Science.gov

Sample records for conventional arms control

  1. Cooperative Mmonitoring Center Occasional Paper/5: Propspects of Conventional Arms Control in South Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Amit; Kamal, Nazir

    1998-11-01

    The intensely adversarial relationship between India and Pakistan is marked by military rivalry, mutual distrust, and suspicion. The most dividing disagreement has been over the Kashmir region. An inability to discuss the Kashmir issue has prevented discussion on other important issues. Since there is little prospect of detente, at least in the near-term, the question is whether this rivalry can be contained by other means, such as arms control approaches. Conventional arms control has been applied flexibly and successfully in some regions to reduce threat-perceptions and achieve reassuring military stability. Some lessons from other international models might be applied to the India/Pakistan context. This paper discusses the status of conventional arms control in South Asia, the dominant Indian and Pakistani perceptions about arms control, the benefits that could be derived from arms control, as well as the problems and prospects of arms control. It also discusses existing conventional arms control agreements at the regional and global levels as well as the potential role of cooperative monitoring technology.

  2. Conventional Middle East arms control: Impact of the end of the cold war. Study project report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.L.; Johnsen, W.T.

    1993-03-31

    The end of the Gulf War brought to the forefront concern for dangers posed by unrestrained militarization of the Middle East. In response, on 29 May 1991 President Bush unveiled a comprehensive Middle East arms control policy in a speech at the U.S. Air Force Academy. A key element of the policy banned the sale of the most dangerous conventional weapons to the region. Although the major arms suppliers (which also happen to be the five permanent members of the U.N. Security Council) have held a series of high level meetings to discuss options for restricting sales to the region, all continue conventional arms transfers to the Middle East and are likely to continue to do so. This paper contends that the end of the Cold War put additional economic pressure on the major suppliers to export arms to the Middle East; and, their interests are so compelling that the suppliers are unlikely to support President Bush's proposal. This position is supported by analyzing the interests that influence major arms suppliers to sell arms abroad. The format for this analysis includes an assessment of: each country's interest in selling arms during the Cold War; the impact of the Cold War's end on those interests; and whether the post Cold War interests conflict with President Bush's conventional arms control proposal. The paper concludes with recommendations for US policy in the region.

  3. Conventional forces and arms control: Technology and strategy in a changing world

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, J.F.; White, P.C.

    1990-06-01

    To address the implications of changes for future roles of conventional forces and to assess the technology implications of future strategies, force requirements, and conventional arms control agreements, the Center for National Security Studies in cooperation with the Defense Research and Applications Directorate of the Los Alamos National Laboratory held a conference on Conventional Forces and Arms Control: Technology and Strategy in a Changing World'' at Los Alamos from September 25--27, 1989. The distinguished participants from government, industry, and academia in the United States and Western Europe addressed such issues as: What are the implications of geopolitical and technological trends for international security and stability How will these global changes affect US and allied strategies and force structure, especially the requirements for conventional, nonnuclear forces What will be the role of and rationale for conventional forces in the context of current and prospective allied security requirements How can the West assure it will have the forces necessary for its security How will technological developments influence the structure of tomorrow's conventional forces What impacts will arms reductions have on future systems and force structures What are the prospects for the development and deployment in weapon systems of future conventional military technologies, in light of existing and potential political, economic, bureaucratic, and other impediments

  4. Designing and evaluating conventional arms control measures: The case of the Korean peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Han Yongsup.

    1991-01-01

    As a method of designing and evaluating arms control measures, this study takes a combined approach of qualitative analysis and military simulation. Three qualitative criteria derived from the case studies on the Korean and European arms control are used to examine whether these measures are legally binding, verifiable, and negotiable. One quantifiable criterion is used to test against the base case scenario (a one-day surprise attach by North Korea) whether arms control measures will stabilize or destabilize the military status quo on the Peninsula in terms of North Korea's extent of penetration in the actual war situations. Four alternative measures are derived from the analysis: (1) Confidence and Security Building Measures (CSBMs); (2) Establishment of Asymmetric Non-Deployment Zone (NDZ); (3) Reduction of the joint US-South Korean Team Spirit' exercises and North Korea's Forward Deployed Forces; and, (4) Reduction of South Korean and US forces and North Korean Forces. Findings indicate that establishment of the NDZ and a North Korean unilateral reduction are estimated to best achieve the goal of South Korean arms control.

  5. The relation between Euro-based nuclear weapons and conventional arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, P.T.

    1989-11-01

    The social and economic changes currently underway in the Soviet Union and other member nations of the Warsaw Treaty Organization (WTO) surpass anything that has happened in that geopolitical region since 1945. These changes will influence all aspects of the East-West relationship in ways that cannot be predicted today. There are hopes the result will be an East-West relationship devoid of confrontation. There are fears that instabilities might develop that could lead to armed conflict. The challenge to all nations is to achieve a mutually agreeable future order among nations that is inherently stable. This will require vision and statesmanship on the part of our leaders; it will require understanding and self-discipline on the part of our citizens. Despite occasional periods of tension between member nations of the NATO and WTO, the East-West relationship has been marked by its avoidance of military conflict. Two elements of this relationship have been major contributors to this enduring coexistence. The first has been the existence of two viable alliances: NATO and WTO. These organizations have largely co-opted the national security agendas of their respective member nations and have preempted the option of unilateral pursuit of national objectives through armed conflict in Europe.

  6. US conventional arms transfer policy. Strategy research project

    SciTech Connect

    Langhorst, R.H.

    1996-04-15

    Millions of people around the world have been killed by conventional arms since the end of World War II. If increasing access to conventional arms is partly responsible for political and military aggression in post-Cold War Europe, what should be the United States` response. This study explores the new US Conventional Arms Transfer Policy of February 1995 in terms of ends1 ways and means and its linkages to US National Security and National Military Strategies. Analysis focuses mainly on post- Cold War Europe, providing examples of multilateral arms control successes and recommendations for US policy implementation.

  7. Outline of an on-site inspection regime for conventional arms control in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The complexity of the negotiations on Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE) was emphasized recently by General John R. Galvin, SACEUR, when he stated, {open_quotes}The difficulties of comparing the relative strengths of strategic or intermediate-range nuclear arsenals pale in comparison with the problems of assessing the relative capabilities of opposing conventional forces.{open_quotes} Throughout this process, intensive and rigorous verification measures must be developed and enforced to ensure an acceptable degree of reliability. The eventual agreement will require a complex verification monitoring process covering a vast geographical area. The long-term success of the agreement to a large extent will depend on the level of confidence achieved by the verification process and the effective deployment of technological means will be essential to that process.

  8. Verifying the biological weapons convention: The role of technology in biological arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Schiller, M.J.

    1998-12-01

    The 1972 Biological Weapons Convention prohibits the possession and use of biological agents in war, but does not contain provisions for treaty enforcement. The Protocol to the BWC, an effort to improve enforcement of the treaty, has defined specific mechanisms for verification. This thesis examines the potential for technology to support treaty verification. First, the history of the treaty and efforts to improve it are discussed. Second, the requirements for technical support of verification are examined, and criteria are developed to evaluate potential detection systems. Then, technologies for detection and identification are illustrated, including an evaluation of currently available systems. A procedure for the implementation and support of verification technology is provided. This approach demonstrates a specific process of employing technology to enhance deterrence and verify of compliance with the BWC.

  9. 15 CFR 743.4 - Conventional arms reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conventional arms reporting. 743.4... REPORTING AND NOTIFICATION § 743.4 Conventional arms reporting. (a) Scope. This section outlines special... the UN Register of Conventional Arms. Participating States of the Wassenaar Arrangement...

  10. The future of arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, D.; Mack, A.

    1987-01-01

    This collection of essays examines the issues involved in the arms negotiations between the Superpowers, and the potential for developing effective arms control in the future. Contents (partial): Preface; Reagan administration and arms control; Superpowers Arms Control: The Soviet perspective; Nuclear disengagement zones and no first use doctrines as arms control measures; Regional arms control in the South Pacific; Arms control and the Indian Ocean; Preventing Proliferation: The role of Australian uranium.

  11. Arms control and the arms race

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    A collection of 16 articles from the Scientific American discusses the evolution of nuclear weapons since 1945 and the attempts to control the nuclear arms race through national action and international negotiations. The articles and commentaries by political scientists Bruce M. Russett and Fred Chernoff combine technical information on weapons and deployment systems with political analysis of current arms strategies and diplomacy. The articles are grouped under three major topics: SALT and the history of arms control negotiations, current strategic arms negotiations, and European security. A separate abstract was written for each of the 16 articles selected for the Energy Data Base. 226 references.

  12. Conventional armed forces in Europe: Technology scenario development

    SciTech Connect

    Houser, G.M.

    1990-07-01

    In January 1986, the Soviet Union's Mikhail Gorbachev proposed elimination of all nuclear weapons by the year 2000. In April of that year, Mr. Gorbachev proposed substantial reductions of conventional weapons in Europe, from the Atlantic Ocean to the Ural Mountains, including reductions in operational-tactical nuclear weapons. In May 1986, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) responded with the Brussels Declaration on Conventional Arms Control,'' which indicated readiness to open East/West discussions on establishing a mandate for negotiating conventional arms control throughout Europe. The Group of 23,'' which met in Vienna beginning in February 1987, concluded the meeting in January 1989 with a mandate for the Conventional Armed Forced in Europe (CFE) negotiations. On 6 March 1989, CFE talks began, and these talks have continued through six rounds (as of April 1990). Although US President George Bush, on 30 May 1989, called for agreement within six months to a year, and the Malta meeting of December 1989 called for completion of a CFE agreement by the end of 1990, much remains to be negotiated. This report provides three types of information. First, treaty provisions brought to the table by both sides are compared. Second, on the basis of these provisions, problem areas for each of the provision elements are postulated and possible scenarios for resolving these problem areas are developed. Third, the scenarios are used as requirements for tasks assigned program elements for possible US implementation of a CFE treaty. As progress is achieved during the negotiations, this report could be updated, as necessary, in each of the areas to provide a continuing systematic basis for program implementation and technology development. 8 refs.

  13. Worldwide report, arms control

    SciTech Connect

    1987-03-18

    This report contains translations/transcriptions of articles and/or broadcasts on Arms Control. Titles include: USSR Journal Review of French Book on SDI; Moscow Talk Show Considers Possibility of Dealing with U.S.; Thatcher, Gorbachev Talks Anticipated; U.S. Presents Draft Treaty to Eliminate INF from Europe; TASS: White House Rejects Treaty of Tatotonga; Soviet Paper on Congressional Divisions on Moratorium; Turkish Officials on Deployment of Nuclear Weapons; and others.

  14. Franklin Long on arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, K.W.

    1988-01-01

    A series on arms control must recognize the diversity of views on the subject. A leading figure in the field lectured recently at the University of Virginia and failed to mention any of the conventional approaches to arms control. Instead he equated arms control with the Strategic Defense Initiative and limited his comments exclusively to that subject. One of the aims of this series, made possible by the W. Alton Jones Foundation, is to point up the differences in thought on the subject. Publications which treat only one viewpoint do no service to public understanding. Instead they leave an impression of unanimity of approach where none exists. They stifle rather than encourage enlightenment and public discourse. The Miller Center hopes in a small way to contribute to public understanding by bringing to the attention of the people the assumptions and thinking of some dozen experts in the field. In addition, we plan one or more volumes by multiple authors who are experts on technical subjects. Thus the present volume by Franklin A. Long of Cornell is one in a series on a subject that has far-reaching implications to human survival.

  15. Arms control: Myth versus reality

    SciTech Connect

    Staar, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents papers on arms control. Topics considered include the strategic implications of the nuclear balance, historical aspects, the Mutual and Balanced Force Reductions (MBFR) negotiations, the European viewpoint on structural problems in negotiations, political aspects, national defense, forecasting, breaches of arms control obligations and their implications, and cultural aspects of diplomacy.

  16. Arms control: misplaced focus

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, W.A.; Derber, C.

    1986-03-01

    Most of the nuclear debate consists of arguments about which weapons systems should be built, controlled, canceled, frozen, or retired. Short of virtually complete, multilateral nuclear disarmament, however, no change in the pace, balance, or even the direction of the arms race can make much difference in the risk of nuclear war, the damage should one occur, or the division of international political power. This includes Star Wars, the nuclear freeze, and even large cuts in or stabilization of offensive nuclear arsenals. A better starting point for nuclear politics would be the insight that nuclear weapons have completely changed the logic of power as it has been handed down through the ages. Military force, perfected to its highest level, has invalidated itself - for in a nuclearized world, any resort to force by a nuclear power risks escalation to its ultimate level, and thus to oblivion for all. Trying to rationalize and control the ultimate force is far less realistic and important than limiting the provocation of conflict and the use of force at lower, non-nuclear levels - by the United States, it clients, and, to the extent possible, its adversaries. 13 references.

  17. Korean arms control: Arms control policies of the two Koreas

    SciTech Connect

    Park, T.H.

    1991-01-01

    This study examines the arms control proposals suggested by South and North Korea since the end of the Korean War and suggests some arms control measures that would be applied to the Korean Peninsula. Pyongyang has persistently proposed arms reduction measures since 1953, but Seoul has refused to discuss the issue because it suspected the North's true motive. The study points out that the objective reality of the two Koreas does not show any strong possibility of a war on the Peninsula. The most destabilizing factor in the South-North military relations is the possibility of misperception and miscalculation about the military capabilities and intentions of the other side. The study recommends that Seoul government not entirely adhere to the European CSBM model centered on the transparency of military activities. There are many other policy options for Seoul. The area between Seoul and Pyongyang can be made into a [open quotes]limited forces area[close quotes] as experienced by Egypt and Israel on the Sinai Peninsula. The study notes the utility of applying Charles Osgood's GRIT strategy to the Korean situation, a unilateral arms control approach. Among the structural arms control issues, the withdrawal of the US forces and its nuclear weapons are the most important ones which have to be dealt with before seriously negotiating arms reductions between the two Koreas. Considering the increasing capability of the South Korean armed forces and the availability of the US air and naval forces in and around South Korea, the US ground forces and the nuclear weapons would best be withdrawn from the South. Although these withdrawals cannot be used as bargaining chips by the South in the arms control negotiations with the North, these can be effectively utilized as GRIT measures. The South needs to persuade the North to reduce its redundant offensive weapons including chemical weapons and SCUD missiles as priority targets for arms reduction.

  18. Adaptive control strategies for flexible robotic arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bialasiewicz, Jan T.

    1993-01-01

    The motivation of this research came about when a neural network direct adaptive control scheme was applied to control the tip position of a flexible robotic arm. Satisfactory control performance was not attainable due to the inherent non-minimum phase characteristics of the flexible robotic arm tip. Most of the existing neural network control algorithms are based on the direct method and exhibit very high sensitivity if not unstable closed-loop behavior. Therefore a neural self-tuning control (NSTC) algorithm is developed and applied to this problem and showed promising results. Simulation results of the NSTC scheme and the conventional self-tuning (STR) control scheme are used to examine performance factors such as control tracking mean square error, estimation mean square error, transient response, and steady state response.

  19. 48 CFR 252.223-7007 - Safeguarding sensitive conventional arms, ammunition, and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... conventional arms, ammunition, and explosives. 252.223-7007 Section 252.223-7007 Federal Acquisition... conventional arms, ammunition, and explosives. As prescribed in 223.7203, use the following clause: Safeguarding Sensitive Conventional Arms, Ammunition, and Explosives (SEP 1999) (a) Definition....

  20. 48 CFR 252.223-7007 - Safeguarding sensitive conventional arms, ammunition, and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... conventional arms, ammunition, and explosives. 252.223-7007 Section 252.223-7007 Federal Acquisition... conventional arms, ammunition, and explosives. As prescribed in 223.7203, use the following clause: Safeguarding Sensitive Conventional Arms, Ammunition, and Explosives (SEP 1999) (a) Definition....

  1. 48 CFR 252.223-7007 - Safeguarding sensitive conventional arms, ammunition, and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... conventional arms, ammunition, and explosives. 252.223-7007 Section 252.223-7007 Federal Acquisition... conventional arms, ammunition, and explosives. As prescribed in 223.7203, use the following clause: Safeguarding Sensitive Conventional Arms, Ammunition, and Explosives (SEP 1999) (a) Definition....

  2. 48 CFR 252.223-7007 - Safeguarding sensitive conventional arms, ammunition, and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... conventional arms, ammunition, and explosives. 252.223-7007 Section 252.223-7007 Federal Acquisition... conventional arms, ammunition, and explosives. As prescribed in 223.7203, use the following clause: Safeguarding Sensitive Conventional Arms, Ammunition, and Explosives (SEP 1999) (a) Definition....

  3. 48 CFR 252.223-7007 - Safeguarding sensitive conventional arms, ammunition, and explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... conventional arms, ammunition, and explosives. 252.223-7007 Section 252.223-7007 Federal Acquisition... conventional arms, ammunition, and explosives. As prescribed in 223.7203, use the following clause: Safeguarding Sensitive Conventional Arms, Ammunition, and Explosives (SEP 1999) (a) Definition....

  4. Arms Control past and future

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, T.R.

    1991-12-01

    I am going to talk today about Arms Control. First, I want to go over the recent history of the process. Five years ago, the pace of arms control changed dramatically. From an outsider it probably didn't appear that way -- but those working it, the shift from the historic glacial speed normally associated with this process to one of pressures -- political and economic -- national and global -- to actually conclude meaningful, verifiable agreements was a major change. Then, I want to spend a few minutes covering the future of arms control new that we have lost our enemy, and it is no longer a bipolar world. I also want to leave time for easy questions.

  5. Arms Control past and future

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, T.R.

    1991-12-01

    I am going to talk today about Arms Control. First, I want to go over the recent history of the process. Five years ago, the pace of arms control changed dramatically. From an outsider it probably didn`t appear that way -- but those working it, the shift from the historic glacial speed normally associated with this process to one of pressures -- political and economic -- national and global -- to actually conclude meaningful, verifiable agreements was a major change. Then, I want to spend a few minutes covering the future of arms control new that we have lost our enemy, and it is no longer a bipolar world. I also want to leave time for easy questions.

  6. Controller arm for a remotely related slave arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salisbury, J. K., Jr. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A segmented controller arm configured and dimensioned to form a miniature kinematic replica of a remotely related slave arm is disclosed. The arm includes: (1) a plurality of joints for affording segments of the arm simultaneous angular displacement about a plurality of pairs of intersecting axes, (2) a plurality of position sensing devices for providing electrical signals indicative of angular displacement imparted to corresponding segments of the controller shaft about the axes, and (3) a control signal circuit for generating control signals to be transmitted to the slave arm. The arm is characterized by a plurality of yokes, each being supported for angular displacement about a pair of orthogonally related axes and counterbalanced against gravitation by a cantilevered mass.

  7. Dual arm master controller concept

    SciTech Connect

    Kuban, D.P.; Perkins, G.S.

    1984-01-01

    The Advanced Servomanipulator (ASM) slave was designed with an anthropomorphic stance, gear/torque tube power drives, and modular construction. These features resulted in increased inertia, friction, and backlash relative to tape-driven manipulators. Studies were performed which addressed the human factors design and performance trade-offs associated with the corresponding master controller best suited for the ASM. The results of these studies, as well as the conceptual design of the dual arm master controller, are presented. 6 references, 3 figures.

  8. Control of a flexible robot arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, E.; Cannon, R.

    1980-01-01

    Exact equations of motion of an arm with known parameters were developed and analyzed preparatory to designing control systems for robotic manipulators. The design of an experimental one-link arm for testing control designs is presented.

  9. Split-mouth and parallel-arm trials to compare pain with intraosseous anaesthesia delivered by the computerised Quicksleeper system and conventional infiltration anaesthesia in paediatric oral healthcare: protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Smaïl-Faugeron, Violaine; Muller-Bolla, Michèle; Sixou, Jean-Louis; Courson, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Local anaesthesia is commonly used in paediatric oral healthcare. Infiltration anaesthesia is the most frequently used, but recent developments in anaesthesia techniques have introduced an alternative: intraosseous anaesthesia. We propose to perform a split-mouth and parallel-arm multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing the pain caused by the insertion of the needle for the injection of conventional infiltration anaesthesia, and intraosseous anaesthesia by the computerised QuickSleeper system, in children and adolescents. Methods and analysis Inclusion criteria are patients 7–15 years old with at least 2 first permanent molars belonging to the same dental arch (for the split-mouth RCT) or with a first permanent molar (for the parallel-arm RCT) requiring conservative or endodontic treatment limited to pulpotomy. The setting of this study is the Department of Paediatric Dentistry at 3 University dental hospitals in France. The primary outcome measure will be pain reported by the patient on a visual analogue scale concerning the insertion of the needle and the injection/infiltration. Secondary outcomes are latency, need for additional anaesthesia during the treatment and pain felt during the treatment. We will use a computer-generated permuted-block randomisation sequence for allocation to anaesthesia groups. The random sequences will be stratified by centre (and by dental arch for the parallel-arm RCT). Only participants will be blinded to group assignment. Data will be analysed by the intent-to-treat principle. In all, 160 patients will be included (30 in the split-mouth RCT, 130 in the parallel-arm RCT). Ethics and dissemination This protocol has been approved by the French ethics committee for the protection of people (Comité de Protection des Personnes, Ile de France I) and will be conducted in full accordance with accepted ethical principles. Findings will be reported in scientific publications and at research conferences, and in

  10. Cold warriors target arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacs, J.

    1995-09-01

    While disagreements over the conflict in Bosnia have strained US relations with Western Europe and Russia, these divisions will pale in comparison to the tensions that will arise if recent congressional arms control decisions become law. If the Republicans who dominate Congress are successful, a series of arms control agreements painstakingly negotiated by Republican and Democratic presidents could be consigned to the ash heap. This list includes the Start I and Start II nuclear reduction agreements, the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty and the ongoing negotiations to achieve a comprehensive test ban (CTB) by 1996. US leadership in the post-Cold War era will undermined as the international community, already skeptical about this country`s direction, will question the ability of the executive branch to surmount isolantionist impulses.

  11. Issues for Future Nuclear Arms Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Jay

    2011-04-01

    Ratification of the New START treaty may open the door to a path of progressive negotiations that could lead to systematic reduction of the numbers of deployed and reserve nuclear weapons. Those negotiations will require more than merely resolving technical, operational and policy questions. Their success will also demand adding successively larger numbers of partners and the building of trust among parties who have not been involved in such agreements before. At some point, questions of conventional arms limitations and larger confidence building steps will inevitably arise. Jay Davis, who last year chaired an APS/POPA study of technology issues for future nuclear arms control agreements, will outline the path, opportunities, and obstacles that lie ahead. Davis was an UNSCOM inspector in Iraq after the First Gulf War and the first director of the Defense Threat Reduction Agency.

  12. Dual-arm manipulators with adaptive control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, Homayoun (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The described and improved multi-arm invention of this application presents three strategies for adaptive control of cooperative multi-arm robots which coordinate control over a common load. In the position-position control strategy, the adaptive controllers ensure that the end-effector positions of both arms track desired trajectories in Cartesian space despite unknown time-varying interaction forces exerted through a load. In the position-hybrid control strategy, the adaptive controller of one arm controls end-effector motions in the free directions and applied forces in the constraint directions; while the adaptive controller of the other arm ensures that the end-effector tracks desired position trajectories. In the hybrid-hybrid control strategy, the adaptive controllers ensure that both end-effectors track reference position trajectories while simultaneously applying desired forces on the load. In all three control strategies, the cross-coupling effects between the arms are treated as disturbances which are compensated for by the adaptive controllers while following desired commands in a common frame of reference. The adaptive controllers do not require the complex mathematical model of the arm dynamics or any knowledge of the arm dynamic parameters or the load parameters such as mass and stiffness. Circuits in the adaptive feedback and feedforward controllers are varied by novel adaptation laws.

  13. JPRS report: Arms control, [June 21, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    1989-06-21

    This document contains articles on arms control. Some topics discussed are chemical bombs, nuclear missiles, targeting, threats, NATO, short range missiles, military inspections, treaties, and nuclear testing.

  14. Adaptive control of dual-arm robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, H.

    1987-01-01

    Three strategies for adaptive control of cooperative dual-arm robots are described. In the position-position control strategy, the adaptive controllers ensure that the end-effector positions of both arms track desired trajectories in Cartesian space despite unknown time-varying interaction forces exerted through the load. In the position-hybrid control strategy, the adaptive controller of one arm controls end-effector motions in the free directions and applied forces in the constraint directions, while the adaptive controller of the other arm ensures that the end-effector tracks desired position trajectories. In the hybrid-hybrid control strategy, the adaptive controllers ensure that both end-effectors track reference position trajectories while simultaneously applying desired forces on the load. In all three control strategies, the cross-coupling effects between the arms are treated as disturbances which are rejected by the adaptive controllers while following desired commands in a common frame of reference. The adaptive controllers do not require the complex mathematical model of the arm dynamics or any knowledge of the arm dynamic parameters or the load parameters such as mass and stiffness. The controllers have simple structures and are computationally fast for on-line implementation with high sampling rates.

  15. Fuzzy Control of Robotic Arm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Kyaw Kyaw; Soe, Aung Kyaw; Thu, Theint Theint

    2008-10-01

    This research work investigates a Self-Tuning Proportional Derivative (PD) type Fuzzy Logic Controller (STPDFLC) for a two link robot system. The proposed scheme adjusts on-line the output Scaling Factor (SF) by fuzzy rules according to the current trend of the robot. The rule base for tuning the output scaling factor is defined on the error (e) and change in error (de). The scheme is also based on the fact that the controller always tries to manipulate the process input. The rules are in the familiar if-then format. All membership functions for controller inputs (e and de) and controller output (UN) are defined on the common interval [-1,1]; whereas the membership functions for the gain updating factor (α) is defined on [0,1]. There are various methods to calculate the crisp output of the system. Center of Gravity (COG) method is used in this application due to better results it gives. Performances of the proposed STPDFLC are compared with those of their corresponding PD-type conventional Fuzzy Logic Controller (PDFLC). The proposed scheme shows a remarkably improved performance over its conventional counterpart especially under parameters variation (payload). The two-link results of analysis are simulated. These simulation results are illustrated by using MATLAB® programming.

  16. Simplified robot arm dynamics for control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, A. K.; Paul, R. P.

    1981-01-01

    A brief summary and evaluation is presented on the use of symbolic state equation techniques in order to represent robot arm dynamics with sufficient accuracy for controlling arm motion. The use of homogeneous transformations and the Lagrangian formulation of mechanics offers a convenient frame for the derivation, analysis and simplification of complex robot dynamics equations. It is pointed out that simplified state equations can represent robot arm dynamics with good accuracy.

  17. Lethal tide: The worldwide threat from cheap conventional arms. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    King, C.D.

    1994-04-01

    The twentieth century has seen as unprecedented explosion in the manufacture and use of armaments. This has been accompanied by steady increases in the number, length and lethality of conflicts. Both trends have been accelerating since the end of World War II, especially with regard to the so-called Third World. The focus of most arms control efforts has been on nuclear, chemical and biological weapons, with some secondary concern in the last two decades over sophisticated major conventional armaments. Virtually unnoticed have been the massive quantities of simple, inexpensive arms produced all over the globe and traded in channels overt, covert, and illegal. These items remain useful for many years. Equipment such as mortars and rifles find application in war after war, while ammunition keeps its explosive nature until it detonates. So the world, especially the Third World, has an ever growing sea of cheap arms, the old stuff still dangerous, more added every day. Review of selected conflicts, including Cambodia and Afghanistan, illustrates the depth of the trouble we are in and suggests some possible future directions in order to avoid drowning in this lethal sea.

  18. Worldwide report: Arms control, [February 28, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    1986-02-28

    This report contains translations/transcriptions of articles and/or broadcasts on arms control. Titles include: USSR Links Space Shuttle Challenger Explosion to SDI; Computer Unreliability Demonstrated; Japanese Question US Technology; Soviet Journal Discusses Arms Proposals, Geneva Summit; French President Justifies Nuclear Arsenal; Canadian Renewal of NORAD Agreement Examined; Cruise Missile Test Discussed; and others.

  19. Nonlinear feedback control of multiple robot arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarn, T. J.; Yun, X.; Bejczy, A. K.

    1987-01-01

    Multiple coordinated robot arms are modeled by considering the arms: (1) as closed kinematic chains, and (2) as a force constrained mechanical system working on the same object simultaneously. In both formulations a new dynamic control method is discussed. It is based on a feedback linearization and simultaneous output decoupling technique. Applying a nonlinear feedback and a nonlinear coordinate transformation, the complicated model of the multiple robot arms in either formulation is converted into a linear and output decoupled system. The linear system control theory and optimal control theory are used to design robust controllers in the task space. The first formulation has the advantage of automatically handling the coordination and load distribution among the robot arms. In the second formulation, by choosing a general output equation, researchers can superimpose the position and velocity error feedback with the force-torque error feedback in the task space simultaneously.

  20. Sensory-Feedback Exoskeletal Arm Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    An, Bin; Massie, Thomas H.; Vayner, Vladimir

    2004-01-01

    An electromechanical exoskeletal arm apparatus has been designed for use in controlling a remote robotic manipulator arm. The apparatus, called a force-feedback exoskeleton arm master (F-EAM) is comfortable to wear and easy to don and doff. It provides control signals from the wearer s arm to a robot arm or a computer simulator (e.g., a virtual-reality system); it also provides force and torque feedback from sensors on the robot arm or from the computer simulator to the wearer s arm. The F-EAM enables the wearer to make the robot arm gently touch objects and finely manipulate them without exerting excessive forces. The F-EAM features a lightweight design in which the motors and gear heads that generate force and torque feedback are made smaller than they ordinarily would be: this is achieved by driving the motors to power levels greater than would ordinarily be used in order to obtain higher torques, and by providing active liquid cooling of the motors to prevent overheating at the high drive levels. The F-EAM (see figure) includes an assembly that resembles a backpack and is worn like a backpack, plus an exoskeletal arm mechanism. The FEAM has five degrees of freedom (DOFs) that correspond to those of the human arm: 1. The first DOF is that of the side-to-side rotation of the upper arm about the shoulder (rotation about axis 1). The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 1 via drum 1 and a planar four-bar linkage. 2. The second DOF is that of the up-and-down rotation of the arm about the shoulder. The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 2 via drum 2. 3. The third DOF is that of twisting of the upper arm about its longitudinal axis. This DOF is implemented in a cable remote-center mechanism (CRCM). The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 3, which drives the upper-arm cuff and the mechanism below it. A bladder inflatable by gas or liquid is placed between the cuff and the wearer s upper arm to compensate for misalignment

  1. Superpower arms control. Setting the record straight

    SciTech Connect

    Carnesale, A.; Haass, R.N.

    1987-01-01

    This book identifies the preconceptions about the arms control process and tests them against the historical record of negotiations and accords. The result is much-needed evidence and analysis of issues too often obscured by emotion and ideology, as well as important new conclusions about how arms control agreements have - or have not - influenced verification, meaningful restraints on new technology development, Soviet domestic policy, and U.S. defense spending.

  2. Adaptive Control Strategies for Flexible Robotic Arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bialasiewicz, Jan T.

    1996-01-01

    The control problem of a flexible robotic arm has been investigated. The control strategies that have been developed have a wide application in approaching the general control problem of flexible space structures. The following control strategies have been developed and evaluated: neural self-tuning control algorithm, neural-network-based fuzzy logic control algorithm, and adaptive pole assignment algorithm. All of the above algorithms have been tested through computer simulation. In addition, the hardware implementation of a computer control system that controls the tip position of a flexible arm clamped on a rigid hub mounted directly on the vertical shaft of a dc motor, has been developed. An adaptive pole assignment algorithm has been applied to suppress vibrations of the described physical model of flexible robotic arm and has been successfully tested using this testbed.

  3. Intelligence support to arms control. Study project

    SciTech Connect

    Grisham, A.E.

    1990-04-09

    This paper argues that intelligence support is critical to the success of arms control. It identifies and describes the roles of intelligence in the arms control process, describes the existing intelligence organizational structure for arms control support, and identifies and analyzes issues. The roles include support to policy formulation, support to treaty negotiation, support to ratification, and finally, during verification, support for the implementation of the treaty through monitoring. The Director of Central Intelligence is responsible for monitoring, while the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency has responsibility for verification. Adjudication of conflicting interpretations occurs within the NSC committee structure. For several reasons, intelligence cannot be expected to do the actual verification of an arms control treaty. Most importantly, determination of an acceptable degree of confidence is always a political issue, although based on military judgement. Assigning intelligence responsibility for monitoring, rather than verification, helps to limit the politicization of intelligence. Issues identified during the research for this paper were analyzed within three subgroups: those inherent in the intelligence discipline; these must be managed successfully to limit adverse impact on intelligence products. Second, issues and challenges inherent in arms control bureaucratic relationships; these are best managed by keeping separate the actual monitoring analysis and verification this gives the West justification for caution, and reinforces the need for continued emphasis on verification.

  4. XTOD to Conventional Facilities Interface Control Document

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, D

    2005-09-29

    This document describes the interface between the LCLS X-ray Transport and Diagnostics (XTOD) (WBS 1.5) and the LCLS Conventional Facilities (CF) (WBS 1.1). The interface locations ranging from the beam dump to the far experimental hall are identified. Conventional Facilities provides x-ray, beamline and equipment enclosures, mounting surfaces, conventional utilities, compressed (clean, dry) air, process and purge gases, exhaust systems, power, and environmental conditions for the XTOD components and controls.

  5. New Horizons and New Strategies in Arms Control

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J. editor

    1998-12-04

    In the last ten years, since the break-up of the Soviet Union, remarkable progress in arms control and disarmament has occurred. The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), the completion of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), and the Chemical Weapons Treaty (CWC) are indicative of the great strides made in the non- proliferation arena. Simultaneously, the Intermediate Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF), the Conventional Forces Treaty in Europe (CFE), and the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaties (START), all associated with US-Soviet Union (now Russia) relations have assisted in redefining European relations and the security landscape. Finally, it now appears that progress is in the offing in developing enhanced compliance measures for the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC). In sum, all of these achievements have set the stage for the next round of arms control activities, which may lead to a much broader, and perhaps more diffused multilateral agenda. In this new and somewhat unpredictable international setting, arms control and disarmament issues will require solutions that are both more creative and innovative than heretofore.

  6. Systems Approach to Arms Control Verification

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, K; Neimeyer, I; Listner, C; Stein, G; Chen, C; Dreicer, M

    2015-05-15

    Using the decades of experience of developing concepts and technologies for verifying bilateral and multilateral arms control agreements, a broad conceptual systems approach is being developed that takes into account varying levels of information and risk. The IAEA has already demonstrated the applicability of a systems approach by implementing safeguards at the State level, with acquisition path analysis as the key element. In order to test whether such an approach could also be implemented for arms control verification, an exercise was conducted in November 2014 at the JRC ITU Ispra. Based on the scenario of a hypothetical treaty between two model nuclear weapons states aimed at capping their nuclear arsenals at existing levels, the goal of this exercise was to explore how to use acquisition path analysis in an arms control context. Our contribution will present the scenario, objectives and results of this exercise, and attempt to define future workshops aimed at further developing verification measures that will deter or detect treaty violations.

  7. Motion control of 7-DOF arms - The configuration control approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, Homayoun; Long, Mark K.; Lee, Thomas S.

    1993-01-01

    Graphics simulation and real-time implementation of configuration control schemes for a redundant 7-DOF Robotics Research arm are described. The arm kinematics and motion control schemes are described briefly. This is followed by a description of a graphics simulation environment for 7-DOF arm control on the Silicon Graphics IRIS Workstation. Computer simulation results are presented to demonstrate elbow control, collision avoidance, and optimal joint movement as redundancy resolution goals. The laboratory setup for experimental validation of motion control of the 7-DOF Robotics Research arm is then described. The configuration control approach is implemented on a Motorola-68020/VME-bus-based real-time controller, with elbow positioning for redundancy resolution. Experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of configuration control for real-time control.

  8. Gorbachev's arms-control strategy. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nogee, J.L.

    1987-01-22

    Soviet foreign policy under the Gorbachev administration, along with domestic policy, has been in a state of flux, particularly in the realm of arms-control policy. Both in substance and style, Gorbachev introduced a new dynamic in arms-control policy. He has skillfully manipulated the issue for propaganda appeal. But also he has shown flexibility in modifying Soviet positions both to respond to U.S. demands and to exert pressure on the United States to reach an agreement. Soviet arms-control objectives (some of which are incompatible) may be realized either through a formal agreement with the United States or without an agreement. These objectives include: (a) to use arms control to build a new framework for relations with the United States to replace detente; (b) to kill the Strategic Defense Initiative; (c) to constrain U.S. development in manned aircraft and cruise missiles (d) to deligitimize nuclear weapons as an instrument of military strategy; (e) to exacerbate differences between the United States and Europe. During his first year in power, Gorbachev relied heavily on propaganda with calls for eliminating nuclear weapons by the 21st century, his test ban moratorium and denunciation of SDI. After the 21st Party Congress he significantly modified Soviet positions closer to those of the United States with his acceptance of the zero option for INF forces, deep cuts in strategic weapons and willingness to accept limited research on SDI. Gorbachev now sees an arms control agreement as essential to his program for domestic reform and is prepared to make genuine concessions to achieve it.

  9. Verification and transparency in future arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, J.F.

    1996-09-01

    Verification`s importance has changed dramatically over time, although it always has been in the forefront of arms control. The goals and measures of verification and the criteria for success have changed with the times as well, reflecting such factors as the centrality of the prospective agreement to East-West relations during the Cold War, the state of relations between the United States and the Soviet Union, and the technologies available for monitoring. Verification`s role may be declining in the post-Cold War period. The prospects for such a development will depend, first and foremost, on the high costs of traditional arms control, especially those associated with requirements for verification. Moreover, the growing interest in informal, or non-negotiated arms control does not allow for verification provisions by the very nature of these arrangements. Multilateral agreements are also becoming more prominent and argue against highly effective verification measures, in part because of fears of promoting proliferation by opening sensitive facilities to inspectors from potential proliferant states. As a result, it is likely that transparency and confidence-building measures will achieve greater prominence, both as supplements to and substitutes for traditional verification. Such measures are not panaceas and do not offer all that we came to expect from verification during the Cold war. But they may be the best possible means to deal with current problems of arms reductions and restraints at acceptable levels of expenditure.

  10. Arms control and the Federal Republic of Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrieder, W.F.

    1987-01-01

    These essays explore the implications of arms control negotiations for the FRG and consider why Germany has traditionally found it impossible to divorce considerations of arms control from their larger political context.

  11. Monitoring and Controlling an Underwater Robotic Arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, John; Todd, Brian Keith; Woodcock, Larry; Robinson, Fred M.

    2009-01-01

    The SSRMS Module 1 software is part of a system for monitoring an adaptive, closed-loop control of the motions of a robotic arm in NASA s Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory, where buoyancy in a pool of water is used to simulate the weightlessness of outer space. This software is so named because the robot arm is a replica of the Space Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS). This software is distributed, running on remote joint processors (RJPs), each of which is mounted in a hydraulic actuator comprising the joint of the robotic arm and communicating with a poolside processor denoted the Direct Control Rack (DCR). Each RJP executes the feedback joint-motion control algorithm for its joint and communicates with the DCR. The DCR receives joint-angular-velocity commands either locally from an operator or remotely from computers that simulate the flight like SSRMS and perform coordinated motion calculations based on hand-controller inputs. The received commands are checked for validity before they are transmitted to the RJPs. The DCR software generates a display of the statuses of the RJPs for the DCR operator and can shut down the hydraulic pump when excessive joint-angle error or failure of a RJP is detected.

  12. Tags and seals for arms control verification

    SciTech Connect

    DeVolpi, A.

    1990-09-18

    Tags and seals have long been recognized as important tools in arms control. The trend in control of armaments is to limit militarily significant equipment that is capable of being verified through direct and cooperative means, chiefly on-site inspection or monitoring. Although this paper will focus on the CFE treaty, the role of tags and seals for other treaties will also be addressed. Published technology and concepts will be reviewed, based on open sources. Arms control verification tags are defined as unique identifiers designed to be tamper-revealing; in that respect, seals are similar, being used as indicators of unauthorized access. Tamper-revealing tags might be considered as single-point markers, seals as two-point couplings, and nets as volume containment. The functions of an arms control tag can be considered to be two-fold: to provide field verification of the identity of a treaty-limited item (TLI), and to have a means of authentication of the tag and its tamper-revealing features. Authentication could take place in the field or be completed elsewhere. For CFE, the goal of tags and seals can be to reduce the overall cost of the entire verification system.

  13. Satellites for arms control and crisis monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Jasani, B.; Sakata, T.

    1987-01-01

    This book describes some of the technologies required for observation satellites for arms control and crisis monitoring, with examples to illustrate the potential of the latest technological developments, and examines the various institutional and political aspects of establishing this form of verification on an international basis. Part I of this book presents the background to the issues covered by the SIPRI-Tokai University Symposium. Parts II and III comprise the papers presented at the symposium.

  14. Verifying arms control treaties to deter violations

    SciTech Connect

    Strait, R.S.; Judd, B.R.

    1988-06-23

    Verification has developed into a very important arms control issue. As evidenced by the recent Senate debates concerning ratification of the INF Treaty, verification can be a very controversial and emotional topic. In addition, verification's importance will surely continue for the foreseeable future. It is a major issue in the negotiations toward large reductions in strategic weapons and will gain even greater importance should deeper cuts be considered. 34 refs., 7 figs.

  15. Military consensus behind Soviet arms control proposals

    SciTech Connect

    Weickhardt, G.C.

    1987-09-01

    For nearly two years General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev has tried to entice the West with a spectacular array of arms control proposals and initiatives. On issues such as on-site inspections and European missile reductions, he has made such significant concessions over previous Soviet positions that questions have been raised, and not satisfactorily answered, about how much support Gorbachev's diplomacy enjoys among the Soviet military. For example, have Gorbachev's proposals been a bold personal gamble to achieve agreement without the prior approval of the Soviet military bureaucracy. Or does his arms control diplomacy represent a broad consensus among the military leadership and a realignment of Soviet military doctrine and grand strategy. A careful examination of recent Soviet military thought shows that such a consensus exists. A broad and stable coalition of key military leaders supports the General Secretary's policies. Moreover, recent Soviet concessions are not, as commonly argued, a stopgap ploy to halt the US Strategic Defense Initiative or Star Wars. Rather, the military's support for Gorbachev's arms-control diplomacy is based on some serious strategic analysis and stems from broad, fundamental, and enduring changes in Soviet national security policy.

  16. Measurements of surgeons' exposure to ionizing radiation dose: comparison of conventional and mini C-arm fluoroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sung, K H; Min, E; Chung, C Y; Jo, B C; Park, M S; Lee, K

    2016-03-01

    This study was performed to measure the equivalent scattered radiation dose delivered to susceptible organs while simulating orthopaedic surgery using conventional and mini C-arm fluoroscopy. In addition, shielding effects on the thyroid, thymus, and gonad, and the direct exposure delivered to the patient's hands were also compared. A conventional and mini C-arms were installed in an operating room, and a hand and an operator phantom were used to simulate a patient's hand and a surgeon. Photoluminescence dosimeters were used to measure the equivalent dose by scattered radiation arriving at the thyroid, thymus, and gonad on a whole-body phantom in the position of the surgeon. Equivalent scattered radiation doses were measured in four groups: (1) unshielded conventional C-arm group; (2) unshielded mini C-arm group; (3) lead-shielded conventional C-arm group; and (4) lead-shielded mini C-arm group. Equivalent scattered radiation doses to the unshielded group were significantly lower in the mini C-arm group than those in the conventional C-arm group for all organs. The gonad in the lead-shielded conventional C-arm group showed the highest equivalent dose among operator-susceptible organs, and radiation dose was reduced by approximately 96% compared with that in the unshielded group. Scattered radiation was not detected in any susceptible organ in the lead-shielded mini C-arm group. The direct radiation dose to the hand phantom measured from the mini C-arm was significantly lower than that measured from the conventional C-arm. The results show that the equivalent scattered radiation dose to the surgeon's susceptible organs and the direct radiation dose to a patient's hand can be decreased significantly by using a mini C-arm rather than a conventional C-arm. However, protective lead garments, such as a thyroid shield and apron, should be applied to minimize radiation exposure to susceptible organs, even during use of mini C-arm fluoroscopy. PMID:26115681

  17. Dual-Arm Generalized Compliant Motion With Shared Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backes, Paul G.

    1994-01-01

    Dual-Arm Generalized Compliant Motion (DAGCM) primitive computer program implementing improved unified control scheme for two manipulator arms cooperating in task in which both grasp same object. Provides capabilities for autonomous, teleoperation, and shared control of two robot arms. Unifies cooperative dual-arm control with multi-sensor-based task control and makes complete task-control capability available to higher-level task-planning computer system via large set of input parameters used to describe desired force and position trajectories followed by manipulator arms. Some concepts discussed in "A Generalized-Compliant-Motion Primitive" (NPO-18134).

  18. JPRS report: Arms control, [May 3, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    1989-05-03

    This report contains translations of articles and/or broadcasts on arms control. Titles include: Further Reports on UNITA Accusation of Toxic Bomb` Use; Balkan Nuclear-Free Zone Endorsed at Zhivkov-Papandreou Summit; Soviet Troop Withdrawal from Hungary Viewed; Unilateral Force Reduction, Transfers Begin; Partial Withdrawal of Soviet Forces Begins; Satellite Launch Vehicle Not to Be Ready Before 1992; Armitage Statement on Common Missile Defense Policy with Israel Hit; NATO`s Woerner Says Agreement Possible on Missiles; Danish Foreign Minister Backs FRG Position on SNF; and others.

  19. Worldwide report: Arms control, [February 21, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    1986-02-21

    This report contains translations/transcriptions of articles and/or broadcasts on arms control. Titles include: SDI Brainchild of Military-Industrial Complex, Not Reagan; More Polish Coverage of SDI Debate in FRG; France`s Gen. Gallois on USSR Modernization Plan; Soviet Naval Journal, Trident Has First-Strike Roll; Dutch Party Leader on Cruise Treaty, Elections; Soviet Training Methods Against Chemical Weapons; USSR Views Disarmament Conference Session Held in Geneva; Time `Running Out` for Moratorium Decision; Nordic Labor Unions Urge New Nuclear Free Zone Conference; Goals of Geneva Disarmament Meeting; and others.

  20. Research on ARM Numerical Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xu; JiHong, Chen

    Computerized Numerical Control (CNC) machine tools is the foundation of modern manufacturing systems, whose advanced digital technology is the key to solve the problem of sustainable development of machine tool manufacturing industry. The paper is to design CNC system embedded on ARM and indicates the hardware design and the software systems supported. On the hardware side: the driving chip of the motor control unit, as the core of components, is MCX314AL of DSP motion control which is developed by NOVA Electronics Co., Ltd. of Japan. It make convenient to control machine because of its excellent performance, simple interface, easy programming. On the Software side, the uC/OS-2 is selected as the embedded operating system of the open source, which makes a detailed breakdown of the modules of the CNC system. Those priorities are designed according to their actual requirements. The ways of communication between the module and the interrupt response are so different that it guarantees real-time property and reliability of the numerical control system. Therefore, it not only meets the requirements of the current social precision machining, but has good man-machine interface and network support to facilitate a variety of craftsmen use.

  1. Arms Control and National Security: An Introduction. Advance Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arms Control Association, Washington, DC.

    Suitable for use with high school students, this booklet on arms control and national security provides background information, describes basic concepts, reviews recent history, and offers suggestions for further reading. The first section, on American attitudes toward national security and arms control, defines five types of limits on weapons…

  2. Experimental validation of flexible robot arm modeling and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulsoy, A. Galip

    1989-01-01

    Flexibility is important for high speed, high precision operation of lightweight manipulators. Accurate dynamic modeling of flexible robot arms is needed. Previous work has mostly been based on linear elasticity with prescribed rigid body motions (i.e., no effect of flexible motion on rigid body motion). Little or no experimental validation of dynamic models for flexible arms is available. Experimental results are also limited for flexible arm control. Researchers include the effects of prismatic as well as revolute joints. They investigate the effect of full coupling between the rigid and flexible motions, and of axial shortening, and consider the control of flexible arms using only additional sensors.

  3. Keeping the peace green: Integrating arms control and environmental protection

    SciTech Connect

    Tanzman, E.A.; Kellman, B.

    1994-10-21

    This talk is about how to avoid turning swords into Superfund sites. The problem we address is the potential conflict between the desire to take advantage of the greater international security brought by the end of the Cold War by entering arms control agreements requiring various military weapons to be dismantled, and the desire to avoid further degrading the environment in the process of destroying them. We will use as an illustration of these issues the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), which is intended to cause the destruction of all chemical weapons in the world. First, we will provide a brief overview of the CWC, then we will focus in on its environmental provisions, and, finally, we will discuss potential conflicts with United States law and how they might be resolved.

  4. Arms control and the rule of law

    SciTech Connect

    Tanzman, E.A.

    1995-03-01

    Many who speak of the end of the Cold War emphasize the warming of international relations when they speak of the momentous consequences of this event. According to this image, the half century since Trinity has been a period of sparse international communication during which the Eastern and Western blocs hibernated in their isolated dens of security alliances. Yet it is equally valid to consider the implications of the end of the war footing that has underlain the policies of all of the major military powers during the last fifty years. While meaningful international dialogue was in a state of relative lethargy during much of this period, the military establishments of the Great Powers were actively engaged in using as much force as possible in their efforts to control world affairs, short of triggering a nuclear holocaust. International discourse, at least in English, was rife with such military images as appeasement, containment, crisis stability, and tripwires. From the military posture of the U.S. and Russia a tense peace ironically emerged, but the terms by which decisions were made about controlling weapons of mass destruction (i.e., nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons) were the terms of war. The thesis of this paper is that the end of the Cold War marks a shift away from reliance on military might toward an international commitment to control weapons of mass destruction through the rule of law developed by John Rawls. The progression of agreements during this century to limit weapons of mass destruction testifies to this new development. A review of arms control agreements that the U.S. is a part of show clear growth of the rule of law as the world has left the Cold War.

  5. Nuclear modernization and arms control in NATO

    SciTech Connect

    Kanter, A.

    1988-12-01

    The INF Treaty and its aftermath have not simply returned NATO to a world without ground-launched cruise missiles (GLCMs), Pershing II, and the SS-20, but have crystallized and reinforced long-standing questions about the credibility of NATO's strategy of flexible response, the appropriate role of theater nuclear weapons in the future, and the prospects for continued U.S. leadership of the Alliance. These issues come together in a consideration of whether and how NATO should modernize its remaining nuclear forces. This Note analyzes different ways in which NATO can respond to the nuclear requirements that flow from its strategy. It considers how INF Treaty constraints and prospective START limits, as well as the special place and concerns of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG), bear on the various possibilities. It also assesses the implications of different choices for Alliance cohesion, U.S. leadership of NATO, and extended deterrence. On the basis of that analysis, it describes an approach to NATO nuclear modernization and arms control.

  6. Arms control: moral, political and historical lesson

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, K.W.

    1990-01-01

    Many of the world's most influential policy-makers and analysts view arms control as a scientific and technological problem. They measure a nation's nuclear power exclusively by megatonnage and throw-weights leaving the intangible elements of military and political power to philosophers and historians. They tend to ignore the human and qualitative aspects of power. This is a book that shift the emphasis to aspects of the nuclear problem which are sometimes overlooked. Basically, these elements are bound up in the moral, political, and historical lessons of the nuclear age. Nonquantitative factors have been central to studies of national defense and military power since the rise of the modern nation state system. However, most students of present-day nuclear weapons tend to stress their revolutionary character. Because they are considered wholly unique, analysts tend to write about them in a historical and apolitical terms. One purpose of the collection of papers in this little volume is to redirect attention to the moral, political, and historical lessons that the nuclear age presents. What most distinguishes the writings of contributors to this volume is their use of certain well-established principles and concepts long acknowledged in military and foreign policy analysis. Thus Father Hehir asks many of the same questions that students of ethics and foreign policy have asked for four hundred years.

  7. Kinematic feedback control laws for generating natural arm movements.

    PubMed

    Kim, Donghyun; Jang, Cheongjae; Park, Frank C

    2014-03-01

    We propose a stochastic optimal feedback control law for generating natural robot arm motions. Our approach, inspired by the minimum variance principle of Harris and Wolpert (1998 Nature 394 780-4) and the optimal feedback control principles put forth by Todorov and Jordan (2002 Nature Neurosci. 5 1226-35) for explaining human movements, differs in two crucial respects: (i) the endpoint variance is minimized in joint space rather than Cartesian hand space, and (ii) we ignore the dynamics and instead consider only the second-order differential kinematics. The feedback control law generating the motions can be straightforwardly obtained by backward integration of a set of ordinary differential equations; these equations are obtained exactly, without any linear-quadratic approximations. The only parameters to be determined a priori are the variance scale factors, and for both the two-DOF planar arm and the seven-DOF spatial arm, a table of values is constructed based on the given initial and final arm configurations; these values are determined via an optimal fitting procedure, and consistent with existing findings about neuromuscular motor noise levels of human arm muscles. Experiments conducted with a two-link planar arm and a seven-DOF spatial arm verify that the trajectories generated by our feedback control law closely resemble human arm motions, in the sense of producing nearly straight-line hand trajectories, having bell-shaped velocity profiles, and satisfying Fitts Law. PMID:24343165

  8. Attitudes about Arms Control and Effects of "The Day After."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Linden L.; Slem, Charles M.

    An 18-item questionnaire was designed to investigate relationships between attitude towards arms control and beliefs about nuclear weapon effects, probability of war, Soviet goals, and the importance of nuclear arms superiority. Effects of the television movie, "The Day After," were also assessed by administering the questionnaire eight days…

  9. The purposes, achievements, and priorities of arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, P.S.

    1987-09-01

    Arms control purposes include strengthening the framework of deterrence and reducing the threat of the use of nuclear weapons, reducing the dangers of attack and accidental nuclear war, and allowing more resources for the civilian economy. The paper briefly describes achievements in arms control since World War II. These include the Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT), Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT), Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABMT)-SALT I, SALT II, Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT), Peaceful Nuclear Explosions Treaty (PNET), and Nuclear-Free Zones treaties. The author also discusses his views on what the priorities of arms control activities should be. (ACR)

  10. Arm coordination in octopus crawling involves unique motor control strategies.

    PubMed

    Levy, Guy; Flash, Tamar; Hochner, Binyamin

    2015-05-01

    To cope with the exceptional computational complexity that is involved in the control of its hyper-redundant arms [1], the octopus has adopted unique motor control strategies in which the central brain activates rather autonomous motor programs in the elaborated peripheral nervous system of the arms [2, 3]. How octopuses coordinate their eight long and flexible arms in locomotion is still unknown. Here, we present the first detailed kinematic analysis of octopus arm coordination in crawling. The results are surprising in several respects: (1) despite its bilaterally symmetrical body, the octopus can crawl in any direction relative to its body orientation; (2) body and crawling orientation are monotonically and independently controlled; and (3) contrasting known animal locomotion, octopus crawling lacks any apparent rhythmical patterns in limb coordination, suggesting a unique non-rhythmical output of the octopus central controller. We show that this uncommon maneuverability is derived from the radial symmetry of the arms around the body and the simple pushing-by-elongation mechanism by which the arms create the crawling thrust. These two together enable a mechanism whereby the central controller chooses in a moment-to-moment fashion which arms to recruit for pushing the body in an instantaneous direction. Our findings suggest that the soft molluscan body has affected in an embodied way [4, 5] the emergence of the adaptive motor behavior of the octopus. PMID:25891406

  11. Control strategy for a dual-arm maneuverable space robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, P. K. C.

    1987-01-01

    A simple strategy for the attitude control and arm coordination of a maneuverable space robot with dual arms is proposed. The basic task for the robot consists of the placement of marked rigid solid objects with specified pairs of gripping points and a specified direction of approach for gripping. The strategy consists of three phases each of which involves only elementary rotational and translational collision-free maneuvers of the robot body. Control laws for these elementary maneuvers are derived by using a body-referenced dynamic model of the dual-arm robot.

  12. Arms control in the Korean peninsula. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, H.

    1986-05-01

    Since the end of the Korean War, both North and South Korea have been building up their military power. This arms race has increased the risk of a military conflict between the North and South which could result in major power involvement. In recent years, various measures have been attempted to enhance stability in Korea to no avail. When the situation becomes more favorable for negotiations, the most difficult problem will be arms control. This paper discusses the interests of the two countries and of the four major powers involved and suggests a suitable format for arms control agreements.

  13. Some piloting experiences with multifunction isometric side-arm controllers in a helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    The installation of two side-arm mounted, isometric controllers in the NAE Airborne Simulator, a modified, variable stability Bell 205 A is described, as is the development of various control systems for use with them. The results of two experiments are presented indicating both the feasibility and acceptability of such systems for a wide variety of tasks in a conventional single rotor helicopter, with a minimum of stability augmentation. Areas of future research are indicated.

  14. Prospect for future South-Korea arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Y.

    1992-04-22

    This study deals with the Hot issues of the first five Prime Ministers (PM) meetings, which encompassed 15 months of negotiations and have resulted in the completion of the Agreement on South-North Reconciliation/Non-aggression and Cooperation after 46 years of division. After the signing of the agreement, detailed worker level progress has culminated in North Korea signing the nuclear safety treaty of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Acceptance of International Inspection of Nuclear Facilities South-North civil economic progress is on the way and at the 6th meeting, a head of state meeting was discussed. Taking all this into consideration, it is safe to say that an affirmative direction is being taken towards South-North relations. In this arena, a critical element for better South-North relations is arms control. If meetings on arms control between South-North make good progress, the solution for the Korean peninsula's reunification, as well as detente, will be achieved more quickly. Therefore, arms control on the Korean peninsula should be considered as an important point for improvement of the future South-North Korean relationship. The important fact that we should remember is that arms control is a common issue. Arms control should be solved by South-North Korea because a phased arms control can develop prior to conditions for reunification.

  15. Prediction in the Vestibular Control of Arm Movements.

    PubMed

    Blouin, Jean; Bresciani, Jean-Pierre; Guillaud, Etienne; Simoneau, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of vestibular signals to motor control has been evidenced in postural, locomotor, and oculomotor studies. Here, we review studies showing that vestibular information also contributes to the control of arm movements during whole-body motion. The data reviewed suggest that vestibular information is used by the arm motor system to maintain the initial hand position or the planned hand trajectory unaltered during body motion. This requires integration of vestibular and cervical inputs to determine the trunk motion dynamics. These studies further suggest that the vestibular control of arm movement relies on rapid and efficient vestibulomotor transformations that cannot be considered automatic. We also reviewed evidence suggesting that the vestibular afferents can be used by the brain to predict and counteract body-rotation-induced torques (e.g., Coriolis) acting on the arm when reaching for a target while turning the trunk. PMID:26595953

  16. Unconventional digital reactor control without conventional programming

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, R.M.; Johns, R.M.; Kenney, S.J.

    1995-12-31

    Recent advances in simulation technology have resulted in the capability to design, test, and implement advanced control algorithms without the need for the labor-intensive effort of writing and debugging of computer programs. This technology has been adopted for a program of experimental development of power reactor control, which is jointly sponsored by the National Science Foundation and the Electric Power Research Institute. The experimental reactor control test bed utilizes the General Atomic Mark III TRIGA reactor at the Penn State Breazeale reactor facility. Control experiments are conducted within the movable experiment technical specifications of the TRIGA. A digital controller with an experimental control algorithm is interfaced to a secondary control rod (SCR). The new technology presented in this paper utilizes a UNIX network-compatible microprocessor-based controller operating under the Wind River Systems VxWorks real-time operating system. The controller interfaces with the Math-works MATLAB/SIMULINK development environment and Real-Time Innovations 8 monitoring software remotely operated on a SPARC workstation.

  17. Supporting the President's Arms Control and Nonproliferation Agenda: Transparency and Verification for Nuclear Arms Reductions

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, James E; Meek, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    The President's arms control and nonproliferation agenda is still evolving and the details of initiatives supporting it remain undefined. This means that DOE, NNSA, NA-20, NA-24 and the national laboratories can help define the agenda, and the policies and the initiatives to support it. This will require effective internal and interagency coordination. The arms control and nonproliferation agenda is broad and includes the path-breaking goal of creating conditions for the elimination of nuclear weapons. Responsibility for various elements of the agenda will be widely scattered across the interagency. Therefore an interagency mapping exercise should be performed to identify the key points of engagement within NNSA and other agencies for creating effective policy coordination mechanisms. These can include informal networks, working groups, coordinating committees, interagency task forces, etc. It will be important for NA-20 and NA-24 to get a seat at the table and a functional role in many of these coordinating bodies. The arms control and nonproliferation agenda comprises both mature and developing policy initiatives. The more mature elements such as CTBT ratification and a follow-on strategic nuclear arms treaty with Russia have defined milestones. However, recent press reports indicate that even the START follow-on strategic arms pact that is planned to be complete by the end of 2009 may take significantly longer and be more expansive in scope. The Russians called for proposals to count non-deployed as well as deployed warheads. Other elements of the agenda such as FMCT, future bilateral nuclear arms reductions following a START follow-on treaty, nuclear posture changes, preparations for an international nuclear security summit, strengthened international safeguards and multilateral verification are in much earlier stages of development. For this reason any survey of arms control capabilities within the USG should be structured to address potential needs across the

  18. Control of flexible arms with friction in the joints

    SciTech Connect

    Feliu, V.; Rattan, K.S.; Brown, H.B. Jr.

    1993-08-01

    The control of flexible arms with friction in the joints is studied. A method to identify the dynamics of a flexible arm from its frequency response (which is strongly distorted by Coulomb`s friction) is proposed. A robust control scheme that minimizes the effects of this friction is presented. The scheme consists of two nested feedback loops: an inner loop to control the motor position and an outer loop to control the tip position. It is shown that a proper design of the inner loop eliminates the effect so friction while controlling the tip position and significantly simplifies the design of the outer loop. The proposed scheme is applied to a class of lightweight flexible arms, and the experiments show that the control scheme results in a simple controller. As a result, the computations are minimized and, thus, high sampling rates may be used.

  19. Configuration control of seven-degree-of-freedom arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, Homayoun (Inventor); Long, Mark K. (Inventor); Lee, Thomas S. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A seven degree of freedom robot arm with a six degree of freedom end effector is controlled by a processor employing a 6 by 7 Jacobian matrix for defining location and orientation of the end effector in terms of the rotation angles of the joints, a 1 (or more) by 7 Jacobian matrix for defining 1 (or more) user specified kinematic functions constraining location or movement of selected portions of the arm in terms of the joint angles, the processor combining the two Jacobian matrices to produce an augmented 7 (or more) by 7 Jacobian matrix, the processor effecting control by computing in accordance with forward kinematics from the augmented 7 by 7 Jacobian matrix and from the seven joint angles of the arm a set of seven desired joint angles for transmittal to the joint servo loops of the arm. One of the kinematic functions constraints the orientation of the elbow plane of the arm. Another one of the kinematic functions minimizes a sum of gravitational torques on the joints. Still another kinematic function constrains the location of the arm to perform collision avoidance. Generically, one kinematic function minimizes a sum of selected mechanical parameters of at least some of the joints associated with weighting coefficients which may be changed during arm movement. The mechanical parameters may be velocity errors or gravity torques associated with individual joints.

  20. Configuration control of seven degree of freedom arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, Homayoun (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A seven-degree-of-freedom robot arm with a six-degree-of-freedom end effector is controlled by a processor employing a 6-by-7 Jacobian matrix for defining location and orientation of the end effector in terms of the rotation angles of the joints, a 1 (or more)-by-7 Jacobian matrix for defining 1 (or more) user-specified kinematic functions constraining location or movement of selected portions of the arm in terms of the joint angles, the processor combining the two Jacobian matrices to produce an augmented 7 (or more)-by-7 Jacobian matrix, the processor effecting control by computing in accordance with forward kinematics from the augmented 7-by-7 Jacobian matrix and from the seven joint angles of the arm a set of seven desired joint angles for transmittal to the joint servo loops of the arms. One of the kinematic functions constrains the orientation of the elbow plane of the arm. Another one of the kinematic functions minimizing a sum of gravitational torques on the joints. Still another one of the kinematic functions constrains the location of the arm to perform collision avoidance. Generically, one of the kinematic functions minimizes a sum of selected mechanical parameters of at least some of the joints associated with weighting coefficients which may be changed during arm movement. The mechanical parameters may be velocity errors or position errors or gravity torques associated with individual joints.

  1. Packaging Of Control Circuits In A Robot Arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kast, William

    1994-01-01

    Packaging system houses and connects control circuitry mounted on circuit boards within shoulder, upper section, and lower section of seven-degree-of-freedom robot arm. Has modular design that incorporates surface-mount technology, multilayer circuit boards, large-scale integrated circuits, and multi-layer flat cables between sections for compactness. Three sections of robot arm contain circuit modules in form of stardardized circuit boards. Each module contains two printed-circuit cards, one of each face.

  2. Gravitoinertial force level influences arm movement control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisk, J.; Lackner, J. R.; DiZio, P.

    1993-01-01

    1. The ability to move the forearm between remembered elbow joint angles immediately after rapid increases or decreases of the background gravitoinertial force (G) level was measured. The movements had been well-practiced in a normal 1G environment before the measurements in high-(1.8G) and low-force (0G) environments. The forearm and upper arm were always unsupported to maximize the influence of altered G-loading and to minimize extraneous cues about arm position. 2. Horizontal and vertical movement planes were studied to measure the effects of varying the G load in the movement plane within a given G background. Rapid and slow movements were studied to assess the role of proprioceptive feedback. 3. G level did not affect the amplitude of rapid movements, indicating that subjects were able to plan and to generate appropriate motor commands for the new G loading of the arm. The amplitude of slow movements was affected by G level, indicating that proprioceptive feedback is influenced by G level. 4. The effects of G level were similar for horizontal and vertical movements, indicating that proprioceptive information from supporting structures, such as the shoulder joint and muscles, had a role in allowing generation of the appropriate motor commands. 5. The incidence and size of dynamic overshoots were greater in 0G and for rapid movements. This G-related change in damping suggests a decrease in muscle spindle activity in 0G. A decrease in muscle spindle activity in 0G and an increase in 1.8G are consistent with the results of our prior studies on the tonic vibration reflex, locomotion, and perception of head movement trajectory in varying force backgrounds.

  3. Intelligence and arms control - a marriage of convenience

    SciTech Connect

    Hirschfeld, T.J.

    1987-01-01

    This book offers the first comprehensive look at how the vast US intelligence network enables negotiators to forge viable arms control agreements. The intelligence role in all three phases of the arms control process is discussed - from the design phase when reliable information is needed, to the execution phase when proposals are modified, to the maintenance phase when agreed-upon obligations begin to constrain adversary behavior and compliance becomes the key political issue. Contributors include: former CIA Director William E. Colby; Douglas George, Chief of the CIA's Control Intelligence Staff, Admiral Bobby R. Inman, former NSA Director; Hans Mark, former Air Force Secretary and NSA administrator; Walt W. Rostow, National Security Adviser to President Johnson; and Paul Warnke, former Director of the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency and Chief Negotiator for SALT II.

  4. The importance of domestic law to international arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, R.F. II

    1993-11-01

    Studies of arms control and disarmament tend to focus on political, military, and diplomatic processes. Recently, in the context of the conversion of defense activities to civilian use, the economic aspects of arms control have also received renewed interest. The legal dimension, however, is in need of fresh examination. Both international and domestic law are sailing increasingly in uncharted waters. Recent arms control agreements and related developments in international peacekeeping have expanded the scope of international law and altered how one perceives certain fundamentals, including the principle of national sovereignty. Still, the nation state is largely unchallenged as the primary actor in international affairs. National governments retain near absolute sovereign rights and responsibilities even in an age of trans-national economic integration and codified international norms for human rights, freedom of the press, and the peaceful resolution of disputes. Indeed, the role of domestic law in arms control and disarmament may be more significant now than ever before. A brief review of relationships between arms control and domestic law should illustrate ways in which ones thinking has been underestimating the importance of domestic law. Hopefully, this survey will set the stage properly for the excellent, more detailed case studies by Elinor Hammarskjold and Alan Crawford. Toward that end, this paper will highlight a number of more general, and sometimes provocative, themes. These themes should be kept in mind when those two complementary presentations are considered.

  5. Measurement approaches to support future warhead arms control transparency

    SciTech Connect

    Olinger, C.T.; Frankle, C.M.; Johnson, M.W.; Poths, J.

    1998-12-31

    Transparency on warhead stockpiles, warhead dismantlement, and fissile material stockpiles in nuclear weapons states will become increasingly important in the move beyond START II toward lower quantities of warheads. Congressional support for further warhead reductions will likely depend on the degree of irreversibility, or in other words, the rapidity with which warhead inventories could be reconstituted. Whether irreversibility considerations can be satisfied will depend on monitoring dismantlement as well as constraining the available stockpile of fissile materials for possible refabrication into warheads. Measurement techniques designed to address the above problems will need to consider NPT Article 1 obligations as well as Russian and US classification regulations, which prohibit or restrict the transfer of nuclear warhead design information to other states. Classification considerations currently limit the potential completeness of future inspections of weapons materials. Many conventional international safeguards approaches are not currently viable for arms control applications because they would reveal weapons design information. The authors discuss a variety of technical measures that may help to improve transparence of warhead and fissile material stockpiles and may enable limited warhead dismantlement transparency.

  6. Constitutional and legal implications of arms control verification technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Tanzman, E.A.; Haffenden, R.

    1992-09-01

    United States law can both help and hinder the use of instrumentation as a component of arms control verification in this country. It can foster the general use of sophisticated verification technologies, where such devices are consistent with the value attached to privacy by the Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution. On the other hand, law can hinder reliance on devices that cross this constitutional line, or where such technology itself threatens health, safety, or environment as such threats are defined in federal statutes. The purpose of this conference paper is to explain some of the lessons that have been learned about the relationship between law and verification technologies in the hope that law can help more than hinder. This paper has three parts. In order to start with a common understanding, part I will briefly describe the hierarchy of treaties, the Constitution, federal statutes, and state and local laws. Part 2 will discuss how the specific constitutional requirement that the government respect the right of privacy in all of its endeavors may affect the use of verification technologies. Part 3 will explain the environmental law constraints on verification technology as exemplified by the system of on-site sampling embodied in the current Rolling Text of the Draft Chemical Weapons Convention.

  7. Weintek interfaces for controlling the position of a robotic arm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barz, C.; Ilia, M.; Ilut, T.; Pop-Vadean, A.; Pop, P. P.; Dragan, F.

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents the use of Weintek panels to control the position of a robotic arm, operated step by step on the three motor axes. PLC control interface is designed with a Weintek touch screen. The HMI Weintek eMT3070a is the user interface in the process command of the PLC. This HMI controls the local PLC, entering the coordinate on the axes X, Y and Z. The subject allows the development in a virtual environment for e-learning and monitoring the robotic arm actions.

  8. Torque control in lingual orthodontics with lever arm mechanics: a case report.

    PubMed

    Aravind, M; Shivaprakash, G; Ramesh, G C

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this report is to illustrate treatment mechanics for torque control in lingual mechanotherapy using a lever arm and transpalatal arch (TPA) tab system during en masse retraction of anterior teeth. An 18-year-old female with bimaxillary dentoalveolar proclination with crowding was treated with a lever arm-TPA tab system. The retraction tabs bent into the TPA placed across the maxillary second molars were used as anchorage. The retraction force on the maxillary anterior teeth was applied using lever arm hooks soldered between the lateral incisors and canines on a lingual mushroom archwire. By applying a retraction force to the lever arm hooks, the maxillary anterior teeth experienced greater palatal root movement as compared to the conventional retraction forces applied at the crown level. The tabs, placed high in the TPA, produced a distal tipping moment on the maxillary second molars, reinforcing their anchorage. The retraction force applied to the long lever arm hooks from the TPA tabs at the level of center of resistance (CRes) of anterior and posterior teeth is advantageous mainly in two aspects. First, it reinforces the anchorage, and second, it favors the palatal root movement of anterior teeth, thus obtaining better control over the torque during en masse retraction. PMID:23646329

  9. Britain, America and arms control, 1921-37

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, C.

    1987-01-01

    Arms control diplomacy as a central factor in superpower relations is not a new phenomenon. In this book the author traces the rise and fall of a previous arms limitation effort, the naval treaties of the inter-war years, which successfully controlled competition in the strategic weapons of that era - battleships and other vessels of the British, American and other great power navies. He shows the problems and their solutions - many of relevance today - which made the treaties possible, and their major role in the peaceful transfer of leadership of the West from the British Empire to the United States.

  10. Tokyo terror and chemical arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Keeny, S.M. Jr.

    1995-04-01

    The nerve gas attack in the Tokyo subway underscores the extreme vulnerability of urban society to terrorist attacks. The best defense is improved intelligence of potential terrorists and domestic laws permitting pre-emptive action when there is probable cause. If the 1993 Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) were in force, all 159 signatories would be required to have such laws. The author examies the threat and provides some political insights.

  11. Photoelectric radar servo control system based on ARM+FPGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Kaixuan; Zhang, Yue; Li, Yeqiu; Dai, Qin; Yao, Jun

    2016-01-01

    In order to get smaller, faster, and more responsive requirements of the photoelectric radar servo control system. We propose a set of core ARM + FPGA architecture servo controller. Parallel processing capability of FPGA to be used for the encoder feedback data, PWM carrier modulation, A, B code decoding processing and so on; Utilizing the advantage of imaging design in ARM Embedded systems achieves high-speed implementation of the PID algorithm. After the actual experiment, the closed-loop speed of response of the system cycles up to 2000 times/s, in the case of excellent precision turntable shaft, using a PID algorithm to achieve the servo position control with the accuracy of + -1 encoder input code. Firstly, This article carry on in-depth study of the embedded servo control system hardware to determine the ARM and FPGA chip as the main chip with systems based on a pre-measured target required to achieve performance requirements, this article based on ARM chip used Samsung S3C2440 chip of ARM7 architecture , the FPGA chip is chosen xilinx's XC3S400 . ARM and FPGA communicate by using SPI bus, the advantage of using SPI bus is saving a lot of pins for easy system upgrades required thereafter. The system gets the speed datas through the photoelectric-encoder that transports the datas to the FPGA, Then the system transmits the datas through the FPGA to ARM, transforms speed datas into the corresponding position and velocity data in a timely manner, prepares the corresponding PWM wave to control motor rotation by making comparison between the position data and the velocity data setted in advance . According to the system requirements to draw the schematics of the photoelectric radar servo control system and PCB board to produce specially. Secondly, using PID algorithm to control the servo system, the datas of speed obtained from photoelectric-encoder is calculated position data and speed data via high-speed digital PID algorithm and coordinate models. Finally, a

  12. 27 CFR 479.193 - Arms Export Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Arms Export Control Act. 479.193 Section 479.193 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES,...

  13. 27 CFR 479.193 - Arms Export Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Arms Export Control Act. 479.193 Section 479.193 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES,...

  14. 27 CFR 479.193 - Arms Export Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Arms Export Control Act. 479.193 Section 479.193 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES,...

  15. 27 CFR 479.193 - Arms Export Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Arms Export Control Act. 479.193 Section 479.193 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES,...

  16. 27 CFR 479.193 - Arms Export Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arms Export Control Act. 479.193 Section 479.193 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES,...

  17. Nexus of technologies : international safeguards, physical protection and arms control.

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, Sabina Erteza; Blair, Dianna Sue; Smartt, Heidi Anne

    2010-09-01

    New technologies have been, and are continuing to be, developed for Safeguards, Arms Control, and Physical Protection. Application spaces and technical requirements are evolving - Overlaps are developing. Lessons learned from IAEA's extensive experience could benefit other communities. Technologies developed for other applications may benefit Safeguards - Inherent cost benefits and improvements in procurement security processes.

  18. Mars Surveyor '98 MVACS Robotic Arm Control System Design Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonitz, Robert G.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the control system design concepts for the Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor (MVACS) Robotic Arm which supports the scientific investigations to be conducted as part of the Mars Surveyor '98 Lander project. Novel solutions are presented to some of the unique problems encountered in this demanding space application with its tight constraints on mass, power, volume, and computing power.

  19. A Short Guide to U.S. Arms Control Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Norman, Ed.; Sussman, Colleen, Ed.

    Steps the United States is taking to lessen the danger of war while building international confidence and security are described. The commitment of the United States to arms control is based on the conviction that the United States and the Soviet Union have a common interest in the avoidance of nuclear war and the survival of the human race. A…

  20. Anchoring the "floating arm": Use of proprioceptive and mirror visual feedback from one arm to control involuntary displacement of the other arm.

    PubMed

    Brun, C; Guerraz, M

    2015-12-01

    Arm movement control takes advantage of multiple inputs, including those originating from the contralateral arm. In the mirror paradigm, it has been suggested that control of the unseen arm, hidden by the mirror, is facilitated by the reflection of the other, moving arm. Although proprioceptive feedback originating from the moving arm, (the image of which is reflected in the mirror), is always coupled with visual feedback in the mirror paradigm, the former has received little attention. We recently showed that the involuntary arm movement following a sustained, isometric contraction, known as the "floating arm" or "Kohnstamm phenomenon", was adjusted to the passive-motorized displacement of the other arm. However, provision of mirror feedback, that is, the reflection in the mirror of the passively moved arm, did not add to this coupling effect. Therefore, the interlimb coupling in the mirror paradigm may to a large extent have a proprioceptive origin rather than a visual origin. The objective of the present study was to decouple mirror feedback and proprioceptive feedback from the reflected, moving arm and evaluate their respective contributions to interlimb coupling in the mirror paradigm. First (in Experiment 1, under eyes-closed conditions), we found that masking the proprioceptive afferents of the passively moved arm (by co-vibrating the antagonistic biceps and triceps muscles) suppressed the interlimb coupling between involuntary displacement of one arm and passive displacement of the other. Next (in Experiment 2), we masked proprioceptive afferents of the passively moved arm and specifically evaluated mirror feedback. We found that interlimb coupling through mirror feedback (though significant) was weaker than interlimb coupling through proprioceptive feedback. Overall, the present results show that in the mirror paradigm, proprioceptive feedback is stronger and more consistent than visual-mirror feedback in terms of the impact on interlimb coupling. PMID

  1. Origins of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control

    PubMed Central

    Roemer, Ruth; Taylor, Allyn; Lariviere, Jean

    2005-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control originated in 1993 with a decision by Ruth Roemer and Allyn Taylor to apply to tobacco control Taylor’s idea that the WHO should utilize its constitutional authority to develop international conventions to advance global health. In 1995, Taylor and Ruth Roemer proposed various options to WHO, recommending the framework convention-protocol approach conceptualized by Taylor. Despite initial resistance by some WHO officials, this approach gained wide acceptance. In 1996, the World Health Assembly voted to proceed with its development. Negotiations by WHO member states led the World Health Assembly in May 2003 to adopt by consensus the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control—the first international treaty adopted under WHO auspices. The treaty formally entered into force for state parties on February 27, 2005. PMID:15914812

  2. Frequency modulated cutaneous orientation feedback from artificial arms. [dynamic control model of human arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomonow, M.; Freedy, A.; Lyman, J.

    1975-01-01

    A model of the human arm, emphasizing the neuromuscular mechanisms of feedback control, has been constructed. The various parameters and functions of physiological receptors in the feedback section have been classified into an automated category that can be incorporated in the prosthesis servo loop, and into a sensory category that should be communicated to the operator if control and dynamic performance are to be optimized. A scheme for simultaneous display of two such sensory parameters, i.e., fingertip pressure and elbow position, has been developed, implemented and evaluated. The neurophysiological mechanism of such displays, and the feasibility of sensory transformation, is discussed in this paper.

  3. Arms Control: US and International efforts to ban biological weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons Convention, the treaty that bans the development, production, and stockpiling and acquisition of biological weapons was opened for signature in 1972 and came into force in 1975 after being ratified by 22 governments, including the depository nations of the USA, the United Kingdom, and the former Soviet Union. In support of the Convention, the USA later established export controls on items used to make biological weapons. Further, in accordance with the 1990 President`s Enhanced Proliferation Control Initiative, actions were taken to redefine and expand US export controls, as well as to encourage multilateral controls through the Australia Group. Thus far, the Convention has not been effective in stopping the development of biological weapons. The principal findings as to the reasons of the failures of the Convention are found to be: the Convention lacks universality, compliance measures are effective, advantage of verification may outweigh disadvantages. Recommendations for mitigating these failures are outlined in this report.

  4. A biologically inspired neural network controller for ballistic arm movements

    PubMed Central

    Bernabucci, Ivan; Conforto, Silvia; Capozza, Marco; Accornero, Neri; Schmid, Maurizio; D'Alessio, Tommaso

    2007-01-01

    Background In humans, the implementation of multijoint tasks of the arm implies a highly complex integration of sensory information, sensorimotor transformations and motor planning. Computational models can be profitably used to better understand the mechanisms sub-serving motor control, thus providing useful perspectives and investigating different control hypotheses. To this purpose, the use of Artificial Neural Networks has been proposed to represent and interpret the movement of upper limb. In this paper, a neural network approach to the modelling of the motor control of a human arm during planar ballistic movements is presented. Methods The developed system is composed of three main computational blocks: 1) a parallel distributed learning scheme that aims at simulating the internal inverse model in the trajectory formation process; 2) a pulse generator, which is responsible for the creation of muscular synergies; and 3) a limb model based on two joints (two degrees of freedom) and six muscle-like actuators, that can accommodate for the biomechanical parameters of the arm. The learning paradigm of the neural controller is based on a pure exploration of the working space with no feedback signal. Kinematics provided by the system have been compared with those obtained in literature from experimental data of humans. Results The model reproduces kinematics of arm movements, with bell-shaped wrist velocity profiles and approximately straight trajectories, and gives rise to the generation of synergies for the execution of movements. The model allows achieving amplitude and direction errors of respectively 0.52 cm and 0.2 radians. Curvature values are similar to those encountered in experimental measures with humans. The neural controller also manages environmental modifications such as the insertion of different force fields acting on the end-effector. Conclusion The proposed system has been shown to properly simulate the development of internal models and to control

  5. Learning and Control Model of the Arm for Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyoungsik; Kambara, Hiroyuki; Shin, Duk; Koike, Yasuharu

    We propose a learning and control model of the arm for a loading task in which an object is loaded onto one hand with the other hand, in the sagittal plane. Postural control during object interactions provides important points to motor control theories in terms of how humans handle dynamics changes and use the information of prediction and sensory feedback. For the learning and control model, we coupled a feedback-error-learning scheme with an Actor-Critic method used as a feedback controller. To overcome sensory delays, a feedforward dynamics model (FDM) was used in the sensory feedback path. We tested the proposed model in simulation using a two-joint arm with six muscles, each with time delays in muscle force generation. By applying the proposed model to the loading task, we showed that motor commands started increasing, before an object was loaded on, to stabilize arm posture. We also found that the FDM contributes to the stabilization by predicting how the hand changes based on contexts of the object and efferent signals. For comparison with other computational models, we present the simulation results of a minimum-variance model.

  6. Cold war arms control motivations and techniques - a guide for the future. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    White, E.G.

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides a brief historical account of some of the arms control agreements between the U.S. and the Soviet Union, examines their major motivations to enter into negotiations, and illustrates some successful negotiation techniques. The author hypothesizes on the utility of this Cold War arms control experience as a useful guide for arms control in a single superpower world.

  7. Security and Arms Control: The Search for a More Stable Peace. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Norman, Ed.; Sussman, Colleen, Ed.

    Efforts of the United States since the end of World War II to advance the arms control process are discussed. There are five major sections. The first section recounts past arms control efforts--those that have worked and those that have not--and discusses the principles underlying U.S. arms control initiatives. The second section describes the…

  8. Adaptive and predictive control of a simulated robot arm.

    PubMed

    Tolu, Silvia; Vanegas, Mauricio; Garrido, Jesús A; Luque, Niceto R; Ros, Eduardo

    2013-06-01

    In this work, a basic cerebellar neural layer and a machine learning engine are embedded in a recurrent loop which avoids dealing with the motor error or distal error problem. The presented approach learns the motor control based on available sensor error estimates (position, velocity, and acceleration) without explicitly knowing the motor errors. The paper focuses on how to decompose the input into different components in order to facilitate the learning process using an automatic incremental learning model (locally weighted projection regression (LWPR) algorithm). LWPR incrementally learns the forward model of the robot arm and provides the cerebellar module with optimal pre-processed signals. We present a recurrent adaptive control architecture in which an adaptive feedback (AF) controller guarantees a precise, compliant, and stable control during the manipulation of objects. Therefore, this approach efficiently integrates a bio-inspired module (cerebellar circuitry) with a machine learning component (LWPR). The cerebellar-LWPR synergy makes the robot adaptable to changing conditions. We evaluate how this scheme scales for robot-arms of a high number of degrees of freedom (DOFs) using a simulated model of a robot arm of the new generation of light weight robots (LWRs). PMID:23627657

  9. Effect of motor dynamics on nonlinear feedback robot arm control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarn, Tzyh-Jong; Li, Zuofeng; Bejczy, Antal K.; Yun, Xiaoping

    1991-01-01

    A nonlinear feedback robot controller that incorporates the robot manipulator dynamics and the robot joint motor dynamics is proposed. The manipulator dynamics and the motor dynamics are coupled to obtain a third-order-dynamic model, and differential geometric control theory is applied to produce a linearized and decoupled robot controller. The derived robot controller operates in the robot task space, thus eliminating the need for decomposition of motion commands into robot joint space commands. Computer simulations are performed to verify the feasibility of the proposed robot controller. The controller is further experimentally evaluated on the PUMA 560 robot arm. The experiments show that the proposed controller produces good trajectory tracking performances and is robust in the presence of model inaccuracies. Compared with a nonlinear feedback robot controller based on the manipulator dynamics only, the proposed robot controller yields conspicuously improved performance.

  10. CONTROL OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM OOCYSTS BY STEADY-STATE CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pilot-scale experiments have been performed to assess the ability of conventional treatment to control Cryptosporidium oocysts under steady-state conditions. The work was performed with a pilot plant that was designed to minimize flow rates and, as a result, the number of oocyst...

  11. Arms control and nonproliferation technologies. Fourth quarter 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Staehle, G.; Talaber, C.; Stull, S.

    1992-12-31

    This report includes information concerning: the Department of Energy`s Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation; the nuclear inspections in Iraq, lessons for verification; detection technologies needed for each step of nuclear weapon development; nuclear proliferation problems; strengthening the nuclear reactor fuel cycle against proliferation; monitoring using unattended remote nondestructive assay; seismic monitoring in a proliferation environment; forensic science center, remote infrared spectrometry for nonproliferation applications; and acoustic instrument for identifying chemical munitions.

  12. Telepresence control of a dual-arm dexterous robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Larry; Cox, Brian; Shelton, Susan; Diftler, Myron

    1994-01-01

    Telepresence is an approach to teleoperation that provides egocentric, intuitive interactions between an operator and a remote environment. This approach takes advantage of the natural cognitive and sensory-motor skills of an on-orbit crew and effectively transfers them to a slave robot. A dual-arm dexterous robot operating under telepresence control has been developed and is being evaluated. Preliminary evaluation revealed several important observations that suggest the directions of future enhancement.

  13. Intelligence database support for Naval arms control. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Shirer, R.H.

    1991-12-01

    The database contained in this thesis was put together from unclassified sources. It is stored on computer disk using the Lotus 123 software program and is easily updated and manipulated. This database was created to provide support to U.S. Naval arms control negotiators in the event that the Navy is forced to the negotiating table. This thesis does not advocate naval arms control. However, given the current political climate it is prudent to be prepared for such an eventuality. This assessment utilizes a methodology for determining excess naval forces of the Soviet Union that would be targetable in arms control talks. In order to quantify the excess, we constructed a Soviet naval model that would be adequate to meet Soviet security goals under 'defensive defense' doctrine. Our goal was not to present the Soviet Union with a plan of action but to come up with a reasonable estimate of what their force structure is likely to resemble. Again, it is the methodology which is important here, as specific numbers can easily be changed using the Lotus program to account for classified information or changing developments.

  14. Overview: Mechanism and Control of a Prosthetic Arm.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Tushar; Uddanwadiker, Rashmi

    2015-09-01

    Continuous growth in industrialization and lack of awareness in safety parameters the cases of amputations are growing. The search of safer, simpler and automated prosthetic arms for managing upper limbs is expected. Continuous efforts have been made to design and develop prosthetic arms ranging from simple harness actuated to automated mechanisms with various control options. However due the cost constraints, the automated prosthetic arms are still out of the reach of needy people. Recent data have shown that there is a wide scope to develop a low cost and light weight upper limb prosthesis. This review summarizes the various designs methodologies, mechanisms and control system developed by the researchers and the advances therein. Educating the patient to develop acceptability to prosthesis and using the same for the most basic desired functions of human hand, post amputation care and to improve patient's independent life is equally important. In conclusion it can be interpreted that there is a wide scope in design in an adaptive mechanism for opening and closing of the fingers using other methods of path and position synthesis. Simple mechanisms and less parts may optimize the cost factor. Reduction in the weight of the prosthesis may be achieved using polymers used for engineering applications. Control system will remain never ending challenge for the researchers, but it is essential to maintain the simplicity from the patients perspective. PMID:27281955

  15. Nonlinear adaptive control of an elastic robotic arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, S. N.

    1986-01-01

    An approach to control of a class of nonlinear flexible robotic systems is presented. For simplicity, a robot arm (PUMA-type) with three rotational joints is considered. The third link is assumed to be elastic. An adaptive torquer control law is derived for controlling the joint angles. This controller includes a dynamic system in the feedback path, requires only joint angle and rate for feedback, and asymptotically decomposes the elastic dynamics into two subsystems representing the transverse vibrations of the elastic link in two orthogonal planes. To damp out the elastic vibration, a force control law using modal feedback is synthesized. The combination of the torque and force control laws accomplishes joint angle control and elastic mode stabilization.

  16. The KALI multi-arm robot programming and control environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backes, Paul; Hayati, Samad; Hayward, Vincent; Tso, Kam

    1989-01-01

    The KALI distributed robot programming and control environment is described within the context of its use in the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) telerobot project. The purpose of KALI is to provide a flexible robot programming and control environment for coordinated multi-arm robots. Flexibility, both in hardware configuration and software, is desired so that it can be easily modified to test various concepts in robot programming and control, e.g., multi-arm control, force control, sensor integration, teleoperation, and shared control. In the programming environment, user programs written in the C programming language describe trajectories for multiple coordinated manipulators with the aid of KALI function libraries. A system of multiple coordinated manipulators is considered within the programming environment as one motion system. The user plans the trajectory of one controlled Cartesian frame associated with a motion system and describes the positions of the manipulators with respect to that frame. Smooth Cartesian trajectories are achieved through a blending of successive path segments. The manipulator and load dynamics are considered during trajectory generation so that given interface force limits are not exceeded.

  17. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 631 - Armed Forces Disciplinary Control Board Procedures Guide

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Armed Forces Disciplinary Control Board... THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS ARMED FORCES DISCIPLINARY CONTROL BOARDS AND OFF-INSTALLATION LIAISON AND OPERATIONS Pt. 631, App. A Appendix A to Part 631—Armed...

  18. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 631 - Armed Forces Disciplinary Control Board Procedures Guide

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Armed Forces Disciplinary Control Board... THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS ARMED FORCES DISCIPLINARY CONTROL BOARDS AND OFF-INSTALLATION LIAISON AND OPERATIONS Pt. 631, App. A Appendix A to Part 631—Armed...

  19. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 631 - Armed Forces Disciplinary Control Board Procedures Guide

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Armed Forces Disciplinary Control Board... THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS ARMED FORCES DISCIPLINARY CONTROL BOARDS AND OFF-INSTALLATION LIAISON AND OPERATIONS Pt. 631, App. A Appendix A to Part 631—Armed...

  20. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 631 - Armed Forces Disciplinary Control Board Procedures Guide

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Armed Forces Disciplinary Control Board... THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS ARMED FORCES DISCIPLINARY CONTROL BOARDS AND OFF-INSTALLATION LIAISON AND OPERATIONS Pt. 631, App. A Appendix A to Part 631—Armed...

  1. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 631 - Armed Forces Disciplinary Control Board Procedures Guide

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Armed Forces Disciplinary Control Board... THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS ARMED FORCES DISCIPLINARY CONTROL BOARDS AND OFF-INSTALLATION LIAISON AND OPERATIONS Pt. 631, App. A Appendix A to Part 631—Armed...

  2. Tags and seals to strengthen arms control verification

    SciTech Connect

    DeVolpi, A.

    1990-10-03

    Tags and seals have long been recognized as important tools in arms control. The trend in control of armaments is to limit militarily significant equipment that is capable of being verified through direct and cooperative means, chiefly on-site inspection or monitoring. Although this paper will focus on the CFE treaty, the role of tags and seals for other treaties will also be addressed. Published technology and concepts will be reviewed, based on open sources. Arms control verification tags are defined as unique identifiers designed to be tamper-revealing; in that respect, seals are similar, being used as indicators of unauthorized access. Tamper-revealing tags are intended as single-point markers, seals for two-point couplings, and nets for volume containment. Seals usually bind two separate components, such as a hatch or flange that provides access to a secure compartment or a valve that controls fluid flow. A tamper-revealing net might be comprised of a coupled fiberoptic bundle wrapped around an object. Sometimes the term ``seal`` is used to denote the tamper-revealing feature of a tag that is attached to a surface, but in this paper the tamper-indicating connection is considered to be part of the tag concept itself.

  3. US arms control obligations under the Non-Proliferation Treaty

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-06-27

    Article VI of the 1968 Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) obligates the nuclear weapon states parties to the Treaty ''to pursue negotiations in good faith on effective measures relating to cessation of the nuclear arms race, ... to nuclear disarmament, and on a treaty on general and complete disarmament under strict and effective international control.'' The preamble to the NPT recalls the 1963 Limited Test Ban Treaty ''determination ... to achieve the discontinuance of ... explosions.'' These provisions are interpreted by a majority of the non-nuclear weapon states parties to the Treaty as an obligation of the nuclear weapon states parties to the Treaty to pursue a comprehensive test ban (CTB). However, a review of the history of the NPT negotiations and US ratification proceedings makes clear that the NPT imposes no legal obligation on the US to pursue a CTB. The US did not make a one-to-one correspondence between Article VI and any specific arms control measure; to the contrary, the US argued successfully that such a connection (to any specific measure) would be pernicious to the attempt to achieve agreement on the NPT. This interpretation, which was sustained through the negotiations and the ratification proceedings, still reflects the limits of the legal obligations the US has accepted. But, in the absence of progress on other arms control measures, which would relieve the pressure for a CTB, the majority interpretation creates political difficulties for the US and could threaten the NPT regime in the future. These problems highlight the need for the US to better defend its compliance with Article VI and to develop a long-term strategy that will permit necessary testing while assuring the survival of the NPT regime in effective form.

  4. Multilateral arms control: Can the CD break the impasse?

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.

    1997-11-01

    Implications of the Conference on Disarmament (CD) for significant arms control and disarmament are assessed in this article. Fissile material cutoff, test ban issues, anti-personnel landmines, and transparency are among the issues reviewed. Government policies of nuclear powers are reviewed with respect to various treaties, as well as their responses to the CD. Major barriers in the CD talks are identified and primarily ascribed to political and cultural differences. It is concluded that five-power talks between the declared nuclear weapon states offer the best chance of reducing nuclear threats and making progress on nuclear disarmament.

  5. Voluntary control of arm movement in athetotic patients

    PubMed Central

    Neilson, Peter D.

    1974-01-01

    Visual tracking tests have been employed to provide a quantitative description of voluntary control of arm movement in a group of patients suffering from athetoid cerebral palsy. Voluntary control was impaired in all patients in a characteristic manner. Maximum velocity and acceleration of arm movement were reduced to about 30-50% of their values in normal subjects and the time lag of the response to a visual stimulus was two or three times greater than in normals. Tracking transmission characteristics indicated a degree of underdamping which was not presnet in normal or spastic patients. This underdamping could be responsible for a low frequency (0·3-0·6 Hz) transient oscillation in elbow-angle movements associated with sudden voluntary movement. The maximum frequency at which patients could produce a coherent tracking response was only 50% of that in normal subjects and the relationship between the electromyogram and muscle contraction indicated that the mechanical load on the biceps muscle was abnormal, possibly due to increased stiffness of joint movement caused by involuntary activity in agonist and antagonist muscles acting across the joint. Images PMID:4362243

  6. Method and apparatus for hybrid position/force control of multi-arm cooperating robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayati, Samad A. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Two or more robotic arms having end effectors rigidly attached to an object to be moved are disclosed. A hybrid position/force control system is provided for driving each of the robotic arms. The object to be moved is represented as having a total mass that consists of the actual mass of the object to be moved plus the mass of the moveable arms that are rigidly attached to the moveable object. The arms are driven in a positive way by the hybrid control system to assure that each arm shares in the position/force applied to the object. The burden of actuation is shared by each arm in a non-conflicting way as the arm independently control the position of, and force upon, a designated point on the object.

  7. Kinematic equations for resolved-rate control of an industrial robot arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, L. K.

    1983-01-01

    An operator can use kinematic, resolved-rate equations to dynamically control a robot arm by watching its response to commanded inputs. Known resolved-rate equations for the control of a particular six-degree-of-freedom industrial robot arm and proceeds to simplify the equations for faster computations are derived. Methods for controlling the robot arm in regions which normally cause mathematical singularities in the resolved-rate equations are discussed.

  8. Monitoring commercial conventional facilities control with the APS control system: The Metasys-to-EPICS interface

    SciTech Connect

    Nawrocki, G.J.; Seaver, C.L.; Kowalkowski, J.B.

    1995-12-31

    As controls needs at the Advanced Photon Source matured from an installation phase to an operational phase, the need to monitor the existing conventional facilities control system with the EPICS-based accelerator control system was realized. This existing conventional facilities control network is based on a proprietary system from Johnson Controls called Metasys. Initially read-only monitoring of the Metasys parameters will be provided; however, the ability for possible future expansion to full control is available. This paper describes a method of using commercially available hardware and existing EPICS software as a bridge between the Metasys and EPICS control systems.

  9. Real-time statistical quality control and ARM

    SciTech Connect

    Blough, D.K.

    1992-05-01

    An important component of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is real-time quality control of data obtained from meteorological instruments. It is the goal of the ARM program to enhance the predictive capabilities of global circulation models by incorporating in them more detailed information on the radiative characteristics of the earth's atmosphere. To this end, a number of Cloud and Radiation Testbeds (CART's) will be built at various locations worldwide. Each CART will consist of an array of instruments designed to collect radiative data. The large amount of data obtained from these instruments necessitates real-time processing in order to flag outliers and possible instrument malfunction. The Bayesian dynamic linear model (DLM) proves to be an effective way of monitoring the time series data which each instrument generates. It provides a flexible yet powerful approach to detecting in real-time sudden shifts in a non-stationary multivariate time series. An application of these techniques to data arising from a remote sensing instrument to be used in the CART is provided. Using real data from a wind profiler, the ability of the DLM to detect outliers is studied. 5 refs.

  10. Real-time statistical quality control and ARM

    SciTech Connect

    Blough, D.K.

    1992-05-01

    An important component of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is real-time quality control of data obtained from meteorological instruments. It is the goal of the ARM program to enhance the predictive capabilities of global circulation models by incorporating in them more detailed information on the radiative characteristics of the earth`s atmosphere. To this end, a number of Cloud and Radiation Testbeds (CART`s) will be built at various locations worldwide. Each CART will consist of an array of instruments designed to collect radiative data. The large amount of data obtained from these instruments necessitates real-time processing in order to flag outliers and possible instrument malfunction. The Bayesian dynamic linear model (DLM) proves to be an effective way of monitoring the time series data which each instrument generates. It provides a flexible yet powerful approach to detecting in real-time sudden shifts in a non-stationary multivariate time series. An application of these techniques to data arising from a remote sensing instrument to be used in the CART is provided. Using real data from a wind profiler, the ability of the DLM to detect outliers is studied. 5 refs.

  11. Hemispheric differences in the control of limb dynamics: a link between arm performance asymmetries and arm selection patterns

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Chase J.; Przybyla, Andrzej; Yadav, Vivek

    2013-01-01

    Human handedness has been described and measured from two perspectives: handedness inventories rate hand preferences, whereas other tests examine motor performance asymmetries. These two measurement approaches reflect a major controversy in a literature that defines handedness as either a preference or an asymmetry in sensorimotor processing. Over the past decade, our laboratory has developed a model of handedness based on lateralization of neural processes. This model attributes distinct control processes to each hemisphere, which in turn lead to observable interlimb sensorimotor performance asymmetries. We now hypothesize that arm preference, or choice, may depend on the interaction between sensorimotor performance asymmetries and the given task. The purpose of this study is to examine whether arm selection is linked to interlimb performance asymmetries during reaching. Right-handed subjects made choice and nonchoice reaches to each of eight targets (d = 3.5 cm) arranged radially (r = 13 cm) around a midline starting position. We displaced each cursor (one associated with each hand) 30 cm to the midline start circle to ensure that there were no hemispace-related geometric, mechanical, or perceptual biases to use either arm for the two midline targets. The three targets on each side of the midline received mostly reaches from the ipsilateral arm, a tendency previously described as a “hemispace bias.” However, the midline targets, which were equidistant from each hand, received more dominant arm reaches. Dominant arm hand paths to these targets were straighter and more accurately directed. Inverse dynamics analyses revealed a more proficient dominant arm strategy that exploited intersegmental dynamics to a greater extent than did the nondominant arm. These findings suggest that sensorimotor asymmetries in dynamic coordination might explain limb choices. We discuss the implications of these results for theories of action selection, models of handedness, and

  12. Analyst Tools and Quality Control Software for the ARM Data System

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, S.T.

    2004-12-14

    ATK Mission Research develops analyst tools and automated quality control software in order to assist the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data Quality Office with their data inspection tasks. We have developed a web-based data analysis and visualization tool, called NCVweb, that allows for easy viewing of ARM NetCDF files. NCVweb, along with our library of sharable Interactive Data Language procedures and functions, allows even novice ARM researchers to be productive with ARM data with only minimal effort. We also contribute to the ARM Data Quality Office by analyzing ARM data streams, developing new quality control metrics, new diagnostic plots, and integrating this information into DQ HandS - the Data Quality Health and Status web-based explorer. We have developed several ways to detect outliers in ARM data streams and have written software to run in an automated fashion to flag these outliers.

  13. Intelligent control system based on ARM for lithography tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Changlong; Tang, Xiaoping; Hu, Song; Wang, Nan

    2014-08-01

    The control system of traditional lithography tool is based on PC and MCU. The PC handles the complex algorithm, human-computer interaction, and communicates with MCU via serial port; The MCU controls motors and electromagnetic valves, etc. This mode has shortcomings like big volume, high power consumption, and wasting of PC resource. In this paper, an embedded intelligent control system of lithography tool, based on ARM, is provided. The control system used S5PV210 as processor, completing the functions of PC in traditional lithography tool, and provided a good human-computer interaction by using LCD and capacitive touch screen. Using Android4.0.3 as operating system, the equipment provided a cool and easy UI which made the control more user-friendly, and implemented remote control and debug, pushing video information of product by network programming. As a result, it's convenient for equipment vendor to provide technical support for users. Finally, compared with traditional lithography tool, this design reduced the PC part, making the hardware resources efficiently used and reducing the cost and volume. Introducing embedded OS and the concepts in "The Internet of things" into the design of lithography tool can be a development trend.

  14. A relative difference in systolic blood pressure between arms by synchronal measurement and conventional cardiovascular risk factors are associated with the severity of coronary atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tomohiko; Miura, Shin-Ichiro; Suematsu, Yasunori; Kuwano, Takashi; Sugihara, Makoto; Ike, Amane; Iwata, Atsushi; Nishikawa, Hiroaki; Saku, Keijiro

    2016-06-01

    It is not known the relationships between a difference in systolic blood pressure (SBP) or diastolic BP (DBP) between arms by synchronal measurement and the presence of coronary artery disease (CAD), and between a difference in BP between arms and the severity of coronary atherosclerosis. We enrolled 425 consecutive patients (M/F = 286/139, 67 ± 13 year) who were admitted to our University Hospital and in whom we could measure the absolute (|rt. BP - lt. BP|) and relative (rt. BP - lt. BP) differences in SBP and DBP using a nico PS-501(®) (Parama-Tech). We divided all patients into those who did and did not have CAD. The relative differences in SBP between arms in patients with CAD were significantly lower than those in patients without CAD. However, the relative difference in SBP between arms was not a predictor of the presence of CAD. We also divided 267 patients who underwent coronary angiography into tertiles according to the Gensini score (low, middle, and high score groups). Interestingly, the middle + high score groups showed significantly lower relative differences in SBP between arms than the low score group. The mean Korotkoff sound graph in the middle + high Gensini score group was significantly higher than that in the low Gensini score group. Among conventional cardiovascular risk factors and nico parameters, the relative difference in SBP between arms in addition to the risk factors (age, gender, body mass index, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus) was associated with the score by a logistic regression analysis. In conclusion, the relative difference in SBP between arms as well as conventional risk factors may be associated with the severity of coronary arteriosclerosis. PMID:25921917

  15. Templating as a Chain of Custody Tool for Arms Control

    SciTech Connect

    Benz, Jacob M.; Tanner, Jennifer E.; Duckworth, Leesa L.

    2013-06-01

    Historically, templates have been considered for use as a treaty accountable item (TAI) authentication tool, alongside item attributes. Because of this, the use of templates has fallen by the wayside due to the perceived intrusiveness of and handling/storage of template data; especially when compared to the negotiability of unclassified attribute threshold values. However, as a chain of custody tool, templates potentially have a large and important role to play in maintaining confidence in the authenticity of the treaty accountable items as they progress through an arms control regime. In general terms, templating is the process of creating a unique, measurable, and repeatable signature which is representative of the TAI. At any point in time, the signature can be re-measured or re-inspected to verify the signature has not changed. Chain of custody is the process by which a controlled boundary is established and maintained around a TAI to both deter and detect unauthorized access to the item. Typically, this is accomplished by putting a tamper indicating device (TID) on the item or container. The TID now acts as a surrogate for the item itself, and is continually checked to ensure the unique identifier and tamper indicating mechanisms have not changed since last inspection. This in and of itself is a form of templating. A stronger template is one that utilizes a signature of the combined item and container. There are many potential signatures which may be exploited, including radiation-, electromagnetic-, and acoustic-based signatures. This paper/presentation will explore the technology and mechanisms in which templating can be applied to create a more robust chain of custody over treaty accountable items as part of a future arms control regime.

  16. Redundant arm control in a supervisory and shared control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backes, Paul G.; Long, Mark K.

    1992-01-01

    The Extended Task Space Control approach to robotic operations based on manipulator behaviors derived from task requirements is described. No differentiation between redundant and non-redundant robots is made at the task level. The manipulation task behaviors are combined into a single set of motion commands. The manipulator kinematics are used subsequently in mapping motion commands into actuator commands. Extended Task Space Control is applied to a Robotics Research K-1207 seven degree-of-freedom manipulator in a supervisory telerobot system as an example.

  17. 22 CFR 124.11 - Congressional certification pursuant to Section 36(d) of the Arms Export Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 36(d) of the Arms Export Control Act. 124.11 Section 124.11 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS AGREEMENTS, OFF-SHORE PROCUREMENT AND OTHER DEFENSE SERVICES § 124.11 Congressional certification pursuant to Section 36(d) of the Arms Export Control Act. (a) The Arms...

  18. 22 CFR 124.11 - Congressional certification pursuant to Section 36(d) of the Arms Export Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 36(d) of the Arms Export Control Act. 124.11 Section 124.11 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS AGREEMENTS, OFF-SHORE PROCUREMENT, AND OTHER DEFENSE SERVICES § 124.11 Congressional certification pursuant to Section 36(d) of the Arms Export Control Act. (a) The Arms...

  19. 22 CFR 124.11 - Congressional certification pursuant to Section 36(d) of the Arms Export Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 36(d) of the Arms Export Control Act. 124.11 Section 124.11 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS AGREEMENTS, OFF-SHORE PROCUREMENT AND OTHER DEFENSE SERVICES § 124.11 Congressional certification pursuant to Section 36(d) of the Arms Export Control Act. (a) The Arms...

  20. Computer Language Choices in Arms Control and Nonproliferation Regimes

    SciTech Connect

    White, G K

    2005-06-10

    The U.S. and Russian Federation continue to make substantive progress in the arms control and nonproliferation transparency regimes. We are moving toward an implementation choice for creating radiation measurement systems that are transparent in both their design and in their implementation. In particular, the choice of a programming language to write software for such regimes can decrease or significantly increase the costs of authentication. In this paper, we compare procedural languages with object-oriented languages. In particular, we examine the C and C++ languages; we compare language features, code generation, implementation details, and executable size and demonstrate how these attributes aid or hinder authentication and backdoor threats. We show that programs in lower level, procedural languages are more easily authenticated than are object-oriented ones. Potential tools and methods for authentication are covered. Possible mitigations are suggested for using object-oriented programming languages.

  1. Nuclear Arms Control, Nonproliferation, and Counterterrorism: Impacts on Public Health

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dreicer, Mona; Pregenzer, Arian

    2014-04-01

    Reducing the risks of nuclear war, limiting the spread of nuclear weapons and reducing global nuclear weapons stockpiles are key national and international security goals. They are pursued through a variety of international arms control, nonproliferation and counter-terrorism treaties and agreements. These legally binding and political commitments, together with the institutional infrastructure that supports them, work to establish global norms of behavior and have limited the spread of weapons of mass destruction. Beyond the primary security objectives, reducing the likelihood of the use of nuclear weapons, preventing environmental releases of radioactive material, increasing the availability of safe and secure nuclearmore » technology for peaceful purposes, and providing scientific data relevant to predicting and managing the consequences of natural or human-caused disasters world-wide provide significant benefits to global public health.« less

  2. Nuclear Arms Control, Nonproliferation, and Counterterrorism: Impacts on Public Health

    SciTech Connect

    Dreicer, Mona; Pregenzer, Arian

    2014-04-01

    Reducing the risks of nuclear war, limiting the spread of nuclear weapons and reducing global nuclear weapons stockpiles are key national and international security goals. They are pursued through a variety of international arms control, nonproliferation and counter-terrorism treaties and agreements. These legally binding and political commitments, together with the institutional infrastructure that supports them, work to establish global norms of behavior and have limited the spread of weapons of mass destruction. Beyond the primary security objectives, reducing the likelihood of the use of nuclear weapons, preventing environmental releases of radioactive material, increasing the availability of safe and secure nuclear technology for peaceful purposes, and providing scientific data relevant to predicting and managing the consequences of natural or human-caused disasters world-wide provide significant benefits to global public health.

  3. Nuclear arms control, nonproliferation, and counterterrorism: impacts on public health.

    PubMed

    Dreicer, Mona; Pregenzer, Arian

    2014-04-01

    Reducing the risks of nuclear war, limiting the spread of nuclear weapons, and reducing global nuclear weapons stockpiles are key national and international security goals. They are pursued through a variety of international arms control, nonproliferation, and counterterrorism treaties and agreements. These legally binding and political commitments, together with the institutional infrastructure that supports them, work to establish global norms of behavior and have limited the spread of weapons of mass destruction. Beyond the primary security objectives, reducing the likelihood of the use of nuclear weapons, preventing environmental releases of radioactive material, increasing the availability of safe and secure nuclear technology for peaceful purposes, and providing scientific data relevant to predicting and managing the consequences of natural or human-caused disasters worldwide provide significant benefits to global public health. PMID:24524501

  4. Nuclear Arms Control, Nonproliferation, and Counterterrorism: Impacts on Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Pregenzer, Arian

    2014-01-01

    Reducing the risks of nuclear war, limiting the spread of nuclear weapons, and reducing global nuclear weapons stockpiles are key national and international security goals. They are pursued through a variety of international arms control, nonproliferation, and counterterrorism treaties and agreements. These legally binding and political commitments, together with the institutional infrastructure that supports them, work to establish global norms of behavior and have limited the spread of weapons of mass destruction. Beyond the primary security objectives, reducing the likelihood of the use of nuclear weapons, preventing environmental releases of radioactive material, increasing the availability of safe and secure nuclear technology for peaceful purposes, and providing scientific data relevant to predicting and managing the consequences of natural or human-caused disasters worldwide provide significant benefits to global public health. PMID:24524501

  5. Future directions for arms control and nonproliferation. Conference summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-06

    This report provides a summary of the presentations and discussions at the Spring 1994 CNSN-Wilton Park Conference. The Conference was one of a series on US-European security cooperation organized by The Center for National Security Negotiations (CNSN) of Science Applications International Corporation. These conferences bring together government and non-government experts, primarily from the United States and Europe, to discuss a range of regional and global security issues. The conferences provide an opportunity to explore, in a frank and off-the-record environment, common interests and concerns, as well as differences in approach that affect trans-Atlantic cooperation. This report is divided into the following three areas: (1) implementation of existing and pending agreements; (2) non-proliferation: prospects for trans-Atlantic cooperation; and (3) future directions in arms control.

  6. A look behind the arms control agenda at the US-Russian and Sino-US summits

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    When President Bill Clinton met in New York with Russian President Boris Yeltsin on October 23 and Chinese President Jiang Zemin the following day, the leaders discussed a broad spectrum of arms control issues-including START II ratification, limits on Russian conventional weapons in the Caucasus, the nuclear test ban treaty, nuclear exports to Iran and NATO expansion. The crisis in Bosnia, however, dominated the administration`s pre- and post-summit briefings as well as the media`s coverage of the meetings. On October 20, the Arms Control Association (ACA) held a news conference to highlight the key arms control issues involved in the two sets of talks. Because these vital national security issues were virtually ignored by the press, the ACA press briefing remains the most comprehensive coverage of the full range of issues that were, in fact, addressed at the mini-summits. Panel speakers included Spurgeon M. Keeny, Jr., ACA president and executive director and former deputy director of the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency; Jack Mendelsohn, ACA deputy director and a former member of the US SALT II and START I delegations; Stanley Resor, ACA board chairman and former chief US delegate to the Mutual and Balanced Force Reduction talks, former defense undersecretary for policy and former secretary of the Army; and William Dircks, director of the Atlantic Council`s Program on Nuclear Policy and former deputy director general of the International Atomic Energy Agency. Extended excerpts from their remarks follow.

  7. The application of active side arm controllers in helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knorr, R.; Melz, C.; Faulkner, A.; Obermayer, M.

    1993-01-01

    Eurocopter Deutschland (ECD) started simulation trials to investigate the particular problems of Side Arm Controllers (SAC) applied to helicopters. Two simulation trials have been performed. In the first trial, the handling characteristics of a 'passive' SAC and the basic requirements for the application of an 'active' SAC were evaluated in pilot-in-the-loop simulations, performing the tasks in a realistic scenario representing typical phases of a transport mission. The second simulation trial investigated the general control characteristics of the 'active' in comparison to the 'passive' control principle. A description of the SACs developed by ECD and the principle of the 'passive' and 'active' control concept is given, as well as specific ratings for the investigated dynamic and ergonomic parameters effecting SAC characteristics. The experimental arrangements, as well as the trials procedures of both simulation phases, are described and the results achieved are discussed emphasizing the advantages of the 'active' as opposed to the 'passive' SAC concept. This also includes the presentation of some critical aspects still to be improved and proposals to solve them.

  8. Percutaneous Transthoracic Lung Biopsy: Comparison Between C-Arm Cone-Beam CT and Conventional CT Guidance

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yun-Chung; Tsai, Sheng-Heng; Cheng, Yuchi; Chen, Jeon-Hor; Chai, Jyh-Wen; Chen, Clayton Chi-Chang

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: C-arm cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is a comparatively novel modality for guiding percutaneous transthoracic lung biopsies (PTLBs), and despite its potential advantages over conventional computed tomography (CCT), a head-to-head comparison of the two techniques has yet to be reported in the literature. This study aims to evaluate the diagnostic value and safety of CBCT-guided PTLB compared to CCT-guided biopsy, with cases performed in a single hospital. METHODS: A total of 104 PTLB patients were retrospectively analyzed in this study. 35 PTLBs were performed under CBCT guidance, and 69 PTLBs were performed under CCT guidance. Diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for malignancy as well as procedure time, radiation dose of patients, and complication rate in the two groups were compared. RESULTS: Total procedure time was significantly lower in the CBCT group (32 ± 11 minutes) compared to the CCT group (38 ± 9.7 minutes; P = .009), especially among patients ≥ 70 years of age (CBCT: 33 ± 12 minutes, CCT: 42 ± 13, P = .022). For lesions in the lower lobes, the CBCT-guided group received significantly reduced effective radiation dose (2.9 ± 1.6 mSv) than CCT-guided patients (3.7 ± 0.80; P = .042). Diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for malignancy were comparable between the two groups, as were post-biopsy complication rates. CONCLUSION: CBCT guidance significantly reduces the procedure time and radiation exposure for PTLBs compared with CCT, and should be considered in clinical settings that may be difficult or time-consuming to perform under CCT. PMID:26310371

  9. 77 FR 52105 - Announcement of the Innovation in Arms Control Challenge Under the America Competes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ... Announcement of the Innovation in Arms Control Challenge Under the America Competes Reauthorization Act of 2011... first ``Innovation in Arms Control Challenge,'' with the goal of spurring innovation, and developing.... Competition Details 1. Subject of the Challenge: This Challenge seeks creative ideas from the general...

  10. Detection Technologies, Arms control and nonproliferation technologies. Third/fourth quarters 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Staehle, G; Stull, S; Talaber, C; Moulthrop, P

    1993-12-31

    This issue of Arms Control and Nonproliferation Technologies is another in a series of issues about specific means for detecting and identifying proliferation and other suspect activities outside the realm of arms control treaties. All the projects discussed are funded by the Office of Research and Development of the Department of Energy`s Office of Nonproliferation and National Security.

  11. 77 FR 31909 - Determination and Certification Under the Arms Export Control Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Determination and Certification Under the Arms Export Control Act Pursuant to section 40A of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2781), and Executive Order 11958, as amended, I hereby determine and certify to the Congress that the following countries...

  12. 75 FR 28848 - Determination and Certification Under Section 40a of the Arms Export Control Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Determination and Certification Under Section 40a of the Arms Export Control Act Pursuant to section 40A of the Arms Export Control Act (22 U.S.C. 2781), and Executive Order 11958, as amended, I hereby determine and certify to the Congress that the...

  13. Application of a postulate based control theory for an artificial arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobsen, S. C.; Jerard, R. B.

    1975-01-01

    The biocontroller, remnant of the natural arm, and feedback elements must be considered in designing a controller for an above elbow artificial arm for amputees. This fundamental postulate is used to derive equations for developing the controller, which is shown in block diagrams.

  14. Voice control of a dual-arm telerobot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberlein, Robert Arthur

    This investigation explores voice control of a dual-arm telerobot. A literature review of voice control, voice technology and work measurements is conducted. This review includes a discussion of important voice technology topics, a survey of commercial voice equipment, and a study of industrial and vocational work measurement techniques. A voice control system is created for two Kraft GRIPS Master-Slave telerobotic manipulators. This system is based upon the concept of distributed computer control using inexpensive PC-AT computers that exchange information according to special communication and command protocols. The voice control system consists of four separate sub-systems; a Camera Sub-system that controls a motorized camera mount, a Teach Pendant Sub-system that emulates two standard Termiflex teach pendants, a Switch Sub-system that controls the Kraft Master switches, and a Voice Sub-system that accepts the operator's vocal commands and broadcasts digitally-recorded messages. The Voice Sub-system utilizes a Votan VPC-2100 recognition board and a TI-Speech synthesis board. The vocal commands are organized into a hierarchical structure based upon the fire-and-forget control scheme. A visual display of the vocal command status is also detailed. In order to measure the effect of the voice control system upon the work performance of the telerobot, a formal experimental plan is described using twenty-four untrained operators divided into a voice group and a control group. Each group performs an experimental taskset using modified peg-in-hole vocational rehabilitation assessment test equipment. The experimental taskset consists of eight separate subtasks that exercise each of the four voice control sub-systems. The times to complete the subtasks are recorded to score each group's work performance. A split-plot ANOVA of the performance scores reveals significant group improvements in both the mean performance and the performance variance for those tasks which involve

  15. Are complex control signals required for human arm movement?

    PubMed

    Gribble, P L; Ostry, D J; Sanguineti, V; Laboissière, R

    1998-03-01

    It has been proposed that the control signals underlying voluntary human arm movement have a "complex" nonmonotonic time-varying form, and a number of empirical findings have been offered in support of this idea. In this paper, we address three such findings using a model of two-joint arm motion based on the lambda version of the equilibrium-point hypothesis. The model includes six one- and two-joint muscles, reflexes, modeled control signals, muscle properties, and limb dynamics. First, we address the claim that "complex" equilibrium trajectories are required to account for nonmonotonic joint impedance patterns observed during multijoint movement. Using constant-rate shifts in the neurally specified equilibrium of the limb and constant cocontraction commands, we obtain patterns of predicted joint stiffness during simulated multijoint movements that match the nonmonotonic patterns reported empirically. We then use the algorithm proposed by Gomi and Kawato to compute a hypothetical equilibrium trajectory from simulated stiffness, viscosity, and limb kinematics. Like that reported by Gomi and Kawato, the resulting trajectory was nonmonotonic, first leading then lagging the position of the limb. Second, we address the claim that high levels of stiffness are required to generate rapid single-joint movements when simple equilibrium shifts are used. We compare empirical measurements of stiffness during rapid single-joint movements with the predicted stiffness of movements generated using constant-rate equilibrium shifts and constant cocontraction commands. Single-joint movements are simulated at a number of speeds, and the procedure used by Bennett to estimate stiffness is followed. We show that when the magnitude of the cocontraction command is scaled in proportion to movement speed, simulated joint stiffness varies with movement speed in a manner comparable with that reported by Bennett. Third, we address the related claim that nonmonotonic equilibrium shifts are

  16. Anthropometric considerations for a 4-axis side-arm flight controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debellis, W. B.

    1986-01-01

    A data base on multiaxis side-arm flight controls was generated. The rapid advances in fly-by-light technology, automatic stability systems, and onboard computers have combined to create flexible flight control systems which could reduce the workload imposed on the operator by complex new equipment. This side-arm flight controller combines four controls into one unit and should simplify the pilot's task. However, the use of a multiaxis side-arm flight controller without complete cockpit integration may tend to increase the pilot's workload.

  17. Controlling Flexible Robot Arms Using High Speed Dynamics Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Abhinandan (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A robot manipulator controller for a flexible manipulator arm having plural bodies connected at respective movable hinges and flexible in plural deformation modes corresponding to respective modal spatial influence vectors relating deformations of plural spaced nodes of respective bodies to the plural deformation modes, operates by computing articulated body quantities for each of the bodies from respective modal spatial influence vectors, obtaining specified body forces for each of the bodies, and computing modal deformation accelerations of the nodes and hinge accelerations of the hinges from the specified body forces, from the articulated body quantities and from the modal spatial influence vectors. In one embodiment of the invention, the controller further operates by comparing the accelerations thus computed to desired manipulator motion to determine a motion discrepancy, and correcting the specified body forces so as to reduce the motion discrepancy. The manipulator bodies and hinges are characterized by respective vectors of deformation and hinge configuration variables, and computing modal deformation accelerations and hinge accelerations is carried out for each one of the bodies beginning with the outermost body by computing a residual body force from a residual body force of a previous body and from the vector of deformation and hinge configuration variables, computing a resultant hinge acceleration from the body force, the residual body force and the articulated hinge inertia, and revising the residual body force modal body acceleration.

  18. Optimal control model of arm configuration in a reaching task

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Gary T.; Kakavand, Ali

    1996-05-01

    It was hypothesized that the configuration of the upper limb during a hand static positioning task could be predicted using a dynamic musculoskeletal model and an optimal control routine. Both rhesus monkey and human upper extremity models were formulated, and had seven degrees of freedom (7-DOF) and 39 musculotendon pathways. A variety of configurations were generated about a physiologically measured configuration using the dynamic models and perturbations. The pseudoinverse optimal control method was applied to compute the minimum cost C at each of the generated configurations. Cost function C is described by the Crowninshield-Brand (1981) criterion which relates C (the sum of muscle stresses squared) to the endurance time of a physiological task. The configuration with the minimum cost was compared to the configurations chosen by one monkey (four trials) and by eight human subjects (eight trials each). Results are generally good, but not for all joint angles, suggesting that muscular effort is likely to be one major factor in choosing a preferred static arm posture.

  19. Controlling flexible robot arms using a high speed dynamics process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Abhinandan (Inventor); Rodriguez, Guillermo (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    Described here is a robot controller for a flexible manipulator arm having plural bodies connected at respective movable hinges, and flexible in plural deformation modes. It is operated by computing articulated body qualities for each of the bodies from the respective modal spatial influence vectors, obtaining specified body forces for each of the bodies, and computing modal deformation accelerations of the nodes and hinge accelerations of the hinges from the specified body forces, from the articulated body quantities and from the modal spatial influence vectors. In one embodiment of the invention, the controller further operates by comparing the accelerations thus computed to desired manipulator motion to determine a motion discrepancy, and correcting the specified body forces so as to reduce the motion discrepancy. The manipulator bodies and hinges are characterized by respective vectors of deformation and hinge configuration variables. Computing modal deformation accelerations and hinge accelerations is carried out for each of the bodies, beginning with the outermost body by computing a residual body force from a residual body force of a previous body, computing a resultant hinge acceleration from the body force, and then, for each one of the bodies beginning with the innermost body, computing a modal body acceleration from a modal body acceleration of a previous body, computing a modal deformation acceleration and hinge acceleration from the resulting hinge acceleration and from the modal body acceleration.

  20. Metals in combined conventional and vegetated road runoff control systems.

    PubMed

    Pontier, H; Williams, J B; May, E

    2001-01-01

    Combined conventional and vegetated runoff treatment systems were installed on the rural Newbury Bypass in Southern England, which was estimated to carry an average daily traffic of 30,000 vehicles. The system components were arranged in series to give progressive pollutant removal, comprising an oil separator, sediment trap, grassy slope and constructed wetland. In the absence of specific design criteria for road runoff control, the system design was based on available guidance notes. Since the road opened, an 18-month monitoring programme has examined the performance of these systems. Early indications are that the systems, and especially the wetlands, promote removal of suspended solids (>1.2 microm) and effectively trap fine (<63 microm) sediments. The waters were generally oxidising with neutral to basic pH which may have favoured metal partitioning to the solid phase. The distribution pattern for Zn and Cu in fine sediments contrasted in two of the systems studied, indicating the complex behaviour of metals in wetlands. Further work will increase the data set and examine the adsorption behaviour of metals. These results will contribute to the development of future design criteria for the application of wetlands to road runoff treatment. PMID:11804157

  1. The applicability of sample collection and analysis in support of nuclear arms control agreements

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, R.R.

    1995-08-01

    Agreements are being negotiated to halt the spread of nuclear arms both within the declared nuclear weapons states and to states not heretofore declaring their possession. With the verification regime of the recently negotiated Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) as a model, negotiators are considering variations of on-site inspection as formulas to enhance the assurance of compliance with future agreements. These on-site inspections may be part of a treaty dictated verification regime or one of a set of voluntary {open_quotes}confidence building{close_quotes} measures. In either case, the collection of material samples for analysis could be an integral component of the inspection as it is in the CWC. The following is an assessment of the applicability of sampling and analysis for compliance monitoring nuclear arms control agreements currently envisioned. There are two essentially orthogonal ways of approaching this question of applicability: the consideration of the analytical questions and the consideration of the specifics of the individual agreements. This study is meant to utilize both approaches in examining the possible impact of sampling and analysis on compliance assessment. First attention must be given to technical questions relating to the efficacy of sampling and analysis.

  2. Introduction and testing of an alternative control approach for a robotic prosthetic arm.

    PubMed

    Griggs, Lauren; Fahimi, Farbod

    2014-01-01

    Commercially available robotic prosthetic arms currently use independent joint control. An alternative controller involving only control of the hand in a Cartesian frame rather than controlling each joint independently is proposed and tested. An experimental 4DOF robotic arm was used as the platform for testing the proposed control approach. As opposed to joint control, Cartesian control requires the solution to the inverse kinematics problem. The inverse kinematics solution was developed for the robotic arm using the extended Jacobian method. The two control methodologies, joint control and Cartesian control, were tested on five able-bodied human subjects. Improvement of one control methodology over the other was measured by the time it took for the subjects to complete a simple motor task. The timed trial results indicated that Cartesian control was both more intuitive and more effective than joint control. So, the results suggest that much improvement can be achieved by using the proposed Cartesian control methodology. PMID:25400714

  3. Introduction and Testing of an Alternative Control Approach for a Robotic Prosthetic Arm

    PubMed Central

    Griggs, Lauren; Fahimi, Farbod

    2014-01-01

    Commercially available robotic prosthetic arms currently use independent joint control. An alternative controller involving only control of the hand in a Cartesian frame rather than controlling each joint independently is proposed and tested. An experimental 4DOF robotic arm was used as the platform for testing the proposed control approach. As opposed to joint control, Cartesian control requires the solution to the inverse kinematics problem. The inverse kinematics solution was developed for the robotic arm using the extended Jacobian method. The two control methodologies, joint control and Cartesian control, were tested on five able-bodied human subjects. Improvement of one control methodology over the other was measured by the time it took for the subjects to complete a simple motor task. The timed trial results indicated that Cartesian control was both more intuitive and more effective than joint control. So, the results suggest that much improvement can be achieved by using the proposed Cartesian control methodology. PMID:25400714

  4. Optimal control simulations reveal mechanisms by which arm movement improves standing long jump performance.

    PubMed

    Ashby, Blake M; Delp, Scott L

    2006-01-01

    Optimal control simulations of the standing long jump were developed to gain insight into the mechanisms of enhanced performance due to arm motion. The activations that maximize standing long jump distance of a joint torque actuated model were determined for jumps with free and restricted arm movement. The simulated jump distance was 40 cm greater when arm movement was free (2.00 m) than when it was restricted (1.60 m). The majority of the performance improvement in the free arm jump was due to the 15% increase (3.30 vs. 2.86 m/s) in the take-off velocity of the center of gravity. Some of the performance improvement in the free arm jump was attributable to the ability of the jumper to swing the arms backwards during the flight phase to alleviate excessive forward rotation and position the body segments properly for landing. In restricted arm jumps, the excessive forward rotation was avoided by "holding back" during the propulsive phase and reducing the activation levels of the ankle, knee, and hip joint torque actuators. In addition, swinging the arm segments allowed the lower body joint torque actuators to perform 26 J more work in the free arm jump. However, the most significant contribution to developing greater take-off velocity came from the additional 80 J work done by the shoulder actuator in the jump with free arm movement. PMID:15992805

  5. Entering the New Millennium: Dilemmas in Arms Control

    SciTech Connect

    BROWN,JAMES

    1999-11-01

    The end of the Cold War finds the international community no longer divided into two opposing blocks. The concerns that the community now faces are becoming more fluid, less focused, and, in many ways, much less predictable. Issues of religion, ethnicity, and nationalism; the possible proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction; and the diffusion of technology and information processing throughout the world community have greatly changed the international security landscape in the last decade. Although our challenges appear formidable, the United Nations, State Parties, nongovernmental organizations, and the arms control community are moving to address and lessen these concerns through both formal and informal efforts. Many of the multilateral agreements (e.g., NPT, BWC, CWC, CTBT, MTCR), as well as the bilateral efforts that are taking place between Washington and Moscow employ confidence-building and transparency measures. These measures along with on-site inspection and other verification procedures lessen suspicion and distrust and reduce uncertainty, thus enhancing stability, confidence, and cooperation.

  6. Targeted Muscle Reinnervation for Real-Time Myoelectric Control of Multifunction Artificial Arms

    PubMed Central

    Kuiken, Todd A.; Li, Guanglin; Lock, Blair A.; Lipschutz, Robert D.; Miller, Laura A.; Stubblefield, Kathy A.; Englehart, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Context Improving the function of prosthetic arms remains a challenge, as access to the neural control information for the arm is lost during amputation. We have developed a surgical technique called targeted muscle reinnervation (TMR) which transfers residual arm nerves to alternative muscle sites. After reinnervation, these target muscles produce an electromyogram (EMG) on the surface of the skin that can be measured and used to control prosthetic arms. Objective Assess the performance of TMR upper-limb amputee patients using a pattern-recognition algorithm to decode EMG signals and control prosthetic arm motions. Design Surface EMG signals were recorded on participants and decoded using a pattern-recognition algorithm. The decoding program controlled the movement of a virtual prosthetic arm. Participants were instructed to perform various arm movements, and their abilities to control the virtual prosthetic arm were measured. In addition, TMR patients used the same control system to operate advanced arm prosthesis prototypes. Setting This study was conducted between January 2007 and January 2008 at the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago. Participants This study included five patients with shoulder disarticulation or transhumeral amputations who received TMR surgery between February 2002 and October 2006. It also included five non-amputee (control) participants. Main Outcome Measure Performance metrics measured during virtual arm movements included motion-selection time, motion-completion time, and motion-completion (or `success') rate. Three of the TMR patients were also able to test advanced arm prostheses. Results TMR patients were able to repeatedly perform 10 different elbow, wrist and hand motions with the virtual prosthetic arm. For TMR patients, the average (standard deviation (SD)) motion-selection and motion-completion times for elbow and wrist movements were 0.22 s (0.06) and 1.29 s (0.15), respectively. These times were 0.06 s and 0.21 s longer than

  7. Trends and challenges in global arms control regimes: Implications for the Mediterranean, North Africa, and the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, R.F. II

    1994-06-01

    In another sense, however, the nuclear age and ballistic missiles long ago created a much smaller world in which the distinctions between global and regional security have been lessened. In an age of weapons of mass destruction, any point on the earth can find itself suddenly at the center of world attention. This makes it all the more important that we understand all of the arms control tools available, including global approaches. In discussing global arms control regimes, I will focus primarily on those that are open to universal membership such as the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) or which have global reach, such as certain export control and supplier regimes. It is important to remember, however, that certain regional, bilateral, and even unilateral arms control measures can have a global impact as well. One need only witness the impact of the Treaty on Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE). Despite its mere {open_quotes}Atlantic to the Urals{close_quotes} focus, the CFE treaty helped change the political and strategic calculations of the entire world. Likewise, the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE), with its headquarters in Vienna, is centered on Europe but spreads from Vancouver to Vladivostok (or perhaps we should say from Amchitka to Kamchatka), circumnavigating much of the northern hemisphere when measured the long way around via North America. The political significance of its successes and failures outdistance CSCE`s geographical spread.

  8. Cutaneous vascular control in the arms of women with postmastectomy oedema.

    PubMed

    Stanton, A W; Levick, J R; Mortimer, P S

    1996-05-01

    The control of forearm skin blood flow was examined in the swollen arms of twelve women with oedema caused by breast cancer treatment. The swollen arm was compared with the opposite unaffected (control) arm. Using laser Doppler flux (LDF) and continuous finger blood pressure (BP) measurements, vascular control was tested by applying a range of provocations previously shown to alter cutaneous vascular resistance (CVR) in healthy subjects. The tests and the accepted mechanism were: post-ischaemic hyperaemia (locally mediated vasodilatation), inspiratory gasp and cool reflex (both sympathetically mediated vasoconstriction), arm dependency (locally mediated vasoconstriction), and core heat load (sympathetically mediated vasodilatation). CVR was calculated as BP/(LDF-biological zero). Three differences between the control and swollen arms were identified. (i) The laser Doppler biological zero signal was significantly higher on the swollen side (P = 0.005, Student's paired t test). (ii) Baseline LDF was significantly lower on the swollen side (P = 0.002), and apparent CVR correspondingly higher. (iii) Cumulative reactive hyperaemia (area under the LDF curve above baseline) was significantly less on the swollen side (P = 0.03), although peak flux was not significantly different. Inspiratory gasp, cool reflex, arm dependency and core heat load produced changes of similar magnitude in both arms. It appears that sympathetic neural control and local vasoconstrictor control in arm dependency are normal in arm lymphoedema but that locally mediated vasodilator control is impaired. In addition, baseline skin blood flow may be reduced in this condition. The results provide no support for impairment of vascular tone as a contributory factor to the oedematous state. PMID:8737078

  9. Simultaneous Authentication and Certification of Arms-Control Measurement Systems

    SciTech Connect

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Hauck, Danielle K.; Thron, Jonathan L.

    2012-07-09

    Most arms-control-treaty-monitoring scenarios involve a host party that makes a declaration regarding its nuclear material or items and a monitoring party that verifies that declaration. A verification system developed for such a use needs to be trusted by both parties. The first concern, primarily from the host party's point of view, is that any sensitive information that is collected must be protected without interfering in the efficient operation of the facility being monitored. This concern is addressed in what can be termed a 'certification' process. The second concern, of particular interest to the monitoring party, is that it must be possible to confirm the veracity of both the measurement system and the data produced by this measurement system. The monitoring party addresses these issues during an 'authentication' process. Addressing either one of these concerns independently is relatively straightforward. However, it is more difficult to simultaneously satisfy host party certification concerns and monitoring party authentication concerns. Typically, both parties will want the final access to the measurement system. We will describe an alternative approach that allows both parties to gain confidence simultaneously. This approach starts with (1) joint development of the measurement system followed by (2) host certification of several copies of the system and (3) random selection by the inspecting party of one copy to be use during the monitoring visit and one (or more) copy(s) to be returned to the inspecting party's facilities for (4) further hardware authentication; any remaining copies are stored under joint seal for use as spares. Following this process, the parties will jointly (5) perform functional testing on the selected measurement system and then (6) use this system during the monitoring visit. Steps (1) and (2) assure the host party as to the certification of whichever system is eventually used in the monitoring visit. Steps (1), (3), (4), and (5

  10. New radiation hodoscope developments for Arms Control Treaty verification

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerman, C.E.; Doerner, R.C.; Regis, J.P.; Rhodes, E.A.; Stanford, G.S.; Travis, D.J.; DeVolpi, A.

    1991-12-01

    New developments in hodoscope radiation detection technology offer a wide range of unique capabilities for arms control treaty verification (ACTV) applications. Originally developed for civilian nuclear power research by Argonne National Laboratory, this concept uses an array of radiation detectors to image or detect objects inside opaque containments. Hodoscope systems may detect neutrons and/or gamma-rays. The systems may be based on transmission of radiation through the objects; may detect radiation stimulated in the objects, or may detect intrinsic object radiation. ACTV hodoscopes do not require the high-speed data acquisition systems or the heavy shielding and collimation of reactor hodoscopes, and relatively weak radiation sources are sufficient. We have performed laboratory measurements to demonstrate a range of potential applications. Gamma-ray transmission hodoscopes can be used to inspect canisters, rail cars, etc. to monitor objects such as rocket motors. The use of relatively weak radiation sources makes it unnecessary to employ expensive and high-intensity accelerators. The heavy metal of nuclear warheads is characterized by strong gamma-ray absorption, and these materials could be counted by low-resolution tomography. Absorbers located in line with objects will themselves be detected, and sources located in the object region will be subtracted out as background. Intrinsic gamma-ray radiation from warheads also can be detected in a passive-instrument mode. Neutron hodoscopes can utilize neutron transmission, intrinsic neutron emission, or neutron-producing reactions (either prompt or delayed) stimulated by a neutron source. Monitoring of rocket motors enclosed in canisters/rail cars is the focus of the most recent ACTV hodoscope research and development activities. 3 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. New radiation hodoscope developments for Arms Control Treaty verification

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerman, C.E.; Doerner, R.C.; Regis, J.P.; Rhodes, E.A.; Stanford, G.S.; Travis, D.J.; DeVolpi, A.

    1991-01-01

    New developments in hodoscope radiation detection technology offer a wide range of unique capabilities for arms control treaty verification (ACTV) applications. Originally developed for civilian nuclear power research by Argonne National Laboratory, this concept uses an array of radiation detectors to image or detect objects inside opaque containments. Hodoscope systems may detect neutrons and/or gamma-rays. The systems may be based on transmission of radiation through the objects; may detect radiation stimulated in the objects, or may detect intrinsic object radiation. ACTV hodoscopes do not require the high-speed data acquisition systems or the heavy shielding and collimation of reactor hodoscopes, and relatively weak radiation sources are sufficient. We have performed laboratory measurements to demonstrate a range of potential applications. Gamma-ray transmission hodoscopes can be used to inspect canisters, rail cars, etc. to monitor objects such as rocket motors. The use of relatively weak radiation sources makes it unnecessary to employ expensive and high-intensity accelerators. The heavy metal of nuclear warheads is characterized by strong gamma-ray absorption, and these materials could be counted by low-resolution tomography. Absorbers located in line with objects will themselves be detected, and sources located in the object region will be subtracted out as background. Intrinsic gamma-ray radiation from warheads also can be detected in a passive-instrument mode. Neutron hodoscopes can utilize neutron transmission, intrinsic neutron emission, or neutron-producing reactions (either prompt or delayed) stimulated by a neutron source. Monitoring of rocket motors enclosed in canisters/rail cars is the focus of the most recent ACTV hodoscope research and development activities. 3 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Applying Space Technology to Enhance Control of an Artificial Arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkins, Diane; Donovan, William H.; Novy, Mara; Abramczyk, Robert

    1997-01-01

    numerical coefficients or weights. Although the function development may require much computational time and many training cases, the resulting discrimination functions can run in realtime on modest computers. These results suggest that myoelectric signals might be a feasible teleoperation medium, allowing an operator to use his or her own hand and arm as a master to intuitively control an anthropomorphic robot in a remote location such as outer space.

  13. An efficient process of generating bispecific antibodies via controlled Fab-arm exchange using culture supernatants.

    PubMed

    Paul, Suparna; Connor, Judy; Nesspor, Tom; Haytko, Peter; Boakye, Ken; Chiu, Mark L; Jiang, Haiyan

    2016-05-01

    Bispecific antibody generation is actively pursued for therapeutic and research antibody development. Although there are multiple strategies for generating bispecific antibodies (bsAbs); the common challenge is to develop a scalable method to prepare bsAbs with high purity and yield. The controlled Fab-arm exchange (cFAE) method combines two parental monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), each with a matched point mutation, F405L and K409R in the respective CH3 domains. The conventional process employs two steps: the purification of two parental mAbs from culture supernatants followed by cFAE. Following a reduction/oxidation reaction, the bispecific mAb is formed with greater than 95% heterodimerization efficiency. In this study, cFAE was initiated in culture supernatants expressing the two parental mAbs, thereby eliminating the need to first purify the parental mAbs. The bsAbs formed in culture supernatant was then purified using a Protein A affinity chromatography. The BsAbs generated in this manner had efficiency comparable to the conventional method using purified parental mAbs. BsAbs prepared by two different routes showed indistinguishable characteristics by SDS capillary electrophoresis, analytical size exclusion, and cation exchange chromatography. This alternative method significantly shortened timelines and reduced resources required for bsAb generation, providing an improved process with potential benefits in large-scale bsAb preparation, as well as for HTP small-scale bsAb matrix selection. PMID:26826313

  14. Pattern recognition control outperforms conventional myoelectric control in upper limb patients with targeted muscle reinnervation.

    PubMed

    Hargrove, Levi J; Lock, Blair A; Simon, Ann M

    2013-01-01

    Pattern recognition myoelectric control shows great promise as an alternative to conventional amplitude based control to control multiple degree of freedom prosthetic limbs. Many studies have reported pattern recognition classification error performances of less than 10% during offline tests; however, it remains unclear how this translates to real-time control performance. In this contribution, we compare the real-time control performances between pattern recognition and direct myoelectric control (a popular form of conventional amplitude control) for participants who had received targeted muscle reinnervation. The real-time performance was evaluated during three tasks; 1) a box and blocks task, 2) a clothespin relocation task, and 3) a block stacking task. Our results found that pattern recognition significantly outperformed direct control for all three performance tasks. Furthermore, it was found that pattern recognition was configured much quicker. The classification error of the pattern recognition systems used by the patients was found to be 16% ±(1.6%) suggesting that systems with this error rate may still provide excellent control. Finally, patients qualitatively preferred using pattern recognition control and reported the resulting control to be smoother and more consistent. PMID:24110008

  15. Modal analysis and control of flexible manipulator arms. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neto, O. M.

    1974-01-01

    The possibility of modeling and controlling flexible manipulator arms was examined. A modal approach was used for obtaining the mathematical model and control techniques. The arm model was represented mathematically by a state space description defined in terms of joint angles and mode amplitudes obtained from truncation on the distributed systems, and included the motion of a two link two joint arm. Three basic techniques were used for controlling the system: pole allocation with gains obtained from the rigid system with interjoint feedbacks, Simon-Mitter algorithm for pole allocation, and sensitivity analysis with respect to parameter variations. An improvement in arm bandwidth was obtained. Optimization of some geometric parameters was undertaken to maximize bandwidth for various payload sizes and programmed tasks. The controlled system is examined under constant gains and using the nonlinear model for simulations following a time varying state trajectory.

  16. Hybrid position/force control of multi-arm cooperating robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayati, Samad

    1986-01-01

    This paper extends the theory of hybrid position/force control to the case of multi-arm cooperating robots. Cooperation between n robot arms is achieved by controlling each arm such that the burden of actuation is shared between the arms in a nonconflicting way as they control the position of and force on a designated point on an object. The object, which may or may not be in contact with a rigid environment, is assumed to be held rigidly by n robot end-effectors. Natural and artificial position and force constraints are defined for a point on the object and two selection matrices are obtained to control the arms. The position control loops are designed based on each manipulator's Cartesian space dynamic equations. In the position control subspace, a feature is provided which allows the robot arms to exert additional forces/torques to achieve compression, tension, or torsion in the object without affecting the execution of the motion trajectories. In the force control subspace, a method is introduced to minimize the total force/torque magnitude square while realizing the net desired force/torque on the environment.

  17. Continuous neuronal ensemble control of simulated arm reaching by a human with tetraplegia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwick, E. K.; Blana, D.; Simeral, J. D.; Lambrecht, J.; Kim, S. P.; Cornwell, A. S.; Taylor, D. M.; Hochberg, L. R.; Donoghue, J. P.; Kirsch, R. F.

    2011-06-01

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES), the coordinated electrical activation of multiple muscles, has been used to restore arm and hand function in people with paralysis. User interfaces for such systems typically derive commands from mechanically unrelated parts of the body with retained volitional control, and are unnatural and unable to simultaneously command the various joints of the arm. Neural interface systems, based on spiking intracortical signals recorded from the arm area of motor cortex, have shown the ability to control computer cursors, robotic arms and individual muscles in intact non-human primates. Such neural interface systems may thus offer a more natural source of commands for restoring dexterous movements via FES. However, the ability to use decoded neural signals to control the complex mechanical dynamics of a reanimated human limb, rather than the kinematics of a computer mouse, has not been demonstrated. This study demonstrates the ability of an individual with long-standing tetraplegia to use cortical neuron recordings to command the real-time movements of a simulated dynamic arm. This virtual arm replicates the dynamics associated with arm mass and muscle contractile properties, as well as those of an FES feedback controller that converts user commands into the required muscle activation patterns. An individual with long-standing tetraplegia was thus able to control a virtual, two-joint, dynamic arm in real time using commands derived from an existing human intracortical interface technology. These results show the feasibility of combining such an intracortical interface with existing FES systems to provide a high-performance, natural system for restoring arm and hand function in individuals with extensive paralysis. This paper was originally submitted for the special issue containing contributions from the Fourth International Brain-Computer Interface Meeting.

  18. Solid modelling for the manipulative robot arm (power) and adaptive vision control for space station missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrand, V.; Choudry, A.

    1987-01-01

    The structure of a flexible arm derived from concatenation of the Stewart-Table-based links were studied. Solid modeling provides not only a realistic simulation, but is also essential for studying vision algorithms. These algorithms could be used for the adaptive control of the arm, using the well-known algorithms such as shape from shading, edge detection, orientation, etc. Details of solid modeling and its relation to vision based adaptive control are discussed.

  19. Controller design for flexible, distributed parameter mechanical arms via combined state space and frequency domain techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Book, W. J.; Majett, M.

    1982-01-01

    The potential benefits of the ability to control more flexible mechanical arms are discussed. A justification is made in terms of speed of movement. A new controller design procedure is then developed to provide this capability. It uses both a frequency domain representation and a state variable representation of the arm model. The frequency domain model is used to update the modal state variable model to insure decoupled states. The technique is applied to a simple example with encouraging results.

  20. Approaches to integrating nuclear weapons stockpile management and arms control objectives.

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, Lani Miyoshi; DeLand, Sharon Marie; Pregenzer, Arian Leigh

    2010-06-01

    Historically, U.S. arms control policy and the U.S. nuclear weapons enterprise have been reactive to each other, rather than interdependent and mutually reinforcing. One element of the divergence has been the long timescale necessary to plan and create substantive changes in the infrastructure vs. the inherent unpredictability of arms control outcomes. We explore several examples that illustrate this tension, some of the costs and implications associated with this reactive paradigm, and illustrate that, while the nuclear weapons enterprise has long considered the implications of arms control in sizing capacity of its missions, it has not substantively considered arms control in construction requirement for capabilities and products. Since previous arms control agreements have limited numbers and types of deployed systems, with delivery systems as the object of verification, this disconnect has not been forefront. However, as future agreements unfold, the warhead itself may become the treaty limited item and the object of verification. Such a scenario might offer both the need and the opportunity to integrate nuclear weapons and arms control requirements in unprecedented ways. This paper seeks to inspire new thinking on how such integration could be fostered and the extent to which it can facilitate significant reduction in nuclear stockpiles.

  1. Application of the Actor-Critic Architecture to Functional Electrical Stimulation Control of a Human Arm.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Philip; Branicky, Michael; van den Bogert, Antonie; Jagodnik, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Clinical tests have shown that the dynamics of a human arm, controlled using Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES), can vary significantly between and during trials. In this paper, we study the application of the actor-critic architecture, with neural networks for the both the actor and the critic, as a controller that can adapt to these changing dynamics of a human arm. Development and tests were done in simulation using a planar arm model and Hill-based muscle dynamics. We begin by training it using a Proportional Derivative (PD) controller as a supervisor. We then make clinically relevant changes to the dynamics of the arm and test the actor-critic's ability to adapt without supervision in a reasonable number of episodes. Finally, we devise methods for achieving both rapid learning and long-term stability. PMID:20689654

  2. Creating a Reinforcement Learning Controller for Functional Electrical Stimulation of a Human Arm.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Philip S; Branicky, Michael; van den Bogert, Antonie; Jagodnik, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    Clinical tests have shown that the dynamics of a human arm, controlled using Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES), can vary significantly between and during trials. In this paper, we study the application of Reinforcement Learning to create a controller that can adapt to these changing dynamics of a human arm. Development and tests were done in simulation using a two-dimensional arm model and Hill-based muscle dynamics. An actor-critic architecture is used with artificial neural networks for both the actor and the critic. We begin by training it using a Proportional Derivative (PD) controller as a supervisor. We then make clinically relevant changes to the dynamics of the arm and test the actor-critic's ability to adapt without supervision in a reasonable number of episodes. PMID:22081795

  3. FINE PARTICLE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY: CONVENTIONAL AND NOVEL DEVICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reviews the development of technology in fine particle control. Electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), scrubbers, fabric filters, and novel devices were assessed to determine their efficiency. ESPs were found to be excellent in controlling fine particles: with an efficien...

  4. 40 CFR 450.23 - Effluent limitations reflecting the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through... best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 450.23 Section 450.23 Protection of Environment... pollutant control technology (BCT). The effluent limitations are described at § 450.21....

  5. Flexible trial design in practice - stopping arms for lack-of-benefit and adding research arms mid-trial in STAMPEDE: a multi-arm multi-stage randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Systemic Therapy for Advanced or Metastatic Prostate cancer: Evaluation of Drug Efficacy (STAMPEDE) is a randomized controlled trial that follows a novel multi-arm, multi-stage (MAMS) design. We describe methodological and practical issues arising with (1) stopping recruitment to research arms following a pre-planned intermediate analysis and (2) adding a new research arm during the trial. Methods STAMPEDE recruits men who have locally advanced or metastatic prostate cancer who are starting standard long-term hormone therapy. Originally there were five research and one control arms, each undergoing a pilot stage (focus: safety, feasibility), three intermediate ‘activity’ stages (focus: failure-free survival), and a final ‘efficacy’ stage (focus: overall survival). Lack-of-sufficient-activity guidelines support the pairwise interim comparisons of each research arm against the control arm; these pre-defined activity cut-off becomes increasingly stringent over the stages. Accrual of further patients continues to the control arm and to those research arms showing activity and an acceptable safety profile. The design facilitates adding new research arms should sufficiently interesting agents emerge. These new arms are compared only to contemporaneously recruited control arm patients using the same intermediate guidelines in a time-delayed manner. The addition of new research arms is subject to adequate recruitment rates to support the overall trial aims. Results (1) Stopping Existing Therapy: After the second intermediate activity analysis, recruitment was discontinued to two research arms for lack-of-sufficient activity. Detailed preparations meant that changes were implemented swiftly at 100 international centers and recruitment continued seamlessly into Activity Stage III with 3 remaining research arms and the control arm. Further regulatory and ethical approvals were not required because this was already included in the initial trial design. (2

  6. Analyst Tools and Quality Control Software for the ARM Data System

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Sean; Hughes, Gary

    2008-07-31

    Mission Research develops analyst tools and automated quality control software in order to assist the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data Quality Office with their data inspection tasks. We have developed web-based data analysis and visualization tools such as the interactive plotting program NCVweb, various diagnostic plot browsers, and a datastream processing status application. These tools allow even novice ARM researchers to be productive with ARM data with only minimal effort. We also contribute to the ARM Data Quality Office by analyzing ARM data streams, developing new quality control metrics, new diagnostic plots, and integrating this information into DQ HandS - the Data Quality Health and Status web-based explorer. We have developed several ways to detect outliers in ARM data streams and have written software to run in an automated fashion to flag these outliers. We have also embarked on a system to comprehensively generate long time-series plots, frequency distributions, and other relevant statistics for scientific and engineering data in most high-level, publicly available ARM data streams. Furthermore, frequency distributions categorized by month or by season are made available to help define valid data ranges specific to those time domains. These statistics can be used to set limits that when checked, will improve upon the reporting of suspicious data and the early detection of instrument malfunction. The statistics and proposed limits are stored in a database for easy reporting, refining, and for use by other processes. Web-based applications to view the results are also available.

  7. Spread of arbitrary conventions among chimpanzees: a controlled experiment.

    PubMed

    Bonnie, Kristin E; Horner, Victoria; Whiten, Andrew; de Waal, Frans B M

    2007-02-01

    Wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have a rich cultural repertoire--traditions common in some communities are not present in others. The majority of reports describe functional, material traditions, such as tool use. Arbitrary conventions have received far less attention. In the same way that observations of material culture in wild apes led to experiments to confirm social transmission and identify underlying learning mechanisms, experiments investigating how arbitrary habits or conventions arise and spread within a group are also required. The few relevant experimental studies reported thus far have relied on cross-species (i.e. human-ape) interaction offering limited ecological validity, and no study has successfully generated a tradition not involving tool use in an established group. We seeded one of two rewarded alternative endpoints to a complex sequence of behaviour in each of two chimpanzee groups. Each sequence spread in the group in which it was seeded, with many individuals unambiguously adopting the sequence demonstrated by a group member. In one group, the alternative sequence was discovered by a low ranking female, but was not learned by others. Since the action-sequences lacked meaning before the experiment and had no logical connection with reward, chimpanzees must have extracted both the form and benefits of these sequences through observation of others. PMID:17164200

  8. Design and Vibration Control of Safe Robot Arm with MR-Based Passive Compliant Joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Seung-Kook; Yoon, Seong-Sik; Kang, Sungchul; Kim, Munsang

    In this paper, vibration control of a safe arm with passive compliant joints and visco-elastic covering for a human-friendly service robot is presented. The passive compliant joint (PCJ) is designed to passively attenuate the applied force. The rotary spring gives the arm compliant property, and yet it can be a source of vibration. We use an input-preshaping method which is motivated by the input shaping technique (IST) based on impulse responses. Experiments prove that both of fast motion and force attenuation of the safe arm can be achieved.

  9. Strategic defense and arms control. (Latest citations from the NTIS data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning studies of relationships between national defense needs and arms control policies. Included are references to specific weapons systems such as the cruise missile, MX missile, Trident submarine, non-nuclear strategic weapons, and chemical weapons. Topics also review strategies involving space, NATO, and the Strategic Defense Initiative. Policies, positions, and negotiations refer to the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT), the Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START), the Anti-ballistic Missile Treaty, and international meetings on proliferation of weapons and on the use of space for military missions. (Contains a minimum of 163 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. Strategic defense and arms control. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning studies of relationships between national defense needs and arms control policies. Included are references to specific weapons systems such as the cruise missile, MX missile, Trident submarine, non-nuclear strategic weapons, and chemical weapons. Topics also review strategies involving space, NATO, and the Strategic Defense Initiative. Policies, positions, and negotiations refer to the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT), the Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START), the Anti-ballistic Missile Treaty, and international meetings on proliferation of weapons and the use of space for military missions. (Contains a minimum of 195 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  11. Strategic Defense and Arms Control. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning studies of relationships between national defense needs and arms control policies. Included are references to specific weapons systems such as the cruise missile, MX missile, Trident submarine, non-nuclear strategic weapons, and chemical weapons. Topics also review strategies involving space, NATO, and the Strategic Defense Initiative. Policies, positions, and negotiations refer to the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT), the Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START), the Anti-ballistic Missile Treaty, and international meetings on proliferation of weapons and the use of space for military missions. (Contains a minimum of 181 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  12. Strategic defense and arms control. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning studies of relationships between national defense needs and arms control policies. Included are references to specific weapons systems such as the cruise missile, MX missile, Trident submarine, non-nuclear strategic weapons, and chemical weapons. Topics also review strategies involving space, NATO, and the Strategic Defense Initiative. Policies, positions, and negotiations refer to the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT), the Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START), the Anti-ballistic Missile Treaty, and international meetings on proliferation of weapons and the use of space for military missions. (Contains a minimum of 176 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. Strategic defense and arms control. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning studies of relationships between national defense needs and arms control policies. Included are references to specific weapons systems such as the cruise missile, MX missile, Trident submarine, non-nuclear strategic weapons, and chemical weapons. Topics also review strategies involving space, NATO, and the Strategic Defense Initiative. Policies, positions, and negotiations refer to the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT), the Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START), the Anti-ballistic Missile Treaty, and international meetings on proliferation of weapons and the use of space for military missions. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  14. Redundancy resolution of a human arm for controlling a seven DOF wearable robotic system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunchul; Miller, Levi Makaio; Al-Refai, Aimen; Brand, Moshe; Rosen, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    The human arm including the shoulder, elbow, wrist joints and exclusion scapular motion has 7 Degrees of Freedom (DOF) while positioning of the wrist in space and orientating the palm is a task that requires 6 DOF. As such it includes one more DOF than is needed to complete the task. Given the redundant nature of the arm, multiple arm configurations can be used to complete a task, which is expressed mathematically by none unique solution for the inverse kinematics. Despite this mathematical difficulty, the motor control provides a unique solution for the arm redundancy as the arm is moved in space. Resolving this redundancy is becoming critical as the human interacts with a wearable robotic system(exoskeleton) which includes the same redundancy as the human arm. Therefore, the inverse kinematics solution resolving the redundancy of these two coupled systems must be identical in order to guarantee a seamless integration. The redundancy of the arm can be formulated kinematically by defining the swivel angle - the rotation angle of the plane including the upper and lower arm around a virtual axis connecting the shoulder and wrist joints which are fixed in space. Analyzing reaching tasks recorded with a motion capture lab indicates that the swivel angle is selected such that when the elbow joint is flexed, the palm points the head. Based on these experimental results, selecting the point around the center of the head as a stationary target allows to calculate the swivel angle and in that way to resolve the human arm redundancy. Experimental results indicated that by using the proposed redundancy resolution criteria the error between the predicted swivel angle and the actual swivel angle adopted by the motor control system is less then 5 Deg. This criterion or a synthesis of several additional criteria may improve the synergistic relationships between an operator and a wearable robotic system. PMID:22255087

  15. Cox report and the US-China arms control technical exchange program

    SciTech Connect

    Di Capua, M S

    1999-09-01

    The ACE program furthered the national security interests of the US by promoting technical approaches to the implementation and verification of arms control treaties that the international community embraces. The Cox Committee report suggests that uncontrolled interactions were taking place between US and Chinese nuclear weapons scientists in the course of the ACE program. On the contrary, elaborate controls were in place at the very beginning and remained in place to control the interactions and protect US national security information. The ACE program payoff to national security was just beginning and its suspension, resulting from the Cox reports allegations, is a setback to US-China progress on arms control.

  16. Comparison of Isocentric C-Arm 3-Dimensional Navigation and Conventional Fluoroscopy for Percutaneous Retrograde Screwing for Anterior Column Fracture of Acetabulum

    PubMed Central

    He, Jiliang; Tan, Guoqing; Zhou, Dongsheng; Sun, Liang; Li, Qinghu; Yang, Yongliang; Liu, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Percutaneous screw insertion for minimally displaced or reducible acetabular fracture using x-ray fluoroscopy and computer-assisted navigation system has been advocated by some authors. The purpose of this study was to compare intraoperative conditions and clinical results between isocentric C-arm 3-dimensional (Iso-C 3D) fluoroscopy and conventional fluoroscopy for percutaneous retrograde screwing of acetabular anterior column fracture. A prospective cohort study was conducted. A total of 22 patients were assigned to 2 different groups: 10 patients in the Iso-C 3D navigation group and 12 patients in the conventional group. The operative time, fluoroscopic time, time of screw insertion, blood loss, and accuracy were analyzed between the 2 groups. There were significant differences in operative time, screw insertion time, fluoroscopy time, and mean blood loss between the 2 groups. Totally 2 of 12 (16.7%) screws were misplaced in the conventional fluoroscopy group, and all 10 screws were in safe zones in the navigation group. Percutaneous screw fixation using the Iso-C 3D computer-assisted navigation system significantly reduced the intraoperative fluoroscopy time and blood loss in percutaneous screwing for acetabular anterior column fracture. The Iso-C 3D computer-assisted navigation system provided a reliable and effective method for percutaneous screw insertion in acetabular anterior column fractures compared to conventional fluoroscopy. PMID:26765448

  17. Comparison of Isocentric C-Arm 3-Dimensional Navigation and Conventional Fluoroscopy for Percutaneous Retrograde Screwing for Anterior Column Fracture of Acetabulum: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    He, Jiliang; Tan, Guoqing; Zhou, Dongsheng; Sun, Liang; Li, Qinghu; Yang, Yongliang; Liu, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Percutaneous screw insertion for minimally displaced or reducible acetabular fracture using x-ray fluoroscopy and computer-assisted navigation system has been advocated by some authors. The purpose of this study was to compare intraoperative conditions and clinical results between isocentric C-arm 3-dimensional (Iso-C 3D) fluoroscopy and conventional fluoroscopy for percutaneous retrograde screwing of acetabular anterior column fracture.A prospective cohort study was conducted. A total of 22 patients were assigned to 2 different groups: 10 patients in the Iso-C 3D navigation group and 12 patients in the conventional group. The operative time, fluoroscopic time, time of screw insertion, blood loss, and accuracy were analyzed between the 2 groups.There were significant differences in operative time, screw insertion time, fluoroscopy time, and mean blood loss between the 2 groups. Totally 2 of 12 (16.7%) screws were misplaced in the conventional fluoroscopy group, and all 10 screws were in safe zones in the navigation group. Percutaneous screw fixation using the Iso-C 3D computer-assisted navigation system significantly reduced the intraoperative fluoroscopy time and blood loss in percutaneous screwing for acetabular anterior column fracture.The Iso-C 3D computer-assisted navigation system provided a reliable and effective method for percutaneous screw insertion in acetabular anterior column fractures compared to conventional fluoroscopy. PMID:26765448

  18. Human Arm-Like Robot Control Based on Human Multi-Joint Arm Viscoelastic Properties and A Modified Forward Gaze Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Aihui; Deng, Mingcong

    In this paper, a human arm-like robot control scheme is proposed based on time-varying viscoelastic properties which consist of multi-joint stiffness and multi-joint viscosity during human arm movements and a modified forward gaze model. In general, in human multi-joint arm movements, the multi-joint torque is assumed to be a function of multi-joint stiffness matrix, multi-joint viscosity matrix, and motor command descending from central nervous system (CNS). In order to make the present human arm-like robot move like a human multi-joint arm, a feedback controller and a modified forward gaze model are presented in the human arm-like robot control system. That is, the feedback controller is designed to obtain desired motion mechanism based on real measured data from viscoelastic properties of human multi-joint arm, and the forward gaze model in which steering gains are modified using a cost function is used to compensate the term related to the effect of CNS. The effectiveness of the proposed method is confirmed by the simulation results based on experimental data.

  19. 40 CFR 434.74 - Effluent limitations attainable by application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Effluent limitations attainable by application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through 125.32 and 434.72(b)(2), a pre-existing discharge must comply... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 434.74 Section 434.74 Protection...

  20. 40 CFR 450.23 - Effluent limitations reflecting the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... limitations reflecting the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR... best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 450.23 Section 450.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) CONSTRUCTION...

  1. 40 CFR 450.23 - Effluent limitations reflecting the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... limitations reflecting the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR... best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 450.23 Section 450.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) CONSTRUCTION...

  2. 40 CFR 450.23 - Effluent limitations reflecting the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... limitations reflecting the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR... best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 450.23 Section 450.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) CONSTRUCTION...

  3. 40 CFR 450.23 - Effluent limitations reflecting the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through... best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 450.23 Section 450.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT...

  4. 40 CFR 434.84 - Effluent limitations attainable by application of the best conventional pollutant control...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT). 434.84 Section 434.84 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) COAL... pollutant control technology (BCT)....

  5. New case for naval arms control. Interim report, September-December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Tritten, J.J.

    1992-12-04

    This paper opens with an examination of existing legal restraints on naval forces and arms control agreements and concludes that the U.S. is already heavily engaged in naval arms control. Given the new international security environment and the new U.S. regionally-oriented national security and military strategies, the author then recommends a series of additional naval arms control measures that should be taken: exchanges of data, transparency, INCSEA, cooperative measures, an agreement on the laws of submarine warfare, abolishing NCND, no first tactical nuclear use at sea, NWFZs, advanced notification of operational-level exercises, environmental protection measures, controls over maritime technologies, armed escorts of nuclear shipments, new Roes, PALs, the resolution of outstanding political issues at sea, deep cuts in nuclear forces, CFE follow-on, limits on specific types of naval forces, geographic limits, expanded standing naval forces, and a re negotiation of the ABM Treaty. The paper then addresses verification and compliance issues. Author concludes that since the U.S. Navy has already managed to avoid major arms control while balanced on the precarious slippery slope, there is no reason to continue its stonewalling policies.

  6. A switching regime model for the EMG-based control of a robot arm.

    PubMed

    Artemiadis, Panagiotis K; Kyriakopoulos, Kostas J

    2011-02-01

    Human-robot control interfaces have received increased attention during the last decades. These interfaces increasingly use signals coming directly from humans since there is a strong necessity for simple and natural control interfaces. In this paper, electromyographic (EMG) signals from the muscles of the human upper limb are used as the control interface between the user and a robot arm. A switching regime model is used to decode the EMG activity of 11 muscles to a continuous representation of arm motion in the 3-D space. The switching regime model is used to overcome the main difficulties of the EMG-based control systems, i.e., the nonlinearity of the relationship between the EMG recordings and the arm motion, as well as the nonstationarity of EMG signals with respect to time. The proposed interface allows the user to control in real time an anthropomorphic robot arm in the 3-D space. The efficiency of the method is assessed through real-time experiments of four persons performing random arm motions. PMID:20403787

  7. A role for arms control and technology in peace-keeping operations

    SciTech Connect

    Indusi, J.; Allentuck, J.

    1995-08-01

    This paper describes a potential role for arms control monitoring technology in peace-keeping operations. The basic idea is to utilize monitoring technology developed or suggested for treaty verification (primarily Conventional Forces Europe (CFE), but other treaties as well) to minimize the exposure of humans as part of ``peace-keeping`` forces in various trouble spots throughout the world. The impetus comes from the dangers and high costs of stationing peace-keeping of forces in areas such as Bosnia-Herzegovina. Aside from the costs associated with such efforts the loss of life has escalated recently from 743 peace keepers lost from 1948 to 1988, to 180 lives lost in 1993 alone. Some potential advantages to using technology for certain monitoring roles are discussed in the paper and include: minimizing exposure/risk to peace-keeping personnel from hostile fire, hostage taking, etc.; sharable technology will allow all parties to view results, assess violations or transgressions, etc.; can be applied to equipment, railways, roads, etc., to confirm human and other monitoring capabilities; and provides data to settle disputes on which side initiated hostilities.

  8. Accurate position control of a flexible arm using a piezoactuator associated with a hysteresis compensator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Seung-Bok; Seong, Min-Sang; Ha, Sung Hoon

    2013-04-01

    In this work, position control of a one-link flexible arm is undertaken by considering the field-dependent hysteresis behavior of a piezoceramic actuator (piezoactuator in short). The proposed arm is controlled by two actuators: a motor mounted at the hub and a piezoceramic bonded to the surface of the flexible link. In the modeling process, two transfer functions: one from the input torque to output hub angle and the other from the input voltage to the output tip deflection are obtained. The hysteretic behavior of the piezoactuator is experimentally identified using the Preisach model, and the first-order descending (FOD) curves are obtained that are required to design a hysteresis compensator. After establishing the overall control block diagram for the position control of the flexible arm, a quantitative feedback theory (QFT) controller is designed by treating parameter variations and external disturbances as uncertainties. Subsequently, a hysteresis compensator that produces additional control input to the piezoactuator is designed to enhance the vibration control performance. An experimental realization of the proposed control scheme is undertaken and the effect of the hysteresis compensator on vibration control of the flexible arm is evaluated in the time domain.

  9. To Keep and Bear Arms: Gun Control and the Second Amendment. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Amy N.; Walker, Tim

    This teacher's guide is designed to accompany the two-part videotape "To Keep and Bear Arms: Gun Control and the Second Amendment." The videotape and teacher's guide should help students to: (1) understand the history of the Second Amendment; (2) examine how guns and gun control laws affect people's lives; (3) compare and contrast the many…

  10. Optimal output fast feedback in two-time scale control of flexible arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siciliano, B.; Calise, A. J.; Jonnalagadda, V. R. P.

    1986-01-01

    Control of lightweight flexible arms moving along predefined paths can be successfully synthesized on the basis of a two-time scale approach. A model following control can be designed for the reduced order slow subsystem. The fast subsystem is a linear system in which the slow variables act as parameters. The flexible fast variables which model the deflections of the arm along the trajectory can be sensed through strain gage measurements. For full state feedback design the derivatives of the deflections need to be estimated. The main contribution of this work is the design of an output feedback controller which includes a fixed order dynamic compensator, based on a recent convergent numerical algorithm for calculating LQ optimal gains. The design procedure is tested by means of simulation results for the one link flexible arm prototype in the laboratory.

  11. Uncontrolled Manifold Reference Feedback Control of Multi-Joint Robot Arms

    PubMed Central

    Togo, Shunta; Kagawa, Takahiro; Uno, Yoji

    2016-01-01

    The brain must coordinate with redundant bodies to perform motion tasks. The aim of the present study is to propose a novel control model that predicts the characteristics of human joint coordination at a behavioral level. To evaluate the joint coordination, an uncontrolled manifold (UCM) analysis that focuses on the trial-to-trial variance of joints has been proposed. The UCM is a nonlinear manifold associated with redundant kinematics. In this study, we directly applied the notion of the UCM to our proposed control model called the “UCM reference feedback control.” To simplify the problem, the present study considered how the redundant joints were controlled to regulate a given target hand position. We considered a conventional method that pre-determined a unique target joint trajectory by inverse kinematics or any other optimization method. In contrast, our proposed control method generates a UCM as a control target at each time step. The target UCM is a subspace of joint angles whose variability does not affect the hand position. The joint combination in the target UCM is then selected so as to minimize the cost function, which consisted of the joint torque and torque change. To examine whether the proposed method could reproduce human-like joint coordination, we conducted simulation and measurement experiments. In the simulation experiments, a three-link arm with a shoulder, elbow, and wrist regulates a one-dimensional target of a hand through proposed method. In the measurement experiments, subjects performed a one-dimensional target-tracking task. The kinematics, dynamics, and joint coordination were quantitatively compared with the simulation data of the proposed method. As a result, the UCM reference feedback control could quantitatively reproduce the difference of the mean value for the end hand position between the initial postures, the peaks of the bell-shape tangential hand velocity, the sum of the squared torque, the mean value for the torque

  12. Uncontrolled Manifold Reference Feedback Control of Multi-Joint Robot Arms.

    PubMed

    Togo, Shunta; Kagawa, Takahiro; Uno, Yoji

    2016-01-01

    The brain must coordinate with redundant bodies to perform motion tasks. The aim of the present study is to propose a novel control model that predicts the characteristics of human joint coordination at a behavioral level. To evaluate the joint coordination, an uncontrolled manifold (UCM) analysis that focuses on the trial-to-trial variance of joints has been proposed. The UCM is a nonlinear manifold associated with redundant kinematics. In this study, we directly applied the notion of the UCM to our proposed control model called the "UCM reference feedback control." To simplify the problem, the present study considered how the redundant joints were controlled to regulate a given target hand position. We considered a conventional method that pre-determined a unique target joint trajectory by inverse kinematics or any other optimization method. In contrast, our proposed control method generates a UCM as a control target at each time step. The target UCM is a subspace of joint angles whose variability does not affect the hand position. The joint combination in the target UCM is then selected so as to minimize the cost function, which consisted of the joint torque and torque change. To examine whether the proposed method could reproduce human-like joint coordination, we conducted simulation and measurement experiments. In the simulation experiments, a three-link arm with a shoulder, elbow, and wrist regulates a one-dimensional target of a hand through proposed method. In the measurement experiments, subjects performed a one-dimensional target-tracking task. The kinematics, dynamics, and joint coordination were quantitatively compared with the simulation data of the proposed method. As a result, the UCM reference feedback control could quantitatively reproduce the difference of the mean value for the end hand position between the initial postures, the peaks of the bell-shape tangential hand velocity, the sum of the squared torque, the mean value for the torque change

  13. Cooperative Remote Monitoring, Arms control and nonproliferation technologies: Fourth quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Alonzo, G M

    1995-01-01

    The DOE`s Cooperative Remote Monitoring programs integrate elements from research and development and implementation to achieve DOE`s objectives in arms control and nonproliferation. The contents of this issue are: cooperative remote monitoring--trends in arms control and nonproliferation; Modular Integrated Monitoring System (MIMS); Authenticated Tracking and Monitoring Systems (ATMS); Tracking and Nuclear Materials by Wide-Area Nuclear Detection (WAND); Cooperative Monitoring Center; the International Remote Monitoring Project; international US and IAEA remote monitoring field trials; Project Dustcloud: monitoring the test stands in Iraq; bilateral remote monitoring: Kurchatov-Argonne-West Demonstration; INSENS Sensor System Project.

  14. 78 FR 64014 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; United States Pharmacopeial Convention

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ..., 40 FR 43745-46, all applicants for registration to import a basic class of any controlled substance... Pharmacopeial Convention Pursuant to Title 21 Code of Federal Regulations 1301.34 (a), this is notice that on July 31, 2013, United States Pharmacopeial Convention, 12601 Twinbrook Parkway, Rockville,...

  15. Dual arm master controller for a bilateral servo-manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Kuban, Daniel P.; Perkins, Gerald S.

    1989-01-01

    A master controller for a mechanically dissimilar bilateral slave servo-manipulator is disclosed. The master controller includes a plurality of drive trains comprising a plurality of sheave arrangements and cables for controlling upper and lower degrees of master movement. The cables and sheaves of the master controller are arranged to effect kinematic duplication of the slave servo-manipulator, despite mechanical differences therebetween. A method for kinematically matching a master controller to a slave servo-manipulator is also disclosed.

  16. Uranium-233 waste definition: Disposal options, safeguards, criticality control, and arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.; Storch, S.N.; Lewis, L.C.

    1998-07-07

    The US investigated the use of {sup 233}U for weapons, reactors, and other purposes from the 1950s into the 1970s. Based on the results of these investigations, it was decided not to use {sup 233}U on a large scale. Most of the {sup 233}U-containing materials were placed in long-term storage. At the end of the cold war, the US initiated, as part of its arms control policies, a disposition program for excess fissile materials. Other programs were accelerated for disposal of radioactive wastes placed in storage during the cold war. Last, potential safety issues were identified related to the storage of some {sup 233}U-containing materials. Because of these changes, significant activities associated with {sup 233}U-containing materials are expected. This report is one of a series of reports to provide the technical bases for future decisions on how to manage this material. A basis for defining when {sup 233}U-containing materials can be managed as waste and when they must be managed as concentrated fissile materials has been developed. The requirements for storage, transport, and disposal of radioactive wastes are significantly different than those for fissile materials. Because of these differences, it is important to classify material in its appropriate category. The establishment of a definition of what is waste and what is fissile material will provide the guidance for appropriate management of these materials. Wastes are defined in this report as materials containing sufficiently small masses or low concentrations of fissile materials such that they can be managed as typical radioactive waste. Concentrated fissile materials are defined herein as materials containing sufficient fissile content such as to warrant special handling to address nuclear criticality, safeguards, and arms control concerns.

  17. Dual-arm supervisory and shared control space servicing task experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backes, Paul G.

    1992-01-01

    A dual-arm task execution primitive has been implemented for cooperative dual-arm telerobotic task execution utilizing multiple sensors concurrently. The primitive has been integrated into a telerobot task execution system and can be called by a task planning system for execution of tasks requiring dual-arm sensor based motion, e.g., force control, teleoperation, and shared control. The primitive has a large input parameter set which is used to specify the desired behavior of the motion. Move-squeeze decomposition is utilized to decompose forces sensed at the wrists of the two manipulators into forces in the move subspace, which cause system motion, and forces in the squeeze subspaces, which cause internal forces. The move and squeeze forces are then separately controlled. Several space servicing tasks utilizing the cooperative dual-arm control capability are described, and experimental results from the tasks are given. The supervisory and shared control tasks include capture of a rotating satellite, orbital replacement unit changeout, fluid coupler seating and locking, and contour following.

  18. An approach to simultaneous control of trajectory and interaction forces in dual-arm configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yun, Xiaoping; Kumar, Vijay R.

    1991-01-01

    An approach to the control of constrained dynamic systems such as multiple arm systems, multifingered grippers, and walking vehicles is described. The basic philosophy is to utilize a minimal set of inputs to control the trajectory and the surplus input to control the constraint or interaction forces and moments in the closed chain. A dynamic control model for the closed chain is derived that is suitable for designing a controller in which the trajectory and the interaction forces and moments are explicitly controlled. Nonlinear feedback techniques derived from differential geometry are then applied to linearize and decouple the nonlinear model. These ideas are illustrated through a planar example in which two arms are used for cooperative manipulation. Results from a simulation are used to illustrate the efficacy of the method.

  19. Robust torque control of an elastic robotic arm based on invertibility and feedback stabilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, S. N.; Schy, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    An approach to the control of elastic robotic systems for space applications using inversion, servocompensation, and feedback stabilization is presented. For simplicity, a robot arm (PUMA-type) with three rotational joints is considered. The third link is assumed to be elastic. Using an inversion algorithm, a nonlinear decoupling control law, u sub d, is derived such that in the closed loop system, independent control of joint angles by the three joint torquers is accomplished. For the stabilization of elastic oscillations, a linear feedback torquer control law, u sub s, is obtained applying linear quadratic optimization to the linearized arm model augmented with a servocompensator about the terminal state. Simulation results show that, in spite of uncertainties in the payload and vehicle angular velocity, good joint angle control and damping of elastic oscillations are obtained with the torquer control law u = u sub d + u sub s.

  20. A new class of energy based control laws for revolute robot arms - Tracking control, robustness enhancement and adaptive control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wen, John T.; Kreutz, Kenneth; Bayard, David S.

    1988-01-01

    A class of joint-level control laws for all-revolute robot arms is introduced. The analysis is similar to the recently proposed energy Liapunov function approach except that the closed-loop potential function is shaped in accordance with the underlying joint space topology. By using energy Liapunov functions with the modified potential energy, a much simpler analysis can be used to show closed-loop global asymptotic stability and local exponential stability. When Coulomb and viscous friction and model parameter errors are present, a sliding-mode-like modification of the control law is proposed to add a robustness-enhancing outer loop. Adaptive control is also addressed within the same framework. A linear-in-the-parameters formulation is adopted, and globally asymptotically stable adaptive control laws are derived by replacing the model parameters in the nonadaptive control laws by their estimates.

  1. Dual arm master controller for a bilateral servo-manipulator

    SciTech Connect

    Kuban, D.P.; Perkins, G.S.

    1989-11-28

    A master controller for a mechanically dissimilar bilateral slave servo-manipulator is disclosed. The master controller includes a plurality of drive trains comprising a plurality of sheave arrangements and cables for controlling upper and lower degrees of master movement. The cables and sheaves of the master controller are arranged to effect kinematic duplication of the slave servo-manipulator, despite mechanical differences there between. A method for kinematically matching a master controller to a slave servo-manipulator is also disclosed. 13 figs.

  2. SpaceWire- Based Control System Architecture for the Lightweight Advanced Robotic Arm Demonstrator [LARAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rucinski, Marek; Coates, Adam; Montano, Giuseppe; Allouis, Elie; Jameux, David

    2015-09-01

    The Lightweight Advanced Robotic Arm Demonstrator (LARAD) is a state-of-the-art, two-meter long robotic arm for planetary surface exploration currently being developed by a UK consortium led by Airbus Defence and Space Ltd under contract to the UK Space Agency (CREST-2 programme). LARAD has a modular design, which allows for experimentation with different electronics and control software. The control system architecture includes the on-board computer, control software and firmware, and the communication infrastructure (e.g. data links, switches) connecting on-board computer(s), sensors, actuators and the end-effector. The purpose of the control system is to operate the arm according to pre-defined performance requirements, monitoring its behaviour in real-time and performing safing/recovery actions in case of faults. This paper reports on the results of a recent study about the feasibility of the development and integration of a novel control system architecture for LARAD fully based on the SpaceWire protocol. The current control system architecture is based on the combination of two communication protocols, Ethernet and CAN. The new SpaceWire-based control system will allow for improved monitoring and telecommanding performance thanks to higher communication data rate, allowing for the adoption of advanced control schemes, potentially based on multiple vision sensors, and for the handling of sophisticated end-effectors that require fine control, such as science payloads or robotic hands.

  3. United States Arms Control and Disarmament Agency. Ninth Annual Report to Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, Washington, DC.

    This annual report surveys activities of the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA) and summarizes disarmament developments for the calendar year 1968. An act of Congress states that ACDA must have such a position within the Government that it can provide the President, the Secretary of State, other officials of the executive branch, and the…

  4. 49 CFR 1544.221 - Carriage of prisoners under the control of armed law enforcement officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carriage of prisoners under the control of armed law enforcement officers. 1544.221 Section 1544.221 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL...

  5. 49 CFR 1544.221 - Carriage of prisoners under the control of armed law enforcement officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carriage of prisoners under the control of armed law enforcement officers. 1544.221 Section 1544.221 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL...

  6. 49 CFR 1544.221 - Carriage of prisoners under the control of armed law enforcement officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carriage of prisoners under the control of armed law enforcement officers. 1544.221 Section 1544.221 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT OPERATOR SECURITY:...

  7. 49 CFR 1544.221 - Carriage of prisoners under the control of armed law enforcement officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carriage of prisoners under the control of armed law enforcement officers. 1544.221 Section 1544.221 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL...

  8. Heterodyne holography with full control of both the signal and reference arms.

    PubMed

    Gross, Michel

    2016-01-20

    Heterodyne holography is a variant of phase-shifting holography in which the reference and signal arms are controlled by acousto-optic modulators. In this review paper, we will briefly describe the method and its properties, and we will illustrate its advantages in experimental applications. PMID:26835961

  9. Multicomponent control strategy underlying production of maximal hand velocity during horizontal arm swing.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Kwan; Hinrichs, Richard N; Dounskaia, Natalia

    2009-11-01

    Movement control responsible for generation of maximal hand velocity was studied on the example of horizontal arm swing that is a component of various sports activities. The movement was performed with the nondominant arm in similarity with the baseball bat swing. The task was to generate maximum hand velocity at a target. The movement included trunk long-axis rotation and horizontal shoulder and elbow extension. Kinematics and torque analyses were performed to study the organization of fastest movements and to compare trials representing the best and worst performance in each subject. Results revealed complex control strategy, with the trunk, shoulder, and elbow playing unique roles in generation of maximal hand velocity. The trunk provided a crucial contribution, directly, rotating the entire arm, and indirectly, exerting interaction torque that caused swift elbow extension. The major role of the shoulder was to transfer the mechanical effect of trunk motion to the elbow. However, the shoulder became the primary motion generator when the trunk reached its limits of rotation, revealing sequential organization of control. The role of the elbow was to maximally comply with passive influence of proximal joints. The findings are discussed in light of the leading joint hypothesis that offers a straightforward interpretation of control of horizontal arm swing as well as practically efficient recommendations for increases in movement speed. The revealed role of intersegmental dynamics in production of high movement speed suggests that movement slowness characteristic for some motor disorders may be partially a compensatory strategy that facilitates regulation of interaction torque. PMID:19759324

  10. Multicomponent Control Strategy Underlying Production of Maximal Hand Velocity During Horizontal Arm Swing

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Kwan; Hinrichs, Richard N.

    2009-01-01

    Movement control responsible for generation of maximal hand velocity was studied on the example of horizontal arm swing that is a component of various sports activities. The movement was performed with the nondominant arm in similarity with the baseball bat swing. The task was to generate maximum hand velocity at a target. The movement included trunk long-axis rotation and horizontal shoulder and elbow extension. Kinematics and torque analyses were performed to study the organization of fastest movements and to compare trials representing the best and worst performance in each subject. Results revealed complex control strategy, with the trunk, shoulder, and elbow playing unique roles in generation of maximal hand velocity. The trunk provided a crucial contribution, directly, rotating the entire arm, and indirectly, exerting interaction torque that caused swift elbow extension. The major role of the shoulder was to transfer the mechanical effect of trunk motion to the elbow. However, the shoulder became the primary motion generator when the trunk reached its limits of rotation, revealing sequential organization of control. The role of the elbow was to maximally comply with passive influence of proximal joints. The findings are discussed in light of the leading joint hypothesis that offers a straightforward interpretation of control of horizontal arm swing as well as practically efficient recommendations for increases in movement speed. The revealed role of intersegmental dynamics in production of high movement speed suggests that movement slowness characteristic for some motor disorders may be partially a compensatory strategy that facilitates regulation of interaction torque. PMID:19759324

  11. The administration`s arms control agenda: Gaining ground under fire

    SciTech Connect

    Holum, J.D.

    1996-03-01

    Its perhaps too easy to forget that Russia is still one country that could inflict overwhelming nuclear devastation on the United States. Russia`s Dumas elections and presidential elections speaks of changes in Russia, but this transformation will take many years and requires our consistent engagement and steady support. The author examines the Clinton Administration`s arms control agenda.

  12. Understanding Nuclear Weapons and Arms Control: A Guide to the Issues. New Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayers, Teena

    Intended for secondary and college level students and teachers, this guide discusses the nuclear arms control issue. There are four sections. Section I discusses U.S. nuclear strategy from 1945 to the present, strategic nuclear weapons competition between the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.), U.S.…

  13. 78 FR 8218 - Bureau of Political-Military Affairs; Statutory Debarment Under the Arms Export Control Act and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    .... Further, Federal Register document 2012-18043, published at 77 FR 43414, Tuesday, July 24, 2012, is... of Political-Military Affairs; Statutory Debarment Under the Arms Export Control Act and the..., Section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act, as amended, (``AECA'') (22 U.S.C. 2778). Further, a...

  14. 77 FR 43414 - Bureau of Political-Military Affairs; Statutory Debarment Under the Arms Export Control Act and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    .... Further, Federal Register document 2011-29470, published at 76 FR 70805, Tuesday, November 15, 2011, is... of Political-Military Affairs; Statutory Debarment Under the Arms Export Control Act and the..., Section 38 of the Arms Export Control Act, as amended (``AECA'') (22 U.S.C. 2778). Further, a...

  15. 76 FR 70209 - Delegation by the Secretary of State to the Under Secretary of State for Arms Control and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... Year 2003), Public Law 107-228; (4) Section 204(c) of the International Emergency Economic Powers Act... Delegation by the Secretary of State to the Under Secretary of State for Arms Control and International... delegate to the Under Secretary for Arms Control and International Security, to the extent authorized...

  16. Evaluation of inertial devices for the control of large, flexible, space-based telerobotic arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Raymond C.; Kenny, Sean; Ghosh, Dave; Shenhar, Joram

    1992-01-01

    Batch simulation studies which show that torque-wheels can reduce the overshoot in abrupt stop commands by 82 percent for a two-link arm are presented. For man-in-the-loop evaluation, a real-time simulator has been developed that samples a hand-controller, solves the nonlinear equations of motion, and graphically displays the resulting motion on a computer workstation. It is shown that, for a single-link arm, a reaction-mass/torque-wheel combination at the payload end can yield a settling time of 3 s for disturbances in the first flexible mode as opposed to 10 s utilizing only a hub motor.

  17. Evaluation of inertial devices for the control of large, flexible, space-based telerobotic arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Raymond C.; Kenny, Sean P.; Ghosh, Dave; Shenhar, Joram

    1993-01-01

    Inertial devices, including sensors and actuators, offer the potential of improving the tracking of telerobotic commands for space-based robots by smoothing payload motions and suppressing vibrations. In this paper, inertial actuators (specifically, torque-wheels and reaction-masses) are studied for that potential application. Batch simulation studies are presented which show that torque-wheels can reduce the overshoot in abrupt stop commands by 82 percent for a two-link arm. For man-in-the-loop evaluation, a real-time simulator has been developed which samples a hand-controller, solves the nonlinear equations of motion, and graphically displays the resulting motion on a computer workstation. Currently, two manipulator models, a two-link, rigid arm and a single-link, flexible arm, have been studied. Results are presented which show that, for a single-link arm, a reaction-mass/torque-wheel combination at the payload end can yield a settling time of 3 s for disturbances in the first flexible mode as opposed to 10 s using only a hub motor. A hardware apparatus, which consists of a single-link, highly flexible arm with a hub motor and a torque-wheel, has been assembled to evaluate the concept and is described herein.

  18. Appropriateness of hydroxyethylcellulose gel as a placebo control in vaginal microbicide trials: A comparison of the two control arms of HPTN 035

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Barbra A.; Kelly, Cliff; Ramjee, Gita; Fleming, Thomas; Makanani, Bonus; Roberts, Sarah; Musara, Petina; Mkandawire, Nkhafwire; Moench, Thomas; Coletti, Anne; Soto-Torres, Lydia; Karim, Salim Abdool

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the two control arms of HPTN 035 (a hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) gel control arm and a no gel control arm) to assess behavioral effects associated with gel use and direct causal effects of the HEC gel on STIs, pregnancy, and genital safety. Design Randomized trial with one blinded (HEC gel) and one open label (no gel) control arms. Methods HIV-uninfected, sexually active women were randomized into the HEC gel arm (n=771) and into the no gel arm (n=772) in five countries. Participants in the HEC gel arm were instructed to insert the study gel intravaginally <1 hour before each vaginal sex act. Data on sexual behavior, adherence, safety, pregnancy, and STIs were collected quarterly for 12 to 30 months of follow-up. Results During follow-up, mean reported condom use in the past week was significantly higher in the no gel arm (81% versus 70%, p<0.001). There were no significant differences, after adjusting for this differential condom use, between the two arms in rates of genital safety events, pregnancy outcomes, or STIs, including HIV-1. Conclusions In this large randomized trial, we found no significant differences between the no gel and HEC gel arms in rates of genital safety events, pregnancy outcomes, or STIs. These results aid interpretation of the results of previous vaginal microbicide trials that used the HEC gel as a control. The HEC gel is suitable as a control for ongoing and future vaginal microbicide studies. PMID:23334506

  19. An economic comparison of biological and conventional control strategies for whiteflies (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) in greenhouse poinsettias.

    PubMed

    Stevens, T J; Kilmer, R L; Glenn, S J

    2000-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the costs of biologically controlling infestations of silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring, in New England greenhouse operations on poinsettia, Euphorbia pulcherrima Wild, ex Koltz, using the parasitic wasp Encarsia formosa Gahan (Nile Delta strain). Partial budget analysis was used to compare costs for conventional verses biological control regimens. Four alternative whitefly control budgets are developed; two conventional chemical-based control budgets formulated with and without the use of imidacloprid, and two biological control budgets which demonstrate the impact of possibly greater pest monitoring efforts necessary to implement this type strategy successfully. The analysis shows that biological whitefly control costs were > 300% greater than conventional chemical-based control strategy costs. Most of this increase is caused by the higher costs of Encarsia formosa as the material control input. If monitoring costs are held constant across different strategies, labor costs actually decline for biological control. This is because of a significant reduction in the number of control applications made and the relatively lower cost of applying E. formosa. If more extensive monitoring efforts are required to implement biological control successfully, labor costs increase by 56% over the conventional pre-imidacloprid regimen. Based on these results, the authors conclude that cheaper and more reliable means of producing E. formosa must be developed before this strategy will become economically viable for commercial poinsettia greenhouse production. PMID:10902307

  20. Workshop on arms control and security in the Middle East II summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Chrzanowski, P.L.

    1994-04-01

    The Middle East peace process is now moving more rapidly than ever before. Many actors in the region have displayed a newfound willingness to adopt innovative approaches to resolving persistent conflicts. The end of the Cold War, the accord signed between Israel and the PLO in September 1993, and other recent hopeful developments in the bilateral and multilateral talks have opened the door to real progress in regional security and arms control. The door may quickly shut, however, if promising signs are not translated into concrete, practical, and verifiable agreements. To complement the ongoing negotiations and help sustain the momentum of the Middle East peace process, the Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation (IGCC) and the Institute of International Relations, co-sponsored a Workshop on Arms Control and Security in the Middle East in Delphi, Greece, in January 1994. Participants in the Delphi workshop were current and former government officials, veteran arms control negotiators, military officers, and leading nongovernmental specialists on arms control and regional security issues from Arab states, Israel, the United States, Europe, and Russia. To facilitate frank discussions and the free exchange of ideas, the conference was held in a private, informal setting, and all discussions at the meeting were off the record. The workshop gave Arab and Israeli participants an opportunity to draw upon the expertise that American, European, and Russian experts have gained through research and development efforts and negotiations between and within governments on arms control issues. At the same time, Arab and Israeli experts voiced their ideas, perspectives, and concerns to each other and to the participants from outside the Middle East. This report summarizes the main points of agreement and the major areas of controversy that came to the fore at the Delphi conference.

  1. High-Resolution Fast-Neutron Spectrometry for Arms Control and Treaty Verification

    SciTech Connect

    David L. Chichester; James T. Johnson; Edward H. Seabury

    2012-07-01

    Many nondestructive nuclear analysis techniques have been developed to support the measurement needs of arms control and treaty verification, including gross photon and neutron counting, low- and high-resolution gamma spectrometry, time-correlated neutron measurements, and photon and neutron imaging. One notable measurement technique that has not been extensively studied to date for these applications is high-resolution fast-neutron spectrometry (HRFNS). Applied for arms control and treaty verification, HRFNS has the potential to serve as a complimentary measurement approach to these other techniques by providing a means to either qualitatively or quantitatively determine the composition and thickness of non-nuclear materials surrounding neutron-emitting materials. The technique uses the normally-occurring neutrons present in arms control and treaty verification objects of interest as an internal source of neutrons for performing active-interrogation transmission measurements. Most low-Z nuclei of interest for arms control and treaty verification, including 9Be, 12C, 14N, and 16O, possess fast-neutron resonance features in their absorption cross sections in the 0.5- to 5-MeV energy range. Measuring the selective removal of source neutrons over this energy range, assuming for example a fission-spectrum starting distribution, may be used to estimate the stoichiometric composition of intervening materials between the neutron source and detector. At a simpler level, determination of the emitted fast-neutron spectrum may be used for fingerprinting 'known' assemblies for later use in template-matching tests. As with photon spectrometry, automated analysis of fast-neutron spectra may be performed to support decision making and reporting systems protected behind information barriers. This paper will report recent work at Idaho National Laboratory to explore the feasibility of using HRFNS for arms control and treaty verification applications, including simulations and

  2. Robotic arm

    SciTech Connect

    Kwech, H.

    1989-04-18

    A robotic arm positionable within a nuclear vessel by access through a small diameter opening and having a mounting tube supported within the vessel and mounting a plurality of arm sections for movement lengthwise of the mounting tube as well as for movement out of a window provided in the wall of the mounting tube is disclosed. An end effector, such as a grinding head or welding element, at an operating end of the robotic arm, can be located and operated within the nuclear vessel through movement derived from six different axes of motion provided by mounting and drive connections between arm sections of the robotic arm. The movements are achieved by operation of remotely-controllable servo motors, all of which are mounted at a control end of the robotic arm to be outside the nuclear vessel. 23 figs.

  3. Robotic arm

    SciTech Connect

    Kwech, Horst

    1989-04-18

    A robotic arm positionable within a nuclear vessel by access through a small diameter opening and having a mounting tube supported within the vessel and mounting a plurality of arm sections for movement lengthwise of the mounting tube as well as for movement out of a window provided in the wall of the mounting tube. An end effector, such as a grinding head or welding element, at an operating end of the robotic arm, can be located and operated within the nuclear vessel through movement derived from six different axes of motion provided by mounting and drive connections between arm sections of the robotic arm. The movements are achieved by operation of remotely-controllable servo motors, all of which are mounted at a control end of the robotic arm to be outside the nuclear vessel.

  4. Stepping Out of the Shade: Control of Neuronal Activity by the Scaffold Protein Kidins220/ARMS

    PubMed Central

    Scholz-Starke, Joachim; Cesca, Fabrizia

    2016-01-01

    The correct functioning of the nervous system depends on the exquisitely fine control of neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity, which relies on an intricate network of protein-protein interactions and signaling that shapes neuronal homeostasis during development and in adulthood. In this complex scenario, Kinase D interacting substrate of 220 kDa/ankyrin repeat-rich membrane spanning (Kidins220/ARMS) acts as a multi-functional scaffold protein with preferential expression in the nervous system. Engaged in a plethora of interactions with membrane receptors, cytosolic signaling components and cytoskeletal proteins, Kidins220/ARMS is implicated in numerous cellular functions including neuronal survival, neurite outgrowth and maturation and neuronal activity, often in the context of neurotrophin (NT) signaling pathways. Recent studies have highlighted a number of cell- and context-specific roles for this protein in the control of synaptic transmission and neuronal excitability, which are at present far from being completely understood. In addition, some evidence has began to emerge, linking alterations of Kidins220 expression to the onset of various neurodegenerative diseases and neuropsychiatric disorders. In this review, we present a concise summary of our fragmentary knowledge of Kidins220/ARMS biological functions, focusing on the mechanism(s) by which it controls various aspects of neuronal activity. We have tried, where possible, to discuss the available evidence in the wider context of NT-mediated regulation, and to outline emerging roles of Kidins220/ARMS in human pathologies. PMID:27013979

  5. Direct model reference adaptive control of robotic arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Howard; Swift, David C.; Cummings, Steven T.; Shankey, Jeffrey R.

    1993-01-01

    The results of controlling A PUMA 560 Robotic Manipulator and the NASA shuttle Remote Manipulator System (RMS) using a Command Generator Tracker (CGT) based Model Reference Adaptive Controller (DMRAC) are presented. Initially, the DMRAC algorithm was run in simulation using a detailed dynamic model of the PUMA 560. The algorithm was tuned on the simulation and then used to control the manipulator using minimum jerk trajectories as the desired reference inputs. The ability to track a trajectory in the presence of load changes was also investigated in the simulation. Satisfactory performance was achieved in both simulation and on the actual robot. The obtained responses showed that the algorithm was robust in the presence of sudden load changes. Because these results indicate that the DMRAC algorithm can indeed be successfully applied to the control of robotic manipulators, additional testing was performed to validate the applicability of DMRAC to simulated dynamics of the shuttle RMS.

  6. A PC-Based Controller for Dextrous Arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiorini, Paolo; Seraji, Homayoun; Long, Mark

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the architecture and performance of a PC-based controller for 7-DOF dextrous manipulators. The computing platform is a 486-based personal computer equipped with a bus extender to access the robot Multibus controller, together with a single board computer as the graphical engine, and with a parallel I/O board to interface with a force-torque sensor mounted on the manipulator wrist.

  7. A distributed Petri Net controller for a dual arm testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjanes, Atle

    1991-01-01

    This thesis describes the design and functionality of a Distributed Petri Net Controller (DPNC). The controller runs under X Windows to provide a graphical interface. The DPNC allows users to distribute a Petri Net across several host computers linked together via a TCP/IP interface. A sub-net executes on each host, interacting with the other sub-nets by passing a token vector from host to host. One host has a command window which monitors and controls the distributed controller. The input to the DPNC is a net definition file generated by Great SPN. Thus, a net may be designed, analyzed and verified using this package before implementation. The net is distributed to the hosts by tagging transitions that are host-critical with the appropriate host number. The controller will then distribute the remaining places and transitions to the hosts by generating the local nets, the local marking vectors and the global marking vector. Each transition can have one or more preconditions which must be fulfilled before the transition can fire, as well as one or more post-processes to be executed after the transition fires. These implement the actual input/output to the environment (machines, signals, etc.). The DPNC may also be used to simulate a Great SPN net since stochastic and deterministic firing rates are implemented in the controller for timed transitions.

  8. AmeriFlux US-ARc ARM Southern Great Plains control site- Lamont

    SciTech Connect

    Torn, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-ARc ARM Southern Great Plains control site- Lamont. Site Description - The ARM SGP Control site is located in the native tallgrass prairies of the USDA Grazinglands Research Laboratory near El Reno, OK. One of two adjacent 35 ha plots with identical towers, measurements at the US-ARc unburned plot are used as the experimental control. The second plot, US-Arb, was burned on 2005/03/08. Measurement comparisons between the control and burn plot are used to address questions regarding the effects of burning activities on carbon fluxes. The region evaded burning activities for at least 15 years. Current disturbances consist of only light grazing activities.

  9. Tags and seals for controling nuclear materials, Arms control and nonproliferation technologies. Second quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Staehle, G; Talaber, C; Stull, S; Moulthrop, P

    1993-12-31

    This issue of Arms Control and Nonproliferation Technologies summarizes demonstrations and addresses related topics. The first article, ``Basic Nuclear Material Control and Accountability Concepts as Might be Applied to the Uranium from the US-Russian HEU Purchase,`` describes safeguards sybsystems necessary for effective nuclear material safeguards. It also presents a general discussion on HEU-to-low-enrichment uranium (LEU) commingling processes and suggests applicable key measurement points. The second article, ``A Framework for Evaluating Tamper-Indicating-Device Technologies (TIDs),`` describes their uses, proper selection, and evaluation. The final three articles discuss the tags and seals applications and general characteristics of several nuclear material containers: the Type 30B uranium hexafluoride container, the AT-400R container, and the DOT Specification 6M container for SNM. Finally, the Appendix displays short descriptions and illustrations of seven tags and seals, including: the E-cup and wire seal, the python seal, the secure loop inspectable tag/seal (SLITS), bolt-and-loop type electronic identification devices, and the shrink-wrap seal.

  10. A robust control scheme for flexible arms with friction in the joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rattan, Kuldip S.; Feliu, Vicente; Brown, H. Benjamin, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    A general control scheme to control flexible arms with friction in the joints is proposed in this paper. This scheme presents the advantage of being robust in the sense that it minimizes the effects of the Coulomb friction existing in the motor and the effects of changes in the dynamic friction coefficient. A justification of the robustness properties of the scheme is given in terms of the sensitivity analysis.