet-uncultured bacteria in the presence of dUTP instead of dTTP. These PCR products then were immobilized onto a streptavidin-coated solid support to selectively generate either sense or antisense templates. Single-stranded amplicons were subsequently treated with uracil-DNA-glycosylase to generate T-specific abasic sites and fragmented by alkaline treatment. The resulting fragment patterns were analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS. Mass signals of 16S rDNA fragments were compared with patterns calculated from published 16S rDNA sequences. MS of base-specific fragments of amplified 16S rDNA allows reliable discrimination of sequences differing by only one nucleotide. This approach is fast and has the potential for high-throughput identification as required in clinical, pharmaceutical, or environmental microbiology. In contrast to identification by MS of intact whole bacterial cells, this technique allows for the characterization of both cultured and as-yet-uncultured bacteria. PMID:11983869

  2. [Dominant phylotypes in the 16S rRNA gene clone libraries from bacterial mats of the Uzon caldera (Kamchatka, Russia) hydrothermal springs].

    PubMed

    Akimov, V N; Podosokorskaia, O A; Shliapnikov, M G; Gal'chenko, V F

    2013-01-01

    In situ analysis of the 16S rRNA genes form bacterial mats of five hydrothermal springs (36-58 degrees C) in the Uzon caldera (Kamchatka, Russia) was carried out using clone libraries. Eight clone libraries contained 18 dominant phylotypes (over 4-5%). In most clone libraries, the phylotype of the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobaculum sp. was among the dominant ones. The phylotypes of the green nonsulfur bacteria Chloroflexus and Roseiflexus and of purple nonsulfur bacteria Rhodoblastus, Rhodopseudomonas, and Rhodoferax were also among the dominant ones. Cyanobacteria were represented by one dominant phylotype in a single spring. Among nonphototrophic bacteria, the dominant phylotypes belonged to Sulfyrihydrogenibium sp., Geothrixsp., Acidobacterium sp., Meiothermus sp., Thiomonas sp., Thiofaba sp., and Spirochaeta sp. Three phylotypes were not identified at the genus level. Most genera of phototrophic and nonphototrophic organisms corresponding to the phylotypes from Uzon hydrotherms have been previously revealed in the hydrotherms of volcanically active regions of America, Asia, and Europe. These results indicate predominance of bacterial mats carrying out anaerobic photosynthesis in the hydrotherms of the Uzon caldera. PMID:25509409

  3. Optimal finite horizon control in gene regulatory networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qiuli

    2013-06-01

    As a paradigm for modeling gene regulatory networks, probabilistic Boolean networks (PBNs) form a subclass of Markov genetic regulatory networks. To date, many different stochastic optimal control approaches have been developed to find therapeutic intervention strategies for PBNs. A PBN is essentially a collection of constituent Boolean networks via a probability structure. Most of the existing works assume that the probability structure for Boolean networks selection is known. Such an assumption cannot be satisfied in practice since the presence of noise prevents the probability structure from being accurately determined. In this paper, we treat a case in which we lack the governing probability structure for Boolean network selection. Specifically, in the framework of PBNs, the theory of finite horizon Markov decision process is employed to find optimal constituent Boolean networks with respect to the defined objective functions. In order to illustrate the validity of our proposed approach, an example is also displayed.

  4. Sequence Conservation of Homeologous Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes and Transcription of Homeologous Genes in Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.)

    PubMed Central

    Schlueter, Jessica A.; Scheffler, Brian E.; Schlueter, Shannon D.; Shoemaker, Randy C.

    2006-01-01

    The paleopolyploid soybean genome was investigated by sequencing homeologous BAC clones anchored by duplicate N-hydroxycinnamoyl/benzoyltransferase (HCBT) genes. The homeologous BACs were genetically mapped to linkage groups C1 and C2. Annotation of the 173,747- and 98,760-bp BACs showed that gene conservation in both order and orientation is high between homeologous regions with only a single gene insertion/deletion and local tandem duplications differing between the regions. The nucleotide sequence conservation extends into intergenic regions as well, probably due to conserved regulatory sequences. Most of the homeologs appear to have a role in either transcription/DNA binding or cellular signaling, suggesting a potential preference for retention of duplicate genes with these functions. Reverse transcriptase–PCR analysis of homeologs showed that in the tissues sampled, most homeologs have not diverged greatly in their transcription profiles. However, four cases of changes in transcription were identified, primarily in the HCBT gene cluster. Because a mapped locus corresponds to a soybean cyst nematode (SCN) QTL, the potential role of HCBT genes in response to SCN is discussed. These results are the first sequenced-based analysis of homeologous BACs in soybean, a diploidized paleopolyploid. PMID:16888343

  5. Regulation of Clock-Controlled Genes in Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Kielbasa, Szymon M.; Heine, Markus; Dame, Christof; Kramer, Achim; Herzel, Hanspeter

    2009-01-01

    The complexity of tissue- and day time-specific regulation of thousands of clock-controlled genes (CCGs) suggests that many regulatory mechanisms contribute to the transcriptional output of the circadian clock. We aim to predict these mechanisms using a large scale promoter analysis of CCGs. Our study is based on a meta-analysis of DNA-array data from rodent tissues. We searched in the promoter regions of 2065 CCGs for highly overrepresented transcription factor binding sites. In order to compensate the relatively high GC-content of CCG promoters, a novel background model to avoid a bias towards GC-rich motifs was employed. We found that many of the transcription factors with overrepresented binding sites in CCG promoters exhibit themselves circadian rhythms. Among the predicted factors are known regulators such as CLOCK?BMAL1, DBP, HLF, E4BP4, CREB, ROR? and the recently described regulators HSF1, STAT3, SP1 and HNF-4?. As additional promising candidates of circadian transcriptional regulators PAX-4, C/EBP, EVI-1, IRF, E2F, AP-1, HIF-1 and NF-Y were identified. Moreover, GC-rich motifs (SP1, EGR, ZF5, AP-2, WT1, NRF-1) and AT-rich motifs (MEF-2, HMGIY, HNF-1, OCT-1) are significantly overrepresented in promoter regions of CCGs. Putative tissue-specific binding sites such as HNF-3 for liver, NKX2.5 for heart or Myogenin for skeletal muscle were found. The regulation of the erythropoietin (Epo) gene was analysed, which exhibits many binding sites for circadian regulators. We provide experimental evidence for its circadian regulated expression in the adult murine kidney. Basing on a comprehensive literature search we integrate our predictions into a regulatory network of core clock and clock-controlled genes. Our large scale analysis of the CCG promoters reveals the complexity and extensiveness of the circadian regulation in mammals. Results of this study point to connections of the circadian clock to other functional systems including metabolism, endocrine regulation and pharmacokinetics. PMID:19287494

  6. Testing the model for a dominant resistance gene expresed on leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris F2 (0313-58 X Rosada Nativa) to the common bacterial blight pathogen, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. Phaseoli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The common bean bacterial blight pathogen, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli, is a limiting factor for bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, production worldwide and resistance to the pathogen in commercial varieties is inadequate. To test the hypothesis of the presence of strain specific genes for resistance...

  7. With Reference to Reference Genes: A Systematic Review of Endogenous Controls in Gene Expression Studies

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Joanne R.; Waldenström, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    The choice of reference genes that are stably expressed amongst treatment groups is a crucial step in real-time quantitative PCR gene expression studies. Recent guidelines have specified that a minimum of two validated reference genes should be used for normalisation. However, a quantitative review of the literature showed that the average number of reference genes used across all studies was 1.2. Thus, the vast majority of studies continue to use a single gene, with ?-actin (ACTB) and/or glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) being commonly selected in studies of vertebrate gene expression. Few studies (15%) tested a panel of potential reference genes for stability of expression before using them to normalise data. Amongst studies specifically testing reference gene stability, few found ACTB or GAPDH to be optimal, whereby these genes were significantly less likely to be chosen when larger panels of potential reference genes were screened. Fewer reference genes were tested for stability in non-model organisms, presumably owing to a dearth of available primers in less well characterised species. Furthermore, the experimental conditions under which real-time quantitative PCR analyses were conducted had a large influence on the choice of reference genes, whereby different studies of rat brain tissue showed different reference genes to be the most stable. These results highlight the importance of validating the choice of normalising reference genes before conducting gene expression studies. PMID:26555275

  8. Genetic variation in putative regulatory loci controlling gene expression in breast cancer

    E-print Network

    Sharan, Roded

    Genetic variation in putative regulatory loci controlling gene expression in breast cancer Vessela unrelated patients with breast cancer. SNPs were selected from 203 candidate genes of the reactive oxygen is the first study to correlate SNP genotype data in the germ line with somatic gene expression data in breast

  9. Searching in sequences of Leymus BAC clones for genes controlling salt tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many species of Thinopyrum and Leymus are known to be highly salt tolerant. Salinity tolerance in diploid Thinopyrum elongatum, thus all polyploid Thinopyrum species too, is controlled by genes on different chromosomes. Some candidate genes, including genes for peroxidase precursor, for salinity t...

  10. Mobilizable IncQ-related plasmid carrying a new quinolone resistance gene, qnrS2, isolated from the bacterial community of a wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Bönemann, Gabriele; Stiens, Michael; Pühler, Alfred; Schlüter, Andreas

    2006-09-01

    Plasmid-encoded quinolone resistance was previously reported for different bacteria isolated from patients not only in the United States and Asia but also in Europe. Here we describe the isolation, by applying a new selection strategy, of the quinolone resistance plasmid pGNB2 from an activated sludge bacterial community of a wastewater treatment plant in Germany. The hypersensitive Escherichia coli strain KAM3 carrying a mutation in the multidrug efflux system genes acrAB was transformed with total plasmid DNA preparations isolated from activated sludge bacteria and subsequently selected on medium containing the fluoroquinolone norfloxacin. This approach resulted in the isolation of plasmid pGNB2 conferring decreased susceptibility to nalidixic acid and to different fluoroquinolones. Analysis of the pGNB2 nucleotide sequence revealed that it is 8,469 bp in size and has a G+C content of 58.2%. The plasmid backbone is composed of a replication initiation module (repA-repC) belonging to the IncQ-family and a two-component mobilization module that confers horizontal mobility to the plasmid. In addition, plasmid pGNB2 carries an accessory module consisting of a transposon Tn1721 remnant and the quinolone resistance gene, qnrS2, that is 92% identical to the qnrS gene located on plasmid pAH0376 from Shigella flexneri 2b. QnrS2 belongs to the pentapeptide repeat protein family and is predicted to protect DNA-gyrase activity against quinolones. This is not only the first report on a completely sequenced plasmid mediating quinolone resistance isolated from an environmental sample but also on the first qnrS-like gene detected in Europe. PMID:16940104

  11. Mobilizable IncQ-Related Plasmid Carrying a New Quinolone Resistance Gene, qnrS2, Isolated from the Bacterial Community of a Wastewater Treatment Plant

    PubMed Central

    Bönemann, Gabriele; Stiens, Michael; Pühler, Alfred; Schlüter, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Plasmid-encoded quinolone resistance was previously reported for different bacteria isolated from patients not only in the United States and Asia but also in Europe. Here we describe the isolation, by applying a new selection strategy, of the quinolone resistance plasmid pGNB2 from an activated sludge bacterial community of a wastewater treatment plant in Germany. The hypersensitive Escherichia coli strain KAM3 carrying a mutation in the multidrug efflux system genes acrAB was transformed with total plasmid DNA preparations isolated from activated sludge bacteria and subsequently selected on medium containing the fluoroquinolone norfloxacin. This approach resulted in the isolation of plasmid pGNB2 conferring decreased susceptibility to nalidixic acid and to different fluoroquinolones. Analysis of the pGNB2 nucleotide sequence revealed that it is 8,469 bp in size and has a G+C content of 58.2%. The plasmid backbone is composed of a replication initiation module (repA-repC) belonging to the IncQ-family and a two-component mobilization module that confers horizontal mobility to the plasmid. In addition, plasmid pGNB2 carries an accessory module consisting of a transposon Tn1721 remnant and the quinolone resistance gene, qnrS2, that is 92% identical to the qnrS gene located on plasmid pAH0376 from Shigella flexneri 2b. QnrS2 belongs to the pentapeptide repeat protein family and is predicted to protect DNA-gyrase activity against quinolones. This is not only the first report on a completely sequenced plasmid mediating quinolone resistance isolated from an environmental sample but also on the first qnrS-like gene detected in Europe. PMID:16940104

  12. The Casuarina NIN gene is transcriptionally activated throughout Frankia root infection as well as in response to bacterial diffusible signals.

    PubMed

    Clavijo, Fernando; Diedhiou, Issa; Vaissayre, Virginie; Brottier, Laurent; Acolatse, Jennifer; Moukouanga, Daniel; Crabos, Amandine; Auguy, Florence; Franche, Claudine; Gherbi, Hassen; Champion, Antony; Hocher, Valerie; Barker, David; Bogusz, Didier; Tisa, Louis S; Svistoonoff, Sergio

    2015-11-01

    Root nodule symbioses (RNS) allow plants to acquire atmospheric nitrogen by establishing an intimate relationship with either rhizobia, the symbionts of legumes or Frankia in the case of actinorhizal plants. In legumes, NIN (Nodule INception) genes encode key transcription factors involved in nodulation. Here we report the characterization of CgNIN, a NIN gene from the actinorhizal tree Casuarina glauca using both phylogenetic analysis and transgenic plants expressing either ProCgNIN::reporter gene fusions or CgNIN RNAi constructs. We have found that CgNIN belongs to the same phylogenetic group as other symbiotic NIN genes and CgNIN is able to complement a legume nin mutant for the early steps of nodule development. CgNIN expression is correlated with infection by Frankia, including preinfection stages in developing root hairs, and is induced by culture supernatants. Knockdown mutants were impaired for nodulation and early root hair deformation responses were severely affected. However, no mycorrhizal phenotype was observed and no induction of CgNIN expression was detected in mycorrhizas. Our results indicate that elements specifically required for nodulation include NIN and possibly related gene networks derived from the nitrate signalling pathways. PMID:26096779

  13. Antimicrobial-Resistant Bacterial Populations and Antimicrobial Resistance Genes Obtained from Environments Impacted by Livestock and Municipal Waste.

    PubMed

    Agga, Getahun E; Arthur, Terrance M; Durso, Lisa M; Harhay, Dayna M; Schmidt, John W

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the populations of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and the repertoire of antimicrobial resistance genes in four environments: effluent of three municipal wastewater treatment facilities, three cattle feedlot runoff catchment ponds, three swine waste lagoons, and two "low impact" environments (an urban lake and a relict prairie). Multiple liquid and solid samples were collected from each environment. The prevalences and concentrations of antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica) and Gram-positive (enterococci) bacteria were determined from individual samples (n = 174). The prevalences of 84 antimicrobial resistance genes in metagenomic DNA isolated from samples pooled (n = 44) by collection date, location, and sample type were determined. The prevalences and concentrations of AMR E. coli and Salmonella were similar among the livestock and municipal sample sources. The levels of erythromycin-resistant enterococci were significantly higher in liquid samples from cattle catchment ponds and swine waste lagoons than in liquid samples from municipal wastewater treatment facilities, but solid samples from these environments did not differ significantly. Similarly, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole-resistant E. coli concentrations were significantly higher in swine liquid than in municipal liquid samples, but there was no difference in solid samples. Multivariate analysis of the distribution of antimicrobial resistance genes using principal coordinate analysis showed distinct clustering of samples with livestock (cattle and swine), low impact environment and municipal samples forming three separate clusters. The numbers of class A beta-lactamase, class C beta-lactamase, and fluoroquinolone resistance genes detected were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in municipal samples than in cattle runoff or swine lagoon samples. In conclusion, we report that AMR is a very widespread phenomenon and that similar prevalences and concentrations of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and antimicrobial resistance genes exist in cattle, human, and swine waste streams, but a higher diversity of antimicrobial resistance genes are present in treated human waste discharged from municipal wastewater treatment plants than in livestock environments. PMID:26197056

  14. Antimicrobial-Resistant Bacterial Populations and Antimicrobial Resistance Genes Obtained from Environments Impacted by Livestock and Municipal Waste

    PubMed Central

    Durso, Lisa M.; Harhay, Dayna M.; Schmidt, John W.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the populations of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and the repertoire of antimicrobial resistance genes in four environments: effluent of three municipal wastewater treatment facilities, three cattle feedlot runoff catchment ponds, three swine waste lagoons, and two “low impact” environments (an urban lake and a relict prairie). Multiple liquid and solid samples were collected from each environment. The prevalences and concentrations of antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica) and Gram-positive (enterococci) bacteria were determined from individual samples (n = 174). The prevalences of 84 antimicrobial resistance genes in metagenomic DNA isolated from samples pooled (n = 44) by collection date, location, and sample type were determined. The prevalences and concentrations of AMR E. coli and Salmonella were similar among the livestock and municipal sample sources. The levels of erythromycin-resistant enterococci were significantly higher in liquid samples from cattle catchment ponds and swine waste lagoons than in liquid samples from municipal wastewater treatment facilities, but solid samples from these environments did not differ significantly. Similarly, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole-resistant E. coli concentrations were significantly higher in swine liquid than in municipal liquid samples, but there was no difference in solid samples. Multivariate analysis of the distribution of antimicrobial resistance genes using principal coordinate analysis showed distinct clustering of samples with livestock (cattle and swine), low impact environment and municipal samples forming three separate clusters. The numbers of class A beta-lactamase, class C beta-lactamase, and fluoroquinolone resistance genes detected were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in municipal samples than in cattle runoff or swine lagoon samples. In conclusion, we report that AMR is a very widespread phenomenon and that similar prevalences and concentrations of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and antimicrobial resistance genes exist in cattle, human, and swine waste streams, but a higher diversity of antimicrobial resistance genes are present in treated human waste discharged from municipal wastewater treatment plants than in livestock environments. PMID:26197056

  15. Lysozyme-triggered epidermal growth factor release from bacterial cellulose membranes controlled by smart nanostructured films.

    PubMed

    Picheth, Guilherme Fadel; Sierakowski, Maria Rita; Woehl, Marco Aurelio; Ono, Lucy; Cofré, Axel Rulf; Vanin, Luana Pasetti; Pontarolo, Roberto; De Freitas, Rilton Alves

    2014-12-01

    A novel wound-dressing biodevice, sensitive to lysozyme, an enzyme commonly found at infected skin wounds, was assembled by the layer-by-layer deposition of nanopolymeric chitosan and alginate films onto oxidized bacterial cellulose membranes incorporated with epidermal growth factor (EGF). Distinct EGF release profiles were obtained according to specific stimuli caused by infection. In in vitro conditions simulating noninfected wounds, the EGF rate and burst release effect were reduced by three deposited layers (Mt /M? of 0.25 at 3 h) in a process dependent on the porosity of the compact chitosan-alginate complex. The importance of the organized structure was revealed when an infected wound was simulated by adding lysozyme to the release medium, thus inducing the formation of a loosely polyelectrolyte architecture that caused rapid EGF diffusion (Mt /M? of 0.75 at 30 min). The results indicate that the nanopolymeric layers were capable of slowly releasing EGF as required for normal wound repair and rapidly undergoing architectural transitions that allow the diffusion of massive amounts of drug to enhance the process of re-epithelialization. In summary, the proposed system comprises the roles of both wound dressing and local delivery mechanism to recognize infections and respond with a burst of EGF release. PMID:25308839

  16. The small regulatory RNA FasX controls pilus expression and adherence in the human bacterial pathogen group A Streptococcus

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhuyun; Treviño, Jeanette; Ramirez-Peña, Esmeralda; Sumby, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Summary Bacterial pathogens use cell-surface-associated adhesion molecules to promote host attachment and colonization, and the ability to modulate adhesion expression is critical to pathogen success. Here, we show that the human-specific pathogen the group A Streptococcus (GAS) uses a small regulatory RNA (sRNA) to regulate the expression of adhesive pili. The fibronectin / fibrinogen-binding / haemolytic-activity / streptokinase-regulator-X (FasX) sRNA, previously shown to positively regulate expression of the secreted virulence factor streptokinase (SKA), negatively regulates the production of pili on the GAS cell surface. FasX base-pairs to the extreme 5’ end of mRNA from the pilus biosynthesis operon, and this RNA:RNA interaction reduces the stability of the mRNA, while also inhibiting translation of at least the first gene in the pilus biosynthesis operon (cpa, which encodes a minor pilin protein). The negative regulation of pilus expression by FasX reduces the ability of GAS to adhere to human keratinocytes. Our findings cement FasX sRNA as an important regulator of virulence factor production in GAS and identify that FasX uses at least three distinct mechanisms, positive (ska mRNA) and negative (pilus operon mRNA) regulation of mRNA stability, and negative regulation of mRNA translation (cpa mRNA), to post-transcriptionally regulate target mRNAs during infection. PMID:22882718

  17. Knock-out of SO1377 gene, which encodes the member of a conserved hypothetical bacterial protein family COG2268, results in alteration of iron metabolism, increased spontaneous mutation and hydrogen peroxide sensitivity in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Weimin; Liu, Yongqing; Giometti, Carol S; Tollaksen, Sandra L; Khare, Tripti; Wu, Liyou; Klingeman, Dawn M; Fields, Matthew W; Zhou, Jizhong

    2006-01-01

    Background Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is a facultative, gram-negative bacterium capable of coupling the oxidation of organic carbon to a wide range of electron acceptors such as oxygen, nitrate and metals, and has potential for bioremediation of heavy metal contaminated sites. The complete 5-Mb genome of S. oneidensis MR-1 was sequenced and standard sequence-comparison methods revealed approximately 42% of the MR-1 genome encodes proteins of unknown function. Defining the functions of hypothetical proteins is a great challenge and may need a systems approach. In this study, by using integrated approaches including whole genomic microarray and proteomics, we examined knockout effects of the gene encoding SO1377 (gi24372955), a member of the conserved, hypothetical, bacterial protein family COG2268 (Clusters of Orthologous Group) in bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, under various physiological conditions. Results Compared with the wild-type strain, growth assays showed that the deletion mutant had a decreased growth rate when cultured aerobically, but not affected under anaerobic conditions. Whole-genome expression (RNA and protein) profiles revealed numerous gene and protein expression changes relative to the wild-type control, including some involved in iron metabolism, oxidative damage protection and respiratory electron transfer, e. g. complex IV of the respiration chain. Although total intracellular iron levels remained unchanged, whole-cell electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) demonstrated that the level of free iron in mutant cells was 3 times less than that of the wild-type strain. Siderophore excretion in the mutant also decreased in iron-depleted medium. The mutant was more sensitive to hydrogen peroxide and gave rise to 100 times more colonies resistant to gentamicin or kanamycin. Conclusion Our results showed that the knock-out of SO1377 gene had pleiotropic effects and suggested that SO1377 may play a role in iron homeostasis and oxidative damage protection in S. oneidensis MR-1. PMID:16600046

  18. Control Efficacy of an Endophytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Strain BZ6-1 against Peanut Bacterial Wilt, Ralstonia solanacearum

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Guobin

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to isolate and identify endophytic bacteria that might have efficacy against peanut bacterial wilt (BW) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum. Thirty-seven endophytic strains were isolated from healthy peanut plants in R. solanacearum-infested fields and eight showed antagonistic effects against R. solanacearum. Strain BZ6-1 with the highest antimicrobial activity was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens based on morphology, biochemistry, and 16S rRNA analysis. Culture conditions of BZ6-1 were optimized using orthogonal test method and inhibitory zone diameter in dual culture plate assay reached 34.2?mm. Furthermore, main antimicrobial substances of surfactin and fengycin A homologues produced by BZ6-1 were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Finally, pot experiments were adopted to test the control efficiency of BZ6-1 against peanut BW. Disease incidence decreased significantly from 84.5% in the control to 12.1% with addition of 15?mL (108 cfu?mL?1) culture broth for each seedling, suggesting the feasibility of strain BZ6-1 in the biological control of peanut plants BW. PMID:24527448

  19. HIV gene expression from intact proviruses positioned in bacterial artificial chromosomes at integration sites previously identified in latently infected T cells

    SciTech Connect

    Eipers, Peter G.; Salazar-Gonzalez, Jesus F.; Morrow, Casey D.

    2011-02-05

    HIV integration predominantly occurs in introns of transcriptionally active genes. To study the impact of the integration site on HIV gene expression, a complete HIV-1 provirus (with GFP as a fusion with Nef) was inserted into bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) at three sites previously identified in latent T cells of patients: topoisomerase II (Top2A), DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), or basic leucine transcription factor 2 (BACH2). Transfection of BAC-HIV into 293 T cells resulted in a fourfold difference in production of infectious HIV-1. Cell lines were established that contained BAC-Top2A, BAC-DNMT1, or BAC-BACH2, but only BAC-DNMT1 spontaneously produced virus, albeit at a low level. Stimulation with TNF-{alpha} resulted in virus production from four of five BAC-Top2A and all BAC-DNMT1 cell lines, but not from the BAC-BACH2 lines. The results of these studies highlight differences between integration sites identified in latent T cells to support virus production and reactivation from latency.

  20. Rapid and efficient introduction of a foreign gene into bacterial artificial chromosome-cloned varicella vaccine by Tn7-mediated site-specific transposition

    SciTech Connect

    Somboonthum, Pranee; Koshizuka, Tetsuo; Okamoto, Shigefumi; Matsuura, Masaaki; Gomi, Yasuyuki; Takahashi, Michiaki; Yamanishi, Koichi; Mori, Yasuko

    2010-06-20

    Using a rapid and reliable system based on Tn7-mediated site-specific transposition, we have successfully constructed a recombinant Oka varicella vaccine (vOka) expressing the mumps virus (MuV) fusion protein (F). The backbone of the vector was our previously reported vOka-BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) genome. We inserted the transposon Tn7 attachment sequence, LacZ{alpha}-mini-attTn7, into the region between ORF12 and ORF13 to generate a vOka-BAC-Tn genome. The MuV-F expressing cassette was transposed into the vOka-BAC genome at the mini-attTn7 transposition site. MuV-F protein was expressed in recombinant virus, rvOka-F infected cells. In addition, the MuV-F protein was cleaved in the rvOka-F infected cells as in MuV-infected cells. The growth of rvOka-F was similar to that of the original recombinant vOka without the F gene. Thus, we show that Tn7-mediated transposition is an efficient method for introducing a foreign gene expression cassette into the vOka-BAC genome as a live virus vector.

  1. The galU gene of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris is involved in bacterial attachment, cell motility, polysaccharide synthesis, virulence, and tolerance to various stresses.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chao-Tsai; Du, Shin-Chiao; Lo, Hsueh-Hsia; Hsiao, Yi-Min

    2014-10-01

    Uridine triphosphate (UTP)-glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (GalU; EC 2.7.7.9) is an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glucose from UTP and glucose-1-phosphate. GalU is involved in virulence in a number of animal-pathogenic bacteria since its product, UDP-glucose, is indispensable for the biosynthesis of virulence factors such as lipopolysaccharide and exopolysaccharide. However, its function in Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, the phytopathogen that causes black rot in cruciferous plants, is unclear. Here, we characterized a galU mutant of X. campestris pv. campestris and showed that the X. campestris pv. campestris galU mutant resulted in a reduction in virulence on the host cabbage. We also demonstrated that galU is involved in bacterial attachment, cell motility, and polysaccharide synthesis. Furthermore, the galU mutant showed increased sensitivity to various stress conditions including copper sulfate, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium dodecyl sulfate. In addition, mutation of galU impairs the expression of the flagellin gene fliC as well as the attachment-related genes xadA, fhaC, and yapH. In conclusion, our results indicate involvement of galU in the virulence factor production and pathogenicity in X. campestris pv. campestris, and a role for galU in stress tolerance of this crucifer pathogen. PMID:25033927

  2. Molecular characterization and gene expression of the channel catfish Ferritin H subunit after bacterial infection and iron treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ferritins are the major iron storage protein in the cytoplasm of cells, responsible for regulating levels of intracellular iron. Ferritin genes are widely distributed in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In mammals, ferritin molecules are composed of heavy- (H) and light- (L) chain subunits; amphibia...

  3. Journal of Theoretical Biology 244 (2007) 326348 Bacterial gene regulation in diauxic and non-diauxic growth

    E-print Network

    Pilyugin, Sergei S.

    2007-01-01

    model; Gene regulation; Mixed substrate growth; Substitutable substrates; Lac operon; Lotka-known example of the diauxie is the growth of Escherichia coli on a mixture of glucose and lactose. Early consump- tion of glucose and lactose (Monod, 1942). Moreover, only glucose is consumed in the first

  4. Antimicrobial-resistant bacterial populations and antimicrobial resistance genes obtained from environments impacted by livestock and municipal waste

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study compared the populations of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and the repertoire of antimicrobial resistance genes in four environments: effluent of three municipal waste water treatment facilities, three cattle feedlot runoff catchment ponds, three swine waste lagoons, and two "low impact...

  5. Prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes and bacterial pathogens in long-term manured greenhouse soils as revealed by metagenomic survey.

    PubMed

    Fang, Hua; Wang, Huifang; Cai, Lin; Yu, Yunlong

    2015-01-20

    Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), human pathogenic bacteria (HPB), and HPB carrying ARGs pose a high risk to soil ecology and public health. Here, we used a metagenomic approach to investigate their diversity and abundance in chicken manures and greenhouse soils collected from Guli, Pulangke, and Hushu vegetable bases with different greenhouse planting years in Nanjing, Eastern China. There was a positive correlation between the levels of antibiotics, ARGs, HPB, and HPB carrying ARGs in manures and greenhouse soils. In total, 156.2–5001.4 ?g/kg of antibiotic residues, 22 classes of ARGs, 32 HPB species, and 46 species of HPB carrying ARGs were found. The highest relative abundance was tetracycline resistance genes (manures) and multidrug resistance genes (greenhouse soils). The dominant HPB and HPB carrying ARGs in the manures were Bacillus anthracis, Bordetella pertussis, and B. anthracis (sulfonamide resistance gene, sul1), respectively. The corresponding findings in greenhouse soils were Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. ulcerans, M. tuberculosis (macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin resistance protein, MLSRP), and B. anthracis (sul1), respectively. Our findings confirmed high levels of antibiotics, ARGs, HPB, and HPB carrying ARGs in the manured greenhouse soils compared with those in the field soils, and their relative abundance increased with the extension of greenhouse planting years. PMID:25514174

  6. Nitric oxide reductase from Pseudomonas stutzeri. Primary structure and gene organization of a novel bacterial cytochrome bc complex.

    PubMed

    Zumft, W G; Braun, C; Cuypers, H

    1994-01-15

    Nitric oxide (NO) reductase is an integral membrane component of the anaerobic respiratory chain of Pseudomonas stutzeri that transforms nitrate to dinitrogen (denitrification). The enzyme catalyzes the reduction of NO to nitrous oxide. The structural genes for the NO reductase complex, norC and norB, were sequenced and their organization established by primer extension and Northern blot analysis. The norCB genes encoding the cytochrome c and cytochrome b subunits of the enzyme are contiguous and transcribed as a single 2.0-kb transcript. The promoter region has a canonical recognition motif for the transcriptional activator protein Fnr, centered at -40.5 nucleotides from the initiation site of transcription. No similarity of the derived gene products to known cytochromes of b- or c-type was found in a data bank search. Post-translational processing of the two subunits was limited to the removal of the terminal methionine to leave an N-terminal serine in either subunit. The mature cytochrome c subunit (16508Da, 145 residues) is predicted to be a bitopic protein with a single membrane anchor. The mature cytochrome b subunit (53006Da, 473 residues) is a putatively polytopic, strongly hydrophobic membrane-bound protein with 12 potential transmembrane segments. Several histidine and proline residues were identified with potentially structural and/or functional importance. Mutational inactivation of NO reductase by deletion of norB or the norCB genes affected strongly the in vivo activity of respiratory nitrite reductase (cytochrome cd1), but to a much lesser extent the expression level of this enzyme. In turn, mutational inactivation of the structural gene for cytochrome cd1, nirS, or loss of in vivo nitrite reduction by mutation of the nirT gene, encoding a presumed tetraheme cytochrome, lowered the expression level of NO reductase to 5-20%, but hardly its catalytic activity. The cellular concentration of NO reductase increased again on restoration of nitrite reduction in the nirS::Tn5 mutant MK202 by complementation with nirS or with the heterologous nirK gene, encoding the Cu-containing nitrite reductase from Pseudomonas aureofaciens. Thus, NO may be required as an inducer for its own reductase. Our results show that the nitrite-reducing system and the NO-reducing system are not operating independently from each other but are interlaced by activity modulation and regulation of enzyme synthesis. PMID:7508388

  7. Removal of bacterial contaminants and antibiotic resistance genes by conventional wastewater treatment processes in Saudi Arabia: Is the treated wastewater safe to reuse for agricultural irrigation?

    PubMed

    Al-Jassim, Nada; Ansari, Mohd Ikram; Harb, Moustapha; Hong, Pei-Ying

    2015-04-15

    This study aims to assess the removal efficiency of microbial contaminants in a local wastewater treatment plant over the duration of one year, and to assess the microbial risk associated with reusing treated wastewater in agricultural irrigation. The treatment process achieved 3.5 logs removal of heterotrophic bacteria and up to 3.5 logs removal of fecal coliforms. The final chlorinated effluent had 1.8 × 10(2) MPN/100 mL of fecal coliforms and fulfils the required quality for restricted irrigation. 16S rRNA gene-based high-throughput sequencing showed that several genera associated with opportunistic pathogens (e.g. Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Arcobacter, Legionella, Mycobacterium, Neisseria, Pseudomonas and Streptococcus) were detected at relative abundance ranging from 0.014 to 21 % of the total microbial community in the influent. Among them, Pseudomonas spp. had the highest approximated cell number in the influent but decreased to less than 30 cells/100 mL in both types of effluent. A culture-based approach further revealed that Pseudomonas aeruginosa was mainly found in the influent and non-chlorinated effluent but was replaced by other Pseudomonas spp. in the chlorinated effluent. Aeromonas hydrophila could still be recovered in the chlorinated effluent. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) determined that only chlorinated effluent should be permitted for use in agricultural irrigation as it achieved an acceptable annual microbial risk lower than 10(-4) arising from both P. aeruginosa and A. hydrophila. However, the proportion of bacterial isolates resistant to 6 types of antibiotics increased from 3.8% in the influent to 6.9% in the chlorinated effluent. Examples of these antibiotic-resistant isolates in the chlorinated effluent include Enterococcus and Enterobacter spp. Besides the presence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial isolates, tetracycline resistance genes tetO, tetQ, tetW, tetH, tetZ were also present at an average 2.5 × 10(2), 1.6 × 10(2), 4.4 × 10(2), 1.6 × 10(1) and 5.5 × 10(3) copies per mL of chlorinated effluent. Our study highlighted that potential risks associated with the reuse of treated wastewater arise not only from conventional fecal indicators or known pathogens, but also from antibiotic-resistant bacteria and genes. PMID:25687420

  8. Microbial ecology, bacterial pathogens, and antibiotic resistant genes in swine manure wastewater as influenced by three swine management systems.

    PubMed

    Brooks, John P; Adeli, Ardeshir; McLaughlin, Michael R

    2014-06-15

    The environmental influence of farm management in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO) can yield vast changes to the microbial biota and ecological structure of both the pig and waste manure lagoon wastewater. While some of these changes may not be negative, it is possible that CAFOs can enrich antibiotic resistant bacteria or pathogens based on farm type, thereby influencing the impact imparted by the land application of its respective wastewater. The purpose of this study was to measure the microbial constituents of swine-sow, -nursery, and -finisher farm manure lagoon wastewater and determine the changes induced by farm management. A total of 37 farms were visited in the Mid-South USA and analyzed for the genes 16S rRNA, spaQ (Salmonella spp.), Camp-16S (Campylobacter spp.), tetA, tetB, ermF, ermA, mecA, and intI using quantitative PCR. Additionally, 16S rRNA sequence libraries were created. Overall, it appeared that finisher farms were significantly different from nursery and sow farms in nearly all genes measured and in 16S rRNA clone libraries. Nearly all antibiotic resistance genes were detected in all farms. Interestingly, the mecA resistance gene (e.g. methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus) was below detection limits on most farms, and decreased as the pigs aged. Finisher farms generally had fewer antibiotic resistance genes, which corroborated previous phenotypic data; additionally, finisher farms produced a less diverse 16S rRNA sequence library. Comparisons of Camp-16S and spaQ GU (genomic unit) values to previous culture data demonstrated ratios from 10 to 10,000:1 depending on farm type, indicating viable but not cultivatable bacteria were dominant. The current study indicated that swine farm management schemes positively and negatively affect microbial and antibiotic resistant populations in CAFO wastewater which has future "downstream" implications from both an environmental and public health perspective. PMID:24704907

  9. Extensive Gene Acquisition in the Extremely Psychrophilic Bacterial Species Psychroflexus torquis and the Link to Sea-Ice Ecosystem Specialism

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Shi; Powell, Shane M.; Wilson, Richard; Bowman, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Sea ice is a highly dynamic and productive environment that includes a diverse array of psychrophilic prokaryotic and eukaryotic taxa distinct from the underlying water column. Because sea ice has only been extensive on Earth since the mid-Eocene, it has been hypothesized that bacteria highly adapted to inhabit sea ice have traits that have been acquired through horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Here we compared the genomes of the psychrophilic bacterium Psychroflexus torquis ATCC 700755T, associated with both Antarctic and Arctic sea ice, and its closely related nonpsychrophilic sister species, P. gondwanensis ACAM 44T. Results show that HGT has occurred much more extensively in P. torquis in comparison to P. gondwanensis. Genetic features that can be linked to the psychrophilic and sea ice-specific lifestyle of P. torquis include genes for exopolysaccharide (EPS) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) biosynthesis, numerous specific modes of nutrient acquisition, and proteins putatively associated with ice-binding, light-sensing (bacteriophytochromes), and programmed cell death (metacaspases). Proteomic analysis showed that several genes associated with these traits are highly translated, especially those involved with EPS and PUFA production. Because most of the genes relating to the ability of P. torquis to dwell in sea-ice ecosystems occur on genomic islands that are absent in closely related P. gondwanensis, its adaptation to the sea-ice environment appears driven mainly by HGT. The genomic islands are rich in pseudogenes, insertional elements, and addiction modules, suggesting that gene acquisition is being followed by a process of genome reduction potentially indicative of evolving ecosystem specialism. PMID:24391155

  10. Bacterial Sialidase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Data shows that elevated sialidase in bacterial vaginosis patients correlates to premature births in women. Bacterial sialidase also plays a significant role in the unusual colonization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis patients. Crystals of Salmonella sialidase have been reproduced and are used for studying the inhibitor-enzyme complexes. These inhibitors may also be used to inhibit a trans-sialidase of Trypanosome cruzi, a very similar enzyme to bacterial sialidase, therefore preventing T. cruzi infection, the causitive agent of Chagas' disease. The Center for Macromolecular Crystallography suggests that inhibitors of bacterial sialidases can be used as prophylactic drugs to prevent bacterial infections in these critical cases.

  11. Beyond efficacy: Challenges in the selection of safe bacterial biological control agents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The search for new biological control agents often begins with screening in vitro for activity against target pathogens, followed by greenhouse or field assays. Physiological, biochemical, and phylogenetic analyses frequently are not undertaken until much later, after considerable investment already...

  12. Impact of sideways and bottom-up control factors on bacterial community succession over a tidal cycle

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Ashvini; Cherrier, Jennifer; Williams, Henry N.

    2009-01-01

    In aquatic systems, bacterial community succession is a function of top-down and bottom-up factors, but little information exists on “sideways” controls, such as bacterial predation by Bdellovibrio-like organisms (BLOs), which likely impacts nutrient cycling within the microbial loop and eventual export to higher trophic groups. Here we report transient response of estuarine microbiota and BLO spp. to tidal-associated dissolved organic matter supply in a river-dominated estuary, Apalachicola Bay, Florida. Both dissolved organic carbon and dissolved organic nitrogen concentrations oscillated over the course of the tidal cycle with relatively higher concentrations observed at low tide. Concurrent with the shift in dissolved organic matter (DOM) supply at low tide, a synchronous increase in numbers of bacteria and predatorial BLOs were observed. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism of small subunit rDNA, cloning, and sequence analyses revealed distinct shifts such that, at low tide, significantly higher phylotype abundances were observed from ?-Proteobacteria, ?-Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and high G+C Gram-positive bacteria. Conversely, diversity of ?-Proteobacteria, ?-Proteobacteria, and Chlamydiales-Verrucomicrobia group increased at high tides. To identify metabolically active BLO guilds, tidal microcosms were spiked with six 13C-labeled bacteria as potential prey and studied using an adaptation of stable isotope probing. At low tide, representative of higher DOM and increased prey but lower salinity, BLO community also shifted such that mesohaline clusters I and VI were more active; with an increased salinity at high tide, halotolerant clusters III, V, and X were predominant. Eventually, 13C label was identified from higher micropredators, indicating that trophic interactions within the estuarine microbial food web are potentially far more complex than previously thought. PMID:19251645

  13. Controls on bacterial gas accumulations in thick Tertiary coal beds and adjacent channel sandstones, Powder River basin, Wyoming and Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, D.D.; Flores, R.M. )

    1991-03-01

    Coal beds, as much as 250 ft thick, and adjacent sandstones in the Paleocene Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation are reservoirs for coal-derived natural gas in the Powder River basin. The discontinuous coal beds were deposited in raised, ombrotrophic peat bogs about 3 mi{sup 2} in size, adjoining networks of fluvial channels infilled by sand. Coal-bed thickness was controlled by basin subsidence and depositional environments. The average maceral composition of the coals is 88% huminite (vitrinite), 5% liptinite, and 7% inertinite. The coals vary in rank from subbituminous C to A (R{sub o} values of 0.4 to 0.5%). Although the coals are relatively low rank, they display fracture systems. Natural gas desorbed and produced from the coal beds and adjacent sandstones is composed mainly of methane with lesser amount of Co{sub 2} ({lt}10%). The methane is isotopically light and enriched in deuterium. The gases are interpreted to be generated by bacterial processes and the fermentation pathway, prior to the main phase of thermogenic methane generation by devolatilization. Large amounts of bicarbonate water generated during early stages of coalification will have to be removed from the fracture porosity in the coal beds before desorption and commercial gas production can take place. Desorbed amounts of methane-rich, bacterial gas in the Powder River basin are relatively low ({lt}60 Scf/ton) compared to amounts of thermogenic coal-bed gases (hundreds of Scf/ton) from other Rocky Mountain basins. However, the total coal-bed gas resource in both the coal beds and the adjacent sandstones is considered to be large (as much as 40 Tcf) because of the vast coal resources (as much as 1.3 trillion tons).

  14. Variable Sensitivity to Bacterial Methionyl-tRNA Synthetase Inhibitors Reveals Subpopulations of Streptococcus pneumoniae with Two Distinct Methionyl-tRNA Synthetase Genes

    PubMed Central

    Gentry, Daniel R.; Ingraham, Karen A.; Stanhope, Michael J.; Rittenhouse, Stephen; Jarvest, Richard L.; O'Hanlon, Peter J.; Brown, James R.; Holmes, David J.

    2003-01-01

    As reported previously (J. R. Jarvest et al., J. Med. Chem. 45:1952-1962, 2002), potent inhibitors (at nanomolar concentrations) of Staphylococcus aureus methionyl-tRNA synthetase (MetS; encoded by metS1) have been derived from a high-throughput screening assay hit. Optimized compounds showed excellent activities against staphylococcal and enterococcal pathogens. We report on the bimodal susceptibilities of S. pneumoniae strains, a significant fraction of which was found to be resistant (MIC, ?8 mg/liter) to these inhibitors. Using molecular genetic techniques, we have found that the mechanism of resistance is the presence of a second, distantly related MetS enzyme, MetS2, encoded by metS2. We present evidence that the metS2 gene is necessary and sufficient for resistance to MetS inhibitors. PCR analysis for the presence of metS2 among a large sample (n = 315) of S. pneumoniae isolates revealed that it is widespread geographically and chronologically, occurring at a frequency of about 46%. All isolates tested also contained the metS1 gene. Searches of public sequence databases revealed that S. pneumoniae MetS2 was most similar to MetS in Bacillus anthracis, followed by MetS in various non-gram-positive bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic species, with streptococcal MetS being considerably less similar. We propose that the presence of metS2 in specific strains of S. pneumoniae is the result of horizontal gene transfer which has been driven by selection for resistance to some unknown class of naturally occurring antibiotics with similarities to recently reported synthetic MetS inhibitors. PMID:12760849

  15. Functional characterization of calliphorid cell death genes and cellularization gene promoters for controlling gene expression and cell viability in early embryos.

    PubMed

    Edman, R M; Linger, R J; Belikoff, E J; Li, F; Sze, S-H; Tarone, A M; Scott, M J

    2015-02-01

    The New World screwworm fly, Cochliomyia hominivorax, and the Australian sheep blow fly, Lucilia cuprina, are major pests of livestock. The sterile insect technique was used to eradicate C.?hominivorax from North and Central America. This involved area-wide releases of male and female flies that had been sterilized by radiation. Genetic systems have been developed for making 'male-only' strains that would improve the efficiency of genetic control of insect pests. One system involves induction of female lethality in embryos through activation of a pro-apoptotic gene by the tetracycline-dependent transactivator. Sex-specific expression is achieved using an intron from the transformer gene, which we previously isolated from several calliphorids. In the present study, we report the isolation of the promoters from the C.?hominivorax slam and Lucilia?sericata bnk cellularization genes and show that these promoters can drive expression of a GFP reporter gene in early embryos of transgenic L.?cuprina. Additionally, we report the isolation of the L.?sericata pro-apoptotic hid and rpr genes, identify conserved motifs in the encoded proteins and determine the relative expression of these genes at different stages of development. We show that widespread expression of the L.?sericata pro-apoptotic genes was lethal in Drosophila melanogaster. The isolated gene promoters and pro-apoptotic genes could potentially be used to build transgenic embryonic sexing strains of calliphorid livestock pests. PMID:25225046

  16. Architecture and inherent robustness of a bacterial cell-cycle control system.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiling; Collier, Justine; Dill, David; Shapiro, Lucy; Horowitz, Mark; McAdams, Harley H

    2008-08-12

    A closed-loop control system drives progression of the coupled stalked and swarmer cell cycles of the bacterium Caulobacter crescentus in a near-mechanical step-like fashion. The cell-cycle control has a cyclical genetic circuit composed of four regulatory proteins with tight coupling to processive chromosome replication and cell division subsystems. We report a hybrid simulation of the coupled cell-cycle control system, including asymmetric cell division and responses to external starvation signals, that replicates mRNA and protein concentration patterns and is consistent with observed mutant phenotypes. An asynchronous sequential digital circuit model equivalent to the validated simulation model was created. Formal model-checking analysis of the digital circuit showed that the cell-cycle control is robust to intrinsic stochastic variations in reaction rates and nutrient supply, and that it reliably stops and restarts to accommodate nutrient starvation. Model checking also showed that mechanisms involving methylation-state changes in regulatory promoter regions during DNA replication increase the robustness of the cell-cycle control. The hybrid cell-cycle simulation implementation is inherently extensible and provides a promising approach for development of whole-cell behavioral models that can replicate the observed functionality of the cell and its responses to changing environmental conditions. PMID:18685108

  17. ANALYSIS OF BACTERIAL COMMUNITIES IN SEAGRASS BED SEDIMENTS BY DOUBLE-GRADIENT DENATURING GRADIENT GEL ELECTROPHORESIS OF PCR-AMPLIFIED 16SRRNA GENES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bacterial communities associated with seagrass bed sediments are not well studied. The work presented here investigated several factors, including the presence or absence of vegetation, depth into sediment, and season, and their impact on bacterial community diversity. Double gra...

  18. Identification of Bacterial Populations in Dairy Wastewaters by Use of 16S rRNA Gene Sequences and Other Genetic Markers

    PubMed Central

    McGarvey, Jeffery A.; Miller, William G.; Sanchez, Susan; Stanker, Larry

    2004-01-01

    Hydraulic flush waste removal systems coupled to solid/liquid separators and circulated treatment lagoons are commonly utilized to manage the large amounts of animal waste produced on high-intensity dairy farms. Although these systems are common, little is known about the microbial populations that inhabit them or how they change as they traverse the system. Using culture-based and non-culture-based methods, we characterized the microbial community structure of manure, water from the separator pit, and water from the circulated treatment lagoon from a large dairy in the San Joaquin Valley of California. Our results show that both total bacterial numbers and bacterial diversity are highest in manure, followed by the separator pit water and the lagoon water. The most prevalent phylum in all locations was the Firmicutes (low-G+C, gram-positive bacteria). The most commonly occurring operational taxonomic unit (OTU) had a 16S rRNA gene (rDNA) sequence 96 to 99% similar to that of Clostridium lituseburense and represented approximately 6% of the manure derived sequences, 14% of the separator pit-derived sequences and 20% of the lagoon-derived sequences. Also highly prevalent was an OTU with a 16S rDNA sequence 97 to 100% similar to that of Eubacterium tenue, comprising approximately 3% of the manure-derived sequences, 6% of the separator pit-derived sequences and 9% of the lagoon-derived sequences. Taken together, these sequences represent approximately one-third of the total organisms in the lagoon waters, suggesting that they are well adapted to this environment. PMID:15240310

  19. The abundance of functional genes, cbbL, nifH, amoA and apsA, and bacterial community structure of intertidal soil from Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Keshri, Jitendra; Yousuf, Basit; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

    2015-06-01

    The Gulf of Cambay is a trumpet-shaped inlet of the Arabian Sea, located along the west coast of India and confronts a high tidal range with strong water currents. The region belongs to a semi-arid zone and saline alkaline intertidal soils are considered biologically extreme. The selected four soil types (S1-S4) were affected by salinity, alkalinity and sodicity. Soil salinity ranged from 20 to 126 dS/m, soil pH 8.6-10.0 with high sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP). Abundance of the key functional genes like cbbL, nifH, amoA and apsA involved in biogeochemical cycling were targeted using qPCR, which varied from (2.36 ± 0.03) × 10(4) to (2.87 ± 0.26) × 10(8), (1.18 ± 0.28) × 10(6) to (1.01 ± 0.26) × 10(9), (1.41 ± 0.21) × 10(6) to (1.29 ± 0.05) × 10(8) and (8.47 ± 0.23) × 10(4) to (1.73 ± 0.01) × 10(6) per gram dry weight, respectively. The microbial community structure revealed that soils S1 and S3 were dominated by phylum Firmicutes whereas S4 and S2 showed an abundance of Proteobacterial clones. These soils also represented Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Actinobacteria, Planctomycetes and Acidobacteria clones. Molecular phylogeny showed a significant variation in the bacterial community distribution among the intertidal soil types. A high number of novel taxonomic units were observed which makes the intertidal zone a unique reservoir of unidentified bacterial taxa that may be explored further. PMID:25862282

  20. Incidence and persistence of zoonotic bacterial and protozoan pathogens in a beef cattle feedlot runoff control vegetative treatment system.

    PubMed

    Berry, Elaine D; Woodbury, Bryan L; Nienaber, John A; Eigenberg, Roger A; Thurston, Jeanette A; Wells, James E

    2007-01-01

    Determining the survival of zoonotic pathogens in livestock manure and runoff is critical for understanding the environmental and public health risks associated with these wastes. The occurrence and persistence of the bacterial pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Campylobacter spp. in a passive beef cattle feedlot runoff control-vegetative treatment system were examined over a 26-mo period. Incidence of the protozoans Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. was also assessed. The control system utilizes a shallow basin to collect liquid runoff and accumulate eroded solids from the pen surfaces; when an adequate liquid volume is attained, the liquid is discharged from the basin onto a 4.5-ha vegetative treatment area (VTA) of bromegrass which is harvested as hay. Basin discharge transported E. coli O157, Campylobacter spp., and generic E. coli into the VTA soil, but without additional discharge from the basin, the pathogen prevalences decreased over time. Similarly, the VTA soil concentrations of generic E. coli initially decreased rapidly, but lower residual populations persisted. Isolation of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts from VTA samples was infrequent, indicating differences in sedimentation and/or transport in comparison to bacteria. Isolation of generic E. coli from freshly cut hay from VTA regions that received basin discharge (12 of 30 vs. 1 of 30 control samples) provided evidence for the risk of contamination; however, neither E. coli O157 or Campylobacter spp. were recovered from the hay following baling. This work indicates that the runoff control system is effective for reducing environmental risk by containing and removing pathogens from feedlot runoff. PMID:17965390

  1. Temporal changes in soil bacterial and archaeal communities with different fertilizers in tea orchards* #

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hua; Yang, Shao-hui; Yang, Jing-ping; Lv, Ya-min; Zhao, Xing; Pang, Ji-liang

    2014-01-01

    It is important to understand the effects of temporal changes in microbial communities in the acidic soils of tea orchards with different fertilizers. A field experiment involving organic fertilizer (OF), chemical fertilizer (CF), and unfertilized control (CK) treatments was arranged to analyze the temporal changes in the bacterial and archaeal communities at bimonthly intervals based on the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) profiling. The abundances of total bacteria, total archaea, and selected functional genes (bacterial and archaeal amoA, bacterial narG, nirK, nirS, and nosZ) were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The results indicate that the structures of bacterial and archaeal communities varied significantly with time and fertilization based on changes in the relative abundance of dominant T-RFs. The abundancy of the detected genes changed with time. The total bacteria, total archaea, and archaeal amoA were less abundant in July. The bacterial amoA and denitrifying genes were less abundant in September, except the nirK gene. The OF treatment increased the abundance of the observed genes, while the CF treatment had little influence on them. The soil temperature significantly affected the bacterial and archaeal community structures. The soil moisture was significantly correlated with the abundance of denitrifying genes. Of the soil chemical properties, soil organic carbon was the most important factor and was significantly correlated with the abundance of the detected genes, except the nirK gene. Overall, this study demonstrated the effects of both temporal alteration and organic fertilizer on the structures of microbial communities and the abundance of genes involved in the nitrogen cycle. PMID:25367788

  2. THE SAFETY OF BACTERIAL MICROBIAL AGENTS USED FOR BLACK FLY AND MOSQUITO CONTROL IN AQUATIC ENVIRONMENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis, has been used extensively in crops, forests, and aquatic habitats for control of pest insects. Its safety and that of other insect specific bacteria for vertebrates and nontarget invertebrates have been reported in hundreds of studies. Short term effects on n...

  3. Mechanistically compatible mixtures of bacterial antagonists improve biological control of fire blight of pear

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mixtures of biological control agents can be superior to individual agents in suppressing plant disease, providing enhanced efficacy and reliability from field to field relative to single biocontrol strains. Nonetheless, the efficacy of combinations of Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, a commercial bio...

  4. POSTHARVEST CONTROL OF PHYTOPHTHORA INFESTANS BY BACTERIAL ANTAGONISTS OF FUNGAL DRY ROT INCITED BY FUSARIUM SAMBUCINUM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent introduction of US-8 genotypes of P. infestans has coincided with an increase in severity and aggressiveness of potato late blight in Canada and the United States. Interest in developing biological versus chemical disease control methods has increased due to recent environmental and health c...

  5. BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF RICE BACTERIAL BLIGHT BY PLANT-ASSOCIATED BACTERIA PRODUCING 2,4-DIACETYLPHLOROGLUCINOL.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Certain plant-associated strains of fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. are known to produce the antimicrobial antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG). It has antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and antihelminthic properties and has played a significant role in the biological control of tobacco, whe...

  6. A red/far-red light-responsive bi-stable toggle switch to control gene expression in

    E-print Network

    Timmer, Jens

    A red/far-red light-responsive bi-stable toggle switch to control gene expression in mammalian by spatially restricted gene expres- sion programs in specialized subpopulations. The targeted manipulation the first red/far-red light-triggered gene switch for mammalian cells for achieving gene expression control

  7. Population Genomics and the Bacterial Species Concept

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Margaret A.; Lizotte-Waniewski, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, the importance of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in bacterial evolution has been elevated to such a degree that many bacteriologists now question the very existence of bacterial species. If gene transfer is as rampant as comparative genomic studies have suggested, how could bacterial species survive such genomic fluidity? And yet, most bacteriologists recognize, and name, as species, clusters of bacterial isolates that share complex phenotypic properties. The Core Genome Hypothesis (CGH) has been proposed to explain this apparent paradox of fluid bacterial genomes associated with stable phenotypic clusters. It posits that there is a core of genes responsible for maintaining the species-specific phenotypic clusters observed throughout bacterial diversity and argues that, even in the face of substantial genomic fluidity, bacterial species can be rationally identified and named. PMID:19271196

  8. Functions of Peptidoglycan Recognition Proteins (Pglyrps) at the Ocular Surface: Bacterial Keratitis in Gene-Targeted Mice Deficient in Pglyrp-2, -3 and -4

    PubMed Central

    Gowda, Ranjita N.; Redfern, Rachel; Frikeche, Jihane; Pinglay, Sudarshan; Foster, James William; Lema, Carolina; Cope, Leslie; Chakravarti, Shukti

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Functions of antimicrobial peptidoglycan recognition proteins (Pglyrp1-4) at the ocular surface are poorly understood. Earlier, we reported an antibacterial role for Pglyrp-1 in Pseudomonas aeruginosa keratitis. Here we investigated functions of three other related genes Pglyrp-2, -3 and -4 in a mouse model of P. aeruginosa keratitis. Methods Wild type (WT) and each of the Pglyrp-null genotypes were challenged with P. aeruginosa keratitis. The eyes were scored in a blinded manner 24 and 48h post infection. Viable bacterial counts and inflammatory factors (IL-12, TNF-?, IFN-?, CCL2, IL-6 and IL-10) were measured in whole eye homogenates using cytometric bead arrays. Expressions of Pglyrp-1-4, mouse beta defensins (mBD)-2,-3, cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP) were determined by qRTPCR in total RNA extracts of uninfected and infected eyes of WT and each of the Pglyrp-null mouse types. Results The Pglyrp-2-/- mice showed reduced disease and lower induction of pro-inflammatory TNF-? (p = 0.02) than WT or the other Pglyrp null mice. Viable bacterial yield was significantly lower in the Pglyrp-2-/- (p = 0.0007) and the Pglyrp-4-/- (p = 0.098) mice. With regards to expression of these antimicrobial genes, Pglyrp-2 expression was induced after infection in WT mice. Pglyrp-3 expression was low before and after infection in WT mice, while Pglyrp-4 expression was slightly elevated after infection in WT, Pglyrp-2 and -3 null mice. Pglyrp-1 expression was slightly elevated after infection in all genotypes without statistical significance. Transcripts for antimicrobial peptides mBD2, mBD3 and CRAMP were elevated in infected Pglyrp-2-/- males without statistical significance. Conclusions Efficient resolution of keratitis in the Pglyrp-2-/- mice may be due to a reduced pro-inflammatory microenvironment and synergistic antibacterial activities of defensins, CRAMP and Pglyrp-1. Therefore, in ocular infections the pro-inflammatory functions of Pglyrp-2 must be regulated to benefit the host. PMID:26332373

  9. Comparison of Bacterial Burden and Cytokine Gene Expression in Golden Hamsters in Early Phase of Infection with Two Different Strains of Leptospira interrogans

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Rie; Koizumi, Nobuo; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Tomizawa, Rina; Sato, Ryoichi; Ohnishi, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Leptospirosis, a zoonotic infection with worldwide prevalence, is caused by pathogenic spirochaetes of Leptospira spp., and exhibits an extremely broad clinical spectrum in human patients. Although previous studies indicated that specific serovars or genotypes of Leptospira spp. were associated with severe leptospirosis or its outbreak, the mechanism underlying the difference in virulence of the various Leptospira serotypes or genotypes remains unclear. The present study addresses this question by measuring and comparing bacterial burden and cytokine gene expression in hamsters infected with strains of two L. interrogans serovars Manilae (highly virulent) and Hebdomadis (less virulent). The histopathology of kidney, liver, and lung tissues was also investigated in infected hamsters. A significantly higher bacterial burden was observed in liver tissues of hamsters infected with serovar Manilae than those infected with serovar Hebdomadis (p < 0.01). The average copy number of the leptospiral genome was 1,302 and 20,559 in blood and liver, respectively, of hamsters infected with serovar Manilae and 1,340 and 4,896, respectively, in hamsters infected with serovar Hebdomadis. The expression levels of mip1alpha in blood; tgfbeta, il1beta, mip1alpha, il10, tnfalpha and cox2 in liver; and tgfbeta, il6, tnfalpha and cox2 in lung tissue were significantly higher in hamsters infected with serovar Manilae than those infected with serovar Hebdomadis (p < 0.05). In addition, infection with serovar Manilae resulted in a significantly larger number of hamsters with tnfalpha upregulation (p = 0.04). Severe distortion of tubular cell arrangement and disruption of renal tubules in kidney tissues and hemorrhage in lung tissues were observed in Manilae-infected hamsters. These results demonstrate that serovar Manilae multiplied more efficiently in liver tissues and induced significantly higher expression of genes encoding pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines than serovar Hebdomadis even in tissues for which a significant difference in leptospiral load was not observed. In addition, our results suggest a serovar Manilae-specific mechanism responsible for inducing severe damage in kidneys and hemorrhage in lung. PMID:26146835

  10. Control of the expression of anchored genes using micron scale heater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shivashankar, G. V.; Liu, S.; Libchaber, A.

    2000-06-01

    We control in vitro gene expression, using DNA (gene) sequences immobilized on miniaturized heaters. For this, electronically addressable indium-tin-oxide heating pads, 100 ?m2 in size, are fabricated on a glass substrate to locally define temperatures and thus control transcription and translation of DNA gene sequences attached to the pad. Wheat germ cell extract is the reaction medium. We use luciferase gene and monitor its temperature-controlled expression by luminescence. Various constructs are tested yielding either luciferase free or bound to the coding DNA. Control of protein production at precise sites and rates, using temperature, opens the possibility to engineer various protein networks with different time scales. Working with constructs where the protein stays bound, gene product micro-arrays can be realized.

  11. Characterization of two genes required for the position-effect control of yeast mating-type genes.

    PubMed Central

    Shore, D; Squire, M; Nasmyth, K A

    1984-01-01

    The mating type of haploid yeast (a or alpha) is determined by information present at the MAT locus. Identical copies of a and alpha information are present at distal loci (HMR and HML), but transcription of these copies is repressed by the action, in trans, of four unlinked genes called SIR (silent information regulator). Repression by SIR also requires, in cis, DNA sequences called E which are found to the left of HML and HMR (but not MAT) and are greater than 1 kb from the mating-type gene promoters. SIR control can act on other promoters when they are brought near the E sequence, and thus the SIR gene products act in some general manner to repress transcription. We have determined the DNA sequence of two fragments which complement mutations in the SIR2 and SIR3 genes and show that these contain the structural genes by mapping the cloned sequences onto the yeast chromosome. The SIR2 and SIR3 coding sequences were identified by constructing gene disruptions and using these mutations to replace the normal chromosomal copies. Such null mutants of both SIR2 and SIR3 are defective in the position-effect control of the silent loci but have no other detectable phenotype. We have mapped the 5' and 3' ends of the SIR2 and SIR3 mRNAs and show that their level is unaffected by mutations in any of the four known SIR complementation groups. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:6098447

  12. Bacterial whole-genome sequencing revisited: portable, scalable, and standardized analysis for typing and detection of virulence and antibiotic resistance genes.

    PubMed

    Leopold, Shana R; Goering, Richard V; Witten, Anika; Harmsen, Dag; Mellmann, Alexander

    2014-07-01

    Multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogens present a major burden for hospitals. Rapid cluster identification and pathogen profiling, i.e., of antibiotic resistance and virulence genes, are crucial for effective infection control. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), in particular, is now one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections. In this study, whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was applied retrospectively to an unusual spike in MRSA cases in two intensive care units (ICUs) over the course of 4 weeks. While the epidemiological investigation concluded that there were two separate clusters, each associated with one ICU, S. aureus protein A gene (spa) typing data suggested that they belonged to single clonal cluster (all cases shared spa type t001). Standardized gene sets were used to extract an allele-based profile for typing and an antibiotic resistance and toxin gene profile. The WGS results produced high-resolution allelic profiles, which were used to discriminate the MRSA clusters, corroborating the epidemiological investigation and identifying previously unsuspected transmission events. The antibiotic resistance profile was in agreement with the original clinical laboratory susceptibility profile, and the toxin profile provided additional, previously unknown information. WGS coupled with allelic profiling provided a high-resolution method that can be implemented as regular screening for effective infection control. PMID:24759713

  13. Remote screening and direct control of the bacterial infection of gardens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starodub, Nickolaj F.; Shavanova, Kateryna E.; Son'ko, Roman V.

    2014-10-01

    In last time gardens are often at the dangerous of viruses and bacteria infections. To preserve not only the coming harvest, but, in generally, to provide stability and growing horticultures the development of new generation of the analytical techniques for remote express screening vegetative state arrays and direct control of the appropriate infection if appearance of its maybe expected on the basis of previous surveys are very actually and important. For continuous monitoring we propose the application of the complex of the optical analytical devices as "Floratest" and "Plasmatest" (both produced in Ukraine) which is able to control step by step general situation with vegetable state and verify concrete situation with infection. General screening is accomplished on the control of the intensity of chlorophyll induction (IChF), namely, registration of so called Kautsky curve which testifies about physiological mechanisms of energy generation, accumulation and effective ways of its realization in cells. The measuring may be done by direct way on the number of individual vegetables and remote screening of massive with transferring registered signal direct in the laboratory. Next step of control connected with the application of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) based immune biosensor which is able to determine concrete bacteria (for example, Erwinia amilovora) with the limit detection about 0.2 ?g/ml, the overall time of the analysis within 30 min (5 min of the duration of one measurement). The traditional ELISA-method showed the sensitivity to this pathogen about 0.5 ?g/ml, overall time of the analysis several hours and obligatory using additional expensive reagents.

  14. The supercoiling sensitivity of a bacterial tRNA promoter parallels its responsiveness to stringent control.

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa-Bossi, N; Guérin, M; Rahmouni, R; Leng, M; Bossi, L

    1998-01-01

    In Salmonella typhimurium, expression of the hisR locus, a tRNA operon, decreases upon inhibiting DNA gyrase. Here, the hisR promoter dependence on negative DNA supercoiling was examined in vivo and in vitro. Mutant analysis showed the sequence determinants of this dependence to lie in the region between the -10 box and the transcription start site. As with most promoters subject to stringent control, this portion of the hisR promoter is C-G-rich. Replacing a C/G bp with T/A at position -7 partially relieves the supercoiling response while changing the sequence between -5 and + 1 (-CCCCCG-) for -GTTAA- abolishes the response in vitro and in vivo. The relief of the supercoiling dependence closely correlates with increased promoter susceptibility to melting in vivo and a lesser requirement for initiating nucleotides in the formation of stable initiation complexes in vitro. Studies in isoleucine-starved cells showed that such sequence changes mitigate and abolish the hisR promoter response to stringent control, respectively. The data presented suggest that the hisR promoter's sensitivity to stringent regulation arises from the same physical property that confers supercoiling sensitivity, i.e. resistance to melting. We propose that the stringent control mechanism acts by hampering the ability of RNA polymerase to melt the DNA helix. PMID:9550733

  15. PI Control of Gene Expression in Tumorous Cell Lines 

    E-print Network

    Mendonca, Rouella J.

    2010-01-16

    in different genes in the Human Embryonic Kidney and Human Colon Adenocarcinoma Grade II cell lines. The difference in the gene expressions of the two cell lines motivates the problem in this thesis. The thesis provided intervention methods to make the colon...

  16. MECHANISMS THAT CONTROL KNOX GENE EXPRESSION IN THE ARABIDOPSIS SHOOT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knotted1-like homeobox (knox) genes are expressed in specific patterns within shoot meristems and play an important role in meristem maintenance. Misexpression of the knox genes, KNAT1 or KNAT2, in Arabidopsis produces a variety of phenotypes, including lobed leaves and ectopic stipules and meristem...

  17. Identification, expression and immunological responses to bacterial challenge following vaccination of BLT1 gene from turbot, Scophthalmus maximus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Wu, Haizhen; Gao, Liang; Qiu, Ying; Xiao, Jingfan; Zhang, Yuanxing

    2015-02-25

    Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is well known as a chemoattractant for leucocytes, recent studies also showed its involvement in adaptive immunity. The purpose of this work is to report the cloning, characterization and gene expression of leukotriene B4 receptor (BLT1) in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus), as well as the immunological response to challenge following vaccination with a live attenuated vaccine Vibrio anguillarum MVAV6203. The full cDNA sequence of turbot BLT1 was cloned. The open reading frame consists of 1119bp nucleotides, which translate into 372 amino acid protein. A high conservation of amino acid sequence was found in the seven transmembrane (TM) domains and intracellular loops. The intracellular loop 3 consisting of a unique cluster of basic amino acid residues might be associated with signal transduction. High amino acid similarity and a phylogenetic tree confirmed it as a leukotriene B4 receptor member. The BLT1 gene is expressed in a wide range of tissues with the highest expression in kidney followed by spleen. The expression of turbot BLT1 was significantly up-regulated in spleen, gut and gill after vaccination and in kidney and skin after challenge. These results suggest a potential role of turbot BLT1 in protection against infection. PMID:25541026

  18. Phage-mediated Dispersal of Biofilm and Distribution of Bacterial Virulence Genes Is Induced by Quorum Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Rossmann, Friederike S.; Racek, Tomas; Wobser, Dominique; Puchalka, Jacek; Rabener, Elaine M.; Reiger, Matthias; Hendrickx, Antoni P. A.; Diederich, Ann-Kristin; Jung, Kirsten; Klein, Christoph; Huebner, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    The microbiome and the phage meta-genome within the human gut are influenced by antibiotic treatments. Identifying a novel mechanism, here we demonstrate that bacteria use the universal communication molecule AI-2 to induce virulence genes and transfer them via phage release. High concentrations (i.e. 100 ?M) of AI-2 promote dispersal of bacteria from already established biofilms, and is associated with release of phages capable of infecting other bacteria. Enterococcus faecalis V583?ABC harbours 7 prophages in its genome, and a mutant deficient in one of these prophages (i.e. prophage 5) showed a greatly reduced dispersal of biofilm. Infection of a probiotic E. faecalis strain without lytic prophages with prophage 5 resulted in increased biofilm formation and also in biofilm dispersal upon induction with AI-2. Infection of the probiotic E. faecalis strain with phage-containing supernatants released through AI-2 from E. faecalis V583?ABC resulted in a strong increase in pathogenicity of this strain. The polylysogenic probiotic strain was also more virulent in a mouse sepsis model and a rat endocarditis model. Both AI-2 and ciprofloxacin lead to phage release, indicating that conditions in the gastrointestinal tract of hospitalized patients treated with antibiotics might lead to distribution of virulence genes to apathogenic enterococci and possibly also to other commensals or even to beneficial probiotic strains. PMID:25706310

  19. RNA-seq based transcriptomic analysis of single bacterial cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiangxin; Chen, Lei; Chen, Zixi; Zhang, Weiwen

    2015-11-01

    Gene-expression heterogeneity among individual cells determines the fate of a bacterial population. Here we report the first bacterial single-cell RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), BaSiC RNA-seq, a method integrating RNA isolation, cDNA synthesis and amplification, and RNA-seq analysis of the whole transcriptome of single cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 cells which typically contain approximately 5-7 femtogram total RNA per cell. We applied the method to 3 Synechocystis single cells at 24 h and 3 single cells at 72 h after nitrogen-starvation stress treatment, as well as their bulk-cell controls under the same conditions, to determine the heterogeneity upon environmental stress. With 82-98% and 31-48% of all putative Synechocystis genes identified in single cells of 24 and 72 h, respectively, the results demonstrated that the method could achieve good identification of the transcripts in single bacterial cells. In addition, the preliminary results from nitrogen-starved cells also showed a possible increasing gene-expression heterogeneity from 24 h to 72 h after nitrogen starvation stress. Moreover, preliminary analysis of single-cell transcriptomic datasets revealed that genes from the "Mobile elements" functional category have the most significant increase of gene-expression heterogeneity upon stress, which was further confirmed by single-cell RT-qPCR analysis of gene expression in 24 randomly selected cells. PMID:26331465

  20. Noise propagation in synthetic gene circuits for metabolic control.

    PubMed

    Oyarzún, Diego A; Lugagne, Jean-Baptiste; Stan, Guy-Bart V

    2015-02-20

    Dynamic control of enzyme expression can be an effective strategy to engineer robust metabolic pathways. It allows a synthetic pathway to self-regulate in response to changes in bioreactor conditions or the metabolic state of the host. The implementation of this regulatory strategy requires gene circuits that couple metabolic signals with the genetic machinery, which is known to be noisy and one of the main sources of cell-to-cell variability. One of the unexplored design aspects of these circuits is the propagation of biochemical noise between enzyme expression and pathway activity. In this article, we quantify the impact of a synthetic feedback circuit on the noise in a metabolic product in order to propose design criteria to reduce cell-to-cell variability. We consider a stochastic model of a catalytic reaction under negative feedback from the product to enzyme expression. On the basis of stochastic simulations and analysis, we show that, depending on the repression strength and promoter strength, transcriptional repression of enzyme expression can amplify or attenuate the noise in the number of product molecules. We obtain analytic estimates for the metabolic noise as a function of the model parameters and show that noise amplification/attenuation is a structural property of the model. We derive an analytic condition on the parameters that lead to attenuation of metabolic noise, suggesting that a higher promoter sensitivity enlarges the parameter design space. In the theoretical case of a switch-like promoter, our analysis reveals that the ability of the circuit to attenuate noise is subject to a trade-off between the repression strength and promoter strength. PMID:24735052

  1. Organization and control of genes encoding catabolic enzymes in Rhizobiaceae. Progress report, March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Parke, D.; Ornston, L.N.

    1993-03-01

    Rhizobiaceae, a diverse bacterial group comprising rhizobia and agrobacteria, symbiotic partnership with plants form nitrogen-fixing nodules on plant roots or are plant pathogens. Phenolic compounds produced by plants serve as inducers of rhizobial nodulation genes and agrobacterial virulence genes reflect their capacity to utilize numerous aromatics, including phenolics, as a source of carbon and energy. In many microbes the aerobic degradation of numerous aromatic compounds to tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates is achieved by the {beta}-ketoadipate pathway. Our initial studies focused on the organization and regulation of the ketoadipate pathway in Agrobacterium tumefaciens. We have cloned, identified and characterized a novel regulatory gene that modulates expression of an adjacent pca (protocatechuate) structural gene, pcaD. Regulation of pcaD is mediated by the regulatory gene, termed pcaQ, in concert with the intermediate {beta}-carboxy-cis,cis-muconate. {beta}-carboxy-cis,cismuconate is an unstable chemical, not marketed commercially, and it is unlikely to permeate Escherichia coli cells if supplied in media. Because of these factors, characterization of pcaQ in E. coli required an in vivo delivery system for {beta}-carboxycis,cis-muconate. This was accomplished by designing an E. coli strain that expressed an Acinetobacter calcoaceticus pcaA gene for conversion of protocatechuate to {beta}-carboxy-cis,cis-muconate.

  2. Bacterial Proteasomes

    PubMed Central

    Jastrab, Jordan B.; Darwin, K. Heran

    2015-01-01

    Interest in bacterial proteasomes was sparked by the discovery that proteasomal degradation is required for the pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, one of the world's deadliest pathogens. Although bacterial proteasomes are structurally similar to their eukaryotic and archaeal homologs, there are key differences in their mechanisms of assembly, activation, and substrate targeting for degradation. In this article, we compare and contrast bacterial proteasomes with their archaeal and eukaryotic counterparts, and we discuss recent advances in our understanding of how bacterial proteasomes function to influence microbial physiology. PMID:26488274

  3. Repurposing a bacterial quality control mechanism to enhance production of a fungal endocellulase

    PubMed Central

    Boock, Jason T.; King, Brian C.; Taw, May; Conrado, Robert J.; Siu, Ka-Hei; Stark, Jessica; Walker, Larry P.; Gibson, Donna M.; DeLisa, Matthew P.

    2015-01-01

    Heterologous expression of many proteins in bacteria, yeasts, and plants is often limited by low titers of functional protein. To address this problem, we have created a two-tiered directed evolution strategy in Escherichia coli that enables optimization of protein production while maintaining high biological activity. The first tier involves a genetic selection for intracellular protein stability that is based on the folding quality control mechanism inherent to the twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway, while the second is a semi-high-throughput screen for protein function. To demonstrate the utility of this strategy, variants of the endoglucanase Cel5A from the plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum were isolated whose production was increased by as much as 30-fold over the parental enzyme. This gain in production was attributed to just two amino acid substitutions, and was isolated after two iterations through the two-tiered approach. There was no significant trade-off in activity on soluble or insoluble cellulose substrates. Importantly, by combining the folding filter afforded by the Tat quality control mechanism with a function-based screen, we show enrichment for variants with increased protein abundance in a manner that does not compromise catalytic activity, providing a highly soluble parent for engineering of improved or new function. PMID:25591491

  4. Ammonia-oxidizing bacterial community composition in estuarine and oceanic environments assessed using a functional gene microarray

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, B.B.; Eveillard, D.; Kirshtein, J.D.; Nelson, J.D.; Voytek, M.A.; Jackson, G.A.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between environmental factors and functional gene diversity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) was investigated across a transect from the freshwater portions of the Chesapeake Bay and Choptank River out into the Sargasso Sea. Oligonucleotide probes (70-bp) designed to represent the diversity of ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) genes from Chesapeake Bay clone libraries and cultivated AOB were used to construct a glass slide microarray. Hybridization patterns among the probes in 14 samples along the transect showed clear variations in amoA community composition. Probes representing uncultivated members of the Nitrosospira-like AOB dominated the probe signal, especially in the more marine samples. Of the cultivated species, only Nitrosospira briensis was detected at appreciable levels. Discrimination analysis of hybridization signals detected two guilds. Guild 1 was dominated by the marine Nitrosospira-like probe signal, and Guild 2???s largest contribution was from upper bay (freshwater) sediment probes. Principal components analysis showed that Guild 1 was positively correlated with salinity, temperature and chlorophyll a concentration, while Guild 2 was positively correlated with concentrations of oxygen, dissolved organic carbon, and particulate nitrogen and carbon, suggesting that different amoA sequences represent organisms that occupy different ecological niches within the estuarine/marine environment. The trend from most diversity of AOB in the upper estuary towards dominance of a single type in the polyhaline region of the Bay is consistent with the declining importance of AOB with increasing salinity, and with the idea that AO-Archaea are the more important ammonia oxidizers in the ocean. ?? 2007 The Authors.

  5. Influence of heterogeneous ammonium availability on bacterial community structure and the expression of nitrogen fixation and ammonium transporter genes during in situ bioremediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Mouser, Paula; N'guessan, Lucie A.; Elifantz, H.; Holmes, Dawn; Williams, Kenneth H.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Long, Philip E.; Lovley, Derek R.

    2009-06-15

    The influence of ammonium availability on bacterial community structure and the physiological status of Geobacter species during in situ bioremediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater was evaluated. Ammonium concentrations varied by two orders of magnitude (<4 to 400 ?M) across the study site. Analysis of 16S rRNA sequences suggested that ammonium may have been one factor influencing the community composition prior to acetate amendment with Rhodoferax species predominating over Geobacter species with higher ammonium and Dechloromonas species dominating at the site with lowest ammonium. However, once acetate was added, and dissimilatory metal reduction was stimulated, Geobacter species became the predominant organisms at all locations. Rates of U(VI)-reduction appeared to be more related to acetate concentrations rather than ammonium levels. In situ mRNA transcript abundance of the nitrogen fixation gene, nifD, and the ammonium transporter gene, amtB, in Geobacter species indicated that ammonium was the primary source of nitrogen during uranium reduction. The abundance of amtB was inversely correlated to ammonium levels whereas nifD transcript levels were similar across all sites examined. These results suggest that nifD and amtB expression are closely regulated in response to ammonium availability to ensure an adequate supply of nitrogen while conserving cell resources. Thus, quantifying nifD and amtB transcript expression appears to be a useful approach for monitoring the nitrogen-related physiological status of subsurface Geobacter species and. This study also emphasizes the need for more detailed analysis of geochemical/physiological interactions at the field scale, in order to adequately model subsurface microbial processes during bioremediation.

  6. DNA Microarray-Based Genome Comparison of a Pathogenic and a Nonpathogenic Strain of Xylella fastidiosa Delineates Genes Important for Bacterial Virulence†

    PubMed Central

    Koide, Tie; Zaini, Paulo A.; Moreira, Leandro M.; Vêncio, Ricardo Z. N.; Matsukuma, Adriana Y.; Durham, Alan M.; Teixeira, Diva C.; El-Dorry, Hamza; Monteiro, Patrícia B.; da Silva, Ana Claudia R.; Verjovski-Almeida, Sergio; da Silva, Aline M.; Gomes, Suely L.

    2004-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a phytopathogenic bacterium that causes serious diseases in a wide range of economically important crops. Despite extensive comparative analyses of genome sequences of Xylella pathogenic strains from different plant hosts, nonpathogenic strains have not been studied. In this report, we show that X. fastidiosa strain J1a12, associated with citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC), is nonpathogenic when injected into citrus and tobacco plants. Furthermore, a DNA microarray-based comparison of J1a12 with 9a5c, a CVC strain that is highly pathogenic and had its genome completely sequenced, revealed that 14 coding sequences of strain 9a5c are absent or highly divergent in strain J1a12. Among them, we found an arginase and a fimbrial adhesin precursor of type III pilus, which were confirmed to be absent in the nonpathogenic strain by PCR and DNA sequencing. The absence of arginase can be correlated to the inability of J1a12 to multiply in host plants. This enzyme has been recently shown to act as a bacterial survival mechanism by down-regulating host nitric oxide production. The lack of the adhesin precursor gene is in accordance with the less aggregated phenotype observed for J1a12 cells growing in vitro. Thus, the absence of both genes can be associated with the failure of the J1a12 strain to establish and spread in citrus and tobacco plants. These results provide the first detailed comparison between a nonpathogenic strain and a pathogenic strain of X. fastidiosa, constituting an important step towards understanding the molecular basis of the disease. PMID:15292146

  7. Cis-regulatory control of the nodal gene, initiator of