Science.gov

Sample records for conventional arms control

  1. Cooperative Mmonitoring Center Occasional Paper/5: Propspects of Conventional Arms Control in South Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Amit; Kamal, Nazir

    1998-11-01

    The intensely adversarial relationship between India and Pakistan is marked by military rivalry, mutual distrust, and suspicion. The most dividing disagreement has been over the Kashmir region. An inability to discuss the Kashmir issue has prevented discussion on other important issues. Since there is little prospect of detente, at least in the near-term, the question is whether this rivalry can be contained by other means, such as arms control approaches. Conventional arms control has been applied flexibly and successfully in some regions to reduce threat-perceptions and achieve reassuring military stability. Some lessons from other international models might be applied to the India/Pakistan context. This paper discusses the status of conventional arms control in South Asia, the dominant Indian and Pakistani perceptions about arms control, the benefits that could be derived from arms control, as well as the problems and prospects of arms control. It also discusses existing conventional arms control agreements at the regional and global levels as well as the potential role of cooperative monitoring technology.

  2. Conventional Middle East arms control: Impact of the end of the cold war. Study project report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.L.; Johnsen, W.T.

    1993-03-31

    The end of the Gulf War brought to the forefront concern for dangers posed by unrestrained militarization of the Middle East. In response, on 29 May 1991 President Bush unveiled a comprehensive Middle East arms control policy in a speech at the U.S. Air Force Academy. A key element of the policy banned the sale of the most dangerous conventional weapons to the region. Although the major arms suppliers (which also happen to be the five permanent members of the U.N. Security Council) have held a series of high level meetings to discuss options for restricting sales to the region, all continue conventional arms transfers to the Middle East and are likely to continue to do so. This paper contends that the end of the Cold War put additional economic pressure on the major suppliers to export arms to the Middle East; and, their interests are so compelling that the suppliers are unlikely to support President Bush's proposal. This position is supported by analyzing the interests that influence major arms suppliers to sell arms abroad. The format for this analysis includes an assessment of: each country's interest in selling arms during the Cold War; the impact of the Cold War's end on those interests; and whether the post Cold War interests conflict with President Bush's conventional arms control proposal. The paper concludes with recommendations for US policy in the region.

  3. Conventional forces and arms control: Technology and strategy in a changing world

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, J.F.; White, P.C.

    1990-06-01

    To address the implications of changes for future roles of conventional forces and to assess the technology implications of future strategies, force requirements, and conventional arms control agreements, the Center for National Security Studies in cooperation with the Defense Research and Applications Directorate of the Los Alamos National Laboratory held a conference on Conventional Forces and Arms Control: Technology and Strategy in a Changing World'' at Los Alamos from September 25--27, 1989. The distinguished participants from government, industry, and academia in the United States and Western Europe addressed such issues as: What are the implications of geopolitical and technological trends for international security and stability How will these global changes affect US and allied strategies and force structure, especially the requirements for conventional, nonnuclear forces What will be the role of and rationale for conventional forces in the context of current and prospective allied security requirements How can the West assure it will have the forces necessary for its security How will technological developments influence the structure of tomorrow's conventional forces What impacts will arms reductions have on future systems and force structures What are the prospects for the development and deployment in weapon systems of future conventional military technologies, in light of existing and potential political, economic, bureaucratic, and other impediments

  4. Designing and evaluating conventional arms control measures: The case of the Korean peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Han Yongsup.

    1991-01-01

    As a method of designing and evaluating arms control measures, this study takes a combined approach of qualitative analysis and military simulation. Three qualitative criteria derived from the case studies on the Korean and European arms control are used to examine whether these measures are legally binding, verifiable, and negotiable. One quantifiable criterion is used to test against the base case scenario (a one-day surprise attach by North Korea) whether arms control measures will stabilize or destabilize the military status quo on the Peninsula in terms of North Korea's extent of penetration in the actual war situations. Four alternative measures are derived from the analysis: (1) Confidence and Security Building Measures (CSBMs); (2) Establishment of Asymmetric Non-Deployment Zone (NDZ); (3) Reduction of the joint US-South Korean Team Spirit' exercises and North Korea's Forward Deployed Forces; and, (4) Reduction of South Korean and US forces and North Korean Forces. Findings indicate that establishment of the NDZ and a North Korean unilateral reduction are estimated to best achieve the goal of South Korean arms control.

  5. The relation between Euro-based nuclear weapons and conventional arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, P.T.

    1989-11-01

    The social and economic changes currently underway in the Soviet Union and other member nations of the Warsaw Treaty Organization (WTO) surpass anything that has happened in that geopolitical region since 1945. These changes will influence all aspects of the East-West relationship in ways that cannot be predicted today. There are hopes the result will be an East-West relationship devoid of confrontation. There are fears that instabilities might develop that could lead to armed conflict. The challenge to all nations is to achieve a mutually agreeable future order among nations that is inherently stable. This will require vision and statesmanship on the part of our leaders; it will require understanding and self-discipline on the part of our citizens. Despite occasional periods of tension between member nations of the NATO and WTO, the East-West relationship has been marked by its avoidance of military conflict. Two elements of this relationship have been major contributors to this enduring coexistence. The first has been the existence of two viable alliances: NATO and WTO. These organizations have largely co-opted the national security agendas of their respective member nations and have preempted the option of unilateral pursuit of national objectives through armed conflict in Europe.

  6. US conventional arms transfer policy. Strategy research project

    SciTech Connect

    Langhorst, R.H.

    1996-04-15

    Millions of people around the world have been killed by conventional arms since the end of World War II. If increasing access to conventional arms is partly responsible for political and military aggression in post-Cold War Europe, what should be the United States` response. This study explores the new US Conventional Arms Transfer Policy of February 1995 in terms of ends1 ways and means and its linkages to US National Security and National Military Strategies. Analysis focuses mainly on post- Cold War Europe, providing examples of multilateral arms control successes and recommendations for US policy implementation.

  7. Outline of an on-site inspection regime for conventional arms control in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The complexity of the negotiations on Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE) was emphasized recently by General John R. Galvin, SACEUR, when he stated, {open_quotes}The difficulties of comparing the relative strengths of strategic or intermediate-range nuclear arsenals pale in comparison with the problems of assessing the relative capabilities of opposing conventional forces.{open_quotes} Throughout this process, intensive and rigorous verification measures must be developed and enforced to ensure an acceptable degree of reliability. The eventual agreement will require a complex verification monitoring process covering a vast geographical area. The long-term success of the agreement to a large extent will depend on the level of confidence achieved by the verification process and the effective deployment of technological means will be essential to that process.

  8. Verifying the biological weapons convention: The role of technology in biological arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Schiller, M.J.

    1998-12-01

    The 1972 Biological Weapons Convention prohibits the possession and use of biological agents in war, but does not contain provisions for treaty enforcement. The Protocol to the BWC, an effort to improve enforcement of the treaty, has defined specific mechanisms for verification. This thesis examines the potential for technology to support treaty verification. First, the history of the treaty and efforts to improve it are discussed. Second, the requirements for technical support of verification are examined, and criteria are developed to evaluate potential detection systems. Then, technologies for detection and identification are illustrated, including an evaluation of currently available systems. A procedure for the implementation and support of verification technology is provided. This approach demonstrates a specific process of employing technology to enhance deterrence and verify of compliance with the BWC.

  9. 15 CFR 743.4 - Conventional arms reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conventional arms reporting. 743.4... REPORTING AND NOTIFICATION § 743.4 Conventional arms reporting. (a) Scope. This section outlines special... the UN Register of Conventional Arms. Participating States of the Wassenaar Arrangement...

  10. The future of arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, D.; Mack, A.

    1987-01-01

    This collection of essays examines the issues involved in the arms negotiations between the Superpowers, and the potential for developing effective arms control in the future. Contents (partial): Preface; Reagan administration and arms control; Superpowers Arms Control: The Soviet perspective; Nuclear disengagement zones and no first use doctrines as arms control measures; Regional arms control in the South Pacific; Arms control and the Indian Ocean; Preventing Proliferation: The role of Australian uranium.

  11. Arms control and the arms race

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    A collection of 16 articles from the Scientific American discusses the evolution of nuclear weapons since 1945 and the attempts to control the nuclear arms race through national action and international negotiations. The articles and commentaries by political scientists Bruce M. Russett and Fred Chernoff combine technical information on weapons and deployment systems with political analysis of current arms strategies and diplomacy. The articles are grouped under three major topics: SALT and the history of arms control negotiations, current strategic arms negotiations, and European security. A separate abstract was written for each of the 16 articles selected for the Energy Data Base. 226 references.

  12. Conventional armed forces in Europe: Technology scenario development

    SciTech Connect

    Houser, G.M.

    1990-07-01

    In January 1986, the Soviet Union's Mikhail Gorbachev proposed elimination of all nuclear weapons by the year 2000. In April of that year, Mr. Gorbachev proposed substantial reductions of conventional weapons in Europe, from the Atlantic Ocean to the Ural Mountains, including reductions in operational-tactical nuclear weapons. In May 1986, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) responded with the Brussels Declaration on Conventional Arms Control,'' which indicated readiness to open East/West discussions on establishing a mandate for negotiating conventional arms control throughout Europe. The Group of 23,'' which met in Vienna beginning in February 1987, concluded the meeting in January 1989 with a mandate for the Conventional Armed Forced in Europe (CFE) negotiations. On 6 March 1989, CFE talks began, and these talks have continued through six rounds (as of April 1990). Although US President George Bush, on 30 May 1989, called for agreement within six months to a year, and the Malta meeting of December 1989 called for completion of a CFE agreement by the end of 1990, much remains to be negotiated. This report provides three types of information. First, treaty provisions brought to the table by both sides are compared. Second, on the basis of these provisions, problem areas for each of the provision elements are postulated and possible scenarios for resolving these problem areas are developed. Third, the scenarios are used as requirements for tasks assigned program elements for possible US implementation of a CFE treaty. As progress is achieved during the negotiations, this report could be updated, as necessary, in each of the areas to provide a continuing systematic basis for program implementation and technology development. 8 refs.

  13. Worldwide report, arms control

    SciTech Connect

    1987-03-18

    This report contains translations/transcriptions of articles and/or broadcasts on Arms Control. Titles include: USSR Journal Review of French Book on SDI; Moscow Talk Show Considers Possibility of Dealing with U.S.; Thatcher, Gorbachev Talks Anticipated; U.S. Presents Draft Treaty to Eliminate INF from Europe; TASS: White House Rejects Treaty of Tatotonga; Soviet Paper on Congressional Divisions on Moratorium; Turkish Officials on Deployment of Nuclear Weapons; and others.

  14. Franklin Long on arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, K.W.

    1988-01-01

    A series on arms control must recognize the diversity of views on the subject. A leading figure in the field lectured recently at the University of Virginia and failed to mention any of the conventional approaches to arms control. Instead he equated arms control with the Strategic Defense Initiative and limited his comments exclusively to that subject. One of the aims of this series, made possible by the W. Alton Jones Foundation, is to point up the differences in thought on the subject. Publications which treat only one viewpoint do no service to public understanding. Instead they leave an impression of unanimity of approach where none exists. They stifle rather than encourage enlightenment and public discourse. The Miller Center hopes in a small way to contribute to public understanding by bringing to the attention of the people the assumptions and thinking of some dozen experts in the field. In addition, we plan one or more volumes by multiple authors who are experts on technical subjects. Thus the present volume by Franklin A. Long of Cornell is one in a series on a subject that has far-reaching implications to human survival.

  15. Arms control: Myth versus reality

    SciTech Connect

    Staar, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents papers on arms control. Topics considered include the strategic implications of the nuclear balance, historical aspects, the Mutual and Balanced Force Reductions (MBFR) negotiations, the European viewpoint on structural problems in negotiations, political aspects, national defense, forecasting, breaches of arms control obligations and their implications, and cultural aspects of diplomacy.

  16. Arms control: misplaced focus

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, W.A.; Derber, C.

    1986-03-01

    Most of the nuclear debate consists of arguments about which weapons systems should be built, controlled, canceled, frozen, or retired. Short of virtually complete, multilateral nuclear disarmament, however, no change in the pace, balance, or even the direction of the arms race can make much difference in the risk of nuclear war, the damage should one occur, or the division of international political power. This includes Star Wars, the nuclear freeze, and even large cuts in or stabilization of offensive nuclear arsenals. A better starting point for nuclear politics would be the insight that nuclear weapons have completely changed the logic of power as it has been handed down through the ages. Military force, perfected to its highest level, has invalidated itself - for in a nuclearized world, any resort to force by a nuclear power risks escalation to its ultimate level, and thus to oblivion for all. Trying to rationalize and control the ultimate force is far less realistic and important than limiting the provocation of conflict and the use of force at lower, non-nuclear levels - by the United States, it clients, and, to the extent possible, its adversaries. 13 references.

  17. Korean arms control: Arms control policies of the two Koreas

    SciTech Connect

    Park, T.H.

    1991-01-01

    This study examines the arms control proposals suggested by South and North Korea since the end of the Korean War and suggests some arms control measures that would be applied to the Korean Peninsula. Pyongyang has persistently proposed arms reduction measures since 1953, but Seoul has refused to discuss the issue because it suspected the North's true motive. The study points out that the objective reality of the two Koreas does not show any strong possibility of a war on the Peninsula. The most destabilizing factor in the South-North military relations is the possibility of misperception and miscalculation about the military capabilities and intentions of the other side. The study recommends that Seoul government not entirely adhere to the European CSBM model centered on the transparency of military activities. There are many other policy options for Seoul. The area between Seoul and Pyongyang can be made into a [open quotes]limited forces area[close quotes] as experienced by Egypt and Israel on the Sinai Peninsula. The study notes the utility of applying Charles Osgood's GRIT strategy to the Korean situation, a unilateral arms control approach. Among the structural arms control issues, the withdrawal of the US forces and its nuclear weapons are the most important ones which have to be dealt with before seriously negotiating arms reductions between the two Koreas. Considering the increasing capability of the South Korean armed forces and the availability of the US air and naval forces in and around South Korea, the US ground forces and the nuclear weapons would best be withdrawn from the South. Although these withdrawals cannot be used as bargaining chips by the South in the arms control negotiations with the North, these can be effectively utilized as GRIT measures. The South needs to persuade the North to reduce its redundant offensive weapons including chemical weapons and SCUD missiles as priority targets for arms reduction.

  18. Adaptive control strategies for flexible robotic arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bialasiewicz, Jan T.

    1993-01-01

    The motivation of this research came about when a neural network direct adaptive control scheme was applied to control the tip position of a flexible robotic arm. Satisfactory control performance was not attainable due to the inherent non-minimum phase characteristics of the flexible robotic arm tip. Most of the existing neural network control algorithms are based on the direct method and exhibit very high sensitivity if not unstable closed-loop behavior. Therefore a neural self-tuning control (NSTC) algorithm is developed and applied to this problem and showed promising results. Simulation results of the NSTC scheme and the conventional self-tuning (STR) control scheme are used to examine performance factors such as control tracking mean square error, estimation mean square error, transient response, and steady state response.

  19. 48 CFR 252.223-7007 - Safeguarding sensitive conventional arms, ammunition, and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... conventional arms, ammunition, and explosives. 252.223-7007 Section 252.223-7007 Federal Acquisition... conventional arms, ammunition, and explosives. As prescribed in 223.7203, use the following clause: Safeguarding Sensitive Conventional Arms, Ammunition, and Explosives (SEP 1999) (a) Definition....

  20. 48 CFR 252.223-7007 - Safeguarding sensitive conventional arms, ammunition, and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... conventional arms, ammunition, and explosives. 252.223-7007 Section 252.223-7007 Federal Acquisition... conventional arms, ammunition, and explosives. As prescribed in 223.7203, use the following clause: Safeguarding Sensitive Conventional Arms, Ammunition, and Explosives (SEP 1999) (a) Definition....

  1. 48 CFR 252.223-7007 - Safeguarding sensitive conventional arms, ammunition, and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... conventional arms, ammunition, and explosives. 252.223-7007 Section 252.223-7007 Federal Acquisition... conventional arms, ammunition, and explosives. As prescribed in 223.7203, use the following clause: Safeguarding Sensitive Conventional Arms, Ammunition, and Explosives (SEP 1999) (a) Definition....

  2. 48 CFR 252.223-7007 - Safeguarding sensitive conventional arms, ammunition, and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... conventional arms, ammunition, and explosives. 252.223-7007 Section 252.223-7007 Federal Acquisition... conventional arms, ammunition, and explosives. As prescribed in 223.7203, use the following clause: Safeguarding Sensitive Conventional Arms, Ammunition, and Explosives (SEP 1999) (a) Definition....

  3. 48 CFR 252.223-7007 - Safeguarding sensitive conventional arms, ammunition, and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... conventional arms, ammunition, and explosives. 252.223-7007 Section 252.223-7007 Federal Acquisition... conventional arms, ammunition, and explosives. As prescribed in 223.7203, use the following clause: Safeguarding Sensitive Conventional Arms, Ammunition, and Explosives (SEP 1999) (a) Definition....

  4. Arms Control past and future

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, T.R.

    1991-12-01

    I am going to talk today about Arms Control. First, I want to go over the recent history of the process. Five years ago, the pace of arms control changed dramatically. From an outsider it probably didn't appear that way -- but those working it, the shift from the historic glacial speed normally associated with this process to one of pressures -- political and economic -- national and global -- to actually conclude meaningful, verifiable agreements was a major change. Then, I want to spend a few minutes covering the future of arms control new that we have lost our enemy, and it is no longer a bipolar world. I also want to leave time for easy questions.

  5. Arms Control past and future

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, T.R.

    1991-12-01

    I am going to talk today about Arms Control. First, I want to go over the recent history of the process. Five years ago, the pace of arms control changed dramatically. From an outsider it probably didn`t appear that way -- but those working it, the shift from the historic glacial speed normally associated with this process to one of pressures -- political and economic -- national and global -- to actually conclude meaningful, verifiable agreements was a major change. Then, I want to spend a few minutes covering the future of arms control new that we have lost our enemy, and it is no longer a bipolar world. I also want to leave time for easy questions.

  6. Controller arm for a remotely related slave arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salisbury, J. K., Jr. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A segmented controller arm configured and dimensioned to form a miniature kinematic replica of a remotely related slave arm is disclosed. The arm includes: (1) a plurality of joints for affording segments of the arm simultaneous angular displacement about a plurality of pairs of intersecting axes, (2) a plurality of position sensing devices for providing electrical signals indicative of angular displacement imparted to corresponding segments of the controller shaft about the axes, and (3) a control signal circuit for generating control signals to be transmitted to the slave arm. The arm is characterized by a plurality of yokes, each being supported for angular displacement about a pair of orthogonally related axes and counterbalanced against gravitation by a cantilevered mass.

  7. Dual arm master controller concept

    SciTech Connect

    Kuban, D.P.; Perkins, G.S.

    1984-01-01

    The Advanced Servomanipulator (ASM) slave was designed with an anthropomorphic stance, gear/torque tube power drives, and modular construction. These features resulted in increased inertia, friction, and backlash relative to tape-driven manipulators. Studies were performed which addressed the human factors design and performance trade-offs associated with the corresponding master controller best suited for the ASM. The results of these studies, as well as the conceptual design of the dual arm master controller, are presented. 6 references, 3 figures.

  8. Control of a flexible robot arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, E.; Cannon, R.

    1980-01-01

    Exact equations of motion of an arm with known parameters were developed and analyzed preparatory to designing control systems for robotic manipulators. The design of an experimental one-link arm for testing control designs is presented.

  9. Cold warriors target arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacs, J.

    1995-09-01

    While disagreements over the conflict in Bosnia have strained US relations with Western Europe and Russia, these divisions will pale in comparison to the tensions that will arise if recent congressional arms control decisions become law. If the Republicans who dominate Congress are successful, a series of arms control agreements painstakingly negotiated by Republican and Democratic presidents could be consigned to the ash heap. This list includes the Start I and Start II nuclear reduction agreements, the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty and the ongoing negotiations to achieve a comprehensive test ban (CTB) by 1996. US leadership in the post-Cold War era will undermined as the international community, already skeptical about this country`s direction, will question the ability of the executive branch to surmount isolantionist impulses.

  10. Issues for Future Nuclear Arms Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Jay

    2011-04-01

    Ratification of the New START treaty may open the door to a path of progressive negotiations that could lead to systematic reduction of the numbers of deployed and reserve nuclear weapons. Those negotiations will require more than merely resolving technical, operational and policy questions. Their success will also demand adding successively larger numbers of partners and the building of trust among parties who have not been involved in such agreements before. At some point, questions of conventional arms limitations and larger confidence building steps will inevitably arise. Jay Davis, who last year chaired an APS/POPA study of technology issues for future nuclear arms control agreements, will outline the path, opportunities, and obstacles that lie ahead. Davis was an UNSCOM inspector in Iraq after the First Gulf War and the first director of the Defense Threat Reduction Agency.

  11. Split-mouth and parallel-arm trials to compare pain with intraosseous anaesthesia delivered by the computerised Quicksleeper system and conventional infiltration anaesthesia in paediatric oral healthcare: protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Smaïl-Faugeron, Violaine; Muller-Bolla, Michèle; Sixou, Jean-Louis; Courson, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Local anaesthesia is commonly used in paediatric oral healthcare. Infiltration anaesthesia is the most frequently used, but recent developments in anaesthesia techniques have introduced an alternative: intraosseous anaesthesia. We propose to perform a split-mouth and parallel-arm multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing the pain caused by the insertion of the needle for the injection of conventional infiltration anaesthesia, and intraosseous anaesthesia by the computerised QuickSleeper system, in children and adolescents. Methods and analysis Inclusion criteria are patients 7–15 years old with at least 2 first permanent molars belonging to the same dental arch (for the split-mouth RCT) or with a first permanent molar (for the parallel-arm RCT) requiring conservative or endodontic treatment limited to pulpotomy. The setting of this study is the Department of Paediatric Dentistry at 3 University dental hospitals in France. The primary outcome measure will be pain reported by the patient on a visual analogue scale concerning the insertion of the needle and the injection/infiltration. Secondary outcomes are latency, need for additional anaesthesia during the treatment and pain felt during the treatment. We will use a computer-generated permuted-block randomisation sequence for allocation to anaesthesia groups. The random sequences will be stratified by centre (and by dental arch for the parallel-arm RCT). Only participants will be blinded to group assignment. Data will be analysed by the intent-to-treat principle. In all, 160 patients will be included (30 in the split-mouth RCT, 130 in the parallel-arm RCT). Ethics and dissemination This protocol has been approved by the French ethics committee for the protection of people (Comité de Protection des Personnes, Ile de France I) and will be conducted in full accordance with accepted ethical principles. Findings will be reported in scientific publications and at research conferences, and in

  12. Dual-arm manipulators with adaptive control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, Homayoun (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The described and improved multi-arm invention of this application presents three strategies for adaptive control of cooperative multi-arm robots which coordinate control over a common load. In the position-position control strategy, the adaptive controllers ensure that the end-effector positions of both arms track desired trajectories in Cartesian space despite unknown time-varying interaction forces exerted through a load. In the position-hybrid control strategy, the adaptive controller of one arm controls end-effector motions in the free directions and applied forces in the constraint directions; while the adaptive controller of the other arm ensures that the end-effector tracks desired position trajectories. In the hybrid-hybrid control strategy, the adaptive controllers ensure that both end-effectors track reference position trajectories while simultaneously applying desired forces on the load. In all three control strategies, the cross-coupling effects between the arms are treated as disturbances which are compensated for by the adaptive controllers while following desired commands in a common frame of reference. The adaptive controllers do not require the complex mathematical model of the arm dynamics or any knowledge of the arm dynamic parameters or the load parameters such as mass and stiffness. Circuits in the adaptive feedback and feedforward controllers are varied by novel adaptation laws.

  13. JPRS report: Arms control, [June 21, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    1989-06-21

    This document contains articles on arms control. Some topics discussed are chemical bombs, nuclear missiles, targeting, threats, NATO, short range missiles, military inspections, treaties, and nuclear testing.

  14. Adaptive control of dual-arm robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, H.

    1987-01-01

    Three strategies for adaptive control of cooperative dual-arm robots are described. In the position-position control strategy, the adaptive controllers ensure that the end-effector positions of both arms track desired trajectories in Cartesian space despite unknown time-varying interaction forces exerted through the load. In the position-hybrid control strategy, the adaptive controller of one arm controls end-effector motions in the free directions and applied forces in the constraint directions, while the adaptive controller of the other arm ensures that the end-effector tracks desired position trajectories. In the hybrid-hybrid control strategy, the adaptive controllers ensure that both end-effectors track reference position trajectories while simultaneously applying desired forces on the load. In all three control strategies, the cross-coupling effects between the arms are treated as disturbances which are rejected by the adaptive controllers while following desired commands in a common frame of reference. The adaptive controllers do not require the complex mathematical model of the arm dynamics or any knowledge of the arm dynamic parameters or the load parameters such as mass and stiffness. The controllers have simple structures and are computationally fast for on-line implementation with high sampling rates.

  15. Fuzzy Control of Robotic Arm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Kyaw Kyaw; Soe, Aung Kyaw; Thu, Theint Theint

    2008-10-01

    This research work investigates a Self-Tuning Proportional Derivative (PD) type Fuzzy Logic Controller (STPDFLC) for a two link robot system. The proposed scheme adjusts on-line the output Scaling Factor (SF) by fuzzy rules according to the current trend of the robot. The rule base for tuning the output scaling factor is defined on the error (e) and change in error (de). The scheme is also based on the fact that the controller always tries to manipulate the process input. The rules are in the familiar if-then format. All membership functions for controller inputs (e and de) and controller output (UN) are defined on the common interval [-1,1]; whereas the membership functions for the gain updating factor (α) is defined on [0,1]. There are various methods to calculate the crisp output of the system. Center of Gravity (COG) method is used in this application due to better results it gives. Performances of the proposed STPDFLC are compared with those of their corresponding PD-type conventional Fuzzy Logic Controller (PDFLC). The proposed scheme shows a remarkably improved performance over its conventional counterpart especially under parameters variation (payload). The two-link results of analysis are simulated. These simulation results are illustrated by using MATLAB® programming.

  16. Simplified robot arm dynamics for control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, A. K.; Paul, R. P.

    1981-01-01

    A brief summary and evaluation is presented on the use of symbolic state equation techniques in order to represent robot arm dynamics with sufficient accuracy for controlling arm motion. The use of homogeneous transformations and the Lagrangian formulation of mechanics offers a convenient frame for the derivation, analysis and simplification of complex robot dynamics equations. It is pointed out that simplified state equations can represent robot arm dynamics with good accuracy.

  17. Worldwide report: Arms control, [February 28, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    1986-02-28

    This report contains translations/transcriptions of articles and/or broadcasts on arms control. Titles include: USSR Links Space Shuttle Challenger Explosion to SDI; Computer Unreliability Demonstrated; Japanese Question US Technology; Soviet Journal Discusses Arms Proposals, Geneva Summit; French President Justifies Nuclear Arsenal; Canadian Renewal of NORAD Agreement Examined; Cruise Missile Test Discussed; and others.

  18. Lethal tide: The worldwide threat from cheap conventional arms. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    King, C.D.

    1994-04-01

    The twentieth century has seen as unprecedented explosion in the manufacture and use of armaments. This has been accompanied by steady increases in the number, length and lethality of conflicts. Both trends have been accelerating since the end of World War II, especially with regard to the so-called Third World. The focus of most arms control efforts has been on nuclear, chemical and biological weapons, with some secondary concern in the last two decades over sophisticated major conventional armaments. Virtually unnoticed have been the massive quantities of simple, inexpensive arms produced all over the globe and traded in channels overt, covert, and illegal. These items remain useful for many years. Equipment such as mortars and rifles find application in war after war, while ammunition keeps its explosive nature until it detonates. So the world, especially the Third World, has an ever growing sea of cheap arms, the old stuff still dangerous, more added every day. Review of selected conflicts, including Cambodia and Afghanistan, illustrates the depth of the trouble we are in and suggests some possible future directions in order to avoid drowning in this lethal sea.

  19. Nonlinear feedback control of multiple robot arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarn, T. J.; Yun, X.; Bejczy, A. K.

    1987-01-01

    Multiple coordinated robot arms are modeled by considering the arms: (1) as closed kinematic chains, and (2) as a force constrained mechanical system working on the same object simultaneously. In both formulations a new dynamic control method is discussed. It is based on a feedback linearization and simultaneous output decoupling technique. Applying a nonlinear feedback and a nonlinear coordinate transformation, the complicated model of the multiple robot arms in either formulation is converted into a linear and output decoupled system. The linear system control theory and optimal control theory are used to design robust controllers in the task space. The first formulation has the advantage of automatically handling the coordination and load distribution among the robot arms. In the second formulation, by choosing a general output equation, researchers can superimpose the position and velocity error feedback with the force-torque error feedback in the task space simultaneously.

  20. Sensory-Feedback Exoskeletal Arm Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    An, Bin; Massie, Thomas H.; Vayner, Vladimir

    2004-01-01

    An electromechanical exoskeletal arm apparatus has been designed for use in controlling a remote robotic manipulator arm. The apparatus, called a force-feedback exoskeleton arm master (F-EAM) is comfortable to wear and easy to don and doff. It provides control signals from the wearer s arm to a robot arm or a computer simulator (e.g., a virtual-reality system); it also provides force and torque feedback from sensors on the robot arm or from the computer simulator to the wearer s arm. The F-EAM enables the wearer to make the robot arm gently touch objects and finely manipulate them without exerting excessive forces. The F-EAM features a lightweight design in which the motors and gear heads that generate force and torque feedback are made smaller than they ordinarily would be: this is achieved by driving the motors to power levels greater than would ordinarily be used in order to obtain higher torques, and by providing active liquid cooling of the motors to prevent overheating at the high drive levels. The F-EAM (see figure) includes an assembly that resembles a backpack and is worn like a backpack, plus an exoskeletal arm mechanism. The FEAM has five degrees of freedom (DOFs) that correspond to those of the human arm: 1. The first DOF is that of the side-to-side rotation of the upper arm about the shoulder (rotation about axis 1). The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 1 via drum 1 and a planar four-bar linkage. 2. The second DOF is that of the up-and-down rotation of the arm about the shoulder. The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 2 via drum 2. 3. The third DOF is that of twisting of the upper arm about its longitudinal axis. This DOF is implemented in a cable remote-center mechanism (CRCM). The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 3, which drives the upper-arm cuff and the mechanism below it. A bladder inflatable by gas or liquid is placed between the cuff and the wearer s upper arm to compensate for misalignment

  1. Superpower arms control. Setting the record straight

    SciTech Connect

    Carnesale, A.; Haass, R.N.

    1987-01-01

    This book identifies the preconceptions about the arms control process and tests them against the historical record of negotiations and accords. The result is much-needed evidence and analysis of issues too often obscured by emotion and ideology, as well as important new conclusions about how arms control agreements have - or have not - influenced verification, meaningful restraints on new technology development, Soviet domestic policy, and U.S. defense spending.

  2. Adaptive Control Strategies for Flexible Robotic Arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bialasiewicz, Jan T.

    1996-01-01

    The control problem of a flexible robotic arm has been investigated. The control strategies that have been developed have a wide application in approaching the general control problem of flexible space structures. The following control strategies have been developed and evaluated: neural self-tuning control algorithm, neural-network-based fuzzy logic control algorithm, and adaptive pole assignment algorithm. All of the above algorithms have been tested through computer simulation. In addition, the hardware implementation of a computer control system that controls the tip position of a flexible arm clamped on a rigid hub mounted directly on the vertical shaft of a dc motor, has been developed. An adaptive pole assignment algorithm has been applied to suppress vibrations of the described physical model of flexible robotic arm and has been successfully tested using this testbed.

  3. Intelligence support to arms control. Study project

    SciTech Connect

    Grisham, A.E.

    1990-04-09

    This paper argues that intelligence support is critical to the success of arms control. It identifies and describes the roles of intelligence in the arms control process, describes the existing intelligence organizational structure for arms control support, and identifies and analyzes issues. The roles include support to policy formulation, support to treaty negotiation, support to ratification, and finally, during verification, support for the implementation of the treaty through monitoring. The Director of Central Intelligence is responsible for monitoring, while the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency has responsibility for verification. Adjudication of conflicting interpretations occurs within the NSC committee structure. For several reasons, intelligence cannot be expected to do the actual verification of an arms control treaty. Most importantly, determination of an acceptable degree of confidence is always a political issue, although based on military judgement. Assigning intelligence responsibility for monitoring, rather than verification, helps to limit the politicization of intelligence. Issues identified during the research for this paper were analyzed within three subgroups: those inherent in the intelligence discipline; these must be managed successfully to limit adverse impact on intelligence products. Second, issues and challenges inherent in arms control bureaucratic relationships; these are best managed by keeping separate the actual monitoring analysis and verification this gives the West justification for caution, and reinforces the need for continued emphasis on verification.

  4. New Horizons and New Strategies in Arms Control

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J. editor

    1998-12-04

    In the last ten years, since the break-up of the Soviet Union, remarkable progress in arms control and disarmament has occurred. The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), the completion of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), and the Chemical Weapons Treaty (CWC) are indicative of the great strides made in the non- proliferation arena. Simultaneously, the Intermediate Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF), the Conventional Forces Treaty in Europe (CFE), and the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaties (START), all associated with US-Soviet Union (now Russia) relations have assisted in redefining European relations and the security landscape. Finally, it now appears that progress is in the offing in developing enhanced compliance measures for the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC). In sum, all of these achievements have set the stage for the next round of arms control activities, which may lead to a much broader, and perhaps more diffused multilateral agenda. In this new and somewhat unpredictable international setting, arms control and disarmament issues will require solutions that are both more creative and innovative than heretofore.

  5. Systems Approach to Arms Control Verification

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, K; Neimeyer, I; Listner, C; Stein, G; Chen, C; Dreicer, M

    2015-05-15

    Using the decades of experience of developing concepts and technologies for verifying bilateral and multilateral arms control agreements, a broad conceptual systems approach is being developed that takes into account varying levels of information and risk. The IAEA has already demonstrated the applicability of a systems approach by implementing safeguards at the State level, with acquisition path analysis as the key element. In order to test whether such an approach could also be implemented for arms control verification, an exercise was conducted in November 2014 at the JRC ITU Ispra. Based on the scenario of a hypothetical treaty between two model nuclear weapons states aimed at capping their nuclear arsenals at existing levels, the goal of this exercise was to explore how to use acquisition path analysis in an arms control context. Our contribution will present the scenario, objectives and results of this exercise, and attempt to define future workshops aimed at further developing verification measures that will deter or detect treaty violations.

  6. Motion control of 7-DOF arms - The configuration control approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, Homayoun; Long, Mark K.; Lee, Thomas S.

    1993-01-01

    Graphics simulation and real-time implementation of configuration control schemes for a redundant 7-DOF Robotics Research arm are described. The arm kinematics and motion control schemes are described briefly. This is followed by a description of a graphics simulation environment for 7-DOF arm control on the Silicon Graphics IRIS Workstation. Computer simulation results are presented to demonstrate elbow control, collision avoidance, and optimal joint movement as redundancy resolution goals. The laboratory setup for experimental validation of motion control of the 7-DOF Robotics Research arm is then described. The configuration control approach is implemented on a Motorola-68020/VME-bus-based real-time controller, with elbow positioning for redundancy resolution. Experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of configuration control for real-time control.

  7. XTOD to Conventional Facilities Interface Control Document

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, D

    2005-09-29

    This document describes the interface between the LCLS X-ray Transport and Diagnostics (XTOD) (WBS 1.5) and the LCLS Conventional Facilities (CF) (WBS 1.1). The interface locations ranging from the beam dump to the far experimental hall are identified. Conventional Facilities provides x-ray, beamline and equipment enclosures, mounting surfaces, conventional utilities, compressed (clean, dry) air, process and purge gases, exhaust systems, power, and environmental conditions for the XTOD components and controls.

  8. Gorbachev's arms-control strategy. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nogee, J.L.

    1987-01-22

    Soviet foreign policy under the Gorbachev administration, along with domestic policy, has been in a state of flux, particularly in the realm of arms-control policy. Both in substance and style, Gorbachev introduced a new dynamic in arms-control policy. He has skillfully manipulated the issue for propaganda appeal. But also he has shown flexibility in modifying Soviet positions both to respond to U.S. demands and to exert pressure on the United States to reach an agreement. Soviet arms-control objectives (some of which are incompatible) may be realized either through a formal agreement with the United States or without an agreement. These objectives include: (a) to use arms control to build a new framework for relations with the United States to replace detente; (b) to kill the Strategic Defense Initiative; (c) to constrain U.S. development in manned aircraft and cruise missiles (d) to deligitimize nuclear weapons as an instrument of military strategy; (e) to exacerbate differences between the United States and Europe. During his first year in power, Gorbachev relied heavily on propaganda with calls for eliminating nuclear weapons by the 21st century, his test ban moratorium and denunciation of SDI. After the 21st Party Congress he significantly modified Soviet positions closer to those of the United States with his acceptance of the zero option for INF forces, deep cuts in strategic weapons and willingness to accept limited research on SDI. Gorbachev now sees an arms control agreement as essential to his program for domestic reform and is prepared to make genuine concessions to achieve it.

  9. Verification and transparency in future arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, J.F.

    1996-09-01

    Verification`s importance has changed dramatically over time, although it always has been in the forefront of arms control. The goals and measures of verification and the criteria for success have changed with the times as well, reflecting such factors as the centrality of the prospective agreement to East-West relations during the Cold War, the state of relations between the United States and the Soviet Union, and the technologies available for monitoring. Verification`s role may be declining in the post-Cold War period. The prospects for such a development will depend, first and foremost, on the high costs of traditional arms control, especially those associated with requirements for verification. Moreover, the growing interest in informal, or non-negotiated arms control does not allow for verification provisions by the very nature of these arrangements. Multilateral agreements are also becoming more prominent and argue against highly effective verification measures, in part because of fears of promoting proliferation by opening sensitive facilities to inspectors from potential proliferant states. As a result, it is likely that transparency and confidence-building measures will achieve greater prominence, both as supplements to and substitutes for traditional verification. Such measures are not panaceas and do not offer all that we came to expect from verification during the Cold war. But they may be the best possible means to deal with current problems of arms reductions and restraints at acceptable levels of expenditure.

  10. Arms control and the Federal Republic of Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrieder, W.F.

    1987-01-01

    These essays explore the implications of arms control negotiations for the FRG and consider why Germany has traditionally found it impossible to divorce considerations of arms control from their larger political context.

  11. Monitoring and Controlling an Underwater Robotic Arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, John; Todd, Brian Keith; Woodcock, Larry; Robinson, Fred M.

    2009-01-01

    The SSRMS Module 1 software is part of a system for monitoring an adaptive, closed-loop control of the motions of a robotic arm in NASA s Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory, where buoyancy in a pool of water is used to simulate the weightlessness of outer space. This software is so named because the robot arm is a replica of the Space Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS). This software is distributed, running on remote joint processors (RJPs), each of which is mounted in a hydraulic actuator comprising the joint of the robotic arm and communicating with a poolside processor denoted the Direct Control Rack (DCR). Each RJP executes the feedback joint-motion control algorithm for its joint and communicates with the DCR. The DCR receives joint-angular-velocity commands either locally from an operator or remotely from computers that simulate the flight like SSRMS and perform coordinated motion calculations based on hand-controller inputs. The received commands are checked for validity before they are transmitted to the RJPs. The DCR software generates a display of the statuses of the RJPs for the DCR operator and can shut down the hydraulic pump when excessive joint-angle error or failure of a RJP is detected.

  12. Tags and seals for arms control verification

    SciTech Connect

    DeVolpi, A.

    1990-09-18

    Tags and seals have long been recognized as important tools in arms control. The trend in control of armaments is to limit militarily significant equipment that is capable of being verified through direct and cooperative means, chiefly on-site inspection or monitoring. Although this paper will focus on the CFE treaty, the role of tags and seals for other treaties will also be addressed. Published technology and concepts will be reviewed, based on open sources. Arms control verification tags are defined as unique identifiers designed to be tamper-revealing; in that respect, seals are similar, being used as indicators of unauthorized access. Tamper-revealing tags might be considered as single-point markers, seals as two-point couplings, and nets as volume containment. The functions of an arms control tag can be considered to be two-fold: to provide field verification of the identity of a treaty-limited item (TLI), and to have a means of authentication of the tag and its tamper-revealing features. Authentication could take place in the field or be completed elsewhere. For CFE, the goal of tags and seals can be to reduce the overall cost of the entire verification system.

  13. Satellites for arms control and crisis monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Jasani, B.; Sakata, T.

    1987-01-01

    This book describes some of the technologies required for observation satellites for arms control and crisis monitoring, with examples to illustrate the potential of the latest technological developments, and examines the various institutional and political aspects of establishing this form of verification on an international basis. Part I of this book presents the background to the issues covered by the SIPRI-Tokai University Symposium. Parts II and III comprise the papers presented at the symposium.

  14. Verifying arms control treaties to deter violations

    SciTech Connect

    Strait, R.S.; Judd, B.R.

    1988-06-23

    Verification has developed into a very important arms control issue. As evidenced by the recent Senate debates concerning ratification of the INF Treaty, verification can be a very controversial and emotional topic. In addition, verification's importance will surely continue for the foreseeable future. It is a major issue in the negotiations toward large reductions in strategic weapons and will gain even greater importance should deeper cuts be considered. 34 refs., 7 figs.

  15. Military consensus behind Soviet arms control proposals

    SciTech Connect

    Weickhardt, G.C.

    1987-09-01

    For nearly two years General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev has tried to entice the West with a spectacular array of arms control proposals and initiatives. On issues such as on-site inspections and European missile reductions, he has made such significant concessions over previous Soviet positions that questions have been raised, and not satisfactorily answered, about how much support Gorbachev's diplomacy enjoys among the Soviet military. For example, have Gorbachev's proposals been a bold personal gamble to achieve agreement without the prior approval of the Soviet military bureaucracy. Or does his arms control diplomacy represent a broad consensus among the military leadership and a realignment of Soviet military doctrine and grand strategy. A careful examination of recent Soviet military thought shows that such a consensus exists. A broad and stable coalition of key military leaders supports the General Secretary's policies. Moreover, recent Soviet concessions are not, as commonly argued, a stopgap ploy to halt the US Strategic Defense Initiative or Star Wars. Rather, the military's support for Gorbachev's arms-control diplomacy is based on some serious strategic analysis and stems from broad, fundamental, and enduring changes in Soviet national security policy.

  16. Dual-Arm Generalized Compliant Motion With Shared Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backes, Paul G.

    1994-01-01

    Dual-Arm Generalized Compliant Motion (DAGCM) primitive computer program implementing improved unified control scheme for two manipulator arms cooperating in task in which both grasp same object. Provides capabilities for autonomous, teleoperation, and shared control of two robot arms. Unifies cooperative dual-arm control with multi-sensor-based task control and makes complete task-control capability available to higher-level task-planning computer system via large set of input parameters used to describe desired force and position trajectories followed by manipulator arms. Some concepts discussed in "A Generalized-Compliant-Motion Primitive" (NPO-18134).

  17. Measurements of surgeons' exposure to ionizing radiation dose: comparison of conventional and mini C-arm fluoroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sung, K H; Min, E; Chung, C Y; Jo, B C; Park, M S; Lee, K

    2016-03-01

    This study was performed to measure the equivalent scattered radiation dose delivered to susceptible organs while simulating orthopaedic surgery using conventional and mini C-arm fluoroscopy. In addition, shielding effects on the thyroid, thymus, and gonad, and the direct exposure delivered to the patient's hands were also compared. A conventional and mini C-arms were installed in an operating room, and a hand and an operator phantom were used to simulate a patient's hand and a surgeon. Photoluminescence dosimeters were used to measure the equivalent dose by scattered radiation arriving at the thyroid, thymus, and gonad on a whole-body phantom in the position of the surgeon. Equivalent scattered radiation doses were measured in four groups: (1) unshielded conventional C-arm group; (2) unshielded mini C-arm group; (3) lead-shielded conventional C-arm group; and (4) lead-shielded mini C-arm group. Equivalent scattered radiation doses to the unshielded group were significantly lower in the mini C-arm group than those in the conventional C-arm group for all organs. The gonad in the lead-shielded conventional C-arm group showed the highest equivalent dose among operator-susceptible organs, and radiation dose was reduced by approximately 96% compared with that in the unshielded group. Scattered radiation was not detected in any susceptible organ in the lead-shielded mini C-arm group. The direct radiation dose to the hand phantom measured from the mini C-arm was significantly lower than that measured from the conventional C-arm. The results show that the equivalent scattered radiation dose to the surgeon's susceptible organs and the direct radiation dose to a patient's hand can be decreased significantly by using a mini C-arm rather than a conventional C-arm. However, protective lead garments, such as a thyroid shield and apron, should be applied to minimize radiation exposure to susceptible organs, even during use of mini C-arm fluoroscopy. PMID:26115681

  18. Worldwide report: Arms control, [February 21, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    1986-02-21

    This report contains translations/transcriptions of articles and/or broadcasts on arms control. Titles include: SDI Brainchild of Military-Industrial Complex, Not Reagan; More Polish Coverage of SDI Debate in FRG; France`s Gen. Gallois on USSR Modernization Plan; Soviet Naval Journal, Trident Has First-Strike Roll; Dutch Party Leader on Cruise Treaty, Elections; Soviet Training Methods Against Chemical Weapons; USSR Views Disarmament Conference Session Held in Geneva; Time `Running Out` for Moratorium Decision; Nordic Labor Unions Urge New Nuclear Free Zone Conference; Goals of Geneva Disarmament Meeting; and others.

  19. JPRS report: Arms control, [May 3, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    1989-05-03

    This report contains translations of articles and/or broadcasts on arms control. Titles include: Further Reports on UNITA Accusation of Toxic Bomb` Use; Balkan Nuclear-Free Zone Endorsed at Zhivkov-Papandreou Summit; Soviet Troop Withdrawal from Hungary Viewed; Unilateral Force Reduction, Transfers Begin; Partial Withdrawal of Soviet Forces Begins; Satellite Launch Vehicle Not to Be Ready Before 1992; Armitage Statement on Common Missile Defense Policy with Israel Hit; NATO`s Woerner Says Agreement Possible on Missiles; Danish Foreign Minister Backs FRG Position on SNF; and others.

  20. Research on ARM Numerical Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xu; JiHong, Chen

    Computerized Numerical Control (CNC) machine tools is the foundation of modern manufacturing systems, whose advanced digital technology is the key to solve the problem of sustainable development of machine tool manufacturing industry. The paper is to design CNC system embedded on ARM and indicates the hardware design and the software systems supported. On the hardware side: the driving chip of the motor control unit, as the core of components, is MCX314AL of DSP motion control which is developed by NOVA Electronics Co., Ltd. of Japan. It make convenient to control machine because of its excellent performance, simple interface, easy programming. On the Software side, the uC/OS-2 is selected as the embedded operating system of the open source, which makes a detailed breakdown of the modules of the CNC system. Those priorities are designed according to their actual requirements. The ways of communication between the module and the interrupt response are so different that it guarantees real-time property and reliability of the numerical control system. Therefore, it not only meets the requirements of the current social precision machining, but has good man-machine interface and network support to facilitate a variety of craftsmen use.

  1. Arms Control and National Security: An Introduction. Advance Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arms Control Association, Washington, DC.

    Suitable for use with high school students, this booklet on arms control and national security provides background information, describes basic concepts, reviews recent history, and offers suggestions for further reading. The first section, on American attitudes toward national security and arms control, defines five types of limits on weapons…

  2. Experimental validation of flexible robot arm modeling and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulsoy, A. Galip

    1989-01-01

    Flexibility is important for high speed, high precision operation of lightweight manipulators. Accurate dynamic modeling of flexible robot arms is needed. Previous work has mostly been based on linear elasticity with prescribed rigid body motions (i.e., no effect of flexible motion on rigid body motion). Little or no experimental validation of dynamic models for flexible arms is available. Experimental results are also limited for flexible arm control. Researchers include the effects of prismatic as well as revolute joints. They investigate the effect of full coupling between the rigid and flexible motions, and of axial shortening, and consider the control of flexible arms using only additional sensors.

  3. Keeping the peace green: Integrating arms control and environmental protection

    SciTech Connect

    Tanzman, E.A.; Kellman, B.

    1994-10-21

    This talk is about how to avoid turning swords into Superfund sites. The problem we address is the potential conflict between the desire to take advantage of the greater international security brought by the end of the Cold War by entering arms control agreements requiring various military weapons to be dismantled, and the desire to avoid further degrading the environment in the process of destroying them. We will use as an illustration of these issues the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), which is intended to cause the destruction of all chemical weapons in the world. First, we will provide a brief overview of the CWC, then we will focus in on its environmental provisions, and, finally, we will discuss potential conflicts with United States law and how they might be resolved.

  4. Arms control and the rule of law

    SciTech Connect

    Tanzman, E.A.

    1995-03-01

    Many who speak of the end of the Cold War emphasize the warming of international relations when they speak of the momentous consequences of this event. According to this image, the half century since Trinity has been a period of sparse international communication during which the Eastern and Western blocs hibernated in their isolated dens of security alliances. Yet it is equally valid to consider the implications of the end of the war footing that has underlain the policies of all of the major military powers during the last fifty years. While meaningful international dialogue was in a state of relative lethargy during much of this period, the military establishments of the Great Powers were actively engaged in using as much force as possible in their efforts to control world affairs, short of triggering a nuclear holocaust. International discourse, at least in English, was rife with such military images as appeasement, containment, crisis stability, and tripwires. From the military posture of the U.S. and Russia a tense peace ironically emerged, but the terms by which decisions were made about controlling weapons of mass destruction (i.e., nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons) were the terms of war. The thesis of this paper is that the end of the Cold War marks a shift away from reliance on military might toward an international commitment to control weapons of mass destruction through the rule of law developed by John Rawls. The progression of agreements during this century to limit weapons of mass destruction testifies to this new development. A review of arms control agreements that the U.S. is a part of show clear growth of the rule of law as the world has left the Cold War.

  5. Nuclear modernization and arms control in NATO

    SciTech Connect

    Kanter, A.

    1988-12-01

    The INF Treaty and its aftermath have not simply returned NATO to a world without ground-launched cruise missiles (GLCMs), Pershing II, and the SS-20, but have crystallized and reinforced long-standing questions about the credibility of NATO's strategy of flexible response, the appropriate role of theater nuclear weapons in the future, and the prospects for continued U.S. leadership of the Alliance. These issues come together in a consideration of whether and how NATO should modernize its remaining nuclear forces. This Note analyzes different ways in which NATO can respond to the nuclear requirements that flow from its strategy. It considers how INF Treaty constraints and prospective START limits, as well as the special place and concerns of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), bear on the various possibilities. It also assesses the implications of different choices for Alliance cohesion, U.S. leadership of NATO, and extended deterrence. On the basis of that analysis, it describes an approach to NATO nuclear modernization and arms control.

  6. Arms control: moral, political and historical lesson

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, K.W.

    1990-01-01

    Many of the world's most influential policy-makers and analysts view arms control as a scientific and technological problem. They measure a nation's nuclear power exclusively by megatonnage and throw-weights leaving the intangible elements of military and political power to philosophers and historians. They tend to ignore the human and qualitative aspects of power. This is a book that shift the emphasis to aspects of the nuclear problem which are sometimes overlooked. Basically, these elements are bound up in the moral, political, and historical lessons of the nuclear age. Nonquantitative factors have been central to studies of national defense and military power since the rise of the modern nation state system. However, most students of present-day nuclear weapons tend to stress their revolutionary character. Because they are considered wholly unique, analysts tend to write about them in a historical and apolitical terms. One purpose of the collection of papers in this little volume is to redirect attention to the moral, political, and historical lessons that the nuclear age presents. What most distinguishes the writings of contributors to this volume is their use of certain well-established principles and concepts long acknowledged in military and foreign policy analysis. Thus Father Hehir asks many of the same questions that students of ethics and foreign policy have asked for four hundred years.

  7. Attitudes about Arms Control and Effects of "The Day After."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Linden L.; Slem, Charles M.

    An 18-item questionnaire was designed to investigate relationships between attitude towards arms control and beliefs about nuclear weapon effects, probability of war, Soviet goals, and the importance of nuclear arms superiority. Effects of the television movie, "The Day After," were also assessed by administering the questionnaire eight days…

  8. Kinematic feedback control laws for generating natural arm movements.

    PubMed

    Kim, Donghyun; Jang, Cheongjae; Park, Frank C

    2014-03-01

    We propose a stochastic optimal feedback control law for generating natural robot arm motions. Our approach, inspired by the minimum variance principle of Harris and Wolpert (1998 Nature 394 780-4) and the optimal feedback control principles put forth by Todorov and Jordan (2002 Nature Neurosci. 5 1226-35) for explaining human movements, differs in two crucial respects: (i) the endpoint variance is minimized in joint space rather than Cartesian hand space, and (ii) we ignore the dynamics and instead consider only the second-order differential kinematics. The feedback control law generating the motions can be straightforwardly obtained by backward integration of a set of ordinary differential equations; these equations are obtained exactly, without any linear-quadratic approximations. The only parameters to be determined a priori are the variance scale factors, and for both the two-DOF planar arm and the seven-DOF spatial arm, a table of values is constructed based on the given initial and final arm configurations; these values are determined via an optimal fitting procedure, and consistent with existing findings about neuromuscular motor noise levels of human arm muscles. Experiments conducted with a two-link planar arm and a seven-DOF spatial arm verify that the trajectories generated by our feedback control law closely resemble human arm motions, in the sense of producing nearly straight-line hand trajectories, having bell-shaped velocity profiles, and satisfying Fitts Law. PMID:24343165

  9. The purposes, achievements, and priorities of arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, P.S.

    1987-09-01

    Arms control purposes include strengthening the framework of deterrence and reducing the threat of the use of nuclear weapons, reducing the dangers of attack and accidental nuclear war, and allowing more resources for the civilian economy. The paper briefly describes achievements in arms control since World War II. These include the Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT), Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT), Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABMT)-SALT I, SALT II, Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT), Peaceful Nuclear Explosions Treaty (PNET), and Nuclear-Free Zones treaties. The author also discusses his views on what the priorities of arms control activities should be. (ACR)

  10. Arm coordination in octopus crawling involves unique motor control strategies.

    PubMed

    Levy, Guy; Flash, Tamar; Hochner, Binyamin

    2015-05-01

    To cope with the exceptional computational complexity that is involved in the control of its hyper-redundant arms [1], the octopus has adopted unique motor control strategies in which the central brain activates rather autonomous motor programs in the elaborated peripheral nervous system of the arms [2, 3]. How octopuses coordinate their eight long and flexible arms in locomotion is still unknown. Here, we present the first detailed kinematic analysis of octopus arm coordination in crawling. The results are surprising in several respects: (1) despite its bilaterally symmetrical body, the octopus can crawl in any direction relative to its body orientation; (2) body and crawling orientation are monotonically and independently controlled; and (3) contrasting known animal locomotion, octopus crawling lacks any apparent rhythmical patterns in limb coordination, suggesting a unique non-rhythmical output of the octopus central controller. We show that this uncommon maneuverability is derived from the radial symmetry of the arms around the body and the simple pushing-by-elongation mechanism by which the arms create the crawling thrust. These two together enable a mechanism whereby the central controller chooses in a moment-to-moment fashion which arms to recruit for pushing the body in an instantaneous direction. Our findings suggest that the soft molluscan body has affected in an embodied way [4, 5] the emergence of the adaptive motor behavior of the octopus. PMID:25891406

  11. Control strategy for a dual-arm maneuverable space robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, P. K. C.

    1987-01-01

    A simple strategy for the attitude control and arm coordination of a maneuverable space robot with dual arms is proposed. The basic task for the robot consists of the placement of marked rigid solid objects with specified pairs of gripping points and a specified direction of approach for gripping. The strategy consists of three phases each of which involves only elementary rotational and translational collision-free maneuvers of the robot body. Control laws for these elementary maneuvers are derived by using a body-referenced dynamic model of the dual-arm robot.

  12. Arms control in the Korean peninsula. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, H.

    1986-05-01

    Since the end of the Korean War, both North and South Korea have been building up their military power. This arms race has increased the risk of a military conflict between the North and South which could result in major power involvement. In recent years, various measures have been attempted to enhance stability in Korea to no avail. When the situation becomes more favorable for negotiations, the most difficult problem will be arms control. This paper discusses the interests of the two countries and of the four major powers involved and suggests a suitable format for arms control agreements.

  13. Prospect for future South-Korea arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Y.

    1992-04-22

    This study deals with the Hot issues of the first five Prime Ministers (PM) meetings, which encompassed 15 months of negotiations and have resulted in the completion of the Agreement on South-North Reconciliation/Non-aggression and Cooperation after 46 years of division. After the signing of the agreement, detailed worker level progress has culminated in North Korea signing the nuclear safety treaty of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Acceptance of International Inspection of Nuclear Facilities South-North civil economic progress is on the way and at the 6th meeting, a head of state meeting was discussed. Taking all this into consideration, it is safe to say that an affirmative direction is being taken towards South-North relations. In this arena, a critical element for better South-North relations is arms control. If meetings on arms control between South-North make good progress, the solution for the Korean peninsula's reunification, as well as detente, will be achieved more quickly. Therefore, arms control on the Korean peninsula should be considered as an important point for improvement of the future South-North Korean relationship. The important fact that we should remember is that arms control is a common issue. Arms control should be solved by South-North Korea because a phased arms control can develop prior to conditions for reunification.

  14. Supporting the President's Arms Control and Nonproliferation Agenda: Transparency and Verification for Nuclear Arms Reductions

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, James E; Meek, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    The President's arms control and nonproliferation agenda is still evolving and the details of initiatives supporting it remain undefined. This means that DOE, NNSA, NA-20, NA-24 and the national laboratories can help define the agenda, and the policies and the initiatives to support it. This will require effective internal and interagency coordination. The arms control and nonproliferation agenda is broad and includes the path-breaking goal of creating conditions for the elimination of nuclear weapons. Responsibility for various elements of the agenda will be widely scattered across the interagency. Therefore an interagency mapping exercise should be performed to identify the key points of engagement within NNSA and other agencies for creating effective policy coordination mechanisms. These can include informal networks, working groups, coordinating committees, interagency task forces, etc. It will be important for NA-20 and NA-24 to get a seat at the table and a functional role in many of these coordinating bodies. The arms control and nonproliferation agenda comprises both mature and developing policy initiatives. The more mature elements such as CTBT ratification and a follow-on strategic nuclear arms treaty with Russia have defined milestones. However, recent press reports indicate that even the START follow-on strategic arms pact that is planned to be complete by the end of 2009 may take significantly longer and be more expansive in scope. The Russians called for proposals to count non-deployed as well as deployed warheads. Other elements of the agenda such as FMCT, future bilateral nuclear arms reductions following a START follow-on treaty, nuclear posture changes, preparations for an international nuclear security summit, strengthened international safeguards and multilateral verification are in much earlier stages of development. For this reason any survey of arms control capabilities within the USG should be structured to address potential needs across the

  15. Prediction in the Vestibular Control of Arm Movements.

    PubMed

    Blouin, Jean; Bresciani, Jean-Pierre; Guillaud, Etienne; Simoneau, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of vestibular signals to motor control has been evidenced in postural, locomotor, and oculomotor studies. Here, we review studies showing that vestibular information also contributes to the control of arm movements during whole-body motion. The data reviewed suggest that vestibular information is used by the arm motor system to maintain the initial hand position or the planned hand trajectory unaltered during body motion. This requires integration of vestibular and cervical inputs to determine the trunk motion dynamics. These studies further suggest that the vestibular control of arm movement relies on rapid and efficient vestibulomotor transformations that cannot be considered automatic. We also reviewed evidence suggesting that the vestibular afferents can be used by the brain to predict and counteract body-rotation-induced torques (e.g., Coriolis) acting on the arm when reaching for a target while turning the trunk. PMID:26595953

  16. Some piloting experiences with multifunction isometric side-arm controllers in a helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    The installation of two side-arm mounted, isometric controllers in the NAE Airborne Simulator, a modified, variable stability Bell 205 A is described, as is the development of various control systems for use with them. The results of two experiments are presented indicating both the feasibility and acceptability of such systems for a wide variety of tasks in a conventional single rotor helicopter, with a minimum of stability augmentation. Areas of future research are indicated.

  17. Control of flexible arms with friction in the joints

    SciTech Connect

    Feliu, V.; Rattan, K.S.; Brown, H.B. Jr.

    1993-08-01

    The control of flexible arms with friction in the joints is studied. A method to identify the dynamics of a flexible arm from its frequency response (which is strongly distorted by Coulomb`s friction) is proposed. A robust control scheme that minimizes the effects of this friction is presented. The scheme consists of two nested feedback loops: an inner loop to control the motor position and an outer loop to control the tip position. It is shown that a proper design of the inner loop eliminates the effect so friction while controlling the tip position and significantly simplifies the design of the outer loop. The proposed scheme is applied to a class of lightweight flexible arms, and the experiments show that the control scheme results in a simple controller. As a result, the computations are minimized and, thus, high sampling rates may be used.

  18. Configuration control of seven degree of freedom arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, Homayoun (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A seven-degree-of-freedom robot arm with a six-degree-of-freedom end effector is controlled by a processor employing a 6-by-7 Jacobian matrix for defining location and orientation of the end effector in terms of the rotation angles of the joints, a 1 (or more)-by-7 Jacobian matrix for defining 1 (or more) user-specified kinematic functions constraining location or movement of selected portions of the arm in terms of the joint angles, the processor combining the two Jacobian matrices to produce an augmented 7 (or more)-by-7 Jacobian matrix, the processor effecting control by computing in accordance with forward kinematics from the augmented 7-by-7 Jacobian matrix and from the seven joint angles of the arm a set of seven desired joint angles for transmittal to the joint servo loops of the arms. One of the kinematic functions constrains the orientation of the elbow plane of the arm. Another one of the kinematic functions minimizing a sum of gravitational torques on the joints. Still another one of the kinematic functions constrains the location of the arm to perform collision avoidance. Generically, one of the kinematic functions minimizes a sum of selected mechanical parameters of at least some of the joints associated with weighting coefficients which may be changed during arm movement. The mechanical parameters may be velocity errors or position errors or gravity torques associated with individual joints.

  19. Configuration control of seven-degree-of-freedom arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, Homayoun (Inventor); Long, Mark K. (Inventor); Lee, Thomas S. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A seven degree of freedom robot arm with a six degree of freedom end effector is controlled by a processor employing a 6 by 7 Jacobian matrix for defining location and orientation of the end effector in terms of the rotation angles of the joints, a 1 (or more) by 7 Jacobian matrix for defining 1 (or more) user specified kinematic functions constraining location or movement of selected portions of the arm in terms of the joint angles, the processor combining the two Jacobian matrices to produce an augmented 7 (or more) by 7 Jacobian matrix, the processor effecting control by computing in accordance with forward kinematics from the augmented 7 by 7 Jacobian matrix and from the seven joint angles of the arm a set of seven desired joint angles for transmittal to the joint servo loops of the arm. One of the kinematic functions constraints the orientation of the elbow plane of the arm. Another one of the kinematic functions minimizes a sum of gravitational torques on the joints. Still another kinematic function constrains the location of the arm to perform collision avoidance. Generically, one kinematic function minimizes a sum of selected mechanical parameters of at least some of the joints associated with weighting coefficients which may be changed during arm movement. The mechanical parameters may be velocity errors or gravity torques associated with individual joints.

  20. Packaging Of Control Circuits In A Robot Arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kast, William

    1994-01-01

    Packaging system houses and connects control circuitry mounted on circuit boards within shoulder, upper section, and lower section of seven-degree-of-freedom robot arm. Has modular design that incorporates surface-mount technology, multilayer circuit boards, large-scale integrated circuits, and multi-layer flat cables between sections for compactness. Three sections of robot arm contain circuit modules in form of stardardized circuit boards. Each module contains two printed-circuit cards, one of each face.

  1. Gravitoinertial force level influences arm movement control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisk, J.; Lackner, J. R.; DiZio, P.

    1993-01-01

    1. The ability to move the forearm between remembered elbow joint angles immediately after rapid increases or decreases of the background gravitoinertial force (G) level was measured. The movements had been well-practiced in a normal 1G environment before the measurements in high-(1.8G) and low-force (0G) environments. The forearm and upper arm were always unsupported to maximize the influence of altered G-loading and to minimize extraneous cues about arm position. 2. Horizontal and vertical movement planes were studied to measure the effects of varying the G load in the movement plane within a given G background. Rapid and slow movements were studied to assess the role of proprioceptive feedback. 3. G level did not affect the amplitude of rapid movements, indicating that subjects were able to plan and to generate appropriate motor commands for the new G loading of the arm. The amplitude of slow movements was affected by G level, indicating that proprioceptive feedback is influenced by G level. 4. The effects of G level were similar for horizontal and vertical movements, indicating that proprioceptive information from supporting structures, such as the shoulder joint and muscles, had a role in allowing generation of the appropriate motor commands. 5. The incidence and size of dynamic overshoots were greater in 0G and for rapid movements. This G-related change in damping suggests a decrease in muscle spindle activity in 0G. A decrease in muscle spindle activity in 0G and an increase in 1.8G are consistent with the results of our prior studies on the tonic vibration reflex, locomotion, and perception of head movement trajectory in varying force backgrounds.

  2. Unconventional digital reactor control without conventional programming

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, R.M.; Johns, R.M.; Kenney, S.J.

    1995-12-31

    Recent advances in simulation technology have resulted in the capability to design, test, and implement advanced control algorithms without the need for the labor-intensive effort of writing and debugging of computer programs. This technology has been adopted for a program of experimental development of power reactor control, which is jointly sponsored by the National Science Foundation and the Electric Power Research Institute. The experimental reactor control test bed utilizes the General Atomic Mark III TRIGA reactor at the Penn State Breazeale reactor facility. Control experiments are conducted within the movable experiment technical specifications of the TRIGA. A digital controller with an experimental control algorithm is interfaced to a secondary control rod (SCR). The new technology presented in this paper utilizes a UNIX network-compatible microprocessor-based controller operating under the Wind River Systems VxWorks real-time operating system. The controller interfaces with the Math-works MATLAB/SIMULINK development environment and Real-Time Innovations 8 monitoring software remotely operated on a SPARC workstation.

  3. Intelligence and arms control - a marriage of convenience

    SciTech Connect

    Hirschfeld, T.J.

    1987-01-01

    This book offers the first comprehensive look at how the vast US intelligence network enables negotiators to forge viable arms control agreements. The intelligence role in all three phases of the arms control process is discussed - from the design phase when reliable information is needed, to the execution phase when proposals are modified, to the maintenance phase when agreed-upon obligations begin to constrain adversary behavior and compliance becomes the key political issue. Contributors include: former CIA Director William E. Colby; Douglas George, Chief of the CIA's Control Intelligence Staff, Admiral Bobby R. Inman, former NSA Director; Hans Mark, former Air Force Secretary and NSA administrator; Walt W. Rostow, National Security Adviser to President Johnson; and Paul Warnke, former Director of the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency and Chief Negotiator for SALT II.

  4. The importance of domestic law to international arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, R.F. II

    1993-11-01

    Studies of arms control and disarmament tend to focus on political, military, and diplomatic processes. Recently, in the context of the conversion of defense activities to civilian use, the economic aspects of arms control have also received renewed interest. The legal dimension, however, is in need of fresh examination. Both international and domestic law are sailing increasingly in uncharted waters. Recent arms control agreements and related developments in international peacekeeping have expanded the scope of international law and altered how one perceives certain fundamentals, including the principle of national sovereignty. Still, the nation state is largely unchallenged as the primary actor in international affairs. National governments retain near absolute sovereign rights and responsibilities even in an age of trans-national economic integration and codified international norms for human rights, freedom of the press, and the peaceful resolution of disputes. Indeed, the role of domestic law in arms control and disarmament may be more significant now than ever before. A brief review of relationships between arms control and domestic law should illustrate ways in which ones thinking has been underestimating the importance of domestic law. Hopefully, this survey will set the stage properly for the excellent, more detailed case studies by Elinor Hammarskjold and Alan Crawford. Toward that end, this paper will highlight a number of more general, and sometimes provocative, themes. These themes should be kept in mind when those two complementary presentations are considered.

  5. Weintek interfaces for controlling the position of a robotic arm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barz, C.; Ilia, M.; Ilut, T.; Pop-Vadean, A.; Pop, P. P.; Dragan, F.

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents the use of Weintek panels to control the position of a robotic arm, operated step by step on the three motor axes. PLC control interface is designed with a Weintek touch screen. The HMI Weintek eMT3070a is the user interface in the process command of the PLC. This HMI controls the local PLC, entering the coordinate on the axes X, Y and Z. The subject allows the development in a virtual environment for e-learning and monitoring the robotic arm actions.

  6. Constitutional and legal implications of arms control verification technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Tanzman, E.A.; Haffenden, R.

    1992-09-01

    United States law can both help and hinder the use of instrumentation as a component of arms control verification in this country. It can foster the general use of sophisticated verification technologies, where such devices are consistent with the value attached to privacy by the Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution. On the other hand, law can hinder reliance on devices that cross this constitutional line, or where such technology itself threatens health, safety, or environment as such threats are defined in federal statutes. The purpose of this conference paper is to explain some of the lessons that have been learned about the relationship between law and verification technologies in the hope that law can help more than hinder. This paper has three parts. In order to start with a common understanding, part I will briefly describe the hierarchy of treaties, the Constitution, federal statutes, and state and local laws. Part 2 will discuss how the specific constitutional requirement that the government respect the right of privacy in all of its endeavors may affect the use of verification technologies. Part 3 will explain the environmental law constraints on verification technology as exemplified by the system of on-site sampling embodied in the current Rolling Text of the Draft Chemical Weapons Convention.

  7. Measurement approaches to support future warhead arms control transparency

    SciTech Connect

    Olinger, C.T.; Frankle, C.M.; Johnson, M.W.; Poths, J.

    1998-12-31

    Transparency on warhead stockpiles, warhead dismantlement, and fissile material stockpiles in nuclear weapons states will become increasingly important in the move beyond START II toward lower quantities of warheads. Congressional support for further warhead reductions will likely depend on the degree of irreversibility, or in other words, the rapidity with which warhead inventories could be reconstituted. Whether irreversibility considerations can be satisfied will depend on monitoring dismantlement as well as constraining the available stockpile of fissile materials for possible refabrication into warheads. Measurement techniques designed to address the above problems will need to consider NPT Article 1 obligations as well as Russian and US classification regulations, which prohibit or restrict the transfer of nuclear warhead design information to other states. Classification considerations currently limit the potential completeness of future inspections of weapons materials. Many conventional international safeguards approaches are not currently viable for arms control applications because they would reveal weapons design information. The authors discuss a variety of technical measures that may help to improve transparence of warhead and fissile material stockpiles and may enable limited warhead dismantlement transparency.

  8. Torque control in lingual orthodontics with lever arm mechanics: a case report.

    PubMed

    Aravind, M; Shivaprakash, G; Ramesh, G C

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this report is to illustrate treatment mechanics for torque control in lingual mechanotherapy using a lever arm and transpalatal arch (TPA) tab system during en masse retraction of anterior teeth. An 18-year-old female with bimaxillary dentoalveolar proclination with crowding was treated with a lever arm-TPA tab system. The retraction tabs bent into the TPA placed across the maxillary second molars were used as anchorage. The retraction force on the maxillary anterior teeth was applied using lever arm hooks soldered between the lateral incisors and canines on a lingual mushroom archwire. By applying a retraction force to the lever arm hooks, the maxillary anterior teeth experienced greater palatal root movement as compared to the conventional retraction forces applied at the crown level. The tabs, placed high in the TPA, produced a distal tipping moment on the maxillary second molars, reinforcing their anchorage. The retraction force applied to the long lever arm hooks from the TPA tabs at the level of center of resistance (CRes) of anterior and posterior teeth is advantageous mainly in two aspects. First, it reinforces the anchorage, and second, it favors the palatal root movement of anterior teeth, thus obtaining better control over the torque during en masse retraction. PMID:23646329

  9. Britain, America and arms control, 1921-37

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, C.

    1987-01-01

    Arms control diplomacy as a central factor in superpower relations is not a new phenomenon. In this book the author traces the rise and fall of a previous arms limitation effort, the naval treaties of the inter-war years, which successfully controlled competition in the strategic weapons of that era - battleships and other vessels of the British, American and other great power navies. He shows the problems and their solutions - many of relevance today - which made the treaties possible, and their major role in the peaceful transfer of leadership of the West from the British Empire to the United States.

  10. Tokyo terror and chemical arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Keeny, S.M. Jr.

    1995-04-01

    The nerve gas attack in the Tokyo subway underscores the extreme vulnerability of urban society to terrorist attacks. The best defense is improved intelligence of potential terrorists and domestic laws permitting pre-emptive action when there is probable cause. If the 1993 Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) were in force, all 159 signatories would be required to have such laws. The author examies the threat and provides some political insights.

  11. Photoelectric radar servo control system based on ARM+FPGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Kaixuan; Zhang, Yue; Li, Yeqiu; Dai, Qin; Yao, Jun

    2016-01-01

    In order to get smaller, faster, and more responsive requirements of the photoelectric radar servo control system. We propose a set of core ARM + FPGA architecture servo controller. Parallel processing capability of FPGA to be used for the encoder feedback data, PWM carrier modulation, A, B code decoding processing and so on; Utilizing the advantage of imaging design in ARM Embedded systems achieves high-speed implementation of the PID algorithm. After the actual experiment, the closed-loop speed of response of the system cycles up to 2000 times/s, in the case of excellent precision turntable shaft, using a PID algorithm to achieve the servo position control with the accuracy of + -1 encoder input code. Firstly, This article carry on in-depth study of the embedded servo control system hardware to determine the ARM and FPGA chip as the main chip with systems based on a pre-measured target required to achieve performance requirements, this article based on ARM chip used Samsung S3C2440 chip of ARM7 architecture , the FPGA chip is chosen xilinx's XC3S400 . ARM and FPGA communicate by using SPI bus, the advantage of using SPI bus is saving a lot of pins for easy system upgrades required thereafter. The system gets the speed datas through the photoelectric-encoder that transports the datas to the FPGA, Then the system transmits the datas through the FPGA to ARM, transforms speed datas into the corresponding position and velocity data in a timely manner, prepares the corresponding PWM wave to control motor rotation by making comparison between the position data and the velocity data setted in advance . According to the system requirements to draw the schematics of the photoelectric radar servo control system and PCB board to produce specially. Secondly, using PID algorithm to control the servo system, the datas of speed obtained from photoelectric-encoder is calculated position data and speed data via high-speed digital PID algorithm and coordinate models. Finally, a

  12. A Short Guide to U.S. Arms Control Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Norman, Ed.; Sussman, Colleen, Ed.

    Steps the United States is taking to lessen the danger of war while building international confidence and security are described. The commitment of the United States to arms control is based on the conviction that the United States and the Soviet Union have a common interest in the avoidance of nuclear war and the survival of the human race. A…

  13. Nexus of technologies : international safeguards, physical protection and arms control.

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, Sabina Erteza; Blair, Dianna Sue; Smartt, Heidi Anne

    2010-09-01

    New technologies have been, and are continuing to be, developed for Safeguards, Arms Control, and Physical Protection. Application spaces and technical requirements are evolving - Overlaps are developing. Lessons learned from IAEA's extensive experience could benefit other communities. Technologies developed for other applications may benefit Safeguards - Inherent cost benefits and improvements in procurement security processes.

  14. Mars Surveyor '98 MVACS Robotic Arm Control System Design Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonitz, Robert G.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the control system design concepts for the Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor (MVACS) Robotic Arm which supports the scientific investigations to be conducted as part of the Mars Surveyor '98 Lander project. Novel solutions are presented to some of the unique problems encountered in this demanding space application with its tight constraints on mass, power, volume, and computing power.

  15. 27 CFR 479.193 - Arms Export Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Arms Export Control Act. 479.193 Section 479.193 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES,...

  16. 27 CFR 479.193 - Arms Export Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Arms Export Control Act. 479.193 Section 479.193 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES,...

  17. 27 CFR 479.193 - Arms Export Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Arms Export Control Act. 479.193 Section 479.193 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES,...

  18. 27 CFR 479.193 - Arms Export Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Arms Export Control Act. 479.193 Section 479.193 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES,...

  19. 27 CFR 479.193 - Arms Export Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arms Export Control Act. 479.193 Section 479.193 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES,...

  20. Anchoring the "floating arm": Use of proprioceptive and mirror visual feedback from one arm to control involuntary displacement of the other arm.

    PubMed

    Brun, C; Guerraz, M

    2015-12-01

    Arm movement control takes advantage of multiple inputs, including those originating from the contralateral arm. In the mirror paradigm, it has been suggested that control of the unseen arm, hidden by the mirror, is facilitated by the reflection of the other, moving arm. Although proprioceptive feedback originating from the moving arm, (the image of which is reflected in the mirror), is always coupled with visual feedback in the mirror paradigm, the former has received little attention. We recently showed that the involuntary arm movement following a sustained, isometric contraction, known as the "floating arm" or "Kohnstamm phenomenon", was adjusted to the passive-motorized displacement of the other arm. However, provision of mirror feedback, that is, the reflection in the mirror of the passively moved arm, did not add to this coupling effect. Therefore, the interlimb coupling in the mirror paradigm may to a large extent have a proprioceptive origin rather than a visual origin. The objective of the present study was to decouple mirror feedback and proprioceptive feedback from the reflected, moving arm and evaluate their respective contributions to interlimb coupling in the mirror paradigm. First (in Experiment 1, under eyes-closed conditions), we found that masking the proprioceptive afferents of the passively moved arm (by co-vibrating the antagonistic biceps and triceps muscles) suppressed the interlimb coupling between involuntary displacement of one arm and passive displacement of the other. Next (in Experiment 2), we masked proprioceptive afferents of the passively moved arm and specifically evaluated mirror feedback. We found that interlimb coupling through mirror feedback (though significant) was weaker than interlimb coupling through proprioceptive feedback. Overall, the present results show that in the mirror paradigm, proprioceptive feedback is stronger and more consistent than visual-mirror feedback in terms of the impact on interlimb coupling. PMID

  1. Frequency modulated cutaneous orientation feedback from artificial arms. [dynamic control model of human arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomonow, M.; Freedy, A.; Lyman, J.

    1975-01-01

    A model of the human arm, emphasizing the neuromuscular mechanisms of feedback control, has been constructed. The various parameters and functions of physiological receptors in the feedback section have been classified into an automated category that can be incorporated in the prosthesis servo loop, and into a sensory category that should be communicated to the operator if control and dynamic performance are to be optimized. A scheme for simultaneous display of two such sensory parameters, i.e., fingertip pressure and elbow position, has been developed, implemented and evaluated. The neurophysiological mechanism of such displays, and the feasibility of sensory transformation, is discussed in this paper.

  2. Arms Control: US and International efforts to ban biological weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons Convention, the treaty that bans the development, production, and stockpiling and acquisition of biological weapons was opened for signature in 1972 and came into force in 1975 after being ratified by 22 governments, including the depository nations of the USA, the United Kingdom, and the former Soviet Union. In support of the Convention, the USA later established export controls on items used to make biological weapons. Further, in accordance with the 1990 President`s Enhanced Proliferation Control Initiative, actions were taken to redefine and expand US export controls, as well as to encourage multilateral controls through the Australia Group. Thus far, the Convention has not been effective in stopping the development of biological weapons. The principal findings as to the reasons of the failures of the Convention are found to be: the Convention lacks universality, compliance measures are effective, advantage of verification may outweigh disadvantages. Recommendations for mitigating these failures are outlined in this report.

  3. A biologically inspired neural network controller for ballistic arm movements

    PubMed Central

    Bernabucci, Ivan; Conforto, Silvia; Capozza, Marco; Accornero, Neri; Schmid, Maurizio; D'Alessio, Tommaso

    2007-01-01

    Background In humans, the implementation of multijoint tasks of the arm implies a highly complex integration of sensory information, sensorimotor transformations and motor planning. Computational models can be profitably used to better understand the mechanisms sub-serving motor control, thus providing useful perspectives and investigating different control hypotheses. To this purpose, the use of Artificial Neural Networks has been proposed to represent and interpret the movement of upper limb. In this paper, a neural network approach to the modelling of the motor control of a human arm during planar ballistic movements is presented. Methods The developed system is composed of three main computational blocks: 1) a parallel distributed learning scheme that aims at simulating the internal inverse model in the trajectory formation process; 2) a pulse generator, which is responsible for the creation of muscular synergies; and 3) a limb model based on two joints (two degrees of freedom) and six muscle-like actuators, that can accommodate for the biomechanical parameters of the arm. The learning paradigm of the neural controller is based on a pure exploration of the working space with no feedback signal. Kinematics provided by the system have been compared with those obtained in literature from experimental data of humans. Results The model reproduces kinematics of arm movements, with bell-shaped wrist velocity profiles and approximately straight trajectories, and gives rise to the generation of synergies for the execution of movements. The model allows achieving amplitude and direction errors of respectively 0.52 cm and 0.2 radians. Curvature values are similar to those encountered in experimental measures with humans. The neural controller also manages environmental modifications such as the insertion of different force fields acting on the end-effector. Conclusion The proposed system has been shown to properly simulate the development of internal models and to control

  4. Learning and Control Model of the Arm for Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyoungsik; Kambara, Hiroyuki; Shin, Duk; Koike, Yasuharu

    We propose a learning and control model of the arm for a loading task in which an object is loaded onto one hand with the other hand, in the sagittal plane. Postural control during object interactions provides important points to motor control theories in terms of how humans handle dynamics changes and use the information of prediction and sensory feedback. For the learning and control model, we coupled a feedback-error-learning scheme with an Actor-Critic method used as a feedback controller. To overcome sensory delays, a feedforward dynamics model (FDM) was used in the sensory feedback path. We tested the proposed model in simulation using a two-joint arm with six muscles, each with time delays in muscle force generation. By applying the proposed model to the loading task, we showed that motor commands started increasing, before an object was loaded on, to stabilize arm posture. We also found that the FDM contributes to the stabilization by predicting how the hand changes based on contexts of the object and efferent signals. For comparison with other computational models, we present the simulation results of a minimum-variance model.

  5. Adaptive and predictive control of a simulated robot arm.

    PubMed

    Tolu, Silvia; Vanegas, Mauricio; Garrido, Jesús A; Luque, Niceto R; Ros, Eduardo

    2013-06-01

    In this work, a basic cerebellar neural layer and a machine learning engine are embedded in a recurrent loop which avoids dealing with the motor error or distal error problem. The presented approach learns the motor control based on available sensor error estimates (position, velocity, and acceleration) without explicitly knowing the motor errors. The paper focuses on how to decompose the input into different components in order to facilitate the learning process using an automatic incremental learning model (locally weighted projection regression (LWPR) algorithm). LWPR incrementally learns the forward model of the robot arm and provides the cerebellar module with optimal pre-processed signals. We present a recurrent adaptive control architecture in which an adaptive feedback (AF) controller guarantees a precise, compliant, and stable control during the manipulation of objects. Therefore, this approach efficiently integrates a bio-inspired module (cerebellar circuitry) with a machine learning component (LWPR). The cerebellar-LWPR synergy makes the robot adaptable to changing conditions. We evaluate how this scheme scales for robot-arms of a high number of degrees of freedom (DOFs) using a simulated model of a robot arm of the new generation of light weight robots (LWRs). PMID:23627657

  6. Effect of motor dynamics on nonlinear feedback robot arm control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarn, Tzyh-Jong; Li, Zuofeng; Bejczy, Antal K.; Yun, Xiaoping

    1991-01-01

    A nonlinear feedback robot controller that incorporates the robot manipulator dynamics and the robot joint motor dynamics is proposed. The manipulator dynamics and the motor dynamics are coupled to obtain a third-order-dynamic model, and differential geometric control theory is applied to produce a linearized and decoupled robot controller. The derived robot controller operates in the robot task space, thus eliminating the need for decomposition of motion commands into robot joint space commands. Computer simulations are performed to verify the feasibility of the proposed robot controller. The controller is further experimentally evaluated on the PUMA 560 robot arm. The experiments show that the proposed controller produces good trajectory tracking performances and is robust in the presence of model inaccuracies. Compared with a nonlinear feedback robot controller based on the manipulator dynamics only, the proposed robot controller yields conspicuously improved performance.

  7. Origins of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control

    PubMed Central

    Roemer, Ruth; Taylor, Allyn; Lariviere, Jean

    2005-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control originated in 1993 with a decision by Ruth Roemer and Allyn Taylor to apply to tobacco control Taylor’s idea that the WHO should utilize its constitutional authority to develop international conventions to advance global health. In 1995, Taylor and Ruth Roemer proposed various options to WHO, recommending the framework convention-protocol approach conceptualized by Taylor. Despite initial resistance by some WHO officials, this approach gained wide acceptance. In 1996, the World Health Assembly voted to proceed with its development. Negotiations by WHO member states led the World Health Assembly in May 2003 to adopt by consensus the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control—the first international treaty adopted under WHO auspices. The treaty formally entered into force for state parties on February 27, 2005. PMID:15914812

  8. Security and Arms Control: The Search for a More Stable Peace. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Norman, Ed.; Sussman, Colleen, Ed.

    Efforts of the United States since the end of World War II to advance the arms control process are discussed. There are five major sections. The first section recounts past arms control efforts--those that have worked and those that have not--and discusses the principles underlying U.S. arms control initiatives. The second section describes the…

  9. Cold war arms control motivations and techniques - a guide for the future. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    White, E.G.

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides a brief historical account of some of the arms control agreements between the U.S. and the Soviet Union, examines their major motivations to enter into negotiations, and illustrates some successful negotiation techniques. The author hypothesizes on the utility of this Cold War arms control experience as a useful guide for arms control in a single superpower world.

  10. Telepresence control of a dual-arm dexterous robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Larry; Cox, Brian; Shelton, Susan; Diftler, Myron

    1994-01-01

    Telepresence is an approach to teleoperation that provides egocentric, intuitive interactions between an operator and a remote environment. This approach takes advantage of the natural cognitive and sensory-motor skills of an on-orbit crew and effectively transfers them to a slave robot. A dual-arm dexterous robot operating under telepresence control has been developed and is being evaluated. Preliminary evaluation revealed several important observations that suggest the directions of future enhancement.

  11. Arms control and nonproliferation technologies. Fourth quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Staehle, G.; Talaber, C.; Stull, S.

    1992-12-31

    This report includes information concerning: the Department of Energy`s Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation; the nuclear inspections in Iraq, lessons for verification; detection technologies needed for each step of nuclear weapon development; nuclear proliferation problems; strengthening the nuclear reactor fuel cycle against proliferation; monitoring using unattended remote nondestructive assay; seismic monitoring in a proliferation environment; forensic science center, remote infrared spectrometry for nonproliferation applications; and acoustic instrument for identifying chemical munitions.

  12. Intelligence database support for Naval arms control. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Shirer, R.H.

    1991-12-01

    The database contained in this thesis was put together from unclassified sources. It is stored on computer disk using the Lotus 123 software program and is easily updated and manipulated. This database was created to provide support to U.S. Naval arms control negotiators in the event that the Navy is forced to the negotiating table. This thesis does not advocate naval arms control. However, given the current political climate it is prudent to be prepared for such an eventuality. This assessment utilizes a methodology for determining excess naval forces of the Soviet Union that would be targetable in arms control talks. In order to quantify the excess, we constructed a Soviet naval model that would be adequate to meet Soviet security goals under 'defensive defense' doctrine. Our goal was not to present the Soviet Union with a plan of action but to come up with a reasonable estimate of what their force structure is likely to resemble. Again, it is the methodology which is important here, as specific numbers can easily be changed using the Lotus program to account for classified information or changing developments.

  13. Overview: Mechanism and Control of a Prosthetic Arm.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Tushar; Uddanwadiker, Rashmi

    2015-09-01

    Continuous growth in industrialization and lack of awareness in safety parameters the cases of amputations are growing. The search of safer, simpler and automated prosthetic arms for managing upper limbs is expected. Continuous efforts have been made to design and develop prosthetic arms ranging from simple harness actuated to automated mechanisms with various control options. However due the cost constraints, the automated prosthetic arms are still out of the reach of needy people. Recent data have shown that there is a wide scope to develop a low cost and light weight upper limb prosthesis. This review summarizes the various designs methodologies, mechanisms and control system developed by the researchers and the advances therein. Educating the patient to develop acceptability to prosthesis and using the same for the most basic desired functions of human hand, post amputation care and to improve patient's independent life is equally important. In conclusion it can be interpreted that there is a wide scope in design in an adaptive mechanism for opening and closing of the fingers using other methods of path and position synthesis. Simple mechanisms and less parts may optimize the cost factor. Reduction in the weight of the prosthesis may be achieved using polymers used for engineering applications. Control system will remain never ending challenge for the researchers, but it is essential to maintain the simplicity from the patients perspective. PMID:27281955

  14. Nonlinear adaptive control of an elastic robotic arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, S. N.

    1986-01-01

    An approach to control of a class of nonlinear flexible robotic systems is presented. For simplicity, a robot arm (PUMA-type) with three rotational joints is considered. The third link is assumed to be elastic. An adaptive torquer control law is derived for controlling the joint angles. This controller includes a dynamic system in the feedback path, requires only joint angle and rate for feedback, and asymptotically decomposes the elastic dynamics into two subsystems representing the transverse vibrations of the elastic link in two orthogonal planes. To damp out the elastic vibration, a force control law using modal feedback is synthesized. The combination of the torque and force control laws accomplishes joint angle control and elastic mode stabilization.

  15. The KALI multi-arm robot programming and control environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backes, Paul; Hayati, Samad; Hayward, Vincent; Tso, Kam

    1989-01-01

    The KALI distributed robot programming and control environment is described within the context of its use in the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) telerobot project. The purpose of KALI is to provide a flexible robot programming and control environment for coordinated multi-arm robots. Flexibility, both in hardware configuration and software, is desired so that it can be easily modified to test various concepts in robot programming and control, e.g., multi-arm control, force control, sensor integration, teleoperation, and shared control. In the programming environment, user programs written in the C programming language describe trajectories for multiple coordinated manipulators with the aid of KALI function libraries. A system of multiple coordinated manipulators is considered within the programming environment as one motion system. The user plans the trajectory of one controlled Cartesian frame associated with a motion system and describes the positions of the manipulators with respect to that frame. Smooth Cartesian trajectories are achieved through a blending of successive path segments. The manipulator and load dynamics are considered during trajectory generation so that given interface force limits are not exceeded.

  16. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 631 - Armed Forces Disciplinary Control Board Procedures Guide

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Armed Forces Disciplinary Control Board... THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS ARMED FORCES DISCIPLINARY CONTROL BOARDS AND OFF-INSTALLATION LIAISON AND OPERATIONS Pt. 631, App. A Appendix A to Part 631—Armed...

  17. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 631 - Armed Forces Disciplinary Control Board Procedures Guide

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Armed Forces Disciplinary Control Board... THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS ARMED FORCES DISCIPLINARY CONTROL BOARDS AND OFF-INSTALLATION LIAISON AND OPERATIONS Pt. 631, App. A Appendix A to Part 631—Armed...

  18. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 631 - Armed Forces Disciplinary Control Board Procedures Guide

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Armed Forces Disciplinary Control Board... THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS ARMED FORCES DISCIPLINARY CONTROL BOARDS AND OFF-INSTALLATION LIAISON AND OPERATIONS Pt. 631, App. A Appendix A to Part 631—Armed...

  19. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 631 - Armed Forces Disciplinary Control Board Procedures Guide

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Armed Forces Disciplinary Control Board... THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS ARMED FORCES DISCIPLINARY CONTROL BOARDS AND OFF-INSTALLATION LIAISON AND OPERATIONS Pt. 631, App. A Appendix A to Part 631—Armed...

  20. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 631 - Armed Forces Disciplinary Control Board Procedures Guide

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Armed Forces Disciplinary Control Board... THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS ARMED FORCES DISCIPLINARY CONTROL BOARDS AND OFF-INSTALLATION LIAISON AND OPERATIONS Pt. 631, App. A Appendix A to Part 631—Armed...

  1. CONTROL OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM OOCYSTS BY STEADY-STATE CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pilot-scale experiments have been performed to assess the ability of conventional treatment to control Cryptosporidium oocysts under steady-state conditions. The work was performed with a pilot plant that was designed to minimize flow rates and, as a result, the number of oocyst...

  2. Tags and seals to strengthen arms control verification

    SciTech Connect

    DeVolpi, A.

    1990-10-03

    Tags and seals have long been recognized as important tools in arms control. The trend in control of armaments is to limit militarily significant equipment that is capable of being verified through direct and cooperative means, chiefly on-site inspection or monitoring. Although this paper will focus on the CFE treaty, the role of tags and seals for other treaties will also be addressed. Published technology and concepts will be reviewed, based on open sources. Arms control verification tags are defined as unique identifiers designed to be tamper-revealing; in that respect, seals are similar, being used as indicators of unauthorized access. Tamper-revealing tags are intended as single-point markers, seals for two-point couplings, and nets for volume containment. Seals usually bind two separate components, such as a hatch or flange that provides access to a secure compartment or a valve that controls fluid flow. A tamper-revealing net might be comprised of a coupled fiberoptic bundle wrapped around an object. Sometimes the term ``seal`` is used to denote the tamper-revealing feature of a tag that is attached to a surface, but in this paper the tamper-indicating connection is considered to be part of the tag concept itself.

  3. US arms control obligations under the Non-Proliferation Treaty

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-06-27

    Article VI of the 1968 Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) obligates the nuclear weapon states parties to the Treaty ''to pursue negotiations in good faith on effective measures relating to cessation of the nuclear arms race, ... to nuclear disarmament, and on a treaty on general and complete disarmament under strict and effective international control.'' The preamble to the NPT recalls the 1963 Limited Test Ban Treaty ''determination ... to achieve the discontinuance of ... explosions.'' These provisions are interpreted by a majority of the non-nuclear weapon states parties to the Treaty as an obligation of the nuclear weapon states parties to the Treaty to pursue a comprehensive test ban (CTB). However, a review of the history of the NPT negotiations and US ratification proceedings makes clear that the NPT imposes no legal obligation on the US to pursue a CTB. The US did not make a one-to-one correspondence between Article VI and any specific arms control measure; to the contrary, the US argued successfully that such a connection (to any specific measure) would be pernicious to the attempt to achieve agreement on the NPT. This interpretation, which was sustained through the negotiations and the ratification proceedings, still reflects the limits of the legal obligations the US has accepted. But, in the absence of progress on other arms control measures, which would relieve the pressure for a CTB, the majority interpretation creates political difficulties for the US and could threaten the NPT regime in the future. These problems highlight the need for the US to better defend its compliance with Article VI and to develop a long-term strategy that will permit necessary testing while assuring the survival of the NPT regime in effective form.

  4. Multilateral arms control: Can the CD break the impasse?

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.

    1997-11-01

    Implications of the Conference on Disarmament (CD) for significant arms control and disarmament are assessed in this article. Fissile material cutoff, test ban issues, anti-personnel landmines, and transparency are among the issues reviewed. Government policies of nuclear powers are reviewed with respect to various treaties, as well as their responses to the CD. Major barriers in the CD talks are identified and primarily ascribed to political and cultural differences. It is concluded that five-power talks between the declared nuclear weapon states offer the best chance of reducing nuclear threats and making progress on nuclear disarmament.

  5. Voluntary control of arm movement in athetotic patients

    PubMed Central

    Neilson, Peter D.

    1974-01-01

    Visual tracking tests have been employed to provide a quantitative description of voluntary control of arm movement in a group of patients suffering from athetoid cerebral palsy. Voluntary control was impaired in all patients in a characteristic manner. Maximum velocity and acceleration of arm movement were reduced to about 30-50% of their values in normal subjects and the time lag of the response to a visual stimulus was two or three times greater than in normals. Tracking transmission characteristics indicated a degree of underdamping which was not presnet in normal or spastic patients. This underdamping could be responsible for a low frequency (0·3-0·6 Hz) transient oscillation in elbow-angle movements associated with sudden voluntary movement. The maximum frequency at which patients could produce a coherent tracking response was only 50% of that in normal subjects and the relationship between the electromyogram and muscle contraction indicated that the mechanical load on the biceps muscle was abnormal, possibly due to increased stiffness of joint movement caused by involuntary activity in agonist and antagonist muscles acting across the joint. Images PMID:4362243

  6. Method and apparatus for hybrid position/force control of multi-arm cooperating robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayati, Samad A. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Two or more robotic arms having end effectors rigidly attached to an object to be moved are disclosed. A hybrid position/force control system is provided for driving each of the robotic arms. The object to be moved is represented as having a total mass that consists of the actual mass of the object to be moved plus the mass of the moveable arms that are rigidly attached to the moveable object. The arms are driven in a positive way by the hybrid control system to assure that each arm shares in the position/force applied to the object. The burden of actuation is shared by each arm in a non-conflicting way as the arm independently control the position of, and force upon, a designated point on the object.

  7. Kinematic equations for resolved-rate control of an industrial robot arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, L. K.

    1983-01-01

    An operator can use kinematic, resolved-rate equations to dynamically control a robot arm by watching its response to commanded inputs. Known resolved-rate equations for the control of a particular six-degree-of-freedom industrial robot arm and proceeds to simplify the equations for faster computations are derived. Methods for controlling the robot arm in regions which normally cause mathematical singularities in the resolved-rate equations are discussed.

  8. Hemispheric differences in the control of limb dynamics: a link between arm performance asymmetries and arm selection patterns

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Chase J.; Przybyla, Andrzej; Yadav, Vivek

    2013-01-01

    Human handedness has been described and measured from two perspectives: handedness inventories rate hand preferences, whereas other tests examine motor performance asymmetries. These two measurement approaches reflect a major controversy in a literature that defines handedness as either a preference or an asymmetry in sensorimotor processing. Over the past decade, our laboratory has developed a model of handedness based on lateralization of neural processes. This model attributes distinct control processes to each hemisphere, which in turn lead to observable interlimb sensorimotor performance asymmetries. We now hypothesize that arm preference, or choice, may depend on the interaction between sensorimotor performance asymmetries and the given task. The purpose of this study is to examine whether arm selection is linked to interlimb performance asymmetries during reaching. Right-handed subjects made choice and nonchoice reaches to each of eight targets (d = 3.5 cm) arranged radially (r = 13 cm) around a midline starting position. We displaced each cursor (one associated with each hand) 30 cm to the midline start circle to ensure that there were no hemispace-related geometric, mechanical, or perceptual biases to use either arm for the two midline targets. The three targets on each side of the midline received mostly reaches from the ipsilateral arm, a tendency previously described as a “hemispace bias.” However, the midline targets, which were equidistant from each hand, received more dominant arm reaches. Dominant arm hand paths to these targets were straighter and more accurately directed. Inverse dynamics analyses revealed a more proficient dominant arm strategy that exploited intersegmental dynamics to a greater extent than did the nondominant arm. These findings suggest that sensorimotor asymmetries in dynamic coordination might explain limb choices. We discuss the implications of these results for theories of action selection, models of handedness, and

  9. Real-time statistical quality control and ARM

    SciTech Connect

    Blough, D.K.

    1992-05-01

    An important component of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is real-time quality control of data obtained from meteorological instruments. It is the goal of the ARM program to enhance the predictive capabilities of global circulation models by incorporating in them more detailed information on the radiative characteristics of the earth's atmosphere. To this end, a number of Cloud and Radiation Testbeds (CART's) will be built at various locations worldwide. Each CART will consist of an array of instruments designed to collect radiative data. The large amount of data obtained from these instruments necessitates real-time processing in order to flag outliers and possible instrument malfunction. The Bayesian dynamic linear model (DLM) proves to be an effective way of monitoring the time series data which each instrument generates. It provides a flexible yet powerful approach to detecting in real-time sudden shifts in a non-stationary multivariate time series. An application of these techniques to data arising from a remote sensing instrument to be used in the CART is provided. Using real data from a wind profiler, the ability of the DLM to detect outliers is studied. 5 refs.

  10. Real-time statistical quality control and ARM

    SciTech Connect

    Blough, D.K.

    1992-05-01

    An important component of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is real-time quality control of data obtained from meteorological instruments. It is the goal of the ARM program to enhance the predictive capabilities of global circulation models by incorporating in them more detailed information on the radiative characteristics of the earth`s atmosphere. To this end, a number of Cloud and Radiation Testbeds (CART`s) will be built at various locations worldwide. Each CART will consist of an array of instruments designed to collect radiative data. The large amount of data obtained from these instruments necessitates real-time processing in order to flag outliers and possible instrument malfunction. The Bayesian dynamic linear model (DLM) proves to be an effective way of monitoring the time series data which each instrument generates. It provides a flexible yet powerful approach to detecting in real-time sudden shifts in a non-stationary multivariate time series. An application of these techniques to data arising from a remote sensing instrument to be used in the CART is provided. Using real data from a wind profiler, the ability of the DLM to detect outliers is studied. 5 refs.

  11. Intelligent control system based on ARM for lithography tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Changlong; Tang, Xiaoping; Hu, Song; Wang, Nan

    2014-08-01

    The control system of traditional lithography tool is based on PC and MCU. The PC handles the complex algorithm, human-computer interaction, and communicates with MCU via serial port; The MCU controls motors and electromagnetic valves, etc. This mode has shortcomings like big volume, high power consumption, and wasting of PC resource. In this paper, an embedded intelligent control system of lithography tool, based on ARM, is provided. The control system used S5PV210 as processor, completing the functions of PC in traditional lithography tool, and provided a good human-computer interaction by using LCD and capacitive touch screen. Using Android4.0.3 as operating system, the equipment provided a cool and easy UI which made the control more user-friendly, and implemented remote control and debug, pushing video information of product by network programming. As a result, it's convenient for equipment vendor to provide technical support for users. Finally, compared with traditional lithography tool, this design reduced the PC part, making the hardware resources efficiently used and reducing the cost and volume. Introducing embedded OS and the concepts in "The Internet of things" into the design of lithography tool can be a development trend.

  12. Templating as a Chain of Custody Tool for Arms Control

    SciTech Connect

    Benz, Jacob M.; Tanner, Jennifer E.; Duckworth, Leesa L.

    2013-06-01

    Historically, templates have been considered for use as a treaty accountable item (TAI) authentication tool, alongside item attributes. Because of this, the use of templates has fallen by the wayside due to the perceived intrusiveness of and handling/storage of template data; especially when compared to the negotiability of unclassified attribute threshold values. However, as a chain of custody tool, templates potentially have a large and important role to play in maintaining confidence in the authenticity of the treaty accountable items as they progress through an arms control regime. In general terms, templating is the process of creating a unique, measurable, and repeatable signature which is representative of the TAI. At any point in time, the signature can be re-measured or re-inspected to verify the signature has not changed. Chain of custody is the process by which a controlled boundary is established and maintained around a TAI to both deter and detect unauthorized access to the item. Typically, this is accomplished by putting a tamper indicating device (TID) on the item or container. The TID now acts as a surrogate for the item itself, and is continually checked to ensure the unique identifier and tamper indicating mechanisms have not changed since last inspection. This in and of itself is a form of templating. A stronger template is one that utilizes a signature of the combined item and container. There are many potential signatures which may be exploited, including radiation-, electromagnetic-, and acoustic-based signatures. This paper/presentation will explore the technology and mechanisms in which templating can be applied to create a more robust chain of custody over treaty accountable items as part of a future arms control regime.

  13. Analyst Tools and Quality Control Software for the ARM Data System

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, S.T.

    2004-12-14

    ATK Mission Research develops analyst tools and automated quality control software in order to assist the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data Quality Office with their data inspection tasks. We have developed a web-based data analysis and visualization tool, called NCVweb, that allows for easy viewing of ARM NetCDF files. NCVweb, along with our library of sharable Interactive Data Language procedures and functions, allows even novice ARM researchers to be productive with ARM data with only minimal effort. We also contribute to the ARM Data Quality Office by analyzing ARM data streams, developing new quality control metrics, new diagnostic plots, and integrating this information into DQ HandS - the Data Quality Health and Status web-based explorer. We have developed several ways to detect outliers in ARM data streams and have written software to run in an automated fashion to flag these outliers.

  14. Redundant arm control in a supervisory and shared control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backes, Paul G.; Long, Mark K.

    1992-01-01

    The Extended Task Space Control approach to robotic operations based on manipulator behaviors derived from task requirements is described. No differentiation between redundant and non-redundant robots is made at the task level. The manipulation task behaviors are combined into a single set of motion commands. The manipulator kinematics are used subsequently in mapping motion commands into actuator commands. Extended Task Space Control is applied to a Robotics Research K-1207 seven degree-of-freedom manipulator in a supervisory telerobot system as an example.

  15. Nuclear Arms Control, Nonproliferation, and Counterterrorism: Impacts on Public Health

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dreicer, Mona; Pregenzer, Arian

    2014-04-01

    Reducing the risks of nuclear war, limiting the spread of nuclear weapons and reducing global nuclear weapons stockpiles are key national and international security goals. They are pursued through a variety of international arms control, nonproliferation and counter-terrorism treaties and agreements. These legally binding and political commitments, together with the institutional infrastructure that supports them, work to establish global norms of behavior and have limited the spread of weapons of mass destruction. Beyond the primary security objectives, reducing the likelihood of the use of nuclear weapons, preventing environmental releases of radioactive material, increasing the availability of safe and secure nuclearmore » technology for peaceful purposes, and providing scientific data relevant to predicting and managing the consequences of natural or human-caused disasters world-wide provide significant benefits to global public health.« less

  16. Nuclear Arms Control, Nonproliferation, and Counterterrorism: Impacts on Public Health

    SciTech Connect

    Dreicer, Mona; Pregenzer, Arian

    2014-04-01

    Reducing the risks of nuclear war, limiting the spread of nuclear weapons and reducing global nuclear weapons stockpiles are key national and international security goals. They are pursued through a variety of international arms control, nonproliferation and counter-terrorism treaties and agreements. These legally binding and political commitments, together with the institutional infrastructure that supports them, work to establish global norms of behavior and have limited the spread of weapons of mass destruction. Beyond the primary security objectives, reducing the likelihood of the use of nuclear weapons, preventing environmental releases of radioactive material, increasing the availability of safe and secure nuclear technology for peaceful purposes, and providing scientific data relevant to predicting and managing the consequences of natural or human-caused disasters world-wide provide significant benefits to global public health.

  17. Nuclear arms control, nonproliferation, and counterterrorism: impacts on public health.

    PubMed

    Dreicer, Mona; Pregenzer, Arian

    2014-04-01

    Reducing the risks of nuclear war, limiting the spread of nuclear weapons, and reducing global nuclear weapons stockpiles are key national and international security goals. They are pursued through a variety of international arms control, nonproliferation, and counterterrorism treaties and agreements. These legally binding and political commitments, together with the institutional infrastructure that supports them, work to establish global norms of behavior and have limited the spread of weapons of mass destruction. Beyond the primary security objectives, reducing the likelihood of the use of nuclear weapons, preventing environmental releases of radioactive material, increasing the availability of safe and secure nuclear technology for peaceful purposes, and providing scientific data relevant to predicting and managing the consequences of natural or human-caused disasters worldwide provide significant benefits to global public health. PMID:24524501

  18. Computer Language Choices in Arms Control and Nonproliferation Regimes

    SciTech Connect

    White, G K

    2005-06-10

    The U.S. and Russian Federation continue to make substantive progress in the arms control and nonproliferation transparency regimes. We are moving toward an implementation choice for creating radiation measurement systems that are transparent in both their design and in their implementation. In particular, the choice of a programming language to write software for such regimes can decrease or significantly increase the costs of authentication. In this paper, we compare procedural languages with object-oriented languages. In particular, we examine the C and C++ languages; we compare language features, code generation, implementation details, and executable size and demonstrate how these attributes aid or hinder authentication and backdoor threats. We show that programs in lower level, procedural languages are more easily authenticated than are object-oriented ones. Potential tools and methods for authentication are covered. Possible mitigations are suggested for using object-oriented programming languages.

  19. Nuclear Arms Control, Nonproliferation, and Counterterrorism: Impacts on Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Pregenzer, Arian

    2014-01-01

    Reducing the risks of nuclear war, limiting the spread of nuclear weapons, and reducing global nuclear weapons stockpiles are key national and international security goals. They are pursued through a variety of international arms control, nonproliferation, and counterterrorism treaties and agreements. These legally binding and political commitments, together with the institutional infrastructure that supports them, work to establish global norms of behavior and have limited the spread of weapons of mass destruction. Beyond the primary security objectives, reducing the likelihood of the use of nuclear weapons, preventing environmental releases of radioactive material, increasing the availability of safe and secure nuclear technology for peaceful purposes, and providing scientific data relevant to predicting and managing the consequences of natural or human-caused disasters worldwide provide significant benefits to global public health. PMID:24524501

  20. Future directions for arms control and nonproliferation. Conference summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-06

    This report provides a summary of the presentations and discussions at the Spring 1994 CNSN-Wilton Park Conference. The Conference was one of a series on US-European security cooperation organized by The Center for National Security Negotiations (CNSN) of Science Applications International Corporation. These conferences bring together government and non-government experts, primarily from the United States and Europe, to discuss a range of regional and global security issues. The conferences provide an opportunity to explore, in a frank and off-the-record environment, common interests and concerns, as well as differences in approach that affect trans-Atlantic cooperation. This report is divided into the following three areas: (1) implementation of existing and pending agreements; (2) non-proliferation: prospects for trans-Atlantic cooperation; and (3) future directions in arms control.

  1. A relative difference in systolic blood pressure between arms by synchronal measurement and conventional cardiovascular risk factors are associated with the severity of coronary atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tomohiko; Miura, Shin-Ichiro; Suematsu, Yasunori; Kuwano, Takashi; Sugihara, Makoto; Ike, Amane; Iwata, Atsushi; Nishikawa, Hiroaki; Saku, Keijiro

    2016-06-01

    It is not known the relationships between a difference in systolic blood pressure (SBP) or diastolic BP (DBP) between arms by synchronal measurement and the presence of coronary artery disease (CAD), and between a difference in BP between arms and the severity of coronary atherosclerosis. We enrolled 425 consecutive patients (M/F = 286/139, 67 ± 13 year) who were admitted to our University Hospital and in whom we could measure the absolute (|rt. BP - lt. BP|) and relative (rt. BP - lt. BP) differences in SBP and DBP using a nico PS-501(®) (Parama-Tech). We divided all patients into those who did and did not have CAD. The relative differences in SBP between arms in patients with CAD were significantly lower than those in patients without CAD. However, the relative difference in SBP between arms was not a predictor of the presence of CAD. We also divided 267 patients who underwent coronary angiography into tertiles according to the Gensini score (low, middle, and high score groups). Interestingly, the middle + high score groups showed significantly lower relative differences in SBP between arms than the low score group. The mean Korotkoff sound graph in the middle + high Gensini score group was significantly higher than that in the low Gensini score group. Among conventional cardiovascular risk factors and nico parameters, the relative difference in SBP between arms in addition to the risk factors (age, gender, body mass index, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus) was associated with the score by a logistic regression analysis. In conclusion, the relative difference in SBP between arms as well as conventional risk factors may be associated with the severity of coronary arteriosclerosis. PMID:25921917

  2. 22 CFR 124.11 - Congressional certification pursuant to Section 36(d) of the Arms Export Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 36(d) of the Arms Export Control Act. 124.11 Section 124.11 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS AGREEMENTS, OFF-SHORE PROCUREMENT AND OTHER DEFENSE SERVICES § 124.11 Congressional certification pursuant to Section 36(d) of the Arms Export Control Act. (a) The Arms...

  3. 22 CFR 124.11 - Congressional certification pursuant to Section 36(d) of the Arms Export Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 36(d) of the Arms Export Control Act. 124.11 Section 124.11 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS AGREEMENTS, OFF-SHORE PROCUREMENT, AND OTHER DEFENSE SERVICES § 124.11 Congressional certification pursuant to Section 36(d) of the Arms Export Control Act. (a) The Arms...

  4. 22 CFR 124.11 - Congressional certification pursuant to Section 36(d) of the Arms Export Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 36(d) of the Arms Export Control Act. 124.11 Section 124.11 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS AGREEMENTS, OFF-SHORE PROCUREMENT AND OTHER DEFENSE SERVICES § 124.11 Congressional certification pursuant to Section 36(d) of the Arms Export Control Act. (a) The Arms...

  5. The application of active side arm controllers in helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knorr, R.; Melz, C.; Faulkner, A.; Obermayer, M.

    1993-01-01

    Eurocopter Deutschland (ECD) started simulation trials to investigate the particular problems of Side Arm Controllers (SAC) applied to helicopters. Two simulation trials have been performed. In the first trial, the handling characteristics of a 'passive' SAC and the basic requirements for the application of an 'active' SAC were evaluated in pilot-in-the-loop simulations, performing the tasks in a realistic scenario representing typical phases of a transport mission. The second simulation trial investigated the general control characteristics of the 'active' in comparison to the 'passive' control principle. A description of the SACs developed by ECD and the principle of the 'passive' and 'active' control concept is given, as well as specific ratings for the investigated dynamic and ergonomic parameters effecting SAC characteristics. The experimental arrangements, as well as the trials procedures of both simulation phases, are described and the results achieved are discussed emphasizing the advantages of the 'active' as opposed to the 'passive' SAC concept. This also includes the presentation of some critical aspects still to be improved and proposals to solve them.

  6. A look behind the arms control agenda at the US-Russian and Sino-US summits

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    When President Bill Clinton met in New York with Russian President Boris Yeltsin on October 23 and Chinese President Jiang Zemin the following day, the leaders discussed a broad spectrum of arms control issues-including START II ratification, limits on Russian conventional weapons in the Caucasus, the nuclear test ban treaty, nuclear exports to Iran and NATO expansion. The crisis in Bosnia, however, dominated the administration`s pre- and post-summit briefings as well as the media`s coverage of the meetings. On October 20, the Arms Control Association (ACA) held a news conference to highlight the key arms control issues involved in the two sets of talks. Because these vital national security issues were virtually ignored by the press, the ACA press briefing remains the most comprehensive coverage of the full range of issues that were, in fact, addressed at the mini-summits. Panel speakers included Spurgeon M. Keeny, Jr., ACA president and executive director and former deputy director of the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency; Jack Mendelsohn, ACA deputy director and a former member of the US SALT II and START I delegations; Stanley Resor, ACA board chairman and former chief US delegate to the Mutual and Balanced Force Reduction talks, former defense undersecretary for policy and former secretary of the Army; and William Dircks, director of the Atlantic Council`s Program on Nuclear Policy and former deputy director general of the International Atomic Energy Agency. Extended excerpts from their remarks follow.

  7. Monitoring commercial conventional facilities control with the APS control system: The Metasys-to-EPICS interface

    SciTech Connect

    Nawrocki, G.J.; Seaver, C.L.; Kowalkowski, J.B.

    1995-12-31

    As controls needs at the Advanced Photon Source matured from an installation phase to an operational phase, the need to monitor the existing conventional facilities control system with the EPICS-based accelerator control system was realized. This existing conventional facilities control network is based on a proprietary system from Johnson Controls called Metasys. Initially read-only monitoring of the Metasys parameters will be provided; however, the ability for possible future expansion to full control is available. This paper describes a method of using commercially available hardware and existing EPICS software as a bridge between the Metasys and EPICS control systems.

  8. Percutaneous Transthoracic Lung Biopsy: Comparison Between C-Arm Cone-Beam CT and Conventional CT Guidance

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yun-Chung; Tsai, Sheng-Heng; Cheng, Yuchi; Chen, Jeon-Hor; Chai, Jyh-Wen; Chen, Clayton Chi-Chang

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: C-arm cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is a comparatively novel modality for guiding percutaneous transthoracic lung biopsies (PTLBs), and despite its potential advantages over conventional computed tomography (CCT), a head-to-head comparison of the two techniques has yet to be reported in the literature. This study aims to evaluate the diagnostic value and safety of CBCT-guided PTLB compared to CCT-guided biopsy, with cases performed in a single hospital. METHODS: A total of 104 PTLB patients were retrospectively analyzed in this study. 35 PTLBs were performed under CBCT guidance, and 69 PTLBs were performed under CCT guidance. Diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for malignancy as well as procedure time, radiation dose of patients, and complication rate in the two groups were compared. RESULTS: Total procedure time was significantly lower in the CBCT group (32 ± 11 minutes) compared to the CCT group (38 ± 9.7 minutes; P = .009), especially among patients ≥ 70 years of age (CBCT: 33 ± 12 minutes, CCT: 42 ± 13, P = .022). For lesions in the lower lobes, the CBCT-guided group received significantly reduced effective radiation dose (2.9 ± 1.6 mSv) than CCT-guided patients (3.7 ± 0.80; P = .042). Diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for malignancy were comparable between the two groups, as were post-biopsy complication rates. CONCLUSION: CBCT guidance significantly reduces the procedure time and radiation exposure for PTLBs compared with CCT, and should be considered in clinical settings that may be difficult or time-consuming to perform under CCT. PMID:26310371

  9. Voice control of a dual-arm telerobot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberlein, Robert Arthur

    This investigation explores voice control of a dual-arm telerobot. A literature review of voice control, voice technology and work measurements is conducted. This review includes a discussion of important voice technology topics, a survey of commercial voice equipment, and a study of industrial and vocational work measurement techniques. A voice control system is created for two Kraft GRIPS Master-Slave telerobotic manipulators. This system is based upon the concept of distributed computer control using inexpensive PC-AT computers that exchange information according to special communication and command protocols. The voice control system consists of four separate sub-systems; a Camera Sub-system that controls a motorized camera mount, a Teach Pendant Sub-system that emulates two standard Termiflex teach pendants, a Switch Sub-system that controls the Kraft Master switches, and a Voice Sub-system that accepts the operator's vocal commands and broadcasts digitally-recorded messages. The Voice Sub-system utilizes a Votan VPC-2100 recognition board and a TI-Speech synthesis board. The vocal commands are organized into a hierarchical structure based upon the fire-and-forget control scheme. A visual display of the vocal command status is also detailed. In order to measure the effect of the voice control system upon the work performance of the telerobot, a formal experimental plan is described using twenty-four untrained operators divided into a voice group and a control group. Each group performs an experimental taskset using modified peg-in-hole vocational rehabilitation assessment test equipment. The experimental taskset consists of eight separate subtasks that exercise each of the four voice control sub-systems. The times to complete the subtasks are recorded to score each group's work performance. A split-plot ANOVA of the performance scores reveals significant group improvements in both the mean performance and the performance variance for those tasks which involve

  10. 77 FR 52105 - Announcement of the Innovation in Arms Control Challenge Under the America Competes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ... Announcement of the Innovation in Arms Control Challenge Under the America Competes Reauthorization Act of 2011... first ``Innovation in Arms Control Challenge,'' with the goal of spurring innovation, and developing.... Competition Details 1. Subject of the Challenge: This Challenge seeks creative ideas from the general...

  11. Application of a postulate based control theory for an artificial arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobsen, S. C.; Jerard, R. B.

    1975-01-01

    The biocontroller, remnant of the natural arm, and feedback elements must be considered in designing a controller for an above elbow artificial arm for amputees. This fundamental postulate is used to derive equations for developing the controller, which is shown in block diagrams.

  12. Detection Technologies, Arms control and nonproliferation technologies. Third/fourth quarters 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Staehle, G; Stull, S; Talaber, C; Moulthrop, P

    1993-12-31

    This issue of Arms Control and Nonproliferation Technologies is another in a series of issues about specific means for detecting and identifying proliferation and other suspect activities outside the realm of arms control treaties. All the projects discussed are funded by the Office of Research and Development of the Department of Energy`s Office of Nonproliferation and National Security.

  13. 77 FR 31909 - Determination and Certification Under the Arms Export Control Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Determination and Certification Under the Arms Export Control Act Pursuant to section 40A of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2781), and Executive Order 11958, as amended, I hereby determine and certify to the Congress that the following countries...

  14. 75 FR 28848 - Determination and Certification Under Section 40a of the Arms Export Control Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Determination and Certification Under Section 40a of the Arms Export Control Act Pursuant to section 40A of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2781), and Executive Order 11958, as amended, I hereby determine and certify to the Congress that the...

  15. Are complex control signals required for human arm movement?

    PubMed

    Gribble, P L; Ostry, D J; Sanguineti, V; Laboissière, R

    1998-03-01

    It has been proposed that the control signals underlying voluntary human arm movement have a "complex" nonmonotonic time-varying form, and a number of empirical findings have been offered in support of this idea. In this paper, we address three such findings using a model of two-joint arm motion based on the lambda version of the equilibrium-point hypothesis. The model includes six one- and two-joint muscles, reflexes, modeled control signals, muscle properties, and limb dynamics. First, we address the claim that "complex" equilibrium trajectories are required to account for nonmonotonic joint impedance patterns observed during multijoint movement. Using constant-rate shifts in the neurally specified equilibrium of the limb and constant cocontraction commands, we obtain patterns of predicted joint stiffness during simulated multijoint movements that match the nonmonotonic patterns reported empirically. We then use the algorithm proposed by Gomi and Kawato to compute a hypothetical equilibrium trajectory from simulated stiffness, viscosity, and limb kinematics. Like that reported by Gomi and Kawato, the resulting trajectory was nonmonotonic, first leading then lagging the position of the limb. Second, we address the claim that high levels of stiffness are required to generate rapid single-joint movements when simple equilibrium shifts are used. We compare empirical measurements of stiffness during rapid single-joint movements with the predicted stiffness of movements generated using constant-rate equilibrium shifts and constant cocontraction commands. Single-joint movements are simulated at a number of speeds, and the procedure used by Bennett to estimate stiffness is followed. We show that when the magnitude of the cocontraction command is scaled in proportion to movement speed, simulated joint stiffness varies with movement speed in a manner comparable with that reported by Bennett. Third, we address the related claim that nonmonotonic equilibrium shifts are

  16. Optimal control model of arm configuration in a reaching task

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Gary T.; Kakavand, Ali

    1996-05-01

    It was hypothesized that the configuration of the upper limb during a hand static positioning task could be predicted using a dynamic musculoskeletal model and an optimal control routine. Both rhesus monkey and human upper extremity models were formulated, and had seven degrees of freedom (7-DOF) and 39 musculotendon pathways. A variety of configurations were generated about a physiologically measured configuration using the dynamic models and perturbations. The pseudoinverse optimal control method was applied to compute the minimum cost C at each of the generated configurations. Cost function C is described by the Crowninshield-Brand (1981) criterion which relates C (the sum of muscle stresses squared) to the endurance time of a physiological task. The configuration with the minimum cost was compared to the configurations chosen by one monkey (four trials) and by eight human subjects (eight trials each). Results are generally good, but not for all joint angles, suggesting that muscular effort is likely to be one major factor in choosing a preferred static arm posture.

  17. Controlling Flexible Robot Arms Using High Speed Dynamics Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Abhinandan (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A robot manipulator controller for a flexible manipulator arm having plural bodies connected at respective movable hinges and flexible in plural deformation modes corresponding to respective modal spatial influence vectors relating deformations of plural spaced nodes of respective bodies to the plural deformation modes, operates by computing articulated body quantities for each of the bodies from respective modal spatial influence vectors, obtaining specified body forces for each of the bodies, and computing modal deformation accelerations of the nodes and hinge accelerations of the hinges from the specified body forces, from the articulated body quantities and from the modal spatial influence vectors. In one embodiment of the invention, the controller further operates by comparing the accelerations thus computed to desired manipulator motion to determine a motion discrepancy, and correcting the specified body forces so as to reduce the motion discrepancy. The manipulator bodies and hinges are characterized by respective vectors of deformation and hinge configuration variables, and computing modal deformation accelerations and hinge accelerations is carried out for each one of the bodies beginning with the outermost body by computing a residual body force from a residual body force of a previous body and from the vector of deformation and hinge configuration variables, computing a resultant hinge acceleration from the body force, the residual body force and the articulated hinge inertia, and revising the residual body force modal body acceleration.

  18. Controlling flexible robot arms using a high speed dynamics process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Abhinandan (Inventor); Rodriguez, Guillermo (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    Described here is a robot controller for a flexible manipulator arm having plural bodies connected at respective movable hinges, and flexible in plural deformation modes. It is operated by computing articulated body qualities for each of the bodies from the respective modal spatial influence vectors, obtaining specified body forces for each of the bodies, and computing modal deformation accelerations of the nodes and hinge accelerations of the hinges from the specified body forces, from the articulated body quantities and from the modal spatial influence vectors. In one embodiment of the invention, the controller further operates by comparing the accelerations thus computed to desired manipulator motion to determine a motion discrepancy, and correcting the specified body forces so as to reduce the motion discrepancy. The manipulator bodies and hinges are characterized by respective vectors of deformation and hinge configuration variables. Computing modal deformation accelerations and hinge accelerations is carried out for each of the bodies, beginning with the outermost body by computing a residual body force from a residual body force of a previous body, computing a resultant hinge acceleration from the body force, and then, for each one of the bodies beginning with the innermost body, computing a modal body acceleration from a modal body acceleration of a previous body, computing a modal deformation acceleration and hinge acceleration from the resulting hinge acceleration and from the modal body acceleration.

  19. Anthropometric considerations for a 4-axis side-arm flight controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debellis, W. B.

    1986-01-01

    A data base on multiaxis side-arm flight controls was generated. The rapid advances in fly-by-light technology, automatic stability systems, and onboard computers have combined to create flexible flight control systems which could reduce the workload imposed on the operator by complex new equipment. This side-arm flight controller combines four controls into one unit and should simplify the pilot's task. However, the use of a multiaxis side-arm flight controller without complete cockpit integration may tend to increase the pilot's workload.

  20. The applicability of sample collection and analysis in support of nuclear arms control agreements

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, R.R.

    1995-08-01

    Agreements are being negotiated to halt the spread of nuclear arms both within the declared nuclear weapons states and to states not heretofore declaring their possession. With the verification regime of the recently negotiated Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) as a model, negotiators are considering variations of on-site inspection as formulas to enhance the assurance of compliance with future agreements. These on-site inspections may be part of a treaty dictated verification regime or one of a set of voluntary {open_quotes}confidence building{close_quotes} measures. In either case, the collection of material samples for analysis could be an integral component of the inspection as it is in the CWC. The following is an assessment of the applicability of sampling and analysis for compliance monitoring nuclear arms control agreements currently envisioned. There are two essentially orthogonal ways of approaching this question of applicability: the consideration of the analytical questions and the consideration of the specifics of the individual agreements. This study is meant to utilize both approaches in examining the possible impact of sampling and analysis on compliance assessment. First attention must be given to technical questions relating to the efficacy of sampling and analysis.

  1. Optimal control simulations reveal mechanisms by which arm movement improves standing long jump performance.

    PubMed

    Ashby, Blake M; Delp, Scott L

    2006-01-01

    Optimal control simulations of the standing long jump were developed to gain insight into the mechanisms of enhanced performance due to arm motion. The activations that maximize standing long jump distance of a joint torque actuated model were determined for jumps with free and restricted arm movement. The simulated jump distance was 40 cm greater when arm movement was free (2.00 m) than when it was restricted (1.60 m). The majority of the performance improvement in the free arm jump was due to the 15% increase (3.30 vs. 2.86 m/s) in the take-off velocity of the center of gravity. Some of the performance improvement in the free arm jump was attributable to the ability of the jumper to swing the arms backwards during the flight phase to alleviate excessive forward rotation and position the body segments properly for landing. In restricted arm jumps, the excessive forward rotation was avoided by "holding back" during the propulsive phase and reducing the activation levels of the ankle, knee, and hip joint torque actuators. In addition, swinging the arm segments allowed the lower body joint torque actuators to perform 26 J more work in the free arm jump. However, the most significant contribution to developing greater take-off velocity came from the additional 80 J work done by the shoulder actuator in the jump with free arm movement. PMID:15992805

  2. Introduction and testing of an alternative control approach for a robotic prosthetic arm.

    PubMed

    Griggs, Lauren; Fahimi, Farbod

    2014-01-01

    Commercially available robotic prosthetic arms currently use independent joint control. An alternative controller involving only control of the hand in a Cartesian frame rather than controlling each joint independently is proposed and tested. An experimental 4DOF robotic arm was used as the platform for testing the proposed control approach. As opposed to joint control, Cartesian control requires the solution to the inverse kinematics problem. The inverse kinematics solution was developed for the robotic arm using the extended Jacobian method. The two control methodologies, joint control and Cartesian control, were tested on five able-bodied human subjects. Improvement of one control methodology over the other was measured by the time it took for the subjects to complete a simple motor task. The timed trial results indicated that Cartesian control was both more intuitive and more effective than joint control. So, the results suggest that much improvement can be achieved by using the proposed Cartesian control methodology. PMID:25400714

  3. Introduction and Testing of an Alternative Control Approach for a Robotic Prosthetic Arm

    PubMed Central

    Griggs, Lauren; Fahimi, Farbod

    2014-01-01

    Commercially available robotic prosthetic arms currently use independent joint control. An alternative controller involving only control of the hand in a Cartesian frame rather than controlling each joint independently is proposed and tested. An experimental 4DOF robotic arm was used as the platform for testing the proposed control approach. As opposed to joint control, Cartesian control requires the solution to the inverse kinematics problem. The inverse kinematics solution was developed for the robotic arm using the extended Jacobian method. The two control methodologies, joint control and Cartesian control, were tested on five able-bodied human subjects. Improvement of one control methodology over the other was measured by the time it took for the subjects to complete a simple motor task. The timed trial results indicated that Cartesian control was both more intuitive and more effective than joint control. So, the results suggest that much improvement can be achieved by using the proposed Cartesian control methodology. PMID:25400714

  4. Entering the New Millennium: Dilemmas in Arms Control

    SciTech Connect

    BROWN,JAMES

    1999-11-01

    The end of the Cold War finds the international community no longer divided into two opposing blocks. The concerns that the community now faces are becoming more fluid, less focused, and, in many ways, much less predictable. Issues of religion, ethnicity, and nationalism; the possible proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction; and the diffusion of technology and information processing throughout the world community have greatly changed the international security landscape in the last decade. Although our challenges appear formidable, the United Nations, State Parties, nongovernmental organizations, and the arms control community are moving to address and lessen these concerns through both formal and informal efforts. Many of the multilateral agreements (e.g., NPT, BWC, CWC, CTBT, MTCR), as well as the bilateral efforts that are taking place between Washington and Moscow employ confidence-building and transparency measures. These measures along with on-site inspection and other verification procedures lessen suspicion and distrust and reduce uncertainty, thus enhancing stability, confidence, and cooperation.

  5. Targeted Muscle Reinnervation for Real-Time Myoelectric Control of Multifunction Artificial Arms

    PubMed Central

    Kuiken, Todd A.; Li, Guanglin; Lock, Blair A.; Lipschutz, Robert D.; Miller, Laura A.; Stubblefield, Kathy A.; Englehart, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Context Improving the function of prosthetic arms remains a challenge, as access to the neural control information for the arm is lost during amputation. We have developed a surgical technique called targeted muscle reinnervation (TMR) which transfers residual arm nerves to alternative muscle sites. After reinnervation, these target muscles produce an electromyogram (EMG) on the surface of the skin that can be measured and used to control prosthetic arms. Objective Assess the performance of TMR upper-limb amputee patients using a pattern-recognition algorithm to decode EMG signals and control prosthetic arm motions. Design Surface EMG signals were recorded on participants and decoded using a pattern-recognition algorithm. The decoding program controlled the movement of a virtual prosthetic arm. Participants were instructed to perform various arm movements, and their abilities to control the virtual prosthetic arm were measured. In addition, TMR patients used the same control system to operate advanced arm prosthesis prototypes. Setting This study was conducted between January 2007 and January 2008 at the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago. Participants This study included five patients with shoulder disarticulation or transhumeral amputations who received TMR surgery between February 2002 and October 2006. It also included five non-amputee (control) participants. Main Outcome Measure Performance metrics measured during virtual arm movements included motion-selection time, motion-completion time, and motion-completion (or `success') rate. Three of the TMR patients were also able to test advanced arm prostheses. Results TMR patients were able to repeatedly perform 10 different elbow, wrist and hand motions with the virtual prosthetic arm. For TMR patients, the average (standard deviation (SD)) motion-selection and motion-completion times for elbow and wrist movements were 0.22 s (0.06) and 1.29 s (0.15), respectively. These times were 0.06 s and 0.21 s longer than

  6. Metals in combined conventional and vegetated road runoff control systems.

    PubMed

    Pontier, H; Williams, J B; May, E

    2001-01-01

    Combined conventional and vegetated runoff treatment systems were installed on the rural Newbury Bypass in Southern England, which was estimated to carry an average daily traffic of 30,000 vehicles. The system components were arranged in series to give progressive pollutant removal, comprising an oil separator, sediment trap, grassy slope and constructed wetland. In the absence of specific design criteria for road runoff control, the system design was based on available guidance notes. Since the road opened, an 18-month monitoring programme has examined the performance of these systems. Early indications are that the systems, and especially the wetlands, promote removal of suspended solids (>1.2 microm) and effectively trap fine (<63 microm) sediments. The waters were generally oxidising with neutral to basic pH which may have favoured metal partitioning to the solid phase. The distribution pattern for Zn and Cu in fine sediments contrasted in two of the systems studied, indicating the complex behaviour of metals in wetlands. Further work will increase the data set and examine the adsorption behaviour of metals. These results will contribute to the development of future design criteria for the application of wetlands to road runoff treatment. PMID:11804157

  7. Simultaneous Authentication and Certification of Arms-Control Measurement Systems

    SciTech Connect

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Hauck, Danielle K.; Thron, Jonathan L.

    2012-07-09

    Most arms-control-treaty-monitoring scenarios involve a host party that makes a declaration regarding its nuclear material or items and a monitoring party that verifies that declaration. A verification system developed for such a use needs to be trusted by both parties. The first concern, primarily from the host party's point of view, is that any sensitive information that is collected must be protected without interfering in the efficient operation of the facility being monitored. This concern is addressed in what can be termed a 'certification' process. The second concern, of particular interest to the monitoring party, is that it must be possible to confirm the veracity of both the measurement system and the data produced by this measurement system. The monitoring party addresses these issues during an 'authentication' process. Addressing either one of these concerns independently is relatively straightforward. However, it is more difficult to simultaneously satisfy host party certification concerns and monitoring party authentication concerns. Typically, both parties will want the final access to the measurement system. We will describe an alternative approach that allows both parties to gain confidence simultaneously. This approach starts with (1) joint development of the measurement system followed by (2) host certification of several copies of the system and (3) random selection by the inspecting party of one copy to be use during the monitoring visit and one (or more) copy(s) to be returned to the inspecting party's facilities for (4) further hardware authentication; any remaining copies are stored under joint seal for use as spares. Following this process, the parties will jointly (5) perform functional testing on the selected measurement system and then (6) use this system during the monitoring visit. Steps (1) and (2) assure the host party as to the certification of whichever system is eventually used in the monitoring visit. Steps (1), (3), (4), and (5

  8. New radiation hodoscope developments for Arms Control Treaty verification

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerman, C.E.; Doerner, R.C.; Regis, J.P.; Rhodes, E.A.; Stanford, G.S.; Travis, D.J.; DeVolpi, A.

    1991-12-01

    New developments in hodoscope radiation detection technology offer a wide range of unique capabilities for arms control treaty verification (ACTV) applications. Originally developed for civilian nuclear power research by Argonne National Laboratory, this concept uses an array of radiation detectors to image or detect objects inside opaque containments. Hodoscope systems may detect neutrons and/or gamma-rays. The systems may be based on transmission of radiation through the objects; may detect radiation stimulated in the objects, or may detect intrinsic object radiation. ACTV hodoscopes do not require the high-speed data acquisition systems or the heavy shielding and collimation of reactor hodoscopes, and relatively weak radiation sources are sufficient. We have performed laboratory measurements to demonstrate a range of potential applications. Gamma-ray transmission hodoscopes can be used to inspect canisters, rail cars, etc. to monitor objects such as rocket motors. The use of relatively weak radiation sources makes it unnecessary to employ expensive and high-intensity accelerators. The heavy metal of nuclear warheads is characterized by strong gamma-ray absorption, and these materials could be counted by low-resolution tomography. Absorbers located in line with objects will themselves be detected, and sources located in the object region will be subtracted out as background. Intrinsic gamma-ray radiation from warheads also can be detected in a passive-instrument mode. Neutron hodoscopes can utilize neutron transmission, intrinsic neutron emission, or neutron-producing reactions (either prompt or delayed) stimulated by a neutron source. Monitoring of rocket motors enclosed in canisters/rail cars is the focus of the most recent ACTV hodoscope research and development activities. 3 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. New radiation hodoscope developments for Arms Control Treaty verification

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerman, C.E.; Doerner, R.C.; Regis, J.P.; Rhodes, E.A.; Stanford, G.S.; Travis, D.J.; DeVolpi, A.

    1991-01-01

    New developments in hodoscope radiation detection technology offer a wide range of unique capabilities for arms control treaty verification (ACTV) applications. Originally developed for civilian nuclear power research by Argonne National Laboratory, this concept uses an array of radiation detectors to image or detect objects inside opaque containments. Hodoscope systems may detect neutrons and/or gamma-rays. The systems may be based on transmission of radiation through the objects; may detect radiation stimulated in the objects, or may detect intrinsic object radiation. ACTV hodoscopes do not require the high-speed data acquisition systems or the heavy shielding and collimation of reactor hodoscopes, and relatively weak radiation sources are sufficient. We have performed laboratory measurements to demonstrate a range of potential applications. Gamma-ray transmission hodoscopes can be used to inspect canisters, rail cars, etc. to monitor objects such as rocket motors. The use of relatively weak radiation sources makes it unnecessary to employ expensive and high-intensity accelerators. The heavy metal of nuclear warheads is characterized by strong gamma-ray absorption, and these materials could be counted by low-resolution tomography. Absorbers located in line with objects will themselves be detected, and sources located in the object region will be subtracted out as background. Intrinsic gamma-ray radiation from warheads also can be detected in a passive-instrument mode. Neutron hodoscopes can utilize neutron transmission, intrinsic neutron emission, or neutron-producing reactions (either prompt or delayed) stimulated by a neutron source. Monitoring of rocket motors enclosed in canisters/rail cars is the focus of the most recent ACTV hodoscope research and development activities. 3 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Cutaneous vascular control in the arms of women with postmastectomy oedema.

    PubMed

    Stanton, A W; Levick, J R; Mortimer, P S

    1996-05-01

    The control of forearm skin blood flow was examined in the swollen arms of twelve women with oedema caused by breast cancer treatment. The swollen arm was compared with the opposite unaffected (control) arm. Using laser Doppler flux (LDF) and continuous finger blood pressure (BP) measurements, vascular control was tested by applying a range of provocations previously shown to alter cutaneous vascular resistance (CVR) in healthy subjects. The tests and the accepted mechanism were: post-ischaemic hyperaemia (locally mediated vasodilatation), inspiratory gasp and cool reflex (both sympathetically mediated vasoconstriction), arm dependency (locally mediated vasoconstriction), and core heat load (sympathetically mediated vasodilatation). CVR was calculated as BP/(LDF-biological zero). Three differences between the control and swollen arms were identified. (i) The laser Doppler biological zero signal was significantly higher on the swollen side (P = 0.005, Student's paired t test). (ii) Baseline LDF was significantly lower on the swollen side (P = 0.002), and apparent CVR correspondingly higher. (iii) Cumulative reactive hyperaemia (area under the LDF curve above baseline) was significantly less on the swollen side (P = 0.03), although peak flux was not significantly different. Inspiratory gasp, cool reflex, arm dependency and core heat load produced changes of similar magnitude in both arms. It appears that sympathetic neural control and local vasoconstrictor control in arm dependency are normal in arm lymphoedema but that locally mediated vasodilator control is impaired. In addition, baseline skin blood flow may be reduced in this condition. The results provide no support for impairment of vascular tone as a contributory factor to the oedematous state. PMID:8737078

  11. Trends and challenges in global arms control regimes: Implications for the Mediterranean, North Africa, and the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, R.F. II

    1994-06-01

    In another sense, however, the nuclear age and ballistic missiles long ago created a much smaller world in which the distinctions between global and regional security have been lessened. In an age of weapons of mass destruction, any point on the earth can find itself suddenly at the center of world attention. This makes it all the more important that we understand all of the arms control tools available, including global approaches. In discussing global arms control regimes, I will focus primarily on those that are open to universal membership such as the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) or which have global reach, such as certain export control and supplier regimes. It is important to remember, however, that certain regional, bilateral, and even unilateral arms control measures can have a global impact as well. One need only witness the impact of the Treaty on Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE). Despite its mere {open_quotes}Atlantic to the Urals{close_quotes} focus, the CFE treaty helped change the political and strategic calculations of the entire world. Likewise, the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE), with its headquarters in Vienna, is centered on Europe but spreads from Vancouver to Vladivostok (or perhaps we should say from Amchitka to Kamchatka), circumnavigating much of the northern hemisphere when measured the long way around via North America. The political significance of its successes and failures outdistance CSCE`s geographical spread.

  12. Applying Space Technology to Enhance Control of an Artificial Arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkins, Diane; Donovan, William H.; Novy, Mara; Abramczyk, Robert

    1997-01-01

    numerical coefficients or weights. Although the function development may require much computational time and many training cases, the resulting discrimination functions can run in realtime on modest computers. These results suggest that myoelectric signals might be a feasible teleoperation medium, allowing an operator to use his or her own hand and arm as a master to intuitively control an anthropomorphic robot in a remote location such as outer space.

  13. An efficient process of generating bispecific antibodies via controlled Fab-arm exchange using culture supernatants.

    PubMed

    Paul, Suparna; Connor, Judy; Nesspor, Tom; Haytko, Peter; Boakye, Ken; Chiu, Mark L; Jiang, Haiyan

    2016-05-01

    Bispecific antibody generation is actively pursued for therapeutic and research antibody development. Although there are multiple strategies for generating bispecific antibodies (bsAbs); the common challenge is to develop a scalable method to prepare bsAbs with high purity and yield. The controlled Fab-arm exchange (cFAE) method combines two parental monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), each with a matched point mutation, F405L and K409R in the respective CH3 domains. The conventional process employs two steps: the purification of two parental mAbs from culture supernatants followed by cFAE. Following a reduction/oxidation reaction, the bispecific mAb is formed with greater than 95% heterodimerization efficiency. In this study, cFAE was initiated in culture supernatants expressing the two parental mAbs, thereby eliminating the need to first purify the parental mAbs. The bsAbs formed in culture supernatant was then purified using a Protein A affinity chromatography. The BsAbs generated in this manner had efficiency comparable to the conventional method using purified parental mAbs. BsAbs prepared by two different routes showed indistinguishable characteristics by SDS capillary electrophoresis, analytical size exclusion, and cation exchange chromatography. This alternative method significantly shortened timelines and reduced resources required for bsAb generation, providing an improved process with potential benefits in large-scale bsAb preparation, as well as for HTP small-scale bsAb matrix selection. PMID:26826313

  14. Modal analysis and control of flexible manipulator arms. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neto, O. M.

    1974-01-01

    The possibility of modeling and controlling flexible manipulator arms was examined. A modal approach was used for obtaining the mathematical model and control techniques. The arm model was represented mathematically by a state space description defined in terms of joint angles and mode amplitudes obtained from truncation on the distributed systems, and included the motion of a two link two joint arm. Three basic techniques were used for controlling the system: pole allocation with gains obtained from the rigid system with interjoint feedbacks, Simon-Mitter algorithm for pole allocation, and sensitivity analysis with respect to parameter variations. An improvement in arm bandwidth was obtained. Optimization of some geometric parameters was undertaken to maximize bandwidth for various payload sizes and programmed tasks. The controlled system is examined under constant gains and using the nonlinear model for simulations following a time varying state trajectory.

  15. Hybrid position/force control of multi-arm cooperating robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayati, Samad

    1986-01-01

    This paper extends the theory of hybrid position/force control to the case of multi-arm cooperating robots. Cooperation between n robot arms is achieved by controlling each arm such that the burden of actuation is shared between the arms in a nonconflicting way as they control the position of and force on a designated point on an object. The object, which may or may not be in contact with a rigid environment, is assumed to be held rigidly by n robot end-effectors. Natural and artificial position and force constraints are defined for a point on the object and two selection matrices are obtained to control the arms. The position control loops are designed based on each manipulator's Cartesian space dynamic equations. In the position control subspace, a feature is provided which allows the robot arms to exert additional forces/torques to achieve compression, tension, or torsion in the object without affecting the execution of the motion trajectories. In the force control subspace, a method is introduced to minimize the total force/torque magnitude square while realizing the net desired force/torque on the environment.

  16. Continuous neuronal ensemble control of simulated arm reaching by a human with tetraplegia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwick, E. K.; Blana, D.; Simeral, J. D.; Lambrecht, J.; Kim, S. P.; Cornwell, A. S.; Taylor, D. M.; Hochberg, L. R.; Donoghue, J. P.; Kirsch, R. F.

    2011-06-01

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES), the coordinated electrical activation of multiple muscles, has been used to restore arm and hand function in people with paralysis. User interfaces for such systems typically derive commands from mechanically unrelated parts of the body with retained volitional control, and are unnatural and unable to simultaneously command the various joints of the arm. Neural interface systems, based on spiking intracortical signals recorded from the arm area of motor cortex, have shown the ability to control computer cursors, robotic arms and individual muscles in intact non-human primates. Such neural interface systems may thus offer a more natural source of commands for restoring dexterous movements via FES. However, the ability to use decoded neural signals to control the complex mechanical dynamics of a reanimated human limb, rather than the kinematics of a computer mouse, has not been demonstrated. This study demonstrates the ability of an individual with long-standing tetraplegia to use cortical neuron recordings to command the real-time movements of a simulated dynamic arm. This virtual arm replicates the dynamics associated with arm mass and muscle contractile properties, as well as those of an FES feedback controller that converts user commands into the required muscle activation patterns. An individual with long-standing tetraplegia was thus able to control a virtual, two-joint, dynamic arm in real time using commands derived from an existing human intracortical interface technology. These results show the feasibility of combining such an intracortical interface with existing FES systems to provide a high-performance, natural system for restoring arm and hand function in individuals with extensive paralysis. This paper was originally submitted for the special issue containing contributions from the Fourth International Brain-Computer Interface Meeting.

  17. Controller design for flexible, distributed parameter mechanical arms via combined state space and frequency domain techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Book, W. J.; Majett, M.

    1982-01-01

    The potential benefits of the ability to control more flexible mechanical arms are discussed. A justification is made in terms of speed of movement. A new controller design procedure is then developed to provide this capability. It uses both a frequency domain representation and a state variable representation of the arm model. The frequency domain model is used to update the modal state variable model to insure decoupled states. The technique is applied to a simple example with encouraging results.

  18. Solid modelling for the manipulative robot arm (power) and adaptive vision control for space station missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrand, V.; Choudry, A.

    1987-01-01

    The structure of a flexible arm derived from concatenation of the Stewart-Table-based links were studied. Solid modeling provides not only a realistic simulation, but is also essential for studying vision algorithms. These algorithms could be used for the adaptive control of the arm, using the well-known algorithms such as shape from shading, edge detection, orientation, etc. Details of solid modeling and its relation to vision based adaptive control are discussed.

  19. Approaches to integrating nuclear weapons stockpile management and arms control objectives.

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, Lani Miyoshi; DeLand, Sharon Marie; Pregenzer, Arian Leigh

    2010-06-01

    Historically, U.S. arms control policy and the U.S. nuclear weapons enterprise have been reactive to each other, rather than interdependent and mutually reinforcing. One element of the divergence has been the long timescale necessary to plan and create substantive changes in the infrastructure vs. the inherent unpredictability of arms control outcomes. We explore several examples that illustrate this tension, some of the costs and implications associated with this reactive paradigm, and illustrate that, while the nuclear weapons enterprise has long considered the implications of arms control in sizing capacity of its missions, it has not substantively considered arms control in construction requirement for capabilities and products. Since previous arms control agreements have limited numbers and types of deployed systems, with delivery systems as the object of verification, this disconnect has not been forefront. However, as future agreements unfold, the warhead itself may become the treaty limited item and the object of verification. Such a scenario might offer both the need and the opportunity to integrate nuclear weapons and arms control requirements in unprecedented ways. This paper seeks to inspire new thinking on how such integration could be fostered and the extent to which it can facilitate significant reduction in nuclear stockpiles.

  20. Application of the Actor-Critic Architecture to Functional Electrical Stimulation Control of a Human Arm.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Philip; Branicky, Michael; van den Bogert, Antonie; Jagodnik, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Clinical tests have shown that the dynamics of a human arm, controlled using Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES), can vary significantly between and during trials. In this paper, we study the application of the actor-critic architecture, with neural networks for the both the actor and the critic, as a controller that can adapt to these changing dynamics of a human arm. Development and tests were done in simulation using a planar arm model and Hill-based muscle dynamics. We begin by training it using a Proportional Derivative (PD) controller as a supervisor. We then make clinically relevant changes to the dynamics of the arm and test the actor-critic's ability to adapt without supervision in a reasonable number of episodes. Finally, we devise methods for achieving both rapid learning and long-term stability. PMID:20689654

  1. Creating a Reinforcement Learning Controller for Functional Electrical Stimulation of a Human Arm.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Philip S; Branicky, Michael; van den Bogert, Antonie; Jagodnik, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    Clinical tests have shown that the dynamics of a human arm, controlled using Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES), can vary significantly between and during trials. In this paper, we study the application of Reinforcement Learning to create a controller that can adapt to these changing dynamics of a human arm. Development and tests were done in simulation using a two-dimensional arm model and Hill-based muscle dynamics. An actor-critic architecture is used with artificial neural networks for both the actor and the critic. We begin by training it using a Proportional Derivative (PD) controller as a supervisor. We then make clinically relevant changes to the dynamics of the arm and test the actor-critic's ability to adapt without supervision in a reasonable number of episodes. PMID:22081795

  2. Flexible trial design in practice - stopping arms for lack-of-benefit and adding research arms mid-trial in STAMPEDE: a multi-arm multi-stage randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Systemic Therapy for Advanced or Metastatic Prostate cancer: Evaluation of Drug Efficacy (STAMPEDE) is a randomized controlled trial that follows a novel multi-arm, multi-stage (MAMS) design. We describe methodological and practical issues arising with (1) stopping recruitment to research arms following a pre-planned intermediate analysis and (2) adding a new research arm during the trial. Methods STAMPEDE recruits men who have locally advanced or metastatic prostate cancer who are starting standard long-term hormone therapy. Originally there were five research and one control arms, each undergoing a pilot stage (focus: safety, feasibility), three intermediate ‘activity’ stages (focus: failure-free survival), and a final ‘efficacy’ stage (focus: overall survival). Lack-of-sufficient-activity guidelines support the pairwise interim comparisons of each research arm against the control arm; these pre-defined activity cut-off becomes increasingly stringent over the stages. Accrual of further patients continues to the control arm and to those research arms showing activity and an acceptable safety profile. The design facilitates adding new research arms should sufficiently interesting agents emerge. These new arms are compared only to contemporaneously recruited control arm patients using the same intermediate guidelines in a time-delayed manner. The addition of new research arms is subject to adequate recruitment rates to support the overall trial aims. Results (1) Stopping Existing Therapy: After the second intermediate activity analysis, recruitment was discontinued to two research arms for lack-of-sufficient activity. Detailed preparations meant that changes were implemented swiftly at 100 international centers and recruitment continued seamlessly into Activity Stage III with 3 remaining research arms and the control arm. Further regulatory and ethical approvals were not required because this was already included in the initial trial design. (2

  3. Analyst Tools and Quality Control Software for the ARM Data System

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Sean; Hughes, Gary

    2008-07-31

    Mission Research develops analyst tools and automated quality control software in order to assist the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data Quality Office with their data inspection tasks. We have developed web-based data analysis and visualization tools such as the interactive plotting program NCVweb, various diagnostic plot browsers, and a datastream processing status application. These tools allow even novice ARM researchers to be productive with ARM data with only minimal effort. We also contribute to the ARM Data Quality Office by analyzing ARM data streams, developing new quality control metrics, new diagnostic plots, and integrating this information into DQ HandS - the Data Quality Health and Status web-based explorer. We have developed several ways to detect outliers in ARM data streams and have written software to run in an automated fashion to flag these outliers. We have also embarked on a system to comprehensively generate long time-series plots, frequency distributions, and other relevant statistics for scientific and engineering data in most high-level, publicly available ARM data streams. Furthermore, frequency distributions categorized by month or by season are made available to help define valid data ranges specific to those time domains. These statistics can be used to set limits that when checked, will improve upon the reporting of suspicious data and the early detection of instrument malfunction. The statistics and proposed limits are stored in a database for easy reporting, refining, and for use by other processes. Web-based applications to view the results are also available.

  4. Pattern recognition control outperforms conventional myoelectric control in upper limb patients with targeted muscle reinnervation.

    PubMed

    Hargrove, Levi J; Lock, Blair A; Simon, Ann M

    2013-01-01

    Pattern recognition myoelectric control shows great promise as an alternative to conventional amplitude based control to control multiple degree of freedom prosthetic limbs. Many studies have reported pattern recognition classification error performances of less than 10% during offline tests; however, it remains unclear how this translates to real-time control performance. In this contribution, we compare the real-time control performances between pattern recognition and direct myoelectric control (a popular form of conventional amplitude control) for participants who had received targeted muscle reinnervation. The real-time performance was evaluated during three tasks; 1) a box and blocks task, 2) a clothespin relocation task, and 3) a block stacking task. Our results found that pattern recognition significantly outperformed direct control for all three performance tasks. Furthermore, it was found that pattern recognition was configured much quicker. The classification error of the pattern recognition systems used by the patients was found to be 16% ±(1.6%) suggesting that systems with this error rate may still provide excellent control. Finally, patients qualitatively preferred using pattern recognition control and reported the resulting control to be smoother and more consistent. PMID:24110008

  5. Strategic defense and arms control. (Latest citations from the NTIS data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning studies of relationships between national defense needs and arms control policies. Included are references to specific weapons systems such as the cruise missile, MX missile, Trident submarine, non-nuclear strategic weapons, and chemical weapons. Topics also review strategies involving space, NATO, and the Strategic Defense Initiative. Policies, positions, and negotiations refer to the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT), the Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START), the Anti-ballistic Missile Treaty, and international meetings on proliferation of weapons and on the use of space for military missions. (Contains a minimum of 163 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  6. Strategic defense and arms control. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning studies of relationships between national defense needs and arms control policies. Included are references to specific weapons systems such as the cruise missile, MX missile, Trident submarine, non-nuclear strategic weapons, and chemical weapons. Topics also review strategies involving space, NATO, and the Strategic Defense Initiative. Policies, positions, and negotiations refer to the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT), the Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START), the Anti-ballistic Missile Treaty, and international meetings on proliferation of weapons and the use of space for military missions. (Contains a minimum of 195 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Strategic Defense and Arms Control. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning studies of relationships between national defense needs and arms control policies. Included are references to specific weapons systems such as the cruise missile, MX missile, Trident submarine, non-nuclear strategic weapons, and chemical weapons. Topics also review strategies involving space, NATO, and the Strategic Defense Initiative. Policies, positions, and negotiations refer to the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT), the Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START), the Anti-ballistic Missile Treaty, and international meetings on proliferation of weapons and the use of space for military missions. (Contains a minimum of 181 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  8. Strategic defense and arms control. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning studies of relationships between national defense needs and arms control policies. Included are references to specific weapons systems such as the cruise missile, MX missile, Trident submarine, non-nuclear strategic weapons, and chemical weapons. Topics also review strategies involving space, NATO, and the Strategic Defense Initiative. Policies, positions, and negotiations refer to the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT), the Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START), the Anti-ballistic Missile Treaty, and international meetings on proliferation of weapons and the use of space for military missions. (Contains a minimum of 176 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. Strategic defense and arms control. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning studies of relationships between national defense needs and arms control policies. Included are references to specific weapons systems such as the cruise missile, MX missile, Trident submarine, non-nuclear strategic weapons, and chemical weapons. Topics also review strategies involving space, NATO, and the Strategic Defense Initiative. Policies, positions, and negotiations refer to the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT), the Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START), the Anti-ballistic Missile Treaty, and international meetings on proliferation of weapons and the use of space for military missions. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  10. Design and Vibration Control of Safe Robot Arm with MR-Based Passive Compliant Joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Seung-Kook; Yoon, Seong-Sik; Kang, Sungchul; Kim, Munsang

    In this paper, vibration control of a safe arm with passive compliant joints and visco-elastic covering for a human-friendly service robot is presented. The passive compliant joint (PCJ) is designed to passively attenuate the applied force. The rotary spring gives the arm compliant property, and yet it can be a source of vibration. We use an input-preshaping method which is motivated by the input shaping technique (IST) based on impulse responses. Experiments prove that both of fast motion and force attenuation of the safe arm can be achieved.

  11. Redundancy resolution of a human arm for controlling a seven DOF wearable robotic system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunchul; Miller, Levi Makaio; Al-Refai, Aimen; Brand, Moshe; Rosen, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    The human arm including the shoulder, elbow, wrist joints and exclusion scapular motion has 7 Degrees of Freedom (DOF) while positioning of the wrist in space and orientating the palm is a task that requires 6 DOF. As such it includes one more DOF than is needed to complete the task. Given the redundant nature of the arm, multiple arm configurations can be used to complete a task, which is expressed mathematically by none unique solution for the inverse kinematics. Despite this mathematical difficulty, the motor control provides a unique solution for the arm redundancy as the arm is moved in space. Resolving this redundancy is becoming critical as the human interacts with a wearable robotic system(exoskeleton) which includes the same redundancy as the human arm. Therefore, the inverse kinematics solution resolving the redundancy of these two coupled systems must be identical in order to guarantee a seamless integration. The redundancy of the arm can be formulated kinematically by defining the swivel angle - the rotation angle of the plane including the upper and lower arm around a virtual axis connecting the shoulder and wrist joints which are fixed in space. Analyzing reaching tasks recorded with a motion capture lab indicates that the swivel angle is selected such that when the elbow joint is flexed, the palm points the head. Based on these experimental results, selecting the point around the center of the head as a stationary target allows to calculate the swivel angle and in that way to resolve the human arm redundancy. Experimental results indicated that by using the proposed redundancy resolution criteria the error between the predicted swivel angle and the actual swivel angle adopted by the motor control system is less then 5 Deg. This criterion or a synthesis of several additional criteria may improve the synergistic relationships between an operator and a wearable robotic system. PMID:22255087

  12. Cox report and the US-China arms control technical exchange program

    SciTech Connect

    Di Capua, M S

    1999-09-01

    The ACE program furthered the national security interests of the US by promoting technical approaches to the implementation and verification of arms control treaties that the international community embraces. The Cox Committee report suggests that uncontrolled interactions were taking place between US and Chinese nuclear weapons scientists in the course of the ACE program. On the contrary, elaborate controls were in place at the very beginning and remained in place to control the interactions and protect US national security information. The ACE program payoff to national security was just beginning and its suspension, resulting from the Cox reports allegations, is a setback to US-China progress on arms control.

  13. Human Arm-Like Robot Control Based on Human Multi-Joint Arm Viscoelastic Properties and A Modified Forward Gaze Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Aihui; Deng, Mingcong

    In this paper, a human arm-like robot control scheme is proposed based on time-varying viscoelastic properties which consist of multi-joint stiffness and multi-joint viscosity during human arm movements and a modified forward gaze model. In general, in human multi-joint arm movements, the multi-joint torque is assumed to be a function of multi-joint stiffness matrix, multi-joint viscosity matrix, and motor command descending from central nervous system (CNS). In order to make the present human arm-like robot move like a human multi-joint arm, a feedback controller and a modified forward gaze model are presented in the human arm-like robot control system. That is, the feedback controller is designed to obtain desired motion mechanism based on real measured data from viscoelastic properties of human multi-joint arm, and the forward gaze model in which steering gains are modified using a cost function is used to compensate the term related to the effect of CNS. The effectiveness of the proposed method is confirmed by the simulation results based on experimental data.

  14. FINE PARTICLE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY: CONVENTIONAL AND NOVEL DEVICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reviews the development of technology in fine particle control. Electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), scrubbers, fabric filters, and novel devices were assessed to determine their efficiency. ESPs were found to be excellent in controlling fine particles: with an efficien...

  15. Comparison of Isocentric C-Arm 3-Dimensional Navigation and Conventional Fluoroscopy for Percutaneous Retrograde Screwing for Anterior Column Fracture of Acetabulum

    PubMed Central

    He, Jiliang; Tan, Guoqing; Zhou, Dongsheng; Sun, Liang; Li, Qinghu; Yang, Yongliang; Liu, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Percutaneous screw insertion for minimally displaced or reducible acetabular fracture using x-ray fluoroscopy and computer-assisted navigation system has been advocated by some authors. The purpose of this study was to compare intraoperative conditions and clinical results between isocentric C-arm 3-dimensional (Iso-C 3D) fluoroscopy and conventional fluoroscopy for percutaneous retrograde screwing of acetabular anterior column fracture. A prospective cohort study was conducted. A total of 22 patients were assigned to 2 different groups: 10 patients in the Iso-C 3D navigation group and 12 patients in the conventional group. The operative time, fluoroscopic time, time of screw insertion, blood loss, and accuracy were analyzed between the 2 groups. There were significant differences in operative time, screw insertion time, fluoroscopy time, and mean blood loss between the 2 groups. Totally 2 of 12 (16.7%) screws were misplaced in the conventional fluoroscopy group, and all 10 screws were in safe zones in the navigation group. Percutaneous screw fixation using the Iso-C 3D computer-assisted navigation system significantly reduced the intraoperative fluoroscopy time and blood loss in percutaneous screwing for acetabular anterior column fracture. The Iso-C 3D computer-assisted navigation system provided a reliable and effective method for percutaneous screw insertion in acetabular anterior column fractures compared to conventional fluoroscopy. PMID:26765448

  16. Comparison of Isocentric C-Arm 3-Dimensional Navigation and Conventional Fluoroscopy for Percutaneous Retrograde Screwing for Anterior Column Fracture of Acetabulum: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    He, Jiliang; Tan, Guoqing; Zhou, Dongsheng; Sun, Liang; Li, Qinghu; Yang, Yongliang; Liu, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Percutaneous screw insertion for minimally displaced or reducible acetabular fracture using x-ray fluoroscopy and computer-assisted navigation system has been advocated by some authors. The purpose of this study was to compare intraoperative conditions and clinical results between isocentric C-arm 3-dimensional (Iso-C 3D) fluoroscopy and conventional fluoroscopy for percutaneous retrograde screwing of acetabular anterior column fracture.A prospective cohort study was conducted. A total of 22 patients were assigned to 2 different groups: 10 patients in the Iso-C 3D navigation group and 12 patients in the conventional group. The operative time, fluoroscopic time, time of screw insertion, blood loss, and accuracy were analyzed between the 2 groups.There were significant differences in operative time, screw insertion time, fluoroscopy time, and mean blood loss between the 2 groups. Totally 2 of 12 (16.7%) screws were misplaced in the conventional fluoroscopy group, and all 10 screws were in safe zones in the navigation group. Percutaneous screw fixation using the Iso-C 3D computer-assisted navigation system significantly reduced the intraoperative fluoroscopy time and blood loss in percutaneous screwing for acetabular anterior column fracture.The Iso-C 3D computer-assisted navigation system provided a reliable and effective method for percutaneous screw insertion in acetabular anterior column fractures compared to conventional fluoroscopy. PMID:26765448

  17. 40 CFR 450.23 - Effluent limitations reflecting the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through... best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 450.23 Section 450.23 Protection of Environment... pollutant control technology (BCT). The effluent limitations are described at § 450.21....

  18. New case for naval arms control. Interim report, September-December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Tritten, J.J.

    1992-12-04

    This paper opens with an examination of existing legal restraints on naval forces and arms control agreements and concludes that the U.S. is already heavily engaged in naval arms control. Given the new international security environment and the new U.S. regionally-oriented national security and military strategies, the author then recommends a series of additional naval arms control measures that should be taken: exchanges of data, transparency, INCSEA, cooperative measures, an agreement on the laws of submarine warfare, abolishing NCND, no first tactical nuclear use at sea, NWFZs, advanced notification of operational-level exercises, environmental protection measures, controls over maritime technologies, armed escorts of nuclear shipments, new Roes, PALs, the resolution of outstanding political issues at sea, deep cuts in nuclear forces, CFE follow-on, limits on specific types of naval forces, geographic limits, expanded standing naval forces, and a re negotiation of the ABM Treaty. The paper then addresses verification and compliance issues. Author concludes that since the U.S. Navy has already managed to avoid major arms control while balanced on the precarious slippery slope, there is no reason to continue its stonewalling policies.

  19. A switching regime model for the EMG-based control of a robot arm.

    PubMed

    Artemiadis, Panagiotis K; Kyriakopoulos, Kostas J

    2011-02-01

    Human-robot control interfaces have received increased attention during the last decades. These interfaces increasingly use signals coming directly from humans since there is a strong necessity for simple and natural control interfaces. In this paper, electromyographic (EMG) signals from the muscles of the human upper limb are used as the control interface between the user and a robot arm. A switching regime model is used to decode the EMG activity of 11 muscles to a continuous representation of arm motion in the 3-D space. The switching regime model is used to overcome the main difficulties of the EMG-based control systems, i.e., the nonlinearity of the relationship between the EMG recordings and the arm motion, as well as the nonstationarity of EMG signals with respect to time. The proposed interface allows the user to control in real time an anthropomorphic robot arm in the 3-D space. The efficiency of the method is assessed through real-time experiments of four persons performing random arm motions. PMID:20403787

  20. Spread of arbitrary conventions among chimpanzees: a controlled experiment.

    PubMed

    Bonnie, Kristin E; Horner, Victoria; Whiten, Andrew; de Waal, Frans B M

    2007-02-01

    Wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have a rich cultural repertoire--traditions common in some communities are not present in others. The majority of reports describe functional, material traditions, such as tool use. Arbitrary conventions have received far less attention. In the same way that observations of material culture in wild apes led to experiments to confirm social transmission and identify underlying learning mechanisms, experiments investigating how arbitrary habits or conventions arise and spread within a group are also required. The few relevant experimental studies reported thus far have relied on cross-species (i.e. human-ape) interaction offering limited ecological validity, and no study has successfully generated a tradition not involving tool use in an established group. We seeded one of two rewarded alternative endpoints to a complex sequence of behaviour in each of two chimpanzee groups. Each sequence spread in the group in which it was seeded, with many individuals unambiguously adopting the sequence demonstrated by a group member. In one group, the alternative sequence was discovered by a low ranking female, but was not learned by others. Since the action-sequences lacked meaning before the experiment and had no logical connection with reward, chimpanzees must have extracted both the form and benefits of these sequences through observation of others. PMID:17164200

  1. A role for arms control and technology in peace-keeping operations

    SciTech Connect

    Indusi, J.; Allentuck, J.

    1995-08-01

    This paper describes a potential role for arms control monitoring technology in peace-keeping operations. The basic idea is to utilize monitoring technology developed or suggested for treaty verification (primarily Conventional Forces Europe (CFE), but other treaties as well) to minimize the exposure of humans as part of ``peace-keeping`` forces in various trouble spots throughout the world. The impetus comes from the dangers and high costs of stationing peace-keeping of forces in areas such as Bosnia-Herzegovina. Aside from the costs associated with such efforts the loss of life has escalated recently from 743 peace keepers lost from 1948 to 1988, to 180 lives lost in 1993 alone. Some potential advantages to using technology for certain monitoring roles are discussed in the paper and include: minimizing exposure/risk to peace-keeping personnel from hostile fire, hostage taking, etc.; sharable technology will allow all parties to view results, assess violations or transgressions, etc.; can be applied to equipment, railways, roads, etc., to confirm human and other monitoring capabilities; and provides data to settle disputes on which side initiated hostilities.

  2. Accurate position control of a flexible arm using a piezoactuator associated with a hysteresis compensator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Seung-Bok; Seong, Min-Sang; Ha, Sung Hoon

    2013-04-01

    In this work, position control of a one-link flexible arm is undertaken by considering the field-dependent hysteresis behavior of a piezoceramic actuator (piezoactuator in short). The proposed arm is controlled by two actuators: a motor mounted at the hub and a piezoceramic bonded to the surface of the flexible link. In the modeling process, two transfer functions: one from the input torque to output hub angle and the other from the input voltage to the output tip deflection are obtained. The hysteretic behavior of the piezoactuator is experimentally identified using the Preisach model, and the first-order descending (FOD) curves are obtained that are required to design a hysteresis compensator. After establishing the overall control block diagram for the position control of the flexible arm, a quantitative feedback theory (QFT) controller is designed by treating parameter variations and external disturbances as uncertainties. Subsequently, a hysteresis compensator that produces additional control input to the piezoactuator is designed to enhance the vibration control performance. An experimental realization of the proposed control scheme is undertaken and the effect of the hysteresis compensator on vibration control of the flexible arm is evaluated in the time domain.

  3. To Keep and Bear Arms: Gun Control and the Second Amendment. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Amy N.; Walker, Tim

    This teacher's guide is designed to accompany the two-part videotape "To Keep and Bear Arms: Gun Control and the Second Amendment." The videotape and teacher's guide should help students to: (1) understand the history of the Second Amendment; (2) examine how guns and gun control laws affect people's lives; (3) compare and contrast the many…

  4. Optimal output fast feedback in two-time scale control of flexible arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siciliano, B.; Calise, A. J.; Jonnalagadda, V. R. P.

    1986-01-01

    Control of lightweight flexible arms moving along predefined paths can be successfully synthesized on the basis of a two-time scale approach. A model following control can be designed for the reduced order slow subsystem. The fast subsystem is a linear system in which the slow variables act as parameters. The flexible fast variables which model the deflections of the arm along the trajectory can be sensed through strain gage measurements. For full state feedback design the derivatives of the deflections need to be estimated. The main contribution of this work is the design of an output feedback controller which includes a fixed order dynamic compensator, based on a recent convergent numerical algorithm for calculating LQ optimal gains. The design procedure is tested by means of simulation results for the one link flexible arm prototype in the laboratory.

  5. Uncontrolled Manifold Reference Feedback Control of Multi-Joint Robot Arms

    PubMed Central

    Togo, Shunta; Kagawa, Takahiro; Uno, Yoji

    2016-01-01

    The brain must coordinate with redundant bodies to perform motion tasks. The aim of the present study is to propose a novel control model that predicts the characteristics of human joint coordination at a behavioral level. To evaluate the joint coordination, an uncontrolled manifold (UCM) analysis that focuses on the trial-to-trial variance of joints has been proposed. The UCM is a nonlinear manifold associated with redundant kinematics. In this study, we directly applied the notion of the UCM to our proposed control model called the “UCM reference feedback control.” To simplify the problem, the present study considered how the redundant joints were controlled to regulate a given target hand position. We considered a conventional method that pre-determined a unique target joint trajectory by inverse kinematics or any other optimization method. In contrast, our proposed control method generates a UCM as a control target at each time step. The target UCM is a subspace of joint angles whose variability does not affect the hand position. The joint combination in the target UCM is then selected so as to minimize the cost function, which consisted of the joint torque and torque change. To examine whether the proposed method could reproduce human-like joint coordination, we conducted simulation and measurement experiments. In the simulation experiments, a three-link arm with a shoulder, elbow, and wrist regulates a one-dimensional target of a hand through proposed method. In the measurement experiments, subjects performed a one-dimensional target-tracking task. The kinematics, dynamics, and joint coordination were quantitatively compared with the simulation data of the proposed method. As a result, the UCM reference feedback control could quantitatively reproduce the difference of the mean value for the end hand position between the initial postures, the peaks of the bell-shape tangential hand velocity, the sum of the squared torque, the mean value for the torque

  6. Uncontrolled Manifold Reference Feedback Control of Multi-Joint Robot Arms.

    PubMed

    Togo, Shunta; Kagawa, Takahiro; Uno, Yoji

    2016-01-01

    The brain must coordinate with redundant bodies to perform motion tasks. The aim of the present study is to propose a novel control model that predicts the characteristics of human joint coordination at a behavioral level. To evaluate the joint coordination, an uncontrolled manifold (UCM) analysis that focuses on the trial-to-trial variance of joints has been proposed. The UCM is a nonlinear manifold associated with redundant kinematics. In this study, we directly applied the notion of the UCM to our proposed control model called the "UCM reference feedback control." To simplify the problem, the present study considered how the redundant joints were controlled to regulate a given target hand position. We considered a conventional method that pre-determined a unique target joint trajectory by inverse kinematics or any other optimization method. In contrast, our proposed control method generates a UCM as a control target at each time step. The target UCM is a subspace of joint angles whose variability does not affect the hand position. The joint combination in the target UCM is then selected so as to minimize the cost function, which consisted of the joint torque and torque change. To examine whether the proposed method could reproduce human-like joint coordination, we conducted simulation and measurement experiments. In the simulation experiments, a three-link arm with a shoulder, elbow, and wrist regulates a one-dimensional target of a hand through proposed method. In the measurement experiments, subjects performed a one-dimensional target-tracking task. The kinematics, dynamics, and joint coordination were quantitatively compared with the simulation data of the proposed method. As a result, the UCM reference feedback control could quantitatively reproduce the difference of the mean value for the end hand position between the initial postures, the peaks of the bell-shape tangential hand velocity, the sum of the squared torque, the mean value for the torque change

  7. Cooperative Remote Monitoring, Arms control and nonproliferation technologies: Fourth quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Alonzo, G M

    1995-01-01

    The DOE`s Cooperative Remote Monitoring programs integrate elements from research and development and implementation to achieve DOE`s objectives in arms control and nonproliferation. The contents of this issue are: cooperative remote monitoring--trends in arms control and nonproliferation; Modular Integrated Monitoring System (MIMS); Authenticated Tracking and Monitoring Systems (ATMS); Tracking and Nuclear Materials by Wide-Area Nuclear Detection (WAND); Cooperative Monitoring Center; the International Remote Monitoring Project; international US and IAEA remote monitoring field trials; Project Dustcloud: monitoring the test stands in Iraq; bilateral remote monitoring: Kurchatov-Argonne-West Demonstration; INSENS Sensor System Project.

  8. 40 CFR 434.74 - Effluent limitations attainable by application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Effluent limitations attainable by application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32 and 434.72(b)(2), a pre-existing discharge must comply... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 434.74 Section 434.74 Protection...

  9. 40 CFR 450.23 - Effluent limitations reflecting the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... limitations reflecting the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR... best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 450.23 Section 450.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) CONSTRUCTION...

  10. 40 CFR 450.23 - Effluent limitations reflecting the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... limitations reflecting the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR... best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 450.23 Section 450.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) CONSTRUCTION...

  11. 40 CFR 450.23 - Effluent limitations reflecting the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... limitations reflecting the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR... best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 450.23 Section 450.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) CONSTRUCTION...

  12. 40 CFR 450.23 - Effluent limitations reflecting the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through... best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 450.23 Section 450.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT...

  13. 40 CFR 434.84 - Effluent limitations attainable by application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 434.84 Section 434.84 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) COAL... pollutant control technology (BCT)....

  14. Dual arm master controller for a bilateral servo-manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Kuban, Daniel P.; Perkins, Gerald S.

    1989-01-01

    A master controller for a mechanically dissimilar bilateral slave servo-manipulator is disclosed. The master controller includes a plurality of drive trains comprising a plurality of sheave arrangements and cables for controlling upper and lower degrees of master movement. The cables and sheaves of the master controller are arranged to effect kinematic duplication of the slave servo-manipulator, despite mechanical differences therebetween. A method for kinematically matching a master controller to a slave servo-manipulator is also disclosed.

  15. Uranium-233 waste definition: Disposal options, safeguards, criticality control, and arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.; Storch, S.N.; Lewis, L.C.

    1998-07-07

    The US investigated the use of {sup 233}U for weapons, reactors, and other purposes from the 1950s into the 1970s. Based on the results of these investigations, it was decided not to use {sup 233}U on a large scale. Most of the {sup 233}U-containing materials were placed in long-term storage. At the end of the cold war, the US initiated, as part of its arms control policies, a disposition program for excess fissile materials. Other programs were accelerated for disposal of radioactive wastes placed in storage during the cold war. Last, potential safety issues were identified related to the storage of some {sup 233}U-containing materials. Because of these changes, significant activities associated with {sup 233}U-containing materials are expected. This report is one of a series of reports to provide the technical bases for future decisions on how to manage this material. A basis for defining when {sup 233}U-containing materials can be managed as waste and when they must be managed as concentrated fissile materials has been developed. The requirements for storage, transport, and disposal of radioactive wastes are significantly different than those for fissile materials. Because of these differences, it is important to classify material in its appropriate category. The establishment of a definition of what is waste and what is fissile material will provide the guidance for appropriate management of these materials. Wastes are defined in this report as materials containing sufficiently small masses or low concentrations of fissile materials such that they can be managed as typical radioactive waste. Concentrated fissile materials are defined herein as materials containing sufficient fissile content such as to warrant special handling to address nuclear criticality, safeguards, and arms control concerns.

  16. Dual-arm supervisory and shared control space servicing task experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backes, Paul G.

    1992-01-01

    A dual-arm task execution primitive has been implemented for cooperative dual-arm telerobotic task execution utilizing multiple sensors concurrently. The primitive has been integrated into a telerobot task execution system and can be called by a task planning system for execution of tasks requiring dual-arm sensor based motion, e.g., force control, teleoperation, and shared control. The primitive has a large input parameter set which is used to specify the desired behavior of the motion. Move-squeeze decomposition is utilized to decompose forces sensed at the wrists of the two manipulators into forces in the move subspace, which cause system motion, and forces in the squeeze subspaces, which cause internal forces. The move and squeeze forces are then separately controlled. Several space servicing tasks utilizing the cooperative dual-arm control capability are described, and experimental results from the tasks are given. The supervisory and shared control tasks include capture of a rotating satellite, orbital replacement unit changeout, fluid coupler seating and locking, and contour following.

  17. Dual arm master controller for a bilateral servo-manipulator

    SciTech Connect

    Kuban, D.P.; Perkins, G.S.

    1989-11-28

    A master controller for a mechanically dissimilar bilateral slave servo-manipulator is disclosed. The master controller includes a plurality of drive trains comprising a plurality of sheave arrangements and cables for controlling upper and lower degrees of master movement. The cables and sheaves of the master controller are arranged to effect kinematic duplication of the slave servo-manipulator, despite mechanical differences there between. A method for kinematically matching a master controller to a slave servo-manipulator is also disclosed. 13 figs.

  18. Robust torque control of an elastic robotic arm based on invertibility and feedback stabilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, S. N.; Schy, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    An approach to the control of elastic robotic systems for space applications using inversion, servocompensation, and feedback stabilization is presented. For simplicity, a robot arm (PUMA-type) with three rotational joints is considered. The third link is assumed to be elastic. Using an inversion algorithm, a nonlinear decoupling control law, u sub d, is derived such that in the closed loop system, independent control of joint angles by the three joint torquers is accomplished. For the stabilization of elastic oscillations, a linear feedback torquer control law, u sub s, is obtained applying linear quadratic optimization to the linearized arm model augmented with a servocompensator about the terminal state. Simulation results show that, in spite of uncertainties in the payload and vehicle angular velocity, good joint angle control and damping of elastic oscillations are obtained with the torquer control law u = u sub d + u sub s.

  19. An approach to simultaneous control of trajectory and interaction forces in dual-arm configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yun, Xiaoping; Kumar, Vijay R.

    1991-01-01

    An approach to the control of constrained dynamic systems such as multiple arm systems, multifingered grippers, and walking vehicles is described. The basic philosophy is to utilize a minimal set of inputs to control the trajectory and the surplus input to control the constraint or interaction forces and moments in the closed chain. A dynamic control model for the closed chain is derived that is suitable for designing a controller in which the trajectory and the interaction forces and moments are explicitly controlled. Nonlinear feedback techniques derived from differential geometry are then applied to linearize and decouple the nonlinear model. These ideas are illustrated through a planar example in which two arms are used for cooperative manipulation. Results from a simulation are used to illustrate the efficacy of the method.

  20. A new class of energy based control laws for revolute robot arms - Tracking control, robustness enhancement and adaptive control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wen, John T.; Kreutz, Kenneth; Bayard, David S.

    1988-01-01

    A class of joint-level control laws for all-revolute robot arms is introduced. The analysis is similar to the recently proposed energy Liapunov function approach except that the closed-loop potential function is shaped in accordance with the underlying joint space topology. By using energy Liapunov functions with the modified potential energy, a much simpler analysis can be used to show closed-loop global asymptotic stability and local exponential stability. When Coulomb and viscous friction and model parameter errors are present, a sliding-mode-like modification of the control law is proposed to add a robustness-enhancing outer loop. Adaptive control is also addressed within the same framework. A linear-in-the-parameters formulation is adopted, and globally asymptotically stable adaptive control laws are derived by replacing the model parameters in the nonadaptive control laws by their estimates.

  1. SpaceWire- Based Control System Architecture for the Lightweight Advanced Robotic Arm Demonstrator [LARAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rucinski, Marek; Coates, Adam; Montano, Giuseppe; Allouis, Elie; Jameux, David

    2015-09-01

    The Lightweight Advanced Robotic Arm Demonstrator (LARAD) is a state-of-the-art, two-meter long robotic arm for planetary surface exploration currently being developed by a UK consortium led by Airbus Defence and Space Ltd under contract to the UK Space Agency (CREST-2 programme). LARAD has a modular design, which allows for experimentation with different electronics and control software. The control system architecture includes the on-board computer, control software and firmware, and the communication infrastructure (e.g. data links, switches) connecting on-board computer(s), sensors, actuators and the end-effector. The purpose of the control system is to operate the arm according to pre-defined performance requirements, monitoring its behaviour in real-time and performing safing/recovery actions in case of faults. This paper reports on the results of a recent study about the feasibility of the development and integration of a novel control system architecture for LARAD fully based on the SpaceWire protocol. The current control system architecture is based on the combination of two communication protocols, Ethernet and CAN. The new SpaceWire-based control system will allow for improved monitoring and telecommanding performance thanks to higher communication data rate, allowing for the adoption of advanced control schemes, potentially based on multiple vision sensors, and for the handling of sophisticated end-effectors that require fine control, such as science payloads or robotic hands.

  2. Multicomponent control strategy underlying production of maximal hand velocity during horizontal arm swing.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Kwan; Hinrichs, Richard N; Dounskaia, Natalia

    2009-11-01

    Movement control responsible for generation of maximal hand velocity was studied on the example of horizontal arm swing that is a component of various sports activities. The movement was performed with the nondominant arm in similarity with the baseball bat swing. The task was to generate maximum hand velocity at a target. The movement included trunk long-axis rotation and horizontal shoulder and elbow extension. Kinematics and torque analyses were performed to study the organization of fastest movements and to compare trials representing the best and worst performance in each subject. Results revealed complex control strategy, with the trunk, shoulder, and elbow playing unique roles in generation of maximal hand velocity. The trunk provided a crucial contribution, directly, rotating the entire arm, and indirectly, exerting interaction torque that caused swift elbow extension. The major role of the shoulder was to transfer the mechanical effect of trunk motion to the elbow. However, the shoulder became the primary motion generator when the trunk reached its limits of rotation, revealing sequential organization of control. The role of the elbow was to maximally comply with passive influence of proximal joints. The findings are discussed in light of the leading joint hypothesis that offers a straightforward interpretation of control of horizontal arm swing as well as practically efficient recommendations for increases in movement speed. The revealed role of intersegmental dynamics in production of high movement speed suggests that movement slowness characteristic for some motor disorders may be partially a compensatory strategy that facilitates regulation of interaction torque. PMID:19759324

  3. Multicomponent Control Strategy Underlying Production of Maximal Hand Velocity During Horizontal Arm Swing

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Kwan; Hinrichs, Richard N.

    2009-01-01

    Movement control responsible for generation of maximal hand velocity was studied on the example of horizontal arm swing that is a component of various sports activities. The movement was performed with the nondominant arm in similarity with the baseball bat swing. The task was to generate maximum hand velocity at a target. The movement included trunk long-axis rotation and horizontal shoulder and elbow extension. Kinematics and torque analyses were performed to study the organization of fastest movements and to compare trials representing the best and worst performance in each subject. Results revealed complex control strategy, with the trunk, shoulder, and elbow playing unique roles in generation of maximal hand velocity. The trunk provided a crucial contribution, directly, rotating the entire arm, and indirectly, exerting interaction torque that caused swift elbow extension. The major role of the shoulder was to transfer the mechanical effect of trunk motion to the elbow. However, the shoulder became the primary motion generator when the trunk reached its limits of rotation, revealing sequential organization of control. The role of the elbow was to maximally comply with passive influence of proximal joints. The findings are discussed in light of the leading joint hypothesis that offers a straightforward interpretation of control of horizontal arm swing as well as practically efficient recommendations for increases in movement speed. The revealed role of intersegmental dynamics in production of high movement speed suggests that movement slowness characteristic for some motor disorders may be partially a compensatory strategy that facilitates regulation of interaction torque. PMID:19759324

  4. The administration`s arms control agenda: Gaining ground under fire

    SciTech Connect

    Holum, J.D.

    1996-03-01

    Its perhaps too easy to forget that Russia is still one country that could inflict overwhelming nuclear devastation on the United States. Russia`s Dumas elections and presidential elections speaks of changes in Russia, but this transformation will take many years and requires our consistent engagement and steady support. The author examines the Clinton Administration`s arms control agenda.

  5. Understanding Nuclear Weapons and Arms Control: A Guide to the Issues. New Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayers, Teena

    Intended for secondary and college level students and teachers, this guide discusses the nuclear arms control issue. There are four sections. Section I discusses U.S. nuclear strategy from 1945 to the present, strategic nuclear weapons competition between the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.), U.S.…

  6. 49 CFR 1544.221 - Carriage of prisoners under the control of armed law enforcement officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carriage of prisoners under the control of armed law enforcement officers. 1544.221 Section 1544.221 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL...

  7. 49 CFR 1544.221 - Carriage of prisoners under the control of armed law enforcement officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carriage of prisoners under the control of armed law enforcement officers. 1544.221 Section 1544.221 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL...

  8. 49 CFR 1544.221 - Carriage of prisoners under the control of armed law enforcement officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carriage of prisoners under the control of armed law enforcement officers. 1544.221 Section 1544.221 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT OPERATOR SECURITY:...

  9. 49 CFR 1544.221 - Carriage of prisoners under the control of armed law enforcement officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carriage of prisoners under the control of armed law enforcement officers. 1544.221 Section 1544.221 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL...

  10. Heterodyne holography with full control of both the signal and reference arms.

    PubMed

    Gross, Michel

    2016-01-20

    Heterodyne holography is a variant of phase-shifting holography in which the reference and signal arms are controlled by acousto-optic modulators. In this review paper, we will briefly describe the method and its properties, and we will illustrate its advantages in experimental applications. PMID:26835961

  11. United States Arms Control and Disarmament Agency. Ninth Annual Report to Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, Washington, DC.

    This annual report surveys activities of the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA) and summarizes disarmament developments for the calendar year 1968. An act of Congress states that ACDA must have such a position within the Government that it can provide the President, the Secretary of State, other officials of the executive branch, and the…

  12. Robotic arm

    SciTech Connect

    Kwech, H.

    1989-04-18

    A robotic arm positionable within a nuclear vessel by access through a small diameter opening and having a mounting tube supported within the vessel and mounting a plurality of arm sections for movement lengthwise of the mounting tube as well as for movement out of a window provided in the wall of the mounting tube is disclosed. An end effector, such as a grinding head or welding element, at an operating end of the robotic arm, can be located and operated within the nuclear vessel through movement derived from six different axes of motion provided by mounting and drive connections between arm sections of the robotic arm. The movements are achieved by operation of remotely-controllable servo motors, all of which are mounted at a control end of the robotic arm to be outside the nuclear vessel. 23 figs.

  13. Robotic arm

    SciTech Connect

    Kwech, Horst

    1989-04-18

    A robotic arm positionable within a nuclear vessel by access through a small diameter opening and having a mounting tube supported within the vessel and mounting a plurality of arm sections for movement lengthwise of the mounting tube as well as for movement out of a window provided in the wall of the mounting tube. An end effector, such as a grinding head or welding element, at an operating end of the robotic arm, can be located and operated within the nuclear vessel through movement derived from six different axes of motion provided by mounting and drive connections between arm sections of the robotic arm. The movements are achieved by operation of remotely-controllable servo motors, all of which are mounted at a control end of the robotic arm to be outside the nuclear vessel.

  14. Evaluation of inertial devices for the control of large, flexible, space-based telerobotic arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Raymond C.; Kenny, Sean; Ghosh, Dave; Shenhar, Joram

    1992-01-01

    Batch simulation studies which show that torque-wheels can reduce the overshoot in abrupt stop commands by 82 percent for a two-link arm are presented. For man-in-the-loop evaluation, a real-time simulator has been developed that samples a hand-controller, solves the nonlinear equations of motion, and graphically displays the resulting motion on a computer workstation. It is shown that, for a single-link arm, a reaction-mass/torque-wheel combination at the payload end can yield a settling time of 3 s for disturbances in the first flexible mode as opposed to 10 s utilizing only a hub motor.

  15. 78 FR 8218 - Bureau of Political-Military Affairs; Statutory Debarment Under the Arms Export Control Act and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    .... Further, Federal Register document 2012-18043, published at 77 FR 43414, Tuesday, July 24, 2012, is... of Political-Military Affairs; Statutory Debarment Under the Arms Export Control Act and the..., Section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act, as amended, (``AECA'') (22 U.S.C. 2778). Further, a...

  16. 77 FR 43414 - Bureau of Political-Military Affairs; Statutory Debarment Under the Arms Export Control Act and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    .... Further, Federal Register document 2011-29470, published at 76 FR 70805, Tuesday, November 15, 2011, is... of Political-Military Affairs; Statutory Debarment Under the Arms Export Control Act and the..., Section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act, as amended (``AECA'') (22 U.S.C. 2778). Further, a...

  17. 76 FR 70209 - Delegation by the Secretary of State to the Under Secretary of State for Arms Control and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... Year 2003), Public Law 107-228; (4) Section 204(c) of the International Emergency Economic Powers Act... Delegation by the Secretary of State to the Under Secretary of State for Arms Control and International... delegate to the Under Secretary for Arms Control and International Security, to the extent authorized...

  18. Evaluation of inertial devices for the control of large, flexible, space-based telerobotic arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Raymond C.; Kenny, Sean P.; Ghosh, Dave; Shenhar, Joram

    1993-01-01

    Inertial devices, including sensors and actuators, offer the potential of improving the tracking of telerobotic commands for space-based robots by smoothing payload motions and suppressing vibrations. In this paper, inertial actuators (specifically, torque-wheels and reaction-masses) are studied for that potential application. Batch simulation studies are presented which show that torque-wheels can reduce the overshoot in abrupt stop commands by 82 percent for a two-link arm. For man-in-the-loop evaluation, a real-time simulator has been developed which samples a hand-controller, solves the nonlinear equations of motion, and graphically displays the resulting motion on a computer workstation. Currently, two manipulator models, a two-link, rigid arm and a single-link, flexible arm, have been studied. Results are presented which show that, for a single-link arm, a reaction-mass/torque-wheel combination at the payload end can yield a settling time of 3 s for disturbances in the first flexible mode as opposed to 10 s using only a hub motor. A hardware apparatus, which consists of a single-link, highly flexible arm with a hub motor and a torque-wheel, has been assembled to evaluate the concept and is described herein.

  19. High-Resolution Fast-Neutron Spectrometry for Arms Control and Treaty Verification

    SciTech Connect

    David L. Chichester; James T. Johnson; Edward H. Seabury

    2012-07-01

    Many nondestructive nuclear analysis techniques have been developed to support the measurement needs of arms control and treaty verification, including gross photon and neutron counting, low- and high-resolution gamma spectrometry, time-correlated neutron measurements, and photon and neutron imaging. One notable measurement technique that has not been extensively studied to date for these applications is high-resolution fast-neutron spectrometry (HRFNS). Applied for arms control and treaty verification, HRFNS has the potential to serve as a complimentary measurement approach to these other techniques by providing a means to either qualitatively or quantitatively determine the composition and thickness of non-nuclear materials surrounding neutron-emitting materials. The technique uses the normally-occurring neutrons present in arms control and treaty verification objects of interest as an internal source of neutrons for performing active-interrogation transmission measurements. Most low-Z nuclei of interest for arms control and treaty verification, including 9Be, 12C, 14N, and 16O, possess fast-neutron resonance features in their absorption cross sections in the 0.5- to 5-MeV energy range. Measuring the selective removal of source neutrons over this energy range, assuming for example a fission-spectrum starting distribution, may be used to estimate the stoichiometric composition of intervening materials between the neutron source and detector. At a simpler level, determination of the emitted fast-neutron spectrum may be used for fingerprinting 'known' assemblies for later use in template-matching tests. As with photon spectrometry, automated analysis of fast-neutron spectra may be performed to support decision making and reporting systems protected behind information barriers. This paper will report recent work at Idaho National Laboratory to explore the feasibility of using HRFNS for arms control and treaty verification applications, including simulations and

  20. Workshop on arms control and security in the Middle East II summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Chrzanowski, P.L.

    1994-04-01

    The Middle East peace process is now moving more rapidly than ever before. Many actors in the region have displayed a newfound willingness to adopt innovative approaches to resolving persistent conflicts. The end of the Cold War, the accord signed between Israel and the PLO in September 1993, and other recent hopeful developments in the bilateral and multilateral talks have opened the door to real progress in regional security and arms control. The door may quickly shut, however, if promising signs are not translated into concrete, practical, and verifiable agreements. To complement the ongoing negotiations and help sustain the momentum of the Middle East peace process, the Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation (IGCC) and the Institute of International Relations, co-sponsored a Workshop on Arms Control and Security in the Middle East in Delphi, Greece, in January 1994. Participants in the Delphi workshop were current and former government officials, veteran arms control negotiators, military officers, and leading nongovernmental specialists on arms control and regional security issues from Arab states, Israel, the United States, Europe, and Russia. To facilitate frank discussions and the free exchange of ideas, the conference was held in a private, informal setting, and all discussions at the meeting were off the record. The workshop gave Arab and Israeli participants an opportunity to draw upon the expertise that American, European, and Russian experts have gained through research and development efforts and negotiations between and within governments on arms control issues. At the same time, Arab and Israeli experts voiced their ideas, perspectives, and concerns to each other and to the participants from outside the Middle East. This report summarizes the main points of agreement and the major areas of controversy that came to the fore at the Delphi conference.

  1. Direct model reference adaptive control of robotic arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Howard; Swift, David C.; Cummings, Steven T.; Shankey, Jeffrey R.

    1993-01-01

    The results of controlling A PUMA 560 Robotic Manipulator and the NASA shuttle Remote Manipulator System (RMS) using a Command Generator Tracker (CGT) based Model Reference Adaptive Controller (DMRAC) are presented. Initially, the DMRAC algorithm was run in simulation using a detailed dynamic model of the PUMA 560. The algorithm was tuned on the simulation and then used to control the manipulator using minimum jerk trajectories as the desired reference inputs. The ability to track a trajectory in the presence of load changes was also investigated in the simulation. Satisfactory performance was achieved in both simulation and on the actual robot. The obtained responses showed that the algorithm was robust in the presence of sudden load changes. Because these results indicate that the DMRAC algorithm can indeed be successfully applied to the control of robotic manipulators, additional testing was performed to validate the applicability of DMRAC to simulated dynamics of the shuttle RMS.

  2. A PC-Based Controller for Dextrous Arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiorini, Paolo; Seraji, Homayoun; Long, Mark

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the architecture and performance of a PC-based controller for 7-DOF dextrous manipulators. The computing platform is a 486-based personal computer equipped with a bus extender to access the robot Multibus controller, together with a single board computer as the graphical engine, and with a parallel I/O board to interface with a force-torque sensor mounted on the manipulator wrist.

  3. A distributed Petri Net controller for a dual arm testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjanes, Atle

    1991-01-01

    This thesis describes the design and functionality of a Distributed Petri Net Controller (DPNC). The controller runs under X Windows to provide a graphical interface. The DPNC allows users to distribute a Petri Net across several host computers linked together via a TCP/IP interface. A sub-net executes on each host, interacting with the other sub-nets by passing a token vector from host to host. One host has a command window which monitors and controls the distributed controller. The input to the DPNC is a net definition file generated by Great SPN. Thus, a net may be designed, analyzed and verified using this package before implementation. The net is distributed to the hosts by tagging transitions that are host-critical with the appropriate host number. The controller will then distribute the remaining places and transitions to the hosts by generating the local nets, the local marking vectors and the global marking vector. Each transition can have one or more preconditions which must be fulfilled before the transition can fire, as well as one or more post-processes to be executed after the transition fires. These implement the actual input/output to the environment (machines, signals, etc.). The DPNC may also be used to simulate a Great SPN net since stochastic and deterministic firing rates are implemented in the controller for timed transitions.

  4. 78 FR 64014 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; United States Pharmacopeial Convention

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ..., 40 FR 43745-46, all applicants for registration to import a basic class of any controlled substance... Pharmacopeial Convention Pursuant to Title 21 Code of Federal Regulations 1301.34 (a), this is notice that on July 31, 2013, United States Pharmacopeial Convention, 12601 Twinbrook Parkway, Rockville,...

  5. Stepping Out of the Shade: Control of Neuronal Activity by the Scaffold Protein Kidins220/ARMS

    PubMed Central

    Scholz-Starke, Joachim; Cesca, Fabrizia

    2016-01-01

    The correct functioning of the nervous system depends on the exquisitely fine control of neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity, which relies on an intricate network of protein-protein interactions and signaling that shapes neuronal homeostasis during development and in adulthood. In this complex scenario, Kinase D interacting substrate of 220 kDa/ankyrin repeat-rich membrane spanning (Kidins220/ARMS) acts as a multi-functional scaffold protein with preferential expression in the nervous system. Engaged in a plethora of interactions with membrane receptors, cytosolic signaling components and cytoskeletal proteins, Kidins220/ARMS is implicated in numerous cellular functions including neuronal survival, neurite outgrowth and maturation and neuronal activity, often in the context of neurotrophin (NT) signaling pathways. Recent studies have highlighted a number of cell- and context-specific roles for this protein in the control of synaptic transmission and neuronal excitability, which are at present far from being completely understood. In addition, some evidence has began to emerge, linking alterations of Kidins220 expression to the onset of various neurodegenerative diseases and neuropsychiatric disorders. In this review, we present a concise summary of our fragmentary knowledge of Kidins220/ARMS biological functions, focusing on the mechanism(s) by which it controls various aspects of neuronal activity. We have tried, where possible, to discuss the available evidence in the wider context of NT-mediated regulation, and to outline emerging roles of Kidins220/ARMS in human pathologies. PMID:27013979

  6. Appropriateness of hydroxyethylcellulose gel as a placebo control in vaginal microbicide trials: A comparison of the two control arms of HPTN 035

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Barbra A.; Kelly, Cliff; Ramjee, Gita; Fleming, Thomas; Makanani, Bonus; Roberts, Sarah; Musara, Petina; Mkandawire, Nkhafwire; Moench, Thomas; Coletti, Anne; Soto-Torres, Lydia; Karim, Salim Abdool

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the two control arms of HPTN 035 (a hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) gel control arm and a no gel control arm) to assess behavioral effects associated with gel use and direct causal effects of the HEC gel on STIs, pregnancy, and genital safety. Design Randomized trial with one blinded (HEC gel) and one open label (no gel) control arms. Methods HIV-uninfected, sexually active women were randomized into the HEC gel arm (n=771) and into the no gel arm (n=772) in five countries. Participants in the HEC gel arm were instructed to insert the study gel intravaginally <1 hour before each vaginal sex act. Data on sexual behavior, adherence, safety, pregnancy, and STIs were collected quarterly for 12 to 30 months of follow-up. Results During follow-up, mean reported condom use in the past week was significantly higher in the no gel arm (81% versus 70%, p<0.001). There were no significant differences, after adjusting for this differential condom use, between the two arms in rates of genital safety events, pregnancy outcomes, or STIs, including HIV-1. Conclusions In this large randomized trial, we found no significant differences between the no gel and HEC gel arms in rates of genital safety events, pregnancy outcomes, or STIs. These results aid interpretation of the results of previous vaginal microbicide trials that used the HEC gel as a control. The HEC gel is suitable as a control for ongoing and future vaginal microbicide studies. PMID:23334506

  7. AmeriFlux US-ARc ARM Southern Great Plains control site- Lamont

    SciTech Connect

    Torn, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-ARc ARM Southern Great Plains control site- Lamont. Site Description - The ARM SGP Control site is located in the native tallgrass prairies of the USDA Grazinglands Research Laboratory near El Reno, OK. One of two adjacent 35 ha plots with identical towers, measurements at the US-ARc unburned plot are used as the experimental control. The second plot, US-Arb, was burned on 2005/03/08. Measurement comparisons between the control and burn plot are used to address questions regarding the effects of burning activities on carbon fluxes. The region evaded burning activities for at least 15 years. Current disturbances consist of only light grazing activities.

  8. Tags and seals for controling nuclear materials, Arms control and nonproliferation technologies. Second quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Staehle, G; Talaber, C; Stull, S; Moulthrop, P

    1993-12-31

    This issue of Arms Control and Nonproliferation Technologies summarizes demonstrations and addresses related topics. The first article, ``Basic Nuclear Material Control and Accountability Concepts as Might be Applied to the Uranium from the US-Russian HEU Purchase,`` describes safeguards sybsystems necessary for effective nuclear material safeguards. It also presents a general discussion on HEU-to-low-enrichment uranium (LEU) commingling processes and suggests applicable key measurement points. The second article, ``A Framework for Evaluating Tamper-Indicating-Device Technologies (TIDs),`` describes their uses, proper selection, and evaluation. The final three articles discuss the tags and seals applications and general characteristics of several nuclear material containers: the Type 30B uranium hexafluoride container, the AT-400R container, and the DOT Specification 6M container for SNM. Finally, the Appendix displays short descriptions and illustrations of seven tags and seals, including: the E-cup and wire seal, the python seal, the secure loop inspectable tag/seal (SLITS), bolt-and-loop type electronic identification devices, and the shrink-wrap seal.

  9. A robust control scheme for flexible arms with friction in the joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rattan, Kuldip S.; Feliu, Vicente; Brown, H. Benjamin, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    A general control scheme to control flexible arms with friction in the joints is proposed in this paper. This scheme presents the advantage of being robust in the sense that it minimizes the effects of the Coulomb friction existing in the motor and the effects of changes in the dynamic friction coefficient. A justification of the robustness properties of the scheme is given in terms of the sensitivity analysis.

  10. Reporting of analyses from randomized controlled trials with multiple arms: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Multiple-arm randomized trials can be more complex in their design, data analysis, and result reporting than two-arm trials. We conducted a systematic review to assess the reporting of analyses in reports of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with multiple arms. Methods The literature in the MEDLINE database was searched for reports of RCTs with multiple arms published in 2009 in the core clinical journals. Two reviewers extracted data using a standardized extraction form. Results In total, 298 reports were identified. Descriptions of the baseline characteristics and outcomes per group were missing in 45 reports (15.1%) and 48 reports (16.1%), respectively. More than half of the articles (n = 171, 57.4%) reported that a planned global test comparison was used (that is, assessment of the global differences between all groups), but 67 (39.2%) of these 171 articles did not report details of the planned analysis. Of the 116 articles reporting a global comparison test, 12 (10.3%) did not report the analysis as planned. In all, 60% of publications (n = 180) described planned pairwise test comparisons (that is, assessment of the difference between two groups), but 20 of these 180 articles (11.1%) did not report the pairwise test comparisons. Of the 204 articles reporting pairwise test comparisons, the comparisons were not planned for 44 (21.6%) of them. Less than half the reports (n = 137; 46%) provided baseline and outcome data per arm and reported the analysis as planned. Conclusions Our findings highlight discrepancies between the planning and reporting of analyses in reports of multiple-arm trials. PMID:23531230

  11. Computed torque control of a free-flying cooperat ing-arm robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koningstein, Ross; Ullman, Marc; Cannon, Robert H., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The unified approach to solving free-floating space robot manipulator end-point control problems is presented using a control formulation based on an extension of computed torque. Once the desired end-point accelerations have been specified, the kinematic equations are used with momentum conservation equations to solve for the joint accelerations in any of the robot's possible configurations: fixed base or free-flying with open/closed chain grasp. The joint accelerations can then be used to calculate the arm control torques and internal forces using a recursive order N algorithm. Initial experimental verification of these techniques has been performed using a laboratory model of a two-armed space robot. This fully autonomous spacecraft system experiences the drag-free, zero G characteristics of space in two dimensions through the use of an air cushion support system. Results of these initial experiments are included which validate the correctness of the proposed methodology. The further problem of control in the large where not only the manipulator tip positions but the entire system consisting of base and arms must be controlled is also presented. The availability of a physical testbed has brought a keener insight into the subtleties of the problem at hand.

  12. Synchronized computational architecture for generalized bilateral control of robot arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szakaly, Zoltan F. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A master six degree of freedom Force Reflecting Hand Controller (FRHC) is available at a master site where a received image displays, in essentially real time, a remote robotic manipulator which is being controlled in the corresponding six degree freedom by command signals which are transmitted to the remote site in accordance with the movement of the FRHC at the master site. Software is user-initiated at the master site in order to establish the basic system conditions, and then a physical movement of the FRHC in Cartesean space is reflected at the master site by six absolute numbers that are sensed, translated and computed as a difference signal relative to the earlier position. The change in position is then transmitted in that differential signal form over a high speed synchronized bilateral communication channel which simultaneously returns robot-sensed response information to the master site as forces applied to the FRHC so that the FRHC reflects the feel of what is taking place at the remote site. A system wide clock rate is selected at a sufficiently high rate that the operator at the master site experiences the Force Reflecting operation in real time.

  13. Translational control of a graphically simulated robot arm by kinematic rate equations that overcome elbow joint singularity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, L. K.; Houck, J. A.; Carzoo, S. W.

    1984-01-01

    An operator commands a robot hand to move in a certain direction relative to its own axis system by specifying a velocity in that direction. This velocity command is then resolved into individual joint rotational velocities in the robot arm to effect the motion. However, the usual resolved-rate equations become singular when the robot arm is straightened. To overcome this elbow joint singularity, equations were developed which allow continued translational control of the robot hand even though the robot arm is (or is nearly) fully extended. A feature of the equations near full arm extension is that an operator simply extends and retracts the robot arm to reverse the direction of the elbow bend (difficult maneuver for the usual resolved-rate equations). Results show successful movement of a graphically simulated robot arm.

  14. Primary reaction control system/remote manipulator system interaction with loaded arm. Space shuttle engineering and operations support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, E. C.; Davis, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    A study of the interaction between the orbiter primary reaction control system (PRCS) and the remote manipulator system (RMS) with a loaded arm is documented. This analysis was performed with the Payload Deployment and Retrieval Systems Simulation (PDRSS) program with the passive arm bending option. The passive-arm model simulates the arm as massless elastic links with locked joints. The study was divided into two parts. The first part was the evaluation of the response of the arm to step inputs (i.e. constant jet torques) about each of the orbiter body axes. The second part of the study was the evaluation of the response of the arm to minimum impulse primary RCS jet firings with both single pulse and pulse train inputs.

  15. An economic comparison of biological and conventional control strategies for whiteflies (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) in greenhouse poinsettias.

    PubMed

    Stevens, T J; Kilmer, R L; Glenn, S J

    2000-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the costs of biologically controlling infestations of silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring, in New England greenhouse operations on poinsettia, Euphorbia pulcherrima Wild, ex Koltz, using the parasitic wasp Encarsia formosa Gahan (Nile Delta strain). Partial budget analysis was used to compare costs for conventional verses biological control regimens. Four alternative whitefly control budgets are developed; two conventional chemical-based control budgets formulated with and without the use of imidacloprid, and two biological control budgets which demonstrate the impact of possibly greater pest monitoring efforts necessary to implement this type strategy successfully. The analysis shows that biological whitefly control costs were > 300% greater than conventional chemical-based control strategy costs. Most of this increase is caused by the higher costs of Encarsia formosa as the material control input. If monitoring costs are held constant across different strategies, labor costs actually decline for biological control. This is because of a significant reduction in the number of control applications made and the relatively lower cost of applying E. formosa. If more extensive monitoring efforts are required to implement biological control successfully, labor costs increase by 56% over the conventional pre-imidacloprid regimen. Based on these results, the authors conclude that cheaper and more reliable means of producing E. formosa must be developed before this strategy will become economically viable for commercial poinsettia greenhouse production. PMID:10902307

  16. Application of model reference adaptive control to a flexible remote manipulator arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meldrum, D. R.; Balas, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    An exact modal state-space representation is derived in detail for a single-link, flexible remote manipulator with a noncollocated sensor and actuator. A direct model following adaptive controller is designed to control the torque at the pinned end of the arm so as to command the free end to track a prescribed sinusoidal motion. Conditions that must be satisfied in order for the controller to work are stated. Simulation results to date are discussed along with the potential of the model following adaptive control scheme in robotics and space environments.

  17. 22 CFR 123.15 - Congressional certification pursuant to Section 36(c) of the Arms Export Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Congressional certification pursuant to Section 36(c) of the Arms Export Control Act. 123.15 Section 123.15 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS LICENSES FOR THE EXPORT OF DEFENSE ARTICLES § 123.15 Congressional certification pursuant to Section 36(c)...

  18. 22 CFR 123.15 - Congressional certification pursuant to Section 36(c) of the Arms Export Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Congressional certification pursuant to Section 36(c) of the Arms Export Control Act. 123.15 Section 123.15 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS LICENSES FOR THE EXPORT AND TEMPORARY IMPORT OF DEFENSE ARTICLES § 123.15 Congressional...

  19. 22 CFR 123.15 - Congressional certification pursuant to Section 36(c) of the Arms Export Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 36(c) of the Arms Export Control Act. 123.15 Section 123.15 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS LICENSES FOR THE EXPORT OF DEFENSE ARTICLES § 123.15 Congressional.... § 123.15, Nt. Effective Date Note: At 77 FR 16598, Mar. 21, 2012, § 123.15 was amended by...

  20. Challenge inspections in Arms Control treaties: Any lessons for strengthening NPT verification?

    SciTech Connect

    Allentuck, J.

    1992-09-01

    Recent revelations of an ongoing and sophisticated nuclear weapons development program in Iraq have lead to suggestions for strengthening International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards. Especially troubling was the realization that safeguards, as presently applied, could not possibly have detected such a program. It is clear that the inspections which have taken place in Iraq since the Gulf War could only have been imposed on a nation which had suffered a severe military defeat. It has, however, been argued that challenge or ``challenge like`` inspections already incorporated in or proposed for the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (the CFE Treaty) the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) and the Treaty Between the United States and the USSR on the Reduction and Limitation of Strategic offensive Arms (START) might serve as models for enhanced special inspections in the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (the NPT). The expectation that none of the challenge or challenge like inspections in the above treaties would provide a model for the NPT was confirmed although certain characteristics of these inspections do provide useful points of departure. Although the context of challenge inspections in CWC bears substantial similarity to the NPT, it is from the provisions for ``suspect-site`` and ``formerly declared site``, challenge like inspections in START that innovative ideas for strengthening special inspections in NPT may be derived.

  1. Failure of Arm Movement Control in Stroke Patients, Characterized by Loss of Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Segun; Han, Kyungreem; Ryu, Jehkwang; Kim, Seonjin; Choi, MooYoung

    2015-01-01

    We study the mechanism of human arm-posture control by means of nonlinear dynamics and quantitative time series analysis methods. Utilizing linear and nonlinear measures in combination, we find that pathological tremors emerge in patient dynamics and serve as a main feature discriminating between normal and patient groups. The deterministic structure accompanied with loss of complexity inherent in the tremor dynamics is also revealed. To probe the underlying mechanism of the arm-posture dynamics, we further analyze the coupling patterns between joints and components, and discuss their roles in breaking of the organization structure. As a result, we elucidate the mechanisms in the arm-posture dynamics of normal subjects responding to the gravitational force and for the reduction of the dynamic degrees of freedom in the patient dynamics. This study provides an integrated framework for the origin of the loss of complexity in the dynamics of patients as well as the coupling structure in the arm-posture dynamics. PMID:26536132

  2. Comparing comparators: a look at control arms in kidney cancer studies over the years.

    PubMed

    Bracarda, S; Porta, C; Sisani, M; Marrocolo, F; Paglino, C; Hamzaj, A; D Buono, S; Sternberg, C N

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, an increasing number of frequently positive randomised clinical trials have been completed, allowing new consideration of the present therapeutic armamentarium for advanced renal cell carcinoma. These studies were predominantly designed to compare the experimental drugs with 1 of 2 active control arms: interferon alpha-2a or sorafenib. Different from expectations, the final results of some of these studies were not in line with the predictions, and the reasons have not been fully investigated. Consequently, there is a great need for careful analysis of the studies carried out so far, chiefly the role and validity of the control arms. In this regard, the examination of patient baseline characteristics and other factors of potential interest seems fundamental for a correct analysis of the results of these trials and consequent optimal use of the available targeted agents. PMID:25375270

  3. Arm Orthosis/Prosthesis Movement Control Based on Surface EMG Signal Extraction.

    PubMed

    Suberbiola, Aaron; Zulueta, Ekaitz; Lopez-Guede, Jose Manuel; Etxeberria-Agiriano, Ismael; Graña, Manuel

    2015-05-01

    This paper shows experimental results on electromyography (EMG)-based system control applied to motorized orthoses. Biceps and triceps EMG signals are captured through two biometrical sensors, which are then filtered and processed by an acquisition system. Finally an output/control signal is produced and sent to the actuators, which will then perform the actual movement, using algorithms based on autoregressive (AR) models and neural networks, among others. The research goal is to predict the desired movement of the lower arm through the analysis of EMG signals, so that the movement can be reproduced by an arm orthosis, powered by two linear actuators. In this experiment, best accuracy has achieved values up to 91%, using a fourth-order AR-model and 100ms block length. PMID:25851029

  4. Physics in the international arms control effort: a history and introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, William; Ganzer, Ann; Westling, Amy

    2007-04-01

    The U.S. Government has regulations in place to control the international traffic in arms. The growth of science and engineering since the inception of this governmental effort has produced many remarkable military-related systems, some existing purely for information gathering and defensive purposes. Defense trade is now a multi-billion dollar multi-national industry. U.S. defense trade in particular is strongly influenced by national security and foreign policy rather than economic impact, unlike many of its competitors. A brief history of the International Traffic in Arms Regulations will be presented, followed by an overview of some of the categories on the United States Munitions List and the Missile Technology Control Regime Annex which have strong connections to physics in terms of theory, concepts, and measurement. Following this category overview, particular emphasis will be given to the existing radiation hardening standards for semiconductors, and the basic structure of night vision devices.

  5. Visual Attention Allocation Between Robotic Arm and Environmental Process Control: Validating the STOM Task Switching Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickens, Christopher; Vieanne, Alex; Clegg, Benjamin; Sebok, Angelia; Janes, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Fifty six participants time shared a spacecraft environmental control system task with a realistic space robotic arm control task in either a manual or highly automated version. The former could suffer minor failures, whose diagnosis and repair were supported by a decision aid. At the end of the experiment this decision aid unexpectedly failed. We measured visual attention allocation and switching between the two tasks, in each of the eight conditions formed by manual-automated arm X expected-unexpected failure X monitoring- failure management. We also used our multi-attribute task switching model, based on task attributes of priority interest, difficulty and salience that were self-rated by participants, to predict allocation. An un-weighted model based on attributes of difficulty, interest and salience accounted for 96 percent of the task allocation variance across the 8 different conditions. Task difficulty served as an attractor, with more difficult tasks increasing the tendency to stay on task.

  6. Decreased Functional Diversity and Biological Pest Control in Conventional Compared to Organic Crop Fields

    PubMed Central

    Krauss, Jochen; Gallenberger, Iris; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2011-01-01

    Organic farming is one of the most successful agri-environmental schemes, as humans benefit from high quality food, farmers from higher prices for their products and it often successfully protects biodiversity. However there is little knowledge if organic farming also increases ecosystem services like pest control. We assessed 30 triticale fields (15 organic vs. 15 conventional) and recorded vascular plants, pollinators, aphids and their predators. Further, five conventional fields which were treated with insecticides were compared with 10 non-treated conventional fields. Organic fields had five times higher plant species richness and about twenty times higher pollinator species richness compared to conventional fields. Abundance of pollinators was even more than one-hundred times higher on organic fields. In contrast, the abundance of cereal aphids was five times lower in organic fields, while predator abundances were three times higher and predator-prey ratios twenty times higher in organic fields, indicating a significantly higher potential for biological pest control in organic fields. Insecticide treatment in conventional fields had only a short-term effect on aphid densities while later in the season aphid abundances were even higher and predator abundances lower in treated compared to untreated conventional fields. Our data indicate that insecticide treatment kept aphid predators at low abundances throughout the season, thereby significantly reducing top-down control of aphid populations. Plant and pollinator species richness as well as predator abundances and predator-prey ratios were higher at field edges compared to field centres, highlighting the importance of field edges for ecosystem services. In conclusion organic farming increases biodiversity, including important functional groups like plants, pollinators and predators which enhance natural pest control. Preventative insecticide application in conventional fields has only short-term effects on aphid

  7. This weapon called peace: The doctrine and strategy of Soviet arms control and disarmament policy

    SciTech Connect

    Trifan, D.D.

    1989-01-01

    The strategy of Soviet arms-control and disarmament policy can be summarized in what we have termed the ratchet strategy of peaceful coexistence, in which a strategic advance is achieved through the tactics of multiple and indirect lines of approach, legitimized through invocation of peaceful coexistence, and made permanent and irreversible both by treaties and agreements and by the increasing military capability of the Soviet Union and her allies. This strategy is unchanged from World War II until today. Soviet strategic thought is based on the writings of V. I. Lenin; and both Lenin's strategic concepts and Soviet disarmament and arms-control strategy bear a striking resemblance to the precepts expressed by the 4th-century B.C. Chinese strategist Sun Tzu in the Art of War. This dissertation examines not only the strategic content of this policy, but the doctrinal components of Soviet disarmament and arms control strategy. The doctrinal principles must be derived through examination of: authoritative political and strategic writings, records of negotiations and negotiating positions, treaties and agreements, data concerning weapons systems, and the relationship of these to observed political and strategic developments during the period under examination. The doctrinal principles behind this strategy are: (1) the primary purpose of peaceful coexistence is the undermining of imperialism, (2) any means are permissible in the pursuit of peace strategy, and (3) the motive force for this strategy is Marxist-Leninist ideology, with the ultimate goal being the worldwide imposition of socialism in its Soviet variety. Shifts in Soviet policy are tactical instead of strategic in nature; and in keeping with the Soviet idea of the correlation of forces this strategy can be termed a time-fluid two-player zero-sum game. Consequently, Soviet arms-control and disarmament policy can be a weapon called peace.

  8. Toward a livable world: Leo Szilard and the crusade for nuclear arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Szilard, L.

    1987-01-01

    Covering the years 1947 through 1963, this volume chronicles the physicist's attempts to influence public policy on arms control and disarmament issues. The book describes Szilard's opposition to antiballistic missile systems, his proposal for a Washington-Moscow ''hot line,'' his work in the Pugwash conference, his role in creating the Council for a Liveable World, his advocacy of no-first-use and restricted retaliation nuclear policies, and his support of ''minimum deterence'' in place of an overwhelming counterforce capability.

  9. An embedded laser marking controller based on ARM and FPGA processors.

    PubMed

    Dongyun, Wang; Xinpiao, Ye

    2014-01-01

    Laser marking is an important branch of the laser information processing technology. The existing laser marking machine based on PC and WINDOWS operating system, are large and inconvenient to move. Still, it cannot work outdoors or in other harsh environments. In order to compensate for the above mentioned disadvantages, this paper proposed an embedded laser marking controller based on ARM and FPGA processors. Based on the principle of laser galvanometer scanning marking, the hardware and software were designed for the application. Experiments showed that this new embedded laser marking controller controls the galvanometers synchronously and could achieve precise marking. PMID:24772028

  10. An Embedded Laser Marking Controller Based on ARM and FPGA Processors

    PubMed Central

    Dongyun, Wang; Xinpiao, Ye

    2014-01-01

    Laser marking is an important branch of the laser information processing technology. The existing laser marking machine based on PC and WINDOWS operating system, are large and inconvenient to move. Still, it cannot work outdoors or in other harsh environments. In order to compensate for the above mentioned disadvantages, this paper proposed an embedded laser marking controller based on ARM and FPGA processors. Based on the principle of laser galvanometer scanning marking, the hardware and software were designed for the application. Experiments showed that this new embedded laser marking controller controls the galvanometers synchronously and could achieve precise marking. PMID:24772028

  11. Intelligent control of robotic arm/hand systems for the NASA EVA retriever using neural networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclauchlan, Robert A.

    1989-01-01

    Adaptive/general learning algorithms using varying neural network models are considered for the intelligent control of robotic arm plus dextrous hand/manipulator systems. Results are summarized and discussed for the use of the Barto/Sutton/Anderson neuronlike, unsupervised learning controller as applied to the stabilization of an inverted pendulum on a cart system. Recommendations are made for the application of the controller and a kinematic analysis for trajectory planning to simple object retrieval (chase/approach and capture/grasp) scenarios in two dimensions.

  12. Use of Social Media to Target Information-Driven Arms Control and Nonproliferation Verification

    SciTech Connect

    Kreyling, Sean J.; Williams, Laura S.; Gastelum, Zoe N.; Whattam, Kevin M.; Corley, Courtney D.; Cramer, Nicholas O.; Rose, Stuart J.; Bell, Eric B.; Gregory, Michelle L.

    2012-07-19

    There has been considerable discussion within the national security community, including a recent workshop sponsored by the U.S. State Department, about the use of social media for extracting patterns of collective behavior and influencing public perception in areas relevant to arms control and nonproliferation. This paper seeks to explore if, and how, social media can be used to supplement nonproliferation and arms control inspection and monitoring activities on states and sites of greatest proliferation relevance. In this paper, we set the stage for how social media can be applied in this problem space and describe some of the foreseen challenges, including data validation, sources and attributes, verification, and security. Using information analytics and data visualization capabilities available at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), we provide graphical examples of some social media "signatures" of potential relevance for nonproliferation and arms control purposes. We conclude by describing a proposed case study and offering recommendations both for further research and next steps by the policy community.

  13. Domestic politics, citizen activism, and U. S. nuclear arms control policy

    SciTech Connect

    Knopf, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    The author seeks to ascertain whether and how citizens' movements concerning nuclear arms control and disarmament affect US arms control policy. The author employs a comparative case study methodology. He examines cases of the Eisenhower and Kennedy Administrations during the period of protest against nuclear testing, and the Reagan Administration during the nuclear weapons freeze campaign and the subsequent campaign for a comprehensive test ban. He hows there are four mechanisms through which public advocacy efforts can influence arms control policy, identifies the conditions under which each can be effective, and details the type of impact each mechanism has. Domestic activism interacts with broader public opinion in a way that creates electoral pressure; with elite-level debates in a way that removes a consensus behind presidential policy or changes the winning coalition in Congress; with bureaucratic politics, by generating ideas that have utility for some agents within the Executive; or with the public diplomacy of foreign governments, especially the Soviet Union. Citizens' movements had an impact on policy in each of the cases studied. The type and extent of impact, and the mechanisms involved in giving activism influence, are different for each case.

  14. Machine-based, self-guided home therapy for individuals with severe arm impairment after stroke: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Zondervan, DK; Augsburger, R; Bodenhoefer, B; Friedman, N; Reinkensmeyer, DJ; Cramer, SC

    2015-01-01

    Background Few therapeutic options exist for the millions of persons living with severe arm impairment after stroke to increase their dose of arm rehabilitation. This study compared self-guided, high-repetition home therapy with a mechanical device (the Resonating Arm Exerciser - RAE) to conventional therapy in patients with chronic stroke, and explored RAE use for patients with subacute stroke. Methods Sixteen participants with severe upper extremity impairment (mean Fugl-Meyer (FM) score = 21.4 ± 8.8 out of 66) > 6 months post stroke were randomized to three-weeks of exercise with RAE or conventional exercises. Primary outcome measure was FM score one month post-therapy. Secondary outcome measures included MAL, Visual Analog Pain scale, and Ashworth spasticity scale. After a one-month break, individuals in the conventional group also received a three-week course of RAE therapy. Results The change in FM score was significant in both the RAE and conventional groups after training (2.6 ± 1.4 and 3.4 ± 2.4, p = 0.008 and 0.016, respectively). These improvements were not significant at one-month. Exercise with RAE led to significantly greater improvements in distal FM score than conventional therapy at the one-month follow-up (p = 0.02). In a separate cohort of patients with subacute stroke, RAE was found feasible for exercise. Discussion In subjects with severe arm impairment after chronic stroke, home-based training with RAE was feasible and significantly reduced impairment without increasing pain or spasticity. Gains with RAE were comparable to those found with conventional training, and also included distal arm improvement. PMID:25273359

  15. Civil society and the negotiation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control

    PubMed Central

    MAMUDU, H. M.

    2008-01-01

    Tobacco control civil society organisations mobilised to influence countries during the negotiation of the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) between 1999 and 2003. Tobacco control civil society organisations and coalitions around the world embraced the idea of an international tobacco control treaty and came together as the Framework Convention Alliance (FCA), becoming an important non-state actor within the international system of tobacco control. Archival documents and interviews demonstrate that the FCA successfully used strategies including publication of a newsletter, shaming, symbolism and media advocacy to influence policy positions of countries during the FCTC negotiation. The FCA became influential in the negotiation process by mobilising tobacco control civil society organisations and resources with the help of the Internet and framing the tobacco control discussion around global public health. PMID:19333806

  16. Long-term efficacy and safety of incobotulinumtoxinA and conventional treatment of poststroke arm spasticity: a prospective, non-interventional, open-label, parallel-group study

    PubMed Central

    Dressler, Dirk; Rychlik, Reinhard; Kreimendahl, Fabian; Schnur, Nicole; Lambert-Baumann, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficacy and safety of incobotulinumtoxinA with conventional antispastic therapy for poststroke arm spasticity in routine clinical practice over a 1-year period. Design Prospective, non-interventional, open-label, parallel-group study. Setting 47 centres in Germany. Participants Patients with poststroke arm spasticity; 108 receiving incobotulinumtoxinA, 110 conventional therapy. Intervention Conventional antispastic treatment including oral antispastic medications, physiotherapy and occupational therapy or 3-monthly incobotulinumtoxinA injections plus conventional therapy if required. Main outcome measures The main outcome measure was changes in muscle tone (Ashworth Scale) over the 1-year treatment period. Changes in functional disability (Disability Assessment Scale) and quality of life (Short-Form-12 Health Survey) were additionally assessed. Ratings for therapy outcome (Goal Attainment Scale), and efficacy and tolerability of treatment (Global Clinical Impression Scale) were also obtained. Results Muscle tone improved for all spasticity patterns with the Ashworth Scale responder rates between 63% and 86% (incobotulinumtoxinA) and 16–27% (conventional therapy). Median improvement in functional disability was –1.0 (incobotulinumtoxinA) and 0.0 (conventional measures) for all domains. Treatment goals were attained by 93% of incobotulinumtoxinA patients and 30% of patients under conventional therapy. Most physicians (93%) and patients (90%) rated efficacy as good or very good under incobotulinumtoxinA; the proportions were much lower under conventional therapy (36% and 37%). Tolerability under incobotulinumtoxinA was considered good or very good by 99% of physicians and patients (76% and 66%, respectively, under conventional therapy). Quality of life under incobotulinumtoxinA improved by 8.0 (physical score) and 10.8 (mental score) and by 0.8 and 5.7, respectively, under conventional therapy. Conclusions IncobotulinumtoxinA combined

  17. A Visual Analytics Approach to Structured Data Analysis to Enhance Nonproliferation and Arms Control Verification Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Gillen, David S.

    2014-08-07

    Analysis activities for Nonproliferation and Arms Control verification require the use of many types of data. Tabular structured data, such as Excel spreadsheets and relational databases, have traditionally been used for data mining activities, where specific queries are issued against data to look for matching results. The application of visual analytics tools to structured data enables further exploration of datasets to promote discovery of previously unknown results. This paper discusses the application of a specific visual analytics tool to datasets related to the field of Arms Control and Nonproliferation to promote the use of visual analytics more broadly in this domain. Visual analytics focuses on analytical reasoning facilitated by interactive visual interfaces (Wong and Thomas 2004). It promotes exploratory analysis of data, and complements data mining technologies where known patterns can be mined for. Also with a human in the loop, they can bring in domain knowledge and subject matter expertise. Visual analytics has not widely been applied to this domain. In this paper, we will focus on one type of data: structured data, and show the results of applying a specific visual analytics tool to answer questions in the Arms Control and Nonproliferation domain. We chose to use the T.Rex tool, a visual analytics tool developed at PNNL, which uses a variety of visual exploration patterns to discover relationships in structured datasets, including a facet view, graph view, matrix view, and timeline view. The facet view enables discovery of relationships between categorical information, such as countries and locations. The graph tool visualizes node-link relationship patterns, such as the flow of materials being shipped between parties. The matrix visualization shows highly correlated categories of information. The timeline view shows temporal patterns in data. In this paper, we will use T.Rex with two different datasets to demonstrate how interactive exploration of

  18. Adaptive Strategies for Controls of Flexible Arms. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, Bau-San

    1989-01-01

    An adaptive controller for a modern manipulator has been designed based on asymptotical stability via the Lyapunov criterion with the output error between the system and a reference model used as the actuating control signal. Computer simulations were carried out to test the design. The combination of the adaptive controller and a system vibration and mode shape estimator show that the flexible arm should move along a pre-defined trajectory with high-speed motion and fast vibration setting time. An existing computer-controlled prototype two link manipulator, RALF (Robotic Arm, Large Flexible), with a parallel mechanism driven by hydraulic actuators was used to verify the mathematical analysis. The experimental results illustrate that assumed modes found from finite element techniques can be used to derive the equations of motion with acceptable accuracy. The robust adaptive (modal) control is implemented to compensate for unmodelled modes and nonlinearities and is compared with the joint feedback control in additional experiments. Preliminary results show promise for the experimental control algorithm.

  19. Participation of non-conventional energy resources in power system frequency control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghazadeh Tabrizi, Mehriar

    Frequency control is one of the key issues in designing, planning and reliably operating a power system and is becoming more challenging as new complexities and uncertainties are introduced into the modern power systems. Traditionally, power system frequency has been controlled using conventional generation units' capabilities namely inertial, primary and secondary frequency responses. Limited fossil-based fuel resources, ever-increasing energy consumption and rising public awareness for environmental protection have created growing interest in use of non-conventional energy resources such as Wind Generation Resources (WGRs) and Solar Generation Resources (SGRs) which have unfavorable characteristics in comparison with conventional generation units such as lack of frequency response. The more conventional generation units are replaced by these resources, the more challenges power system operators will face in terms of power system frequency control. These challenges are further compounded due to less system inertia during off-peak hours or within small power systems. This dissertation mainly focuses on participation of SGRs and Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (IPMSG) based WGRs in power system frequency control. Detailed information regarding dynamic modeling of power system including conventional generation units, SGRs and IPMSG based WGRs is provided. The frequency response of conventional generation units is compared with that of SGRs and IPMSG based WGRs. The control systems associated with IPMSG based WGR and SGR are modified in order to improve their frequency response capabilities. The effectiveness of the proposed control strategies is evaluated and confirmed via MATLAB based time-domain simulations for different scenarios. Moreover, application of Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESSs) in power system frequency regulation is discussed. The detailed dynamic model of BESSs is utilized to develop a simplified model suitable for Automatic

  20. Identifying, Visualizing, and Fusing Social Media Data to Support Nonproliferation and Arms Control Treaty Verification: Preliminary Results

    SciTech Connect

    Gastelum, Zoe N.; Cramer, Nicholas O.; Benz, Jacob M.; Kreyling, Sean J.; Henry, Michael J.; Corley, Courtney D.; Whattam, Kevin M.

    2013-07-11

    While international nonproliferation and arms control verification capabilities have their foundations in physical and chemical sensors, state declarations, and on-site inspections, verification experts are beginning to consider the importance of open source data to complement and support traditional means of verification. One of those new, and increasingly expanding, sources of open source information is social media, which can be ingested and understood through social media analytics (SMA). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is conducting research to further our ability to identify, visualize, and fuse social media data to support nonproliferation and arms control treaty verification efforts. This paper will describe our preliminary research to examine social media signatures of nonproliferation or arms control proxy events. We will describe the development of our preliminary nonproliferation and arms control proxy events, outline our initial findings, and propose ideas for future work.

  1. Learning arm's posture control using reinforcement learning and feedback-error-learning.

    PubMed

    Kambara, H; Kim, J; Sato, M; Koike, Y

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a learning model using the Actor-Critic method and the feedback-error-learning scheme. The Actor-Critic method, which is one of the major frameworks in reinforcement learning, has attracted attention as a computational learning model in the basal ganglia. Meanwhile, the feedback-error-learning is learning architecture proposed as a computationally coherent model of cerebellar motor learning. This learning architecture's purpose is to acquire a feed-forward controller by using a feedback controller's output as an error signal. In past researches, a predetermined constant gain feedback controller was used for the feedback-error-learning. We use the Actor-Critic method for obtaining a feedback controller in the feedback-error-earning. By applying the proposed learning model to an arm's posture control, we show that high-performance feedback and feed-forward controller can be acquired from only by using a scalar value of reward. PMID:17271719

  2. Simulation of traffic flow and control using conventional, fuzzy, and adaptive methods

    SciTech Connect

    Bisset, K.R.; Kelsey, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the graphical simulation of a traffic environment. The environment includes streets leading to an intersection, the intersection, vehicle traffic, and signal lights in the intersection controlled by different methods. The simulation allows for the study of parameters affecting traffic environments and the study of different control strategies for traffic signal lights, including conventional, fuzzy, and adaptive control methods. Realistic traffic environments are simulated including a cross intersection, with one or more lanes of traffic in each direction, with and without turn lanes. Vehicle traffic patterns are a mixture of cars going straight and making right or left turns. The free velocities of vehicles follow a normal distribution with a mean of the posted'' speed limit. Actual velocities depend on such factors as the proximity and velocity of surrounding traffic, approaches to intersections, and human response time. The simulation proves the be a useful tool for evaluating controller methods. Preliminary results show that larger quantities of traffic are handled'' by fuzzy control methods then by conventional control methods. Also, the average time spent waiting in traffic decreases with the use of fuzzy control versus conventional control.

  3. Simulation of traffic flow and control using conventional, fuzzy, and adaptive methods

    SciTech Connect

    Bisset, K.R.; Kelsey, R.L.

    1992-06-01

    This paper describes the graphical simulation of a traffic environment. The environment includes streets leading to an intersection, the intersection, vehicle traffic, and signal lights in the intersection controlled by different methods. The simulation allows for the study of parameters affecting traffic environments and the study of different control strategies for traffic signal lights, including conventional, fuzzy, and adaptive control methods. Realistic traffic environments are simulated including a cross intersection, with one or more lanes of traffic in each direction, with and without turn lanes. Vehicle traffic patterns are a mixture of cars going straight and making right or left turns. The free velocities of vehicles follow a normal distribution with a mean of the ``posted`` speed limit. Actual velocities depend on such factors as the proximity and velocity of surrounding traffic, approaches to intersections, and human response time. The simulation proves the be a useful tool for evaluating controller methods. Preliminary results show that larger quantities of traffic are ``handled`` by fuzzy control methods then by conventional control methods. Also, the average time spent waiting in traffic decreases with the use of fuzzy control versus conventional control.

  4. Brain-Machine Interface control of a robot arm using actor-critic rainforcement learning.

    PubMed

    Pohlmeyer, Eric A; Mahmoudi, Babak; Geng, Shijia; Prins, Noeline; Sanchez, Justin C

    2012-01-01

    Here we demonstrate how a marmoset monkey can use a reinforcement learning (RL) Brain-Machine Interface (BMI) to effectively control the movements of a robot arm for a reaching task. In this work, an actor-critic RL algorithm used neural ensemble activity in the monkey's motor cortext to control the robot movements during a two-target decision task. This novel approach to decoding offers unique advantages for BMI control applications. Compared to supervised learning decoding methods, the actor-critic RL algorithm does not require an explicit set of training data to create a static control model, but rather it incrementally adapts the model parameters according to its current performance, in this case requiring only a very basic feedback signal. We show how this algorithm achieved high performance when mapping the monkey's neural states (94%) to robot actions, and only needed to experience a few trials before obtaining accurate real-time control of the robot arm. Since RL methods responsively adapt and adjust their parameters, they can provide a method to create BMIs that are robust against perturbations caused by changes in either the neural input space or the output actions they generate under different task requirements or goals. PMID:23366831

  5. Multi-muscle FES force control of the human arm for arbitrary goals.

    PubMed

    Schearer, Eric M; Liao, Yu-Wei; Perreault, Eric J; Tresch, Matthew C; Memberg, William D; Kirsch, Robert F; Lynch, Kevin M

    2014-05-01

    We present a method for controlling a neuroprosthesis for a paralyzed human arm using functional electrical stimulation (FES) and characterize the errors of the controller. The subject has surgically implanted electrodes for stimulating muscles in her shoulder and arm. Using input/output data, a model mapping muscle stimulations to isometric endpoint forces measured at the subject's hand was identified. We inverted the model of this redundant and coupled multiple-input multiple-output system by minimizing muscle activations and used this inverse for feedforward control. The magnitude of the total root mean square error over a grid in the volume of achievable isometric endpoint force targets was 11% of the total range of achievable forces. Major sources of error were random error due to trial-to-trial variability and model bias due to nonstationary system properties. Because the muscles working collectively are the actuators of the skeletal system, the quantification of errors in force control guides designs of motion controllers for multi-joint, multi-muscle FES systems that can achieve arbitrary goals. PMID:24122573

  6. Overhead imaging for verification and peacekeeping: Three studies. Arms Control Verification Studies No. 6

    SciTech Connect

    Banner, A.V.

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines commercially available overhead remote sensing systems and their applications for international security. The paper describes the basic operating characteristics and features of commercially available systems, then uses two case studies to examine potential applications. In the first, imagery acquired during the Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan in 1988 and 1989 is used to assess whether commercially available satellite imagery would be useful for monitoring large scale withdrawals of conventionally armed forces. In the second case study, imagery of selected sites in Namibia and Angola is used to examine whether such imagery could have supported United Nations peacekeeping operations in those countries. Potential applications of airborne remote sensing systems are also demonstrated using previously acquired imagery to show the kinds of results which could be obtained using commercially available systems.

  7. Design of a telescope control system using an ARM microcontroller with embedded RTOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peñuela Pico, Cristian R.; Atara Montañez, Fabian A.; Cuervo, Juan C.; Gonzalez-Llorente, Jesus

    2014-08-01

    This work presents the design of a wireless control system that allows driving all the necessary instruments to control the orientation of an equatorial mounting telescope through a real time operative system (RTOS) that runs over ARM microcontroller. The control system is commanded through a user-interface which works under Android platform giving the user the option to control the tracking mode, right ascension, and declination. The system was successfully deployed and tested during a one-hour observation of the Moon. The frequency measured by the oscilloscope is 66.67 Hz which equals the sidereal speed. The telescope control systems allows the user to have a better precision when locating a star but also to cover long-duration tracking processes

  8. Ground Truthing the ‘Conventional Wisdom’ of Lead Corrosion Control Using Mineralogical Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    For drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) with lead-bearing plumbing materials some form of corrosion control is typically necessary, with the goal of mitigating lead release by forming adherent, stable corrosion scales composed of low-solubility mineral phases. Conventional...

  9. Ground Truthing the 'Conventional Wisdom' of Lead Corrosion Control Using Mineralogical Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    For drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) with lead-bearing plumbing materials some form of corrosion control is typically necessary, with the goal of mitigating lead release by forming adherent, stable corrosion scales composed of low-solubility mineral phases. Conventional...

  10. SHIFTS IN VINEYARD WEED SEED BANK COMPOSITION IN REPONSE TO ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL WEED CONTROL PRACTICES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this research was to compare the organic weed control practice, soil cultivation, to the conventional practice, applications of the herbicide, glyphosate, in terms of their effects on weed seed bank in a vineyard system. The experiment was conducted in a commercial winegrape vineyard in t...

  11. 40 CFR 434.74 - Effluent limitations attainable by application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32 and 434.72(b)(2), a pre-existing... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 434.74 Section 434.74 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED)...

  12. Strategy of arm movement control is determined by minimization of neural effort for joint coordination.

    PubMed

    Dounskaia, Natalia; Shimansky, Yury

    2016-06-01

    Optimality criteria underlying organization of arm movements are often validated by testing their ability to adequately predict hand trajectories. However, kinematic redundancy of the arm allows production of the same hand trajectory through different joint coordination patterns. We therefore consider movement optimality at the level of joint coordination patterns. A review of studies of multi-joint movement control suggests that a 'trailing' pattern of joint control is consistently observed during which a single ('leading') joint is rotated actively and interaction torque produced by this joint is the primary contributor to the motion of the other ('trailing') joints. A tendency to use the trailing pattern whenever the kinematic redundancy is sufficient and increased utilization of this pattern during skillful movements suggests optimality of the trailing pattern. The goal of this study is to determine the cost function minimization of which predicts the trailing pattern. We show that extensive experimental testing of many known cost functions cannot successfully explain optimality of the trailing pattern. We therefore propose a novel cost function that represents neural effort for joint coordination. That effort is quantified as the cost of neural information processing required for joint coordination. We show that a tendency to reduce this 'neurocomputational' cost predicts the trailing pattern and that the theoretically developed predictions fully agree with the experimental findings on control of multi-joint movements. Implications for future research of the suggested interpretation of the trailing joint control pattern and the theory of joint coordination underlying it are discussed. PMID:26983620

  13. Novel Noxipoint Therapy versus Conventional Physical Therapy for Chronic Neck and Shoulder Pain: Multicentre Randomised Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Charles C.; Lin, Ray S.; Wang, Tyng-Guey; Tsauo, Jau-Yih; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Yen, Chen-Tung; Biswal, Sandip

    2015-01-01

    As chronic pain affects 115 million people and costs $600B annually in the US alone, effective noninvasive nonpharmacological remedies are desirable. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy and the generalisability of Noxipoint therapy (NT), a novel electrotherapy characterised by site-specific stimulation, intensity-and-submodality-specific settings and a immobilization period, for chronic neck and shoulder pain. Ninety-seven heavily pretreated severe chronic neck/shoulder pain patients were recruited; 34 and 44 patients were randomly allocated to different treatment arms in two patient-and-assessor-blinded, randomised controlled studies. The participants received NT or conventional physical therapy including transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (PT-TENS) for three to six 90-minute sessions. In Study One, NT improved chronic pain (−89.6%, Brief Pain Inventory, p < 0.0001, 95% confidence interval), function (+77.4%, range of motion) and quality of life (+88.1%) at follow-up (from 4 weeks to 5 months), whereas PT-TENS resulted in no significant changes in these parameters. Study Two demonstrated similar advantages of NT over PT-TENS and the generalisability of NT. NT-like treatments in a randomised rat study showed a similar reduction in chronic hypersensitivity (−81%, p < 0.01) compared with sham treatments. NT substantially reduces chronic neck and shoulder pain, restores function, and improves quality of life in a sustained manner. PMID:26552835

  14. Pain exposure physical therapy (PEPT) compared to conventional treatment in complex regional pain syndrome type 1: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Barnhoorn, Karlijn J; van de Meent, Henk; van Dongen, Robert T M; Klomp, Frank P; Groenewoud, Hans; Samwel, Han; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G; Frölke, Jan Paul M; Staal, J Bart

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the effectiveness of pain exposure physical therapy (PEPT) with conventional treatment in patients with complex regional pain syndrome type 1 (CRPS-1) in a randomised controlled trial with a blinded assessor. Setting The study was conducted at a level 1 trauma centre in the Netherlands. Participants 56 adult patients with CRPS-1 participated. Three patients were lost to follow-up. Interventions Patients received either PEPT in a maximum of five treatment sessions, or conventional treatment following the Dutch multidisciplinary guideline. Measurements Outcomes were assessed at baseline and at 3, 6 and 9 months after randomisation. The primary outcome measure was the Impairment level Sum Score—Restricted Version (ISS-RV), consisting of visual analogue scale for pain (VAS-pain), McGill Pain Questionnaire, active range of motion (AROM) and skin temperature. Secondary outcome measures included Pain Disability Index (PDI); muscle strength; Short Form 36 (SF-36); disability of arm, shoulder and hand; Lower Limb Tasks Questionnaire (LLTQ); 10 m walk test; timed up-and-go test (TUG) and EuroQol-5D. Results The intention-to-treat analysis showed a clinically relevant decrease in ISS-RV (6.7 points for PEPT and 6.2 points for conventional treatment), but the between-group difference was not significant (0.96, 95% CI −1.56 to 3.48). Participants allocated to PEPT experienced a greater improvement in AROM (between-group difference 0.51, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.94; p=0.02). The per protocol analysis showed larger and significant between-group effects on ISS-RV, VAS-pain, AROM, PDI, SF-36, LLTQ and TUG. Conclusions We cannot conclude that PEPT is superior to conventional treatment for patients with CRPS-1. Further high-quality research on the effects of PEPT is warranted given the potential effects as indicated by the per protocol analysis. Trial registration numbers NCT00817128 and NTR 2090. PMID:26628523

  15. Monitoring bombers and cruise missiles for the purposes of arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkening, D.A.

    1985-02-20

    This paper discusses the extent to which bomber/cruise missile characteristics and activities can be monitored by national technical means (NTM). Particular attention is paid to those characteristics and activities relevant to arms control. National technical means--which refers to various technical means by which monitoring data can be gathered, usually involving satellite reconnaissance--are not the sole means for monitoring, though they may be the most dependable. This paper discusses the confidence one might have in monitoring bombers and cruise missiles.

  16. Wolfgang K.H. Panofsky: Scientist and Arms-Control Expert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüth, Vera G.

    2013-10-01

    Wolfgang K.H. Panofsky is remembered as the legendary founder and first director of SLAC, the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. He devoted his life to teaching and research in accelerator and particle physics, to science policy, to his work as a science advisor to both the US and foreign governments, and to world peace as an expert on arms control and international security. He was admired by all who had a chance to meet and interact with him, and who simply called him Pief.

  17. Mars Surveyor '98 Landers MVACS Robotic Arm Control System Design Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonitz, Robert G.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the control system design concepts for the Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor (MVACS) Robotic Arm which supports the scientific investigations to be conducted as part of the Mars Surveyor '98 Lander project. Solutions are presented to some of the problems encountered in this demanding space application with its tight constraints on mass, power, volume, and computing resources. Problems addressed include 4-DOF forward and inverse kinematics, trajectory planning to minimize potential impact damage, joint drive train protection, Lander tilt prevention, hardware fault monitoring, and collision avoidance.

  18. Increasing Inspectability of Hardware and Software for Arms Control and Nonproliferation Regimes

    SciTech Connect

    White, G

    2001-07-18

    As the U.S. and the Russian Federation get closer to deploying systems for monitoring nuclear material within arms control and nonproliferation transparency regimes, the level of inspectability of the system hardware and software must increase beyond the systems demonstrated to date. These systems include the Trilateral Initiative prototype, the Fissile Material Transparency Technology Demonstration (FMTTD) system, and the Trusted Radiation Attribute Demonstration System (TRADS). Toward this goal, several alternative technologies will be discussed along with ways in which they would increase inspectability. Some examples of such technologies include the use of microcontrollers instead of fully capable computers, open source operating systems, rantime environments, and compilers.

  19. Some possible applications of measurements on mu mesons to nuclear safeguards, nonproliferation, and arms control activities

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, W.R.; Vanier, P.E.

    1997-10-01

    In the nuclear safeguards and arms control areas, well-developed methodologies exist for determining the properties of nuclear materials via measurements of the gamma rays and neutrons emitted from these materials, or in the arms control area, by the use of radiography. In certain favorable instances, it may by feasible to perform comparable measurements with the use of a ubiquitous, naturally-occurring radiation--cosmic ray mu mesons (muons). At the earth`s surface these charged particles have a broad energy distribution peaking at about 500 MeV with a flux of approximately 10{sup {minus}2}/cm{sup 2}-sec-steradian. In traversing matter, muons lose energy at a rate of approximately 2 MeV/gram almost independent of atomic number. Muons can readily be detected by either plastic scintillators or wire planes. While the flux is small, a scintillator of one meter area, for example, will register about 20,000 events/min. these particles should have utility in the detection and imaging of objects with sectional densities of a few hundred grams/cm{sup 2}. The degree of intrusiveness of the imaging can be controlled through the detector configuration. Some possible applications include: (1) mass measurements on large UF{sub 6} cylinders, (2) determination of the size of treaty-limited objects, e.g., missiles, in rail cars or other containment; (3) verification of single or multiple warheads or components; (4) the detection of concealed, underground cavities. Examples will be presented.

  20. Arm-free paraplegic standing--Part I: Control model synthesis and simulation.

    PubMed

    Matjacić, Z; Bajd, T

    1998-06-01

    The following paper is the first part of our investigation into the feasibility of arm-free paraplegic standing. A novel control strategy for unsupported paraplegic standing which utilizes the residual sensory and motor abilities of the thoracic spinal cord injured subjects is proposed. The strategy is based on voluntary and reflex activity of the paraplegic person's upper body and artificially controlled stiffness in the ankles. The knees and hips are maintained in an extended position by functional electrical stimulation (FES). The analysis of a linearized double inverted pendulum model revealed that with properly selected ankle stiffness the system can be easily stabilized. We developed a closed-loop double inverted pendulum model including a neural system delay, trunk muscles dynamics, body segmental dynamics and linear quadratic regulator (LQR) optimal controller. Through simulations of the closed-loop model two different strategies for disturbance rejection were explained. We investigated the capability of the closed-loop model to reject disturbances, imposed at the ankle joint (in anterior and posterior directions) for various stiffness levels and neural system delays in the presence of biomechanical constraints. By limiting permissible excursions of the center of pressure, we found out that the length of the foot is the most important constraint, while the strength of the trunk muscles is not of major importance for successful balancing. An ankle stiffness of approximately 10 Nm/degree suffices for arm-free standing of paraplegic subjects. PMID:9631320

  1. Thermal control of a lidar laser system using a non-conventional ram air heat exchanger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killough, Brian D.; Alexander, William, Jr.; Swofford, Doyle P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the analysis and performance testing of a uniquely designed external heat exchanger. The heat exchanger is attached externally to an aircraft and is used to cool a laser system within the fuselage. Estimates showed insufficient cooling capacity with a conventional staggered tube array in the limited space available. Thus, a non-conventional design wes developed with larger tube and fin area exposed to the ram air to increase the heat transfer performance. The basic design consists of 28 circular finned aluminum tubes arranged in two parallel banks. Wind tunnel tests were performed to simulate air and liquid flight conditions for the non-conventional parallel bank arrangement and the conventional staggered tube arrangement. Performance comparisons of each of the two designs are presented. Test results are used in a computer model of the heat exchanger to predict the operating performance for the entire flight profile. These analyses predict significantly improved performance over the conventional design and show adequate thermal control margins.

  2. Intelligent fault-tolerant control for swing-arm system in the space-borne spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yufeng; Zhou, Chunjie; Huang, Xiongfeng; Yin, Quan

    2012-04-01

    Fault-tolerant control (FTC) for the space-borne equipments is very important in the engineering design. This paper presents a two-layer intelligent FTC approach to handle the speed stability problem in the swing-arm system suffering from various faults in space. This approach provides the reliable FTC at the performance level, and improves the control flow error detection capability at the code level. The faults degrading the system performance are detected by the performance-based fault detection mechanism. The detected faults are categorized as the anticipated faults and unanticipated faults by the fault bank. Neural network is used as an on-line estimator to approximate the unanticipated faults. The compensation control and intelligent integral sliding mode control are employed to accommodate two types of faults at the performance level, respectively. To guarantee the reliability of the FTC at the code level, the key parts of the program codes are modified by control flow checking by software signatures (CFCSS) to detect the control flow errors caused by the single event upset. Meanwhile, some of the undetected control flow errors can be detected by the FTC at the performance level. The FTC for the anticipated fault and unanticipated fault are verified in Synopsys Saber, and the detection of control flow error is tested in the DSP controller. Simulation results demonstrate the efficiency of the novel FTC approach.

  3. Two-dimensional myoelectric control of a robotic arm for upper limb amputees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López Celani, Natalia M.; Soria, Carlos M.; Orosco, Eugenio C.; di Sciascio, Fernando A.; Valentinuzzi, Max E.

    2007-11-01

    Rehabilitation engineering and medicine have become integral and significant parts of health care services, particularly and unfortunately in the last three or four decades, because of wars, terrorism and large number of car accidents. Amputees show a high rate of rejection to wear prosthetic devices, often because of lack of an adequate period of adaptation. A robotic arm may appear as a good preliminary stage. To test the hypothesis, myoelectric signals from two upper limb amputees and from four normal volunteers were fed, via adequate electronic conditioning and using MATLAB, to an industrial robotic arm. Proportional strength control was used for two degrees of freedom (x-y plane) by means of eight signal features of control (four traditional statistics plus energy, integral of the absolute value, Willison's amplitude, waveform length and envelope) for comparison purposes, and selecting the best of them as final reference. Patients easily accepted the system and learned in short time how to operate it. Results were encouraging so that valuable training, before prosthesis is implanted, appears as good feedback; besides, these patients can be hired as specialized operators in semi-automatized industry.

  4. Sandia technology. Volume 13, number 2 Special issue : verification of arms control treaties.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-03-01

    Nuclear deterrence, a cornerstone of US national security policy, has helped prevent global conflict for over 40 years. The DOE and DoD share responsibility for this vital part of national security. The US will continue to rely on nuclear deterrence for the foreseeable future. In the late 1950s, Sandia developed satellite-borne nuclear burst detection systems to support the treaty banning atmospheric nuclear tests. This activity has continued to expand and diversify. When the Non-Proliferation Treaty was ratified in 1970, we began to develop technologies to protect nuclear materials from falling into unauthorized hands. This program grew and now includes systems for monitoring the movement and storage of nuclear materials, detecting tampering, and transmiting sensitive data securely. In the late 1970s, negotiations to further limit underground nuclear testing were being actively pursued. In less than 18 months, we fielded the National Seismic Station, an unattended observatory for in-country monitoring of nuclear tests. In the mid-l980s, arms-control interest shifted to facility monitoring and on-site inspection. Our Technical On-site Inspection Facility is the national test bed for perimeter and portal monitoring technology and the prototype for the inspection portal that was recently installed in the USSR under the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces accord. The articles in the special issue of Sundiu Technology describe some of our current contributions to verification technology. This work supports the US policy to seek realistic arms control agreements while maintaining our national security.

  5. Effects of Action Observational Training Plus Brain-Computer Interface-Based Functional Electrical Stimulation on Paretic Arm Motor Recovery in Patient with Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Kim, TaeHoon; Kim, SeongSik; Lee, ByoungHee

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether action observational training (AOT) plus brain-computer interface-based functional electrical stimulation (BCI-FES) has a positive influence on motor recovery of paretic upper extremity in patients with stroke. This was a hospital-based, randomized controlled trial with a blinded assessor. Thirty patients with a first-time stroke were randomly allocated to one of two groups: the BCI-FES group (n = 15) and the control group (n = 15). The BCI-FES group administered to AOT plus BCI-FES on the paretic upper extremity five times per week during 4 weeks while both groups received conventional therapy. The primary outcomes were the Fugl-Meyer Assessment of the Upper Extremity, Motor Activity Log (MAL), Modified Barthel Index and range of motion of paretic arm. A blinded assessor evaluated the outcomes at baseline and 4 weeks. All baseline outcomes did not differ significantly between the two groups. After 4 weeks, the Fugl-Meyer Assessment of the Upper Extremity sub-items (total, shoulder and wrist), MAL (MAL-Activity of Use and Quality of Movement), Modified Barthel Index and wrist flexion range of motion were significantly higher in the BCI-FES group (p < 0.05). AOT plus BCI-based FES is effective in paretic arm rehabilitation by improving the upper extremity performance. The motor improvements suggest that AOT plus BCI-based FES can be used as a therapeutic tool for stroke rehabilitation. The limitations of the study are that subjects had a certain limited level of upper arm function, and the sample size was comparatively small; hence, it is recommended that future large-scale trials should consider stratified and lager populations according to upper arm function. PMID:26301519

  6. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. A-C CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL, PART I, UNIT 5, ASSIGNMENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR INDIVIDUAL STUDENT USE IN STUDYING ALTERNATING CURRENT CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. EACH OF THE 10 ASSIGNMENT SHEETS PROVIDES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE, INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION, STUDY REFERENCES, SUPPLEMENTARY…

  7. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. A-C CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL, PART I, UNIT 5, INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR TEACHER USE IN DIRECTING INDIVIDUAL STUDY OF ALTERNATING CURRENT CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. EACH OF THE 10 INSTRUCTOR'S SHEETS GIVES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE, INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION, REFERENCES, AND…

  8. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. A-C CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL, PART II, UNIT 6, INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS GUIDE IS FOR TEACHER USE IN DIRECTING INDIVIDUAL STUDY OF ALTERNATING CURRENT CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. EACH OF THE 10 INSTRUCTOR'S SHEETS GIVES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE, INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION, REFERENCES, SUPPLEMENTARY…

  9. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INDUSTRIAL CONTROL. A-C CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL, PART II, UNIT 6, ASSIGNMENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUTTON, MACK C.

    THIS STUDY GUIDE IS FOR INDIVIDUAL STUDENT USE IN STUDYING ALTERNATING CURRENT CONVENTIONAL MAGNETIC MOTOR CONTROL IN ELECTRICAL-ELECTRONIC PROGRAMS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS SPECIALIST AND ADVISERS. EACH OF THE 10 ASSIGNMENT SHEETS PROVIDES THE LESSON SUBJECT, PURPOSE, INTRODUCTORY INFORMATION, STUDY REFERENCES,…

  10. Side arm strategy for catalyst design: modifying bisoxazolines for remote control of enantioselection and related.

    PubMed

    Liao, Saihu; Sun, Xiu-Li; Tang, Yong

    2014-08-19

    In asymmetric catalysis, the remote control of enantioselection is usually difficult due to the long distance communication between the chiral center of the catalyst and the reactive site of the substrate. The development of efficient and highly enantioselective catalysts for such reactions is of great importance and highly desirable. The stereocontrol over an asymmetric reaction is a delicate process (ca. 3.0 kcal/mol difference in transition states can lead to >99/1 enantiomeric selectivity at room temperature), it therefore requires fine-tuning on the electronic nature of the central metal together with a precisely created cavity to accommodate the substrates and reagents. We envision that a solution is the design of new catalysts by finding an easy and efficient way to tune the electronic properties, the chiral space, and the shape of the catalytic site. Since an extra coordination group in the organometallic complex could not only alter the microenvironment around the metal center in a three-dimensional manner but also tune the electronic properties of the metal center, about 10 years ago, we introduced a side arm strategy for ligand/catalyst design. This Account describes our efforts toward this goal. Based on this side arm strategy, we have developed two series of ligands based on the bisoxazoline framework; namely, trisoxazoline (TOX) ligands and side armed bisoxazoline (SaBOX). The "side arms" are shown to play multiple roles in different cases, for example, as a ligating group, a steric group, or a directing group, which are dependent on the metal and the functionality at the side arm. Metal catalysts based on these ligands have proven to be highly efficient for a number of asymmetric transformations, including Friedel-Crafts reaction, Kinugasa reaction, Nazarov reaction, 1,2-Stevens rearrangement, Cannizzaro reaction, and cyclopropanation. In comparison with the parent BOX ligands, the metal catalysts based on these TOX and SaBOX ligands usually exhibit

  11. An Experimental Database for Conventional and Alternate Control Concepts on the HSR 1.675% Reference H Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMillin, Naomi; Allen, Jerry; Erickson, Gary; Campbell, Jim; Mann, Mike; Kubiatko, Paul; Yingling, David; Mason, Charlie

    1999-01-01

    The objective was to experimentally evaluate the longitudinal and lateral-directional stability and control characteristics of the Reference H configuration at supersonic and transonic speeds. A series of conventional and alternate control devices were also evaluated at supersonic and transonic speeds. A database on the conventional and alternate control devices was to be created for use in the HSR program.

  12. The timing of control signals underlying fast point-to-point arm movements.

    PubMed

    Ghafouri, M; Feldman, A G

    2001-04-01

    It is known that proprioceptive feedback induces muscle activation when the facilitation of appropriate motoneurons exceeds their threshold. In the suprathreshold range, the muscle-reflex system produces torques depending on the position and velocity of the joint segment(s) that the muscle spans. The static component of the torque-position relationship is referred to as the invariant characteristic (IC). According to the equilibrium-point (EP) hypothesis, control systems produce movements by changing the activation thresholds and thus shifting the IC of the appropriate muscles in joint space. This control process upsets the balance between muscle and external torques at the initial limb configuration and, to regain the balance, the limb is forced to establish a new configuration or, if the movement is prevented, a new level of static torques. Taken together, the joint angles and the muscle torques generated at an equilibrium configuration define a single variable called the EP. Thus by shifting the IC, control systems reset the EP. Muscle activation and movement emerge following the EP resetting because of the natural physical tendency of the system to reach equilibrium. Empirical and simulation studies support the notion that the control IC shifts and the resulting EP shifts underlying fast point-to-point arm movements are gradual rather than step-like. However, controversies exist about the duration of these shifts. Some studies suggest that the IC shifts cease with the movement offset. Other studies propose that the IC shifts end early in comparison to the movement duration (approximately, at peak velocity). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the duration of the IC shifts underlying fast point-to-point arm movements. Subjects made fast (hand peak velocity about 1.3 m/s) planar arm movements toward different targets while grasping a handle. Hand forces applied to the handle and shoulder/elbow torques were, respectively, measured from a force sensor placed

  13. Controlled release of nitric oxide chemotherapy using a nano-sized biodegradable multi-arm polymer

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Shaofeng; Cai, Shuang; Yang, Qiuhong; Forrest, M. Laird

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide is a cell signaling molecule that can be a potent inducer of cell death in cancers at elevated concentrations. Nitric oxide molecules are short-lived in vivo; therefore, NO-donating prodrugs have been developed that can deliver NO to tissues at micromolar concentrations. However, NO is also toxic to normal tissues and chronic exposure at low levels can induce tumor growth. We have designed a polymeric carrier system to deliver nitric oxide locoregionally to tumorigenic tissues. A highly water solubility and biodegradable 4-arm polymer nanocarrier, sugar poly-(6-O-methacryloyl-D-galactose), was synthesized using MADIX/RAFT polymerization, and utilized to deliver high concentrations of nitric oxide to xenografts of human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The in vitro release of the newly synthesized nitric oxide donor, O2-(2,4-dinitrophenyl) 1-[4-(2-hydroxy)ethyl]-3-methylpiperazin-1-yl]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate and its corresponding multi-arm polymer-based nanoconjugate demonstrated a 1- and 2.3-fold increase in half-life, respectively, compared to the release half-life of the nitric oxide -donor prodrug JS-K. When administered to tumor-bearing nude mice, the subcutaneously injected multi-arm polymer nitric oxide nanoparticles resulted in 50% tumor inhibition and a 7-week extension of the average survival time, compared to intravenous JS-K therapy (nitric oxide nanoparticles: CR=25%, PR=37.5%, PD=37.5%; JS-K: PD=100%). In summary, we have developed an effective nitric oxide anti-cancer chemotherapy that could be administered regionally to provide the local disease control, improving prognosis for head and neck cancers. PMID:22281420

  14. 40 CFR 438.13 - Effluent limitations attainable by application of the best control technology for conventional...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... application of the best control technology for conventional pollutants (BCT). Except as provided at 40 CFR 125... of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS...

  15. Optical fibre techniques for use within tamper indicating enclosures designed for arms control verification purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyer, Thomas C.; Thompson, Alexander W. J.; Wynn, Paul; White, Helen

    2014-10-01

    Ensuring that a future nuclear arms control agreement can be verified is a complex technical challenge. Tamper Indicating Enclosures (TIEs) are likely to be deployed as part of a chain of custody regime, providing an indication of an unauthorised attempt to access an item within the agreement. This paper focuses on the assessment of optical fibre techniques for ensuring boundary control as part of a TIE design. The results of optical fibre damage, subsequent repair attempts, enclosure construction considerations and unique identification features have been evaluated for a selection of fused-silica optical fibres. This paper focuses on detecting a fibre repair attempt, presents a method for increasing repair resistance and a method for uniquely identifying an enclosure using the optical signature from the embedded optical fibre.

  16. TRANSPARENCY, VERIFICATION AND THE FUTURE OF NUCLEAR NONPROLIFERATION AND ARMS CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    J. PILAT

    2000-11-01

    In the future, if the nuclear nonproliferation and arms control agendas are to advance, they will likely become increasingly seen as parallel undertakings with the objective of cradle-to-grave controls over nuclear warheads and/or materials. The pursuit of such an agenda was difficult enough at the outset of the nuclear age; it will be more difficult in the future with relatively wide-spread military and civil nuclear programs. This agenda will require both verification and transparency. To address emerging nuclear dangers, we may expect hybrid verification-transparency regimes to be seen as acceptable. Such regimes would have intrusive but much more limited verification provisions than Cold War accords, and have extensive transparency provisions designed in part to augment the verification measures, to fill in the ''gaps'' of the verification regime, and the like.

  17. Control of a Six Degree-of-Freedom Prosthetic Arm after Targeted Muscle Reinnervation Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Laura A.; Lipschutz, Robert D.; Stubblefield, Kathy A.; Lock, Blair A.; Huang, He; Williams, T. Walley; Weir, Richard F.; Kuiken, Todd A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To fit and evaluate the control of a complex prosthesis for a shoulder disarticulation level amputee subject with targeted muscle reinnervation. Design One participant who had targeted muscle reinnervation surgery was fit with an advanced prosthesis and usage with this device was compared to the device used in the home setting. Setting The experiments were completed within a laboratory setting. Participants The first recipient of targeted muscle reinnervation: a bilateral shoulder disarticulation level amputee. Interventions Two years after surgery, the subject was fit with a 6 degree of freedom (DOF) prosthesis (shoulder flexion, humeral rotation, elbow flexion, wrist rotation, wrist flexion, and hand control). Control of this device was compared to his commercially available 3 DOF system (elbow, wrist rotation, and powered hook terminal device). Main Outcome Measure In order to assess performance, movement analysis and timed movement tasks were executed. Results The subject was able to independently operate all 6 arm functions with good control. He could simultaneously operate 2 DOF of several different joint combinations with relative ease. He operated up to 4 DOF simultaneously, but with poor control. Work space was markedly increased and some timed-tasks were faster with the 6-DOF system. Conclusions This proof-of-concept study shows that advances in control of shoulder disarticulation level prostheses can improve the quality of movement. Additional control sources may spur the development of more advanced and complex componentry for these amputees. PMID:18996233

  18. Evidence for Composite Cost Functions in Arm Movement Planning: An Inverse Optimal Control Approach

    PubMed Central

    Berret, Bastien; Chiovetto, Enrico; Nori, Francesco; Pozzo, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    An important issue in motor control is understanding the basic principles underlying the accomplishment of natural movements. According to optimal control theory, the problem can be stated in these terms: what cost function do we optimize to coordinate the many more degrees of freedom than necessary to fulfill a specific motor goal? This question has not received a final answer yet, since what is optimized partly depends on the requirements of the task. Many cost functions were proposed in the past, and most of them were found to be in agreement with experimental data. Therefore, the actual principles on which the brain relies to achieve a certain motor behavior are still unclear. Existing results might suggest that movements are not the results of the minimization of single but rather of composite cost functions. In order to better clarify this last point, we consider an innovative experimental paradigm characterized by arm reaching with target redundancy. Within this framework, we make use of an inverse optimal control technique to automatically infer the (combination of) optimality criteria that best fit the experimental data. Results show that the subjects exhibited a consistent behavior during each experimental condition, even though the target point was not prescribed in advance. Inverse and direct optimal control together reveal that the average arm trajectories were best replicated when optimizing the combination of two cost functions, nominally a mix between the absolute work of torques and the integrated squared joint acceleration. Our results thus support the cost combination hypothesis and demonstrate that the recorded movements were closely linked to the combination of two complementary functions related to mechanical energy expenditure and joint-level smoothness. PMID:22022242

  19. 78 FR 66984 - Bureau of Political-Military Affairs; Statutory Debarment Under the Arms Export Control Act and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... of Political-Military Affairs; Statutory Debarment Under the Arms Export Control Act and the..., Acting Director, Office of Defense Trade Controls Compliance, Bureau of Political- Military Affairs... by the Assistant Secretary for Political-Military Affairs based on the underlying nature of...

  20. 75 FR 13330 - Bureau of Political-Military Affairs; Statutory Debarment Under the Arms Export Control Act and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... of Political-Military Affairs; Statutory Debarment Under the Arms Export Control Act and the...: Lisa Studtmann, Director, Office of Defense Trade Controls Compliance, Bureau of Political-Military... period for debarment will be determined by the Assistant Secretary for Political-Military Affairs...

  1. Portal and perimeter monitoring systems (PPMS) for use in verifying arms control treaty compliance

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, V.C. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that on site inspection is one important form of verification available to insure compliance with arms control treaties. On site inspection has been implemented in the Intermediate Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty with a site at Votkinsk, USSR and is planned for use in verifying the Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START) treaty currently in negotiation. The Raytheon Company, under contract to the Defense Nuclear Agency, is responsible for the research and development of the portal and perimeter monitoring equipment for potential verification tasks associated with future START treaties. Under DNA tasking, Raytheon has developed prototype portal and perimeter monitoring systems to satisfy short and long term monitoring requirements and has demonstrated these prototype systems at the DNA Technical On-Site Inspection (TOSI) facility at Kirtland, AFB, NM. The DNA design goals were to provide the US with a simple, modular low cost and highly reliable PPMS using available commercial off-the-shelf equipment which could be installed at potential monitoring sites with a minimum of site preparation. Testing to date indicates these design goals have been met.

  2. The post-cold war settlement in Europe: A triumph of arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Mandelbaum, M.

    1997-03-01

    {open_quotes}The military capabilities of the countries of Europe are also less threatening now than in the past, and this has been accomplished by arms control.{close_quotes} The author argues that there is a new security order in place in Europe, one that differs from the two most familiar ways of organizing security: balance-of-power politics and world government. Balance-of-power politics has been the source of such stability as Europe has enjoyed for most of its recorded history, including during the Cold War years. World government is a utopian dream that has been envisioned and advocated but never implemented, and that might not be a source of celebration if it were implemented, which it almost surely will not be. The theme of The Dawn of Peace in Europe is that, in the wake of the Cold War, Europe has established a third method for achieving security, called common security and that owes something to the concept of cooperative security that was developed at the Brookings Institution. Within this common security regime, Europe is still made up of soverign states. There is no supranational authority. The states of Europe are still armed. But peace in Europe does not depend-as it has for most of Europe`s recorded history-on a finely balanced hostility between and among the most powerful European nations. The new common security order has dramatically reduced both the incentives and the capabilities for war.

  3. Intuitive wireless control of a robotic arm for people living with an upper body disability.

    PubMed

    Fall, C L; Turgeon, P; Campeau-Lecours, A; Maheu, V; Boukadoum, M; Roy, S; Massicotte, D; Gosselin, C; Gosselin, B

    2015-08-01

    Assistive Technologies (ATs) also called extrinsic enablers are useful tools for people living with various disabilities. The key points when designing such useful devices not only concern their intended goal, but also the most suitable human-machine interface (HMI) that should be provided to users. This paper describes the design of a highly intuitive wireless controller for people living with upper body disabilities with a residual or complete control of their neck and their shoulders. Tested with JACO, a six-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) assistive robotic arm with 3 flexible fingers on its end-effector, the system described in this article is made of low-cost commercial off-the-shelf components and allows a full emulation of JACO's standard controller, a 3 axis joystick with 7 user buttons. To do so, three nine-degree-of-freedom (9-DOF) inertial measurement units (IMUs) are connected to a microcontroller and help measuring the user's head and shoulders position, using a complementary filter approach. The results are then transmitted to a base-station via a 2.4-GHz low-power wireless transceiver and interpreted by the control algorithm running on a PC host. A dedicated software interface allows the user to quickly calibrate the controller, and translates the information into suitable commands for JACO. The proposed controller is thoroughly described, from the electronic design to implemented algorithms and user interfaces. Its performance and future improvements are discussed as well. PMID:26737270

  4. Emulating a robotic manipulator arm with an hybrid motion-control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aragón-González, G.; León-Galicia, A.; Noriega-Hernández, M.; Salazar-Hueta, A.

    2015-01-01

    A motion control system with four and 1/2 degrees of freedom, designed to move small objects within a 0.25 m3 space, parallel to a horizontal table, with high speed and performance similar to a robotic manipulator arm was built. The machine employs several actuators and control devices. Its main characteristic is to incorporate a servomotor, steeper motors, electromechanical and fluid power actuators and diverse control resources. A group of actuators arranged on a spherical coordinates system is attached to the servomotor platform. A linear pneumatic actuator with an angular grip provides the radial extension and load clamping capacity. Seven inductive proximity sensors and one encoder provide feedback, for operating the actuators under closed loop conditions. Communication between the sensors and control devices is organized by a PLC. A touch screen allows governing the system remotely, easily and interactively, without knowing the specific programming language of each control component. The graphic environment on the touch screen guides the user to design and store control programs, establishing coordinated automatic routines for moving objects in space, simulation and implementation of industrial positioning or machining processes.

  5. The Challenge for Arms Control Verification in the Post-New START World

    SciTech Connect

    Wuest, C R

    2012-05-24

    Nuclear weapon arms control treaty verification is a key aspect of any agreement between signatories to establish that the terms and conditions spelled out in the treaty are being met. Historically, arms control negotiations have focused more on the rules and protocols for reducing the numbers of warheads and delivery systems - sometimes resorting to complex and arcane procedures for counting forces - in an attempt to address perceived or real imbalances in a nation's strategic posture that could lead to instability. Verification procedures are generally defined in arms control treaties and supporting documents and tend to focus on technical means and measures designed to ensure that a country is following the terms of the treaty and that it is not liable to engage in deception or outright cheating in an attempt to circumvent the spirit and the letter of the agreement. As the Obama Administration implements the articles, terms, and conditions of the recently ratified and entered-into-force New START treaty, there are already efforts within and outside of government to move well below the specified New START levels of 1550 warheads, 700 deployed strategic delivery vehicles, and 800 deployed and nondeployed strategic launchers (Inter-Continental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) silos, Submarine-Launched Ballistic Missile (SLBM) tubes on submarines, and bombers). A number of articles and opinion pieces have appeared that advocate for significantly deeper cuts in the U.S. nuclear stockpile, with some suggesting that unilateral reductions on the part of the U.S. would help coax Russia and others to follow our lead. Papers and studies prepared for the U.S. Department of Defense and at the U.S. Air War College have also been published, suggesting that nuclear forces totaling no more than about 300 warheads would be sufficient to meet U.S. national security and deterrence needs. (Davis 2011, Schaub and Forsyth 2010) Recent articles by James M. Acton and others suggest that the

  6. Kinematically redundant arm formulations for coordinated multiple arm implementations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Robert W.; Quiocho, Leslie J.; Cleghorn, Timothy F.

    1990-01-01

    Although control laws for kinematically redundant robotic arms were presented as early as 1969, redundant arms have only recently become recognized as viable solutions to limitations inherent to kinematically sufficient arms. The advantages of run-time control optimization and arm reconfiguration are becoming increasingly attractive as the complexity and criticality of robotic systems continues to progress. A generalized control law for a spatial arm with 7 or more degrees of freedom (DOF) based on Whitney's resolved rate formulation is given. Results from a simulation implementation utilizing this control law are presented. Furthermore, results from a two arm simulation are presented to demonstrate the coordinated control of multiple arms using this formulation.

  7. Generation of "virtual" control groups for single arm prostate cancer adjuvant trials.

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhenyu; Lilly, Michael B; Koziol, James A; Chen, Xin; Xia, Xiao-Qin; Wang, Yipeng; Skarecky, Douglas; Sutton, Manuel; Sawyers, Anne; Ruckle, Herbert; Carpenter, Philip M; Wang-Rodriguez, Jessica; Jiang, Jun; Deng, Mingsen; Pan, Cong; Zhu, Jian-Guo; McLaren, Christine E; Gurley, Michael J; Lee, Chung; McClelland, Michael; Ahlering, Thomas; Kattan, Michael W; Mercola, Dan

    2014-01-01

    It is difficult to construct a control group for trials of adjuvant therapy (Rx) of prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy (RP) due to ethical issues and patient acceptance. We utilized 8 curve-fitting models to estimate the time to 60%, 65%, … 95% chance of progression free survival (PFS) based on the data derived from Kattan post-RP nomogram. The 8 models were systematically applied to a training set of 153 post-RP cases without adjuvant Rx to develop 8 subsets of cases (reference case sets) whose observed PFS times were most accurately predicted by each model. To prepare a virtual control group for a single-arm adjuvant Rx trial, we first select the optimal model for the trial cases based on the minimum weighted Euclidean distance between the trial case set and the reference case set in terms of clinical features, and then compare the virtual PFS times calculated by the optimum model with the observed PFSs of the trial cases by the logrank test. The method was validated using an independent dataset of 155 post-RP patients without adjuvant Rx. We then applied the method to patients on a Phase II trial of adjuvant chemo-hormonal Rx post RP, which indicated that the adjuvant Rx is highly effective in prolonging PFS after RP in patients at high risk for prostate cancer recurrence. The method can accurately generate control groups for single-arm, post-RP adjuvant Rx trials for prostate cancer, facilitating development of new therapeutic strategies. PMID:24465467

  8. Muscle Synergies Heavily Influence the Neural Control of Arm Endpoint Stiffness and Energy Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Inouye, Joshua M.; Valero-Cuevas, Francisco J.

    2016-01-01

    Much debate has arisen from research on muscle synergies with respect to both limb impedance control and energy consumption. Studies of limb impedance control in the context of reaching movements and postural tasks have produced divergent findings, and this study explores whether the use of synergies by the central nervous system (CNS) can resolve these findings and also provide insights on mechanisms of energy consumption. In this study, we phrase these debates at the conceptual level of interactions between neural degrees of freedom and tasks constraints. This allows us to examine the ability of experimentally-observed synergies—correlated muscle activations—to control both energy consumption and the stiffness component of limb endpoint impedance. In our nominal 6-muscle planar arm model, muscle synergies and the desired size, shape, and orientation of endpoint stiffness ellipses, are expressed as linear constraints that define the set of feasible muscle activation patterns. Quadratic programming allows us to predict whether and how energy consumption can be minimized throughout the workspace of the limb given those linear constraints. We show that the presence of synergies drastically decreases the ability of the CNS to vary the properties of the endpoint stiffness and can even preclude the ability to minimize energy. Furthermore, the capacity to minimize energy consumption—when available—can be greatly affected by arm posture. Our computational approach helps reconcile divergent findings and conclusions about task-specific regulation of endpoint stiffness and energy consumption in the context of synergies. But more generally, these results provide further evidence that the benefits and disadvantages of muscle synergies go hand-in-hand with the structure of feasible muscle activation patterns afforded by the mechanics of the limb and task constraints. These insights will help design experiments to elucidate the interplay between synergies and the

  9. Control of Speed and Power in a Humanoid Robot Arm Using Pneumatic Actuators for Human-Robot Coexisting Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, Kiyoshi

    A new type of humanoid robot arm which can coexist and be interactive with human beings are looked for. For the purpose of implementation of human smooth and fast movement to a pneumatic robot, the author used a humanoid robot arm with pneumatic agonist-antagonist actuators as endoskeletons which has control mechanism in the stiffness of each joint, and the controllability was experimentally discussed. Using Kitamori's method to experimentally decide the control gains and using I-PD controller, three joints of the humanoid robot arm were experimentally controlled. The damping control algorithm was also adopted to the wrist joint, to modify the speed in accordance with the power. The results showed that the controllability to step-wise input was less than one degree in error to follow the target angles, and the time constant was less than one second. The simultaneous input of command to three joints was brought about the overshoot of about ten percent increase in error. The humanoid robot arm can generate the calligraphic motions, moving quickly at some times but slowly at other times, or particularly softly on some occasions but stiffly on other occasions at high accuracy.

  10. Composition of transgenic Volvariella volvacea tolerant to cold stress is equivalent to that of conventional control.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Guo, Liqiong; Lin, Junfang

    2009-03-25

    Transgenic Volvariella volvacea strains, which are tolerant to cold stress, were generated by the stable insertion of antifreeze protein gene isolated from budworm into the genome of a conventional variety V23 of V. volvacea. As a part of the safety assessment program, transgenic V. volvacea strains were compared to a nontransgenic near-isogenic V. volvacea strain V23 grown contemporaneously by applying the principle of substantial equivalence. Compositional analyses were conducted by measuring proximates, amino acids, fatty acids, minerals, vitamins, 5'-nucleotides, nucleic acid, and antinutrients such as tannin and cyanide in V. volvacea strains harvested at egg-shaped stage. Results of the comparisons indicate that these transgenic strains are compositionally equivalent to the conventional control. PMID:19245205

  11. Fractional fuzzy adaptive sliding-mode control of a 2-DOF direct-drive robot arm.

    PubMed

    Efe, Mehmet Onder

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents a novel parameter adjustment scheme to improve the robustness of fuzzy sliding-mode control achieved by the use of an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) architecture. The proposed scheme utilizes fractional-order integration in the parameter tuning stage. The controller parameters are tuned such that the system under control is driven toward the sliding regime in the traditional sense. After a comparison with the classical integer-order counterpart, it is seen that the control system with the proposed adaptation scheme displays better tracking performance, and a very high degree of robustness and insensitivity to disturbances are observed. The claims are justified through some simulations utilizing the dynamic model of a 2-DOF direct-drive robot arm. Overall, the contribution of this paper is to demonstrate that the response of the system under control is significantly better for the fractional-order integration exploited in the parameter adaptation stage than that for the classical integer-order integration. PMID:19022726

  12. Nonproliferation, arms control and disarmament and extended deterrence in the new security environment

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, Joseph F

    2009-01-01

    With the end of the Cold War, in a dramatically changed security environment, the advances in nonnuclear strategic capabilities along with reduced numbers and roles for nuclear forces has altered the calculus of deterrence and defense, at least for the United States. For many, this opened up a realistic possibility of a nuclear-free world. It soon became clear that the initial post-Cold War hopes were exaggerated. The world did change fundamentally, but it did not become more secure and stable. In place of the old Soviet threat, there has been growing concern about proliferation and terrorism involving nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction (WMD), regional conflicts, global instability and increasingly serious new and emerging threats, including cyber attacks and attacks on satellites. For the United States at least, in this emerging environment, the political rationales for nuclear weapons, from deterrence to reassurance to alliance management, are changing and less central than during the Cold War to the security of the United States, its friends and allies. Nuclear weapons remain important for the US, but for a far more limited set of roles and missions. As the Perry-Schlesinger Commission report reveals, there is a domestic US consensus on nuclear policy and posture at the highest level and for the near term, including the continued role of nuclear arms in deterring WMD use and in reassuring allies. Although the value of nuclear weapons has declined for the United States, the value of these weapons for Russia, China and so-called 'rogue' states is seen to be rising. The nuclear logic of NATO during Cold War - the need for nuclear weapons to counter vastly superior conventional capabilities of the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact - is today heard from Russians and even some proliferants. Moreover, these weapons present a way for rogues to achieve regional hegemony and possibly to deter interventions by the United States or others. While the vision of a

  13. 40 CFR 412.44 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 412.44 Section 412.44 Protection...

  14. 40 CFR 442.12 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 442.12 Section 442.12 Protection...

  15. 40 CFR 439.43 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve the... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 439.43 Section 439.43 Protection...

  16. 40 CFR 438.13 - Effluent limitations attainable by application of the best control technology for conventional...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... application of the best control technology for conventional pollutants (BCT). Except as provided at 40 CFR 125... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations attainable by application of the best control technology for conventional pollutants (BCT). 438.13 Section 438.13...

  17. 40 CFR 442.42 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve the... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 442.42 Section 442.42 Protection...

  18. 40 CFR 437.22 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32 or 437.20(b), any existing point source subject to this subpart must... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 437.22 Section 437.22 Protection...

  19. 40 CFR 437.32 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32 or § 437.30(b), any existing point source subject to this subpart... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 437.32 Section 437.32 Protection...

  20. 40 CFR 412.32 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 412.32 Section 412.32 Protection...

  1. 40 CFR 439.33 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 439.33 Section 439.33 Protection...

  2. 40 CFR 437.12 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32 or 437.10(b), any existing point source subject to this subpart must... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 437.12 Section 437.12 Protection...

  3. 40 CFR 442.22 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 442.22 Section 442.22 Protection...

  4. 40 CFR 445.12 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 445.12 Section 445.12 Protection...

  5. 40 CFR 439.23 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 439.23 Section 439.23 Protection...

  6. 40 CFR 439.13 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 439.13 Section 439.13 Protection...

  7. 40 CFR 445.22 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve the... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 445.22 Section 445.22 Protection...

  8. 40 CFR 444.14 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve the... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 444.14 Section 444.14 Protection...

  9. 40 CFR 437.43 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). (a) Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32 or 437.40(b), any existing facility subject to this subpart which... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 437.43 Section 437.43 Protection...

  10. 40 CFR 442.12 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 442.12 Section 442.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS...

  11. 40 CFR 442.32 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 442.32 Section 442.32 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS...

  12. Applying Space Technology to Enhance Control of an Artificial Arm for Children and Adults With Amputations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkins, Diane J.

    1998-01-01

    The first single function myoelectric prosthetic hand was introduced in the 1960's. This hand was controlled by the electric fields generated by muscle contractions in the residual limb of the amputee user. Electrodes and amplifiers, embedded in the prosthetic socket, measured these electric fields across the skin, which increase in amplitude as the individual contracts their muscle. When the myoelectric signal reached a certain threshold amplitude, the control unit activated a motor which opened or closed a hand-like prosthetic terminal device with a pincher grip. Late in the 1990's, little has changed. Most current myoelectric prostheses still operate in this same, single-function way. To better understand the limitations of the current single-function myoelectric hand and the needs of those who use them, The Institute for Rehabilitation and Research (TIRR), sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (NUH), surveyed approximately 2,500 individuals with upper limb loss [1]. When asked to identify specific features of their current myoelectric prostheses that needed improvement, the survey respondents overwhelmingly identified the lack of wrist and finger movement, as well as poor control capability. However, simply building a mechanism with individual finger and wrist motion is not enough. In the 1960's and 1970's, engineers built a number of more dexterous prosthetic hands. Unfortunately, these were rejected during clinical trials due to a difficult and distracting control interface. The goal of this project, "Applying Space Technology to Enhance Control of an Artificial Arm for Children and Adults with Amputations," was to lay the foundation for a multi-function, intuitive myoelectric control system which requires no conscious thought to move the hand. We built an extensive myoelectric signal database for six motions from ten amputee volunteers, We also tested a control system based on new artificial intelligence techniques on the data from two of these

  13. Arms control and nonproliferation technologies: The non-proliferation experiment. First quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Staehle, G.; Stull, S.; Talaber, C.

    1994-05-01

    In this issue of Arms Control and Nonproliferation Technologies we present the initial findings of the recent Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE), conducted by the Department of Energy at the Nevada Test Site. Through an introduction and pictorial walk-through, Marv Denny and Jay Zucca of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory describe the overall experiment. This is followed by scientific and technical abstracts of the complex suite of experiments and analyses, which were presented at the Symposium on Non-Proliferation Experiment Results and Implications for Test Ban Treaties, April 19--21, 1994. Questions regarding the ongoing analysis and conclusions from the NPE should be directed to Leslie Casey in the Office of Research and Development within the Office of Nonproliferation and National Security of DOE. Her phone number is 202-586-2151.

  14. Interdisciplinary Comprehensive Arm Rehabilitation Evaluation (ICARE): a randomized controlled trial protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Residual disability after stroke is substantial; 65% of patients at 6 months are unable to incorporate the impaired upper extremity into daily activities. Task-oriented training programs are rapidly being adopted into clinical practice. In the absence of any consensus on the essential elements or dose of task-specific training, an urgent need exists for a well-designed trial to determine the effectiveness of a specific multidimensional task-based program governed by a comprehensive set of evidence-based principles. The Interdisciplinary Comprehensive Arm Rehabilitation Evaluation (ICARE) Stroke Initiative is a parallel group, three-arm, single blind, superiority randomized controlled trial of a theoretically-defensible, upper extremity rehabilitation program provided in the outpatient setting. The primary objective of ICARE is to determine if there is a greater improvement in arm and hand recovery one year after randomization in participants receiving a structured training program termed Accelerated Skill Acquisition Program (ASAP), compared to participants receiving usual and customary therapy of an equivalent dose (DEUCC). Two secondary objectives are to compare ASAP to a true (active monitoring only) usual and customary (UCC) therapy group and to compare DEUCC and UCC. Methods/design Following baseline assessment, participants are randomized by site, stratified for stroke duration and motor severity. 360 adults will be randomized, 14 to 106 days following ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke onset, with mild to moderate upper extremity impairment, recruited at sites in Atlanta, Los Angeles and Washington, D.C. The Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT) time score is the primary outcome at 1 year post-randomization. The Stroke Impact Scale (SIS) hand domain is a secondary outcome measure. The design includes concealed allocation during recruitment, screening and baseline, blinded outcome assessment and intention to treat analyses. Our primary hypothesis is that the

  15. Kinematics and control of redundant robotic arm based on dielectric elastomer actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branz, Francesco; Antonello, Andrea; Carron, Andrea; Carli, Ruggero; Francesconi, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Soft robotics is a promising field and its application to space mechanisms could represent a breakthrough in space technologies by enabling new operative scenarios (e.g. soft manipulators, capture systems). Dielectric Elastomers Actuators have been under deep study for a number of years and have shown several advantages that could be of key importance for space applications. Among such advantages the most notable are high conversion efficiency, distributed actuation, self-sensing capability, multi-degree-of-freedom design, light weight and low cost. The big potentialities of double cone actuators have been proven in terms of good performances (i.e. stroke and force/torque), ease of manufacturing and durability. In this work the kinematic, dynamic and control design of a two-joint redundant robotic arm is presented. Two double cone actuators are assembled in series to form a two-link design. Each joint has two degrees of freedom (one rotational and one translational) for a total of four. The arm is designed to move in a 2-D environment (i.e. the horizontal plane) with 4 DoF, consequently having two degrees of redundancy. The redundancy is exploited in order to minimize the joint loads. The kinematic design with redundant Jacobian inversion is presented. The selected control algorithm is described along with the results of a number of dynamic simulations that have been executed for performance verification. Finally, an experimental setup is presented based on a flexible structure that counteracts gravity during testing in order to better emulate future zero-gravity applications.

  16. Preharvest treatments with chitosan and other alternatives to conventional fungicides to control postharvest decay of strawberry.

    PubMed

    Feliziani, Erica; Landi, Lucia; Romanazzi, Gianfranco

    2015-11-01

    The effectiveness of the control of postharvest decay of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa, 'Alba' and 'Romina' cvs.) fruit following field applications of chitosan, laminarin, extracts of Abies spp., Polygonum spp., and Saccharomyces spp., an organic acids and calcium combination, and benzothiadiazole, were compared with a fungicide strategy. These compounds were sprayed every 5 days on the strawberry canopy, from flowering to ripening, in 2012 and 2013. The treatments with alternative compounds provided ∼ 30% reduction in postharvest decay of strawberry compared to the water-treated controls, mainly against gray mold and Rhizopus rot, and without negatively affecting fruit color and firmness. Chitosan and benzothiadiazole were the most effective alternative treatments. Preharvest spraying with these alternative treatments can complement the use of conventional fungicides in the control of postharvest decay of strawberry fruit, especially when disease pressure is low. PMID:26256331

  17. Gaze Contingent Cartesian Control of a Robotic Arm for Laparoscopic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Kenko; Salerno, Antonino; Sriskandarajah, Kumuthan; Kwok, Ka-Wai; Shetty, Kunal; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a gaze contingent controlled robotic arm for laparoscopic surgery, based on gaze gestures. The method offers a natural and seamless communication channel between the surgeon and the robotic laparoscope. It offers several advantages in terms of reducing on-screen clutter and efficiently conveying visual intention. The proposed hands-free system enables the surgeon to be part of the robot control feedback loop, allowing user-friendly camera panning and zooming. The proposed platform avoids the limitations of using dwell-time camera control in previous gaze contingent camera control methods. The system represents a true hands-free setup without the need of obtrusive sensors mounted on the surgeon or the use of a foot pedal. Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) were used for real-time gaze gesture recognition. This method was evaluated with a cohort of 11 subjects by using the proposed system to complete a modified upper gastrointestinal staging laparoscopy and biopsy task on a phantom box trainer, with results demonstrating the potential clinical value of the proposed system. PMID:24748999

  18. Comparison of microsurgical and conventional open flap debridement: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Perumal, Meena Priya Bagavathy; Ramegowda, Aruna Dunthur; Lingaraju, Avinash Janaki; Raja, James Johnson

    2015-01-01

    Background: Residual calculus exists not only on teeth treated by scaling alone but also on teeth treated by flap surgery. Periodontal microsurgery enables more definite removal of calculus, atraumatic handling of tissues through optical magnification. The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of microsurgery with conventional open flap debridement in patients with chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: Thirteen chronic periodontitis patients were randomly assigned for test (microsurgical) and control (conventional) open flap debridement in a split mouth design. At baseline, 3, 6 and 9 months the following clinical parameters were recorded: Probing pocket depth, relative attachment level, gingival recession, gingival bleeding index. Postoperative healing at 1-week by early healing index and pain scale for 7 days were assessed. Results: Paired t-test was used to compare means within the groups, and unpaired t-test was applied to compare the means of the two groups. At 3, 6 and 9 months postoperatively there was a significant reduction in gingival bleeding index, probing pocket depth, relative attachment level within both the groups and there was no significant difference between both the groups. Gingival margin level and gingival recession increased in both the groups, but it was not statistically significant. Early healing Index score of 1 was found in 85% of test sites and 28% of control sites. The mean pain scale was 0 in test site and 1.07 ± 0.75 in control site. Conclusions: In open flap debridement procedure, a microsurgical approach can substantially improve the early healing index and induce less postoperative pain compared with applying a conventional macroscopic approach. PMID:26392689

  19. China's position in negotiating the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and the revised International Health Regulations.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y

    2014-02-01

    This paper examines China's position in the negotiations of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and the revised International Health Regulations. In particular, it explores three sets of factors shaping China's attitudes and actions in the negotiations: the aspiration to be a responsible power; concerns about sovereignty; and domestic political economy. In both cases, China demonstrated strong incentives to participate in the negotiation of legally binding international rules. Still, the sovereignty issue was a major, if not the biggest, concern for China when engaging in global health rule making. The two cases also reveal domestic political economy as an important factor in shaping China's position in international health negotiations. PMID:24370173

  20. Conventional vs. Tablet Computer-Based Patient Education following Lung Transplantation – A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Suhling, Hendrik; Rademacher, Jessica; Zinowsky, Imke; Fuge, Jan; Greer, Mark; Warnecke, Gregor; Smits, Jacqueline M.; Bertram, Anna; Haverich, Axel; Welte, Tobias; Gottlieb, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Background Accurate immunosuppression is of critical importance in preventing rejection, while avoiding toxicity following lung transplantation. The mainstay immunosuppressants are calcineurin inhibitors, which require regular monitoring due to interactions with other medications and diet. Adherence to immunosuppression and patient knowledge is vital and can be improved through patient education. Education using tablet-computers was investigated. Objective To compare tablet-PC education and conventional education in improving immunosuppression trough levels in target range 6 months after a single education. Secondary parameters were ratio of immunosuppression level measurements divided by per protocol recommended measurements, time and patient satisfaction regarding education. Design Single-centre, open labelled randomised controlled trial. Participants Patients >6 months after lung-transplantation with <50% of calcineurin inhibitor trough levels in target range. Intervention Tablet-pc education versus personal, nurse-led education. Measurements Calcineurin inhibitor levels in target range 6 months after education, level variability, interval adherence, knowledge and adherence was studied. As outcome parameter, renal function was measured and adverse events registered. Results Sixty-four patients were 1:1 randomised for either intervention. Levels of immunosuppression 6 months after education were equal (tablet-PC 58% vs. conventional 48%, p = 0.27), both groups improved in achieving a CNI trough level within target range by either education method (delta tablet-PC 29% vs. conventional 20%). In all patients, level variability decreased (−20.4%), whereas interval adherence remained unchanged. Knowledge about immunosuppression improved by 7% and compliance tests demonstrated universal improvements with no significant difference between groups. Conclusion Education is a simple, effective tool in improving adherence to immunosuppression. Tablet-PC education was

  1. Instrument Display Visual Angles for Conventional Aircraft and the MQ-9 Ground Control Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bendrick, Gregg A.; Kamine, Tovy Haber

    2008-01-01

    Aircraft instrument panels should be designed such that primary displays are in optimal viewing location to minimize pilot perception and response time. Human Factors engineers define three zones (i.e. "cones") of visual location: 1) "Easy Eye Movement" (foveal vision); 2) "Maximum Eye Movement" (peripheral vision with saccades), and 3) "Head Movement" (head movement required). Instrument display visual angles were measured to determine how well conventional aircraft (T-34, T-38, F- 15B, F-16XL, F/A-18A, U-2D, ER-2, King Air, G-III, B-52H, DC-10, B747-SCA) and the MQ-9 ground control station (GCS) complied with these standards, and how they compared with each other. Methods: Selected instrument parameters included: attitude, pitch, bank, power, airspeed, altitude, vertical speed, heading, turn rate, slip/skid, AOA, flight path, latitude, longitude, course, bearing, range and time. Vertical and horizontal visual angles for each component were measured from the pilot s eye position in each system. Results: The vertical visual angles of displays in conventional aircraft lay within the cone of "Easy Eye Movement" for all but three of the parameters measured, and almost all of the horizontal visual angles fell within this range. All conventional vertical and horizontal visual angles lay within the cone of "Maximum Eye Movement". However, most instrument vertical visual angles of the MQ-9 GCS lay outside the cone of "Easy Eye Movement", though all were within the cone of "Maximum Eye Movement". All the horizontal visual angles for the MQ-9 GCS were within the cone of "Easy Eye Movement". Discussion: Most instrument displays in conventional aircraft lay within the cone of "Easy Eye Movement", though mission-critical instruments sometimes displaced less important instruments outside this area. Many of the MQ-9 GCS systems lay outside this area. Specific training for MQ-9 pilots may be needed to avoid increased response time and potential error during flight.

  2. High-Density Electromyography and Motor Skill Learning for Robust Long-Term Control of a 7-DoF Robot Arm.

    PubMed

    Ison, Mark; Vujaklija, Ivan; Whitsell, Bryan; Farina, Dario; Artemiadis, Panagiotis

    2016-04-01

    Myoelectric control offers a direct interface between human intent and various robotic applications through recorded muscle activity. Traditional control schemes realize this interface through direct mapping or pattern recognition techniques. The former approach provides reliable control at the expense of functionality, while the latter increases functionality at the expense of long-term reliability. An alternative approach, using concepts of motor learning, provides session-independent simultaneous control, but previously relied on consistent electrode placement over biomechanically independent muscles. This paper extends the functionality and practicality of the motor learning-based approach, using high-density electrode grids and muscle synergy-inspired decomposition to generate control inputs with reduced constraints on electrode placement. The method is demonstrated via real-time simultaneous and proportional control of a 4-DoF myoelectric interface over multiple days. Subjects showed learning trends consistent with typical motor skill learning without requiring any retraining or recalibration between sessions. Moreover, they adjusted to physical constraints of a robot arm after learning the control in a constraint-free virtual interface, demonstrating robust control as they performed precision tasks. The results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed man-machine interface as a viable alternative to conventional control schemes for myoelectric interfaces designed for long-term use. PMID:25838524

  3. Optimal control strategies of eradicating invisible glioblastoma cells after conventional surgery.

    PubMed

    de Los Reyes V, Aurelio A; Jung, Eunok; Kim, Yangjin

    2015-05-01

    Glioblastoma, the most aggressive type of brain cancer, has median survival time of 1 year after diagnosis. It is characterized by alternating modes of rapid proliferation and aggressive invasion in response to metabolic stress in the microenvironment. A particular microRNA, miR-451, and its downstream signalling molecules, AMPK complex, are known to be key determinants in switching cell fate. These components form a core control system determining a balance between cell growth and migration which is regulated by fluctuating glucose levels in the microenvironment. An important factor from the treatment point of view is that low levels of glucose affect metabolism and activate cell migration through the miR-451-AMPK control system, creating 'invisible' migratory cells and making them inaccessible by conventional surgery. In this work, we apply optimal control theory to deal with the problem of maintaining upregulated miR-451 levels that prevent cell infiltration to surrounding brain tissue and thus induce localization of these cancer cells at the surgical site. The model also considers the effect of a drug that blocks inhibitive pathways of miR-451 from AMPK complex. Glucose infusion control and drug infusion control are chosen to represent dose rates of glucose and drug intravenous administrations, respectively. The characteristics of optimal control lead us to investigate the structure of optimal intravenous infusion regimen under various circumstances and predict best clinical outcomes with minimum expense possible. PMID:25833239

  4. Optimal control strategies of eradicating invisible glioblastoma cells after conventional surgery

    PubMed Central

    de los Reyes V, Aurelio A.; Jung, Eunok; Kim, Yangjin

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma, the most aggressive type of brain cancer, has median survival time of 1 year after diagnosis. It is characterized by alternating modes of rapid proliferation and aggressive invasion in response to metabolic stress in the microenvironment. A particular microRNA, miR-451, and its downstream signalling molecules, AMPK complex, are known to be key determinants in switching cell fate. These components form a core control system determining a balance between cell growth and migration which is regulated by fluctuating glucose levels in the microenvironment. An important factor from the treatment point of view is that low levels of glucose affect metabolism and activate cell migration through the miR-451-AMPK control system, creating ‘invisible’ migratory cells and making them inaccessible by conventional surgery. In this work, we apply optimal control theory to deal with the problem of maintaining upregulated miR-451 levels that prevent cell infiltration to surrounding brain tissue and thus induce localization of these cancer cells at the surgical site. The model also considers the effect of a drug that blocks inhibitive pathways of miR-451 from AMPK complex. Glucose infusion control and drug infusion control are chosen to represent dose rates of glucose and drug intravenous administrations, respectively. The characteristics of optimal control lead us to investigate the structure of optimal intravenous infusion regimen under various circumstances and predict best clinical outcomes with minimum expense possible. PMID:25833239

  5. Cardiovascular control during concomitant dynamic leg exercise and static arm exercise in humans

    PubMed Central

    Strange, S

    1999-01-01

    Skeletal muscle blood flow is thought to be determined by a balance between sympathetic vasoconstriction and metabolic vasodilatation. The purpose of this study was to assess the importance of high levels of sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity in control of blood flow to human skeletal muscle during dynamic exercise.Muscle sympathetic nerve activity to the exercising leg was increased by static or static ischaemic arm exercise added to on-going dynamic leg exercise. Ten subjects performed light (20 W) or moderate (40 W) dynamic knee extension for 6 min with one leg alone or concomitant with bilateral static handgrip at 20% of maximal voluntary contraction force with or without forearm muscle ischaemia or post-exercise forearm muscle ischaemia.Muscle sympathetic nerve activity was measured by microneurography (peroneal nerve) and leg muscle blood flow by a constant infusion thermodilution technique (femoral vein).Activation of an exercise pressor reflex from the arms, causing a 2- to 4-fold increase in muscle sympathetic nerve activity and a 15–32% increase in mean arterial blood pressure, did not affect blood flow to the dynamically exercising leg muscles at any level of leg exercise. Leg vascular conductance was reduced in line with the higher perfusion pressure.The results demonstrate that the vasoconstrictor effects of high levels of muscle sympathetic nerve activity does not affect blood flow to human skeletal muscle exercising at moderate intensities. One question remaining is whether the observed decrease in muscle vascular conductance is the result of sympathetic vasoconstriction or metabolic autoregulation of muscle blood flow. PMID:9831733

  6. 78 FR 18664 - Delegation to the Under Secretary for Arms Control and International Security of Authority To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Delegation to the Under Secretary for Arms Control and International Security of Authority To Concur With the Secretary of Defense Authorization of Activities of the Office of Security Cooperation in Iraq By virtue...

  7. Reagan's Political Imagery on Arms Control and SDI: Content Analysis in Political Science Using Washington PressText.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garson, G. David

    While President Reagan and Secretary of State Shultz shared the same policy goals, content analysis shows substantial differences with regard to arms control and the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), not only between Reagan and Shultz, but also among Reagan's roles as a political leader, as chief executive, and as statesman to the world…

  8. 76 FR 70805 - Bureau of Political-Military Affairs; Statutory Debarment Under the Arms Export Control Act and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-15

    ... direct or indirect interest therein. Further, Federal Register document 93-26888, published at 58 FR... of Political-Military Affairs; Statutory Debarment Under the Arms Export Control Act and the.... 2778). Further, a public notice was published in the Federal Register on Tuesday, November 2,...

  9. The distal portion of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) chromosome 5D short arm controls endosperm vitreosity and grain hardness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Kernel vitreosity is an important trait of wheat grain, but its complete developmental control is not known. We developed back-cross seven (BC7) near isogenic lines in the soft white spring wheat cultivar Alpowa that possess or lack the distal portion of chromosome 5D short arm. This deletion was de...

  10. Nuclear Nonproliferation and Arms Control Primer Prepared for the Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Laura S.

    2011-05-25

    To provide a brief overview of key arms control and nonproliferation arrangements for the layperson that may be relevant to the Commission's comprehensive review of policies for managing the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle. Primer would be published by the Commission and made publicly available, probably as an appendix to a larger Commission report.

  11. Ohio Arms Control Study Group: Workshop I, June 24-26, 1976, The Ohio State University. Summary of Proceedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Mershon Center.

    The booklet summarizes proceedings of a conference coordinated by the Ohio Arms Control Study Group (OACSG) on the topic of United States-USSR relations and the influence of nuclear weapons upon international behavior and strategic thought. The OACSG is composed of faculty members from Ohio colleges and universities who have a vocational or…

  12. Developing Global Perspectives about Nuclear Arms Control among Proactive Action Students in Rural Schools: A Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Richard

    A teacher's guide to developing global perspectives about nuclear arms control among proactive action students in rural schools oulines the historical development of the current nuclear situation, describes a nuclear age curriculum, explains the importance of proactive and global perspectives, covers simulated situations, and provides a glossary…

  13. Real-time myoprocessors for a neural controlled powered exoskeleton arm.

    PubMed

    Cavallaro, Ettore E; Rosen, Jacob; Perry, Joel C; Burns, Stephen

    2006-11-01

    Exoskeleton robots are promising assistive/rehabilitative devices that can help people with force deficits or allow the recovery of patients who have suffered from pathologies such as stroke. The key component that allows the user to control the exoskeleton is the human machine interface (HMI). Setting the HMI at the neuro-muscular level may lead to seamless integration and intuitive control of the exoskeleton arm as a natural extension of the human body. At the core of the exoskeleton HMI there is a model of the human muscle, the "myoprocessor," running in real-time and in parallel to the physiological muscle, that predicts joint torques as a function of the joint kinematics and neural activation levels. This paper presents the development of myoprocessors for the upper limb based on the Hill phenomenological muscle model. Genetic algorithms are used to optimize the internal parameters of the myoprocessors utilizing an experimental database that provides inputs to the model and allows for performance assessment. The results indicate high correlation between joint moment predictions of the model and the measured data. Consequently, the myoprocessor seems an adequate model, sufficiently robust for further integration into the exoskeleton control system. PMID:17073345

  14. Feasibility of surgical randomised controlled trials with a placebo arm: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Wartolowska, Karolina; Collins, Gary S; Hopewell, Sally; Judge, Andrew; Dean, Benjamin J F; Rombach, Ines; Beard, David J; Carr, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To find evidence, either corroborating or refuting, for many persisting beliefs regarding the feasibility of carrying out surgical randomised controlled trials with a placebo arm, with emphasis on the challenges related to recruitment, funding, anaesthesia or blinding. Design Systematic review. Data sources and study selection The analysis involved studies published between 1959 and 2014 that were identified during an earlier systematic review of benefits and harms of placebo-controlled surgical trials published in 2014. Results 63 trials were included in the review. The main problem reported in many trials was a very slow recruitment rate, mainly due to the difficulty in finding eligible patients. Existing placebo trials were funded equally often from commercial and non-commercial sources. General anaesthesia or sedation was used in 41% of studies. Among the reviewed trials, 81% were double-blinded, and 19% were single-blinded. Across the reviewed trials, 96% (range 50–100%) of randomised patients completed the study. The withdrawal rate during the study was similar in the surgical and in the placebo groups. Conclusions This review demonstrated that placebo-controlled surgical trials are feasible, at least for procedures with a lower level of invasiveness, but also that recruitment is difficult. Many of the presumed challenges to undertaking such trials, for example, funding, anaesthesia or blinding of patients and assessors, were not reported as obstacles to completion in any of the reviewed trials. PMID:27008687

  15. Robust control of multi-jointed arm with a decentralized autonomous control mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimura, Shinichi; Miyazaki, Ken; Suzuki, Yoshiaki

    1994-01-01

    A decentralized autonomous control mechanism applied to the control of three dimensional manipulators and its robustness to partial damage was assessed by computer simulation. Decentralized control structures are believed to be quite robust to time delay between the operator and the target system. A 10-jointed manipulator based on our control mechanism was able to continue its positioning task in three-dimensional space without revision of the control program, even after some of its joints were damaged. These results suggest that this control mechanism can be effectively applied to space telerobots, which are associated with serious time delay between the operator and the target system, and which cannot be easily repaired after being partially damaged.

  16. Control of reach extent with the paretic and nonparetic arms after unilateral sensorimotor stroke II: planning and adjustments to control movement distance.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Jill Campbell; Gordon, James; Winstein, Carolee J

    2014-11-01

    Nondisabled adults utilize both planning and feedback-based compensatory adjustments to control actual distance moved for skilled reach actions. The purpose of this study was to determine whether individuals post-stroke utilize planning and compensatory adjustments to control movement distance for reaches to targets that vary in distance. Individuals with mild to moderate motor impairment after stroke and nondisabled adults reached with both arms to targets presented at three distances (8, 16, 24 cm). The control of movement distance was compared between arms (control, nonparetic, and paretic) as to the use of planning (correlation of peak acceleration with movement distance), compensatory adjustments prior to peak velocity (correlation of time to peak velocity with movement distance), and compensatory adjustments after peak velocity (variance in movement distance accounted for by deterministic statistical model). The correlation of peak acceleration with movement distance for reaches with the paretic arm was significantly less than controls suggesting a decreased reliance on planning. Feedback-based compensatory adjustments, however, were present prior to and after peak velocity that assisted in achievement of movement distance in a similar manner as controls. Overall reach performance with the paretic arm was impaired, however, as evidenced by greater endpoint error and longer movement times than controls. The decreased use of planning to control movement distance after stroke suggests that the selected motor command was suboptimal in producing the desired movement outcome and may be related to an inability to generate muscle force quickly, lack of knowledge of arm dynamics due to decreased arm use, or lesion characteristics. PMID:25000904

  17. A passivity based control methodology for flexible joint robots with application to a simplified shuttle RMS arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sicard, Pierre; Wen, John T.

    1991-01-01

    The main goal is to develop a general theory for the control of flexible robots, including flexible joint robots, flexible link robots, rigid bodies with flexible appendages, etc. As part of the validation, the theory is applied to the control law development for a test example which consists of a three-link arm modeled after the shoulder yaw joint of the space shuttle remote manipulator system (RMS). The performance of the closed loop control system is then compared with the performance of the existing RMS controller to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. The theoretical foundation of this new approach to the control of flexible robots is presented and its efficacy is demonstrated through simulation results on the three-link test arm.

  18. Status of implementation of Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) in Ghana: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), a World Health Organization treaty, has now been ratified by over 165 countries. However there are concerns that implementing the Articles of the treaty may prove difficult, particularly in the developing world. In this study we have used qualitative methods to explore the extent to which the FCTC has been implemented in Ghana, a developing country that was 39th to ratify the FCTC, and identify barriers to effective FCTC implementation in low income countries. Methods Semi-structured interviews with 20 members of the national steering committee for tobacco control in Ghana, the official multi-disciplinary team with responsibility for tobacco control advocacy and policy formulation, were conducted. The Framework method for analysis and NVivo software were used to identify key issues relating to the awareness of the FCTC and the key challenges and achievements in Ghana to date. Results Interviewees had good knowledge of the content of the FCTC, and reported that although Ghana had no explicitly written policy on tobacco control, the Ministry of Health had issued several tobacco control directives before and since ratification. A national tobacco control bill has been drafted but has not been implemented. Challenges identified included the absence of a legal framework for implementing the FCTC, and a lack of adequate resources and prioritisation of tobacco control efforts, leading to slow implementation of the treaty. Conclusion Whilst Ghana has ratified the FCTC, there is an urgent need for action to pass a national tobacco control bill into law to enable it to implement the treaty, sustain tobacco control efforts and prevent Ghana's further involvement in the global tobacco epidemic. PMID:20043862

  19. [The Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (FCTC): a powerful public health instrument].

    PubMed

    Bovet, P; Cornuz, J; Paccaud, F

    2012-07-11

    The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) isa global and comprehensive legal framework for reducing demand for tobacco (e.g. price measures; ban on smoking in enclosed places; contents of tobacco products; packaging and labeling; advertising, promotion and sponsorship; liability, tobacco cessation, etc.) and supply (e.g. illicit trade; sales to/by minors, etc.). Adopted in 2003, the FCTC has been ratified by 174 countries so far. Switzerland has signed the treaty in 2004 but ratification will necessitate the implementation of stronger tobacco control measures at the national level. The FCTC is a priority of any strategy to reduce noncommunicable diseases in populations. Broad implementation of the FCTC has the potential to prevent a substantial proportion of the billion of tobacco-related deaths expected in the 21st century. PMID:22934470

  20. Instrument Display Visual Angles for Conventional Aircraft and the MQ-9 Ground Control Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamine, Tovy Haber; Bendrick, Gregg A.

    2008-01-01

    Aircraft instrument panels should be designed such that primary displays are in optimal viewing location to minimize pilot perception and response time. Human Factors engineers define three zones (i.e. cones ) of visual location: 1) "Easy Eye Movement" (foveal vision); 2) "Maximum Eye Movement" (peripheral vision with saccades), and 3) "Head Movement (head movement required). Instrument display visual angles were measured to determine how well conventional aircraft (T-34, T-38, F- 15B, F-16XL, F/A-18A, U-2D, ER-2, King Air, G-III, B-52H, DC-10, B747-SCA) and the MQ-9 ground control station (GCS) complied with these standards, and how they compared with each other. Selected instrument parameters included: attitude, pitch, bank, power, airspeed, altitude, vertical speed, heading, turn rate, slip/skid, AOA, flight path, latitude, longitude, course, bearing, range and time. Vertical and horizontal visual angles for each component were measured from the pilot s eye position in each system. The vertical visual angles of displays in conventional aircraft lay within the cone of "Easy Eye Movement" for all but three of the parameters measured, and almost all of the horizontal visual angles fell within this range. All conventional vertical and horizontal visual angles lay within the cone of Maximum Eye Movement. However, most instrument vertical visual angles of the MQ-9 GCS lay outside the cone of Easy Eye Movement, though all were within the cone of Maximum Eye Movement. All the horizontal visual angles for the MQ-9 GCS were within the cone of "Easy Eye Movement". Most instrument displays in conventional aircraft lay within the cone of Easy Eye Movement, though mission-critical instruments sometimes displaced less important instruments outside this area. Many of the MQ-9 GCS systems lay outside this area. Specific training for MQ-9 pilots may be needed to avoid increased response time and potential error during flight. The learning objectives include: 1) Know three

  1. Using Functional Electrical Stimulation Mediated by Iterative Learning Control and Robotics to Improve Arm Movement for People With Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sampson, Patrica; Freeman, Chris; Coote, Susan; Demain, Sara; Feys, Peter; Meadmore, Katie; Hughes, Ann-Marie

    2016-02-01

    Few interventions address multiple sclerosis (MS) arm dysfunction but robotics and functional electrical stimulation (FES) appear promising. This paper investigates the feasibility of combining FES with passive robotic support during virtual reality (VR) training tasks to improve upper limb function in people with multiple sclerosis (pwMS). The system assists patients in following a specified trajectory path, employing an advanced model-based paradigm termed iterative learning control (ILC) to adjust the FES to improve accuracy and maximise voluntary effort. Reaching tasks were repeated six times with ILC learning the optimum control action from previous attempts. A convenience sample of five pwMS was recruited from local MS societies, and the intervention comprised 18 one-hour training sessions over 10 weeks. The accuracy of tracking performance without FES and the amount of FES delivered during training were analyzed using regression analysis. Clinical functioning of the arm was documented before and after treatment with standard tests. Statistically significant results following training included: improved accuracy of tracking performance both when assisted and unassisted by FES; reduction in maximum amount of FES needed to assist tracking; and less impairment in the proximal arm that was trained. The system was well tolerated by all participants with no increase in muscle fatigue reported. This study confirms the feasibility of FES combined with passive robot assistance as a potentially effective intervention to improve arm movement and control in pwMS and provides the basis for a follow-up study. PMID:25823038

  2. Tuning Curves for Arm Posture Control in Motor Cortex Are Consistent with Random Connectivity.

    PubMed

    Lalazar, Hagai; Abbott, L F; Vaadia, Eilon

    2016-05-01

    Neuronal responses characterized by regular tuning curves are typically assumed to arise from structured synaptic connectivity. However, many responses exhibit both regular and irregular components. To address the relationship between tuning curve properties and underlying circuitry, we analyzed neuronal activity recorded from primary motor cortex (M1) of monkeys performing a 3D arm posture control task and compared the results with a neural network model. Posture control is well suited for examining M1 neuronal tuning because it avoids the dynamic complexity of time-varying movements. As a function of hand position, the neuronal responses have a linear component, as has previously been described, as well as heterogeneous and highly irregular nonlinearities. These nonlinear components involve high spatial frequencies and therefore do not support explicit encoding of movement parameters. Yet both the linear and nonlinear components contribute to the decoding of EMG of major muscles used in the task. Remarkably, despite the presence of a strong linear component, a feedforward neural network model with entirely random connectivity can replicate the data, including both the mean and distributions of the linear and nonlinear components as well as several other features of the neuronal responses. This result shows that smoothness provided by the regularity in the inputs to M1 can impose apparent structure on neural responses, in this case a strong linear (also known as cosine) tuning component, even in the absence of ordered synaptic connectivity. PMID:27224735

  3. Formation and control of optimal trajectory in human multijoint arm movement. Minimum torque-change model.

    PubMed

    Uno, Y; Kawato, M; Suzuki, R

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, we study trajectory planning and control in voluntary, human arm movements. When a hand is moved to a target, the central nervous system must select one specific trajectory among an infinite number of possible trajectories that lead to the target position. First, we discuss what criterion is adopted for trajectory determination. Several researchers measured the hand trajectories of skilled movements and found common invariant features. For example, when moving the hand between a pair of targets, subjects tended to generate roughly straight hand paths with bell-shaped speed profiles. On the basis of these observations and dynamic optimization theory, we propose a mathematical model which accounts for formation of hand trajectories. This model is formulated by defining an objective function, a measure of performance for any possible movement: square of the rate of change of torque integrated over the entire movement. That is, the objective function CT is defined as follows: (formula; see text) We overcome this difficult by developing an iterative scheme, with which the optimal trajectory and the associated motor command are simultaneously computed. To evaluate our model, human hand trajectories were experimentally measured under various behavioral situations. These results supported the idea that the human hand trajectory is planned and controlled in accordance with the minimum torque-change criterion. PMID:2742921

  4. Tuning Curves for Arm Posture Control in Motor Cortex Are Consistent with Random Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, L. F.; Vaadia, Eilon

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal responses characterized by regular tuning curves are typically assumed to arise from structured synaptic connectivity. However, many responses exhibit both regular and irregular components. To address the relationship between tuning curve properties and underlying circuitry, we analyzed neuronal activity recorded from primary motor cortex (M1) of monkeys performing a 3D arm posture control task and compared the results with a neural network model. Posture control is well suited for examining M1 neuronal tuning because it avoids the dynamic complexity of time-varying movements. As a function of hand position, the neuronal responses have a linear component, as has previously been described, as well as heterogeneous and highly irregular nonlinearities. These nonlinear components involve high spatial frequencies and therefore do not support explicit encoding of movement parameters. Yet both the linear and nonlinear components contribute to the decoding of EMG of major muscles used in the task. Remarkably, despite the presence of a strong linear component, a feedforward neural network model with entirely random connectivity can replicate the data, including both the mean and distributions of the linear and nonlinear components as well as several other features of the neuronal responses. This result shows that smoothness provided by the regularity in the inputs to M1 can impose apparent structure on neural responses, in this case a strong linear (also known as cosine) tuning component, even in the absence of ordered synaptic connectivity. PMID:27224735

  5. Comparing Radiation Dose from Conventional Fluoroscopy to Intraoperative Cone Beam CT (O-arm) during Percutaneous Lesioning Procedures of the Gasserian Ganglion

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Vishal J; Lall, Rishi R; Branch, Daniel; Patel, Achal P; Allison, Randall Z; Paulson, David; Ortega-Barnett, Juan R

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The use of intraoperative CT-guidance during the percutaneous treatment of trigeminal neuralgia has become increasingly popular due to the greater ease of foramen ovale cannulation and decreased procedure times. Concerns regarding radiation dose to the patient, however, remain unaddressed. We sought to compare the emitted radiation dose from fluoroscopy with intraoperative CT for these procedures. Methods: A retrospective review of percutaneous lesioning procedures for trigeminal neuralgia performed between 2010 until 2012 at our institution was conducted and radiation doses to the patient were recorded. We subsequently simulated four separate percutaneous trigeminal rhizotomies using the O-arm intraoperative CT (Medtronics, Minneapolis, MN, USA) to cannulate the foramen ovale bilaterally in two formalin-fixed cadaver heads. Results: Seventeen successful percutaneous treatments for trigeminal neuralgia were performed during the study period. Eleven procedures containing complete records were included in the final analysis. For procedures using fluoroscopy, the mean dosage was 15.2 mGys (range: 1.15 - 47.95, 95% CI 7.34 – 22.99). Radiation dosage from the O-arm imaging system was 16.55 mGy for all four cases. An unequal variance t-test did not reach statistical significance (p=0.42). Conclusions: We did not observe a significant difference in radiation dose delivered to subjects when comparing CT-guided foramen ovale cannulation relative to fluoroscopy for percutaneous lesioning of the Gasserian ganglion. Additional study is required under operational settings. PMID:26623200

  6. A comprehensive model to evaluate implementation of the world health organization framework convention of tobacco control

    PubMed Central

    Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Kelishad, Roya; Rabiei, Katayoun; Abedi, Heidarali; Mohaseli, Khadijeh Fereydoun; Masooleh, Hasan Azaripour; Alavi, Mousa; Heidari, Gholamreza; Ghaffari, Mostafa; O’Loughlin, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Background: Iran is one of the countries that has ratified the World Health Organization Framework Convention of Tobacco Control (WHO-FCTC), and has implemented a series of tobacco control interventions including the Comprehensive Tobacco Control Law. Enforcement of this legislation and assessment of its outcome requires a dedicated evaluation system. This study aimed to develop a generic model to evaluate the implementation of the Comprehensive Tobacco Control Law in Iran that was provided based on WHO-FCTC articles. Materials and Methods: Using a grounded theory approach, qualitative data were collected from 265 subjects in individual interviews and focus group discussions with policymakers who designed the legislation, key stakeholders, and members of the target community. In addition, field observations data in supermarkets/shops, restaurants, teahouses and coffee shops were collected. Data were analyzed in two stages through conceptual theoretical coding. Findings: Overall, 617 open codes were extracted from the data into tables; 72 level-3 codes were retained from the level-2 code series. Using a Model Met paradigm, the relationships between the components of each paradigm were depicted graphically. The evaluation model entailed three levels, namely: short-term results, process evaluation and long-term results. Conclusions: Central concept of the process of evaluation is that enforcing the law influences a variety of internal and environmental factors including legislative changes. These factors will be examined during the process evaluation and context evaluation. The current model can be applicable for providing FCTC evaluation tools across other jurisdictions. PMID:23833621

  7. Homeopathy for Depression: A Randomized, Partially Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Four-Armed Study (DEP-HOM)

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Ubiratan C.; Krüger, Stephanie; Teut, Michael; Lüdtke, Rainer; Schützler, Lena; Martins, Friederike; Willich, Stefan N.; Linde, Klaus; Witt, Claudia M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The specific clinical benefit of the homeopathic consultation and of homeopathic remedies in patients with depression has not yet been investigated. Aims To investigate the 1) specific effect of individualized homeopathic Q-potencies compared to placebo and 2) the effect of an extensive homeopathic case taking (case history I) compared to a shorter, rather conventional one (case history II) in the treatment of acute major depression (moderate episode) after six weeks. Methods A randomized, partially double-blind, placebo-controlled, four-armed trial using a 2×2 factorial design with a six-week study duration per patient was performed. Results A total of 44 from 228 planned patients were randomized (2∶1∶2∶1 randomization: 16 homeopathic Q-potencies/case history I, 7 placebo/case history I, 14 homeopathic Q-potencies/case history II, 7 placebo/case history II). Because of recruitment problems, the study was terminated prior to full recruitment, and was underpowered for the preplanned confirmatory hypothesis testing. Exploratory data analyses showed heterogeneous and inconclusive results with large variance in the sample. The mean difference for the Hamilton-D after 6 weeks was 2.0 (95%CI −1.2;5.2) for Q-potencies vs. placebo and −3.1 (−5.9;−0.2) for case history I vs. case history II. Overall, no consistent or clinically relevant results across all outcomes between homeopathic Q-potencies versus placebo and homeopathic versus conventional case taking were observed. The frequency of adverse events was comparable for all groups. Conclusions Although our results are inconclusive, given that recruitment into this trial was very difficult and we had to terminate early, we cannot recommend undertaking a further trial addressing this question in a similar setting. Prof. Dr. Claudia Witt had full access to all the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis. Trial registration

  8. N of 1, two contemporary arm, randomised controlled clinical trial for bilateral epicondylitis: a new study design

    PubMed Central

    Fante, Claudia Del; Perotti, Cesare; Pavesi, Claudio Francesco; Coscia, Davide; Scotti, Valeria; Tinelli, Carmine

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the use of a novel study design in analysis of bilateral elbow pain. Design N of 1, two contemporary arm, open label, randomised controlled clinical trial. Setting A clinical epidemiologist at a university hospital in Pavia, Italy. Participants Two elbows with epicondylitis. Interventions Autologous platelet lysate versus “wait and see” strategy. Main outcome measures Visual analogue scale for pain on elbow extension and resisted wrist extension. Results Over six months’ follow-up, the patient experienced bilateral improvement in pain, but higher in the treated arm, with a drop in visual analogue scale for pain from 28 to 4 for right (control) arm (drop of 24 points) and from 67 to 10.5 for left (treated) arm (drop of 56.5 points). Conclusions Platelet lysate might (or might not) work. Competing interests and lack of blinding might be relevant issues in the interpretation of trial results. However, the new study design can be applied to a number of conditions such as bilateral sport or trauma injuries, bilateral otitis, or any condition affecting chiral organs or limbs. PMID:22187187

  9. CONVENTIONAL AND ADVANCED SEWER DESIGN CONCEPTS FOR DUAL PURPOSE FLOOD AND POLLUTION CONTROL. A PRELIMINARY CASE STUDY, ELIZABETH, NEW JERSEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alternatives for pollution abatement from combined sewer overflows and stormwater discharges were evaluated. Separate storm and sanitary, conventional combined, and advanced combined systems with varying amounts of in-pipe and/or satellite storage and controlled flow routing were...

  10. 40 CFR 445.12 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SOURCE CATEGORY RCRA Subtitle C Hazardous Waste Landfill § 445.12 Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR...

  11. 40 CFR 439.13 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30... limitations representing the application of BCT: Limitations for BOD5, TSS and pH are the same as...

  12. 40 CFR 439.33 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30... limitations representing the application of BCT: Limitations for BOD5, TSS and pH are the same as...

  13. 40 CFR 439.23 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30... limitations representing the application of BCT: Limitations for BOD5, TSS and pH are the same as...

  14. Project Cerberus: Tobacco Industry Strategy to Create an Alternative to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control

    PubMed Central

    Mamudu, Hadii M.; Hammond, Ross; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2008-01-01

    Between 1999 and 2001, British American Tobacco, Philip Morris, and Japan Tobacco International executed Project Cerberus to develop a global voluntary regulatory regime as an alternative to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). They aimed to develop a global voluntary regulatory code to be overseen by an independent audit body and to focus attention on youth smoking prevention. The International Tobacco Products Marketing Standards announced in September 2001, however, did not have the independent audit body. Although the companies did not stop the FCTC, they continue to promote the International Tobacco Products Marketing Standards youth smoking prevention as an alternative to the FCTC. Public health civil society groups should help policymakers and governments understand the importance of not working with the tobacco industry. PMID:18633079

  15. Retracted: Postoperative pain after irrigation with Vibringe versus a conventional needle: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bilgili, D; Yilmaz, S; Dumani, A; Yoldas, O

    2016-08-01

    The following article from International Endodontic Journal, 'Postoperative pain after irrigation with Vibringe versus a conventional needle: a randomized controlled trial' by D. Bilgili, S. Yilmaz, A. Dumani & O. Yoldas, published online on 29 February 2016 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the Journal Editor in Chief, Prof. Paul Dummer, and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. The retraction has been agreed because the corresponding author did not contact the first author who carried out the work before alterations to the article were made prior to submission. This damages the integrity of the work and there are additional concerns over the number of patients and the accuracy of the results and conclusions. PMID:26855328

  16. A Chilling Example? Uruguay, Philip Morris International, and WHO's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    PubMed

    Russell, Andrew; Wainwright, Megan; Mamudu, Hadii

    2015-06-01

    The World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) is the first international public health treaty to address the global spread of tobacco products. Ethnographic research at the fourth meeting of the FCTC's Conference of the Parties in Uruguay highlights the role of the FCTC in recalibrating the relationship between international trade and investment agreements and those of global public health. Specifically, we chart the origins and development of the Punta del Este Declaration, tabled by Uruguay at the conference, to counter a legal request by Philip Morris International, the world's largest tobacco transnational, for arbitration by the International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes over Uruguay's alleged violations of several international trade and investment treaties. We argue that medical anthropologists should give greater consideration to global health governance and diplomacy as a potential counterweight to the 'politics of resignation' associated with corporate capitalism. PMID:25331730

  17. Project Cerberus: tobacco industry strategy to create an alternative to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    PubMed

    Mamudu, Hadii M; Hammond, Ross; Glantz, Stanton A

    2008-09-01

    Between 1999 and 2001, British American Tobacco, Philip Morris, and Japan Tobacco International executed Project Cerberus to develop a global voluntary regulatory regime as an alternative to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). They aimed to develop a global voluntary regulatory code to be overseen by an independent audit body and to focus attention on youth smoking prevention. The International Tobacco Products Marketing Standards announced in September 2001, however, did not have the independent audit body. Although the companies did not stop the FCTC, they continue to promote the International Tobacco Products Marketing Standards youth smoking prevention as an alternative to the FCTC. Public health civil society groups should help policymakers and governments understand the importance of not working with the tobacco industry. PMID:18633079

  18. Coordination of multiple robot arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, L. K.; Soloway, D.

    1987-01-01

    Kinematic resolved-rate control from one robot arm is extended to the coordinated control of multiple robot arms in the movement of an object. The structure supports the general movement of one axis system (moving reference frame) with respect to another axis system (control reference frame) by one or more robot arms. The grippers of the robot arms do not have to be parallel or at any pre-disposed positions on the object. For multiarm control, the operator chooses the same moving and control reference frames for each of the robot arms. Consequently, each arm then moves as though it were carrying out the commanded motions by itself.

  19. Data Quality Assessment and Control for the ARM Climate Research Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Peppler, R

    2012-06-26

    The mission of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility is to provide observations of the earth climate system to the climate research community for the purpose of improving the understanding and representation, in climate and earth system models, of clouds and aerosols as well as their coupling with the Earth's surface. In order for ARM measurements to be useful toward this goal, it is important that the measurements are of a known and reasonable quality. The ARM data quality program includes several components designed to identify quality issues in near-real-time, track problems to solutions, assess more subtle long-term issues, and communicate problems to the user community.

  20. Interpretation of the source-specific substantive control measures of the Minamata Convention on Mercury.

    PubMed

    You, Mingqing

    2015-02-01

    Being persistent, toxic, and bio-accumulative, Mercury (Hg) seriously affects the environment and human health. Due to Hg's attribute of long-range environmental transport across national borders, especially through atmospheric transport, no country can fully protect its environment and human health with its own efforts, without global cooperation. The Minamata Convention on Mercury, which was formally adopted and opened for signature in October 2013, is the only global environmental regime on the control of Hg pollution. Its main substantive control measures are source-specific: its phasing-out, phasing-down, and other main substantive requirements all direct to specific categories of pollution sources through the regulation of specific sectors of the economy and social life. This Convention does not take a national quota approach to quantify the Parties' nationwide total allowable consumption or discharge of Hg or Hg compounds, nor does it quantify their nationwide total reduction requirements. This paper attempts to find the underlying reasons for this source-specific approach and offers two interpretations. One possible interpretation is that Hg might be a non-threshold pollutant, i.e., a pollutant without a risk-free value of concentration. The existence of a reference dose (RfD), reference concentration (RfC), provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI), minimal risk level (MRL) or other similar reference values of Hg does not necessarily mean that Hg cannot be regarded as non-threshold because such reference values have scientific uncertainties and may also involve policy considerations. Another interpretation is that Hg lacks a feasibly determinable total allowable quantity. There is evidence that negotiators might have treated Hg as non-threshold, or at least accepted that Hg lacks a feasibly determinable total allowable quantity: (1) The negotiators were informed about the serious situations of the current emissions, releases, and legacy deposition; (2

  1. Neural control of rhythmic, cyclical human arm movement: task dependency, nerve specificity and phase modulation of cutaneous reflexes

    PubMed Central

    Zehr, E Paul; Kido, Aiko

    2001-01-01

    The organization and pattern of cutaneous reflex modulation during rhythmic cyclical movements of the human upper limbs has received much less attention than that afforded the lower limb. Our working hypothesis is that control mechanisms underlying the modulation of cutaneous reflex amplitude during rhythmic arm movement are similar to those that control reflex modulation in the leg. Thus, we hypothesized that cutaneous reflexes would show task dependency and nerve specificity in the upper limb during rhythmic cyclical arm movement as has been demonstrated in the human lower limb. EMG was recorded from 10 muscles crossing the human shoulder, elbow and wrist joints while bilateral whole arm rhythmic cyclical movements were performed on a custom-made, hydraulic apparatus. Cutaneous reflexes were evoked with trains (5× 1.0 ms pulses at 300 Hz) of electrical stimulation delivered at non-noxious intensities (∼2× threshold for radiating parasthesia) to the superficial radial, median and ulnar nerves innervating the hand. Cutaneous reflexes were typically modulated with the movement cycle (i.e. phase dependency was observed). There was evidence for nerve specificity of cutaneous reflexes during rhythmic movement of the upper limbs. Task-dependent modulation was also seen as cutaneous reflexes were of larger amplitude or inhibitory (reflex reversal) during arm cycling as compared to static contraction. While there are some differences in the patterns of cutaneous reflex modulation seen between the arms and legs, it is concluded that cutaneous reflexes are modulated similarly in the upper and lower limbs implicating similar motor control mechanisms. PMID:11744775

  2. Blood pressure self-measurement in upper arm and in wrist for treatment control of arterial hypertension compared to ABPM.

    PubMed

    Eckert, S; Gleichmann, S; Gleichmann, U

    1996-01-01

    Automatic 24 h Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring (ABPM) has become an established method in the diagnosis and treatment control of arterial hypertension. Fully automatic blood pressure devices for blood pressure self-measurement (BPSM) in the upper arm and in the wrist using the oscillometric measuring technique have been available in Germany for several years. After evaluating the blood pressure devices boso Oscillomat (upper arm) and Omron HEM-601 (wrist) by means of simultaneous invasive measurements, we studied the suitability of this new method for the control of treated hypertension. Using the device Space Labs 90207, we had ABPM carried out in 100 men (aged 58 +/- 8 years) with mild to moderate hypertension. They recorded hourly blood pressure measurements in the wrist between 6 a.m. and 6 p.m., in the same arm as the blood pressure monitoring using the device Omron HEM-601, or in the other arm using the device boso Oscillomat. The values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured using both methods. Since the random samples probably consisted of non-standard distribution differences, we applied the Wilcoxon matched pairs signed rank test for statistical analysis. No significant differences were recorded between the daily mean systolic (p < .07) and diastolic (p < .97) blood pressure values determined by ABPM and by frequent blood pressure self-measurement. Multiple blood pressure readings obtained using blood pressure self-measurement in the upper arm as well as in the wrist are an alternative to the established, automatic 24-h, ambulatory blood pressure measurement for the treatment control of arterial hypertension, that nightly blood pressure measurement can be omitted. It has advantage of unrestricted and desired frequent use under standardized conditions. PMID:8896310

  3. Iyengar Yoga for Distressed Women: A 3-Armed Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Michalsen, Andreas; Jeitler, Michael; Brunnhuber, Stefan; Lüdtke, Rainer; Büssing, Arndt; Musial, Frauke; Dobos, Gustav; Kessler, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Distress is an increasing public health problem. We aimed to investigate the effects of an Iyengar yoga program on perceived stress and psychological outcomes in distressed women and evaluated a potential dose-effect relationship. Seventy-two female distressed subjects were included into a 3-armed randomized controlled trial and allocated to yoga group 1 (n = 24) with twelve 90 min sessions over 3 months, yoga group 2 (n = 24) with 24 sessions over 3 months, or a waiting list control group (n = 24). The primary outcome was stress perception, measured by Cohen Stress Scale; secondary outcomes included state trait anxiety, depression, psychological and physical quality of life (QOL), profile of Mood States, well being, and bodily complaints. After three months, women in the yoga groups showed significant improvements in perceived stress (P = 0.003), state trait anxiety (P = 0.021 and P = 0.003), depression (P = 0.008), psychological QOL (P = 0.012), mood states being (P = 0.007), and bodily complaints well(P = 0.012) when compared to controls. Both yoga programs were similarly effective for these outcomes; however, compliance was better in the group with fewer sessions (yoga group 1). Dose effects were seen only in the analysis of group-independent effects for back pain, anxiety, and depression. These findings suggest that Iyengar yoga effectively reduces distress and improves related psychological and physical outcomes. Furthermore, attending twice-weekly yoga classes was not superior to once-weekly classes, as a result of limited compliance in the twice-weekly group. PMID:23049608

  4. Iyengar yoga for distressed women: a 3-armed randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Michalsen, Andreas; Jeitler, Michael; Brunnhuber, Stefan; Lüdtke, Rainer; Büssing, Arndt; Musial, Frauke; Dobos, Gustav; Kessler, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Distress is an increasing public health problem. We aimed to investigate the effects of an Iyengar yoga program on perceived stress and psychological outcomes in distressed women and evaluated a potential dose-effect relationship. Seventy-two female distressed subjects were included into a 3-armed randomized controlled trial and allocated to yoga group 1 (n = 24) with twelve 90 min sessions over 3 months, yoga group 2 (n = 24) with 24 sessions over 3 months, or a waiting list control group (n = 24). The primary outcome was stress perception, measured by Cohen Stress Scale; secondary outcomes included state trait anxiety, depression, psychological and physical quality of life (QOL), profile of Mood States, well being, and bodily complaints. After three months, women in the yoga groups showed significant improvements in perceived stress (P = 0.003), state trait anxiety (P = 0.021 and P = 0.003), depression (P = 0.008), psychological QOL (P = 0.012), mood states being (P = 0.007), and bodily complaints well(P = 0.012) when compared to controls. Both yoga programs were similarly effective for these outcomes; however, compliance was better in the group with fewer sessions (yoga group 1). Dose effects were seen only in the analysis of group-independent effects for back pain, anxiety, and depression. These findings suggest that Iyengar yoga effectively reduces distress and improves related psychological and physical outcomes. Furthermore, attending twice-weekly yoga classes was not superior to once-weekly classes, as a result of limited compliance in the twice-weekly group. PMID:23049608

  5. Hingeless rotor theory and experiment on vibration reduction by periodic variation of conventional controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sissingh, G. J.; Donham, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    The reduction of the n per rev. pitch-, roll- and vertical vibrations of an n-bladed rotor by n per rev. sinusoidal variations of the collective and cyclic controls is investigated. The numerical results presented refer to a four-bladed, 7.5-foot model and are based on frequency response tests conducted under an Army-sponsored research program. The following subjects are treated: extraction of the rotor transfer functions (.073R hub flapping and model thrust versus servo valve command, amplitude and phase), calculation of servo commands (volts) required to compensate .073R hub flapping (3P and 5P) and model thrust (4P), evaluation of the effect of the vibratory control inputs on blade loads, and theoretical prediction of the root flapbending moments generated by 0 to 5P perturbations of the feathering angle and rotor angle of attack. Five operating conditions are investigated covering advance ratios from approximately 0.2 to 0.85. The feasibility of vibration reduction by periodic variation on conventional controls is evaluated.

  6. [WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) Article 11: packaging and labelling of tobacco products].

    PubMed

    Bekki, Kanae; Inaba, Yohei; Kunugita, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) requires member countries to implement measures aimed at reducing the demand for tobacco products. FCTC article 11 describes the important forms of health communication and packaging regulations. And this article recommends on large pictorial health warnings and encourages more effective forms of disclosure on constituents and emissions. Furthermore, article 11 recognizes the importance of the package as a promotional vehicle for tobacco companies and requires the removal of potentially misleading packaging information, including the terms "light" and "mild." The Conference of the Parties (COP) adopted guidelines for implementation of article 11 on "Packaging and labelling of Tobacco Products". Some countries, such as Canada, the U.S.A., Australia, EU countries etc. positively promoted tobacco control by implementing countermeasures such as the graphic health warning labels and plain packages. These countermeasures showed the significant effects of decreasing smoking rate and preventing smoking initiation in young people. Furthermore, these warning labels were effective for the literally challenged. However, the Japanese government has not implemented these countermeasures, and only limited texts are shown on Japanese tobacco packaging. Therefore, Japan should emulate approaches taken by other countries, and promote the tobacco control policy in accordance with FCTC. PMID:25744790

  7. Defining the questions: a research agenda for nontraditional authentication in arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Hauck, Danielle K; Mac Arthur, Duncan W; Smith, Morag K; Thron, Jonathan L; Budlong - Sylvester, Kory

    2010-01-01

    Many traditional authentication techniques have been based on hardware solutions. Thus authentication of measurement system hardware has been considered in terms of physical inspection and destructive analysis. Software authentication has implied hash function analysis or authentication tools such as Rose. Continuity of knowledge is maintained through TIDs and cameras. Although there is ongoing progress improving all of these authentication methods, there has been little discussion of the human factors involved in authentication. Issues of non-traditional authentication include sleight-of-hand substitutions, monitor perception vs. reality, and visual diversions. Since monitor confidence in a measurement system depends on the product of their confidences in each authentication element, it is important to investigate all authentication techniques, including the human factors. This paper will present an initial effort to identify the most important problems that traditional authentication approaches in safeguards have not addressed and are especially relevant to arms control verification. This will include a survey of the literature and direct engagement with nontraditional experts in areas like psychology and human factors. Based on the identification of problem areas, potential research areas will be identified and a possible research agenda will be developed.

  8. The evolution of disarmament and arms control thought, 1945-1963

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.E. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The onset of the Cold War and the total failure of nuclear disarmament efforts at the United Nations were only the most obvious of several factors prompting a reexamination of the disarmament approach in the early 1950s. The end of the American nuclear monopoly, the development of the hydrogen bomb, the experience with limited war in Korea, and the rise of concerns about the possibility of nuclear surprise attack (exacerbated by Sputnik) all prompted the Eisenhower administration and the community of strategic thinkers to question the feasibility and even the desirability of nuclear disarmament. To replace disarmament, the strategic community developed the arms-control approach; this approach, the intellectual foundations of which were largely completed in 1961, has been the basis of American policy for the regulation of nuclear weapons since the Kennedy administration. Since its development, the new thinking has been challenged both by disarmers, who regard it as a conservative approach designed merely to perpetuate mutual nuclear deterrence, and traditionalists, who perceive many similarities to the disarmament approach and are skeptical of its faith in the ability of adversaries to act together to reduce the threat that weapons pose.

  9. Fire hazards analysis for the Center for National Security and Arms Control (CNSAC) Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Klamerus, E.W.; Ross, S.B.

    1993-07-01

    This Fire Hazards Analysis is sponsored by Plant Engineering and is prepared to support the Safety Assessment for the CNSAC Facility. This is a preliminary fire hazards analysis of a yet to be constructed facility and is based upon the current building design and the current understanding of the potential occupancy hazards. The governing occupancy for this building is personnel offices. The CNSAC facility will be dedicated primarily to two activities: (1) arms control and verification technology and (2) intelligence. This report supplements the Safety Assessment for the CNSAC facility and follows the guidance of DOE Memorandum EH-31.3 and meets the objectives of paragraph 4 of DOE Order 5480.7A, ``Fire Protection.`` This analysis demonstrates that under ``worst case`` assumptions a fire in the CNSAC facility will result in consequences which are below DOE offsite guidelines for accident conditions. This report is based upon preliminary design information and any major changes to the building design may require additional analyses.

  10. Lever-arm and mini-implant system for anterior torque control during retraction in lingual orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ryoon-Ki; Heo, Jung-Min; Ha, Young-Ki

    2005-01-01

    Anterior torque control during retraction is difficult to achieve with lingual orthodontic treatment. This article describes the use of a lever-arm and mini-implant system as absolute anchorage for controlled retraction of the anterior teeth during lingual orthodontic treatment and evaluates 2 protrusion cases treated with this system. Various clinical situations are discussed and analyzed from a biomechanical standpoint. Mini-implants are needed to control the point of force application in the posterior area and produce en masse retraction with no anchorage loss. When the length of the lever-arm is adjusted to the position of the mini-implant, the desired line of action of the retraction force with respect to the center of resistance of the anterior segment is selected. Controlled retraction of the anterior teeth was achieved with no loss of anchorage. The mini-implant, in conjunction with the lever-arm, is useful not only for absolute anchorage but also for anterior torque control during retraction in lingual orthodontic treatment. PMID:15747828

  11. Listing's law for eye, head and arm movements and their synergistic control.

    PubMed

    Straumann, D; Haslwanter, T; Hepp-Reymond, M C; Hepp, K

    1991-01-01

    We have recorded eye, head, and upper arm rotations in five healthy human subjects using the three-dimensional search coil technique. Our measurements show that the coordination of eye and head movements during gaze shifts within +/- 25 deg relative to the forward direction is organized by restricting the rotatory trajectories of the two systems to almost parallel planes. These so-called "Listing planes" for eye-in-space and head-in-space rotations are workspace-oriented, not body-fixed. Eye and head trajectories in their respective planes are closely related in direction and amplitude. For pointing or grasping, the rotatory trajectories of the arm are also restricted to a workspace-oriented Listing plane. During visually guided movements, arm follows gaze, and the nine-dimensional rotatory configuration space for eye-head-arm-synergies (three degrees of freedom for each system) is reduced to a two-dimensional plane in the space of quaternion vectors. PMID:1756791

  12. 49 CFR 1544.221 - Carriage of prisoners under the control of armed law enforcement officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SECURITY AIRCRAFT OPERATOR SECURITY: AIR CARRIERS AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Operations § 1544.221 Carriage... passenger cabin. (g) Each armed law enforcement officer escorting a prisoner and each aircraft operator...

  13. Robust adaptive control modeling of human arm movements subject to altered gravity and mechanical loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tryfonidis, Michail

    It has been observed that during orbital spaceflight the absence of gravitation related sensory inputs causes incongruence between the expected and the actual sensory feedback resulting from voluntary movements. This incongruence results in a reinterpretation or neglect of gravity-induced sensory input signals. Over time, new internal models develop, gradually compensating for the loss of spatial reference. The study of adaptation of goal-directed movements is the main focus of this thesis. The hypothesis is that during the adaptive learning process the neural connections behave in ways that can be described by an adaptive control method. The investigation presented in this thesis includes two different sets of experiments. A series of dart throwing experiments took place onboard the space station Mir. Experiments also took place at the Biomechanics lab at MIT, where the subjects performed a series of continuous trajectory tracking movements while a planar robotic manipulandum exerted external torques on the subjects' moving arms. The experimental hypothesis for both experiments is that during the first few trials the subjects will perform poorly trying to follow a prescribed trajectory, or trying to hit a target. A theoretical framework is developed that is a modification of the sliding control method used in robotics. The new control framework is an attempt to explain the adaptive behavior of the subjects. Numerical simulations of the proposed framework are compared with experimental results and predictions from competitive models. The proposed control methodology extends the results of the sliding mode theory to human motor control. The resulting adaptive control model of the motor system is robust to external dynamics, even those of negative gain, uses only position and velocity feedback, and achieves bounded steady-state error without explicit knowledge of the system's nonlinearities. In addition, the experimental and modeling results demonstrate that

  14. A novel approach to the modelling and control of flexible robot arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, Xuru; Tarn, Tzyh-Jong; Bejczy, Antal K.

    1988-01-01

    A general dynamic model of a two-link Euler-Bernoulli beam flexible robot arm is presented in the form of partial-differential-integral equations. Observations are made on important properties of the dynamic model. The resulting infinite-dimensional system is then input-output decoupled and partially linearized by a diffeomorphic state transformation and nonlinear state feedback. The local stability issue is addressed for a one-link flexible robot arm.

  15. Electron energy distribution control by fiat: breaking from the conventional flux ratio scaling rules in etch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjan, Alok; Wang, Mingmei; Sherpa, Sonam; Ventzek, Peter

    2015-03-01

    With shrinking critical dimensions, minimizing each of aspect ratio dependent etching (ARDE), bowing, undercut, selectivity, and within die uniformly across a wafer is met by trading off one requirement against another. The problem of trade-offs is especially critical. At the root of the problem is that roles radical flux, ion flux and ion energy play may be both good and bad. Increasing one parameter helps meeting one requirement but hinders meeting the other. Managing process by managing flux ratios and ion energy alone with conventional sources is not adequate because surface chemistry is uncontrollable. At the root of lack of control is that the electron energy distribution function (eedf) has not been controlled. Fortunately the high density surface wave sources control the eedf by fiat. High density surface wave sources are characterized by distinct plasma regions: an active plasma generation region with high electron temperature (Te) and an ionization free but chemistry rich diffusive region (low Te region). Pressure aids is segregating the regions by proving a means for momentum relaxation between the source and downstream region. "Spatial pulsing" allows access to plasma chemistry with reasonably high ion flux, from the active plasma generation region, just above the wafer. Low plasma potential enables precise passivation of surfaces which is critical for atomic layer etch (ALE) or high precision etch where the roles of plasma species can be limited to their purposed roles. High precision etch need not be at the cost of speed and manufacturability. Large ion flux at precisely controlled ion energy with RLSATM realizes fast desorption steps for ALE without compromising process throughput and precision.

  16. Implementation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in Africa: Current Status of Legislation

    PubMed Central

    Tumwine, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    Objective To describe, as of July 2011, the status of tobacco control legislation in Africa in three key areas of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC)—(1) Protection from exposure to tobacco smoke, (2) Packaging and labelling of tobacco products, and (3) Tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. Methods Review and analysis of tobacco control legislation in Africa, media reports, journal articles, tobacco industry documents and data published in the 2011 WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic. Results Modest progress in FCTC implementation in Africa with many countries having legislation or policies on the protection from exposure to tobacco smoke, however, only a handful of countries meet the standards of the FCTC Article 8 and its Guidelines particularly with regards to designated smoking areas. Little progress on packaging and labelling of tobacco products, with few countries having legislation meeting the minimum standards of the FCTC Article 11 and its Guidelines. Mauritius is the only African country with graphic or pictorial health warnings in place and has the largest warning labels in Africa. Slightly better progress in banning tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship has been shown by African countries, although the majority of legislation falls short of the standards of the FCTC Article 13 and its Guidelines. Despite their efforts, African countries’ FCTC implementation at national level has not matched the strong regional commitment demonstrated during the FCTC treaty negotiations. Conclusion This study highlights the need for Africa to step up efforts to adopt and implement effective tobacco control legislation that is fully compliant with the FCTC. In order to achieve this, countries should prioritise resources for capacity building for drafting strong FCTC compliant legislation, research to inform policy and boost political will, and countering the tobacco industry which is a major obstacle to FCTC implementation in

  17. [Tobacco smoking and principles of the who framework convention on tobacco control: a review].

    PubMed

    Melkadze, N

    2013-02-01

    The aim of a review is to examine the current state of the relevant publications on tobacco smoking, the Guidelines on Protection from Exposure to Tobacco Smoke, and WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), which commits countries to protect the public's health by adopting various measures to reduce demand for tobacco. Georgia ratified the treaty in February 2006. In Georgia the implementation of the WHO FCTC is regulated by the "Law on Tobacco Control" (Law). It went into effect in September 2003. Changes and additions to the Law were approved by the Parliament in December 2008 (N 941 - rs) and in December 2010 (№4059-rs). According to Article 10 of the Law, smoking is prohibited at the educational and childcare institutions, medical and pharmaceutical facilities, at the entire area of petrol, gas and gas-distribution stations, in public transport, indoor areas of work and mass gathering... In spite of the legislation rights of non-smokers are very poorly preserved. With this in mind, the Welfare Foundation, the FCTC and the Tobacco Control Alliance, organized a public discussion on enforcing smoke-free laws in Georgia, in December 2012 at Tbilisi Marriott Courtyard Hotel. In order to make public libraries, educational, cultural institutions «de jure» and «de facto» free from tobacco smoke, the campaign against tobacco, which aims to strengthen implementation of the Tobacco Control Law and Regulation should be held in public libraries - not in the hotels. It is necessary to hang a poster - «Environment free from Smoke» at the entrance to buildings where smoking is prohibited throughout. In Rules and regulations for the use of the library there must be a note: smoking is prohibited in the library. We hope that Georgia in the nearest future will be in the list of countries with smoke-free public and work places. PMID:23482366

  18. Arms control and the rule of law: National measures for enforcement and verification

    SciTech Connect

    Tanzman, E.A.

    1997-04-19

    Much has been written about the deterrence strategies that justified the arms race. Walter Slocombe explained that {open_quotes}[t]he dominant problem of U.S. nuclear strategy is credibly using U.S. nuclear power to deter and if necessary resist nonnuclear as well as nuclear threats to America`s allies, forces, and interests overseas.{close_quotes} As a result, the {open_quotes}flexible response{close_quotes} doctrine was developed to declare {open_quotes}that the United States, in consultation with its allies, is prepared to use nuclear weapons should other means of protection from Soviet attack threaten to fail.{close_quotes} In contrast, Freeman Dyson pointed out the Soviet Union was committed to the concept of {open_quotes}counterforce,{close_quotes} which meant that {open_quotes}if the Soviet Union sees a nuclear attack coming or has reason to believe that an attack is about to be launched, the Soviet Union will strike first at the attacker`s weapons with all available forces, and will then do whatever is necessary in order to survive.{close_quotes} Out of these military postures a tense peace ironically emerged, but the terms by which decisions were made about controlling weapons of mass destruction (i.e., nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons) were the terms of war. The thesis of this paper is that the end of the Cold War marks a shift away from reliance on military might toward an international commitment to control weapons of mass destruction through the `rule of law.`

  19. Challenge inspections in Arms Control treaties: Any lessons for strengthening NPT verification. [Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT)

    SciTech Connect

    Allentuck, J.

    1992-01-01

    Recent revelations of an ongoing and sophisticated nuclear weapons development program in Iraq have lead to suggestions for strengthening International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards. Especially troubling was the realization that safeguards, as presently applied, could not possibly have detected such a program. It is clear that the inspections which have taken place in Iraq since the Gulf War could only have been imposed on a nation which had suffered a severe military defeat. It has, however, been argued that challenge or challenge like'' inspections already incorporated in or proposed for the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (the CFE Treaty) the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) and the Treaty Between the United States and the USSR on the Reduction and Limitation of Strategic offensive Arms (START) might serve as models for enhanced special inspections in the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (the NPT). The expectation that none of the challenge or challenge like inspections in the above treaties would provide a model for the NPT was confirmed although certain characteristics of these inspections do provide useful points of departure. Although the context of challenge inspections in CWC bears substantial similarity to the NPT, it is from the provisions for suspect-site'' and formerly declared site'', challenge like inspections in START that innovative ideas for strengthening special inspections in NPT may be derived.

  20. Implementation of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in mainland China.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jun; Su, Meng; Hong, Zhiheng; Zhang, Ting; Huang, Xuemei; Wang, Bo; Li, Liming

    2011-07-01

    As per China's ratification of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), it should have implemented effective packaging and labelling measures prior to 9 January 2009 and enacted a comprehensive ban on all tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship prior to 9 January 2011. In addition, universal protection against secondhand tobacco smoke should have been implemented before 9 January 2011 by ensuring that all indoor workplaces, all indoor public places, all public transportation and possibly other (outdoor or quasi-outdoor) public places are free of secondhand smoke. The authors conducted a review of various sources of information to determine the current status of FCTC implementation in mainland China. Even though China has made considerable efforts to implement the FCTC, there is still a significant gap between the current state of affairs in China and the requirements of the FCTC. The Chinese tobacco monopoly under which commercial and other vested interests of the tobacco industry are jeopardizing tobacco control efforts is thought to be the most crucial obstacle to the effective implementation of the FCTC across the country. PMID:21493635

  1. An open-source and cross-platform framework for Brain Computer Interface-guided robotic arm control

    PubMed Central

    Kubben, Pieter L.; Pouratian, Nader

    2012-01-01

    Brain Computer Interfaces (BCIs) have focused on several areas, of which motor substitution has received particular interest. Whereas open-source BCI software is available to facilitate cost-effective collaboration between research groups, it mainly focuses on communication and computer control. We developed an open-source and cross-platform framework, which works with cost-effective equipment that allows researchers to enter the field of BCI-based motor substitution without major investments upfront. It is based on the C++ programming language and the Qt framework, and offers a separate class for custom MATLAB/Simulink scripts. It has been tested using a 14-channel wireless electroencephalography (EEG) device and a low-cost robotic arm that offers 5° of freedom. The software contains four modules to control the robotic arm, one of which receives input from the EEG device. Strengths, current limitations, and future developments will be discussed. PMID:23372966

  2. An open-source and cross-platform framework for Brain Computer Interface-guided robotic arm control.

    PubMed

    Kubben, Pieter L; Pouratian, Nader

    2012-01-01

    Brain Computer Interfaces (BCIs) have focused on several areas, of which motor substitution has received particular interest. Whereas open-source BCI software is available to facilitate cost-effective collaboration between research groups, it mainly focuses on communication and computer control. We developed an open-source and cross-platform framework, which works with cost-effective equipment that allows researchers to enter the field of BCI-based motor substitution without major investments upfront. It is based on the C++ programming language and the Qt framework, and offers a separate class for custom MATLAB/Simulink scripts. It has been tested using a 14-channel wireless electroencephalography (EEG) device and a low-cost robotic arm that offers 5° of freedom. The software contains four modules to control the robotic arm, one of which receives input from the EEG device. Strengths, current limitations, and future developments will be discussed. PMID:23372966

  3. Electromagnetic Signature Technique as a Promising Tool to Verify Nuclear Weapons Storage and Dismantlement under a Nuclear Arms Control Regime

    SciTech Connect

    Bunch, Kyle J.; Williams, Laura S.; Jones, Anthony M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep

    2012-08-01

    The 2010 ratification of the New START Treaty has been widely regarded as a noteworthy national security achievement for both the Obama administration and the Medvedev-Putin regime, but deeper cuts are envisioned under future arms control regimes. Future verification needs will include monitoring the storage of warhead components and fissile materials and verifying dismantlement of warheads, pits, secondaries, and other materials. From both the diplomatic and technical perspectives, verification under future arms control regimes will pose new challenges. Since acceptable verification technology must protect sensitive design information and attributes, non-nuclear non-sensitive signatures may provide a significant verification tool without the use of additional information barriers. The use of electromagnetic signatures to monitor nuclear material storage containers is a promising technology with the potential to fulfill these challenging requirements. Research performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has demonstrated that low frequency electromagnetic signatures of sealed metallic containers can be used to confirm the presence of specific components on a “yes/no” basis without revealing classified information. Arms control inspectors might use this technique to verify the presence or absence of monitored items, including both nuclear and non-nuclear materials. Although additional research is needed to study signature aspects such as uniqueness and investigate container-specific scenarios, the technique potentially offers a rapid and cost-effective tool to verify reduction and dismantlement of U.S. and Russian nuclear weapons.

  4. Sequential control signals determine arm and trunk contributions to hand transport during reaching in humans.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Elena; Mitnitski, Arnold; Feldman, Anatol G

    2002-01-15

    When reaching towards objects placed outside the arm workspace, the trunk assumes an active role in transport of the hand by contributing to the extent of movement while simultaneously maintaining the direction of reach. We investigated the spatial-temporal aspects of the integration of the trunk motion into reaching. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that the efficiency ('gain') of the arm-trunk co-ordination determining the contribution of the trunk to the extent of hand movement may vary substantially with the phase of reaching. Sitting subjects made fast pointing movements towards ipsi- and a contralateral targets placed beyond the reach of the right arm so that a forward trunk motion was required to assist in transporting the hand to the target. Sight of the arm and target was blocked before the movement onset. In randomly selected trials, the trunk motion was unexpectedly prevented by an electromagnet. Subjects were instructed to make stereotypical movements whether or not the trunk was arrested. In non-perturbed trials, most subjects began to move the hand and trunk simultaneously. In trunk-blocked trials, it was impossible for the hand to cover the whole pointing distance but the hand trajectory and velocity profile initially matched those from the trials in which the trunk motion was free, approximately until the hand reached its peak velocity. The arm inter-joint co-ordination substantially changed in response to the trunk arrest at a minimal latency of 40 ms after the perturbation onset. The results suggest that when the trunk was free, the influence of the trunk motion on the hand trajectory and velocity profile was initially neutralized by appropriate changes in the arm joint angles. Only after the hand had reached its peak velocity did the trunk contribute to the extent of pointing. Previous studies suggested that the central commands underlying the transport component of arm movements are completed when the hand reaches peak velocity. These

  5. Motor Cortical Correlates of Arm Resting in the Context of a Reaching Task and Implications for Prosthetic Control

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Scott D.; Schwartz, Andrew B.; Whitford, Andrew S.; Sohn, Jeong-Woo; McMorland, Angus J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Prosthetic devices are being developed to restore movement for motor-impaired individuals. A robotic arm can be controlled based on models that relate motor-cortical ensemble activity to kinematic parameters. The models are typically built and validated on data from structured trial periods during which a subject actively performs specific movements, but real-world prosthetic devices will need to operate correctly during rest periods as well. To develop a model of motor cortical modulation during rest, we trained monkeys (Macaca mulatta) to perform a reaching task with their own arm while recording motor-cortical single-unit activity. When a monkey spontaneously put its arm down to rest between trials, our traditional movement decoder produced a nonzero velocity prediction, which would cause undesired motion when applied to a prosthetic arm. During these rest periods, a marked shift was found in individual units' tuning functions. The activity pattern of the whole population during rest (Idle state) was highly distinct from that during reaching movements (Active state), allowing us to predict arm resting from instantaneous firing rates with 98% accuracy using a simple classifier. By cascading this state classifier and the movement decoder, we were able to predict zero velocity correctly, which would avoid undesired motion in a prosthetic application. Interestingly, firing rates during hold periods followed the Active pattern even though hold kinematics were similar to those during rest with near-zero velocity. These findings expand our concept of motor-cortical function by showing that population activity reflects behavioral context in addition to the direct parameters of the movement itself. PMID:24760860

  6. 78 FR 32458 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; United States Pharmacopeial Convention

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ..., 78 FR 17230, United States Pharmacopeial Convention, 12601 Twinbrook Parkway, Rockville, Maryland... powder form from foreign sources for the manufacture of analytical reference standards for sale to...

  7. 77 FR 60144 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; United States Pharmacopeial Convention

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ..., 77 FR 40911, United States Pharmacopeial Convention, 12601 Twinbrook Parkway, Rockville, Maryland... (9053) I Heroin (9200) I Morphine-N-oxide (9307) I Amphetamine (1100) II Methamphetamine (1105)...

  8. Use of Optically Stimulated Luminescence Imaging Plates and Reader for Arms Control Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Steven D.; Tomeraasen, Paul L.; Burghard, Brion J.; Traub, Richard J.

    2001-07-05

    Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) technology has been pioneered at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for applications in personnel radiation dosimetry and commercially has become highly successful in replacing older technologies such as Thermoluminescence Dosimeters (TLDs) and film. OSL phosphors are used to measure radiation exposure by illuminating them with light after ionizing radiation exposure and measuring the amount of light emitted by the OSL phosphor. By using a two-dimensional plate of OSL material and raster scanning a light beam across the OSL plate a radiation pattern or image can be measured. The Arms Control community requires an electrons-free medium to measure the attributes of extent and symmetry on Pu pits in storage containers. OSL technology, used in the two-dimensional imaging mode, provides a means to measure these attributes with exposure times on the order of an hour. A special OSL reader has been built by PNNL to measure OSL imaging plates with a size of 20 cm by 30 cm. The reader uses 10 light emitting diode clusters with 10 corresponding photomultiplier tubes to measure an OSL imaging plate in less than 5 minutes. The resolution of each of the 10 measurement assemblies is 1 square-centimeter. A collimator assembly employing a Venetian-blind type collimator is used in conjunction with the OSL film to image the Pu pit within the storage container. The output of the OSL reader is a two dimensional array of intensities that will be used with the appropriate information barriers to measure extent and symmetry. This device also clearly distinguishes the difference between a point source and a distributed source. Details of the OSL technology, OSL reader system, collimator design, and system performance will be presented.

  9. 40 CFR 442.32 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 442.32 Section 442.32 Protection...

  10. Synergistic mercury removal by conventional pollutant control strategies for coal-fired power plants in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuxiao; Zhang, Lei; Wu, Ye; Ancora, Maria Pia; Zhao, Yu; Hao, Jiming

    2010-06-01

    China's 11th 5-yr plan has regulated total sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions by installing flue gas desulfurization (FGD) devices and shutting down small thermal power units. These control measures will not only significantly reduce the emission of conventional pollutants but also benefit the reduction of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. This paper uses the emission factor method to estimate the efficiencies of these measures on mercury emission abatement. From 2005 to 2010, coal consumption in power plants will increase by 59%; however, the mercury emission will only rise from 141 to 155 t, with an increase of 10%. The average emission rate of mercury from coal burning will decrease from 126 mg Hg/t of coal to 87 mg Hg/t of coal. The effects of the three desulfurization measures were assessed and show that wet FGD will play an important role in mercury removal. Mercury emissions in 2015 and 2020 are also projected under different policy scenarios. Under the most probable scenario, the total mercury emission in coal-fired power plants in China will decrease to 130 t by 2020, which will benefit from the rapid installation of fabric filters and selective catalytic reduction. PMID:20564998

  11. Challenges and Potential Solutions for Reducing Climate Control Loads in Conventional and Hybrid Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Farrington, R.B., Anderson, R., Blake, D.M., Burch, S.D.; Cuddy, M.R., Keyser, M.A., Rugh, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory, a U.S. Department of Energy national laboratory, is collaborating with U.S. automotive manufacturers to develop innovative techniques to reduce national fuel consumption and vehicle tailpipe emissions by reducing vehicle climate control loads. A new U.S. emissions test, the Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (SFTP), will soon begin measuring tailpipe emissions with the air conditioning system operating. Modeled results show that emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO) more than double during the air conditioning part of the SFTP. Reducing the transmittance of the glazing can have a greater impact on the cabin soak temperature than ventilating the vehicle during a hot soak. Reducing the amount of outside air can decrease cooling and heating loads but requires that the recirculated air be cleaned. We discuss a photocatalytic oxidation air-cleaning process for removing volatile organic compounds and bioareosols. We conclude with an example of modeling the thermal comfort of the occupants. An auxiliary load increase of only 400 Watts (W) results in a 0.4 km/L (1 mpg) decrease for a conventional 11.9-L/100-km (28-mpg) vehicle. If every vehicle in the United States were to save only 0.4 km/L (1 mpg), $4 billion (U.S. dollars) would be saved annually in gasoline and oil costs. Further information can be found at http://www.ctts.nrel.gov/auxload.html.

  12. Aven-mediated checkpoint kinase control regulates proliferation and resistance to chemotherapy in conventional osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Baranski, Zuzanna; Booij, Tijmen H; Cleton-Jansen, Anne-Marie; Price, Leo S; van de Water, Bob; Bovée, Judith V M G; Hogendoorn, Pancras C W; Danen, Erik H J

    2015-07-01

    Conventional high-grade osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone sarcoma, with relatively high incidence in young people. In this study we found that expression of Aven correlates inversely with metastasis-free survival in osteosarcoma patients and is increased in metastases compared to primary tumours. Aven is an adaptor protein that has been implicated in anti-apoptotic signalling and serves as an oncoprotein in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. In osteosarcoma cells, silencing Aven triggered G2 cell-cycle arrest; Chk1 protein levels were attenuated and ATR-Chk1 DNA damage response signalling in response to chemotherapy was abolished in Aven-depleted osteosarcoma cells, while ATM, Chk2 and p53 activation remained intact. Osteosarcoma is notoriously difficult to treat with standard chemotherapy, and we examined whether pharmacological inhibition of the Aven-controlled ATR-Chk1 response could sensitize osteosarcoma cells to genotoxic compounds. Indeed, pharmacological inhibitors targeting Chk1/Chk2 or those selective for Chk1 synergized with standard chemotherapy in 2D cultures. Likewise, in 3D extracellular matrix-embedded cultures, Chk1 inhibition led to effective sensitization to chemotherapy. Together, these findings implicate Aven in ATR-Chk1 signalling and point towards Chk1 inhibition as a strategy to sensitize human osteosarcomas to chemotherapy. PMID:25757065

  13. Do Iranian tobacco growers support the World Health Organization framework convention on tobacco control?

    PubMed Central

    Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Rabiei, Katayoun; Mohaseli, Khadijeh Fereydoun; Manzouri, Leila; Roohafza, Hamidreza; Kelishadi, Roya; Abedi, Heidarali; Masooleh, Hasan Azaripour; Alavi, Mousa; Heidari, Gholamreza

    2014-01-01

    Context: Studies on the World Health Organization Frame-work Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) are scarce in Iran and the Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR). Aim: This study was conducted in 2007-2008 in Iran to design a practical evaluation model of the implementation of FCTC with the potential to be adopted in the EMR. Given that, the findings of this evaluation can be useful in increasing political and public support for enforcing the implementation of legislations, testing their feasibility, and maintaining sustainability. The viewpoints of tobacco growers as part of stakeholders in this regardwould have an influential role. Settings and Design: This study was a qualitative one to investigate the tobacco growers viewpoints about thestrengths/weaknesses of FCTC implementation in Iran. Materials and Methods: In this study, we conducted semi-structured in-depth individual interviews with 5 tobacco growers. All interviews were carried out with their permissionwere recorded and were assured that their interviews will be kept confidential. All questions were related to different FCTC articles, then written transcripts were prepared and the basic concepts were extrapolated. Statistical Analysis: After transcribing the recorded interviews, we extracted first level codes and main concepts from them. Results: The findings suggested that although tobacco growers agreed with FCTC implementation, however, subjects like the necessity to support tobacco growers and obtaining insurance from the government, the necessity of the enforcement of national tobacco control law and planning to decrease access to tobacco by policy makers were the most key points that tobacco growers pointed to them. Conclusion: Our results showed that tobacco growers agreed with the implementation of FCTC but they worried about their job and the expenses of their daily life. Therefore, it seems that policy makers have to design a plan to support tobacco growers for changing tobacco with a safe

  14. Investment Incentives and the Implementation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: Evidence from Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Drope, Jeffrey; Labonte, Ronald; Zulu, Richard; Goma, Fastone

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Policy misalignment across different sectors of government serves as one of the pivotal barriers to WHO Framework convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) implementation. This paper examines the logic used by government officials to justify providing investment incentives to increase tobacco processing and manufacturing in the context of FCTC implementation in Zambia. Methods We conducted qualitative semi-structured interviews with key informants from government, civil society and intergovernmental economic organizations (n=23). We supplemented the interview data with an analysis of public documents pertaining to economic development policy in Zambia. Results We found gross misalignments between the policies of the economic sector and efforts to implement the provisions of the FCTC. Our interviews uncovered the rationale used by officials in the economic sector to justify providing economic incentives to bolster tobacco processing and manufacturing in Zambia: 1) tobacco is not consumed by Zambians/tobacco is an export commodity, 2) economic benefits outweigh health costs, and 3) tobacco consumption is a personal choice. Conclusions Much of the struggle Zambia has experienced implementing the FCTC can be attributed to misalignments between the economic and health sectors. Zambia’s development agenda seeks to bolster agricultural processing and manufacturing. Tobacco control proponents must understand and work within this context of economic development in order to foster productive strategies with those working on tobacco supply issues. These findings are broadly applicable to the global analysis on the barriers and facilitators of FCTC implementation. It is important that the Ministry of Health monitors the tobacco policy of other sectors and engages with these sectors to find ways of harmonizing FCTC implementation across sectors. PMID:26135987

  15. The positive effect of mirror visual feedback on arm control in children with spastic hemiparetic cerebral palsy is dependent on which arm is viewed.

    PubMed

    Smorenburg, Ana R P; Ledebt, Annick; Feltham, Max G; Deconinck, Frederik J A; Savelsbergh, Geert J P

    2011-09-01

    Mirror visual feedback has previously been found to reduce disproportionate interlimb variability and neuromuscular activity in the arm muscles in children with Spastic Hemiparetic Cerebral Palsy (SHCP). The aim of the current study was to determine whether these positive effects are generated by the mirror per se (i.e. the illusory perception of two symmetrically moving limbs, irrespective of which arm generates the mirror visual feedback) or by the visual illusion that the impaired arm has been substituted and appears to move with less jerk and in synchrony with the less-impaired arm (i.e. by mirror visual feedback of the less-impaired arm only). Therefore, we compared the effect of mirror visual feedback from the impaired and the less-impaired upper limb on the bimanual coupling and neuromuscular activity during a bimanual coordination task. Children with SHCP were asked to perform a bimanual symmetrical circular movement in three different visual feedback conditions (i.e. viewing the two arms, viewing only one arm, and viewing one arm and its mirror image), combined with two head orientation conditions (i.e. looking from the impaired and looking from the less-impaired body side). It was found that mirror visual feedback resulted in a reduction in the eccentric activity of the Biceps Brachii Brevis in the impaired limb compared to the condition with actual visual feedback from the two arms. More specifically, this effect was exclusive to mirror visual feedback from the less-impaired arm and absent when mirror visual feedback from the impaired arm was provided. Across conditions, the less-impaired arm was the leading limb, and the nature of this coupling was independent from visual condition or head orientation. Also, mirror visual feedback did not affect the intensity of the mean neuromuscular activity or the muscle activity of the Triceps Brachii Longus. It was concluded that the positive effects of mirror visual feedback in children with SHCP are not just the

  16. Nonproliferation and arms control assessment of weapons-usable fissile material storage and excess plutonium disposition alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    This report has been prepared by the Department of Energy`s Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation (DOE-NN) with support from the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE-MD). Its purpose is to analyze the nonproliferation and arms reduction implications of the alternatives for storage of plutonium and HEU, and disposition of excess plutonium, to aid policymakers and the public in making final decisions. While this assessment describes the benefits and risks associated with each option, it does not attempt to rank order the options or choose which ones are best. It does, however, identify steps which could maximize the benefits and mitigate any vulnerabilities of the various alternatives under consideration.

  17. Postdeployment Battlemind Training for the U.K. Armed Forces: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Kathleen; Fear, Nicola T.; Jones, Norman; Alvarez, Helen; Hull, Lisa; Naumann, Ulrike; Wessely, Simon; Greenberg, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Combat exposure can increase the risk of subsequent psychological ill-health in armed forces (AF) personnel. A U.S. postdeployment psycho-educational intervention, Battlemind, showed a beneficial effect on mental health in U.S. military personnel exposed to high combat levels. We evaluated the effectiveness of an anglicized version of…

  18. Breaking Free of Control: How Conventional T Cells Overcome Regulatory T Cell Suppression.

    PubMed

    Mercadante, Emily R; Lorenz, Ulrike M

    2016-01-01

    Conventional T (Tcon) cells are crucial in shaping the immune response, whether it is protection against a pathogen, a cytotoxic attack on tumor cells, or an unwanted response to self-antigens in the context of autoimmunity. In each of these immune settings, regulatory T cells (Tregs) can potentially exert control over the Tcon cell response, resulting in either suppression or activation of the Tcon cells. Under physiological conditions, Tcon cells are able to transiently overcome Treg-imposed restraints to mount a protective response against an infectious threat, achieving clonal expansion, differentiation, and effector function. However, evidence has accumulated in recent years to suggest that Tcon cell resistance to Treg-mediated suppression centrally contributes to the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease. Tipping the balance too far in the other direction, cancerous tumors utilize Tregs to establish an overly suppressive microenvironment, preventing antitumor Tcon cell responses. Given the wide-ranging clinical importance of the Tcon/Treg interaction, this review aims to provide a better understanding of what determines whether a Tcon cell is susceptible to Treg-mediated suppression and how perturbations to this finely tuned balance play a role in pathological conditions. Here, we focus in detail on the complex array of factors that confer Tcon cells with resistance to Treg suppression, which we have divided into two categories: (1) extracellular factor-mediated signaling and (2) intracellular signaling molecules. Further, we explore the therapeutic implications of manipulating the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway, which is proposed to be the convergence point of signaling pathways that mediate Tcon resistance to suppression. Finally, we address important unresolved questions on the timing and location of acquisition of resistance, and the stability of the "Treg-resistant" phenotype. PMID:27242798

  19. Breaking Free of Control: How Conventional T Cells Overcome Regulatory T Cell Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Mercadante, Emily R.; Lorenz, Ulrike M.

    2016-01-01

    Conventional T (Tcon) cells are crucial in shaping the immune response, whether it is protection against a pathogen, a cytotoxic attack on tumor cells, or an unwanted response to self-antigens in the context of autoimmunity. In each of these immune settings, regulatory T cells (Tregs) can potentially exert control over the Tcon cell response, resulting in either suppression or activation of the Tcon cells. Under physiological conditions, Tcon cells are able to transiently overcome Treg-imposed restraints to mount a protective response against an infectious threat, achieving clonal expansion, differentiation, and effector function. However, evidence has accumulated in recent years to suggest that Tcon cell resistance to Treg-mediated suppression centrally contributes to the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease. Tipping the balance too far in the other direction, cancerous tumors utilize Tregs to establish an overly suppressive microenvironment, preventing antitumor Tcon cell responses. Given the wide-ranging clinical importance of the Tcon/Treg interaction, this review aims to provide a better understanding of what determines whether a Tcon cell is susceptible to Treg-mediated suppression and how perturbations to this finely tuned balance play a role in pathological conditions. Here, we focus in detail on the complex array of factors that confer Tcon cells with resistance to Treg suppression, which we have divided into two categories: (1) extracellular factor-mediated signaling and (2) intracellular signaling molecules. Further, we explore the therapeutic implications of manipulating the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway, which is proposed to be the convergence point of signaling pathways that mediate Tcon resistance to suppression. Finally, we address important unresolved questions on the timing and location of acquisition of resistance, and the stability of the “Treg-resistant” phenotype. PMID:27242798

  20. Experimental investigation of piston heat transfer under conventional diesel and reactivity-controlled compression ignition combustion regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Splitter, Derek A; Hendricks, Terry Lee; Ghandhi, Jaal B

    2014-01-01

    The piston of a heavy-duty single-cylinder research engine was instrumented with 11 fast-response surface thermocouples, and a commercial wireless telemetry system was used to transmit the signals from the moving piston. The raw thermocouple data were processed using an inverse heat conduction method that included Tikhonov regularization to recover transient heat flux. By applying symmetry, the data were compiled to provide time-resolved spatial maps of the piston heat flux and surface temperature. A detailed comparison was made between conventional diesel combustion and reactivity-controlled compression ignition combustion operations at matched conditions of load, speed, boost pressure, and combustion phasing. The integrated piston heat transfer was found to be 24% lower, and the mean surface temperature was 25 C lower for reactivity-controlled compression ignition operation as compared to conventional diesel combustion, in spite of the higher peak heat release rate. Lower integrated piston heat transfer for reactivity-controlled compression ignition was found over all the operating conditions tested. The results showed that increasing speed decreased the integrated heat transfer for conventional diesel combustion and reactivity-controlled compression ignition. The effect of the start of injection timing was found to strongly influence conventional diesel combustion heat flux, but had a negligible effect on reactivity-controlled compression ignition heat flux, even in the limit of near top dead center high-reactivity fuel injection timings. These results suggest that the role of the high-reactivity fuel injection does not significantly affect the thermal environment even though it is important for controlling the ignition timing and heat release rate shape. The integrated heat transfer and the dynamic surface heat flux were found to be insensitive to changes in boost pressure for both conventional diesel combustion and reactivity-controlled compression ignition

  1. 78 FR 54913 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; United States Pharmacopeial Convention

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... FR 32457, United States Pharmacopeial Convention, 12601 Twinbrook Parkway, Rockville, Maryland 20852...-oxide (9053) I Difenoxin (9168) I Heroin (9200) I Morphine-N-oxide (9307) I Norlevorphanol (9634)...

  2. Effectiveness of percutaneous laser disc decompression versus conventional open discectomy in the treatment of lumbar disc herniation; design of a prospective randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Brouwer, Patrick A; Peul, Wilco C; Brand, Ronald; Arts, Mark P; Koes, Bart W; Berg, Annette A van den; van Buchem, Mark A

    2009-01-01

    Background The usual surgical treatment of refractory sciatica caused by lumbar disc herniation, is open discectomy. Minimally invasive procedures, including percutaneous therapies under local anesthesia, are increasingly gaining attention. One of these treatments is Percutaneous Laser Disc Decompression (PLDD). This treatment can be carried out in an outpatient setting and swift recovery and return to daily routine are suggested. Thus far, no randomized trial into cost-effectiveness of PLDD versus standard surgical procedure has been performed. We present the design of a randomized controlled trial, studying the cost-effectiveness of PLDD versus conventional open discectomy in patients with sciatica from lumbar disc herniation. Methods/design The study is a randomized prospective multi-center trial, in which two treatment strategies are compared in a parallel group design. Patients (age 18–70 years) visiting the neurosurgery department of the participating hospitals, are considered for inclusion in the trial when sciatica due to lumbar disc herniation has lasted more than 8 weeks. Patients with disc herniation smaller than 1/3 of the spinal canal diameter, without concomitant lateral recess stenosis or sequestration, are eligible for participation, and are randomized into one of two treatment arms; either Percutaneous Laser Disc Decompression or conventional discectomy. The functional outcome of the patient, as assessed by the Roland Disability Questionnaire for Sciatica at 8 weeks and 1 year after treatment, is the primary outcome measure. The secondary outcome parameters are recovery as perceived by the patient, leg and back pain, incidence of re-intervention, complications, quality of life, medical consumption, absence of work and secondary costs. Discussion Open discectomy is still considered to be the golden standard in the surgical treatment of lumbar disc herniation. Whether Percutaneous Laser Disc Decompression has at least as much efficacy as the

  3. Biomechanical aspects of segmented arch mechanics combined with power arm for controlled anterior tooth movement: A three-dimensional finite element study

    PubMed Central

    Ozaki, Hiroya; Tominaga, Jun-ya; Hamanaka, Ryo; Sumi, Mayumi; Chiang, Pao-Chang; Tanaka, Motohiro; Koga, Yoshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    The porpose of this study was to determine the optimal length of power arms for achieving controlled anterior tooth movement in segmented arch mechanics combined with power arm. A three-dimensional finite element method was applied for the simulation of en masse anterior tooth retraction in segmented power arm mechanics. The type of tooth movement, namely, the location of center of rotation of the maxillary central incisor in association with power arm length, was calculated after the retraction force was applied. When a 0.017 × 0.022-in archwire was inserted into the 0.018-in slot bracket, bodily movement was obtained at 9.1 mm length of power arm, namely, at the level of 1.8 mm above the center of resistance. In case a 0.018 × 0.025-in full-size archwire was used, bodily movement of the tooth was produced at the power arm length of 7.0 mm, namely, at the level of 0.3 mm below the center of resistance. Segmented arch mechanics required shorter length of power arms for achieving any type of controlled anterior tooth movement as compared to sliding mechanics. Therefore, this space closing mechanics could be widely applied even for the patients whose gingivobuccal fold is shallow. The segmented arch mechanics combined with power arm could provide higher amount of moment-to-force ratio sufficient for controlled anterior tooth movement without generating friction, and vertical forces when applying retraction force parallel to the occlusal plane. It is, therefore, considered that the segmented power arm mechanics has a simple appliance design and allows more efficient and controllable tooth movement. PMID:25610497

  4. Articulated coordination of the right arm underlies control of bow parameters and quick bow reversals in skilled cello bowing

    PubMed Central

    Verrel, Julius; Woollacott, Marjorie; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2014-01-01

    Stringed instrument bowing is a complex coordinative motor skill acquired though years of intense practice. We apply a novel “freezing” analysis to investigate how movement at different joints contributes to bow transport (movement amplitude), stabilization of bow parameters (angle, velocity) during bow movements, and quick reversals of bow direction (acceleration amplitude). Participants were ten advanced or professional cellists (19–32 years, at least 10 years of practice) and ten age-matched novice players. Arm and bow movements were recorded using 3D motion capture. To assess how performance depends on articulated use of the right arm, actual data were compared to surrogate data, generated by artificially removing movement at (“freezing”) individual joints in measured arm movements. This analysis showed that both elbow and shoulder significantly contribute to bow transport in experts, while only the shoulder contributed to bow transport in novices. Moreover, experts showed more strongly increased variability of bow parameters and reduced acceleration amplitudes at bow reversals for surrogate compared to actual movement data. This indicates that movement across joints was organized to reduce bow variability and achieve quick bow reversals. Corresponding effects were less pronounced or absent in the novices, in particular for the wrist and elbow. Our results demonstrate the importance of articulated use of the right arm and clarify the contribution of different joints in experts’ bowing performance. Moreover, they support theories of motor control and learning that propose exploitation of biomechanical degrees of freedom, in particular of distal joints, as a critical component in skilled motor performance. PMID:25191284

  5. 40 CFR 445.12 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve the... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 445.12 Section 445.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS...

  6. 40 CFR 439.23 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve the... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 439.23 Section 439.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS...

  7. 40 CFR 437.43 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32 or 437.40(b), any existing facility subject to this subpart which... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 437.43 Section 437.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED)...

  8. 40 CFR 442.42 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 442.42 Section 442.42 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS...

  9. 40 CFR 412.44 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 412.44 Section 412.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CONCENTRATED...

  10. 40 CFR 412.44 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 412.44 Section 412.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CONCENTRATED...

  11. 40 CFR 439.13 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve the... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 439.13 Section 439.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS...

  12. 40 CFR 437.22 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32 or 437.20(b), any existing point source subject to this subpart must... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 437.22 Section 437.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED)...

  13. 40 CFR 437.22 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32 or 437.20(b), any existing point source subject to this subpart must... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 437.22 Section 437.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE...

  14. 40 CFR 445.22 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve the... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 445.22 Section 445.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS...

  15. 40 CFR 442.22 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 442.22 Section 442.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS...

  16. 40 CFR 437.43 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32 or 437.40(b), any existing facility subject to this subpart which... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 437.43 Section 437.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED)...

  17. 40 CFR 439.23 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve the... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 439.23 Section 439.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS...

  18. 40 CFR 437.32 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32 or § 437.30(b), any existing point source subject to this... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 437.32 Section 437.32 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED)...

  19. 40 CFR 439.43 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 439.43 Section 439.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS...

  20. 40 CFR 437.22 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32 or 437.20(b), any existing point source subject to this subpart must... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 437.22 Section 437.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED)...

  1. 40 CFR 439.33 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve the... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 439.33 Section 439.33 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS...

  2. 40 CFR 439.13 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must achieve the... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 439.13 Section 439.13 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS...

  3. 40 CFR 437.32 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32 or § 437.30(b), any existing point source subject to this subpart... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 437.32 Section 437.32 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS THE...

  4. 40 CFR 444.14 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32, any existing point source subject to this subpart must... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 444.14 Section 444.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED)...

  5. 40 CFR 437.32 - Effluent limitations attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32 or § 437.30(b), any existing point source subject to this... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 437.32 Section 437.32 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED)...

  6. Pharmacogenetics-Based versus Conventional Dosing of Warfarin: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Changcheng; Yan, Wei; Wang, Gang; Wang, Fei; Li, Qingyu; Lin, Nengming

    2015-01-01

    Background Recently, using the patient’s genotype to guide warfarin dosing has gained interest; however, whether pharmacogenetics-based dosing (PD) improves clinical outcomes compared to conventional dosing (CD) remains unclear. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate these two strategies. Methods The PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese VIP and Chinese Wan-fang databases were searched. The Cochrane Collaboration’s tool was used to assess the risk of bias in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The primary outcome was time within the therapeutic range (TTR); the secondary end points were the time to maintenance dose and time to first therapeutic international normalized ratio (INR), an INR greater than 4, adverse events, major bleeding, thromboembolism and death from any cause. Results A total of 11 trials involving 2,678 patients were included in our meta-analysis. The results showed that PD did not improve the TTR compared to CD, although PD significantly shortened the time to maintenance dose (MD = -8.80; 95% CI: -11.99 to -5.60; P<0.00001) and the time to first therapeutic INR (MD = -2.80; 95% CI: -3.45 to -2.15; P<0.00001). Additionally, PD significantly reduced the risk of adverse events (RR = 0.86; 95% CI: 0.75 to 0.99; P = 0.03) and major bleeding (RR = 0.36; 95% CI: 0.15 to 0.89, P = 0.03), although it did not reduce the percentage of INR greater than 4, the risk of thromboembolic events and death from any cause. Subgroup analysis showed that PD resulted in a better improvement in the endpoints of TTR and over-anticoagulation at a fixed initial dosage rather than a non-fixed initial dosage. Conclusions The use of genotype testing in the management of warfarin anticoagulation was associated with significant improvements in INR-related and clinical outcomes. Thus, genotype-based regimens can be considered a reliable and accurate method to determine warfarin dosing and may be preferred over fixed

  7. Comparison between Variable and Conventional Volume-Controlled Ventilation on Cardiorespiratory Parameters in Experimental Emphysema

    PubMed Central

    Henriques, Isabela; Padilha, Gisele A.; Huhle, Robert; Wierzchon, Caio; Miranda, Paulo J. B.; Ramos, Isalira P.; Rocha, Nazareth; Cruz, Fernanda F.; Santos, Raquel S.; de Oliveira, Milena V.; Souza, Sergio A.; Goldenberg, Regina C.; Luiz, Ronir R.; Pelosi, Paolo; de Abreu, Marcelo G.; Silva, Pedro L.; Rocco, Patricia R. M.

    2016-01-01

    Emphysema is characterized by loss of lung tissue elasticity and destruction of structures supporting alveoli and capillaries. The impact of mechanical ventilation strategies on ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) in emphysema is poorly defined. New ventilator strategies should be developed to minimize VILI in emphysema. The present study was divided into two protocols: (1) characterization of an elastase-induced emphysema model in rats and identification of the time point of greatest cardiorespiratory impairment, defined as a high specific lung elastance associated with large right ventricular end-diastolic area; and (2) comparison between variable (VV) and conventional volume-controlled ventilation (VCV) on lung mechanics and morphometry, biological markers, and cardiac function at that time point. In the first protocol, Wistar rats (n = 62) received saline (SAL) or porcine pancreatic elastase (ELA) intratracheally once weekly for 4 weeks, respectively. Evaluations were performed 1, 3, 5, or 8 weeks after the last intratracheal instillation of saline or elastase. After identifying the time point of greatest cardiorespiratory impairment, an additional 32 Wistar rats were randomized into the SAL and ELA groups and then ventilated with VV or VCV (n = 8/group) [tidal volume (VT) = 6 mL/kg, positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) = 3 cmH2O, fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) = 0.4] for 2 h. VV was applied on a breath-to-breath basis as a sequence of randomly generated VT values (mean VT = 6 mL/kg), with a 30% coefficient of variation. Non-ventilated (NV) SAL and ELA animals were used for molecular biology analysis. The time point of greatest cardiorespiratory impairment, was observed 5 weeks after the last elastase instillation. At this time point, interleukin (IL)-6, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-1, amphiregulin, angiopoietin (Ang)-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA levels were higher in ELA compared to SAL. In ELA animals

  8. Comparison between Variable and Conventional Volume-Controlled Ventilation on Cardiorespiratory Parameters in Experimental Emphysema.

    PubMed

    Henriques, Isabela; Padilha, Gisele A; Huhle, Robert; Wierzchon, Caio; Miranda, Paulo J B; Ramos, Isalira P; Rocha, Nazareth; Cruz, Fernanda F; Santos, Raquel S; de Oliveira, Milena V; Souza, Sergio A; Goldenberg, Regina C; Luiz, Ronir R; Pelosi, Paolo; de Abreu, Marcelo G; Silva, Pedro L; Rocco, Patricia R M

    2016-01-01

    Emphysema is characterized by loss of lung tissue elasticity and destruction of structures supporting alveoli and capillaries. The impact of mechanical ventilation strategies on ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) in emphysema is poorly defined. New ventilator strategies should be developed to minimize VILI in emphysema. The present study was divided into two protocols: (1) characterization of an elastase-induced emphysema model in rats and identification of the time point of greatest cardiorespiratory impairment, defined as a high specific lung elastance associated with large right ventricular end-diastolic area; and (2) comparison between variable (VV) and conventional volume-controlled ventilation (VCV) on lung mechanics and morphometry, biological markers, and cardiac function at that time point. In the first protocol, Wistar rats (n = 62) received saline (SAL) or porcine pancreatic elastase (ELA) intratracheally once weekly for 4 weeks, respectively. Evaluations were performed 1, 3, 5, or 8 weeks after the last intratracheal instillation of saline or elastase. After identifying the time point of greatest cardiorespiratory impairment, an additional 32 Wistar rats were randomized into the SAL and ELA groups and then ventilated with VV or VCV (n = 8/group) [tidal volume (VT) = 6 mL/kg, positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) = 3 cmH2O, fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) = 0.4] for 2 h. VV was applied on a breath-to-breath basis as a sequence of randomly generated VT values (mean VT = 6 mL/kg), with a 30% coefficient of variation. Non-ventilated (NV) SAL and ELA animals were used for molecular biology analysis. The time point of greatest cardiorespiratory impairment, was observed 5 weeks after the last elastase instillation. At this time point, interleukin (IL)-6, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-1, amphiregulin, angiopoietin (Ang)-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA levels were higher in ELA compared to SAL. In ELA animals

  9. Strategic defense and arms control. January 1970-February 1988 (Citations from the NTIS data base). Report for January 1970-February 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-03-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning studies of relationships between national defense needs and arms-control policies. Included are references to specific weapons systems and initiatives, such as the cruise missile, MX missile, Trident, non-nuclear strategic weapons, and chemical weapons; and strategies involving space, NATO, and the Strategic Defense Initiative. Policies, positions, and negotiations refer to the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT), the Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START), the Anti-ballistic Missile Treaty, and international meetings on proliferation of weapons, and on space for military missions. (Contains 105 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  10. Patellar tendon and hamstring moment-arms and cross-sectional area in patients with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and controls.

    PubMed

    Kellis, Eleftherios; Karagiannidis, Evaggelos; Patsika, Glykeria

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the moment-arm and cross-sectional area (CSA) of the patellar tendon (PT) and the hamstrings after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The right knee of five males who underwent ACL reconstruction with a PT graft and five age-matched controls was scanned using magnetic resonance image scans. Based on three-dimensional (3D) solids of the PT, CSAs and moment-arms of semitendinous (ST), biceps femoris (BF) long head and semimembranosus (SM) were estimated. Analysis of variance indicated no significant group differences in muscle moment-arms (p>0.05). 3D moment-arms of PT, ST and BF were significantly lower than the corresponding 2D values (p < 0.05). The ACL group displayed a significantly higher maximum BF CSA, a lower ST CSA (p < 0.05) but similar PT and SM CSAs compared with controls. It is concluded that any alterations in PT properties 1 year after harvesting do not affect knee muscle moment-arms compared with age-matched controls. Moment-arm estimation differed between 3D and 2D data, although it did not affect comparisons between ACL reconstruction group and controls. Design of rehabilitation programmes should take into consideration a potential alteration in hamstring morphology following surgery with a PT graft. PMID:24460238

  11. Analysis of the computed torque drive method and comparison with conventional position servo for a computer-controlled manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markiewicz, B. R.

    1973-01-01

    A manipulator and its control system (modeled after a Stanford design) is being developed as part of an artificial intelligence project. This development includes an analytical study of the control system software. A comparison is presented of the computed torque method and the conventional position servo. No conclusion is made as to the perference of one system over the other, as it is dependent upon the application and the results of a sampled data analysis.

  12. The clinical relevance of axillary reverse mapping (ARM): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in patients with breast cancer has the potential to induce side-effects, including upper-limb lymphedema. Axillary reverse mapping (ARM) is a technique that enables discrimination of the lymphatic drainage of the breast from that of the upper limb in the axillary lymph node (LN) basin. If lymphedema is caused by removing these lymphatics and nodes in the upper limb, the possibility of identifying these lymphatics would enable surgeons to preserve them. The aim of this study is to determine the clinical relevance of selective axillary LN and lymphatic preservation by means of ARM. To minimize the risk of overlooking tumor-positive ARM nodes and the associated risk of undertreatment, we will only include patients with a tumor-positive sentinel lymph node (SLN). Patients who are candidates for ALND because of a proven positive axillary LN at clinical examination can be included in a registration study. Methods/design The study will enroll 280 patients diagnosed with SLN biopsy-proven metastasis of invasive breast cancer with an indication for a completion ALND. Patients will be randomized to undergo standard ALND or an ALND in which the ARM nodes and their corresponding lymphatics will be left in situ. Primary outcome is the presence of axillary surgery-related lymphedema at 6, 12, and 24 months post-operatively, measured by the water-displacement method. Secondary outcome measures include pain, paresthesia, numbness, and loss of shoulder mobility, quality of life, and axillary recurrence risk. Discussion The benefit of ALND in patients with a positive SLN is a subject of debate. For many patients, an ALND will remain the treatment of choice. This multicenter randomized trial will provide evidence of whether or not axillary LN preservation by means of ARM decreases the side-effects of an ALND. Enrolment of patients will start in April 2013 in five breast-cancer centers in the Netherlands, and is expected to conclude by

  13. EXAMINING THE ROLE AND RESEARCH CHALLENGES OF SOCIAL MEDIA AS A TOOL FOR NONPROLIFERATION AND ARMS CONTROL TREATY VERIFICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, Michael J.; Cramer, Nicholas O.; Benz, Jacob M.; Gastelum, Zoe N.; Kreyling, Sean J.; West, Curtis L.

    2014-05-13

    Traditional arms control treaty verification activities typically involve a combination of technical measurements via physical and chemical sensors, state declarations, political agreements, and on-site inspections involving international subject matter experts. However, the ubiquity of the internet, and the electronic sharing of data that it enables, has made available a wealth of open source information with the potential to benefit verification efforts. Open source information is already being used by organizations such as the International Atomic Energy Agency to support the verification of state-declared information, prepare inspectors for in-field activities, and to maintain situational awareness . The recent explosion in social media use has opened new doors to exploring the attitudes, moods, and activities around a given topic. Social media platforms, such as Twitter, Facebook, and YouTube, offer an opportunity for individuals, as well as institutions, to participate in a global conversation at minimal cost. Social media data can also provide a more data-rich environment, with text data being augmented with images, videos, and location data. The research described in this paper investigates the utility of applying social media signatures as potential arms control and nonproliferation treaty verification tools and technologies, as determined through a series of case studies. The treaty relevant events that these case studies touch upon include detection of undeclared facilities or activities, determination of unknown events recorded by the International Monitoring System (IMS), and the global media response to the occurrence of an Indian missile launch. The case studies examine how social media can be used to fill an information gap and provide additional confidence to a verification activity. The case studies represent, either directly or through a proxy, instances where social media information may be available that could potentially augment the evaluation

  14. 40 CFR 434.84 - Effluent limitations attainable by application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS COAL MINING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY BPT, BAT, BCT LIMITATIONS AND NEW SOURCE PERFORMANCE STANDARDS Western Alkaline Coal Mining § 434.84 Effluent limitations attainable by application of the best conventional pollutant...

  15. 40 CFR 434.84 - Effluent limitations attainable by application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS COAL MINING POINT... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effluent limitations attainable by... Mining § 434.84 Effluent limitations attainable by application of the best conventional pollutant...

  16. When Ethics Constrains Clinical Research: Trial Design of Control Arms in “Greater Than Minimal Risk” Pediatric Trials

    PubMed Central

    de Melo-Martín, Inmaculada; Sondhi, Dolan

    2011-01-01

    Abstract For more than three decades clinical research in the United States has been explicitly guided by the idea that ethical considerations must be central to research design and practice. In spite of the centrality of this idea, attempting to balance the sometimes conflicting values of advancing scientific knowledge and protecting human subjects continues to pose challenges. Possible conflicts between the standards of scientific research and those of ethics are particularly salient in relation to trial design. Specifically, the choice of a control arm is an aspect of trial design in which ethical and scientific issues are deeply entwined. Although ethical quandaries related to the choice of control arms may arise when conducting any type of clinical trials, they are conspicuous in early phase gene transfer trials that involve highly novel approaches and surgical procedures and have children as the research subjects. Because of children's and their parents' vulnerabilities, in trials that investigate therapies for fatal, rare diseases affecting minors, the scientific and ethical concerns related to choosing appropriate controls are particularly significant. In this paper we use direct gene transfer to the central nervous system to treat late infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis to illustrate some of these ethical issues and explore possible solutions to real and apparent conflicts between scientific and ethical considerations. PMID:21446781

  17. Ethical Issues for Control-Arm Patients After Revelation of Benefits of Experimental Therapy: A Framework Modeled in Neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Unguru, Yoram; Joffe, Steven; Fernandez, Conrad V.; Yu, Alice L.

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, the Children's Oncology Group (COG) phase III randomized controlled trial, ANBL0032, found that adding immunotherapy (Ch14.18) to standard therapy significantly improved outcomes in patients with high-risk neuroblastoma when administered within 110 days after autologous stem-cell transplantation (SCT). After careful deliberation and consultation, the COG Neuroblastoma Committee decided to offer Ch14.18 to prior trial participants who had been randomly assigned to the control arm (no immunotherapy), regardless of the time that had elapsed since SCT. This decision occurred in the context of a limited supply of Ch14.18 and no data regarding its role when administered beyond 110 days. In this article, we analyze the numerous ethical challenges highlighted by the ANBL0032 trial, including the limits of researchers' reciprocity-based obligations to study participants, post-trial access to beneficial therapies, and the balance between scientific knowledge and parental hope. These deliberations may be useful to other researchers when considering their ethical obligations to control-arm participants in the wake of a positive randomized trial. PMID:23295797

  18. Adaptive neural control for dual-arm coordination of humanoid robot with unknown nonlinearities in output mechanism.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi; Chen, Ci; Zhang, Yun; Chen, C L P

    2015-03-01

    To achieve an excellent dual-arm coordination of the humanoid robot, it is essential to deal with the nonlinearities existing in the system dynamics. The literatures so far on the humanoid robot control have a common assumption that the problem of output hysteresis could be ignored. However, in the practical applications, the output hysteresis is widely spread; and its existing limits the motion/force performances of the robotic system. In this paper, an adaptive neural control scheme, which takes the unknown output hysteresis and computational efficiency into account, is presented and investigated. In the controller design, the prior knowledge of system dynamics is assumed to be unknown. The motion error is guaranteed to converge to a small neighborhood of the origin by Lyapunov's stability theory. Simultaneously, the internal force is kept bounded and its error can be made arbitrarily small. PMID:24968367

  19. Opposite Drug Prescription and Cost Trajectories following Integrative and Conventional Care for Pain – A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Sundberg, Tobias; Petzold, Max; Kohls, Niko; Falkenberg, Torkel

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Pharmacotherapy may have a limited role in long-term pain management. Comparative trajectories of drug prescriptions and costs, two quality-of-care indicators for pain conditions, are largely unknown subsequent to conventional or integrative care (IC) management. The objectives of this study were to compare prescribed defined daily doses (DDD) and cost of first line drugs for pain patients referred to conventional or anthroposophic IC in Stockholm County, Sweden. Methods In this retrospective high quality registry case-control study, IC and conventional care patients were identified through inpatient care registries and matched on pain diagnosis (ICD-10: M79), age, gender and socio-demographics. National drug registry data was used to investigate changes in DDD and costs from 90/180 days before, to 90/180 days after, index visits to IC and conventional care. The primary selected drug category was analgesics, complemented by musculo-skeletal system drugs (e.g. anti-inflammatories, muscle relaxants) and psycholeptics (e.g. hypnotics, sedatives). Results After index care visits, conventional care pain patients (n = 1050) compared to IC patients (n = 213), were prescribed significantly more analgesics. The average (95% CI) group difference was 15.2 (6.0 to 24.3), p = 0.001, DDD/patient after 90 days; and 21.5 (7.4 to 35.6), p = 0.003, DDD/patient after 180 days. The cost of the prescribed and sold analgesics was significantly higher for conventional care after 90 days: euro/patient 10.7 (1.3 to 20.0), p = 0.025. Changes in drug prescription and costs for the other drug categories were not significantly different between groups. Conclusions Drug prescriptions and costs of analgesics increased following conventional care and decreased following IC, indicating potentially fewer adverse drug events and beneficial societal cost savings with IC. PMID:24827981

  20. Arms Control and nonproliferation technologies: Technology options and associated measures for monitoring a Comprehensive Test Ban, Second quarter

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, Leslie A.

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter contains reprinted papers discussing technology options and associated measures for monitoring a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). These papers were presented to the Conference on Disarmament (CD) in May and June 1994. An interagency Verification Monitoring Task Force developed the papers. The task force included participants from the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, the Intelligence Community, the Department of Interior, and the Department of State. The purpose of this edition of Arms Control and Nonproliferation Technologies is to share these papers with the broad base of stakeholders in a CTBT and to facilitate future technology discussions. The papers in the first group discuss possible technology options for monitoring a CTBT in all environments (underground, underwater, atmosphere, and space). These technologies, along with on-site inspections, would facilitate CTBT monitoring by treaty participants. The papers in the second group present possible associated measures, e.g., information exchanges and transparency measures, that would build confidence among states participating in a CTBT.

  1. A new learning strategy for the two-time-scale neural controller with its application to the tracking control of rigid arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, W.; Wen, J. T.

    1992-01-01

    A novel fast learning rule with fast weight identification is proposed for the two-time-scale neural controller, and a two-stage learning strategy is developed for the proposed neural controller. The results of the stability analysis show that both the tracking error and the fast weight error will be uniformly bounded and converge to a bounded region which depends only on the accuracy of the slow learning if the system is sufficiently excited. The efficiency of the two-stage learning is also demonstrated by a simulation of a two-link arm.

  2. Scanning ARM Cloud Radars. Part II: Data Quality Control and Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kollias, Pavlos; Jo, Ieng; Borque, Paloma; Tatarevic, Aleksandra; Lamer, Katia; Bharadwaj, Nitin; Widener, Kevin B.; Johnson, Karen L.; Clothiaux, Eugene E.

    2014-03-01

    The Scanning ARM Cloud Radars (SACR’s) are the primary instruments for documenting the four-dimensional structure and evolution of clouds within a 20-30 km radius from the ARM fixed and mobile sites. Here, the post-processing of the calibrated SACR measurements is discussed. First, a feature mask algorithm that objectively determines the presence of significant radar returns is described. The feature mask algorithm is based on the statistical properties of radar receiver noise. It accounts for atmospheric emission and is applicable even for SACR profiles with few or no signal-free range gates. Using the nearest-in-time atmospheric sounding, the SACR radar reflectivities are corrected for gaseous attenuation (water vapor and oxygen) using a line-by-line absorption model. Despite having a high pulse repetition frequency, the SACR has a narrow Nyquist velocity limit and thus Doppler velocity folding is commonly observed. An unfolding algorithm that makes use of a first guess for the true Doppler velocity using horizontal wind measurements from the nearest sounding is described. The retrieval of the horizontal wind profile from the HS-RHI SACR scan observations and/or nearest sounding is described. The retrieved horizontal wind profile can be used to adaptively configure SACR scan strategies that depend on wind direction. Several remaining challenges are discussed, including the removal of insect and second-trip echoes. The described algorithms significantly enhance SACR data quality and constitute an important step towards the utilization of SACR measurements for cloud research.

  3. Costa Rica’s implementation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: Overcoming decades of industry dominance

    PubMed Central

    Crosbie, Eric; Sosa, Patricia; Glantz, Stanton A

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the passage of Costa Rica’s 2012 tobacco control law. Materials and methods Review of legislation, newspaper articles, and key informant interviews. Results Tobacco control advocates, in close collaboration with international health groups, recruited national, regional and international experts to testify in the Legislative Assembly, implemented grassroots advocacy campaigns, and generated media coverage to enact strong legislation in March 2012 consistent with the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, despite tobacco industry lobbying efforts that for decades blocked effective tobacco control legislation. Conclusion Costa Rica’s experience illustrates how with resources, good strategic planning, aggressive tactics and perseverance tobacco control advocates can overcome tobacco industry opposition in the Legislative Assembly and Executive Branch. This determined approach has positioned Costa Rica to become a regional leader in tobacco control. PMID:26879509

  4. From public health to international law: possible protocols for inclusion in the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    PubMed Central

    Joossens, L.

    2000-01-01

    Faced with a difficult business environment in the United States and the falling demand for cigarettes in industrialized countries, multinational tobacco companies have been competing fiercely to expand their sales in developing countries. Because of the worldwide threat posed by smoking to health and the emphasis being placed by international tobacco companies on marketing in developing countries, an international regulatory strategy, such as the WHO proposed Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, is needed. This review describes from a public health perspective the possible scope and key considerations of protocols that should be included in the convention. The key international areas that should be considered in tobacco control are: prices, smuggling; tax-free tobacco products; advertising and sponsorship; the Internet; testing methods; package design and labelling; agriculture; and information sharing. PMID:10994267

  5. Multicentre randomised control trial comparing real time teledermatology with conventional outpatient dermatological care: societal cost-benefit analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wootton, R; Bloomer, S E; Corbett, R; Eedy, D J; Hicks, N; Lotery, H E; Mathews, C; Paisley, J; Steele, K; Loane, M A

    2000-01-01

    Objectives Comparison of real time teledermatology with outpatient dermatology in terms of clinical outcomes, cost-benefits, and patient reattendance. Design Randomised controlled trial with a minimum follow up of three months. Setting Four health centres (two urban, two rural) and two regional hospitals. Subjects 204 general practice patients requiring referral to dermatology services; 102 were randomised to teledermatology consultation and 102 to traditional outpatient consultation. Main outcome measures Reported clinical outcome of initial consultation, primary care and outpatient reattendance data, and cost-benefit analysis of both methods of delivering care. Results No major differences were found in the reported clinical outcomes of teledermatology and conventional dermatology. Of patients randomised to teledermatology, 55 (54%) were managed within primary care and 47 (46%) required at least one hospital appointment. Of patients randomised to the conventional hospital outpatient consultation, 46 (45%) required at least one further hospital appointment, 15 (15%) required general practice review, and 40 (39%) no follow up visits. Clinical records showed that 42 (41%) patients seen by teledermatology attended subsequent hospital appointments compared with 41 (40%) patients seen conventionally. The net societal cost of the initial consultation was £132.10 per patient for teledermatology and £48.73 for conventional consultation. Sensitivity analysis revealed that if each health centre had allocated one morning session a week to teledermatology and the average round trip to hospital had been 78 km instead of 26 km, the costs of the two methods of care would have been equal. Conclusions Real time teledermatology was clinically feasible but not cost effective compared with conventional dermatological outpatient care. However, if the equipment were purchased at current prices and the travelling distances greater, teledermatology would be a cost effective alternative

  6. Effects of task-oriented robot training on arm function, activity, and quality of life in chronic stroke patients: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Over fifty percent of stroke patients experience chronic arm hand performance problems, compromising independence in daily life activities and quality of life. Task-oriented training may improve arm hand performance after stroke, whereby augmented therapy may lead to a better treatment outcome. Technology-supported training holds opportunities for increasing training intensity. However, the effects of robot-supported task-oriented training with real life objects in stroke patients are not known to date. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness and added value of the Haptic Master robot combined with task-oriented arm hand training in chronic stroke patients. Methods In a single-blind randomized controlled trial, 22 chronic stroke patients were randomly allocated to receive either task-oriented robot-assisted arm-hand training (experimental group) or task-oriented non-robotic arm-hand training (control group). For training, the T-TOAT (Technology-supported Task-Oriented Arm Training) method was applied. Training was provided during 8 weeks, 4 times/week, 2× 30 min/day. Results A significant improvement after training on the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT) was demonstrated in the experimental group (p = 0.008). Results were maintained until 6 months after cessation of the training. On the perceived performance measure (Motor Activity Log (MAL)), both, the experimental and control group improved significantly after training (control group p = 0.008; experimental group p = 0.013). The improvements on MAL in both groups were maintained until 6 months after cessation of the training. With regard to quality of life, only in the control group a significant improvement after training was found (EuroQol-5D p = 0.015, SF-36 physical p = 0.01). However, the improvement on SF-36 in the control group was not maintained (p = 0.012). No between-group differences could be demonstrated on any of the outcome measures

  7. A control system of mobile navigation robot for precise spraying based ultrasonic detecting and ARM embedded technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xiuying; Li, Cuiling; Wang, Xiu; Yue, Xinpeng; Peng, Yankun

    2011-06-01

    This paper described a control system of mobile navigation robot for precision spraying in greenhouse environment, which were composed of main control module, motor driving module, ultrasonic detecting module and wirless remote control module. The hard circuits of control system were built. The main control module used ARM7TDMI-S-based LPC2210 micro-processing controller. The motor driving module consisted of voltage amplifier circuit based SN74LS245N and DM74LS244N chips, RC filter circuit, and HM-YZ-30 DC brush motor driver. The ultrasonic detecting module consisted of four standard ultrasonic ranging modules which were arranged on the four sides around the mobile navigation robot, and used GM8125 chip to expand serial communication interfaces. An obstacle-avoiding strategy and its algorithm were proposed and the control programs of mobile navigation robot were programmed. The mobile navigation robot for spraying can realize the actions such as starting and stopping, forward and backward moving, accelerate and decelerate motion, and right and left turn. Finally, the functional experiments of the mobile navigation robot were conducted in the laboratory environment. The results showed that the ultrasonic detecting distance of the robot was 50.5mm-1832.0mm and detecting blind zone was less than 50mm, the ultrasonic detecting angle of individual ultrasonic detecting module of robot was similar to U-shaped and its vaule was about 45.66°, and the moving path of navigation robot was approximately linear.

  8. Development and Clinical Application of a Precise Temperature-Control Device as an Alternate for Conventional Moxibustion Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Takayama, Shin; Takashima, Shigeru; Okajima, Junnosuke; Watanabe, Masashi; Kamiya, Tetsuharu; Seki, Takashi; Yamasaki, Miyako; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Yambe, Tomoyuki; Maruyama, Shigenao

    2012-01-01

    Moxibustion therapy has been used in East Asian medicine for more than a thousand years. However, there are some problems associated with this therapy in clinical practice. These problems include lack of control over the treatment temperature, emission of smoke, and uneven temperature distribution over the treatment region. In order to resolve these problems, we developed a precise temperature-control device for use as an alternate for conventional moxibustion therapy. In this paper, we describe the treatment of a single patient with paralytic ileus that was treated with moxibustion. We also describe an evaluation of temperature distribution on the skin surface after moxibustion therapy, the development of a heat-transfer control device (HTCD), an evaluation of the HTCD, and the clinical effects of treatment using the HTCD. The HTCD we developed can heat the skin of the treatment region uniformly, and its effect may be equivalent to conventional moxibustion, without the emission of smoke and smell. This device can be used to treat ileus, abdominal pain, and coldness of abdomen in place of conventional moxibustion in modern hospitals. PMID:22754583

  9. Helicopter gust alleviation, attitude stabilization, and vibration alleviation using individual-blade-control through a conventional swash plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ham, N. D.

    1985-01-01

    The novel active control system presented for helicopter rotor aerodynamic and aeroelastic problems involves the individual control of each blade in the rotating frame over a wide range of frequencies (up to the sixth harmonic of rotor speed). This Individual Blade Control (IBC) system controls blade pitch by means of broadband electrohydraulic actuators attached to the swash plate (in the case of three blades) or individually to each blade, using acceleratometer signals to furnish control commands to the actuators. Attention is given to IBC's application to blade lag, flapping, and bending dynamics. It is shown that gust alleviation, attitude stabilization, vibration alleviation, and air/ground resonance suppression, are all achievable with a conventional helicopter swash plate.

  10. Scanning ARM Cloud Radars Part II. Data Quality Control and Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kollias, Pavlos; Jo, Ieng; Borque, Paloma; Tatarevic, Aleksandra; Lamer, Katia; Bharadwaj, Nitin; Widener, Kevin B.; Johnson, Karen; Clothiaux, Eugene E.

    2013-10-04

    The Scanning ARM Cloud Radars (SACR’s) are the primary instruments for documenting the four-dimensional structure and evolution of clouds within a 20-30 km radius from the ARM fixed and mobile sites. Here, the post-processing of the calibrated SACR measurements is discussed. First, a feature mask algorithm that objectively determines the presence of significant radar returns is described. The feature mask algorithm is based on the statistical properties of radar receiver noise. It accounts for atmospheric emission and is applicable even for SACR profiles with few or no signal-free range gates. Using the nearest-in-time atmospheric sounding, the SACR radar reflectivities are corrected for gaseous attenuation (water vapor and oxygen) using a line-by-line absorption model. Despite having a high pulse repetition frequency, the SACR has a narrow Nyquist velocity limit and thus Doppler velocity folding is commonly observed. An unfolding algorithm that makes use of a first guess for the true Doppler velocity using horizontal wind measurements from the nearest sounding is described. The retrieval of the horizontal wind profile from the Hemispherical Sky – Range Height Indicator SACR scan observations and/or nearest sounding is described. The retrieved horizontal wind profile can be used to adaptively configure SACR scan strategies that depend on wind direction. Several remaining challenges are discussed, including the removal of insect and second-trip echoes. The described algorithms significantly enhance SACR data quality and constitute an important step towards the utilization of SACR measurements for cloud research.

  11. Dynamics and adaptive control of a dual-arm space robot with closed-loop constraints and uncertain inertial parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Ying-Hong; Hu, Quan; Xu, Shi-Jie

    2014-02-01

    A dynamics-based adaptive control approach is proposed for a planar dual-arm space robot in the presence of closed-loop constraints and uncertain inertial parameters of the payload. The controller is capable of controlling the position and attitude of both the satellite base and the payload grasped by the manipulator end effectors. The equations of motion in reduced-order form for the constrained system are derived by incorporating the constraint equations in terms of accelerations into Kane's equations of the unconstrained system. Model analysis shows that the resulting equations perfectly meet the requirement of adaptive controller design. Consequently, by using an indirect approach, an adaptive control scheme is proposed to accomplish position/attitude trajectory tracking control with the uncertain parameters being estimated on-line. The actuator redundancy due to the closed-loop constraints is utilized to minimize a weighted norm of the joint torques. Global asymptotic stability is proven by using Lyapunov's method, and simulation results are also presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  12. Control of Structure in Conventional Friction Stir Welds through a Kinematic Theory of Metal Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubisoff, H.A.; Schneider, J.A.; Nunes, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    In friction stir welding (FSW), a rotating pin is translated along a weld seam so as to stir the sides of the seam together. Metal is prevented from flowing up the pin, which would result in plowing/cutting instead of welding, by a shoulder on the pin. In conventional FSW, the weld metal rests on an "anvil", which supports the heavy "plunge" load on the tool. In this study, both embedded tungsten wires along and copper plating on the faying surfaces were used to trace the flow of AA2219 weld metal around the C-FSW tool. The effect of tool rotational speed, travel speed, plunge load, and pin thread pitch on the resulting weld metal flow was evaluated. Plan, longitudinal, and transverse section x-ray radiographs were examined to trace the metal flow paths. The results are interpreted in terms of a kinematic theory of metal flow in FSW.

  13. Evaluating the Effects of Aluminum-Containing and Non-Aluminum Containing Deodorants on Axillary Skin Toxicity During Radiation Therapy for Breast Cancer: A 3-Armed Randomized Controlled Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Lucy; Carson, Sharron; Bydder, Sean; Athifa, Mariyam; Williams, Anne M.; Bremner, Alexandra

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: Deodorant use during radiation therapy for breast cancer has been controversial as there are concerns deodorant use may exacerbate axillary skin toxicity. The present study prospectively determined the use of both aluminum-containing and non aluminum containing deodorants on axillary skin toxicity during conventionally fractionated postoperative radiation therapy for breast cancer. Methods and Materials: This 3-arm randomized controlled study was conducted at a single center, tertiary cancer hospital between March 2011 and April 2013. Participants were randomized to 1 of 2 experimental groups (aluminum-containing deodorant and soap or non–aluminum containing deodorant and soap) or a control group (soap). A total of 333 participants were randomized. Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate and compare the odds of experiencing high levels of sweating and skin toxicity in each of the deodorant groups to the odds in the control group. The study evaluated a range of endpoints including objective measurements of axilla sweating, skin toxicity, pain, itch and burning. Quality of life was assessed with a validated questionnaire. Results: Radiation characteristics were similar across all groups. Patients in the deodorant groups did not report significantly different ratings for axillary pain, itch, or burning compared with the control group. Patients in the aluminum-containing deodorant group experienced significantly less sweating than the control; the odds of their sweating being barely tolerable and frequently or always interfering with their daily activities was decreased by 85% (odds ratio, 0.15; 95% confidence interval, 0.03-0.91). Conclusions: We found no evidence that the use of either aluminum-containing or non–aluminum containing deodorant adversely effects axillary skin reaction during conventionally fractionated radiation therapy for breast cancer. Our analysis also suggests patients in the aluminum-containing deodorant arm had

  14. EFFECTS OF ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL PRACTICES ON WEED CONTROL IN A PERENNIAL CROPPING SYSTEM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vineyard weed communities were examined under the influence of an organic weed control practice, soil cultivation with a Clemens cultivator, and applications of the herbicide, glyphosate. Experimental treatments (winter-spring glyphosate, spring cultivation, fall-spring cultivation, fall cultivatio...

  15. Veganism Is a Viable Alternative to Conventional Diet Therapy for Improving Blood Lipids and Glycemic Control.

    PubMed

    Trepanowski, John F; Varady, Krista A

    2015-01-01

    The American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) have each outlined a set of dietary recommendations aimed at improving glycemic control and blood lipids, respectively. However, traditional vegan diets (low-fat diets that proscribe animal product consumption) are also effective at improving glycemic control, and dietary portfolios (vegan diets that contain prescribed amounts of plant sterols, viscous fibers, soy protein, and nuts) are also effective at improving blood lipids. The purpose of this review was to compare the effects of traditional vegan diets and dietary portfolios with ADA and NCEP diets on body weight, blood lipids, blood pressure, and glycemic control. The main findings are that traditional vegan diets appear to improve glycemic control better than ADA diets in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), while dietary portfolios have been consistently shown to improve blood lipids better than NCEP diets in hypercholesterolemic individuals. PMID:24922183

  16. Numerical simulations of flow fields through conventionally controlled wind turbines & wind farms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emre Yilmaz, Ali; Meyers, Johan

    2014-06-01

    In the current study, an Actuator-Line Model (ALM) is implemented in our in-house pseudo-spectral LES solver SP-WIND, including a turbine controller. Below rated wind speed, turbines are controlled by a standard-torque-controller aiming at maximum power extraction from the wind. Above rated wind speed, the extracted power is limited by a blade pitch controller which is based on a proportional-integral type control algorithm. This model is used to perform a series of single turbine and wind farm simulations using the NREL 5MW turbine. First of all, we focus on below-rated wind speed, and investigate the effect of the farm layout on the controller calibration curves. These calibration curves are expressed in terms of nondimensional torque and rotational speed, using the mean turbine-disk velocity as reference. We show that this normalization leads to calibration curves that are independent of wind speed, but the calibration curves do depend on the farm layout, in particular for tightly spaced farms. Compared to turbines in a lone-standing set-up, turbines in a farm experience a different wind distribution over the rotor due to the farm boundary-layer interaction. We demonstrate this for fully developed wind-farm boundary layers with aligned turbine arrangements at different spacings (5D, 7D, 9D). Further we also compare calibration curves obtained from full farm simulations with calibration curves that can be obtained at a much lower cost using a minimal flow unit.

  17. Control of reach extent with the paretic and nonparetic arms after unilateral sensorimotor stroke: kinematic differences based on side of brain damage.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Jill Campbell; Gordon, James; Winstein, Carolee J

    2014-07-01

    Scaling of reach kinematics to targets that vary in distance is indicative of the use of planning and feedback-based adjustments. The control of reach extent, however, has not been reported for the paretic arm after stroke. The purpose of this study was to determine whether individuals post-stroke utilized planning (scaling acceleration magnitude) and feedback-based adjustments (scaling acceleration duration) to reach to targets that varied in distance. Individuals with mild-to-moderate motor impairment after stroke and nondisabled adults reached with both arms to targets presented at three distances (8, 16, 24 cm). Kinematic data were used to determine scaling of peak acceleration magnitude and duration to target distance and compared between arms (control, nonparetic, paretic). Despite differences in the magnitude of movement variables, individuals post-stroke utilized both planning and feedback-based adjustments to meet the demands of the task with the nonparetic and paretic arms in a similar manner as controls. However, there was variability in the use of planning with the paretic arm, some individuals utilized planning while others did not. After right brain damage, differences in reach control related to the specialized role this hemisphere plays in endpoint control were found in both arms; no hemisphere-specific changes were found after left brain damage (LBD). The appearance of hemispheric-specific effects after right but not LBD were not due to age, degree of motor impairment, or time post-stroke, but, instead, may be related to relative differences in visual-motor processing ability, lesion characteristics, or interhemispheric inhibition changes between groups. PMID:24718494

  18. Composition of transgenic soybean seeds with higher γ-linolenic acid content is equivalent to that of conventional control.

    PubMed

    Qin, Fengyun; Kang, Linzhi; Guo, Liqiong; Lin, Junfang; Song, Jingshen; Zhao, Yinhua

    2012-03-01

    γ-Linolenic acid (GLA) has been used as a general nutraceutical for pharmacologic applications, particularly in the treatment of skin conditions such as eczema. Four transgenic soybean lines that produce GLA at high yields (4.21% of total fatty acids, up to 1002-fold) were generated through the stable insertion of the Delta-6-fatty acid desaturase gene isolated from Borago officinalis into the genome of a conventional soybean cultivar. As part of the safety assessment of genetically engineered crops, the transgenic soybean seeds were compared with their parental soybean seeds (nontransgenic) by applying the principle of substantial equivalence. Compositional analyses were conducted by measuring the fatty acids, proximate analysis (moisture, crude protein, crude fat, carbohydrates, TDF, and ash contents), amino acids, lectins, and trypsin inhibitor activity. The present results showed that the specific transgenic cultivar studied was similar to the conventional control. PMID:22324875

  19. Robotic Arm Manipulator Using Active Control for Sample Acquisition and Transfer, and Passive Mode for Surface Compliance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Jun; Underhill, Michael L.; Trease, Brian P.; Lindemann, Randel A.

    2010-01-01

    A robotic arm that consists of three joints with four degrees of freedom (DOF) has been developed. It can carry an end-effector to acquire and transfer samples by using active control and comply with surface topology in a passive mode during a brief surface contact. The three joints are arranged in such a way that one joint of two DOFs is located at the shoulder, one joint of one DOF is located at the elbow, and one joint of one DOF is located at the wrist. Operationally, three DOFs are moved in the same plane, and the remaining one on the shoulder is moved perpendicular to the other three for better compliance with ground surface and more flexibility of sample handling. Three out of four joints are backdriveable, making the mechanism less complex and more cost effective

  20. Balancing Loads Among Robotic-Manipulator Arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreutz, Kenneth K.; Lokshin, Anatole

    1990-01-01

    Paper presents rigorous mathematical approach to control of multiple robot arms simultaneously grasping one object. Mathematical development focuses on relationship between ability to control degrees of freedom of configuration and ability to control forces within grasped object and robot arms. Understanding of relationship leads to practical control schemes distributing load more equitably among all arms while grasping object with proper nondamaging forces.